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Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Interpreting the Satanic Legend  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is argued that recent hysteria about Satanic cults can best be understood as moral panic and urban legend. Data from a wide variety of sources, including the author's own personal experience, are brought forward in support of this thesis. It is then suggested that if we are not to remain at the mercy of the anxieties and distortions that

James Hunter

1998-01-01

2

Legends of Native Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a theme unit that includes elementary-level, cross-curricular lessons about lifestyle, belief systems, traditions, and history of Native Americans. The unit includes a poster which offers a traditional Cherokee story, literature on Native American legends, and a variety of cross-curricular activities. The unit ends with students writing…

Flagg, Ann

1999-01-01

3

Legends in Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When ISA-The Association of Learning Providers honored its "First Generation Legends" at its Annual Business Retreat this past spring, it was a gathering of some of the Who's Who of the learning industry. In this article, ten of the training industry's most successful professionals reveal their success drivers and talk about how to effectively…

Lepore, Marla

2012-01-01

4

Legend of Wan Hoo  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

According to one ancient legend, a Chinese official named Wan Hoo attempted a flight to the moon using a large wicker chair to which were fastened 47 large rockets. Forty seven assistants, each armed with a torch, rushed forward to light the fuses. In a moment, there was a tremendous roar accompanied by billowing clouds of smoke. When the smoke cleared, the flying chair and Wan Hoo were gone.

2004-01-01

5

Legends of America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Summer is quickly making an exit in anticipation of fall's blustery arrival, but that doesn't mean it is too late for a trip to the American West. This site, developed and maintained by Kathy Weiser, may provide the inspiration visitors need to pack up and make a move out to one of the Western states. Legends of America was inspired by Weiser's love for history and travel, and as such, contains a host of material on the landscape of the Western states, with a particular emphasis on the historic ghost towns, abandoned mines, mustachioed-gunmen, and other once-dominant features of the region. Visitors can click on any number of thematic headings, such as "Old West Legends" and "Legendary Route 66" to peruse a number of short essays and visual materials (such as photographs). Additionally, visitors may browse in a more traditional format merely by clicking on a specific state of interest. Finally, visitors will want to browse through the newsletter published by Weiser as it contains useful information about the latest additions to the site.

Weiser, Kathy

6

PROGRAMMABLE DISPLAY PUSHBUTTON LEGEND EDITOR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Programmable Display Pushbutton (PDP) is a pushbutton device available from Micro Switch which has a programmable 16 x 35 matrix of LEDs on the pushbutton surface. Any desired legends can be displayed on the PDPs, producing user-friendly applications which greatly reduce the need for dedicated manual controls. Because the PDP can interact with the operator, it can call for the correct response before transmitting its next message. It is both a simple manual control and a sophisticated programmable link between the operator and the host system. The Programmable Display Pushbutton Legend Editor, PDPE, is used to create the LED displays for the pushbuttons. PDPE encodes PDP control commands and legend data into message byte strings sent to a Logic Refresh and Control Unit (LRCU). The LRCU serves as the driver for a set of four PDPs. The legend editor (PDPE) transmits to the LRCU user specified commands that control what is displayed on the LED face of the individual pushbuttons. Upon receiving a command, the LRCU transmits an acknowledgement that the message was received and executed successfully. The user then observes the effect of the command on the PDP displays and decides whether or not to send the byte code of the message to a data file so that it may be called by an applications program. The PDPE program is written in FORTRAN for interactive execution. It was developed on a DEC VAX 11/780 under VMS. It has a central memory requirement of approximately 12800 bytes. It requires four Micro Switch PDPs and two RS-232 VAX 11/780 terminal ports. The PDPE program was developed in 1985.

Busquets, A. M.

1994-01-01

7

Leyendas Puertorriquenas, Adaptaciones (Puerto Rican Legends, Adaptations).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Puerto Rican legends presented here have been adapted for use in a bilingual education setting. They are presented in the framework of a Puerto Rican child's first visit to the island with his family. The four legends are: (1) "Carabali"; (2) "Guanina"; (3) "El Penon de las Palomas"; and (4) "La Garita del Diablo." The book is illistrated with…

Rodriguez, Aurea; Puigdollers, Carmen

8

Scope on the Skies: Urban Legends  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Urban legends become widespread from people simply not asking "Are you sure?" or looking into the topic and learning more before making a decision. But urban legends are also a great way to teach students to become good questioners--skeptics if you will--wh

Riddle, Bob

2009-12-01

9

The Aral Sea: problems, legends, solutions.  

PubMed

A lot of legends have been created around the Aral Sea. Some of them were born during the Soviet time but there are already new ones that have arrived recently. Those legends came to be the barriers to solving the problem. There are also barriers created by the status quo mentality of local authorities. But mutual understanding is the biggest problem among countries sharing water resources. It is suggested to create an Ecological Economics Unit of the Biosphere (EEUB) managed by an executive body not affiliated to any country. Despite the borders the EEUB should unite the economics of neighborhood countries to protect the nature. PMID:14653653

Kamalov, Yu

2003-01-01

10

The Onion and "When Legends Die."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the eight layers in Thomas Black Bull's ("When the Legends Die") journey to spiritual rebirth and stresses that students can easily identify these layers and can thereby achieve a clearer understanding of the relationship between structure and meaning in fiction. (CRH)

Bell, Loren C.

1984-01-01

11

Analyzing Rumors, Gossip, and Urban Legends through Their Conversational Properties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A conversational approach is developed to explain the ubiquitous presence of rumors, urban legends, and gossip as arising from their conversational properties rather than from side effects of cognitive processing or "effort after meaning." It is suggested that the primary function of telling rumors, gossip, and urban legends is not to impart…

Guerin, Bernard; Miyazaki, Yoshihiko

2006-01-01

12

LEGENDS OF KING ARTHUR. LITERATURE CURRICULUM III, STUDENT VERSION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A STUDENT VERSION OF A CURRICULUM GUIDE ON THE "LEGENDS OF KING ARTHUR" WAS DEVELOPED. SELECTED LEGENDS ARE REPRODUCED ALONG WITH AN INTRODUCTION, STUDY QUESTIONS, AND A PASSAGE FROM MALORY'S "LE MORTE D'ARTHUR" IN THE ORIGINAL LANGUAGE OF THE FIRST EDITION (1485). THE TEACHER VERSION IS ED 010 814. RELATED REPORTS ARE ED 010 129 THROUGH ED 010…

KITZHABER, ALBERT R.

13

13. CLOSE UP VIEW OF THE IRON COMMEMORATIVE LEGEND ON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. CLOSE UP VIEW OF THE IRON COMMEMORATIVE LEGEND ON THE WEST PORTAL OF THE BRIDGE. NOTE: AN EXACT DUPLICATE OF THIS LEGEND CAN BE FOUND ON THE EAST PORTAL. - Freedom Bridge, Spanning West Fork of White River at County Road 590 South, Freedom, Owen County, IN

14

Emotional selection in memes: the case of urban legends.  

PubMed

This article explores how much memes like urban legends succeed on the basis of informational selection (i.e., truth or a moral lesson) and emotional selection (i.e., the ability to evoke emotions like anger, fear, or disgust). The article focuses on disgust because its elicitors have been precisely described. In Study 1, with controls for informational factors like truth, people were more willing to pass along stories that elicited stronger disgust. Study 2 randomly sampled legends and created versions that varied in disgust; people preferred to pass along versions that produced the highest level of disgust. Study 3 coded legends for specific story motifs that produce disgust (e.g., ingestion of a contaminated substance) and found that legends that contained more disgust motifs were distributed more widely on urban legend Web sites. The conclusion discusses implications of emotional selection for the social marketplace of ideas. PMID:11761305

Bell, C; Sternberg, E

2001-12-01

15

Teachers' Study Guide: Jewish Legends. The Image of the Jew in Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Jewish legends which are a major part of Jewish life and literature are the focus of this study guide for teachers. Excerpts from a lecture on Jewish legends are followed by suggestions for classroom activities, discussion topics related to the study of Jewish legends, and a bibliography for both teachers and students on Jewish legend and…

Mersand, Joseph; Wiesel, Elie

16

LEGEND, a LEO-to-GEO Environment Debris Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LEGEND (LEO-to-GEO Environment Debris model) is a three-dimensional orbital debris evolutionary model that is capable of simulating the historical and future debris populations in the near-Earth environment. The historical component in LEGEND adopts a deterministic approach to mimic the known historical populations. Launched rocket bodies, spacecraft, and mission-related debris (rings, bolts, etc.) are added to the simulated environment. Known historical breakup events are reproduced, and fragments down to 1 mm in size are created. The LEGEND future projection component adopts a Monte Carlo approach and uses an innovative pair-wise collision probability evaluation algorithm to simulate the future breakups and the growth of the debris populations. This algorithm is based on a new "random sampling in time" approach that preserves characteristics of the traditional approach and captures the rapidly changing nature of the orbital debris environment. LEGEND is a Fortran 90-based numerical simulation program. It operates in a UNIX/Linux environment.

Liou, Jer Chyi; Hall, Doyle T.

2013-01-01

17

The Legend of Eugene Debs: Prophetic "Ethos" as Radical Argument.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the legend Eugene Debs fostered, calling for a renewal of American virtue. Argues that a more sympathetic view of Debs' radicalism is achieved by looking at him against the Judeo-Christian tradition of Old Testament prophecy. (RAE)

Darsey, James

1988-01-01

18

The Mozart effect: tracking the evolution of a scientific legend.  

PubMed

Theories of the diffusion of ideas in social psychology converge on the assumption that shared beliefs (e.g., social representations, rumours and legends) propagate because they address the needs or concerns of social groups. But little empirical research exists demonstrating this link. We report three media studies of the diffusion of a scientific legend as a particular kind of shared belief. We studied the Mozart effect (ME), the idea that listening to classical music enhances intelligence. Study 1 showed that the ME elicited more persistent media attention than other science reports and this attention increased when the ME was manifested in events outside of science. Study 2 suggested that diffusion of the ME may have responded to varying levels of collective anxiety. Study 3 demonstrated how the content of the ME evolved during diffusion. The results provide evidence for the functionality of diffusion of ideas and initial elements for a model of the emergence and evolution of scientific legends. PMID:15601511

Bangerter, Adrian; Heath, Chip

2004-12-01

19

PARALLEL COORDINATE PLOTS FOR REPRESENTING DISTRIBUTIONAL SUMMARIES IN MAP LEGENDS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper addresses the graphical representation of distributional summaries. he graphical design goal is to produce small-summary plots that are suitable as map legends for Choropleth maps. he paper proposes two variations of parallel coordinate plots for epresenting cumulative...

20

Exam Scams and Classroom Flimflams: Urban Legends as an Alternative Lens for Viewing the College Classroom Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Campus-based urban legends have the potential to convey and construct student culture in higher education. Basic qualitative and humanistic research methods were used to collect, analyze, and interpret legends related to the academic experience of collegiate life.

Major, Claire Howell; Bray, Nathaniel

2008-01-01

21

Pestomuhkati Atkuhkakonol. Pukcinsqehs. Kiwahqiyik. (Passamaquoddy Legends. The Tree-Stump Woman. The Giants).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This illustrated reader contains Passamaquoddy versions of two traditional Wabnaki legends about Pukcinsquehs, the Tree-Stump Woman, who changes herself into a mosquito, and Koluskap, a giant, who turns people into fish. It is one of a series of readers containing Passamaquoddy legends and is intended for use in a bilingual education setting. Each…

Wabnaki Bilingual Educational Program, Indian Township, ME.

22

The Legend of Jump Mountain: Narrative Dispossession of the Monacan in Postcolonial Virginia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In north central Virginia there is a local tale--The Legend of Jump Mountain, which purports to explain the origins of the Hayes Creek Indian Burial Mound. A highly romantic legend, it immortalizes post colonial intertribal warfare during the early nineteenth century while ignoring the antiquity of the mound and the local descendants of its…

Vest, Jay Hansford C.

2012-01-01

23

My Best Friend's Brother's Cousin Knew This Guy Who?…?: Hoaxes, Legends, Warnings, and Fisher's Narrative Paradigm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students frequently encounter stories in the form of urban legends but often fail to analyze them properly. Using urban legends to teach is often a lively and informative method, and deconstructing common persuasive messages can show students the applicability of theory to real life. The author states that her goal as a teacher is to help students…

Hobart, Melissa

2013-01-01

24

9 CFR 381.96 - Wording and form of the official inspection legend.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Wording and form of the official inspection legend. 381.96 Section 381...and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND...

2010-01-01

25

A LEO Satellite Postmission Disposal Study using LEGEND  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper summarizes results from two postmission disposal parametric analyses based on the high fidelity NASA orbital debris evolutionary model LEGEND. The first analysis includes a nonmitigation reference scenario and four test scenarios, where the mission lifetimes of spacecraft are set to 5, 10, 20, and 30 years, respectively, before they are moved to the 25-year decay orbits. The comparison among the five scenarios quantifies how a prolonged spacecraft mission lifetime decreases the effectiveness of the 25-year decay rule in the low Earth orbit region. The second analysis includes three 25-year decay postmission disposal scenarios where the mission lifetimes of spacecraft are set to 5 years but with disposal success rates set to 50%, 70%, and 90%, respectively. It illustrates how the postmission disposal success rate impacts the long-term debris environment. The conclusion of this paper is that a prolonged spacecraft mission lifetime and a lower postmission disposal success rate can have noticeable negative impact on the debris environment in the long run.

Liou, J.-C.; Johnson, Nicholas L.

2006-01-01

26

Moving beyond the Black Legend: Chicano/a and Latino/a Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to a footnote in the 1990 book "The Noble Savage,""The Spanish Black Legend is the view of Spain's genocide in The New World, as accounted for by Bartolome de las Casas and the European historians who, during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, denounced this genocide, often utilizing it as an anti-Spanish propaganda tool" used by…

Moore, Dennis

27

A Novel for High School Seniors: Hal Borland's "When the Legends Die."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hal Borland's "When the Legends Die" is especially appropriate for high school seniors because its central problem--a Ute Indian boy's search for his identity and expected role in society--is exactly that faced by these students. The novel is divided into four sections, each concerned with a specific stage in the development of the protagonist.…

Adkins, Carl A.

1968-01-01

28

Exploring Social Studies through Multicultural Literature: "Legend of the St Ann's Flood"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The search for literature that is of high quality and interest, is written at age-appropriate levels for adolescent readers, addresses social studies topics, and presents multicultural perspectives can be daunting. "Legend of the St Ann's Flood" is a fiction trade book that meets all of these criteria. Its setting in Trinidad and Tobago provides…

Fry, Sara Winstead

2009-01-01

29

Hero Tales and Legends: Literature Curriculum, Levels C-D [Grades Three and Four]; Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide is intended to introduce elementary school students to hero tales and legends. The stories are longer and the vocabulary is more difficult than other literature curriculum guides in this series by the Oregon Elementary English Project. The stories discussed are: "Sinbad the Sailor,""William Tell,""Robin Hood,""Paul Bunyan,"…

Oregon Univ., Eugene. Oregon Elementary English Project.

30

Inevitable recidivism--the origin and centrality of an urban legend.  

PubMed

This paper examines the pervasive conviction that sex offenders - particularly child molesters - will continue to re-offend. This belief in inevitable recidivism turns out to be absolutely essential to both the justification for, and the structure of, the sexually violent predator laws. When actual evidence of sex offender recidivism is examined, however, a huge gap exists between what is assumed and what the data actually show because most sex offenders do not in fact re-offend. Thus there is a galaxy of sexually violent predator laws and an entire branch of Supreme Court jurisprudence that is founded upon a demonstrable urban legend. PMID:21596438

Lave, Tamara Rice

2011-01-01

31

Legends for Sale, Poems for Free: Whole Language Activities Can Be Inspired by Risk-Taking and Scene Changes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes two classroom activities that were developed to promote a whole language approach to listening, speaking, reading, and writing. One involved fifth grade students who wrote legends that other students paid to read and evaluate, and the other involved an eighth grade English class who gave free poetry readings in a coffee house setting.…

Kaminski, Robert

1991-01-01

32

The Top 10 Greatest Screen Legends and What Their Definitive Roles Demonstrate about Management and Organizational Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Those interested in using multimedia films for the purpose of illustrating, critiquing and even correcting behavior in organizations face a daunting array of choices from training films to television to full length movies. The authors suggest that the top screen "legends" of Hollywood and their definitive roles should be considered as an…

Dunphy, Steve; Meyer, David; Linton, Sara

2008-01-01

33

The Donegal Sign Tree: A Local Legend Confirmed with Holographic Radar and 3-D Magnetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A tree at a crossroad in Historic Donegal, PA (founded 1722) bears unusual burls. Two are similar in size, and lie on opposite sides of the trunk at a height of six feet. Locals say that the tree engulfed an old road sign, and the geometry of the burls gives this appearance. However, the trunk between these two burls bears no welt where it sealed after swallowing the sign. In addition, there are other burls farther up the tree, which are not consistent with engulfed signs. Although the locals all know the legend of the swallowed sign, none ever actually saw the sign; not even an octogenarian who has lived at the crossroad his entire life, and recalls the tree as a child just as it is today. In order to test the veracity of the legend, this study performed subsurface imaging of the tree using holographic subsurface radar (Rascan), and 3-D measurements of the magnetic field about the tree using cesium vapor sensors. The Rascan system used is a continuous wave subsurface radar that operates at 5 discrete frequencies between 1.5 and 2.0 GHz. Reflections from subsurface objects are recorded as the phase difference pattern between an internal reference signal, and the reflected signal. Thus, it is a microwave analogy for optical holography. Rascan records reflections with two receiving antennae - parallel and perpendicular to the transmitter - so a single set of scans provides ten images; five frequencies at two polarizations. This ensures that an object at arbitrary depth will produce a strong phase difference in one of the images. As a consequence, elongate objects that are angled from the plane of scanning (e.g. a dipping sheet) produce "zebra stripes" of contrast values that vary cyclically with depth. The presence of stripes, and their relative positions in the different frequency images (the movement of which has been dubbed the "zebra shift") is useful for determining the relative depth of different portions of a dipping planar, or curved subsurface object. Rascan images of the tree revealed a reflector that produces a zebra shift pattern reminiscent of a curved reflector. However, given the curvature of the tree trunk, the zebra shift is more likely to represent a flat reflector beneath a curved scanning surface - consistent with the presence of the sign. As an independent confirmatory method, the tree was also subjected to a magnetic survey. First, the tree was swept with a magnetic locator - which indicated a magnetic target within the tree. In order to determine the configuration of this target, magnetic total field measurements were collected at the nodes of a 3-D grid surrounding the tree. The geometry of this survey is quite different from traditional archaeological prospection magnetometer surveys and, despite the relatively high latitude of Donegal PA, the vertical orientation of the suspected target mimics the common difficulties with magnetic surveys at low magnetic latitude. Therefore, the analytic signal was calculated to provide an easily interpreted magnetic anomaly that, together with the Rascan images, suggests that the story of the swallowed Donegal road sign may be true.

Bechtel, T.; Cassidy, M.; Inagaki, M.; Windsor, C.; Capineri, L.; Falorni, P.; Bulleti, A.; Valentini, S.; Borgioli, G.; Ivashov, S.; Zhuravlev, A.; Razewig, V.; Vasiliev, I.; Bechtel, E.

2009-05-01

34

Kukaniloko: A Living Legend  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This poster investigates a sacred site (heiau) named Kukaniloko on the Hawaiian Island of Oahu. This heiau has been important to the Hawaiians for a number of reasons; it was an ancient astronomical observatory, a navigation school and was the birthplace of a number of prominent kings. Kukaniloko is often mentioned in Hawaiian mythology and ethnohistorical records. Traditionally, it is a place of astronomical, navigational, political, social, educational and ritual importance. Constructed in the 11th century A.D., it has birthing stones, springs, astronomical orientations, and a stone (pohaku) canoe, which is a navigational compass stone. There are contemporary Hawaiians who continue to use this site, and solstices and equinoxes are observed to this day. The guardian/caretaker (kahu) of the site encourages the native community to spend time at Kukaniloko, and those with expertise to help revive the ancient knowledge. Two years ago, he conducted a ceremony of initiation for a new priest (kahuna) during the Autumnal equinox at this heiau. In 1797, King Kamehameha I attempted to have his son born at the site, but his wife's illness prevented her from getting there. Hawaiians interpreted this as the gods’ disapproval of his having committed human sacrifices. The name Kukaniloko can be revealing. The word ku means to stand fast, stop, anchor, also to appear, show, beginning. Kani means sound or noise of any kind, and to strike. Loko means inside, within, disposition, heart, and feelings. The name indicates that this was and still is a place of great importance in Hawaiian culture.

Barron, Kamira

2011-01-01

35

Dawn of the Legend  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Throughout Australia, April 25, 1915, is a date that every Australian knows well. This is ANZAC Day, and it commemorates the landing of Australian and New Zealand troops on a hostile shore along the Gallipoli peninsula in Turkey. This online exhibit, developed by the staff of the Australian War Memorial, pays tribute to that fateful day by providing brief essays and digitized images of primary documents that recall those events. The story begins when Australia began to raise a volunteer army in 1914, and this website brings this event to life through a series of sketches by Frank Crozier, who was with the 22nd Battalion at the time. The story continues to build as the site profiles the initial plan to land on Gallipoli, along with offering some insight into the Turks involved on the other side of the battle, including the legendary Mustafa Kemal. Overall, this online exhibition brings to life a date in Australian and World War I history that is sometimes overlooked.

36

Will the real Robert Neville please, come out? Vampirism, the ethics of queer monstrosity, and capitalism in Richard Matheson's I am legend?  

PubMed

In this article, I argue that Richard Matheson's (1954) vampire novella, I Am Legend, encodes the protagonist's, Robert Neville, traumatic recognition of his queer sexuality in its monstrosity (the unspeakability of male penetrability). Neville's identification with and desire for his undead neighbor, Ben Cortman, are symbolically codified through three different registers: intertextual references to vampiric conventions and codes, the semiotics of queer subculture, and a structure of doubling that links Neville to the queer vampire. Although Neville avoids encountering his unspeakable queer desire, which could be represented only at the level of the Lacanian Real, he must still confront Cortman's obsessive exhortations for him to come out. Only when he symbolically codifies his abnormality in its own monstrosity, by viewing himself through mutant vampires' eyes, can Neville reconfigure the ethical relationship between self and other, humans and mutant humans-vampires. However progressive Matheson's novella is in its advocacy of minority sexual rights, it still renders capitalism's problematic relationship with queer subjectivity invisible. Although capitalism overdetermines every aspect of the social field and makes Neville's daily life possible in its surplus enjoyment, the fundamental antagonism (class struggle) in capitalism is obscured by the assertion of identity politics. PMID:23469816

Khader, Jamil

2013-01-01

37

"The Legend of Alla Nazimova."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The acting career of Alla Nazimova in America is examined, with particular reference to technique and style, which are shown to be nothing more than her personality. The suggestion that her belief and practice was rooted in Stanislavsky's principles is examined and refuted. (JF)

Shanke, Robert A.

1978-01-01

38

Urban legends: recurrent aphthous stomatitis.  

PubMed

Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is the most common idiopathic intraoral ulcerative disease in the USA. Aphthae typically occur in apparently healthy individuals, although an association with certain systemic diseases has been reported. Despite the unclear etiopathogenesis, new drug trials are continuously conducted in an attempt to reduce pain and dysfunction. We investigated four controversial topics: (1) Is complex aphthosis a mild form of Behçet's disease (BD)? (2) Is periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome a distinct medical entity? (3) Is RAS associated with other systemic diseases [e.g., celiac disease (CD) and B12 deficiency]? (4) Are there any new RAS treatments? Results from extensive literature searches, including a systematic review of RAS trials, suggested the following: (1) Complex aphthosis is not a mild form of BD in North America or Western Europe; (2) Diagnostic criteria for PFAPA have low specificity and the characteristics of the oral ulcers warrant further studies; (3) Oral ulcers may be associated with CD; however, these ulcers may not be RAS; RAS is rarely associated with B12 deficiency; nevertheless, B12 treatment may be beneficial, via mechanisms that warrant further study; (4) Thirty-three controlled trials published in the past 6 years reported some effectiveness, although potential for bias was high. PMID:21812866

Baccaglini, L; Lalla, R V; Bruce, A J; Sartori-Valinotti, J C; Latortue, M C; Carrozzo, M; Rogers, R S

2011-11-01

39

Urban legends series: lichen planus.  

PubMed

Oral Diseases (2012) Lichen planus (LP) is a common disorder affecting the oral cavity (OLP) and skin. Despite intensive research, LP/OLP etiology and treatment remain controversial. We investigated four controversial topics: (i) Is hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection associated with LP and involved in its pathogenesis? (ii) Should all patients with LP be screened for HCV? (iii) Should patients with OLP have all their amalgam restorations removed? (iv) Are there any new treatments for OLP? Results from extensive literature searches suggested that: (i) Robust evidence from three meta-analyses indicate that HCV is associated with LP and might be involved in OLP pathogenesis (ii) It would be prudent to screen patients with LP/OLP at significant risk with an ELISA for HCV antibodies using country-specific screening strategies (iii) There is no evidence that either OLP or oral lichenoid lesions patients would routinely benefit from having all their amalgam restorations replaced. Weak evidence from potentially very biased, small, non-randomized, unblinded studies suggests that a small fraction of patients may benefit from targeted amalgam replacement. (iv) There is weak evidence that, among new OLP treatments, topical pimecrolimus, aloe vera, and oral curcuminoids may be useful. The development of specific formulations for oral delivery of topical medications is a promising field. PMID:22788669

Baccaglini, L; Thongprasom, K; Carrozzo, M; Bigby, M

2013-03-01

40

World Myths & Legends in Art  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Primarily for teachers and students (but fun for anyone), this website from the Minneapolis Institute of Arts uses 26 works of art selected from its collections to explore mythology from around the world. Each work of art has a corresponding essay that includes key points; the story that inspired the work of art; background, such as history, cultural context and style; and suggested discussion questions. For example, the entry for a Navajo ketoh includes a Navajo creation myth describing the adventures of the earliest beings as they moved through the first four worlds; explains that while this particular piece is decorative jewelry, the ketoh form is based on wrist guards worn by archers to protect their forearms from the snap of their bowstrings; and also provides background information on the Navajo, and their arts and crafts.

41

Comparison of Orbital Parameters for GEO Debris Predicted by LEGEND and Observed by MODEST: Can Sources of Orbital Debris be Identified?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since 2002 the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has carried out an optical survey of the debris environment in the geosynchronous Earth-orbit (GEO) region with the Michigan Orbital Debris Survey Telescope (MODEST) in Chile. The survey coverage has been similar for 4 of the 5 years allowing us to follow the orbital evolution of Correlated Targets (CTs), both controlled and un-controlled objects, and Un-Correlated Targets (UCTs). Under gravitational perturbations the distributions of uncontrolled objects, both CTs and UCTs, in GEO orbits will evolve in predictable patterns, particularly evident in the inclination and right ascension of the ascending node (RAAN) distributions. There are several clusters (others have used a "cloud" nomenclature) in observed distributions that show evolution from year to year in their inclination and ascending node elements. However, when MODEST is in survey mode (field-of-view approx.1.3deg) it provides only short 5-8 minute orbital arcs which can only be fit under the assumption of a circular orbit approximation (ACO) to determine the orbital parameters. These ACO elements are useful only in a statistical sense as dedicated observing runs would be required to obtain sufficient orbital coverage to determine a set of accurate orbital elements and then to follow their evolution. Identification of the source(s) for these "clusters of UCTs" would be advantageous to the overall definition of the GEO orbital debris environment. This paper will set out to determine if the ACO elements can be used to in a statistical sense to identify the source of the "clustering of UCTs" roughly centered on an inclination of 12deg and a RAAN of 345deg. The breakup of the Titan 3C-4 transtage on February 21, 1992 has been modeled using NASA s LEGEND (LEO-to-GEO Environment Debris) code to generate a GEO debris cloud. Breakup fragments are created based on the NASA Standard Breakup Model (including fragment size, area-to-mass (A/M), and delta-V distributions). Once fragments are created, they are propagated forward in time with a subroutine GEOPROP. Perturbations included in GEOPROP are those due to solar/lunar gravity, radiation pressure, and major geopotential terms. The question to be addressed: are the UCTs detected by MODEST in this inclination/RAAN region related to the Titan 3C-4 breakup? Discussion will include the observational biases in attempting to detect a specific, uncontrolled target during given observing session. These restrictions include: (1) the length of the observing session which is 8 hours or less at any given date or declination; (2) the assumption of ACO elements for detected object when the breakup model predicts debris with non-zero eccentricities; (3) the size and illumination or brightness of the debris predicted by the model and the telescope/sky limiting magnitude.

Barker, Edwin S.; Matney, M. J.; Liou, J.-C.; Abercromby, K. J.; Rodriquez, H. M.; Seitzer, P.

2006-01-01

42

Myths and legends in learning classification rules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A discussion is presented of machine learning theory on empirically learning classification rules. Six myths are proposed in the machine learning community that address issues of bias, learning as search, computational learning theory, Occam's razor, universal learning algorithms, and interactive learning. Some of the problems raised are also addressed from a Bayesian perspective. Questions are suggested that machine learning researchers should be addressing both theoretically and experimentally.

Buntine, Wray

1990-01-01

43

The Legend of Sleepy Hollow. [Lesson Plan].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that Washington Irving's classic tale of the Headless Horseman has lately become a Halloween favorite, this lesson plan helps students explore the artistry that helped make Irving the United States' first literary master, and ponders the mystery of what happened to Ichabod Crane. Its 4 lessons seek to make students able to: (1) summarize…

National Endowment for the Humanities (NFAH), Washington, DC.

44

P-51 Escorts: Legend or Myth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As recently as the fall of 2009, a distinguished lecturer at the US Air Force's Air War College repeated a 'truth' that has been with us for 60 years. So strongly held, it has seldom, if ever, been questioned. This assertion arises, I suppose, from histor...

D. R. Mets

2010-01-01

45

I Love Lucy: An American Legend  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the earliest television shows to capture the imagination and interest of the American people was "I Love Lucy." It premiered on October 15, 1951 and followed the activities of Lucy Ricardo (Lucille Ball) and her husband, Ricky Ricardo (Desi Arnaz) This digital collection from the Library of Congress explores the show's history via a set of themes (such as Latin Roots/Yankee Roots and Theme Songs) and a set of digitized items. Visitors can click on the Themes to find original sheet music of the show's theme music, publicity photographs of Ball and Arnaz, and short essays on topics relevant to the show's run and legacy. Visitors can zoom in on the images here and they can also share the items with friends via a variety of social media platforms.

2011-08-04

46

The Legend of Joe the Martian.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how a fourth-grade homework assignment sparked a lifelong passion to study Mars. A Mars scientist shares how he became interested in his career. Also provides a status report of the agenda of Mars missions and includes information on related resources. (DDR)

Edgett, Ken

1998-01-01

47

[The "Werther-effect": legend or reality?].  

PubMed

In social sciences and in medicine, the term "Werther-effect" is used as a synonym for media induced imitation effects of suicidal behaviour. In Goethe s novel, the contemporary recipient could find a lot of details to identify with. One of these aspects is the detailed description of Werther s mental state, which suggests that suicidality plays a role in the novel a long time before the suicidal act at the end. Even though we find several reports on imitation effects connected to Goethe s Werther in literary works, the epidemiological extent of this phenomenon could never be determined. Also current social scientific research on the impact of suicide stories on suicidal behaviour could not completely remove the remaining lack of evidence of the phenomenon. Nevertheless, many studies support the hypothesis, that some aspects of quality of reporting could trigger short-term increases of suicides in certain population subgroups. In Austria, "Media Guidelines for Reporting on Suicides", have been issued to the media since 1987 as a suicide-preventive experiment. Since then, the aims of the experiment have been to reduce the numbers of suicides and suicide attempts in the Viennese subway and to reduce the overall suicide numbers. After the introduction of the media guidelines, the number of subway suicides and suicide attempts dropped more than 80% within 6 months. Since 1991, suicides plus suicide attempts - but not the number of suicides alone - have slowly and significantly increased. The increase of passenger numbers of the Viennese subway, which have nearly doubled, and the decrease of the overall suicide numbers in Vienna (-40%) and Austria (-33%) since mid 1987 increase the plausibility of the hypothesis, that the Austrian media guidelines have had an impact on suicidal behavior. PMID:18082110

Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Herberth, Arno; Sonneck, Gernot

2007-01-01

48

Retelling Arthurian Legend for an Ironic Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author of this article, who writes a series of Arthurian books, states that Arthurian retellings for children often fall into one of two extreme categories: (1) they are prim, romantic, reverential tales with soft-focus illustrations and soft-headed heroes; or (2) they are overt spoofs of the literature, a la Mark Twain and Monty Python. He…

Morris, Gerald

2005-01-01

49

Bronchopulmonary lophomoniasis: emerging disease or unsubstantiated legend?  

PubMed Central

The relationship between Lophomonas, a genus of multiflagellated protozoa, and respiratory pathology has recently received attention. Here, we summarize the origin, mode of transmission, pathogenic mechanism and relevant clinical data of bronchopulmonary lophomoniasis.

2014-01-01

50

Local Legends of Medicine: Janelle Goetcheus, M.D.  

MedlinePLUS

... first temporary residential respite care facility for the homeless, which she founded in 1985. "This country still ... M.D., Caring for and about Washington, DC's Homeless "The cold; I just didn't notice it," ...

51

The Advancement of Science - Science without Legend, Objectivity without Illusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last three decades, reflections on the growth of scientific knowledge have inspired historians, sociologists, and some philosophers to contend that scientific objectivity is a myth. In this book, Kitcher attempts to resurrect the notions of objectivity and progress in science by identifying both the limitations of idealized treatments of growth of knowledge and the overreactions to philosophical idealizations.

Philip Kitcher

1995-01-01

52

Myths and Legends in Orthopaedic Practice: Are We All Guilty?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over years of practice, many beliefs and practices become entrenched as tried and tested, and we subconsciously believe they\\u000a are based on scientific evidence. We identified nine such beliefs by interviewing orthopaedic surgeons in which studies (or\\u000a lack thereof) apparently do not support such practices. These are: changing the scalpel blade after the skin incision to limit\\u000a contamination; bending the

Nirmal C. Tejwani; Igor Immerman

2008-01-01

53

Suburban Legend: School Cutoff Dates and the Timing of Births  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many states require children to reach age 5 by a specified date in the calendar year in order to begin kindergarten. We use birth certificate records from 1999 to 2004 to assess whether parents systematically time childbirth before these eligibility cutoff dates to capture the option value of sending their child to school at a relatively young…

Dickert-Conlin, Stacy; Elder, Todd

2010-01-01

54

Neurocognitive and Somatic Components of Temperature Increases during g-Tummo Meditation: Legend and Reality  

PubMed Central

Stories of g-tummo meditators mysteriously able to dry wet sheets wrapped around their naked bodies during a frigid Himalayan ceremony have intrigued scholars and laypersons alike for a century. Study 1 was conducted in remote monasteries of eastern Tibet with expert meditators performing g-tummo practices while their axillary temperature and electroencephalographic (EEG) activity were measured. Study 2 was conducted with Western participants (a non-meditator control group) instructed to use the somatic component of the g-tummo practice (vase breathing) without utilization of meditative visualization. Reliable increases in axillary temperature from normal to slight or moderate fever zone (up to 38.3°C) were observed among meditators only during the Forceful Breath type of g-tummo meditation accompanied by increases in alpha, beta, and gamma power. The magnitude of the temperature increases significantly correlated with the increases in alpha power during Forceful Breath meditation. The findings indicate that there are two factors affecting temperature increase. The first is the somatic component which causes thermogenesis, while the second is the neurocognitive component (meditative visualization) that aids in sustaining temperature increases for longer periods. Without meditative visualization, both meditators and non-meditators were capable of using the Forceful Breath vase breathing only for a limited time, resulting in limited temperature increases in the range of normal body temperature. Overall, the results suggest that specific aspects of the g-tummo technique might help non-meditators learn how to regulate their body temperature, which has implications for improving health and regulating cognitive performance.

Kozhevnikov, Maria; Elliott, James; Shephard, Jennifer; Gramann, Klaus

2013-01-01

55

The Allegedly Simple Structure of Experts' Risk Perception: An Urban Legend in Risk Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports the results of a study that shows that the factors explaining experts' risk perception are similar to those of a comparable group of non-topical experts with a similar level of technological literacy and to the general public, and that the level of explained variance is quite comparable for experts and the general public. (Contains 32…

Sjoberg, Lennart

2002-01-01

56

15 CFR Appendix D to Part 30 - AES Filing Citation, Exemption and Exclusion Legends  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01...2006. VI. Standard Exclusions are found in 15 CFR 30, Subpart A, § 30.2(d)(1) through...Miscellaneous Exemption Statements are found in 15 CFR 30 Subpart D § 30.37(b) through §...

2010-01-01

57

THE TRANSMISSION AND PERSISTENCE OF 'URBAN LEGENDS': SOCIOLOGICAL APPLICATION OF AGE-STRUCTURED EPIDEMIC MODELS  

PubMed Central

This paper describes two related epidemic models of rumor transmission in an age-structured population. Rumors share with communicable disease certain basic aspects, which means that formal models of epidemics may be applied to the transmission of rumors. The results show that rumors may become entrenched very quickly and persist for a long time, even when skeptics are modeled to take an active role in trying to convince others that the rumor is false. This is a macrophenomeon, because individuals eventually cease to believe the rumor, but are replaced by new recruits. This replacement of former believers by new ones is an aspect of all the models, but the approach to stability is quicker, and involves smaller chance of extinction, in the model where skeptics actively try to counter the rumor, as opposed to the model where interest is naturally lost by believers. Skeptics hurt their own cause. The result shows that including age, or a variable for which age is a proxy (e.g., experience), can improve model fidelity and yield important insights.

NOYMER, ANDREW

2009-01-01

58

Creating Legends for the Future: Linking Art & Literature into Language Arts Instruction and Teacher Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A group of teacher trainers and artists developed a thematic unit designed to introduce elementary school children and preservice teachers to the Sioux Indians. The art and literature mediums chosen for the unit were the "Dream Catcher" and the Iktomi story. The instructional sequence incorporated visuals, explanation, and discussion to develop…

Erwin, Barbara; And Others

59

Mythology and Legend in the Aztec World. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1999 (Mexico).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum project, using research and literary and historical perspectives, seeks to help students develop an awareness of the rich cultural diversity of Mexico through studying the mythology of the Aztec people. Through literature and storytelling, students see how mythology is often about real people and events and woven into the fabric of…

Shapiro, Aline

60

Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Implementation in China: A Case Study of Legend Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

As more and more enterprises face significant growth and profitability challenges, executives are turning to formulate appropriate\\u000a customer centric strategies and focus on managing customer relationships to support such initiatives. Combining information\\u000a technology with relationship marketing, customer relationship management (CRM) systems provide the infrastructure that facilitates\\u000a long-term relationship building with customers. However, not all firms have been successful in their

Jun Wu

2007-01-01

61

Diesel fumes and the rising prevalence of atopy: An urban legend?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the incidence of allergic diseases has increased in most industrialized countries of the world. Persistent exposure\\u000a to particulate air pollution from motor vehicles has been implicated as one of the factors that is responsible for the observed\\u000a increased prevalence of atopy. Epidemiologic studies conducted in different parts of the world have demonstrated an important\\u000a association between ambient levels of

David Diaz-Sanchez; Lidia Proietti; Riccardo Polosa

2003-01-01

62

The role of creative drama in comprehending the legends environment related trainings: Kazda?? case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the activity which was implemented in the scope of a project supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (STRCT) is to create awareness in MA students in the fields of nature, archeology, history and culture; to help them approach the concepts related to the culture and environment in the region they live by using

Arzu Bay?nd?r; Abdullah Soykan

2009-01-01

63

Ungipaghaghlanga: Quutmiit Yupigita Ungipaghaatangit = Let Me Tell a Story: Legends of the Siberian Eskimos.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The language of these stories, Siberian Yupik, in this book were first written down by Russian educator and linguist, Gregoriy A. Menovshchikov, during his 30 years of teaching and working with Eskimo languages in Chukotka, Russian, beginning in the 1930s. Siberian Yupik is the ancestral language of more than 2,000 people equally divided between…

Koonooka, Christopher

64

Ugiuvangmiut Quliapyuit = King Island Tales. Eskimo History and Legends from Bering Strait.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The collection of native tales from King Island, Alaska, contains tales told originally in Inupiaq Eskimo by seven native elders. Introductory sections provide background information on the storytellers, King Island Village and its people, traditional life there, and the language of the King Islanders. The 25 tales are divided into groups: "The…

Kaplan, Lawrence D., Ed.

65

Alienating identification: Black identity in The Brother from Another Planet and I Am Legend  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines The Brother from Another Planet (Sayles US 1984), in which the protagonist's status as both extraterrestrial and black man lends insight into the black citizen's relationship to an alienating urban environment in the context of a Reagan-era retreat from federal government support for inner cities. I compare and contrast Sayles' film with the more recent Will Smith

Janani Subramanian

2010-01-01

66

Beyond Urban Legends: An Emerging Framework of Urban Ecology, as Illustrated by the Baltimore Ecosystem Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The emerging discipline of urban ecology is shifting focus from ecological processes embedded within cities to integrative studies of large urban areas as biophysical-social complexes. Yet this discipline lacks a theory. Results from the Baltimore Ecosystem Study, part of the Long Term Ecological Research Network, expose new assumptions and test existing assumptions about urban ecosystems. The findings suggest a broader range of structural and functional relationships than is often assumed for urban ecological systems. We address the relationships between social status and awareness of environmental problems, and between race and environmental hazard. We present patterns of species diversity, riparian function, and stream nitrate loading. In addition, we probe the suitability of land-use models, the diversity of soils, and the potential for urban carbon sequestration. Finally, we illustrate lags between social patterns and vegetation, the biogeochemistry of lawns, ecosystem nutrient retention, and social-biophysical feedbacks. These results suggest a framework for a theory of urban ecosystems.

Steward T. A. Pickett (Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies;); Peter M. Groffman (Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies;); Mary L. Cadenasso (University of CaliforniaÃÂDavis;); J. Morgan Grove (USDA;); Lawrence E. Band (UNC-Chapel Hill;); Christopher G. Boone (Arizona State University;)

2008-02-01

67

In the realm of Pilgrim lore, legend, and history, Provincetown makes a bid for more recognition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At Plimoth Plantation, feasting as the Pilgrims didhttp://www.philly.com/philly/travel/20091122_Getting_the_Pilgrim_Experience.htmlPlymouth Rock Foundationhttp://www.plymrock.org/US Census Press Releases: Thanksgiving [pdf]http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/014332.htmlPlimoth Plantationhttp://www.plimoth.org/First "National Day of Mourning"http://massmoments.org/moment.cfm?mid=340Each Thanksgiving, a number of news crews and other pundit types descend on the town of Plymouth, Massachusetts to catch some b-roll shots of the very famous, if not exactly historically accurate, Plymouth Rock. Of course, it wasn't the first place the Pilgrims landed; that all happened around what is now the town of Provincetown on the far reaches of Cape Cod. Local boosters in Provincetown want people to know their side of story, and they are adopting an aggressive campaign to get the good word out. This week, the town leaders started their campaign in earnest, and they started by drawing attention to the Pilgrim Monument, a 252-foot tower that makes a grand statement. For those who are curious, Provincetown was the place where the Pilgrims celebrated the first European birth in New England and where the Mayflower Compact was signed, among other "firsts". Some find the whole business a bit strange, including Richard Pickering, the deputy director of the well-regarded living history museum, Plimoth Plantation. "It's very odd that the second landing gets greater notoriety than the first", Pickering remarked, "But for the Pilgrims and their descendants in Plymouth, the first landing place may not have been sentimentally important."The first link will take visitors to the Boston Globe story about the recent attempts by Provincetown to recapture part of the Pilgrim-themed tourist trade. The second link leads to a piece from the Philadelphia Inquirer's Marshall S. Berdan on the excellent Pilgrim feasts featured at the Plimoth Plantation. Moving on, the third link leads to the homepage of the Plymouth Rock Foundation. Here visitors can learn about upcoming events and tours sponsored by the Foundation, and also learn more a bit about the fabled Plymouth Rock. The fourth link whisks users away to a very fun and interesting fact sheet on Thanksgiving provided by the US Census Bureau. The fifth link leads to the homepage of the Plimoth Plantation, which features information on visiting the site, along with some interactive exhibits. The last link leads to a piece from MassMoments.org that recounts a 1970 Native American protest of a Thanksgiving feast in Plymouth.

Grinnell, Max

2009-11-25

68

Inner-City African American Parental Involvement in Elementary Schools: Getting beyond Urban Legends of Apathy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parental involvement in schools is a national priority for both educators and researchers to promote the successful schooling of contemporary youth. Contemporary parental involvement research has produced some promising findings, but parental involvement efforts with inner-city African Americans are currently limited by problems of research…

Abdul-Adil, Jaleel K.; Farmer, Alvin David, Jr.

2006-01-01

69

Masaya, the “Mouth of Hell”, Nicaragua: Volcanological interpretation of the myths, legends and anecdotes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nicaragua's conquest started only 30years after Christopher Columbus arrived to America in 1492. At that moment the Masaya and Momotombo volcanoes were erupting simultaneously. The former was the first permanent lava lake observed by Europeans, and this produced a strong impression and interest in it. For more than a century there was great controversy over the nature of this phenomenon. Some people believed that it was the Mouth of Hell, whereas others could greedily see in the lava a source of gold or silver. This fact led to many attempts trying to prove it. In this paper, aboriginal myths about the volcano are described as well as different ideas and "supported evidence" given by the Spaniards regarding whether it was or not indeed the Mouth of Hell. Moreover, the first detailed geological descriptions are exposed as well as interesting interpretations found in the chronicles. It is also narrated the first descent into the volcano's mouth to extract samples of that "gold", a real exploit for that time. From these descriptions, a volcanological interpretation is proposed, which is a contribution to the understanding of the eruptive history and evolution of the Masaya volcanic complex, one of the largest, shallow magma chamber systems in Central America.

Viramonte, José G.; Incer-Barquero, Jaime

2008-10-01

70

Myths and Legends of the New York Iroquois. Museum Bulletin 125.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adopted for 22 years into the Seneca nation, Harriet Maxwell Converse devoted much of her life to the study and defense of the Indians of New York. The position of friendship and trust she enjoyed enabled her to record extensive information on the customs and institutions of the Iroquois. Material for this volume was taken from her notes found…

Converse, Harriet Maxwell

1974-01-01

71

Narrative Translation across Cultures: From the "Bhagavad Gita" to "The Legend of Bagger Vance."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Religious narratives can and do cross borders through communicative practices and arenas that span cultures. The ideas and conceptual tools enshrined in another culture's stories can be appropriated in one of two ways by another culture--either through using such a text to denigrate the originator culture or to adapt the ideas within to the new…

Stroud, Scott R.

72

The Legend of the Large MCAS Gains of 2000-2001  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Issues related to student, teacher, and school accountability have been at the forefront of current educational policy initiatives. Recently, the state of Massachusetts has become a focal point in debate regarding the efficacy of highstakes accountability models based on an ostensibly large gain at 10th grade. This paper uses an IRT method for…

Camilli, Gregory; Vargas, Sadako

2006-01-01

73

Spanish Black Legend: Origins of Anti-Hispanic Stereotypes (Leyenda Negra Espanola: Origenes de los Estereotipos Antihispanicos).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document presents a perspective of national culture and history which has been little addressed. The essay presented in a bilingual format offers a brief history of complex issues revolving around anti-Hispanic attitudes that continue into the present...

J. P. Snachez

1990-01-01

74

["If Berger had survived the second world war - he certainly would have been a candidate for the Nobel Prize". Hans Berger and the legend of the Nobel Prize].  

PubMed

The public opinion pays much attention to the Nobel Prize as an indicator for the scientific efficiency of a university or a country in connection with foundation of so-called elite universities. The former holder of the psychiatric chair in Jena and discoverer of the electroencephalogram Hans Berger (1873 - 1941) came into discussion as candidate for the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine. The current medical-historical publications maintain the view that Berger should have received the Nobel Prize in 1936 as well as in 1949. This was prevented in 1936 by an enactment from Hitler, which forbid him to accept the prize, and later in 1949 by Berger's own death. According to documents of the Nobel archives these statements can be disproved. Berger was only nominated three times out of 65 nominations in 1940. Because of his death the other two recommendations in 1942 and 1947 were never evaluated. PMID:15747225

Gerhard, U-J; Schönberg, A; Blanz, B

2005-03-01

75

Legibility Comparison of Three Freeway Guide Sign Alphabets  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Modern fully retroreflective sign legends can create a blooming effect that reduces legibility. This research project evaluated three alphabets to determine if performance of a white high intensity legend on a green high intensity background could be impr...

H. G. Hawkins M. D. Wooldridge A. B. Kelly D. L. Picha F. K. Greene

1999-01-01

76

Taga the Great.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Legends can be incorporated into elementary social studies curricula to help students understand how people transmitted history and culture from one generation to another before they learned to read and write. Taga the Great is a legend which helps explain the 16-feet high latte stones on the Mariana Islands, Tinian and Rota. According to legend,…

Baker, Frances S.

77

John Henry: Then and Now.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares three children's books retelling the legend of John Henry: "John Henry: An American Legend" by Ezra Jack Keats (1965), "John Henry" by Julius Lester (1994), and "The Legend of John Henry" by Terry Small (1994). Differences in imagery, language, symbolism, and themes are discussed. (MAK)

Nikola-Lisa, W.

1998-01-01

78

Erratum: ``Magnetic Flux Loss and Flux Transport in a Decaying Active Region'' (ApJ, 686, 1447 [2008])  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to an error at the proof stage, several corrections were not made to figure legends in the final manuscript. These are as follows: 1. In the legend to Figure 2 and in the first sentence of § 4, ``left'' and ``right'' should read ``top'' and ``bottom'', respectively. 2. In Figure 3, the legend for panel b should read:(b) Histogram

M. Kubo; B. W. Lites; T. Shimizu; K. Ichimoto

2008-01-01

79

Erratum: ``How Mira Variables Change Visual Light by a Thousandfold'' (ApJ, 568, 931 [2002])  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of an error at the Press, ``Fabricius'' was misspelled as ``Fabricus'' in the first paragraph of the paper; also, because of a typesetting error, several lines were deleted from the legend for Figure 2. Figure 2 appears below with the complete legend. The Press sincerely regrets these errors.

Reid, M. J.; Goldston, J. E.

2002-06-01

80

Tsetsaut History: The Forgotten Tribe of Southern Southeast Alaska. Portland Canal Early History (Misty Fiord National Monument). Alaska Historical Commission Studies in History #147.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written by one of the tribe's few remaining members and based on oral history and legend, this study traces the history of the Tsetsaut tribe, ancient original inhabitants of the Portland Canal area of southeastern Alaska. Chapters recount the quest for the coast, legends of Portland Canal, exploration of the area, material culture, establishment…

Dangeli, Reginald H.

81

The King within Each of Us  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author describes his approach to retelling Arthurian legends, where he wrote two stories in tandem: one a historical novel in which a boy, eager to serve as a squire and to go on crusade, is given a piece of obsidian, the other of stories, the Arthurian legends, that this boy sees in the obsidian. These became a trilogy. He states that while…

Crossley-Holland, Kevin

2005-01-01

82

Estate Planning: First, You Have to Ask  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There's an urban legend which holds that community college graduates who go on to earn degrees at other institutions develop a stronger loyalty to the college that granted their highest degree. Perpetuating this legend is a limiting belief that keeps fundraising professionals from taking necessary steps to fully develop the potential that exists…

Johnston, Robin; Penson, Al

2010-01-01

83

Keith \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legends of the game are not born in the spotlights of the Australian Football League, they are not created by careful draft picks and training, they are not spun from media speculation and praise - legends are made from almost superhuman efforts, repeatedly nailing bags of goals, taking lofty marks or battling through injury to achieve something truly extraordinary. A

Elizabeth Chomiak

84

Wisdom of the Seneca.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written for students and teachers who want to learn more about Seneca history and culture, this booklet presents legends, games, and factual information about the way of life followed by the early Seneca. Introductory material discusses the philosophy of the Seneca, their view of Nature, and the role of legends in the early Clans. Part I contains…

Nitsch, Twylah Hurd

85

Astronomical Significance of Ancient Monuments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomical significance of Gokhnari megalithic monument (eastern Georgia) is considered. Possible connection of Amirani ancient legend with Gokhnari monument is discussed. Concepts of starry practicality and solar stations are proposed.

Simonia, I.

2011-06-01

86

Planetary camera control improves microfiche production  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microfiche is prepared using an automatic control system for a planetary camera. The system provides blank end-of-row exposures and signals card completion so the legend of the next card may by photographed.

Chesterton, W. L.; Lewis, E. B.

1965-01-01

87

The Leonid meteor shower and the history of the Semites (Arabs and Jews)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Every 33 years, when Comet Tempel-Tuttle returns into the inner Solar system, the Earth crosses the most compact part of its dust swarm and this sometimes causes a heavy meteor shower. This paper investigates two legends of the Semites and tries to prove their connection with the `stars shower'. The first legend, connected with the history of the Arabs, tells about the miraculous rescue of Mecca when f/locks of birds dropped small stones on the army of Abraha and masses of his warriors died. The second legend, connected with the history of the Jews, says that the seventh plague which God sent on Egypt at the behest of Moses was a heavy fall of hail. In this paper we argue that the `stars shower' of the Leonid meteor stream was responsible for the two phenomena observed in those two legends, and this happened respectively on 569 AD October 8th and 1226 BC August 15th.

Suleyman, Mohammed Omar

2009-06-01

88

38 CFR 39.8 - Plan preparation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...project. Large-scale drawings of typical special rooms...included. (4) Layout drawings. The State shall submit...legend showing existing trees. (iii) A graphic...remarks. (v) Typical tree and shrub planting details... (5) Structural drawings. The State...

2009-07-01

89

38 CFR 39.8 - Plan preparation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...project. Large-scale drawings of typical special rooms...included. (4) Layout drawings. The State shall submit...legend showing existing trees. (iii) A graphic...remarks. (v) Typical tree and shrub planting details... (5) Structural drawings. The State...

2010-07-01

90

27 CFR 24.214 - Spanish type blending sherry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT...or removed upon payment of tax, not for sale or consumption as beverage wine. Wine of a...the legend “Not for Sale or Consumption as Beverage Wine.”...

2010-04-01

91

Complete Bouguer gravity anomaly map, Cascade Mountains, Washington  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Bouguer gravity anomaly map of the Cascade Mountains is presented. The map includes a large area of South Central Washington State. Information contained in the legend includes bouguer reduction density, potsdam correction, and terrain corrections.

Z. F. Danes; W. M. Phillips

1983-01-01

92

15 CFR Appendix E to Part 30 - FTSR to FTR Concordance  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01... Related export control requirements 30.15 Export control and licensing requirements...downtime citations, and exemption legends. 30.15 Procedure for presentation of...

2010-01-01

93

15 CFR Appendix E to Part 30 - FTSR to FTR Concordance  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2009-01-01... Related export control requirements 30.15 Export control and licensing requirements...downtime citations, and exemption legends. 30.15 Procedure for presentation of...

2009-01-01

94

49 CFR 575.104 - Uniform tire quality grading standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...signs is placed in a fixed order at follows: Sign Legend Highway Intersection 1000 (or 2000) Feet STOP AHEAD Junction XXX Direction Sign (Meretaâ) STOP or YIELD Procedures. 1. Approach each intersection at posted speed limit....

2013-10-01

95

From the Rainbow Crow To Polar Bears: Introducing Science Concepts through Children's Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an activity that integrates chemistry, physics, and a Native American legend to help students imitate the thought processes of scientists who have observed chemical decomposition and the refraction of light. Includes a laboratory experiment for sugar decomposition. (DKM)

Burns, John Eric

1997-01-01

96

Completion of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit Product  

EPA Science Inventory

The Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium has supported the development of two national digital land cover products: the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) 1992 and National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001. Substantial differences in imagery, legends, and methods betwe...

97

Graphic proposal for multi thematic maps: the case of geoenvironmental diagnostic map of the Igarapava hydroelectric power plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This article aims at developing a graphic proposal for multithematic diagnostic map. The research's objective is the analysis of the legends of the maps entitled Mapa Diagnostico Geoambiental da Usina Hidreletrica de Igarapava (Geoenvironmental Diagnostic...

V. A. Carmo

1995-01-01

98

The Story--Weaving the Cultural Fabric.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advocates story telling as an educational method far superior to commonly accepted methods of didactic instruction. Feels folk tales, myths, legends, and stories help prepare students to understand universal themes and cultural customs, traditions, and values. (DMM)

Petrash, Jack

1983-01-01

99

Airborne gamma-Ray Spectrometer and Magnetometer Survey: Monument Valley A, Utah, Detail Area. Volume II B. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Volume II B contains appendices for: flight line maps; geology maps; explanation of geologic legend; flight line/geology maps; radiometric contour maps; magnetic contour maps; multi-variant analysis maps; and geochemical factor analysis maps. (ERA citatio...

1983-01-01

100

Advance Traffic Control Warning Systems for Maintenance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report discusses the effect of certain variables defined by sign size, height of installation and legend on the driver responses as measured by speed, conflict and queuing parameters. Effects of electronically actuated, directional flashing signs were...

S. C. Shah G. L. Ray

1976-01-01

101

Children's Books on India and the Indian-American Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists recommended books that focus on Indians and the Indian-American experience in the United States. Includes folktales, myths, legends, nonfiction, fiction and titles published in India. Suggests how to select titles for classroom or library. (MMU)

Singleton Taylor, Gail; Sreenivasan, Jyotsna; Toke, Arun N.

1998-01-01

102

There's More Than Mythology to California's Reading Decline.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Criticism of Stephen Karshen's June 2002 "Kappan" article "Whole Language and the Great Plummet of 1987-92: An Urban Legend from California." Argues that Karshen's analysis of the California Achievement Program reading scores is wrong. (PKP)

Innes, Richard G.

2002-01-01

103

Airborne gamma-Ray Spectrometer and Magnetometer Survey: Prescott B, AZ, Detail Area. Volume II B. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume contains eight appendices: flight line maps, geology maps, explanation of geologic legend, flight line/geology maps, radiometric contour maps, magnetic contour maps, multi-variant analysis maps, and geochemical factor analysis maps. This infor...

1983-01-01

104

Airborne gamma-Ray Spectrometer and Magnetometer Survey: Prescott A, AZ, Detail Area. Volume II B. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume contains eight appendices: flight line maps, geology maps, explanation of geologic legend, flight line/geology maps, radiometric contour maps, magnetic contour maps, multi-variant analysis maps, and geochemical factor analysis maps. (ERA citat...

1983-01-01

105

75 FR 70714 - Multilayered Wood Flooring From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigation DATES: Effective Date: November 18, 2010...Legend and U.S. Floors LLC. Period of Investigation The period of investigation (``POI'') is April 1, 2010,...

2010-11-18

106

Topographic Map Symbols  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource describes what a topographic map is, how to read them, and what the symbols shown on maps and their legends mean. Contour lines, intervals, depth curves, and color meanings are discussed. There is also a legend showing examples of each symbol by category: elevation, boundaries, land surface features (mines, vegetation), water features (reefs, channels), buildings and related features (airports, schools), and roads, railroads and others (pipelines, bridges).

107

Problems With Using Microsoft Excel for Statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

deemingfeatures either!)Scatterplots represent bread-and-butter graphs forvisualizing relationships between variables.Scatterplots Should Have:4 Good Choice of Axes4 Meaningful Legends4 No False Third DimensionsHowever, Excel's default scatterplots leave much to bedesired. In the following example two data points havebeen covered up by the axis labels. Can you find them?And is the legend displayed to the right of the graphuseful? Note that there is

Jonathan D. Cryer

2001-01-01

108

A Redshift Survey of IRAS Galaxies. II. Methods for Determining Self-consistent Velocity and Density Fields: Erratum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the paper, "A Redshift Survey of IRAS Galaxies. II. Methods for Determining Self-consistent Velocity and Density Fields" by Amos Yahil, Michael A. Strauss, Marc Davis, and John P. Huchra (ApJ, 372,380 [1991]), Figures 14 and 15 were presented out of order, with their legends reversed. Thus, the figure at the bottom of page 391 is Figure 15, and should have the legend: "Fig. 15.-As in Fig. 13, for the method 3 results." The figure at the top of page 392 is Figure 14, and should have the legend: "Fig. 14.-Plot in Galactic coordinates of the quantity V_diff_ for galaxies within 3000 km s^-1^ of the LG. The symbol size is proportional to V_diff_ - 400 km s^-1^, which measures the deviation of the redshift- distance relation along the line of sight to that galaxy from pure Hubble flow."

Yahil, Amos; Strauss, Michael A.; Davis, Marc; Huchra, John P.

1991-11-01

109

Callisto III e la Cometa di Halley: la ricerca di Johan Stein SJ tra leggenda e storia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dutch Jesuit astronomer Johan Stein published in 1909 a text about the legend on a papal bull of Pope Callixtus III against the comet of 1456. This comet happened to be the Halley's one. The original documents, either chronicles and observations, and coeval testimonies are deeply investigated by Stein and the falsity of that legend is clearly demonstrated. In the occasion of the 200 years of the restoration of the Societas Jesu made in 1814 by Pope Pius VII an Italian edition of the full text of Johan Stein is here presented.

Sigismondi, Costantino

110

Program For A Pushbutton Display  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Programmable Display Pushbutton (PDP) is pushbutton device available from Micro Switch having programmable 16X35 matrix of light-emitting diodes on pushbutton surface. Any desired legends display on PDP's, producing user-friendly applications reducing need for dedicated manual controls. Interacts with operator, calls for correct response before transmitting next message. Both simple manual control and sophisticated programmable link between operator and host system. Programmable Display Pushbutton Legend Editor (PDPE) computer program used to create light-emitting-diode (LED) displays for pushbuttons. Written in FORTRAN.

Busquets, Anthony M.; Luck, William S., Jr.

1989-01-01

111

Thermodynamic assessment of the palladium-selenium (Pd-Se) system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Palladium and selenium are fission products produced in the nuclear fuel under irradiation. To better understand the high temperature thermochemistry of these elements, the Pd-Se phase diagram was assessed using the Calphad method. The Pd-Se binary description was optimized using thermodynamic and phase diagram data from the literature and some DTA experiments performed in this work. The calculated phase diagram and thermodynamic properties are consistent with the experimental results in the whole Pd-Se composition range. legend> legend>

Bordier, S.; Chocard, A.; Gossé, S.

2014-08-01

112

327 Building Safety Analysis Report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to systematically identify and analyze the hazards associated with the stabilization and deactivation of the 327 Building. This SAR establishes the Safety Basis for the 327 Building and was prepared in accordance with HNF-3731,327 Building Safety Basis Criteria Document. Applied technology legend removed per DOE/HQ letter dated 10/29/2001.

HENDERSON, J.F.

2001-01-15

113

Red LEDs must catch up the blues for full colour monolithic displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the time of writing, the most recent live demonstration of the growing legend of Nichia blue emitter devices was at the International Symposium on Blue Laser and Light Emitting Diodes, in early March at Chiba University, Japan [1] — see report in our next issue — and further demonstrations will be given at other international meetings later this year.

S. Nakamura

1996-01-01

114

How the growth of denialism undermines public health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Espousing unproved myths and legends is widespread during the festive season, but some groups hold views contrary to the available evidence throughout the year. This phenomenon, known as denialism, is becoming more elaborate and widespread, and poses a danger to public health

Martin McKee; Pascal Diethelm

2010-01-01

115

Mask of Black God: The Pleiades in Navajo Cosmology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One Navajo legend attributes the creation of the primary stars and constellations to Black God. Today, a famous star cluster--the Pleiades--often appears on the traditional mask worn by chanters impersonating Black God during special ceremonies. In this case study, students learn about the Pleiades in Navajo cosmology while honing their…

Schulz, Teresa M.

2005-01-01

116

Mask of Black God: The Pleiades in Navajo Cosmology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One Navajo legend attributes the creation of the primary stars and constellations to Black God. Today, a famous star cluster--the Pleiades--often appears on the traditional mask worn by chanters impersonating Black God during special ceremonies. In this case study, students learn about the Pleiades in Navajo cosmology while honing their observational and star map skills.

Schulz, Teresa M.

2005-10-01

117

Using Enquiry-Based Learning Methods to Teach "Finnegans Wake" to Undergraduates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many readers dismiss James Joyce's final novel as impossible to wade through, with its multilingual puns, songs, jokes, portmanteau words, allusions, scientific references, myths and legends. Given the kinetic elements of any reading experience, features particularly evident in "Finnegans Wake", reading inevitably becomes synonymous with…

Manista, Frank C.; Gillespie, Michael Patrick

2011-01-01

118

Can't Learn without Textbooks? We Can!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A White teacher of Lakota third graders describes a year in which her class did not use textbooks. Instead, Lakota culture and history were the basis for learning activities such as writing down legends and transforming them into plays, creating and populating a model town, and writing mini-research papers about the Black Hills and Lakota sacred…

Blaney, Barb

1997-01-01

119

Hinemoa.  

PubMed

SUMMARY This is a retelling of the famous Maori legend, the romance of Hinemoa and Tutanekai. In this version, with an introductory text, the writer challenges the Victorian record, and subverts the contemporary story. She presents an alternate narrative. PMID:24807563

Awekotuku, N T

2001-01-01

120

A Season on the Reservation: My Sojourn with the White Mountain Apache.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this book, basketball legend Kareem Abdul-Jabbar tells of one basketball season when he coached a high school team on the White Mountain Apache Reservation (Arizona). Tired of life in Los Angeles, disillusioned with pro basketball, and devastated by the death of his mother, Abdul-Jabbar accepted an invitation to coach the team at Alchesay High…

Abdul-Jabbar, Kareem; Singular, Stephen

121

77 FR 38083 - Certain Rubber Resins and Processes for Manufacturing Same Institution of Investigation Pursuant...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Rm. 1708 Nan Fung Tower, 173 Des Voeux Road Central, Hong Kong; HongKong Sino Legend Group, Ltd., Flat 01B3 101F, Carnival Commercial Building, 18 Java Road, North Point, Hong Kong; Red Avenue Chemical Co. Ltd., Red Avenue Group,...

2012-06-26

122

Strategies for shifting technological systems : the case of the automobile system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Californian and Dutch efforts to produce electric vehicles are explored and compared. Three strategies are put forward that could turn electric vehicles from an elusive legend, a plaything, into a marketable product: technology forcing creating a market of early promises, experiments geared towards niche development and upscaling (strategic niche management), and the creation of new alliances (technological nexus) which bring

Johan Schot; Remco Hoogma; Boelie Elzen

1994-01-01

123

Clever Carl  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief article relates the legend of young Gauss and the summing of consecutive numbers. Readers are asked to apply the method and they are shown a general solution. A link to a printable page is provided as well as links to related topics.

Team, Nrich

2012-01-01

124

Current Trends in Italian Literary Production for Children and Young People.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report, given at a special meeting held in Tehran, discusses various kinds of children's books in Italy, focusing on fairy tales and legends, modern fiction with surrealistic perspectives, adventure novels, and nonfiction, as well as the illustration of children's literature. An appendix lists some Italian authors, their works, and…

Poesio, Carla

125

The Mamook Book: Activities for Learning About the Northwest Coast Indians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A student activity book about the Northwest Coast provides "to-do" activities, such as reading, coloring, cutting out and putting together, while learning about the Northwest Coast tribes, their language, legends, clothing and ways of living. A map identifies the tribes and their location along the shores of Alaska, British Columbia, western…

Mathers, Sharon; And Others

126

Arthur Ashe Jr. Sports Scholars Awards 2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Diverse: Issues In Higher Education" established the Sports Scholars Awards to honor undergraduate students of color who have made achieving both academically and athletically a winning combination. Inspired by tennis legend Arthur Ashe Jr.'s commitment to education as well as his love for the game of tennis, they invite every college and…

Elfman, Lois; Ford, William J.

2010-01-01

127

Stories That Must Not Die. Volume Three.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Local history and legends of spirits appear often in this bilingual Spanish and English collection of 10 Southwest traditional tales, intended to promote interest in bilingual/bicultural programs and to preserve the colorful folklore of the area. Black and white drawings accompany the stories which deal with animals ("A Parrot for Christmas", "An…

Sauvageau, Juan

128

Oral Tradition of Italian-Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The assimilation of Italians into American culture led to the loss of the Italian language, and an oral tradition of Italian peasants in which Italian feminist philosophy was grounded. The legends, parables, and proverbs told by these Italian women challenged the teachings of Catholicism, perpetuating an underground religious tradition which…

Birnbaum, Lucia Chiavola

129

Fundamentalist religion and the moral crusade against Satanism: The social construction of deviant behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a symbolic interactionist model of the social dynamics of moral crusades to define a new form of deviant behavior. It identifies the collective behavior processes through which a contemporary legend leads to the social construction of deviant behavior, particularly when underlying sources of social stress activate the search for scapegoats. The cognitive content of scapegoating is constructed

Jeffrey S. Victor

1994-01-01

130

Children's Hungarian Heritage. Educational Curriculum Kit 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet was designed as a guide to Hungarian traditions primarily of interest to children. The topics covered suggest the diversity of the Hungarian heritage, from the legends of the founding of Hungary to contemporary Hungarian customs and arts. Brief discussions are presented on: (1) the Hungarian language, pronunciation of frequently used…

Biro, Ruth

131

NEW FONT AND ARROW FOR NATIONAL PARK SERVICE GUIDE SIGNS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although highly legible, the National Park Service's (NPS) Clarendon font produces sign legends that can be 10% to 20% longer than those depicted in conventional sans serif fonts. Placing these wider signs on narrow park roads and in urban historic districts can be prohibitive. To address this problem, a project was initiated to create a new NPS Roman-style (i.e., serif)

Philip Garvey; Kingston Chirwa; Donald Meeker; Martin Pietrucha; Abdulilah Zineddin; Ramy Ghebrial; James Montalbano

2004-01-01

132

Telesynergy V3 Wiring Diagram  

Cancer.gov

Extron 8 port Video/Audio Switch WAVE Camera Telesynergy v3 Wiring Diagram ISDN T1/PRI Module CTRLR 0 Legend: S-Video Audio VGA DVI USB RS-232 Serial Microphone Ethernet Planar C5i AMD Exam Cam Canon Document Camera Olympus BX51 Sony DVD Recorder JVC

133

From Prolog and Zelta to ToonTalk  

Microsoft Academic Search

ToonTalk looks like a video game. This is not surprising since its design and user interface were strongly influenced by games like The Legend of Zelda: A Link to the Past and Robot Odyssey. What may be more surprising is that ToonTalk is a programming language and environment based upon ideas that have evolved from Prolog over a period of

Kenneth M. Kahn

1999-01-01

134

17 CFR 240.14a-2 - Solicitations to which § 240.14a-3 to § 240.14a-15 apply.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...solicitation by or on behalf of any shareholder in connection with the formation of a nominating shareholder group pursuant to § 240.14a-11...holdings or otherwise; (B) A prominent legend in clear, plain language advising shareholders that a shareholder...

2013-04-01

135

Analysis of genes encoding d-alanine: d-alanine ligase-related enzymes in leuconostoc mesenteroides and lactobacillus spp. [Gene 152 (1995) 79–83  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our recent paper, the designation of the glycopeptide-resistant Leuconostoc mesenteroides strain should be changed from CIP16407 to BM4298 in the following places: p. 80, left column, third paragraph, line 5 up from the bottom, and in the title to section a; p. 80, right column, line 6 down, and second paragraph, line 2 down; p. 81, Fig. I legend,

B. Gay Elisha; Patrice Courvalin

1995-01-01

136

Early Childhood in the New China: Suzhou  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suzhou is one hour to the West of Shanghai, and one of China's most interesting cities, famous for its silks, canals, and scholar gardens. According to a popular legend, Marco Polo is reputed to have said, "In heaven there is paradise, and on earth, Hangzhou and Suzhou." As the city rapidly expands, the issue of early childhood education is a…

Kalinowski, Michael

2010-01-01

137

Picture Books and Native Americans: An Interview with Naomi Caldwell-Wood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses and reviews children's picture books that feature Native Americans through an interview with Naomi Caldwell-Wood, president of the American Indian Library Association. Highlights include ecology-centered stories; nonfiction, historically based books; illustrations; authenticity; retellings of legends and folktales; small press…

MacCann, Donnarae; Richard, Olga

1993-01-01

138

No Turning Back: A Hopi Indian Woman's Struggle to Live in Two Worlds. As Told to Vada F. Carlson.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For high school and adult readers this autobiography of Polingaysi Qoyawayma (Elizabeth Q. White) relates a Hopi Indian woman's struggle to adjust to an alien culture and to develop teaching methods to bridge the gap between Indians and the white world. Information on Hopi legends and ceremonies introduce the reader to the Hopi way of life. Born…

Qoyawayma, Polingaysi

139

“Ego Patricius, peccator rusticissimus”: The Rhetoric of St. Patrick of Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

St. Patrick of Ireland's legend suggests that he was a great rhetor: After all, he drove the snakes out of Ireland. As is often the case, however, the actual story is far more interesting and compelling than the myth. Born to an aristocratic family in fourth-century Britain, Patrick should have studied rhetoric in the Roman system. But when he was

Paul Lynch

2008-01-01

140

Robin Hood Comes of Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers how while some Robin Hood books are clearly intended for young readers, others blur the boundaries, sometimes in ways that help break down artificial boundaries dividing fiction for children from that for adults. Explores the legend's long history to help understand why the story lends itself to such a wide variety of retellings.…

Barnhouse, Rebecca

2003-01-01

141

252. Photocopy of drawing (1975 piping drawing by the Ralph ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

252. Photocopy of drawing (1975 piping drawing by the Ralph M. Parsons Company) PIPING ORIENTATION PLAN, LEGEND, ABBREVIATIONS, AND SYMBOLS FOR THE LSB AREA, SHEET P-1 - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

142

Putting Robin Hood out of business: a proceeds of crime case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To demonstrate how the range of tools provided in the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 can be used in a strategic and integrated way by law enforcement agencies against organised crime groups. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The case study takes the legend of Robin Hood and reworks the story, portraying Robin as a godfather of organised crime. Findings – The

Anthony Kennedy

2006-01-01

143

9 CFR 381.99 - Official retention and rejection tags.  

...S. Retained” for use on poultry or poultry products under this section. (b) A paper tag (another portion of Form C&MS 510) bearing the legend “U.S. Rejected” for use on equipment, utensils, rooms and compartments under this section....

2014-01-01

144

The People Who Were Here Before Speak to the People Here Now.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The value of hearing, contemplating, and remembering the ancient tales of the Seneca Indians of upstate New York is the theme of this paper. Three of the legends, the Storytelling Stone, the Woman Who Fell from the Sky, and Naked Bear, are related by the author. They are considered for their mythic concerns and in terms of their value and relation…

Garvey, James W.

145

Global Pursuits: The Underground Railroad  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief article describes Charles T. Webber's oil on canvas painting, "The Underground Railroad, 1893." The subject of this painting is the Underground Railroad, which today has become an American legend. The Underground Railroad was not a systematic means of transportation, but rather a secretive process that allowed fugitive slaves to escape…

School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2004

2004-01-01

146

On the distribution of career longevity and the evolution of home-run prowess in professional baseball  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baseball is a game of legends, mystique, euphoria and heartbreak. It is also a game of numbers and records. Here we analyze approximately 10,000 players who ended their careers between the years 1920 and 2000, where 1920 is the year widely considered as the beginning of the modern era of baseball. We utilize Sean Lahman's Base- ball Archive (2), an

Alexander M. Petersen; H. Eugene

147

Understanding Narratives of Nationhood: Film-Makers and Culloden  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Film audiences have long been invited to view Scotland and Scottish life through a historic lens. Influenced by the pre-existing literary traditions of tartanry and kailyard, film-makers have focused nostalgically on the myths and legends of the Highland and pre-industrial Scotland, with the implications that this approach has for representations…

Gold, John R.; Gold, Margaret M.

2002-01-01

148

‘Can You Imagine the Shire Without the Sharks!?’: Building the Community Capital of the Cronulla-Sutherland Rugby League Club – From 1967 to the Eve of Super League in 1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between sporting clubs and their geographical communities are far from straightforward. Using the Australian National Rugby League team the Cronulla-Sutherland Sharks as a case study, this article explores such relationships through the notion of ‘community capital’. Central to building such capital is the construction of ‘legends’ that connect the club to the community. Accordingly, an examination of the

Sean Brawley

2012-01-01

149

Land cover classification at a regional scale in Iberia: separability in a multi-temporal and multi-spectral data set of satellite images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earth observation at regional scales, such as of the Iberian Peninsula or Mediterranean Basin, is an important tool to understand the relationships between climate and surface properties. Among the different layers of information that can be derived from satellite imagery, land cover maps are important by themselves and as an aid to infer other variables. Land cover legends at regional

A. Lobo; P. Legendre; J. L. G. Rebollar; J. Carreras; J.-M. Ninot

2004-01-01

150

A Choctaw Anthology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The collection of six papers provides information on the history and culture of the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians that has not been readily available before. The papers, written by college-bound Choctaw high school students, concern three legends of Nanih Waiya, the Mother Mound of Choctaws in Mississippi; the traditional Choctaw courtship…

Anderson, Jane, Ed.; And Others

151

Silly Salamanders and Other Slightly Stupid Stuff for Readers Theatre.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains more than two dozen reader's theater scripts to entertain and amuse those in the classroom or library. The scripts in the book--all are reproducible--can help nurture student language arts skills and the power of the imagination with their fractured "takes" on fairy tales and their twisted legends. Designed to re-energize the…

Fredericks, Anthony D.

152

SETI [Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some critics of the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI) like to bolster their arguments with what they call the Fermi Paradox. Legend has it that one day at Los Alamos, shortly after the Alamogordo test (when the first atomic bomb was exploded in the desert about 50 miles northwest of this town on July 16, 1945), Enrico Fermi abruptly broke

B. M. Oliver

1994-01-01

153

Arthur Ashe Jr. Sports Scholars Awards 2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Diverse: Issues In Higher Education" established the Sports Scholars Awards to honor undergraduate students of color who have made achieving both academically and athletically a winning combination. Inspired by tennis legend Arthur Ashe Jr.'s commitment to education as well as his love for the game of tennis, "Diverse" invites every college and…

Elfman, Lois; Walker, Marlon A.

2011-01-01

154

Collateral Learning and Mathematical Education of Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the notion of collateral learning in the context of classic ideas about the summation of powers of the first "n" counting numbers. Proceeding from the well-known legend about young Gauss, this article demonstrates the value of reflection under the guidance of "the more knowledgeable other" as a pedagogical method of making…

Abramovich, Sergei

2012-01-01

155

17 CFR 230.165 - Offers made in connection with a business combination transaction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...filed or to be filed with the Commission because they contain important information. The legend also must explain to investors that...2) The prospectus is filed as soon as practicable after discovery of the failure to file. (f) Definitions. (1) A...

2013-04-01

156

17 CFR 230.167 - Communications in connection with certain registered offerings of asset-backed securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...filed or to be filed with the Commission because they contain important information. The legend also shall explain to investors...2) The prospectus is filed as soon as practicable after discovery of the failure to file. (f) Terms used in this...

2013-04-01

157

School Readiness Indicator Items.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides a compilation of indicators of school readiness used in national, state, and local surveys in the United States, delineating the advantages and disadvantages for each indicator. The report begins with a legend to assist in interpreting the tables and includes contact information for national and state surveys. The remainder of…

Calkins, Julia; Ling, Thomson; Moore, Eric; Halle, Tamara; Hair, Beth; Moore, Kris; Zaslow, Marty

158

Classical Mythology. Fourth Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for students with little or no background in classical literature, this book introduces the Greek and Roman myths of creation, myths of the gods, Greek sagas and local legends, and presents contemporary theories about the myths. Drawing on Homer, Hesiod, Pindar, Vergil, and others, the book provides many translations and paraphrases of…

Morford, Mark P. O.; Lenardon, Robert J.

159

Eventos de Diciembre (December Events).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written in Spanish, this booklet contains information on three events occurring in the month of December: winter, Christmas, and New Year's Eve. Winter is briefly discussed. The section on Christmas includes a short story ("La Nochebuena"); a poem about Christmas in Puerto Rico; a legend about the poinsettia; brief discussion of Santa Claus, the…

Pla, Myrna; Toro, Leonor

160

Haida Story Telling Time with Activity Folder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One in a series of curriculum materials on Southeast Alaska Natives, this booklet contains seven myths and legends from the Haida oral tradition, each accompanied by discussion questions and suggested learning activities. Intended for use in the intermediate grades, the stories are two to four pages long with many Haida words included in the text…

Cogo, Robert

161

The Sacred Calf Pipe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tells how the author learned of and recorded the list of Sioux tribe members who have kept the White Buffalo Calf Pipe. Reviews the legend surrounding the origin of the pipe and describes the succession of pipe-keepers and how they inherit the pipe. (Author/AEM)

Simms, Thomas E.

1987-01-01

162

Old Ponape. Pohnpei Ni Mwehin Kawa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents English and Ponape versions of the stories, legends, and histories originally transcribed by anthropologists attached to the Thilenius South Sea Expedition of 1908-1910. The natives of the Marshall Islands in Micronesia who related these stories are identified, but the material is much older and represents the cultural heritage…

Lawrence, Pensile, Comp.; And Others

163

Operation MERKUR 1941 - A Failure in Strategic Leadership.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Operation MERKUR, the battle for Crete in May 1941, has been characterized by some as a 'gory sacrifice' of German paratroops. In retrospect, it has been woven into a network of taboos and legends, in particular, the question as to whether large scale air...

K. H. Schiebold

2002-01-01

164

The Effects Of A 'key Strategy' On The Map Reading Abilities Of Early And Late Adolescents (visual Literacy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. This study examined the effects of a value key or legend and the effectiveness of literal and inferential questions on the map reading achievement of adolescents. It was predicted that a value key would facilitate comprehension of information on thematic maps and that differences would be observed between younger and older adolescents. It was further hypothesized that the nature

Nancy Jean Kelly

1985-01-01

165

The Value of Animations in Biology Teaching: A Study of Long-Term Memory Retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work has established that a narrated animation is more effective at communicating a complex biological process (signal transduction) than the equivalent graphic with figure legend. To my knowledge, no study has been done in any subject area on the effectiveness of animations versus graphics in the long-term retention of information, a primary and critical issue in studies of teaching

Danton H. O'Day

2007-01-01

166

Making Literature Come Alive: "The Many Lives of Dr. Faust."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A television course on the Faust legend, a segment of interdisciplinary humanities study, is described. The course is part of the University Studies/Weekend College Program of the College of Lifelong Learning at Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan, which offers a general studies degree program for adults. (SW)

Schindler, Rodlyn Abt

1978-01-01

167

Tolkien's Creation Myth in "The Silmarillion"--Northern or Not?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that J.R.R. Tolkien's work is commonly supposed to be greatly influenced by Norse mythology and legend. Compares Tolkien's account of the creation of Middle Earth to the Norse myth of Yggdrasil. Concludes that Tolkien took qualities of language, a code of bravery and honor, and many incidental Norse details and absorbed them into a very…

Gough, John

1999-01-01

168

Kanien'Keha' Okara'Shon:'A. Mohawk Stories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume is intended as an addition to the limited resources available to Mohawk language teachers. The 95 legends, histories, anecdotes, omens, and poetry collected in this volume were written by Mohawk teachers from Caughnawaga and Oka, and have been handed down from generation to generation to form part of the Mohawk cultural heritage.…

Horne, Josephine; And Others

169

When Politics Trumps Science: Generalizations from a Career of Research on Assessment, Decision Making, and Public Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author sincerely appreciates the recognition of National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) and his colleagues on being permitted to give the 2009 Legends in School Psychology address. He starts by acknowledging that his accomplishments are really the accomplishments of many. Throughout his career, the author has had the opportunity to…

Ysseldyke, Jim

2009-01-01

170

Piri Reis and the Columbus Map.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the origins and impact of the Piri Reis map, an early world map based on the voyages of Columbus and 20 other source maps. Maintains that evidence exists that Christopher Columbus may have drawn part of the map. Includes lengthy quotes from the map's legend written by Reis. (CFR)

Lunde, Paul

1993-01-01

171

Reaching Children through Their Ancestral Language and Authentic Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes a program of Eastern Cherokee ancestral language restoration in Cherokee, North Carolina. One of the primary goals of the program is to enhance the self-concept of the children and motivate the students to experience academic excitement and success. The use of authentic legends and stories is one method…

Bannon, Kay Thorpe

2004-01-01

172

"The Power of the Oral Tradition: Giving Life to Words:" Conversations with Virginia Driving Hawk Sneve  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Virginia Driving Hawk Sneve, a former English teacher and school counselor, is an award-winning author, best known for her children's books about the Rosebud Sioux life and culture, which combines history and legend to create culturally rich and authentic Native American stories. In this article, the authors share their conversations with Virginia…

Young, Teresa; Henderson, Darwin L.

2013-01-01

173

El Folklore de Cuba: Primera Parte (The Folklore of Cuba: Part 1).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study of the history of a country must be accompanied by study of all the elements that contribute to its folklore: music, dances, legends, myths traditions, proverbs, and customs. This paper provides examples of elements within the folk tradition of Cuba that contribute to the study of history. The background of several songs, games, and…

Machiran Sague, Consuelo

1971-01-01

174

Proceed with Caution: Using Native American Folktales in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional stories include myths, legends, and folktales rooted in the oral storytelling traditions of a given people. Through story, people pass their religious beliefs, customs, history, lifestyle, language, values, and the places they hold sacred from one generation to the next. As such, stories and their telling are more than simple…

Reese, Debbie

2007-01-01

175

Teaching about Korea in Secondary School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents 12 study guides for teaching secondary school students about Korean history and culture. The study guides deal with ancient legends, history, family, women's roles, traditions, folk customs, economic development, the division of Korea, the Korean War, links with the United States, and comparisons between North and South Korea. (GEA)

Van Decar, Patricia

1988-01-01

176

Mode of Feeding and Sex-Phenomena in the Pea-Crab  

Microsoft Academic Search

(Pinnotheres pisum). THE pea-crab which lives inside mussels, cockles, and sometimes even oysters, has been an object of general interest since the days of the Pharaohs, and many legends have been invented of the way in which it feeds and of its relation to its host. Calman gives an account (``The Life of Crustacea,'' by W. T. Calman, London, 1911,

J. H. Orton

1920-01-01

177

Reading Aloud to Children in Ilocano. [Audiotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This series of audiotapes (cassettes) uses a legend from different island communities in the Pacific to model ways parents can read with their children. English is on one side, and Ilocano--the indigenous language of the inhabitants of northwestern Luzon, Mindoro, Mindanao, Philippines--is on the other. (Author/KFT)

Pacific Resources for Education and Learning, Honolulu, HI.

178

Indian Participation in Educational Research. A Conference Sponsored by The National Institute of Education (Washington, D.C., April 1-3, 1981).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The volume contains six working papers presented at a 1981 National Institute of Education conference on Indian participation in educational research. The articles are: "A Cross-Cultural Content Analysis of Nez Perce Tribal Legends and Selected Anglo-American Children's Stories for Value-Attitude Factors of Achievement Motivation" by Cecil T.…

National Inst. of Education (ED), Washington, DC.

179

Life in the Sharakakpok Village.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a five-month study unit for eight to nine-year olds that integrates the Native Peoples of Manhattan, New York, into social studies, science, the arts, and literature. The unit includes the area's environment; the area's people; a harvest festival; tribal legends and traditions; literature to expand student's work; and science class…

Finkel, Doris

1994-01-01

180

Instructional Program in Reading/Language Arts: Core Book Lists and Additions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for use with the instructional program in reading and language arts of the Montgomery County, Maryland, public schools, this book list contains brief annotations of more than 300 books. The annotations are arranged in the following categories: (1) short narratives, (2) fables, (3) folk tales, (4) legends, (5) novels, (6) biographies, (7)…

Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

181

The Green Man  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Jolly Green Giant. Robin Hood. The Bamberg Cathedral. Tales of King Arthur. Ecology. What do they have in common? What legends and ancient myths are shrouded in the tales of the Green Man? Most often perceived as an ancient Celtic symbol as the god of spring and summer, the Green Man disappears and returns year after year, century after…

Watson-Newlin, Karen

2010-01-01

182

Campfire Stories of the Fort Belknap Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection contains 21 brief stories told by members of the Fort Belknap (Montana) American Indian community. These tales of the Assiniboine, Sioux, and Gros Ventres include legends, ghost stories, and reminiscences of heroic deeds, traditional life, and unusual events. Recollections of the past contain descriptions of the daily life of the…

Allen, Minerva, Comp.

183

A Review of the Recent NASA Long-Term Orbital Debris Environment Projection and Active Debris Removal Modeling Activities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) developed a high fidelity debris evolutionary model, LEGEND (a LEO-to-GEO Environment Debris model), in 2004 to enhance its capability to better model the near-Earth environment. LEGEND can mimic the growth of the historical debris population and project it into the future based on user-defined scenarios. The first major LEGEND study concluded that even without any future launches, the LEO population would continue to increase due to mutual collisions among existing objects. In reality, the increase will be worse than this prediction because of ongoing satellite launches and unexpected major breakups. Even with a full implementation of the commonly-adopted mitigation measures, the LEO population growth is inevitable. To preserve the near-Earth environment for future generations, active debris removal (ADR) must be considered. A follow-up LEGEND ADR study was completed recently. The main results indicate that (1) the mass and collision probability of each object can be used to establish an effective removal selection criterion and (2) a removal rate of 5 objects per year is sufficient to stabilize the LEO environment. Due to the limitation of removal techniques, however, different target selection criteria (in size, altitude, inclination, etc.) may be more practical. A careful evaluation of the effectiveness of different proposed techniques must be carried out to maximize the long-term benefit to the environment.

Liou, J.C.

2009-01-01

184

Pre-Service Biology Teachers' and Primary School Students' Attitudes toward and Knowledge about Snakes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Snakes are controversial animals emblazoned by legends, but also endangered as a result of human prejudice and fear. The author investigated gender and age-related differences in attitudes to and knowledge of snakes comparing samples of school children and pre-service teachers. It was found that although pre-service teachers had better knowledge…

Tomazic, Iztok

2011-01-01

185

Learning from a Bike Trip  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes a bike trip which marks the culmination of a unit reviewing map-reading capabilities. In seventh grade, students develop various map skills, including cardinal and intermediate directions, how to measure distance on a map using a scale of miles, how to interpret the legend of a map, and how to locate places…

Koren, Mike

2009-01-01

186

The Kennedy Myth and American Politics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the John F. Kennedy legend and his ability as an image maker. Characterizes Kennedy's presidency in terms of pragmatic idealism. Says Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson closed out the New and Fair Deal reforms but left no social or economic transformation. Claims Kennedy's disavowal of ideological rigidity ended the power of the Democratic…

Parmet, Herbert S.

1990-01-01

187

Materials Developed from American Indian Culture-Based Curriculum Workshop (Tacoma, Washington, April 18-19, 1979). Book Three.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major thrust of the third American Indian Culture-Based Curriculum Workshop was the development of ideas and materials oriented toward American Indian stories and legends in such a manner that librarians could acquire the needed skills and knowledge to ensure their authenticity and proficiency of presentations to both Indian and non-Indian…

Disney, Dick, Comp.

188

CyberHunt.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a soccer cyberhunt, elementary school students can learn all about the game of soccer while practicing computer skills. The cyberhunt teaches about: the history of soccer; soccer's name in other countries; number of players on the field; women's World Cup soccer; soccer rules; soccer legend, Pele; soccer moves; and the soccer ball. A…

Truby, Dana

2001-01-01

189

Otstungo: A Mohawk Village in 1491.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Portrays daily life in a pre-Columbian Mohawk village. Discusses women's central role in society and politics, the Iroquois clan network, governance, war and "adoption" of captives, longhouses, story telling, child rearing and education, the legend of the Peacemaker, and the importance of balance in all things. Contains photographs and paintings.…

Bruchac, Joseph

1991-01-01

190

46 CFR 151.50-34 - Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...means or sampling. (h) The words âCANCERâSUSPECT AGENTâ must be added to the... (i) Signs bearing the legend: cancerâsuspect agent in this area protective...clean and dry for each use, to prevent skin contact with liquid vinyl chloride....

2013-10-01

191

Beyond Mulan: Rediscovering the Heroines of Chinese Folklore.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes how sadly the Disney treatment of the story of Mulan reduced both the character Mulan and the story's broad appeal. Presents and critiques four picture book versions of the Mulan legend. Discusses 16 picture books of original folklore based on authentic Chinese sources. Concludes with criteria for evaluating Chinese folklore in picture…

Li, Suzanne D.

2000-01-01

192

Medicine Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described as a survival manual for Indian women in medicine, this collected work contains diverse pieces offering inspiration and practical advice for Indian women pursuing or considering careers in medicine. Introductory material includes two legends symbolizing the Medicine or Spirit Woman's role in Indian culture and an overview of Indians Into…

Beiswenger, James N., Ed.; Jeanotte, Holly, Ed.

193

Charters "Yes!" Vouchers "No!" Parental Choice and Excellence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Why did our former president and the late progressive U.S. Senator Paul Wellstone support the charter public school approach, while rejecting public funds for private or parochial schools? Why has civil rights legend Rosa Parks been a strong charter supporter? Why has the number of states with some form of charter law grown from one in 1992 to…

Nathan, Joe

2005-01-01

194

Reading a Map  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online interactive, learners investigate how Earthâs three-dimensional, physical environment is represented on a two-dimensional topographic map. Learners explore the essential parts of a map including legend, scale, and slope indicators. Map reading skills are then tested by learners choosing the best trail to take in different scenarios.

Service, National P.

2011-08-21

195

Brothers Grimm Bicentenntial: Blueprint for a Community Celebration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Faculty at McNeese State University (Louisiana) and local civic, educational, and cultural groups encouraged their community to commemorate the anniversary of the births of Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, German scholars who recorded fairy tales, myths, legends, and folk songs that are now an important part of the western world's cultural heritage,…

Novak, Sigrid Scholtz

196

Merlin's Magic: A Reading Activities Idea Book for Use with Children. Fun with Reading Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for public and school librarians, teachers and other school personnel, and community groups working with children to promote an interest in reading, this book contains planning suggestions and activities for developing a reading program around the theme of Merlin the magician and Arthurian legend. The first portion of the book focuses on…

Thomas, Carol H., Ed.

197

Siegfried the Dragonslayer Meets the Web: Using Digital Media for Developing Historical Awareness and Advanced Language and Critical Thinking Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes an undergraduate, German-language course that aimed to improve students' language skills, critical thinking, and declarative knowledge of German history and culture by studying multiple manifestations of the legend of Siegfried the Dragonslayer. The course used web-based e-learning tools to address two major learning…

Rasmussen, Ann Marie

2011-01-01

198

Software Reviews.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contains evaluations of two computer software packages, "Simulation Experiments 45-48 in Epstein's Laboratory Manual for Chemistry" and "Maps and Legends--the Cartographer (Ver 3.0)." Includes a brief description, applications, and the perceived strengths and weaknesses for each package. (CW)

Smith, Richard L., Ed.

1988-01-01

199

Mexican-American Authors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nineteen selections by 12 Mexican American authors are given in this book containing selected pieces of Mexican American literature written (in English) over the past half century. The selections include legends, songs, adventure stories, poems, and a play (with accompanying topics for discussion provided with each selection). Various viewpoints…

Paredes, Americo; Paredes, Raymund

200

The Navajo Way of Life: A Resource Unit with Activities for Grades 4-6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A resource unit on the Navajo way of life, for grades 4-6, contains sections on Navajo history, art, and crafts, homes, music, poetry and games; Navajo and Pueblo cookery (including recipes); traditional Navajo dress, ceremony and legends; and successful Navajos, past and present. Sections include text, vocabulary words, drawings, maps, and…

Cordova, Dahlia

201

17 CFR 230.433 - Conditions to permissible post-filing free writing prospectuses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...dealer participating in the offering will arrange to send you the prospectus if you request it by calling toll-free 1-8[xx-xxx-xxxx]. (ii) The legend also may provide an e-mail address at which the documents can be requested and may...

2013-04-01

202

17 CFR 230.163 - Exemption from section 5(c) of the Act for certain communications by or on behalf of well-known...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Alternatively, the company will arrange to send you the prospectus after filing if you request it by calling toll-free 1-8[xx-xxx-xxxx]. (ii) The legend also may provide an e-mail address at which the documents can be requested and may...

2013-04-01

203

Big holy dog: The wolf in North American literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Big Holy Dog examines the full range of North American prose “wolf stories,” including children's literature; novels and short fiction; oral narratives of the Pawnee, Kwaikutl, Micmac, and several other tribes; essays; and biological reports. European influences on Euro-North American narratives, from Norse cosmogonic myths to medieval European legends, receive some attention. A large section is devoted to wolf biology

Sean Kipling Robisch

1998-01-01

204

A Sixth-Century Irish Headache Cure and Its Use in a South German Monastery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medieval headache treatment is largely unknown. Medieval incantations against headache enumerate bodily organs to be protected. One 8th-century Latin hymn from Lake Constance using this device is addressed to St. Aid “mechprech”, who has been identified as Aed Mac Brice, Bishop of Killare, 6th century. This Irish Saint inspired unusual legends by some rather unorthodox activities: He abducted a young

H Isler; H Hasenfratz; T ONeill

1996-01-01

205

Picture Books Peek behind Cultural Curtains.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses culture in picture books in three general categories: legends and histories; current life in particular areas; and the immigrant experience. Considers the translation of visual images, discusses authentic interpretations, and presents an annotated bibliography of picture books showing cultural diversity including African, Asian, Mexican,…

Marantz, Sylvia; Marantz, Kenneth

2000-01-01

206

The Shôkyû version of the Kitano Tenjin engi emaki: A brief introduction to its content and function  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the political and social atmosphere surrounding the production of the thirteenth-century hand scroll Kitano Tenjin engi emaki (Illustrated Legends of the Kitano Shrine), which depicts the life, death and posthumous revenge of the ninth-century courtier Sugawara no Michizane. The article combines an analysis of the content and religious iconography of the scroll, a study of early Japanese

Sara L. Sumpter

207

El Espiritu Siempre Eterno Del Mexico Americano (The Always Eternal Spirit of the Mexican American).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty stories and essays suitable for intermediate and secondary grades illustrate the enduring spirit of Mexican American life, legend, custom, and culture. The Spanish language book describes the ceremonies of baptism, engagement, marriage, and the "quinceanera" (a girl's 15th birthday). Folklore (magic spells, superstitions, "cuentos" or…

Quintanilla, Guadalupe C.; Silman, James B.

208

Folktale Frenzy: WebQuest Writing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This folktale unit supports 6th- through 8th-grade students exploration of the many subgenres of folktales: trickster tales, fairy tales, fables, tall tales, and legends. The unit focuses heavily on the use of technology as a learning tool as students work together to create WebQuests for their peers to explore. During the 10 one-hour sessions,…

Gaines, Lisa

209

The Country School in Literature. Country School Legacy: Humanities on the Frontier.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of the country school in literature discusses Irving's "The Legend of Sleppy Hollow," Whittier's "Snowbound" and "In School Days," Eggleston's "The Hoosier School Master," and Stuart's "To Teach, To Love" and "The Thread That Runs So True." These literary works portray the country school teacher as being the brunt of larger or older boys'…

Grundy, Ernest

210

An Arthurian Dictionary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended as a reference manual for students, this dictionary lists the characters, places, and topics connected with the legend of King Arthur from its first written appearances through Sir Thomas Malory's "Le Morte d'Arthur." The entries are generally limited to Celtic, French, German, and English materials and include characters and places that…

Moorman, Charles; Moorman, Ruth

211

Desert Culture Area. Native American Curriculum Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One in a series of Native American instructional materials, this booklet introduces elementary students to the history and culture of the Navajo, Pueblo, and other Indian tribes of the southwest desert. Written in simple language, the booklet provides background information, activities, legends, and illustrations. Topics include the climate of the…

Ross, Cathy; Fernandes, Roger

212

Luigi Galvani and animal electricity: two centuries after the foundation of electrophysiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Luigi Galvani and his famous experiments on frogs carried out in the second half of the 18th century belong more to legend than to the history of science. Galvani not only laid the foundations of a new science, electrophysiology, but also opened the way for the invention of the electric battery, and thus for the development of the physical investigations

Marco Piccolino

1997-01-01

213

ARCHITECTURE OF THE APOCALYPSE: THE BUSINESS OF ARCHITECTURE AND THE MYTH OF SUSTAINABLE DESIGN AND BUILDING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inscrutable remains of the buildings that comprised these extraordinary architectural and spatial achievements reveal high levels of visual sophistication. The studied control of forms to compensate for optical illusion, the use of colour and tone to adjust mass against light- all these have passed into legend. But in Delphi, as in other sanctuaries, one thing continued to perplex archaeologists

Bill van Heerden

2000-01-01

214

Walking the Good Red Road: Storytelling in the Counseling Relationship Using the Film "Dreamkeeper"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Counselors frequently use storytelling as a therapeutic technique. Stories allow people to find meaning and form connections by expressing the thoughts and feelings that are sometimes difficult to articulate. The film, "Dreamkeeper," presents a series of American Indian legends woven throughout the main story of a journey undertaken by a young man…

Harper, Faith G.

2010-01-01

215

I Lost My Tooth!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights the Internet Schoolhouse Web site and outlines a cross-curriculum (language arts, geography, social studies, health, art, and math) lesson plan for a grades K-3 telecommunications project in which students gather data about lost teeth and share tooth-fairy legends. Lists required hardware, software, and other materials and describes…

Boehm, Diann

1997-01-01

216

Soviet Ethnic Problems and American National Interests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In Uzbekistan there is a legend that one day Tamerlane will return to free the land around his ancient capital of Samarkand from the heavy hand of its oppressor. It is said he will ride down from the hills with his angry horde sweeping all before him. He ...

W. D. Henry

1990-01-01

217

Inventions: Waiting for Eureka  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Legend has it that when Archimedes made a discovery related to water displacement, he leapt out of a bath declaring, "Eureka!" Whether true or not, the tale serves as a symbol for the notion that a burst of inspiration can lead to an exciting new discovery. Most books about inventions, however, tell a different story. The path from the germ of an…

Engelfried, Steven

2010-01-01

218

Allan Sandage : L'architecte de l'expansion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Il fut de cette poignee de pionniers qui ouvrirent le monde extragalactique. Depuis pres de 50 ans, Allan Sandage poursuit la quete amorcee par le "maitre" Edwin Hubble : mesurer le taux d'expansion de l'Univers. Rencontre avec une legende vivante de la cosmologie...

Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.

1998-07-01

219

The Openhearted Audience: Ten Authors Talk about Writing for Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains comments by ten authors of children's literature concerning the influences they feel account for the particular qualities that define their books and about creative writing and children's literature in general. In the first article, P. L. Travers stresses the importance of fairy tales, myths, and legends in shaping her work,…

Haviland, Virginia, Ed.

220

Dinetah: Navajo History. Volume II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using archaeological data, written chronicles of Spanish explorers and missionaries, and oral narratives and legends, the book traces the history of the Navajo people to their original homeland, Dinetah, located primarily off the present reservation in an area south and east of Farmington, New Mexico. The book discusses various theories on Navajo…

Roessel, Robert A., Jr.

221

How and Why Stories for Readers Theatre  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How did the bee get his bumble? How do birds get their feathers? Why is the bluebird blue? Curious first through fifth graders want to know how and why things happen! Judy Wolfman has created 40 Readers Theatre scripts based on imaginative and creative porquoi stories that stem from multicultural folktales as well as Native American Indian legends

Wolfman, Judy

2004-01-01

222

The Secret of No Face (an Ireokwa Epic).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An attempt to preserve stories from the oral tradition of the Seneca Indians of the Iroquois tribes is made in this volume. These stories draw on the philosophy and moral teachings of Handsome Lake, a Seneca prophet who was a spiritual leader to his people. The purpose of this English translation of Iroquois legends is to go directly to the…

Parker, Everett; Ryan, Kenida (Oledoska)

223

Bluebonnet Fiber Collages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a lesson that uses stitching and applique techniques to create a fiber collage in which every child is successful with high-quality work. This lesson was inspired by Tomie dePaola's "The Legend of the Bluebonnet." The back cover had a lovely illustration of the bluebonnet flower the author thought would translate easily to a…

Sterling, Joan

2009-01-01

224

Materials Developed from American Indian Culture-Based Curriculum Workshop (Tacoma, Washington, October 24-28, 1978). Book Two.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed as a result of the second 5-day American Indian Culture-Based Curriculum Workshop conducted in Tacoma, Washington, the resource guide presents materials oriented toward Native American dance, music, and games, which were the major thrust of the workshop. The guide provides four flannelboard stories/legends (How Man Was Created, The Gull…

Disney, Dick, Comp.

225

Can't We All Just Get Along. Improving the Law Enforcement-Intelligence Community Relationship.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The FBI vs. CIA turf battles of the Cold War are the stuff of Washington legend. Things are much better now. They were getting better anyway, and then 9/11 accelerated the process. But there is room for improvement. The first essays here lay out some of t...

T. Christenson

2007-01-01

226

Akhiezer Institute for Theoretical Physics at the National Science Center 'Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology', National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine: origins, events, facts, comments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The titled institute is the only historical example in Ukraine of a scientific school maintaining research continuity for over 80 years already. Today, it seems appropriate to remember the origins, to reflect on where this longevity came from, and to take a look at numerous behind-the-scenes legends and fiction stories that have grown around the institute.

Tan'shina, A. V.

2013-09-01

227

Lakota Oral Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Course objectives for the three credit hour Lakota Oral Literature (college level English) course presented in this publication are to: perceive through the reading and hearing of Lakota legends a better understanding of the known world of the Lakota people which existed prior to white contact; understand the origin of the laws which the Lakota…

One Feather, Vivian

228

Indigenous Innovation and Economic Development: Lessons from China's Leap into the Information Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

With a view to furthering our understanding of the process of indigenous innovation and its impact on economic development, this paper summarizes case studies of the evolution, from their origins to the late 1990s, of four of China's leading computer electronics companies: Stone, Legend, Great Wall, and Founder. The original case studies constitute the body of the late Qiwen Lu's

William Lazonick

2004-01-01

229

How Stories From Alaska.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four simple "how" stories from Alaskan legend are presented in large type and amply illustrated. In "How the Caribou Lost His Teeth", Siqpik's only son is eaten by the sharp-toothed caribou, so Siqpik feeds the animal sour berries to make his teeth fall out. "How the Loon Got His Spots" relates how the raven paints the loon's back with soot then…

Gray, Minnie

230

General-Purpose Software For Computer Graphics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Device Independent Graphics Library (NASADIG) is general-purpose computer-graphics package for computer-based engineering and management applications which gives opportunity to translate data into effective graphical displays for presentation. Features include two- and three-dimensional plotting, spline and polynomial interpolation, control of blanking of areas, multiple log and/or linear axes, control of legends and text, control of thicknesses of curves, and multiple text fonts. Included are subroutines for definition of areas and axes of plots; setup and display of text; blanking of areas; setup of style, interpolation, and plotting of lines; control of patterns and of shading of colors; control of legends, blocks of text, and characters; initialization of devices; and setting of mixed alphabets. Written in FORTRAN 77.

Rogers, Joseph E.

1992-01-01

231

1996 Site environmental report. Volume II  

SciTech Connect

Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory presents Volume II, data appendix as a reference document to supplement the 1996 Site Environmental Report. Volume II contains the raw environmental monitoring and sampling data used to generate many of the summary results included in the main report for both routine and nonroutine activities. This appendix includes a legend that cross-references the enclosed data tables with summary tables in the main report. The legend also provides a listing of more detailed descriptions for the station location codes used in the appendices` tables. Data presented in the tables are given in Systeme International (SI) units. The glossary found in the main report contains a listing of the SI units.

NONE

1997-09-01

232

[Peter of Abano, the 'Conciliator' between magic and science].  

PubMed

Peter of Abano is a personage belonging to history as well as to legend. In this analysis his historical physiognomy of scientist and physician is reconstructed on the basis of a better knowledge of his works in medicine and astronomy (now edited), a discipline, the latest one, in which he excelled in Medieval scientific context (The Lucidator dubitabilium astronomiae (astrologiae) can be read in the critical edition by G. Federici Vescovini, Padova, Esedra, 1992). He opposed extreme position in all fields, by styling himself 'Conciliator' of opposed tendencies. He often reconfirmed a rational concept of medicine and astronomy, which dispelled any demoniac and magic features, against the fanciful legend elaborated during the following centuries. PMID:19831246

Federici Vescovini, Graziella

2008-01-01

233

Transmission of Environmental and Conservation Knowledge in Andohahela National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

Andohahela National Park : Legends and Laws\\u000aThe legendary forests of Andohahela National Park (N.P.) have long been respected as a source of inspiration and life for the Anosy region in the extreme southeast of Madagascar. Hundreds of years ago, according to various oral traditions, Prince Mana offered himself as a sacrifice in order to quench the drought that brought

Mika S. Nagasaki

2005-01-01

234

Mask of the Black God The Pleiades in Navajo Cosmology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One Navajo legend attributes the creation of the primary stars and constellations to "Black God." Today, a famous star cluster, the Pleiades, often appears on the traditional mask worn by chanters impersonating Black God during special ceremonies. In this case study, designed for an observational astronomy class or introductory astronomy class with a strong observational component, students learn about the Pleiades in Navajo cosmology while developing their observation and star map skills.

Schulz, Teresa M.

2005-01-01

235

Olympus Mons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The largest volcano on Mars, and the largest in the solar system, centered at 18.4 °N, 133.1 °W. It coincides with the albedo feature visible from Earth known as Nix Olympica, the `Snows of Olympus', after the mountain in Greece which in legend was the home of the gods. Olympus Mons rises to a height of 27 km above Mars's mean surface level, and in its greatest horizontal dimension measures 624 k...

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

236

FigSearch: using maximum entropy classifier to categorize biological figures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Figures in scientific papers represent an intuitive and concise way of knowledge presentation. With more attention being paid on full-text mining in bioinformatics, we initiated an effort of studying figures in full articles. FigSearch is a prototype figure legend indexing and classification system, using both text-mining and supervised machine learning. We defined schematic representations of protein interactions and signaling events

Fang Liu; Tor-Kristian Jenssen; Vegard Nygaard; John Sack; Eivind Hovig

2004-01-01

237

FigSearch: Using Maximum Entropy Classifier to Categorize Biological Figures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Figures in scientific papers represent an intuitive and concise way of knowledge presentation. With more attention being paid on full-text mining in bioinformatics, we initiated an effort of studying figures in full articles. FigSearch is a prototype figure legend indexing and classification system, using both text-mining and supervised machine learning. We defined schematic representations of protein interactions and signaling events

Fang Liu; Tor-kristian Jenssen; Vegard Nygaard; John Sack; Eivind Hovig

2004-01-01

238

Sediment threshold under stream flow: A state-of-the-art review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The doctoral research of Albert Frank Shields on sediment movement conducted in Technischen Hochshcule Berlin becomes a legend\\u000a that is most often referred by many authors and has initiated a sizable number of researches over last seven decades. The\\u000a Shields diagram is famous due to its application in ascertaining the threshold of sediment motion that is an essential prerequisite\\u000a for

Subhasish Dey; Athanasios Papanicolaou

2008-01-01

239

The Santa Ana Winds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page demonstrates the development of a Santa Ana wind event in the Los Angeles basin. It includes a brief description of these, hot, dry offshore winds, some legends surrounding them, and some of their potentially damaging effects. A series of images shows how a simulated Santa Ana event develops and evolves, depicting temperature, wind speed, and humidity. The images are also available as animations, and there are links to other sites with related information.

240

Reno Industrial Park geothermal district heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten miles south of Reno, on U.S. 395 near the junction of the road to historic Virginia City, is Steamboat Hot Springs, a popular stop for travelers since the mid-1800s. Legend has it that Mark Twain named the geothermal area because it looked and sounded like a chugging Mississippi River paddle-wheeler. It is said when he first saw the steam

Paul J. Lienau

1997-01-01

241

A Historical Perspective on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This ‘pictorial’ Chapter presents a historical perspective on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) starting from Ancient Greece\\u000a to the beginning of the 21st Century. The UAV history, from a very early dream to today’s reality is illustrated through a series of figures with detailed\\u000a legends that are arranged mostly chronologically; they reveal the unmanned vehicle evolution and designs over a period

K. P. Valavanis; M. Kontitsis

242

A new symbol-and-GIS based detailed geomorphological mapping system: Renewal of a scientific discipline for understanding landscape development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a comprehensive and flexible new geomorphological combination legend that expands the possibilities of current geomorphological mapping concepts. The new legend is presented here at scale of 1:10,000 and it combines symbols for hydrography, morphometry/morphography, lithology and structure with colour variations for process/genesis and geologic age. The piece-by-piece legend forms a "geomorphological alphabet" that offers a high diversity of geomorphological information and a possibility for numerous combinations of information. This results in a scientific map that is rich in data and which is more informative than most previous maps but is based on a simple legend. The system is developed to also be used as a basis for applications in GIS. The symbol-based information in the geomorphological maps can be digitally stored as a powerful database with thematic layers and attribute tables. By combining and further developing aspects of different classical mapping systems and techniques into expanded data combinations, new possibilities of presentation and storage are developed and thus a strong scientific tool is provided for landscape configuration and the reconstruction of its development; in turn the combination paves the way for specific thematic applications. The new system is illustrated for two contrasting landscape types: the first is located on the border of Vorarlberg, western Austria, and Liechtenstein in a glacially influenced, high altitude alpine setting that is strongly modified by various degradation processes; the second area represents a formerly glaciated region in Dalarna, central Sweden near Mora, an area that is characterized by a variety of aeolian, fluvial, glaciofluvial and lacustrine depositional and erosional landforms and also reflects isostatic uplift. The new method functions well for both areas and results in detailed scientific outlines of both landscape types.

Gustavsson, Marcus; Kolstrup, Else; Seijmonsbergen, Arie C.

2006-07-01

243

Birthday Moons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the Center for Educational Resources (CERES), a series of web-based astronomy lessons created by a team of master teachers, university faculty, and NASA researchers. This lesson familiarizes students with lunar phases by locating them and then graphing the Moon phase of their own birthdays. Students then discuss lunar myths and legends while creating their own Moon stories. This lesson contains expected outcomes for students, materials, background information, extension activities, and follow-up questions.

Tuthill, George; Obbink, Kim

244

Roles of Phospholipase C Isozymes in Organogenesis and Embryonic Development - Figure 1: Domain structure of each type PLC  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Figure 1: Domain structure of each type PLC. Legend: Catalytic and regulatory domains and their interacting molecules are shown. PH, pleck-strin homology domain; EF, EF-hand domain; X and Y, X and Y domains, respectively; C2, C2 domain; SH, src homology domain; RasGEF, Ras GTPase exchange factor-like domain; RA, Ras associating domain. From Nakamura Y, Fukami K. Roles of Phospholipase C Isozymes in Organogenesis and Embryonic Development. Physiology 24: 332-341, 2009

Yoshikazu Nakamura (Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences); Kiyoko Fukami (Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences)

2009-12-01

245

Ecology Hall of Fame  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site honors the heroes of the environmental movement, the individuals who have had the greatest positive impact. The Ecology Hall of Fame includes people under three categories, General, Living Legends, and Martyrs. Essays, reprints, biographies, and bibliographies are included for the honorees. The Ecology Hall of Fame is a project of EcoTopia/USA (United Services Agency), a California non-profit corporation dedicated to promoting ecological thinking and ecological behavior, especially in Santa Cruz County.

246

13. Photographic copy of site plan displaying Test Stand 'C' ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. Photographic copy of site plan displaying Test Stand 'C' (4217/E-18), Test Stand 'D' (4223/E-24), and Control and Recording Center (4221/E-22) with ancillary structures, and connecting roads and services. California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Facilities Engineering and Construction Office 'Repairs to Test Stand 'C,' Edwards Test Station, Legend & Site Plan M-1,' drawing no. ESP/115, August 14, 1987. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand C, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

247

Auto Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 1987 Honda Acura Legend Coupe was designed with aid of the NASA-developed NASTRAN computer program. NASTRAN takes an electronic look at a computerized design and predicts how the structure will react under a great many different conditions. Quick and inexpensive, it minimizes trial and error in the design process and makes possible better, lighter, safer structures while affording significant savings in development time. All Honda auto products designed in the 1980's have been analyzed by the NASTRAN program.

1988-01-01

248

The anatomy of the mermaid.  

PubMed

Investigation of the anatomy of the mermaid and of mermaid lore has revealed a tangled web of stories, sightings and specimens of the most diverse nature, extending worldwide into the realms of folklore and legend, zoology and cryptozoology, anatomy, physiology, radiography and folk medicine, ethnography, social history and the history of science. The stereotype we know as the mermaid is surely a fit subject for further serious study PMID:11620025

Heppell, D

249

13. 'WAITING AT THE DRAWBRIDGE.' THE COAL SCHOONER LUCY MAY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. 'WAITING AT THE DRAWBRIDGE.' THE COAL SCHOONER LUCY MAY WAITING AT THE DRAW, JUNE 19, 1896. Photocopy of photograph (original glass plate negative #T89 in the collection of the Annisquam Historical Society, Annisquam, Massachusetts). Photographer: Martha Harvey (1862-1949). (The handwritten legend along the top edge of the photograph is scratched in the emulsion of the original glass plate negative. Consequently it reads in reverse when printed.) - Annisquam Bridge, Spanning Lobster Cove between Washington & River Streets, Gloucester, Essex County, MA

250

.Playing God: the rock opera that endeavors to become a bioethics education tool.  

PubMed

This article describes and introduces a new innovative tool for bioethics education: a rock opera on the ethics of genetics written by two academics and a drummer legend. The origin of the idea, the characters and their development, and the themes and approaches as well as initial responses to the music and the show are described, and the various educational usages are explored. PMID:24495786

Takala, Tuija; Häyry, Matti; Laing, Laurence

2014-04-01

251

General-Purpose Graphics-Library Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Device Independent Graphics Library (NASADIG) computer program is general-purpose graphics-library program for use with many computer-based-engineering and management application programs. Software offers many features providing user with flexibility in creating graphics. Includes two- and three-dimensional plotting, splines and polynomial interpolation, area blanking control, multiple log/linear axes, legends and text control, curve-thickness control, and multiple text fonts. Written in ANSI FORTRAN 77.

Rogers, Joseph E.

1993-01-01

252

Contour Maps With DOGSTAILS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During this lesson plan students craft miniature mountains from lumps of clay. They then translate their mountains into topographic maps. These maps include vital features and information such as date, orientation, grid, scale, title, author, index, legend, and sources - or DOGSTAILS, for short. Knowing what goes into creating a representational map helps the students to understand how to analyze the geographic information in other maps.

253

14. 'ANNISQUAM POINT JAN. 4, 1898.' Photocopy of photograph ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. 'ANNISQUAM POINT -- JAN. 4, 1898.' Photocopy of photograph (original glass plate negative #T86 in the collection of the Annisquam Historical Society, Annisquam, Massachusetts). Photographer: Martha Harvey (1862-1949). (The handwritten legend along the top edge of the photograph is scratched in the emulsion of the original glass plate negative. Consequently it reads in reverse when printed.) - Annisquam Bridge, Spanning Lobster Cove between Washington & River Streets, Gloucester, Essex County, MA

254

15. MAP OF ALAMEDA SHIPYARD SHOWING PROPOSED ADDITIONAL FACILITIES. United ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. MAP OF ALAMEDA SHIPYARD SHOWING PROPOSED ADDITIONAL FACILITIES. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard. A site map with all existing structures keyed to an identification legend. Also shows proposed new structures. No architect noted. Drawn by "J.B.H." (John Hudspeth?). Sheet 2. Plan no. 10,528. Scale one inch to 100 feet. November 12, 1943, last revised 1/18/44. pencil on vellum - United Engineering Company Shipyard, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

255

Engineering Spore  

Microsoft Academic Search

The software engineers, artists, and others who work at Maxis, now owned by video game giant Electronic Arts, have migrated here because Wright is a legend. Over the past two decades, the 48-year-old Wright, who studied architecture and mechanical engineering at Louisiana Tech University has utterly transformed his industry with hits like SimCity, in which players build virtual towns, and

David Kushner

2008-01-01

256

Cousteau Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This highly interactive site includes all sorts of information on the undersea world and its most famous explorer, Jacques Cousteau. Features include background information on the legend, his crew, his vessels, and much more. Take a tour of the original research vessel, the Calypso. The Kid's Corner includes an online quiz, game, and information on the Cousteau cartoon and magazine. Also available are 22 movies following some of Cousteau's adventures and accomplishments.

257

The French Atlantic Littoral and the Massif Armoricain. [Bay of Biscay, France and Spain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Diachronic use of LANDSAT data time series will in time allow study of statistically submerged frequencies in tidal areas. This is an essential element of coastal geomorphology and of coastal zone management, being particularly useful in siting shellfish farms. Maps at useable scales and simple user oriented legends should become an essential document for coastal planning agencies.

Verger, F. (principal investigator); Monget, J. M.; Scanvic, J. Y.

1976-01-01

258

The French Atlantic Littoral and the Massif Armoricain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Diachronic use of LANDSAT data time series will in time allow statistical study of submersion frequencies in tidal areas. This is an essential element of coastal geomorphology and of coastal zone management being particularly useful in siting shellfish farms. Maps are being obtained at useable scales and simple, user oriented legends which can be used for coastal planning.

Verger, F. (principal investigator); Monget, J. M.; Scanvic, J. Y.

1976-01-01

259

Development of the Seamless Digital Geological Map of Japan: Application of Google Maps API  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geological map series of Japan in scale of 200,000 was completed on March, 2010 by Geological Survey of Japan (GSJ), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST). These traditional paper-based geological maps had different regional legends because of differences of produced time and composer, and those caused structural and stratigraphic discordance between adjacent geological maps. The Seamless Digital Geological Map of Japan (http://riodb02.ibase.aist.go.jp/db084/index_e.html) is produced by (1) creating nationally-standardized legend based on the geological map of Japan 1:1,000,000, 3rd edition (GSJ,1992), (2) digitizing existing paper-based geological maps in vector format, (3) replacing each geological attributes by the nationally-standardized legend, (4) smoothing geological boundary of adjacent maps on Geographic Information System (GIS). GSJ has published the maps on the Web since 2003, and providing data to users. Methods of data representation have been modified to suit the needs of the users. Google maps version is the latest user interface which uses Google Map API (Application Programming Interface) and Google Earth API provided by Google. Google Maps version generates image tiles of geological map by using GIS for each zoom levels, and displays the map by overlaying tile layers. This method requires no vector calculation, and only transfers data within display range in a manner similar to original Google Maps. To sum up the major characteristics of the Google Maps version, easy-to-follow operability similar to Google Maps and shorter response time than other systems that use Web-GIS are the most significance. KMZ files for Google Earth are downloadable from the website.

Masaka, Y. A.; Nishioka, Y.

2010-12-01

260

Dental vacuum system with skirt technology.  

PubMed

A heat-sterilizable vacuum system (Legend) featuring a skirt technology that confines the user's hand to the sterile instruments during initial hose coupling and during patient treatment is described. Because the user does not grasp the non-sterile vacuum hose connector and hose, plastic barriers and mandatory disinfection of the hose connector, hose, and instrument holders after each patient are not necessary. The vacuum system described promotes asepsis by using sterile vacuum instruments, encourages sound asepsis practice, prevents cross-contamination, and is cost-effective. PMID:7546478

Shen, J; Malone, W F

1995-04-01

261

Mask of the Black God: The Pleiades in Navajo Cosmology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interdisciplinary case study will help students learn about celestial coordinates and constellations in the context of a Navajo legend. Learners will have the opportunity to determine celestial coordinates, locate the sun on the celestial sphere for any day of the year, and describe the location of a given constellation in relation to other prominent nearby constellations. The lesson could be used in high school or undergraduate coursework. The case study and teaching notes may be downloaded in PDF format. The site also includes a section for instructor feedback where general comments may be read and contributed.

Schulz, Teresa M.

2011-01-06

262

The Myth of Icarus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ever since humans first saw birds soar through the sky, they have wanted to fly. The ancient Greeks and Romans pictured many of their gods with winged feet, and imagined mythological winged animals. According to the legend of Daedalus and Icarus, the father and son escaped prison by attaching wings made of wax and feathers to their bodies. Unfortunately, Icarus flew too near the sun, and the heat caused the wax and feathers to melt. The feathers fell off, and Icarus plummeted to the sea. Daedalus landed safely in Sicily.

2004-01-01

263

Ms. Chambers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Follow directions from your assignment. Three assignment links below; King Arthur, Shakespeare Sonnets, and The Crucible. KING ARTHUR LINKS The Camelot Project - at the University of Rochester - homepage Frequently Asked Questions about the Arthurian Legends The Camelot Project - King Arthur s Court Britannia History - has several links to website sources (may be better than doing a Google search) SHAKESPEARE LINKS Usborne Quicklinks -US home page Usborne Quicklinks - Shakespeare, p 32 Absolute Shakespeare Shakespeare Resource Center THE CRUCIBLE National Geographic - interactive website 17th Century Colonial New England Spark Notes - the Crucible The Crucible - Study Guide Red Scare The Crucible MCCARTHYISM The Salem Witch Museum ...

Schultz, Ms.

2007-10-19

264

Comets: The Universal Recipe?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this article, The Why Files investigates comets. Topics include their origins, what they are made of, where in the solar system they come from, and others. Several of the more famous comets, such as Halley's, are mentioned, and there is information on the latest encounter with a comet, the Deep Impact mission to Tempel 1. Myths and legends about comets are also discussed. A classroom activity is included in which students can make a "comet" using readily available materials. A bibliography is also provided.

Tenenbaum, David

265

Quaternary Fault and Fold Database for the United States: California  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive map shows the major fault systems of the Quaternary for the State of California. It is subdivided into 1x2 degree sheets, each of which is linked to a more detailed map. Users can select a sheet and see an enlargement of the area. Individual fault systems are numbered and keyed to a legend which provides a link to a written synopsis of information for the fault, including fault type and geologic history. Links are also provided to more extensive reports for the faults, including a "complete" report with references.

266

Vegetation survey in Amazonia using LANDSAT data. [Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automatic Image-100 analysis of LANDSAT data was performed using the MAXVER classification algorithm. In the pilot area, four vegetation units were mapped automatically in addition to the areas occupied for agricultural activities. The Image-100 classified results together with a soil map and information from RADAR images, permitted the establishment of the final legend with six classes: semi-deciduous tropical forest; low land evergreen tropical forest; secondary vegetation; tropical forest of humid areas, predominant pastureland and flood plains. Two water types were identified based on their sediments indicating different geological and geomorphological aspects.

Parada, N. D. J. (principal investigator); Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Dossantos, J. R.; Deaquino, L. C. S.

1982-01-01

267

Periodicities in the occurrence of aurora as indicators of solar variability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compilation of records of the aurora observed in China from the Time of the Legends (2000 - 3000 B.C.) to the mid-18th century has been used to infer the frequencies and strengths of solar activity prior to modern times. A merging of this analysis with auroral and solar activity patterns during the last 200 years provides basically continuous information about solar activity during the last 2000 years. The results show periodicities in solar activity that contain average components with a long period (approx. 412 years), three middle periods (approx. 38 years, approx. 77 years, and approx. 130 years), and the well known short period (approx. 11 years).

Nian-Zu, D.; Mei-Dong, C.; Zhen-Jin, Z.; Mendillo, M.

1983-01-01

268

Origins of NASA names  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Names are selected for NASA spaceflight projects and programs from various sources. Some have their foundations in mythology and astrology or legend and folklore. Some have historic connotations; others are based on a description of their mission, often resulting in an acronym. Included are names of launch vehicles, spacecraft, manned spaceflight programs, sounding rockets, and NASA field installations. This study is limited to names of approved projects through 1974; it does not include names of numerous projects which have been or are being studied or projects that were canceled or postponed before reaching actual flight.

Wells, H. T.; Whiteley, S. H.; Karegeannes, C. E.

1976-01-01

269

Molecular Structure of Aquamarine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Aquamarine originated in the 1820s from a Latin term aqua marina which means sea water. This popular gem has been by Indians as a good luck charm. Legend has it that the gem was a treasure of mermaids. Aquamarine is found in Brazil and the African countries of Tanzania, Kenya and Nigeria, the island of Sri Lanka, Afghanistan and Russia. Aquamarine is usually heat treated to remove the yellow components to make it bluer. Aquamarine has even been thought to help cure headaches, insomnia and other such ailments. This gem is given on the 19th wedding anniversary as a sign of love.

2002-08-14

270

SUSY Dark Matter/Interactive Direct Detection Limit Plotter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maintained by Rich Gaitshell at Brown University and Vuk Mandic at UC Berkeley, this website offers a tool for researchers to create plots of their experimental and theoretical data of dark matter. After a brief explanation of how to use the plotter, users can chose from a wide range of data categories and specifications. Visitors can find a series of abstracts and links to sources of information and references. The website offers downloads of high quality outputs of plots and legends as postscripts or pdf files as well as low-resolution preview images.

271

Modeling electrical and optical spectral responses of homogeneous nanocomposites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, electric field diffraction by a nanoparticle is studied using Legender series and extended for many particles in three dimensions. In the presence of an external dc electric field, the electric field induced by all the particles is added together based on the superposition principle and the electric field distribution would be obtained on an unlimited sheet inside the host matrix. Using this field distribution, pure displaced electric charge and passed current would be evaluated and the effective electrical conductivity and permittivity would be obtained. These parameters could predict the optical spectral responses of nano-composites such as the UV-visible absorption spectrum and refractive dispersion spectrum.

Koushki, E.; Majles Ara, M. H.

2014-07-01

272

New geomorphological mapping system used at different scales in a Swedish glaciated area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new, detailed geomorphological mapping system is tested at different scales for presentation of landscape configuration and interpretation of landscape development of a formerly glaciated area near Mora in central Sweden. The geomorphological maps are based on fieldwork supported by aerial photographs. The area contains landforms created by mass movement, glacial, glaciofluvial, fluvial, lacustrine, aeolian and anthropogenic processes. In addition, geomorphological effects of isostatic uplift, which has caused a c. 220 m rise of the former Ancylus lake shoreline in the area since the deglaciation, can be seen. The new system is tested at scales 1:5000, 1:25,000 and 1:50,000 using the same legend. At the largest scale information on morphography/morphometry, lithology, and hydrography are included in the map as are details on polygenetic origins of landforms. With each step from the 1:5000 to the 1:50,000 scale some generalisation is needed at the cost of descriptive detail. In turn, with smaller scale, the general overview of the area increases and the impression from the map gradually becomes more dominated by genesis. The emphasis of the map thus changes from a presentation with a high level of descriptive information at the largest scale to a more interpretative overview at smaller scales. The scale transformation shows that the geomorphological presentation of the landscape is a function of both the landscape hierarchy and the geomorphological context within an area. The use of the new geomorphological mapping system at the three scales shows that the tested mapping legend can be used without modification from one scale to another. This is mainly because the geomorphological information parameters are separated in the legend, and that explanatory information is gained from combinations of them. The possibility to apply the same legend at different scales for an area facilitates the choice of an appropriate mapping scale for specific purposes and applications. The new mapping system also has the advantage that the data can be easily transformed into a GIS ESRI geodatabase containing the same "raw-data" as the original map. The differences of information at the different scales illustrate problems that are also relevant for use and presentation of geomorphological data in a GIS and three examples of scale problems in relation to GIS data handling are outlined.

Gustavsson, Marcus; Kolstrup, Else

2009-09-01

273

Geographical and Topographical Atlas accompanying the report of the Geological Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel, made by authority of the Hornorable Secretary of War, under the direction of Brig. and Bvt. Major General A. A. Humphreys, Chief of Engineers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Contains a title, legend, and 11 folio maps in the folio. Contains a topographic (shaded) map of Cordilleran region, limiting meridians 104° and 124°; limiting parallels 29° and 50°. Scale, 60 miles to the inch. Also contains four geologic and four topographic (shaded) maps, on scale of 4 miles to the inch, of the following areas: Sheet I. Longitude, 104° 30'-107° 37'; latitude, 40° 20'-41° 54'. Sheet II. Longitude, 107° 37'-110° 43'; latitude, 40° 16'-41° 50'. Sheet III. Longitude, 110° 43'-113° 50'; latitude, 40° 13'-41° 46'. Sheet IV. Longitude, 113° 50'-116° 56'; latitude, 39° 55'-41° 29'.

King, Clarence; Lithography by Bien, Julius

1876-01-01

274

Observe a visual model of Earth's spheres  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Earth science resource enables students to view Earth's four spheres--the geosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and atmosphere. The visualization is introduced by a paragraph that defines the four spheres. Below the paragraph, there is an image of a globe that a viewer can animate by clicking on it. The globe separates into four globes, each of which shows one sphere and is labeled with the appropriate sphere name. The animation contains a legend to explain the color coding used. Controls allow the viewer to pause the animation, replay it, or move through it frame by frame. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Education, Terc. C.; Littell, Mcdougal

2003-01-01

275

Medicine, ENT and music: a mythological approach.  

PubMed

Music and Medicine are united by Mythology. Apollo links them with his lyre and the snake that accompanies him. He has two sons, one called Asclepius, the Physician, and the other called Orpheus, the Musician. Elsewhere, poor taste in music, the occasional benefits of deafness, the charisma of music, the masking effect of noise and the echo effect are personified by mythical characters like Midas, Ulysses, the Sirens, Orpheus, the Maenads or the nymph Echo. And in all these cases, the ear or the voice are part of the fabric of their marvellous adventures. So ENT is involved at a fundamental level with the stuff of legend (Figure 1). PMID:21838103

Tainmont, J

2011-01-01

276

FEMA Hazard Mapping Information Platform  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online mapping application produced by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) allows users to generate and print hazard maps of any area in the United States. Hazard data is available for floods, fires, earthquakes, hurricanes, and tornadoes. The map can be navigated by entering a street address, city, and ZIP code or by using the cursor to move east, west, north, or south and to zoom in and out. Aerial photography is available, and a legend provides information on hazard type and distribution (denoted by colored patterns), cities and towns, streets and highways, political boundaries, rivers and lakes, and other features.

277

Volcanic features of Hawaii. A basis for comparison with Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Despite the difference in size Martian and Hawaiian volcanoes have numerous characteristics in common. Specific features such as lava channels, collapsed lava tubes, levees and flow fronts, all very common in Hawaii, are also abundant on the flanks of some of the Martian volcanoes. Striking differences also exist, such as the apparent lack of radial rift zones on some Martian volcanoes and the paucity of cinder and spatter cones. Some of the best photographs of Martian and Hawaiian volcanic features are presented. Descriptive legends are provided for each picture. An overview of the geological processes and structures depicted is included.

Carr, M. H.; Greeley, R.

1980-01-01

278

The use of large-scale aerial photography for interpreting Landsat digital data in an elk habitat-analysis project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Large-scale aerial photography was used to interpret Landsat multispectral scanner data processed through an unsupervised classifier. After scale adjustment and interpretation by application of an elk-habitat photointerpretation legend, the photographs were registered with the spectral classification, and the co-occurrence of spectral picture elements with photointerpreted habitat classes was tabulated. Analysis of the resulting table of data permitted the description of spectral classes in terms meaningful and useful to elk research and management unit in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon.

Isaacson, D. L.; Alexander, C. J.; Leckenby, D. A.

1982-01-01

279

Picture Your World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this experience, learners investigate the basic parts of a map. Learners first read the book "Me on the Map." Then, learners draw a picture of a favorite place and convert it into a map. They'll discuss the similarities and differences between their pictures and maps, while exploring terms like perspective and scale. Learners also discuss cartographers, reference maps, legends, and compass roses. This activity is featured on pp.10-12 (part of a lesson that begins on page 8) of the "National Geographic MAPS: Tools for Adventure" unit of study for grades 3-5.

Indianapolis, The C.; Society, National G.

2006-01-01

280

NASA's Long-term Debris Environment and Active Debris Removal Modeling Activities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the modeling activities for modeling of the long-term debris environment, the updated assessments of the environment, and the necessity to model the effectiveness of the technologies aimed at the removal of orbital debris. The model being used is named a LEO to GEO environment debris (LEGEND). It is a high fidelity three dimensional numerical simulation model with the capability to treat objects individually. It uses a Monte Carlo approach and a collision probability evaluation algorithm to simulate future satellite breakups and the growth of the debris populations.

Liou, J.-C.

2009-01-01

281

Solstice, Science, and Summer Reading  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Like generations before them, teachers often use the energy of the summer Sun to nurture seeds of growth (both real and virtual) for another year. Whether you believe the ancient legends or not, summer provides catch-up time. You can turn off your alarm and let the magic of your biorhythms take over. As they have in past years, the reviewers of NSTA Recommends have prepared some suggestions for summer reading. Some of their suggestions are scientific, some motivational, some practical�and some just plain fun. So where ever your comfort zone is, pull up a chair because it's time to read.

Texley, Juliana

2007-07-01

282

Erratum: Modeling the Production of Flares in Gamma-Ray Quasars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the paper ``Modeling the Production of Flares in Gamma-Ray Quasars'' by M. Sikora, M. B?a?ejowski, Mitchell C. Begelman, and R. Moderski (ApJ, 554, 1 [2001]), the legends in the upper-right corners in Figures 4a and 4b are incorrectly ordered, and arrows in Figure 4c are wrongly located. Figure 4 appears below with the respective corrections. In addition, the statement in § 2.4, paragraph 2, ``because the critical synchrotron frequency is dropping, it takes longer to build up the population of electrons necessary to produce a peak at higher frequencies,'' is wrong and should be ignored.

Sikora, M.; B?a?ejowski, M.; Begelman, Mitchell C.; Moderski, R.

2001-11-01

283

Brubeck Oral History Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dave Brubeck remains of one jazz's living legends; back in 2007 he sat down for a series of interviews with his wife, Iola, at the University of the Pacific. The interviews were filmed on Sanibel Island in Florida and were conducted by Sharon Sutton, the head of special collections at the University of Pacific Library, and Keith Hatschek, director of the music management program in the University of Pacific Conservatory of Music. The excerpts here were selected from over five hours of interview footage and vary over 35 different clips. The topics covered here include the legendary album "Time Out," jam sessions in India and Turkey, and the concept of "West Coast Jazz."

284

Look out, aurorae about!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Myths and legends abound concerning the aurora borealis; observations, at least in the UK, are considerably more rare, yet people continue to be interested in observing them on the few times a year they are visible. AuroraWatch hopes to boost this interest by providing an email alert service that, since 2000, has used real-time information from a network of magnetometers to assess when aurorae might be visible. Alerts can be sent to mobile phones as well as by conventional email, and have already enabled many people to see this beautiful natural phenomenon.

Wild, Jim

2006-02-01

285

NASA CONNECT: Dancing in the Night Sky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this program, students learn about the Aurora Borealis or Northern Lights. They learn the many legends and myths that have revolved around the aurora throughout human history. Students also discover how NASA scientists and engineers use satellite technology to measure and analyze aurora data, as well as how Norwegian scientists study the Northern Lights by using ground-based instruments and sounding rockets. Students plot the auroral oval in the northern hemisphere and determine the height of the northern lights using Carl Stormerâs triangulation method. Length: 30:00.

2003-02-01

286

Myth Versus Fact  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces students to myths about the auroras in different cultures. The class will read a story relating to legends of the aurora and share their reactions to the story. The teacher must select and obtain one or more books from a list provided. For homework, students will create their own myth regarding the aurora. This is lesson two of a collection of five activities that can be used individually or as a sequence; concludes with a KWL (Know/Want-to-know/Learned) assessment activity.

287

F-LE Dido and the Foundation of Carthage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: According to ancient legend, Dido made a deal with a local ruler to obtain as much land as she could cover with an oxhide. Dido interpreted ''cover'' i...

288

Twisters, Tall Tales, and Science Teaching  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Legends and tall tales have been part of the American culture for ages. Your students are probably already familiar with the tales of how Pecos Bill fearlessly tamed a ferocious tornado, or Paul Bunyan effortlessly restrained a great river. Such tales have been passed down from generation to generation to explain humanity, the natural world, and scientific phenomena. Harness your students' creative engery with this lesson that incorporates tall tales into the classroom, and follows the 5-E model (Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, and Evaluate) for incorporating constructivism into science teaching.

Wilcox, Dawn R.; Sterling, Donna R.

2006-07-01

289

Geology of Mojave National Preserve  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Park Service (NPS) highlights the geology of the Mojave National Preserve in California. It includes a field trip describing areas of interest at the preserve, as well as a geologic time scale describing the history and development of this area. Processes that shaped this region include volcanism, tectonics, faulting, erosion, deposition, spreading, intrusions, and glaciation. There is a geologic map of the area with units and a legend, and links to maps and technical papers.

290

Orbital Debris Research in the United States  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The presentation includes information about growth of the satellite population, the U.S. Space Surveillance Network, tracking and catalog maintenance, Haystack and HAX radar observation, Goldstone radar, the Michigan Orbital Debris Survey Telescope (MODEST), spacecraft surface examinations and sample of space shuttle impacts. GEO/LEO observations from Kwajalein Atoll, NASA s Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM2008), a LEO-to-GEO Environment Debris Model (LEGEND), Debris Assessment Software (DAS) 2.0, the NASA/JSC BUMPER-II meteoroid/debris threat assessment code, satellite reentry risk assessment, optical size and shape determination, work on more complicated fragments, and spectral studies.

Stansbery, Gene

2009-01-01

291

[Essay on the myth of oedipus].  

PubMed

Jung conceptualized the collective unconscious as the locus of the myths, the absolutely genuine and primary patterns of thinking and feeling of humanity. The legend of Oedipus or myth of incest is a irrefutable proof of its eternal validity. The present essay is an attempt to take an alternative look to a history that belong to all of us. Situations that are developed in this drama, like the characters involved in it may charge significance as an archetypal and essentially symbolic interpretation. PMID:23145377

Costa, Néstor E

2012-01-01

292

Understanding the origins and prevalence of AIDS conspiracy beliefs in the United States and South Africa.  

PubMed

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) originated from cross-species transmission of the simian immunodeficiency virus from primates to humans. Yet a significant minority of people in the United States (US) and South Africa believe that HIV was deliberately created by scientists as a bioweapon. Scholars in the humanities emphasise the historical context, socially situated character and psycho-social dimensions of such aetiological narratives. This is important, but so is the role of individual agents participating in the cultic milieu in which oppositional ideas such as HIV conspiracy theories are borrowed across national, ideological and political divides. This article discusses the origins of the legend of 'HIV as bioweapon' and summarises the available evidence on the prevalence of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) conspiracy beliefs in the US and South Africa. This is followed by a discussion of the history of biowarfare and racial oppression which renders the legend (and its local South African variants) believable for many people. The article then moves beyond socio-historical analysis to argue that analytical space needs to be created to critique the political leaders who promoted AIDS conspiracy beliefs. PMID:22533636

Nattrass, Nicoli

2013-01-01

293

Geomythology and Cosmic Impacts in Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Myths and legends are taught as an important component of cultural history and heritage, but are viewed by many as little more than fairy tales. Rife with supernatural deities, unphysical acts of strength and prowess, and fictional creatures, the very concept of examining them for scientific content is frowned upon, if not rejected outright. And with anti-science creationists pushing for teaching mythology-as-science, this is not unexpected. But researchers are finding out something oral cultures have always known - myths and legends (or to use the preferred term, 'oral traditions') contain information about nature, survival, cultural practices, and social structure for the peoples that developed them. This information actually does include a scientific component - explanations of the natural world that were used for navigation, calendars, food economics, and agricultural practices. The rising of the Pleiades at dawn may signal the arrival of winter. The behavior of some animals may predict the onset of bad weather. Certain plants may be used to treat ailments and disease. But these oral traditions can also contain information about past geological and astronomical events.

Hamacher, Duane W.

2014-02-01

294

Inner-city pharmacies: can they meet the OBRA '90 mandates?  

PubMed

Visits were made to 21 pharmacies in two poor Chicago neighborhoods as one component of the University of Illinois at Chicago's commitment to help improve health care delivery, ensure that pharmacy services are not overlooked in local health reform efforts, and understand the implications of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 (OBRA '90). Pharmacists report that Medicaid reimbursement policies result in: (1) prescribing patterns that have no consistent therapeutic or economic rationale; (2) dispensing of expensive drugs, some of which are then sold on the street or to other pharmacies; and (3) dispensing of unnecessary and often expensive legend drugs when other legend drugs and generics or over-the-counter products would perform just as well. On the positive side, 76% of the pharmacies possess computerized patient-profile systems, and 72% maintain background information on their prescribers. These results suggest that OBRA '90's mandates should contribute toward improving the Medicaid program, but that implementation is likely to be difficult and uneven. PMID:8333408

Reutzel, T J; Wilson, L A; Mickel, M; Lee, J; Anderson, K; Gray, S; Borkowski, J; Manasse, H; Cooksey, J

1993-05-01

295

The impact of the Quaternary glaciations on the Durmitor mountains (Montenegro) as understood from detailed geomorphological mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Balkans, few studies exist that highlight the impact of the Quaternary glaciations on the landscape. However, the impact of the Quaternary glaciations was important and the glacial imprint remains well preserved in the limestone massifs where karst hydrology prevails. This study presents a detailed geomorphological map at scale 1:10,000 that was prepared of the northeastern Durmitor mountains (2523 m a.s.l.) and the plateau Jezerska Površ (47 km², Dinaric Alps, Montenegro). Mapping occurred from an intensive fieldwork campaign and remote sensing analysis, and was finalized in a GIS environment. The basic components of the legend are (i) processes/genesis, (ii) materials, (iii) morphometry/morphography, (iv) hydrography, (v) vegetation and (vi) anthropogenic features, that are organized as a box-of-bricks type of legend (AGRG-system). The geomorphological setting of the area consists of Mesozoic limestones which were eroded physically by Quaternary glacial and periglacial activity and chemically during interglacials. Glacial deposits of three Middle to Late Pleistocene glacial phases exist on the plateau, only scarcely dissected by meltwater channels. In the mountains, Holocene glacier retreat left behind a series of well-preserved recessional moraines and a static glacier remains in the cirque head. The presented map serves as a valuable tool for Quaternary research in the Durmitor Mountains, and serves as an example on the interaction between glacial and karst processes. Keywords: Debeli Namet glacier, Dinaric Alps, Geographic Information System (GIS), Glacial landforms, Karst.

Frankl, Amaury; Annys, Klaas; Spalevi?, Velibor; ?urovi?, Milic; Borota, Dragan; Nyssen, Jan

2014-05-01

296

The Solid Rocket Motor Slag Population: Results of a Radar-Based Regressive Statistical Evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solid rocket motor (SRM) slag has been identified as a potential source of man-made orbital debris. The possibility that SRMs (in addition to generating dust particles in the sub-millimeter range) may generate particles up to centimeters in size has caused concern regarding their contribution to the debris environment. Returned surfaces from space do not have sufficient area or exposure time to provide a clear picture of the SRM millimeter and centimeter debris population. Currently, radar observation is probably the only way to collect data showing the debris contribution from SRMs. Such observation is used to sample the debris environment, but it is difficult to obtain accurate orbital elements for the detected debris objects. NASA has developed several models to describe the different orbital debris populations, based on assumed debris production mechanisms to create clouds of debris objects that can be propagated in time. The NASA model, LEGEND (LEO-to-GEO Environment Debris), functions as a time-tested debris model for most debris sources. However, the current LEGEND model does not include contributions from the SRM population. An SRM model has recently been developed by NASA, based on purely theoretical details of SRM production and known SRM launches, but verification with hard data is needed. Because the detections of individual SRM objects cannot be deterministically separated from the total debris observed by radar, the validation of the SRM model can only be done by combining it with the LEGEND breakup model and comparing it with data. By applying observational constraints, the degree of SRM slag contribution to the environment may be estimated. This serves as an observationally sound method from which to calibrate a purely theoretical model into something more realistic. For this study, we use the populations observed by the Haystack radar from 1996 to present. For the SRM debris, we use a historical database of SRM launches, propellant masses, and estimated locations and times of tailoff to produce and propagate the SRM debris clouds. Comparisons with radar data from the ensuing years were made, and the SRM model was altered with respect to size and mass production of slag particles to reflect the populations estimated from the data. The result is a model SRM population that fits within the bounds of the observed environment and estimates of the production and contribution of SRM debris to the environment.

Horstman, Matthew F.; Xu, Yu-Lin

2008-01-01

297

Bedrock Geology and Mineral Resources of the Knoxville 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, Tennessee, North Carolina, and South Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The following geographic information system (GIS) data layers provide a digital format for the map plate in Bulletin 1979 (Robinson et al., 1991), ?Bedrock Geology and Mineral Resources of the Knoxville 1?x 2? Quadrangle, Tennessee, North Carolina, and South Carolina.? This open-file report is meant to supplement Bulletin 1979. The Knoxville 1?x 2? quadrangle spans the Southern Blue Ridge physiographic province at its widest point from eastern Tennessee across western North Carolina to the northwest corner of South Carolina. The quadrangle also contains small parts of the Valley and Ridge province in Tennessee and the Piedmont province in North and South Carolina. The bedrock geology for the coverage area is provided as a polygon coverage with bedrock unit information included. Mineral resources and geologic faults are provided as point and line files, respectively, to overlay the geology coverage. Detailed geologic information is provided in the attribute tables for these files, and .avl legend files are provided.

Robinson, G. R., Jr.; Lesure, F. G.; Marlowe, J. I., II; Foley, N. K.; Clark, S. H.

2004-01-01

298

Separation of amino-acid enantiomers using micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration.  

PubMed

Micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF) is investigated as a large-scale technique for separating amino acid enantiomers. Specifically, L-5-cholesterol glutamate, a chiral ligand-exchange cosurfactant, is used together with a nonionic surfactant to form mixed micelles that preferentially bind D-phenylalanine over L-phenylalanine in the presence of copper(II). Operational selectivities as high as 4.2 are obtained. Potentiometric titrations using a water-soluble model compound similar to the chiral cosurfactant indicate that the ternary copper complex with phenylalanine has a stereoselectivity for the D enantiomer which is significantly smaller than that observed in the MEUF system. Thus, the selectivity of the chiral legend's local solvent and structural environment. PMID:18618829

Creagh, A L; Hasenack, B B; Van der Padt, A; Sudhölter, E J; Van't Riet, K

1994-09-01

299

Isodose atlas for use in radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

This atlas is divided into 11 major sections: the skin, head and neck, thorax, breast, GI tract and extraintestinal abdominal organs, female genital organs, male genital organs, urinary tract, para-aortic lymph nodes, skeletal system, and central nervous system. It is intended as a handbook to aid the practicing radiotherapist in planning the radiation therapy of tumors of individual organs. The authors stress that they have obviously been unable to supply optimum isodose charts for each and every patient, but by judicious use of the charts, the legends that accompany the charts, and the exhaustive references provided at the end of the book, it should be possible to plan radiation therapy for most tumors.

Nemeth, G.; Kuttig, H. (eds.)

1981-01-01

300

Stargazing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On a clear night, the vastness and beauty of the star-filled sky is awe inspiring. In Stargazing: Astronomy without a Telescope Patrick Moore, Britain's best known astronomer, tells you all you need to know about the universe visible to the naked eye. With the aid of charts and illustrations, he explains how to "read" the stars, to know which constellations lie overhead, their trajectory throughout the seasons, and the legends ascribed to them. In a month-by-month guide he describes using detailed star maps of the night skies of both the northern and southern hemispheres. He also takes a look at the planets, the Sun and the Moon and their eclipses, comets, meteors, as well as aurorae and other celestial phenomena--all in accessible scientific detail. This captivating book shows how, even with just the naked eye, astronomy can be a fascinating and rewarding hobby--for life.

Moore, Patrick

2000-10-01

301

The Tapanui region of New Zealand: Site of a Tunguska around 800 years ago?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence is discussed that the wide-spread fires ca. 800 years ago which denuded the southern provinces of the South Island of New Zealand of the extensive forests present at that time were due to the entry of a large bolide into the atmosphere, the conflagration being ignited by the intense heat generated as this extraterrestrial projectile ablated/detonated in a similar manner to that of the Tunguska object of 1908. These fires led to the extinction of the giant terrestrial bird known as the Moa, and the end of the archaic epoch of Maori history known as the Moa Hunter period. This interpretation is well attested to in Maori myth and legend.

Steel, Duncan; Snow, Peter

1992-12-01

302

Irish Serials in the Boston College Libraries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Boston College Library system has online a searchable database of its noted Irish Serials collection. Researchers can now browse and search the list of over 1,400 newspapers, magazines, and journals that originate from or pertain to Ireland before deciding on whether to take a trip to Boston. The Libraries' holdings "range in date from 1685 to the present and cover Irish history, literature, politics, art, archaeology, economics, genealogy, music, and law." Users can search by title keyword, date range, or microform series. Search returns provide complete holdings information and a legend denoting microfiche or microform series. For example, NIPL denotes the Northern Ireland Political Literature series and IPRN (POST CW REP.) the Post Civil War Republican/Fianna Fail series.

303

PLTTER user's guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The PLTTER graphics system, which is part of CDDMS is discussed. CDDMS is a comprehensive system for data basing and subsequent plotting of data acquired during wind tunnel tests or from computational flow analyses. The PLTTER is a system which creates report-quality plots of data which is stored on a CDDMS data base. The Requests file system allows plot-controlling information to be arranged in the way which is most appropriate for any application. The PLTTER system features many capabilities which are especially useful when plotting wind tunnel data. The PLTTER offers a variety of page formats, different grid options and parametric curve fitting algorithms, and a powerful legend capability to identify relevant information about individual curves. One or more plots on a page can be suppressed if desired so that an established page format can be maintained. Final plot output may be standard Versatec plots, QMS Laser printer plots, or microfiche.

Barlow, A.; Hermstad, D.; Trosin, J.

1985-01-01

304

Folklore Pamphlets, 1921-1945: Wisconsin Historical Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of their Turning Points in Wisconsin History collection, staff members at the Wisconsin Historical Society have digitized a rather compelling set of folklore pamphlets. The folklore pamphlets were created by Charles E. Brown, who served as the curator of the Museum of the State Historical Society and secretary of the Wisconsin Archaeological Society. Published between 1921 and 1945, these pamphlets were originally created for the Wisconsin Folklore Society and other groups. Each pamphlet is from four to eight pages long, and they include such titles as âÂÂMoccasin TalesâÂÂ, âÂÂIndian Folk LoreâÂÂ, and âÂÂLake Mendota: Prehistory, History and LegendsâÂÂ. As this is Wisconsin, visitors should not be surprised that there are four or five pamphlets that deal with tales of Paul Bunyan and his various adventures.

Brown, Charles E. (Charles Edward), 1872-1946

305

NOVA: Pocahontas Revealed  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Who was Pocahontas? It's a question that has puzzled historians and archaeologists for centuries, and this recent documentary from NOVA takes a nuanced and in-depth look into both the reality and the myth surrounding her. The program draws on a wide variety of perspectives, and this complementary website could be used as an educational tool in the classroom or just as a means for personal edification. Visitors can watch a short video preview of the program, and then take a look through the "Images of A Legend" area, which provides twelve different visual interpretations of Pocahontas from the early 17th century all the way up to her recent portrayal in a popular animated film. Other areas of the site include "The Science of Jamestown", "Touching the Past", and "Bold Endeavor", which features an essay by historian David Silverman on the clash of cultures between Jamestown's colonists and Pocahontas' people.

2007-11-28

306

Digital geological information delivery in the Geological Survey of Ireland (GSI)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital information is delivered though a web portal with other spatial data from the Department of Communications Energy and Natural Resources. Individual viewers specific to major GSI topics can be access for a central web page on the GSI website. Most data is available to download from our data download site the Interactive Web Data Delivery System (IWDDS) which is interactively linked to our main viewers. More recent viewers include 3D viewers able to show the topography of a selected area, as well as dynamic legends for some layers and the ability to choose from a selection of basemaps and choose the transparency of each basemap. The hardware infrastructure for web delivery is based on virtual server technology and SAN technology, this maximises uptime and ease of administration as well as providing a flexible scaling of architecture as the need arises.

Carter, Mary

2014-05-01

307

Identifying and misidentifying the brown recluse spider.  

PubMed

The brown recluse spider, Loxosceles reclusa, is often implicated as a cause of necrotic skin lesions.[1-3] Diagnoses are most commonly made by clinical appearance and infrequently is a spider seen, captured or identified at the time of the bite.[1, 2, 4-6] The brown recluse lives in a circumscribed area of the U.S. (the south central Midwest) with a few less common recluse species living in the more sparsely-populated southwest U.S.[7] In these areas, where spider populations may be dense, recluse spiders may be a cause of significant morbidity. However, outside the natural range of these recluse species, the conviction that they are the etiological agents behind necrotic lesions of unknown origin is widespread, and most often erroneous. In some states such as California, unsubstantiated reports concerning recluse spider bites have taken on the status of "urban legend" leading to overdiagnosis and, therefore, inappropriate treatment. PMID:10673460

Vetter, R

1999-11-01

308

Early Earthquakes of the Americas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Robert Kovach's second book looks at the interplay of earthquake and volcanic events, archeology, and history in the Americas. Throughout history, major earthquakes have caused the deaths of millions of people and have damaged countless cities. Earthquakes undoubtedly damaged prehistoric cities in the Americas, and evidence of these events could be preserved in archeological records. Kovach asks, Did indigenous native cultures-Indians of the Pacific Northwest, Aztecs, Mayas, and Incas-document their natural history? Some events have been explicitly documented, for example, in Mayan codices, but many may have been recorded as myth and legend. Kovach's discussions of how early cultures dealt with fearful events such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are colorful, informative, and entertaining, and include, for example, a depiction of how the Maya would talk to maize plants in their fields during earthquakes to reassure them.

Ni, James

2004-11-01

309

Payload specialist station study: Volume 2, part 3: Program analysis and planning for phase C/D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The controls and displays (C&D) required at the Orbiter aft-flight deck (AFD) and the core C&D required at the Payload Specialist Station (PSS) are identified in this document. The AFD C&D Concept consists of a multifunction display system (MFDS) and elements of multiuse mission support equipment (MMSE). The MFDS consists of two CRTs, a display electronics unit (DEU), and a keyboard. The MMSE consists of a manual pointing controller (MPC), five digit numeric displays, 10 character alphanumeric legends, event timers, analog meters, rotary and toggle switches. The MMSE may be hardwired to the experiment, or interface with a data bus at the PSS for signal processing. The MFDS has video capability, with alphanumeric and graphic overlay features, on one CRT and alphanumeric and graphic (tricolor) capability on a second CRT. The DEU will have the capability to communicate, via redundant data buses, with both the spacelab experiment and subsystem computers.

1976-01-01

310

Bob Hope and American Variety  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the most enduring legends of American film, stage, and screen receives an excellent tribute on this online exhibit from the Library of Congress, dealing with his 70 year career, and more broadly, the enduring legacy and history of vaudeville in the United States. Different sections of the site include an essay on the early life of Bob Hope, the story of American vaudeville in the first decades of the 20th century, and documentation on Bob Hope's prodigious service abroad for the United Service Organization (USO). One of the most compelling sections of the site is titled Faces of Bob Hope, which contains dozens of the portraits and good-natured caricatures of the visage that Bing Crosby often referred to as "The Ski Slope." Another useful section contains information about Mr. Hope's voluminous joke file (over 85,000 pages), along with several scanned images of these pages.

311

Correction: mutsuzaki, h., et Al. Improved bonding of partially osteomyelitic bone to titanium pins owing to biomimetic coating of apatite. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 24366-24379.  

PubMed

In the original version of the manuscript [1] there was an inadvertent error. The words "25 °C for 48 h" should be replaced with "25 °C for 24 h". The authors carried out the coating experiments at 25 °C for 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h. The apatite coatings formed at 25 °C for 24 and 48 h were found to be identical in physicochemical nature, which was revealed by SEM, EDX, XRD and chemical analysis. Thus, in the animal experiments, the authors used apatite-coated Ti pins fabricated at 25 °C for 24 h. Several corrections are thus required in the abstract, the main text, the figure legends, and the figures (Table 1). The authors would like to apologize for any inconvenience this may have caused to readers of the journal. [...]. PMID:24886819

Mutsuzaki, Hirotaka; Sogo, Yu; Oyane, Ayako; Ito, Atsuo

2014-01-01

312

matplotlib -- A Portable Python Plotting Package  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

matplotlib is a portable 2D plotting and imaging package aimed primarily at visualization of scientific, engineering, and financial data. matplotlib can be used interactively from the Python shell, called from python scripts, or embedded in a GUI application (GTK, Wx, Tk, Windows). Many popular hardcopy outputs are supported including JPEG, PNG, PostScript and SVG. Features include the creation of multiple axes and figures per page, interactive navigation, many predefined line styles and symbols, images, antialiasing, alpha blending, date and financial plots, W3C compliant font management and FreeType2 support, legends and tables, pseudocolor plots, mathematical text and more. It works with both numarray and Numeric. The goals of the package, basic architecture, current features (illustrated with examples), and planned enhancements will be described.

Barrett, P.; Hunter, J.; Miller, J. T.; Hsu, J.-C.; Greenfield, P.

2005-12-01

313

Comparative evaluation of ERTS-A imagery for resource inventory in land-use planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are no author-identified significant results in this report. The overall objectives of this program are: (1) use of multidiscipline team approach to determine features that can be successfully monitored by ERTS-1 imagery for resource inventory, planning, land use zoning, and resource development; and (2) using carefully selected sample areas, develop a comprehensive resource inventory mapping system for use in planning, zoning, and resource development. Progress has included compilation and organization of ground truth data and observations in the primary study area of Crook County; resource inventory legend development; assembly and testing of color enhancement equipment; development and adaption of programs for digital data processing; and quick-look evaluations of initial ERTS-1 imagery for Oregon.

Simonson, G. H. (principal investigator)

1972-01-01

314

Toward Soil Spatial Information Systems (SSIS) for global modeling and ecosystem management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general objective is to conduct research to contribute toward the realization of a world soils and terrain (SOTER) database, which can stand alone or be incorporated into a more complete and comprehensive natural resources digital information system. The following specific objectives are focussed on: (1) to conduct research related to (a) translation and correlation of different soil classification systems to the SOTER database legend and (b) the inferfacing of disparate data sets in support of the SOTER Project; (2) to examine the potential use of AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) data for delineating meaningful soils and terrain boundaries for small scale soil survey (range of scale: 1:250,000 to 1:1,000,000) and terrestrial ecosystem assessment and monitoring; and (3) to determine the potential use of high dimensional spectral data (220 reflectance bands with 10 m spatial resolution) for delineating meaningful soils boundaries and conditions for the purpose of detailed soil survey and land management.

Baumgardner, Marion F.

1995-01-01

315

Breathing Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visual simulation and representation programs and applications have been popping up online in greater numbers, and this recent find is one that will pique the interest of scientists, policy makers, and others who are concerned about carbon dioxide emission rates across the Earth. The Breathing Earth site was created by David Bleja, and he draws on a number of resources (such as the World Factbook and the United Nations) for the data that is utilized to create this site. Visitors can scroll over different countries to learn about their population, their emissions, and their birth and death rate. This interactive map and educational resource also contains a legend in the right-hand corner which explains the various symbols in use here.

Bleja, David

316

Take Five  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What if you could learn about how to prepare for emergency situations, explore the legends of the Alamo, and the rise of wireless communications all in one place? Sounds like a pretty good deal, and it is all possible via the Take Five website. Presented by the University of Texas at Austin, the Take Five website presents videos of various faculty members talking about their areas of expertise in an accessible and engaging format. Since the spring of 2003, the Take Five project has presented five new lectures each semester (hence the name of the project), and visitors to the site have access to all of these materials. The presentations are uniformly quite good, and along with the previously mentioned topics, they also cover such areas as minority entrepreneurship and the role of technology in addressing the worldâÂÂs major health problems.

317

NASA Orbital Debris Baseline Populations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office has created high fidelity populations of the debris environment. The populations include objects of 1 cm and larger in Low Earth Orbit through Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit. They were designed for the purpose of assisting debris researchers and sensor developers in planning and testing. This environment is derived directly from the newest ORDEM model populations which include a background derived from LEGEND, as well as specific events such as the Chinese ASAT test, the Iridium 33/Cosmos 2251 accidental collision, the RORSAT sodium-potassium droplet releases, and other miscellaneous events. It is the most realistic ODPO debris population to date. In this paper we present the populations in chart form. We describe derivations of the background population and the specific populations added on. We validate our 1 cm and larger Low Earth Orbit population against SSN, Haystack, and HAX radar measurements.

Krisko, Paula H.; Vavrin, A. B.

2013-01-01

318

Role of surface in apparent viscosity of glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two problems have intrigued experts for a long time: The one is within the context of the legend of flowing cathedral glass windows and the second is the inaccuracy appearing in very old thermometers of famous scientists. We relate this with the role of the surface on the apparent viscosity of glasses. The apparent viscosity could deviate from the bulk viscosity if the fraction w of the surface molecules, of small samples, is sufficiently large. The effect is more prominent at low temperatures, correspondingly at high viscosities. The interpretation is within the Avramov and Milchev viscosity model, combined with the predictions of the change of heat capacity for extremely small samples. We find that the apparent glass transition temperature could depend on the sample size, in agreement with experimental observations existing in the literature. In addition to glasses, the present results could be of importance for thin films and foams.

Avramov, I.

2014-03-01

319

National Forensic League  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over its eighty year history, the NFL has graduated such notable alumni as President Lyndon Baines Johnson, Oprah Winfrey, Jane Pauley, and Don Ameche. They never played a moment in the NFL that celebrates the legends of the gridiron, but rather they honed their powers of persuasion and oratory in the National Forensic League. Over one million additional alums have joined these well-known personages, and persons who wish to know more about the organization and its operations will want to take a close look at their site. From the homepage, visitors can move through sections that provide hands-on resources that will help both students and coaches get familiar with the world of debate. Most of these resources are located in the "Coaching Resources" area, and are divided into such topics as speech assignments, vocabulary, and peer evaluations.

320

National Forensic League  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over its eighty year history, the NFL has graduated such notable alumni as President Lyndon Baines Johnson, Oprah Winfrey, Jane Pauley, and Don Ameche. They never played a moment in the NFL that celebrates the legends of the gridiron, but rather they honed their powers of persuasion and oratory in the National Forensic League. Over one million additional alums have joined these well-known personages, and persons who wish to know more about the organization and its operations will want to take a close look at their site. From the homepage, visitors can move through sections that provide hands-on resources that will help both students and coaches get familiar with the world of debate. Most of these resources are located in the "Coaching Resources" area, and are divided into such topics as speech assignments, vocabulary, and peer evaluations.

2007-03-01

321

NASA, the Fisherman's Friend  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Every angler has his secrets, whether it be an old family recipe for stink bait, a midnight worm-hunting ritual, or the most coveted of all, the no-fail fishing hole. Most of these secrets are lore and legend, passed through generations, and coveted more than the family s best tableware. Each of these kernels of wisdom promises the fisherman a bite at the end of the line, but very few are rooted in fact and science. There is one, though.... NASA partnered with a company on the bayous of Mississippi and Louisiana to use satellite data to create a marine information system, a space-age fish finder. This product provides up-to-date information about the location of a variety of fish, including yellowfin tuna, bluefish, blue marlin, white marlin, sailfish, blackfin tuna, little tunny, and swordfish. The system shows peaked catch rates, and may be the only true fish-finding product on the market.

2005-01-01

322

Captain Cartography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this geography activity, learners create reference maps or thematic maps of an important part of their world, such as their home or neighborhood. They take measurements, develop a scale, and use map symbols, a legend, and a compass rose to create maps on chart paper. Each learner selects a title for their map and briefly presents to the group, explaining the map's functions and components. This activity is written as an assessment experience but it can be used as independent activity as well. This activity is featured on pp.19-21 (part of a lesson that begins on page 8) of the "National Geographic MAPS: Tools for Adventure" unit of study for grades 3-5.

Indianapolis, The C.; Society, National G.

2006-01-01

323

The Physics Front  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Richard Feynman was one of the great communicators and scholars within the field of physics, and his very accessible lectures remain the stuff of legend today. While Professor Feynman is no longer with us, physics teachers can avail themselves of the very nice resources offered at The Physics Front. Created by the American Association of Physics Teachers and the National Science Foundation, the site contains lesson plans, activities, labs, and other pedagogical tools for physics teachers. The site also is notable for its âÂÂFirst Time Physics Teachersâ section which contains a bit of information about the nature of teaching physics and how these resources might be best used in the classroom. The âÂÂActivitiesâ area of the site is a real treat, as educators can find activities by subject, which include optics, energy, momentum, and wave energy.

324

Marshall Rosenbluth and the Metropolis algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1953 publication, ``Equation of State Calculations by Very Fast Computing Machines'' by N. Metropolis, A. W. Rosenbluth and M. N. Rosenbluth, and M. Teller and E. Teller [J. Chem. Phys. 21, 1087 (1953)] marked the beginning of the use of the Monte Carlo method for solving problems in the physical sciences. The method described in this publication subsequently became known as the Metropolis algorithm, undoubtedly the most famous and most widely used Monte Carlo algorithm ever published. As none of the authors made subsequent use of the algorithm, they became unknown to the large simulation physics community that grew from this publication and their roles in its development became the subject of mystery and legend. At a conference marking the 50th anniversary of the 1953 publication, Marshall Rosenbluth gave his recollections of the algorithm's development. The present paper describes the algorithm, reconstructs the historical context in which it was developed, and summarizes Marshall's recollections.

Gubernatis, J. E.

2005-05-01

325

Giotto: The Scrovegni Chapel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers an up-close tour through Giotto's frescos in the Cappella dell'Arena in Padua (also called the Scrovegni Chapel), built by Enrico Scrovegni between 1300 and 1303 on the site of a Roman amphitheater. Carefully researched and presented by Roy Evans, the site introduces the user to Giotto, an art historical legend, and presents Giotto's fresco representation of the lives of the Virgin Mary and Jesus Christ. Users can browse through the frescos, zooming in on details. Giotto is often regarded as a founder of modern painting since he broke with the painting conventions of his day and attempted to depict three-dimensional figures in space on a flat surface. The frescos in the Scrovegni Chapel show the full scope of this artistic revolution. See the third image, "The Annunciation of Anna," to appreciate Giotto's handling of space.

326

Wilbur "Buck" Clayton Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For over fifty years, Wilbur "Buck" Clayton brought his special brand of trumpet magic to audiences around the world. Born in Parsons, Kansas, Clayton was a prominent member of Count Basie's orchestra and he went on tour for the State Department as well. This digital collection from the Miller Nichols Library at the University of Missouri-Kansas City presents over 1500 photographs from this collection documenting Clayton's life and career. Visitors can browse the collection, and there are some great photos of Clayton as a small child and of course, some excellent photos of him collaborating with other jazz legends like Pee Wee Russell, Joe Turner, and Buddy Tate. Visitors with an interest in specific images can use the search feature to look for items using each photograph's details.

327

Presenting the 3rd edition of WRB  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The third edition of the international soil classification system "World Reference Base for Soil Resources" (WRB) will be presented during der 20th World Congress of Soil Science, Jeju, Korea, June 9-12. The second edition was published in 2006 and the first in 1998, which, in turn, was based on the Legends of the FAO Soil Map of the World. Now, after eight years of experience with the second edition, time was due for a revision. The major changes are: 1. The second edition had two different qualifier sequences for naming soils (IUSS Working Group WRB, 2006, update 2007) and for creating map legends (Guidelines for creating small-scale map legends using the WRB; IUSS Working Group WRB, 2010). The third edition has one sequence for both. The qualifiers for every Reference Soil Group are subdivided into a small number of main qualifiers that are ranked and a larger number of additional qualifiers that are not ranked and given in an alphabetical order. The name of a pedon must comprise all applying qualifiers. The name of a map unit comprises a specified small number of main qualifiers, depending on scale, whereas all other qualifiers are optional. 2. For some soils, problems have been reported. Albeluvisols are difficult to detect in the field and cover only small surfaces. They have been replaced by Retisols, which have a broader definition that is easier to identify in the field. 3. The use of some diagnostics was difficult. Examples are: The argic horizon had too low limit values, so we had much more soils with argic horizons than justified. The definitions of the cambic horizon and the gleyic and stagnic properties were not precise enough. Organic material, mollic and umbric horizons had an unnecessary complicated definition. 4. Some changes in the key to the Reference Soil Groups seemed to be justified. Fluvisols were moved further down, Durisols and Gypsisols switched their position, also Arenosols and Cambisols. The soils with an argic horizon were brought into a new sequence. 5. The umbrella function of WRB aims to allow the allocation of soil classes existing in a national classification system within the WRB. Characteristics that in a national system are regarded to be important must be considered in WRB - not necessarily at the highest level, but at least somewhere. The third edition of WRB allows a better accommodation of soil types, e.g., of the Australian and the Brazilian system. 6. Some environments or even ecoregions had not been well represented in WRB. The third edition allows a better accommodation of soils of ultra-continental permafrost regions, acid-sulphate soils and Technosols. 7. How to explain complicated sets of characteristics? For the third edition, efforts were made to give better structured definitions that can be more easily grasped. The editors of the third edition are convinced that the new WRB allows a more precise classification of soils including both, a better naming of pedons and a better elaboration of soil map legends.

Schad, Peter

2014-05-01

328

Office of the Secretary of State: Rhode Island State Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Far more than a collection of basic government documents, the Rhode Island State Library website is a nice resource for anyone seeking to learn more about the Ocean State. The materials here are divided into three main sections: "Research Tools", "Publications", and "Everything RI". In "Research Tools", users will find executive orders issued by the governor, annual reports, as well as state regulations and rules. Moving on, the "Publications" area contains some colorful historical documents, including the Rhode Island Royal Charter of 1663 and the state constitution. Finally, the "Everything RI" area contains documents that narrate the state's history, such as "State Symbols", "Famous Rhode Islanders", "Rhode Island Landmarks", and "City & Town Incorporation Dates". Just for reference, some of the notable persons from the Ocean State include George M. Cohan, Anne Hutchinson, and baseball legend Nap Lajoie.

329

Periodical Historical Atlas of Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This seventh edition of the Periodical Historical Atlas of Europe, available in English and French, was posted on the Web in September 2001. The atlas, a project of Christos Nussli, consists of maps "depicting with accuracy the states of this continent every first day of each centennial year from AD 1 to AD 2000." A legend helps users understand each of the maps, which are presented as expandable thumbnails. The site also links to a bibliography and maps from De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors. Though the site functions in part as an advertisement for Nussli's CD version of the atlas, it is nonetheless a useful stop in its own right.

Nussli, Christos.

330

Stable isotope geochemistry of East African waters. [Abstract only  

SciTech Connect

Lakes and Rivers in East Africa have varied stable isotopic compositions. Lakes exhibit enriched delta13-C values (-2 to +5%), while their inflowing rivers show depleted values (-15 to -8%). Hot springs and standing pools of water have intermediate values. Some small lakes are extremely variable in delta18-0 or deltaD (+2 to +8% and +20 to +40%, respectively for Lake Naivasha), whereas larger lakes are relatively constant for long periods of time (+5.6 to 6.1 and +36 to 40, respectively for Lake Turkana). Isotopic values are unrelated to salinity for comparison between lakes. Stable isotopes also reveal the sources of hot spring discharges: the Kapedo hot springs probably originate from Maralel and not from Lake Baringo as local legend has it; the hot springs north of Lake Naivasha are of meteoric origin while those to the south of Lake Naivasha have similar isotopic compositions to Lake Naivasha.

Sayer, M.D.; Cerling, T.E.; Bowman, J.R.

1983-03-01

331

Glann Seaborg's Contributions to Heavy Element Science and the Periodic Table  

SciTech Connect

In celebrating the centennial anniversary of the birth of Glenn T. Seaborg it is fitting that we recount and pay tribute to his legacy. Many know of the scientific accomplishments of this man who became a legend and anyone who has attended his lectures can attest to how informative, educational, and entertaining he was. He had a beguiling and whimsical sense of humor and used this to drive home his points and share his passion and quest for discovery. The periodic table is a fundamental cornerstone of science and remains a central unifying principal. Seaborg was the architect of the actinide series of elements and their proper placement in the periodic table and co-discoverer of ten transuranium elements - one of which bears his name, element 106, seaborgium. The work and achievements of this Nobel laureate have touched the lives of many and his legacy will continue for generations to come.

Hobart, David E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-17

332

Using the Environment in Mathematics and Science Teaching: An African and Aboriginal Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A strong case is made in this paper for the effective utilisation of the learner's environment for science and mathematics teaching in African, rural, and Aboriginal societies. Dwelling on the rich cultural heritage of indigenous, traditional, and rural settings, the paper attempts to explain why, and show how this heritage can be advantageously tapped and transferred to modern day mathematics and science classrooms and laboratories. The need for the integration of school science and mathematics with the lived experiences of learners in indigenous cultures where factors such as folklore, myths, legends, and taboos play powerful roles is also discussed. Integrating the environment into school teaching/learning, the paper argues, would contribute to an effective mathematics-science-environment-society interaction. Additionally, the approach could boost enrolment and performance in mathematics and science for students from indigenous cultural backgrounds, many of who shy away from these areas of study in present-day schools.

Ezeife, Anthony N.

2003-07-01

333

Tsunami: The Underrated Hazard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tsunami: the Underrated Hazard, by Edward Bryant, would appear to be a welcome addition to the scholarly tsunami literature. No book on tsunamis has the broad perspective of this work. The book looks attractive, with many high-quality photographs. It looks comprehensive, with discussions of tsunami hydrodynamics, tsunami effects on coastal landscapes, and causes of tsunamis (earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, meteorite impacts). It looks practical, with a section on risk and mitigation. It also looks entertaining, with an opening chapter on tsunami legends and a closing chapter presenting fanciful descriptions of imagined events. Appearances are deceiving, though. Any initial enthusiasm for the work evaporates on even casual reading. The book is so flawed by errors, omissions, confusion, and unsupported conjecture that we cannot recommend it to anyone.

Synolakis, Costas; Fryer, Gerard J.

334

Investment in generation is heavy, but important needs remain  

SciTech Connect

Forecasting the direction of the US electric power industry for 2007, much less the distant future, is like defining a velocity vector; doing so requires a direction and speed to delineate progress. In this special report, the paper looks at current industry indicators and draws conclusions based on more than 100 years of experience. To borrow verbatim the title of basketball legend Charles Barkely's book 'I may be wrong but I doubt it'. The forecast takes into consideration USDOE's National Electric Transmission Congestion Study (August 2006),a summary of industry data prepared by Industrial Info Resources (IIR) and NERC's 2006 Long-Term Reliability Assessment (October 2006). It also reports opinions of industry specialists. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Maize, K.

2007-01-15

335

Labeled line drawing of launch and entry suit identifies various components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Line drawings illustrate how a crewmember would be seated during space shuttle launch and entry in the mission specialist seat wearing the launch and entry suit (LES), a partial pressure suit. Front and profile drawings are labeled with numbers. The legend for the views includes: 1) Mission Specialist seat; 2) crewman; 3) helmet; 4) anti-exposure / counter pressure garment; 5) boots; 6) parachute harness; 7) parachute pack; 8) life raft with sea dye marker; 9) suit mounted oxygen (O2) manifold; 10) anti-gravity (anti-g) suit controller; 11) emergency O2 supply; 12) seawars; 13) ventilation fan; 14) orbiter O2 line; 15) headset interface unit (HIU); 16) communication (COMM) line to HIU; 17) flotation device. Crew escape system (CES) and LES was designed for STS-26, the return to flight mission, and subsequent missions.

1988-01-01

336

The Da Vinci code dynamically de-coded.  

PubMed

The novel The Da Vinci Code, by Dan Brown has been on best-seller lists for over two years. An examination of Brown's previous novels reveals a well-designed plot line shared by all four novels that not only makes them good "thrillers" but also creates a mythological structure to the novels that draws on common unconscious fantasies in the same way that fairy tales do. One aspect of this mythological structure is the use of evil conspiracies (and benign ones as well) for the protagonist to overcome. In addition, The Da Vinci Code presents a religious theme involving legends about Mary Magdalene. This theme touches on the role of a feminine aspect to divinity in allowing for an erotic connection with the divine. PMID:16448349

Cohen, Mariam

2005-01-01

337

Multistage, multiband and sequential imagery to identify and quantify non-forest vegetation resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earth Resources photographs from Apollo 6, 7, and 9 and photographs taken during Gemini 4, were used in the research along with high altitude and conventional aerial photography. A unified land use and resource analysis system was devised and used to develop a mapping legend. The natural vegetation, land use, macrorelief, and landforms of northern Maricopa County, Arizona, were analyzed and inventoried. This inventory was interpreted in relation to the critical problem of urban expansion and agricultural production in the study area. The central thrust of the research program has been to develop methods for use of space and small-scale, high-altitude aerial photography to develop information for land use planning and resource allocation decisions.

Driscoll, R. S.; Francis, R. C.

1972-01-01

338

Medieval orality, mothers, and bonding.  

PubMed

The role of women in the Middle Ages was vilification, veneration, and exclusion. Due to the high rates of maternal and infant mortality bonding shifted from the mother-child dyad to one in which the Church, Holy Family, and king acted as pseudo-parents. In art this is suggested by the virtual absence of eye contact between the Virgin and Christ-child. Frustration of early oral needs consequent to lack of adequate mother-child bonding prompted a reactive emphasis on orality in art and legend. A decrease in infant mortality and a reciprocal improvement in mother child bonding contributed to cultural shifts in how self-realization would be accomplished during the Renaissance and in the later emergence of secular humanism. PMID:15132195

Schwartz, Scott C

2004-01-01

339

[Illness and death of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791). A contribution to the Mozart Year 2006].  

PubMed

In the Mozart year 2006 also medicine has to deal with the music genius W.A. Mozart. It has been intensely discussed for a long time whether Mozart was poisoned, whether he deceased from a certain illness, or by self-medication and/or medical procedures. Consequently, his death caused wild speculations and adventurous assertions. Many authors assume that Mozart was a chronically ill man all his life. However, most of Mozart's described illnesses were harmless, and his unbelievable amount of work proves his extraordinary efficiency. The exact cause of death remains speculative. The story of a tall stranger dressed in somber gray who assigned Mozart to write a Requiem Mass and the circumstances of Mozart's funeral have additionally contributed to the generation of legends. However, if one gathers all known facts, there is no evidence that Mozart was murdered, and the exact cause of his death remains unclear. PMID:16977403

Franzen, Caspar

2006-09-15

340

A Course in Science and Pseudoscience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new course at Hockaday, Science and Pseudoscience, examines what we know, how we know it, and why we get fooled so often and so easily. This is a course in which we measure things we thought we understood and use statistical analysis to test our understanding. We investigate extraordinary claims through the methods of science, asking what makes a good scientific theory, and what makes scientific evidence. We examine urban myths, legends, bad science, medical quackery, and plain old hoaxes. We analyze claims of UFOs, cold fusion, astrology, structure-altered water, apricot pit cures, phlogiston and N-rays, phrenology and orgonomy, ghosts, telekinesis, crop circles and the Bermuda Triangle -- some may be true, some are plainly false, and some we're not really sure of. We develop equipment and scientific techniques to investigate extra-sensory perception, precognition, and EM disturbances.

Taylor, Richard

2009-04-01

341

The Biology Project: The Chemistry of Amino Acids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Biology Project at the University of Arizona doesn't shy away from the big (or little) questions of life and science, and this helpful educational resource will be another educational arrow in the quiver of science educators from Seattle to Tashkent. The site provides a basic introduction to amino acids, offering a brief description of their role as the "building blocks" of protein. After reading the introduction, students can learn about the structure of amino acids, and then take on a few exercises in the "Test yourself" section of the site. Of course, that's not all, as visitors can also learn about each amino acid separately, and there's even a handy legend that makes learning that much easier.

342

Geologic Provinces of the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides all information, instructions, downloadable materials, and links to online materials for an exercise developed for use in a Geology of the National Parks course. Using the provided maps, groups of 3 to 6 students are asked to identify between 8 and 12 geologic provinces based on topography, the age of rocks, and the rock types. As a result of this exercise, students will become familiar and comfortable with reading maps and legends, learn basic rock types and how geologic time is divided, define geologic provinces that will form an outline for learning the geology of the U.S., and be able to discuss the maps they create based on what they've learned. This exercise is intended for one of the first class meetings of the quarter or semester and ideally students will approach this exercise without much or any prior knowledge of the geology of the United States.

Leech, Mary

343

The Tapanui region of New Zealand: Site of a Tunguska around 800 years ago?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evidence is discussed that the wide-spread fires ca. 800 years ago which denuded the southern provinces of the South Island of New Zealand of the extensive forests present at that time were due to the entry of a large bolide into the atmosphere, the conflagration being ignited by the intense heat generated as this extraterrestrial projectile ablated/detonated in a similar manner to that of the Tunguska object of 1908. These fires led to the extinction of the giant terrestrial bird known as the Moa, and the end of the archaic epoch of Maori history known as the Moa Hunter period. This interpretation is well attested to in Maori myth and legend.

Steel, Duncan; Snow, Peter

1992-01-01

344

Evaluation of reforested areas using LANDSAT imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Visual and automatic interpretation of LANDSAT imagery was used to classify the general Pinus and Eucalyptus according to their age and species. A methodology was derived, based on training areas, to define the legend and spectral characteristics of the analyzed classes. Imager analysis of the training areas show that Pinus taeda is separable from the other Pinus species based on JM distance measurement. No difference of JM measurements was observed among Eucalyptus species. Two classes of Eucalyptus were separated according to their ages: those under and those over two years of age. Channel 6 and 7 were suitable for the discrimination of the reforested classes. Channel 5 was efficient to separated reforested areas from nonforested targets in the region. The automatic analysis shows the highest classification precision was obtained for Eucalyptus over two years of age (95.12 percent).

Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

1978-01-01

345

Bedrock Geologic Map of Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students study a map of bedrock geology which describes the types of rocks that exist in a given area. It shows these rock units as well as their known and inferred contacts. Consideration is also given to folding, faulting, unconformities, and similar rock relationships. These features are often included in bedrock geology maps. Students study the legend and scale and become aware of the other information that is included on the map such as the stratigraphic column, list of formations, and inset map of metamorphic grade. Students then locate their city or town and draw a 40-mile diameter circle around it and identify all the symbols inside the circle and the age of the various rocks. Student question sheets are available at this site. Although this activity was written for a map of Maine, it will work in any state where geological maps are available.

346

Land use/cover classification through multiresolution segmentation and object oriented neural networks classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper is presented a land use/cover classification methodology of the rural/urban fringe, by means of the application of a neuronal network, with resource to the multiresolution image segmentation, construction of complex elements through object oriented analysis and integration of not spectral (ancillary) information. The study area is the municipality of Almada, located in the south bank of Tagus River and corresponding to one of the core regions of the Lisbon Metropolitan Area (Portugal). The data used was 2004 HRVIR SPOT images fused with supermode panchromatic image and the Portuguese urban quarter statistical data. The developed procedure is based in five steps: 1) Legend creation; 2) deriving statistical ancillary data; 3) deriving object (texture) data; 4) deriving spectral data and 5) neural network classification.

Rocha, Jorge; Tenedório, José A.; Encarnação, Sara; Morgado, Paulo

2006-09-01

347

AMS and controversies in history: The Spanish conquest of Peru  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quest for understanding the past often contains a subjective component. Legends, myths, traditions and personal beliefs can unconsciously influence the interpretation of the scientific outcomes or, in the worst instances, even lead to forgery. Fortunately, an increasing number of scientific tools are available nowadays and can be combined to discredit such detriments and offer more reliable foundations for an objective analysis. Radiocarbon dating by AMS is a relatively non-invasive method and is particularly useful when valuable historical artefacts are involved. In this paper, we will present controversial cases where AMS is playing an important role in understanding the past. In particular, we will discuss the use of AMS to authenticate historical documents revealing a new version of the conquest of Peru by Pizarro in the early 1530s.

Zoppi, U.; Hua, Q.; Jacobsen, G.; Sarkissian, G.; Lawson, E. M.; Tuniz, C.; Laurencich Minelli, L.

2000-10-01

348

Molecular Structure of Tryptophan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tryptophan is highly important as it is the metabolic precursor to serotonin. Serotonin is well-known for the psychological effects resulting from an imbalance of this neuroactive chemical. Food sources of tryptophan are dairy products, beef, poultry, barley, brown rice, fish, soybeans, and peanuts. Urban legends link the intake of tryptophan in turkey an increased desire to sleep, hence the inclination to nap after Thanksgiving turkey eating. Although highly necessary, tryptophan is only obtained in about 1 to1.5 grams in a normal diet. Luckily, smaller amounts of tryptophan are more well-accepted by the body than larger amounts (6-9 g). A deficiency of tryptophan can cause aggressive behavior. Shown in the applet is the cationic part of L-tryptophan hydrochloride, (C11H13N2O2)+.

2002-08-22

349

Painting With Natural Dyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is part of an integrated elementary unit called "Painted Tipis." The unit is best taught in the fall in conjunction with the September celebration "American Indian Heritage Week." It integrates lessons on literature through legends and myths, language (Blackfeet), and mathematics through structural components of the tipi. The activity introduces the students to the art of dyeing as used in ancestral tipi paintings. Historical cultural ties are an integral part of the Native American students learning and this unit provides those connections. The purpose of this lesson is to provide elementary students with the opportunity to explore, identify and locate area plants. The inquiry cooperative learning component of this lesson will be to determine the color (dye) producing possibilities of the plant. Students will also plan and carry out an experiment to produce the dyestuff of the plant as well as create possible mordants, which is a chemical or metallic compound that will "fasten" the color to the fabric.

Barbara Arrowtop (Heart Butte School)

1999-07-01

350

Encyclopedia Mythica  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Encompassing mythology, folklore, and legend, the Encyclopedia Mythica--a collaborative reference resource with over 150 contributors--contains more than 4400 definitions of mythical and legendary figures and almost 200 images. Users may search the entire work by keyword or browse by topic areas. The browseable index is available in both a frames and non-frames version. The unique Miscellanea section compliments the numerous entries on gods, creatures, and heroes with pronunciation guides, maps, genealogy tables, brief histories of ancient peoples, lists of deities and ancient feast days, and the linguistic origins for the names of days, months, and celestial bodies. Contributions to the encyclopedia are encouraged. All submissions are reviewed by editor Micha F. Lindemans.

351

Detailed geomorphological mapping from high resolution DEM data (LiDAR, TanDEM-X): two case studies from Germany and SE Tibet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two major obstacles are hampering the production of high resolution geomorphological maps: the complexity of the subject that should be depicted and the enormous efforts necessary to obtain data by field work. The first factor prevented the establishment of a generally accepted map legend; the second hampered efforts to collect comprehensive sets of geomorphological data. This left geomorphologists to produce applied maps, focusing on very few layers of information and often not sticking to any of the numerous standards proposed in the second half of the 20th century. Technological progress of the recent years, especially in the fields of digital elevation models, GIS environments, and computational hardware, today offers promising opportunities to overcome the obstacles and to produce detailed geomorphological maps even for remote or inhospitable regions. The feasibility of detailed geomorphological mapping from two new sets of digital elevation data, the 1 m LiDAR DTM provided by Germany's State Surveying Authority and the upcoming TanDEM-X DEM, has been evaluated in two case studies from a low mountain range in Germany and a high mountain range in SE Tibet. The results indicate that most layers of information of classical geomorphological maps (e.g. the German GMK) can be extracted from this data at appropriate scales but that significant differences occur concerning the quality and the grades of certainty of key contents. Generally, an enhancement of the geomorphographical, especially the geomorphometrical, and a weakening of geomorphogenetical contents was observed. From these findings, theoretical, methodological, and cartographical remarks on detailed geomorphological mapping from DEM data in GIS environments were educed. As GIS environments decouple data and design and enable the geomorphologist to choose information layer combinations freely to fit research topics, a general purpose legend becomes obsolete. Yet, a unified data structure is demanded to ensure that data collected by different scientists or in different studies can be exchanged and reused.

Loibl, D.

2012-04-01

352

The medieval unicorn: historical and iconographic applications of psychoanalysis.  

PubMed

One of the most popular subjects of European art in the late Middle Ages and Renaissance was the legend of the unicorn, whereby the mythical beast, otherwise uncapturable, was lured into the lap of a beautiful virgin--an allegory of Christ's Incarnation. The curiously double nature of the virgin in this tale, her purity versus her duplicity, seems unquestionably related to the infantile split mother, as elucidated by Klein--a connection explored in an earlier paper. Yet the split virgin is also clearly related to the Catharist heresy, which overtook Europe in the twelfth century and which held, in defiance of Christian orthodoxy, that the cosmos was divided between the force of good and the force of evil. (The legend may also have connections with troubadour poetry, in which the woman is all-powerful, all pure and all-denying.) Catharism was brutally suppressed by the Church in the early thirteenth century, and it is precisely at that time that the unicorn's "virgin capture" begins to pervade the visual arts. It thus appears that these artistic representations took the place of Catharism as a sublimated expression of the unconsciously surviving split mother. Such a connection would confirm Klein's observation that splitting is never entirely outgrown by the psyche. Klein's point is also confirmed by the Church's encouragement of Mariolatry--in which the godhead is divided between the powerful Father and the merciful Virgin Mary--at the same time that Catharism was being wiped out. Beneath the overt Oedipal meaning of Mariolatry, one sees the Church providing an orthodox outlet for the pre-Oedipal need to split the object. PMID:2448274

Mohacsy, I

1988-01-01

353

Exploratory visualization of earth science data in a Semantic Web context  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth science data are increasingly unlocked from their local 'safes' and shared online with the global science community as well as the average citizen. The European Union (EU)-funded project OneGeology-Europe (1G-E, www.onegeology-europe.eu) is a typical project that promotes works in that direction. The 1G-E web portal provides easy access to distributed geological data resources across participating EU member states. Similar projects can also be found in other countries or regions, such as the geoscience information network USGIN (www.usgin.org) in United States, the groundwater information network GIN-RIES (www.gw-info.net) in Canada and the earth science infrastructure AuScope (www.auscope.org.au) in Australia. While data are increasingly made available online, we currently face a shortage of tools and services that support information and knowledge discovery with such data. One reason is that earth science data are recorded in professional language and terms, and people without background knowledge cannot understand their meanings well. The Semantic Web provides a new context to help computers as well as users to better understand meanings of data and conduct applications. In this study we aim to chain up Semantic Web technologies (e.g., vocabularies/ontologies and reasoning), data visualization (e.g., an animation underpinned by an ontology) and online earth science data (e.g., available as Web Map Service) to develop functions for information and knowledge discovery. We carried out a case study with data of the 1G-E project. We set up an ontology of geological time scale using the encoding languages of SKOS (Simple Knowledge Organization System) and OWL (Web Ontology Language) from W3C (World Wide Web Consortium, www.w3.org). Then we developed a Flash animation of geological time scale by using the ActionScript language. The animation is underpinned by the ontology and the interrelationships between concepts of geological time scale are visualized in the animation. We linked the animation and the ontology to the online geological data of 1G-E project and developed interactive applications. The animation was used to show legends of rock age layers in geological maps dynamically. In turn, these legends were used as control panels to filter out and generalize geospatial features of certain rock ages on map layers. We tested the functions with maps of various EU member states. As a part of the initial results, legends for rock age layers of EU individual national maps were generated respectively, and the functions for filtering and generalization were examined with the map of United Kingdom. Though new challenges are rising in the tests, like those caused by synonyms (e.g., 'Lower Cambrian' and 'Terreneuvian'), the initial results achieved the designed goals of information and knowledge discovery by using the ontology-underpinned animation. This study shows that (1) visualization lowers the barrier of ontologies, (2) integrating ontologies and visualization adds value to online earth science data services, and (3) exploratory visualization supports the procedure of data processing as well as the display of results.

Ma, X.; Fox, P. A.

2012-12-01

354

An Attempt to Observe Debris from the Breakup of a Titan 3C-4 Transtage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In February 2007 dedicated observations were made of the orbital space predicted to contain debris from the breakup of the Titan 3C-4 transtage back on February 21, 1992. These observations were carried out on the Michigan Orbital DEbris Survey Telescope (MODEST) in Chile with its 1.3deg field of view. The search region or orbital space (inclination and right ascension of the ascending node (RAAN) was predicted using NASA#s LEGEND (LEO-to-GEO Environment Debris) code to generate a Titan debris cloud. Breakup fragments are created based on the NASA Standard Breakup Model (including fragment size, area-to-mass (A/M), and delta-V distributions). Once fragments are created, they are propagated forward in time with a subroutine GEOPROP. Perturbations included in GEOPROP are those due to solar/lunar gravity, radiation pressure, and major geopotential terms. Barker, et. al, (AMOS Conference Proceedings, 2006, pp. 596-604) used similar LEGEND predictions to correlate survey observations made by MODEST (February 2002) and found several possible night-to-night correlations in the limited survey dataset. One conc lusion of the survey search was to dedicate a MODEST run to observing a GEO region predicted to contain debris fragments and actual Titan debris objects (SSN 25000, 25001 and 30000). Such a dedicated run was undertaken with MODEST between February 17 and 23, 2007 (UT dates). MODEST#s limiting magnitude of 18.0 (S\\N approx.10) corresponds to a size of 22cm assuming a diffuse Lambertian albedo of 0.2. However, based on observed break-up data, we expect most debris fragments to be smaller than 22cm which implies a need to increase the effective sensitivity of MODEST for smaller objects. MODEST#s limiting size can be lowered by increasing the exposure time (20 instead of 5 seconds) and applying special image processing. The special processing combines individual CCD images to detect faint objects that are invisible on a single CCD image. Sub-images are cropped from six consecutive CCD images with pixel shifts between images being consistent with the predicted movement of a Titan object. A median image of all the sub-images is then created leaving only those objects with the proper Titan motion. Limiting the median image in this manner brings the needed computer time to process all images taken on one night down to about 50 hours of CPU time.

Barker, E. S.; Matney, M. J.; Yanagisawa, T.; Liou, J.-C.; Abercromby, K. J.; Rodriquez, H. M.; Horstman, M. F.; Seitzer, P.

2007-01-01

355

Impact of historical tsunamis on a sandy coastal barrier: an example from the northern Gargano coast, southern Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lesina coastal barrier is characterized by the presence of three wide washover fans. They were formed by three distinct tsunamis which struck the northern coast of the Gargano Promontory (Apulia, Italy) during historical times. A model for their formation is presented. It takes into account the geomorphological data collected and some reports about the effect of recent tsunamis on coastal barriers and beaches. Washover fans were produced by tsunami waves which ran through coseismic cracks developed on dune ridges shaping a narrow, straight and relatively deep trench which constitutes the fan throat. Moreover, each tsunami event most likely caused severe erosion of the coastal barrier, shaping erosive grooves across the dune ridges, causing beach cliffs and causing the nourishment of submarine offshore bars. After the tsunami, a phase of coastal barrier recovery began, forming new dune ridges and closing washover fan throats. Morphological, archeological and radiometric data indicate a pre-Roman age for the oldest event, which was dated at 2430 years BP. The second tsunami struck the Lesina coastal barrier with similar magnitude 1550 years BP; it was caused by the strong earthquake that occurred at Gargano Promontory in the year 493 AD as reported by a medieval sacred legend. The smallest and more recent fan formed following the tsunami that hit the northern coast of Gargano on 30 July 1627.

Gianfreda, F.; Mastronuzzi, G.; Sansò, P.

356

The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, 3rd edition, 2002  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A recent addition to the Bartleby.com reference site, the New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy is intended to raise its readers' level of erudition. As editor J.D. Hirsch states in the introduction, cultural literacy is helpful, but does not in itself produce a truly educated person. Hirsch writes, "Cultural literacy is shallow; true education is deep. But our analysis of reading and learning suggests the paradox that broad, shallow knowledge is the best route to deep knowledge." Certainly, understanding that Camelot refers to both Arthurian legend and U.S. President John F. Kennedy's administration makes one feel smarter. While it is possible to search the 6,900 entries in the Dictionary, users may find it easier to use the Index to browse from A-Z. Another good approach is to start with the Table of Contents, where there are 23 short explanations of broader areas, with links to relevant entries arranged below, such as Conventions of Written English, where you can learn the difference between the commonly misused abbreviations i.e. and e.g.

357

Effects of knee bracing on the sensorimotor function of subjects with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.  

PubMed

The sensorimotor performance of the knee joint in 31 subjects who had undergone unilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction at least 5 months previously was tested under three bracing conditions, 1) the DonJoy Legend brace, 2) a mechanical placebo brace, and 3) no brace, in random order. The accuracy of the subjects' ability to reproduce specified knee joint angles was tested as well as the isokinetic performance of their knee muscles at 60 and 180 deg/sec. The results showed that subjects with the brace or placebo brace performed similarly in reproducing the knee joint positions, but both groups performed better than the subjects without a brace. Isokinetic tests revealed no difference among the three groups in extensor and flexor peak torque production at 60 deg/sec or total work done by the extensors and flexors at 60 and 180 deg/sec. These results suggest that knee bracing can improve the static proprioception of the knee joint, but not the muscle contractile function, in subjects with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction under isokinetic testing conditions. The finding of similar performances for joint angle reproduction in the brace and placebo brace groups suggests that the apparent improvement in proprioception with knee bracing was not due to the mechanical restraining action of the brace. PMID:11573924

Wu, G K; Ng, G Y; Mak, A F

2001-01-01

358

Germans in Hollywood  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created and maintained by Hyde Flippo, this Web site pays homage to the long-standing connection between the Germanic world and the bright lights of Hollywood and the film industry. As Flippo contends in a brief introduction to the site, "No other single influence on American cinema has been greater than that from the German-speaking world." Given the preponderance of such Hollywood legends like Michael Curtiz, Marlene Dietrich, Ernst Lubitsch, Wolfgang Petersen, Billy Wilder, and William Wyler, there just may be something to this particular contention. The section titled Connections is quite interesting, as it draws portraits of the German-Hollywood connections within such films as Casablanca, the Tarzan movies which starred the late Johnny Weissmuller, and the films of Roland Emmerich (director of Independence Day and Godzilla), who is known as the Swabian Spielberg. Along with these engaging pieces, the site also contains material about actors with Germanic origins and film studios that were heavily influenced by those persons from the German-speaking world.

359

Stargazing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. Astronomy and astronomers; 2. The revolving sky; 3. Patterns of stars; 4. Star legends; 5. The stars themselves; 6. Stars of the far north; 7. Northern stars: the January sky; 8. Northern stars: the February sky; 9. Northern stars: the March sky; 10. Northern stars: the April sky; 11. Northern stars: the May sky; 12. Northern stars: the June sky; 13. Northern stars: the July sky; 14. Northern stars: the August sky; 15. Northern stars: the September sky; 16. Northern stars: the October sky; 17. Northern stars: the November sky; 18. Northern stars: the December sky; 19. Stars of the far south; 20: Southern stars: the January sky; 21. Southern stars: the February sky; 22. Southern stars: the March sky; 23. Southern stars: the April sky; 24. Southern stars: the May sky; 25. Southern stars: the June sky; 26. Southern stars: the July sky; 27. Southern stars: the August sky; 28. Southern stars: the September sky; 29. Southern stars: the October sky; 30. Southern stars: the November sky; 31. Southern stars: the December sky; 32. The equatorial sky; 33. Our star: the sun; 34. The craters of the moon; 35. The planets; 36. Space nomads; 37. Glows in the sky; Appendices; Index.

Moore, Patrick

2000-10-01

360

Completion of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit Product  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium has supported the development of two national digital land cover products: the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) 1992 and National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001. Substantial differences in imagery, legends, and methods between these two land cover products must be overcome in order to support direct comparison. The NLCD 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit product was developed to provide more accurate and useful land cover change data than would be possible by direct comparison of NLCD 1992 and NLCD 2001. For the change analysis method to be both national in scale and timely, implementation required production across many Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) path/rows simultaneously. To meet these requirements, a hybrid change analysis process was developed to incorporate both post-classification comparison and specialized ratio differencing change analysis techniques. At a resolution of 30 meters, the completed NLCD 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit product contains unchanged pixels from the NLCD 2001 land cover dataset that have been cross-walked to a modified Anderson Level I class code, and changed pixels labeled with a 'from-to' class code. Analysis of the results for the conterminous United States indicated that about 3 percent of the land cover dataset changed between 1992 and 2001.

Fry, J. A.; Coan, M. J.; Homer, C. G.; Meyer, D. K.; Wickham, J. D.

2009-01-01

361

Mapcurves: a quantitative method for comparing categorical maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present Mapcurves, a quantitative goodness-of-fit (GOF) method that unambiguously shows the degree of spatial concordance between two or more categorical maps. Mapcurves graphically and quantitatively evaluate the degree of fit among any number of maps and quantify a GOF for each polygon, as well as the entire map. The Mapcurve method indicates a perfect fit even if all polygons in one map are comprised of unique sets of the polygons in another map, if the coincidence among map categories is absolute. It is not necessary to interpret (or even know) legend descriptors for the categories in the maps to be compared, since the degree of fit in the spatial overlay alone forms the basis for the comparison. This feature makes Mapcurves ideal for comparing maps derived from remotely sensed images. A translation table is provided for the categories in each map as an output. Since the comparison is category-based rather than cell-based, the GOF is resolution-independent. Mapcurves can be applied either to entire map categories or to individual raster patches or vector polygons. Mapcurves also have applications for quantifying the spatial uncertainty of particular map features.

Hargrove, William W.; Hoffman, Forrest M.; Hessburg, Paul F.

2006-07-01

362

A review of Brahmavaivartapurana (BVP) with reference to Ayurveda.  

PubMed

Brahmavaivartapurana is one of the important Mahapurana, which is considered as a Vaisnavapurana. The text is divided into four parts called khanda i.e., Brahma, Prakrti, Ganapati, and Srikrsnajanmakhanda. The total number of chapters are 276 and comprising about 20,500 verses. Brahmavaivartapurana comprises both ancient and medieval materials. It considers Ayurveda as Pancama Veda and devoted 16th chapter of Brahmakhanda which describes the origin of Ayurveda its propagaters headed by Bhaskara (sun god) and his 16 students and their corresponding books in detail. An account of the Jvara (Fever) and other diseases, Dinacarya (daily routine), Rtucarya (seasonal regimen), Tridosa (three humours), their Prakopa (Vitiation) and Pra?amana (palliation) etc are described in this book. BVP deals with the do's and dont's of food intake, sleep and sexual indulgance in detail which are deemed to be Trayopastambha (three sub pillers of health). The book provides an account of Plant Tulsi's origin and its spiritual importance. Prakrti (nature's) origins, Pañcamahabhuta nature of the body are described in Prakrtikhanda. At the flag end of the book there is a legend describing the origin of Lord Dhanvantari and describes his scholarship in the field of Veda and ?astra. On the whole purana provides glimpse of the life style of a Vaisnava devoutee and the people of the time when it was compiled. It serves the purpose of a practical manual to lead a healthy life and ensure spiritual growth in the life of any individual who believes in the precepts of this book. PMID:19569450

Varanasi, Subhose; Ram, T Saketh; Bhatnagar, Vinod Kumar; Narayana, A; Rao, M M

2007-01-01

363

Luigi Galvani and animal electricity: two centuries after the foundation of electrophysiology.  

PubMed

Luigi Galvani and his famous experiments on frogs carried out in the second half of the 18th century belong more to legend than to the history of science. Galvani not only laid the foundations of a new science, electrophysiology, but also opened the way for the invention of the electric battery, and thus for the development of the physical investigations of electricity. However, in spite of the widespread celebration of his work, Galvani's scientific endeavours have been largely misrepresented in the history of science. The scholar of Bologna has a stereotyped image as an 'occasional' scientist, who started his studies by chance, largely ignored the scientific theories of his time and wandered aimlessly in mental elaborations until the physicist of Pavia, Alessandro Volta, entered the field, correctly interpreted Galvani's results and eventually developed the electric battery. With the present understanding of electrical phenomena in excitable membranes, it is now time to reconsider the real matter raised by Galvani's discoveries and by his hypothesis of an intrinsic 'animal electricity', and to make a clearer evaluation of a revolutionary phase of scientific progress. PMID:9347609

Piccolino, M

1997-10-01

364

IYA2009 newspaper insert in your community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gemini PIO (Public Information Officer) offers suggestions on how to approach your local newspaper about a newspaper insert for your community being published during IYA2009. Local government support, articles by astronomers, advertisers, and appointing someone within your organisation to manage the content will be discussed. We will explain the timeline required, the number of personnel hours required, developmental stages and income a local newspaper would have to generate to produce a quality, table-top supplement. In 2003, over 30,000 copies of Stars over Mauna Kea, a special supplement in tabloid format were produced and distributed in the local newspapers in Hilo, Hawaii. The publication, 48 pages in total, featured profiles of the observatories on Mauna Kea, stories about the geology and legends of Mauna Kea, and historical information about the evolution of astronomy in Hawaii. In additionthe publication included a series of essays titled In their own words. These articles were written by key members of the astronomy community. Sixty thousand copies of Stars over Mauna Kea II were printed as a follow-up to the first edition in 2005. This second edition included an article on the `Imiloa Astronomy Education Center, explanations about the types of telescopes on Mauna Kea and columns written by scientists about the fascinating and significant discoveries made on Hawaii. Personal stories about careers in astronomy were also highlighted. In Chile, a similar eight-page supplement, featuring Gemini, CTIO and SOAR telescopes, was published in 2005 and 5000 copies were distributed throughout the country.

Harvey, J.

2008-06-01

365

Addendum for the Groundwater Flow Model of Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 0 (page changes)  

SciTech Connect

This document, which makes changes to Groundwater Flow Model of Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, S-N/99205--076, Revision 0 (June 2006) was prepared to address review comments of this final document by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) in a letter dated July 19, 2006. The document includes revised pages that address NDEP review comments and comments from other document users. Change bars are included on these pages to identify where the text was revised. In addition to the revised pages, the following clarifications are made: • On Plate 1 (inserted in the back of the document), the ET Unit legend has been revised. The revised Plate 1 is included and replaces the original Plate 1. • Some of the Appendix D perturbation sensitivity analysis plots included on the CD for Sections D.3.1 and D.3.2 were not properly aligned. A revised CD is provided with all plots properly aligned.

John McCord

2007-05-01

366

Bathymetry of the Republic of the Marshall Islands and Vicinity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A bathymetric map of the Republic of the Marshall Islands and vicinity in the window latitude 3 to 17 degrees North, longitude 153 to 175 degrees East was compiled from surveys conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Korean Ocean Research and Development Institute (KORDI), and published gridded data. National jurisdictions and island and atoll coastlines are indicated. This bathymetric map of the Republic of the Marshall Islands was constructed from (1) unpublished data collected during recent surveys conducted by the USGS and KORDI (J.W. Moon and K.Y. Lee; Hein and others, in press), (2) the two-minute gridded satellite altimetry data from Smith and Sandwell (1997), and (3) coastline data from the Generic Mapping Tools (GMT) software (Wessel and Smith, 1995) and Chase and others (1984). The spellings of island, atoll, and seamount names follow the recommendation of the Republic of the Marshall Islands government and are consistent with those in the Marshallese-English dictionary, including the diacritical marks (Abo and others, 1976). We were provided a list of names for the seamounts by Alfred Capelle (Alele Museum and National Archives, now located at the College of the Marshall Islands), who solicited those traditional names from village leaders from the various islands. We applied the appropriate names to seamounts located within specifically defined sectors adjacent to the various atolls and islands. The names are primarily from Marshallese legends and the meaning of each is provided by Hein and others (1990).

Hein, James R.; Wong, Florence L.; Mosier, Dan L.

1999-01-01

367

Lumparn Bay: A Meteorite Impact Crater in the Aland Archipelago, Southwest Finland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lumparn Bay, centered at latitude 60 degrees O9 minutes N and longitude 20 degrees 06 minutes E has a diameter of 10 km. The bedrock in the area is a rapakivi granite. Shatter cones have been found along the southwestern shore line of the bay. Drill cores do exist from the central part of the structure. Below Pleistocene sediments the topmost part of the bedrock is a Paleozoic limestone. It is followed downward by layers of crushed rapakivi granite that are very fine grained close to the limestone. The grain size increases systematically outward. If a fine-grained layer is designated "a" and the following layer, which has a larger grain-size, is designated "b," then the legend can be described as a(sub)n < b(sub)n where a(sub)1 < a(sub)2 ... a(sub)n and b(sub)1 < b(sub)2 < ... b(sub)n. It is suggested that this phenomenon might be characteristic for impact craters. In the uppermost part of the crushed rock material glassy patches do occur.

Svensson, N.-B.

1993-07-01

368

The REAL Caroline Herschel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Caroline Herschel (1750-1848) is famous as the discoverer of eight comets, and the author of an Index to Flamsteed's British Catalogue of Stars, which the Royal Society published at its own expense. She was the devoted collaborator of her brother William during the twenty years he spent 'sweeping' for nebulae; and in old age she reorganized William's 2500 nebulae into a zone catalog that enabled his son John to re-examine these objects systematically, a work for which she was awarded a Gold Medal of the RAS. Nevertheless, study of her autobiographies and other manuscripts shows that her attitude to astronomy was ambivalent. William had rescued her from drudgery in Hanover, and her primary concern was to express her gratitude to him, even when his interests turned from music to astronomy and as a result she was required to abandon her career as a singer. Yet although the decision was hers, she often resented the sacrifice she had made. She emerges as a complex and often troubled personality, very different from the serene observer of legend.

Hoskin, M. A.

2003-12-01

369

Do Native American Culture, Life Experiences, Physics and the Bible Provide Supportive Evidence For Julian Barbour's Thesis About Anachronisms Relating to The End of Time?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historic, and current Native American attitude considers that time can be considered in a cyclic sense that contrasts against a majority view of physicists that time varies in a linear algebraic sense. Precognition experiences offer evidence that time has a more subtle substance. The Bible clearly delineates "prophetic awareness of the future." Embedded "Bible codes" are touted as mathematical evidence for the existence of God. His existence is better served if "past-tense" information of events can propagate backward relative to our "present-tense" time. Barbour, p39: [some] " physicists entertain the idea time truly does not exist applies to motion .suggestion; it too is pure illusion." The concept of prophecy has been interpreted as evidence or "proof" of the existence of "Manitou" or God. Our interpretation is that, according to Native American legends, or the Bible, for as yet unspecified reasons, time behaves as though it can convey information in a backward, or forward, sense. It is like an f (t ± ti).

Mears, Paul C.; Mc Leod, Roger D.

2002-10-01

370

["adeste omnes Logicae et Mathematicae Musae". Johannes Broscius's Apology of Aristotle and Euclid (1652) and the issue of anti-Ramism at the Academy of Cracow].  

PubMed

This article discusses a largely overlooked aspect of the last work by Johannes Broscius (1585 - 1652), his Apologia pro Aristotele et Euclide contra Petrum Ramum et alios of 1652. While the past researchers focused their attention on the evaluation of Broscius's contribution to mathematics, geometry in particular, they ignored the socio-scientific aspect of his work, that is the way Peter Ramus and his followers have been presented and how did the dark legend of Ramus have been thus revived at the Central-European university in the middle of 17th century. I am showing types of rhetorical arguments employed by Broscius and analyse the way he portrayed Ramus and depicted events related to the reception of Ramism at the Academy of Cracow. The article is followed by an appendix which contains a critical edition of excerpts from the manuscript rough draft of Apologia which has been preserved until nowadays (Jagiellonian Library MS. 3205 I). In the apparatus I identify the references and show how Broscius rewrote and rearranged the original paragraphs of his anti-Ramist work. PMID:25033528

Choptiany, Micha?

2014-01-01

371

Bad astronomy : misconceptions and misuses revealed, from astrology to the moon landing "hoax"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advance praise for Philip Plait s Bad Astronomy "Bad Astronomy is just plain good! Philip Plait clears up every misconception on astronomy and space you never knew you suffered from." --Stephen Maran, Author of Astronomy for Dummies and editor of The Astronomy and Astrophysics Encyclopedia "Thank the cosmos for the bundle of star stuff named Philip Plait, who is the world s leading consumer advocate for quality science in space and on Earth. This important contribution to science will rest firmly on my reference library shelf, ready for easy access the next time an astrologer calls." --Dr. Michael Shermer, Publisher of Skeptic magazine, monthly columnist for Scientific American, and author of The Borderlands of Science "Philip Plait has given us a readable, erudite, informative, useful, and entertaining book. Bad Astronomy is Good Science. Very good science..." --James "The Amazing" Randi, President, James Randi Educational Foundation, and author of An Encyclopedia of Claims, Frauds, and Hoaxes of the Occult and Supernatural "Bad Astronomy is a fun read. Plait is wonderfully witty and educational as he debunks the myths, legends, and 'conspiracies that abound in our society. 'The Truth Is Out There' and it's in this book. I loved it!" --Mike Mullane, Space Shuttle astronaut and author of Do Your Ears Pop in Space?

Plait, Philip C.

2002-02-01

372

Relation of the activities of the IPDF/INPE project (reforestation subproject) during the year 1979. [Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The state of Mato Grosso do Sul was selected as the study area to define the recognizable classes of Eucalyptus spp. and Pinus spp. by visual and automatic analyses. For visual analysis, a preliminary interpretation key and a legend of 6 groups were derived. Based on these six groups, three final classes were defined for analysis: (1) area prepared for reforestation; (2) area reforested with Eucalyptus spp.; and (3) area reforested with Pinus spp. For automatic interpretation the area along the highway from Ribas do Rio Pardo to Agua Clara was classified into the following classes: eucalytus, bare soil, plowed soil, pine and "cerrado". The results of visual analysis show that 67% of the reforested farms have relative differences in area estimate below 5%, 22%, between 5% and 10%; and 11% between 10% and 20%. The reforested eucalyptus area is 17 times greater than the area of reforested pine. Automatic classification of eucalyptus ranged from 73.03% to 92.30% in the training areas.

Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Demedeiros, J. S.; Desantana, C. C.; Alves, E. C. M.

1981-01-01

373

Marjory Stoneman Douglas Writer & Conservationist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Marjory Stoneman Douglas is most famous for being a champion of the Florida Everglades and her 1947 book, The Everglades: River of Grass. The University of Miami Libraries holds Douglas' papers in their Special Collections, and a portion of the papers are highlighted in this digital exhibit on the University website. Those visitors unfamiliar with Douglas' environmental and humanitarian activism should definitely check out the "timeline" link at the top of any page. The timeline is divided up into three columns: Douglas' life events; "Miami and Florida Events"; and "International and National Events". Each event can be clicked on for a brief explanation. The "Maps" link features three maps, one of which shows the 1946 boundaries of the Everglades National Wildlife Refuge. Another map is of the vegetation of South Florida, along with a colorful key that shows the variety of vegetation in the area. The last map is of Coconut Grove, where Douglas lived for 72 years, and where she died. Interestingly, the map is of 1896 Coconut Grove, and shows the boundaries of homesteads, and the legend includes the family names of residences on the map.

374

NASA Orbital Debris Large-Object Baseline Population in ORDEM 3.0  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) has created and validated high fidelity populations of the debris environment for the latest Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM 3.0). Though the model includes fluxes of objects 10 um and larger, this paper considers particle fluxes for 1 cm and larger debris objects from low Earth orbit (LEO) through Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO). These are validated by several reliable radar observations through the Space Surveillance Network (SSN), Haystack, and HAX radars. ORDEM 3.0 populations were designed for the purpose of assisting, debris researchers and sensor developers in planning and testing. This environment includes a background derived from the LEO-to-GEO ENvironment Debris evolutionary model (LEGEND) with a Bayesian rescaling as well as specific events such as the FY-1C anti-satellite test, the Iridium 33/Cosmos 2251 accidental collision, and the Soviet/Russian Radar Ocean Reconnaissance Satellite (RORSAT) sodium-potassium droplet releases. The environment described in this paper is the most realistic orbital debris population larger than 1 cm, to date. We describe derivations of the background population and added specific populations. We present sample validation charts of our 1 cm and larger LEO population against Space Surveillance Network (SSN), Haystack, and HAX radar measurements.

Krisco, Paula H.; Vavrin, A. B.; Anz-Meador, P. D.

2013-01-01

375

[Snuff. Historical film comments on a current topic].  

PubMed

The movie genre "snuff" appeared in the late 70s and shows the allegedly real, often cruel killing of people. More recently, a growing number of short video clips have been distributed via the internet, which also belong into this category and were clearly recognized as fictional on the basis of technical details by two study groups at the 80th Annual Meeting of the German Society of Legal Medicine held in Interlaken from 25 to 29 September 2001 (Schyma/Seidl). By means of a brief review of film history the article shows that "snuff movies" originated from a certain prevailing trend, examples of which are the murder of the actress Sharon Tate by the group around Charles Manson, the development of B horror movies, a promotional campaign for a film which flopped in 1971 (renamed several times by the distribution company from "American Cannibal" to "Snuff" to "Big Snuff") and elements of urban legends. Retrospectively there are no clues that Snuff films--i.e. movies openly distributed and actually available to the public, which were not private documentations found by the police at the homes of killers during investigations of homicides (such as in the murder series of the couple Bernardo/Homolka)--show real killings. PMID:11901987

Benecke, Mark

2002-01-01

376

A high accuracy integrated six category global land-cover map  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are some global land-cover maps and they are used not only for various assessments of international organization but various researches such as GCM, ecosystem model, water resource model and land-use model. But the accuracy of global land-cover maps are not high and legends of maps are not unified. For example, MODIS land-cover map (MOD12) employs simplified IGBP classification and LCCS is used by GLC2000. In this study, we proposed a new map integration method by using DCP land-cover validation data and checked the new global land-cover map accuracy. As a result, the accuracy of the new global land-cover map is better than existing four global land-cover maps. But, cropland area in each country is different from inventory data same as MOD12. We investigate this reason and improved the land-cover map. The improved global land-cover map is not only high accuracy but agree with country level inventory data (figure 1).

Kinoshita, T.; Bagan, H.; Yamagata, Y.

2009-12-01

377

Megaclasts in geoconservation: sedimentological questions, anthropogenic influence, and geotourism potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Megaclasts are sedimentary particles larger than boulders. Their huge size and scattered occurrence make them objects that deserve geological heritage, requiring conservation. Investigation of megaclasts for the purpose faces difficulties because of the distinction between boulders and megaclasts. Local study of Quaternary large stones in Mountainous Adygeja (W Caucasus, SW Russia) suggests ~ 2 m as a suitable size criterion, although only locally. Shape, occurrence, and origin of megaclasts require additional attention. Geoconservation may result in anthropogenic disturbances of the natural landscape through removal of vegetation, access constructions, and restoration. The geotourism potential of megaclasts is partly determined by their huge size and their rare and scattered occurrence. Aesthetic qualities, local legends, and co-occurrence with prehistoric megalithic constructions increase this potential. The Maiden's Stone in Mountainous Adygeja, which is ~ 35 m long, has been a tourist attraction already for decades. It is an impressive example of geoconconservation and geotourism connected with megaclasts. Generally, megaclasts increase the value (including the scientific importance) of the geological heritage of Mountainous Adygeja, where a geopark might be established.

Lubova, Katrin A.; Zayats, Pavel P.; Ruban, Dmitry A.; Tiess, Günter

2013-12-01

378

NEWPLOT. General-Purpose Scientific Plotting  

SciTech Connect

NEWPLOT provides the means of preparing both quick (for inspection) and publication-quality x-y data plots with a minimum of effort on a variety of plotting devices. The ISSCO proprietary DISSPLA graphics software system is required. NEWPLOT acts as a convenient user front-end to the DISSPLA subroutine package. Default values that are suitable for most plots are supplied for almost all parameters; if the default value is satisfactory, the user need not specify the parameter explicitly. NEWPLOT can produce linear, semi-log, and log-log plots, with multiple data sets, character strings, lines, and vectors plotted in black-and-white or in color. Data points are read in from disk files;plot parameter input can be read in from either a terminal or a parameter disk file, and can be saved as a disk file for subsequent modification and reuse. The data points can be plotted as symbols only, connected curves only, or both. In addition, individual plot symbols and line segments (or arrows) can be specified and labelled with text to exhibit plot legends, etc. NEWPLOT has provision for convenient recovery from error conditions except for those cases when DISSPLA returns the user to the monitor. This release of NEWPLOT is identified as NEWPLOT3 by the author; it can handle a maximum of 20 data sets each containing up to 2000 points, 100 lines, 50 symbols, and 50 strings to be plotted.

Goldsmith, J.E.M. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

1992-03-05

379

Unique Construction and Social Experiences in Residential Remediation Sites - 13423  

SciTech Connect

Sevenson Environmental Services, Inc., (Sevenson) has performed several radiological remediation projects located in residential urban areas. Over the course of these projects, there has been a wide variety of experiences encountered from construction related issues to unique social situations. Some of the construction related issues included the remediation of interior basements where contaminated material was located under the footers of the structure or was used in the mortar between cinder block or field stone foundations. Other issues included site security, maintaining furnaces or other utilities, underpinning, backfilling and restoration. In addition to the radiological hazards associated with this work there were occupational safety and industrial hygiene issues that had to be addressed to ensure the safety and health of neighboring properties and residents. The unique social situations at these job sites have included arson, theft/stolen property, assault/battery, prostitution, execution of arrest warrants for residents, discovery of drugs and paraphernalia, blood borne pathogens, and unexploded ordnance. Some of these situations have become a sort of comical urban legend throughout the organization. One situation had historical significance, involving the demolition of a house to save a tree older than the Declaration of Independence. All of these projects typically involve the excavation of early 20. century items such as advertisement signs, various old bottles (milk, Listerine, perfume, whisky) and other miscellaneous common trash items. (authors)

Jung, Paul; Scarborough, Rebecca [Sevenson Environmental Services, Inc. 2749 Lockport Road, Niagara Falls, NY 14305 (United States)] [Sevenson Environmental Services, Inc. 2749 Lockport Road, Niagara Falls, NY 14305 (United States)

2013-07-01

380

Amidst the Beauty of the Night Sky, which of the Constellations am I?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A well known constellation am I- I never set in the northern sky. Native Americans and Greeks, you see, Wrote legends when they recognized me. Two close stars still test for keen eyesight. Two point to the North Star - what a light! Look for my galaxies, you know where. I am ____ _____, the _____ ____! © Kimberly A. Herrmann, 2003) I have loved rhyming poetry ever since I can remember - from Dr. Seuss's Green Eggs and Ham and Maurice Sendak's Chicken Soup with Rice, to the works of Shel Silverstein and Jack Prelutsky. It was not until high school, though, that I realized that I could combine two of my loves - those for poetry and astronomy. Since then, I have written almost 100 astronomical riddles and always attempted to include as much astronomy content as possible - even in the riddles about constellations. Consequently, I have found them effective in teaching or reviewing aspects of astronomy in several venues, including college astronomy courses for non-science majors and events with elementary school students. More recently I have used 23 constellation riddles to create informative and entertaining seating slides that have been playing at Lowell Observatory and the Youngstown Planetarium. I hope to have these slides played at other venues as well and also hope to publish my riddles as a series of books someday.

Herrmann, K. A.

2012-08-01

381

A tribute to our teacher, Dr. Judith Hall: a child with the trait of the Earl of Shrewsbury.  

PubMed

"Organized human endeavor can be lifted an order of magnitude through teaching if it is inspiring" (Editor, Am J Dis Child, 1972). The benevolent influence of Dr. Judy Hall's inspiring clinical teaching in the field of genetic syndromes and birth defects is illustrated through the eventual surgical remediation of conductive hearing loss for a 4-year-old girl with unusual knuckles. The fascinating history of this child's syndrome has been further explored in the descendents of the first Earl of Shrewsbury. The legends of his story and his role in the Hundred Years War were immortalized by William Shakespeare in his play Henry VI Part I, but neither Shakespeare nor historians documented that the Earl actually had abnormal finger joints. Heterozygous mutations in the human noggin gene (NOG) cause a spectrum of joint fusions, including this child's traits. On behalf of practitioners of medicine, pediatrics, clinical genetics, and dysmorphology, as well as research scientists in the many domains of genetics, thank you, Judy, for your inspiration, enthusiasm, and teaching. PMID:16353259

Stephan, Mark J

2006-01-15

382

Gerberto, gli Arabi e Gerusalemme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gerbert of Aurillac went in Catalonia from 967 to 970, to visit the bishop Atton of Vic, famous for mathematical knowledge, during the apogee of Cordova's reign of the Caliph Al-Hakam II ibn Abd al-Rahman (961-976). He maintained contacts with local personalities like Mirò Bonfill (Bishop of Girona) and Lupitus of Barcelona through letters (both dated 984). When he was pope, Gerbert sent five papal privileges to Catalan dignitaries, showing his attention to this territory. The Caliph's prime minister Al-Mansu'r depredated Barcelona in 985, and conquered Santiago de Compostela in 997, drawing to an end the cultural exchanges between Christian and Arabic world through Mozarabic and Jewish translators. Gerbert learned and after taught and used Indo-Arabic numbers, abaci, astrolabes, monochords and theoretical music. It was possible for pilgrims to reach Jerusalem at Gerbert's times, and a letter written by Gerbert probably for an abbot starting his pilgrimage seems to introduce the first ideas of crusade and indulgences related to offers. The change of attitude of the Al-Andalus' government toward Christianity is probably responsible of these words written in a time very close to the depredations of Barcelona. Jerusalem is also in the index of geographic places in the book of the astrolabe, attributed to Gerbert, as well as Santiago de Compostela. Finally the legend of the Golem and the mass celebrated in the church of Jerusalem in Rome, completes the panorama of Gerbert and the Holy City.

Sigismondi, C.

383

Broadway: The American Musical  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by Julie Andrews, and directed by Michael Kantor, this five-part series from PBS offers numerous insights into the wide world of the Great White Way throughout its long and fabled past, all the way up to the present day. Visitors may want to start by reading some of the fine essays in the "Hello, Broadway!" section where they can read about the relationship between Broadway and Hollywood, the role of political satire on Broadway, and the incorporation of rock music into Broadway productions. In the "Memorable Musicals" section, visitors can learn about important groundbreaking and influential musicals, including La Cage aux Folles and Hair. The Broadway Trivia game should not be missed, as visitors can answer a host of questions (accompanied by snippets of various musical numbers) as they try to navigate their way through Times Square to the theater of their choice. Of course, to get that first-hand experience about the life and times of some of Broadway's most storied legends, visitors will want to go to the "Stars over Broadway" section. Here they can listen to famed illustrator talk about the late Zero Mostel and watch theater historian Dwight Bowers talk about that master of the musical, Jerome Kern.

384

Forest cover disturbances in the South Taiga of West Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of vegetation cover and tendencies in forest cover changes at a typical site in the south of West Siberia was performed using remote sensing observations from Landsat. The Northern Eurasia Land Cover legend was used for the assessment of unsupervised classification results. The land cover maps constructed have shown that about half of the study area is occupied by wetlands with several distinctively different vegetation types. The area studied is typical for the South Taiga zone (ecoregion) of Western Siberia from the Ob' river to the Irtysh river, where loamy and clayey soil forming rocks are widespread. Similar vegetation structures dominate over 600 000 km2, or about 20%, of the West Siberia area. Analyses of the forest cover changes show that the forest cover loss is not very significant. The area of forest disturbed in 1990-9 is equal to 16 008 ha. The area of forest disturbances during the 2000-7 period was about twice as high (30 907 ha). The main reasons for the forest reduction are intensive forest harvesting and strong windthrow. The high sustainability of the region studied against anthropogenic impacts is explained by the high overall wetness of the territory, the small population density, and the prevalence of deciduous forests at different succession stages with rich vegetation cover.

Dyukarev, E. A.; Pologova, N. N.; Golovatskaya, E. A.; Dyukarev, A. G.

2011-07-01

385

A Tapestry of Time and Terrain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This helpful teaching tool from the United States Geological Survey brings together the comprehensive geological and topographical maps of the United States. As the site suggests, "... this digital tapestry outlines the geologic story of continental collision and break-up, mountain-building, river erosion and deposition, ice-cap glaciation, volcanism, and other events and processes that have shaped the region over the last 2.6 billion years." First-time users will want to watch the Quick-Time film that shows the merging of the two maps, along with a brief description of how each individual map portrays the United States. Within the features description section of the site, visitors can interact with a clickable map surface that details the prominent features of the United States, such as the Driftless Area of southwestern Wisconsin and the Olympic Peninsula in the state of Washington. Equally helpful for learning about geologic time is the interactive map legend that allows users to learn about the different eras, like the Paleozoic or the Precambrian. For people who are looking to learn more about geology, this Web site will be one they will want to peruse several times.

2000-01-01

386

Sioux City History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Sioux City History website is billed as "your link to the past", and it does not fail to deliver on this promise. The site offers up snippets of the town's past, drawing on historic photographs, oral histories, and other documents. On the homepage, visitors will note eight primary sections, such as "Notable People", "Transportation", and "Arts & Leisure". First-time visitors should click on the "Arts & Leisure" area to start their journey. Here they will find essays and images that tell the stories of Riverside Park, community theatre, and the local legends who performed in the Monahan Post Band after World War I. To gain a better understanding of the role played by corn in local history and culture, visitors shouldn't miss the "Corn Palace" area. It's a tribute to the five grand corn palaces that graced the city from 1887 to 1891 as a symbol of agricultural prominence and boosterism. Finally, visitors can also look over a selection of oral histories and make use of the search engine here.

387

Hummocky debris landforms in the Chapursan Valley (Karakoram range, Pakistan): A glacio-geomorphological investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper contributes to the discussion on the development of hummocky debris landforms by gradual versus catastrophic processes in high mountain areas. It focuses on the upper Chapursan Valley (Karakoram Range, Pakistan), in which the valley floor and adjacent sediment cones are covered with an outstanding hummocky debris landscape over a length of about 10 km and a width of up to 1 km with individual hummocks reaching about 10 m in height. These landforms overlap with the zone of permanent settlement. According to local legends and reports of early travellers in this region, one of the largest settlement concentrations formerly occurred in the upper Chapursan Valley and was destroyed by a natural disaster. In order to study the formation of the debris landforms in more detail geomorphological field investigations, sedimentological studies, a comparison of satellite images, an analysis of historical data and interviews with the local inhabitants have been carried out. The results show that complex geomorphological processes consisting of a glacier advance and followed by glacier lake outbursts and ice avalanches have contributed to the formation of the hummocky debris landforms. The Kit-ke-Jerav and Yishkuk Glaciers seem to have experienced extraordinary fluctuations in historical and recent times.

Iturrizaga, Lasafam

2012-10-01

388

Origins of the ancient constellations: II. The Mediterranean traditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The classical map of the sky, with the 48 Greek constellations, was derived from at least two different pre-Greek traditions. One tradition comprised the 12 signs of the zodiac, with several associated animal constellations, all of which developed over ~3200-500 BC in Mesopotamia in a religious or ritual tradition. These were taken over by the Greeks around 500 BC. However the other Babylonian constellations, their farming-calendar tradition, were not adopted. The other tradition was not Mesopotamian; it comprised large constellations which appear to date from ~2800 BC, probably from the Mediterranean region, devised for the navigators of ships. They include huge bears and serpents which marked the celestial pole and equator at that time, and probably the four anonymous giants which we know as Hercules, Ophiuchus, Bootes, and Auriga, as well as some of the large southern 'marine' constellations. The origins of some other constellations, including the Perseus tableau and various animals, are unknown; they may have been new creations of the Greeks. The Greeks assembled the classical sky-map from these different sources between 540-370 BC, but many of the familiar legends were only applied to the constellations later.

Rogers, J. H.

1998-04-01

389

Lost Indiana  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As the classic Tin Pan Alley song says, "When I dream about the moonlight on the Wabash, then I long for my Indiana home." Created and maintained by John McDonald, a local historian and photographer, this Web site is a tribute to the lost and disappearing landscapes and sites that are important parts of Indiana legend and lore. The site contains a number of profiles of disused and abandoned structures around the state, such as the massive Sheraton Hotel in downtown Gary, and the former Market Square Arena in Indianapolis. One particularly fun feature of the site is a profile of the Crown Hill cemetery in Indianapolis, which is the third largest public cemetery in the United States, and the last resting place of Benjamin Harrison and Edward Black, the youngest person to serve in the Union Army. The site concludes with a selection of other relevant links to other sites, including the Historic Landmarks Foundation of Indiana and the National Trust for Historic Preservation. [KMG

Mcdonald, John P.

2001-01-01

390

3-D Highway in the Sky  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

If it were 50 years ago, NASA's contribution to rock and roll could have been more than just the all-astronaut rock band, Max Q, composed of six NASA astronauts, all of whom have flown aboard the Space Shuttle. If it were 50 years ago, a new NASA spinoff technology, Synthetic Vision, would likely have been able to prevent the fateful, small plane crash that killed rock and roll legends Buddy Holly, Ritchie Valens, and The Big Bopper on that stormy night in 1959. Synthetic Vision is a new cockpit display system that helps pilots fly through bad weather, and it has incredible life-saving potential. In 1997, the White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security created NASA s Aviation Safety and Security Program (AvSSP) with the aim of sounding the depths of NASA s cutting-edge aviation advances and history of successes. The AvSSP decided to use NASA technology to cut the rate of fatal aviation accidents that occur because of lowered visibility and spatial disorientation, common problems that arise in poor weather conditions, in the dark, or with inexperienced pilots.

2005-01-01

391

[Dimitrij Oscarovic Ott (1855-1929) "Ventroscopy" : His contribution to development of laparoscopy].  

PubMed

Dimitri Oscarovic Ott (1855-1929) can be justified in calling himself one of the true pioneers of laparoscopy and especially of natural orifices transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES). As early as 1901 he performed abdominal examinations via a transvaginal access and called this procedure ventroscopy. The publication of his first results and a description of the method and equipment were released in 1902. He was one of the pioneers of present day laparoscopy in addition to Georg Kelling (1866-1945) and Hans Christian Jacobaeus (1879-1937).While Kelling published and presented his first results of animal trials in 1901 and 9 years later in 1910 Jacobaeus performed his first interventions on human beings, Ott had already used the new method developed by him in clinical practice since 1901. Through a single incision in the cul-de-sac and using a head lamp system similar to reflector lamps used by otolaryngologists, he inspected the abdominal cavity with the aid of a gynecological speculum. The patient was positioned in an extreme head-down position and for better lighting he used an additional light source which was connected to the speculum. Even today Prof. Ott is a legend in Russia and especially in St. Petersburg. He was director of the National Institute of Obstetrics and personal physician to Tsarina Aleksandra Fedorovna (1874-1918). He is regarded as the father of the Russian school of obstetrics and gynecology as well as founder of endoscopic surgery and laparoscopy in Russia. PMID:23811726

Hatzinger, M; Fesenko, A; Büger, L; Sohn, M

2013-10-01

392

Numerical simulation of multiphase flows of CO2 storage in saline aquifers in Daqingzijing oilfield, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, according to in-site geological and geophysical data archived of Daqingzijing oilfield, a 3D multiphase flow model based on hydrodynamic trapping mechanism is set up, with the phase interface mechanism proposed. A high-order CE/SE (space-time conservation element and solution element) method coupled with (HPLS) Hybrid level-set method is updated to simulate transport and accumulation of CO2 in saline aquifer formations at the short-term time scales. Results (as shown in Fig.1) illustrate that CO2 distribution is characterized as the belt-shaped zone with direction from west to east due to effects depth, height and physical properties of sand formations. Heterogeneity of the stratigraphy has a dominant control of the evolution of CO2 transport and build-up. After 20 years of injection, CO2 front penetrates 8-9 km away from injection wells. The present work provides a novel approach for simulation of hydrodynamic trapping mechanism for CO2 geological storage in saline aquifers of Songliao Basin of China, which could be a suitable location for a CO2 storage demonstration project. Caption Fig.1 Transport and accumulation of CO2 storage in saline aquifers at different time scales, (a) 1year, (b) 5 years, (c ) 10 years and (d) 20 years after the beginning of injection, respectively. Legend denotes the density (kg/m3) of CO2.

Yang, D.

2010-12-01

393

Analysis of the Putative Remains of a European Patron Saint-St. Birgitta  

PubMed Central

Saint Birgitta (Saint Bridget of Sweden) lived between 1303 and 1373 and was designated one of Europe's six patron saints by the Pope in 1999. According to legend, the skulls of St. Birgitta and her daughter Katarina are maintained in a relic shrine in Vadstena abbey, mid Sweden. The origin of the two skulls was assessed first by analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to confirm a maternal relationship. The results of this analysis displayed several differences between the two individuals, thus supporting an interpretation of the two skulls not being individuals that are maternally related. Because the efficiency of PCR amplification and quantity of DNA suggested a different amount of degradation and possibly a very different age for each of the skulls, an orthogonal procedure, radiocarbon dating, was performed. The radiocarbon dating results suggest an age difference of at least 200 years and neither of the dating results coincides with the period St. Birgitta or her daughter Katarina lived. The relic, thought to originate from St. Birgitta, has an age corresponding to the 13th century (1215–1270 cal AD, 2? confidence), which is older than expected. Thus, the two different analyses are consistent in questioning the authenticity of either of the human skulls maintained in the Vadstena relic shrine being that of St. Birgitta. Of course there are limitations when interpreting the data of any ancient biological materials and these must be considered for a final decision on the authenticity of the remains.

Nilsson, Martina; Possnert, Goran; Edlund, Hanna; Budowle, Bruce; Kjellstrom, Anna; Allen, Marie

2010-01-01

394

Everything's Relative: And Other Fables from Science and Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surprising truth behind many of the most cherished "facts" in science history Morse invented the telegraph, Bell the telephone, Edison the light bulb, and Marconi the radio . . . right? Well . . . the truth is slightly more complicated. The history of science and technology is riddled with apocrypha, inaccuracies, and falsehoods, and physicist Tony Rothman has taken it upon himself to throw a monkey wrench into the works. Combining a storyteller's gifts with a scientist's focus and hardheaded devotion to the facts-such as they may be-Rothman breaks down many of the most famous "just-so" stories of physics, astronomy, chemistry, biology, and technology to give credit where credit is truly due. From Einstein's possible misunderstanding of his own theories to actress Hedy Lemarr's role in the invention of the radio-controlled torpedo, he dredges his way through the legends of science history in relating the fascinating stories behind some of the most important, and often unsung, breakthroughs in science. Tony Rothman, PhD (Bryn Mawr, PA), is a Research Associate at Bryn Mawr College. He is the author of seven other critically acclaimed science books and a frequent contributor to leading science publications, including Scientific American and Discover.

Rothman, Tony

2003-09-01

395

Specifying of requirements for spatio-temporal data in map by eye-tracking and space-time-cube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most objective methods of map use evaluation (in terms of reading, analysis and interpretation. is an analysis of eye movements of map reader, known as eye-tracking method. GazePlots and HeatMaps as the most commonly used visualization methods of eye-tracking data cannot effectively express the change of time. The authors introduce a Space-Time-Cube for spatio-temporal visualization. It displays the map at the base of the cube (axes X and Y) while Z axis is used to represent time. Spatial and temporal components of a map are shown together, and relationship between space and time can be revealed. During the authors' research, the user interaction over the map legend of agriculture of the Czech Republic school maps was tested. Space-Time-Cube displayed both components (spatial and temporal) together and allowed easy visual analysis of four respondents' (map readers') work with a map. Using Space- Time-Cube for visual analysis provides satisfactory results, although this form of visualization is not widespread and for someone it may seem complex and confusing.

Popelka, Stanislav; Voženílek, Vit

2013-03-01

396

Learning Assessment #7 - Maps & Structures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Given a cross-sectional diagram of two rock outcrops (From Earth: Portrait of a Planet 4th edition by Stephan Marshak. Copyright à 2012, 2008, 2005, 2001 by W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. Used by permission of W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.), Part 1 of this activity asks students to sketch a fault structure that would explain the rock configuration. Labels for all important parts of the fault are required (hanging wall, foot wall, arrows indicating movement and the maximum stress direction). The fault must be identified as either normal or reverse. Only one of two possible solutions is required. Given a map template, Part 2 asks students to sketch a geological map of the outcrops based on their fault from Part 1. Required elements include all lithological contacts, strike/dip symbols, structural labels and a proper legend. Part 3 of this activity gives students the same schematic cross-section as in Part 1, except now they have to draw folds that would explain the rock configuration. Labels for the hinge line, axial plane and maximum stress direction must be included.

Reid, Leslie; Speta, Michelle

397

A Parametric Study on Using Active Debris Removal to Stabilize the Future LEO Debris Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent analyses of the instability of the orbital debris population in the low Earth orbit (LEO) region and the collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 have reignited the interest in using active debris removal (ADR) to remediate the environment. There are; however, monumental technical, resources, operational, legal, and political challenges in making economically viable ADR a reality. Before a consensus on the need for ADR can be reached, a careful analysis of the effectiveness of ADR must be conducted. The goal is to demonstrate the feasibility of using ADR to preserve the future environment and to guide its implementation to maximize the benefit-cost ratio. This paper describes a comprehensive sensitivity study on using ADR to stabilize the future LEO debris environment. The NASA long-term, orbital debris evolutionary model, LEGEND, is used to quantify the effects of many key parameters. These parameters include (1) the starting epoch of ADR implementation, (2) various target selection criteria, (3) the benefits of collision avoidance maneuvers, (4) the consequence of targeting specific inclination or altitude regimes, (5) the consequence of targeting specific classes of vehicles, and (6) the timescale of removal. Additional analyses on the importance of postmission disposal and how future launches might affect the requirements to stabilize the environment are also included.

Liou, J.C.

2010-01-01

398

A Parametric Study on Using Active Debris Removal for LEO Environment Remediation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent analyses on the instability of the orbital debris population in the low Earth orbit (LEO) region and the collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 have reignited the interest in using active debris removal (ADR) to remediate the environment. There are; however, monumental technical, resource, operational, legal, and political challenges in making economically viable ADR a reality. Before a consensus on the need for ADR can be reached, a careful analysis of its effectiveness must be conducted. The goal is to demonstrate the need and feasibility of using ADR to better preserve the future environment and to guide its implementation to maximize the benefit-to-cost ratio. This paper describes a new sensitivity study on using ADR to stabilize the future LEO debris environment. The NASA long-term orbital debris evolutionary model, LEGEND, is used to quantify the effects of several key parameters, including target selection criteria/constraints and the starting epoch of ADR implementation. Additional analyses on potential ADR targets among the currently existing satellites and the benefits of collision avoidance maneuvers are also included.

2010-01-01

399

Controlling the Growth of Future LEO Debris Populations with Active Debris Removal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Active debris removal (ADR) was suggested as a potential means to remediate the low Earth orbit (LEO) debris environment as early as the 1980s. The reasons ADR has not become practical are due to its technical difficulties and the high cost associated with the approach. However, as the LEO debris populations continue to increase, ADR may be the only option to preserve the near-Earth environment for future generations. An initial study was completed in 2007 to demonstrate that a simple ADR target selection criterion could be developed to reduce the future debris population growth. The present paper summarizes a comprehensive study based on more realistic simulation scenarios, including fragments generated from the 2007 Fengyun-1C event, mitigation measures, and other target selection options. The simulations were based on the NASA long-term orbital debris projection model, LEGEND. A scenario, where at the end of mission lifetimes, spacecraft and upper stages were moved to 25-year decay orbits, was adopted as the baseline environment for comparison. Different annual removal rates and different ADR target selection criteria were tested, and the resulting 200-year future environment projections were compared with the baseline scenario. Results of this parametric study indicate that (1) an effective removal strategy can be developed based on the mass and collision probability of each object as the selection criterion, and (2) the LEO environment can be stabilized in the next 200 years with an ADR removal rate of five objects per year.

Liou, J.-C.; Johnson, N. L.; Hill, N. M.

2008-01-01

400

Effects of protective knee bracing on speed and agility.  

PubMed

We evaluated the effects of prophylactic knee braces on athlete speed and agility, as well as brace tendency to migrate. Thirty college football players in full gear ran a 40-yard dash and a four-cone agility drill wearing braces on both knees or no brace (control). Braces included the DonJoy Legend, Breg Tradition, OMNI-AKS 101W, McDavid Knee Guard, and models 1 and 2 of the Air Armor Knee and Thigh Protection System. Brace migration and subjective measures were recorded after each trial. In the 40-yard dash, times using Air Armor 1 and OMNI did not differ significantly from control. Times with other braces were significantly slower. In the four-cone drill, only the Breg times were significantly slower than control. The Air Armor 1 and McDavid braces showed significantly less superior/inferior migration in the 40-yard dash than other braces. In the four-cone drill, the Air Armor 1 and 2 showed significantly less superior/inferior migration than other braces. These findings indicate that selected knee braces do not significantly reduce speed or agility. Braces showed a variable tendency to migrate, which could affect their protective function and athlete performance. This information will help athletes and coaches decide about knee-brace use during sports; studies are needed regarding whether braces protect against knee injury. This study does not constitute an endorsement of knee-brace use or efficacy. PMID:10921634

Greene, D L; Hamson, K R; Bay, R C; Bryce, C D

2000-01-01

401

The Wagner Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For many lovers of opera, there are composers who have written opera, and there is Richard Wagner. During his lifetime, Wagner wrote and staged some of the most detailed and densely-structured operas of the 19th century, including Gotterdammerung, Die Walkure, Das Rheingold, and Tristan und Isolde. Edited and designed by Patrick Swinkels, this Web site represents what is perhaps the most ambitious effort thus far to present many of Wagner's prose writings online, along with his correspondence and libretti. On the site, visitors can read reviews of his operatic productions from the 19th century, and read background essays about the myths and legends he drew on for his many works. Additionally, the site presents (in English translation) the complete text of the 1911 edition of Wagner's letters to his family, and also features links to the legendary correspondence between Wagner and Liszt housed at the Project Gutenberg Web site. It may be worth taking a look at the site just to read some of Wagner's elaborate (if not always well-structured) musings, particularly "The Artist and Publicity," which begins with a characteristically dramatic flourish: "When I am along, and the musical strings begin to stir within me, strange whirling sounds take shape of chords, until at last a melody springs forth, revealing to me the idea of my whole being."

402

Flash microwave synthesis of trevorite nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

Nickel ferrite nanoparticles have several possible applications as cathode materials for rechargeable batteries, named 'lithium-ion' batteries. In this study, NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was prepared by microwave induced thermohydrolysis. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET method, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). All the results show that the microwave one-step flash synthesis leads in a very short time to NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with elementary particles size close to 4-5 nm, and high specific surfaces (close to 240 m{sup 2}/g). Thus, microwave heating appears as an efficient source of energy to produce quickly nanoparticles with complex composition as ferrite. - Graphical abstract: At the end of the 20th century, a new concept of battery was introduced, named 'Li ion', where electrodes are both lithium-storage materials. Compounds with a spinel structure are so investigated and microwave heating appears as an efficient source of energy to produce nanoparticles in a very short time and at low temperature, with controlled size (4-5 nm) and high specific area (240 m{sup 2}/g). Legend: Pictogram represents our original microwave reactor, the RAMO (French acronym of Reacteur Autoclave Micro-Onde), containing the reactants and submitted to the microwave irradiation. Multicolor candy represents obtained material.

Bousquet-Berthelin, C. [NANOSCIENCES-GERM - Groupe d'Etudes et de Recherches en Microondes, I.C.B. (Institut Carnot de Bourgogne), UMR 5209 CNRS, Universite de Bourgogne, 9 Avenue Alain Savary, B.P. 47870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France)], E-mail: christelle.bousquet@u-bourgogne.fr; Chaumont, D.; Stuerga, D. [NANOSCIENCES-GERM - Groupe d'Etudes et de Recherches en Microondes, I.C.B. (Institut Carnot de Bourgogne), UMR 5209 CNRS, Universite de Bourgogne, 9 Avenue Alain Savary, B.P. 47870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France)

2008-03-15

403

Effects of Low Activity Solar Cycle on Orbital Debris Lifetime  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long duration of low solar activity in the last solar minimum has an undesirable consequence of extending the lifetime of orbital debris. The AFRL TacSat-2 satellite decommissioned in 2008 has finally re-entered into the atmosphere on February 5th after more than one year overdue. Concerning its demise we have monitored its orbital decay and monthly forecasted Tacsat-2 re-entry since September 2010 by using the Orbital Element Prediction (OEP) model developed by the AFRL Orbital Drag Environment program. The model combines estimates of future solar activity with neutral density models, drag coefficient models, and an orbit propagator to predict satellite lifetime. We run the OEP model with solar indices forecast by the NASA Marshall Solar Activity Future Estimation model, and neutral density forecast by the MSIS-00 neutral density model. Based on the two line elements in 2010 up to mid September, we estimated at a 50% confidence level TacSat-2's re-entry time to be in early February 2011, which turned out to be in good agreement with Tacsat-2's actual re-entry date. The potential space weather effects of the coming low activity solar cycle on satellite lifetime and orbital debris population are examined. The NASA long-term orbital debris evolutionary model, LEGEND, is used to quantify the effects of solar flux on the orbital debris population in the 200-600 km altitude environment. The results are discussed for developing satellite orbital drag application product.

Cable, Samual B.; Sutton, Eric K.; Lin, chin S.; Liou, J.-C.

2011-01-01

404

Issue cover (august 2014).  

PubMed

Cover legend: Dynamin oligomerization in cells detected by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. Cos-7 cells expressing dynamin were treated with 30 ?M Bis-T-23 (small molecule) which induces dynamin oligomerization into rings. After 20 min, cells were fixed and stained using monoclonal anti-GTPase antibody conjugated with Alexa Fluor 488 (donor fluorophore) and monoclonal anti-PRD antibody conjugated with Alexa Fluor 594 (acceptor fluorophore). Lifetimes are shown as discrete colors: fast lifetimes between 0-2200 ps represent ?20% fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) efficiency and are shown in red, whereas slow lifetimes above 2201 ps are shown in blue (no FRET). Positive FRET signal was only detected when dynamin oligomerized. In COS-7 cells, dynamin oligomers (positive signal) were detected throughout the cytoplasm, at the transition zone in which cortical actin transitions to stress fibers, and often at the cytoplasmic face of the nuclei. See Gu et al. Traffic 15(8): 819-838. Read the full article on doi:10.1111/tra.12178. PMID:25039489

2014-08-01

405

Walter Gordon Collection of Photographs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the first half of the 20th century, the well-known African American attorney Walter L. Gordon had his office next to the African American newspaper, the California Eagle. The photographers for the paper often shot pictures of Black social life in Los Angeles, and once printed these photos were often discarded. Gordon saved many of these photos and began collecting the images, which often depicted leading members of the Black community in Los Angeles. His collection made its way to UCLA, and their digital collections group digitized over 800 of his photographs. Here visitors will find images of black resorts such as Val Verde, local political figures, and a range of jazz legends, such as Count Basie and Billie Holliday. Currently, visitors can view almost 300 of these items, and they can browse the photos by language, name, subject, or type. There are some real gems in here, including a great photo of Lionel Hampton on the stage and a cast photo of the members of "Carmen Jones" at an informal gathering. The image viewer here is quite impressive, as visitors can add a grid of select photos for comparative viewing and also manipulate each image as they see fit.

406

Investigating graph comprehension in students with dyslexia: an eye tracking study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine graph comprehension in college students with developmental dyslexia. We investigated how graph types (line, vertical bar, and horizontal bar graphs), graphic patterns (single and double graphic patterns), and question types (point locating and comparison questions) differentially affect graph comprehension of students with and without dyslexia. Groups were compared for (1) reaction times for answering comprehension questions based on graphed data and (2) eye gaze times for specific graph subregions (x-axis, y-axis, pattern, legend, question, and answer). Dyslexic readers were significantly slower in their graph comprehension than their peers with group differences becoming more robust with the increasing complexity of graphs and tasks. In addition, dyslexic readers' initial eye gaze viewing times for linguistic subregions (question and answer) and total viewing times for both linguistic (question and answer) and nonlinguistic (pattern) subregions were significantly longer than their control peers' times. In spite of using elementary-level paragraphs for comprehension and simple graph forms, young adults with dyslexia needed more time to process linguistic and nonlinguistic stimuli. These findings are discussed relative to theories proposed to address fundamental processing deficits in individuals with dyslexia. PMID:24770469

Kim, Sunjung; Lombardino, Linda J; Cowles, Wind; Altmann, Lori J

2014-07-01

407

Marshall Rosenbluth and the Beginning of Monte Carlo Simulations for the Physical Sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1953 publication, ``Equation of State Calculations by Very Fast Computing Machines'' by Nick Metropolis, Arianna and Marshall Rosenbluth, and Mici and Edward Teller [1], marked the beginning of the use of the Monte Carlo method for solving problems in the physical sciences. The method described in this publication subsequently became known as the Metropolis algorithm, undoubtedly the most famous and most widely use Monte Carlo algorithm ever published. As none of the authors made subsequent used of the algorithm, they became unknown to the large simulation physics community that grew from this publication and their roles in its development became the subject of mystery and legend. In what is likely his last publication, Marshall Rosenbluth gave his recollections of the algorithm's development [2], the first recollection of the algorithm's development ever recorded, and laid claim to what perhaps should have been called the Rosenbluth algorithm. I will describe the algorithm, reconstruct the historical context in which it was developed, summarize Marshall's recollections, and share his parting challenges to those doing Monte Carlo simulations. [1] N. Metropolis, A. W. Rosenbluth, M. N. Rosenbluth, A. H. Teller, and E. Teller, J. Chem. Phys. 21, 1087 (1953). [2] M. N. Rosenbluth, in The Monte Carlo Method in the Physical Sciences, edited by J. E. Gubernatis (American Institute of Physics, New York, 2003), p. 22.

Gubernatis, James E.

2004-11-01

408

Possible Ancient Anthrosols Near Lost City of Ubar Site in Oman  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During mapping for the Wadi al Jubal Archaeological Project in Yemen, USGS Geologists Overstreet and Grolier mapped "anthrosols of pre-Islaniic age" east of the Marib dam site (15D 24M N, 45D 18M E). These soils were the result of agriculture supported by irrigation enabled by water impounded by the dam, areas which were abandoned after dam failure. During analysis of Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite images of Yemen and Oman for the Mahra Archaeological Project, we noted that these anthrosols had a distinctive image expression. Based on other remote sensing research and laboratory spectroscopy, we think that the distinctive image signature is due to low reflectivity in Landsat band 7 resulting from relatively high concentrations of gypsum in the anthrosols. Many anthrosol sites were noted, most, but not all, of them previously documented. Undocumented possible anthrosol sites include an area east of Shisr in Oman, the archaeological site discovered by us to be responsible for some features of the "Lost City of Ubar" legends. Included in legendary accounts of the Ubar region are reports of fertile oases, and "areas that have known the plow". Based on demonstrated reliability of aspects of carefully interpreted legendary accounts, we postulate that we may have located the area of desert agriculture that may have existed to support the frankincense caravansary of Ubar. The possible anthrosol area is located at approximately 18D 10M N, 53D 54M E, and will be the subject of study in a future expedition.

Blom, Ronald G.; Crippen, Robert E.; Owen, Jana K.; Zarins, Juris

2000-01-01

409

[Parmentier hygiene and public health].  

PubMed

The legend about Parmentier is quite reductive when it limits his activity to the promotion of potato. This military pharmacist intended mainly to make science serve human being, whatever could be his various activities. Actor of the foundation of food chemistry, reorganizer of military pharmacy, he has always been highly concerned with hygiene and public health. He then studied the quality of water, particularly in the case of river Seine, or the purity of air, especially in hospitals. The affair of Dunkerque exhumations or that of cesspools, or the utilisation of human excrements in agriculture were parts of the occurrences for which he had the opportunity to find a scientific approach allowing to solve the difficult questions that were asked to him, for the best benefit of public health. The exhaustive study he published in "Bulletin de pharmacie" for the conservation of meat shows that he did not ignore anything about freezing of food in order to preserve it. It is necessary not to forget the important role he played, as soon as he were informed of Jenner's discovery, for the diffusion of vaccination in France. It is simply astounding to observe how modern were the questions he solved and how intense was his spirit of dedication to the public good, when exerting his functions in "Comité de Salubrité de la Seine" or "Conseil de Santé des Armées", as well as outside these prestigious institutions. PMID:24780835

Lafont, O

2014-05-01

410

History Detectives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Thinking about detectives in general makes most people's minds wander to thoughts of those rugged personages of television dramas or to the world of literature, with a lot of mucking about in dark alleyways or the sordid world of upper-crust intrigue and deception. PBS has elected to turn that perception on its head with its new program, History Detectives. This 10-part series is devoted to "solving historical mysteries, searching out the true facts (and falsehoods) behind local folklore, family legends and interesting objects." On this site, visitors can learn about the team of detectives (which includes an auctioneer, an architecture history professor, and a sociology professor), view clips from the program, and most importantly, about their various techniques for sleuthing. What is even better is that the site also offers overviews into various techniques (such as investigating the history of a building and examining personal papers) that allow users to get out there and do their own sleuthing in their own communities.

411

Inhalation Anthrax: Dose Response and Risk Analysis  

PubMed Central

The notion that inhalation of a single Bacillus anthracis spore is fatal has become entrenched nearly to the point of urban legend, in part because of incomplete articulation of the scientific basis for microbial risk assessment, particularly dose-response assessment. Risk analysis (ie, risk assessment, risk communication, risk management) necessitates transparency: distinguishing scientific facts, hypotheses, judgments, biases in interpretations, and potential misinformation. The difficulty in achieving transparency for biothreat risk is magnified by misinformation and poor characterization of both dose-response relationships and the driving mechanisms that cause susceptibility or resistance to disease progression. Regrettably, this entrenchment unnecessarily restricts preparedness planning to a single response scenario: decontaminate until no spores are detectable in air, water, or on surfaces—essentially forcing a zero-tolerance policy inconsistent with the biology of anthrax. We present evidence about inhalation anthrax dose-response relationships, including reports from multiple studies documenting exposures insufficient to cause inhalation anthrax in laboratory animals and humans. The emphasis of the article is clarification about what is known from objective scientific evidence for doses of anthrax spores associated with survival and mortality. From this knowledge base, we discuss the need for future applications of more formal risk analysis processes to guide development of alternative non-zero criteria or standards based on science to inform preparedness planning and other risk management activities.

Thran, Brandolyn; Morse, Stephen S.; Hugh-Jones, Martin; Massulik, Stacey

2008-01-01

412

The German-Hollywood Connection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created and maintained by Hyde Flippo, this Web site pays homage to the long-standing connection between the Germanic world and the bright lights of Hollywood and the film industry. As Flippo contends in a brief introduction to the site, "No other single influence on American cinema has been greater than that from the German-speaking world." Given the preponderance of such Hollywood legends like Michael Curtiz, Marlene Dietrich, Ernst Lubitsch, Wolfgang Petersen, Billy Wilder, and William Wyler, there just may be something to this particular contention. The section titled Connections is quite interesting, as it draws portraits of the German-Hollywood connections within such films as Casablanca, the Tarzan movies which starred the late Johnny Weissmuller, and the films of Roland Emmerich (director of Independence Day and Godzilla), who is known as the Swabian Spielberg. Along with these engaging pieces, the site also contains material about actors with Germanic origins and film studios that were heavily influenced by those persons from the German-speaking world.

413

Unsupervised Full-Polarimetric Segmentation for Evaluation of Backscatter Mechanisms of Agricultural Crops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Versatile, robust and computational efficient methods for radar image segmentation, which preserve the full polarimetric information content, are of importance as research tools as well as for practical applications in land surface monitoring. The method introduced here consists of six steps. The first step is a transform of the full polarimetric information into nine intensities per band. The next steps relate to unsupervised clustering (i.e. deriving class statistics) encompassing a simple region-growing segmentation (incomplete and over- segmented) followed by model-based agglomerative clustering and expectation-maximization on the pixels of these segments. Classification is achieved by Markov Random Field filtering on the original data. The result is a series of segmented maps, which mainly differ in the number of (unsupervised) classes. Results for the Flevoland agricultural area are shown. The applications include the use of groundtruth for legend development, the check for groundtruth completeness and the construction of a bottom-up hierarchy of the characteristics that can be distinguished in the radar data. The latter gives important insights in physics of radar backscattering mechanisms. Moreover, the relative importance of crop differences, (full-polarimetric) incidence angle effects and sub-classes (related to factors such as crop varieties or row direction) may be assessed.

Hoekman, D. H.; Tran, T.; Vissers, M.

2007-03-01

414

Injuries caused by venomous animals and folk medicine in farmers from Cuite, State of Paraiba, Northeast of Brazil.  

PubMed

Injuries caused by venomous animals reported by the agricultural workers from the municipality of Cuité, Curimataú region of Paraiba State, Northeast of Brazil, and the practices of folk medicine which they use to treat these cases were studied in this work from June to August 2010. The farmers studied aged from 11 to 90 years. The number of people who reported cases of injury by these animals in their families was high (89.3%). Scorpions, wasps, bees and snakes were the most cited and the extremities of the body (hands, feet, legs and head) were the most affected. The practice of folk medicine to treat these injuries includes various procedures ranging from ritualistic treatments, use of animals or parts of them, and some herbal preparations. The folk treatment was reported as effective by most of the workers injured (63.9%). Body parts of dead snakes are used in various zootherapic treatments. In the imaginary of the agricultural workers the venomous animals are considered hazardous (48.7%) or disgusting (11.3%), and several parts of such animals as the rattle, bee sting or snake leather are used as amulet. Several legends have also been reported about snakes, scorpions and bees. The need for educational activities that aim to clarify these workers about the dangers of such practices is urgent. PMID:24896277

Oliveira, Hellyson Fidel Araujo de; Costa, Cristiane Francisca da; Sassi, Roberto

2013-09-01

415

The Golem Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From engineers at Brandeis University comes this wild world of evolutionary robotics. Golem ("Genetically Organized Lifelike Electro Mechanics"), named for the Jewish legend of the golem, is a project involving electro-mechanical objects that build themselves according to basic principles of evolution. In the words of the investigators: "In the Golem project we conducted a set of experiments in which simple electro-mechanical systems evolved from scratch to yield physical locomoting machines. Like biological lifeforms whose structure and function exploit the behaviors afforded by their own chemical and mechanical medium, our evolved creatures take advantage of the nature of their own medium - thermoplastic, motors, and artificial neurons." Visitors to the Golem Project site can read about the project's inspiration, the design and construction of the robots, and some preliminary results and conclusions. An explanation of the physics behind the simulation of mechanics and neural control of a machine is given also, with formulae and graphics. A particularly interesting feature of the site is the downloadable program (available as a screensaver, Golem 2.42, or as a stand-alone program, Live Truss 1.2) that simulates the Golem project by evolving bodies and brains of electromechanical robots, and animating some on the screen (Win95/98/NT, 740K). The animated bodies created by the program can leave your computer and migrate to other computers that have the program (see the site for logistical and copyright details).

416

Evidence of local defects in the oxygen excess apatite La{sub 9.67}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2.5} from high resolution neutron powder diffraction  

SciTech Connect

From neutron diffraction data collected at 3 K on a powder of La{sub 9.67}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2.5} composition and a careful examination of the average structure, a model was proposed to explain the oxygen over-stoichiometry in the apatite structure. This model leads to realistic distances to neighbouring atoms. Moreover, it accounts perfectly for the maximum oxygen content observed in these materials. Up to 0.5 oxygen atom located at the vicinity of the 2a site (0, 0, 1/4) would be shifted to a new interstitial position in the channel at (-0.01, 0.04, 0.06), creating a Frenkel defect, with the possibility of a maximum occupancy in this site equal to twice the Frenkel defect numbers. This structural model is in good agreement with the oxygen diffusion pathways recently proposed by Bechade et al. (2009) using computer modeling techniques. It supports preferred oxygen diffusion pathways via interstitial oxygen atoms and vacant sites along [0 0 1], close to the centre of the La(2)-O channels. - Graphical abstract legend: Structural defect position and possible conduction mechanism along the c-axis (representation of two adjacent unit-cells)

Guillot, Stephanie [CEA Le Ripault, BP 16, 37260 Monts (France); Beaudet-Savignat, Sophie, E-mail: sophie.beaudet-savignat@cea.f [CEA Le Ripault, BP 16, 37260 Monts (France); Lambert, Sebastien [CEA Le Ripault, BP 16, 37260 Monts (France); Vannier, Rose-Noelle; Roussel, Pascal [Unite de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, Equipe de Chimie du Solide, UMR CNRS 8181, ENSCL-Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, 59652 Villeneuve d'Ascq (France); Porcher, Florence [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)

2009-12-15

417

Addendum for the Phase I Hydrologic Data for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 0 (page changes)  

SciTech Connect

This document, which makes changes to Phase I Hydrologic Data for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, S-N/99205--077, Revision 0 (June 2006), was prepared to address review comments on this final document provided by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) in a letter dated August 4, 2006. The document includes revised pages that address NDEP review comments and comments from other document users. Change bars are included on these pages to identify where the text was revised. In addition to the revised pages, the following clarifications are made for the two plates inserted in the back of the document: • Plate 4: Disregard the repeat of legend text ‘Drill Hole Name’ and ‘Drill Hole Location’ in the lower left corner of the map. • Plate 6: The symbol at the ER-16-1 location (white dot on the lower left side of the map) is not color-coded because no water level has been determined. The well location is included for reference. • Plate 6: The symbol at the ER-12-1 location (upper left corner of the map), a yellow dot, represents the lower water level elevation. The higher water level elevation, represented by a red dot, was overprinted.

John McCord

2007-05-01

418

[Illustrations of of alchemy vessels in a manuscript of Pseudo-Geber].  

PubMed

Manuscript ric. 933 "Geber de investigatione perfectionis magisterii", kept in the Libreria Riccardiana in Florence, is a 13th century Latin version of the "Book of the Secret of the Secrets" ("kitab sirr al-asrar") by the Arabian alchemist al-Razi (865-925). The manuscript shows on page 25r a series of drawings of alchemistic vessels and apparatus which do not figure in the Arabian original but which are of particular interest as they date from as early as the 13th century and are numbered amongst the earliest drawings of this kind which we possess. The publication of the manuscript by Julius Ruska in 1935 shows only copied drawings with his interpretations of the legends. There was considerable interest in the publication of the original page 25r and in the course of further study it became clear that these interpretations had to be revised. These new interpretations presented in detail in this paper are justified and put into an alchemistic context. In some cases they give a new understanding and differ considerably from Ruska's versions. PMID:21898979

Kurzmann, Peter

2011-01-01

419

Values, animal symbolism, and human-animal relationships associated to two threatened felids in Mapuche and Chilean local narratives  

PubMed Central

Background The Chilean temperate rainforest has been subjected to dramatic fragmentation for agriculture and forestry exploitation. Carnivore species are particularly affected by fragmentation and the resulting resource use conflicts with humans. This study aimed at understanding values and human-animal relationships with negatively perceived threatened carnivores through the disclosure of local stories and Mapuche traditional folktales. Methods Our mixed approach comprised the qualitative analysis of 112 stories on the kodkod cat (Leopardus guigna) and the puma (Puma concolor) collected by students (9-14 years) from 28 schools in the Araucania region within their family contexts, 10 qualitative in-depth interviews with indigenous Mapuche people, 35 traditional Mapuche legends, and the significance of naming found in ethnographic collections. Results We revealed a quasi-extinction of traditional tales in the current knowledge pool about pumas and kodkods, local anecdotes, however, were present in significant numbers. Values associated to both felids were manifold, ranging from negativistic to positive values. While pumas played an important role in people’s spirituality, negative mythological connotations persisted in kodkod stories. Four prominent relationships were derived: (1) Both felids represent threats to livestock, pumas even to life, (2) both felids are symbols for upcoming negative events, (3) pumas are spiritual creatures, and (4) kodkods are threatened by humans. Recommendations are provided for stimulating new ways of perceiving unpopular and threatened carnivores among those who live in vicinity to them.

2013-01-01

420

GIS Symbology for FRMAC/CMHT Radiological/Nuclear Products  

SciTech Connect

This document is intended to codify, to the extent currently possible, the representation of map products produced for and by the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) and the Consequence Management Home Team (CHMT), particularly those that include model products from the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (NARAC). This is to facilitate consistency between GIS products produced by different members of these teams, which should ease the task of interpreting these products by both team members and those outside the team who may need to use these products during a response. The aspects of symbology being considered are primarily isopleths levels (breakpoints) and colors used to plot NARAC modeled dose or deposition fields on mpas, although some comments will be made about the handling of legend and supporting textual information. Other aspects of symbolizing such products (e.g., transparency) are being left to the individual team members to allow them to adapt to particular organizational needs or requirements that develop during a particular a response or exercise. This document has been written in coordination with the creation of training material in Baskett, et al., 2008. It is not intended as an aid to NARAC product interpretation but to facilitate the work of GIS specialists who deal with these products in map design and in the development of supporting scripts and software that partially or completely automate the integration of NARAC model products with other GIS data. This work was completed as part of the NA-42 Technical Integration Project on GIS Automated Data Processing and Map Production in FY 2008. Other efforts that are part of this work include (a) updating the NARAC shapefile product representation to facilitate the automation work proceed at RSL as part of the same TI effort and (b) to ensure that the NARAC shapefile construct includes all of the necessary legend and other textual data to interpret dispersion and deposition patterns and related products correctly. This document is focusing on the products produced by the GIS Division of the Remove Sensing Laboratory (RSL) and by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC), both separately and in combination. The expectation is that standard products produced by either group independently or in combination should use the same key attributes in displaying the same kinds of data so that products of a given type generally look similar in key aspects of the presentation, thereby minimizing any confusion of users when a variety of products from these groups may be needed. This document is dealing with the set of common standard products used in responding to radiological/nuclear releases. There are a number of less standard products that are used occasionally or in certain specific situations that are not addressed here. This includes special products that are occasionally produced by both NARAC and RSL in responses and major exercises to meet immediate and unanticipated requirements. At some future time, it may be appropriate to review the handling of such special products by both organizations to determine if there are any areas that would benefit from being integrated with the conventions described here. A particular area that should be addressed in the near-term is that of Derived Response Levels (DRLs) calculated by the Consequence Management Home Team (CMHT) or FRMAC Assessment Scientists. A new calculation is done for every event assigning contour levels, or break-points, based upon field measurements. These contour levels can be applied to deposition or dose rate NARAC calculations. Because these calculations are different every time, they can not be stored in a database.

Walker, H; Aluzzi, F; Foster, K; Pobanz, B; Sher, B

2008-10-06

421

The "Land Unit and Soil Capability Map of Sardinia" at a 1:50,000 scale, a new tool for land use planning in Sardinia (Italy) - The pilot area of Pula-Capoterra (southwestern Sardinia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Regional Landscape Plan (RLP) of Sardinia (Italy), approved in 2006, establishes the directions for any land use planning in Sardinia and requires that pre-existing plans have to be changed to comply with these directives. In the RLP, the soil is specifically considered one of the main landscape components and in the RLP guidelines a soil survey of the whole communal territory is required. Moreover, Land Unit and Land Capability maps are explicitly required, and the adoption of a single regional reference legend for these maps is strongly recommended. The Planning Department of the Regional Administration of Sardinia (RAS) has recently realized the need for specific knowledge and tools to support land use planning according to the RLP rules. Consequently, a new project for the creation of a "Land Unit and Soil Capability Map of Sardinia", at a scale of 1:50,000, was recently initiated in four pilot areas. Two Universities (Cagliari and Sassari) and two regional Agencies (AGRIS and LAORE) are involved in the project, each of them being responsible for one pilot area. In this work we present the map of the pilot area Pula-Capoterra (southwestern Sardinia, 46,040 ha). A GIS approach was used. We used the soil-landscape paradigm for the prediction of soil classes and their spatial distribution based on landscape features. The work was divided into two main phases. In the first phase, the available digital data on topography, geology and land cover were processed and classified according to their influence on weathering processes and soil properties. Digital thematic maps of soil-forming factors (landform, parent material, land cover) were produced to build the first draft of the Land Unit Map. The dataset was developed in a GIS environment, exploiting its potential to produce derived maps by intersections, reclassifications and summarizing themes using GIS functions. The existing soil data (areal and point data) were collected, reviewed, validated and standardized according to international and national guidelines. The data of 155 soil observations considered to be usable, 69 of which correspond to soil profiles with routine analytical data set, were input into a specific database created for the project. During the second phase, the first draft of the Land Unit Map was implemented with the existing soil data and verified in the field. During the field work, 603 new soil observations were carried out, 61 of which correspond to soil profiles with routine analyses. Considering that in the area 8,755 ha do not have soil cover (urban areas, industrial areas, and rock outcrops), the final survey density is equal to 1 soil observation per 50 ha. Finally, the Land Unit and Soil Capability Map was produced by classifying the land units using a reference matching table of land capability classes created for this project. The legend of this map is divided into three main sections: Land Unit, Soil and Soil Capability. Each section is divided into several parts containing detailed information. Acknowledgments This work has been supported by the RAS under the decree DGR n. 56/36 dated 29.12.2009.

Vacca, Andrea; Marrone, Vittorio Alessandro; Loddo, Stefano

2014-05-01

422

Decoding implicit information from the soil map of Belgium and implications for spatial modelling and soil classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A systematic soil survey of Belgium was conducted from 1948 to 1991. Field surveys were done at the detailed scale of 1:5000 with the final maps published at a 1:20,000 scale. Soil surveyors were classifying soils in the field according to physical and morphogenetic characteristics such as texture, drainage class and profile development. Mapping units are defined as a combination of these characteristics but to which modifiers can be added such as parent material, stoniness or depth to substrata. Interpretation of the map towards predicting soil properties seems straight forward. Consequently, since the soil map has been digitized, it has been used for e.g. hydrological modelling or for estimating soil organic carbon content at sub-national and national level. Besides the explicit information provided by the legend, a wealth of implicit information is embedded in the map. Based on three cases, we illustrate that by decoding this information, properties pertaining to soil drainage or soil organic carbon content can be assessed more accurately. First, the presence/absence of fragipans affects the soil hydraulic conductivity. Although a dedicated symbol exits for fragipans (suffix "...m"), it is only used explicitly in areas where fragipans are not all that common. In the Belgian Ardennes, where fragipans are common, their occurrence is implicitly implied for various soil types mentioned in explanatory booklets. Second, whenever seasonal or permanent perched water tables were observed, these were indicated by drainage class ".h." or ".i.", respectively. Stagnic properties have been under reported as typical stagnic mottling - i.e. when the surface of soil peds are lighter and/or paler than the more reddish interior - were not distinguished from mottling due to groundwater gley. Still, by combining information on topography and the occurrence of substratum layers, stagnic properties can be inferred. Thirdly, soils with deep anthropogenic enriched organic matter (Anthrosols) are distinguished for their specific profile development (code "..m"). Obviously, when assessing soil organic carbon content these soil types need particular consideration. Soils in the Campine region with anthropogenic layers only 30 to 40 cm thick, not being Anthrosols, got a specific suffix code ("…3"). Still, as these soils may have a buried Ah horizon of up to 20 cm, their soil organic carbon content can be comparable to those of Anthrosols. The buried Ah horizon is however not explicitly mapped; its presence needs to be inferred from other environmental information. In conclusion, conventional soil maps convey more information than what transpires from just the explicit legend's semantics. Although a challenge, decoding the implicit information should be particularly useful for spatial modeling. The cases also point to the importance of classifying soil characteristics explicitly, wherever possible, and in particularly when soil maps are integrated into geographical information systems.

Dondeyne, Stefaan; Legrain, Xavier; Colinet, Gilles; Van Ranst, Eric; Deckers, Jozef

2014-05-01

423

Multilingual Maps of the Terrestrial Planets and their Moons: the East and Central European Edition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of Multilingual planetary maps has been published by the Cosmic Materials Space Research Group of the Eötvös Loránd University (Budapest, Hungary) with consultations by Russian and German colleagues. The maps are a result of a cooperation of MIIGAiK (which offered the base maps), ELTE, the Copernicus Observatory and Planetarium in Brno, the Zagreb Astronomical Observatory, the Jagellonian University Observatory, the Tectonics and Geological Cartography Section of the Faculty of Geology at Warsaw University and the University of Architecture, Civil Engeneering and Geodesy in Sofia. The series has been initiated by the International Cartographic Association (ICA), Commission on Planetary Cartography (Shingareva et al. 2006). The now complete series has been published from 2001 to 2006: Mars (2001), Venus (2003), Moon (2003), Mercury (2004) and Phobos and Deimos (2006). (Hargitai et al 2001-2006) These maps are more than outreach posters but less than maps for scientific purposes. These give a good overview of the topography and geology of the planets in a global to regional scale. They contain multilingual information concerning planetary science results and specific characteristics of the planetary body relief, placed on the lower margins of the front sides of the maps and the whole back side (geography, geology, stratigraphy, history of discovery and full index of names). These texts appear in Czech, Bulgarian, Hungarian, Croatian, Polish and English. In some cases it was the first time that a particular term (and its definition) was translated into one of these Central European languages. After compiling the first four maps it can be concluded that such work can effectively draw the attention of earth scientists to the specific features - and the mere existence - of other planetary bodies by simply discussing the translation of their terminology. Apart from circulating the maps in classrooms, this might be the most important scientific result of this edition. A new, improved edition of the Venus Map was made in Polish and Hungarian for 1 use in the recent Venus transit events. In this map, the visual appearance has been modified: the original pencil drawing was mixed with actual radar image patches and vector symbols. The new edition uses symbols for features which would otherwise be too small for the representation at the given scale. For the improvement of the overall "3D" appearance, a limb darkening shading method was used. For the impact craters radar images were used instead of the drawing, which represents their actual ejecta characteristics more realistically. Lava channels are shown by yellow lines that follow the meanderings of the channels. The same method was used for fossae. Some lava flows that appear in the radar images are also shown. The elevated terrae got a darker brownish hue, while lower planitiae (plains) are shown in a light orange resulting in a "warm/hot" appereance. The locations of some of the smaller geologic hot spots" ("ticks", farra etc.) are also shown. We have added several new names to the nomenclature appearing on the map and used different font faces for the different features, taking terrestrial physical geographic maps as samples. Wherever possible, the names appear parallel to the latitude grid. The legend got more space and contains not only basic (morphologic) features defined with Latin terms by IAU, but also other features or landscape types which are only described and discussed in planetary science publications. In the legend, not only official" IAU definitions are included, but also the morphologic description and geologic interpretation. After finishing the series we have started to update the maps and made a survey amongst students about the usability of the maps. As a result, we found that non- professionals expect maps to use Earth map standards and conventions, for example they looked for mountain peak heights and familiar symbols. We have re-designed the maps and added more details. We also look for a new color-code,

Hargitai, H.; Berczi, Sz.

424

NASADIG - NASA DEVICE INDEPENDENT GRAPHICS LIBRARY (AMDAHL VERSION)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Device Independent Graphics Library, NASADIG, can be used with many computer-based engineering and management applications. The library gives the user the opportunity to translate data into effective graphic displays for presentation. The software offers many features which allow the user flexibility in creating graphics. These include two-dimensional plots, subplot projections in 3D-space, surface contour line plots, and surface contour color-shaded plots. Routines for three-dimensional plotting, wireframe surface plots, surface plots with hidden line removal, and surface contour line plots are provided. Other features include polar and spherical coordinate plotting, world map plotting utilizing either cylindrical equidistant or Lambert equal area projection, plot translation, plot rotation, plot blowup, splines and polynomial interpolation, area blanking control, multiple log/linear axes, legends and text control, curve thickness control, and multiple text fonts (18 regular, 4 bold). NASADIG contains several groups of subroutines. Included are subroutines for plot area and axis definition; text set-up and display; area blanking; line style set-up, interpolation, and plotting; color shading and pattern control; legend, text block, and character control; device initialization; mixed alphabets setting; and other useful functions. The usefulness of many routines is dependent on the prior definition of basic parameters. The program's control structure uses a serial-level construct with each routine restricted for activation at some prescribed level(s) of problem definition. NASADIG provides the following output device drivers: Selanar 100XL, VECTOR Move/Draw ASCII and PostScript files, Tektronix 40xx, 41xx, and 4510 Rasterizer, DEC VT-240 (4014 mode), IBM AT/PC compatible with SmartTerm 240 emulator, HP Lasergrafix Film Recorder, QMS 800/1200, DEC LN03+ Laserprinters, and HP LaserJet (Series III). NASADIG is written in FORTRAN and is available for several platforms. NASADIG 5.7 is available for DEC VAX series computers running VMS 5.0 or later (MSC-21801), Cray X-MP and Y-MP series computers running UNICOS (COS-10049), and Amdahl 5990 mainframe computers running UTS (COS-10050). NASADIG 5.1 is available for UNIX-based operating systems (MSC-22001). The UNIX version has been successfully implemented on Sun4 series computers running SunOS, SGI IRIS computers running IRIX, Hewlett Packard 9000 computers running HP-UX, and Convex computers running Convex OS (MSC-22001). The standard distribution medium for MSC-21801 is a set of two 6250 BPI 9-track magnetic tapes in DEC VAX BACKUP format. It is also available on a set of two TK50 tape cartridges in DEC VAX BACKUP format. The standard distribution medium for COS-10049 and COS-10050 is a 6250 BPI 9-track magnetic tape in UNIX tar format. Other distribution media and formats may be available upon request. The standard distribution medium for MSC-22001 is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge (Sun QIC-24) in UNIX tar format. Alternate distribution media and formats are available upon request. With minor modification, the UNIX source code can be ported to other platforms including IBM PC/AT series computers and compatibles. NASADIG is also available bundled with TRASYS, the Thermal Radiation Analysis System (COS-10026, DEC VAX version; COS-10040, CRAY version).

Rogers, J. E.

1994-01-01

425

NASADIG - NASA DEVICE INDEPENDENT GRAPHICS LIBRARY (VAX VMS VERSION)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Device Independent Graphics Library, NASADIG, can be used with many computer-based engineering and management applications. The library gives the user the opportunity to translate data into effective graphic displays for presentation. The software offers many features which allow the user flexibility in creating graphics. These include two-dimensional plots, subplot projections in 3D-space, surface contour line plots, and surface contour color-shaded plots. Routines for three-dimensional plotting, wireframe surface plots, surface plots with hidden line removal, and surface contour line plots are provided. Other features include polar and spherical coordinate plotting, world map plotting utilizing either cylindrical equidistant or Lambert equal area projection, plot translation, plot rotation, plot blowup, splines and polynomial interpolation, area blanking control, multiple log/linear axes, legends and text control, curve thickness control, and multiple text fonts (18 regular, 4 bold). NASADIG contains several groups of subroutines. Included are subroutines for plot area and axis definition; text set-up and display; area blanking; line style set-up, interpolation, and plotting; color shading and pattern control; legend, text block, and character control; device initialization; mixed alphabets setting; and other useful functions. The usefulness of many routines is dependent on the prior definition of basic parameters. The program's control structure uses a serial-level construct with each routine restricted for activation at some prescribed level(s) of problem definition. NASADIG provides the following output device drivers: Selanar 100XL, VECTOR Move/Draw ASCII and PostScript files, Tektronix 40xx, 41xx, and 4510 Rasterizer, DEC VT-240 (4014 mode), IBM AT/PC compatible with SmartTerm 240 emulator, HP Lasergrafix Film Recorder, QMS 800/1200, DEC LN03+ Laserprinters, and HP LaserJet (Series III). NASADIG is written in FORTRAN and is available for several platforms. NASADIG 5.7 is available for DEC VAX series computers running VMS 5.0 or later (MSC-21801), Cray X-MP and Y-MP series computers running UNICOS (COS-10049), and Amdahl 5990 mainframe computers running UTS (COS-10050). NASADIG 5.1 is available for UNIX-based operating systems (MSC-22001). The UNIX version has been successfully implemented on Sun4 series computers running SunOS, SGI IRIS computers running IRIX, Hewlett Packard 9000 computers running HP-UX, and Convex computers running Convex OS (MSC-22001). The standard distribution medium for MSC-21801 is a set of two 6250 BPI 9-track magnetic tapes in DEC VAX BACKUP format. It is also available on a set of two TK50 tape cartridges in DEC VAX BACKUP format. The standard distribution medium for COS-10049 and COS-10050 is a 6250 BPI 9-track magnetic tape in UNIX tar format. Other distribution media and formats may be available upon request. The standard distribution medium for MSC-22001 is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge (Sun QIC-24) in UNIX tar format. Alternate distribution media and formats are available upon request. With minor modification, the UNIX source code can be ported to other platforms including IBM PC/AT series computers and compatibles. NASADIG is also available bundled with TRASYS, the Thermal Radiation Analysis System (COS-10026, DEC VAX version; COS-10040, CRAY version).

Rogers, J. E.

1994-01-01

426

NASADIG - NASA DEVICE INDEPENDENT GRAPHICS LIBRARY (UNIX VERSION)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Device Independent Graphics Library, NASADIG, can be used with many computer-based engineering and management applications. The library gives the user the opportunity to translate data into effective graphic displays for presentation. The software offers many features which allow the user flexibility in creating graphics. These include two-dimensional plots, subplot projections in 3D-space, surface contour line plots, and surface contour color-shaded plots. Routines for three-dimensional plotting, wireframe surface plots, surface plots with hidden line removal, and surface contour line plots are provided. Other features include polar and spherical coordinate plotting, world map plotting utilizing either cylindrical equidistant or Lambert equal area projection, plot translation, plot rotation, plot blowup, splines and polynomial interpolation, area blanking control, multiple log/linear axes, legends and text control, curve thickness control, and multiple text fonts (18 regular, 4 bold). NASADIG contains several groups of subroutines. Included are subroutines for plot area and axis definition; text set-up and display; area blanking; line style set-up, interpolation, and plotting; color shading and pattern control; legend, text block, and character control; device initialization; mixed alphabets setting; and other useful functions. The usefulness of many routines is dependent on the prior definition of basic parameters. The program's control structure uses a serial-level construct with each routine restricted for activation at some prescribed level(s) of problem definition. NASADIG provides the following output device drivers: Selanar 100XL, VECTOR Move/Draw ASCII and PostScript files, Tektronix 40xx, 41xx, and 4510 Rasterizer, DEC VT-240 (4014 mode), IBM AT/PC compatible with SmartTerm 240 emulator, HP Lasergrafix Film Recorder, QMS 800/1200, DEC LN03+ Laserprinters, and HP LaserJet (Series III). NASADIG is written in FORTRAN and is available for several platforms. NASADIG 5.7 is available for DEC VAX series computers running VMS 5.0 or later (MSC-21801), Cray X-MP and Y-MP series computers running UNICOS (COS-10049), and Amdahl 5990 mainframe computers running UTS (COS-10050). NASADIG 5.1 is available for UNIX-based operating systems (MSC-22001). The UNIX version has been successfully implemented on Sun4 series computers running SunOS, SGI IRIS computers running IRIX, Hewlett Packard 9000 computers running HP-UX, and Convex computers running Convex OS (MSC-22001). The standard distribution medium for MSC-21801 is a set of two 6250 BPI 9-track magnetic tapes in DEC VAX BACKUP format. It is also available on a set of two TK50 tape cartridges in DEC VAX BACKUP format. The standard distribution medium for COS-10049 and COS-10050 is a 6250 BPI 9-track magnetic tape in UNIX tar format. Other distribution media and formats may be available upon request. The standard distribution medium for MSC-22001 is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge (Sun QIC-24) in UNIX tar format. Alternate distribution media and formats are available upon request. With minor modification, the UNIX source code can be ported to other platforms including IBM PC/AT series computers and compatibles. NASADIG is also available bundled with TRASYS, the Thermal Radiation Analysis System (COS-10026, DEC VAX version; COS-10040, CRAY version).

Rogers, J. E.

1994-01-01

427

NASADIG - NASA DEVICE INDEPENDENT GRAPHICS LIBRARY (CRAY VERSION)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Device Independent Graphics Library, NASADIG, can be used with many computer-based engineering and management applications. The library gives the user the opportunity to translate data into effective graphic displays for presentation. The software offers many features which allow the user flexibility in creating graphics. These include two-dimensional plots, subplot projections in 3D-space, surface contour line plots, and surface contour color-shaded plots. Routines for three-dimensional plotting, wireframe surface plots, surface plots with hidden line removal, and surface contour line plots are provided. Other features include polar and spherical coordinate plotting, world map plotting utilizing either cylindrical equidistant or Lambert equal area projection, plot translation, plot rotation, plot blowup, splines and polynomial interpolation, area blanking control, multiple log/linear axes, legends and text control, curve thickness control, and multiple text fonts (18 regular, 4 bold). NASADIG contains several groups of subroutines. Included are subroutines for plot area and axis definition; text set-up and display; area blanking; line style set-up, interpolation, and plotting; color shading and pattern control; legend, text block, and character control; device initialization; mixed alphabets setting; and other useful functions. The usefulness of many routines is dependent on the prior definition of basic parameters. The program's control structure uses a serial-level construct with each routine restricted for activation at some prescribed level(s) of problem definition. NASADIG provides the following output device drivers: Selanar 100XL, VECTOR Move/Draw ASCII and PostScript files, Tektronix 40xx, 41xx, and 4510 Rasterizer, DEC VT-240 (4014 mode), IBM AT/PC compatible with SmartTerm 240 emulator, HP Lasergrafix Film Recorder, QMS 800/1200, DEC LN03+ Laserprinters, and HP LaserJet (Series III). NASADIG is written in FORTRAN and is available for several platforms. NASADIG 5.7 is available for DEC VAX series computers running VMS 5.0 or later (MSC-21801), Cray X-MP and Y-MP series computers running UNICOS (COS-10049), and Amdahl 5990 mainframe computers running UTS (COS-10050). NASADIG 5.1 is available for UNIX-based operating systems (MSC-22001). The UNIX version has been successfully implemented on Sun4 series computers running SunOS, SGI IRIS computers running IRIX, Hewlett Packard 9000 computers running HP-UX, and Convex computers running Convex OS (MSC-22001). The standard distribution medium for MSC-21801 is a set of two 6250 BPI 9-track magnetic tapes in DEC VAX BACKUP format. It is also available on a set of two TK50 tape cartridges in DEC VAX BACKUP format. The standard distribution medium for COS-10049 and COS-10050 is a 6250 BPI 9-track magnetic tape in UNIX tar format. Other distribution media and formats may be available upon request. The standard distribution medium for MSC-22001 is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge (Sun QIC-24) in UNIX tar format. Alternate distribution media and formats are available upon request. With minor modification, the UNIX source code can be ported to other platforms including IBM PC/AT series computers and compatibles. NASADIG is also available bundled with TRASYS, the Thermal Radiation Analysis System (COS-10026, DEC VAX version; COS-10040, CRAY version).

Rogers, J. E.

1994-01-01

428

New data on the Ordovician stratigraphy of the Taimyr Peninsula (S-48-I,II map sheet)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This abstract provides new data on the Ordovician stratigraphy of the Taimyr Peninsula obtained in 2012 during the state geological mapping field works (scale 1:200 000) within S-48-I,II map sheet (Central Taimyr, Zaozernaya River). Ordovician sediments are widespread in the Taimyr Peninsula and traced from the western part (Khutudabigay River) to the eastern part (Faddeya Bay) in the form of broken almost latitudinal lines. The first data on these sediments was obtained in 1843 by A.F. Middendorf. In 1929 N.N. Urvantsev discovered Paleozoic fauna in the Eastern Taimyr, and thus he identified Cambrian-Ordovician sediments. The next research of Paleozoic sediments was linked with M.N. Zlobin from NIIGA (Research Institute of Arctic Geology) who provided special stratigraphic field works during 1950-1954 in the Eastern Taimyr. He investigated Ordovician and Silurian sediments particularly and for the first time ever established that these sediments are belong to different facies and represented by two types of deposits - terrigenous and carbonate. Zlobin determined terrigenous sediments as the Northern structural-facies zone (SFZ), and carbonate sediments as the Southern SFZ. The Perekhodnaya SFZ is characterized by mixed terrigenous-carbonate type of sediments, and thus, are located in the "transition" zone between the Northern and the Southern structural-facies zones, and was established by R.F.Sobolevskaya during the state geological mapping works in 1961. It is worth noting that the further geological mapping works till the end of 20's century were made in accordance with M.N. Zlobin's stratification of Lower Paleozoic sediments. However, in 1997 The State Regional Stratigraphic Legend (Scale 1:200 000, the Taimyr Peninsula) were created and included the latest views on the Ordovician stratigraphy of the Taimyr Peninsula. In this work the lithostratigraphic subdivision of Ordovician sediments was made in accordance with the latest and updated correlation scheme (Sobolevskaya, 2011). At this scheme the structural-facies zones that correspond to geological areas in the Legend are shown: the Lenivensko-Shirokinskaya (the Northern - "black shales", terrigenous), the Tareysko-Pregradninskaya (Perekhodnaya - terrigenous and carbonate) and the Tareysko-Faddeyevskaya (the Southern - carbonate). During the state geological mapping field works (scale 1:200 000) within S-48-I,II map sheet (Central Taimyr, Zaozernaya River) terrigenous-carbonate sediments were mapped at the right bank of Leningradskaya River and classified as the Veseninskaya slice and the Barkovskaya suite of the Tareysko-Pregradninskaya) SFZ. In black shales Middle Ordovician graptolites (Caradocian, zone Nemagraptus gracilis) were found (identifications by Sobolevskaya R.F., VNIIOkeangeologia). Thuswise, this researching allows clarifying northern boundary of the Tareysko-Pregradninskaya SFZ. This data raises a point about the structural-facies zonation of Ordovician sediments of the study area and their correlation with coeval sediments represented on adjacent map sheets. In this case, because of the different principles of stratigraphical zonation there is a problem of correlation between the northern boundary of S-48-I,II map sheet and the southern boundary of T-48-XXXI-XXXIII map sheet. In fact, Ordovician terrigenous-carbonate sediments (the Veseninskaya slice and the Barkovskaya suite) that were recognized by authors at S-48-I,II map sheet (Leningradskaya River) belong to the Perekhodnaya SFZ, but their along the strike continuation at T-48-XXXI-XXXIII map sheet belongs to the Northern (terrigenous) SFZ (Paderin et al., 2005).

Bagaeva, Alexandra; Zastrozhnov, Dmitry

2013-04-01

429

Earth Satellite Population Instability: Underscoring the Need for Debris Mitigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A recent study by NASA indicates that the implementation of international orbital debris mitigation measures alone will not prevent a significant increase in the artificial Earth satellite population, beginning in the second half of this century. Whereas the focus of the aerospace community for the past 25 years has been on the curtailment of the generation of long-lived orbital debris, active remediation of the current orbital debris population should now be reconsidered to help preserve near-Earth space for future generations. In particular, we show in this paper that even if launch operations were to cease today, the population of space debris would continue to grow. Further, proposed remediation techniques do not appear to offer a viable solution. We therefore recommend that, while the aerospace community maintains the current debris-limiting mission regulations and postmission disposal procedures, future emphasis should be placed on finding new remediation technologies for solving this growing problem. Since the launch of Sputnik 1, space activities have created an orbital debris environment that poses increasing impact risks to existing space systems, including human space flight and robotic missions (1, 2). Currently, more than 9,000 Earth orbiting man-made objects (including many breakup fragments), with a combined mass exceeding 5 million kilograms, are tracked by the US Space Surveillance Network and maintained in the US satellite catalog (3-5). Three accidental collisions between cataloged satellites during the period from late 1991 to early 2005 have already been documented (6), although fortunately none resulted in the creation of large, trackable debris clouds. Several studies conducted during 1991-2001 demonstrated, with assumed future launch rates, the unintended growth potential of the Earth satellite population, resulting from random, accidental collisions among resident space objects (7-13). In some low Earth orbit (LEO) altitude regimes where the number density of satellites is above a critical spatial density, the production rate of new satellites (i.e., debris) due to collisions exceeds the loss of objects due to orbital decay. NASA s evolutionary satellite population model LEGEND (LEO-to-GEO Environment Debris model), developed by the Orbital Debris Program Office at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, is a high fidelity three-dimensional physical model that is capable of simulating the historical satellite environment, as well as the evolution of future debris populations (14, 15). The subject study assumed no rocket bodies and spacecraft were launched after December 2004, and no future disposal maneuvers were allowed for existing spacecraft, few of which currently have such a capability. The rate of satellite explosions would naturally decrease to zero within a few decades as the current satellite population ages. The LEGEND future projection adopts a Monte Carlo approach to simulate future on-orbit explosions and collisions. Within a given projection time step, once the explosion probability is estimated for an intact object, a random number is drawn and compared with the probability to determine if an explosion would occur. A similar procedure is applied to collisions for each pair of target and projectile involved within the same time step. Due to the nature of the Monte Carlo process, multiple projection runs must be performed and analyzed before one can draw reliable and meaningful conclusions from the outcome. A total of fifty, 200-year future projection Monte Carlo simulations were executed and evaluated (16).

Liou, Jer-chyi; Johnson, N. L.

2006-01-01

430

The first large geological map of Central and Eastern Europe (1815)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first large geological map of Central and Eastern Europe was compiled by Stanis?aw Staszic in the early 19th century. The map is based on the geological survey that Staszic performed in different parts of Poland and adjacent areas. In 1814, Staszic presented his ideas on the geology and mineral sources of Poland and Lithuania. In 1815, he completed the book-length descriptive analysis O ziemorodztwie Karpatów i innych gór i równin Polski przez Stanis?awa Staszica, which was published in Warsaw and complemented by a large geological map of Central and Eastern Europe. His later studies were compiled in a historico-philosophical treatise titled Ród ludzki (1819-1820). The complete edition of Staszic's works, Dzie?a, which also included these publications, appeared over 1816-1820. The geological field survey that he performed over several years, and his study of social-economic problems enabled Staszic to draw in great detail a geological map of the Carpathians, the Central Polish Highlands, Volhynia (modern Ukraine) and the Eastern Alps, as well as the areas of the Polish-Lithuanian Lowlands, the southern coast of the Baltic Sea, Polesye (modern Belarus), Moldova, Transylvania, and Hungary. Staszic was interested in the exploration of mineral deposits, particularly in Poland, which had rock salt, copper and iron ores, and coal. In his monograph and map, he adopted a stratigraphic subdivision based on types of rock contents and organic fossils, which was a slightly modified version of Werner's classification system. The lithological legend sets five classes and 135 different types of rock, and 15 types of ore deposits, using the French names for these. In general, Staszic was an advocate of Werner's paradigm; however, he did not follow exactly the ideas of the German geologist. Staszic's fundamental work recapitulates his views on geological history of Central and Eastern Europe, and brings to an end the Enlightment period in the geology of that part of Europe.

Grigelis, Algimantas; Wójcik, Zbigniew; Nar?bski, Wojciech; Gelumbauskait?, Leonora Živil?; Kozák, Jan; Czarniecki, Stanis?aw

2008-01-01

431

IYA Tabloid in Your Community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gemini PIO would like to offer suggestions on how to approach your local newspaper with the possibility of a tabloid for your community being published during IYA 2009. Local government support, astronomer's articles, advertisers, and someone within your organization to manage the content will be discussed. We will explain the timeline required, number of personnel hours required, developmental stages and income your local newspaper would have to generate in order to produce a quality, table-top tabloid. In 2003 "Stars Over Mauna Kea", a special supplement/tabloid was produced and distributed in the local newspapers in Hilo, Hawaii with over 30,000 copies printed and distributed. The publication, 48 pages in total, featured profiles of observatories on Mauna Kea, stories about the geology and legends of Mauna Kea, and historical information about the evolution of astronomy in Hawaii. In addition the publication included a series of essays titled "In their own words". These were articles written by key members of the astronomy community. In 2005 60,000 copies of "Stars Over Mauna Kea II” were printed as a follow-up to the first edition. An article on `Imiloa Astronomy Education Center, explanations of what types of telescopes sit atop Mauna Kea, and columns written by scientists about the fascinating and significant discoveries being made were featured. Personal stories about careers in astronomy were highlighted. In Chile, a similar tabloid, 8 pages in length was published and 5,000 copies were distributed throughout the country. The 2005 tabloid featured Gemini, CTIO and SOAR telescopes. In 2009 Gemini PIO will again produce a tabloid for IYA. Potential NSF funding has been requested for a tabloid template for localization and adaptation for the IYA program promotion in local markets. This session will include an update on other Visitors/Science Centers, Observatories and Planetaria Working Group initiatives for the IYA.

Harvey, Janice; Michaud, P.

2008-05-01

432

Links between mesopause temperatures and ground-based VLF narrowband radio signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Upper Mesosphere-Lower Thermosphere (UMLT) region of the atmosphere is known to vary on many temporal and spatial scales. However, this region of the atmosphere is very difficult to measure and monitor continuously. In this paper we demonstrate an intriguing connection between mesopause temperatures and the intensity of Very Low Frequencies (VLF) narrowband (NB) signals reflected off the lower ionosphere. The temperature data used are from the SABER instrument on-board the TIMED satellite, while the VLF data are obtained from various ground-based receiving systems. The results of the analysis show a high anti-correlation between temperature and VLF amplitude. It is shown that the variability of the UMLT temperatures and VLF amplitudes can be explained by global seasonal solar irradiance changes (~72% of the variability), while the remaining variability has its origins from other sources (~28%). High resolution mesopause temperature estimates might be achieved in the future by combining VLF NB observations and calculated solar irradiance variability (as a function of hour, day, and location, i.e., latitude). 20-days-running-average of normalized VLF amplitude (black), normalized temperatures of the mesopause region (blue), and the middle stratosphere (red) for Dunedin (New-Zealand)-NWC (Australia) transmitter-receiver great circle path during 2006-2007. Temperature estimation (dashed black) and SABER temperature (solid blue) time series for Sde-Boker (Israel)-DHO (Germany) transmitter-receiver great circle path during mid-2010. The Pearson's R correlation coefficient and P-value are written in the legend box.

Silber, I.; Price, C. G.; Rodger, C. J.; Haldoupis, C.

2013-12-01

433

Interdisciplinary Navigation Unit for Mathematics and Earth Science Using Geospatial Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central Wyoming College (CWC) is located northeast of the Wind River Mountains. Although many people find recreation in the wilderness and remote areas surrounding the area, people still lose their lives because they become lost or disoriented. Creating an interdisciplinary field-based curriculum unit within mathematics (MATH 1000) and earth science (GEOL 1070) courses for non-science and education majors, provides students an opportunity to develop critical thinking skills and quantitative literacy. It also provides some necessary skills for survival and an understanding of landscape formation and wilderness navigation using geoscience. A brief history of navigation, including the importance of finding latitude and longitude, and the fairly recent implementation of the Global Positioning System, precedes activities in which students learn to use a basic compass. In addition to learning how to adjust for magnetic declination they read topographic maps, specifically USGS quadrangles, and learn how to use the scale in the legend to verify calculations using the Pythagorean Theorem. Students learn how to estimate distance and time required for traveling a pre- determined distance while using dimensional analysis to convert from the English system to metric. They learn how to read and measure latitude and longitude, as well as universal transverse Mercator projection measurements (UTM's), to find their position. The basic mathematical skills are assessed through hands-on activities such as finding their location on a map using a compass, a GPS unit, and Google Earth, and using a combination of maps, compasses, and GPS units to navigate through a course. Our goal is to provide life-saving information to students while incorporating necessary core curriculum from both mathematics and earth science classes. We work to create field-based activities, as well as assessments, to insure that students who complete the course are prepared to safely enjoy the outdoors and are prepared for future courses requiring mathematical problem-solving and/or lab science as a prerequisite.

Smaglik, S. M.; Harris, V.

2006-12-01

434

Color universal design: analysis of color category dependency on color vision type (3)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the results of a study investigating the color perception characteristics of people with red-green color confusion. We believe that this is an important step towards achieving Color Universal Design. In Japan, approximately 5% of men and 0.2% of women have red-green confusion. The percentage for men is higher in Europe and the United States; up to 8% in some countries. Red-green confusion involves a perception of colors different from normal color vision. Colors are used as a means of disseminating clear information to people; however, it may be difficult to convey the correct information to people who have red-green confusion. Consequently, colors should be chosen that minimize accidents and that promote more effective communication. In a previous survey, we investigated color categories common to each color vision type, trichromat (C-type color vision), protan (P-type color vision) and deuteran (D-type color vision). In the present study, first, we conducted experiments in order to verify a previous survey of C-type color vision and P-type color vision. Next, we investigated color difference levels within "CIE 1976 L*a*b*" (the CIELAB uniform color space), where neither C-type nor P-type color vision causes accidents under certain conditions (rain maps/contour line levels and graph color legend levels). As a result, we propose a common chromaticity of colors that the two color vision types are able to categorize by means of color names common to C-type color vision. We also offer a proposal to explain perception characteristics of color differences with normal color vision and red-green confusion using the CIELAB uniform color space. This report is a follow-up to SPIE-IS & T / Vol. 7528 7528051-8 and SPIE-IS & T /vol. 7866 78660J-1-8.

Kojima, Natsuki; Ichihara, Yasuyo G.; Ikeda, Tomohiro; Kamachi, Miyuki G.; Ito, Kei

2012-01-01

435

Computation of Radiation Dose at Aircraft Altitudes from Analysis of Cosmic Ray Neutron Monitor Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relativistic solar proton events GLEs those events with protons having sufficient kinetic energy to initiate a nuclear cascade in the atmosphere can make a contribution to radiation dose at aircraft altitudes We show that it is possible to obtain proper estimates of the expected radiation dose at aircraft altitudes from the analysis of ground-level neutron monitor data Assuming a nominal GLE spectrum the radiation dose at 40 000 feet during a 100 increase at polar latitudes will be in the range of 5 to 10 micro Sieverts per hour depending on the spectral slope An analysis of the large GLE s that have occurred during the past two solar cycles shows that there have been no events where the hourly averaged radiation dose at 40 000 feet would have exceeded 20 micro Sieverts per hour In the past improper GLE analysis was used to estimate the radiation dose at aircraft altitudes The old values derived for the early GLE s resulted in the prediction of high dose rates that persist today as urban legends and contribute to the public concept that the radiation dose at aircraft altitudes is dangerous We demonstrate that modern analytical techniques result in computed radiation doses during high-energy solar cosmic ray events that are orders of magnitude lower than those obtained by the old techniques We show that the use of the old technique of using straight line power law spectra to extrapolate the flux derived at 1 GeV results in order of magnitude errors when these flux values are extrapolated to lower energies and used to

Smart, D. F.; Shea, M. A.

436

Negatively-Biased Credulity and the Cultural Evolution of Beliefs  

PubMed Central

The functions of cultural beliefs are often opaque to those who hold them. Accordingly, to benefit from cultural evolution’s ability to solve complex adaptive problems, learners must be credulous. However, credulity entails costs, including susceptibility to exploitation, and effort wasted due to false beliefs. One determinant of the optimal level of credulity is the ratio between the costs of two types of errors: erroneous incredulity (failing to believe information that is true) and erroneous credulity (believing information that is false). This ratio can be expected to be asymmetric when information concerns hazards, as the costs of erroneous incredulity will, on average, exceed the costs of erroneous credulity; no equivalent asymmetry characterizes information concerning benefits. Natural selection can therefore be expected to have crafted learners’ minds so as to be more credulous toward information concerning hazards. This negatively-biased credulity extends general negativity bias, the adaptive tendency for negative events to be more salient than positive events. Together, these biases constitute attractors that should shape cultural evolution via the aggregated effects of learners’ differential retention and transmission of information. In two studies in the U.S., we demonstrate the existence of negatively-biased credulity, and show that it is most pronounced in those who believe the world to be dangerous, individuals who may constitute important nodes in cultural transmission networks. We then document the predicted imbalance in cultural content using a sample of urban legends collected from the Internet and a sample of supernatural beliefs obtained from ethnographies of a representative collection of the world’s cultures, showing that beliefs about hazards predominate in both.

Fessler, Daniel M. T.; Pisor, Anne C.; Navarrete, Carlos David

2014-01-01

437

The mid- to late-Holocene environmental evolution at the marsh of Vravron (Attiki, SE Greece): a multidisciplinary approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Vravron bay, in the vicinity of the homonym archaeological site is a marshy area located on the eastern coast of Attiki peninsula (eastern Greece). Vravron was inhabited already since the Early/ Middle Neolithic, although it's mainly known from the famous Archaic and Classical sanctuary of Vravronia Artemis. A sediment core from the marshy deposits of Vravron was submitted to detailed palynological, micropaleontological and sedimentological analyses, in order to investigate the environmental evolution of the area since approx. 3000 BC (AMS 14C). Benthic foraminifera and ostracoda assemblages were used to trace the depositional environment of the sequence: open shallow marine conditions with constant input of fresh water due to the influx of Erasinos River are recorded until 400BC, confirming the existence of the natural port known from a Mycenaean legend, while repeated flooding events recorded between 400BC and 50 AD should be linked with the destruction of the famous sanctuary of Artemis and the abandonment of the area. Around 50 AD the ongoing progression of Erasinos River resulted in the gradual development of lagoonal environment that after 1300AD got isolated from the sea becoming progressively a fresh water marsh. Pollen assemblages included representatives from all modern phytogeographic zones, indicating the complexity of the plant communities in the area and outlined the vegetation development since the Early Bronze Age. Even if human presence has been continuously recorded, its impact on natural environment appears profound only during the Mycenaean times, when cereal cultivation seems to be the main rural activity and after 1300AD, when a remarkable rise in like ploughing and herding evidence marks the introduction of the Arvanites population in the area. The establishment of the Vravronia Artemis sanctuary during the Geometric times coincides with a turnover in agricultural activities, as cereal cultivation is neglected and olive groves are amplified.

Triantaphyllou, M. V.; Kouli, K.; Tsourou, T.; Koukousioura, O.; Pavlopoulos, K.; Dermitzakis, M. D.

2009-04-01

438

Crystal structure, magnetic and infrared spectroscopy studies of the LiCr{sub y}Fe{sub 1-y}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} solid solution  

SciTech Connect

The lithium double diphosphates LiCr{sub y}Fe{sub 1-y}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} have been investigated by X-ray diffraction, SQUID measurements and vibrational spectroscopy. The Rietveld refinements based on the XRD patterns show the existence of a continuous solid solution over the whole composition range (0<=y<=1.0) with a continuous evolution of the monoclinic unit cell parameters (S.G. P2{sub 1}). The transition metal ions connect the diphosphate anions forming a three-dimensional network with channels filled by Li{sup +} cations expected to exhibit high mobility. All compounds order magnetically at low temperatures due the Fe-Fe interactions. The ordering temperature decreases with increasing Cr content. The slope in Curie-Weiss fits to the 1/chi vs T data in the paramagnetic domain clearly shows the existence of Fe{sup 3+} and Cr{sup 3+} in their high spin states, and a ferromagnetic component is clearly detected for y=0, 0.2 and 0.4. IR spectra have been interpreted using factor group analysis. The small shift of the frequencies is due to the influence of the chromium amount. The POP angles were estimated using the Lazarev's relationship. - Graphical abstract: Crystal structure of LiCr{sub y}Fe{sub 1-y}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} diphosphates, view along the 'a' axis. Red circles denote the lithium atoms. For interpretation of this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.

Bih, Hssain [Equipe de Chimie des Materiaux et de l'Environnement, FST Marrakech, University Cadi Ayyad, BP549, Av. A. Khattabi, Marrakech (Morocco); Saadoune, Ismael, E-mail: saadoune1@yahoo.f [Equipe de Chimie des Materiaux et de l'Environnement, FST Marrakech, University Cadi Ayyad, BP549, Av. A. Khattabi, Marrakech (Morocco); Ehrenberg, Helmut [Institute for Materials Science, University of Technology, Petersenstr. 23, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); IFW Dresden, Institute for Complex Materials, Helmholtzstr. 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Fuess, Hartmut [Institute for Materials Science, University of Technology, Petersenstr. 23, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

2009-04-15

439

Rewarding safe behavior: strategies for change.  

PubMed

Effective, sustainable safety incentives are integrated into a performance management system designed to encourage long term behavior change. Effective incentive program design integrates the fundamental considerations of compensation (i.e., valence, instrumentality, expectancy, equity) with behavior change theory in the context of a strong merit based performance management system. Clear expectations are established and communicated from the time applicants apply for the position. Feedback and social recognition are leveraged and used as rewards, in addition to financial incentives built into the compensation system and offered periodically as short term incentives. Rewards are tied to specific objectives intended to influence specific behaviors. Objectives are designed to challenge employees, providing opportunities to grow and enhance their sense of belonging. Safety contests and other awareness activities are most effective when used to focus safety improvement efforts on specific behaviors or processes, for a predetermined period of time, in the context of a comprehensive safety system. Safety incentive programs designed around injury outcomes can result in unintended, and undesirable, consequences. Safety performance can be leveraged by integrating safety into corporate cultural indicators. Symbols of safety remind employees of corporate safety goals and objectives (e.g., posted safety goals and integrating safety into corporate mission and vision). Rites and ceremonies provide opportunities for social recognition and feedback and demonstrate safety is a corporate value. Feedback opportunities, rewards, and social recognition all provide content for corporate legends, those stories embellished over time, that punctuate the overall system of organizational norms, and provide examples of the organizational safety culture in action. PMID:15635933

Fell-Carlson, Deborah

2004-12-01

440

The Multiwavelength Milky Way Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe an ongoing effort to communicate what is known about the Milky Way, and how our understanding of the Galaxy has advanced in recent decades with observations across the electromagnetic spectrum. Our aim is to help students, educators, and the general public understand the structure of the Milky Way, and our location within it. Inspired by the warm reception to our Multiwavelength Milky Way poster (26,000 copies distributed; requested by people in over 50 countries) we created several related products and a new version of the poster. The updated poster contains ten Galactic plane maps and a legend that points out prominent features and objects. The Multiwavelength Milky Way web site at http://adc.gsfc.nasa.gov/mw provides an image browsing capability, links to data files and journal articles, lesson plans and suggested activities for teachers, and a poster order form. We created a slide set comprised of multiwavelength all-sky maps and a ``Multiwavelength Milky Way'' image corresponding to the poster. The Galactic plane maps featured on the poster raise questions in the minds of many non-astronomers: ``Where are we in this picture?'' and ``How do we know what we know?'' To help answer these questions we developed a realistic three-dimensional model of the Milky Way and used state-of-the-art animation techniques to create a 28-minute video called The Milky Way's Invisible Light. The viewer is taken on a tour of the Galaxy that ends at the Sun's location, from which the 3-D model is shown to resemble the Galactic plane surveys depicted on the Multiwavelength Milky Way poster. The video can be ordered on the web at http://space.gsfc.nasa.gov/astro/education/mw_film or from the ASP catalog. The Multiwavelength Milky Way project is sponsored by the Astrophysics Data Facility at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center.

Brown, B. A.; Leisawitz, D.; Boyd, P. T.; Digel, S. W.; Friedlander, J.; Kessel, R. L.; Smale, A. P.

2000-12-01

441

A new international tectonic map of the Arctic (TeMAr) at 1:5 M scale and geodynamic evolution in the Arctic region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new tectonic map of the Arctic (TeMAr) at 1:5 M scale is a part of the international Atlas of Geological Maps of the Circumpolar Arctic, which is being compiled under the aegis of the Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW). Compilation of the TeMAr was initiated in 2009 after the publication of base maps of the Atlas - geological map (geological survey of Canada) and magnetic and gravity maps (geological survey of Norway) - with the use of a wide range of bathymetric, geophysical, geological, isotope and geochronological data, including new dated seabed samples and new bedrock samples obtained during recent field studies on the Arctic territory. Making use of these data in the map legend employing tectonic settings enabled correlation of various onshore and offshore fragments of the map. The map reflects Arctic regions' tectonic structure, which consists principally of orogenic belts of the Neoproterozoic to the Late Mesozoic age, platform and basin sediments that overlie them and rift structures formed in part as a consequence of seafloor spreading in the North East Atlantic. Furthermore, many structures are traced from the land throughout shelf regions and into deepwater parts of the Arctic Ocean and show a tendency to become younger northwards toward the Canada Basin. For example, collisional structures of South Ural were formed in the Late Carboniferous, those in the Middle Urals in the Permian, and those of Polar Ural, Pay-Khoy and Novaya Zemlya in the Late Permian and Triassic. The Triassic traps of Eastern and Western Siberia were followed by Cretaceous basalts of the High Arctic large igneous province (HALIP). Cenozoic rifting and subsequent spreading (ca. 56 Ma) was caused by the propagation of sea-floor spreading in the North East Atlantic penetration into the Central Arctic along the Gakkel Ridge

Petrov, Oleg; Smelror, Morten; Shokalsky, Sergey; Morozov, Andrey; Kashubin, Sergey; Grikurov, Garrik; Sobolev, Nikolay; Petrov, Evgeny

2013-04-01

442

The Predicted Growth of the Low Earth Orbit Space Debris Environment: An Assessment of Future Risk for Spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space debris is a worldwide-recognized issue concerning the safety of commercial, military, and exploration spacecraft. The space debris environment includes both naturally occuring meteoroids and objects in Earth orbit that are generated by human activity, termed orbital debris. Space agencies around the world are addressing the dangers of debris collisions to both crewed and robotic spacecraft. In the United States, the Orbital Debris Program Office at the NASA Johnson Space Center leads the effort to categorize debris, predict its growth, and formulate mitigation policy for the environment from low Earth orbit (LEO) through geosynchronous orbit (GEO). This paper presents recent results derived from the NASA long-term debris environment model, LEGEND. It includes the revised NASA sodium potassium droplet model, newly corrected for a factor of two over-estimation of the droplet population. The study indicates a LEO environment that is already highly collisionally active among orbital debris larger than 1 cm in size. Most of the modeled collision events are non-catastrophic (i.e., They lead to a cratering of the target, but no large scale fragmentation.). But they are potentially mission-ending, and take place between impactors smaller than 10 cm and targets larger than 10 cm. Given the small size of the impactor these events would likely be undetectable by present-day measurement means. The activity continues into the future as would be expected. Impact rates of about four per year are predicted by the current study within the next 30 years, with the majority of targets being abandoned intacts (spent upper stages and spacecraft). Still, operational spacecraft do show a small collisional activity, one that increases over time as the small fragment population increases.

Krisko, Paula H.

2007-01-01

443

Reno Industrial Park geothermal district heating system  

SciTech Connect

Ten miles south of Reno, on U.S. 395 near the junction of the road to historic Virginia City, is Steamboat Hot Springs, a popular stop for travelers since the mid-1800s. Legend has it that Mark Twain named the geothermal area because it looked and sounded like a chugging Mississippi River paddle-wheeler. It is said when he first saw the steam rising from the ground he exclaimed, {open_quotes}Behold! A Steamboat in the desert.{close_quotes} Over the years, the area has been used for its relaxing and curative qualities by Indians, settlers, and geothermal experts. Since the mid-1980s five geothermal power plants have been built at Steamboat Springs and in December 1996 it was announced that the proposed largest geothermal district heating system in the U.S. would supply an industrial park in the area. The active geothermal area is located within the north-south trending graben like trough between the Carson and Virginia Ranges at the southern end of Truckee Meadows. Hot springs and other geothermal features occur over an area of about one square mile. The mid-basin location is controlled by faulting more or less parallel to the major mountain-front faults. It is believed that the heat source for the system is a cooling magmatic body at depth. The Steamboat geothermal area consists of a deep, high-temperature (215{degrees}C to 240{degrees} C) geothermal system, a shallower, moderate-temperature (160{degrees}C to 18{degrees} C) system, and a number of shallow low-temperature (30{degrees}C to 80{degrees}C) subsystems. The higher temperature systems are used for electric-power generation. It is proposed that the exit fluids from the electric power plants be used for the geothermal district heating system.

Lienau, P.J.

1997-04-01

444

Mt. Fuji, Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the movie

The nearly perfectly conical profile of Fuji soars 3,776 meters (12,388 feet) above sea level on southern Honshu, near Tokyo. The highest mountain in Japan, Fuji is the country's most familiar symbol. The summit of this graceful, dormant volcano is broken by a crater 610 meters (2,000 feet) in diameter. The crater is ringed by eight jagged peaks. The five Fuji Lakes lie on the northern slopes of the mountain, all formed in the wake of lava flows. Mirrored in the still waters of Kawaguchi-ko, the most beautiful of the five lakes, is a reflection of Fuji. Part of Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park, Fuji last erupted for a two-month period starting in November 1707, covering Tokyo, some 100 kilometers (60 miles) away, with a layer of ash. According to legend, Fuji arose from the plain during a single night in 286 BC. Geologically, the mountain is much older than this.

Considered sacred by many, Fuji is surrounded by temples and shrines. Thousands of pilgrims climb the mountain each year as part of their religious practice, hoping to reach the summit by dawn to watch the sunrise. This animated fly-by was created by draping visible and near infrared image data over a digital topography model, created from ASTER's stereo bands. The spatial resolution of both the image and topography is 15 m. The image is centered at 35.3 degrees north latitude, 138.7 degrees east longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2001-01-01

445

Comparison and evaluation of five global land cover datasets for Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparison and evaluation of five global and continental land use and land cover datasets was carried out over Mexico. The analysis includes the IGBP-DISCover1993 map, version 1.2, produced by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with the University of Nebraska-Lincoln and the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC); the GLC2000 map, produced by the JRC in collaboration with 30 institutions; the NALCMS2005 map, produced by a collaborative effort of governmental agencies in Canada, Mexico and the United States coordinated by the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC); and the 2005 and 2009 GLOBCOVER maps, produced by the ESA-GlobCover (European Space Agency) project. Since the five datasets differ in map projection, resolution and legend system, a step of standardization was performed. The analysis shows that all databases have an agreement of 16.82% for the Mexican territory. The classes with a better agreement in all datasets are evergreen broadleaf forest in the Yucatán peninsula, the urban and built land in the center of the country and shrubland in the north. Moreover, the quantitative assessment showed that classification accuracy obtained by NALCMS2005 is the highest compared to the other four analyzed maps, the GLOBCOVER2005 land cover map ranked second, while the GLC2000 and IGBP-DISCover1993 maps ranked third. GLOBCOVER2009 is the map that more poorly describes the Mexican land use and land cover. In general, this analysis shows that a dataset does not represent a region more accurately by the fact of being the most recently created, so it is recommended to carry out regional reviews in order to deciding which dataset is more useful.

Lopez-Espinoza, E. D.; Zavala-Hidalgo, J.; Gómez-Ramos, O.; Osorio-Tai, M. E.; Romero-Centeno, R.

2013-05-01

446

[The mandrake root and the Viennese Dioscorides].  

PubMed

Pedanius Dioscorides of Anazarba in Cilicia lived in the first century. He was a Greek physician who served as a surgeon in Neròs army. He wrote several books on materia medica. One of his manuscripts with drawings of medicinal herbs was copied down in the fifth century. In this book on Greek Herbal, still kept in the National Library of Vienna, Dioscorides gave a detailed description of mandragora (mandrake). Over the ages, the mandrake has been endowed with a wonderful and mystical aura. Examples are superstitions regarding harvesting of the plant. While being torn from the ground, the mandrake would emit a horrible shriek, that would be fatal to the harvester who hears it. So, if someone simply pulled the plant, they would either die or go mad. To avoid that fate, the plant could be partially dug with a few remaining roots staying in the ground. Then a starved black dog was tied to the mandrake with a rope. The harvester, with plugged ears, would throw some scraps to the hungry dog. When the unsospecting animal lunged for food, the mandrake would be completely unrooted and the ensuing shriek would kill the dog and spare the man. According to different legends quoted by Theophrastus and Pliny the Elder, other dire consequences of unrooting a mandrake could be avoided by making circles around the plant on the ground with a sword and then facing west while digging. If there were a true Anaesthetic of Antiquity it would have been mandragora. Dioscorides describes how the wine made from mandragora produces anaesthesia: Using a cyathus of it on those who cannot sleep, or are grievously pained, or are being cut, or cauterized they will not feel pain. Here Dioscorides used for the first time the word anaesthesia as absence of sensation as we mean it today. PMID:11740424

Peduto, V A

2001-10-01

447

The hidden dragons.  

PubMed

Most multinational corporations are fascinated with China. Carried away by the number of potential customers and the relatively cheap labor, firms seeking a presence in China have traditionally focused on selling products, setting up manufacturing facilities, or both. But they've ignored an important development: the emergence of Chinese firms as powerful rivals--in China and also in the global market. In this article, Ming Zeng and Peter Williamson describe how Chinese companies like Haier, Legend, and Pearl River Piano have quietly managed to grab market share from older, bigger, and financially stronger rivals in Asia, Europe, and the United States. Global managers tend to offer the usual explanations for why Chinese companies don't pose a threat: They aren't big enough or profitable enough to compete overseas, the managers say, and these primarily state-owned companies are ill-financed and ill-equipped for global competition. As the government's policies about the private ownership of companies changed from forbidding the practice to encouraging it, a new breed of Chinese companies evolved. The authors outline the four types of hybrid Chinese companies that are simultaneously tackling the global market. China's national champions are using their advantages as domestic leaders to build global brands. The dedicated exporters are entering foreign markets on the strength of their economies of scale. The competitive networks have taken on world markets by bringing together small, specialized companies that operate in close proximity. And the technology upstarts are using innovations developed by China's government-owned research institutes to enter emerging sectors such as biotechnology. Zeng and Williamson identify these budding multinationals, analyze their strategies, and evaluate their weaknesses. PMID:14521101

Zeng, Ming; Williamson, Peter J

2003-10-01

448

[A consideration of the name of the Ajase complex].  

PubMed

The concept of the "Ajase complex" was advocated by Heisaku Kosawa, one of the researchers who brought psychoanalysis into Japan. Kosawa's emphasis was originally on the feeling of guilt that is based on the apologetic feeling that comes from being forgiven, in contrast with the guilt that comes from the fear of punishment. However, Okonogi, a disciple of Kosawa, began to change this concept's emphasis to mother/child friction. The Ajase (Aj?ta?atru) story which Kosawa and Okonogi based the origin of the name "Ajase complex" on is far different from that of the Buddhist scriptures. The most significant difference is as follows: in the Ajase legend, that comes mainly from two Buddhist scriptures, the Contemplation S?tra and the Mah?y?na-mah?parinirv?na-s?tra, the murder of the father by the child Ajase is the main theme and resembles the Oedipus complex. The episode of Ajase trying to kill her mother, Vaidehi, comes from the mother Vaideh? trying to help the imprisoned king and does not come from mother/child friction. In the Ajase complex, the mother's planned pregnancy to ensure the connection of love with her husband, the king, the attempted murder of Ajase, who is the reincarnation of the hermit, by Vaideh?, and the story of how a mother's love saves Ajase from the hate that grew out of the mother/child friction, are not included in the above-mentioned Buddhist scriptures. The story to back up the Ajase complex comes from Kosawa and Okonogi's new interpretation and origination. In this article, the authors are not trying to deny the value of the specific pathological mother/child relationship suggested by the Ajase complex. It is not the definition that we doubt, but the naming. PMID:19195193

Daiguji, Makoto; Moriguchi-Shinoda, Mai

2008-01-01

449

The influence of uncertain map features on risk beliefs and perceived ambiguity for maps of modeled cancer risk from air pollution  

PubMed Central

Maps are often used to convey information generated by models, for example, modeled cancer risk from air pollution. The concrete nature of images, such as maps, may convey more certainty than warranted for modeled information. Three map features were selected to communicate the uncertainty of modeled cancer risk: (a) map contours appeared in or out of focus, (b) one or three colors were used, and (c) a verbal-relative or numeric risk expression was used in the legend. Study aims were to assess how these features influenced risk beliefs and the ambiguity of risk beliefs at four assigned map locations that varied by risk level. We applied an integrated conceptual framework to conduct this full factorial experiment with 32 maps that varied by the three dichotomous features and four risk levels; 826 university students participated. Data was analyzed using structural equation modeling. Unfocused contours and the verbal-relative risk expression generated more ambiguity than their counterparts. Focused contours generated stronger risk beliefs for higher risk levels and weaker beliefs for lower risk levels. Number of colors had minimal influence. The magnitude of risk level, conveyed using incrementally darker shading, had a substantial dose-response influence on the strength of risk beliefs. Personal characteristics of prior beliefs and numeracy also had substantial influences. Bottom-up and top-down information processing suggest why iconic visual features of incremental shading and contour focus had the strongest visual influences on risk beliefs and ambiguity. Variations in contour focus and risk expression show promise for fostering appropriate levels of ambiguity.

Myers, Jeffrey D.

2012-01-01

450

[Meleda disease (Mal de Meleda): historical shifts in perception].  

PubMed

Nowadays, hereditary diseases are viewed through molecular mechanisms, and one of them, which keeps occurring rather frequently in medical publications, has been named after the Island of Mljet. The world first learned about mal de Meleda from a Dubrovnik physician Luka Stulli in 1826. He described it in a number of his island patients as a non-contagious hereditary skin disease, and named it mal de Meleda (a disease of Mljet). After Stulli, numerous scientists continued to investigate its aetiology and distinctive properties, introducing new scientific procedures to research the disease. The article keeps track of the way people and medicine perceived and treated mal de Meleda patients, starting from the early 19th century to the present day. It pays special attention to how the disease was perceived and described in medical literature through history. There are no reports in writing about the disease before the 19th century, but in oral tradition it was perceived as a punishment for the sins of sacrilege, sins of piracy, or even as leftovers of leprosy brought by the crusaders. We investigated if these legends have any support in preserved historical documents and to what extent they are related to real historical events and circumstances. Influenced by the booming research in microbiology, end 19th century physicians believed the disease was an isolated focus of leprosy. However, early 20th century physicians defined it as a hereditary skin disease with changes which distinguish it from other skin conditions. Genetic nature of the disease was later confirmed by molecular science. As for its geographical origin, the most recent medical research has shown that mal de Meleda is not restricted to the island of Mljet, and that it is spread worldwide, particularly in regions that, historically, were the trading routes of the Dubrovnik Republic. This implies that the mutation has spread through migration and persists only because it is not lethal and does not affect reproduction. PMID:21073245

Gjurasi?, Marija

2010-01-01

451

Near Real-time Visualization of the Coastal Ocean: A Google Maps Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Coastal Observing R&D Center (CORDC) at Scripps Institution of Oceanography has developed and implemented real-time data management and display tools for use in the Google Maps environment. A primary use of these tools is for displaying data measured, aggregated, and distributed by a regional observing system. CORDC developed and continues to maintain these tools that are now in use by a broad suite of end users, including local, state and federal agencies, resource managers, industry, policy makers, educators, scientists and the general public for the Southern California Coastal Ocean Observing System (SCCOOS). These data feeds encompass the ongoing monitoring of a broad suite of ocean observing data including, but not limited to: surface currents, satellite imagery, wave conditions and forecasts, meteorological conditions and forecasts, water quality, bathymetry, ocean temperature, salinity, chlorophyll, and density in the form of data products and raw data. By leveraging Google Maps, this effort has achieved seamless integration of disparate datasets into a unifying, low latency interface for on-line visualization and interaction. The resulting interfaces have brought national attention to the public display of data that SCCOOS serves, notably for ease of use and navigation. While the Google Maps API provides basic capabilities for spatially zooming and panning, developers are able to extend the API to include customized temporal browsing of spatial maps, info. displays, legends, dynamic color scaling and interactive data queries resulting in time series or other point/slice plots. Visualizations of products with more mature Google Maps interfaces will be presented, including statewide ocean surface currents, meteorological observations, ship tracking and output from an operational ocean current models that pose additional challenges of 4D data sets. Current developments involving product layering and API extensions will also be presented.

Terrill, E.; Reuter, P.; Hazard, L.; Otero, M.; Cook, T.; Bowen, J.

2009-12-01

452

Synaptic connectivity of a local circuit neurone in lateral geniculate nucleus of the cat.  

PubMed

Although receptive fields of relay cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the cat nearly match those of their retinal afferents, only 10-20% of the synapses on these cells derive from the retina and are excitatory. Many more (30-40%) are inhibitory and largely control the gating of retinogeniculate transmission. These inhibitory synapses derive chiefly from two cell types: intrinsic local circuit neurones and cells in the adjacent perigeniculate nucleus. It has been difficult to study the functional organization of these inhibitory pathways; most efforts have relied on indirect approaches. Here we describe the use of direct techniques to study a local circuit neurone by iontophoresing horseradish peroxidase (HRP) into it, which completely labels the soma and processes of cells for subsequent light- and electron microscopic analysis. Although the response properties of the labelled cell are virtually indistinguishable from those of many relay cells, its morphology is typical of 'class 3' neurones (see Fig. 1 legend), which are widely believed to be interneurones (but see ref. 12). Here, we refer to the cell as a 'local circuit neurone', which allows for the possibility of a projection axon, rather than as an 'interneurone', a term that commonly excludes a projection axon. We find that the labelled cell has a myelinated axon, but that the axon loses its myelin within 50 microns of the soma and has not yet been traced further. The dendrites of the labelled cell possess presynaptic terminals that act as intrinsic sources of inhibition on geniculate relay cells. We also characterize other morphological aspects of this inhibitory circuitry. PMID:4058571

Hamos, J E; Van Horn, S C; Raczkowski, D; Uhlrich, D J; Sherman, S M

453

Map Scale in the Context of Progress in Soil Geography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this presentation, we review historical soil maps from a geographical perspective, in contrast to the more traditional temporal perspective. Our geographical perspective is operationalized by comparing soil maps based on their scale and classification system. To analyze the connection between scale in historical soil maps and their associated classification systems, we place soil maps into three categories of cartographic scale. We then examine how categories of cartographic scale correspond to the selection of environmental soil predictors used to initially create the maps, as reflected by the maps' legend. Previous analyses of soil mapping from the temporal perspective have concluded that soil classification systems have co-evolved with gains in soil knowledge. We conclude that paradigm shifts in soil mapping and classification can be better explained by their correlation to historical improvements in scientific understanding, differences in purpose for mapping, and advancement in geographic technologies. We observe that, throughout history, small cartographic scale maps have tended to emphasize climate-vegetation zonation. Medium cartographic scale maps have put more emphasis on parent material as a variable to explain soil distributions. And finally, soil maps at large cartographic scales have relied more on topography as a predictive factor. Importantly, a key characteristic of modern soil classification systems is their multi-scale approach, which incorporates these phenomena scales within their classification hierarchies. Although most modern soil classification systems are based on soil properties, the soil map remains a model, the purpose of which is to predict the spatial distributions of those properties. Hence, multi-scale classification systems still tend to be organized, at least in part, by this observed spatial hierarchy. Although the hierarchy observed in this study is generally known in pedology today, it also represents a new view on the evolution of soil science. Increased recognition of this hierarchy may also help to more holistically combine soil formation factors with soil geography and pattern, particularly in the context of digital soil mapping.

Miller, Bradley; Schaetzl, Randall

2014-05-01

454

The Wandering Lake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the area at the very far eastern corner of China's Taklimakan Desert, Lop Nor Lake was located up until some years ago. Lop Nor, also called the 'the heart of the heart' of Asia, was the place where the waters of the largest inner basin (i.e., not flowing into the sea) of the world-including the Tarim and Kum-daria Rivers-were collected. Depending on the balance between rainfall water yield and evaporation, both position and size of the lake were strongly variable, thus giving rise to the legend of the Wandering Lake. 'Lop City' was the place where Marco Polo took his last rest before facing the one-year long crossing of the Gobi Desert. Starting from the end of the 19th century, several explorers tried to find the legendary place. One such explorer was Sven Hedin, who was commissioned by the Governor of Nanjing to lead an expedition to find the lake. In 1937, the Swedish explorer published his book entitled The Wandering Lake. Comparing this very precise map from Sven Hedin's book with the above Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) false-color image (acquired on October 28, 2001), one can find a faint sign on the soil where the Lop Nor was located. This image, derived using a combination of MODIS' near-infrared and red channels (vegetation in red), shows where the Tarim River waters currently end their flow. The Wandering Lake does not exist anymore. The combination of climate change and human exploitation of water resources for agriculture caused the disappearance of the lake. This image was processed by Telespazio, Earth Observation division, new products development facility in Rome, Italy. The MODIS sensor flies aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft, launched in December 1999. Caption and image courtesy Luca Pietranera, Telespazio, Rome, Italy, based on data from the MODIS Science Team

2002-01-01

455

Cold Cook Methods: An Ethnographic Exploration on the Myths of Methamphetamine Production and Policy Implications  

PubMed Central

Background Urban legends and myths are prevalent in drug-use environments. However, the distinction between myth and fact is not always clear. We found contradictory claims regarding the emergence of cold cook methods for producing methamphetamine when contrasting user-generated reports with official reports repudiating such methods as myths. Our aim is to open the topic for more academic discussion. Methods We examine cold cook methods of methamphetamine production revealed in our ethnographic study and interviews with former (n=50) and current (n=48) methamphetamine users. Data were collected in the suburbs of a large southeastern city in the United States. We compare the data with reports from law enforcement professionals and public health officials. Results Official reports claim the cold cook method described by users in our study is a myth and does not produce methamphetamine. Small-scale producers sell it as methamphetamine and users claim it has the same effect as methamphetamine. They are charged for possession and distribution of methamphetamine when caught with this drug. It appears the unintended consequences of recent policy aimed to reduce production and use of methamphetamine may be a user-friendly production method. We do not know the health implications at this time. Conclusion We do not make any definitive conclusions on the legitimacy of the stories or myths discussed here but instead suggest that labeling drug stories as myths might lead to dismissing facts that hold partial truth. The subsequent dismissal of cold cook methods among policy and public health officials risks a range of unintended consequences among vulnerable populations. We present our case for more research attention on the myths of methamphetamine production.

Boeri, Miriam W.; Gibson, David; Harbry, Liam

2011-01-01

456

Automatic visualization of OpenDAP data resources using OGC services.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More and more scientific datasets used in meteorology and climate sciences are becoming available by the Open-source project for a Network Data Access Protocol (OpenDAP). OpenDAP allows for browsing and accessing huge amounts of data over the internet, without the need for downloading the data itself. OpenDAP provides functionality to access, describe and subset large files without the need for downloading a full copy. OpenDAP does not provide for quick looks or visualizations over the internet itself. Within the IS-ENES project, we present a way to generate visualizations of OpenDAP services over the internet by using automatically configured Web Map Services (WMS), enabling visualization of interesting OpenDAP data in a web browser on users request. This functionality is achieved by passing OpenDAP URLs to the GetCapabilities request of an OGC service, allowing OpenDAP datasets to be visualized without any necessary configuration. The same method can also be used to configure an OGC Web Coverage Service (WCS), allowing data re-projection, sub setting and conversion to other formats. This chaining of services is achieved by using the ADAGUC OGC server as an OpenDAP client. ADAGUC uses the NetCDF C library to access data, which has built in support for OpenDAP. Currently the software is capable to provide visualizations of datasets in raster format described by the climate and forecast (CF) conventions. Legends and colours are selected according to CF standard names and units, e.g. temperature in Celsius is displayed with different colours than precipitation in kg/m2. Automatic generation of OGC services with OpenDAP as a resource, enables previewing interesting data in a web browser without the need to download the data itself. During this presentation this method is described in more detail and real-life examples are given.

Plieger, M.

2012-04-01

457

CFCl3 (CFC-11): UV Absorption Spectrum Temperature Dependence Measurements and the Impact on Atmospheric Lifetime Uncertainty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CFCl3 (CFC-11) is both a major ozone-depleting substance and a potent greenhouse gas that is removed primarily via stratospheric UV photolysis. Uncertainty in the temperature dependence of its UV absorption spectrum is a significant contributing factor to the overall uncertainty in its global lifetime and, thus, model calculations of stratospheric ozone recovery and climate change. In this work, the CFC-11 UV absorption spectrum was measured over a range of wavelength (184.95-230 nm) and temperature (216-296 K). We report a spectrum temperature dependence that is less than currently recommended for use in atmospheric models. The impact on its atmospheric lifetime was quantified using the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center 2-D coupled chemistry-radiation-dynamics model and the spectrum parameterization developed in this work. The modeled global annually averaged lifetime was 58.1 × 0.7 years (2? uncertainty due solely to the spectrum uncertainty). The lifetime is slightly reduced and the uncertainty significantly reduced from that obtained using current UV spectrum recommendations. CFCl 3 (CFC-11) 2-D model results: Left: Global annually averaged loss rate coefficient (local lifetime) and photolysis and reaction contributions (see legend). Middle: Molecular loss rate and uncertainty limits; the slow and fast profiles were calculated using the 2? uncertainty estimates in the CFC-11 UV absorption spectrum from this work. Right: CFC-11 concentration profile. CFC-11 loss process contribution to the overall local lifetime uncertainty (2?) calculated using the 2-D model (see text). Left: Results obtained from this work. Right: Results obtained using model input from Sander et al. [2011] and updates in SPARC [2013].

McGillen, M.; Fleming, E. L.; Jackman, C. H.; Burkholder, J. B.

2013-12-01

458

The hummocky debris landscape in the Chapursan valley (Karakoram)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A remarkable hummocky debris landscape has been deposited downstream of the Yishkuk glacier in the upper Chapursan valley (Karakoram-North-side). It extends between an altitude of 3500 m and 3200 m over a horizontal distance of about 10 km from the Yishkuk glacier tongue until the settlement of Spinje. The individual debris hummocks measure up to 10 m in height and are composed of a sandy-gravelly matrix, in which boulders with a long axis of several meters are embedded. The toma-like debris landscape is not only deposited on the valley floor, but also covers the surfaces of the adjacent sediment cones. According to local legends and reports of early travelers, one of the largest settlement concentrations of Hunza has been located in this valley section in the past. This settlement, called Yishkuk, supposed to have been completely destroyed by floods and debris flows in the mid of the 19th century. In former observations, the hummocky moraine landscape has been mainly interpreted as a result of a glacier lake outburst. However, the debris hummocks are very untypical for sediments deposited by glacier lake outbursts. Geomorphological field investigations as well as interviews with the local inhabitants have been carried out, in order to solve the development of the sediment associations. The results showed that a complex geomorphological process regime consisting mainly of a glacier advance and secondarily of glacier lake outbursts and ice avalanches. The Kit-ke-Jerav and Yishkuk glaciers experienced extraordinary glacier fluctuations in historical and recent times. The research work focuses the problem of convergent forms of hummocky debris landscapes in high mountain regions and the question of their gradual or catastrophic genesis.

Iturrizaga, L.

2009-04-01

459

Molecular genetic medicine. Vol. 2  

SciTech Connect

Theodore Friedmann has put together an interesting spectrum of articles for volume 2 of Molecular Genetic Medicine. Perhaps related to his own interest in the X chromosome, three articles deal with X-chromosomal topics, while two deal with autosomal disorders and two treat viral disorders. The fragile-X syndrome is thoroughly covered by Brown and Jenkins with an article that is heavily weighted to clinical aspects and now out-of-date RFLP approaches. The timeliness of the volume is insured by the coverage (albeit brief) that they give to the cloning of FMR-1. Gartler et al. present a balanced review of X inactivation - the oft-surveyed subject was comprehensively covered in a manner that provided new perspectives. Lambert et al. provide an exhaustive review of natural and induced mutation of hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase. For autosomal disorders, an excellent review of the molecular genetics of hemoglobin syntheses and their alterations in disease is provided by Berg and Schecter. The level of detail presented seemed just right to this reviewer. A concise review of recent advances in the study of Down syndrome and its animal model, trisomy 16 mice, is provided by Holtzman and Epstein. With regard to viral topics, Chisari thoughtfully reviews hepatitis B virus structure and function and the possible pathogenic mechanisms involved in its induction of hepatocellular carcinoma. Wong-Staal and Haseltine's up-to-date review of the increasingly complex regulatory genes of HIV is marred by a mix-up in figure legends - an exception to an otherwise well-proofread book. In summary, this is a good volume of its type and is recommended for those who might benefit from reading such review articles.

Friedmann, T. (ed.)

1992-01-01

460

Induction of apoptosis by a hexane extract of aged black garlic in the human leukemic U937 cells  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES In this study, the apoptogenic activity and mechanisms of cell death induced by hexane extract of aged black garlic (HEABG) were investigated in human leukemic U937 cells. MATERIALS/METHODS Cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazoliumbromide) assay. Apoptosis was detected using 4,6-diamidino-2-phenyllindile (DAPI) staining, agarose gel electrophoresis and flow cytometry. The protein levels were determined by Western blot analysis. Caspase activity was measured using a colorimetric assay. RESULTS Exposure to HEABG was found to result in a concentration- and time-dependent growth inhibition by induction of apoptosis, which was associated with an up-regulation of death receptor 4 and Fas legend, and an increase in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 protein expression. Apoptosis-inducing concentrations of HEABG induced the activation of caspase-9, an initiator caspase of the mitochodrial mediated intrinsic pathway, and caspase-3, accompanied by proteolytic degradation of poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase. HEABG also induced apoptosis via a death receptor mediated extrinsic pathway by caspase-8 activation, resulting in the truncation of Bid, and suggesting the existence of cross-talk between the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. However, pre-treatment of U937 cells with the caspase-3 inhibitor, z-DEVD-fmk, significantly blocked the HEABG-induced apoptosis of these cells, and increased the survival rate of HEABG-treated cells, confirming that HEABG-induced apoptosis is mediated through activation of caspase cascade. CONCLUSIONS Based on the overall results, we suggest that HEABG reduces leukemic cell growth by inducing caspase-dependent apoptosis through both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, implying its potential therapeutic value in the treatment of leukemia.

Park, Cheol; Park, Sejin; Chung, Yoon Ho; Kim, Gi-Young; Choi, Young Whan; Kim, Byung Woo

2014-01-01

461

NASA Tech Briefs, October 2013  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics include: A Short-Range Distance Sensor with Exceptional Linearity; Miniature Trace Gas Detector Based on Microfabricated Optical Resonators; Commercial Non-Dispersive Infrared Spectroscopy Sensors for Sub-Ambient Carbon Dioxide Detection; Fast, Large-Area, Wide-Bandgap UV Photodetector for Cherenkov Light Detection; Mission Data System Java Edition Version 7; Adaptive Distributed Environment for Procedure Training (ADEPT); LEGEND, a LEO-to-GEO Environment Debris Model; Electronics/Computers; Millimeter-Wave Localizers for Aircraft-to-Aircraft Approach Navigation; Impedance Discontinuity Reduction Between High-Speed Differential Connectors and PCB Interfaces; SpaceCube Version 1.5; High-Pressure Lightweight Thrusters; Non-Magnetic, Tough, Corrosion- and Wear-Resistant Knives From Bulk Metallic Glasses and Composites; Ambient Dried Aerogels; Applications for Gradient Metal Alloys Fabricated Using Additive Manufacturing; Passivation of Flexible YBCO Superconducting Current Lead With Amorphous SiO2 Layer; Propellant-Flow-Actuated Rocket Engine Igniter; Lightweight Liquid Helium Dewar for High-Altitude Balloon Payloads; Method to Increase Performance of Foil Bearings Through Passive Thermal Management; Unibody Composite Pressurized Structure; JWST Integrated Science Instrument Module Alignment Optimization Tool; Radar Range Sidelobe Reduction Using Adaptive Pulse Compression Technique; Digitally Calibrated TR Modules Enabling Real-Time Beamforming SweepSAR Architectures; Electro-Optic Time-to-Space Converter for Optical Detector Jitter Mitigation; Partially Transparent Petaled Mask/Occulter for Visible-Range Spectrum; Educational NASA Computational and Scientific Studies (enCOMPASS); Coarse-Grain Bandwidth Estimation Scheme for Large-Scale Network; Detection of Moving Targets Using Soliton Resonance Effect; High-Efficiency Nested Hall Thrusters for Robotic Solar System Exploration; High-Voltage Clock Driver for Photon-Counting CCD Characterization; Development of the Code RITRACKS; and Enabling Microliquid Chromatography by Microbead Packing of Microchannels.

2013-01-01

462

Deep Seismic Reflection Profiling in Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Africa represents one of the true frontiers for systematic deep seismic reflection profiling of the type pioneered by COCORP, LITHOPROBE, BIRPS, DEKORP, and ECORS in the northern hemisphere. However, there have been a number of notable individual surveys that have sampled key components of the African lithosphere, and several systematic regional geophysical initiatives which suggest African is fertile ground for future efforts. Among the latter are the KRISP refraction/wide-angle program to probe the East African Rift system in the 1990's, the Kaapvaal Experiment to image the deep lithosphere with passive techniques and most recently the EAGLE active/passive experiments in the Afar. Examples of true multichannel deep reflection surveys to delineate crustal structure include the transects of the Limpopo Belt, a Neoarchean mobile zone that sutures the Kaapval and Zimbabwe cratons, deep oil prospecting surveys in the Nosop basin of southern Botswana that reveal dramatic basement reflectors off the NW margin of the Kaapvaal craton, and most recently deep vibroseis surveys within the Kaapvaal craton that indicate a crustal stack of tectonic slivers as well as tectonic shingling of the upper mantle. The passive margin of western Africa, with its strategic oil resources, has been a target of several deep studies using marine seismic surveys, including the PROBE initiative of the late 1980's and more recent deep surveys offshore Angola. Reprocessing of lines from oil exploration grids reveal Proterozoic mid-lower crustal features offshore of Ghana. Among the potentially rich targets for future surveys in Africa are the West African and Congo cratons and their suturing Pan-African (Neoproterozoic) mobile belts. This suite of cratonic lithosphere elements is largely largely untouched by modern high resolution seismic methodologies. New initiatives such as LEGENDS ( targeting the East African Orogen) and exploitation of existing oil industry seismic data for deep information represent two complementary approaches to the future deep seismic exploration in Africa.

Attoh, K.; Brown, L. D.

2006-05-01

463

Space Rescue  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Rescue has been a topic of speculation for a wide community of people for decades. Astronauts, aerospace engineers, diplomats, medical and rescue professionals, inventors and science fiction writers have all speculated on this problem. Martin Caidin's 1964 novel Marooned dealt with the problems of rescuing a crew stranded in low earth orbit. Legend at the Johnson Space Center says that Caidin's portrayal of a Russian attempt to save the American crew played a pivotal role in convincing the Russians to join the real joint Apollo-Soyuz mission. Space Rescue has been a staple in science fiction television and movies portrayed in programs such as Star Trek, Stargate-SG1 and Space 1999 and movies such as Mission To Mars and Red Planet. As dramatic and as difficult as rescue appears in fictional accounts, in the real world it has even greater drama and greater difficulty. Space rescue is still in its infancy as a discipline and the purpose of this chapter is to describe the issues associated with space rescue and the work done so far in this field. For the purposes of this chapter, the term space rescue will refer to any system which allows for rescue or escape of personnel from situations which endanger human life in a spaceflight operation. This will span the period from crew ingress prior to flight through crew egress postlanding. For the purposes of this chapter, the term primary system will refer to the spacecraft system that a crew is either attempting to escape from or from which an attempt is being made to rescue the crew.

Muratore, John F.

2007-01-01

464

Earth is (mostly) flat: Apportionment of continental mass flux over millennial time scales. A reappraisal (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mountainous topography only occupies a small fraction of the Earth's surface (Fig.1) and understanding natural rates of erosion in the more gently sloping terrains, making up around 90% of Earth's continental area, is critical for understanding how such areas have been transformed by human activities. In expansive, flat areas, modest rates of chemical weathering lead to gross denudation rates taking place even in zones of sediment accumulation[1]. We cite previously published denudation estimates from cosmogenic nuclides[2], which measure total mass loss. Such measurements circumvent problems with noise inherent in other short-term measurements, but introduce other issues related to extrapolating outside measured data ranges. These cosmogenic nuclide-derived rates allow us to calculate the apportionment and the sum of mass flux from Earth by extrapolation of a statistically significant correlation between denudation rates and basin slopes to watersheds without denudation rate data. We will present updates to our past results[1] (Fig. 2) using a new topographic dataset, which illustrates the critical impact of grid size on slope. We find that non-mountainous areas contribute a significant proportion of the total fluxes (Fig. 1) though the total fluxes are split almost evenly between the steepest 10% of topography and the rest of the continental land mass. [1] Bouchez, J., et al. 2012. Chemical Geology, v. 332-333, p. 166-184. [2] Willenbring, J.K., et al. 2013, Geology, v. 41, p. 343-346. Figure 1. Global slopes (GMTED 250 m) of the Earth. Legend indicates area these slopes make up and the apportionment of fluxes from those areas. Figure 2. Q-Q plot of the areal contributions of mass fluxes from the Earth's variably sloped continents.

Willenbring, J.; Codilean, A. T.; Kirchner, J. W.; McElroy, B. J.

2013-12-01

465

NCWin - A Component Object Model (COM) for processing and visualizing NetCDF data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

NetCDF (Network Common Data Form) is a data sharing protocol and library that is commonly used in large-scale atmospheric and environmental data archiving and modeling. The NetCDF tool described here, named NCWin and coded with Borland C+ + Builder, was built as a standard executable as well as a COM (component object model) for the Microsoft Windows environment. COM is a powerful technology that enhances the reuse of applications (as components). Environmental model developers from different modeling environments, such as Python, JAVA, VISUAL FORTRAN, VISUAL BASIC, VISUAL C+ +, and DELPHI, can reuse NCWin in their models to read, write and visualize NetCDF data. Some Windows applications, such as ArcGIS and Microsoft PowerPoint, can also call NCWin within the application. NCWin has three major components: 1) The data conversion part is designed to convert binary raw data to and from NetCDF data. It can process six data types (unsigned char, signed char, short, int, float, double) and three spatial data formats (BIP, BIL, BSQ); 2) The visualization part is designed for displaying grid map series (playing forward or backward) with simple map legend, and displaying temporal trend curves for data on individual map pixels; and 3) The modeling interface is designed for environmental model development by which a set of integrated NetCDF functions is provided for processing NetCDF data. To demonstrate that the NCWin can easily extend the functions of some current GIS software and the Office applications, examples of calling NCWin within ArcGIS and MS PowerPoint for showing NetCDF map animations are given. ?? The British Cartographic Society 2005.

Liu, J.; Chen, J. M.; Price, D. T.; Liu, S.

2005-01-01

466

The ancient story of Bora  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Every part of the world is characterized by his own climatological peculiarities, and sometimes some restricted areas can be influenced by local, singular, characteristical metereological phenomena. Trieste, capital of the region Friuli Venezia Giulia, and the Karst ( northeastern Italy) are included in this category. Since the old age it has been narrated the "raids" caused by the Bora, strong dry and cold north eastern wind that, with one of his most northern branch, which born in the karstic inland near Postumia (Slovenia), affects the Karst plateau and the Gulf of Trieste. In literature we can find how on September 5th, 394 a.C. the "miraculous wind" Bora has been decisive for the defeat of Arbogaste (West Roman Empire) in the Vipavska valley; he was with his army against the wind in the battle whereas the troops of the Catholic Emperor Teodosio (East Roman Empire) has been able to through their darts further thank to the wind. The fairy tales about "Bora" and "Borino" are part of the local literature since many centuries, whereas in the XX Century we can find images, postcards and books concerning the tempestuous wind of Trieste. When television born, developed a new way to communicate the deeds of Bora thanks to some extreme events occurred among 30s and 50s which contributes to increase his mith. The goal of this work is to retrace the history of Bora in the words of the common people rather than the science in order to understand how his legend has grown during the ages. Now, in the age of internet, a new way of telling the Bora adventures is born.

Colucci, R. R.; Lomabrdi, R.

2010-09-01

467

Music and Astronomy Under the Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While there have been many astronomy outreach activities and telescope observations at city sidewalks and parks, this IYA-2009 program targets a completely different audience - music lovers who are attending free summer music concerts held in community parks. The target audience is music lovers who may never have visited a science museum, planetarium, or star party. This program will permit the entire community (adults, teenagers, children, and seniors) to participate in telescope observations to enhance the public appreciation of astronomy. This program will also reach under-represented groups (economically disadvantaged, women, and minorities). The population base for the initial target audience (Nassau and Suffolk Counties, New York) is 2,700, 000 which is larger than combined population of Boston, Dallas, and San Francisco. Combining music concerts with astronomy assures an audience of people who have made a commitment to be outside at night for several hours. The attendance at these concerts ranges from 500 to 10,000 people per concert. If successful, this program will result in tens of thousands of people to looking through a telescope. Using an electronic projection system with a large screen will permit simultaneous viewing by audience members waiting to look through the telescope and will also be used to provide supplementary educational material. Visible constellations will also be identified along with their astronomical legends. My partner is the Amateur Observers' Society of New York. They have run a summer telescope in the park program for the past 20 years and are a participant in NASA's Night Sky network. I previously brought a telescope to a summer concert in Oyster Bay, NY and 90% of the 700 people attending the concert came to look at the Jupiter and its moons. Because concerts are held in parks throughout the US, I welcome new partners for this exciting IYA-2009 activity.

Lubowich, Donald A.

2008-05-01

468

[Early career of Michael Sendivogius].  

PubMed

One of the most influential alchemical authors of the early modern period was Michael Sendivogius whose early life is shrouded in mystery. He may be labelled the most famous Polish scientific writer between Copernicus and Marie Sk?odowska-Curie, but because of the difficulties involved in researching the biography of any alchemist, there has been relatively little interest in him among Polish historians. The early work of Roman Bugaj (author of the still fundamental monograph) and W?odzimierz Hubicki (who made his research available to the international community) has been continued only by the English-born Zbigniew Szyd?o and the author of this article. The roots of many legends about Sendivogius were three mid-17th century short biographies, none of which is trustworthy, so it is crucial to verify the received myth and the version constructed in the 1960's and 1970's with primary sources and evidence from the recent "new historiography of alchemy". The present article examines them in the light of newly discovered sources and reinterpretation of the old ones. The genealogy of the Sedzimir family is discussed at length to show that Sendivogius most probably was not its member but only a pretender in order to assume (or prove) the status of a nobleman. Several possible hypotheses about his origins are presented. He is known to have studied at three universities (Leipzig, Vienna and Altdorf) but authors of early panegyrics dedicated to Sendivogius list more universities which he may have attended. The most interesting is that of Cambridge, listed as the first one, because practically no Poles or Czechs went there at the time. Finally, his marriage to Veronica Stiebar, a wealthy widow of a Franconian knightly family, and her interesting family relationships (links to Erasmus, Camerarius, Paracelsus and the original Doctor Faustus) are discussed. The period covered is that before Sendivogius moved to Prague in about 1597, having already been a courtier of Rudolf II since early 1594. PMID:22849245

Prinke, Rafa? T

2012-01-01

469

A personal view of nutrition in Spain.  

PubMed

This paper stems from the special lecture given by the author at 20th International Congress of Nutrition, held from 16 to 20 September 2013 in Granada (Spain), following for his appointment as "Living Legend" of the International Union of nutritional sciences (IUNS), in recognition of his outstanding contribution to research and development in nutritional science. The development of nutrition in Spain from the 1960s to the present, which the author had the opportunity to experience first hand, is described. The contribution covers an extensive period in the history of this science, and highlights the advances made in our knowledge of nutrition and several of the misunderstandings that existed and still exist in this science: 1) The Anglo-Saxon dietary pattern and the high incidence of death from myocardial infarction, and the subsequent recognition of the Mediterranean diet as a model of a varied and balanced and healthy eating. 2) The relationship between cardiovascular disease and the consumption of oily fish. Since the discovery of the syn - thesis of prostaglandins makes it clear that fish fat is heart-healthy. 3) The epidemic of prosperity, overweight and obesity and the appearance of miracle diets. However, there are not miracles, the only solution being a healthy lifestyle and a balanced hypocaloric diet. 4) In the field of nutrition, diet and health, the harmful effect of: "In my opinion", a single allusion that undermines all science. The author also acknowledges all the researchers whose efforts, tenacity and enthusiasm have contributed to the advances made in nutrition science in Spain. PMID:24679010

Zamora, Salvador

2014-04-01

470

Mueller's map of Bohemia and its vector data model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mueller's map of Bohemia is one of the most important maps in Czech history. In last couple of years this map was scanned and analyzed a few times. The aim of this new project is thorough analysis of this map. As written in many articles, the most important information on the old map is the spatial position of point symbols (towns, villages), line symbols (rivers, roads) and area symbols (water areas). These symbols are usually compared with current situation. Using this method we can explore changes of water bodies or watersheds, changes of settlement (e.g. disbanded villages), changes of major travel routes. The crucial problem of this approach is georeferencing raster image into some well defined coordinate system. The best way how to do that is using ground control points (GCPs) and appropriate type of transformation. The problem of choosing the best GCPs is not solved correctly yet. Ususually there are used a few "well identifiable" points. From our point of view the best method how to choose right identical points is to make full vector data model of the map. Once we have complete vector model of the map, we can test many combinations of GCPs (only towns, only roads crossings etc.) and many types of transformation. Working with the vector data is also more comfortable. Another advantage of vector database is making spatial statistics of the data. We can count the number of villages or towns; we can count the sum of water bodies areas; we can count the number of monasteries, castles, mines etc. As we want to make new thorough analysis of the Mueller's map of Bohemia, we decided to create its vector model. In the first phase the map legend was studied and compared with the content of the map. ArcGIS geodatabase was designed for storing the data. As the Mueller's map of Bohemia is printed on 25 map sections, 25 databases were created. Every map section was reconstucted into its original size and then the database was filled. At the end, all 25 databases were merged together. Now we have complete seamless database of the map (several thousands of points) and we can test many transformations for georeferencing created vector model into some well defined coordinate system. This research has been supported by the GA CR grant No. 205/09/P102.

Cajthaml, J.; Krejci, J.

2009-04-01

471

Attempting to Unravel the Australian Megatsunami Hypothesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nearly two decades of information report apparent megatsunamis along the SE coast of Australia and yet these interpretations are still highly controversial. This work has proven to be particularly influential in guiding more recent megatsunami researchers, and yet it has never been critically evaluated in the light of recent advances in tsunami research. Much of the controversy hinges upon the nature of the original observations, event chronologies, and source identification. The most recent incarnation of the megatsunami hypothesis is indicative of the controversy. A supposed impact crater to the SW of New Zealand is linked with abandoned Maori settlements, Maori legends, and high elevation beach sand deposits in New Zealand, and apparent megatsunami evidence in eastern Australia and on Lord Howe Island. A date of around AD1500 is proposed. There are two key issues here. First, is there currently any evidence for contemporaneous trans Tasman palaeotsunamis (or megatsunamis) in the Holocene? Second, how reliable is the evidence? The first issue was addressed by comparing Holocene events from the Australian and New Zealand palaeotsunami databases. Up to five possible contemporaneous events were identified, but at the same time flaws in the underpinning data were highlighted. To start with, there is no consistent approach to the interpretation of chronological information comprising the databases. A consistent recalibration of all available radiocarbon data was carried out for both databases. This was based upon information contained in the relevant original papers. No clusters of radiocarbon ages were found for apparent megatsunami deposits along the SE coast of Australia. Clusters were found however, in New Zealand for inferred local and regional events. Next, the nature and extent of physical evidence used to determine tsunami emplacement were found to be highly variable. A preliminary reassessment of the physical evidence casts doubt upon the interpretation of some purported Australian megatsunami deposits. There are simpler and arguably more realistic explanations for the evidence. These results start to cast doubt upon the original interpretations for SE Australian megatsunamis. If this is the case and these deposits are not related to megastsunam