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Sample records for legacy management lm

  1. Digitizing the Administrative Records of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (Em) and Office of Legacy Management (LM) Ohio Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.; Williams, K.; Walpole, S.; McKinney, R.

    2007-07-01

    As former weapons sites close and are transitioned to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM), continued public involvement is essential for the successful turnover of long-term surveillance and maintenance (LTS and M) activities. During the environmental remediation process, public participation was a key factor in cleanup completion. The same level of commitment to encourage active public participation is true for the LTS and M activities at the LM sites, such as the Miamisburg Closure Project and the Fernald Closure Project. Community members participate in the transition and the decision-making processes for LTS and M as they did for the selection of response actions under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) cleanup process. [1] A key part of the post-closure activities for the Ohio Sites transitioning to LM from the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) is the preservation of site history and stakeholder involvement in the LTS and M activities that will continue during post-closure. In meeting the regulatory requirements of providing the CERCLA Administrative Record Reading Room for public access and to ensure that appropriate records are retrievable and available for all stakeholders, a decision was made to digitize the Miamisburg Closure Project and the Fernald Closure Project Administrative Records. This decision was, in part, based on the information and lessons learned from the digitization of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) CERCLA Administrative Records (AR). The Ohio Sites effort was expanded to include the Living History Project from the Fernald Closure Project. In most cases, the CERCLA AR maintained by EM closure sites and transitioned to LM will provide adequate baselines for identifying and capturing the information required by LM for post-closure stewardship of the sites. The AR established under Section 113(k) [2] of CERCLA serves two primary

  2. LEGACY MANAGEMENT REQUIRES INFORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    CONNELL, C.W.; HILDEBRAND, R.D.

    2006-12-14

    ''Legacy Management Requires Information'' describes the goal(s) of the US Department of Energy's Office of Legacy Management (LM) relative to maintaining critical records and the way those goals are being addressed at Hanford. The paper discusses the current practices for document control, as well as the use of modern databases for both storing and accessing the data to support cleanup decisions. In addition to the information goals of LM, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, known as the ''Tri-Party Agreement'' (TPA) is one of the main drivers in documentation and data management. The TPA, which specifies discrete milestones for cleaning up the Hanford Site, is a legally binding agreement among the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The TPA requires that DOE provide the lead regulatory agency with the results of analytical laboratory and non-laboratory tests/readings to help guide them in making decisions. The Agreement also calls for each signatory to preserve--for at least ten years after the Agreement has ended--all of the records in its or its contractors, possession related to sampling, analysis, investigations, and monitoring conducted. The tools used at Hanford to meet TPA requirements are also the tools that can satisfy the needs of LM.

  3. Ten Years of Legacy Management: U.S. DOE Office of Legacy Management Accomplishments - 13246

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, Tony; Miller, Judith

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Legacy Management (LM) to provide a long-term, sustainable solution to environmental impacts that remain from nuclear weapons production during World War II and the Cold War. The production activities created adverse environmental conditions at over 100 sites. When LM was established on December 15, 2003, it became responsible for 33 sites where active environmental remediation was complete. Currently, LM is responsible for long-term surveillance and maintenance of environmental remedies, promotion of beneficial reuse of land and buildings, and management of records and information at 89 sites in 29 states and Puerto Rico. LM is also responsible for meeting contractual obligations associated with former contractor workers' pensions and post-retirement benefits. Effectively addressing this environmental and human legacy will continue to require a focused and well-managed effort. (authors)

  4. Office of Legacy Management. Information and Records Management. Transition Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    2004-03-01

    The Office of Legacy Management (LM) is an integral part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) strategy to ensure that legacy liabilities of former nuclear weapons production sites are properly managed following the completion of environmental cleanup activities. LM will work with each site using an integrated team approach to ensure a successful transition. Part of this process will include transition of Government records and information. The Office of Legacy Management Information and Records Management Transition Guidance focuses on LM’s goal to preserve and protect legacy records and information. This guidance document establishes a framework for the transfer of records management responsibilities for sites transferring to LM. It describes the requirements, responsibilities, and procedures for the efficient and cost-effective transfer of custody, ownership, and management of records and other information products from the transfer site to LM. Records management practices are critical to the functions of Federal agencies because records provide information about, or evidence of, the organization, functions, policies, decisions, procedures, operations, or other activities. Therefore, the information generated by an agency is created, maintained, and dispositioned through records management processes that ensure the appropriate preservation and retrieval of essential information. Because of their intrinsic value, best practices to preserve information and records should be utilized when records are transferred from one organization to another. As the transfer program completes cleanup activities at closure sites, a transitional process will facilitate the transparent shift in the management of site records activities to LM. The roles and responsibilities of the transfer site and/or program and LM described in this document are a necessary foundation for cooperation and coordination and are essential to the successful transition of records and

  5. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management Program Update, April-June 2009

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-01

    Welcome to the April-June 2009 issue of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) Program Update. This publication is designed to provide a status of activities within LM. The Legacy Management goals are: (1) Protect human health and the environment through effective and efficient long-term surveillance and maintenance - This goal highlights DOE's responsibility to ensure long-term protection of people, the environment, and the integrity of engineered remedies and monitoring systems. (2) Preserve, protect, and make accessible legacy records and information - This goal recognizes LM's commitment to successfully manage records, information, and archives of legacy sites under its authority. (3) Support an effective and efficient work force structured to accomplish Departmental missions and assure continuity of contractor worker pension and medical benefits - This goal recognizes DOE's commitment to its contracted work force and the consistent management of pension and health benefits. As sites continue to close, DOE faces the challenges of managing pension plan and health benefits liability. (4) Manage legacy land and assets, emphasizing protective real and personal property reuse and disposition - This goal recognizes a DOE need for local collaborative management of legacy assets, including coordinating land use planning, personal property disposition to community reuse organizations, and protecting heritage resources (natural, cultural, and historical). (5) Improve program effectiveness through sound management - This goal recognizes that LM's goals cannot be attained efficiently unless the federal and contractor work force is motivated to meet requirements and work toward continuous performance improvement.

  6. Overview of Science and Technology Improvements at Office of Legacy Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, S.; Bartlett, T.; Boylan, J.; Carpenter, C.; Miller, D.; Kothari, V.

    2007-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (LM) supports science and technology (S and T) initiatives to more effectively manage LM sites, help protect human health and the environment, and reduce long-term costs of site maintenance and remediation by ensuring that sound engineering and scientific principles are used. Through the use of telemetry, LM's SOARS (System Operation and Analysis of Remote Sites) project provides project scientists and engineers with timely information needed to evaluate, maintain, and optimize remediation systems, while limiting the amount of required travel. This paper presents three recent S and T activities focused on enhancing remediation of ground water at LM sites. (authors)

  7. Independent technical evaluation and recommendations for contaminated groundwater at the department of energy office of legacy management Riverton processing site

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, Brain B.; Denham, Miles E.; Eddy-Dilek, Carol A.

    2014-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (DOE-LM) manages the legacy contamination at the Riverton, WY, Processing Site – a former uranium milling site that operated from 1958 to 1963. The tailings and associated materials were removed in 1988-1989 and contaminants are currently flushing from the groundwater. DOE-LM commissioned an independent technical team to assess the status of the contaminant flushing, identify any issues or opportunities for DOE-LM, and provide key recommendations. The team applied a range of technical frameworks – spatial, temporal, hydrological and geochemical – in performing the evaluation. In each topic area, an in depth evaluation was performed using DOE-LM site data (e.g., chemical measurements in groundwater, surface water and soil, water levels, and historical records) along with information collected during the December 2013 site visit (e.g., plant type survey, geomorphology, and minerals that were observed, collected and evaluated).

  8. Cesium legacy safety project management work plan

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, J.S.

    1998-04-21

    This Management Work Plan (MWP) describes the process flow, quality assurance controls, and the Environment, Safety, and Health requirements of the Cesium Legacy Safety Project. This MWP provides an overview of the project goals and methods for repackaging the non-conforming Type W overpacks and packaging the CsCl powder and pellets. This MWP is not intended to apply to other activities associated with the CsCl Legacy Safety Program (i.e., clean out of South Cell).

  9. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management's Tribal Interactions - 12513

    SciTech Connect

    Gil, April; Shafer, David; Elmer, John

    2012-07-01

    Effective government-to-government interactions with tribal nations and maintaining stakeholder relations with members of tribes are increasingly important to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM). As of October 2011, LM was responsible for long-term surveillance and maintenance of 87 sites and facilities in the continental U.S. and Puerto Rico, including some sites on tribal lands. The sites on tribal lands can affect natural resources that are managed or used by tribes, or the sites can potentially affect areas of cultural significance to tribal nations in Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. Tribes are separate sovereign governments recognized in the U.S. Constitution and are significant stakeholders for LM sites. The tribes are individual nations with diverse histories, cultures, customs, religions, and laws. LM has regular communication with the affected tribes to inform members of issues, to allow the tribe to participate in decision making, to provide technical reviews, and to ensure tribal concerns are addressed. Four LM sites are in the Navajo Nation. Three of those sites contain uranium mill tailings disposal cells regulated under long-term surveillance and maintenance programs that require monitoring and annual inspections. The fourth site was remediated but still has a groundwater plume that LM is responsible for. DOE and LM have worked with the Navajo Nation for almost 30 years on technical issues and to ensure tribal concerns are addressed. (authors)

  10. Office of Legacy Management Decision Tree for Solar Photovoltaic Projects - 13317

    SciTech Connect

    Elmer, John; Butherus, Michael; Barr, Deborah L.

    2013-07-01

    To support consideration of renewable energy power development as a land reuse option, the DOE Office of Legacy Management (LM) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) established a partnership to conduct an assessment of wind and solar renewable energy resources on LM lands. From a solar capacity perspective, the larger sites in the western United States present opportunities for constructing solar photovoltaic (PV) projects. A detailed analysis and preliminary plan was developed for three large sites in New Mexico, assessing the costs, the conceptual layout of a PV system, and the electric utility interconnection process. As a result of the study, a 1,214-hectare (3,000-acre) site near Grants, New Mexico, was chosen for further study. The state incentives, utility connection process, and transmission line capacity were key factors in assessing the feasibility of the project. LM's Durango, Colorado, Disposal Site was also chosen for consideration because the uranium mill tailings disposal cell is on a hillside facing south, transmission lines cross the property, and the community was very supportive of the project. LM worked with the regulators to demonstrate that the disposal cell's long-term performance would not be impacted by the installation of a PV solar system. A number of LM-unique issues were resolved in making the site available for a private party to lease a portion of the site for a solar PV project. A lease was awarded in September 2012. Using a solar decision tree that was developed and launched by the EPA and NREL, LM has modified and expanded the decision tree structure to address the unique aspects and challenges faced by LM on its multiple sites. The LM solar decision tree covers factors such as land ownership, usable acreage, financial viability of the project, stakeholder involvement, and transmission line capacity. As additional sites are transferred to LM in the future, the decision tree will assist in determining whether a solar

  11. Managing a project's legacy: implications for organizations and project management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Lynne P.; Hecht, Michael H.; Majchrzak, Ann

    2003-01-01

    Organizations that rely on projects to implement their products must find effective mechanisms for propagating lessons learned on one project throughout the organization. A broad view of what constitutes a project's 'legacy' is presented that includes not just the design products and leftover parts, but new processes, relationships, technology, skills, planning data, and performance metrics. Based on research evaluating knowledge reuse in innovative contexts, this paper presents an approach to project legacy management that focuses on collecting and using legacy knowledge to promote organizational learning and effective reuse, while addressing factors of post-project responsibility, information obsolescence, and the importance of ancillary contextual information. .

  12. Legacy Management CERCLA Sites. Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Riddle, Donna L.

    2007-05-03

    S.M. Stoller Corporation is the contractor for the Technical Assistance Contract (TAC) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) operations. Stoller employs a management system that applies to all programs, projects, and business management systems funded through DOE-LM task orders. The management system incorporates the philosophy, policies, and requirements of health and safety, environmental compliance, and quality assurance (QA) in all aspects of project planning and implementation. Health and safety requirements are documented in the Health and Safety Manual (STO 2), the Radiological Control Manual (STO 3), the Integrated Safety Management System Description (STO 10), and the Drilling Health and Safety Requirements (STO 14). Environmental compliance policy and requirements are documented in the Environmental Management Program Implementation Manual (STO 11). The QA Program is documented in the Quality Assurance Manual (STO 1). The QA Manual (STO 1) implements the specific requirements and philosophy of DOE Order 414.1C, Quality Assurance. This manual also includes the requirements of other standards that are regularly imposed by customers, regulators, or other DOE orders. Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 830, “Quality Assurance Requirements,” ANSI/ASQC E4-2004, “Quality Systems for Environmental Data and Technology Programs – Requirements with Guidance for Use,” and ISO 14001-2004, “Environmental Management Systems,” have been included. These standards are similar in content. The intent of the QA Manual (STO 1) is to provide a QA management system that incorporates the requirements and philosophy of DOE and other customers within the QA Manual. Criterion 1, “Quality Assurance Program,” identifies the fundamental requirements for establishing and implementing the QA management system; QA Instruction (QAI) 1.1, “QA Program Implementation,” identifies the TAC organizations that have responsibility for

  13. Managing and Documenting Legacy Scientific Workflows.

    PubMed

    Acuña, Ruben; Chomilier, Jacques; Lacroix, Zoé

    2015-01-01

    Scientific legacy workflows are often developed over many years, poorly documented and implemented with scripting languages. In the context of our cross-disciplinary projects we face the problem of maintaining such scientific workflows. This paper presents the Workflow Instrumentation for Structure Extraction (WISE) method used to process several ad-hoc legacy workflows written in Python and automatically produce their workflow structural skeleton. Unlike many existing methods, WISE does not assume input workflows to be preprocessed in a known workflow formalism. It is also able to identify and analyze calls to external tools. We present the method and report its results on several scientific workflows. PMID:26673793

  14. Design Science Research toward Designing/Prototyping a Repeatable Model for Testing Location Management (LM) Algorithms for Wireless Networking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peacock, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research effort was to develop a model that provides repeatable Location Management (LM) testing using a network simulation tool, QualNet version 5.1 (2011). The model will provide current and future protocol developers a framework to simulate stable protocol environments for development. This study used the Design Science…

  15. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Legacy Uranium Mine Site Reclamation - Lessons Learned - 12384

    SciTech Connect

    Kilpatrick, Laura E.; Cotter, Ed

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management is responsible for administering the DOE Uranium Leasing Program (ULP) and its 31 uranium lease tracts located in the Uravan Mineral Belt of southwestern Colorado (see Figure 1). In addition to administering the ULP for the last six decades, DOE has also undertaken the significant task of reclaiming a large number of abandoned uranium (legacy) mine sites and associated features located throughout the Uravan Mineral Belt. In 1995, DOE initiated a 3-year reconnaissance program to locate and delineate (through extensive on-the-ground mapping) the legacy mine sites and associated features contained within the historically defined boundaries of its uranium lease tracts. During that same time frame, DOE recognized the lack of regulations pertaining to the reclamation of legacy mine sites and contacted the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) concerning the reclamation of legacy mine sites. In November 1995, The BLM Colorado State Office formally issued the United States Department of the Interior, Colorado Bureau of Land Management, Closure/Reclamation Guidelines, Abandoned Uranium Mine Sites as a supplement to its Solid Minerals Reclamation Handbook (H-3042-1). Over the next five-and-one-half years, DOE reclaimed the 161 legacy mine sites that had been identified on DOE withdrawn lands. By the late 1990's, the various BLM field offices in southwestern Colorado began to recognize DOE's experience and expertise in reclaiming legacy mine sites. During the ensuing 8 years, BLM funded DOE (through a series of task orders) to perform reclamation activities at 182 BLM mine sites. To date, DOE has reclaimed 372 separate and distinct legacy mine sites. During this process, DOE has learned many lessons and is willing to share those lessons with others in the reclamation industry because there are still many legacy mine sites not yet reclaimed. DOE currently administers 31 lease tracts (11,017 ha) that collectively

  16. Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    2012-10-24

    This plan incorporates U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) standard operating procedures (SOPs) into environmental monitoring activities and will be implemented at all sites managed by LM. This document provides detailed procedures for the field sampling teams so that samples are collected in a consistent and technically defensible manner. Site-specific plans (e.g., long-term surveillance and maintenance plans, environmental monitoring plans) document background information and establish the basis for sampling and monitoring activities. Information will be included in site-specific tabbed sections to this plan, which identify sample locations, sample frequencies, types of samples, field measurements, and associated analytes for each site. Additionally, within each tabbed section, program directives will be included, when developed, to establish additional site-specific requirements to modify or clarify requirements in this plan as they apply to the corresponding site. A flowchart detailing project tasks required to accomplish routine sampling is displayed in Figure 1. LM environmental procedures are contained in the Environmental Procedures Catalog (LMS/PRO/S04325), which incorporates American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), DOE, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidance. Specific procedures used for groundwater and surface water monitoring are included in Appendix A. If other environmental media are monitored, SOPs used for air, soil/sediment, and biota monitoring can be found in the site-specific tabbed sections in Appendix D or in site-specific documents. The procedures in the Environmental Procedures Catalog are intended as general guidance and require additional detail from planning documents in order to be complete; the following sections fulfill that function and specify additional procedural requirements to form SOPs. Routine revision of this Sampling and Analysis Plan will be conducted annually at the

  17. Transformation of legacy network management system to service oriented architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathyan, Jithesh; Shenoy, Krishnananda

    2007-09-01

    Service providers today are facing the challenge of operating and maintaining multiple networks, based on multiple technologies. Network Management System (NMS) solutions are being used to manage these networks. However the NMS is tightly coupled with Element or the Core network components. Hence there are multiple NMS solutions for heterogeneous networks. Current network management solutions are targeted at a variety of independent networks. The wide spread popularity of IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) is a clear indication that all of these independent networks will be integrated into a single IP-based infrastructure referred to as Next Generation Networks (NGN) in the near future. The services, network architectures and traffic pattern in NGN will dramatically differ from the current networks. The heterogeneity and complexity in NGN including concepts like Fixed Mobile Convergence will bring a number of challenges to network management. The high degree of complexity accompanying the network element technology necessitates network management systems (NMS) which can utilize this technology to provide more service interfaces while hiding the inherent complexity. As operators begin to add new networks and expand existing networks to support new technologies and products, the necessity of scalable, flexible and functionally rich NMS systems arises. Another important factor influencing NMS architecture is mergers and acquisitions among the key vendors. Ease of integration is a key impediment in the traditional hierarchical NMS architecture. These requirements trigger the need for an architectural framework that will address the NGNM (Next Generation Network Management) issues seamlessly. This paper presents a unique perspective of bringing service orientated architecture (SOA) to legacy network management systems (NMS). It advocates a staged approach in transforming a legacy NMS to SOA. The architecture at each stage is detailed along with the technical advantages and

  18. Domain management OSSs: bridging the gap between legacy and standards-based network management systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemley, Todd A.

    1996-11-01

    The rapid change in the telecommunications environment is forcing carriers to re-assess not only their service offering, but also their network management philosophy. The competitive carrier environment has taken away the luxury of throwing technology at a problem by using legacy and proprietary systems and architectures. A more flexible management environment is necessary to effectively gain, and maintain operating margins in the new market era. Competitive forces are driving change which gives carriers more choices than those that are available in legacy and standards-based solutions alone. However, creating an operational support system (OSS) with this gap between legacy and standards has become as dynamic as the services which it supports. A philosophy which helps to integrate the legacy and standards systems is domain management. Domain management relates to a specific service or market 'domain,'and its associated operational support requirements. It supports a companies definition of its business model, which drives the definition of each domain. It also attempts to maximize current investment while injecting new technology available in a practical approach. The following paragraphs offer an overview of legacy systems, standards-based philosophy, and the potential of domain management to help bridge the gap between the two types of systems.

  19. Process for Transition of Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act Title II Disposal Sites to the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management for Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    2012-03-01

    This document presents guidance for implementing the process that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) will use for assuming perpetual responsibility for a closed uranium mill tailings site. The transition process specifically addresses sites regulated under Title II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) but is applicable in principle to the transition of sites under other regulatory structures, such as the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program.

  20. Historical legacies, information and contemporary water science and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bain, Daniel J.; Arrigo, Jennifer A.S.; Green, Mark B.; Pellerin, Brian A.; Vörösmarty, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrologic science has largely built its understanding of the hydrologic cycle using contemporary data sources (i.e., last 100 years). However, as we try to meet water demand over the next 100 years at scales from local to global, we need to expand our scope and embrace other data that address human activities and the alteration of hydrologic systems. For example, the accumulation of human impacts on water systems requires exploration of incompletely documented eras. When examining these historical periods, basic questions relevant to modern systems arise: (1) How is better information incorporated into water management strategies? (2) Does any point in the past (e.g., colonial/pre-European conditions in North America) provide a suitable restoration target? and (3) How can understanding legacies improve our ability to plan for future conditions? Beginning to answer these questions indicates the vital need to incorporate disparate data and less accepted methods to meet looming water management challenges.

  1. Mendel’s legacy lives through management of sugarcane pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Entomology and classical Mendelian genetics have had a long association and Mendel’s legacy continues to live through sugarcane pests. In this paper, we discuss examples of that legacy as applied to conventional and molecular approaches to breeding for insect resistance. We also discuss the applicat...

  2. Legacy system retirement plan for HANDI 2000 business management system

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.E.

    1998-09-29

    The implementation of the Business Management System (BMS) will replace a number of systems currently in use at Hanford. These systems will be retired when the replacement is complete and the data from the old systems adequately stored and/or converted to the new system. The replacement is due to a number of factors: (1) Year 2000 conversion: Most of the systems being retired are not year 2000 compliant. Estimates on making these systems compliant approach the costs of replacing with the enterprise system. (2) Many redundant custom-made systems: Maintenance costs on the aging custom developed systems is high. The systems also have overlapping functionality. Replacement with an enterprise system is expected to lower the maintenance costs. (3) Shift inefficient/complex work processes to commercial standards: Many business practices have been developed in isolation from competitive pressures and without a good business foundation. Replacement of the systems allows an opportunity to upgrade the business practices to conform to a market driven approach. (4) Questionable legacy data: Significant amount of data contained within the legacy systems is of questionable origin and value. Replacement of the systems allows for a new beginning with a clean slate and stronger data validation rules. A number of the systems being retired depend on hardware and software technologies that are no longer adequately supported in the market place. The IRM Application Software System Life Cycle Standards, HNF-PRO-2778, and the Data Systems Review Board (DSRB) define a system retirement process which involves the removal of an existing system from active support or use either by: ceasing its operation or support; or replacing it with a new system; or replacing it with an upgraded version of the existing system. It is important to note, that activities associated with the recovery of the system, once archived, relates to the ability for authorized personnel to gain access to the data and

  3. Phosphorus legacy: overcoming the effects of past management practices to mitigate future water quality impairment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A slower and smaller than expected water quality response to implementation of conservation measures across watersheds has led many to question the efficacy of these measures and calls for stricter land and nutrient management strategies. In many cases, this limited response is due to the legacies ...

  4. Effects of Management Legacies on Stream Fish and Aquatic Benthic Macroinvertebrate Assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quist, Michael C.; Schultz, Randall D.

    2014-09-01

    Fish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages often provide insight on ecological conditions for guiding management actions. Unfortunately, land use and management legacies can constrain the structure of biotic communities such that they fail to reflect habitat quality. The purpose of this study was to describe patterns in fish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage structure, and evaluate relationships between biota and habitat characteristics in the Chariton River system of south-central Iowa, a system likely influenced by various potential management legacies (e.g., dams, chemical removal of fishes). We sampled fishes, benthic macroinvertebrates, and physical habitat from a total of 38 stream reaches in the Chariton River watershed during 2002-2005. Fish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were dominated by generalist species tolerant of poor habitat quality; assemblages failed to show any apparent patterns with regard to stream size or longitudinal location within the watershed. Metrics used to summarize fish assemblages and populations [e.g., presence-absence, relative abundance, Index of Biotic Integrity for fish (IBIF)] were not related to habitat characteristics, except that catch rates of piscivores were positively related to the depth and the amount of large wood. In contrast, family richness of benthic macroinvertebrates, richness of Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and Plecoptera taxa, and IBI values for benthic macroinvertebrates (IBIBM) were positively correlated with the amount of overhanging vegetation and inversely related to the percentage of fine substrate. A long history of habitat alteration by row-crop agriculture and management legacies associated with reservoir construction has likely resulted in a fish assemblage dominated by tolerant species. Intolerant and sensitive fish species have not recolonized streams due to downstream movement barriers (i.e., dams). In contrast, aquatic insect assemblages reflected aquatic habitat, particularly

  5. Effects of management legacies on stream fish and aquatic benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages.

    PubMed

    Quist, Michael C; Schultz, Randall D

    2014-09-01

    Fish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages often provide insight on ecological conditions for guiding management actions. Unfortunately, land use and management legacies can constrain the structure of biotic communities such that they fail to reflect habitat quality. The purpose of this study was to describe patterns in fish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage structure, and evaluate relationships between biota and habitat characteristics in the Chariton River system of south-central Iowa, a system likely influenced by various potential management legacies (e.g., dams, chemical removal of fishes). We sampled fishes, benthic macroinvertebrates, and physical habitat from a total of 38 stream reaches in the Chariton River watershed during 2002-2005. Fish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were dominated by generalist species tolerant of poor habitat quality; assemblages failed to show any apparent patterns with regard to stream size or longitudinal location within the watershed. Metrics used to summarize fish assemblages and populations [e.g., presence-absence, relative abundance, Index of Biotic Integrity for fish (IBIF)] were not related to habitat characteristics, except that catch rates of piscivores were positively related to the depth and the amount of large wood. In contrast, family richness of benthic macroinvertebrates, richness of Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and Plecoptera taxa, and IBI values for benthic macroinvertebrates (IBIBM) were positively correlated with the amount of overhanging vegetation and inversely related to the percentage of fine substrate. A long history of habitat alteration by row-crop agriculture and management legacies associated with reservoir construction has likely resulted in a fish assemblage dominated by tolerant species. Intolerant and sensitive fish species have not recolonized streams due to downstream movement barriers (i.e., dams). In contrast, aquatic insect assemblages reflected aquatic habitat, particularly

  6. CSM/LM Lighting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Objectives include: a)Identify the types and uses of the various lighting components: Interior (CM, LM), Exterior (CSM, LM); b) Explain the purpose and locations of electroluminescent (EL) and radioluminescent (RL)lighting techniques; c) Understand the use of various D&C lighting components; and d) Understand in-flight anomalies.

  7. The Legacy Ecosystem Management Framework: From Theory to Application in the Detention Pond Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Coty, J; Stevenson, M; Vogt, K A

    2002-02-01

    The Detention Pond is a constructed and lined storm water treatment basin at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that serves multiple stakeholder objectives and programmatic goals. This paper examines the process and outcome involved in the development of a new management plan for the Detention Pond. The plan was created using a new ecosystem management tool, the Legacy Framework. This stakeholder-driven conceptual framework provides an interdisciplinary methodology for determining ecosystem health, appropriate management strategies, and sensitive indicators. The conceptual framework, the Detention Ponds project, and the use of the framework in the context of the project, are described and evaluated, and evaluative criteria for this and other ecosystem management frameworks are offered. The project benefited in several ways from use of the Legacy Framework, although refinements to the framework are suggested. The stakeholder process created a context and environment in which team members became receptive to using an ecosystem management approach to evaluate and support management alternatives previously not considered. This allowed for the unanimous agreement to pursue support from upper management and organizational funding to implement a progressive management strategy. The greatly improved stakeholder relations resulted in upper management support for the project.

  8. Legacy effects of grassland management on soil carbon to depth.

    PubMed

    Ward, Susan E; Smart, Simon M; Quirk, Helen; Tallowin, Jerry R B; Mortimer, Simon R; Shiel, Robert S; Wilby, Andrew; Bardgett, Richard D

    2016-08-01

    The importance of managing land to optimize carbon sequestration for climate change mitigation is widely recognized, with grasslands being identified as having the potential to sequester additional carbon. However, most soil carbon inventories only consider surface soils, and most large-scale surveys group ecosystems into broad habitats without considering management intensity. Consequently, little is known about the quantity of deep soil carbon and its sensitivity to management. From a nationwide survey of grassland soils to 1 m depth, we show that carbon in grassland soils is vulnerable to management and that these management effects can be detected to considerable depth down the soil profile, albeit at decreasing significance with depth. Carbon concentrations in soil decreased as management intensity increased, but greatest soil carbon stocks (accounting for bulk density differences), were at intermediate levels of management. Our study also highlights the considerable amounts of carbon in subsurface soil below 30 cm, which is missed by standard carbon inventories. We estimate grassland soil carbon in Great Britain to be 2097 Tg C to a depth of 1 m, with ~60% of this carbon being below 30 cm. Total stocks of soil carbon (t ha(-1) ) to 1 m depth were 10.7% greater at intermediate relative to intensive management, which equates to 10.1 t ha(-1) in surface soils (0-30 cm), and 13.7 t ha(-1) in soils from 30 to 100 cm depth. Our findings highlight the existence of substantial carbon stocks at depth in grassland soils that are sensitive to management. This is of high relevance globally, given the extent of land cover and large stocks of carbon held in temperate managed grasslands. Our findings have implications for the future management of grasslands for carbon storage and climate mitigation, and for global carbon models which do not currently account for changes in soil carbon to depth with management. PMID:26854892

  9. Management of landfill leachate: The legacy of European Union Directives.

    PubMed

    Brennan, R B; Healy, M G; Morrison, L; Hynes, S; Norton, D; Clifford, E

    2016-09-01

    Landfill leachate is the product of water that has percolated through waste deposits and contains various pollutants, which necessitate effective treatment before it can be released into the environment. In the last 30years, there have been significant changes in landfill management practices in response to European Union (EU) Directives, which have led to changes in leachate composition, volumes produced and treatability. In this study, historic landfill data, combined with leachate characterisation data, were used to determine the impacts of EU Directives on landfill leachate management, composition and treatability. Inhibitory compounds including ammonium (NH4-N), cyanide, chromium, nickel and zinc, were present in young leachate at levels that may inhibit ammonium oxidising bacteria, while arsenic, copper and silver were present in young and intermediate age leachate at concentrations above inhibitory thresholds. In addition, the results of this study show that while young landfills produce less than 50% of total leachate by volume in the Republic of Ireland, they account for 70% of total annual leachate chemical oxygen demand (COD) load and approximately 80% of total 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and NH4-N loads. These results show that there has been a decrease in the volume of leachate produced per tonne of waste landfilled since enactment of the Landfill Directive, with a trend towards increased leachate strength (particularly COD and BOD5) during the initial five years of landfill operation. These changes may be attributed to changes in landfill management practices following the implementation of the Landfill Directive. However, this study did not demonstrate the impact of decreasing inputs of biodegradable municipal waste on leachate composition. Increasingly stringent wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) emission limit values represent a significant threat to the sustainability of co-treatment of leachate with municipal wastewater. In addition

  10. MANAGING HANFORD'S LEGACY NO-PATH-FORWARD WASTES TO DISPOSITION

    SciTech Connect

    WEST LD

    2011-01-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office (RL) has adopted the 2015 Vision for Cleanup of the Hanford Site. This vision will protect the Columbia River, reduce the Site footprint, and reduce Site mortgage costs. The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company's (CHPRC) Waste and Fuels Management Project (W&FMP) and their partners support this mission by providing centralized waste management services for the Hanford Site waste generating organizations. At the time of the CHPRC contract award (August 2008) slightly more than 9,000 m{sup 3} of waste was defined as 'no-path-forward waste.' The majority of these wastes are suspect transuranic mixed (TRUM) wastes which are currently stored in the low-level Burial Grounds (LLBG), or stored above ground in the Central Waste Complex (CWC). A portion of the waste will be generated during ongoing and future site cleanup activities. The DOE-RL and CHPRC have collaborated to identify and deliver safe, cost-effective disposition paths for 90% ({approx}8,000 m{sup 3}) of these problematic wastes. These paths include accelerated disposition through expanded use of offsite treatment capabilities. Disposal paths were selected that minimize the need to develop new technologies, minimize the need for new, on-site capabilities, and accelerate shipments of transuranic (TRU) waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico.

  11. Managing Toxicological Risks: The Legacy of Shuttle Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Space toxicology greatly matured as a result of research and operations associated with the Shuttle. Materials offgassing had been a manageable concern since the Apollo days, but we learned to pay careful attention to compounds that could escape containment, to combustion events, to toxic propellants, to overuse of utility compounds, and to microbial and human metabolites. We also learned that flying real-time hardware to monitor air pollutants was a pathway with unanticipated speed bumps. Each new orbiter was tested for any excess offgassing products that could pollute the air during flight. In the late 1990s toxicologists and safety experts developed a 5-level toxicity rating system to guide containment of toxic compounds. This system is now in use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Several combustion events during Shuttle Mir and also during Shuttle free-flight impelled toxicologists to identify hardware capable of monitoring toxic products; however, rapid adaptation of the hardware for the unique conditions of spaceflight caused unexpected missteps. Current and planned combustion analyzers would be useful to commercial partners that wish to manage the risk of health effects from thermal events. Propellants received special attention during the Shuttle program because of the possibility of bringing them into the habitable volume on extravehicular activity suits. Monitors for the airlocks were developed to mitigate this risk. Utility materials, such as lubricants, posed limited toxicological problems because water was not recovered. One clearly documented case of microbial metabolites polluting the Shuttle atmosphere was noted, and this has implications for commercial flights and control of microbes. Finally, carbon dioxide, the major human metabolite, episodically presented air quality problems aboard Shuttle, especially when nominal air flows were obstructed. Commercial vehicles must maintain robust air circulation given the anticipated high density

  12. Integrated and adaptive management of water resources: Tensions, legacies, and the next best thing

    SciTech Connect

    Engle, Nathan L.; Johns, Owen R.; Lemos, Maria Carmen; Nelson, Donald

    2011-02-01

    Integrated water resources management (IWRM) and adaptive management (AM) are two institutional and management paradigms designed to address shortcomings within water systems governance – the limits of hierarchical water institutional arrangements in the case of IWRM and the challenge of making water management decisions under uncertainty in the case of AM. Recently, there has been a trend to merge these paradigms to address the growing complexity of stressors shaping water management, such as globalization and climate change. However, because many of these joint approaches have received little empirical attention, questions remain about how they might work (or not) in practice. Here, we explore a few of these issues using empirical research carried out in Brazil. We focus on highlighting the potentially negative interactions, tensions, and tradeoffs between different institutions/mechanisms perceived as desirable as research and practice attempt to make water systems management simultaneously integrated and adaptive. Our examples pertain mainly on the use of techno-scientific knowledge in water management and governance in Brazil’s IWRM model and how it relates to participation, democracy, deliberation, diversity, and adaptability. We show that a legacy of technical and hierarchical management has shaped the integration of management, and subsequently, the degree to which management might also be adaptive. While integrated systems may be more legitimate and accountable than top-down command and control ones, the mechanisms of IWRM may be at odds with the flexible, experimental, and self-organizing nature of AM.

  13. Managing the Nuclear Legacy in the United Kingdom: Strategies and Progress in the Formation of a Liabilities Management Authority

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, A.; Meyers, B.

    2003-02-25

    This presentation describes the status of recent initiatives undertaken by the United Kingdom Government to address the long-standing problems confronting it with regards to discharge of public sector civil nuclear liabilities. It describes the enabling steps taken thus far in the creation of a Liabilities Management Unit (LMU) to prepare the ground for this important work, with specific reference to some of the more technically challenging problems which must be resolved in order to make progress towards cleaning up the UK's nuclear legacy facilities and waste materials. Finally, it addresses some of the approaches proposed by the LMU as it seeks to establish a robust, permanent entity to meet the challenges.

  14. Transition of the U.S. Department of Energy Fernald Closure Project (FCP) from Cleanup to Legacy Management

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.; Craig, J.R.; Jacobson, C.

    2006-07-01

    The Fernald Closure Project encompasses a 1,050-acre tract of land northwest of Cincinnati, Ohio. Dedicated to the production of uranium feed materials from 1952 until 1989, the site was subsequently included on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Priorities List and slated for cleanup. Except for contaminated ground water, cleanup of the site will be completed in 2006; remediation of the aquifer will continue for 20 years. Transition of the project from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management to the Office of Legacy Management will be effected when site cleanup is completed, surface restoration is complete, and aquifer remediation is on-going. Office of Legacy Management activities will focus on the monitoring and maintenance of the on-site disposal facility, enforcement of restrictions on site access and use, and the protection of natural and cultural resources. The Site Transition Plan, developed in accordance with Site Transition Framework guidance, identifies organizational and financial responsibilities for attaining closeout. A Transition Matrix details more than 1,000 activities necessary for site transition and allows each task to be tracked. Responsibility Transition Plans address major areas of scope to be transferred, such as records and information management, infrastructure, and environmental monitoring. Much effort has been placed on the retention of staff to perform the identified Office of Legacy Management scope. (authors)

  15. Chemical characterization of sediment "Legacy P" in watershed streams - implications for P loading under land management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audette, Yuki; O'Halloran, Ivan; Voroney, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Transfer of dissolved phosphorus (P) in runoff water via streams is regulated mainly by both stream sediment P adsorption and precipitation processes. The adsorption capacity of stream sediments acting as a P sink was a great benefit to preserving water quality in downstream lakes in the past, as it minimized the effects of surplus P loading from watershed streams. However, with long-term continued P loading the capacity of the sediments to store P has diminished, and eventually converted stream sediments from P sinks to sources of dissolved P. This accumulation of 'legacy P' in stream sediments has become the major source of dissolved P and risk to downstream water quality. Agricultural best management practices (BMP) for P typically attempt to minimize the transfer of P from farmland. However, because of the limitation in sediment P adsorption capacity, adoption of BMPs, such as reduction of external P loading, may not result in an immediate improvement in water quality. The goal of the research is to chemically characterize the P forms contributing to legacy P in stream sediments located in the watershed connecting to Cook's Bay, one of three basins of Lake Simcoe, Ontario, Canada. This watershed receives the largest amount of external P loading and has the highest rate of sediment build-up, both of which are attributed to agriculture. Water samples were collected monthly at six study sites from October 2015 for analysis of pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, total P, dissolved reactive P, particulate P, total N, NH4-N, NO3-N, TOC and other elements including Al, Fe, Mn, Mg, Ca, S, Na, K and Zn. Sediment core samples were collected in November 2015 and will continue to be collected in March, July and October 2016. Various forms of P in five vertical sections were characterized by sequential fractionation and solution 31P NMR spectroscopy techniques. Pore water, sediment texture and clay identification were performed. The concentration of total P in water samples

  16. Progress in Norwegian-Russian Regulatory Cooperation in Management of the Nuclear Legacy

    SciTech Connect

    Sneve, M.K.; Shandala, N.K.; Smith, G.M.

    2008-07-01

    The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) and the Federal Medical-Biological Agency (FMBA) of the Russian Federation have a collaboration programme which forms part of the Norwegian government's Plan of Action to improve radiation and nuclear safety in northwest Russia. The background to the NRPA-FMBA collaboration programme has been described in previous WM presentations. This paper presents the substantial progress made within that programme, describes ongoing progress within specific projects and sets out the value arising from wider involvement in the programme of other organisations such as NATO and the technical support derived from other national agencies such as the IAEA, and regulatory authorities from the USA, the UK and France. The main activities of the cooperation projects are concerned with the management of the nuclear legacy in northwest Russia, in particular the remediation of facilities, and related spent fuel and radioactive waste management, at the former Shore Technical Bases at Andreeva Bay and Gremikha Village. New regulatory guidance documents have been developed, necessary because of the special abnormal situation at these sites, now designated as Sites of Temporary Storage (STS), but also because of the transition from military to civilian regulatory supervision and the evolving regulatory system in the Russian Federation. The work has involved major technical inputs from the Russian Federation Institute of Biophysics, as well as review and advice on international recommendations and good practice in other countries provided by other technical support organisations. Projects on-going in 2007 are described which involve regulatory guidance on very Low-Level Waste management, specifically for the licensing and operation of new VLLW disposal facilities; optimisation of operational radiation protection, particularly in areas of high ambient radiation dose rate as are found in some parts of the STSs; determination of factors which can

  17. Integrated Weed Control for Land Stewardship at Legacy Management's Rocky Flats Site in Colorado - 13086

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Jody K.

    2013-07-01

    Land stewardship is one of nine sustainability programs in the U.S. Department of Energy's Environmental Management System. Land stewardship includes maintaining and improving ecosystem health. At the Rocky Flats Site near Westminster, Colorado, land stewardship is an integral component of the Office of Legacy Management's post-closure monitoring and management at the site. Nearly 263 hectares (650 acres) were disturbed and re-vegetated during site cleanup and closure operations. Proactive management of revegetation areas is critical to the successful reestablishment of native grasslands, wetlands, and riparian communities. The undisturbed native plant communities that occur at the site also require active management to maintain the high-quality wetlands and other habitats that are home to numerous species of birds and other wildlife such as elk and deer, rare plant communities, and the federally listed threatened Preble's meadow jumping mouse. Over the past several decades, an increase of Noxious weeds has impacted much of Colorado's Front Range. As a result, weed control is a key component of the land stewardship program at Rocky Flats. Thirty-three species of state-listed Noxious weeds are known to occur in the Central and Peripheral Operable Units at Rocky Flats, along with another five species that are considered invasive at the site. Early detection and rapid response to control new invasive species is crucial to the program. An integrated weed control/vegetation management approach is key to maintaining healthy, sustainable plant communities that are able to resist Noxious weed invasions. Weed mapping, field surveys, and field-staff training sessions (to learn how to identify new potential problem species) are conducted to help detect and prevent new weed problems. The integrated approach at Rocky Flats includes administrative and cultural techniques (prevention), mechanical controls, biological controls, and chemical controls. Several species of biocontrol

  18. Evaluating the sale of a nonprofit health system to a for-profit hospital management company: the Legacy Experience.

    PubMed Central

    King, J G; Avery, J E

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To introduce and develop a decision model that can be used by the leadership of nonprofit healthcare organizations to assist them in evaluating whether selling to a for-profit organization is in their community's best interest. STUDY SETTING/DATA SOURCES: A case study of the planning process and decision model that Legacy Health System used to evaluate whether to sell to a for-profit hospital management company and use the proceeds of the sale to establish a community health foundation. Data sources included financial statements of benchmark organizations, internal company records, and numerous existing studies. STUDY DESIGN: The development of the multivariate model was based on insight gathered through a review of the current literature regarding the conversion of nonprofit healthcare organizations. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: The effect that conversion from nonprofit to for-profit status would have on each variable was estimated based on assumptions drawn from the current literature and on an analysis of Legacy and for-profit hospital company data. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The results of the decision model calculations indicate that the sale of Legacy to a for-profit firm and the subsequent creation of a community foundation would have a negative effect on the local community. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the decision model enabled senior management and trustees to systematically address the conversion question and to conclude that continuing to operate as a nonprofit organization would provide the most benefit to the local community. The model will prove useful to organizations that decide to sell to a for-profit organization as well as those that choose to continue nonprofit operations. For those that decide to sell, the model will assist in minimizing any potential negative effect that conversion may have on the community. The model will help those who choose not to sell to develop a better understanding of the organization's value to the community

  19. International Collaboration in Data Management for Scientific Ocean Drilling: Preserving Legacy Data While Implementing New Requirements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rack, F. R.

    2005-12-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP: 2003-2013 initial phase) is the successor to the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP: 1968-1983) and the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP: 1985-2003). These earlier scientific drilling programs amassed collections of sediment and rock cores (over 300 kilometers stored in four repositories) and data organized in distributed databases and in print or electronic publications. International members of the IODP have established, through memoranda, the right to have access to: (1) all data, samples, scientific and technical results, all engineering plans, data or other information produced under contract to the program; and, (2) all data from geophysical and other site surveys performed in support of the program which are used for drilling planning. The challenge that faces the individual platform operators and management of IODP is to find the right balance and appropriate synergies among the needs, expectations and requirements of stakeholders. The evolving model for IODP database services consists of the management and integration of data collected onboard the various IODP platforms (including downhole logging and syn-cruise site survey information), legacy data from DSDP and ODP, data derived from post-cruise research and publications, and other IODP-relevant information types, to form a common, program-wide IODP information system (e.g., IODP Portal) which will be accessible to both researchers and the public. The JANUS relational database of ODP was introduced in 1997 and the bulk of ODP shipboard data has been migrated into this system, which is comprised of a relational data model consisting of over 450 tables. The JANUS database includes paleontological, lithostratigraphic, chemical, physical, sedimentological, and geophysical data from a global distribution of sites. For ODP Legs 100 through 210, and including IODP Expeditions 301 through 308, JANUS has been used to store data from 233,835 meters of core recovered, which are

  20. Leadership Legacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Marilyn L.

    2006-01-01

    Recent obituaries and testimonials to Coretta Scott King and Wendy Wasserstein are reminders of the leadership legacies of these women. About Coretta Scott King (1927-2006), Burch in "The Miami Herald" (February 1, 2006) stated "Coretta Scott King built a legacy from pain and progress, first as the wife who stood tall next to a man bent on…

  1. Legacies in urban stormwater management and the effect on gully formation in a Piedmont region of the US Mid Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claessens, L.; Wehner, C. E.; Santangelo, T.; Soroka, A.

    2013-12-01

    Impervious surfaces in urban areas lead to increased stormwater runoff and produce flashier hydrology which can lead to stream bank erosion and increased sediment delivery to downstream ecosystems. Since the early 1990s the EPA has enforced stormwater regulation and nowadays, practices must be implemented that minimize water quality impacts. However, legacies of stormwater management in pre-regulated areas could be an important factor in the degradation of water quality. From a larger watershed perspective there is therefore a disconnect between investments in newly developed areas where water quality deterioration is perhaps minor vs. minimal investments in pre-regulation areas where water quality deterioration is perhaps major. In this study we examine such legacies in urban stormwater management and the effect on gully formation, with the objective to identify hotspots of water quality degradation and optimal locations for reducing water quality impacts. Our research primarily focuses on older developments (pre-1990s) in the Piedmont region of the Christina River basin (CRB), a tributary of the Delaware River. Many of the streams in the CRB have impaired water quality. We used a combination of methodological approaches, including historical surveys (aerial imagery, land-use maps, stormwater design reports), field observations (WQ sampling, topographic surveys), hydrological modeling, and geospatial analysis. We developed a simple GIS-based model that predicts susceptibility for gully erosion. The model calculates runoff (using Curve Number method), performs hydrologic routing, and based on topographic indices it estimates gully susceptibility for stream reaches draining urban developments. Our results show that the gully susceptibility model produces accurate predictions, including the location of deeply incised gullies. Through geospatial analysis we also identify benefits of structural stormwater control measures and BMPs, and the role of spatial variable land

  2. Developing a Critical Dialog for Educational Technology: Understanding the Nature of Technology and the Legacy of Scientific Management in Our Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frizelle, Thomas Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the legacy of scientific management and the dominance of one-dimensional thinking in the field of educational technology. Through this analysis, I demonstrate that the ways practitioners and policymakers frame educational technology, assess its effectiveness, and make judgments about its potential, often exclude…

  3. Legacy phosphorus accumulation and management in the global context: insights from long-term analysis of major river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, S. M.; Burt, T. P.; Chan, N. I.; Elser, J. J.; Haygarth, P. M.; Howden, N. J. K.; Jarvie, H. P.; Peterson, H. M.; Shen, J.; Worrall, F.; Sharpley, A. N.

    2014-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) is closely linked to major societal concerns including food security and water quality, and human activities strongly control the modern global P cycle. Current knowledge of the P cycle includes many insights about relatively short-term processes, but a long-term and landscape-level view may be needed to understand P status and optimize P management towards P sustainability. We reconstructed long-term (>40 years) P mass balances and rates of P accumulation in three major river basins where excess P pollution is demanding improvements in P management at local, national, and international levels. We focus on: Maumee River Basin, a major source of agricultural P to Lake Erie, the southernmost and shallowest of the Laurentian Great Lakes; Thames River Basin, where fluxes of effluent P from the London, England metropolitan area have declined following improvements in wastewater treatment; Yangtze (Changjiang) River Basin, the largest in China, which is undergoing rapid economic development. The Maumee and Thames are intensively monitored, and show long-term declines in basin P inputs that represent a step towards P sustainability. However, river P outputs have been slower to decline, consistent with the hypothesis that legacy P is mobilizing from soils or from within the river network. Published data on the Yangtze indicate the P flux from land to water has clearly increased with industrialization and population growth. Historical trajectories of P accumulation and depletion in major river basins are providing new understanding about the long-term impacts of P management, including watershed P legacies and response times, that may inform future policy towards local, national, and global P sustainability.

  4. Site Management Guide (Blue Book)

    SciTech Connect

    2014-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (Department) Office of Legacy Management (LM), established in 2003, manages the Department’s postclosure responsibilities and ensures the future protection of human health and the environment. During World War II and the Cold War, the Federal government developed and operated a vast network of industrial facilities for the research, production, and testing of nuclear weapons, as well as other scientific and engineering research. These processes left a legacy of radioactive and chemical waste, environmental contamination, and hazardous facilities and materials at well over 100 sites. Since 1989, the Department has taken an aggressive accelerated cleanup approach to reduce risks and cut costs. At most Departmental sites undergoing cleanup, some residual hazards will remain at the time cleanup is completed due to financial and technical impracticality. However, the Department still has an obligation to protect human health and the environment after cleanup is completed. LM fulfills DOE’s postclosure obligation by providing long-term management of postcleanup sites which do not have continuing missions. LM is also responsible for sites under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Currently, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is responsible for site surveys and remediation at FUSRAP sites. Once remediation is completed, LM becomes responsible for long-term management. LM also has responsibility for uranium processing sites addressed by Title II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA). UMTRCA Title II sites are sites that were commercially owned and are regulated under a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license. For license termination, the owner must conduct an NRC-approved cleanup of any on-site radioactive waste remaining from former uranium ore-processing operations. The site owner must also provide full funding for inspections and, if necessary, ongoing maintenance. Once site

  5. Contaminated land and groundwater management at Sellafield, a large operational site with significant legacy and contaminated land challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Reeve, Phil; Eilbeck, Katherine

    2007-07-01

    Sellafield is a former Royal Ordnance Factory used since the 1940's for the production and reprocessing of fissile materials. Leaks and spills from these plants and their associated waste facilities has led to radioactive contaminated ground legacy of up to 20 million m{sup 3}. Consideration of land contamination at Sellafield began in 1976, following discovery of a major leak from a waste storage silo. Over the past three decades there has been a programme of environmental monitoring and several phases of characterization. The latest phase of characterization is a pounds 10 million contract to develop second generation conceptual and numeric models. The Site Licence Company that operates the site has been subject to structural changes due to reorganizations within the British nuclear industry. There has also been a change in emphasis to place an increased importance on accelerated decommissioning. To address these challenges a new contaminated land team and contaminated land and groundwater management plan have been established. Setting and measuring performance against challenging objectives is important. The management plan has to be cognizant of the long timescales (ca. 80 years) for final remediation. Data review, collation, acquisition, analysis, and storage is critical for success. It is equally important to seize opportunities for early environmental gains. It is possible to accelerate the development and delivery of a contaminated land and groundwater management plan by using international experts. (authors)

  6. Management of Legacy Spent Nuclear Fuel Wastes at the Chalk River Laboratories: The Challenges and Innovative Solutions Implemented - 13301

    SciTech Connect

    Schruder, Kristan; Goodwin, Derek

    2013-07-01

    AECL's Fuel Packaging and Storage (FPS) Project was initiated in 2004 to retrieve, transfer, and stabilize an identified inventory of degraded research reactor fuel that had been emplaced within in-ground 'Tile Hole' structures in Chalk River Laboratories' Waste Management Area in the 1950's and 60's. Ongoing monitoring of the legacy fuel storage conditions had identified that moisture present in the storage structures had contributed to corrosion of both the fuel and the storage containers. This prompted the initiation of the FPS Project which has as its objective to design, construct, and commission equipment and systems that would allow for the ongoing safe storage of this fuel until a final long-term management, or disposition, pathway was available. The FPS Project provides systems and technologies to retrieve and transfer the fuel from the Waste Management Area to a new facility that will repackage, dry, safely store and monitor the fuel for a period of 50 years. All equipment and the new storage facility are designed and constructed to meet the requirements for Class 1 Nuclear Facilities in Canada. (authors)

  7. Improving our legacy: Incorporation of adaptive management into state wildlife action plans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fontaine, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    The loss of biodiversity is a mounting concern, but despite numerous attempts there are few large scale conservation efforts that have proven successful in reversing current declines. Given the challenge of biodiversity conservation, there is a need to develop strategic conservation plans that address species declines even with the inherent uncertainty in managing multiple species in complex environments. In 2002, the State Wildlife Grant program was initiated to fulfill this need, and while not explicitly outlined by Congress follows the fundamental premise of adaptive management, 'Learning by doing'. When action is necessary, but basic biological information and an understanding of appropriate management strategies are lacking, adaptive management enables managers to be proactive in spite of uncertainty. However, regardless of the strengths of adaptive management, the development of an effective adaptive management framework is challenging. In a review of 53 State Wildlife Action Plans, I found a keen awareness by planners that adaptive management was an effective method for addressing biodiversity conservation, but the development and incorporation of explicit adaptive management approaches within each plan remained elusive. Only ???25% of the plans included a framework for how adaptive management would be implemented at the project level within their state. There was, however, considerable support across plans for further development and implementation of adaptive management. By furthering the incorporation of adaptive management principles in conservation plans and explicitly outlining the decision making process, states will be poised to meet the pending challenges to biodiversity conservation. ?? 2010 .

  8. Life cycle assessment of integrated waste management systems for alternative legacy scenarios of the London Olympic Park

    SciTech Connect

    Parkes, Olga Lettieri, Paola Bogle, I. David L.

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Application of LCA in planning integrated waste management systems. • Environmental valuation of 3 legacy scenarios for the Olympic Park. • Hot-spot analysis highlights the importance of energy and materials recovery. • Most environmental savings are achieved through materials recycling. • Sensitivity analysis shows importance of waste composition and recycling rates. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of the life cycle assessment (LCA) of 10 integrated waste management systems (IWMSs) for 3 potential post-event site design scenarios of the London Olympic Park. The aim of the LCA study is to evaluate direct and indirect emissions resulting from various treatment options of municipal solid waste (MSW) annually generated on site together with avoided emissions resulting from energy, materials and nutrients recovery. IWMSs are modelled using GaBi v6.0 Product Sustainability software and results are presented based on the CML (v.Nov-10) characterisation method. The results show that IWMSs with advanced thermal treatment (ATT) and incineration with energy recovery have the lowest Global Warming Potential (GWP) than IWMSs where landfill is the primary waste treatment process. This is due to higher direct emissions and lower avoided emissions from the landfill process compared to the emissions from the thermal treatment processes. LCA results demonstrate that significant environmental savings are achieved through substitution of virgin materials with recycled ones. The results of the sensitivity analysis carried out for IWMS 1 shows that increasing recycling rate by 5%, 10% and 15% compared to the baseline scenario can reduce GWP by 8%, 17% and 25% respectively. Sensitivity analysis also shows how changes in waste composition affect the overall result of the system. The outcomes of such assessments provide decision-makers with fundamental information regarding the environmental impacts of different waste treatment options necessary for

  9. An enhanced adaptive management approach for remediation of legacy mercury in the South River.

    PubMed

    Foran, Christy M; Baker, Kelsie M; Grosso, Nancy R; Linkov, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainties about future conditions and the effects of chosen actions, as well as increasing resource scarcity, have been driving forces in the utilization of adaptive management strategies. However, many applications of adaptive management have been criticized for a number of shortcomings, including a limited ability to learn from actions and a lack of consideration of stakeholder objectives. To address these criticisms, we supplement existing adaptive management approaches with a decision-analytical approach that first informs the initial selection of management alternatives and then allows for periodic re-evaluation or phased implementation of management alternatives based on monitoring information and incorporation of stakeholder values. We describe the application of this enhanced adaptive management (EAM) framework to compare remedial alternatives for mercury in the South River, based on an understanding of the loading and behavior of mercury in the South River near Waynesboro, VA. The outcomes show that the ranking of remedial alternatives is influenced by uncertainty in the mercury loading model, by the relative importance placed on different criteria, and by cost estimates. The process itself demonstrates that a decision model can link project performance criteria, decision-maker preferences, environmental models, and short- and long-term monitoring information with management choices to help shape a remediation approach that provides useful information for adaptive, incremental implementation. PMID:25665032

  10. Project Management Approach to Transition of the Miamisburg Closure Project From Environmental Cleanup to Post-Closure Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, C.P.; Marks, M.L.; Smiley, S.L.; Gallaher, D.M.; Williams, K.D.

    2006-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) used a project management approach to transition the Miamisburg Closure Project from cleanup by the Office of Environmental Management (EM) to post-closure operations by the Office of Legacy Management (LM). Two primary DOE orders were used to guide the site transition: DOE Order 430.1B, Real Property Asset Management, for assessment and disposition of real property assets and DOE Order 413.3, Program and Project Management for Acquisition of Capital Assets, for project closeout of environmental cleanup activities and project transition of post-closure activities. To effectively manage these multiple policy requirements, DOE chose to manage the Miamisburg Closure Project as a project under a cross-member transitional team using representatives from four principal organizations: DOE-LM, the LM contractor S.M. Stoller Corporation, DOE-EM, and the EM contractor CH2M Hill Mound Inc. The mission of LM is to manage the Department's post-transition responsibilities and long-term care of legacy liabilities and to ensure the future protection of human health and the environment for cleanup sites after the EM has completed its cleanup activities. (authors)

  11. Darwin's legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susskind, Leonard

    2009-07-01

    Charles Darwin was no theoretical physicist, and I am no biologist. Yet, as a theoretical physicist, I have found much to think about in Darwin's legacy - and in that of his fellow naturalist Alfred Russell Wallace. Darwin's style of science is not usually thought of as theoretical and certainly not mathematical: he was a careful observer of nature, kept copious notes, contributed to zoological collections; and eventually from his vast repertoire of observation deduced the idea of natural selection as the origin of species. The value of theorizing is often dismissed in the biological sciences as less important than observation; and Darwin was the master observer.

  12. The UK's Surplus Source Disposal Programme: successful management of a national radioactive legacy.

    PubMed

    Williams, Clive; Burns, Philip; Wakerley, Malcolm; Watson, Isabelle; Cook, Marianne; Moloney, Barry

    2010-06-01

    Between 2004 and 2009, the Surplus Source Disposal Programme (SSDP) arranged and subsidised the safe disposal or recycling of more than 11,000 unwanted radioactive items containing in total more than 8.5 x 10(14) Bq of activity, from some 500 sites throughout the United Kingdom. Sources were removed principally from universities, schools and colleges, museums, and hospitals. SSDP was funded by the UK Government and managed by the Environment Agency. The programme was delivered at a total cost of pound sterling 7.14 million, nearly pound sterling 2 million less than its initial budget. This was a big success for health and safety, the environment, business and the public purse. Current legislative requirements under the High Activity Sealed Sources Directive, which came into effect during 2005, will prevent a build-up of high activity surplus sources in future. Continuing vigilance may be needed to avoid a build-up of lower activity disused sources. PMID:20530861

  13. Learning LM Specificity for Ganglion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahumada, Albert J.

    2015-01-01

    Unsupervised learning models have been proposed based on experience (Ahumada and Mulligan, 1990;Wachtler, Doi, Lee and Sejnowski, 2007) that allow the cortex to develop units with LM specific color opponent receptive fields like the blob cells reported by Hubel and Wiesel on the basis of visual experience. These models used ganglion cells with LM indiscriminate wiring as inputs to the learning mechanism, which was presumed to occur at the cortical level.

  14. An Enhanced Monitoring Network at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Work performed under U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management contract #DE-AM01-07LM00060

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, R.; Findlay, R.; Kautsky, M.

    2009-12-01

    On January 19, 1968 the Atomic Energy Commission detonated a 200-1000 kt nuclear device at a depth of 975 meters at CNTA, approximately 100 miles north of the Nevada Test Site. Details of the detonation remain classified, including the specific yield and the size of the resultant cavity. Therefore, using the rough, generic relationships between yield and cavity size, yield and depth of burial, and cancelling out yield, leads to an estimated cavity radius of 100 meters for this detonation in the volcanic section. A collapse chimney subsequently formed that extended several hundred meters above the detonation into the overlying alluvium. The detonation reactivated several faults at the site and created a 2 km2 graben at the surface. The radionuclides in the detonation zone are a potential source of groundwater contamination. The most permeable unit near the detonation zone through which transport might occur is believed to be a densely welded tuff unit (DWT) below the detonation level. A three-well monitoring network was designed using a numerical model, and data were collected from the wells for comparison with model predictions. The head data from the wells were not in agreement with those predicted by the model, and the model was not validated. In a positive finding for radionuclide containment, aquifer test results from the new wells indicate that the DWT is less permeable than previously expected and suggest that the contaminant boundary developed from the model is likely conservative for predicting transport within the volcanic section. The overlying alluvial aquifer is not believed to be a migration pathway for significant quantities of radionuclides, though it is the most likely pathway to potential receptors in that it is the primary groundwater source in the area. To enhance the CNTA monitoring network, two new alluvial wells were installed in 2009, downgradient (east-southeast and south-southeast) of the detonation. The dual-completion alluvial wells were designed to not only monitor for radionuclides but also to determine if a southeast-bounding graben fault acts as a flow barrier. A seismic survey was conducted to optimally locate the wells with respect to the fault. The survey imaged the water table and showed offsets of the water table reflector at numerous faults; some of the faults were known and others had not been previously recognized. Water levels from the new alluvial wells and piezometers compare well with existing well data and support the conjecture that the southeast-bounding graben fault is a flow barrier. Over the last five years, a monitoring network at CNTA has been developed that monitors both the most likely migration pathway and the most likely pathway to potential receptors. The site investigation processes discussed here have also identified factors that affect groundwater flow at the site, and the methods employed can be used in similar hydrogeologic environments.

  15. Resurrecting Legacy Code Using Ontosoft Knowledge-Sharing and Digital Object Management to Revitalize and Reproduce Software for Groundwater Management Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, N.; Gentle, J.; Pierce, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Software code developed for research is often used for a relatively short period of time before it is abandoned, lost, or becomes outdated. This unintentional abandonment of code is a valid problem in the 21st century scientific process, hindering widespread reusability and increasing the effort needed to develop research software. Potentially important assets, these legacy codes may be resurrected and documented digitally for long-term reuse, often with modest effort. Furthermore, the revived code may be openly accessible in a public repository for researchers to reuse or improve. For this study, the research team has begun to revive the codebase for Groundwater Decision Support System (GWDSS), originally developed for participatory decision making to aid urban planning and groundwater management, though it may serve multiple use cases beyond those originally envisioned. GWDSS was designed as a java-based wrapper with loosely federated commercial and open source components. If successfully revitalized, GWDSS will be useful for both practical applications as a teaching tool and case study for groundwater management, as well as informing theoretical research. Using the knowledge-sharing approaches documented by the NSF-funded Ontosoft project, digital documentation of GWDSS is underway, from conception to development, deployment, characterization, integration, composition, and dissemination through open source communities and geosciences modeling frameworks. Information assets, documentation, and examples are shared using open platforms for data sharing and assigned digital object identifiers. Two instances of GWDSS version 3.0 are being created: 1) a virtual machine instance for the original case study to serve as a live demonstration of the decision support tool, assuring the original version is usable, and 2) an open version of the codebase, executable installation files, and developer guide available via an open repository, assuring the source for the

  16. The Best of LM_Net Select, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milbury, Peter; Eisenberg, Michael B.; Walker, Michelle

    LM_NET, the most successful educational listserv in the world has approximately 15,000 subscribed members from every state in the United States and from over 65 countries. LM_NET covers a wide range of interests, all related to library and information work in education, and interactions on LM_NET result in in-depth treatments of the major…

  17. Ranger's Legacy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    With its Landsat satellites, development of sensors, and advancement of processing techniques, NASA provided the initial technology base for another Earth-benefit application of image processing, Earth resources survey by means of remote sensing. Since each object has its own unique "signature," it is possible to distinguish among surface features and to generate computer-processed imagery identifying specific features of importance to resource managers. This capability, commercialized by Perceptive Scientific Instruments, Inc., offers practical application in such areas as agricultural crop forecasting, rangeland and forest management, land use planning, mineral and petroleum exploration, map making, water quality evaluation and disaster assessment. Major users of the technology have been federal, state, and local governments, but it is making its way into commercial operations, for example, resource exploration companies looking for oil, gas and mineral sources, and timber production firms seeking more efficient treeland management. Supporting both government and private users is a small industry composed of companies producing the processing hardware software. As is the case in the medical application, many of these companies are direct offspring of NASA's work.

  18. Status of Environmental Management Initiatives to Accelerate the Reduction of Environmental Risks and Challenges Posed by the Legacy of the Cold War

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    Fifty years of nuclear weapons production and energy research in the United States during the Cold War generated large amounts of radioactive wastes, spent nuclear fuel (SNF), excess plutonium and uranium, thousands of contaminated facilities, and contaminated soil and groundwater. During most of that half century, the Nation did not have the environmental regulatory structure or nuclear waste cleanup technologies that exist today. The result was a legacy of nuclear waste that was stored and disposed of in ways now considered unacceptable. Cleaning up and ultimately disposing of these wastes is the responsibility of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In 1989, DOE established the Office of Environmental Management (EM) to solve the large scale and technically challenging risks posed by the world's largest nuclear cleanup. This required EM to build a new nuclear cleanup infrastructure, assemble and train a technically specialized workforce, and develop the technologies and tools required to safely decontaminate, disassemble, stabilize, disposition, and remediate unique radiation hazards. The sites where nuclear activities produced legacy waste and contamination include the original Manhattan Project sites--Los Alamos, New Mexico; Hanford, Washington; and Oak Ridge, Tennessee--as well as major Cold War sites, such as Savannah River Site, South Carolina; the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho; Rocky Flats Plant, Colorado; and Fernald, Ohio. Today EM has responsibility for nuclear cleanup activities at 21 sites covering more than two million acres in 13 states, and employs more than 30,000 Federal and contractor employees, including scientists, engineers and hazardous waste technicians. This cleanup poses unique, technically complex problems, which must be solved under the most hazardous of conditions, and which will require billions of dollars a year for several more decades. The EM program focus during its first 10 years was on managing the most urgent risks and

  19. Landsat Legacy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Landsat resources survey system spawned a number of companies engaged in commercial applications of remote sensing, among them International Imaging Systems (I2S). With initial NASA assistance, I2S has provided remote sensing hardware and software to several foreign countries, developed meteorological analysis systems, medical diagnostic software and scanning equipment for government and commercial use. Latest product is an advanced image-based photogrammetric system employing digital technology - not optical or mechanical systems - to generate terrain elevation data and other processing functions. Called PRI2SM, it compensates automatically for topographic relief displacement, is cheaper, faster, and easier to use and maintain. Company product line includes four major areas: image processing equipment for Earth Resources Management; meteorological analysis systems; satellite ground processing systems; and digital photogrammetric mapping systems.

  20. Legacy sample disposition project. Volume 2: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gurley, R.N.; Shifty, K.L.

    1998-02-01

    This report describes the legacy sample disposition project at the Idaho Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), which assessed Site-wide facilities/areas to locate legacy samples and owner organizations and then characterized and dispositioned these samples. This project resulted from an Idaho Department of Environmental Quality inspection of selected areas of the INEEL in January 1996, which identified some samples at the Test Reactor Area and Idaho Chemical Processing Plant that had not been characterized and dispositioned according to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements. The objective of the project was to manage legacy samples in accordance with all applicable environmental and safety requirements. A systems engineering approach was used throughout the project, which included collecting the legacy sample information and developing a system for amending and retrieving the information. All legacy samples were dispositioned by the end of 1997. Closure of the legacy sample issue was achieved through these actions.

  1. A Strategy and Case Study Example for Designing and Implementing Environmental Long-Term Monitoring at Legacy Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Earl D. Mattson; Roelof J. Versteeg; Mark Ankeny; Gail Heath; Alex Richardson

    2004-04-01

    Environmental monitoring objectives of site owners, regulators, consultants, and scientists typically share the common elements of (1) cost management, (2) risk management, and (3) information management (Figure 1). Many site owners focus on minimizing monitoring costs while regulators typically focus on risk and regulatory compliance. Scientists and consultants typically provide information management in the form of spreadsheets with extracted information provided in reports to other users. This common piecemeal approach upon individual focus on elements of the monitoring objectives, rather than the common objective of minimizing cost and risk using site information, results in missed opportunities for cost savings, environmental protection, and improved understanding of site performance.

  2. A legacy of divergent fishery management regimes and the resilience of rainbow and cutthroat trout populations in Lake Crescent, Olympic National Park, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brenkman, Samuel J.; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Kennedy, Philip R.; Baker, Bruce M.

    2014-01-01

    As a means to increase visitation, early fisheries management in the National Park Service (NPS) promoted sport harvest and hatchery supplementation. Today, NPS management objectives focus on the preservation of native fish. We summarized management regimes of Olympic National Park's Lake Crescent, which included decades of liberal sport harvest and hatchery releases of 14.3 million salmonids. Notably, nonnative species failed to persist in the lake. Complementary analyses of annual redd counts (1989–2012) and genetics data delineated three sympatric trout (one rainbow; two cutthroat) populations that exhibited distinct spatial and temporal spawning patterns, variable emergence timings, and genetic distinctiveness. Allacustrine rainbow trout spawned in the lake outlet from January to May. Cutthroat trout spawned in the major inlet tributary (Barnes Creek) from February to June and in the outlet river (Lyre) from September to March, an unusual timing for coastal cutthroat trout. Redd counts for each species were initially low (rainbow = mean 89; range 37–159; cutthroat = mean 93; range 18–180), and significantly increased for rainbow trout (mean 306; range 254–352) after implementation of catch-and-release regulations. Rainbow and cutthroat trout reached maximum sizes of 10.4 kg and 5.4 kg, respectively, and are among the largest throughout their native ranges. Morphometric analyses revealed interspecific differences but no intraspecific differences between the two cutthroat populations. Genetic analyses identified three distinct populations and low levels (9–17%) of interspecific hybridization. Lake Crescent rainbow trout were genetically divergent from 24 nearby Oncorhynchus mykiss populations, and represented a unique evolutionary legacy worthy of protection. The indigenous and geographically isolated Lake Crescent trout populations were resilient to overharvest and potential interactions with introduced fish species.

  3. Reciprocal Benefits, Legacy and Risk: Applying Ellinger and Bostrom's Model of Line Manager Role Identity as Facilitators of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Paul; Evans, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the beliefs held by managers about their roles as facilitators of learning with their employees in a public utilities organisation. Design/methodology/approach: The research was based on Ellinger and Bostrom's (2002) study on managers' beliefs on their role as facilitators of learning in…

  4. On representations of the filiform Lie superalgebra Lm,n

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi; Chen, Hongjia; Liu, Wende

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we study the representations for the filiform Lie superalgebras Lm,n, a particular class of nilpotent Lie superalgebras. We determine the minimal dimension of a faithful module over Lm,n using the theory of linear algebra. In addition, using the method of Feingold and Frenkel (1985), we construct some finite and infinite dimensional modules over Lm,n on the Grassmann algebra and the mixed Clifford-Weyl algebra.

  5. Legacy material work-off project

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan, T.J.; Baker, D.H. IV

    1999-01-25

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and its subcontractors recently completed a nine-month legacy material clean-up effort. Legacy materials were defined as chemicals, hazardous, non-hazardous, and both hazardous and radioactive (mixed), that no longer served a programmatic use and had no identified individual owner within the Laboratory. Once personnel identified the legacy materials, the items were transferred to Solid Waste Operation`s (EM-SWO) control. Upon completing this process, the responsible division-level manager was required to certify that all non-radioactive hazardous and non-hazardous materials and acceptable mixed legacy materials had been identified and transferred to EM-SWO for proper handling or disposal. The major expense in this project was the cost of actual chemical and radiological analysis. This expense was the result of items not having an identified individual owner. The major benefit of this project is that LANL is now in an excellent position to implement its Integrated Safety Management (ISM) Plan, which requires the implementation of safe work practices, including requirements for removing unused items when vacating workspaces. Effective implementation of ISM will go a long way toward ensuring that legacy materials are no longer an issue at the Laboratory.

  6. A complex legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Cristopher

    2011-11-01

    In his tragically short life, Alan Turing helped define what computing machines are capable of, and where they reach inherent limits. His legacy is still felt every day, in areas ranging from computational complexity theory to cryptography and quantum computing.

  7. CERES FSW Legacy

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-07-24

    CERES FSW Legacy Level 3:  Spatially (1°x1° lat/lon regional, ... Description : Monthly Gridded Radiative Fluxes and Clouds (FSW): Regional averages of instantaneous footprint computed fluxes [TOA, ...

  8. Legacy2Drupal - Conversion of an existing oceanographic relational database to a semantically enabled Drupal content management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffei, A. R.; Chandler, C. L.; Work, T.; Allen, J.; Groman, R. C.; Fox, P. A.

    2009-12-01

    Content Management Systems (CMSs) provide powerful features that can be of use to oceanographic (and other geo-science) data managers. However, in many instances, geo-science data management offices have previously designed customized schemas for their metadata. The WHOI Ocean Informatics initiative and the NSF funded Biological Chemical and Biological Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) have jointly sponsored a project to port an existing, relational database containing oceanographic metadata, along with an existing interface coded in Cold Fusion middleware, to a Drupal6 Content Management System. The goal was to translate all the existing database tables, input forms, website reports, and other features present in the existing system to employ Drupal CMS features. The replacement features include Drupal content types, CCK node-reference fields, themes, RDB, SPARQL, workflow, and a number of other supporting modules. Strategic use of some Drupal6 CMS features enables three separate but complementary interfaces that provide access to oceanographic research metadata via the MySQL database: 1) a Drupal6-powered front-end; 2) a standard SQL port (used to provide a Mapserver interface to the metadata and data; and 3) a SPARQL port (feeding a new faceted search capability being developed). Future plans include the creation of science ontologies, by scientist/technologist teams, that will drive semantically-enabled faceted search capabilities planned for the site. Incorporation of semantic technologies included in the future Drupal 7 core release is also anticipated. Using a public domain CMS as opposed to proprietary middleware, and taking advantage of the many features of Drupal 6 that are designed to support semantically-enabled interfaces will help prepare the BCO-DMO database for interoperability with other ecosystem databases.

  9. 100 LPW 800 Lm Warm White LED

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Decai

    2010-10-31

    An illumination grade warm white (WW) LED, having correlated color temperature (CCT) between 2800 K and 3500K and capable of producing 800 lm output at 100 lm/W, has been developed in this program. The high power WW LED is an ideal source for use as replacement for incandescent, and Halogen reflector and general purpose lamps of similar lumen value. Over the two year period, we have made following accomplishments: developed a high power warm white LED product and made over 50% improvements in light output and efficacy. The new high power WW LED product is a die on ceramic surface mountable LED package. It has four 1x1 mm{sup 2} InGaN pump dice flip chip attached to a ceramic submount in 2x2 array, covered by warm white phosphor ceramic platelets called Lumiramica and an overmolded silicone lens encapsulating the LED array. The performance goal was achieved through breakthroughs in following key areas: (1) High efficiency pump LED development through pump LED active region design and epi growth quality improvement (funded by internal programs). (2) Increase in injection efficiency (IE) represented by reduction in forward voltage (V{sub f}) through the improvement of the silver-based p-contact and a reduction in spreading resistance. The injection efficiency was increased from 80% at the start of the program to 96% at the end of the program at 700 mA/mm{sup 2}. (3) Improvement in thermal design as represented by reduction in thermal resistance from junction to case, through improvement of the die to submount connection in the thin film flip chip (TFFC) LED and choosing the submount material of high thermal conductivity. A thermal resistance of 1.72 K/W was demonstrated for the high power LED package. (4) Improvement in extraction efficiency from the LED package through improvement of InGaN die level and package level optical extraction efficiency improvement. (5) Improvement in phosphor system efficiency by improving the lumen equivalent (LE) and phosphor package

  10. Community Involvement as an Effective Institutional Control at the Weldon Spring Site, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    Deyo, Y.E.; Pauling, T.

    2006-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) was conducted for the purpose of remediating a portion of a former trinitrotoluene and dinitrotoluene production plant that was operational from 1941 to 1945 and a former uranium refinery that was operational from 1957 to 1966. Surface remediation activities concluded in 2001 with the completion of a 45-acre (.18 square kilometer) on-site engineered disposal facility. Long-term surveillance and maintenance activities at the site were officially transferred to the DOE Office of Legacy Management in 2003. The Weldon Spring Site is located within the St. Louis, Missouri, metropolitan area (population 3 million). DOE's close relationship with surrounding land owners created a need for innovative solutions to long-term surveillance and maintenance issues at the site. Through a Secretarial proclamation, a plan was established for development of a comprehensive public involvement and education program. This program would act as an institutional control to communicate the historical legacy of the site and would make information available about contamination present at the site to guide people in making decisions about appropriate site activities. In August 2002, the Weldon Spring Site Interpretive Center opened to the public with exhibits about the history of the area, the remediation work that was completed, and a site information repository that is available to visitors. In addition, the Hamburg Trail for hiking and biking was constructed as a joint DOE/MDC effort. The 8-mile trail travels through both DOE and MDC property; a series of historical markers posted along its length to communicate the history of the area and the remediation work that was done as part of WSSRAP activities. A ramp and viewing platform with informational plaques were constructed on the disposal cell to provide an additional mechanism for public education. With a basic marketing program, site visitor-ship has

  11. Life cycle assessment of integrated waste management systems for alternative legacy scenarios of the London Olympic Park.

    PubMed

    Parkes, Olga; Lettieri, Paola; Bogle, I David L

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the results of the life cycle assessment (LCA) of 10 integrated waste management systems (IWMSs) for 3 potential post-event site design scenarios of the London Olympic Park. The aim of the LCA study is to evaluate direct and indirect emissions resulting from various treatment options of municipal solid waste (MSW) annually generated on site together with avoided emissions resulting from energy, materials and nutrients recovery. IWMSs are modelled using GaBi v6.0 Product Sustainability software and results are presented based on the CML (v.Nov-10) characterisation method. The results show that IWMSs with advanced thermal treatment (ATT) and incineration with energy recovery have the lowest Global Warming Potential (GWP) than IWMSs where landfill is the primary waste treatment process. This is due to higher direct emissions and lower avoided emissions from the landfill process compared to the emissions from the thermal treatment processes. LCA results demonstrate that significant environmental savings are achieved through substitution of virgin materials with recycled ones. The results of the sensitivity analysis carried out for IWMS 1 shows that increasing recycling rate by 5%, 10% and 15% compared to the baseline scenario can reduce GWP by 8%, 17% and 25% respectively. Sensitivity analysis also shows how changes in waste composition affect the overall result of the system. The outcomes of such assessments provide decision-makers with fundamental information regarding the environmental impacts of different waste treatment options necessary for sustainable waste management planning. PMID:25837786

  12. Tree-Rings Mirror Management Legacy: Dramatic Response of Standard Oaks to Past Coppicing in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Altman, Jan; Hédl, Radim; Szabó, Péter; Mazůrek, Petr; Riedl, Vladan; Müllerová, Jana; Kopecký, Martin; Doležal, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Background Coppicing was one of the most important forest management systems in Europe documented in prehistory as well as in the Middle Ages. However, coppicing was gradually abandoned by the mid-20th century, which has altered the ecosystem structure, diversity and function of coppice woods. Methodology/Principal Findings Our aim was to disentangle factors shaping the historical growth dynamics of oak standards (i.e. mature trees growing through several coppice cycles) in a former coppice-with-standards in Central Europe. Specifically, we tried to detect historical coppicing events from tree-rings of oak standards, to link coppicing events with the recruitment of mature oaks, and to determine the effects of neighbouring trees on the stem increment of oak standards. Large peaks in radial growth found for the periods 1895–1899 and 1935–1939 matched with historical records of coppice harvests. After coppicing, the number of newly recruited oak standards markedly grew in comparison with the preceding or following periods. The last significant recruitment of oak standards was after the 1930s following the last regular coppicing event. The diameter increment of oak standards from 1953 to 2003 was negatively correlated with competition indices, suggesting that neighbouring trees (mainly resprouting coppiced Tilia platyphyllos) partly suppressed the growth of oak standards. Our results showed that improved light conditions following historical coppicing events caused significant increase in pulses of radial growth and most probably maintained oak recruitment. Conclusions/Significance Our historical perspective carries important implications for oak management in Central Europe and elsewhere. Relatively intense cutting creating open canopy woodlands, either as in the coppicing system or in the form of selective cutting, is needed to achieve significant radial growth in mature oaks. It is also critical for the successful regeneration and long-term maintenance of oak

  13. Apollo Operations Handbook Lunar Module (LM 11 and Subsequent) Vol. 2 Operational Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The Apollo Operations Handbook (AOH) is the primary means of documenting LM descriptions and procedures. The AOH is published in two separately bound volumes. This information is useful in support of program management, engineering, test, flight simulation, and real time flight support efforts. This volume contains crew operational procedures: normal, backup, abort, malfunction, and emergency. These procedures define the sequence of actions necessary for safe and efficient subsystem operation.

  14. Lauding Local Legacies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamolinara, Guy

    1999-01-01

    As part of its bicentennial celebration, the Library of Congress is sponsoring the Local Legacies project, an unprecedented effort in which Americans across the nation work with their members of Congress to document unique traditions for the collections of the American Folklife Center. Libraries will have a critical role in directing documentation…

  15. Science: The Islamic Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunde, Paul; And Others

    1986-01-01

    In the wake of the first space voyage and in-flight experiments by a Muslim astronaut, this document focuses upon the story of Islamic science through the ages. It is intended to demonstrate the resurgence of scientific research and technological development in the Muslim world. The booklet contains chapters on: (1) science: the Islamic legacy;…

  16. Securing Your Legacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valeau, Edward

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author, a former college president, reflects on his career and the challenges of retirement. He shares his experience from career preparation to on-the-job training to succession planning. The author stresses that the decisions college presidents make define the legacies they leave.

  17. The Legacy Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moye, Johnny J.

    2012-01-01

    This article is the first in a series of articles entitled "The Legacy Project." It focuses on the lives and actions of leaders who have forged technology engineering education profession into what it is today. Members of the profession owe a debt of gratitude to these leaders. One simple way to demonstrate that gratitude is to recognize them and…

  18. Multigeneration data migration from legacy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratib, Osman M.; Liu, Brent J.; Kho, Hwa T.; Tao, Wenchao; Wang, Cun; McCoy, J. Michael

    2003-05-01

    The migration of image data from different generations of legacy archive systems represents a technical challenge and in incremental cost in transitions to newer generations of PACS. UCLA medical center has elected to completely replace the existing PACS infrastructure encompassing several generations of legacy systems by a new commercial system providing enterprise-wide image management and communication. One of the most challenging parts of the project was the migration of large volumes of legacy images into the new system. Planning of the migration required the development of specialized software and hardware, and included different phases of data mediation from existing databases to the new PACS database prior to the migration of the image data. The project plan included a detailed analysis of resources and cost of data migration to optimize the process and minimize the delay of a hybrid operation where the legacy systems need to remain operational. Our analysis and project planning showed that the data migration represents the most critical path in the process of PACS renewal. Careful planning and optimization of the project timeline and resources allocated is critical to minimize the financial impact and the time delays that such migrations can impose on the implementation plan.

  19. DEVELOPMENT, CALIBRATION AND APPLICATION OF A CONTAINMENT TRANSPORT AND FATE MASS BALANCE MODEL IN LAKE MICHIGAN, LM2

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Lake Michigan Mass Balance Project (LMMBP) was initiated to support the development of a Lake Wide Management Plan (LaMP) for Lake Michigan. As one of the models in the LMMBP modeling framework, the Level 2 Lake Michigan containment transport and fate (LM2) model has been dev...

  20. Serotonin Attenuates Feedback Excitation onto O-LM Interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Böhm, Claudia; Pangalos, Maria; Schmitz, Dietmar; Winterer, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    The serotonergic system is a subcortical neuromodulatory center that controls cortical information processing in a state-dependent manner. In the hippocampus, serotonin (5-HT) is released by ascending serotonergic fibers from the midbrain raphe nuclei, thereby mediating numerous modulatory functions on various neuronal subtypes. Here, we focus on the neuromodulatory effects of 5-HT on GABAergic inhibitory oriens lacunosum-moleculare (O-LM) cells in the hippocampal area CA1 of the rat. These interneurons are thought to receive primarily local excitatory input and are, via their axonal projections to stratum lacunosum-moleculare, ideally suited to control entorhinal cortex input. We show that 5-HT reduces excitatory glutamatergic transmission onto O-LM interneurons. By means of paired recordings from synaptically connected CA1 pyramidal cells and O-LM interneurons we reveal that this synapse is modulated by 5-HT. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the reduction of glutamatergic transmission by serotonin is likely to be mediated via a decrease of calcium influx into presynaptic terminals of CA1 pyramidal cells. This modulation of excitatory synaptic transmission onto O-LM interneurons by 5-HT might be a mechanism to vary the activation of O-LM interneurons during ongoing network activity and serve as a brain state-dependent switch gating the efficiency of entorhinal cortex input to CA1 pyramidal neurons. PMID:26021702

  1. Legacy Code Modernization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hribar, Michelle R.; Frumkin, Michael; Jin, Haoqiang; Waheed, Abdul; Yan, Jerry; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Over the past decade, high performance computing has evolved rapidly; systems based on commodity microprocessors have been introduced in quick succession from at least seven vendors/families. Porting codes to every new architecture is a difficult problem; in particular, here at NASA, there are many large CFD applications that are very costly to port to new machines by hand. The LCM ("Legacy Code Modernization") Project is the development of an integrated parallelization environment (IPE) which performs the automated mapping of legacy CFD (Fortran) applications to state-of-the-art high performance computers. While most projects to port codes focus on the parallelization of the code, we consider porting to be an iterative process consisting of several steps: 1) code cleanup, 2) serial optimization,3) parallelization, 4) performance monitoring and visualization, 5) intelligent tools for automated tuning using performance prediction and 6) machine specific optimization. The approach for building this parallelization environment is to build the components for each of the steps simultaneously and then integrate them together. The demonstration will exhibit our latest research in building this environment: 1. Parallelizing tools and compiler evaluation. 2. Code cleanup and serial optimization using automated scripts 3. Development of a code generator for performance prediction 4. Automated partitioning 5. Automated insertion of directives. These demonstrations will exhibit the effectiveness of an automated approach for all the steps involved with porting and tuning a legacy code application for a new architecture.

  2. Pharmacokinetic Study of a Novel Antihyperlipidemic Agent LM-13765- A Prodrug

    PubMed Central

    Shah, T. M.; Savle, S. S.; Chhabria, M. T.; Rathod, I. S.; Shishoo, C. J.; Brahmkshatriya, P. S.

    2009-01-01

    A sensitive and specific high performance thin layer chromatographic method has been developed for estimation of a novel antihyperlipidemic agent LM 13765 in rabbit plasma and its use for pharmacokinetic study has been evaluated. The proposed method was employed to study pharmacokinetics of LM 13765 in rabbits. It was observed that LM 13765 metabolized immediately after oral administration. The metabolite of LM 13765 was identified and characterized as LM 13765-C. A sensitive and specific HPTLC method was developed for estimation of LM 13765-C in plasma after oral administration of LM 13765 and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined. Biological screening of LM 13765-C on hyperlipidemic rats indicated that it is less potent than the parent compound which is indicative of biotransformation of LM 13765 to active form LM 13765-C. PMID:20376217

  3. Assembling 204LM-1 at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    Workmen at the Kennedy Space Center position the nose cone for the 204LM-1, an unmanned Apollo mission that tested the Apollo Lunar Module (LM) in Earth orbit. Also known as Apollo 5, the spacecraft was launched on the fourth Saturn IBC launch vehicle. Developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) as an interim vehicle in MSFC's 'building block' approach to the Saturn rocket development, the Saturn IBC utilized Saturn I technology to further develop and refine a larger booster and the Apollo spacecraft capabilities required for the manned lunar missions.

  4. "A-LM German": How to Make it Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartmetz, Dieter

    1978-01-01

    The A-LM German materials are analyzed in terms of their weakness and positive features, and suggestions for their use and adaptation are presented. It is argued that: the basic dialogue is almost unusable; the structure drills are repetitive and often not challenging; the taped arrangement of the listening exercises is awkward; the dialogue…

  5. [Unipacs: A-LM German, Units 3-29].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Bend High Schools, WI.

    These instructional materials, designed for use with the "A-LM" German language course, permit teachers to individualize instruction. Basic objectives are outlined concerning basic dialogues, vocabulary, supplementary materials, reading, grammar, recombination materials, and creative conversation. A student checklist serves as a guide for the…

  6. Intermediate Macroeconomics without the IS-LM Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weerapana, Akila

    2003-01-01

    States that the IS-LM model is the primary model of economic fluctuations taught in undergraduate macroeconomics. Argues that the aggregate demand-price adjustment (AD-PA) model is superior for teaching about economic fluctuations. Compares the IS-LS model with the AD-AP model using two current issues in macroeconomics. (JEH)

  7. LM-OSL components of quartz as sediment tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddadchi, Arman; Olley, Jon

    2015-04-01

    This study investigate the first attempt for the use of Linearly Modulated Optically Stimulated Luminescence (LM-OSL), as an alternative to using fallout radionuclides, to determine the dominant erosion process supplying sediment in a water supply catchment in southeast Queensland. Fifteen surface-soil and five channel bank samples were collected and their LM-OSL signals were compared to those from samples collected from two downstream river sites.The shapes of the LM-OSL signal curve of quartz varied in surface soil samples, with negligible slow components at the tail of curve, and whilst channel bank samples produced signals with more dominant slow components. Discriminant analysis on the source samples showed that quartz properties can be used to differentiate between channel bank and surface soil sources. Normal distributions for selected quartz components were determined for each of the end members, with these distributions then used to estimate the source contribution to two river bed sediment sites. The results indicate that channel bank derived sediments dominate the sediment sources at both sites, with 90.1 ± 3% and 91.9 ± 1.9% contributions. These results are in agreement with previous studies based on measurements of 137Cs and 210Pbex fallout radionuclides to estimate the relative contribution from these two sources. Consequently, LM-OSL approach may be a useful method to estimate the relative contribution of surface soil and channel erosion to stream sediments. Keywords: Quartz, OSL signal components, Tracers, Sediment sources

  8. The DECam Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, Robert D.; Burleigh, Kaylan; Dey, Arjun; Schlegel, David J.; Meisner, Aaron M.; Levi, Michael; Myers, Adam D.; Lang, Dustin; Moustakas, John; Patej, Anna; Valdes, Francisco; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Huanyuan, Shan; Nord, Brian; Olsen, Knut A.; Delubac, Timothée; Saha, Abi; James, David; Walker, Alistair R.; DECaLS Team

    2016-06-01

    The DECam Legacy Survey (DECaLS) is conducting a 3-band imaging survey of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) extragalactic footprint as part of the Legacy Survey, which is associated with the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) redshift survey. The Legacy Survey covers 14000 square degrees in the g, r, and z bands and is being executed on the Blanco 4-m, Mayall 4-m, and Bok 2.3-m telescopes. For DECaLS, the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) will image the footprint overlapping SDSS in the region -20 < Dec < +30 deg, to depths of g=24.7, r=23.9, z=23.0 and will eventually cover a total of 7500 square degrees. The survey began in 2014 and will run through Spring 2017. Images and catalogs were introduced in Public Data Release 2 (DR2), which occurred in January 2016. The algorithm "Tractor" applies multi-wavelength forced photometry to DECam and WISE data to produce galaxy (and star) magnitudes (as well as shape and other information) for the catalogs. In total, the optical data in DR2 cover a disjoint footprint in 2078, 2141 and 5322 square degrees in g, r, and z bands, respectively; 1807 square degrees has been observed in all three optical filters. There are approximately 260 million unique sources in DR2 spread over 97,554 0.25 x 0.25 square degree bricks.The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) will observe 30+ million galaxies and quasars in a 14,000 square degree extragalactic footprint. The targeting in that footprint will be provided by a combination of these DECam data, the MOSAIC camera on the Mayall 4-meter, and the 90Prime camera on the Bok telescope.

  9. Locating legacy in illness.

    PubMed

    Froude, Cameron Kiely

    2016-06-01

    The author, a licensed marriage and family therapist, describes her work with Sofia, an eight-year-old Puerto Rican female with chronic and persistent abdominal pain and leg paralysis with no known organic cause. Sofia's mother, Ana, was also seen by the author. Over the course of several weeks, the family shared stories of painful medical procedures and extreme dietary plans prescribed to them by doctors to identify the etiology of Sofia's illness. Ana described her simultaneous relief and frustration when each test result indicated that there was no organic cause for Sofia's debilitating pain. They talked about the push and pull Ana's family experienced as they prayed simultaneously for abnormal and normal test results. The author told Sofia's pediatrician that she would begin to create a community genogram with the family in their next meeting. She explained that the purpose of the community genogram was to illustrate the social and historical contexts of families' lives. They learned that a seminal narrative in Sofia's family legacy connected deep understanding of others with embodiment of their immediate experience. Sofia's illness became one part of her and her family's legacy and cultural tapestry. Ana described the renewed connections that she and Sofia shared with their family members. As Sofia and Ana spoke with their family members more often, Sofia's leg paralysis and stomach pains decreased. Sofia began attending school regularly and visiting less with her pediatrician. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27270250

  10. The Legacies Left Us by Database Producers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcinko, Randall

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on the three components of legacy in the information industry: data, systems, and human factors. Discusses psychological legacy data; data conversions; characteristics of legacy systems for the information industry; database producers; standards; evaluating legacy from a financial perspective; financial considerations for database…

  11. A game of hide and seek between avirulence genes AvrLm4-7 and AvrLm3 in Leptosphaeria maculans.

    PubMed

    Plissonneau, Clémence; Daverdin, Guillaume; Ollivier, Bénédicte; Blaise, Françoise; Degrave, Alexandre; Fudal, Isabelle; Rouxel, Thierry; Balesdent, Marie-Hélène

    2016-03-01

    Extending the durability of plant resistance genes towards fungal pathogens is a major challenge. We identified and investigated the relationship between two avirulence genes of Leptosphaeria maculans, AvrLm3 and AvrLm4-7. When an isolate possesses both genes, the Rlm3-mediated resistance of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) is not expressed due to the presence of AvrLm4-7 but virulent isolates toward Rlm7 recover the AvrLm3 phenotype. Combining genetic and genomic approaches (genetic mapping, RNA-seq, BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) clone sequencing and de novo assembly) we cloned AvrLm3, a telomeric avirulence gene of L. maculans. AvrLm3 is located in a gap of the L. maculans reference genome assembly, is surrounded by repeated elements, encodes for a small secreted cysteine-rich protein and is highly expressed at early infection stages. Complementation and silencing assays validated the masking effect of AvrLm4-7 on AvrLm3 recognition by Rlm3 and we showed that the presence of AvrLm4-7 does not impede AvrLm3 expression in planta. Y2H assays suggest the absence of physical interaction between the two avirulence proteins. This unusual interaction is the basis for field experiments aiming to evaluate strategies that increase Rlm7 durability. PMID:26592855

  12. Legacy Systems Interaction Reengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Ramly, Mohammad; Stroulia, Eleni; Samir, Hani

    We present a lightweight approach for reengineering the human computer interaction (HCI) and/or interaction with other software systems. While interaction reengineering can be achieved by changing the source code and design (e.g., library replacement, refactoring, etc.) resulting in a different user interface (UI), we limit the discussion to interaction reengineering methods that do not involve changing the source code or internal design of the system. Instead, we focus on methods and techniques for wrapping and packaging the existing interaction layer to reproduce it in a different format, e.g., on a different platform or to integrate the legacy system services in another application possibly under a different architecture paradigm, e.g., service-oriented architectures (SOA).

  13. Pioneering Legacy of Betty Ford

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Preventing Drug Abuse and Addiction The Pioneering Legacy of Betty Ford ... one who helped us understand.” Read More "Preventing Drug Abuse and Addiction" Articles Scientific Research has Revolutionized our ...

  14. 130 LPW 1000 Lm Warm White LED for Illumination

    SciTech Connect

    Soer, Wouter

    2012-06-14

    An illumination-grade warm-white LED, having correlated color temperature (CCT) between 2700 and 3500 K and capable of producing 1000 lm output at over 130 lm/W at room temperature, has been developed in this program. The high-power warm-white LED is an ideal source for use in indoor and outdoor lighting applications. Over the two year period, we have made the following accomplishments: • Developed a low-cost high-power white LED package and commercialized a series of products with CCT ranging from 2700 to 5700 K under the product name LUXEON M; • Demonstrated a record efficacy of 124.8 lm/W at a flux of 1023 lm, CCT of 3435 K and color rendering index (CRI) over 80 at room temperature in the productized package; • Demonstrated a record efficacy of 133.1 lm/W at a flux of 1015 lm, CCT of 3475 K and CRI over 80 at room temperature in an R&D package. The new high-power LED package is a die-on-ceramic surface mountable LED package. It has four 2 mm2 InGaN pump dice, flip-chip attached to a ceramic submount in a 2x2 array configuration. The submount design utilizes a design approach that combines a high-thermal- conductivity ceramic core for die attach and a low-cost and low-thermal-conductivity ceramic frame for mechanical support and as optical lens carrier. The LED package has a thermal resistance of less than 1.25 K/W. The white LED fabrication also adopts a new batch level (instead of die-by-die) phosphor deposition process with precision layer thickness and composition control, which provides not only tight color control, but also low cost. The efficacy performance goal was achieved through the progress in following key areas: (1) high-efficiency royal blue pump LED development through active region design and epitaxial growth quality improvement (funded by internal programs); (2) improvement in extraction efficiency from the LED package through improvement of InGaN-die-level and package-level optical extraction efficiency; and (3) improvement in phosphor

  15. The Yohkoh Legacy Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acton, L. W.; Takeda, A.; McKenzie, D. E.

    2008-12-01

    Yohkoh was a Japan/US/UK mission for the study of high energy processes on the sun. Scientific operation extended from September 1991 until 14 December 2001, nearly an entire solar activity cycle. Observations included full-disk soft and hard x-ray imaging, hard x-ray spectroscopy, and high resolution flare spectroscopy in S XV, Ca XIX, Fe XXV and Fe XXVI from the Bent Crystal Spectrometer (BCS). The Yohkoh Legacy Archive (YLA) brings together all Yohkoh observational data along with extensive documentation required for a full understanding of instrumentation, mission operations, and data reduction and correction. Extensive meta-data aid the user in efficiently accessing the data base. Creation of the YLA has been the work of 8 years; the top objective has been to present the extensive Yohkoh database in a form fully usable for scientists or students who are unfamiliar with Yohkoh instrumentation. The YLA may be accessed at http://solar.physics.montana.edu/ylegacy or through the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO), although the VSO capability is still under development. Data from the Yohkoh hard x-ray instruments and BCS are presented in flare list formats. The Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) images are available in quantitative and movie formats. This long, uniform, archive of SXT images is especially useful for solar cycle studies as well as high resolution soft x-ray flare studies. Examples of YLA data products and research enabled by the archive will be presented.

  16. The Planck Legacy Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupac, X.; Arviset, C.; Fernandez Barreiro, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Tauber, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Planck Collaboration has released in 2015 their second major dataset through the Planck Legacy Archive (PLA). It includes cosmological, Extragalactic and Galactic science data in temperature (intensity) and polarization. Full-sky maps are provided with unprecedented angular resolution and sensitivity, together with a large number of ancillary maps, catalogues (generic, SZ clusters and Galactic cold clumps), time-ordered data and other information. The extensive cosmological likelihood package allows cosmologists to fully explore the plausible parameters of the Universe. A new web-based PLA user interface is made public since Dec. 2014, allowing easier and faster access to all Planck data, and replacing the previous Java-based software. Numerous additional improvements to the PLA are also being developed through the so-called PLA Added-Value Interface, making use of an external contract with the Planetek Hellas and Expert Analytics software companies. This will allow users to process time-ordered data into sky maps, separate astrophysical components in existing maps, simulate the microwave and infrared sky through the Planck Sky Model, and use a number of other functionalities.

  17. Fluid Management Plan Central Nevada Test Area Corrective Action Unit 443

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office initiated the Offsites Project to characterize the risk posed to human health and the environment as a result of underground nuclear testing at sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. Responsibility for environmental restoration of the sites that constitute the Offsites Project was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to the DOE Office of Legacy Management (LM) on October 1, 2006. The scope of this Fluid Management Plan (FMP) is to support subsurface investigations at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996). The subsurface CAU 443 is associated with the underground nuclear testing conducted at UC-1 and is located approximately 30 miles north of Warm Springs in Nye County, Nevada.

  18. Legacy Planning: How Will You Be Remembered?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galford, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    Legacy thinking is about a person--as an individual. How he interacts with others on a one-to-one basis every day. Someone with personal hopes, goals, desires and expectations. Thinking about one's legacy can help one better understand his strengths and weaknesses and help him steer his legacy in the right direction. In this article, the author…

  19. Preserving a Lunar Legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Leary, B.; Brown, L. F.; Gibson, R. A.; Versluis, J.

    2000-12-01

    Heritage Site. Although we began this work with Apollo 11 and the Tranquillity Base location, we feel that the Russian landing and impact areas, and the remaining Apollo sites should be similarly studied and protected. Documenting these sites is the first step in preserving the technological and historical legacy of early lunar exploration, and in understanding the roots of international cooperation in space.

  20. Apollo 16 LM-11 descent propulsion system final flight evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avvenire, A. T.

    1973-01-01

    The performance of the LM-11 Descent Propulsion System during the Apollo 16 Mission was evaluated and found to be satisfactory. The average engine effective specific impulse was 0.1 second higher than predicted, but well within the predicted 1 sigma uncertainty of 0.2 seconds. The engine performance corrected to standard inlet conditions for the FTP portion of the burn at 50 seconds after ignition was as follows: thrust, 9839 lbf; specific impulse, 306.9 sec; and propellant mixture ratio, 1.592. These values are +0.34, +0.03 and +0.0 percent different, respectively, from the values reported from engine acceptance tests and were within specification limits. Several flight measurement discrepancies that existed during the flight are discussed.

  1. Apollo LM guidance computer software for the final lunar descent.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eyles, D.

    1973-01-01

    In all manned lunar landings to date, the lunar module Commander has taken partial manual control of the spacecraft during the final stage of the descent, below roughly 500 ft altitude. This report describes programs developed at the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, MIT, for use in the LM's guidance computer during the final descent. At this time computational demands on the on-board computer are at a maximum, and particularly close interaction with the crew is necessary. The emphasis is on the design of the computer software rather than on justification of the particular guidance algorithms employed. After the computer and the mission have been introduced, the current configuration of the final landing programs and an advanced version developed experimentally by the author are described.

  2. Modernizing Fortran 77 legacy codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, C. D.; Decyk, V. K.

    2000-01-01

    Legacy software has great value since it is generally well debugged, produces results that are trusted and is actively meeting end-user goals. The amount of hidden expert knowledge embedded in such software can be significant, making its preservation important.

  3. LM-research opportunities and activities at Beer-Sheva

    SciTech Connect

    Lesin, S.

    1996-06-01

    Energy conversion concepts based on liquid metal (LM) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) technology was intensively investigated at the Center for MHD Studies (CMHDS), in the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in Israel. LMMHD energy conversion systems operate in a closed cycle as follows: heat intended for conversion into electricity is added to a liquid metal contained in a closed loop of pipes. The liquid metal is mixed with vapor or gas introduced from outside so that a two-phase mixture is formed. The gaseous phase performs a thermodynamic cycle, converting a certain amount of heat into mechanical energy of the liquid metal. This energy is converted into electrical power as the metal flows across a magnetic field in the MHD channel. Those systems where the expanding thermodynamic fluid performs work against gravitational forces (natural circulation loops) and using heavy liquid metals are named ETGAR systems. A number of different heavy-metal facilities have been specially constructed and tested with fluid combinations of mercury and steam, mercury and nitrogen, mercury and freon, lead-bismuth and steam, and lead and steam. Since the experimental investigation of such flows is a very difficult task and all the known measurment methods are incomplete and not fully reliable, a variety of experimental approaches have been developed. In most experiments, instantaneous pressure distribution along the height of the upcomer were measured and the average void fraction was calculated numerically using the one-dimensional equation for the two-phase flow. The research carried out at the CMHDS led to significant improvements in the characterization of the two-phase phenomena expected in the riser of ETGAR systems. One of the most important outcomes is the development of a new empirical correlation which enables the reliable prediction of the velocity ratio between the LM and the steam (slip), the friction factor, as well as of the steam void fraction distribution along the riser.

  4. Calibration of visual model for space manipulator with a hybrid LM-GA algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wensong; Wang, Zhongyu

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid LM-GA algorithm is proposed to calibrate the camera system of space manipulator to improve its locational accuracy. This algorithm can dynamically fuse the Levenberg-Marqurdt (LM) algorithm and Genetic Algorithm (GA) together to minimize the error of nonlinear camera model. LM algorithm is called to optimize the initial camera parameters that are generated by genetic process previously. Iteration should be stopped if the optimized camera parameters meet the accuracy requirements. Otherwise, new populations are generated again by GA and optimized afresh by LM algorithm until the optimal solutions meet the accuracy requirements. A novel measuring machine of space manipulator is designed to on-orbit dynamic simulation and precision test. The camera system of space manipulator, calibrated by hybrid LM-GA algorithm, is used for locational precision test in this measuring instrument. The experimental results show that the mean composite errors are 0.074 mm for hybrid LM-GA camera calibration model, 1.098 mm for LM camera calibration model, and 1.202 mm for GA camera calibration model. Furthermore, the composite standard deviations are 0.103 mm for the hybrid LM-GA camera calibration model, 1.227 mm for LM camera calibration model, and 1.351 mm for GA camera calibration model. The accuracy of hybrid LM-GA camera calibration model is more than 10 times higher than that of other two methods. All in all, the hybrid LM-GA camera calibration model is superior to both the LM camera calibration model and GA camera calibration model.

  5. Peter Waterman and his scientific legacy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Kahnert, Michael; Mackowski, Daniel W.; Wriedt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Peter C. Waterman, a giant figure in the theory of electromagnetic, acoustic, and elastic wave scattering, passed away on 3 June, 2012. In view of his fundamental contributions, which to a large degree have guided the progress of these disciplines over the past five decades and affected profoundly the multifaceted research published in the Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer (JQSRT), we felt that it would be appropriate to solicit papers for a special issue of JQSRT commemorating Peter Waterman's scientific legacy. This initiative was endorsed by the JQSRT management and has resulted in a representative collection of high-quality papers which have undergone the same peer scrutiny as any paper submitted to JQSRT.

  6. LM-3: A High-resolution Lake Michigan Mass Balance Water Quality Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is a user’s manual that describes the high-resolution mass balance model known as LM3. LM3 has been applied to Lake Michigan to describe the transport and fate of atrazine, PCB congeners, and chloride in that system. The model has also been used to model eutrophicat...

  7. Policy Effectiveness and the Slopes of IS and LM Curves: A Graphical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revier, Charles F.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the IS-LM model providing a graphical analysis designed to clarify the confusion induced by misleading statements in several major macroeconomics textbooks concerning the connection between policy effectiveness and the slopes of the IS and LM curves. Includes references. (CMK)

  8. The Hubble Spectroscopic Legacy Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peeples, Molly S.; Tumlinson, Jason; Fox, Andrew; Aloisi, Alessandra; Ayres, Thomas R.; Danforth, Charles; Fleming, Scott W.; Jenkins, Edward B.; Jedrzejewski, Robert I.; Keeney, Brian A.; Oliveira, Cristina M.

    2016-01-01

    With no future space ultraviolet instruments currently planned, the data from the UV spectrographs aboard the Hubble Space Telescope have a legacy value beyond their initial science goals. The Hubble Spectroscopic Legacy Archive will provide to the community new science-grade combined spectra for all publicly available data obtained by the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) and the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). These data will be packaged into "smart archives" according to target type and scientific themes to facilitate the construction of archival samples for common science uses. A new "quick look" capability will make the data easy for users to quickly access, assess the quality of, and download for archival science starting in Cycle 24, with the first generation of these products for the FUV modes of COS available online via MAST in early 2016.

  9. Modernizing Fortran 77 Legacy Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decyk, Viktor; Norton, Charles

    2003-01-01

    An incremental approach to modernization of scientific software written in the Fortran 77 computing language has been developed. This approach makes it possible to preserve the investment in legacy Fortran software while augmenting the software with modern capabilities to satisfy expanded requirements. This approach could be advantageous (1) in situations in which major rewriting of application programs is undesirable or impossible, or (2) as a means of transition to major rewriting.

  10. Geographic Information System Tools for Management of US DOE Sites - 13489

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, Cliff; Pilz, Elaine; Pawel, Steve

    2013-07-01

    The DOE Office of Legacy Management (LM) uses a variety of GIS tools to support long-term surveillance and maintenance (LTS and M) activities at DOE closure sites. These geo-spatial applications provide access to data both for external public viewing and for internal analysis and decision making. LM uses a custom geo-spatial application called geo-spatial Environmental Mapping System (GEMS) that draws validated information from a database of 4.6 million analytical results and 232,000 water level measurements for 58 LTS and M sites. These data were collected from transferred sites over a period of 40 years. The database is used to capture and store historical environmental information such as analytical chemistry data, groundwater depths and elevations, well logs, well construction data, geo-referenced boundaries, site physical features, and sampling locations from LTS and M sites. Stakeholders, regulators, and project personnel can use this Web-based application and data to display information in several forms, such as a tabular report, a graph, and a geo-spatial display, or the data can be labeled or highlighted in a map view. Institutional controls, with their LTS and M requirements and documentation, have recently been incorporated into a prototype GEMS Web page for the Weldon Spring, Missouri, Site. LM uses multiple internal GIS viewers to help ensure the future protection of human health and the environment. For example, at the Rocky Flats, Colorado, Site, LM uses a GIS application to display real property interests on authoritative maps. Another project is used to facilitate discussions at stakeholder meetings for the Rocky Flats site's Original Landfill. The Uranium Leasing Program uses multiple interactive maps that assist in ongoing monitoring and the oversight of lease-holders' activities. (authors)

  11. The contribution of LM to the neuroscience of movement vision

    PubMed Central

    Zihl, Josef; Heywood, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    The significance of early and sporadic reports in the 19th century of impairments of motion vision following brain damage was largely unrecognized. In the absence of satisfactory post-mortem evidence, impairments were interpreted as the consequence of a more general disturbance resulting from brain damage, the location and extent of which was unknown. Moreover, evidence that movement constituted a special visual perception and may be selectively spared was similarly dismissed. Such skepticism derived from a reluctance to acknowledge that the neural substrates of visual perception may not be confined to primary visual cortex. This view did not persist. First, it was realized that visual movement perception does not depend simply on the analysis of spatial displacements and temporal intervals, but represents a specific visual movement sensation. Second persuasive evidence for functional specialization in extrastriate cortex, and notably the discovery of cortical area V5/MT, suggested a separate region specialized for motion processing. Shortly thereafter the remarkable case of patient LM was published, providing compelling evidence for a selective and specific loss of movement vision. The case is reviewed here, along with an assessment of its contribution to visual neuroscience. PMID:25741251

  12. Catchment Legacies and Time Lags: A Parsimonious Watershed Model to Predict the Effects of Legacy Storage on Nitrogen Export

    PubMed Central

    Van Meter, Kimberly J.; Basu, Nandita B.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient legacies in anthropogenic landscapes, accumulated over decades of fertilizer application, lead to time lags between implementation of conservation measures and improvements in water quality. Quantification of such time lags has remained difficult, however, due to an incomplete understanding of controls on nutrient depletion trajectories after changes in land-use or management practices. In this study, we have developed a parsimonious watershed model for quantifying catchment-scale time lags based on both soil nutrient accumulations (biogeochemical legacy) and groundwater travel time distributions (hydrologic legacy). The model accurately predicted the time lags observed in an Iowa watershed that had undergone a 41% conversion of area from row crop to native prairie. We explored the time scales of change for stream nutrient concentrations as a function of both natural and anthropogenic controls, from topography to spatial patterns of land-use change. Our results demonstrate that the existence of biogeochemical nutrient legacies increases time lags beyond those due to hydrologic legacy alone. In addition, we show that the maximum concentration reduction benefits vary according to the spatial pattern of intervention, with preferential conversion of land parcels having the shortest catchment-scale travel times providing proportionally greater concentration reductions as well as faster response times. In contrast, a random pattern of conversion results in a 1:1 relationship between percent land conversion and percent concentration reduction, irrespective of denitrification rates within the landscape. Our modeling framework allows for the quantification of tradeoffs between costs associated with implementation of conservation measures and the time needed to see the desired concentration reductions, making it of great value to decision makers regarding optimal implementation of watershed conservation measures. PMID:25985290

  13. Catchment legacies and time lags: a parsimonious watershed model to predict the effects of legacy storage on nitrogen export.

    PubMed

    Van Meter, Kimberly J; Basu, Nandita B

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient legacies in anthropogenic landscapes, accumulated over decades of fertilizer application, lead to time lags between implementation of conservation measures and improvements in water quality. Quantification of such time lags has remained difficult, however, due to an incomplete understanding of controls on nutrient depletion trajectories after changes in land-use or management practices. In this study, we have developed a parsimonious watershed model for quantifying catchment-scale time lags based on both soil nutrient accumulations (biogeochemical legacy) and groundwater travel time distributions (hydrologic legacy). The model accurately predicted the time lags observed in an Iowa watershed that had undergone a 41% conversion of area from row crop to native prairie. We explored the time scales of change for stream nutrient concentrations as a function of both natural and anthropogenic controls, from topography to spatial patterns of land-use change. Our results demonstrate that the existence of biogeochemical nutrient legacies increases time lags beyond those due to hydrologic legacy alone. In addition, we show that the maximum concentration reduction benefits vary according to the spatial pattern of intervention, with preferential conversion of land parcels having the shortest catchment-scale travel times providing proportionally greater concentration reductions as well as faster response times. In contrast, a random pattern of conversion results in a 1:1 relationship between percent land conversion and percent concentration reduction, irrespective of denitrification rates within the landscape. Our modeling framework allows for the quantification of tradeoffs between costs associated with implementation of conservation measures and the time needed to see the desired concentration reductions, making it of great value to decision makers regarding optimal implementation of watershed conservation measures. PMID:25985290

  14. Parameterization of wind farms in COSMO-LM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuetz, E.; Steinfeld, G.; Heinemann, D.; Peinke, J.

    2012-04-01

    In order to examine the impact of wind farms in the meso scale using numerical simulations parameterizations of wind farms were implemented in a mesoscale model. In 2008/2009 the first wind farm in the german exclusive economic zone - Alpha Ventus - was built. Since then more wind farms are erected in the german exclusive economic zone. Wind farms with up to 80 wind turbines and on an area up to 66 square kilometers are planned - partly only few kilometers apart from one another. Such large wind farms influence the properties of the atmospheric boundary layer at the meso scale by a reduction of the wind speed, a enhancement of the turbulent kinetic energy, but also an alternation of the wind direction. Results of models for the calculation of wakes (wake models), idealistic mesoscale studies as well as observations show, that wind farms of this size produce wakes, which can expand up to a few 10 kilometers downstream. Mesoscale models provide the possibility to investigate the impact of such large wind farms on the atmospheric flow in a larger area and also to examine the effect of wind farms under different weather conditions. For the numerical simulation the mesoscale model COSMO-LM is used. Because the wind turbines of the wind farm cannot be displayed individually due to the large mesh-grid size, the effects of the wind turbine in a numerical model have to be described with the help of a parameterization. Different parameterizations, including the interpretation of a wind farm as enhanced surface roughness or as an impuls deficit and turbulence source, respectively, are implemented into COSMO. The impact of the different wind farm parameterizations on the simulation of the atmospheric boundary layer are presented. as well as first tests of idealistic simulations of wind farms are presented. For this purpose idealistic runs as well as a case study were performed.

  15. [Pharmacological study of mequitazine (LM-209) (III). Action on the central nervous system (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Fujimura, H; Tsurumi, K; Yanagihara, M; Hiramatsu, Y; Tamura, Y; Shimizu, Y; Hojo, M; Yoshida, Y; Serizawa, I

    1981-10-01

    The action of an anti-histaminic agent, Mequitazine (LM-209) on the central nervous system was investigated. We found that LM-209 did not affect the spontaneous and co-operative movement in mice, did not induce muscle relaxation, analgesic effects or anti-convulsant effect in micr or hypothermic effects in rats. The anti-oxotremorine effect of LM-209 in mice was about 10 times more potent than clemastine fumarate (CL) and the same as promethazine. The activity and duration of the action were also superior to diethazine and orphenadrine used as an anti-Parkinson drug. LM-209 prolonged by 50% the hypnotic time induced by hexobarbital at 50 mg/kg (p.o.) in mice, while CL prolonged 50 and 100% it at 25 and 50 mg/kg (p.o.) respectively. In the EEG of rabbits, LM-209 produced a resting pattern, inhibited the arousal responses and recruiting responses and the effect was the same as CL and less potent than promethazine. From these results, the activity of LM-209 on the central nervous system (except for the anti-oxotremorine effect) seems to be the same as or somewhat less potent than CL. Therefore LM-209 should be an effective and anti-histaminic agent for clinical application. PMID:6120125

  16. Possibilities and testing of CPRNG in block cipher mode of operation PM-DC-LM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacek, Petr; Jasek, Roman; Malanik, David

    2016-06-01

    This paper discusses the chaotic pseudo-random number generator (CPRNG), which is used in block cipher mode of operation called PM-DC-LM. PM-DC-LM is one of possible subversions of general PM mode. In this paper is not discussed the design of PM-DC-LM, but only CPRNG as a part of it because designing is written in other papers. Possibilities, how to change or to improve CPRNG are mentioned. The final part is devoted for a little testing of CPRNG and some testing data are shown.

  17. The Legacy Project: Donald P. Lauda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moye, Johnny J.

    2016-01-01

    Many vocational education, technology education, and now technology and engineering education leaders have made their mark on the teaching profession. Their legacy is something that members of the profession enjoy and have a responsibility to continue and build upon. The Legacy Project focuses on the lives and actions of leaders who have forged…

  18. The Legacy Project: M. James Bensen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moye, Johnny J.

    2015-01-01

    Many vocational education, technology education, and now technology and engineering education leaders have made their mark on the profession. Their legacy is something that members of the profession enjoy and have the responsibility to continue to build upon. This is the sixth in a series of articles entitled "The Legacy Project" that…

  19. Designing a Leadership Legacy (L2) Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fierke, Kerry K.

    2015-01-01

    What does it mean to leave a "leadership legacy" in the organizations and communities in which we are involved? This mixed-methods research project will explore the stories of successful individuals who have left a leadership legacy. Specifically in this article, the preliminary research will share various components of a model to create…

  20. The Legacy Project: Lee H. Smalley, DTE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moye, Johnny J.

    2015-01-01

    Many vocational education, technology education, and now technology and engineering education leaders have made their mark on the profession. Their legacy is something that members of the profession enjoy and have a responsibility to continue and build upon. This is the seventh in a series of articles entitled "The Legacy Project," which…

  1. The Legacy Project--Ralph Bohn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moye, Johnny J.

    2013-01-01

    Many vocational education, technology education, and now technology and engineering education leaders have made their mark on their profession. Their legacy is something that members of the profession enjoy and have a responsibility to continue and build upon. This is the third in a series of articles entitled The Legacy Project, which focuses on…

  2. The Legacy of Cornell Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tigner, M.; Cassel, D. G.

    2015-10-01

    This is the story of a culture and its evolution and legacy. Beginning with the invention of the cyclotron at Berkeley, the path of further accelerator development at Cornell via the Los Alamos experience of the primary actors is described. The science done with the accelerators and on the accelerators and beams themselves is reviewed and brought up to the current time. The evolution of the user community and the sources of support for accelerators and science done with them are discussed at the appropriate places in the story.

  3. Experimental evidence for the K-LM radiative Auger effect in medium-mass atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herren, Ch.; Dousse, J.-Cl.

    1997-10-01

    High-resolution measurements of the Kα1,2 low-energy satellites were performed for the elements 42Mo, 44Ru, 46Pd, 48Cd, and 50Sn. The photoinduced x-ray spectra were measured using a high-resolution transmission-type bent-crystal spectrometer in modified DuMond slit geometry. Experimental evidence for the K-LM radiative Auger effect (RAE) in solid medium-mass atoms was found and particular groups of the K-LM RAE transitions were identified. The experimental intensity ratios I(K-LM RAE) / I(Kα1,2) as well as the relative intensity of the K-L3M4,5 transition group were extracted from the measured spectra. A comparison of the experimental results with relativistic Hartree-Fock theoretical predictions from Scofield shows a good agreement. The experimental energies of the K-LM RAE edges are compared with calculated Auger transition energies.

  4. The Decontamination and Characterization Challenges of Legacy Material

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D. IV, Rohrer, S.; Brown, J.

    2003-02-26

    The legacy project at Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute (LRRI) was an opportunity to work with decades worth of research. LRRI was founded in 1963 to provide inhalation research using radioactive nuclides. Over the next 35 years, scientists at the institute researched the effects of radioactivity on the lungs and the effects of inhaled radiation on the body. There were two outcomes of the research. First, the studies provided valuable information regarding radiation safety and the prevention of the inhalation of radioactive material. Second, the studies created a large amount of legacy waste that is now being cleaned up. Overall, the legacy materials project at LRRI was an interesting challenge. It provided opportunities to the team of LRRI and SEC to engineer solutions to remove and release material. It involved unique ALARA engineering to minimize dose exposure to the project team. And finally, it provided an opportunity to minimize low-level radioactive waste. This paper will expand on the waste management challenges and lessons learned.

  5. Cuticular protein LmTwdl1 is involved in molt development of the migratory locust.

    PubMed

    Song, Tian-Qi; Yang, Mei-Ling; Wang, Yan-Li; Liu, Qing; Wang, Hui-Min; Zhang, Jie; Li, Tao

    2016-08-01

    The cuticle, an essential structure for insects, is produced from cuticular proteins and chitin via a series of biochemical reactions. Tweedle genes are important members of the cuticular protein family and have four conserved motifs binding to chitin. Tweedle family genes have been found to play a profound effect on cuticle development. Here, we report that the cuticular protein gene LmTwdl1 of Locusta migratoria belongs to the Tweedle family. In situ hybridization showed that LmTwdl1 is localized to epidermal cells of the cuticle. The expression patterns of LmTwdl1 showed low expression in the cuticle during the early and middle stages of the fifth-instar nymphs; in contrast, its expression rapidly increased in the late stages of fifth-instar nymphs. We performed RNA interference to examine the function of LmTwdl1 in locusts. Silencing of LmTwdl1 resulted in high mortality during the molting process before the next stage. Also, the epicuticle of nymphs failed to molt, tended to be thinner and the arrangement of chitin in the procuticle appeared to be disordered compare to the control group. These results demonstrate that LmTwdl1 plays a critical role in molting, which contributes to a better understanding of the distinct functions of the Tweedle family in locusts. PMID:27430427

  6. Aging, Climate Change, and Legacy Thinking

    PubMed Central

    Fried, Linda; Moody, Rick

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is a complex, long-term public health challenge. Older people are especially susceptible to certain climate change impacts, such as heat waves. We suggest that older people may be a resource for addressing climate change because of their concern for legacy—for leaving behind values, attitudes, and an intact world to their children and grandchildren. We review the theoretical basis for “legacy thinking” among older people. We offer suggestions for research on this phenomenon, and for action to strengthen the sense of legacy. At a time when older populations are growing, understanding and promoting legacy thinking may offer an important strategy for addressing climate change. PMID:22698047

  7. Nonprofit, payload process improvement through lean management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampson, Melissa

    Organizations that are successful and competitive long-term have learned to efficiently utilize their resources, such as money, people, facilities, and time. Over the last half-century, there have been a variety of theories and techniques put forth on how to do this. One recent theory applied in the aerospace industry is Lean Management (LM), which emphasizes a customer focus and a rigorous elimination of activities that do not add value from the customer's perspective. LM has not, until now, been evaluated for small, nonprofit, one-off production organizations (NOPOs). Previous research on LM focused on for-profit companies and large-scale production organizations, producing relatively similar products repetitively (e.g. automobiles, commercial satellites, aircraft, and launch vehicles). One-off production organizations typically create one-of-a-kind products. The purpose of this research is to examine the applicability of LM to a NOPO. LM will improve resource utilization and thereby competitiveness, as well as exploring a new area of knowledge and research. The research methodology consists of conducting case studies, formal and informal interviews, observation and analysis in order to assess whether and how LM may be beneficial. The research focuses on one particular NOPO, BioServe Space Technologies (BST): a nonprofit, payload development organization. Additional NOPOs were interviewed in order to draw more generalized conclusions about LM benefits. The research demonstrates that LM is applicable to NOPOs, thus providing a tool to improve efficiency and competitiveness. Results from this research are guidelines for payload development organizations to implement LM, and highlighting potential LM weaknesses. A major conclusion is that LM needs some minor modifications to be applicable and useful to NOPOs, particularly in terms of value stream mapping. The LM implementation roadmap developed for NOPOs introduces customized metrics, as well as including standard

  8. Saliency interactions between the 'L-M' and 'S' cardinal colour directions.

    PubMed

    Kingdom, Frederick A A; Kardous, Natacha; Curran, Laura; Gheorghiu, Elena; Bell, Jason

    2014-02-01

    Two sub-systems characterize the early stages of human colour vision, the 'L-M' system that differences L and M cone signals and the 'S' system that differences S cone signals from the sum of L and M cone signals. How do they interact at suprathreshold contrast levels? To address this question we employed the method used by Kingdom et al. (2010) to study suprathreshold interactions between luminance and colour contrast. The stimulus employed in one condition was similar to that used by Regan and Mollon (1997) for studying the relative 'organizing power' of the two sub-systems, and consisted of obliquely-oriented red-cyan (to isolate the L-M sub-system) and violet-chartreuse (to isolate the S sub-system) stripes within a lattice of circles. In our experiment there were two conditions, (1) the Separated condition, in which the L-M and S modulations were of opposite orientation and presented separately as a forced-choice pair, and (2) the Combined condition, in which the L-M and S modulations were added. In the Separated condition the task was to indicate the stimulus with the more salient orientation structure, whereas in the Combined condition the task was to indicate the orientation that was more salient. Psychometric functions were used to estimate the ratio of L-M to S contrast at the 'balance-point' i.e. point-of-subjective-equality (PSE) in both conditions. We found that across 20 subjects an average of 8% more S than L-M contrast was needed to achieve a PSE in the Combined compared to Separated condition. We consider possible reasons for this PSE difference and conclude that it is either due to an early-stage interaction between the S and L-M sub-systems, or to a later stage in which new colours that arise from their combination are selectively grouped. PMID:24361603

  9. Interfacing with Legacy using Remote Method Invocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Scott M.

    1998-01-01

    The assignment described was enough to make a neophyte Java developer bolt for the door: provide a remote method for use by an applet which invokes a native method that wraps a function in an existing legacy library. The purpose of the remote method is to return an instance of a class object whose contents reflect the data structure returned by the legacy function. While embroiled in implementation, I would have spent the time wading through their JNI use group archive as well, but I couldn't seem to locate one. Subsequently, I made the decision to try to document my findings in order to assist others. Before we start on the class design, let's look at what the existing legacy code does. The C function to be called, Get-Legacy-Data, consists of two steps: an ASII file is read from the local disk and its contents are parsed into a Legacy_Type structure whose address is passed as an argument by the caller. The legacy code was compiled into a shared object library, legacy. so, using the IRIX 6.2 compiler and then loaded onto the Web server, a Silicon Graphics Indy station loaded with the IRIX 6.4 operating system. As far as the class design is concerned, the first thing required is a class to act as a template for the data structure returned by the legacy function. This class, JLegacy, declares a series of public instance variables which correspond to the members of Legacy_Type and provides a parameterless constructor. This constructor is never called, not even by the native method which allocates the object for return to the remote method. Next, the remote interface declaration for the remote object must be defined. In order for JLegacyRO to implement getJLegacy, JLegacyRO must interface with the existing legacy code through a native method, getn. getn is declared in the JLegacyRO class but implemented in C, just like the legacy code. getn returns a JLegacy instance and is declared static since its implementation is the same for all instances of the JLegacyRO class.

  10. Color prediction modeling for five-channel CMYLcLm printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Yuanyuan; Zitinski Elias, Paula; Gooran, Sasan

    2014-01-01

    In printing, halftoning algorithms are applied in order to reproduce a continuous-tone image by a binary printing system. The image is transformed into a bitmap composed of dots varying in size and/or frequency. Nevertheless, this causes that the sparse dots found in light shades of cyan (C) and magenta (M) appear undesirably noticeable against white substrate. The solution is to apply light cyan (Lc) and light magenta (Lm) inks in those regions. In order to predict the color of CMYLcLm prints, we make use of the fact that Lc and Lm have similar spectral characteristics as C and M respectively. The goal of this paper is to present a model to characterize a five-channel CMYLcLm printing system using a three-channel color prediction model, where we treat the ink combinations Lc+C and Lm+M as new compound inks. This characterization is based on our previous three-channel CMY color prediction model that is capable of predicting both colorimetric tri-stimulus values and spectral reflectance. The drawback of the proposed model in this paper is the requirement of large number of training samples. Strategies are proposed to reduce this number, which resulted in expected larger but acceptable color differences.

  11. Spike resonance properties in hippocampal O-LM cells are dependent on refractory dynamics.

    PubMed

    Kispersky, Tilman J; Fernandez, Fernando R; Economo, Michael N; White, John A

    2012-03-14

    During a wide variety of behaviors, hippocampal field potentials show significant power in the theta (4-12 Hz) frequency range and individual neurons commonly phase-lock with the 4-12 Hz field potential. The underlying cellular and network mechanisms that generate the theta rhythm, however, are poorly understood. Oriens-lacunosum moleculare (O-LM) interneurons have been implicated as crucial contributors to generating theta in local hippocampal circuits because of their unique axonal projections, slow synaptic kinetics and the fact that spikes are phase-locked to theta field potentials in vivo. We performed experiments in brain slice preparations from Long-Evans rats to investigate the ability of O-LM cells to generate phase-locked spike output in response to artificial synaptic inputs. We find that O-LM cells do not respond with any preference in spike output at theta frequencies when injected with broadband artificial synaptic inputs. However, when presented with frequency-modulated inputs, O-LM spike output shows the ability to phase-lock well to theta-modulated inputs, despite their strong low-pass profiles of subthreshold membrane impedance. This result was dependent on spike refractory dynamics and could be controlled by real-time manipulation of the postspike afterhyperpolarization. Finally, we show that the ability of O-LM cells to phase-lock well to theta-rich inputs is independent of the h-current, a membrane mechanism often implicated in the generation of theta frequency activity. PMID:22423087

  12. 77 FR 60714 - Information Collection Activities: Legacy Data Verification Process (LDVP); Submitted for Office...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... consultation process, on May 14, 2012, we published a Federal Register notice (77 FR 28401) announcing that we... Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement Information Collection Activities: Legacy Data Verification Process (LDVP); Submitted for Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Review; Comment Request...

  13. Updating Fortran programs and other legacy code to an interactive window platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Jürgen; Karslioglu, Mahmut O.

    2003-11-01

    This paper introduces a hybrid method to update legacy programs, thus combining the visual interactivity of window programs with the qualities of legacy code. Because migration from C, Fortran or Pascal to another programming language is very time-consuming and error-prone, it can be more beneficial to integrate legacy executable files into a visual interactive window shell. Such a shell program is described in this work. Its main part is a multi-file manager with an executable file as the main building block and MyFile as the base class of the resulting UML model. The window shell chosen here runs under the Microsoft Windows 9x/NT/2k/XP operating systems, and the program language to implement the designed shell is Visual Basic. The final shell program was tested with different types of executable files for earth satellite orbit determination, tidal acceleration computation and deformation analysis.

  14. Constraints of energy conditions and DK instability criterion on f(R, Lm) gravity models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ya-Bo; Zhao, Yue-Yue; Jin, Yong-Yi; Lin, Liang-Liang; Lu, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Xue

    2014-06-01

    Some properties of f(R, Lm) gravity are studied in this paper. Concretely, the energy conditions and the Dolgov-Kawasaki (DK) instability criterion in f(R, Lm) gravity are obtained, which are quite general and can degenerate to the ones in General Relativity (GR) and pure f(R) gravity with non-coupling and non-minimal coupling as well as in [J. Wang and K. Liao, Class. Quantum Grav. 29, 215016 (2012)] as special cases. Furthermore, in order to get some insight on the meaning of the energy conditions and the DK instability criterion, we apply them to the concrete type of f(R, Lm) gravity models and the corresponding constraints on the models are given.

  15. The Legacy of Beagle 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillinger, Judith; Bridges, John; Sims, Mark; Clemmet, Jim; Wright, Ian

    2015-04-01

    The Beagle 2 lander spun off from the ESA Mars Express spacecraft on 19 December 2003 and headed off towards Isidis Planitia on Mars. The scheduled landing of the 60 kg lander was 6 days later on Christmas morning, 25 December. It is universally known that no signal was received from the lander and its fate remained unknown. What is not questioned is the impact that the mission, and not least its charismatic leaders headed by the late Professor Colin Pillinger, had on the general public of the UK, Europe and worldwide. More than a decade after Beagle 2 was last seen, we review the legacy of the mission on the public perception of the value of space exploration, economically, commercially and cultural, and look forward to an expanding programme. The spin off from Beagle 2 science and technology into terrestrial applications will be addressed as will the ongoing career destinations of many of the original team; both supporting the significance that the mission had on determining the future pathway of space science and exploration in Europe and beyond. The ongoing search for evidence that Beagle 2 did in fact land as planned on Mars will be addressed and images from Mars orbiting spacecraft assessed.

  16. The medical legacy of Gemini.

    PubMed

    Berry, C A

    1968-01-01

    The Mercury and Gemini space flights have provided approximately 2,000 manhours of weightless exposure which can be used in comparing flight results with the predicted effects of manned space flight. In general the environmental hazards and the effects upon man appear to be of less magnitude than originally anticipated. The effects noted on the various body systems are summarized. The principal physiologic changes noted were orthostatism for some 50 hours post-flight, reduced red cell mass, and reduced X-ray density in the os calcis and the small finger. Much was learned about man's ability to work in a pressurized suit in the extravehicular condition. Early biochemical findings have pointed the way to future investigations. All of these findings are of importance in relation to the planning for future long duration missions. Although much remains to be learned, it does appear from an overview of this medical legacy that if man is properly supported and evaluated his limitations will not be a barrier to the exploration of the universe. PMID:11982022

  17. LM2500 plant for PNEM rated 21,500 kW base load

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, R.

    1982-09-01

    The first uprated version of BE's LM2500 generator set will produce an extra 1500 kW (2000 hp) for Provinciale Noordbrabantse Elektricitiets Maatschappij's (PNEM) Helmond power station in the Netherlands. Unlike conventional LM2500s, this natural-gas fueled unit carried a 21,500 kW baseload rating; moreover, it operates at a higher firing temperature, a hotter exhaust, an increased mass flow, and an improved system heat rate. Although the unit is currently slated for simple-cycle operation, PNEM plants to shift its role to combined service through retrofitting an exhaust-heat-recovery steam generator and turbine - perhaps as early as 1984.

  18. Project Management Plan (PMP) for Work Management Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    SHIPLER, C.E.

    2000-01-13

    The purpose of this document is to provide a project plan for Work Management Implementation by the River Protection Project (RPP). Work Management is an information initiative to implement industry best practices by replacing some Tank Farm legacy system

  19. Impact of legacy phosphorus sources on diffuse phosphorus pollution from agriculture: lessons from the Chesapeake Bay watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Legacy phosphorus (P), the accumulation of P in soils and sediments due to past agricultural management activities, represents an emerging challenge to ongoing efforts to mitigate diffuse P pollution from agriculture. Nutrient management programs, already tasked with minimizing the effects of today...

  20. Challenges to Teaching Evaluation of Online Information: A View from LM_NET

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Frances Jacobson

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of postings on the LM_NET discussion list was conducted to better understand school library media specialist (SLMS) perceptions of the potential effect of structural challenges on their role in teaching Web evaluation skills. Structural challenges are institutional in the form of government regulation and school culture, and are…

  1. Numerical Modeling of Permafrost Dynamics Using Modified CoLM with Optimal Parameterization for Snow Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xinling; Zhang, Zhihua; Moore, John

    2014-05-01

    Most land surface models (LSMs) do not perform well in representing permafrost dynamics and snow properties. Due to the complex permafrost distribution characteristics and the differenncesbetween vegetation coverage types and snow-covered land, the LSMs simulations are even worse. In this study, we modified the permafrost scheme in the Common Land Model (CoLM) to improve its capability of simulating permafrost processes and snow density process. We adopted a new frozen soil parameterization scheme, the present version of CoLM includes permafrost layers down to 3.4 meters in ten different thicknesses. Based on literature and temperature gradient measurements, we extended the soil column to 25 soil layers and bottom depth to 15.4 m. Moreover, we revise the original snow cover fraction parameterization of CoLM according to specific snow cover characteristics including the effects of wind compaction on snow density in treeless regions. We have compared and validated the modified model against in situ soil temperatures from 431 Russian observation stations between 1973 and 2006. The modified model produces more accurate surface temperature simulation results. The modified CoLM provides a useful tool for understanding and predicting the fate of permafrost under a warming climate.

  2. Recombination Narratives to Accompany "A-LM French One," First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlin, Dorothy

    Supplementary recombination narratives intended for use with the 1961 edition of the text "A-LM French One" are designed to help students learn to manipulate basic textual materials. The sample narratives correlate with Units 4-14 of the text. The teacher is urged to make use of the overhead projector when using the narratives for the purpose of…

  3. French I Supplementary Reader (For A-LM One, 1961, Units 9-14).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Linda; Booth, Alice

    Supplementary readings intended for use with the 1961 edition of the "A-LM" French 1 course are compiled in this text. They are specifically designed to accompany Units 9-14. It is suggested that the recombination narratives enable students to become more capable of independent reading. (RL)

  4. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF THE LAKE MICHIGAN EUTRIFICATION MODEL, LM3

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lake Michigan Level 3 (LM3), a high-resolution carbon-based eutrophication model, has been developed in support of a larger study designed to determine contaminant levels in Lake Michigan fish predators under present and future conditions. The model can predict lake phytoplankto...

  5. An Abbreviated Version of the 1960 Stanford-Binet, Form L-M

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layton, Frances

    1973-01-01

    Purpose of this study was to test a short version of the Stanford-Binet, Form L-M using a group covering a wide age and ability level in an attempt to reduce the time factor involved in administration of some of the S-B tests, without sacrificing the reported accuracy. (Author/CB)

  6. Evaluation of Teaching the IS-LM Model through a Simulation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pablo-Romero, Maria del Populo; Pozo-Barajas, Rafael; Gomez-Calero, Maria de la Palma

    2012-01-01

    The IS-ML model is a basic tool used in the teaching of short-term macroeconomics. Teaching is essentially done through the use of graphs. However, the way these graphs are traditionally taught does not allow the learner to easily visualise changes in the curves. The IS-LM simulation program overcomes difficulties encountered in understanding the…

  7. Prevalence and levels of Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) in ready-to-eat foods (RTE) at retail.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although significant efforts have been taken to control Lm in Ready-to-eat (RTE)foods over the last decade, a well-designed survey is needed to determine whether changes occur in the “true” prevalence and levels of the pathogen and to provide current data to assess the relative ranking of higher ris...

  8. Comparison of New and Legacy TATBs

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, Mark D.; Willey, Trevor; Mitchell, Alexander; Depiero, Sabrina

    2009-09-02

    Two newly synthesized versions of the insensitive high explosive (IHE) 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) were compared to two legacy explosives currently used by the Department of Energy. Except for thermal analysis, small-scale safety tests could not distinguish between the different synthetic routes. Morphologies of new TATBs were less faceted and more spherical. The particle size distribution of one new material was similar to legacy TATBs, but the other was very fine. Densities and submicron structure of the new TATBs were also significantly different from the legacy explosives and the densities of pressed pellets were lower. Recrystallization of both new TATBs from sulfolane produced nearly hexagonal platelets with improved density and thermal stability.

  9. Comparison of New and Legacy TATBs

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D M; Willey, T M; Mitchell, A R; DePiero, S C

    2007-11-08

    Two newly synthesized versions of the insensitive high explosive (IHE) 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzenes (TATBs) were compared to two legacy explosives currently used by the Department of Energy. Except for thermal analysis, small scale safety tests could not distinguish between the different synthetic routes. Morphologies of new TATBs were less faceted and more spherical. The particle size distribution of one new material was similar to legacy TATBs, but the other was very fine. Densities and submicron structure of the new TATBs were also significantly different from the legacy explosives. Pressed pellets of the new explosives were less dense. Recrystallization from sulfolane improved the density and thermal stability of both new TATBs, though the morphology of the recrystallized TATB was nearly hexagonal platelets.

  10. Catchment Legacies and Trajectories: Hydrologic and Biogeochemical Controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, N. B.; Loukinova, N. V.

    2012-04-01

    decades have accumulated legacy nutrient stores that will sustain stream nitrate concentrations decades after the cessation of fertilizer application. Here, we have used a travel time-based approach to evaluate the hydrologic legacy and a stochastic carbon nitrogen cycling model to evaluate the biogeochemical legacy. Preliminary results indicate a strong dependence of the spatial allocation of the management practice on the benefits realized, both in terms of reductions in concentrations as well as lag times. A random correlation between implementation of management practices and watershed travel times has been found to result in an interesting linear relationship between the concentration reduction and the percent watershed undergoing land use changes, while power function relationships have emerged for cases of positive and negative correlations.

  11. Anti-PD-1 antibody significantly increases therapeutic efficacy of Listeria monocytogenes (Lm)-LLO immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background One of the significant tumor immune escape mechanisms and substantial barrier for successful immunotherapy is tumor-mediated inhibition of immune response through cell-to-cell or receptor/ligand interactions. Programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1) interaction with its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, is one of the important strategies that many tumors employ to escape immune surveillance. Upon PD-Ls binding to PD-1, T cell receptor (TCR) signaling is dampened, causing inhibition of proliferation, decreased cytokine production, anergy and/or apoptosis. Thus PD-Ls expression by tumor cells serves as a protective mechanism, leading to suppression of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in the tumor microenvironment. Lm-LLO immunotherapies have been shown to be therapeutically effective due to their ability to induce potent antigen-specific immune responses. However, it has been demonstrated that infection with Lm leads to up-regulation of PD-L1 on mouse immune cells that can inhibit effector T cells through PD-1/PD-L1 pathway. Methods Therapeutic and immune efficacy of Listeria-based vaccine (Lm-LLO-E7) in combination with anti-PD-1 antibody was tested in E7 antigen expressing TC-1 mouse tumor model. Tumor growth, survival, as well as peripheral and tumor-infiltrating immune cell profiles after immunotherapy were assessed. Results Here we demonstrate that the combination of an Lm-LLO immunotherapy with anti-PD-1 antibody that blocks PD-1/PD-L1 interaction, significantly improves immune and therapeutic efficacy of treatment in TC-1 mouse tumor model. Importantly, we show that in addition to significant reduction of regulatory T cells (Treg) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) in both spleen and tumor microenvironment that are mediated solely by the Lm-LLO immunotherapy, the addition of anti-PD-1 antibody to the treatment results in significant increase of antigen-specific immune responses in periphery and CD8 T cell infiltration into the tumor. As a result, this

  12. The role of alanine 163 in solute permeability of Leishmania major aquaglyceroporin LmAQP1.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Rita; Mandal, Goutam; Atluri, Venkata Subba Rao; Figarella, Katherine; Uzcategui, Nestor L; Zhou, Yao; Beitz, Eric; Ajees, A Abdul; Bhattacharjee, Hiranmoy

    2011-01-01

    Leishmania major aquaglyceroporin LmAQP1 allows adventitious passage of antimonite, an activated form of the drug Pentostam, which is used as the first line treatment for leishmaniasis. The extracellular C-loop of an aquaglyceroporin confers substrate specificity. Alteration of Glu125 to serine in the Plasmodium falciparum aquaglyceroporin PfAQP has been shown to selectively affect water but not glycerol permeability. The C-loop of LmAQP1 is twelve residues longer than PfAQP, and Ala163 is at an equivalent position as Glu125 of PfAQP. The role of Ala163 in LmAQP1 solute permeability was investigated. Alteration of Ala163 to serine or threonine did not significantly affect conduction of solutes. However, alteration to aspartate, glutamate, and glutamine blocked passage of water, glycerol, and other organic solutes. While LmAQP1 is a mercurial insensitive water channel, mutation of the adjacent threonine (Thr164) to cysteine led to inhibition of water passage by Hg(2+). This inhibition could be reversed upon addition of β-mercaptoethanol. These data suggest that, unlike Glu125 (PfAQP), Ala163 is not involved in stabilization of the C-loop and selective solute permeability. Ala163 is located near the pore mouth of the channel, and replacement of Ala163 by bulkier residue sterically hinders the passage of solutes. Alteration of Ala163 to serine or threonine affected metalloid uptake in the order, wild-type>A163S>A163T. Metalloid conduction was near completely blocked when Ala163 was mutagenized to aspartate, glutamate, or glutamine. Mutations such as A163S and A163T that reduced the permeability to antimonite, without a significant loss in water or solute conductivity raises the possibility that, subtle changes in the side chain of the amino acid residue in position 163 of LmAQP1 may play a role in drug resistance. PMID:20888371

  13. Legacy Sediments in U.S. River Environments: Atrazine and Aggradation to Zinc and Zoobenthos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, E.

    2014-12-01

    Legacy sediments are those that are altered by human activities. Alterations include (i) human-caused aggradation (and subsequent erosion), such as sediment accumulating upstream from relict or contemporary dams, (ii) human-caused lack of continuing deposition that results in changing moisture and nutrient levels within existing sediments, such as on floodplains that no longer receive lateral or vertical accretion deposits because of levees, bank stabilization, and other channel engineering, and (iii) human-generated contaminants such as PCBs and pesticides that adsorb to fine sediment. Existing estimates of human alterations of river systems suggest that legacy sediments are ubiquitous. Only an estimated 2% of river miles in the United States are not affected by flow regulation that alters sediment transport, for example, and less than half of major river basins around the world are minimally altered by flow regulation. Combined with extensive but poorly documented reduction in floodplain sedimentation, as well as sediment contamination by diverse synthetic compounds, excess nutrients, and heavy metals, these national and global estimates suggest that legacy sediments now likely constitute a very abundant type of fluvial sediment. Because legacy sediments can alter river form and function for decades to centuries after the cessation of the human activity that created the legacy sediments, river management and restoration must be informed by accurate knowledge of the distribution and characteristics of legacy sediments. Geomorphologists can contribute understanding of sediment dynamics, including: the magnitude, frequency, and duration of flows that mobilize sediments with adsorbed contaminants; sites where erosion and deposition are most likely to occur under specified flow and sediment supply; residence time of sediments; and the influence of surface and subsurface water fluxes on sediment stability and geochemistry.

  14. HIGH RESOLUTION MODELLING OF PCB CONGENERS IN LAKE MICHIGAN USING THE LAKE MICHIGAN (LM3) CONTAMINANT MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Lake Michigan Level 3 (LM3) Model is a numerical model of Lake Michigan used to predict the fate and transport of 54 PCB congeners. The LM3 model segments Lake Michigan horizontally with a 5 x 5 km grid and vertically with 19 sigma layers for a total of 44,042 water column se...

  15. The IS-LM Model: Is There a Connection between Slopes and the Effectiveness of Fiscal and Monetary Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlay, David W.

    1999-01-01

    Offers instructors a presentation of the IS (investment saving)-LM (liquidity preference-money supply) model, suggesting that a number of benefits emerge if the instructor focuses on what determines the size of both the horizontal and vertical distances between the IS curves and between the LM curves. (CMK)

  16. Identification and mapping stripe rust resistance gene YrLM168a using extreme individuals and recessive phenotype class in a complicate genetic background.

    PubMed

    Feng, Junyan; Chen, Guoyue; Wei, Yuming; Liu, Yaxi; Jiang, Qiantao; Li, Wei; Pu, Zhien; Lan, Xiujin; Dai, Shoufen; Zhang, Min; Zheng, Youliang

    2015-12-01

    The identification and characterization of resistance genes effective against stripe rust of wheat is beneficial for modern wheat breeding programs. Molecular markers to such genes facilitate their deployment. The variety Milan has resistance that is effective against the predominant stripe rust races in the Sichuan region. Two resistant and two susceptible F8 lines from a cross between Milan and the susceptible variety Chuannong 16 were used to investigate inheritance of the Milan resistance. Three F2 populations were developed from crosses between the resistant lines and their susceptible sibling lines (LM168a × LM168c, LM168c × LM168a, LM168b × LM168d) and used for genetic analysis and molecular mapping of the genes for resistance. The stripe rust resistance in LM168a and LM168b was conferred by a single dominant gene, temporarily designated as YrLM168a. Forty-five extreme susceptible plants from the F2 families of LM168d × LM168b were genotyped with 836 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to map YrLM168a. YrLM168a was mapped in chromosome 6BL. The nearest flanking markers Xwmc756 and Xbarc146 were 4.6 and 4.6 cM away from the gene at both sides, respectively. The amplification results of twenty extreme resistant (IT 0) and susceptible (IT 4) F2 plants of LM168c × LM168a and LM168a × LM168c with marker Xwmc756 further validated the mapping results. The study suggested that extreme individuals and recessive phenotype class can be successfully used for mapping genes, which should be efficient and reliable. In addition, the flanking markers near YrLM168a should be helpful in marker-assisted breeding. PMID:26113523

  17. Scientific Data as the Core Legacy of IPY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, M. A.

    2008-12-01

    The interdisciplinary breadth of the International Polar Year is unprecedented. The IPY has explicit objectives to link researchers across different fields to address questions and issues lying beyond the scope of individual disciplines and to strengthen international coordination of research and enhance international collaboration and cooperation. The IPY Data Policy and Management Subcommittee have developed a policy to help meet these objectives and an international collaboration of investigators and data managers, the IPY Data and Information Service, are working to make IPY data widely available. I will present an overview of the primary data management considerations for IPY and how diverse organizations are making IPY and related data available. Centralized discovery mechanisms for widely distributed data plus targeted access mechanisms for specific disciplines will be presented. These range from near real time access to satellite remote sensing data and GCM output to fair and appropriate access to traditional knowledge of the Arctic. These mechanisms reflect significant advancement in polar data management, but they belie the major challenges that remain. These challenges include fostering a culture change in science that puts greater value on data publication and open data access as well as developing sustained systems and business models for the long-term preservation of IPY data. This will be crucial to ensuring the legacy of IPY, a major objective of IPY sponsors, ICSU and WMO. New efforts to ensure this legacy include the development of the WMO Information System, the Sustained Arctic Observing Network, and the Global Earth Observing System of Systems; the reform of ICSU's World Data Center System; and the results of the Electronic Geophysical Year.

  18. Controlling Beryllium Contaminated Material And Equipment For The Building 9201-5 Legacy Material Disposition Project

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, T. D.; Easterling, S. D.

    2010-10-01

    This position paper addresses the management of beryllium contamination on legacy waste. The goal of the beryllium management program is to protect human health and the environment by preventing the release of beryllium through controlling surface contamination. Studies have shown by controlling beryllium surface contamination, potential airborne contamination is reduced or eliminated. Although there are areas in Building 9201-5 that are contaminated with radioactive materials and mercury, only beryllium contamination is addressed in this management plan. The overall goal of this initiative is the compliant packaging and disposal of beryllium waste from the 9201-5 Legacy Material Removal (LMR) Project to ensure that beryllium surface contamination and any potential airborne release of beryllium is controlled to levels as low as practicable in accordance with 10 CFR 850.25.

  19. George Peabody's (1795-1869) Educational Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Franklin; Parker, Betty J.

    During his career, George Peabody financially supported educational endeavors and went beyond the accumulation of money to leave for one's children. His support began in the mid-1800s and his educational legacy remains. He established: (1) a $2 million Peabody Education Fund to promote public schools and teacher training in 12 civil war devastated…

  20. Christian Social Justice Advocate: Contradiction or Legacy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Cher N.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the relationship between Christian religiosity and the principles of social justice is explored, including the sociopolitical aspects of faith and advocacy. A particular emphasis is placed on the historical legacy and theological relationships between Christianity and social justice. The author concludes with a call for…

  1. Values of Free Government: Our Bicentennial Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, John J.

    1987-01-01

    States that the Founders' legacy is our well-modeled government which is limited by law to protect the life, liberty, and property of individuals. Reviews some of the Founding Fathers' thoughts regarding the proper role and structure of our government. Advocates improved citizenship education and introduces the theme articles in this issue. (JDH)

  2. Fundamental Considerations for Biobank Legacy Planning.

    PubMed

    Matzke, Lise Anne Marie; Fombonne, Benjamin; Watson, Peter Hamilton; Moore, Helen Marie

    2016-04-01

    Biobanking in its various forms is an activity involving the collection of biospecimens and associated data and their storage for differing lengths of time before use. In some cases, biospecimens are immediately used, but in others, they are stored typically for the term of a specified project or in perpetuity until the materials are used up or declared to be of little scientific value. Legacy planning involves preparing for the phase that follows either biobank closure or a significant change at an operational level. In the case of a classical finite collection, this may be brought about by the completion of the initial scientific goals of a project, a loss of funding, or loss of or change in leadership. Ultimately, this may require making a decision about when and where to transfer materials or whether to destroy them. Because biobanking in its entirety is a complex endeavour, legacy planning touches on biobank operations as well as ethical, legal, financial, and governance parameters. Given the expense and time that goes into setting up and maintaining biobanks, coupled with the ethical imperative to appropriately utilize precious resources donated to research, legacy planning is an activity that every biobanking entity should think about. This article describes some of the fundamental considerations for preparing and executing a legacy plan, and we envisage that this article will facilitate dialogue to help inform best practices and policy development in the future. PMID:26890981

  3. Legacy: Challenging Lessons in Civics and Citizenship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Julia P., Ed.

    This is a collection of lesson plans on civic education designed for all levels of gifted students and written by teachers from across the U.S. The 25 teachers submitting lessons to the compilation are a part of the LEGACY (Linking Educators and the Gifted with Attorneys for Civics: Yes!) project. The lessons involve students in the study of the…

  4. The Next Generation: Our Legacy, Their Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, B. Ann

    2008-01-01

    In this "Seventeenth Delphine Hanna Commemorative Lecture," Boyce draws on the legacy of Delphine Hanna's work in science-based curriculum to address the need for today's educators to balance both professional mission and disciplinary knowledge. In the mid 1960s, Franklin Henry proposed the notion that the foundation of physical…

  5. The Armenian Genocide: Context and Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adalian, Rouben

    1991-01-01

    Traces the Armenian experience between 1915 and 1918 when the Muslim Turks carried out a policy to eliminate the Christian-Armenian minority. Focuses on the distinction between massacres and genocide; the use of technology in facilitating mass murder; and the legacy of genocide. Includes maps and photographs. (NL)

  6. Burns B. Crookston: Life and Legacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fried, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Burns B. Crookston was a man ahead of his times. He left a legacy to the student affairs profession that inspired the practice of student development education. His writings described a role for higher education in training students to become active citizens by learning about leadership, decision making, and conflict resolution in democratic…

  7. The Legacy of 1789: Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkaldy, James

    1990-01-01

    Honoring the French Revolution's bicentennial, examines its legacy for modern France. Contends that 1789's imprint appears in France's centralized bureaucracy, strong political divisions (conservative-liberal-socialist), church-state separation, and tendency for government to argue ends justify means. Maintains the Revolution also spawned…

  8. Hannelore Wass: Professional Influences and Legacies.

    PubMed

    Corr, Charles A

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a reflection on the professional influence of Dr. Hannelore Wass on the author's introduction to and work in the field of death, dying, and bereavement. At the same time, it also offers comments on her broader influence on and legacies left to others who work in this field. PMID:26207791

  9. LM-research opportunities and activities at the Latvian Academy of Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Lielausis, O.

    1996-06-01

    In this presentation selected examples will be considered characterizing the breadth of their interests in LM applications. So, InGaSn eutectic was used as a modeling liquid for investigation of MHD effects typical to some LM-blanket configurations. LM coatings proposed for the protection of divertor plates were considered too. Experiments were performed on a superconducting magnet providing a 5.6 T magnetic field in a 30 liters bore. In a large vacuum chamber (12 m{sup 3}; 6.65 10{sup {minus}4} Pa) lithium cooling system for high temperature reactors was examined. Electromagnetic pumps and flowmeters able to work at lithium temperatures up to 960{degrees}C were tested. A Na loop, where two mounted in line electromagnetic pumps are delivering a 25 atm. pressure. The main Na loop equipped with em. pumps is based on a d=10 cm tubing. LM devices were installed in the Latvian 500 MW nuclear research reactor IRT-5000 too. First, a equipped with conductive e.m. pumps loop, where InGaSn serves as a {gamma}-carrier from activity generator (placed close to the core) to two outer 20 Mrad/h irradiators. Second, a LM system for rector control, where contained in InGaSn indium is used for neutron absorption and reactivity control. A closed cylindrical LM container was installed in the core instead of a traditional control rod. The container is divided in two chambers by means of elastic membranes. The one chamber contains InGaSn, the second GaSn (without In). By means of e.m. pumps the proportion between InGaSn and GaSn in the active zone can be changed ensuring a possibility to control the amount of introduced in the core absorbing material. Long term tests of the system were performed on a zero-power assembly. But for a shorter time the system was inserted in the core of the acting main reactor too and the efficiency of the control was confirmed.

  10. The Mayall z-band Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, David R.; Blum, Robert D.; Allen, Lori; Dey, Arjun; Schlegel, David J.; Lang, Dustin; Moustakas, John; Meisner, Aaron M.; Valdes, Francisco; Patej, Anna; Myers, Adam D.; Sprayberry, David; Saha, Abi; Olsen, Knut A.; Safonova, Sasha; Yang, Qian; Burleigh, Kaylan J.; MzLS Team

    2016-06-01

    The Mayall z-band Legacy Survey (MzLS) is conducting a deep z-band imaging survey covering 5000 square degrees in the north Galactic cap as part of the Legacy Survey, which is associated with the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) redshift survey. The Legacy Survey covers 14000 square degrees in the g, r, and z bands and is being executed on the Blanco 4-m, Mayall 4-m, and Bok 2.3-m telescopes. The MzLS footprint will be observed in the g and r bands using the Bok 2.3-m telescope also on Kitt Peak. The Beijing Arizona Sky Survey (BASS) is being conducted by a parallel team from Beijing and the University of Arizona. MzLS will cover the sky north of declination 30 degrees and reach a depth of z=23.0. The survey began in January 2016 and will run through June 2017 comprising approximately 230 nights on the Mayall telescope. The data are being obtained with an upgraded Mosaic camera that deploys with newred-sensitive CCDs from Lawrence Berkeley Lab (LBL) whose throughput is in excess of 80% at 8000 to approximately 9800 Angstrom. The upgrade project was a collaboration of Yale, LBL, and NOAO. MzLS images are public as soon as they are taken and delivered to the NOAO archive. Catalogs based on Tractor photometry for all available Legacy Survey images are released soon after they are constructed and MzLS sources will be included in next release planned for summer 2016. The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) will observe 30+ million galaxies and quasars in a 14,000 square degree extragalactic footprint. The targeting in that footprint will be provided by a combination of these MzLS data, DECam data from the DECam Legacy Survey, and data from the BASS survey.

  11. Sustainable legacies for the 2012 Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Shipway, Richard

    2007-05-01

    The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games have the unique potential to deliver sustainable sporting, social, cultural, economic and environmental legacies, not just for London as the host city, but for the whole of Britain. This article focuses primarily on the first three of these potential Olympics legacies. The first area explored is the social legacy as it impacts on host communities; second, the potential educational and cultural legacy of the 2012 Games are examined; and finally, there follows an overview of the health benefits that could result from a sustained increase in mass participation in sport, physical activity and exercise. This appraisal is undertaken through a review of existing Olympic literature and examples are drawn from previous summer and winter Games. This preliminary exploration is followed by the identification of some key challenges to be overcome if the opportunities available to a wide and diverse range of stakeholders are to be fully optimized. The article suggests that the 2012 Games can act as a catalyst for sports development throughout Britain, while also assisting with government cross-cutting agendas such as tackling crime, antisocial behaviour, developing healthy and active communities, improving educational attainment, and combating barriers to participation. In doing so, this article argues that priority should be placed at supporting grassroots sport through greater access to sport in the community, and not solely elite level sports development. The article concludes by suggesting that the 2012 Games provide opportunities to deliver real and tangible changes and most importantly, to afford a higher priority to sport, along with the obvious associated health benefits for Britain as a whole. The underlying challenge as we move towards 2012 is to achieve a positive step change in the attitudes towards sport and physical activity in British society. Achieving this would possibly be the greatest legacy of the 2012 Olympic and

  12. ISOACCEPTING TRANSFER RNA'S OF L-M CELLS IN CULTURE AND AFTER TUMOR INDUCTION IN C3H MICE*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wen-Kuang; Hellman, A.; Martin, D. H.; Hellman, K. B.; Novelli, G. David

    1969-01-01

    Co-chromatography in a reversed-phase column was performed for 16 aminoacyl-tRNA's prepared from L-M cells grown in serum-free suspension culture and from tumors induced in irradiated C3H mice by subcutaneous injection of L-M cells. The results showed that between the two sources there were (1) marked differences in aspartyl-, histidyl-, phenylalanyl-, and tyrosyl-tRNA's; (2) significant quantitative differences in isoaccepting species of alanyl-, isoleucyl-, seryl-, and threonyl-tRNA's; and (3) similar to minimally different patterns of arginyl-, methionyl-, prolyl-, tryptophanyl-, valyl-, glycyl-, leucyl-, and lysyl-tRNA's. The differences were evident when synthetases prepared either from L-M cells or from the tumors were used. When the L-M tumors were brought back into in vitro culture, their tRNA patterns were like those of L-M cells. Addition of serum to the culture medium caused the L-M cells to show very minute, but detectable, amounts of the isoaccepting tRNA's found in the tumors. The cellular mechanisms which may be related to the changes of tRNA patterns in the L-M cells are discussed. PMID:5271761

  13. Overview of the Government of Canada Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program - 13551

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalfe, D.; McCauley, D.; Miller, J.; Brooks, S.

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear legacy liabilities have resulted from more than 60 years of nuclear research and development carried out on behalf of Canada. The liabilities are located at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL) Chalk River Laboratories in Ontario and Whiteshell Laboratories in Manitoba, as well as three shutdown prototype reactors in Ontario and Quebec that are being maintained in a safe storage state. Estimated at about $7.4 billion (current day dollars), these liabilities consist of disused nuclear facilities and associated infrastructure, a wide variety of buried and stored waste, and contaminated lands. In 2006, the Government of Canada adopted a long-term strategy to deal with the nuclear legacy liabilities and initiated a five-year, $520 million start-up phase, thereby creating the Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program (NLLP). The Government of Canada renewed the NLLP in 2011 with a $439-million three-year second phase that ends March 31, 2014. The projects and activities carried out under the Program focus on infrastructure decommissioning, environmental restoration, improving the management of legacy radioactive waste, and advancing the long-term strategy. The NLLP is being implemented through a Memorandum of Understanding between Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) and AECL whereby NRCan is responsible for policy direction and oversight, including control of funding, and AECL is responsible for implementing the program of work and holding and administering all licences, facilities and lands. (authors)

  14. Quantitative Proteogenomics and the Reconstruction of the Metabolic Pathway in Lactobacillus mucosae LM1.

    PubMed

    Pajarillo, Edward Alain B; Kim, Sang Hoon; Lee, Ji-Yoon; Valeriano, Valerie Diane V; Kang, Dae-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus mucosae is a natural resident of the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals and a potential probiotic bacterium. To understand the global protein expression profile and metabolic features of L. mucosae LM1 in the early stationary phase, the QExactive(TM) Hybrid Quadrupole-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer was used. Characterization of the intracellular proteome identified 842 proteins, accounting for approximately 35% of the 2,404 protein-coding sequences in the complete genome of L. mucosae LM1. Proteome quantification using QExactive(TM) Orbitrap MS detected 19 highly abundant proteins (> 1.0% of the intracellular proteome), including CysK (cysteine synthase, 5.41%) and EF-Tu (elongation factor Tu, 4.91%), which are involved in cell survival against environmental stresses. Metabolic pathway annotation of LM1 proteome using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database showed that half of the proteins expressed are important for basic metabolic and biosynthetic processes, and the other half might be structurally important or involved in basic cellular processes. In addition, glycogen biosynthesis was activated in the early stationary phase, which is important for energy storage and maintenance. The proteogenomic data presented in this study provide a suitable reference to understand the protein expression pattern of lactobacilli in standard conditions. PMID:26761899

  15. Asymmetrically acting lycopene beta-cyclases (CrtLm) from non-photosynthetic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Tao, L; Picataggio, S; Rouvière, P E; Cheng, Q

    2004-03-01

    Carotenoids have important functions in photosynthesis, nutrition, and protection against oxidative damage. Some natural carotenoids are asymmetrical molecules that are difficult to produce chemically. Biological production of carotenoids using specific enzymes is a potential alternative to extraction from natural sources. Here we report the isolation of lycopene beta-cyclases that selectively cyclize only one end of lycopene or neurosporene. The crtLm genes encoding the asymmetrically acting lycopene beta-cyclases were isolated from non-photosynthetic bacteria that produced monocyclic carotenoids. Co-expression of these crtLm genes with the crtEIB genes from Pantoea stewartii (responsible for lycopene synthesis) resulted in the production of monocyclic gamma-carotene in Escherichia coli. The asymmetric cyclization activity of CrtLm could be inhibited by the lycopene beta-cyclase inhibitor 2-(4-chlorophenylthio)-triethylamine (CPTA). Phylogenetic analysis suggested that bacterial CrtL-type lycopene beta-cyclases might represent an evolutionary link between the common bacterial CrtY-type of lycopene beta-cyclases and plant lycopene beta- and epsilon-cyclases. These lycopene beta-cyclases may be used for efficient production of high-value asymmetrically cyclized carotenoids. PMID:14740205

  16. Performance comparison of plasma spray and physical vapor deposition BC23 coatings in the LM2500

    SciTech Connect

    Wortman, D.J.

    1985-11-01

    Operation of US Navy Component Improvement Program LM2500 engines on the GTS Callaghan has provided an at-sea test bed for evaluation of hot corrosion on gas turbine engine components. In a presentation at a previous International Conference on Metallurgical Coatings, (ICMC), comparison of several coatings applied by physical vapor deposition (PVD) techniques were compared after LM2500 service. A three-step coating BC23 consisting of PVD CoCrAl followed by codeposition of hafnium and aluminum and an electroplated platinum layer was identified as the most corrosion-resistant coating of several PVD coatings tested. In this paper, a plasma sprayed version of BC23 is compared to the three-step BC23 coating on LM2500 Stage 2 HPT blades from the GTS Callaghan. The plasma sprayed coating PBC23 was produced by an argon-shrouded plasma spray process using prealloyed CoCrAlHfPt powder. The results showed that in this application, where low temperature hot corrosion (type 2) is the predominant mode of corrosion, the plasma sprayed coatings had less attack. These results are compared to laboratory hot corrosion tests and microprobe analysis to explain the improved corrosion resistance of PBC23.

  17. Quantitative Proteogenomics and the Reconstruction of the Metabolic Pathway in Lactobacillus mucosae LM1

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus mucosae is a natural resident of the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals and a potential probiotic bacterium. To understand the global protein expression profile and metabolic features of L. mucosae LM1 in the early stationary phase, the QExactiveTM Hybrid Quadrupole-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer was used. Characterization of the intracellular proteome identified 842 proteins, accounting for approximately 35% of the 2,404 protein-coding sequences in the complete genome of L. mucosae LM1. Proteome quantification using QExactiveTM Orbitrap MS detected 19 highly abundant proteins (> 1.0% of the intracellular proteome), including CysK (cysteine synthase, 5.41%) and EF-Tu (elongation factor Tu, 4.91%), which are involved in cell survival against environmental stresses. Metabolic pathway annotation of LM1 proteome using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database showed that half of the proteins expressed are important for basic metabolic and biosynthetic processes, and the other half might be structurally important or involved in basic cellular processes. In addition, glycogen biosynthesis was activated in the early stationary phase, which is important for energy storage and maintenance. The proteogenomic data presented in this study provide a suitable reference to understand the protein expression pattern of lactobacilli in standard conditions. PMID:26761899

  18. Software Safety Risk in Legacy Safety-Critical Computer Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Janice L.; Baggs, Rhoda

    2007-01-01

    Safety Standards contain technical and process-oriented safety requirements. Technical requirements are those such as "must work" and "must not work" functions in the system. Process-Oriented requirements are software engineering and safety management process requirements. Address the system perspective and some cover just software in the system > NASA-STD-8719.13B Software Safety Standard is the current standard of interest. NASA programs/projects will have their own set of safety requirements derived from the standard. Safety Cases: a) Documented demonstration that a system complies with the specified safety requirements. b) Evidence is gathered on the integrity of the system and put forward as an argued case. [Gardener (ed.)] c) Problems occur when trying to meet safety standards, and thus make retrospective safety cases, in legacy safety-critical computer systems.

  19. Migration of legacy mumps applications to relational database servers.

    PubMed

    O'Kane, K C

    2001-07-01

    An extended implementation of the Mumps language is described that facilitates vendor neutral migration of legacy Mumps applications to SQL-based relational database servers. Implemented as a compiler, this system translates Mumps programs to operating system independent, standard C code for subsequent compilation to fully stand-alone, binary executables. Added built-in functions and support modules extend the native hierarchical Mumps database with access to industry standard, networked, relational database management servers (RDBMS) thus freeing Mumps applications from dependence upon vendor specific, proprietary, unstandardized database models. Unlike Mumps systems that have added captive, proprietary RDMBS access, the programs generated by this development environment can be used with any RDBMS system that supports common network access protocols. Additional features include a built-in web server interface and the ability to interoperate directly with programs and functions written in other languages. PMID:11501636

  20. Apartheid's Legacy to Black Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Jerome T.

    1992-01-01

    Segregated and unequal education, the main instrument for sorting children into their color-coded societal niches, is deeply embedded in South Africa. Despite obstacles such as inadequate funding, a tough, Eurocentric curriculum, and a bewildering school management bureaucracy nearing collapse, South Africa's general prosperity and political…

  1. Improving Lab Sample Management - POS/MCEARD

    EPA Science Inventory

    "Scientists face increasing challenges in managing their laboratory samples, including long-term storage of legacy samples, tracking multiple aliquots of samples for many experiments, and linking metadata to these samples. Other factors complicating sample management include the...

  2. Managing Records for the Long Term - 12363

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, John V.; Gueretta, Jeanie

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing vast amounts of information documenting historical and current operations. This information is critical to the operations of the DOE Office of Legacy Management. Managing legacy records and information is challenging in terms of accessibility and changing technology. The Office of Legacy Management is meeting these challenges by making records and information management an organizational priority. The Office of Legacy Management mission is to manage DOE post-closure responsibilities at former Cold War weapons sites to ensure the future protection of human health and the environment. These responsibilities include environmental stewardship and long-term preservation and management of operational and environmental cleanup records associated with each site. A primary organizational goal for the Office of Legacy Management is to 'Preserve, Protect, and Share Records and Information'. Managing records for long-term preservation is an important responsibility. Adequate and dedicated resources and management support are required to perform this responsibility successfully. Records tell the story of an organization and may be required to defend an organization in court, provide historical information, identify lessons learned, or provide valuable information for researchers. Loss of records or the inability to retrieve records because of poor records management processes can have serious consequences and even lead to an organisation's downfall. Organizations must invest time and resources to establish a good records management program because of its significance to the organization as a whole. The Office of Legacy Management will continue to research and apply innovative ways of doing business to ensure that the organization stays at the forefront of effective records and information management. DOE is committed to preserving records that document our nation's Cold War legacy, and the Office of Legacy

  3. Nightingale in Scutari: her legacy reexamined.

    PubMed

    Gill, Christopher J; Gill, Gillian C

    2005-06-15

    Nearly a century after the death of Florence Nightingale (1820-1910), historians continue to debate her legacy. We discuss her seminal work during the Crimean War (1854-1856), the nature of these interventions during the war, and her continued impact today. We argue that Florence Nightingale's influence today extends beyond her undeniable impact on the field of modern nursing to the areas of infection control, hospital epidemiology, and hospice care. PMID:15909269

  4. A mercury transport and fate model (LM2-mercury) for mass budget assessment of mercury cycling in Lake Michigan

    EPA Science Inventory

    LM2-Mercury, a mercury mass balance model, was developed to simulate and evaluate the transport, fate, and biogeochemical transformations of mercury in Lake Michigan. The model simulates total suspended solids (TSS), disolved organic carbon (DOC), and total, elemental, divalent, ...

  5. Biotransformation of copper from Kupferschiefer black shale (Fore-Sudetic Monocline, Poland) by yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa LM9.

    PubMed

    Rajpert, Liwia; Skłodowska, Aleksandra; Matlakowska, Renata

    2013-05-01

    This study describes the yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa strain LM9 isolated from copper-bearing, organic-rich Kupferschiefer black shale and its role in copper biotransformation. Strain LM9 exhibited great ability to simultaneously mobilize and immobilize copper from this sedimentary rock. In addition, it showed considerable resistance to copper and high uptake of this metal. Moreover, malic and oxalic acid as well as siderophore (rhodotorulic acid) produced by this strain enhanced its resistance by promoting the mobilization and complexation of copper from black shale. These processes, characterized here under laboratory conditions, are assumed to play a role in copper cycling in black shale as well as in the adaptation of strain LM9 to the conditions prevailing in its natural mine habitat. The findings of this study indicate that yeast strain LM9 might be used for the recovery of copper particularly from alkaline or slightly neutral ores in a non-chemical environmentally-friendly procedure. PMID:23490182

  6. Disturbance legacies increase the resilience of forest ecosystem structure, composition, and functioning

    PubMed Central

    Seidl, Rupert; Rammer, Werner; Spies, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    , demonstrating that an increase in disturbance frequency (a potential climate change effect) may considerably alter the structure, composition, and functioning of forest landscapes. Our results indicate that live tree legacies are an important component of disturbance resilience, underlining the potential of retention forestry to address challenges in ecosystem management. PMID:27053913

  7. Mining the Spitzer Legacy Science Data Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrett, T. H.; Storrie-Lombardi, L.; Squires, G.; Alexov, A.

    2005-12-01

    The original Spitzer Legacy Science Program is now approaching completion with the basic observations archived and the `enhanced' data products populating dedicated Spitzer and IRSA archives. To date the Legacy teams of C2D, FEPS, GLIMPSE, GOODS, SINGS and SWIRE have delivered more than half of the total planned `enhanced' data products to the public archives. The archives include fully reduced and calibrated imaging, spectra, and tabular data derived from the Spitzer IRAC, MIPS and IRS observations, as well as ancillary ground-based imaging and spectroscopy. Science results are now flowing from the Legacy teams, addressing the fundamental questions that the Spitzer observations where designed and optimized to answer. However, the data archives are mostly untapped in their science potential, offering a rich resource for astronomical data mining. We describe the archives in detail, spanning their structure, content and accessibility. User friendly resources for mining the data are showcased, including the Spitzer Science Center archive tool Leopard and the Infrared Science Archive services Atlas and RADAR.

  8. High-Performance Green OLEDs Using Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence with a Power Efficiency of over 100 lm W(-1).

    PubMed

    Seino, Yuki; Inomata, Susumu; Sasabe, Hisahiro; Pu, Yong-Jin; Kido, Junji

    2016-04-01

    A green organic light-emitting device (OLED) with an extremely high power efficiency of over 100 lm W(-1) is realized through energy transfer from an exciplex. An optimized OLED showed a maximum external efficiency of 25.7%, and a power efficiency of 79.4 lm W(-1) at 1000 cd m(-2) , which is 1.6-times higher than that of state-of-the-art green thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) OLEDs. PMID:26833580

  9. Characterization of antimicrobial lipopeptides produced by Bacillus sp. LM7 isolated from chungkookjang, a Korean traditional fermented soybean food.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-Hwa; Lee, Jiyeon; Nam, Young-Do; Lee, Jong Suk; Seo, Myung-Ji; Yi, Sung-Hun

    2016-03-16

    A wild-type microorganism exhibiting antimicrobial activities was isolated from the Korean traditional fermented soybean food Chungkookjang and identified as Bacillus sp. LM7. During its stationary growth phase, the microorganism secreted an antimicrobial substance, which we partially purified using a simple two-step procedure involving ammonium sulfate precipitation and heat treatment. The partially purified antimicrobial substance, Anti-LM7, was stable over a broad pH range (4.0-9.0) and at temperatures up to 80 °C for 30 min, and was resistant to most proteolytic enzymes and maintained its activity in 30% (v/v) organic solvents. Anti-LM7 inhibited the growth of a broad range of Gram-positive bacteria, including Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes, but it did not inhibit lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactococcus lactis subsp. Lactis. Moreover, unlike commercially available nisin and polymyxin B, Anti-LM7 inhibited certain fungal strains. Lastly, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of Anti-LM7 revealed that it contained eight lipopeptides belonging to two families: four bacillomycin D and four surfactin analogs. These Bacillus sp. LM7-produced heterogeneous lipopeptides exhibiting extremely high stability and a broad antimicrobial spectrum are likely to be closely related to the antimicrobial activity of Chungkookjang, and their identification presents an opportunity for application of the peptides in environmental bioremediation, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries. PMID:26803269

  10. Repackaging Rocky Flats Legacy Transuranic Waste

    SciTech Connect

    McTaggart, Jerri Lynne

    2008-01-15

    Repackaging legacy Transuranic (TRU), Transuranic Mixed (TRM), Low Level Waste (LLW), and Low Level Mixed (LLM) waste requires good characterization skills and the ability to adapt to less than ideal conditions. Repackaging legacy waste in a facility that is not undergoing Decontamination and Decommission (D and D) is optimum. However, repackaging any waste in a D and D facility, under cold and dark conditions, can be difficult. Cold and dark conditions are when the heating and air conditioning are no longer in service and the lighting consists of strands of lights hung throughout each of the rooms. Working under these conditions adds an additional level of stress and danger that must be addressed. The use of glovebags was very useful at Rocky Flats during the D and D of many buildings. Glovebags can be adapted for many different types of wastes and unusual conditions. Repackaging of legacy TRU waste, in a D and D facility, can be accomplished safely and cost effectively with the use of glovebags. In conclusion: the use of glovebags to repackage legacy TRU, TRM, LLW, or LLM waste was done safely and cost effectively at Rocky Flats. The cost of using glovebags was minimal. Glovebags are easily adaptable to whatever the waste configuration is. The use of glovebags, for repackaging of Legacy waste, allows D and D efforts to stay on schedule and on task. Without the use of glovebags, additional gloveboxes would have been required at Rocky Flats. Larger items, such as the HEPA filters, would have required the construction of a new large item repackaging glovebox. Repackaging in glovebags allows the freedom to either locate the glovebag by the waste or locate the glovebag in a place that least impacts D and D efforts. The use of glovebags allowed numerous configurations of waste to be repackaged without the use of gloveboxes. During the D and D of the Rocky Flats facility, which was in a cold and dark stage, D and D work was not impacted by the repackaging activity

  11. Ultrafast Electron Transfer Kinetics in the LM Dimer of Bacterial Photosynthetic Reaction Center from Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chang; Carey, Anne-Marie; Gao, Bing-Rong; Wraight, Colin A; Woodbury, Neal W; Lin, Su

    2016-06-23

    It has become increasingly clear that dynamics plays a major role in the function of many protein systems. One system that has proven particularly facile for studying the effects of dynamics on protein-mediated chemistry is the bacterial photosynthetic reaction center from Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Previous experimental and computational analysis have suggested that the dynamics of the protein matrix surrounding the primary quinone acceptor, QA, may be particularly important in electron transfer involving this cofactor. One can substantially increase the flexibility of this region by removing one of the reaction center subunits, the H-subunit. Even with this large change in structure, photoinduced electron transfer to the quinone still takes place. To evaluate the effect of H-subunit removal on electron transfer to QA, we have compared the kinetics of electron transfer and associated spectral evolution for the LM dimer with that of the intact reaction center complex on picosecond to millisecond time scales. The transient absorption spectra associated with all measured electron transfer reactions are similar, with the exception of a broadening in the QX transition and a blue-shift in the QY transition bands of the special pair of bacteriochlorophylls (P) in the LM dimer. The kinetics of the electron transfer reactions not involving quinones are unaffected. There is, however, a 4-fold decrease in the electron transfer rate from the reduced bacteriopheophytin to QA in the LM dimer compared to the intact reaction center and a similar decrease in the recombination rate of the resulting charge-separated state (P(+)QA(-)). These results are consistent with the concept that the removal of the H-subunit results in increased flexibility in the region around the quinone and an associated shift in the reorganization energy associated with charge separation and recombination. PMID:27243380

  12. Ancient legacy of cranial surgery.

    PubMed

    Ghannaee Arani, Mohammad; Fakharian, Esmaeil; Sarbandi, Fahimeh

    2012-01-01

    Cranial injury, as it is known today, is not a new concern of modern medicine. On stepping on the earth, the man was in reality encountered with various types of injuries, particularly those of a cranial nature. Leading a life, whether wild or civilized, has always been associated with injuries for human race from the very beginning of birth. Therefore, managing cases of this type has gradually forced him to establish and fix strategies and approaches to handle the dilemma. This study is thus focused on tracing the first documented traumatized cranial cases ever reported, ranging from those trials attributed to our ancient predecessors to the identical examples in the present time. PMID:24396747

  13. Russian Experience in the Regulatory Supervision of the Uranium Legacy Sites - 12441

    SciTech Connect

    Kiselev, M.F.; Romanov, V.V.; Shandala, N.K.; Titov, A.V.; Kiselev, S.M.; Seregin, V.A.; Metlyaev, E.G.; Novikova, N.; Khokhlova, E.A.

    2012-07-01

    Management of the uranium legacy is accompanied with environmental impact intensity of which depends on the amount of the waste generated, the extent of that waste localization and environmental spreading. The question is: how hazardous is such impact on the environment and human health? The criterion for safety assurance is adequate regulation of the uranium legacy. Since the establishment of the uranium industry, the well done regulatory system operates in the FMBA of Russia. Such system covers inter alia, the uranium legacy. This system includes the extent laboratory network of independent control and supervision, scientific researches, regulative practices. The current Russian normative and legal basis of the regulation and its application practice has a number of problems relating to the uranium legacy, connected firstly with the environmental remediation. To improve the regulatory system, the urgent tasks are: -To introduce the existing exposure situation into the national laws and standards in compliance with the ICRP system. - To develop criteria for site remediation and return, by stages, to uncontrolled uses. The similar criteria have been developed within the Russian-Norwegian cooperation for the purpose of remediation of the sites for temporary storage of SNF and RW. - To consider possibilities and methods of optimization for the remediation strategies under development. - To separate the special category - RW resulted from uranium ore mining and dressing. The current Russian RW classification is based on the waste subdivision in terms of the specific activities. Having in mind the new RW-specific law, we receive the opportunity to separate some special category - RW originated from the uranium mining and milling. Introduction of such category can simplify significantly the situation with management of waste of uranium mining and milling processes. Such approach is implemented in many countries and approved by IAEA. The category of 'RW originated from

  14. The Legacy of Utah's Country Schools, 1847-1896. Country School Legacy: Humanities on the Frontier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkinshaw, Scott B.

    This section of the Country School Legacy: Humanities on the Frontier Project, funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities and sponsored by the Mountain Plains Library Association, traces the development of schools in Utah during the Territorial Period (1847-1896). Following a discussion of the influence of the Church of Jesus Christ of…

  15. The new GFDL global atmosphere and land model AM2-LM2: Evaluation with prescribed SST simulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, J.L.; Balaji, V.; Broccoli, A.J.; Cooke, W.F.; Delworth, T.L.; Dixon, K.W.; Donner, L.J.; Dunne, K.A.; Freidenreich, S.M.; Garner, S.T.; Gudgel, R.G.; Gordon, C.T.; Held, I.M.; Hemler, R.S.; Horowitz, L.W.; Klein, S.A.; Knutson, T.R.; Kushner, P.J.; Langenhost, A.R.; Lau, N.-C.; Liang, Z.; Malyshev, S.L.; Milly, P.C.D.; Nath, M.J.; Ploshay, J.J.; Ramaswamy, V.; Schwarzkopf, M.D.; Shevliakova, E.; Sirutis, J.J.; Soden, B.J.; Stern, W.F.; Thompson, L.A.; Wilson, R.J.; Wittenberg, A.T.; Wyman, B.L.

    2004-01-01

    The configuration and performance of a new global atmosphere and land model for climate research developed at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) are presented. The atmosphere model, known as AM2, includes a new gridpoint dynamical core, a prognostic cloud scheme, and a multispecies aerosol climatology, as well as components from previous models used at GFDL. The land model, known as LM2, includes soil sensible and latent heat storage, groundwater storage, and stomatal resistance. The performance of the coupled model AM2-LM2 is evaluated with a series of prescribed sea surface temperature (SST) simulations. Particular focus is given to the model's climatology and the characteristics of interannual variability related to El Nin??o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). One AM2-LM2 integration was perfor med according to the prescriptions of the second Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP II) and data were submitted to the Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI). Particular strengths of AM2-LM2, as judged by comparison to other models participating in AMIP II, include its circulation and distributions of precipitation. Prominent problems of AM2-LM2 include a cold bias to surface and tropospheric temperatures, weak tropical cyclone activity, and weak tropical intraseasonal activity associated with the Madden-Julian oscillation. An ensemble of 10 AM2-LM 2 integrations with observed SSTs for the second half of the twentieth century permits a statistically reliable assessment of the model's response to ENSO. In general, AM2-LM2 produces a realistic simulation of the anomalies in tropical precipitation and extratropical circulation that are associated with ENSO. ?? 2004 American Meteorological Society.

  16. Nutrient Legacies and Time Lags: Understanding Catchment Biogeochemical Responses in Anthropogenic Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Meter, K. J.; Basu, N. B.

    2014-12-01

    Human modification of the nitrogen (N) cycle has resulted in increased flows of reactive N, with some suggesting that planetary boundaries for maintaining human and ecosystem health have been exceeded. Persistence of large hypoxic zones in inland and coastal waters created by elevated concentrations of nitrate is one of the most significant impacts of such increased flows. While the need to manage these flows is recognized, best management practices to reduce stream N concentrations have had only limited success. Some have attributed this lack of success to accumulation of legacy N stores from decades of fertilizer application. Here we introduce an unprecedented analysis of long-term soil data from the Mississippi River Basin (MRB) revealing significant increases in total N (TN) content. We show that TN accumulation for the MRB accounts for 43% of net anthropogenic N inputs, complementing previous work indicating an approximately 25% loss of net inputs as riverine output. These findings significantly reduce uncertainty associated with basin-level N retention and demonstrate the presence of N accumulation in the deeper subsurface of agricultural soils. The presence of such legacy N stores is utilized in the development of a conceptual framework for quantifying catchment-scale time lags based on both soil nutrient accumulations (biogeochemical legacy) and groundwater travel time distributions (hydrologic legacy). Time scales of change for stream nutrient concentrations are explored as a function of both natural and anthropogenic controls, from topography to spatial patterns of land-use change, and an optimization approach has been developed to determine maximum possible concentration reduction benefits within time frames of interest.

  17. Kohlberg's Legacy: More than Ideas. An Essay Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hague, William J.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews "The Kohlberg Legacy for the Helping Professions," by Lisa Kuhmerker, that introduces Kohlberg's research and theory; focuses on its relevance for teachers, religious educators, and counselors; and portrays the man within the theory. Discusses the convergence of Kohlberg's legacy with character and virtue psychology. Contains 33…

  18. Philosophical Remarks on Nelson Mandela's Education Legacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waghid, Yusef

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I reflect on Nelson Mandela's (Madiba, the clan name of Mandela) education legacy. I argue that Madiba's education legacy is constituted by three interrelated aspects: firstly, an education for non-violence guided by deliberation, compassion and reconciliation; secondly, education as responsibility towards the Other; and…

  19. School Choice Discourse and the Legacy of "Brown"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stulberg, Lisa M.

    2006-01-01

    Fifty years after the "Brown" decision, and in the context of persistent racial and economic segregation and inequality in schooling, it is still important to examine "Brown"'s legacy. In this focus on school choice, the rhetoric and the ways in which the legacy of "Brown" has been emphatically invoked in charter school and voucher debates is…

  20. The 5L Instructional Design For Exploring Legacies through Biography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulware, Beverly J.; Monroe, Eula E.; Wilcox, Bradley Ray

    2013-01-01

    People who have impacted generations have left legacies we can explore today through biographies. The 5L instructional design introduced in this article includes five components: Listen, Learn, Locate, Link, and Legacy. In the "Listen" section, teachers use storytelling and read-alouds to introduce individuals who shaped history. During…

  1. REMOVAL OF LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS FROM SWEDEN

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, Kerry A.; Bellamy, J. Steve; Chandler, Greg T.; Iyer, Natraj C.; Koenig, Rich E.; Leduc, D.; Hackney, B.; Leduc, Dan R.; McClard, J. W.

    2013-08-18

    U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Global Threat Reduction (GTRI) recently removed legacy plutonium materials from Sweden in collaboration with AB SVAFO, Sweden. This paper details the activities undertaken through the U.S. receiving site (Savannah River Site (SRS)) to support the characterization, stabilization, packaging and removal of legacy plutonium materials from Sweden in 2012. This effort was undertaken as part of GTRI’s Gap Materials Program and culminated with the successful removal of plutonium from Sweden as announced at the 2012 Nuclear Security Summit. The removal and shipment of plutonium materials to the United States was the first of its kind under NNSA’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative. The Environmental Assessment for the U.S. receipt of gap plutonium material was approved in May 2010. Since then, the multi-year process yielded many first time accomplishments associated with plutonium packaging and transport activities including the application of the of DOE-STD-3013 stabilization requirements to treat plutonium materials outside the U.S., the development of an acceptance criteria for receipt of plutonium from a foreign country, the development and application of a versatile process flow sheet for the packaging of legacy plutonium materials, the identification of a plutonium container configuration, the first international certificate validation of the 9975 shipping package and the first intercontinental shipment using the 9975 shipping package. This paper will detail the technical considerations in developing the packaging process flow sheet, defining the key elements of the flow sheet and its implementation, determining the criteria used in the selection of the transport package, developing the technical basis for the package certificate amendment and the reviews with multiple licensing authorities and most importantly integrating the technical activities with the Swedish partners.

  2. The Legacy of the X-15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donlan, Charles J.

    1991-01-01

    The X-15 established such widespread confidence in aerodynamic, thermal, and structural areas that new designs for operation aircraft for any speed regime could be expected to be successfully achieved if good use was made of all pertinent test facilities and analytical methods. This philosophy guided design of the space shuttle and is the real legacy of the X-15. The accomplishments and contributions attributable to the research and development work on the X-15 that influenced the formative years of the Space Shuttle Program are presented.

  3. The lingering presence of the Nightingale legacy.

    PubMed

    Hegge, Margaret J

    2011-04-01

    The history of the nursing profession is still evolving. One-hundred years ago, Nightingale died, leaving a legacy of philosophical cornerstones that still infuses the profession. Her idealism flows through her writings, as fresh today as 150 years ago. The initiatives of nursing today had their roots in Nightingale ideals. The alignment of current trends in nursing with Nightingale constructs is striking. Contemporary nurses are challenged to propel these ideals forward. The author here tracks Nightingale quotes, events, and writings with current initiatives, linking philosophical ideals to practical realities of current nursing practice. Nightingale constructs influencing nursing theories and models are examined. PMID:21471040

  4. Integrating commercial and legacy systems with EPICS

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.O.; Kasemir, K.U.; Kowalkowski, J.B.

    1997-09-01

    The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) is a software toolkit, developed by a worldwide collaboration, which significantly reduces the level of effort required to implement a new control system. Recent developments now also significantly reduce the level of effort required to integrate commercial, legacy and/or site-authored control systems with EPICS. This paper will illustrate with an example both the level and type of effort required to use EPICS with other control system components as well as the benefits that may arise.

  5. Mitigating PQ Problems in Legacy Data Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Ilinets, Boris; /SLAC

    2011-06-01

    The conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Problems with PQ in legacy data centers still exist and need to be mitigated; (2) Harmonics generated by non-linear IT load can be lowered by passive, active and hybrid cancellation methods; (3) Harmonic study is necessary to find the best way to treat PQ problems; (4) AHF's and harmonic cancellation transformers proved to be very efficient in mitigating PQ problems; and (5) It is important that IT leaders partner with electrical engineering to appropriate ROI statements, justifying many of these expenditures.

  6. The Burgholzli Hospital: Its history and legacy

    PubMed Central

    Kallivayalil, Roy Abraham

    2016-01-01

    The Burgholzli Hospital Zurich has a very important place in history, as part of of modern era in Psychiatry. Founded in 1870 by the efforts of Griesinger, it was here many eminent path breakers in Psychiatry like Bleuler, Jung, Adolf Meyer and others once worked. From here, Bleuler coined the term “Schizophrenia”. Now the University Hospital of Zurich, Burgholzli's transformation from a mental hospital to a centre of excellence speaks of a rich legacy. It is a model worth emulating in many parts of the world. PMID:27385861

  7. South Africa: a legacy of family disruption.

    PubMed

    Budlender, Debbie; Lund, Francie

    2011-01-01

    This article draws together unusual characteristics of the legacy of apartheid in South Africa: the state-orchestrated destruction of family life, high rates of unemployment and a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS. The disruption of family life has resulted in a situation in which many women have to fulfil the role of both breadwinner and care giver in a context of high unemployment and very limited economic opportunities. The question that follows is: given this crisis of care, to what extent can or will social protection and employment-related social policies provide the support women and children need? PMID:22164880

  8. The Ensemble/Legacy Chimera extension: standardized user and programmer interface to molecular Ensemble data and Legacy modeling programs.

    PubMed

    Konerding, D E

    2000-01-01

    Ensemble/Legacy is a toolkit extension of the Object Technology Framework (OTF) that exposes an object oriented interface for accessing and manipulating ensembles (collections of molecular conformations that share a common chemical topology) and driving Legacy programs (such as MSMS, AMBER, X-PLOR, CORMA/MARDIGRAS, Dials and Windows, and CURVES). Ensemble/Legacy provides a natural programming interface for running Legacy programs on ensembles of molecules and accessing the resulting data. Using the OTF reduces the time cost of developing a new library to store and manipulate molecular data and also allows Ensemble/Legacy to integrate into the Chimera visualization program. The extension to Chimera exposes the Legacy functionality using a graphical user interface that greatly simplifies the process of modeling and analyzing conformational ensembles. Furthermore, all the C++ functionality of the Ensemble/Legacy toolkit is "wrapped" for use in the Python programming language. More detailed documentation on using Ensemble/Legacy is available online (http:¿picasso.nmr.ucsf.edu/dek/ensemble. html). PMID:10902174

  9. Molecular screening for avirulence alleles AvrLm1 and AvrLm6 in airborne inoculum of Leptosphaeria maculans and winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus) plants from Poland and the UK.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, Joanna; Latunde-Dada, Akinwunmi O; Irzykowski, Witold; Cools, Hans J; Stonard, Jenna F; Brachaczek, Andrzej; Jedryczka, Malgorzata

    2014-11-01

    A combination of staining, light microscopy and SYBR green- and dual-labelled fluorescent probe-based qPCR chemistries with species- and gene-specific primers was employed to evaluate fluctuations in the aerial biomass of Leptosphaeria maculans spores captured by volumetric spore trappings in Poznan, Poland (2006, 2008) and Harpenden, UK (2002, 2006). Arising from these surveys, DNA samples extracted from Burkard spore-trap tapes were screened for fluctuation patterns in the frequencies of AvrLm1 and AvrLm6, the most prominent of the 15 genes that code for avirulence effectors in this Dothideomycete cause of the destructive phoma stem canker disease of oilseed rape worldwide. In Poznan, very low frequencies of AvrLm1 allele were found in the autumn of both 2006 and 2008, reflecting significantly increased cultivation of rape seed with Rlm1-based resistance. In contrast, at least six folds-higher frequencies of AvrLm6, which were also confirmed by end-point PCR bioassays on phoma-infected leaves from the same region of Poland, were obtained during both years. In the UK, however, relatively higher AvrLm1 allele titres were found in L. maculans spores captured in air samples from the autumn of 2002 on the experimental fields of Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, that were historically sown to genetically heterogeneous B. napus cultivars. In the 2006 screen these levels had plummeted, to a 1:4 ratio, in favour of frequencies of the AvrLm6 allele. Patterns of fluctuations in erg11 (CYP51) fragments coding for sterol 14α-demethylase suggest October as the month with the most viable wind-dispersed L. maculans propagules of each season of the screens. PMID:25081837

  10. Vulnerability of streams to legacy nitrate sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tesoriero, Anthony J.; Duff, John H.; Saad, David A.; Spahr, Norman E.; Wolock, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of hydrogeologic setting on the susceptibility of streams to legacy nitrate was examined at seven study sites having a wide range of base flow index (BFI) values. BFI is the ratio of base flow to total streamflow volume. The portion of annual stream nitrate loads from base flow was strongly correlated with BFI. Furthermore, dissolved oxygen concentrations in streambed pore water were significantly higher in high BFI watersheds than in low BFI watersheds suggesting that geochemical conditions favor nitrate transport through the bed when BFI is high. Results from a groundwater-surface water interaction study at a high BFI watershed indicate that decades old nitrate-laden water is discharging to this stream. These findings indicate that high nitrate levels in this stream may be sustained for decades to come regardless of current practices. It is hypothesized that a first approximation of stream vulnerability to legacy nutrients may be made by geospatial analysis of watersheds with high nitrogen inputs and a strong connection to groundwater (e.g., high BFI).

  11. Enabling Science with the Hubble Legacy Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkner, Helmut; Miller, W. Warren; Whitmore, Bradley C.

    Significant enhancements to the Hubble archive will prepare it for legacy use and provide major new science capabilities. The focus is on higher-level data products than are available from the classic Hubble archive, including fully calibrated exposures and enhanced image products as well as source lists. All data products are immediately available on disk, eliminating the latency of queued data delivery. This capability will make HST data easier to obtain, combine, and compare with data from other space missions and with ground-based data. Image headers will be updated with improved astrometric information, greatly reducing the 1-2 arcsecond errors that frequently affect current pipeline products. A generalized footprint service allows users to determine quickly whether, and for how long, a particular region of the sky has been observed with HST instruments. In addition, all Hubble data become accessible through standard Virtual Observatory interfaces. This improved archive, the Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA), is expected to provide an essential research resource for many years, if not decades.

  12. The Chandra COSMOS Legacy Survey: first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesi, Stefano; Civano, Francesca M.; Elvis, Martin; Urry, C. Megan; Comastri, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    The COSMOS field is the only large (2 sq. deg.) field for which complete, deep, panchromatic data exist and which all large telescopes can observe due to its equatorial location. In 2013, the COSMOS survey was greatly extended, thanks to the Chandra COSMOS Legacy Survey, the second largest extragalactic Chandra project ever approved. This survey is aimed at studying the formation of the structures in the high redshift Universe and understanding the role active super massive black holes played in their evolution. With 56 overlapping ACIS-I pointings of 50-ksec depth each, the Chandra COSMOS-Legacy survey uniformly covers the 1.7 sq. deg. COSMOS/HST field to ~160 ksec depth, with a total of 2.8 Ms exposure time. This triples the area of the earlier deep C-COSMOS survey (limiting flux ~3e-16 ergs/cm2/s in the 0.5-2 keV band), and together these two projects cover a total area of 2.2 sq. deg., yielding a sample of ~4200 X-ray sources. We present the survey properties, the procedure adopted to obtain our final catalog and the first scientific highlights, focusing on the high redshift (z>3) sample.

  13. Health legacy foundations: a new census.

    PubMed

    Niggel, Sabrina Jones; Brandon, William P

    2014-01-01

    Health care merger and acquisition activity has increased since enactment of the Affordable Care Act in 2010. Proceeds from transactions involving nonprofit hospitals, health systems, and health plans will endow philanthropic foundations, collectively known as health legacy foundations. Building on work by Grantmakers In Health, we undertook a systematic search for these foundations and generated a newly updated, comprehensive database. We found 306 organizations in forty-three states that have been endowed with proceeds from the sale, merger, lease, joint venture, or other restructuring of nonprofit health care assets. These health legacy foundations had $26.2 billion in assets in 2010. Concentrated in the southern United States, foundations originating from hospitals and specialty care facilities (86.6 percent) held mean assets of $64.7 million per funder and typically restricted grants to local communities. Foundations formed from health plans (13.4 percent) held higher mean assets ($222 million), usually served larger areas, and were more likely to engage in health care advocacy. Recent transactions involving smaller and stand-alone nonprofit hospitals will infuse many more communities with unprecedented charitable wealth. PMID:24395949

  14. Scientific Organization of the ALFA Legacy Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R. L.

    2005-12-01

    The ALFA Legacy Surveys are organized as a partnership between NAIC and the community of interested and involved academic researchers. NAIC has committed a large fraction of the time on the Arecibo telescope to the ALFA surveys for the next 5 or more years in return for which the ALFA Consortia are making a large commitment of personnel resources in conducting the surveys, writing the needed software, and archiving the data for use by others. The surveys are facilitated by means of commensal observations--simultaneous observations made by two or more Consortia each processing the same received signal using different spectrometers designed for different scientific applications. The spectrometer specifications are set by the Consortia, and the hardware is built by NAIC under contract to university-based instrumentation groups. The NAIC vision of its partnership with the ALFA consortia: (1) Is necessary to the success of the ALFA legacy surveys; (2) Provides the opportunity to re-establish an effective partnership between the national observatory and the academic research community; (3) Reflects the maturity of 50 years of research in radio astronomy. NAIC is operated by Cornell University under cooperative agreement with the NSF.

  15. Legacy Panorama on Spirit's Way to 'Bonneville'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Legacy Panorama on Spirit's Way to 'Bonneville' (QTVR)

    This view captured by the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit nearly a year ago is called Spirit's 'Legacy' panorama. It combines many frames acquired during Spirit's 59th through 61st martian days, or sols (March 3 to 5, 2004) from a position about halfway between the landing site and the rim of 'Bonneville Crater.' The location is within the transition from the relatively smooth plains to the more rocky and rugged blanket of material ejected from Bonneville by the force of the impact that dug the crater.

    The panorama spans 360 degrees and consists of images obtained in 78 individual pointings. The camera took images though 5 different filter at each pointing. This mosaic is an approximately true-color rendering generated using the images acquired through filters centered at wavelengths of 750, 530, and 480 nanometers.

    The Columbia Memorial Station lander can be seen about 200 meters (about 650 feet) in the distance by following the rover tracks back toward right of center in the mosaic and zooming in.

  16. Three legacies of humanitarianism in China.

    PubMed

    Hirono, Miwa

    2013-10-01

    The rise of China has altered the context of the international humanitarian community of donors and aid agencies. China is becoming one of the key actors in this grouping, undertaking infrastructure projects in areas in which paramount humanitarian challenges exist. The literature discusses how the Chinese approach differs from that of Western donors, but it does not pay much attention to why China concentrates on its state-centric and infrastructure-based approach. This paper seeks to shed some light on this subject by examining the historical evolution of the concept of humanitarianism in China. This evolution has produced three legacies: (i) the ideal of a well-ordered state; (ii) anti-Western sentiment; and (iii) the notion of comprehensive development based on a human-oriented approach. China's policies and discourses on assistance in humanitarian crises today rest on these three legacies. Traditional donors would be well advised to consider carefully the implications of the Chinese understanding of humanitarianism when engaging with the country. PMID:23876108

  17. Gene conversion and purifying selection shape nucleotide variation in gibbon L/M opsin genes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Routine trichromatic color vision is a characteristic feature of catarrhines (humans, apes and Old World monkeys). This is enabled by L and M opsin genes arrayed on the X chromosome and an autosomal S opsin gene. In non-human catarrhines, genetic variation affecting the color vision phenotype is reported to be absent or rare in both L and M opsin genes, despite the suggestion that gene conversion has homogenized the two genes. However, nucleotide variation of both introns and exons among catarrhines has only been examined in detail for the L opsin gene of humans and chimpanzees. In the present study, we examined the nucleotide variation of gibbon (Catarrhini, Hylobatidae) L and M opsin genes. Specifically, we focused on the 3.6~3.9-kb region that encompasses the centrally located exon 3 through exon 5, which encode the amino acid sites functional for the spectral tuning of the genes. Results Among 152 individuals representing three genera (Hylobates, Nomascus and Symphalangus), all had both L and M opsin genes and no L/M hybrid genes. Among 94 individuals subjected to the detailed DNA sequencing, the nucleotide divergence between L and M opsin genes in the exons was significantly higher than the divergence in introns in each species. The ratio of the inter-LM divergence to the intra-L/M polymorphism was significantly lower in the introns than that in synonymous sites. When we reconstructed the phylogenetic tree using the exon sequences, the L/M gene duplication was placed in the common ancestor of catarrhines, whereas when intron sequences were used, the gene duplications appeared multiple times in different species. Using the GENECONV program, we also detected that tracts of gene conversions between L and M opsin genes occurred mostly within the intron regions. Conclusions These results indicate the historical accumulation of gene conversions between L and M opsin genes in the introns in gibbons. Our study provides further support for the homogenizing

  18. 31 CFR 357.20 - Securities account in Legacy Treasury Direct ®.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Direct ®. 357.20 Section 357.20 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance...-ENTRY TREASURY BONDS, NOTES AND BILLS HELD IN LEGACY TREASURY DIRECT Legacy Treasury Direct Book-Entry Securities System (Legacy Treasury Direct) § 357.20 Securities account in Legacy Treasury Direct ®....

  19. Global environmental change effects on ecosystems: the importance of land-use legacies.

    PubMed

    Perring, Michael P; De Frenne, Pieter; Baeten, Lander; Maes, Sybryn L; Depauw, Leen; Blondeel, Haben; Carón, María M; Verheyen, Kris

    2016-04-01

    One of the major challenges in ecology is to predict how multiple global environmental changes will affect future ecosystem patterns (e.g. plant community composition) and processes (e.g. nutrient cycling). Here, we highlight arguments for the necessary inclusion of land-use legacies in this endeavour. Alterations in resources and conditions engendered by previous land use, together with influences on plant community processes such as dispersal, selection, drift and speciation, have steered communities and ecosystem functions onto trajectories of change. These trajectories may be modulated by contemporary environmental changes such as climate warming and nitrogen deposition. We performed a literature review which suggests that these potential interactions have rarely been investigated. This crucial oversight is potentially due to an assumption that knowledge of the contemporary state allows accurate projection into the future. Lessons from other complex dynamic systems, and the recent recognition of the importance of previous conditions in explaining contemporary and future ecosystem properties, demand the testing of this assumption. Vegetation resurvey databases across gradients of land use and environmental change, complemented by rigorous experiments, offer a means to test for interactions between land-use legacies and multiple environmental changes. Implementing these tests in the context of a trait-based framework will allow biologists to synthesize compositional and functional ecosystem responses. This will further our understanding of the importance of land-use legacies in determining future ecosystem properties, and soundly inform conservation and restoration management actions. PMID:26546049

  20. Catchment low pass filter characteristics, legacy contamination and their link to variability in biogeochemical 1/fα scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrachowitz, Markus; Fovet, Ophelie; Ruiz, Laurent; Savenije, Hubert

    2015-04-01

    In spite of recent progress, hydrological processes underlying observed water quality response patterns, such as the emergence of near-chemostatic conditions and fractal 1/fα scaling of stream chemistry, are not completely understood. Analysing hydrological and Cl- tracer data for two intensely managed, hydrologically contrasting yet biogeochemically similar catchments we tested (1) if a model can simultaneously reproduce the hydrological and biogeochemical responses, (2) if legacy stores, allowing for long-term storage of nutrient inputs can be identified and (3) if a model can reproduce 1/fα scaling. Further we analysed (4) the transit (TTD) and residence time distributions (RTD) and the associated response dynamics of legacy stores, and (5) what controls fluctuations in the scaling exponent α, establishing a process based link between 1/fα scaling, legacy stores, and age distributions. We found that the model could reproduce the variable hydrological and the stable Cl- responses. This was possible through Cl- accumulation in hydrologically passive legacy stores (e.g. groundwater), where Cl- age is well above 2000 days, one magnitude above the Cl- age in other components, such as the root zone (200d). The results indicate that legacy stores can cause stable nutrient concentrations in streams for several decades after the end of nutrient input. It was further found that the model could reproduce fractal scaling of stream Cl- in both catchments, with higher values of α for the catchment with the smaller legacy store and faster response (α=-0.88 vs. -1.29). Further analysing the spectral properties of model components, it was found that the parts of the system with less storage are characterized by higher values of α. This suggests a plausible processes-based link between the fluctuations of α, legacy stores and RTDs: the smaller the legacy store and the higher the flow contribution from faster responding system components, the higher α, suggesting that

  1. Optimum Design of LLC Resonant Converter using Inductance Ratio (Lm/Lr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palle, Kowstubha; Krishnaveni, K.; Ramesh Reddy, Kolli

    2016-07-01

    The main benefits of LLC resonant dc/dc converter over conventional series and parallel resonant converters are its light load regulation, less circulating currents, larger bandwidth for zero voltage switching, and less tuning of switching frequency for controlled output. An unique analytical tool, called fundamental harmonic approximation with peak gain adjustment is used for designing the converter. In this paper, an optimum design of the converter is proposed by considering three different design criterions with different values of inductance ratio (Lm/Lr) to achieve good efficiency at high input voltage. The optimum design includes the analysis in operating range, switching frequency range, primary side losses of a switch and stability. The analysis is carried out with simulation using the software tools like MATLAB and PSIM. The performance of the optimized design is demonstrated for a design specification of 12 V, 5 A output operating with an input voltage range of 300-400 V using FSFR 2100 IC of Texas instruments.

  2. Development of LM10-MIRA LOX/LNG expander cycle demonstrator engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnykh, Mikhail; Carapellese, Stefano; Liuzzi, Daniele; Arione, Luigi; Caggiano, Giuseppe; Bellomi, Paolo; D'Aversa, Emanuela; Pellegrini, Rocco; Lobov, S. D.; Gurtovoy, A. A.; Rachuk, V. S.

    2016-09-01

    This article contains results of joint works by Konstruktorskoe Buro Khimavtomatiki (KBKhA, Russia) and AVIO Company (Italy) on creation of the LM10-MIRA liquid-propellant rocket demonstrator engine for the third stage of the upgraded "Vega" launcher.Scientific and research activities conducted by KBKhA and AVIO in 2007-2014 in the frame of the LYRA Program, funded by the Italian Space Agency, with ELV as Prime contractor, and under dedicated ASI-Roscosmos inter-agencies agreement, were aimed at development and testing of a 7.5 t thrust expander cycle demonstrator engine propelled by oxygen and liquid natural gas (further referred to as LNG).

  3. Evolutionary renovation of L/M opsin polymorphism confers a fruit discrimination advantage to ateline New World monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yoshifumi; Hiramatsu, Chihiro; Matsushita, Yuka; Ozawa, Norihiro; Ashino, Ryuichi; Nakata, Makiko; Kasagi, Satoshi; Di Fiore, Anthony; Schaffner, Colleen M; Aureli, Filippo; Melin, Amanda D; Kawamura, Shoji

    2014-01-01

    New World monkeys exhibit prominent colour vision variation due to allelic polymorphism of the long-to-middle wavelength (L/M) opsin gene. The known spectral variation of L/M opsins in primates is broadly determined by amino acid composition at three sites: 180, 277 and 285 (the ‘three-sites’ rule). However, two L/M opsin alleles found in the black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) are known exceptions, presumably due to novel mutations. The spectral separation of the two L/M photopigments is 1.5 times greater than expected based on the ‘three-sites’ rule. Yet the consequence of this for the visual ecology of the species is unknown, as is the evolutionary mechanism by which spectral shift was achieved. In this study, we first examine L/M opsins of two other Atelinae species, the long-haired spider monkeys (A. belzebuth) and the common woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha). By a series of site-directed mutagenesis, we show that a mutation Y213D (tyrosine to aspartic acid at site 213) in the ancestral opsin of the two alleles enabled N294K, which occurred in one allele of the ateline ancestor and increased the spectral separation between the two alleles. Second, by modelling the chromaticity of dietary fruits and background leaves in a natural habitat of spider monkeys, we demonstrate that chromatic discrimination of fruit from leaves is significantly enhanced by these mutations. This evolutionary renovation of L/M opsin polymorphism in atelines illustrates a previously unappreciated dynamism of opsin genes in shaping primate colour vision. PMID:24612406

  4. An urn model of the development of L/M cone ratios in human and macaque retinas.

    PubMed

    Knoblauch, Kenneth; Neitz, Maureen; Neitz, Jay

    2006-01-01

    A model of the development of L/M cone ratios in the Old World primate retina is presented. It is supposed that during gestation, the cone cycles randomly between states in which it transcribes either L or M opsin. The current state determines and increases the probability that it will transcribe the same opsin in future cycles. These assumptions are sufficient to formalize the process as a Markov chain that can be modeled as an urn containing two types of balls, L and M. Drawing one ball results in the increase of its species and the decrease of the other. Over the long run, the urn will become populated with a single type of ball. This state corresponds to the photoreceptor adopting a fixed identity for its lifetime. We investigate the effect of the number of states and the rule that regulates the advantage of transition toward one cone type or another on the relation between fetal and adult L/M cone ratios. In the range of 100 to 1000 states, small variations of the initial L/M ratio or the transition advantage can each generate large changes in the final L/M ratio, in qualitative accord with the variation seen in human adult retinas. The time course to attain stable L/M ratios also varies with these parameters. If it is believed that the cycling follows a circadian rhythm, then final L/M cone ratios would be expected to stabilize shortly after birth in the human being and the macaque. PMID:16961971

  5. Legacies of flood reduction on a dryland river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stromberg, J.C.; Shafroth, P.B.; Hazelton, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    The Bill Williams (Arizona) is a regulated dryland river that is being managed, in part, for biodiversity via flow management. To inform management, we contrasted riparian plant communities between the Bill Williams and an upstream free-flowing tributary (Santa Maria). Goals of a first study (1996-1997) were to identify environmental controls on herbaceous species richness and compare richness among forest types. Analyses revealed that herbaceous species richness was negatively related to woody stem density, basal area and litter cover and positively related to light levels. Introduced Tamarix spp. was more frequent at the Bill Williams, but all three main forest types (Tamarix, Salix/Populus, Prosopis) had low understory richness, as well as high stem density and low light, on the Bill Williams as compared to the Santa Maria. The few edaphic differences between rivers (higher salinity at Bill Williams) had only weak connections with richness. A second study (2006-2007) focused on floristic richness at larger spatial scales. It revealed that during spring, and for the study cumulatively (spring and fall samplings combined), the riparian zone of the unregulated river had considerably more plant species. Annuals (vs. herbaceous perennials and woody species) showed the largest between-river difference. Relative richness of exotic (vs. native) species did not differ. We conclude that: (1) The legacy of reduced scouring frequency and extent at the Bill Williams has reduced the open space available for colonization by annuals; and (2) Change in forest biomass structure, more so than change in forest composition, is the major driver of changes in plant species richness along this flow-altered river. Our study informs dryland river management options by revealing trade-offs that exist between forest biomass structure and plant species richness. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Analysis of wear track and debris of stir cast LM13/Zr composite at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Panwar, Ranvir Singh Pandey, O.P.

    2013-01-15

    Particulate reinforced aluminum metal matrix composite is in high demand in automobile industry where the operational conditions vary from low to high temperature. In order to understand the wear mode at elevated temperature, this study was planned. For this purpose we developed a metal matrix composite containing aluminum alloy (LM13) as matrix and zircon sand as particulate reinforcement by stir casting process. Different amounts of zircon sand (5, 10, 15 and 20 wt.%) were incorporated in the matrix to study the effect of reinforcement on the wear resistance. Dispersion of zircon sand particles in the matrix was confirmed by using optical microscopy. Sliding wear tests were done to study the durability of the composite with respect to the base alloy. The effects of load and temperature on wear behavior from room temperature to 300 Degree-Sign C were studied to understand the wear mechanism deeply. Surface morphology of the worn surfaces after the wear tests as well as wear debris was observed under scanning electron microscope. Mild to severe wear transition was noticed in tests at high temperature and high load. However, there is interesting change in wear behavior of the composite near the critical temperature of the composite. All the observed behavior has been explained with reference to the observed microstructure of the wear track and debris. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good interfacial bonding between zircon sand particles and Al matrix was observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of temperature on the wear behavior of LM13/Zr composites was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wear resistance of the composite was improved with addition of zircon sand. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transition temperature from mild to severe wear also improved in composite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEM analysis of the tracks and debris was done to establish wear mechanism.

  7. Olympic Health Legacy; Essentials for Lasting Development of Host City.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Hee; Kim, Jung Moon

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of the Olympic Games should be to contribute to the social development by leaving behind economic, cultural and environmental legacies to the hosting region. While tangible examples such as venues are often recognized as representative legacies of the Olympics, intangible aspects such as the environment, culture, policy and human resources have been gaining in importance. The Olympic Games, at its most fundamental level, is a sporting event. Sports not only is closely related to the physical health, but is also instrumental to fostering mental health through inspiration. One of the most important sports legacies was the general change in the population's perception on sports and physical activities; due to such change, people were able to enjoy sports as part of healthy and active everyday life and benefit physically. However, compared to tangible legacies such as the facilities, social legacies such as the general health and their planning, execution and achievements are hard to monitor. Therefore, for the Olympics to leave behind socio-cultural legacies that contribute to the development of the hosting region, there must be a thorough business plan that takes into account region-specific purpose, and is divided into stages such as before, during and after the Games. Should the 2018 Winter Olympic Games hope to create continuing contribution to its hosting region, it must leave behind 'Health Legacies' that will enhance the happiness of the hosting region's population. To this end, establishment of region-specific purpose and systematic promotion of business via detailed analysis of precedents are a must. This article aim to review the health legacy endeavors of past host cities and suggest the appropriate forms of health legacy of 2018 Pyeongchang Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games. PMID:26064832

  8. Leishmania Dihydroxyacetonephosphate Acyltransferase LmDAT is Important for Ether Lipid Biosynthesis but not for the Integrity of Detergent Resistant Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Zufferey, Rachel; Al-Ani, Gada K.; Dunlap, Kara

    2009-01-01

    Glycerolipid biosynthesis in Leishmania initiates with the acylation of glycerol-3-phosphate by a single glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, LmGAT, or of dihydroxyacetonephosphate by a dihydroxyacetonephosphate acyltransferase, LmDAT. We previously reported that acylation of the precursor dihydroxyacetonephosphate rather than glycerol-3-phosphate is the physiologically relevant pathway for Leishmania parasites. We demonstrated that LmDAT is important for normal growth, survival during the stationary phase, and for virulence. Here, we assessed the role of LmDAT in glycerolipid metabolism and metacyclogenesis. LmDAT was found to be implicated in the biosynthesis of ether glycerolipids, including the ether-lipid derived virulence factor lipophosphoglycan and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins. The null mutant produced longer lipophosphoglycan molecules that were not released in the medium, and augmented levels of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins. In addition, the integrity of detergent resistant membranes was not affected by the absence of the LmDAT gene. Further, our genetic analyses strongly suggest that LmDAT was colethal with the glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase encoding gene LmGAT, implying that Leishmania expresses only two acyltransferases that initiate the biosynthesis of its cellular glycerolipids. Last, despite the fact that LmDAT is important for virulence the null mutant still exhibited the typical characteristics of metacyclics. PMID:19720088

  9. Legacies and Trajectories of Hormone Export from Agricultural Catchments Under Natural and Anthropogenic Drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gall, H. E.; Mashtare, M. L.; Sassman, S. A.; Rao, P. C.; Thompson, S. E.; Basu, N. B.; Lee, L. S.

    2011-12-01

    Hormones and other emerging contaminants have been detected in surface waters worldwide at concentrations known to negatively impact sensitive aquatic species. Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are a significant source of hormones to the environment, as their recent intensification has increased manure production and land disposal. However, little is known regarding the short- and long-term fate and transport in catchments and likely environmental impacts. Lab microcosm and column studies indicate moderately high retardation (log KOC ~ 2.8 - 3.7) and fast aerobic biotransformation (half-lives < 10 days), yet monitoring reveals consistent presence of hormones in streams. Field studies at nested scales in tile-drained agricultural catchments suggested time-invariant concentrations for hormone export at annual time scales, similar to that noted for nutrients, implying accumulation of legacy stores from annual manure applications. A robust hydro-biogeochemical model, Hormone Export and Restoration Dynamics (HERD), was developed and validated to probe several research questions: (i) can manure application practices lead to the accumulation of hormones within the soil profile and develop legacy sources?; (ii) how persistent are hormones when long-term manure applications cease?; and (iii) to what extent can best management practices be successfully employed to reduce the downstream export of hormones? Preliminary HERD simulations suggest that hormones build up in the soil profile over time as a result of repeated animal waste applications, creating legacy sources that cause hormone export to become mass transfer-limited rather than source-limited. Under such conditions, annual flow-weighted concentrations were found to be chemostatic, implying hydrologic variability rather than biogeochemical processes as the dominant control of hormone export. Additionally, these results suggest that long-term, repeated animal waste applications can lead to chronic exposure

  10. Catchment Legacies and Trajectories: Understanding Time Lags in Catchment Response as a Function of Hydrologic and Biogeochemical Controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, N. B.; Van Meter, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    Increased nutrient loads delivered from watersheds due to agricultural intensification, industrialization, and urbanization have contributed globally to the persistence of large hypoxic zones in inland and coastal waters. Watershed management practices targeting these non-point source pollutants often lead to little or no improvement in water quality, even after extensive implementation of conservation measures or Best Management Practices (BMPs). The lag time between implementation of a conservation measure and resultant water quality benefits has recently been recognized as an important factor in the "apparent" failure of these BMPs. When conservation measures are implemented without explicit consideration of the lag time and with expectations that they will lead to immediate benefits, the resulting failure to meet such expectations can discourage vital restoration efforts. It is therefore important to quantify the lag times associated with watershed management efforts a priori and to implement restoration strategies targeted specifically at minimizing lag times and maximizing restoration benefits. The focus of this research is to develop a framework for understanding the time lags between land-use changes and stream water quality benefits. We hypothesize that such time lags arise from nutrient legacies building over decades of fertilizer application. For nitrogen (N), one can conceptualize this as either hydrologic legacy, in the form of dissolved nitrate that is delayed due to slow groundwater transport, or as biogeochemical legacy, in the form of organic N, possibly in dissolved or readily mineralizable forms. Indeed, mass-balance studies across the Mississippi and Thames river basins indicate the possibility of missing N mass in these landscapes, with inputs being consistently greater than the outputs even when accounting for all possible pathways of nitrogen transformation. Historical soil data within the upper Mississippi River Basin (MRB) indicate that

  11. Legacy data for a northern prairie grassland: Woodworth Study Area, North Dakota, 1963-89

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Shelby H.; Austin, Jane E.

    2014-01-01

    Ecological data commonly become more valuable through time. Such legacy data provide baseline records of past biological, physical, and social information that provide historical perspective and are necessary for assessment of stasis or change. Legacy data collected at the Woodworth Study Area (WSA), a contiguous block of grasslands, croplands, and wetlands covering more than 1,000 hectares of the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota, are cataloged and summarized in this study. The WSA is one of the longest researched grassland sites in the Upper Midwest. It has an extensive history of settlement, land use, and management that provides a deeper context for future research. The WSA data include long-term vegetation transect records, land use history, habitat management records, geologic information, wetland hydrology and chemistry information, and spatial images. Substantial parts of these data have not been previously reported. The WSA is representative of many other lands purchased by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in the Prairie Pothole Region from the 1930s to the 1970s; therefore, synthesized data from the WSA are broadly applicable to topics of concern in northern grasslands, such as increases in non-native plants, managing for biodiversity, and long-term effects of habitat management. New techniques are also described that were used to preserve these data for future analyses. The data preservation techniques are applicable to any project with data that should be preserved for 100 years or more.

  12. Johns Hopkins legionary: Leighton's lineage and legacy.

    PubMed

    Lumsden, David Paul

    2006-03-01

    What is the relationship between sociocultural environment and psychiatric disorder? In particular, what is 'social disintegration', its characteristics, dangers and possible remediation? Alexander Hamilton Leighton and Jane Murphy's interdisciplinary contributions derive from those consuming concerns. This article contextualizes the famous Stirling County Study by suggesting that a hitherto unrecognized shaping role was played by William Henry Welch of Johns Hopkins and The Rockefeller Foundation, especially so through the example of Hopkins's epidemiological 'demonstration areas'. The article then details the Stirling County Study itself, including its relations with Dalhousie University and Canadian psychiatry. The concluding section identifies and assesses a wider set of achievements and contributions forming Leighton and Murphy's legacy to our several but interdependent fields of cross-cultural endeavour. PMID:16671390

  13. Building an IYA Legacy for Underserved Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakimoto, P. J.; Luckey, V.; Landsberg, R. H.; Hawkins, L.; Porro, I.

    2008-11-01

    The International Year of Astronomy will attract much attention, but what legacy will it leave for populations historically underrepresented in science? In this paper, we focus on one such population---urban youths---and ask how IYA activities might be designed to have a lasting impact. Our general premise is that a major event might be used to attract attention, but that a long-term follow up is necessary for genuine impact. We present three after-school and summer urban outreach programs that model such long-term involvement: the KICP Space Explorers Program, the MIT Kavli Youth Astronomy Apprenticeship Program, and the Notre Dame Supernova Club. Each of these programs is deeply embedded within the community that it serves, and each of them shows great success in building interests and capabilities in science among the youths that participate.

  14. Exploring the Legacies of Filmed Patient Narratives

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Glenn; Maben, Jill

    2015-01-01

    We trace the legacies of filmed patient narratives that were edited and screened to encourage engagement with a participatory quality improvement project in an acute hospital setting in England. Using Gabriel’s theory of “narrative contract,” we examine the initial success of the films in establishing common grounds for participatory project and later, and more varied, interpretations of the films. Over time, the films were interpreted by staff as either useful sources of learning by critical reflection, dubious (invalid or unreliable) representations of patient experience, or as “closed” items available as auditable evidence of completed quality improvement work. We find these interpretations of the films to be shaped by the effect of social distance, the differential outcomes of project work, and changing organizational agendas. We consider the wider conditions of patient narrative as a form of quality improvement knowledge with immediate potency and fragile or fluid legitimacy over time. PMID:25576480

  15. The Swift GRB Host Galaxy Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perley, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    I introduce the Swift Host Galaxy Legacy Survey (SHOALS), a comprehensive multiwavelength program to characterize the demographics of the GRB host population across its entire redshift range. Using unbiased selection criteria we have designated a subset of 130 Swift gamma-ray bursts which are now being targeted with intensive observational follow-up. Deep Spitzer imaging of every field has already been obtained and analyzed, with major programs ongoing at Keck, GTC, and Gemini to obtain complementary optical/NIR photometry to enable full SED modeling and derivation of fundamental physical parameters such as mass, extinction, and star-formation rate. Using these data I will present an unbiased measurement of the GRB host-galaxy luminosity and mass functions and their evolution with redshift between z=0 and z=5, compare GRB hosts to other star-forming galaxy populations, and discuss implications for the nature of the GRB progenitor and the ability of GRBs to probe cosmic star-formation.

  16. The legacy of the European Geotraverse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blundell, D. J.

    1999-12-01

    The European Geotraverse (EGT) created a 4600-km profile across Europe from North Cape Norway to Tunisia. Not only did this produce the first comprehensive cross-section to a depth of 450 km of continental lithosphere covering an eighth of the Earth's circumference, it covered the geological history of Europe from the Archaean to the present. EGT built up a detailed knowledge of the crust and upper mantle of Europe by integrating geological and geophysical information in a coherent way, continuously along a single profile. It illuminated the dramatic contrast between the thickness and complexity of the lithosphere of western Europe and that of Fennoscandia, which remain in isostatic equilibrium, and elucidated the multilayered elements of thickened Alpine crust and lithosphere and the dynamics of the western Mediterranean. Nine years on, the legacy of EGT is the platform it provided for major scientific advances that have stemmed from it, the greatest being through EUROPROBE projects. The PANCARDI project has discovered the subducted slab beneath the Carpathian Arc in the process of tearing apart from the lithosphere. URALIDES has discovered the Urals orogen is almost perfectly preserved since the Palaeozoic, and the TESZ project has elucidated the complex evolution of the transitional region between the Baltic Shield and the Caledonian and Variscan crustal terranes of western Europe. The scientific advances of EGT were matched by its achievement in mobilising an international workforce from every discipline of the Earth sciences. Friendships made in that endeavour are another legacy of EGT and many of those who started their research careers in EGT are now leading EUROPROBE projects and other collaborative ventures. We all owe a great debt to Professor Stephan Mueller who founded and led the European Geotraverse and was its enduring inspiration.

  17. Challenges in Modernizing Legacy Scientific Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, C. D.; Zuffada, C.; Kalashnikova, O. V.; Decyk, V. K.

    2008-12-01

    JPL has developed highly accurate 3-D vector scattering codes used to explore aerosol properties based on the combined finite-elements integral-equation technique (FE-IE), an approach established a decade ago and which made JPL a leading institution in advanced supercomputer applications for electromagnetic scattering. Airborne aerosols are known to play an important role in the Earth's radiation budget and climate, through both a direct effect and an indirect effect related to their interaction with climate. The ability to quantify these effects is limited by our knowledge of the aerosol properties determined through the available observations. To improve this understanding, scattering models capable of accurately representing optical properties of particles must be used, over a wide range of size distribution and for the appropriate class of morphology. The original PHOEBUS software was developed for the Cray T3D supercomputer system using many specific capabilities that are no longer available today. Such codes are still prevalent in the scientific community, but as new computing systems are introduced the ability to preserve this knowledge and investment is increasingly difficult. PHOEBUS used features including Cray Adaptive Fortran (CRAFT), Cray-pointers, and SHMEM for one-sided communication, shared memory space calculations, and for parallel processing. There were also a host of non-standard programming techniques applied and various schemes to improve performance that do not directly apply to current systems. Discovering such issues and establishing a plan of attack to resolve them is necessary as legacy models in various disciplines are transitioned to new systems. We will discuss the revisions applied to PHOEBUS based on modern programming standards and systems such as Fortran 95 features, intrinsics and libraries, the SGI Altix environment, MPI-2 one-sided- communication, and OpenMP allowing for discussion of the complexities in successfully reusing and

  18. Evaluating the Role of Small Impoundments in Legacy Sediment Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, D. J.; Salant, N.; Green, M. B.; Wreschnig, A. J.; Urbanova, T.

    2009-12-01

    Recent research highlighting the prevalence of dams built for water power in the mid-1800s has led to suggestions that strategies for managing legacy sediment in the Eastern United States should be re-evaluated. However, the link between reach-scale observations of historic dam sites to processes at the catchment scale have not been examined, nor have the role of other, similar historic changes been evaluated. This presentation will compare dam dynamics, including mill density data and synthetic estimates of beaver populations with sedimentation rates recorded in sediment cores. If low-head dams were a dominant mechanism in sediment storage, we expect to see changes in sedimentation rates with the expatriation of the beaver and the rise and decline of water power. Further, we expect to see spatial variation in these changes as beaver and mill densities and potential sediment yield are spatially heterogeneous. Ultimately, dramatic changes in sediment yield due to land use and hydrological alterations likely drove sedimentation rates; the mechanistic importance of storage likely depends on temporal coincidence.

  19. The Nitrogen Legacy: Evidence of Soil Nitrogen Accumulation in Anthropogenic Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Meter, K. J.; Basu, N. B.

    2013-12-01

    Human modification of the nitrogen (N) cycle has resulted in increased flows of reactive N, with some suggesting that planetary boundaries for maintaining human and ecosystem health have been exceeded. Persistence of large hypoxic zones in inland and coastal waters created by elevated concentrations of nitrate is one of the most significant impacts of such increased flows. While the need to manage these flows and their associated ecological impacts is recognized, best management practices to reduce stream N concentrations have had only limited success. Some have attributed this lack of success to an accumulation of legacy N stores from decades of fertilizer application. Nitrogen mass balance studies seem to suggest an ongoing retention of N within anthropogenic landscapes, but the exact form and location of this legacy N and the associated retention rates are subject to question. Here we introduce an unprecedented analysis of long-term soil data from the Mississippi River Basin (MRB) revealing significant increases in total N (TN) content. We show that TN accumulation for the MRB accounts for 49% of net anthropogenic N inputs (NANI), which complements previous work indicating that approximately 25% of net inputs are lost as riverine output. These findings significantly reduce the uncertainty associated with basin-level N retention. Further, our results demonstrate that, despite conventional wisdom of intensive agriculture leading to a depletion of TN, an accumulation of N is occurring in the deeper subsurface (25 - 100 cm) that compensates for depletion in the plow layer (0-25 cm). These legacy N stores may lead to time lags between changes in management practices and decreasing N concentrations in stream waters, thus resulting in multidecadal effects on water quality in agricultural watersheds.

  20. Neural Tube Defect Induction by Fumonisin B1 in LM/Bc Mice Fed Folate Deficient or Folate Replete Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum. FB1 is found in corn-based foods and evidence suggests that it is a risk factor for neural tube defects (NTD). The mechanism(s) underlying NTD induction by FB1 in the sensitive LM/Bc mouse model is not well...

  1. Experimental determination of the bulk swirl attenuation between two axial stations in the LM2500 inlet bellmouth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, T. M.; Freuler, R. J.

    1993-06-01

    The LM2500 gas turbine engine is used for propulsion in a variety of marine vessels. When a gas turbine engine is placed within a confined environment, such as in an enclosure in the hull of a marine vessel, it is unreasonable to expect to achieve a perfectly uniform airflow environment entering the engine inlet, and thus, limits are placed on the swirl angle of the incoming flow. Swirl limits are set at 5-deg preswirl and 12-deg counterswirl at the 'compressor face plane' for the LM2500. In full-scale tests performed in the field (shipboard during sea trials), a 'bellmouth measurement plane' was defined somewhat forward of the compressor face plane. The relationship of the swirl angles between the bellmouth measurement plane and the compressor face plane has been under some debate for the past several years. Historically, an attenuation factor of 0.5 has been used, but a more recent analytical study suggested an attenuation factor of 0.76 was more appropriate. A one-fifth scale model of the LM2500 bellmouth was constructed along with a swirl generator system capable of producing either a uniform straight or a uniformly swirling flow and delivering it to the LM2500 bellmouth inlet. Based on the results of this study, the use of an attenuation factor of 0.5 is justified.

  2. Sport and exercise medicine and the Olympic health legacy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    London 2012 is the first Olympic and Paralympic Games to explicitly try and develop socioeconomic legacies for which success indicators are specified - the highest profile of which was to deliver a health legacy by getting two million more people more active by 2012. This editorial highlights how specialists in Sport and Exercise Medicine can contribute towards increasing physical activity participation in the UK, as well as how the National Centre for Sport and Exercise Medicine might be a useful vehicle for delivering an Olympic health legacy. Key challenges are also discussed such as acquisition of funding to support new physical activity initiatives, appropriate allocation of resources, and how to assess the impact of legacy initiatives. PMID:22813079

  3. Joe Engle Recalls Legacy Of X-15 Testing at Dryden

    NASA Video Gallery

    Retired Air Force test pilot and NASA astronaut Joe Engle recalled the legacy of the famed X-15 rocket plane recently during a colloquium at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. Engle, the only pe...

  4. In memoriam: Richard G. Harrison - his life and legacy.

    PubMed

    Howard, Daniel J; Grosberg, Richard K; Noor, Mohamed A F; Normark, Benjamin B; Rand, David M; Shaw, Kerry L; Willett, Christopher S

    2016-06-01

    Richard G. Harrison passed away unexpectedly on April 12th, 2016. In this memoriam we pay tribute to the life and legacy of an extraordinary scientist, mentor, friend, husband, and father. PMID:27145221

  5. Environmentalism in American Pedagogy: The Legacy of Lester Ward.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Laurel N.; Tanner, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    A review is presented of the legacy of Lester Frank Ward, widely recognized as the architect of environmentalism in American pedagogy and the creator of some of the most fundamental ideas about American curriculum. (CB)

  6. Olympic Health Legacy; Essentials for Lasting Development of Host City

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Hee; Kim, Jung Moon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the Olympic Games should be to contribute to the social development by leaving behind economic, cultural and environmental legacies to the hosting region. While tangible examples such as venues are often recognized as representative legacies of the Olympics, intangible aspects such as the environment, culture, policy and human resources have been gaining in importance. The Olympic Games, at its most fundamental level, is a sporting event. Sports not only is closely related to the physical health, but is also instrumental to fostering mental health through inspiration. One of the most important sports legacies was the general change in the population’s perception on sports and physical activities; due to such change, people were able to enjoy sports as part of healthy and active everyday life and benefit physically. However, compared to tangible legacies such as the facilities, social legacies such as the general health and their planning, execution and achievements are hard to monitor. Therefore, for the Olympics to leave behind socio-cultural legacies that contribute to the development of the hosting region, there must be a thorough business plan that takes into account region-specific purpose, and is divided into stages such as before, during and after the Games. Should the 2018 Winter Olympic Games hope to create continuing contribution to its hosting region, it must leave behind ‘Health Legacies’ that will enhance the happiness of the hosting region’s population. To this end, establishment of region-specific purpose and systematic promotion of business via detailed analysis of precedents are a must. This article aim to review the health legacy endeavors of past host cities and suggest the appropriate forms of health legacy of 2018 Pyeongchang Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games. PMID:26064832

  7. Fifty years of Water Resources Research: Legacy and perspectives for the science of hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanari, Alberto; Bahr, Jean; Blöschl, Günter; Cai, Ximing; Mackay, D. Scott; Michalak, Anna M.; Rajaram, Harihar; Sander, Graham

    2015-09-01

    We present an overview of the contributions collected to celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of Water Resources Research along with a critical discussion of the legacy and perspectives for the science of hydrology in the 21st century. This collection of papers highlights exciting pathways to the future of water sciences. New monitoring and modeling techniques and increasing opportunities for data and knowledge sharing from hydrological research will provide innovative means to improve water management and to ensure a sustainable development to society. We believe that this set of papers will provide valuable inspiration for future hydrologists, and will support the intensification of international cooperation among scientists.

  8. Radio-sensitization of the murine osteosarcoma cell line LM8 with parthenolide, a natural inhibitor of NF-κB

    PubMed Central

    SUGIYASU, KENJIRO; NANNO, KATSUHIKO; TAMAI, NORIYUKI; HASHIMOTO, NOBUYUKI; KISHIDA, YUKI; YOSHIKAWA, HIDEKI; MYOUI, AKIRA

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear factor (NF)-κB has been shown to be associated with cancer resistance to radiotherapy (RT), and is constitutively active in the murine osteosarcoma cell line, LM8. Parthenolide has been reported to show antitumor activity through inhibition of the NF-κB pathway. In this study, we investigated the radio-sensitizing activity of parthenolide. We established Luc-LM8, a stable transfectant reporter construct of NF-κB transcriptional activity into LM8. Luc-LM8 maintained the malignancy observed with LM8. In vitro, Luc-LM8 cells were cultured with or without parthenolide treatment, irradiated, and subjected to cell viability and apoptosis assays. In vivo, to investigate whether parthenolide enhances radio-sensitivity of tumors, a tumor growth assay was conducted. Parthenolide enhanced the growth inhibitory effect of RT and induced the apoptosis of Luc-LM8 cells with RT in vitro. The in vivo tumor growth was significantly suppressed in the mice treated with parthenolide and RT. The present study suggests that parthenolide sensitizes Luc-LM8 cells to irradiation. Thus, parthenolide is a potential candidate for use as a potent radio-sensitizing drug for use in cancer RT. PMID:22866095

  9. A Large Family of AvrLm6-like Genes in the Apple and Pear Scab Pathogens, Venturia inaequalis and Venturia pirina

    PubMed Central

    Shiller, Jason; Van de Wouw, Angela P.; Taranto, Adam P.; Bowen, Joanna K.; Dubois, David; Robinson, Andrew; Deng, Cecilia H.; Plummer, Kim M.

    2015-01-01

    Venturia inaequalis and V. pirina are Dothideomycete fungi that cause apple scab and pear scab disease, respectively. Whole genome sequencing of V. inaequalis and V. pirina isolates has revealed predicted proteins with sequence similarity to AvrLm6, a Leptosphaeria maculans effector that triggers a resistance response in Brassica napus and B. juncea carrying the resistance gene, Rlm6. AvrLm6-like genes are present as large families (>15 members) in all sequenced strains of V. inaequalis and V. pirina, while in L. maculans, only AvrLm6 and a single paralog have been identified. The Venturia AvrLm6-like genes are located in gene-poor regions of the genomes, and mostly in close proximity to transposable elements, which may explain the expansion of these gene families. An AvrLm6-like gene from V. inaequalis with the highest sequence identity to AvrLm6 was unable to trigger a resistance response in Rlm6-carrying B. juncea. RNA-seq and qRT-PCR gene expression analyses, of in planta- and in vitro-grown V. inaequalis, has revealed that many of the AvrLm6-like genes are expressed during infection. An AvrLm6 homolog from V. inaequalis that is up-regulated during infection was shown (using an eYFP-fusion protein construct) to be localized to the sub-cuticular stroma during biotrophic infection of apple hypocotyls. PMID:26635823

  10. A Large Family of AvrLm6-like Genes in the Apple and Pear Scab Pathogens, Venturia inaequalis and Venturia pirina.

    PubMed

    Shiller, Jason; Van de Wouw, Angela P; Taranto, Adam P; Bowen, Joanna K; Dubois, David; Robinson, Andrew; Deng, Cecilia H; Plummer, Kim M

    2015-01-01

    Venturia inaequalis and V. pirina are Dothideomycete fungi that cause apple scab and pear scab disease, respectively. Whole genome sequencing of V. inaequalis and V. pirina isolates has revealed predicted proteins with sequence similarity to AvrLm6, a Leptosphaeria maculans effector that triggers a resistance response in Brassica napus and B. juncea carrying the resistance gene, Rlm6. AvrLm6-like genes are present as large families (>15 members) in all sequenced strains of V. inaequalis and V. pirina, while in L. maculans, only AvrLm6 and a single paralog have been identified. The Venturia AvrLm6-like genes are located in gene-poor regions of the genomes, and mostly in close proximity to transposable elements, which may explain the expansion of these gene families. An AvrLm6-like gene from V. inaequalis with the highest sequence identity to AvrLm6 was unable to trigger a resistance response in Rlm6-carrying B. juncea. RNA-seq and qRT-PCR gene expression analyses, of in planta- and in vitro-grown V. inaequalis, has revealed that many of the AvrLm6-like genes are expressed during infection. An AvrLm6 homolog from V. inaequalis that is up-regulated during infection was shown (using an eYFP-fusion protein construct) to be localized to the sub-cuticular stroma during biotrophic infection of apple hypocotyls. PMID:26635823

  11. Giving Structure to Legacy Finding Aids before Conversion to EAD: The Case of the Archives Departementales des Pyrenees-Atlantiques, France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulet, Anne; Maftei, Nicolas

    2005-01-01

    At the Archives Departementales des Pyrenees-Atlantiques, the encoding of more than forty legacy finding aids written between 1863 and 2000 is part of a program of digitization of the collections. Because of the size of the project, an external consultant, ArchProteus, has been brought in and specific management procedures have been put in place…

  12. Performance of High Temperature Operational Amplifier, Type LM2904WH, under Extreme Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard; Hammoud, Ahmad; Elbuluk, Malik

    2008-01-01

    Operation of electronic parts and circuits under extreme temperatures is anticipated in NASA space exploration missions as well as terrestrial applications. Exposure of electronics to extreme temperatures and wide-range thermal swings greatly affects their performance via induced changes in the semiconductor material properties, packaging and interconnects, or due to incompatibility issues between interfaces that result from thermal expansion/contraction mismatch. Electronics that are designed to withstand operation and perform efficiently in extreme temperatures would mitigate risks for failure due to thermal stresses and, therefore, improve system reliability. In addition, they contribute to reducing system size and weight, simplifying its design, and reducing development cost through the elimination of otherwise required thermal control elements for proper ambient operation. A large DC voltage gain (100 dB) operational amplifier with a maximum junction temperature of 150 C was recently introduced by STMicroelectronics [1]. This LM2904WH chip comes in a plastic package and is designed specifically for automotive and industrial control systems. It operates from a single power supply over a wide range of voltages, and it consists of two independent, high gain, internally frequency compensated operational amplifiers. Table I shows some of the device manufacturer s specifications.

  13. Influence of pH on mechanical relaxations in high solids LM-pectin preparations.

    PubMed

    Alba, K; Kasapis, S; Kontogiorgos, V

    2015-01-01

    The influence of pH on the mechanical relaxation of LM-pectin in the presence of co-solute has been investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry, ζ-potential measurements and small deformation dynamic oscillation in shear. pH was found to affect the conformational properties of the polyelectrolyte altering its structural behavior. Cooling scans in the vicinity of the glass transition region revealed a remarkable change in the viscoelastic functions as the polyelectrolyte rearranges from extended (neutral pH) to compact conformations (acidic pH). This conformational rearrangement was experimentally observed to result in early vitrification at neutral pH values where dissociation of galacturonic acid residues takes place. Time-temperature superposition of the mechanical shift factors and theoretical modeling utilizing WLF kinetics confirmed the accelerated kinetics of glass transition in the extended pectin conformation at neutral pH. Determination of the relaxation spectra of the samples using spectral analysis of the master curves revealed that the relaxation of macromolecules occurs within ∼ 0.1s regardless of the solvent pH. PMID:25965472

  14. The tainted legacy of Hans Reiter.

    PubMed

    Panush, Richard S; Paraschiv, Diana; Dorff, Rabbi Elliot N

    2003-02-01

    There is more than ample evidence that Hans Reiter, whose name has been eponymously linked to a rheumatologic syndrome, was a Nazi war criminal. He was responsible for heinous atrocities that violated the precepts of humanity, ethics, and professionalism. The authors suggest that Reiter's legacy is sufficiently tainted that the professional and ethical position of the medical community should be to no longer afford him this recognition. He should be remembered symbolically to remind us of our moral and professional responsibilities to prevent the kind of "experiments" he perpetrated as Director of the Nazi office for such matters. Medicine is a moral enterprise. Physicians serve to promote the welfare of their patients. Hans Reiter and others like him who have behaved in such a manner have acted beyond the pale of acceptable human behavior. These crimes by Reiter and others like him were transcendently aberrant and evil. We regard Reiter and others like him as tainted. We see no acceptable rationale to preserve any professional memory of Reiter and others like him within our medical culture except as a symbol of what our societal values obligate us to reject. We suggest reverting to or substituting other terms for the syndrome (such as spondyloarthropathy, spondyloarthritis, oligoarthritis, inflammatory oligoarthritis, reactive arthritis, [oligo-] arthritis with conjunctivitis/urethritis/diarrhea, etc) until pathophysiologic or other insights lead to better ones. (It should be noted that the description of this syndrome was not original to Reiter and that current nomenclature is probably in need of revision in any case because the terminology and classification is outdated and clinically imprecise.) We offer these recommendations because we cannot forget. We cannot forget that Reiter and others like him represented an abhorrent evil. We cannot forget that Reiter and others like him desecrated the traditions of our civilization. We cannot forget that Reiter and

  15. Aleksis Dreimanis: a legacy in Quaternary science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicock, Stephen R.; Menzies, John

    2000-12-01

    Aleksis Dreimanis was born and raised in Latvia. His interest in Quaternary and glacial geology began early and developed into a career that has spanned 7 decades. At age 20 he published his first paper in glacial geology and soon after began teaching at the University of Latvia. Teaching and research were interrupted by World War II but resumed at the Baltic University (Pinneberg, Germany), then at the University of Western Ontario where he has been ever since. Throughout his career, Dreimanis has successfully balanced the twin disciplines of Quaternary history and glacial geology. He was among the first to study quantitatively the relationship between till lithology and till formation and to study how glacial transport and dynamics affect till texture and deformation. With co-workers he developed the well-known stratigraphic scheme of the last glaciation in the Great Lakes region of North America. Aleksis became world-renowned through his committee work, especially as President of the INQUA Commission on Genesis and Lithology of Glacial Quaternary Deposits. His diplomacy, enthusiasm, and passion for his subject have inspired students and colleagues around the globe and resulted in remarkable international dialogue, cooperation, and consensus. Professor Aleksis Dreimanis is an honest scientist, a gentleman, and a true scholar who has left a rich legacy for future Quaternarists.

  16. The History and Legacy of BATSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    2012-01-01

    The BATSE experiment on the Compton Gamma-ray Observatory was the first large detector system specifically designed for the study of gamma-ray bursts. The eight large-area detectors allowed full-sky coverage and were optimized to operate in the energy region of the peak emission of most GRBs. BATSE provided detailed observations of the temporal and spectral characteristics of large samples of GRBs, and it was the first experiment to provide rapid notifications of the coarse location of many them. It also provided strong evidence for the cosmological distances to GRBs through the observation of the sky distribution and intensity distribution of numerous GRBs. The large number of GRBs observed with the high- sensitivity BATSE detectors continues to provide a database of GRB spectral and temporal properties in the primary energy range of GRB emission that will likely not be exceeded for at least another decade. The origin and development of the BATSE experiment, some highlights from the mission and its continuing legacy are described in this paper.

  17. Footprints in the Hubble Legacy Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubow, Stephen H.; Donaldson, T.; Gillies, K.; Greene, G.; Budavari, T.; Szalay, A.

    2010-01-01

    Footprints are geometric outlines of observations. They are displayed against a background image. The observations of the Hubble Space Telescope are defined by a set of hierarchical geometric regions of instrument coverage: exposures, combined observations, high level science products, and mosaics. In the growing global community of networked applications, the science end-user has several use cases for visualizing and accessing footprint data including scientific proposal preparation, research and analysis of generated science products, and interoperability between archives for correlation of coverage. The Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA) at Space Telescope Science Institute, in coordination with ESO-ECF and CADC, has developed a web based science user interface built on a VO service oriented architecture system to enable varying levels of astronomical community access to science products derived from the HST archive. We describe new features and technologies for the HLA footprint component web browser visualization tool and the underyling footprint services utilized by the HST Astronomers Proposal Tool (APT) in compliance with an IVOA standard data access protocol. The service infrastructure is based on a high performance spherical geometric model developed by Johns Hopkins University (JHU) and database search algorithms co-developed by STScI and JHU.

  18. Building an IYA Legacy for Underserved Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakimoto, Philip J.; Luckey, V.; Landsberg, R. H.; Hawkins, L.; Porro, I.

    2008-05-01

    The International Year of Astronomy will attract much attention, but what legacy will it leave for populations historically underrepresented in science? In this presentation, we focus on one such population--urban youths--and ask how IYA activities might be designed to have a lasting impact. Our general premise is that a major event might be used to attract attention, but that a long-term follow up is necessary for genuine impact. We will present three after-school and summer urban outreach programs that models such long-term involvement: The KICP Space Explorers Program, the MIT Kavli Youth Astronomy Apprenticeship Program, and the Notre Dame Supernova Club. Each of these programs is deeply embedded within the community that they serve and each shows great success in building interests and capabilities in science among the youths that participate. Audience members will be asked to add their own insights to the information presented and, from that, to brainstorm means by which they might build a lasting IYA impact in their own community.

  19. Socioeconomic legacy yields an invasion debt

    PubMed Central

    Essl, Franz; Dullinger, Stefan; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Hulme, Philip E.; Hülber, Karl; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Kleinbauer, Ingrid; Krausmann, Fridolin; Kühn, Ingolf; Nentwig, Wolfgang; Vilà, Montserrat; Genovesi, Piero; Gherardi, Francesca; Desprez-Loustau, Marie-Laure; Roques, Alain; Pyšek, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Globalization and economic growth are widely recognized as important drivers of biological invasions. Consequently, there is an increasing need for governments to address the role of international trade in their strategies to prevent species introductions. However, many of the most problematic alien species are not recent arrivals but were introduced several decades ago. Hence, current patterns of alien-species richness may better reflect historical rather than contemporary human activities, a phenomenon which might be called “invasion debt.” Here, we show that across 10 taxonomic groups (vascular plants, bryophytes, fungi, birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, fish, terrestrial insects, and aquatic invertebrates) in 28 European countries, current numbers of alien species established in the wild are indeed more closely related to indicators of socioeconomic activity from the year 1900 than to those from 2000, although the majority of species introductions occurred during the second half of the 20th century. The strength of the historical signal varies among taxonomic groups, with those possessing good capabilities for dispersal (birds, insects) more strongly associated with recent socioeconomic drivers. Nevertheless, our results suggest a considerable historical legacy for the majority of the taxa analyzed. The consequences of the current high levels of socioeconomic activity on the extent of biological invasions will thus probably not be completely realized until several decades into the future. PMID:21173227

  20. The Euclid/WFIRST Spitzer Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capak, Peter; Arendt, R.; Arnouts, S.; Bartlett, J.; Bouwens, R.; Brinchman, J.; Brodwin, M.; Carollo, M.; Castander, F.; Charlot, S.; Chary, R.-R.; Cohen, J.; Cooray, A.; Conselice, C.; Coupon, J.; Cuby, J.-G.; Culliandre, J.; Davidzon, I.; Dole, H.; Dunlop, J.; Eisenhardt, P.; Ferrara, A.; Gardner, J.; Hasinger, G.; Hildebrandt, H.; Ho, S.; Ilbert, O.; Jouvel, S.; Kashlinsky, A.; LeFevre, O.; LeFloc'h, E.; Maraston, C.; Masters, D.; McCracken, H. J.; Mei, S.; Mellier, Y.; Mitchell-Wynn, K.; Moustakas, L.; Nayyeri, H.; Paltani, S.; Rhodes, J.; Salvato, M.; Sanders, D.; Scaramella, R.; Scarlata, C.; Scoville, N.; Silverman, J.; Speagle, J.; Stanford, S.; Stern, D.; Teplitz, H.; Toft, S.

    2016-08-01

    We propose 5286h of Spitzer Legacy Science Time to carry out a precursor survey for Euclid, WFIRST, and JWST. The primary goal is to enable definitive studies of reionization, z>7 galaxy formation, and the first massive black holes. The proposed data will also enhance the cosmological constraints provided by Euclid and WFIRST. The survey will cover 20 square degrees to 2h per pointing, split between the Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS) and the North Ecliptic Pole. These are some of the darkest and most observable fields on the sky and have existing multi-wavelength data that will enable immediate science. The survey parameters are designed to enable stellar mass measurement at 33 enabling a direct probe of galaxy growth during the epoch of re-ionization.

  1. The Hubble Legacy Archive NICMOS grism data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freudling, W.; Kümmel, M.; Haase, J.; Hook, R.; Kuntschner, H.; Lombardi, M.; Micol, A.; Stoehr, F.; Walsh, J.

    2008-11-01

    The Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA) aims to create calibrated science data from the Hubble Space Telescope archive and make them accessible via user-friendly and Virtual Observatory (VO) compatible interfaces. It is a collaboration between the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC) and the Space Telescope - European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF). Data produced by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) instruments with slitless spectroscopy modes are among the most difficult to extract and exploit. As part of the HLA project, the ST-ECF aims to provide calibrated spectra for objects observed with these HST slitless modes. In this paper, we present the HLA NICMOS G141 grism spectra. We describe in detail the calibration, data reduction and spectrum extraction methods used to produce the extracted spectra. The quality of the extracted spectra and associated direct images is demonstrated through comparison with near-IR imaging catalogues and existing near-IR spectroscopy. The output data products and their associated metadata are publicly available (http://hla.stecf.org/) through a web form, as well as a VO-compatible interface that enables flexible querying of the archive of the 2470 NICMOS G141 spectra. In total, spectra of 1923  unique targets are included.

  2. The Swift GRB Host Galaxy Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perley, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    I will describe the Swift Host Galaxy Legacy Survey (SHOALS), a comprehensive multiwavelength program to characterize the demographics of the GRB host population and its redshift evolution from z=0 to z=7. Using unbiased selection criteria we have designated a subset of 119 Swift gamma-ray bursts which are now being targeted with intensive observational follow-up. Deep Spitzer imaging of every field has already been obtained and analyzed, with major programs ongoing at Keck, GTC, Gemini, VLT, and Magellan to obtain complementary optical/NIR photometry and spectroscopy to enable full SED modeling and derivation of fundamental physical parameters such as mass, extinction, and star-formation rate. Using these data I will present an unbiased measurement of the GRB host-galaxy luminosity and mass distributions and their evolution with redshift, compare GRB hosts to other star-forming galaxy populations, and discuss implications for the nature of the GRB progenitor and the ability of GRBs to serve as tools for measuring and studying cosmic star-formation in the distant universe.

  3. Hubble Legacy Archive And The Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Jessica; Whitmore, B.; Eisenhamer, B.; Bishop, M.; Knisely, L.

    2012-01-01

    The Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA) at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) hosts the Image of the Month (IOTM) Series. The HLA is a joint project of STScI, the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF), and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC). The HLA is designed optimize science from the Hubble Space Telescope by providing online enhanced Hubble products and advanced browsing capabilities. The IOTM's are created for astronomers and the public to highlight various features within HLA, such as the "Interactive Display", "Footprint” and "Inventory” features to name a few. We have been working with the Office of Public Outreach (OPO) to create a standards based educational module for middle school to high school students of the IOTM: Rings and the Moons of Uranus. The set of Uranus activities are highlighted by a movie that displays the orbit of five of Uranus’ largest satellites. We made the movie based on eight visits of Uranus from 2000-06-16 to 2000-06-18, using the PC chip on the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and filter F850LP (proposal ID: 8680). Students will be engaged in activities that will allow them to "discover” the rings and satellites around Uranus, calculate the orbit of the satellites, and introduces students to analyze real data from Hubble.

  4. The Mayo brothers: an American surgical legacy.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2010-10-01

    Few in the history of surgery and just as few in the history of medicine can reach the level of clinical visibility as achieved by the Mayo brothers. The brothers changed the face of medicine while they were alive, and their fame and influence continued to grow after their death in 1939. The Mayo American surgical legacy had incredible proportions. The brothers systematically modified the field as few others had done before. They were great surgical innovators who took the surgical techniques of others and added a touch of their own to make the surgical procedure better and more secure. The Mayos were the stars regionally, nationally, and around the world. They attracted attention from their generation and occupied center stage long after. To speak of the Mayos is to speak of the quintessential American values of professionalism, respect, commitment, and caring for their fellow human beings. Their creation, the Mayo Clinic, surpassed the wildest hopes and predictions that anyone could have had regarding their best dreams. PMID:20874478

  5. Functional and structural studies of pullulanase from Anoxybacillus sp. LM18-11.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianyong; Ren, Feifei; Huang, Chun-Hsiang; Zheng, Yingying; Zhen, Jie; Sun, Hong; Ko, Tzu-Ping; He, Miao; Chen, Chun-Chi; Chan, Hsiu-Chien; Guo, Rey-Ting; Song, Hui; Ma, Yanhe

    2014-09-01

    Pullulanase is a debranching enzyme that specifically hydrolyzes the α-1,6 glycosidic linkage of α-glucans, and has wide industrial applications. Here, we report structural and functional studies of a new thermostable pullulanase from Anoxybacillus sp. LM18-11 (PulA). Based on the hydrolysis products, PulA was classified as a type I pullulanase. It showed maximum activity at 60°C and pH 6.0. Kinetic study showed that the specific activity and Km for pullulan of PulA are 750 U mg(-1) and 16.4 μmol L(-1), respectively. PulA has a half-life of 48 h at 60°C. The remarkable thermostability makes PulA valuable for industrial usage. To further investigate the mechanism of the enzyme, we solved the crystal structures of PulA and its complexes with maltotriose and maltotetraose at 1.75-2.22 Å resolution. The PulA structure comprises four domains (N1, N2, A, and C). A is the catalytic domain, in which three conserved catalytic residues were identified (D413, E442, and D526). Two molecules of oligosaccharides were seen in the catalytic A domain in a parallel binding mode. Interestingly, another two oligosaccharides molecules were found between the N1 domain and the loop between the third β-strand and the third α-helix in the A domain. Based on sequence alignment and the ligand binding pattern, the N1 domain is identified as a new type of carbohydrate-binding motif and classified to the CBM68 family. The structure solved here is the first structure of pullulanase which has carbohydrate bound to the N1 domain. PMID:24375572

  6. Software Safety Risk in Legacy Safety-Critical Computer Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Janice; Baggs, Rhoda

    2007-01-01

    Safety-critical computer systems must be engineered to meet system and software safety requirements. For legacy safety-critical computer systems, software safety requirements may not have been formally specified during development. When process-oriented software safety requirements are levied on a legacy system after the fact, where software development artifacts don't exist or are incomplete, the question becomes 'how can this be done?' The risks associated with only meeting certain software safety requirements in a legacy safety-critical computer system must be addressed should such systems be selected as candidates for reuse. This paper proposes a method for ascertaining formally, a software safety risk assessment, that provides measurements for software safety for legacy systems which may or may not have a suite of software engineering documentation that is now normally required. It relies upon the NASA Software Safety Standard, risk assessment methods based upon the Taxonomy-Based Questionnaire, and the application of reverse engineering CASE tools to produce original design documents for legacy systems.

  7. The Effects of Low Dose-Rate Ionizing Radiation on the Shapes of Transients in the LM124 Operational Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchner, Stephen; McMorrow, Dale; Roche, Nicholas; Dusseau, Laurent; Pease, Ron L.

    2008-01-01

    Shapes of single event transients (SETs) in a linear bipolar circuit (LM124) change with exposure to total ionizing dose (TID) radiation. SETs shape changes are a direct consequence of TID-induced degradation of bipolar transistor gain. A reduction in transistor gain causes a reduction in the drive current of the current sources in the circuit, and it is the lower drive current that most affects the shapes of large amplitude SETs.

  8. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic characterization of LmACR2, an arsenate/antimonate reductase from Leishmania major

    SciTech Connect

    Bisacchi, Davide; Zhou, Yao; Rosen, Barry P.; Mukhopadhyay, Rita; Bordo, Domenico

    2006-10-01

    LmACR2 from L. major is the first rhodanese-like enzyme directly involved in the reduction of arsenate and antimonate to be crystallized. Diffraction data have been collected to 1.99 Å resolution using synchrotron X-rays. Arsenic is present in the biosphere owing either to the presence of pesticides and herbicides used in agricultural and industrial activities or to leaching from geological formations. The health effects of prolonged exposure to arsenic can be devastating and may lead to various forms of cancer. Antimony(V), which is chemically very similar to arsenic, is used instead in the treatment of leishmaniasis, an infection caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania sp.; the reduction of pentavalent antimony contained in the drug Pentostam to the active trivalent form arises from the presence in the Leishmania genome of a gene, LmACR2, coding for the protein LmACR2 (14.5 kDa, 127 amino acids) that displays weak but significant sequence similarity to the catalytic domain of Cdc25 phosphatase and to rhodanese enzymes. For structural characterization, LmACR2 was overexpressed, purified to homogeneity and crystallized in a trigonal space group (P321 or P3{sub 1}21/P3{sub 2}21). The protein crystallized in two distinct trigonal crystal forms, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 111.0, c = 86.1 Å and a = b = 111.0, c = 175.6 Å, respectively. At a synchrotron beamline, the diffraction pattern extended to a resolution limit of 1.99 Å.

  9. The APSES transcription factor LmStuA is required for sporulation, pathogenic development and effector gene expression in Leptosphaeria maculans.

    PubMed

    Soyer, Jessica L; Hamiot, Audrey; Ollivier, Bénédicte; Balesdent, Marie-Hélène; Rouxel, Thierry; Fudal, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    Leptosphaeria maculans causes stem canker of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). The APSES transcription factor StuA is a key developmental regulator of fungi, involved in morphogenesis, conidia production and also more recently described as required for secondary metabolite production and for effector gene expression in phytopathogenic fungi. We investigated the involvement of the orthologue of StuA in L. maculans, LmStuA, in morphogenesis, pathogenicity and effector gene expression. LmStuA is induced during mycelial growth and at 14 days after infection, corresponding to the development of pycnidia on oilseed rape leaves, consistent with the function of StuA described so far. We set up the functional characterization of LmStuA using an RNA interference approach. Silenced LmStuA transformants showed typical phenotypic defects of StuA mutants with altered growth in axenic culture and impaired conidia production and perithecia formation. Silencing of LmStuA abolished the pathogenicity of L. maculans on oilseed rape leaves and also resulted in a drastic decrease in expression of at least three effector genes during in planta infection, suggesting either that LmStuA regulates, directly or indirectly, the expression of several effector genes in L. maculans or that the infection stage in which effectors are expressed is not reached when LmStuA expression is silenced. PMID:25727237

  10. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic characterization of LmACR2, an arsenate/antimonate reductase from Leishmania major.

    PubMed

    Bisacchi, Davide; Zhou, Yao; Rosen, Barry P; Mukhopadhyay, Rita; Bordo, Domenico

    2006-10-01

    Arsenic is present in the biosphere owing either to the presence of pesticides and herbicides used in agricultural and industrial activities or to leaching from geological formations. The health effects of prolonged exposure to arsenic can be devastating and may lead to various forms of cancer. Antimony(V), which is chemically very similar to arsenic, is used instead in the treatment of leishmaniasis, an infection caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania sp.; the reduction of pentavalent antimony contained in the drug Pentostam to the active trivalent form arises from the presence in the Leishmania genome of a gene, LmACR2, coding for the protein LmACR2 (14.5 kDa, 127 amino acids) that displays weak but significant sequence similarity to the catalytic domain of Cdc25 phosphatase and to rhodanese enzymes. For structural characterization, LmACR2 was overexpressed, purified to homogeneity and crystallized in a trigonal space group (P321 or P3(1)21/P3(2)21). The protein crystallized in two distinct trigonal crystal forms, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 111.0, c = 86.1 A and a = b = 111.0, c = 175.6 A, respectively. At a synchrotron beamline, the diffraction pattern extended to a resolution limit of 1.99 A. PMID:17012788

  11. The receptor-like kinase SOBIR1 interacts with Brassica napus LepR3 and is required for Leptosphaeria maculans AvrLm1-triggered immunity.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lisong; Borhan, M Hossein

    2015-01-01

    The fungus Leptosphaeria maculans (L. maculans) is the causal agent of blackleg disease of canola/oilseed rape (Brassica napus) worldwide. We previously reported cloning of the B. napus blackleg resistance gene, LepR3, which encodes a receptor-like protein. LepR3 triggers localized cell death upon recognition of its cognate Avr protein, AvrLm1. Here, we exploited the Nicotiana benthamiana model plant to investigate the recognition mechanism of AvrLm1 by LepR3. Co-expression of the LepR3/AvrLm1 gene pair in N. benthamiana resulted in development of a hypersensitive response (HR). However, a truncated AvrLm1 lacking its indigenous signal peptide was compromised in its ability to induce LepR3-mediated HR, indicating that AvrLm1 is perceived by LepR3 extracellularly. Structure-function analysis of the AvrLm1 protein revealed that the C-terminal region of AvrLm1 was required for LepR3-mediated HR in N. benthamiana and for resistance to L. maculans in B. napus. LepR3 was shown to be physically interacting with the B. napus receptor like kinase, SOBIR1 (BnSOBIR1). Silencing of NbSOBIR1 or NbSERK3 (BAK1) compromised LepR3-AvrLm1-dependent HR in N. benthamiana, suggesting that LepR3-mediated resistance to L. maculans in B. napus requires SOBIR1 and BAK1/SERK3. Using this model system, we determined that BnSOBIR1 and SERK3/BAK1 are essential partners in the LepR3 signaling complex and were able to define the AvrLm1 effector domain. PMID:26579176

  12. NORPERM, the Norwegian Permafrost Database - a TSP NORWAY IPY legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juliussen, H.; Christiansen, H. H.; Strand, G. S.; Iversen, S.; Midttømme, K.; Rønning, J. S.

    2010-10-01

    NORPERM, the Norwegian Permafrost Database, was developed at the Geological Survey of Norway during the International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2009 as the main data legacy of the IPY research project Permafrost Observatory Project: A Contribution to the Thermal State of Permafrost in Norway and Svalbard (TSP NORWAY). Its structural and technical design is described in this paper along with the ground temperature data infrastructure in Norway and Svalbard, focussing on the TSP NORWAY permafrost observatory installations in the North Scandinavian Permafrost Observatory and Nordenskiöld Land Permafrost Observatory, being the primary data providers of NORPERM. Further developments of the database, possibly towards a regional database for the Nordic area, are also discussed. The purpose of NORPERM is to store ground temperature data safely and in a standard format for use in future research. The IPY data policy of open, free, full and timely release of IPY data is followed, and the borehole metadata description follows the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) standard. NORPERM is purely a temperature database, and the data is stored in a relation database management system and made publically available online through a map-based graphical user interface. The datasets include temperature time series from various depths in boreholes and from the air, snow cover, ground-surface or upper ground layer recorded by miniature temperature data-loggers, and temperature profiles with depth in boreholes obtained by occasional manual logging. All the temperature data from the TSP NORWAY research project is included in the database, totalling 32 temperature time series from boreholes, 98 time series of micrometeorological temperature conditions, and 6 temperature depth profiles obtained by manual logging in boreholes. The database content will gradually increase as data from previous and future projects are added. Links to near real-time permafrost temperatures, obtained

  13. ASCO Plenary Sessions: impact, legacy, future.

    PubMed

    Vandross, Andrae; Prasad, Vinay; Mailankody, Sham

    2016-06-01

    The ASCO annual meeting draws a large crowd of physicians, cancer researchers, policy makers, and industry representatives. The crown jewel of the annual events is the Plenary session where impactful, influential and visible abstracts are selected for the largest audience. Plenary topics are frequently paired with concurrent New England Journal or Lancet publications.  Here, we review 9 years of ASCO plenary sessions.  Several themes emerge.  First, many of the topics selected have indeed been practice changing, such as the use of ALK inhibitors for ALK rearranged NSCLC, or checkpoint inhibitors in metastatic melanoma.  Second, although some plenary topics seemed destined to change practice, they ultimately falter, such as the use of Cetuximab in NSCLC, vaccine therapy for follicular lymphoma, and even Bevacizumab in metastatic renal cell cancer. Who could have forseen bevacizumab displaced by several VEGF TKIs?  Third, negative trials are rare among Plenary sessions, but when they are presented they are immensely important.  Examples include a seminal study using CA-125 levels to guide treatment of relapsed ovarian cancer, the use of lapatinib combined with traztuzumab in the adjuvant treatment of HER2 + disease, and studies showing no survival benefit to upfront bevacizumab in glioblastoma multiforme.   Fourth, we note a large industry presence among Plenary sessions, as the Industry in part sponsored 62% of Plenary abstracts.  Ultimately a review of 9 years of ASCO plenary reveals the plenary for what it is: a conservative selection of abstracts that, at the time, are thought to change the face of oncology.  Time, however, is the true arbiter, and some succeed in this quest, while others falter.  ASCO plenary sessions reveal the influence, legacy and future of cancer care. PMID:27178681

  14. Astronomy Legacy Project - Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Thurburn; Castelaz, Michael W.; Rottler, Lee; Cline, J. Donald

    2016-01-01

    Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) is a not-for-profit public foundation in North Carolina dedicated to providing hands-on educational and research opportunities for a broad cross-section of users in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) disciplines. In November 2007 a Workshop on a National Plan for Preserving Astronomical Photographic Data (2009ASPC,410,33O, Osborn, W. & Robbins, L) was held at PARI. The result was the establishment of the Astronomical Photographic Data Archive (APDA) at PARI. In late 2013 PARI began ALP (Astronomy Legacy Project). ALP's purpose is to digitize an extensive set of twentieth century photographic astronomical data housed in APDA. Because of the wide range of types of plates, plate dimensions and emulsions found among the 40+ collections, plate digitization will require a versatile set of scanners and digitizing instruments. Internet crowdfunding was used to assist in the purchase of additional digitization equipment that were described at AstroPlate2014 Plate Preservation Workshop (www.astroplate.cz) held in Prague, CZ, March, 2014. Equipment purchased included an Epson Expression 11000XL scanner and two Nikon D800E cameras. These digital instruments will compliment a STScI GAMMA scanner now located in APDA. GAMMA will be adapted to use an electroluminescence light source and a digital camera with a telecentric lens to achieve high-speed high-resolution scanning. The 1μm precision XY stage of GAMMA will allow very precise positioning of the plate stage. Multiple overlapping CCD images of small sections of each plate, tiles, will be combined using a photo-mosaic process similar to one used in Harvard's DASCH project. Implementation of a software pipeline for the creation of a SQL database containing plate images and metadata will be based upon APPLAUSE as described by Tuvikene at AstroPlate2014 (www.astroplate.cz/programs/).

  15. The scientific legacy of Howard Vincent Malmstadt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horlick, Gary

    2006-06-01

    Howard Malmstadt was a true giant of Analytical Chemistry and clearly one of the most influential analytical chemists of the last 50 years. Howard, through his own work and that of his students (first generation) and their students (second generation) and their students' students (third generation) changed the course of Analytical Chemistry. His research interests were broad and ranged from analytical solution chemistry (titrimetry and reaction rates) and electrochemistry to atomic and molecular spectroscopy, chemical instrumentation, clinical chemistry and automation. Howard was also one of the most innovative and influential educators of our time. He changed forever the analytical curriculum through his many books on Electronics for Scientists, most written in conjunction with Chris Enke and Stan Crouch. Their texts and short courses went from pioneering the application of tube-based analog electronics (servo systems and operational amplifiers) in scientific measurements to the impact that integrated circuits and digital electronics would have on laboratory measurements. He strongly believed in the importance of "hands-on" in education. To this end, he expended considerable personal effort and time to see not only the development and commercialization of an effective laboratory infrastructure to support education in analog and digital electronics, but also oversaw the development of modular instrumentation for spectroscopy. Over the years he received many awards from the Analytical Chemistry community for his outstanding efforts and contributions to teaching and research. Many of Howard's students went on into academia. They and their students now represent the ongoing legacy for analytical chemistry that evolved from Howard's laboratory at Illinois. A remarkable diversity of research programs are underway in their laboratories. Topics range from atomic, laser, mass, and Raman spectroscopy to detection technology, analytical education, micro

  16. The Environmental Legacy of Modern Tropical Deforestation.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Isabel M D; Smith, Matthew J; Wearn, Oliver R; Purves, Drew; Ewers, Robert M

    2016-08-22

    Tropical deforestation has caused a significant share of carbon emissions and species losses, but historical patterns have rarely been explicitly considered when estimating these impacts [1]. A deforestation event today leads to a time-delayed future release of carbon, from the eventual decay either of forest products or of slash left at the site [2]. Similarly, deforestation often does not result in the immediate loss of species, and communities may exhibit a process of "relaxation" to their new equilibrium over time [3]. We used a spatially explicit land cover change model [4] to reconstruct the annual rates and spatial patterns of tropical deforestation that occurred between 1950 and 2009 in the Amazon, in the Congo Basin, and across Southeast Asia. Using these patterns, we estimated the resulting gross vegetation carbon emissions [2, 5] and species losses over time [6]. Importantly, we accounted for the time lags inherent in both the release of carbon and the extinction of species. We show that even if deforestation had completely halted in 2010, time lags ensured there would still be a carbon emissions debt of at least 8.6 petagrams, equivalent to 5-10 years of global deforestation, and an extinction debt of more than 140 bird, mammal, and amphibian forest-specific species, which if paid, would increase the number of 20(th)-century extinctions in these groups by 120%. Given the magnitude of these debts, commitments to reduce emissions and biodiversity loss are unlikely to be realized without specific actions that directly address this damaging environmental legacy. PMID:27476593

  17. U.S. Spacesuit Legacy: Maintaining it for the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; McMann, Joe; Thomas, Ken; Kosmo, Joe; Lewis, Cathleen; Wright, Rebecca; Bitterly, Rose; Oliva, Vladenka

    2012-01-01

    The history of US Spacesuit development and use is rich with information on lessons learned, and constitutes a valuable legacy to those designing spacesuits for the future, as well as educators, students and the general public. The genesis of lessons learned is best understood by studying the evolution of past spacesuit programs how the challenges and pressures of the times influenced the direction of the various spacesuit programs. This paper will show how the legacy of various programs evolved in response to these forces. Important aspects of how this rich U.S. spacesuit legacy is being preserved today will be described, including the archiving of spacesuit hardware, important documents, videos, oral history, and the rapidly expanding US Spacesuit Knowledge Capture program.

  18. U.S. Spacesuit Legacy: Maintaining it for the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; McMann, Joe; Thomas, Ken; Kosmo, Joe; Lewis, Cathleen; Wright, Rebecca; Bitterly, Rose; Olivia, Vladenka Rose

    2013-01-01

    The history of U.S. spacesuit development and its use are rich with information on lessons learned, and constitutes a valuable legacy to those designing spacesuits for the future, as well as to educators, students, and the general public. The genesis of lessons learned is best understood by studying the evolution of past spacesuit programs - how the challenges and pressures of the times influenced the direction of the various spacesuit programs. This paper shows how the legacy of various spacesuit-related programs evolved in response to these forces. Important aspects of how this U.S. spacesuit legacy is being preserved today is described, including the archiving of spacesuit hardware, important documents, videos, oral history, and the rapidly expanding U.S. Spacesuit Knowledge Capture program.

  19. 31 CFR 357.43 - Liability for transfers to and from Legacy Treasury Direct ®.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Legacy Treasury Direct ®. 357.43 Section 357.43 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... SYSTEM (TRADES) AND LEGACY TREASURY DIRECT Additional Provisions § 357.43 Liability for transfers to and from Legacy Treasury Direct ®. A depository institution or other entity that transfers to, or...

  20. 31 CFR 357.43 - Liability for transfers to and from Legacy Treasury Direct ®.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Legacy Treasury Direct ®. 357.43 Section 357.43 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... SYSTEM (TRADES) AND LEGACY TREASURY DIRECT Additional Provisions § 357.43 Liability for transfers to and from Legacy Treasury Direct ®. A depository institution or other entity that transfers to, or...

  1. 31 CFR 357.43 - Liability for transfers to and from Legacy Treasury Direct ®.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Legacy Treasury Direct ®. 357.43 Section 357.43 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY TREASURY BONDS, NOTES AND BILLS HELD IN LEGACY TREASURY DIRECT Additional Provisions § 357.43 Liability for transfers to and from Legacy Treasury Direct ®. A depository institution...

  2. 31 CFR 357.43 - Liability for transfers to and from Legacy Treasury Direct ®.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Legacy Treasury Direct ®. 357.43 Section 357.43 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... SYSTEM (TRADES) AND LEGACY TREASURY DIRECT Additional Provisions § 357.43 Liability for transfers to and from Legacy Treasury Direct ®. A depository institution or other entity that transfers to, or...

  3. 31 CFR 357.43 - Liability for transfers to and from Legacy Treasury Direct ®.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Legacy Treasury Direct ®. 357.43 Section 357.43 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... SYSTEM (TRADES) AND LEGACY TREASURY DIRECT Additional Provisions § 357.43 Liability for transfers to and from Legacy Treasury Direct ®. A depository institution or other entity that transfers to, or...

  4. Legacy effects in linked ecological-soil-geomorphic systems of drylands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A legacy effect refers to the impact that previous conditions have on current processes or properties. Ecological legacies in drylands result from feedbacks among biotic, soil, and geomorphic processes that operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Legacy effects depend on (1) the magnitude o...

  5. 31 CFR 357.20 - Securities account in Legacy Treasury Direct ®.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... security pursuant to 31 CFR 306.23. The account master record includes, but is not limited to, the... Direct ®. 357.20 Section 357.20 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... LEGACY TREASURY DIRECT Legacy Treasury Direct Book-Entry Securities System (Legacy Treasury Direct) §...

  6. 31 CFR 357.20 - Securities account in Legacy Treasury Direct ®.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... definitive security pursuant to 31 CFR 306.23. The account master record includes, but is not limited to, the... Direct ®. 357.20 Section 357.20 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance...) AND LEGACY TREASURY DIRECT Legacy Treasury Direct Book-Entry Securities System (Legacy Treasury...

  7. 31 CFR 357.20 - Securities account in Legacy Treasury Direct ®.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... security pursuant to 31 CFR 306.23. The account master record includes, but is not limited to, the... Direct ®. 357.20 Section 357.20 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... LEGACY TREASURY DIRECT Legacy Treasury Direct Book-Entry Securities System (Legacy Treasury Direct) §...

  8. 31 CFR 357.20 - Securities account in Legacy Treasury Direct ®.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... security pursuant to 31 CFR 306.23. The account master record includes, but is not limited to, the... Direct ®. 357.20 Section 357.20 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... LEGACY TREASURY DIRECT Legacy Treasury Direct Book-Entry Securities System (Legacy Treasury Direct) §...

  9. Capital Conversion and Accumulation: A Social Portrait of Legacies at an Elite University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Nathan D.; Spenner, Kenneth I.

    2009-01-01

    Legacies, or students with a family member who graduated from the same college or university, have been the source of much debate. We add to the existing literature by providing a detailed empirical portrait of legacies at a private, selective university across the college years. We examine how legacies are distinctive in their admissions…

  10. 75 FR 64318 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning Fairplay Legacy Electric Vehicles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... Fairplay Legacy line of golf and recreational electric vehicles. Based upon the facts presented, CBP has... determination concerning the country of origin of the Fairplay Legacy line of golf and recreational electric... final determination concerns the country of origin of the Fairplay Legacy line of golf and...

  11. Derivatives of Dictyostelium differentiation-inducing factors inhibit lysophosphatidic acid–stimulated migration of murine osteosarcoma LM8 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kubohara, Yuzuru; Komachi, Mayumi; Homma, Yoshimi; Kikuchi, Haruhisa; Oshima, Yoshiteru

    2015-08-07

    Osteosarcoma is a common metastatic bone cancer that predominantly develops in children and adolescents. Metastatic osteosarcoma remains associated with a poor prognosis; therefore, more effective anti-metastatic drugs are needed. Differentiation-inducing factor-1 (DIF-1), −2, and −3 are novel lead anti-tumor agents that were originally isolated from the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Here we investigated the effects of a panel of DIF derivatives on lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-induced migration of mouse osteosarcoma LM8 cells by using a Boyden chamber assay. Some DIF derivatives such as Br-DIF-1, DIF-3(+2), and Bu-DIF-3 (5–20 μM) dose-dependently suppressed LPA-induced cell migration with associated IC{sub 50} values of 5.5, 4.6, and 4.2 μM, respectively. On the other hand, the IC{sub 50} values of Br-DIF-1, DIF-3(+2), and Bu-DIF-3 versus cell proliferation were 18.5, 7.2, and 2.0 μM, respectively, in LM8 cells, and >20, 14.8, and 4.3 μM, respectively, in mouse 3T3-L1 fibroblasts (non-transformed). Together, our results demonstrate that Br-DIF-1 in particular may be a valuable tool for the analysis of cancer cell migration, and that DIF derivatives such as DIF-3(+2) and Bu-DIF-3 are promising lead anti-tumor agents for the development of therapies that suppress osteosarcoma cell proliferation, migration, and metastasis. - Highlights: • LPA induces cell migration (invasion) in murine osteosarcoma LM8 cells. • DIFs are novel lead anti-tumor agents found in Dictyostelium discoideum. • We examined the effects of DIF derivatives on LPA-induced LM8 cell migration in vitro. • Some of the DIF derivatives inhibited LPA-induced LM8 cell migration.

  12. Collaborative adaptive landscape management (CALM) in rangelands: Discussion of general principles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The management of rangeland landscapes involves broad spatial extents, mixed land ownership, and multiple resource objectives. Management outcomes depend on biophysical heterogeneity, highly variable weather conditions, land use legacies, and spatial processes such as wildlife movement, hydrological...

  13. Traceability of Software Safety Requirements in Legacy Safety Critical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Janice L.

    2007-01-01

    How can traceability of software safety requirements be created for legacy safety critical systems? Requirements in safety standards are imposed most times during contract negotiations. On the other hand, there are instances where safety standards are levied on legacy safety critical systems, some of which may be considered for reuse for new applications. Safety standards often specify that software development documentation include process-oriented and technical safety requirements, and also require that system and software safety analyses are performed supporting technical safety requirements implementation. So what can be done if the requisite documents for establishing and maintaining safety requirements traceability are not available?

  14. Enhancing the Environmental Legacy of the International Polar Year 2007- 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tin, T.; Roura, R.; Perrault, M.

    2006-12-01

    The International Geophysical Year (IGY) left a legacy of peace and international cooperation in the form of the 1959 Antarctic Treaty. Since the IGY, the 1991 Protocol of Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was signed and entered into force. The Protocol establishes that the protection of the environment and the wilderness values of Antarctica "shall be fundamental considerations in the planning and conduct of all activities in the Antarctic Treaty area". Fifty years on, the IPY 2007-08 can, in turn, leave behind a positive environmental legacy - where the sharing of facilities and logistics are encouraged, the human footprint in Antarctica is minimized and a future generation of environmentally aware scientists, logisticians and visitors is fostered. Based on an analysis of all Expressions of Interest submitted to the IPY, we found that about three-quarters of IPY's Antarctic projects plan to have fieldwork components. About one-third of these field projects expect to leave physical infrastructure in Antarctica. A number of projects plan to develop large-scale infrastructure, such as stations and observatories, in hitherto pristine areas. Fewer than one percent of Antarctic field projects address the issue of their environmental legacy: four projects indicated that the site will be cleaned up or the equipment will be removed at the end of the project; two projects indicated that their results may be useful for the management of the Antarctic environment, e.g., in the control of invasive species or setting up of marine protected areas. With the goal of increasing the environmental awareness of Antarctic field scientists, our contribution will review current research on the impacts of human activities science, tourism, exploitation of marine resources and global climate change - on the Antarctic environment. A preliminary analysis of the cumulative impacts of IPY activities will be presented. Case studies of scientific projects in Antarctica with a

  15. 76 FR 65561 - Multistate Corridor Operations and Management Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... corridor transportation activities and research to apply for participation in the Multistate Corridor... Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU) Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Research... implementation for research programs and projects to improve multimodal transportation system management...

  16. The Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Legacy of HST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    quasars to probe the Cosmic Web, also with COS. Altogether, these diverse spectral observations constitute one of the key legacies of HST, and hopefully one that will continue to be built upon in the coming years.

  17. The Hubble Legacy Archive ACS grism data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kümmel, M.; Rosati, P.; Fosbury, R.; Haase, J.; Hook, R. N.; Kuntschner, H.; Lombardi, M.; Micol, A.; Nilsson, K. K.; Stoehr, F.; Walsh, J. R.

    2011-06-01

    A public release of slitless spectra, obtained with ACS/WFC and the G800L grism, is presented. Spectra were automatically extracted in a uniform way from 153 archival fields (or "associations") distributed across the two Galactic caps, covering all observations to 2008. The ACS G800L grism provides a wavelength range of 0.55-1.00 μm, with a dispersion of 40 Å/pixel and a resolution of ~80 Å for point-like sources. The ACS G800L images and matched direct images were reduced with an automatic pipeline that handles all steps from archive retrieval, alignment and astrometric calibration, direct image combination, catalogue generation, spectral extraction and collection of metadata. The large number of extracted spectra (73,581) demanded automatic methods for quality control and an automated classification algorithm was trained on the visual inspection of several thousand spectra. The final sample of quality controlled spectra includes 47 919 datasets (65% of the total number of extracted spectra) for 32 149 unique objects, with a median iAB-band magnitude of 23.7, reaching 26.5 AB for the faintest objects. Each released dataset contains science-ready 1D and 2D spectra, as well as multi-band image cutouts of corresponding sources and a useful preview page summarising the direct and slitless data, astrometric and photometric parameters. This release is part of the continuing effort to enhance the content of the Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA) with highly processed data products which significantly facilitate the scientific exploitation of the Hubble data. In order to characterize the slitless spectra, emission-line flux and equivalent width sensitivity of the ACS data were compared with public ground-based spectra in the GOODS-South field. An example list of emission line galaxies with two or more identified lines is also included, covering the redshift range 0.2 - 4.6. Almost all redshift determinations outside of the GOODS fields are new. The scope of science projects

  18. Finance and supply management project execution plan

    SciTech Connect

    BENNION, S.I.

    1999-02-10

    As a subproject of the HANDI 2000 project, the Finance and Supply Management system is intended to serve FDH and Project Hanford major subcontractor with financial processes including general ledger, project costing, budgeting, and accounts payable, and supply management process including purchasing, inventory and contracts management. Currently these functions are performed with numerous legacy information systems and suboptimized processes.

  19. LmCYP4G102: An oenocyte-specific cytochrome P450 gene required for cuticular waterproofing in the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhitao; Zhang, Xueyao; Wang, Yiwen; Moussian, Bernard; Zhu, Kun Yan; Li, Sheng; Ma, Enbo; Zhang, Jianzhen

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 superfamily proteins play important roles in detoxification of xenobiotics and during physiological and developmental processes. To contribute to our understanding of this large gene family in insects, we have investigated the function of the cytochrome P450 gene LmCYP4G102 in the migratory locust Locusta migratoria. Suppression of LmCYP4G102 expression by RNA interference (RNAi) does not interfere with moulting but causes rapid loss of body weight - probably due to massive loss of water, and death soon after moulting. Accordingly, maintaining these animals at 90% relative humidity prevented lethality. Consistently, RNAi against LmCYP4G102 provoked a decrease in the content of cuticular alkanes, which as an important fraction of cuticular hydrocarbons have been shown to confer desiccation resistance. In addition, the cuticle of LmCYP4G102-knockdown locusts was fragile and easier deformable than in control animals. Presumably, this phenotype is due to decreased amounts of cuticular water that is reported to modulate cuticle mechanics. Interestingly, LmCYP4G102 was not expressed in the epidermis that produces the cuticle but in the sub-epdiermal hepatocyte-like oenocytes. Together, our results suggest that the oenocyte-specific LmCYP4G102 plays a critical role in the synthesis of cuticular hydrocarbons, which are important for cuticle waterproofing and mechanical stability in L. migratoria. PMID:27444410

  20. LmCYP4G102: An oenocyte-specific cytochrome P450 gene required for cuticular waterproofing in the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhitao; Zhang, Xueyao; Wang, Yiwen; Moussian, Bernard; Zhu, Kun Yan; Li, Sheng; Ma, Enbo; Zhang, Jianzhen

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 superfamily proteins play important roles in detoxification of xenobiotics and during physiological and developmental processes. To contribute to our understanding of this large gene family in insects, we have investigated the function of the cytochrome P450 gene LmCYP4G102 in the migratory locust Locusta migratoria. Suppression of LmCYP4G102 expression by RNA interference (RNAi) does not interfere with moulting but causes rapid loss of body weight - probably due to massive loss of water, and death soon after moulting. Accordingly, maintaining these animals at 90% relative humidity prevented lethality. Consistently, RNAi against LmCYP4G102 provoked a decrease in the content of cuticular alkanes, which as an important fraction of cuticular hydrocarbons have been shown to confer desiccation resistance. In addition, the cuticle of LmCYP4G102-knockdown locusts was fragile and easier deformable than in control animals. Presumably, this phenotype is due to decreased amounts of cuticular water that is reported to modulate cuticle mechanics. Interestingly, LmCYP4G102 was not expressed in the epidermis that produces the cuticle but in the sub-epdiermal hepatocyte-like oenocytes. Together, our results suggest that the oenocyte-specific LmCYP4G102 plays a critical role in the synthesis of cuticular hydrocarbons, which are important for cuticle waterproofing and mechanical stability in L. migratoria PMID:27444410

  1. Transit Time Distributions, Legacy Contamination and Variability in Biogeochemical 1/f^α Scaling: How are Hydrological Response Dynamics Linked to Water Quality at the Catchment Scale?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrachowitz, M.; Fovet, O.; Ruiz, L.; Savenije, H.

    2015-12-01

    In spite of recent progress, hydrological processes underlying observed water quality response patterns, such as the emergence of near-chemostatic conditions and fractal 1/fα scaling of stream chemistry, are not completely understood. Analysing hydrological and Cl- tracer data for two intensely managed, hydrologically contrasting yet biogeochemically similar catchments we tested if (1) a semi-distributed, conceptual model can simultaneously reproduce catchment scale hydrological and biogeochemical responses, (2) legacy stores, allowing for long-term storage of nutrient inputs can be identified and (3) a model can reproduce 1/fα scaling. Further we analysed (4) transit (TTD) and residence time distributions (RTD) and the associated response dynamics of legacy stores, to explore (5) what controls fluctuations in the scaling exponent α, thereby establishing a process based link between 1/fα scaling, legacy stores, and age distributions. We found that the model could reproduce the variable hydrological and the stable Cl- responses. This was possible through Cl- accumulation in hydrologically passive legacy stores that are mainly associated with the groundwater store, where Cl- age is well above 2000 days, one magnitude above the Cl- age in other components, such as the root zone (~200d). The results indicate that legacy stores can cause stable nutrient concentrations in streams for several decades after the end of nutrient input. It was further found that the model could reproduce fractal scaling of stream Cl- in both catchments, with higher values of α for the catchment with the smaller legacy store and faster response (α=-0.88 vs. -1.29). Further analysing the spectral properties of model components, it was found that the parts of the system with less storage are characterized by higher values of α. This suggests a plausible processes-based link between the fluctuations of α, legacy stores and RTDs: the smaller the legacy store and the higher the flow

  2. Belief and Decision: The Continuing Legacy of Amos Tversky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafir, Eldar, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    The seven articles of this special issue showcase the continuing intellectual legacy of Amos Tversky (1937-1996) in cognitive psychology. Tversky made fundamental contributions to many areas, including decision making, belief revision, and judgments of similarity. These papers are by some of his recent students. (SLD)

  3. Leaving a Legacy: Passing Montessori to the Next Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveless, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    For each of the past 19 years, the American Montessori Society has chosen to recognize one Montessorian as an AMS Living Legacy. Recipients are honored at the AMS annual conference for their salient work or volunteerism in the Montessori field and their dedication and leadership that has made an impact on the AMS community. It seems fitting that…

  4. The life and legacy of Dr. Lee Baldwin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper outlines the life and legacy of the late Dr. Ransom L. Baldwin, V. The purpose was to highlight the impact his teaching and research had on the international energy and protein metabolism communities at their fourth international conference. The paper will be presented at the outset of ...

  5. A Legacy of Dandelions: Carolyn Lewis Attneave (1990-1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckman-Stone, Carolyn

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the legacy of Carolyn Lewis Attneave who was, according to T. D. LaFromboise and J. E. Trimble (1966), "undoubtedly the most well-known psychologist of American Indian background." Reviews Attneave's work in organizations across the United States promoting the causes of American Indian families and community mental health and her skill…

  6. Cherished Possessions: A New England Legacy. Educator's Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Amy L.

    The exhibition, "Cherished Possessions: A New England Legacy," consists of approximately 200 objects drawn from the Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities collection of fine and decorative arts. Each item in the exhibition has been selected for its ability to tell a story and to place the history of that item within the larger…

  7. Celebrating the Life and Legacy of Dr. John Hope Franklin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Robert L., Jr.; Levering-Lewis, David; French, John D.; Wharton, Clifton R., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Dr. John Hope Franklin chronicled the experiences of African-Americans like no one before him, forcing America to recognize Black history as American history. His contributions were innumerable and his impact was abiding. In celebration of his life and legacy, the authors profile the celebrated scholar and activist, Dr. John Hope Franklin.

  8. Web-Based Environment for Maintaining Legacy Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tigges, Michael; Thompson, Nelson; Orr, Mark; Fox, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Advanced Tool Integration Environment (ATIE) is the name of both a software system and a Web-based environment created by the system for maintaining an archive of legacy software and expertise involved in developing the legacy software. ATIE can also be used in modifying legacy software and developing new software. The information that can be encapsulated in ATIE includes experts documentation, input and output data of tests cases, source code, and compilation scripts. All of this information is available within a common environment and retained in a database for ease of access and recovery by use of powerful search engines. ATIE also accommodates the embedment of supporting software that users require for their work, and even enables access to supporting commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) software within the flow of the experts work. The flow of work can be captured by saving the sequence of computer programs that the expert uses. A user gains access to ATIE via a Web browser. A modern Web-based graphical user interface promotes efficiency in the retrieval, execution, and modification of legacy code. Thus, ATIE saves time and money in the support of new and pre-existing programs.

  9. Language Learners and Diverse Legacies: Question of Confidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolson, Margaret

    2000-01-01

    A survey of 43 Scottish open university students, aged 28-87, who were studying another language, examined extent of bilingualism; schooling in and exposure to other languages in youth; school, family, media, and travel influences on language attitudes; and motivations for language study. Social and educational legacies affecting student…

  10. "Brown's" Legacy: Fulfilling the Promise of Equal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Robert L.

    2007-01-01

    Judge Robert L. Carter submits this article on "Brown's" legacy in recognition of the invaluable role "The Journal of Negro Education" has played in this fight; it served as a forum for academic discussion and helped facilitate the development of creative strategies. Over the past seventy-five years "The Journal" has become a repository of ideas…

  11. Legacy literature-a need for virtual libraries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After years of conducting, writing-up, and reviewing research, many entomologists have examined, organized, and annotated some as 2-3 gigabytes of pdfs and 4-5 file cabinets of hard-copy articles, in addition to thousands of spreadsheets, docs, jpgs, and wav files of data. This is a useful legacy th...

  12. Paralympics 2012 Legacy: Accessible Housing and Disability Equality or Inequality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    The golden summer of sport is now over, but what is the legacy of London 2012 for disabled people? Nadia Ahmed, a disabled student, discusses the difficulties she has faced in finding accessible accommodation in London. She argues that while the Games are over, the United Kingdom still has lots of hurdles to leap when it comes to disability. The…

  13. The Troublesome Legacy of "Brown v. Board of Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López, Gerardo R.; Burciaga, Rebeca

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This article reflects on the 60th anniversary of the "Brown v. Board of Education" Supreme Court decision while discussing the significant lessons learned from this and subsequent court decisions. Argument: In this article, we posit that a fundamentally different conversation surrounding the legacy of Brown is needed if we are…

  14. Celebrating the Life and Legacy of Rosa Parks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Loraine

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the life and legacy of Rosa Parks. The author highlights four children's books that accurately portray Parks as an activist and acknowledge the broader context of her life's story--and the years of struggle of the black community against Jim Crow laws. The four children's books share Rosa Park's story in ways…

  15. Susan Isaacs (1885-1948): Her Life, Work and Legacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willan, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    Susan Isaacs made a significant impression on the world of early childhood education during the first half of the twentieth century. She ranks alongside Froebel and Dewey, as one of the pioneers of child-centred education. As Jody Hall has written, "the life, work and legacy of Isaacs serve as a witness to the value of the curiosity of children."…

  16. Remote phosphor LED modules for general illumination: toward 200 lm/W general lighting LED light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoelen, Christoph; Borel, Huub; de Graaf, Jan; Keuper, Matthijs; Lankhorst, Martijn; Mutter, Claudia; Waumans, Lars; Wegh, René

    2008-08-01

    Phosphor converted white LEDs are becoming more and more attractive for general lighting applications because of the steadily increasing luminous efficacy numbers reported by LED-suppliers. Despite these high numbers, a further significant improvement step can be made when a low-to-medium brightness (<500 kCd/m2) source is acceptable. The wall plug efficiency of a blue LED is generally better than that of a conventional white LED made from the same die. To take full advantage of this, we have developed medium-brightness LED-modules (~150 kCd/m2) for general lighting in which the phosphor is applied remote from the blue LEDs. By direct comparison with modules in which conventional high power white LEDs with almost identical dies are applied, we have shown that on system level the remote phosphor modules can have up to 50% better efficacy. Using a downlight module as a carrier, we have shown that in the relevant color temperature range of 2700 to 4000K a high CRI (>80) can be obtained in combination with a high luminous efficacy, while the optical efficiency of the module can be over 85%. A module efficacy of over 100 lm/W at 4000K with CRI 80 seems to be within reach, with a long-term expectation of over 180 lm/W. The remote phosphor LED modules deliver well homogenized white light with a Lambertian radiation profile. They are ideal for general illumination, as they combine glare reduction with high system efficacy and enable high optical efficiencies of the luminaries. The RP modules enable forward compatibility by well defined interfaces and optical properties that are decoupled from the actual performance, form factor and number of LEDs in the module. The Philips Fortimo downlight system is based on this remote phosphor concept, featuring forward compatibility and a total system efficacy (including driver) of over 60 lm/W under operating conditions using currently available Luxeon Rebel emitters.

  17. Optimal artificial neural network architecture selection for performance prediction of compact heat exchanger with the EBaLM-OTR technique

    SciTech Connect

    Dumidu Wijayasekara; Milos Manic; Piyush Sabharwall; Vivek Utgikar

    2011-07-01

    Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) have been used in the past to predict the performance of printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHE) with satisfactory accuracy. Typically published literature has focused on optimizing ANN using a training dataset to train the network and a testing dataset to evaluate it. Although this may produce outputs that agree with experimental results, there is a risk of over-training or overlearning the network rather than generalizing it, which should be the ultimate goal. An over-trained network is able to produce good results with the training dataset but fails when new datasets with subtle changes are introduced. In this paper we present EBaLM-OTR (error back propagation and Levenberg-Marquardt algorithms for over training resilience) technique, which is based on a previously discussed method of selecting neural network architecture that uses a separate validation set to evaluate different network architectures based on mean square error (MSE), and standard deviation of MSE. The method uses k-fold cross validation. Therefore in order to select the optimal architecture for the problem, the dataset is divided into three parts which are used to train, validate and test each network architecture. Then each architecture is evaluated according to their generalization capability and capability to conform to original data. The method proved to be a comprehensive tool in identifying the weaknesses and advantages of different network architectures. The method also highlighted the fact that the architecture with the lowest training error is not always the most generalized and therefore not the optimal. Using the method the testing error achieved was in the order of magnitude of within 10{sup -5} - 10{sup -3}. It was also show that the absolute error achieved by EBaLM-OTR was an order of magnitude better than the lowest error achieved by EBaLM-THP.

  18. Conversion of HSPF Legacy Model to a Platform-Independent, Open-Source Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heaphy, R. T.; Burke, M. P.; Love, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Since its initial development over 30 years ago, the Hydrologic Simulation Program - FORTAN (HSPF) model has been used worldwide to support water quality planning and management. In the United States, HSPF receives widespread endorsement as a regulatory tool at all levels of government and is a core component of the EPA's Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Sources (BASINS) system, which was developed to support nationwide Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) analysis. However, the model's legacy code and data management systems have limitations in their ability to integrate with modern software, hardware, and leverage parallel computing, which have left voids in optimization, pre-, and post-processing tools. Advances in technology and our scientific understanding of environmental processes that have occurred over the last 30 years mandate that upgrades be made to HSPF to allow it to evolve and continue to be a premiere tool for water resource planners. This work aims to mitigate the challenges currently facing HSPF through two primary tasks: (1) convert code to a modern widely accepted, open-source, high-performance computing (hpc) code; and (2) convert model input and output files to modern widely accepted, open-source, data model, library, and binary file format. Python was chosen as the new language for the code conversion. It is an interpreted, object-oriented, hpc code with dynamic semantics that has become one of the most popular open-source languages. While python code execution can be slow compared to compiled, statically typed programming languages, such as C and FORTRAN, the integration of Numba (a just-in-time specializing compiler) has allowed this challenge to be overcome. For the legacy model data management conversion, HDF5 was chosen to store the model input and output. The code conversion for HSPF's hydrologic and hydraulic modules has been completed. The converted code has been tested against HSPF's suite of "test" runs and shown

  19. [Conditions for cultivation of the fungus Penicillium melinii UzLM-4 and its biosynthesis of lipases].

    PubMed

    Makhsumkhanov, A A; Iakubov, I T; Davranov, K D

    2003-01-01

    Cultivation of the fungus Penicillium melinii UzLM-4 on a Raistrick's medium of our own modification made it possible to increase the biosynthesis of lipases three to four times. The following conditions ensured a high rate of synthesis of the extracellular lipase: age of the inoculum, 15 days; concentration of the inoculum, 15 x 10(6) conidia per 100 ml medium; initial pH of the nutrient medium, 8.0; and cultivation in a shaker at 150 rpm (25 degrees C). PMID:12625042

  20. The Impact of Reflection Effects on the Parameters of the Old Pre-Cataclysmic Variables MS Peg and LM Com

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimansky, V. V.; Borisov, N. V.; Shimanskaya, N. N.

    2003-09-01

    We have determined the main parameters of the old precataclysmic variable stars MS Peg and LM Com. The radial velocities of the components, reflection effects in the spectra, and light curves of the systems are studied based on model stellar atmospheres subject to external irradiation. Forty-seven moderate-resolution spectra for MS Peg and 57 for LM Com obtained with the 6-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory are used to derive the refined orbital periods of 0.1736660 days and 0.2586873 days, respectively; the orbital eccentricities do not exceed e=0.04. The mass (M w =0.49e ⊙) and radius (e w =0.015R ⊙) of the MS Peg primary calculated using the gravitational redshift correspond to those for a cooling carbon white dwarf with a thin hydrogen envelope. The parameters of the red dwarf (M r =0.19M ⊙, T eff=3560 K, R r =0.18R ⊙) are close to those derived from evolutionary tracks for main-sequence M stars with solar chemical composition. The radius (R r =0.22R ⊙) and temperature (T eff=3650 K) of the LM Com secondary exceed theoretical estimates for main-sequence stars with masses of M r =0.17M ⊙. The luminosity excess of the red dwarf in LM Com can be explained by a prolonged (T>5×106 yrs) relaxation of the M star to its normal state after the binary leaves the common-envelope stage. For both systems, theoretical U, B, V, and R light curves and spectra calculated using the adopted sets of parameters are generally consistent with the observations. This confirms the radiative origin of the hot spots, the unimportance of horizontal radiative transport, and the absence of large-scale velocity fields with high values (V trans>50 km/s) at the surfaces of the secondaries. Most of the emission lines in the spectra of these objects are formed under conditions close to thermalization, enabling modeling of their pro files in an LTE approximation. A strong λ3905 Å emission line has been identified as the 3s 23p4s 1P 0-3s 23p 2 1S SiI λ3905.52

  1. Excess Plutonium: Weapons Legacy or National Asset?

    SciTech Connect

    Klipa, G.; Boeke, S.; Hottel, R.

    2002-02-27

    The Nuclear Materials Stewardship Initiative was established in January, 2000, to accelerate the work of achieving integration and cutting long-term costs associated with the management of nuclear materials. As part of that initiative, the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM), has established Nuclear Material Management Groups for the management of excess nuclear materials. As one of these groups, the Plutonium Material Management Group (PMMG) has been chartered to serve as DOE's complex wide resource and point of contact for technical coordination and program planning support in the safe and efficient disposition of the nations excess Plutonium 239. This paper will explain the mission, goals, and objectives of the PMMG. In addition, the paper will provide a broad overview of the status of the plutonium inventories throughout the DOE complex. The DOE currently manages approximately 99.5 MT of plutonium isotopes. Details of the various categories of plutonium, from material designated for national security needs through material that has been declared excess, will be explained. For the plutonium that has been declared excess, the various pathways to disposition (including reuse, recycling, sale, transfer, treatment, consumption, and disposal) will be discussed. At this time 52.5 MT of plutonium has been declared excess and the method of disposition for that material is the subject of study and evaluation within DOE. The role of the PMMG in those evaluations will be outlined.

  2. Characterization of a midgut-specific chitin synthase gene (LmCHS2) responsible for biosynthesis of chitin of peritrophic matrix in Locusta migratoria.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaojian; Zhang, Huanhuan; Li, Sheng; Zhu, Kun Yan; Ma, Enbo; Zhang, Jianzhen

    2012-12-01

    Chitin, an essential component of peritrophic matrix (PM), is produced by a series of biochemical reactions. Chitin synthase plays a crucial role in chitin polymerization in chitin biosynthetic pathway. In this study, we identified and characterized a full-length cDNA of chitin synthase 2 gene (LmCHS2) from Locusta migratoria. The cDNA contains an open reading frame of 4569 nucleotides that encode 1523 amino acid residues, and 76- and 373-nucleotides for 5'- and 3'-noncoding regions, respectively. Analysis of LmCHS2 transcript in different tissues of the locust by using real-time quantitative PCR indicated that LmCHS2 was exclusively expressed in midgut and gastric caeca (a part of the midgut). The highest expression was found in the anterior midgut with a decline of the transcript level from the anterior to posterior regions. During growth and development of locusts, there was only a slight expression in eggs, but the expression gradually increased from nymphs to adults. In situ hybridization further revealed that LmCHS2 transcript mainly presented in the apical regions of brush border forming columnar cells of gastric caeca. LmCHS2 dsRNA was injected to fifth-instar nymphs to further explore biological functions of LmCHS2. Significantly down-regulated transcript of LmCHS2 resulted in a cessation of feeding and a high mortality of the insect. However, no visible abnormal morphological change of locusts was observed until insects molted to adults. After dissection, we found that the average length of midguts from the LmCHS2 dsRNA-injected locusts was shorter than that of the control insects that were injected with dsGFP. Furthermore, microsection of midguts showed that the PM of the LmCHS2 dsRNA-injected nymphs was amorphous and thin as compared with the controls. Our results demonstrate that LmCHS2 is responsible for the biosynthesis of chitin associated with PM and plays an essential role in locust growth and development. PMID:23006725

  3. Investigation of soil legacy phosphorus transformation in long-term agricultural fields using sequential fractionation, P K-edge XANES and solution P NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin; Hu, Yongfeng; Yang, Jianjun; Abdi, Dalel; Cade-Menun, Barbara J

    2015-01-01

    Understanding legacy phosphorus (P) build-up and draw-down from long-term fertilization is essential for effective P management. Using replicated plots from Saskatchewan, Canada, with P fertilization from 1967 to 1995 followed by either P fertilization or P cessation (1995-2010), soil P was characterized in surface and subsurface layers using sequential fractionation, P K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and solution (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (P NMR) spectroscopy. Legacy P from a 28-year build-up was sufficient for 15 years of wheat cultivation, resulting in no significant differences in crop yield in 2010. In surface soils, soil test (Olsen) P decreased significantly in unfertilized plots compared with 1995, which was reflected in declining aluminum (hydr)oxide-associated inorganic P by fractionation and XANES. Furthermore, XANES analysis revealed a decrease of calcium-associated P in 2010-unfertilized soils at both depths and an increase of Fe (hydr)oxides-associated P in the 2010-fertilized and -unfertilized surface soils relative to the 1995 soils. Increased total organic P and orthophosphate diesters by P NMR and accumulated inositol hexaphosphate by XANES were observed in surface soils with P fertilization cessation. In subsurface soils, few legacy P transformations were detected. These results provide important information about legacy P to improve agricultural sustainability while mitigating water quality deterioration. PMID:25426546

  4. Barrow Arctic Terrestrial Observatory (BATO): An IPY Legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, J.; Hinkel, K. M.; Hollister, R. D.; Oberbauer, S. F.; Nelson, F. E.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Shiklomanov, N. I.; Sturm, M.; Tweedie, C. E.; Webber, P. J.

    2009-12-01

    Barrow, Alaska, has played an important role in the commemoration of the 125th anniversary of the first International Polar Year. Implementation of IPY projects during the Fourth International Polar Year (2007-2009) included a number of IPY approved projects: Thermal State of Permafrost (TSP), SnowNet, the International Tundra Experiment (ITEX), the Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM), the Arctic Circumpolar Coastal Observatory Network (ACCO-Net), Back to the Future (1969-1974 IBP Tundra Biome sites) and the Ray-Murdoch Expedition (first Polar Year). Building on results of these and related activities and historical data, the National Science Foundation under its Arctic Observing Network (AON) program, recently funded several long-term projects (estimated duration through 2014): TSP (permafrost temperatures dating back to the 1940s) CALM (seasonal thaw depths dating back to 1962) ITEX (plant phenology starting in 1994) Ultraviolet measurements (since 1990) Other continuing observational projects include snow measurements (SnowNet), coastal erosion, lake dynamics, and bird and small mammal census (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Owl Research Institute). NOAA and DOE support permanent atmospheric observatories. Site and data information are contained on the Barrow Area Information Database (BAID on Google Earth). Collectively we suggest that these and other continuing field observations be designated as the Barrow Arctic Terrestrial Observatory (BATO). Trends in the historical and current data from these AON and several related projects are reported. AON specific data are available through the Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service (CADIS) data portal. The proposed BATO, an IPY legacy, is hosted on and adjacent to the Barrow Environmental Observatory (BEO), a 7466-acre protected research area on land provided by the local owners (Ukpeagvik Iñupiat Corporation) and designated as a Scientific Research District by the regional government (North

  5. Integrated Mapping and Imaging at a Legacy Test Site (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussman, A. J.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Kelley, R. E.; Sweeney, J. J.; Vigil, S.; DiBenedetto, J.; Chipman, V.

    2013-12-01

    A team of multi-disciplinary geoscientists was tasked to characterize and evaluate a legacy nuclear detonation site in order to develop research locations with the long-term goal of improving treaty monitoring, verification, and other national security applications. There was a test at the site of interest that was detonated on June 12, 1985 in a vertical emplacement borehole at a depth of 608m below the surface in rhyolites. With announced yield of 20-150 kt, the event did not collapse to the surface and form a crater, but rather experienced a subsurface collapse with more subtle surface expressions of deformation. This result provides the team with an opportunity to evaluate a number of surface and subsurface inspection technologies in a broad context. The team collected ground-based visual observation, ground penetrating radar, electromagnetic, ground-based and airborne LiDAR, ground-based and airborne hyperspectral, gravity and magnetics, dc and induction electrical methods, and active seismic data during field campaigns in the summers of 2012 and 2013. Detection of features was performed using various approaches that were assessed for accuracy, efficiency and diversity of target features. For example, whereas the primary target of the ground-based visual observation survey was to map the surface features, the target of the gravity survey was to attempt the detection of a possible subsurface collapse zone which might be located as little as 200 meters below the surface. The datasets from surveys described above are integrated into a geographical information system (GIS) database for analysis and visualization. Other presentations during this session provide further details as to some of the work conducted. Work by Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was sponsored by the National Nuclear Security Administration Award No. DE-AC52-06NA25946/NST10-NCNS-PD00. Work by National Security Technologies, LLC, was performed under

  6. Tucson's Santa Cruz River and the Arroyo Legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betancourt, Julio Luis

    1990-01-01

    Between 1865 and 1915, arroyos developed in the southwestern United States across diverse hydrological, ecological and cultural settings. That they developed simultaneously has encouraged the search for a common cause --some phenomenon that was equally widespread and synchronous. There are few southwestern streams for which we have even a qualitative understanding of timelines and processes involved in initiation and extension of historic arroyos. Tucson's Santa Cruz River, often cited in the arroyo literature, offers a unique opportunity to chronicle the arroyo legacy and evaluate its causes. The present study reconstructs both the physical and cultural circumstances of channel entrenchment along the Santa Cruz River. Primary data include newspaper accounts, notes and plants of General Land Office surveys, eyewitness accounts, legal depositions, and repeat photography. On the Santa Cruz River, arroyo initiation and extension happened during relatively wet decades associated with frequent warm episodes in the tropical Pacific (El Nino conditions). Intensified El Nino activity during the period 1864-1891 may be symptomatic of long-term climatic change, perhaps indicative of global warming and destabilization of Pacific climate at the end of the Little Ice Age. During this period all but one of the years registering more than three days with rain exceeding 2.54 cm (1 in) in Tucson were El Nino events. The one exception was the summer of 1890, when the central equatorial Pacific was relatively cold but when prevailing low-surface pressures and low -level winds nevertheless steered tropical moisture from the west coast of Mexico into southern Arizona. In the twentieth century, catastrophic channel widening was caused by floods during El Nino events in 1905, 1915, 1977 and 1983. The Santa Cruz River arroyo formed when climatic conditions heightened the probabilities for occurrence of large floods in southern Arizona. Inadequate engineering of ditches that resulted in

  7. Fabrication of Fucoxanthin-Loaded Microsphere(F-LM) By Two Steps Double-Emulsion Solvent Evaporation Method and Characterization of Fucoxanthin before and after Microencapsulation.

    PubMed

    Noviendri, Dedi; Jaswir, Irwandi; Taher, Muhammad; Mohamed, Farahidah; Salleh, Hamzah Mohd; Noorbatcha, Ibrahim Ali; Octavianti, Fitri; Lestari, Widya; Hendri, Ridar; Ahmad, Hasna; Miyashita, Kazuo; Abdullah, Alias

    2016-08-01

    Microencapsulation is a promising approach in drug delivery to protect the drug from degradation and allow controlled release of the drug in the body. Fucoxanthin-loaded microsphere (F-LM) was fabricated by two step w/o/w double emulsion solvent evaporation method with poly (L-lactic-coglycolic acid) (PLGA) as carrier. The effect of four types of surfactants (PVA, Tween-20, Span-20 and SDS), homogenization speed, and concentration of PLGA polymer and surfactant (PVA), respectively, on particle size and morphology of F-LM were investigated. Among the surfactants tested, PVA showed the best results with smallest particle size (9.18 µm) and a smooth spherical surface. Increasing the homogenization speed resulted in a smaller mean F-LM particle size [d(0.50)] from 17.12 to 9.18 µm. Best particle size results and good morphology were attained at homogenization speed of 20 500 rpm. Meanwhile, increased PLGA concentration from 1.5 to 11.0 (% w/v) resulted in increased F-LM particle size. The mean particle size [d(0.5)] of F-LM increased from 3.93 to 11.88 µm. At 6.0 (% w/v) PLGA, F-LM showed the best structure and external morphology. Finally, increasing PVA concentration from 0.5 to 3.5 (% w/v) resulted in decreased particle size from 9.18 to 4.86 µm. Fucoxanthin characterization before and after microencapsulation was carried out to assess the success of the microencapsulation procedure. Thermo gravimetry analysis (TGA), glass transition (Tg) temperature of F-LM and fucoxanthin measured using DSC, ATR-FTIR and XRD indicated that fucoxanthin was successfully encapsulated into the PLGA matrix, while maintaining the structural and chemical integrity of fucoxanthin. PMID:27430384

  8. Molecular Characterization of a Novel Temperate Sinorhizobium Bacteriophage, ФLM21, Encoding DNA Methyltransferase with CcrM-Like Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Dziewit, Lukasz; Oscik, Karolina; Bartosik, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT ΦLM21 is a temperate phage isolated from Sinorhizobium sp. strain LM21 (Alphaproteobacteria). Genomic analysis and electron microscopy suggested that ΦLM21 is a member of the family Siphoviridae. The phage has an isometric head and a long noncontractile tail. The genome of ΦLM21 has 50,827 bp of linear double-stranded DNA encoding 72 putative proteins, including proteins responsible for the assembly of the phage particles, DNA packaging, transcription, replication, and lysis. Virion proteins were characterized using mass spectrometry, leading to the identification of the major capsid and tail components, tape measure, and a putative portal protein. We have confirmed the activity of two gene products, a lytic enzyme (a putative chitinase) and a DNA methyltransferase, sharing sequence specificity with the cell cycle-regulating methyltransferase (CcrM) of the bacterial host. Interestingly, the genome of Sinorhizobium phage ΦLM21 shows very limited similarity to other known phage genome sequences and is thus considered unique. IMPORTANCE Prophages are known to play an important role in the genomic diversification of bacteria via horizontal gene transfer. The influence of prophages on pathogenic bacteria is very well documented. However, our knowledge of the overall impact of prophages on the survival of their lysogenic, nonpathogenic bacterial hosts is still limited. In particular, information on prophages of the agronomically important Sinorhizobium species is scarce. In this study, we describe the isolation and molecular characterization of a novel temperate bacteriophage, ΦLM21, of Sinorhizobium sp. LM21. Since we have not found any similar sequences, we propose that this bacteriophage is a novel species. We conducted a functional analysis of selected proteins. We have demonstrated that the phage DNA methyltransferase has the same sequence specificity as the cell cycle-regulating methyltransferase CcrM of its host. We point out that this phenomenon of

  9. Crystal structure of the effector AvrLm4-7 of Leptosphaeria maculans reveals insights into its translocation into plant cells and recognition by resistance proteins.

    PubMed

    Blondeau, Karine; Blaise, Françoise; Graille, Marc; Kale, Shiv D; Linglin, Juliette; Ollivier, Bénédicte; Labarde, Audrey; Lazar, Noureddine; Daverdin, Guillaume; Balesdent, Marie-Hélène; Choi, Danielle H Y; Tyler, Brett M; Rouxel, Thierry; van Tilbeurgh, Herman; Fudal, Isabelle

    2015-08-01

    The avirulence gene AvrLm4-7 of Leptosphaeria maculans, the causal agent of stem canker in Brassica napus (oilseed rape), confers a dual specificity of recognition by two resistance genes (Rlm4 and Rlm7) and is strongly involved in fungal fitness. In order to elucidate the biological function of AvrLm4-7 and understand the specificity of recognition by Rlm4 and Rlm7, the AvrLm4-7 protein was produced in Pichia pastoris and its crystal structure was determined. It revealed the presence of four disulfide bridges, but no close structural analogs could be identified. A short stretch of amino acids in the C terminus of the protein, (R/N)(Y/F)(R/S)E(F/W), was well-conserved among AvrLm4-7 homologs. Loss of recognition of AvrLm4-7 by Rlm4 is caused by the mutation of a single glycine to an arginine residue located in a loop of the protein. Loss of recognition by Rlm7 is governed by more complex mutational patterns, including gene loss or drastic modifications of the protein structure. Three point mutations altered residues in the well-conserved C-terminal motif or close to the glycine involved in Rlm4-mediated recognition, resulting in the loss of Rlm7-mediated recognition. Transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana (tobacco) and particle bombardment experiments on leaves from oilseed rape suggested that AvrLm4-7 interacts with its cognate R proteins inside the plant cell, and can be translocated into plant cells in the absence of the pathogen. Translocation of AvrLm4-7 into oilseed rape leaves is likely to require the (R/N)(Y/F)(R/S)E(F/W) motif as well as an RAWG motif located in a nearby loop that together form a positively charged region. PMID:26082394

  10. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Fly Ash Particulate Reinforced in LM6 for Energy Enhancement in Automotive Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ervina Efzan, M. N.; Siti Syazwani, N.; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al

    2016-06-01

    Fly ash has gathered widespread attention as a potential reinforcement for aluminium matrix composites (AMCs) to enhance the properties and reduce the cost of production. Aluminium alloy LM6 reinforced with three different amounts (0, 4, 5 and 6 wt. %) of fly ash particle that were prepared by compo-casting method. The fly ash particles were incorporated into semi-solid state of LM6 melt. In this study, the microstructure of prepared AMCs with the homogenous distribution of fly ash was analysed using optical microscope. The microstructure having refinement of structure with the decreasing of Si-needle structure and increasing the area of eutectic a-Al matrix as shown in figure. Besides, as the increasing amount of fly ash incorporated, there are more petal-like dark structure existed in the microstructure. The density of the AMCs decreased as the incorporation of fly ash increased. While the hardness and ultimate tensile strength of the AMCs increased with the incorporation of fly ash. The addition of fly ash particles improved the physical and mechanical properties of the AMCs. Thus lead to improve the energy consumption in automotive parts.

  11. Passing on: Personal attributes associated with midlife expressions of intended legacies.

    PubMed

    Newton, Nicky J; Jones, Brady K

    2016-02-01

    Expressions of the intent to leave behind something when we die can contain elements of both selflessness and selfishness. In this paper, we identify 3 different types of expressed legacy (personal, broader, and composite), and distinguish between them by examining their correlates (generativity, narcissism, and community involvement), as well as differences in expressed legacies for midlife African Americans and European Americans. Quantitative and qualitative data from surveys and interviews were drawn from the Foley Longitudinal Study of Adulthood (FLSA; N = 138; aged 55-58). We examined the contributions of generativity, narcissism, community involvement, and SES to each legacy, as well as the comparative levels of common significant predictors for each legacy, and the comparative likelihood of expressing particular legacies by race. Quantitative analyses showed that a different constellation of correlates predicted each legacy. Additionally, African Americans were more likely than European Americans to express legacies that indicated community involvement. Qualitative analyses showed that legacy groups (and races) also differed in open-ended responses encompassing personal concerns, talents, and goals. These findings highlight some of the mechanisms and correlates of how the intent to leave a legacy can provide meaning and purpose for midlife African Americans and European Americans. Results are discussed in light of previous research concerning how legacies are transmitted, and potential differences in cultural roots and meaning for African Americans and European Americans. PMID:26569561

  12. The Legacy of the Tevatron in the Area of Accelerator Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Stephen D.; Shiltsev, Vladimir D.

    2013-10-01

    For more than 25 years, the Tevatron was the highest-energy accelerator in the world. It provided the first access to particle collisions beyond 1 TeV and achieved an ultimate performance that was a factor of 400 beyond the original design goals. This article reviews the many formidable challenges that were overcome, and the knowledge gained, in building, operating, and improving the Tevatron during its lifetime. These challenges included the first operation of an accelerator based on superconducting magnets; production of antiprotons in sufficient numbers to support a usable luminosity; management of beam-beam, intrabeam, and other collective effects; novel manipulations of the beam longitudinal phase space; and development and application of a wide variety of innovative technologies. These achievements established the legacy of the Tevatron as the progenitor of all subsequently constructed high-energy hadron colliders.

  13. ``Cats and Dogs'' disposition at Sandia: Last of the legacy materials

    SciTech Connect

    STRONG,WARREN R.; JACKSON,JOHN L.

    2000-05-03

    Over the past 12 months, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM), has successfully conducted an evaluation of its nuclear material holdings. As a result, approximately 46% of these holdings (36% by mass) have been reclassified as no defined use (NDU). Reclassification as NDU allows Sandia to determine the final disposition of a significant percentage of its legacy nuclear material. Disposition will begin some time in mid CY2000. This reclassification and the proposed disposition of the material has resulted in an extensive coordination effort lead by the Nuclear Materials Management Team (NMMT), which includes the nuclear material owners, the Radioactive Waste/Nuclear Material Disposition Department (7135), and DOE Albuquerque Operations Office. The process of identifying and reclassifying the cats and dogs or miscellaneous lots of nuclear material has also presented a number of important lessons learned for other sites in the DOE complex.

  14. Human Impact Intertwined with Glacial Legacy: Hydro-Geomorphologic Exploration using LiDAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Q.; Kumar, P.

    2014-12-01

    Intensively managed landscapes (IMLs) in the Midwestern United States are heavily modified by agriculture, artificial drainage, deforestation, urbanization, and wetland destruction. These landscapes have been shaped by repeated glacial events over geologic time scales followed with rapid human modifications for agriculture and drainage that are overlaid on extremely low gradient stream networks. In this study, using LiDAR data from the Upper Sangamon River Basin in Illinois, we attempt to understand how the long-term glacial legacy has shaped the landscape and what is the impact from short-term human activities, such as channel straightening and periodic dredging. Glacial and human legacy impact landscape dynamics simultaneously. Therefore, we evaluate the present-day dynamics of landscapes by attempting to address several questions. First, we explore whether the watershed is in equilibrium conditions or away from it due to human activities. Second, we study how this relates to the degree of maturity in the river valley. Moreover, we map the spatial distributions of terraces and floodplains to understand depositional and erosional history. High-resolution LiDAR data is ideal for such a study as it reveals the impact of both glacial episodes and human activities. Methods used for extraction of useful information from LiDAR data include the TerEx tool, Stream Profiler, and Hec-GeoRas, among others. We analyze the terrace and floodplain geomorphic features, quantify stream sinuosity, and cross section geometries. An integral method is built based on stream power incision model to obtain sub-basin steady state condition. These features help to reveal local and global watershed properties. A bounded relationship between terraces/floodplains, sinuosity, cross section maturity, as well as sub-basin equilibrium condition is explored. In general, we find that the glacial legacy and present-day human activity have opposed each other in regards to the sub-basin equilibrium

  15. Legacy model integration for enhancing hydrologic interdisciplinary research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dozier, A.; Arabi, M.; David, O.

    2013-12-01

    Many challenges are introduced to interdisciplinary research in and around the hydrologic science community due to advances in computing technology and modeling capabilities in different programming languages, across different platforms and frameworks by researchers in a variety of fields with a variety of experience in computer programming. Many new hydrologic models as well as optimization, parameter estimation, and uncertainty characterization techniques are developed in scripting languages such as Matlab, R, Python, or in newer languages such as Java and the .Net languages, whereas many legacy models have been written in FORTRAN and C, which complicates inter-model communication for two-way feedbacks. However, most hydrologic researchers and industry personnel have little knowledge of the computing technologies that are available to address the model integration process. Therefore, the goal of this study is to address these new challenges by utilizing a novel approach based on a publish-subscribe-type system to enhance modeling capabilities of legacy socio-economic, hydrologic, and ecologic software. Enhancements include massive parallelization of executions and access to legacy model variables at any point during the simulation process by another program without having to compile all the models together into an inseparable 'super-model'. Thus, this study provides two-way feedback mechanisms between multiple different process models that can be written in various programming languages and can run on different machines and operating systems. Additionally, a level of abstraction is given to the model integration process that allows researchers and other technical personnel to perform more detailed and interactive modeling, visualization, optimization, calibration, and uncertainty analysis without requiring deep understanding of inter-process communication. To be compatible, a program must be written in a programming language with bindings to a common

  16. Environmental Management

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-12

    Another key aspect of the NNSS mission is Environmental Management program, which addresses the environmental legacy from historic nuclear weapons related activities while also ensuring the health and safety of present day workers, the public, and the environment as current and future missions are completed. The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management site receives low-level and mixed low-level waste from some 28 different generators from across the DOE complex in support of the legacy clean-up DOE Environmental Management project. Without this capability, the DOE would not be able to complete the clean up and proper disposition of these wastes. The program includes environmental protection, compliance, and monitoring of the air, water, plants, animals, and cultural resources at the NNSS. Investigation and implementation of appropriate corrective actions to address the contaminated ground water facilities and soils resulting from historic nuclear testing activities, the demolition of abandoned nuclear facilities, as well as installation of ground water wells to identify and monitor the extent of ground water contamination.

  17. Environmental Management

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2015-01-07

    Another key aspect of the NNSS mission is Environmental Management program, which addresses the environmental legacy from historic nuclear weapons related activities while also ensuring the health and safety of present day workers, the public, and the environment as current and future missions are completed. The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management site receives low-level and mixed low-level waste from some 28 different generators from across the DOE complex in support of the legacy clean-up DOE Environmental Management project. Without this capability, the DOE would not be able to complete the clean up and proper disposition of these wastes. The program includes environmental protection, compliance, and monitoring of the air, water, plants, animals, and cultural resources at the NNSS. Investigation and implementation of appropriate corrective actions to address the contaminated ground water facilities and soils resulting from historic nuclear testing activities, the demolition of abandoned nuclear facilities, as well as installation of ground water wells to identify and monitor the extent of ground water contamination.

  18. Dendritic distributions of I h channels in experimentally-derived multi-compartment models of oriens-lacunosum/moleculare (O-LM) hippocampal interneurons.

    PubMed

    Sekulić, Vladislav; Chen, Tse-Chiang; Lawrence, J Josh; Skinner, Frances K

    2015-01-01

    The O-LM cell type mediates feedback inhibition onto hippocampal pyramidal cells and gates information flow in the CA1. Its functions depend on the presence of voltage-gated channels (VGCs), which affect its integrative properties and response to synaptic input. Given the challenges associated with determining densities and distributions of VGCs on interneuron dendrites, we take advantage of computational modeling to consider different possibilities. In this work, we focus on hyperpolarization-activated channels (h-channels) in O-LM cells. While h-channels are known to be present in O-LM cells, it is unknown whether they are present on their dendrites. In previous work, we used ensemble modeling techniques with experimental data to obtain insights into potentially important conductance balances. We found that the best O-LM models that included uniformly distributed h-channels in the dendrites could not fully capture the "sag" response. This led us to examine activation kinetics and non-uniform distributions of h-channels in the present work. In tuning our models, we found that different kinetics and non-uniform distributions could better reproduce experimental O-LM cell responses. In contrast to CA1 pyramidal cells where higher conductance densities of h-channels occur in more distal dendrites, decreasing conductance densities of h-channels away from the soma were observed in O-LM models. Via an illustrative scenario, we showed that having dendritic h-channels clearly speeds up back-propagating action potentials in O-LM cells, unlike when h-channels are present only in the soma. Although the present results were morphology-dependent, our work shows that it should be possible to determine the distributions and characteristics of O-LM cells with recordings and morphologies from the same cell. We hypothesize that h-channels are distributed in O-LM cell dendrites and endow them with particular synaptic integration properties that shape information flow in hippocampus

  19. Lots of legacy soil data are available, but which data do we need to collect for regional land use analysis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendriks, Chantal; Stoorvogel, Jetse; Claessens, Lieven

    2015-04-01

    differed significantly between natural and agricultural land, discrete soil mapping units described by a representative soil profile showed internal variability. None of the legacy datasets fitted the requirements of the RLUA. However, resources to collect additional primary soil data are limited. Evaluating legacy data allows us to identify the soil data that we need to collect. Legacy data lack information on e.g. soil management and effective rooting depth, while these data are often required for RLUA. This results in the use of assumptions, estimations and simplifications in a RLUA. The choice of legacy data has a profound effect on the results of a RLUA. The GYGA case study shows for example that different sources of soil input data can lead to differences in simulated water-limited maize yields of up to 3 ton/ha.

  20. 76 FR 36177 - Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act; Interpretation of the “Advice” Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ...The Office of Labor-Management Standards of the Department of Labor (Department) is proposing revisions to the Form LM-10 Employer Report and to the Form LM-20 Agreements and Activities Report, which are required under section 203 of the Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act of 1959 (LMRDA or Act), 29 U.S.C. 433. These reports cover agreements or arrangements between employers and......

  1. Werner Brandt legacy to PIXE: Past and present perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapicki, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Inner-shell ionization cross sections used in Particle-Induced X-ray Elemental (PIXE) analyses are routinely calculated in the ECPSSR [W. Brandt, G. Lapicki, Phys. Rev. A 23 (1981) 1717-1729] theory and/or semiempirical formulas scaled to that theory. Thirty years after the passing of Werner Brandt, with recognition of his seminal contributions to other research on positron physics and stopping power problems, the work and articles that progressed into the ECPSSR theory for inner-shell ionization by protons and heavier ions are recalled as Brandt's past legacy to the PIXE community. Applications of the ECPSSR and its evolution into the ECUSAR [G. Lapicki, Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 189 (2002) 8-20] theory over the last three decades are reviewed with perspectives on Brandt's present legacy.

  2. Multicore Considerations for Legacy Flight Software Migration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vines, Kenneth; Day, Len

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we will discuss potential benefits and pitfalls when considering a migration from an existing single core code base to a multicore processor implementation. The results of this study present options that should be considered before migrating fault managers, device handlers and tasks with time-constrained requirements to a multicore flight software environment. Possible future multicore test bed demonstrations are also discussed.

  3. Detecting Coppice Legacies from Tree Growth.

    PubMed

    Müllerová, Jana; Pejcha, Vít; Altman, Jan; Plener, Tomáš; Dörner, Petr; Doležal, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    In coppice-with-standards, once a common type of management in Central European lowland forests, selected trees (standards) were left to grow mature among the regularly harvested coppice stools to obtain construction wood. After the underwood was harvested, the forest canopy opened rapidly, giving standard trees an opportunity to benefit from reduced competition. Although this silvicultural system virtually disappeared after WWII, historical management cycles can still be traced in the tree-rings of remaining standards. Our research aims at answering the question whether tree-ring series of standard trees can be used to reconstruct past management practices. The study was carried out on 117 oak standard trees from five sites situated in formerly coppiced calcareous oak-hornbeam and acidophilous oak forests in the Bohemian Karst Protected Landscape Area, Czech Republic. The evaluation was based on the analysis of growth releases representing the response of the standards to coppicing events, and comparison to the archival records of coppice events. Our results showed that coppicing events can be successfully detected by tree-ring analysis, although there are some limitations. Altogether 241 releases were identified (49% of major releases). Large number of releases could be related to historical records, with the major ones giving better results. The overall probability of correct detection (positive predictive power) was 58%, ranging from 50 to 67%, probability for major releases was 78%, ranging from 63 to 100% for different sites. The ability of individual trees to mirror past coppice events was significantly affected by competition from neighboring trees (their number and the sum of distance-weighted basal areas). A dendro-ecological approach to the study of forest management history can serve as an input for current attempts of coppice reintroduction and for conservation purposes. PMID:26784583

  4. Detecting Coppice Legacies from Tree Growth

    PubMed Central

    Müllerová, Jana; Pejcha, Vít; Altman, Jan; Plener, Tomáš; Dörner, Petr; Doležal, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    In coppice-with-standards, once a common type of management in Central European lowland forests, selected trees (standards) were left to grow mature among the regularly harvested coppice stools to obtain construction wood. After the underwood was harvested, the forest canopy opened rapidly, giving standard trees an opportunity to benefit from reduced competition. Although this silvicultural system virtually disappeared after WWII, historical management cycles can still be traced in the tree-rings of remaining standards. Our research aims at answering the question whether tree-ring series of standard trees can be used to reconstruct past management practices. The study was carried out on 117 oak standard trees from five sites situated in formerly coppiced calcareous oak-hornbeam and acidophilous oak forests in the Bohemian Karst Protected Landscape Area, Czech Republic. The evaluation was based on the analysis of growth releases representing the response of the standards to coppicing events, and comparison to the archival records of coppice events. Our results showed that coppicing events can be successfully detected by tree-ring analysis, although there are some limitations. Altogether 241 releases were identified (49% of major releases). Large number of releases could be related to historical records, with the major ones giving better results. The overall probability of correct detection (positive predictive power) was 58%, ranging from 50 to 67%, probability for major releases was 78%, ranging from 63 to 100% for different sites. The ability of individual trees to mirror past coppice events was significantly affected by competition from neighboring trees (their number and the sum of distance-weighted basal areas). A dendro-ecological approach to the study of forest management history can serve as an input for current attempts of coppice reintroduction and for conservation purposes. PMID:26784583

  5. Integrating legacy software toolkits into China-VO system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Qian, Cui, Chen-Zhou, Zhao, Yong-Heng

    2005-12-01

    Virtual Observatory (VO) is a collection of data-archives and software toolkits. It aims to provide astronomers research resources with uniformed interfaces, using advanced information technologies. In this article, we discuss the necessaries and feasibilities of integrating legacy software toolkits into China-VO system at first; then analyse granularity about integrating. Three general integrating methods are given in detail. At last, we introduce an instance of integrating "Image Magick" - an software for image processing and discuss more about VO integration.

  6. Aspiring and Residing IT Leaders: A Legacy for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Keith W.

    2012-01-01

    Many people think there is a quick road to leadership success. Those who want to become IT leaders--that is, "aspiring leaders"--often think: "If I just do my job well, I will rise to a leadership position." Those who are already IT leaders--that is, "residing leaders"--often think: "If I just do my job well, I will leave a lasting legacy." Doing…

  7. The Galileo Spacecraft: A Telecommunications Legacy for Future Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, Leslie J.

    1997-01-01

    The Galileo mission to Jupiter has implemented a wide range of telecommunication inprovements in response to the loss of its high gain antenna. While necessity dictated the use of these new techniques for Galileo, now that they have been proven in flight, they are available for use on future deep space missions. This telecommunications legacy of Galileo will aid in our ability to conduct a meaningful exploration of the solar system, and beyond, at a reasonable cost.

  8. Learning from project experiences using a legacy-based approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Lynne P.; Majchrzak, Ann; Faraj, Samer

    2005-01-01

    As project teams become used more widely, the question of how to capitalize on the knowledge learned in project teams remains an open issue. Using previous research on shared cognition in groups, an approach to promoting post-project learning was developed. This Legacy Review concept was tested on four in tact project teams. The results from those test sessions were used to develop a model of team learning via group cognitive processes. The model and supporting propositions are presented.

  9. The NuSTAR Galactic Plane Survey: The Legacy Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hailey, Charles James; NuSTAR

    2015-01-01

    The NuSTAR Galactic Plane Survey was part of the level one science for the two-year baseline mission. Key aspects of the program were surveying a ~0.7 deg2 region of the Galactic Center to understand the nature of the large source population uncovered by Chandra, and speculated to be magnetic cataclysmic variables; revealing the origin of diffuse emission in molecular clouds and non-thermal filaments by studying their hard X-ray morphology and spectroscopy; revealing the history of past and present activity in Sgr A* through studies of flares and molecular clouds; reveal the overall hard X-ray morphology of the Galactic Center which included detection of numerous PWN, Sgr A-East and the previously unknown central hard X-ray emission.The NuSTAR legacy program is meant to provide significant time (~1.5 Msec) to conduct follow-up observations to maximize the science return from select projects described above, especially those where there would be broad community interest in such follow up, and to conduct new observations whose scale or level of risk might make it difficult for individuals to successfully obtain data through guest observer proposals. The legacy program will be designed with community input, and the data will be immediately public. Examples might include continued monitoring of the Galactic Center for Sgr A* flares and other time-variable sources; large scale follow up of unidentified HESS and INTEGRAL sources; deeper observations of select regions near the Galactic Center to better understand the hard X-ray logN-logS of the Chandra point sources. The talk will serve as a forum for providing input to the design of the legacy program, and to provide information on how to further engage in the process of legacy program design.

  10. Risk Methodologies for Technological Legacies : Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute, Bourgas, Bulgaria from 2 to 11 May 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Bley, Dennis C.; Droppo, James G.; Eremenko, Vitaly A.

    2003-05-01

    The Cold War Era left the major participants, the United States and the former Soviet Union (FSU), with large environmental legacies in terms of facility contamination and environmental degradation. Although the countries face similar issues from similar activities, important differences in waste management practices make the potential environmental and health risks of more immediate concern in the FSU and Eastern Europe. In the West, most nuclear and chemical waste is stored in known contained locations, while in the East much of the equivalent material is unconfined, contaminating the environment. The knowledge and experiences of the U.S. in these initial cleanup efforts are seen as important information in many North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Partner countries, where the environmental problems are more severe and the cleanup budgets more limited. An Advanced Study Institute (ASI) on ''Risk Assessment Activities for the Cold War Facilities and Environmental Legacies'' was held in Bourgas, Bulgaria, May 2-11, 2000. The objective of the ASI was to provide information to facilitate and enable decision-making activities affecting the environment and human populations in the NATO and Partner countries. Specifically, the ASI provided a forum to communicate the current status of risk analysis and management methodologies and their appropriate application. It addressed scientific approaches and application experiences from the initial U.S. risk assessment activities. This book is the product of the ASI. The power of the text lies in linking information on legacies with an integrated view of controlling the risk of those legacies. Risk can only be effectively controlled by proper balance of three central concepts: risk analysis, risk perception, and risk management. The editors were drawn together by the joint recognition that risk analysis methods had matured over the past 30 years in several fields, relatively independent of each other. It was time to

  11. Automated component creation for legacy C++ and fortran codes.

    SciTech Connect

    Sottile, M. J.; Rasmussen, C. E.

    2001-01-01

    A significant amount of work has been spent creating component models and programming environments, but little support exists for automation in the process of creating components from existing codes. To entice users to adopt the component-based paradigm over traditional programming models, integration of legacy codes must be as simple and fast as possible, We present a system for automating the IDL generation stage of component development based on source code analysis of legacy C, C-t-4 and Fortran codes using the Program Database Toolkit. Together with IDL compilation tools such as Babel, we provide an alternative to hand-written IDL code for legacy applications and libraries. In addition to generating IDL, we propose an XML-based method for specifying meta-data related to type mapping and wrapper generation that can be shared between our tools and IDL compilers. The component model of choice for this work is the Common Component Architecture (CCA) using the Scientific Interface Definition Language (SIDL), though the concepts presented can be applied to other models.

  12. Wings In Orbit: Scientific and Engineering Legacies of the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, N. Wayne (Editor); Lulla, Kamlesh (Editor); Lane, Helen W. (Editor); Chapline, Gail (Editor)

    2010-01-01

    This Space Shuttle book project reviews Wings In Orbit-scientific and engineering legacies of the Space Shuttle. The contents include: 1) Magnificent Flying Machine-A Cathedral to Technology; 2) The Historical Legacy; 3) The Shuttle and its Operations; 4) Engineering Innovations; 5) Major Scientific Discoveries; 6) Social, Cultural, and Educational Legacies; 7) Commercial Aerospace Industries and Spin-offs; and 8) The Shuttle continuum, Role of Human Spaceflight.

  13. Precipitation legacy effects on dryland ecosystem carbon fluxes: direction, magnitude and biogeochemical carryovers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, W.; Jenerette, G. D.; Hui, D.; Scott, R. L.

    2016-01-01

    The precipitation legacy effect, defined as the impact of historical precipitation (PPT) on extant ecosystem dynamics, has been recognized as an important driver in shaping the temporal variability of dryland aboveground net primary production (ANPP) and soil respiration. How the PPT legacy influences whole ecosystem-level carbon (C) fluxes has rarely been quantitatively assessed, particularly at longer temporal scales. We parameterized a process-based ecosystem model to a semiarid savanna ecosystem in the southwestern USA, calibrated and evaluated the model performance based on 7 years of eddy-covariance measurements, and conducted two sets of simulation experiments to assess interdecadal and interannual PPT legacy effects over a 30-year simulation period. The results showed that decreasing the previous period/year PPT (dry legacy) always increased subsequent net ecosystem production (NEP) whereas increasing the previous period/year PPT (wet legacy) decreased NEP. The simulated dry-legacy impacts mostly increased subsequent gross ecosystem production (GEP) and reduced ecosystem respiration (Re), but the wet legacy mostly reduced GEP and increased Re. Although the direction and magnitude of GEP and Re responses to the simulated dry and wet legacies were influenced by both the previous and current PPT conditions, the NEP responses were predominantly determined by the previous PPT characteristics including rainfall amount, seasonality and event size distribution. Larger PPT difference between periods/years resulted in larger legacy impacts, with dry legacies fostering more C sequestration and wet legacies more C release. The carryover of soil N between periods/years was mainly responsible for the GEP responses, while the carryovers of plant biomass, litter and soil organic matter were mainly responsible for the Re responses. These simulation results suggest that previous PPT conditions can exert substantial legacy impacts on current ecosystem C balance, which should

  14. External Tank Program Legacy of Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welzyn, Ken; Pilet, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    I.Goal: a) Extensive TPS damage caused by extreme hail storm. b) Repair plan required to restore TPS to minimize program manifest impacts. II. Challenges: a) Skeptical technical community - Concerned about interactions of damage with known/unknown failure modes. b) Schedule pressure to accommodate ISS program- Next tank still at MAF c)Limited ET resources. III. How d We Do It?: a) Developed unique engineering requirements and tooling to minimize repairs. b) Performed large amount of performance testing to demonstrate understanding of repairs and residual conditions. c) Effectively communicated results to technical community and management to instill confidence in expected performance.

  15. Converting a legacy system database into relational format to enhance query efficiency.

    PubMed

    Prather, J C; Lobach, D F; Hales, J W; Hage, M L; Fehrs, S J; Hammond, W E

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of clinical data collected over time can provide important insight into the health care process. Unfortunately, much of the electronic clinical data that exists today is stored in legacy systems, making it difficult to access and share the information. An approach is needed to improve the accessibility of electronic data stored in legacy system databases. In this study, a legacy database is converted into a relational format in the personal computer environment. The impact of such a conversion on query performance is evaluated, and issues that need to be considered when converting a legacy system database are identified. PMID:8563305

  16. Creating a career legacy map to help assure meaningful work in nursing.

    PubMed

    Hinds, Pamela S; Britton, Dorienda R; Coleman, Lael; Engh, Eileen; Humbel, Tina Kunze; Keller, Susan; Kelly, Katherine Patterson; Menard, Johanna; Lee, Marlene A; Roberts-Turner, Renee; Walczak, Dory

    2015-01-01

    When nurses declare a professional legacy (or what they intend to be better in health care because of their efforts), they are likely to maintain a focus on achieving their legacy and to experience meaning in the process. We depict the legacy and involved steps in creating a legacy map, which is a concrete guide forward to intended career outcomes. Informed by the "meaningful work" literature, we describe a legacy map, its function, the process to create one, and the application of a legacy map to guide careers. We also describe an administrative benefit of the legacy map-the map can be used by team leaders and members to secure needed resources and opportunities to support the desired legacy of team members. Legacy mapping can be a self-use career guidance tool for nurses and other health care professionals or a tool that links the career efforts of a team member with the career support efforts of a team leader. PMID:25241135

  17. The legacy of pesticide pollution: An overlooked factor in current risk assessments of freshwater systems.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Jes J; Wiberg-Larsen, Peter; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Cedergreen, Nina; McKnight, Ursula S; Kreuger, Jenny; Jacobsen, Dean; Kristensen, Esben A; Friberg, Nikolai

    2015-11-01

    We revealed a history of legacy pesticides in water and sediment samples from 19 small streams across an agricultural landscape. Dominant legacy compounds included organochlorine pesticides, such as DDT and lindane, the organophosphate chlorpyrifos and triazine herbicides such as terbutylazine and simazine which have long been banned in the EU. The highest concentrations of legacy pesticides were found in streams draining catchments with a large proportion of arable farmland suggesting that they originated from past agricultural applications. The sum of toxic units (SumTUD.magna) based on storm water samples from agriculturally impacted streams was significantly higher when legacy pesticides were included compared to when they were omitted. Legacy pesticides did not significantly change the predicted toxicity of water samples to algae or fish. However, pesticide concentrations in bed sediment and suspended sediment samples exceeded safety thresholds in 50% of the samples and the average contribution of legacy pesticides to the SumTUC.riparius was >90%. Our results suggest that legacy pesticides can be highly significant contributors to the current toxic exposure of stream biota, especially macroinvertebrate communities, and that those communities were primarily exposed to legacy pesticides via the sediment. Additionally, our results suggest that neglecting legacy pesticides in the risk assessment of pesticides in streams may severely underestimate the risk of ecological effects. PMID:26207877

  18. 75 FR 47338 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “The Nepalese Legacy in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... Painting'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following determinations: Pursuant to the authority... ``The Nepalese Legacy in Tibetan Painting,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within...

  19. LmSmdB: an integrated database for metabolic and gene regulatory network in Leishmania major and Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Priyanka; Mandlik, Vineetha; Singh, Shailza

    2015-01-01

    A database that integrates all the information required for biological processing is essential to be stored in one platform. We have attempted to create one such integrated database that can be a one stop shop for the essential features required to fetch valuable result. LmSmdB (L. major and S. mansoni database) is an integrated database that accounts for the biological networks and regulatory pathways computationally determined by integrating the knowledge of the genome sequences of the mentioned organisms. It is the first database of its kind that has together with the network designing showed the simulation pattern of the product. This database intends to create a comprehensive canopy for the regulation of lipid metabolism reaction in the parasite by integrating the transcription factors, regulatory genes and the protein products controlled by the transcription factors and hence operating the metabolism at genetic level. PMID:26981382

  20. Development and Implementation of a Comprehensive Program to Deal with Canada's Nuclear Legacy Liabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Peter; Metcalfe, Douglas; Blanchette, Marcia; Dolinar, George; Halpenny, Steven; Purdy, Chris; Smith, David; Kupferschmidt, William

    2008-01-15

    The Government of Canada nuclear legacy liabilities have resulted from 60 years of nuclear research and development (R and D) carried out on behalf of Canada by the National Research Council (1944 to 1952) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL, 1952 to present). These liabilities are largely located at AECL research sites, and consist of shutdown research buildings (including several prototype and research reactors), a wide variety of buried and stored wastes, and contaminated lands. The shutdown buildings and contaminated lands need to be safely decommissioned to meet federal regulatory requirements, and long-term solutions need to be developed and implemented for management of the wastes. More than half of the liabilities are the result of Cold War activities during the 1940's, 50's and early 60's. The remaining liabilities stem from R and D for medical isotopes and nuclear reactor technology, as well as national science programs. About 70 percent of the liabilities are located at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) in Ontario, and a further 20 percent are located at AECL's shutdown Whiteshell Laboratories in Manitoba. The remaining 10 percent relate largely to three shutdown prototype reactors in Ontario and Quebec, which were key to the developmental stage of Canada's CANDU reactor technology. The inventory of legacy waste includes spent fuel, high-level, intermediate-level and low-level solid and liquid radioactive waste, and wastes (largely contaminated soils) from site clean-up work across Canada. Most of the wastes are in raw, unconditioned form, and limited characterization information is available for the wastes generated in past decades. In many cases unique and potentially costly solutions will be required to recover, handle and process the wastes. In conclusion: the Government of Canada has initiated a program to deal with nuclear legacy liabilities dating back to the Cold War and the birth of nuclear technologies and medicine in Canada. The 5

  1. LmTDRM database: a comprehensive database on thiol metabolic gene/gene products in Listeria monocytogenes EGDe.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, Vanishree; Gopal, Shubha

    2014-01-01

    There are a number of databases on the Listeria species and about their genome. However, these databases do not specifically address a set of network that is important in defence mechanism of the bacteria. Listeria monocytogenes EGDe is a well-established intracellular model organism to study host pathogenicity because of its versatility in the host environment. Here, we have focused on thiol disulphide redox metabolic network proteins, specifically in L. monocytogenes EGDe. The thiol redox metabolism is involved in oxidative stress mechanism and is found in all living cells. It functions to maintain the thiol disulphide balance required for protein folding by providing reducing power. Nevertheless, they are involved in the reversible oxidation of thiol groups in biomolecules by creating disulphide bonds; therefore, the term thiol disulphide redox metabolism (TDRM). TDRM network genes play an important role in oxidative stress mechanism and during host–pathogen interaction. Therefore, it is essential to have detailed information on these proteins with regard to other bacteria and its genome analysis to understand the presence of tRNA, transposons, and insertion elements for horizontal gene transfer. LmTDRM database is a new comprehensive web-based database on thiol proteins and their functions. It includes: Description, Search, TDRM analysis, and genome viewer. The quality of these data has been evaluated before they were aggregated to produce a final representation. The web interface allows for various queries to understand the protein function and their annotation with respect to their relationship with other bacteria. LmTDRM is a major step towards the development of databases on thiol disulphide redox proteins; it would definitely help researchers to understand the mechanism of these proteins and their interaction. Database URL: www.lmtdrm.com. PMID:25228549

  2. Inferred L/M cone opsin polymorphism of ancestral tarsiers sheds dim light on the origin of anthropoid primates

    PubMed Central

    Melin, Amanda D.; Matsushita, Yuka; Moritz, Gillian L.; Dominy, Nathaniel J.; Kawamura, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    Tarsiers are small nocturnal primates with a long history of fuelling debate on the origin and evolution of anthropoid primates. Recently, the discovery of M and L opsin genes in two sister species, Tarsius bancanus (Bornean tarsier) and Tarsius syrichta (Philippine tarsier), respectively, was interpreted as evidence of an ancestral long-to-middle (L/M) opsin polymorphism, which, in turn, suggested a diurnal or cathemeral (arrhythmic) activity pattern. This view is compatible with the hypothesis that stem tarsiers were diurnal; however, a reversion to nocturnality during the Middle Eocene, as evidenced by hyper-enlarged orbits, predates the divergence of T. bancanus and T. syrichta in the Late Miocene. Taken together, these findings suggest that some nocturnal tarsiers possessed high-acuity trichromatic vision, a concept that challenges prevailing views on the adaptive origins of the anthropoid visual system. It is, therefore, important to explore the plausibility and antiquity of trichromatic vision in the genus Tarsius. Here, we show that Sulawesi tarsiers (Tarsius tarsier), a phylogenetic out-group of Philippine and Bornean tarsiers, have an L opsin gene that is more similar to the L opsin gene of T. syrichta than to the M opsin gene of T. bancanus in non-synonymous nucleotide sequence. This result suggests that an L/M opsin polymorphism is the ancestral character state of crown tarsiers and raises the possibility that many hallmarks of the anthropoid visual system evolved under dim (mesopic) light conditions. This interpretation challenges the persistent nocturnal–diurnal dichotomy that has long informed debate on the origin of anthropoid primates. PMID:23536597

  3. Derivatives of Dictyostelium differentiation-inducing factors inhibit lysophosphatidic acid-stimulated migration of murine osteosarcoma LM8 cells.

    PubMed

    Kubohara, Yuzuru; Komachi, Mayumi; Homma, Yoshimi; Kikuchi, Haruhisa; Oshima, Yoshiteru

    2015-08-01

    Osteosarcoma is a common metastatic bone cancer that predominantly develops in children and adolescents. Metastatic osteosarcoma remains associated with a poor prognosis; therefore, more effective anti-metastatic drugs are needed. Differentiation-inducing factor-1 (DIF-1), -2, and -3 are novel lead anti-tumor agents that were originally isolated from the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Here we investigated the effects of a panel of DIF derivatives on lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-induced migration of mouse osteosarcoma LM8 cells by using a Boyden chamber assay. Some DIF derivatives such as Br-DIF-1, DIF-3(+2), and Bu-DIF-3 (5-20 μM) dose-dependently suppressed LPA-induced cell migration with associated IC50 values of 5.5, 4.6, and 4.2 μM, respectively. On the other hand, the IC50 values of Br-DIF-1, DIF-3(+2), and Bu-DIF-3 versus cell proliferation were 18.5, 7.2, and 2.0 μM, respectively, in LM8 cells, and >20, 14.8, and 4.3 μM, respectively, in mouse 3T3-L1 fibroblasts (non-transformed). Together, our results demonstrate that Br-DIF-1 in particular may be a valuable tool for the analysis of cancer cell migration, and that DIF derivatives such as DIF-3(+2) and Bu-DIF-3 are promising lead anti-tumor agents for the development of therapies that suppress osteosarcoma cell proliferation, migration, and metastasis. PMID:26056940

  4. The legacy of Hephaestus: the first craniotomy.

    PubMed

    Brasiliense, Leonardo Bc; Safavi-Abbasi, Sam; Crawford, Neil R; Spetzler, Robert F; Theodore, Nicholas

    2010-10-01

    Hephaestus is best known as the Greek god of metalworking, fire, and fine arts. As the only Olympian deity not endowed with physical perfection, he has been considered misfortunate among the Olympians. However, textual analysis of his myths reveals that Hephaestus was highly regarded by Greeks for his manual skills and intelligence. Furthermore, one of the myths about Hephaestus indicates that he performed the first recorded craniotomy. This text asserts that Hephaestus intentionally performed the craniotomy to remove a mass growing inside Zeus' head, thereby relieving him of an excruciating headache. The successful craniotomy resulted in the birth of the goddess Athena. From a neurosurgical perspective, the story is allegorical. Nonetheless, it represents the surgical management of intracranial ailments, which is thought to have been reported in Greece centuries later by Hippocrates. PMID:20881551

  5. The Legacy of Space Shuttle Flight Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, Christopher J.; Loveall, James B.; Orr, James K.; Klausman, Andrew L.

    2011-01-01

    The initial goals of the Space Shuttle Program required that the avionics and software systems blaze new trails in advancing avionics system technology. Many of the requirements placed on avionics and software were accomplished for the first time on this program. Examples include comprehensive digital fly-by-wire technology, use of a digital databus for flight critical functions, fail operational/fail safe requirements, complex automated redundancy management, and the use of a high-order software language for flight software development. In order to meet the operational and safety goals of the program, the Space Shuttle software had to be extremely high quality, reliable, robust, reconfigurable and maintainable. To achieve this, the software development team evolved a software process focused on continuous process improvement and defect elimination that consistently produced highly predictable and top quality results, providing software managers the confidence needed to sign each Certificate of Flight Readiness (COFR). This process, which has been appraised at Capability Maturity Model (CMM)/Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) Level 5, has resulted in one of the lowest software defect rates in the industry. This paper will present an overview of the evolution of the Primary Avionics Software System (PASS) project and processes over thirty years, an argument for strong statistical control of software processes with examples, an overview of the success story for identifying and driving out errors before flight, a case study of the few significant software issues and how they were either identified before flight or slipped through the process onto a flight vehicle, and identification of the valuable lessons learned over the life of the project.

  6. Management of leptomeningeal metastases: Prognostic factors and associated outcomes.

    PubMed

    Brower, Jeffrey V; Saha, Sandeep; Rosenberg, Stephen A; Hullett, Craig R; Ian Robins, H

    2016-05-01

    Limited data are currently available to direct treatment recommendations in the management of leptomeningeal metastases (LM). Here we review treatment modalities clinicians should understand in order to manage patients with LM. We first describe our institution's experience with the treatment of LM and use this dataset to frame the discussion of LM management. Between 1999 and 2014, 1361 patients with central nervous system metastases were reviewed, 124 (9.1%) had radiographic evidence of LM, and these patients form the cohort for this analysis. Mean age at diagnosis of LM was 52years. Median survival for the entire cohort was 2.3months. The most common primary malignancies were non-small cell lung cancer (25.8%), breast cancer (17.7%), small cell lung cancer (16.9%) and melanoma (8.9%). Univariate analyses demonstrated that greater Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) (p=0.001) and administration of systemic chemotherapy (p<0.001) resulted in improved median survival. Multivariate Cox analyses revealed that receipt of chemotherapy and a complete course of whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) (median dose 30Gy in 10 fractions, range 24-40Gy) were predictive of longer survival, (p=0.013 and 0.019, respectively). These data suggest that there is a group of patients with good KPS who may experience significantly longer median survival than expected. Multivariate analysis from this single institution retrospective study demonstrated a benefit for WBRT and chemotherapy in individuals with good KPS. These findings provide contemporary data from a large cohort of LM patients, which may be utilized to guide treatment recommendations, assist in patient counseling and direct future investigations into optimization of treatment regimens. PMID:26778048

  7. Enduring legacy of a toxic fan via episodic redistribution of California gold mining debris.

    PubMed

    Singer, Michael Bliss; Aalto, Rolf; James, L Allan; Kilham, Nina E; Higson, John L; Ghoshal, Subhajit

    2013-11-12

    The interrelationships between hydrologically driven evolution of legacy landscapes downstream of major mining districts and the contamination of lowland ecosystems are poorly understood over centennial time scales. Here, we demonstrate within piedmont valleys of California's Sierra Nevada, through new and historical data supported by modeling, that anthropogenic fans produced by 19th century gold mining comprise an episodically persistent source of sediment-adsorbed Hg to lowlands. Within the enormous, iconic Yuba Fan, we highlight (i) an apparent shift in the relative processes of fan evolution from gradual vertical channel entrenchment to punctuated lateral erosion of fan terraces, thus enabling entrainment of large volumes of Hg-laden sediment during individual floods, and (ii) systematic intrafan redistribution and downstream progradation of fan sediment into the Central Valley, triggered by terrace erosion during increasingly long, 10-y flood events. Each major flood apparently erodes stored sediment and delivers to sensitive lowlands the equivalent of ~10-30% of the entire postmining Sierran Hg mass so far conveyed to the San Francisco Bay-Delta (SFBD). This process of protracted but episodic erosion of legacy sediment and associated Hg is likely to persist for >10(4) y. It creates, within an immense swath of river corridor well upstream of the SFBD, new contaminated floodplain surfaces primed for Hg methylation and augments/replenishes potential Hg sources to the SFBD. Anticipation, prediction, and management of toxic sediment delivery, and corresponding risks to lowland ecology and human society globally, depend on the morphodynamic stage of anthropogenic fan evolution, synergistically coupled to changing frequency of and duration extreme floods. PMID:24167273

  8. Enduring legacy of a toxic fan via episodic redistribution of California gold mining debris

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Michael Bliss; Aalto, Rolf; James, L. Allan; Kilham, Nina E.; Higson, John L.; Ghoshal, Subhajit

    2013-01-01

    The interrelationships between hydrologically driven evolution of legacy landscapes downstream of major mining districts and the contamination of lowland ecosystems are poorly understood over centennial time scales. Here, we demonstrate within piedmont valleys of California’s Sierra Nevada, through new and historical data supported by modeling, that anthropogenic fans produced by 19th century gold mining comprise an episodically persistent source of sediment-adsorbed Hg to lowlands. Within the enormous, iconic Yuba Fan, we highlight (i) an apparent shift in the relative processes of fan evolution from gradual vertical channel entrenchment to punctuated lateral erosion of fan terraces, thus enabling entrainment of large volumes of Hg-laden sediment during individual floods, and (ii) systematic intrafan redistribution and downstream progradation of fan sediment into the Central Valley, triggered by terrace erosion during increasingly long, 10-y flood events. Each major flood apparently erodes stored sediment and delivers to sensitive lowlands the equivalent of ∼10–30% of the entire postmining Sierran Hg mass so far conveyed to the San Francisco Bay-Delta (SFBD). This process of protracted but episodic erosion of legacy sediment and associated Hg is likely to persist for >104 y. It creates, within an immense swath of river corridor well upstream of the SFBD, new contaminated floodplain surfaces primed for Hg methylation and augments/replenishes potential Hg sources to the SFBD. Anticipation, prediction, and management of toxic sediment delivery, and corresponding risks to lowland ecology and human society globally, depend on the morphodynamic stage of anthropogenic fan evolution, synergistically coupled to changing frequency of and duration extreme floods. PMID:24167273

  9. La Hague Legacy Waste Recovery Program: Scope, Progress and Issues -12080

    SciTech Connect

    Chabeuf, Jean-Michel

    2012-07-01

    A significant inventory of process waste of varying natures and quantities has been generated during the thirty years of operation of UP2 400 facility on the site of La Hague, France. The retrieval, packaging and final storage of such an inventory has never been achieved before in France and thus requires the design and qualification of new processes, equipment, and waste packages. Following AREVA strategic decisions and French safety authority requirements, the legacy waste program has begun around the year 2000 and is scheduled to be completed around the year 2025. It is under the responsibility of AREVA Site Value Development Project teams. For each category of waste to be recovered, AREVA teams conducted detailed investigations, defined recovery modes, treatment processes, as well as final waste package forms, which they subsequently submitted to French safety and waste management authorities. A Task force initiative was subsequently launched to optimize the program cost and scenario, and lead to an optimization of about 15% of the entire program. The qualification of processes and waste packages required a significant amount of research and development which is now well under way for processes, and scheduled to be completed in 2015. Preparation work has begun on several installations to clear space for the construction of future retrieval facilities, scheduled to begin in the coming three years. La Hague Legacy waste retrieval program represents a significant challenge in the sense that it covers a significant variety and quantity of waste needing recovery and reconditioning, with tight financial objectives and a binding recovery schedule. During the past five years, AREVA SVD successfully conducted design, research, development, and qualification activities which lead to the definition of qualified processes and waste packages for each retrieval program. Preparation work and supplier consultations are now on-going, in order to meet our objectives of beginning

  10. Calcium Induces Long-Term Legacy Effects in a Subalpine Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Schaffner, Urs; Alewell, Christine; Eschen, René; Matthies, Diethart; Spiegelberger, Thomas; Hegg, Otto

    2012-01-01

    Human activities have transformed a significant proportion of the world’s land surface, with profound effects on ecosystem processes. Soil applications of macronutrients such as nitrate, phosphorus, potassium or calcium are routinely used in the management of croplands, grasslands and forests to improve plant health or increase productivity. However, while the effects of continuous fertilization and liming on terrestrial ecosystems are well documented, remarkably little is known about the legacy effect of historical fertilization and liming events in terrestrial ecosystems and of the mechanisms involved. Here, we show that more than 70 years after the last application of lime on a subalpine grassland, all major soil and plant calcium pools were still significantly larger in limed than in unlimed plots, and that the resulting shift in the soil calcium/aluminium ratio continues to affect ecosystem services such as primary production. The difference in the calcium content of the vegetation and the topmost 10 cm of the soil in limed vs. unlimed plots amounts to approximately 19.5 g m−2, equivalent to 16.3% of the amount that was added to the plots some 70 years ago. In contrast, plots that were treated with nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizer in the 1930s did not differ from unfertilized plots in any of the soil and vegetation characteristics measured. Our findings suggest that the long-term legacy effect of historical liming is due to long-term storage of added calcium in stable soil pools, rather than a general increase in nutrient availability. Our results demonstrate that single applications of calcium in its carbonated form can profoundly and persistently alter ecosystem processes and services in mountain ecosystems. PMID:23284779

  11. Jean-Martin Charcot and his legacy.

    PubMed

    Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2014-01-01

    Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) rightly is considered the father of both modern neurology and psychiatry in France and much beyond. While he never was interested in mental disease and what was called 'alienism' at the time, his career at La Salpêtrière Hospital over 30 years was mainly marked by the development of a huge group of students which focused on the study and management of hysteria. When Charcot took office at the beginning of 1862, hysteria was a 'no-man's land', medically speaking, since neither the alienists nor the internists had much interest in this condition. At La Salpêtrière, these chronic patients were largely left to themselves before Désiré Bourneville, one of Charcot's first students, convinced his chief to care for them. Subsequently, the studies of Charcot with Paul Richer, Joseph Babinski, Georges Gilles de la Tourette, Paul Sollier, Pierre Janet, and many others allowed the condition to be addressed in detail. During his stay with Charcot in 1885-1866, Sigmund Freud, a young neuropathologist at the time, became fascinated by hysteria, an interest which probably was the main start of his interest in psychology. Charcot emphasized the concept of mental factors in hysteria, along with that of a 'dynamic' lesion, which accounted for the lack of neuropathological findings in the patients. While his ideas on hysteria and hypnotism were criticized after his death even by former pupils, such as Babinski, recent findings from functional studies using magnetic resonance imaging show how accurate and often visionary Charcot's thinking was in this field. PMID:25273488

  12. The Impact of Legacy Status on Undergraduate Admissions at Elite Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurwitz, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I examine the impact of legacy status on admissions decisions at 30 highly selective colleges and universities. Unlike other quantitative studies addressing this topic, I use conditional logistic regression with fixed effects for colleges to draw conclusions about the impact of legacy status on admissions odds. By doing so, I…

  13. Precipitation legacy effects on dryland ecosystem carbon fluxes: direction, magnitude and biogeochemical carryovers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The precipitation legacy effect, defined as the impact of historical precipitation (PPT) on extant ecosystem dynamics, has been recognized as an important driver in shaping the temporal variability of dryland aboveground net primary production (ANPP) and soil respiration. How the PPT legacy influenc...

  14. 31 CFR 357.24 - Availability and disclosure of Legacy Treasury Direct ® records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... except: (1) As provided in these regulations; (2) As provided in Treasury regulations contained in 31 CFR... Treasury Direct ® records. 357.24 Section 357.24 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... SYSTEM (TRADES) AND LEGACY TREASURY DIRECT Legacy Treasury Direct Book-Entry Securities System...

  15. 31 CFR 357.24 - Availability and disclosure of Legacy Treasury Direct ® records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... except: (1) As provided in these regulations; (2) As provided in Treasury regulations contained in 31 CFR... Treasury Direct ® records. 357.24 Section 357.24 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... SYSTEM (TRADES) AND LEGACY TREASURY DIRECT Legacy Treasury Direct Book-Entry Securities System...

  16. 31 CFR 357.24 - Availability and disclosure of Legacy Treasury Direct ® records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... except: (1) As provided in these regulations; (2) As provided in Treasury regulations contained in 31 CFR... Treasury Direct ® records. 357.24 Section 357.24 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... SYSTEM (TRADES) AND LEGACY TREASURY DIRECT Legacy Treasury Direct Book-Entry Securities System...

  17. 31 CFR 357.24 - Availability and disclosure of Legacy Treasury Direct ® records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... except: (1) As provided in these regulations; (2) As provided in Treasury regulations contained in 31 CFR... Treasury Direct ® records. 357.24 Section 357.24 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... SYSTEM (TRADES) AND LEGACY TREASURY DIRECT Legacy Treasury Direct Book-Entry Securities System...

  18. Writing through the Labyrinth of Fears: The Legacy of Walter Dean Myers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatum, Alfred W.

    2015-01-01

    This commentary discusses the legacy of Walter Dean Myers in relationship to advancing writing as an intellectual tool of protection for black male teens. Multiple implications are provided for teachers who want to engage black male teens to write fearlessly to extend the legacy of Walter Dean Myers.

  19. Why Can't We Talk About Race? Racial Legacies and Learning: An American Dialogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Colleges and Universities, Washington, DC.

    This brochure describes an initiative of the Association of American Colleges and Universities, Racial Legacies and Learning, designed to foster learning and dialogue about America's racial legacies and opportunities. The project began in early April 1998 with a national Campus Week of Dialogue, and was expected to culminate in campus-community…

  20. 77 FR 9693 - Establishment of Flint Hills Legacy Conservation Area, Kansas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... from the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965, as amended (16 U.S.C. 460l-4 through 11... Fish and Wildlife Service Establishment of Flint Hills Legacy Conservation Area, Kansas AGENCY: Fish.... Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) has established the Flint Hills Legacy Conservation Area, the...

  1. Land-use legacies from dry farming in the Park Valley area of Box Elder County

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Last fall in this newsletter, we reported on the initiation of a study on the land-use legacies of dry farming in the Park Valley area. Land-use legacies are the long lasting impacts of historic land uses; such as, cultivation for dry farming. The Park Valley area and Box Elder County experienced ...

  2. A Pseudolite-Based Positioning System for Legacy GNSS Receivers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chongwon; So, Hyoungmin; Lee, Taikjin; Kee, Changdon

    2014-01-01

    The ephemeris data format of legacy GPS receivers is improper for positioning stationary pseudolites on the ground. Therefore, to utilize pseudolites for navigation, GPS receivers must be modified so that they can handle the modified data formats of the pseudolites. Because of this problem, the practical use of pseudolites has so far been limited. This paper proposes a pseudolite-based positioning system that can be used with unmodified legacy GPS receivers. In the proposed system, pseudolites transmit simulated GPS signals. The signals use standard GPS ephemeris data format and contain ephemeris data of simulated GPS satellites, not those of pseudolites. The use of the standard format enables the GPS receiver to process pseudolite signals without any modification. However, the position output of the GPS receiver is not the correct position in this system, because there are additional signal delays from each pseudolite to the receiver. A post-calculation process was added to obtain the correct receiver position using GPS receiver output. This re-estimation is possible because it is based on known information about the simulated signals, pseudolites, and positioning process of the GPS receiver. Simulations using generated data and live GPS data are conducted for various geometries to verify the proposed system. The test results show that the proposed system provides the desired user position using pseudolite signals without requiring any modifications to the legacy GPS receiver. In this initial study, a pseudolite-only indoor system was assumed. However, it can be expanded to a GPS-pseudolite system outdoors. PMID:24681674

  3. A pseudolite-based positioning system for legacy GNSS receivers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chongwon; So, Hyoungmin; Lee, Taikjin; Kee, Changdon

    2014-01-01

    The ephemeris data format of legacy GPS receivers is improper for positioning stationary pseudolites on the ground. Therefore, to utilize pseudolites for navigation, GPS receivers must be modified so that they can handle the modified data formats of the pseudolites. Because of this problem, the practical use of pseudolites has so far been limited. This paper proposes a pseudolite-based positioning system that can be used with unmodified legacy GPS receivers. In the proposed system, pseudolites transmit simulated GPS signals. The signals use standard GPS ephemeris data format and contain ephemeris data of simulated GPS satellites, not those of pseudolites. The use of the standard format enables the GPS receiver to process pseudolite signals without any modification. However, the position output of the GPS receiver is not the correct position in this system, because there are additional signal delays from each pseudolite to the receiver. A post-calculation process was added to obtain the correct receiver position using GPS receiver output. This re-estimation is possible because it is based on known information about the simulated signals, pseudolites, and positioning process of the GPS receiver. Simulations using generated data and live GPS data are conducted for various geometries to verify the proposed system. The test results show that the proposed system provides the desired user position using pseudolite signals without requiring any modifications to the legacy GPS receiver. In this initial study, a pseudolite-only indoor system was assumed. However, it can be expanded to a GPS-pseudolite system outdoors. PMID:24681674

  4. NTRCI Legacy Engine Research and Development Project Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith-Holbert, Connie; Petrolino, Joseph; Watkins, Bart; Irick, David

    2011-12-31

    The Legacy engine is a completely new design, transitional diesel engine, replacing the reciprocating engine with a rotary engine. The Legacy engine offers significant advances over conventional internal combustion engines in 1) power to weight ratio; 2) multiple fuel acceptance; 3) fuel economy; and 4) environmental compliance. These advances are achieved through a combination of innovative design geometry, rotary motion, aspiration simplicity, and manufacturing/part simplicity. The key technical challenge to the Legacy engine's commercialization, and the focus of this project, was the development of a viable roton tip seal. The PST concept for the roton tip seal was developed into a manufacturable design. The design was evaluated using a custom designed and fabricated seal test fixture and further refined. This design was incorporated into the GEN2.5A prototype and tested for achievable compression pressure. The Decision Point at the end of Phase 1 of the project (described below) was to further optimize the existing tip seal design. Enhancements to the tip seal design were incorporated into the GEN2.5B prototype and tested and evaluated using the iterative research strategy described below. Compression pressures adequate for compression ignition of diesel fuel were achieved, although not consistently in all combustion volumes. The variation in compression pressures was characterized versus design features. As the roton tip seal performance was improved, results pointed toward inadequate performance of the housing side seals. Enhancement of the housing side seal system was accomplished using a custom designed side seal test fixture. The design enhancements developed with the test fixture were also incorporated into the GEN2.5B prototype and tested and evaluated using the iterative research strategy described below. Finally, to simplify the requirements for the roton tip seals and to enhance the introduction and combustion of fuel, a flush-mount fuel injector was

  5. The Chandra Cosmos Legacy Survey: Overview and Point Source Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civano, F.; Marchesi, S.; Comastri, A.; Urry, M. C.; Elvis, M.; Cappelluti, N.; Puccetti, S.; Brusa, M.; Zamorani, G.; Hasinger, G.; Aldcroft, T.; Alexander, D. M.; Allevato, V.; Brunner, H.; Capak, P.; Finoguenov, A.; Fiore, F.; Fruscione, A.; Gilli, R.; Glotfelty, K.; Griffiths, R. E.; Hao, H.; Harrison, F. A.; Jahnke, K.; Kartaltepe, J.; Karim, A.; LaMassa, S. M.; Lanzuisi, G.; Miyaji, T.; Ranalli, P.; Salvato, M.; Sargent, M.; Scoville, N. J.; Schawinski, K.; Schinnerer, E.; Silverman, J.; Smolcic, V.; Stern, D.; Toft, S.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Treister, E.; Vignali, C.

    2016-03-01

    The COSMOS-Legacy survey is a 4.6 Ms Chandra program that has imaged 2.2 deg2 of the COSMOS field with an effective exposure of ≃ 160 ks over the central 1.5 deg2 and of ≃ 80 ks in the remaining area. The survey is the combination of 56 new observations obtained as an X-ray Visionary Project with the previous C-COSMOS survey. We describe the reduction and analysis of the new observations and the properties of 2273 point sources detected above a spurious probability of 2 × 10-5. We also present the updated properties of the C-COSMOS sources detected in the new data. The whole survey includes 4016 point sources (3814, 2920 and 2440 in the full, soft, and hard band). The limiting depths are 2.2 × 10-16, 1.5 × 10-15, and 8.9 × 10-16 {\\text{erg cm}}-2 {{{s}}}-1 in the 0.5-2, 2-10, and 0.5-10 keV bands, respectively. The observed fraction of obscured active galactic nuclei with a column density >1022 cm-2 from the hardness ratio (HR) is ˜50{}-16+17%. Given the large sample we compute source number counts in the hard and soft bands, significantly reducing the uncertainties of 5%-10%. For the first time we compute number counts for obscured (HR > -0.2) and unobscured (HR < -0.2) sources and find significant differences between the two populations in the soft band. Due to the unprecedent large exposure, COSMOS-Legacy area is three times larger than surveys at similar depths and its depth is three times fainter than surveys covering similar areas. The area-flux region occupied by COSMOS-Legacy is likely to remain unsurpassed for years to come.

  6. Completing the Legacy of Spitzer/IRAC over COSMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labbe, Ivo; Caputi, Karina; McLeod, Derek; Cowley, Will; Dayal, Pratika; Behroozi, Peter; Ashby, Matt; Franx, Marijn; Dunlop, James; Le Fevre, Olivier; Fynbo, Johan; McCracken, Henry; Milvang-Jensen, Bo; Ilbert, Olivier; Tasca, Lidia; de Barros, Stephane; Oesch, Pascal; Bouwens, Rychard; Muzzin, Adam; Illingworth, Garth; Stefanon, Mauro; Schreiber, Corentin; Hutter, Anne; van Dokkum, Pieter

    2016-08-01

    We propose to complete the legacy of Spitzer/IRAC over COSMOS by extending the deep coverage to the full 1.8 sq degree field, producing a nearly homogenous and contiguous map unparalleled in terms of area and depth. Ongoing and scheduled improvements in the supporting optical-to-NIR data down to ultradeep limits have reconfirmed COSMOS as a unique field for probing the bright end of the z=6-11 universe and the formation of large-scale structures. However, currently only one-third of the field has received sufficiently deep IRAC coverage to match the new optical/near-IR limits. Here we request deep matching IRAC data over the full 1.8 sq degree field to detect almost one million galaxies. The proposed observations will allow us to 1) constrain the galaxy stellar mass function during the epoch of reionization at z=6-8 with ~10,000 galaxies at these redshifts, 2) securely identify the brightest galaxies at 9 < z < 11, 3) trace the growth of stellar mass at 1 < z < 8 and the co-evolution of galaxies and their dark matter halos, 4) identify (proto)clusters and large scale structures, and 5) reveal dust enshrouded starbursts and the first quiescent galaxies at 3 < z < 6. The Spitzer Legacy over COSMOS will enable a wide range of discoveries beyond these science goals owing to the unique array of multiwavelength data from the X-ray to the radio. COSMOS is a key target for ongoing and future studies with ALMA and for spectroscopy from the ground, and with the timely addition of the Spitzer Legacy it will prove to be a crucial treasury for efficient planning and early follow-up with JWST.

  7. Optimal uncertainty quantification with model uncertainty and legacy data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamga, P.-H. T.; Li, B.; McKerns, M.; Nguyen, L. H.; Ortiz, M.; Owhadi, H.; Sullivan, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    We present an optimal uncertainty quantification (OUQ) protocol for systems that are characterized by an existing physics-based model and for which only legacy data is available, i.e., no additional experimental testing of the system is possible. Specifically, the OUQ strategy developed in this work consists of using the legacy data to establish, in a probabilistic sense, the level of error of the model, or modeling error, and to subsequently use the validated model as a basis for the determination of probabilities of outcomes. The quantification of modeling uncertainty specifically establishes, to a specified confidence, the probability that the actual response of the system lies within a certain distance of the model. Once the extent of model uncertainty has been established in this manner, the model can be conveniently used to stand in for the actual or empirical response of the system in order to compute probabilities of outcomes. To this end, we resort to the OUQ reduction theorem of Owhadi et al. (2013) in order to reduce the computation of optimal upper and lower bounds on probabilities of outcomes to a finite-dimensional optimization problem. We illustrate the resulting UQ protocol by means of an application concerned with the response to hypervelocity impact of 6061-T6 Aluminum plates by Nylon 6/6 impactors at impact velocities in the range of 5-7 km/s. The ability of the legacy OUQ protocol to process diverse information on the system and its ability to supply rigorous bounds on system performance under realistic-and less than ideal-scenarios demonstrated by the hypervelocity impact application is remarkable.

  8. Characterization and Genetic Analysis of a Novel Light-Dependent Lesion Mimic Mutant, lm3, Showing Adult-Plant Resistance to Powdery Mildew in Common Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fang; Wu, Wenying; Wang, Dongzhi; Yang, Wenlong; Sun, Jiazhu; Liu, Dongcheng; Zhang, Aimin

    2016-01-01

    Lesion mimics (LMs) that exhibit spontaneous disease-like lesions in the absence of pathogen attack might confer enhanced plant disease resistance to a wide range of pathogens. The LM mutant, lm3 was derived from a single naturally mutated individual in the F1 population of a 3-1/Jing411 cross, backcrossed six times with 3–1 as the recurrent parent and subsequently self-pollinated twice. The leaves of young seedlings of the lm3 mutant exhibited small, discrete white lesions under natural field conditions. The lesions first appeared at the leaf tips and subsequently expanded throughout the entire leaf blade to the leaf sheath. The lesions were initiated through light intensity and day length. Histochemical staining revealed that lesion formation might reflect programmed cell death (PCD) and abnormal accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The chlorophyll content in the mutant was significantly lower than that in wildtype, and the ratio of chlorophyll a/b was increased significantly in the mutant compared with wildtype, indicating that lm3 showed impairment of the biosynthesis or degradation of chlorophyll, and that Chlorophyll b was prone to damage during lesion formation. The lm3 mutant exhibited enhanced resistance to wheat powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici; Bgt) infection, which was consistent with the increased expression of seven pathogenesis-related (PR) and two wheat chemically induced (WCI) genes involved in the defense-related reaction. Genetic analysis showed that the mutation was controlled through a single partially dominant gene, which was closely linked to Xbarc203 on chromosome 3BL; this gene was delimited to a 40 Mb region between SSR3B450.37 and SSR3B492.6 using a large derived segregating population and the available Chinese Spring chromosome 3B genome sequence. Taken together, our results provide information regarding the identification of a novel wheat LM gene, which will facilitate the additional fine-mapping and

  9. Characterization and Genetic Analysis of a Novel Light-Dependent Lesion Mimic Mutant, lm3, Showing Adult-Plant Resistance to Powdery Mildew in Common Wheat.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Wu, Wenying; Wang, Dongzhi; Yang, Wenlong; Sun, Jiazhu; Liu, Dongcheng; Zhang, Aimin

    2016-01-01

    Lesion mimics (LMs) that exhibit spontaneous disease-like lesions in the absence of pathogen attack might confer enhanced plant disease resistance to a wide range of pathogens. The LM mutant, lm3 was derived from a single naturally mutated individual in the F1 population of a 3-1/Jing411 cross, backcrossed six times with 3-1 as the recurrent parent and subsequently self-pollinated twice. The leaves of young seedlings of the lm3 mutant exhibited small, discrete white lesions under natural field conditions. The lesions first appeared at the leaf tips and subsequently expanded throughout the entire leaf blade to the leaf sheath. The lesions were initiated through light intensity and day length. Histochemical staining revealed that lesion formation might reflect programmed cell death (PCD) and abnormal accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The chlorophyll content in the mutant was significantly lower than that in wildtype, and the ratio of chlorophyll a/b was increased significantly in the mutant compared with wildtype, indicating that lm3 showed impairment of the biosynthesis or degradation of chlorophyll, and that Chlorophyll b was prone to damage during lesion formation. The lm3 mutant exhibited enhanced resistance to wheat powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici; Bgt) infection, which was consistent with the increased expression of seven pathogenesis-related (PR) and two wheat chemically induced (WCI) genes involved in the defense-related reaction. Genetic analysis showed that the mutation was controlled through a single partially dominant gene, which was closely linked to Xbarc203 on chromosome 3BL; this gene was delimited to a 40 Mb region between SSR3B450.37 and SSR3B492.6 using a large derived segregating population and the available Chinese Spring chromosome 3B genome sequence. Taken together, our results provide information regarding the identification of a novel wheat LM gene, which will facilitate the additional fine-mapping and

  10. Introduction: Untold Legacies of the First World War in Britain

    PubMed Central

    Fell, Alison S.; Meyer, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The current centenary of the First World War provides an unrivalled opportunity to uncover some of the social legacies of the war. The four articles which make up this special issue each examine a different facet of the war’s impact on British society to explore an as yet untold story. The subjects investigated include logistics, the history of science, the social history of medicine and resistance to war. This article introduces the four which follow, locating them in the wider historiographic debates around the interface between warfare and societies engaged in war. PMID:27453628

  11. Introduction: the influence and legacy of Barbara Grier.

    PubMed

    DeMuth, Danielle M

    2014-01-01

    This special issue of the Journal of Lesbian Studies focuses on the life and legacy of the lesbian publisher, editor, and author Barbara Grier. Through Grier's "Lesbiana" column in Daughters of Bilitis's magazine The Ladder, three editions of The Lesbian in Literature (1967, 1975, 1985), to her role as publisher of the Naiad Press from 1973-2003, Grier introduced hundreds of new lesbian books to readers and kept several lesbian classics on the literary horizon. The articles in this issue focus on Grier's biography, history, and impact through archival analysis, interviews, and content analysis. This introduction contextualizes and outlines the articles in this special issue. PMID:25298095

  12. The myriapodological legacy of Victor Ivanovich Motschoulsky (1810-1871).

    PubMed

    Golovatch, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    The little that remains of Motschoulsky's myriapodological legacy in the collection of Moscow's Zoological Museum proves to be of very limited value. Only one species of Diplopoda described by Motschoulsky, the Caucasian Hirudisoma roseum (Victor, 1839), is still in use, yet requiring a neotype designation, whereas the remaining few myriapod names he proposed are either nomina dubia or nomina nuda. The former include Scolopendra pentagramma Motschoulsky, 1866 (Chilopoda, Scolopendromorpha, Scolopendridae) and Strongylosoma carinulatum Motschoulsky, 1866 (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae), both from Japan, as well as Julus costulatus Motschoulsky, 1851 (Diplopoda, Callipodida, Schizopetalidae?), from Montenegro, because their type material is either inadequate or missing. PMID:25147455

  13. From Music to Physics: The Undervalued Legacy of Pythagoras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caleon, Imelda; Ramanathan, Subramaniam

    2008-04-01

    This paper presents the early investigations about the nature of sound of the Pythagoreans, and how they started a tradition that remains valid up to present times—the use of numbers in representing natural reality. It will touch on the Pythagorean notion of musical harmony, which was extended to the notion of universal harmony. How the Pythagorean ideas have inspired many great works in physics, such as those of Galileo, Kepler and Newton, will also be presented. In exploring the legacy of Pythagoras to physics and the study of the universe, some valuable insights on the nature of science that can inspire budding physicists are extracted.

  14. Upgrading the HFIR Thermal-Hydraulic Legacy Code Using COMSOL

    SciTech Connect

    Bodey, Isaac T; Arimilli, Rao V; Freels, James D

    2010-01-01

    Modernization of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) thermal-hydraulic (TH) design and safety analysis capability is an important step in preparation for the conversion of the HFIR core from a high enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to a low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. Currently, an important part of the HFIR TH analysis is based on the legacy Steady State Heat Transfer Code (SSHTC), which adds much conservatism to the safety analysis. The multi-dimensional multi-physics capabilities of the COMSOL environment allow the analyst to relax the number and magnitude of conservatisms, imposed by the SSHTC, to present a more physical model of the TH aspect of the HFIR.

  15. Legacy effects in linked ecological-soil-geomorphic systems of drylands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monger, Curtis; Sala, Osvaldo E.; Duniway, Michael C.; Goldfus, Haim; Meir, Isaac A.; Poch, Rosa M.; Throop, Heather L.; Vivoni, Enrique R.

    2015-01-01

    A legacy effect refers to the impacts that previous conditions have on current processes or properties. Legacies have been recognized by many disciplines, from physiology and ecology to anthropology and geology. Within the context of climatic change, ecological legacies in drylands (eg vegetative patterns) result from feedbacks between biotic, soil, and geomorphic processes that operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Legacy effects depend on (1) the magnitude of the original phenomenon, (2) the time since the occurrence of the phenomenon, and (3) the sensitivity of the ecological–soil–geomorphic system to change. Here we present a conceptual framework for legacy effects at short-term (days to months), medium-term (years to decades), and long-term (centuries to millennia) timescales, which reveals the ubiquity of such effects in drylands across research disciplines.

  16. Optimization of the L-M cell bioassay for quantitating tumor necrosis factor alpha in serum and plasma.

    PubMed

    Nargi, F E; Yang, T J

    1993-02-26

    In attempting to quantitate TNF-alpha in body fluids using current bioassay protocols, we discovered several factors which adversely affect reliability, sensitivity and specificity. The objective of this study was to establish an optimum assay for use with serum and plasma samples. While adopting the commonly used L-M cell bioassay to test serum and plasma samples, we noted non-specific staining of cell debris and protein by crystal violet dye, even if the wells were washed prior to staining. However, when we replaced crystal violet with tetrazolium salts to measure cell viability, we discovered that both serum and plasma, from a variety of species, non-specifically reduced both MTT and XTT tetrazolium salts to a colored formazan product resulting in absorbance values significantly higher than those of medium and serum controls. This effect was particularly pronounced with fetal bovine serum which showed significant color development with as little as 6% serum in the test wells. Maximum sensitivity can only be obtained by eliminating these false negative readings. Therefore the serum or plasma containing supernatant must be removed from the test wells and replaced with fresh serum-free medium prior to addition of the substrate. This finding should be applicable to other body fluids such as urine, milk, and synovial fluid as well as any tetrazolium based assay for cell viability which uses serum-supplemented culture medium. Additionally, when the substrate XTT, which reduces to a water-soluble formazan product, was compared to MTT which reduces to a water-insoluble product, XTT was found to be superior since elimination of the solubilization process resulted in reduction of assay time. Also, overall absorbance readings using XTT were higher than with MTT, without any loss of sensitivity. There were no differences in detectability of TNF-alpha between serum and plasma and use of preservative-free heparin was found not to have adverse effect on TNF-alpha assay. Heat

  17. Linking legacies: Connecting the Cold War nuclear weapons production processes to their environmental consequences

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, the US has begun addressing the environmental consequences of five decades of nuclear weapons production. In support of this effort, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995 directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to describe the waste streams generated during each step in the production of nuclear weapons. Accordingly, this report responds to this mandate, and it is the Department`s first comprehensive analysis of the sources of waste and contamination generated by the production of nuclear weapons. The report also contains information on the missions and functions of nuclear weapons facilities, on the inventories of waste and materials remaining at these facilities, as well as on the extent and characteristics of contamination in and around these facilities. This analysis unites specific environmental impacts of nuclear weapons production with particular production processes. The Department used historical records to connect nuclear weapons production processes with emerging data on waste and contamination. In this way, two of the Department`s legacies--nuclear weapons manufacturing and environmental management--have become systematically linked. The goal of this report is to provide Congress, DOE program managers, non-governmental analysts, and the public with an explicit picture of the environmental results of each step in the nuclear weapons production and disposition cycle.

  18. Architectural Framework for Addressing Legacy Waste from the Cold War - 13611

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Gregory A.; Glazner, Christopher G.; Steckley, Sam

    2013-07-01

    We present an architectural framework for the use of a hybrid simulation model of enterprise-wide operations used to develop system-level insight into the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) environmental cleanup of legacy nuclear waste at the Savannah River Site. We use this framework for quickly exploring policy and architectural options, analyzing plans, addressing management challenges and developing mitigation strategies for DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM). The socio-technical complexity of EM's mission compels the use of a qualitative approach to complement a more a quantitative discrete event modeling effort. We use this model-based analysis to pinpoint pressure and leverage points and develop a shared conceptual understanding of the problem space and platform for communication among stakeholders across the enterprise in a timely manner. This approach affords the opportunity to discuss problems using a unified conceptual perspective and is also general enough that it applies to a broad range of capital investment/production operations problems. (authors)

  19. Sustainable Remediation of Legacy Mine Drainage: A Case Study of the Flight 93 National Memorial.

    PubMed

    Emili, Lisa A; Pizarchik, Joseph; Mahan, Carolyn G

    2016-03-01

    Pollution from mining activities is a global environmental concern, not limited to areas of current resource extraction, but including a broader geographic area of historic (legacy) and abandoned mines. The pollution of surface waters from acid mine drainage is a persistent problem and requires a holistic and sustainable approach to addressing the spatial and temporal complexity of mining-specific problems. In this paper, we focus on the environmental, socio-economic, and legal challenges associated with the concurrent activities to remediate a coal mine site and to develop a national memorial following a catastrophic event. We provide a conceptual construct of a socio-ecological system defined at several spatial, temporal, and organizational scales and a critical synthesis of the technical and social learning processes necessary to achieving sustainable environmental remediation. Our case study is an example of a multi-disciplinary management approach, whereby collaborative interaction of stakeholders, the emergence of functional linkages for information exchange, and mediation led to scientifically informed decision making, creative management solutions, and ultimately environmental policy change. PMID:26440656

  20. Sustainable Remediation of Legacy Mine Drainage: A Case Study of the Flight 93 National Memorial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emili, Lisa A.; Pizarchik, Joseph; Mahan, Carolyn G.

    2016-03-01

    Pollution from mining activities is a global environmental concern, not limited to areas of current resource extraction, but including a broader geographic area of historic (legacy) and abandoned mines. The pollution of surface waters from acid mine drainage is a persistent problem and requires a holistic and sustainable approach to addressing the spatial and temporal complexity of mining-specific problems. In this paper, we focus on the environmental, socio-economic, and legal challenges associated with the concurrent activities to remediate a coal mine site and to develop a national memorial following a catastrophic event. We provide a conceptual construct of a socio-ecological system defined at several spatial, temporal, and organizational scales and a critical synthesis of the technical and social learning processes necessary to achieving sustainable environmental remediation. Our case study is an example of a multi-disciplinary management approach, whereby collaborative interaction of stakeholders, the emergence of functional linkages for information exchange, and mediation led to scientifically informed decision making, creative management solutions, and ultimately environmental policy change.

  1. Radio-ecological characterization and radiological assessment in support of regulatory supervision of legacy sites in northwest Russia.

    PubMed

    Sneve, M K; Kiselev, M; Shandala, N K

    2014-05-01

    regulatory analysis of management options. For assessments of the current radiological situation, the types of data needed include information about the distribution of radionuclides in environmental media. For prognostic assessments, additional data are needed about the landscape features, on-shore and off-shore hydrology, geochemical properties of soils and sediments, and possible continuing source terms from continuing operations and on-site disposal. It is anticipated that shared international experience in legacy site characterization can be useful in the next steps. Although the output has been designed to support regulatory evaluation of these particular sites in northwest Russia, the methods and techniques are considered useful examples for application elsewhere, as well as providing relevant input to the International Atomic Energy Agency's international Working Forum for the Regulatory Supervision of Legacy Sites. PMID:24268758

  2. RSA/Legacy Wind Sensor Comparison. Part 1; Western Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, David A.; Wheeler, Mark M.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes a comparison of data from ultrasonic and cup-and-vane anemometers on 5 wind towers at Vandenberg AFB. The ultrasonic sensors are scheduled to replace the Legacy cup-and-vane sensors under the Range Standardization and Automation (RSA) program. Because previous studies have noted differences between peak wind speeds reported by mechanical and ultrasonic wind sensors, the latter having no moving parts, the 30th and 45th Weather Squadrons wanted to understand possible differences between the two sensor types. The period-of-record was 13-30 May 2005. A total of 153,961 readings of I-minute average and peak wind speed/direction from each sensor type were used. Statistics of differences in speed and direction were used to identify 18 out of 34 RSA sensors having the most consistent performance, with respect to the Legacy sensors. Data from these 18 were used to form a composite comparison. A small positive bias in the composite RSA average wind speed increased from +0.5 kts at 15 kts, to +1 kt at 25 kts. A slightly larger positive bias in the RSA peak wind speed increased from +1 kt at 15 kts, to +2 kts at 30 kts.

  3. RSA/Legacy Wind Sensor Comparison. Part 2; Eastern Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, David A.; Wheeler, Mark M.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes a comparison of data from ultrasonic and propeller-and-vane anemometers on 5 wind towers at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The ultrasonic sensors are scheduled to replace the Legacy propeller-and-vane sensors under the Range Standardization and Automation (RSA) program. Because previous studies have noted differences between peak wind speeds reported by mechanical and ultrasonic wind sensors, the latter having no moving parts, the 30th and 45th Weather Squadrons wanted to understand possible differences between the two sensor types. The period-of-record was 13-30 May 2005, A total of 357,626 readings of 1-minute average and peak wind speed/direction from each sensor type were used. Statistics of differences in speed and direction were used to identify 15 out of 19 RSA sensors having the most consistent performance, with respect to the Legacy sensors. RSA average wind speed data from these 15 showed a small positive bias of 0.38 kts. A slightly larger positive bias of 0.94 kts was found in the RSA peak wind speed.

  4. Legacy Vehicle Fuel System Testing with Intermediate Ethanol Blends

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, G. W.; Hoff, C. J.; Borton, Z.; Ratcliff, M. A.

    2012-03-01

    The effects of E10 and E17 on legacy fuel system components from three common mid-1990s vintage vehicle models (Ford, GM, and Toyota) were studied. The fuel systems comprised a fuel sending unit with pump, a fuel rail and integrated pressure regulator, and the fuel injectors. The fuel system components were characterized and then installed and tested in sample aging test rigs to simulate the exposure and operation of the fuel system components in an operating vehicle. The fuel injectors were cycled with varying pulse widths during pump operation. Operational performance, such as fuel flow and pressure, was monitored during the aging tests. Both of the Toyota fuel pumps demonstrated some degradation in performance during testing. Six injectors were tested in each aging rig. The Ford and GM injectors showed little change over the aging tests. Overall, based on the results of both the fuel pump testing and the fuel injector testing, no major failures were observed that could be attributed to E17 exposure. The unknown fuel component histories add a large uncertainty to the aging tests. Acquiring fuel system components from operational legacy vehicles would reduce the uncertainty.

  5. First results from the Chandra COSMOS Legacy survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civano, Francesca M.; the Chandra COSMOS Legacy Team

    2014-01-01

    The equatorial 2 deg2 COSMOS area is the only large field for which a complete, deep, pan-chromatic data set exists, from an outstanding survey effort, and that all large telescopes can observe. During 2013, this pioneering and ambitious COSMOS survey had a major extension, pushing its frontiers via the newly approved Chandra COSMOS Legacy Survey, the second largest Chandra proposal ever approved, plus new deep Spitzer, JVLA and NuSTAR surveys all aimed to study the formation of the structures in the high redshift Universe and the role of active super massive black holes. The Chandra COSMOS-Legacy survey uniformly covers the 1.7 deg2 COSMOS/HST field with 2.8 Ms of Chandra ACIS-I imaging at ~160 ksec depth. This project expands the deep C-COSMOS area by a factor of ~3 at ~3e-16 (1.45 vs 0.44 deg2). The survey consists of 56x50 ks tiles covering a total area of 2.2 deg2 yelding a sample of ~4000 X-ray sources. In this poster we present the first results on the survey and we concentrate on the high redshift z>3 sample.

  6. A Collaborative Semantic Web Layer to Enhance Legacy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gliozzo, Alfio; Gangemi, Aldo; Presutti, Valentina; Cardillo, Elena; Daga, Enrico; Salvati, Alberto; Troiani, Gianluca

    This paper introduces a framework to add a semantic web layer to legacy organizational information, and describes its application to the use case provided by the Italian National Research Council (CNR) intraweb. Building on a traditional web-based view of information from different legacy databases, we have performed a semantic porting of data into a knowledge base, dependent on an OWL domain ontology. We have enriched the knowledge base by means of text mining techniques, in order to discover on-topic relations. Several reasoning techniques have been applied, in order to infer relevant implicit relationships. Finally, the ontology and the knowledge base have been deployed on a semantic wiki by means of the WikiFactory tool, which allows users to browse the ontology and the knowledge base, to introduce new relations, to revise wrong assertions in a collaborative way, and to perform semantic queries. In our experiments, we have been able to easily implement several functionalities, such as expert finding, by simply formulating ad-hoc queries from either an ontology editor or the semantic wiki interface. The result is an intelligent and collaborative front end, which allow users to add information, fill gaps, or revise existing information on a semantic basis, while keeping the knowledge base automatically updated.

  7. Darwin and Lincoln: their legacy of human dignity.

    PubMed

    Earls, Felton

    2010-01-01

    The legacy of Charles Darwin and Abraham Lincoln is to champion the dignity inherent in every human being. The moment of the bicentennial of their births provides an opportunity to celebrate and reflect on ways they have shaped our understanding and commitment to human rights. The naturalist and the constitutional lawyer, so different in circumstance and discipline, were morally allied in the mission to eradicate slavery. The profound lessons to be extracted from the lives of these two icons bind us to the agonizing reality that nearly 150 years after Gettysburg and the publication of the Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, there remains much work to do toward advancing the security, respect, and equality of our species. This article describes how Darwin and Lincoln's inspiring legacies guided the author's personal choices as a scientist and activist. The essay concludes with a set of questions and challenges that confront us, foremost among which is the need to balance actions in response to the violation of negative rights by actions in the pursuit of positive rights. PMID:20173291

  8. Precipitation legacy effects on dryland ecosystem carbon fluxes: direction, magnitude and biogeochemical carryovers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, W.; Jenerette, G. D.; Hui, D.; Scott, R. L.

    2015-07-01

    The precipitation legacy effect, defined as the impact of historical precipitation (PPT) on extant ecosystem dynamics, has been recognized as an important driver in shaping the temporal variability of dryland aboveground primary production (ANPP) and soil respiration. How the PPT legacy influences whole ecosystem-level carbon (C) fluxes has rarely been quantitatively assessed, particularly at longer temporal scales. We parameterized a process-based ecosystem model to a semiarid savanna ecosystem in southwestern US, calibrated and evaluated the model performance based on 7 years of eddy covariance measurements, and conducted two sets of simulation experiments to assess interdecadal and interannual scale PPT legacy effects over a 30 year simulation period. The results showed that decreasing the previous period/year PPT (dry legacy) always imposed positive impacts on net ecosystem production (NEP) whereas increasing the previous period/year PPT (wet legacy) had negative impacts on NEP. The simulated dry legacy impacts were mostly positive on gross ecosystem production (GEP) and negative on ecosystem respiration (Re) but the wet legacy impacts were mostly negative on GEP and positive on Re. Although the direction and magnitude of GEP and Re responses to the simulated dry and wet legacies were influenced by both the previous and current PPT conditions, the NEP responses were predominantly determined by the previous PPT characteristics including rainfall amount, seasonality and event size distribution. Larger PPT difference between periods/years resulted in larger legacy impacts, with dry legacies fostering more C sequestration and wet legacies more C release. By analyzing the resource pool (C, N, and H2O) responses to the simulated dry and wet legacies, we found that the carryover of soil N between periods/years was mainly responsible for the GEP responses while the carryovers of plant biomass, litter and soil organic matter were mainly responsible for the Re responses

  9. Monitoring human factor risk characteristics at nuclear legacy sites in northwest Russia in support of radiation safety regulation.

    PubMed

    Scheblanov, V Y; Sneve, M K; Bobrov, A F

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes research aimed at improving regulatory supervision of radiation safety during work associated with the management of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste at legacy sites in northwest Russia through timely identification of employees presenting unfavourable human factor risk characteristics. The legacy sites of interest include sites of temporary storage now operated by SevRAO on behalf of Rosatom. The sites were previously operational bases for servicing nuclear powered submarines and are now subject to major remediation activities. These activities include hazardous operations for recovery of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste from sub-optimal storage conditions. The paper describes the results of analysis of methods, procedures, techniques and informational issues leading to the development of an expert-diagnostic information system for monitoring of workers involved in carrying out the most hazardous operations. The system serves as a tool for human factor and professional reliability risk monitoring and has been tested in practical working environments and implemented as part of regulatory supervision. The work has been carried out by the Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center, within the framework of the regulatory cooperation programme between the Federal Medical-Biological Agency of Russia and the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority. PMID:23186692

  10. Biological legacies: direct early ecosystem recovery and food web reorganization after a volcanic eruption in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, Lawrence R.; Sikes, Derek S.; DeGange, Anthony R.; Jewett, Stephen C.; Michaelson, Gary; Talbot, Sandra L.; Talbot, Stephen S.; Wang, Bronwen; Williams, Jeffrey C.

    2014-01-01

    Attempts to understand how communities assemble following a disturbance are challenged by the difficulty of determining the relative importance of stochastic and deterministic processes. Biological legacies, which result from organisms that survive a disturbance, can favour deterministic processes in community assembly and improve predictions of successional trajectories. Recently disturbed ecosystems are often so rapidly colonized by propagules that the role of biological legacies is obscured. We studied biological legacies on a remote volcanic island in Alaska following a devastating eruption where the role of colonization from adjacent communities was minimized. The role of biological legacies in the near shore environment was not clear, because although some kelp survived, they were presumably overwhelmed by the many vagile propagules in a marine environment. The legacy concept was most applicable to terrestrial invertebrates and plants that survived in remnants of buried soil that were exposed by post-eruption erosion. If the legacy concept is extended to include ex situ survival by transient organisms, then it was also applicable to the island's thousands of seabirds, because the seabirds survived the eruption by leaving the island and have begun to return and rebuild their nests as local conditions improve. Our multi-trophic examination of biological legacies in a successional context suggests that the relative importance of biological legacies varies with the degree of destruction, the availability of colonizing propagules, the spatial and temporal scales under consideration, and species interactions. Understanding the role of biological legacies in community assembly following disturbances can help elucidate the relative importance of colonists versus survivors, the role of priority effects among the colonists, convergence versus divergence of successional trajectories, the influence of spatial heterogeneity, and the role of island biogeographical concepts.

  11. Effects of Coarse Legacy Sediment on Rivers of the Ozark Plateaus and Implications for Native Mussel Fauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erwin, S. O.; Jacobson, R. B.; Eric, A. B.; Jones, J. C.; Anderson, B. W.

    2015-12-01

    Perturbations to sediment regimes due to anthropogenic activities may have long lasting effects, especially in systems dominated by coarse sediment where travel times are relatively long. Effectively evaluating management alternatives requires understanding the future trajectory of river response at both the river network and reach scales. The Ozark Plateaus physiographic province is a montane region in the interior US composed primarily of Paleozoic sedimentary rock. Historic land-use practices around the turn of the last century accelerated delivery of coarse sediment to river channels. Effects of this legacy sediment persist in two national parks, Ozark National Scenic Riverways, MO and Buffalo National River, AR, and are of special concern for management of native mussel fauna. These species require stable habitat, yet they occupy inherently dynamic environments: alluvial rivers. At the river-network scale, analysis of historical data reveals the signature of sediment waves moving through river networks in the Ozarks. Channel planform alternates between relatively stable, straight reaches, and wider, multithread reaches which have been more dynamic over the past several decades. These alternate planform configurations route and store sediment differently, and translate into different patterns of bed stability at the reach scale, which in turn affects the distribution and availability of habitat for native biota. Geomorphic mapping and hydrodynamic modeling reveal the complex relations between planform (in)stability, flow dynamics, bed mobility, and aquatic habitat in systems responding to increased sediment supply. Reaches that have a more dynamic planform may provide more hydraulic refugia and habitat heterogeneity compared to stable, homogeneous reaches. This research provides new insights that may inform management of sediment and mussel habitat in rivers subject to coarse legacy sediment.

  12. Charged anaesthetics alter LM-fibroblast plasma-membrane enzymes by selective fluidization of inner or outer membrane leaflets.

    PubMed Central

    Sweet, W D; Schroeder, F

    1986-01-01

    The functional consequences of the differences in lipid composition and structure between the two leaflets of the plasma membrane were investigated. Fluorescence of 1,6-diphenylhexa-1,3,5-triene(DPH), quenching, and differential polarized phase fluorimetry demonstrated selective fluidization by local anaesthetics of individual leaflets in isolated LM-cell plasma membranes. As measured by decreased limiting anisotropy of DPH fluorescence, cationic (prilocaine) and anionic (phenobarbital and pentobarbital) amphipaths preferentially fluidized the cytofacial and exofacial leaflets respectively. Unlike prilocaine, procaine, also a cation, fluidized both leaflets of these membranes equally. Pentobarbital stimulated 5'-nucleotidase between 0.1 and 5 mM and inhibited at higher concentrations, whereas phenobarbital only inhibited, at higher concentrations. Cationic drugs were ineffective. Two maxima of (Na+ + K+)-ATPase activation were obtained with both anionic drugs. Only one activation maximum was obtained with both cationic drugs. The maximum in activity below 1 mM for all four drugs clustered about a single limiting anisotropy value in the cytofacial leaflet, whereas there was no correlation between activity and limiting anisotropy in the exofacial leaflets. Therefore, although phenobarbital and pentobarbital below 1 mM fluidized the exofacial leaflet more than the cytofacial leaflet, the smaller fluidization in the cytofacial leaflet was functionally significant for (Na+ + K+)-ATPase. Mg2+-ATPase was stimulated at 1 mM-phenobarbital, unaffected by pentobarbital and slightly stimulated by both cationic drugs at concentrations fluidizing both leaflets. Thus the activity of (Na+ + K+)-ATPase was highly sensitive to selective fluidization of the leaflet containing its active site, whereas the other enzymes examined were little affected by fluidization of either leaflet. PMID:3028369

  13. Structure and sequence analysis-based engineering of pullulanase from Anoxybacillus sp. LM18-11 for improved thermostability.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu-fang; Xu, Jian-yong; Bao, Yun-juan; Zheng, Hong-chen; Song, Hui

    2015-09-20

    Pullulanase (EC 3.2.1.41) is a well-known starch-debranching enzyme. Enhancing the thermostability of Pullulanase is required for industrial application. In this study, we used two methods to improve the thermostability of the pullulanase from Anoxybacillus sp. LM18-11; these methods were the modified amino acid consensus method combined with the analyses of the residue water-exposed surface (ACC) and the deletion of flexible domains. Four mutants (Y477A, Y175C, L215C and R473E) were obtained via the modified consensus method exhibited varying degrees of improvements in terms of thermostability. One deletion mutant termed D3 (residues(686-688)) was obtained and exhibited enhanced thermostability due to deletion of the flexible region at the C-terminus. The combination of the two strategies yielded the mutant M18 (Y477A/D3/Y175C/L215P/R473E). It retained 66% of its initial activity after incubation at 60 °C for 72 hrs, whereas that of the wild-type enzyme was only 35%. After incubation at 65 °C for 4 h, M18 retained 50.6% of its initial activity, whereas that of the wild-type was only 16.8%, respectively. Additionally, kinetic studies revealed that the Km of M17 (Y477A/D3/Y175C/L215P) was decreased by 33.9% and that the Kcat/Km value of M17 increased by 50%, while M18 exhibited Km and Kcat/Km values that were similar to those of the wild-type enzyme. The attractive improved thermostability and the high catalytic efficiency made M17 and M18 more suitable for industrial application. PMID:26116135

  14. Affinity-matured recombinant immunotoxin targeting gangliosides 3′-isoLM1 and 3′,6'-isoLD1 on malignant gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Piao, Hailan; Kuan, Chien-Tsun; Chandramohan, Vidya; Keir, Stephen T; Pegram, Charles N; Bao, Xuhui; Månsson, Jan-Eric; Pastan, Ira H; Bigner, Darell D

    2013-01-01

    About 60 percent of glioblastomas highly express the gangliosides 3′-isoLM1 and 3′,6′-isoLD1 on the cell surface, providing ideal targets for brain tumor immunotherapy. A novel recombinant immunotoxin, DmAb14m-(scFv)-PE38KDEL (DmAb14m-IT), specific for the gangliosides 3′-isoLM1 and 3′,6′-isoLD1, was constructed with improved affinity and increased cytotoxicity for immunotherapeutic targeting of glioblastoma. We isolated an scFv parental clone from a previously established murine hybridoma, DmAb14, that is specific to both 3′-isoLM1 and 3′,6′-isoLD1. We then performed in vitro affinity maturation by CDR hotspot random mutagenesis. The binding affinity and specificity of affinity-matured DmAb14m-IT were measured by surface-plasmon resonance, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemical analysis. In vitro cytotoxicity of DmAb14m-IT was measured by protein synthesis inhibition and cell death assays in human cell lines expressing gangliosides 3′-isoLM1 and 3′,6′-isoLD1 (D54MG and D336MG) and xenograft-derived cells (D2224MG). As a result, the KD of DmAb14m-IT for gangliosides 3′-isoLM1 and 3′,6′-isoLD1 was 2.6 × 10−9M. Also, DmAb14m-IT showed a significantly higher internalization rate in cells expressing 3′-isoLM1 and 3′,6′-isoLD1. The DmAb14m-IT IC50 was 80 ng/mL (1194 pM) on the D54MG cell line, 5 ng/ml (75 pM) on the D336MG cell line, and 0.5 ng/ml (7.5 pM) on the D2224MG xenograft-derived cells. There was no cytotoxicity on ganglioside-negative HEK293 cells. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the specific apparent affinity of DmAb14m-IT with 3′-isoLM1 and 3′,6′-isoLD1. In conclusion, DmAb14m-IT showed specific binding affinity, a significantly high internalization rate, and selective cytotoxicity on glioma cell lines and xenograft-derived cells expressing 3′-isoLM1 and 3′,6′-isoLD1, thereby displaying robust therapeutic potential for testing the antitumor efficacy of DmAb14m-IT at the preclinical level and

  15. Color Vision Variation as Evidenced by Hybrid L/M Opsin Genes in Wild Populations of Trichromatic Alouatta New World Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Yuka; Oota, Hiroki; Welker, Barbara J; Pavelka, Mary S; Kawamura, Shoji

    2014-01-01

    Platyrrhine (New World) monkeys possess highly polymorphic color vision owing to allelic variation of the single-locus L/M opsin gene on the X chromosome. Most species consist of female trichromats and female and male dichromats. Howlers (genus Alouatta) are an exception; they are considered to be routinely trichromatic with L and M opsin genes juxtaposed on the X chromosome, as seen in catarrhine primates (Old World monkeys, apes, and humans). Yet it is not known whether trichromacy is invariable in howlers. We examined L/M opsin variation in wild howler populations in Costa Rica and Nicaragua (Alouatta palliata) and Belize (A. pigra), using fecal DNA. We surveyed exon 5 sequences (containing the diagnostic 277th and 285th residues for λmax) for 8 and 18 X chromosomes from Alouatta palliata and A. pigra, respectively. The wavelengths of maximal absorption (λmax) of the reconstituted L and M opsin photopigments were 564 nm and 532 nm, respectively, in both species. We found one M-L hybrid sequence with a recombinant 277/285 haplotype in Alouatta palliata and two L-M hybrid sequences in A. pigra. The λmax values of the reconstituted hybrid photopigments were in the range of 546~554 nm, which should result in trichromat phenotypes comparable to those found in other New World monkey species. Our finding of color vision variation due to high frequencies of L/M hybrid opsin genes in howlers challenges the current view that howlers are routine and uniform trichromats. These results deepen our understanding of the evolutionary significance of color vision polymorphisms and routine trichromacy and emphasize the need for further assessment of opsin gene variation as well as behavioral differences among subtypes of trichromacy. PMID:24523565

  16. Leptosphaeria maculans effector AvrLm4-7 affects salicylic acid (SA) and ethylene (ET) signalling and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) accumulation in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Nováková, Miroslava; Šašek, Vladimír; Trdá, Lucie; Krutinová, Hana; Mongin, Thomas; Valentová, Olga; Balesdent, Marie-HelEne; Rouxel, Thierry; Burketová, Lenka

    2016-08-01

    To achieve host colonization, successful pathogens need to overcome plant basal defences. For this, (hemi)biotrophic pathogens secrete effectors that interfere with a range of physiological processes of the host plant. AvrLm4-7 is one of the cloned effectors from the hemibiotrophic fungus Leptosphaeria maculans 'brassicaceae' infecting mainly oilseed rape (Brassica napus). Although its mode of action is still unknown, AvrLm4-7 is strongly involved in L. maculans virulence. Here, we investigated the effect of AvrLm4-7 on plant defence responses in a susceptible cultivar of B. napus. Using two isogenic L. maculans isolates differing in the presence of a functional AvrLm4-7 allele [absence ('a4a7') and presence ('A4A7') of the allele], the plant hormone concentrations, defence-related gene transcription and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation were analysed in infected B. napus cotyledons. Various components of the plant immune system were affected. Infection with the 'A4A7' isolate caused suppression of salicylic acid- and ethylene-dependent signalling, the pathways regulating an effective defence against L. maculans infection. Furthermore, ROS accumulation was decreased in cotyledons infected with the 'A4A7' isolate. Treatment with an antioxidant agent, ascorbic acid, increased the aggressiveness of the 'a4a7' L. maculans isolate, but not that of the 'A4A7' isolate. Together, our results suggest that the increased aggressiveness of the 'A4A7' L. maculans isolate could be caused by defects in ROS-dependent defence and/or linked to suppressed SA and ET signalling. This is the first study to provide insights into the manipulation of B. napus defence responses by an effector of L. maculans. PMID:26575525

  17. Noncommutativity and Humanity — Julius Wess and his Legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djordjevic, Goran S.

    2012-03-01

    A personal view on Julius Wess's human and scientific legacy in Serbia and the Balkan region is given. Motivation for using noncommutative and nonarchimedean geometry on very short distances is presented. In addition to some mathematical preliminaries, we present a short introduction in adelic quantum mechanics in a way suitable for its noncommutative generalization. We also review the basic ideas and tools embedded in q-deformed and noncommutative quantum mechanics. A rather fundamental approach, called deformation quantization, is noted. A few relations between noncommutativity and nonarchimedean spaces, as well as similarities between corresponding quantum theories, in particular, quantum cosmology are pointed out. An extended Moyal product in a frame of an adelic noncommutative quantum mechanics is also considered.

  18. Archival Legacy Investigation of Circumstellar Environments (ALICE). Survey results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soummer, Remi; Choquet, Elodie; Pueyo, Laurent; Brendan Hagan, J.; Gofas-Salas, Elena; Rajan, Abhijith; Chen, Christine; Perrin, Marshall D.; Debes, John H.; Golimowski, David A.; Hines, Dean C.; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Schneider, Glenn; Mawet, Dimitri; Marois, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We report on the status of the ALICE project (Archival Legacy Investigation of Circumstellar Environments. HST/AR-12652), which consists in a consistent reanalysis of the entire HST-NICMOS coronagraphic archive with advanced post-processing techniques. Over the last two years, we have developed a sophisticated pipeline able to handle the data of the 400 stars of the archive. We present the results of the overall reduction campaign and discuss the first statistical analysis of the candidate detections. As we will deliver high-level science products to the STScI MAST archive, we are defining a new standard format for high-contrast science products, which will be compatible with every new high-contrast imaging instrument and used by the JWST coronagraphs. We present here an update and overview of the specifications of this standard.

  19. Lister at home and abroad: a continuing legacy

    PubMed Central

    Crowther, M. Anne

    2013-01-01

    Joseph Lister's painstaking experiments in antiseptic lotions, dressings, and sutures in the 1860s and early 1870s seemed needlessly complex to his critics and were best understood by those who saw him in action. From the 1880s the acrimony subsided, and Lister's international reputation became a major asset to the medical profession, even as it discarded or bypassed many of his techniques. He was claimed as an influence by many new specialties, even though in some cases his links with the discipline were tenuous. By the early twentieth century Lister had become a focus of imperial sentiment, and his legacy is seen at home and abroad through successive generations of students from his Scottish universities.

  20. The Grism Data in the Hubble Legacy Archive Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kümmel, M.; Kuntschner, H.; Walsh, J. R.; Lombardi, M.; Stoehr, F.; Haase, J.; Hook, R. N.; Rosati, P.; Micol, A.; Fosbury, R.; Freudling, W.

    2009-07-01

    In 2006 the Space Telescope - European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF), together with its partners at the STScI and the CADC, started a project to build the Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA): a collection of high level Hubble data products and access-tools to ease scientific analysis in the age of the Virtual Observatory. The ST-ECF has focused on providing extracted spectra from slitless spectroscopy HST images. While slitless NICMOS G141 data have already been released in February 2008, we are currently working on the ACS/WFC G800L data, which promises to yield a total of around 20,000 fully calibrated spectra. In this contribution we give an overview of the project.

  1. Seasat--A 25-Year Legacy of Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Diane L.; Alpers, Werner; Cazenave, Anny; Elachi, Charles; Farr, Tom; Glackin, David; Holt, Benjamin; Jones, Linwood; Liu, W. Timothy; McCandless, Walt; Menard, Yves; Moore, Richard; Njoku, Eni

    2005-01-01

    Thousands of scientific publications and dozens of textbooks include data from instruments derived from NASA's Seasat. The Seasat mission was launched on June 26, 1978, on an Atlas-Agena rocket from Vandenberg Air Force Base. It was the first Earth-orbiting satellite to carry four complementary microwave experiments--the Radar Altimeter (ALT) to measure ocean surface topography by measuring spacecraft altitude above the ocean surface; the Seasat-A Satellite Scatterometer (SASS), to measure wind speed and direction over the ocean; the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) to measure surface wind speed, ocean surface temperature, atmospheric water vapor content, rain rate, and ice coverage; and the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), to image the ocean surface, polar ice caps, and coastal regions. While originally designed for remote sensing of the Earth's oceans, the legacy of Seasat has had a profound impact in many other areas including solid earth science, hydrology, ecology and planetary science.

  2. The legacy of Maria Curie Skłodowska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosnowski, Ryszard

    2011-01-01

    Maria Skłodowska Curie left us a great legacy. Her discovery of polonium and radium was incomparably greater than the mere discovery of new elements. Its significance lay in the discovery of a new form of matter, namely radioactive one, but also in her unveiling of the internal property of its atoms. Subsequently emitted radiation went on to play the role of a "natural accelerator" for both scientific research and in medical radiotherapy. It was thanks to these discoveries that the field of nuclear physics arose just a few decades later. As importantly the work of Maria Curie Skłodowska during the Great War demonstrated how important pure scientific discovery can be for society and its welfare.

  3. THE SPITZER LOCAL VOLUME LEGACY: SURVEY DESCRIPTION AND INFRARED PHOTOMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, D. A.; Cohen, S. A.; Johnson, L. C.; Schuster, M. D.; Calzetti, D.; Engelbracht, C. W.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Block, M.; Marble, A. R.; Gil de Paz, A.; Lee, J. C.; Begum, A.; Dalcanton, J. J.; Funes, J. G.; Gordon, K. D.; Johnson, B. D.; Sakai, S.; Skillman, E. D.; Van Zee, L.; Walter, F.

    2009-09-20

    The survey description and the near-, mid-, and far-infrared flux properties are presented for the 258 galaxies in the Local Volume Legacy (LVL). LVL is a Spitzer Space Telescope legacy program that surveys the local universe out to 11 Mpc, built upon a foundation of ultraviolet, Halpha, and Hubble Space Telescope imaging from 11HUGS (11 Mpc Halpha and Ultraviolet Galaxy Survey) and ANGST (ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury). LVL covers an unbiased, representative, and statistically robust sample of nearby star-forming galaxies, exploiting the highest extragalactic spatial resolution achievable with Spitzer. As a result of its approximately volume-limited nature, LVL augments previous Spitzer observations of present-day galaxies with improved sampling of the low-luminosity galaxy population. The collection of LVL galaxies shows a large spread in mid-infrared colors, likely due to the conspicuous deficiency of 8 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission from low-metallicity, low-luminosity galaxies. Conversely, the far-infrared emission tightly tracks the total infrared emission, with a dispersion in their flux ratio of only 0.1 dex. In terms of the relation between the infrared-to-ultraviolet ratio and the ultraviolet spectral slope, the LVL sample shows redder colors and/or lower infrared-to-ultraviolet ratios than starburst galaxies, suggesting that reprocessing by dust is less important in the lower mass systems that dominate the LVL sample. Comparisons with theoretical models suggest that the amplitude of deviations from the relation found for starburst galaxies correlates with the age of the stellar populations that dominate the ultraviolet/optical luminosities.

  4. The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope Spectral Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plume, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Helmich, F.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Roberts, H.; Bowey, J.; Buckle, J.; Butner, H.; Caux, E.; Ceccarelli, C.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Friberg, P.; Gibb, A. G.; Hatchell, J.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Matthews, H.; Millar, T. J.; Mitchell, G.; Moore, T. J. T.; Ossenkopf, V.; Rawlings, J. M. C.; Richer, J.; Roellig, M.; Schilke, P.; Spaans, M.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Thompson, M. A.; Viti, S.; Weferling, B.; White, Glenn J.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2007-01-01

    Stars form in the densest, coldest, most quiescent regions of molecular clouds. Molecules provide the only probes that can reveal the dynamics, physics, chemistry, and evolution of these regions, but our understanding of the molecular inventory of sources and how this is related to their physical state and evolution is rudimentary and incomplete. The Spectral Legacy Survey (SLS) is one of seven surveys recently approved by the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) Board of Directors. Beginning in 2007, the SLS will produce a spectral imaging survey of the content and distribution of all the molecules detected in the 345 GHz atmospheric window (between 332 and 373 GHz) toward a sample of five sources. Our intended targets are a low-mass core (NGC 1333 IRAS 4), three high-mass cores spanning a range of star-forming environments and evolutionary states (W49, AFGL 2591, and IRAS 20126), and a photodissociation region (the Orion Bar). The SLS will use the unique spectral imaging capabilities of HARP-B/ACSIS (Heterodyne Array Receiver Programme B/Auto-Correlation Spectrometer and Imaging System) to study the molecular inventory and the physical structure of these objects, which span different evolutionary stages and physical environments and to probe their evolution during the star formation process. As its name suggests, the SLS will provide a lasting data legacy from the JCMT that is intended to benefit the entire astronomical community. As such, the entire data set (including calibrated spectral data cubes, maps of molecular emission, line identifications, and calculations of the gas temperature and column density) will be publicly available.

  5. [Clinical effect of LM-001, prostaglandin synthetic inhibitor, on pain from urinary tract stone and vesical urgency after operation of the bladder or prostate].

    PubMed

    Nakano, E; Yoshioka, T; Matsuda, M; Sonoda, T; Yano, H; Ihara, Y; Kuroda, H; Kishimoto, T; Sakurai, T; Uchida, K

    1990-05-01

    Clinical effect of LM-001, a prostaglandin synthetic inhibitor developed from a drug delivery system, was evaluated in 54 patients with pain from urinary tract stones (stone pain) and 32 with vesical urgency after an operation on bladder or prostate. LM-001, felbinac ethyl incorporated in lipid microsphere, wes intravenously administered at the onset of stone pain or vesical urgency. Of 54 with stones and 32 with urgency, 53 and 29 were eligible for response, respectively. The symptoms improved or disappeared in some cases just after the administration and in the majority of patients within 15 minutes, in 49 of 53 patients with stone pain. Further, the effectiveness lasted over 24 hours in 26 of the 49 responding to this agent. On one hand, improvement or disappearance of vesical urgency was recognized in 25 of 29 patients, and the effectiveness was observed shortly after injection in 16 and lasted over 24 hours in 13 cases. Toxicities of this drug were investigated in 54 patients with stone pain and 32 with urinary urgency. Side effects consisted of pain at the injection site in 4, a slight fall of blood pressure in 1, slight visual disturbance in 1, body heat sensation in 1, leukocytosis in 3 and elevation of alkaline phosphatase in 1. These symptoms were transient and disappeared without use of any agent. LM-001 is concluded to be a useful drug for controlling stone pain and vesical urgency since an immediate effect, long durability and high response rates were obtained without severe side PMID:2399865

  6. In Depth Analyses of LEDs by a Combination of X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) and Light Microscopy (LM) Correlated with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).

    PubMed

    Meyer, Jörg; Thomas, Christian; Tappe, Frank; Ogbazghi, Tekie

    2016-01-01

    In failure analysis, device characterization and reverse engineering of light emitting diodes (LEDs), and similar electronic components of micro-characterization, plays an important role. Commonly, different techniques like X-ray computed tomography (CT), light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used separately. Similarly, the results have to be treated for each technique independently. Here a comprehensive study is shown which demonstrates the potentials leveraged by linking CT, LM and SEM. In depth characterization is performed on a white emitting LED, which can be operated throughout all characterization steps. Major advantages are: planned preparation of defined cross sections, correlation of optical properties to structural and compositional information, as well as reliable identification of different functional regions. This results from the breadth of information available from identical regions of interest (ROIs): polarization contrast, bright and dark-field LM images, as well as optical images of the LED cross section in operation. This is supplemented by SEM imaging techniques and micro-analysis using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. PMID:27341190

  7. Euro 2012 European Football Championship Finals: planning for a health legacy.

    PubMed

    Smallwood, Catherine A H; Arbuthnott, Katherine G; Banczak-Mysiak, Barbara; Borodina, Mariya; Coutinho, Ana Paula; Payne-Hallström, Lara; Lipska, Elzbieta; Lyashko, Viktor; Miklasz, Miroslaw; Miskiewicz, Paulina; Nitzan, Dorit; Pokanevych, Igor; Posobkiewicz, Marek; Rockenschaub, Gerald; Sadkowska-Todys, Malgorzata; Sinelnik, Svetlana; Smiley, Daniel; Tomialoic, Rysard; Yurchenko, Volodimir; Memish, Ziad A; Heymann, David; Endericks, Tina; McCloskey, Brian; Zumla, Alimuddin; Barbeschi, Maurizio

    2014-06-14

    The revised international health regulations offer a framework that can be used by host countries to organise public health activities for mass gatherings. From June 8, to July 1, 2012, Poland and Ukraine jointly hosted the Union of European Football Associations European Football Championship Finals (Euro 2012). More than 8 million people from around the world congregated to watch the games. Host countries and international public health agencies planned extensively to assess and build capacity in the host countries and to develop effective strategies for dissemination of public health messages. The effectiveness of public health services was maximised through rapid sharing of information between parties, early use of networks of experienced individuals, and the momentum of existing national health programmes. Organisers of future mass gatherings for sporting events should share best practice and their experiences through the WHO International Observer Program. Research about behaviour of large crowds is needed for crowd management and the evidence base translated into practice. A framework to measure and evaluate the legacy of Euro 2012 is needed based on the experiences and the medium-term and long-term benefits of the tournament. PMID:24857705

  8. Legacy phosphorus in the Baltic Sea and implications for reversing eutrophication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCrackin, M. L.; Gustafsson, B.; Humborg, C.; Hong, B.; Svanbäck, A.; Swaney, D. P.; Viktorsson, L.

    2015-12-01

    Eutrophication has depleted concentrations of dissolved oxygen in bottom waters of the Baltic Sea, resulting in the world's largest "dead" zone. A number of measures have been implemented to reduce nutrient inputs and, indeed, between 1995 and 2012 phosphorus (P) loads to the sea deceased 19%. The long-term accumulation and subsequent release of P from both the catchment and marine sediments combined with 30-year water residence times could significantly delay recovery from eutrophication. We estimated net P accumulation (legacy P) for the Baltic Sea using the Net Anthropogenic Phosphorus Inputs (NAPI) approach and historical records of food and feed trade and riverine fluxes. Net P inputs to the catchment peaked at 0.7 million tons per year during the 1970's and since the political and economical changes in Eastern Europe during the 1990's, decreased to 0.2-0.3 million tons per year. P accumulation on land is ten times greater than accumulation in the sea (20 million and 2 million tons, respectively). Of the P retained on land, the majority (18-19 million tons) is in agricultural lands, with the balance in lake sediments. Of the 2 million tons in the sea, two-thirds are in sediments and one-third in the water column. The success of nutrient management actions in reducing river nutrient fluxes will lead to improvement in the Baltic Sea environment, but the massive accumulation of P on land will complicate efforts to achieve complete recovery.

  9. Discriminating Natural Variation from Legacies of Disturbance in Semi-Arid Forests, Southwestern USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swetnam, T. L.; Lynch, A. M.; Falk, D. A.; Yool, S. R.; Guertin, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    Characterizing differences in existing vegetation driven by natural variation versus disturbance legacies could become a critical component of applied forest management practice with important implications for monitoring ecologic succession and eco-hydrological interactions within the critical zone. Here we characterize variations in aerial LiDAR derived forest structure at individual tree scale in Arizona and New Mexico. Differences in structure result from both topographic and climatological variations and from natural and human related disturbances. We chose a priori undisturbed and disturbed sites that included preservation, development, logging and wildfire as exemplars. We compare two topographic indices, the topographic position index (TPI) and topographic wetness index (TWI), to two local indicators of spatial association (LISA): the Getis-Ord Gi and Anselin's Moran I. We found TPI and TWI correlate well to positive z-scores (tall trees in tall neighborhoods) in undisturbed areas and that disturbed areas are clearly defined by negative z-scores, in some cases better than what is visible from traditional orthophotography and existing GIS maps. These LISA methods also serve as a robust technique for creating like-clustered stands, i.e. common stands used in forest inventory monitoring. This research provides a significant advancement in the ability to (1) quantity variation in forest structure across topographically complex landscapes, (2) identify and map previously unrecorded disturbance locations, and (3) quantify the different impacts of disturbance within the perimeter of a stand or event at ecologically relevant scale.

  10. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative: Progress, Lessons Learned, And Polio Legacy Transition Planning.

    PubMed

    Cochi, Stephen L; Hegg, Lea; Kaur, Anjali; Pandak, Carol; Jafari, Hamid

    2016-02-01

    The world is closer than ever to achieving global polio eradication, with record-low polio cases in 2015 and the impending prospect of a polio-free Africa. Tens of millions of volunteers, social mobilizers, and health workers have participated in the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. The program contributes to efforts to deliver other health benefits, including health systems strengthening. As the initiative nears completion after more than twenty-five years, it becomes critical to document and transition the knowledge, lessons learned, assets, and infrastructure accumulated by the initiative to address other health goals and priorities. The primary goals of this process, known as polio legacy transition planning, are both to protect a polio-free world and to ensure that investments in polio eradication will contribute to other health goals after polio is completely eradicated. The initiative is engaged in an extensive transition process of consultations and planning at the global, regional, and country levels. A successful completion of this process will result in a well-planned and -managed conclusion of the initiative that will secure the global public good gained by ending one of the world's most devastating diseases and ensure that these investments provide public health benefits for years to come. PMID:26858381

  11. The threat at home: Confronting the toxic legacy of the U. S. Military

    SciTech Connect

    Shulman, S.

    1992-01-01

    The environmental problems that confront the military--and the communities where military facilities are located--are as varied and diverse as the military itself. Past waste management and mismanagement practices have led to large-scale contamination of soil and groundwater with toxic or hazardous fuels, solvents, trace metals, pesticides, explosives, and propellants. Nuclear production facilities generate mixed wastes, which contain both radioactive and toxic contaminants. Test sites and proving grounds are known to contain a large number of unexploded munitions buried in the soil, and a number of arsenals and ammunition plants store chemical weapons agents, which are no longer needed, such as mustard gas and nerve agents. The book is divided into three parts--[open quotes]The Threat[close quotes], [open quotes]Secret Legacies[close quotes], and [open quotes]Facing the Future[close quotes]. Shulman devotes separate chapters to individual facilities and sites, describing the environmental degradation and damage that has occurred. Through interviews with private citizens, the author portrays the anger and suspicion that exist in surrounding communities. The author describes the frustration of Congressional committees as well as military and contract personnel involved in cleanup, who decry the lack of guidance from the Pentagon.

  12. Long-term surveillance and maintenance Geo-spatial Environmental Mapping System

    SciTech Connect

    Appetta, J.; MacMillan, S.; Miller, K.; LaBonte, E.

    2007-07-01

    For sites currently under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) and for sites transitioning to LM, technical, operational, and environmental monitoring information continues to be of great interest to stakeholders. The Web-based Geo-spatial Environmental Mapping System (GEMS) developed by LM provides stakeholders, DOE, regulators, project staff, and the public with a user-friendly mechanism for retrieving geo-spatial and environmental monitoring information about the sites. This paper discusses GEMS and its use by LM stakeholders. (authors)

  13. The Greatest Legacy of the Large Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA): A Bibliometric Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    environmental researchers and professionals for the Amazon region. This belief was transformed into a commitment through pressure by NASA management and through the leadership of the LBA-ECO research team leading to LBA's greatest legacy.

  14. Sources, occurrence and predicted aquatic impact of legacy and contemporary pesticides in streams.

    PubMed

    McKnight, Ursula S; Rasmussen, Jes J; Kronvang, Brian; Binning, Philip J; Bjerg, Poul L

    2015-05-01

    We couple current findings of pesticides in surface and groundwater to the history of pesticide usage, focusing on the potential contribution of legacy pesticides to the predicted ecotoxicological impact on benthic macroinvertebrates in headwater streams. Results suggest that groundwater, in addition to precipitation and surface runoff, is an important source of pesticides (particularly legacy herbicides) entering surface water. In addition to current-use active ingredients, legacy pesticides, metabolites and impurities are important for explaining the estimated total toxicity attributable to pesticides. Sediment-bound insecticides were identified as the primary source for predicted ecotoxicity. Our results support recent studies indicating that highly sorbing chemicals contribute and even drive impacts on aquatic ecosystems. They further indicate that groundwater contaminated by legacy and contemporary pesticides may impact adjoining streams. Stream observations of soluble and sediment-bound pesticides are valuable for understanding the long-term fate of pesticides in aquifers, and should be included in stream monitoring programs. PMID:25697475

  15. Generating code adapted for interlinking legacy scalar code and extended vector code

    DOEpatents

    Gschwind, Michael K

    2013-06-04

    Mechanisms for intermixing code are provided. Source code is received for compilation using an extended Application Binary Interface (ABI) that extends a legacy ABI and uses a different register configuration than the legacy ABI. First compiled code is generated based on the source code, the first compiled code comprising code for accommodating the difference in register configurations used by the extended ABI and the legacy ABI. The first compiled code and second compiled code are intermixed to generate intermixed code, the second compiled code being compiled code that uses the legacy ABI. The intermixed code comprises at least one call instruction that is one of a call from the first compiled code to the second compiled code or a call from the second compiled code to the first compiled code. The code for accommodating the difference in register configurations is associated with the at least one call instruction.

  16. Developing CORBA-Based Distributed Scientific Applications from Legacy Fortran Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sang, Janche; Kim, Chan; Lopez, Isaac

    2000-01-01

    Recent progress in distributed object technology has enabled software applications to be developed and deployed easily such that objects or components can work together across the boundaries of the network, different operating systems, and different languages. A distributed object is not necessarily a complete application but rather a reusable, self-contained piece of software that co-operates with other objects in a plug-and-play fashion via a well-defined interface. The Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA), a middleware standard defined by the Object Management Group (OMG), uses the Interface Definition Language (IDL) to specify such an interface for transparent communication between distributed objects. Since IDL can be mapped to any programming language, such as C++, Java, Smalltalk, etc., existing applications can be integrated into a new application and hence the tasks of code re-writing and software maintenance can be reduced. Many scientific applications in aerodynamics and solid mechanics are written in Fortran. Refitting these legacy Fortran codes with CORBA objects can increase the codes reusability. For example, scientists could link their scientific applications to vintage Fortran programs such as Partial Differential Equation(PDE) solvers in a plug-and-play fashion. Unfortunately, CORBA IDL to Fortran mapping has not been proposed and there seems to be no direct method of generating CORBA objects from Fortran without having to resort to manually writing C/C++ wrappers. In this paper, we present an efficient methodology to integrate Fortran legacy programs into a distributed object framework. Issues and strategies regarding the conversion and decomposition of Fortran codes into CORBA objects are discussed. The following diagram shows the conversion and decomposition mechanism we proposed. Our goal is to keep the Fortran codes unmodified. The conversion- aided tool takes the Fortran application program as input and helps programmers

  17. 76 FR 4348 - Labor-Management Cooperation Grant Program Information Collection Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... CONCILIATION SERVICE Labor-Management Cooperation Grant Program Information Collection Request AGENCY: Federal...), Accounting System and Financial Capability Questionnaire (LM-3), Request for Advance or Reimbursement SF-270... the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and is requesting a reinstatement without change to...

  18. Patterns and contributions of floodplain and legacy sediments remobilized from Piedmont streams of the mid-Atlantic U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donovan, Mitchell; Miller, Andrew; Baker, Matthew; Gellis, Allen

    2015-04-01

    The perceived role of streambank erosion as a contributor to watershed sediment yield is an important driver of policy decisions for managing downstream impacts in the United States. In the Piedmont physiographic province of the eastern U.S. and in other regions of the south and midwest, the issue of 'legacy' sediment stored in stream valleys has long been recognized as a consequence of rapid deforestation and erosive agricultural practices following European settlement. Remobilization of stored floodplain sediment by bank erosion is frequently cited as a dominant component of watershed sediment budgets, with legacy sediment comprising the largest portion of this source. However there are few published studies documenting spatially extensive measurements of channel change throughout the drainage network on time scales of more than a few years. In this study we document 1) rates of sediment remobilization from Baltimore County floodplains by channel migration and bank erosion, 2) proportions of streambank sediment derived from legacy deposits, and 3) potential contribution of net streambank erosion and legacy sediments to downstream sediment yield within the Mid-Atlantic Piedmont. We measured gross erosion and channel deposition rates over 45 years within the fluvial corridor along 40 valley segments from 18 watersheds with drainage areas between 0.18 and 155 km2 by comparing stream channel and floodplain morphology from LiDAR-based digital elevation data collected in 2005 with channel positions recorded on 1:2400-scale topographic maps from 1959-1961. Results were extrapolated to estimate contributions to watershed sediment yield from 1005 km2 of northern Baltimore County. Results indicate that legacy sediment is a dominant component (62%) of the sediment derived from bank erosion and that its relative importance is greater in larger valleys with broader valley floors and lower gradients. Although mass of sediment remobilized per unit channel length is greater in

  19. Assessing Resistance to Change During Shifting from Legacy to Open Web-Based Systems in the Air Transport Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Denise

    The air transport industry (ATI) is a dynamic, communal, international, and intercultural environment in which the daily operations of airlines, airports, and service providers are dependent on information technology (IT). Many of the IT legacy systems are more than 30 years old, and current regulations and the globally distributed workplace have brought profound changes to the way the ATI community interacts. The purpose of the study was to identify the areas of resistance to change in the ATI community and the corresponding factors in change management requirements that minimize product development delays and lead to a successful and timely shift from legacy to open web-based systems in upgrading ATI operations. The research questions centered on product development team processes as well as the members' perceived need for acceptance of change. A qualitative case study approach rooted in complexity theory was employed using a single case of an intercultural product development team dispersed globally. Qualitative data gathered from questionnaires were organized using Nvivo software, which coded the words and themes. Once coded, themes emerged identifying the areas of resistance within the product development team. Results of follow-up interviews with team members suggests that intercultural relationship building prior to and during project execution; focus on common team goals; and, development of relationships to enhance interpersonal respect, understanding and overall communication help overcome resistance to change. Positive social change in the form of intercultural group effectiveness evidenced in increased team functioning during major project transitions is likely to result when global managers devote time to cultural understanding.

  20. Gravitational lensing in the supernova legacy survey (SNLS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronborg, T.; Hardin, D.; Guy, J.; Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Conley, A.; Fouchez, D.; Hook, I. M.; Howell, D. A.; Jönsson, J.; Pain, R.; Pedersen, K.; Perrett, K.; Pritchet, C. J.; Regnault, N.; Rich, J.; Sullivan, M.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.

    2010-05-01

    Aims: The observed brightness of type Ia supernovae is affected by gravitational lensing caused by the mass distribution along the line of sight, which introduces an additional dispersion into the Hubble diagram. We look for evidence of lensing in the SuperNova Legacy Survey 3-year data set. Methods: We investigate the correlation between the residuals from the Hubble diagram and the gravitational magnification based on a modeling of the mass distribution of foreground galaxies. A deep photometric catalog, photometric redshifts, and well established mass luminosity relations are used. Results: We find evidence of a lensing signal with a 2.3σ significance. The current result is limited by the number of SNe, their redshift distribution, and the other sources of scatter in the Hubble diagram. Separating the galaxy population into a red and a blue sample has a positive impact on the significance of the signal detection. On the other hand, increasing the depth of the galaxy catalog, the precision of photometric redshifts or reducing the scatter in the mass luminosity relations have little effect. We show that for the full SuperNova Legacy Survey sample (~400 spectroscopically confirmed type Ia SNe and ~200 photometrically identified type Ia SNe), there is an 80% probability of detecting the lensing signal with a 3σ significance. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory using the Very Large Telescope on

  1. Evaluating the Impact of Legacy P and Agricultural Conservation Practices on Nutrient Loads from the Maumee River Watershed.

    PubMed

    Muenich, Rebecca Logsdon; Kalcic, Margaret; Scavia, Donald

    2016-08-01

    The recent resurgence of hypoxia and harmful algal blooms in Lake Erie, driven substantially by phosphorus loads from agriculture, have led the United States and Canada to begin developing plans to meet new phosphorus load targets. To provide insight into which agricultural management options could help reach these targets, we tested alternative agricultural-land-use and land-management scenarios on phosphorus loads to Lake Erie. These scenarios highlight certain constraints on phosphorus load reductions from changes in the Maumee River Watershed (MRW), which contributes roughly half of the phosphorus load to the lake's western basin. We evaluate the effects on phosphorus loads under nutrient management strategies, reduction of fertilizer applications, employing vegetative buffers, and implementing widespread cover crops and alternative cropping changes. Results indicate that even if fertilizer application ceased, it may take years to see desired decreases in phosphorus loads, especially if we experience greater spring precipitation or snowmelt. Scenarios also indicate that widespread conversions to perennial crops that may be used for biofuel production are capable of substantially reducing phosphorus loads. This work demonstrates that a combination of legacy phosphorus, land management, land use, and climate should all be considered when seeking phosphorus-loading solutions. PMID:27322563

  2. Evidence for Legacy Contamination of Nitrate in Groundwater of North Carolina Using Monitoring and Private Well Data Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messier, K. P.; Kane, E.; Bolich, R.; Serre, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    legacy NO3- sources. Additionally, the results can provide guidance on factors affecting the point-level variability of groundwater NO3- and areas where monitoring is needed to reduce uncertainty. Lastly, LUR-BME predictions can be integrated into surface water models for more accurate management of non-point sources of nitrogen.

  3. Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Records: Maintaining Access to the Knowledge - 13122

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, John; Gueretta, Jeanie; McKinney, Ruth; Anglim, Cliff

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) is an integral part of DOE's strategy to ensure that legacy liabilities of former nuclear weapons production sites are properly managed following the completion of environmental cleanup activities. In the area of environmental legacy management, records management is crucial to the protection of health, environmental, and legal interests of the Department and the public. LM is responsible for maintaining long-term surveillance and maintenance (LTS and M) records in performance of its mission. Maintaining access to the knowledge contained in these record collections is one of LM's primary responsibilities. To fulfill this responsibility, LM established a consolidated records management facility, the LM Business Center (LMBC), to house physical media records and electronic records. A new electronic record keeping system (ERKS) was needed to replace an obsolete system while helping to ensure LM is able to meet ongoing responsibilities to maintain access to knowledge and control the life cycle management of records. (authors)

  4. Simulation and Evaluation of the Nitrogen Cycle in the Dynamic Land Model LM3V: The Nitrogen budget of the Susquehanna River Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M.; Jaffe, P. R.; Shevliakova, E.; Malyshev, S.

    2011-12-01

    Anthropogenic nutrient inputs have increasingly altered the global natural N cycle and caused an accumulation of excess N in some terrestrial systems. Application of the Princeton-Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) LM3V land model to the Susquehanna River basin watershed has been used to identify and predict these human impacts, and how they are linked to different weather patterns. By coupling biophysical and biogeochemical dynamics, LM3V captures key mechanisms of the plant-soil-climate system. The Susquehanna River is the largest of the watersheds in the northeastern U.S. and provides two-thirds of the annual N load to the Chesapeake Bay, draining an area of 71,200 square kilometers. The goal of this study is to test and verify the water and N budgets in the LM3V model before developing the N dynamics for a river within the overall model. The model was run using the output of the GFDL AM2 model and observed precipitations cycled over a horizon of 20 years, to perform 1495-year long-term simulations with a 0.125 degree resolution. This study analyzes the model output for two runs: 1) a 1200-year run without any anthropogenic inputs, and 2) a 295-year run with the additions of landuse, anthropogenic N-deposition (1616 kg km-2 yr-1), and fertilizer application (1905 N kg km-2 yr -1 to the crop land). For each run, 20-year average simulated water and N budgets for a single point (77w and 40 50'N) are compared to measured values. Simulated (457 mm/yr) and observed (453 mm/yr) stream discharge rates were in close agreement. The results of the non-anthropogenic N budgets differed substantially from the reported N budgets. The run considering human influences resulted in N budgets that corresponded well to reported values. The model simulated forest (70%), crop (23%), and pasture (7%) land uses. Leaching, harvest, and fixation rates varied depending on the different land use types. Pasture land had the highest leaching rate (1436 N kg km-2 yr-1) due to lower

  5. Archival legacy investigations of circumstellar environments: overview and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choquet, Élodie; Pueyo, Laurent; Hagan, J. Brendan; Gofas-Salas, Elena; Rajan, Abhijith; Chen, Christine; Perrin, Marshall D.; Debes, John; Golimowski, David; Hines, Dean C.; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Schneider, Glenn; Mawet, Dimitri; Marois, Christian; Soummer, Rémi

    2014-08-01

    We are currently conducting a comprehensive and consistent re-processing of archival HST-NICMOS coronagraphic surveys using advanced PSF subtraction methods, entitled the Archival Legacy Investigations of Circumstellar Environments program (ALICE, HST/AR 12652). This virtual campaign of about 400 targets has already produced numerous new detections of previously unidentified point sources and circumstellar structures. We present five newly spatially resolved debris disks revealed in scattered light by our analysis of the archival data. These images provide new views of material around young solar-type stars at ages corresponding to the period of terrestrial planet formation in our solar system. We have also detected several new candidate substellar companions, for which there are ongoing followup campaigns (HST/WFC3 and VLT/SINFONI in ADI mode). Since the methods developed as part of ALICE are directly applicable to future missions (JWST, AFTA coronagraph) we emphasize the importance of devising optimal PSF subtraction methods for upcoming coronagraphic imaging missions. We describe efforts in defining direct imaging high-level science products (HLSP) standards that can be applicable to other coronagraphic campaigns, including ground-based (e.g., Gemini Planet Imager), and future space instruments (e.g., JWST). ALICE will deliver a first release of HLSPs to the community through the MAST archive at STScI in 2014.

  6. The Legacy of the Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Melora; Pensinger, John; Liu, Feng-Chuan; Langford, Donald; Hahn, Inseob; Dick, G. John

    2004-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has been building the Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Facility (LTMPF) as a multi-user research facility for the International Space Station. Because of the recent Presidential Exploration Initiative placed on NASA, NASA has informally told JPL to phase out the development of the LTMPF, assuming a suspension of funding at the end of fiscal year 2004. Over the last five years of development of the Facility, a tremendous legacy of both scientific and technical progress has been made, and a significant amount of flight hardware has been built. During these last few months of remaining funding, the LTMPF plans on finishing some remaining development efforts, archiving the hardware (flight and engineering models), software, and capturing the knowledge generated for possible future missions. These possible future missions could include gravitational or relativistic physics experiments (around the Earth or the Moon), charged particle physics experiments away from the Earth, possible other fundamental physics experiments in a Code U-developed free flyer orbiting the Earth, or even gravitational mapping experiments around the Moon or possibly Mars. LTMPF-developed technologies that are likely to have substantial impact on such future missions include SQUID magnetometers and thermometers, ultra-high-performance cryogenics, and high-Q superconducting resonators.

  7. MINIMIZING WASTE AND COST IN DISPOSITION OF LEGACY RESIDUES

    SciTech Connect

    J. BALKEY; M. ROBINSON

    2001-05-01

    Research is being conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) which is directed toward development of a quantitative basis for disposition of actinide-bearing process residues (both legacy residues and residues generated from ongoing programmatic operations). This research is focused in two directions: (1) identifying minimum negative consequence (waste, dose, cost) dispositions working within regulatory safeguards termination criteria, and (2) evaluating logistics/consequences of across-the-board residue discards such as authorized at Rocky Flats under a safeguards termination variance. The first approach emphasizes Laboratory commitments to environmental stewardship, worker safety, and fiscal responsibility. This approach has been described as the Plutonium Disposition Methodology (PDM) in deference to direction provided by DOE Albuquerque. The second approach is born of the need to expedite removal of residues from storage for programmatic and reasons and residue storage safety concerns. Any disposition path selected must preserve the legal distinction between residues as Special Nuclear Material (SNM) and discardable materials as waste in order to insure the continuing viability of Laboratory plutonium processing facilities for national security operations.

  8. Reengineering legacy software to object-oriented systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitman, C.; Braley, D.; Fridge, E.; Plumb, A.; Izygon, M.; Mears, B.

    1994-01-01

    NASA has a legacy of complex software systems that are becoming increasingly expensive to maintain. Reengineering is one approach to modemizing these systems. Object-oriented technology, other modem software engineering principles, and automated tools can be used to reengineer the systems and will help to keep maintenance costs of the modemized systems down. The Software Technology Branch at the NASA/Johnson Space Center has been developing and testing reengineering methods and tools for several years. The Software Technology Branch is currently providing training and consulting support to several large reengineering projects at JSC, including the Reusable Objects Software Environment (ROSE) project, which is reengineering the flight analysis and design system (over 2 million lines of FORTRAN code) into object-oriented C++. Many important lessons have been learned during the past years; one of these is that the design must never be allowed to diverge from the code during maintenance and enhancement. Future work on open, integrated environments to support reengineering is being actively planned.

  9. HI Absorbers from Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Z. Z.; Haynes, M. P.; Giovanelli, R.; Zhu, M.; Chen, R. R.

    2015-03-01

    We present some preliminary results of an on-going study of the HI 21-cm absorption line based on the 40% data release of the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFALFA) survey. Ten HI absorption candidates have been detected. Five of them are previously published in the literature, and the rest of them are new detections that need further confirmation. For those sources with no detected absorptions, we calculated the upper limits of their foreground HI column density N_{HI}. The statistical result of the N_{HI} distribution indicates that the ratio of average spin temperature to covering factor T_{s}/f for DLAs (the damped Lyα systems) might be larger than 500 K. Radio frequency interference (RFI) and standing waves are the main issues affecting the detection of HI absorption profiles. Our study can serve as the pathfinder for a large scale search of HI 21-cm absorption lines using the Five-Hundred-Meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope (FAST) which is an Arecibo-type radio telescope currently under construction in China. We discuss two types of observational studies of HI absorptions toward extragalactic sources using the FAST telescope.

  10. MALT90: The Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, J. M.; Rathborne, J. M.; Foster, J. B.; Whitaker, J. S.; Sanhueza, P.; Claysmith, C.; Mascoop, J. L.; Wienen, M.; Breen, S. L.; Herpin, F.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Csengeri, T.; Longmore, S. N.; Contreras, Y.; Indermuehle, B.; Barnes, P. J.; Walsh, A. J.; Cunningham, M. R.; Brooks, K. J.; Britton, T. R.; Voronkov, M. A.; Urquhart, J. S.; Alves, J.; Jordan, C. H.; Hill, T.; Hoq, S.; Finn, S. C.; Bains, I.; Bontemps, S.; Bronfman, L.; Caswell, J. L.; Deharveng, L.; Ellingsen, S. P.; Fuller, G. A.; Garay, G.; Green, J. A.; Hindson, L.; Jones, P. A.; Lenfestey, C.; Lo, N.; Lowe, V.; Mardones, D.; Menten, K. M.; Minier, V.; Morgan, L. K.; Motte, F.; Muller, E.; Peretto, N.; Purcell, C. R.; Schilke, P.; Bontemps, Schneider-N.; Schuller, F.; Titmarsh, A.; Wyrowski, F.; Zavagno, A.

    2013-11-01

    The Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) survey aims to characterise the physical and chemical evolution of high-mass star-forming clumps. Exploiting the unique broad frequency range and on-the-fly mapping capabilities of the Australia Telescope National Facility Mopra 22 m single-dish telescope 1 , MALT90 has obtained 3' × 3' maps towards ~2 000 dense molecular clumps identified in the ATLASGAL 870 μm Galactic plane survey. The clumps were selected to host the early stages of high-mass star formation and to span the complete range in their evolutionary states (from prestellar, to protostellar, and on to H II regions and photodissociation regions). Because MALT90 mapped 16 lines simultaneously with excellent spatial (38 arcsec) and spectral (0.11 km s-1) resolution, the data reveal a wealth of information about the clumps' morphologies, chemistry, and kinematics. In this paper we outline the survey strategy, observing mode, data reduction procedure, and highlight some early science results. All MALT90 raw and processed data products are available to the community. With its unprecedented large sample of clumps, MALT90 is the largest survey of its type ever conducted and an excellent resource for identifying interesting candidates for high-resolution studies with ALMA.

  11. Global warming releases microplastic legacy frozen in Arctic Sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obbard, Rachel W.; Sadri, Saeed; Wong, Ying Qi; Khitun, Alexandra A.; Baker, Ian; Thompson, Richard C.

    2014-06-01

    When sea ice forms it scavenges and concentrates particulates from the water column, which then become trapped until the ice melts. In recent years, melting has led to record lows in Arctic Sea ice extent, the most recent in September 2012. Global climate models, such as that of Gregory et al. (2002), suggest that the decline in Arctic Sea ice volume (3.4% per decade) will actually exceed the decline in sea ice extent, something that Laxon et al. (2013) have shown supported by satellite data. The extent to which melting ice could release anthropogenic particulates back to the open ocean has not yet been examined. Here we show that Arctic Sea ice from remote locations contains concentrations of microplastics at least two orders of magnitude greater than those that have been previously reported in highly contaminated surface waters, such as those of the Pacific Gyre. Our findings indicate that microplastics have accumulated far from population centers and that polar sea ice represents a major historic global sink of man-made particulates. The potential for substantial quantities of legacy microplastic contamination to be released to the ocean as the ice melts therefore needs to be evaluated, as do the physical and toxicological effects of plastics on marine life.

  12. Science-Ready Data Products in the Hubble Legacy Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casertano, Stefano; Lindsay, K.; Stankiewicz, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA), developed jointly by the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), the Space Telescope - European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF), and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC), provides researchers with science-ready data products from the images and spectra obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Users have access to both the standard archive images and spectra and a broad range of enhanced products, which, as of Data Release 3 (May 2009), include stacked ACS, WFPC2, and NICMOS images, extracted ACS and NICMOS grism spectra, and prototype mosaics combining several separate ACS visits into a single image. Color composites and a graphical search engine help users quickly identify the data they need, and source lists for almost all public WFPC2 and ACS data can be retrieved and overplotted onto the relevant images. The HLA also provides integrated access and search for high level science products, most of which are community-provided and include early observations with WFC3 and COS, the new instruments installed on HST during Servicing Mission 4 in May 2009. The HLA data are also used to verify the calibration and long-term stability of HST. A companion poster provides more details on the generation of the source lists and their properties. The HLA can be accessed at http://hla.stsci.edu.

  13. Low cost DCM for legacy SONET/SDH networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Lijie; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Vella, Paul J.

    2005-09-01

    The demand for increased data and communications services is driving many carriers to upgrade their legacy optical systems in the metro-metro-edge region of the communication network. When such upgrades require extending the transmission distance, dispersion compensation techniques are required that compensate for signal degradations while conforming to tight operating budgets. We have used both channelized and non-channelized, fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based dispersion-compensating modules (DCM) to compensate for the chromatic dispersion of 60-km fiber links operating at 1550 nm. Using typical SONET/SDH lasers with a large spectral linewidth (~1 nm at the 20-dB point), including significant chirp, our BER experiments show that the system performance depends on whether the grating-based compensators are channelized or non-channelized. Our measurements show that the performance of FBG-based channelized DCMs is a function of the amplitude of the dispersion ripple at the boundaries of the channel bandwidth. Non-channelized DCMs performed well despite their exhibiting more chromatic-dispersion and insertion-loss ripple in the immediate proximity of the laser center wavelength. First-order system simulation was found to be in general agreement with these experimental observations and singles out the large variations in chromatic dispersion at the boundaries of the channel as the primary reason for the degraded system performance.

  14. Building on a legacy for the era of population health.

    PubMed

    Brady, Marla G

    2014-01-01

    The 2011 Joplin tornado was a catastrophic EF5 multiple-vortex tornado that struck Joplin, Missouri, late in the afternoon of Sunday, May 22, 2011. It was part of a larger, late-May tornado outbreak and reached a maximum width of nearly 1 mile (1.6 km) during its path through the city. Mercy St John's Hospital (which had recently joined Mercy Ministries) suffered a direct hit and was rendered nonuseable. A total of 183 patients and nearly 200 coworkers/staff members were evacuated from the building within the next 90 minutes. Triage centers were set up outside as hospitals of other areas opened their doors for St John's patients and community members who had been injured. The tornado in Joplin destroyed Mercy St John's Hospital. Given this future, why did Mercy Ministries choose to rebuild an acute care facility rather than merely an outpatient system? The organization considered current community needs and the needs of the future. They also remembered their mission and the legacy of their heritage. PMID:24569762

  15. The ST-ECF ACS Grism Hubble Legacy Archive Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kümmel, M.; Kuntschner, H.; Walsh, J. R.; Lombardi, M.; Stoehr, F.; Haase, J.; Hook, R. N.; Rosati, P.; Micol, A.; Fosbury, R.; Freudling, W.

    2009-09-01

    In 2006 the Space Telescope - European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF), together with its partners at the STScI and the CADC, started a project to build a Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA): a collection of high-level Hubble data products and access tools to ease scientific analysis in the age of the Virtual Observatory. The ST-ECF has focused on providing extracted spectra from slitless spectroscopy HST images. The slitless NICMOS G141 data were presented at previous ADASS meetings and have already been released. In this contribution we present an overview of the ongoing project of processing the ACS/WFC G800L data which cover a larger area and contain more spectra. There are around 150 ACS/WFC G800L datasets covering an area of ˜ 600 arcmin^2, and we expect to extract and publish about 20,000 fully-calibrated spectra. We discuss the techniques and methods that were developed to automatically extract the spectra from the observations and present a selection of ACS/WFC G800L spectra as examples.

  16. Spitzer Local Volume Legacy (LVL) SEDs and physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, David O.; Dale, Daniel A.; Johnson, Benjamin D.; Van Zee, Liese; Lee, Janice C.; Kennicutt, Robert C.; Calzetti, Daniela; Staudaher, Shawn M.; Engelbracht, Charles W.

    2014-11-01

    We present the panchromatic spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the Local Volume Legacy (LVL) survey which consists of 258 nearby galaxies (D < 11 Mpc). The wavelength coverage spans the ultraviolet to the infrared (1500 Å-24 μm) which is utilized to derive global physical properties (i.e. star formation rate, stellar mass, internal extinction due to dust). With these data, we find colour-colour relationships and correlated trends between observed and physical properties (i.e. optical magnitudes and dust properties, optical colour and specific star formation rate, and ultraviolet-infrared colour and metallicity). The SEDs are binned by different galaxy properties to reveal how each property affects the observed shape of these SEDs. In addition, due to the volume-limited nature of LVL, we utilize the dwarf-dominated galaxy sample to test star formation relationships established with higher mass galaxy samples. We find good agreement with the star-forming `main-sequence' relationship, but find a systematic deviation in the infrared `main sequence' at low luminosities. This deviation is attributed to suppressed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation in low-metallicity environments and/or the destruction of PAHs in more intense radiation fields occurring near a suggested threshold in star formation rates (sSFR) at a value of log(sSFR) ˜ -10.2.

  17. The Life and Legacy of G. I. Taylor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, G. K.

    1996-07-01

    G.I. Taylor, one of the most distinguished physical scientists of this century, used his deep insight and originality to increase our understanding of phenomena such as the turbulent flow of fluids. His interest in the science of fluid flow was not confined to theory; he was one of the early pioneers of aeronautics, and designed a new type of anchor that was inspired by his passion for sailing. Taylor spent most of his working life in the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge, where he investigated the mechanics of fluid and solid materials; his discoveries and ideas have had application throughout mechanical, civil, and chemical engineering, meteorology, oceanography and materials science. He was also a noted research leader, and his group in Cambridge became one of the most productive centers for the study of fluid mechanics. How was Taylor able to be innovative in so many different ways? This interesting and unusual biography helps answer that question. Professor Batchelor, himself a student and close collaborator of Taylor, is ideally placed to describe Taylor's life, achievements and background. He does so without introducing any mathematical details, making this book enjoyable reading for a wide range of people--and especially those whose own interests have brought them into contact with the legacy of Taylor.

  18. The Evolutionary Legacy of Diversification Predicts Ecosystem Function.

    PubMed

    Yguel, Benjamin; Jactel, Hervé; Pearse, Ian S; Moen, Daniel; Winter, Marten; Hortal, Joaquin; Helmus, Matthew R; Kühn, Ingolf; Pavoine, Sandrine; Purschke, Oliver; Weiher, Evan; Violle, Cyrille; Ozinga, Wim; Brändle, Martin; Bartish, Igor; Prinzing, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    Theory suggests that the structure of evolutionary history represented in a species community may affect its functioning, but phylogenetic diversity metrics do not allow for the identification of major differences in this structure. Here we propose a new metric, ELDERness (for Evolutionary Legacy of DivERsity) to estimate evolutionary branching patterns within communities by fitting a polynomial function to lineage-through-time (LTT) plots. We illustrate how real and simulated community branching patterns can be more correctly described by ELDERness and can successfully predict ecosystem functioning. In particular, the evolutionary history of branching patterns can be encapsulated by the parameters of third-order polynomial functions and further measured through only two parameters, the "ELDERness surfaces." These parameters captured variation in productivity of a grassland community better than existing phylogenetic diversity or diversification metrics and independent of species richness or presence of nitrogen fixers. Specifically, communities with small ELDERness surfaces (constant accumulation of lineages through time in LTT plots) were more productive, consistent with increased productivity resulting from complementary lineages combined with niche filling within lineages. Overall, while existing phylogenetic diversity metrics remain useful in many contexts, we suggest that our ELDERness approach better enables testing hypotheses that relate complex patterns of macroevolutionary history represented in local communities to ecosystem functioning. PMID:27622874

  19. Live a legacy or live a lie: a choice.

    PubMed

    Wesorick, Bonnie

    2008-01-01

    This article is about the result of a choice to Live a Legacy or Live a Lie. The choice led to the development and implementation of a clinical practice model (CPM) designed to create a healthy, healing integrated practice culture. The focus is on the foundation of the model that is a unique ongoing process called the Core Belief Review. The purpose of the review is to uncover those things that matter most for both those who give and receive care. The ongoing open communication process provides insights and truths about reality and a sense of direction related to the nature of the work necessary to create and sustain the best places to give and receive care. The results of the review feedback from 2500 providers and recipients of care are correlated to the actions taken to address the complexities of the point-of-care reality and the clinical outcomes reached as a result of collaboration and lessons learned within an International Consortium. PMID:18360211

  20. Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz Survey (MALT 90)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, James; Lo, Nadia; Rathborne, Jill; Jones, Paul; Muller, Erik; Cunningham, Maria; Brooks, Kate; Fuller, Gary; Barnes, Peter; Menten, Karl; Schilke, Peter; Garay, Guido; Mardones, Diego; Minier, Vincent; Longmore, Steven; Wyrowski, Friedrich; Herpin, Fabrice; Hill, Tracey; Bronfman, Leonardo; Deharveng, Lise; Finn, Susanna; Schuller, Frederic; Motte, Frédérique; Peretto, Nicolas; Bontemps, Sylvain; Wienen, Marion; Contreras, Yanett; Lenfestey, Clare; Foster, Jonathan; Sanhueza, Patricio; Claysmith, Christopher

    2011-04-01

    We request Mopra telescope time to complete MALT90, a new, international project to survey molecular line emission from 3,000 dense cores. MALT90 exploits Mopra's capability for fast mapping and simultaneous imaging of 16 molecular lines near 90 GHz. These molecular lines will probe the cores physical, chemical, and evolutionary state. The target cores are selected from the 870 um ATLASGAL survey to host the early stages of high-mass star formation and to span the complete range of evolutionary states from pre-stellar cores, to protostellar cores, and on to H II regions. Each core will be mapped at excellent angular (40'') and spectral (0.1 km/s) resolution. The survey data will be made available to the public via the internet. We require 875 hours per year for the next 4 winter seasons to complete the project, and request pre-graded (continuing) status. MALT90 will provide a key legacy database for the star-formation community and supply the definitive source list of high-mass dense cores for ALMA.

  1. John Snow’s legacy: epidemiology without borders

    PubMed Central

    Fine, Paul; Victora, Cesar G; Rothman, Kenneth J; Moore, Patrick S; Chang, Yuan; Curtis, Val; Heymann, David L; Slutkin, Gary; May, Robert M; Patel, Vikram; Roberts, Ian; Wortley, Richard; Torgerson, Carole; Deaton, Angus

    2013-01-01

    This Review provides abstracts from a meeting held at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, on April 11–12, 2013, to celebrate the legacy of John Snow. They describe conventional and unconventional applications of epidemiological methods to problems ranging from diarrhoeal disease, mental health, cancer, and accident care, to education, poverty, financial networks, crime, and violence. Common themes appear throughout, including recognition of the importance of Snow’s example, the philosophical and practical implications of assessment of causality, and an emphasis on the evaluation of preventive, ameliorative, and curative interventions, in a wide variety of medical and societal examples. Almost all self-described epidemiologists nowadays work within the health arena, and this is the focus of most of the societies, journals, and courses that carry the name epidemiology. The range of applications evident in these contributions might encourage some of these institutions to consider broadening their remits. In so doing, they may contribute more directly to, and learn from, non-health-related areas that use the language and methods of epidemiology to address many important problems now facing the world. PMID:23582396

  2. [Anniversaries of the foundation of the dental clinics. II. The dental clinics at the Mikszáth Kálmán Square in Budapest, Hungary].

    PubMed

    Kóbor, András

    2010-03-01

    After 1952 the building of the Department of Stomatology was no more able to fulfill the increased demands, when the independent dental education had been started at the Medical University of Budapest. The leadership of the new Dental Faculty--officially founded in 1955--was looking for a solution to find a new building for clinical purposes. Finally in 1959 the new dental departments moved to a once residential building at Mikszáth Kálmán Square converted into dental clinics. This site had been in operation until the opening of the New Dental Education Center in 2007. PMID:20443353

  3. Bit Distribution and Reliability of High Density 1.5 V Ferroelectric Random Access Memory Embedded with 130 nm, 5 lm Copper Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udayakumar, K. R.; Boku, K.; Remack, K. A.; Rodriguez, J.; Summerfelt, S. R.; Celii, F. G.; Aggarwal, S.; Martin, J. S.; Hall, L.; Matz, L.; Rathsack, B.; McAdams, H.; Moise, T. S.

    2006-04-01

    High density embedded ferroelectric random access memory (FRAM), operable at 1.5 V, has been fabricated within a 130 nm, 5 lm Cu/fluorosilicate glass (FSG) logic process. To evaluate FRAM extendability to future process nodes, we have measured the bit distribution and reliability properties of arrays with varying individual capacitor areas ranging from 0.40 μm2 (130 nm node) to 0.15 μm2 (˜65 nm node). Wide signal margins, stable retention (≫10 years at 85 °C), and high endurance read/write cycling (≫1012 cycles) have been demonstrated, suggesting that reliable, high density FRAM can be realized.

  4. A study of the influence of mischmetal additions to Al-7Si-0.3Mg (LM 25/356) alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Ravi, M.; Pillai, U.T.S.; Damodaran, A.D.; Dwarakadasa, E.S.

    1996-05-01

    This article deals with the effect of 0.25-1.5 wt pct mischmetal (MM) addition on the mechanical properties, microstructure, electrical conductivity, and fracture behavior of cast Al-7Si-0.3Mg (LM 25/356) alloy. Modification of eutectic silicon by MM is compared with strontium modification in terms of microstructure, mechanical properties, and fading behavior. Loss of magnesium encountered on holding the molten alloy and its resultant effect on mechanical properties of alloys modified with MM and Sr are compared with those in the unmodified alloy.

  5. Perturbations to the River Nitrogen Cycling from the Historical Land Use and Climate Changes: the Susquehanna River Case Study with GFDL Land Model LM3-N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M.; Malyshev, S.; Shevliakova, E.; Jaffe, P. R.

    2013-12-01

    We developed a regional version of the GFDL land model LM3-N to assess human influences on the nitrogen cycle in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The new features include integrated effects of point and non-point sources on river nitrogen loads, a denitrification module and stream microbial processes within the LM3's terrestrial and river component respectively. We have used the improved version to investigate the intertwined relationship between nitrogen dynamics and hydrological processes under different climate scenarios. We applied the modified model to the Susquehanna River basin, the largest of the watersheds in the northeastern U.S., draining an area of 71,220 square kilometers, at the resolution of 1/8 degree. Within the LM3's integrated modeling framework, we simulated stream NH4-N and DON loads in addition to NO3-N loads for the entire drainage network, which were verified using 20 year (1986-2005) river data from 6 long-term monitoring stations. Results suggest that mechanistic land-surface models like LM3, which are capable of capturing long-term hydrological cycles, allow for the simulation of inter-annual variations of stream nitrogen loadings caused by differences in weather patterns. Most of the non-point nitrogen inputs to the terrestrial ecosystem were stored in the vegetation and soil in the secondary land use, but they were removed by soil denitrification in the agricultural land, indicating that artificial nitrogen applications could drive substantial increase of N2O emission. Simulations using different idealized climate scenarios showed that after a series of dry years (e.g., 1961-1963) the median and upper 10 percent of the estimated river nitrogen loadings increase by 25 and 26 percent respectively, as compared to the loadings after a mean hydrological year (2005). This shows that prolonged drought periods could induce a significant increase of stream nutrient load in the post drought year due to the delayed release of the

  6. Characterization and Disposition of Legacy Low-Level Waste at the Y-12 National Security Complex - 12133

    SciTech Connect

    Tharp, Tim; Donnelly, Jim

    2012-07-01

    The Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) is concluding a multi-year program to characterize and dispose of all legacy low-level waste (LLW). The inventory of legacy waste at Y-12 has been reduced from over 3500 containers in Fiscal Year (FY) 2000 to 6 containers at the end of FY2011. In addition, the site recently eliminated the inventory of other low-level waste that is greater than 365 days old (i.e., >365-Day LLW), to be in full compliance with DOE Order 435.1. A consistent technical characterization approach emerged for both of these populations of backlogged waste: (1) compile existing historical data and process knowledge and conduct interviews with site personnel; (2) inspect the containers and any tags, labels, or other markings to confirm or glean additional data; (3) with appropriate monitoring, open the container, visually inspect and photograph the contents while obtaining preliminary radiological surveys; (4) obtain gross weight and field non-destructive assay (NDA) data as needed; (5) use the non-public Oak Ridge Reservation Haul Road to ship the container to a local offsite vendor for waste sorting and segregation; (6) sort, drain, sample, and remove prohibited items; and (7) compile final data and prepare for shipment to disposal. After disposing of this backlog, the focus has now turned to avoiding the recurrence of this situation by maintaining low inventories of low-level waste and shortening the duration between waste generation and disposal. An enhanced waste tracking system and monthly metric charts are used to monitor and report progress to contractor and federal site office management. During the past 2 years, the average age of LLW onsite at Y-12 has decreased from more than 180 days to less than 60 days. (authors)

  7. In Water Thermal Imaging Comparison of the Alcon Legacy and AMO Sovereign Phacoemulsification Systems§

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kevin M; Olson, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the temperature profiles of 2 popular phacoemulsification units under similar operating conditions in water. Methods: The phacoemulsification probes of the Sovereign WhiteStar and Legacy AdvanTec were capped with water-filled test chambers and imaged side-by-side using a thermal camera. The highest temperature of each chamber was measured at several time points after power application. Testing was performed under conditions capable of producing a corneal burn. The Legacy was operated in pulse mode at 15 Hz; a 50% duty cycle; and console power settings of 10, 30, 50 and 100%. The Sovereign was operated at the same console settings in WhiteStar C/F pulse mode at 56 Hz and a 33% duty cycle. Results: Under all conditions (powers of 10, 30, 50 and 100%; with or without irrigation/aspiration flow; and with or without sleeve compression), the Sovereign generated higher temperatures than the Legacy. At irrigation/aspiration flow rates ≥ 5 cc/min, the temperature profiles of the 2 units were indistinguishable. Conclusion: The Sovereign WhiteStar ran hotter than the Legacy AdvanTec under a variety of controlled low flow operating conditions. The Sovereign WhiteStar is more likely than the Legacy AdvanTec to produce a corneal burn under low flow conditions. PMID:19478926

  8. Exploring the potential offered by legacy soil databases for ecosystem services mapping of Central African soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdoodt, Ann; Baert, Geert; Van Ranst, Eric

    2014-05-01

    Central African soil resources are characterised by a large variability, ranging from stony, shallow or sandy soils with poor life-sustaining capabilities to highly weathered soils that recycle and support large amounts of biomass. Socio-economic drivers within this largely rural region foster inappropriate land use and management, threaten soil quality and finally culminate into a declining soil productivity and increasing food insecurity. For the development of sustainable land use strategies targeting development planning and natural hazard mitigation, decision makers often rely on legacy soil maps and soil profile databases. Recent development cooperation financed projects led to the design of soil information systems for Rwanda, D.R. Congo, and (ongoing) Burundi. A major challenge is to exploit these existing soil databases and convert them into soil inference systems through an optimal combination of digital soil mapping techniques, land evaluation tools, and biogeochemical models. This presentation aims at (1) highlighting some key characteristics of typical Central African soils, (2) assessing the positional, geographic and semantic quality of the soil information systems, and (3) revealing its potential impacts on the use of these datasets for thematic mapping of soil ecosystem services (e.g. organic carbon storage, pH buffering capacity). Soil map quality is assessed considering positional and semantic quality, as well as geographic completeness. Descriptive statistics, decision tree classification and linear regression techniques are used to mine the soil profile databases. Geo-matching as well as class-matching approaches are considered when developing thematic maps. Variability in inherent as well as dynamic soil properties within the soil taxonomic units is highlighted. It is hypothesized that within-unit variation in soil properties highly affects the use and interpretation of thematic maps for ecosystem services mapping. Results will mainly be based

  9. The Role of Legacy Effects and Reactive Amendments on Phosphorus Retention Within Riparian Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surridge, B.; Habibiandehkordi, R.; Quinton, J.

    2014-12-01

    Undisturbed riparian zones, including river floodplains and field buffer strips, can significantly reduce phosphorus (P) export associated with agricultural production. However, riparian zones are frequently disturbed, including through conversion to agricultural land. Restoring disturbed riparian zones is promoted widely within agri-environment schemes. However, restoration presents significant challenges, two of which are considered in this paper: understanding the impacts of restoration on legacy P within riparian zone soils; and maximising the efficacy of riparian zones for removal of all P fractions, including the more immediately bioavailable soluble P fractions. Firstly, we examine changes in porewater soluble P concentration following re-wetting of a river floodplain in Norfolk, UK, using laboratory mesocosms and in-situ field monitoring. Substantial release of P from sediment to porewater was observed following re-wetting (porewater soluble P concentration exceeded 6.5 mg P L-1), probably associated with reductive-dissolution of iron-bound P within floodplain sediments. Export of soluble P from porewater into adjacent receiving waters was observed following both natural hydrological events and management of the hydrological regime within the floodplain. Secondly, we examine how retention of soluble P with grass buffer strips can be enhanced through application of reactive industrial by-products, focussing on ochre and aluminium-based water treatment residuals. Application of these by-products to buffer strips increased removal of soluble P from surface runoff by over 50% compared to non-amended buffer strips. The long-term effectiveness of reactive amendments is also considered, using repeated runoff events under field conditions. Taken together, the research offers new insights into riparian zone P biogeochemistry within agricultural landscapes.

  10. An evolutionary legacy of sex and clonal reproduction in the protistan oyster parasite Perkinsus marinus.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Peter C; Rosenthal, Benjamin M; Hare, Matthew P

    2011-04-01

    Perkinsus marinus, a protozoan parasite of the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica, causes Dermo disease which limits fecundity and causes high mortality in host populations. The long-term efficacy of management strategies for suppressing this disease in both aquaculture and restoration settings depends on the potential rate of evolutionary response by P. marinus. Sexual reproduction has never been demonstrated in vitro or in previous population genetic studies. We developed high resolution microsatellite markers and amplified alleles directly from infected oyster genomic DNA. Of 336 infected oysters from four populations between Massachusetts and Florida, 129 (48%) appeared to be infected with a single parasite genotype and were subjected to population genetic analyses assuming diploidy. The great diversity of multilocus genotypes observed is incompatible with strictly clonal reproduction. Substantial heterozygote deficits in three populations suggest that sexual reproduction often involves inbreeding. At the same time, significant multilocus linkage disequilibrium occurred in most sampled populations, and several genotypes were sampled repeatedly in each of two populations, indicating that asexual reproduction also occurs in P. marinus populations. Interestingly, where this parasite has recently expanded its range, lower strain diversity, significant heterozygote excess, and highly heterozygous multilocus genotypes suggests clonal propagation of recent recombinants. Taken together, these data suggest that P. marinus employs multiple reproductive modes, and that over the short term, selection acts upon independent parasite lineages rather than upon individual loci in a cohesive, interbreeding population. Nevertheless, high genotypic diversity is the evolutionary legacy of sex in P. marinus. Anthropogenic movement of infected oysters may increase outcrossing opportunities, potentially facilitating rapid evolution of this parasite. PMID:21256249

  11. Experiences integrating autonomous components and legacy systems into tsunami early warning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reißland, S.; Herrnkind, S.; Guenther, M.; Babeyko, A.; Comoglu, M.; Hammitzsch, M.

    2012-04-01

    Fostered by and embedded in the general development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) the evolution of Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS) shows a significant development from seismic-centred to multi-sensor system architectures using additional sensors, e.g. sea level stations for the detection of tsunami waves and GPS stations for the detection of ground displacements. Furthermore, the design and implementation of a robust and scalable service infrastructure supporting the integration and utilisation of existing resources serving near real-time data not only includes sensors but also other components and systems offering services such as the delivery of feasible simulations used for forecasting in an imminent tsunami threat. In the context of the development of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) and the project Distant Early Warning System (DEWS) a service platform for both sensor integration and warning dissemination has been newly developed and demonstrated. In particular, standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) have been successfully incorporated. In the project Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC) new developments are used to extend the existing platform to realise a component-based technology framework for building distributed TEWS. This talk will describe experiences made in GITEWS, DEWS and TRIDEC while integrating legacy stand-alone systems and newly developed special-purpose software components into TEWS using different software adapters and communication strategies to make the systems work together in a corporate infrastructure. The talk will also cover task management and data conversion between the different systems. Practical approaches and software solutions for the integration of sensors, e.g. providing seismic and sea level data, and utilisation of special

  12. Using SpF to Achieve Petascale for Legacy Pseudospectral Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clune, Thomas L.; Jiang, Weiyuan

    2014-01-01

    Pseudospectral (PS) methods possess a number of characteristics (e.g., efficiency, accuracy, natural boundary conditions) that are extremely desirable for dynamo models. Unfortunately, dynamo models based upon PS methods face a number of daunting challenges, which include exposing additional parallelism, leveraging hardware accelerators, exploiting hybrid parallelism, and improving the scalability of global memory transposes. Although these issues are a concern for most models, solutions for PS methods tend to require far more pervasive changes to underlying data and control structures. Further, improvements in performance in one model are difficult to transfer to other models, resulting in significant duplication of effort across the research community. We have developed an extensible software framework for pseudospectral methods called SpF that is intended to enable extreme scalability and optimal performance. Highlevel abstractions provided by SpF unburden applications of the responsibility of managing domain decomposition and load balance while reducing the changes in code required to adapt to new computing architectures. The key design concept in SpF is that each phase of the numerical calculation is partitioned into disjoint numerical kernels that can be performed entirely inprocessor. The granularity of domain decomposition provided by SpF is only constrained by the datalocality requirements of these kernels. SpF builds on top of optimized vendor libraries for common numerical operations such as transforms, matrix solvers, etc., but can also be configured to use open source alternatives for portability. SpF includes several alternative schemes for global data redistribution and is expected to serve as an ideal testbed for further research into optimal approaches for different network architectures. In this presentation, we will describe our experience in porting legacy pseudospectral models, MoSST and DYNAMO, to use SpF as well as present preliminary

  13. Evaluation of Mapping Methodologies at a Legacy Test Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussman, A. J.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Roback, R. C.; Kelley, R. E.; Drellack, S.; Reed, D.; Miller, E.; Cooper, D. I.; Sandoval, M.; Wang, R.

    2013-12-01

    On June 12th, 1985, a nuclear test with an announced yield between 20-150kt was detonated in rhyolitic lava in a vertical emplacement borehole at a depth of 608m below the surface. This test did not collapse to the surface and form a crater, but rather resulted in a subsurface collapse with more subtle surface expressions of deformation, providing an opportunity to evaluate the site using a number of surface mapping methodologies. The site was investigated over a two-year time span by several mapping teams. In order to determine the most time efficient and accurate approach for mapping post-shot surface features at a legacy test site, a number of different techniques were employed. The site was initially divided into four quarters, with teams applying various methodologies, techniques, and instrumentations to each quarter. Early methods included transect lines and site gridding with a Brunton pocket transit, flagging tape, measuring tape, and stakes; surveying using a hand-held personal GPS to locate observed features with an accuracy of × 5-10m; and extensive photo-documentation. More recent methods have incorporated the use of near survey grade GPS devices to allow careful location and mapping of surface features. Initially, gridding was employed along with the high resolution GPS surveys, but this was found to be time consuming and of little observational value. Raw visual observation (VOB) data included GPS coordinates for artifacts or features of interest, field notes, and photographs. A categorization system was used to organize the myriad of items, in order to aid in database searches and for visual presentation of findings. The collected data set was imported into a geographic information system (GIS) as points, lines, or polygons and overlain onto a digital color orthophoto map of the test site. Once these data were mapped, spectral data were collected using a high resolution field spectrometer. In addition to geo-locating the field observations with 10cm

  14. Mathematical formulation of Tmax-Tstop method for LM-OSL and its experimental validation on α-Al2O3:C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soni, Anuj; Mishra, D. R.

    2016-05-01

    A mathematical formulation and its experimental validation on α-Al2O3:C for evaluating the number of OSL components has been described. The method consists of various partial bleaching steps of LM-OSL curve and as a result, the peak position (Tmax) of the resultant curve shifts if the system contains multiple components. However, for single component system the peak position of the resultant curve doesn't change on partial bleaching for a phosphor obeying first order kinetics. The method has been theoretically formulated for single and multiple component system with different order of kinetics and validated experimentally on the commercial α-Al2O3:C OSL phosphor. The slope of the curve between shift in Tmax and bleaching time gives the number of the OSL components and measure of their closeness in terms of photoionization cross-section. Based on this result, the photoionization cross-section of the two embedded peaks in the LM-OSL curve of α-Al2O3:C were found to be 1.51 × 10-18 cm2 and 5.02 × 10-19 cm2 using CW-OSL and NL-OSL method.

  15. PhyLM: A Mission Design Concept for an Optical/Lidar Instrument to Measure Ocean Productivity and Aerosols from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gervin, Janette C.; Behrenfeld, Michael; McClain, Charles R.; Spinhirne, James; Purves, Lloyd; Wood, H. John; Roberto, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    The Physiology Lidar-Multispectral Mission (PhyLM) is intended to explore the complex ecosystems of our global oceans. New "inversion" methods and improved understanding of marine optics have opened the door to quantifying a range of critical ocean properties. This new information could revolutionize our understanding of global ocean processes, such as phytoplankton growth, harmful algal blooms, carbon fluxes between major pools and the productivity equation. The new science requires new measurements not addressed by currently planned space missions. PhyLM will combine active and advanced passive remote sensing technologies to quantify standing stocks and fluxes of climate-critical components of the Ocean carbon cycle to meet these science providing multispectral bands from the far UV through the near infrared (340 - 1250 nm) at a ground resolution of 250 m. Improved detectors, filters, mirrors, digitization and focal plane design will offer an overall higher-quality data product. The unprecedented accuracy and precision of the absolute water-leaving radiances will support inversion- based quantification of an expanded set of ocean carbon cycle components. The dual- wavelength (532 & 1064 nm) Nd:Yag Lidar will enhance the accuracy and precision of the passive data by providing aerosol profiles for atmospheric correction and coincident active measurements of backscattering. The Lidar will also examine dark-side fluorescence as an additional approach to quantifying phytoplankton biomass in highly productive regions.

  16. X-linked cone dystrophy and colour vision deficiency arising from a missense mutation in a hybrid L/M cone opsin gene

    PubMed Central

    McClements, Michelle; Davies, Wayne I L; Michaelides, Michel; Carroll, Joseph; Rha, Jungate; Mollon, John D; Neitz, Maureen; MacLaren, Robert E; Moore, Anthony T; Hunt, David M

    2013-01-01

    In this report, we describe a male subject who presents with a complex phenotype of myopia associated with cone dysfunction and a protan vision deficiency. Retinal imaging demonstrates extensive cone disruption, including the presence of non-waveguiding cones, an overall thinning of the retina, and an irregular mottled appearance of the hyper reflective band associated with the inner segment ellipsoid portion of the photoreceptor. Mutation screening revealed a novel p.Glu41Lys missense mutation in a hybrid L/M opsin gene. Spectral analysis shows that the mutant opsin fails to form a pigment in vitro and fails to be trafficked to the cell membrane in transfected Neuro2a cells. Extensive sequence and quantitative PCR analysis identifies this mutant gene as the only gene present in the affected subject’s L/M opsin gene array, yet the presence of protanopia indicates that the mutant opsin must retain some activity in vivo. To account for this apparent contradiction, we propose that a limited amount of functional pigment is formed within the normal cellular environment of the intact photoreceptor, and that this requires the presence of chaperone proteins that promote stability and normal folding of the mutant protein. PMID:23337435

  17. The Fritz Roethlisberger Memorial Award Goes to "Using Leadered Groups in Organizational Behavior and Management Survey Courses"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amoroso, Lisa M.; Loyd, Denise Lewin; Hoobler, Jenny M.

    2012-01-01

    The Fritz J. Roethlisberger Memorial Award for the best article in the 2011 "Journal of Management Education" goes to Rae Andre for her article, Using Leadered Groups in Organizational Behavior and Management Survey Courses ("Journal of Management Education," Volume 35, Number 5, pp. 596-619). In keeping with Roethlisberger's legacy, this year's…

  18. Geological Mapping Using Legacy Geophysical Data in Las Vegas Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donovan, D.; O'Donnell, J.; McLin, K.

    2014-12-01

    In 2008-2011, Clark County, Building Department contracted with Optim to collect 10,700 Reflection Microtremor (ReMi) 600 ft seismic lines that cover most of the metropolitan area of Las Vegas and other outlying communities such as Moapa, Laughlin, Primm, and Coyote Spring. The County completed their goal of characterizing seismic susceptibility of the top 100 ft and the results are posted at http://gisgate.co.clark.nv.us/openweb/. The research question of the authors is: What additional geologic information can be inferred from the data, either through reprocessing, cross correlation of drill hole data or additional data collection? An advantage of geophysical data is that it can be reprocessed to provide additional insight into the local geologic setting. The interpretation is also improved if combined with drill hole data and / or hydrologic information. It should be noted that there is also legacy geophysical data in limited areas collected by the USGS, primarily in conjunction with water well drilling, where some of the ReMi seismic data was collected. An unexpected result of the ReMi survey was a clear delineation of current and paleo channels in Laughlin, Moapa, and Las Vegas. The geometry of the paleochanel, of the Colorado River, is well away from the current position. however the signal is very similar to modern streams such as the Muddy River. Although the surficial geologic mapping in Las Vegas Valley was very detailed, and importantly, was performed prior to development; the new geophysical data provides better details of the lithologic properties of the units. That is it may be an excellent basis for remapping for specific properties related to engineering and hydrologic modeling.

  19. Beyond the game: the legacy of Bill Masterton.

    PubMed

    Bonfield, Christopher M; Kondziolka, Douglas

    2016-07-01

    Bill Masterton is the only man to die of injuries sustained in a National Hockey League (NHL) game. He remains the last fatality in any professional team sport involving a direct in-game injury in North America. While Masterton was originally thought to have suffered a fatal brain injury while being checked on the ice, later analysis of the case revealed evidence of second-impact syndrome and the effects of prior concussions. Masterton's death sparked both an immediate debate in the NHL on whether helmets should be compulsory and the NHL's first vote on mandatory helmet use. Although the subject of mandated helmet use met with resistance in the 10 years after Masterton's death, especially from hockey owners and coaches, the NHL finally legislated helmet use by all players entering the league beginning in the 1979-1980 season. Several awards, including one recognizing the NHL player who best exemplifies the qualities of perseverance, sportsmanship, and dedication to hockey, have been created in memory of Masterton. However, his legacy extends far beyond the awards that bear his name. His death was the seminal event bringing head safety to the forefront of a game that was both unready and unwilling to accept change. An increase in mainstream media attention in recent years has led to unprecedented public awareness of brain injury and concussion in hockey and other sports. Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of head injury in sports have occurred recently, the impetus for which started over 45 years ago, when Bill Masterton died. PMID:27364262

  20. Leveraging Spitzer's Legacy: Quasars and Feedback at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Gordon; Anderson, Scott; Bauer, Franz; Deo, Rajesh; Fan, Xiaohui; Gallagher, Sarah; Myers, Adam; Strauss, Michael; Zakamska, Nadia

    2009-04-01

    Recent research efforts to understand the evolution of galaxies and quasars are beginning to form a consistent picture. Galaxies and their supermassive black holes grow through mergers, but with decreasing characteristic mass scales over time. Much less, however, is known about the evolution of galaxies at high redshifts and the role played by energy injection from the onset of active black hole growth. Understanding these events requires investigating a statistically significant number of high-redshift quasars and crossing the L* boundary in luminosity. To construct an appropriate data set requires both relatively wide-areas (to find these rare objects) and moderate-depth imaging (to probe below L* in luminosity). Unfortunately, existing optical and MIR surveys fail to meet both of these requirements. Furthermore, both optical and MIR quasar selection are blindest at the most crucial redshifts. Here we propose to address these gaps with targeted IRAC observations of a few hundred high-redshift quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Such a sample will enable the construction of a proper training set for the discovery of 2.5legacy surveys (SWIRE, XFLS, Bootes, COSMOS). With a large sample of high-redshift quasars spanning a large range in luminosity, we can turn the quasar luminosity function and quasar clustering analysis into tools for distinguishing between different evolutionary models and feedback prescriptions. In all, we will observe 330 SDSS quasars using 307 pointings/AORs, totaling 48.5 hours of IRAC time.

  1. Legacy Effects of Warming on Permafrost Carbon Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blok, D.; Faucherre, S.; Banyasz, I.; Michelsen, A.; Elberling, B.

    2015-12-01

    Warming in arctic tundra may thaw currently frozen upper permafrost layers, potentially releasing organic carbon (C) that was preserved by cold conditions for hundreds or thousands of years. Apart from the direct control of temperature on permafrost carbon dioxide (CO2) production, warming may alter permafrost CO2 production rates through changes in either permafrost C quality or changes in microbial communities. We incubated exogenous permafrost cores in four different warming experiments in NE-Greenland. The experiments were located in both Salix- and Cassiope-dominated sub-sites and were established in 2004 (old site) and 2007 (new site). Permafrost cores were buried as "open incubators" (free vertical water flow) at both 5-10cm depth (shallow) and 15-20cm depth (deep) in both non-manipulated (control) and warmed plots (warmed) and incubated for 2 years in the field. After retrieval from the field, permafrost cores were kept undisturbed in a lab fridge for three months, after which sub-samples were incubated at 5°C in glass vials. Permafrost CO2 production rates were subsequently measured after one week, four weeks and three months incubation in the lab. We measured the legacy effects of in situ conditions, including experimental warming in the field, on permafrost respiration under controlled laboratory conditions. We assessed the effects of plot type, vegetation type, experiment age, and incubation depth on permafrost CO2 production rates. After 3 months incubation in the lab, we measured a positive effect of warming on permafrost CO2 production rates for shallow-incubated cores, but not for deep-incubated cores. Production rates of CO2 were significantly higher for cores incubated in the old site compared to the new site. Our results suggest that warming may not only directly stimulate permafrost C release, but also indirectly through the effects of infiltrating water, nutrients and microbes from near-surface soil layers.

  2. The Chandra COSMOS Legacy survey: optical/IR identifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesi, S.; Civano, F.; Elvis, M.; Salvato, M.; Brusa, M.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Hasinger, G.; Lanzuisi, G.; Miyaji, T.; Treister, E.; Urry, C. M.; Vignali, C.; Zamorani, G.; Allevato, V.; Cappelluti, N.; Cardamone, C.; Finoguenov, A.; Griffiths, R. E.; Karim, A.; Laigle, C.; LaMassa, S. M.; Jahnke, K.; Ranalli, P.; Schawinski, K.; Schinnerer, E.; Silverman, J. D.; Smolcic, V.; Suh, H.; Trakhtenbrot, B.

    2016-01-01

    We present the catalog of optical and infrared counterparts of the Chandra COSMOS-Legacy Survey, a 4.6 Ms Chandra program on the 2.2 deg2 of the COSMOS field, combination of 56 new overlapping observations obtained in Cycle 14 with the previous C-COSMOS survey. In this Paper we report the i, K, and 3.6 μm identifications of the 2273 X-ray point sources detected in the new Cycle 14 observations. We use the likelihood ratio technique to derive the association of optical/infrared (IR) counterparts for 97% of the X-ray sources. We also update the information for the 1743 sources detected in C-COSMOS, using new K and 3.6 μm information not available when the C-COSMOS analysis was performed. The final catalog contains 4016 X-ray sources, 97% of which have an optical/IR counterpart and a photometric redshift, while ≃54% of the sources have a spectroscopic redshift. The full catalog, including spectroscopic and photometric redshifts and optical and X-ray properties described here in detail, is available online. We study several X-ray to optical (X/O) properties: with our large statistics we put better constraints on the X/O flux ratio locus, finding a shift toward faint optical magnitudes in both soft and hard X-ray band. We confirm the existence of a correlation between X/O and the the 2-10 keV luminosity for Type 2 sources. We extend to low luminosities the analysis of the correlation between the fraction of obscured AGNs and the hard band luminosity, finding a different behavior between the optically and X-ray classified obscured fraction.

  3. Foundations of invasion genetics: the Baker and Stebbins legacy.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Spencer C H

    2015-05-01

    Invasion genetics is a relatively new discipline that investigates patterns of genetic variation in populations of invasive species and their ecological and evolutionary consequences. Evolutionary biologists have a long-standing interest in colonizing species, owing to their short life cycles and widespread distributions, but not until publication of The Genetics of Colonizing Species (1965), edited by H.G. Baker and G.L. Stebbins, was a synthesis on the genetics and evolution of colonizers available. Here, I make the case that the Baker and Stebbins volume is the foundational document for invasion genetics, and in conjunction with the increased use of genetic markers and development of invasion biology, resulted in the birth of this new field over the past two decades. I consider the historical origins and legacy of the Baker and Stebbins volume and review some of the key issues that were addressed. I provide biographical sketches of the two editors, emphasizing their contrasting backgrounds and personalities. I review examples from my own work on plant invasions that are relevant to issues discussed by contributors to the volume. These include the following: determinants of invasion success, life history trade-offs, generalist vs. specialist strategies, general-purpose genotypes, adaptive phenotypic plasticity, mating systems and the influence of bottlenecks on genetic variation. I conclude by posing several key questions in invasion genetics and argue that one of the main challenges that the area faces is to integrate experimental field studies of the ecology and demography of populations with the largely descriptive approaches that have tended to dominate most research to date. PMID:25442107

  4. Implementing Provenance Collection in a Legacy Data Product Generation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conover, H.; Ramachandran, R.; Kulkarni, A.; Beaumont, B.; McEniry, M.; Graves, S. J.; Goodman, H.

    2012-12-01

    NASA has been collecting, storing, archiving and distributing vast amounts of Earth science data derived from satellite observations for several decades now. The raw data collected from the different sensors undergoes many different transformations before it is distributed to the science community as climate-research-quality data products. These data transformations include calibration, geolocation, and conversion of the instrument counts into meaningful geophysical parameters, and may include reprojection and/or spatial and temporal averaging as well. In the case of many Earth science data systems, the science algorithms and any ancillary data files used for these transformations are delivered as a "black box" to be integrated into the data system's processing framework. In contrast to an experimental workflow that may vary with each iteration, such systems use consistent, well-engineered processes to apply the same science algorithm to each well-defined set of inputs in order to create standard data products. Even so, variability is inevitably introduced. There may be changes made to the algorithms, different ancillary datasets may be used, underlying hardware and software may get upgraded, etc. Furthermore, late-arriving input data, operator error, or other processing anomalies may necessitate regeneration and replacement of a particular set of data files and any downstream products. These variations need to be captured, documented and made accessible to the scientific community so they can be properly accounted for in analyses. This presentation describes an approach to provenance capture, storage and dissemination implemented at the NASA Science Investigator-led Processing System (SIPS) for the AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System) instrument. Key considerations in adding provenance capabilities to this legacy data system include: (1) granularity of provenance information captured, (2) additional context information needed

  5. Swift UVOT Observations of the Local Volume Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronwall, Caryl

    We propose a panchromatic survey of the Local Volume Legacy Survey (LVLS) of nearby galaxies to study the young stellar populations and dust extinction properties of these well-studied galaxies. The LVLS sample has been the focus of a number of surveys over a wide range of wavelengths from the far and near-ultraviolet, ground-based optical, mid- and far-infrared, and sub-mm. The key new ingredients in our analysis are images of the LVLS galaxies taken with the Swift UV/Optical Telescope (UVOT) in three near-UV filters which provide important near-UV color information and allow us to directly probe the nature of the 2175 Angstrom bump in the dust extinction properties of these nearby star-forming galaxies. We will combine these NUV images with multiwavelength archival FUV and NUV (from GALEX), ground-based optical, mid-IR (Spitzer), far-IR and sub-mm (Spitzer and Herschel) data to derive the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of these galaxies over a wide wavelength range. These measurements will allow us to map the the star formation histories and interstellar dust properties of these galaxies. In particular, we will be able to determine the importance of the 2175 Angstrom bump over a wide range of galaxy morphologies and spectral types. Our proposed project is highly relevant to the goals of the Astrophysics Data Analysis Program because it uses publicly available data from multiple NASA missions including GALEX, Swift, Spitzer and Herschel to investigate the recent star formation history and dust extinction properties of a large sample of nearby galaxies. These projects address ADAP research areas #2, 6, and 7. We will make our multiwavelength spectral energy distributions of the LVLS galaxies available to the astronomical community.

  6. The Chandra COSMOS-Legacy Survey: The z>3 Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesi, S.; Civano, F.; Salvato, M.; Shankar, F.; Comastri, A.; Elvis, M.; Lanzuisi, G.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Vignali, C.; Zamorani, G.; Allevato, V.; Brusa, M.; Fiore, F.; Gilli, R.; Griffiths, R.; Hasinger, G.; Miyaji, T.; Schawinski, K.; Treister, E.; Urry, C. M.

    2016-08-01

    We present the largest high-redshift (3 < z < 6.85) sample of X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) on a contiguous field, using sources detected in the Chandra COSMOS-Legacy survey. The sample contains 174 sources, 87 with spectroscopic redshift and the other 87 with photometric redshift (z phot). In this work, we treat z phot as a probability-weighted sum of contributions, adding to our sample the contribution of sources with z phot < 3 but z phot probability distribution >0 at z > 3. We compute the number counts in the observed 0.5–2 keV band, finding a decline in the number of sources at z > 3 and constraining phenomenological models of the X-ray background. We compute the AGN space density at z > 3 in two different luminosity bins. At higher luminosities (logL(2–10 keV) > 44.1 erg s‑1), the space density declines exponentially, dropping by a factor of ˜20 from z ˜ 3 to z ˜ 6. The observed decline is ˜80% steeper at lower luminosities (43.55 erg s‑1 < logL(2–10 keV) < 44.1 erg s‑1) from z ˜ 3 to z ˜ 4.5. We study the space density evolution dividing our sample into optically classified Type 1 and Type 2 AGNs. At logL(2–10 keV) > 44.1 erg s‑1, unobscured and obscured objects may have different evolution with redshift, with the obscured component being three times higher at z ˜ 5. Finally, we compare our space density with predictions of quasar activation merger models, whose calibration is based on optically luminous AGNs. These models significantly overpredict the number of expected AGNs at logL (2–10 keV) > 44.1 erg s‑1 with respect to our data.

  7. Concept Development for Software Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riecks, Jung; Storm, Walter; Hollingsworth, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the work performed by Lockheed Martin Aeronautics (LM Aero) under NASA contract NNL06AA08B, delivery order NNL07AB06T. The Concept Development for Software Health Management (CDSHM) program was a NASA funded effort sponsored by the Integrated Vehicle Health Management Project, one of the four pillars of the NASA Aviation Safety Program. The CD-SHM program focused on defining a structured approach to software health management (SHM) through the development of a comprehensive failure taxonomy that is used to characterize the fundamental failure modes of safety-critical software.

  8. A Deep XMM-Newton Legacy Survey of M33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Benjamin

    We propose for financial support that will allow us to reduce and analyze all XMM- Newton data relevant to an A09 deep XMM-Newton legacy survey of M33 covering the entire optical disk with a total of 700000 seconds of exposure time. These data will allow us to determine how the temperature and energetics of the hot interstellar medium (ISM) are affected by star formation, constrain the nature and dynamical masses of new pulsating and eclipsing X-ray binaries, and perform detailed statistical and spectral studies on the largest known extragalactic population of X-ray supernova remnants (SNRs). The support proposed here is crucial for the full analysis and publication of the entire data set. Measurements and model fitting of the spectra and timing of all of the discrete sources detected in our data will constrain the nature and dynamical masses of new pulsating and eclipsing X-ray binaries, as well as provide new insight into the origins of the X-ray SNRs. Spatially-resolved, spectral studies of the diffuse emission will allow us to determine how the temperature and energetics of the hot interstellar medium (ISM) are affected by star formation. Several members of our team have already performed similar analysis to those proposed using data from the deep Chandra ACIS-I survey of M33 (ChASeM33), and we intend to hire a postdoctoral research associate who has experience working with large XMM-Newton data sets. Therefore the techniques for making the measurements are well-understood; however, the deep Chandra ACIS-I survey of M33 does not provide sufficient soft response for detailed spectral measurements of the diffuse gas emission from dozens of individual star forming regions. To reliably determine the temperature structure of the interstellar gas of these regions, our simulations show that we need to go a factor of 10 deeper in the soft X-ray band than existing X-ray data, which will be achieved with our proposed observations. Furthermore, XMM-Newton studies of X

  9. Atlas(®) Listeria monocytogenes LmG2 Detection Assay Using Transcription Mediated Amplification to Detect Listeria monocytogenes in Selected Foods and Stainless Steel Surface.

    PubMed

    Bres, Vanessa; Yang, Hua; Hsu, Ernie; Ren, Yan; Cheng, Ying; Wisniewski, Michele; Hanhan, Maesa; Zaslavsky, Polina; Noll, Nathan; Weaver, Brett; Campbell, Paul; Reshatoff, Michael; Becker, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The Atlas Listeria monocytogenes LmG2 Detection Assay, developed by Roka Bioscience Inc., was compared to a reference culture method for seven food types (hot dogs, cured ham, deli turkey, chicken salad, vanilla ice cream, frozen chocolate cream pie, and frozen cheese pizza) and one surface (stainless steel, grade 316). A 125 g portion of deli turkey was tested using a 1:4 food:media dilution ratio, and a 25 g portion for all other foods was tested using 1:9 food:media dilution ratio. The enrichment time and media for Roka's method was 24 to 28 h for 25 g food samples and environmental surfaces, and 44 to 48 h for 125 g at 35 ± 2°C in PALCAM broth containing 0.02 g/L nalidixic acid. Comparison of the Atlas Listeria monocytogenes LmG2 Detection Assay to the reference method required an unpaired approach. For each matrix, 20 samples inoculated at a fractional level and five samples inoculated at a high level with a different strain of Listeria monocytogenes were tested by each method. The Atlas Listeria monocytogenes LmG2 Detection Assay was compared to the Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC INTERNATIONAL 993.12 method for dairy products, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service, Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook 8.08 method for ready-to-eat meat and environmental samples, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual, Chapter 10 method for frozen foods. In the method developer studies, Roka's method, at 24 h (or 44 h for 125 g food samples), had 126 positives out of 200 total inoculated samples, compared to 102 positives for the reference methods at 48 h. In the independent laboratory studies, vanilla ice cream, deli turkey and stainless steel grade 316 were evaluated. Roka's method, at 24 h (or 44 h for 125 g food samples), had 64 positives out of 75 total inoculated samples compared to 54 positives for the reference methods at 48 h. The Atlas Listeria monocytogenes LmG2 Detection Assay detected all 50

  10. A colonizing species has high fitness on soils with an exotic species legacy when conditioning effects are mitigated

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant interaction with soil can create feedbacks that influence intraspecific and interspecific performance. These feedbacks can either be short term, within-season soil conditioning called priority effects or longer-term influences called soil legacies. Soil conditioning and soil legacies can preve...

  11. Impact of cultivation legacies on rehabilitation seedings and native species re-establishment in Great Basin desert shrublands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about how cultivation legacies affect the outcome of rehabilitation seedings in the Great Basin, even though both frequently co-occur on the same lands. We examined these cultivation legacies by comparing the density of seeded Agropyron cristatum (crested wheatgrass), vegetation com...

  12. FOREST ECOLOGY. Pervasive drought legacies in forest ecosystems and their implications for carbon cycle models.

    PubMed

    Anderegg, W R L; Schwalm, C; Biondi, F; Camarero, J J; Koch, G; Litvak, M; Ogle, K; Shaw, J D; Shevliakova, E; Williams, A P; Wolf, A; Ziaco, E; Pacala, S

    2015-07-31

    The impacts of climate extremes on terrestrial ecosystems are poorly understood but important for predicting carbon cycle feedbacks to climate change. Coupled climate-carbon cycle models typically assume that vegetation recovery from extreme drought is immediate and complete, which conflicts with the understanding of basic plant physiology. We examined the recovery of stem growth in trees after severe drought at 1338 forest sites across the globe, comprising 49,339 site-years, and compared the results with simulated recovery in climate-vegetation models. We found pervasive and substantial "legacy effects" of reduced growth and incomplete recovery for 1 to 4 years after severe drought. Legacy effects were most prevalent in dry ecosystems, among Pinaceae, and among species with low hydraulic safety margins. In contrast, limited or no legacy effects after drought were simulated by current climate-vegetation models. Our results highlight hysteresis in ecosystem-level carbon cycling and delayed recovery from climate extremes. PMID:26228147

  13. A Comparison of New TATBs, FK-800 binder and LX-17-like PBXs to Legacy Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Willey, T M; DePiero, S C; Hoffman, D M

    2009-05-01

    Two newly synthesized versions of the insensitive high explosive (IHE) 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzenes (TATBs) were compared to two legacy explosives currently used by the Department of Energy. Except for thermal analysis, small scale safety tests could not distinguish between the different synthetic routes. Morphologies of new TATBs were less faceted and more spherical. The particle size distribution of one new material was similar to legacy TATBs, but the other was very fine. Densities and submicron structure of the new TATBs were also significantly different from the legacy explosives. Pressed pellets of the new explosives were less dense. New FK-800 binder was used to prepare LX-17-like plastic bonded explosives (PBXs) from new and wet aminated TATB. Some mechanical, thermal and performance characterization of the new binder and LX-17-like PBXs was done. Significant differences were found. The reason for a number of these differences is not well understood.

  14. A Novel Technique for Running the NASA Legacy Code LAPIN Synchronously With Simulations Developed Using Simulink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vrnak, Daniel R.; Stueber, Thomas J.; Le, Dzu K.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents a method for running a dynamic legacy inlet simulation in concert with another dynamic simulation that uses a graphical interface. The legacy code, NASA's LArge Perturbation INlet (LAPIN) model, was coded using the FORTRAN 77 (The Portland Group, Lake Oswego, OR) programming language to run in a command shell similar to other applications that used the Microsoft Disk Operating System (MS-DOS) (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA). Simulink (MathWorks, Natick, MA) is a dynamic simulation that runs on a modern graphical operating system. The product of this work has both simulations, LAPIN and Simulink, running synchronously on the same computer with periodic data exchanges. Implementing the method described in this paper avoided extensive changes to the legacy code and preserved its basic operating procedure. This paper presents a novel method that promotes inter-task data communication between the synchronously running processes.

  15. Pervasive Drought Legacy Effects in Forest Ecosystems and their Carbon Cycle Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderegg, W.; Schwalm, C.; Biondi, F.; Camarero, J. J.; Koch, G. W.; Litvak, M. E.; Ogle, K.; Shaw, J.; Shevliakova, E.; Williams, P.; Wolf, A.; Ziaco, E.; Pacala, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    The impacts of climate extremes on terrestrial ecosystems are poorly understood but central for predicting carbon cycle feedbacks to climate change. Coupled climate-carbon cycle models typically assume that vegetation recovery from extreme drought is immediate and complete, which conflicts with basic plant physiological understanding. We examine the recovery of tree stem growth after severe drought at 1,338 forest sites globally comprising 49,339 site-years and compare it to simulated recovery in climate-vegetation models. We find pervasive and substantial "legacy effects" of reduced growth and incomplete recovery for 1-4 years after severe drought, and that legacy effects are most prevalent in dry ecosystems, Pinaceae, and species with low hydraulic safety margins. In contrast, no or limited legacy effects are simulated in current climate-vegetation models after drought. Our results highlight hysteresis in ecosystem carbon cycling and delayed recovery from climate extremes.

  16. Cattle as ecosystem engineers: New grazing management enhances rangeland biodiversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A confluence of factors has shaped the composition and structure of vegetation on rangelands in the American West. These factors include climate, soils, topography, history of grazing and fire (both wildfire and prescribed fire) as well as legacy effects from prior land management practices. Despite...

  17. Leaving a legacy neutralizes negative effects of death anxiety on creativity.

    PubMed

    Sligte, Daniel J; Nijstad, Bernard A; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2013-09-01

    Mortality salience (MS) can lead to a paralyzing terror, and to cope with this, people strive for literal or symbolic immortality. As MS leads to conformity and narrow-mindedness, we predicted that MS would lead to lower creativity, unless creativity itself could lead to leaving a legacy and thus symbolic immortality. We show that this pattern holds (Experiment 1), but only when creativity is socially valued (Experiment 2). Finally, especially individualistic people are more creative under MS when they can leave a legacy than when they cannot, and high originality predicts subsequent accessibility of death thoughts (Experiment 3). Implications are discussed. PMID:23861202

  18. Molecular template for a voltage sensor in a novel K+ channel. I. Identification and functional characterization of KvLm, a voltage-gated K+ channel from Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Santos, Jose S; Lundby, Alicia; Zazueta, Cecilia; Montal, Mauricio

    2006-09-01

    The fundamental principles underlying voltage sensing, a hallmark feature of electrically excitable cells, are still enigmatic and the subject of intense scrutiny and controversy. Here we show that a novel prokaryotic voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channel from Listeria monocytogenes (KvLm) embodies a rudimentary, yet robust, sensor sufficient to endow it with voltage-dependent features comparable to those of eukaryotic Kv channels. The most conspicuous feature of the KvLm sequence is the nature of the sensor components: the motif is recognizable; it appears, however, to contain only three out of eight charged residues known to be conserved in eukaryotic Kv channels and accepted to be deterministic for folding and sensing. Despite the atypical sensor sequence, flux assays of KvLm reconstituted in liposomes disclosed a channel pore that is highly selective for K(+) and is blocked by conventional Kv channel blockers. Single-channel currents recorded in symmetric K(+) solutions from patches of enlarged Escherichia coli (spheroplasts) expressing KvLm showed that channel open probability sharply increases with depolarization, a hallmark feature of Kv channels. The identification of a voltage sensor module in KvLm with a voltage dependence comparable to that of other eukaryotic Kv channels yet encoded by a sequence that departs significantly from the consensus sequence of a eukaryotic voltage sensor establishes a molecular blueprint of a minimal sequence for a voltage sensor. PMID:16908725

  19. The legacy of forest harvest and burning on ecosystem carbon storage in the northern midwest, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, C. M.; Vogel, C. S.; Harrold, K. H.; George, K. D.; Curtis, P. S.

    2005-12-01

    Over 90 % of the forested area in the upper Great Lakes region was harvested by the early 20th century. In many cases, harvests were followed by uncontrolled burns, similar to current patterns of disturbance in many developing countries. While afforestation in the northern midwest has resulted in increased regional carbon (C) storage, the rate of C storage by forests will depend on the severity of prior disturbance and consequent changes in site quality. We were interested in how long the legacy of poor management practices from the early 20th century would be reflected in forest C storage rates. We investigated C cycling and storage following disturbance in mixed deciduous forests of northern lower Michigan, USA. Study plots ranged in age from 6 to 68 yrs and were created following experimental clear-cut harvesting and fire disturbance. Annual C storage was estimated biometrically from measurements of wood, leaf, fine root, and woody debris mass, mass losses to herbivory, soil carbon content, and soil respiration. Maximum annual carbon storage, or net ecosystem production (NEP), in the disturbed stands was 50 % lower than that of adjacent, undisturbed forest. This decrease was caused by a reduction in site quality following disturbance. However, during regrowth the cut and burned forest rapidly became a net C sink, storing 0.86 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 after six yrs. Carbon storage reached a peak of 1.00 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 after 50 yrs and declined to 0.57 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 after 68 yrs. Above- and below-ground net primary production (NPP) averaged 42 and 59 % of total NPP, respectively, with fine root litter production accounting for 57 % of total NPP. Soil heterotrophic respiration was high, ranging from 4.55 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 in the 6-yr-old stand to 5.74 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 in the 50-yr-old stand. Soil C and coarse woody debris pools exhibited a U-shaped trend over time following disturbance. Mineral soil and coarse woody debris pools lost C at a combined annual rate of 1.10 Mg C ha-1

  20. LMS Transitioning to "Moodle": A Surprising Case of Successful, Emergent Change Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, Alan

    2011-01-01

    During 2009-10 the University of Ballarat implemented the open-source learning management system (LMS) "Moodle" alongside its existing legacy LMS, "Blackboard". While previous IT implementations have been troublesome at the university, notably the student information and finance management systems in 2008-09, the "Moodle" implementation appears to…