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Sample records for legumes pistillata proteins

  1. Immunolocalization of skeletal matrix proteins in tissue and mineral of the coral Stylophora pistillata

    PubMed Central

    Mass, Tali; Drake, Jeana L.; Peters, Esther C.; Jiang, Wenge; Falkowski, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    The precipitation and assembly of calcium carbonate skeletons by stony corals is a precisely controlled process regulated by the secretion of an ECM. Recently, it has been reported that the proteome of the skeletal organic matrix (SOM) contains a group of coral acid-rich proteins as well as an assemblage of adhesion and structural proteins, which together, create a framework for the precipitation of aragonite. To date, we are aware of no report that has investigated the localization of individual SOM proteins in the skeleton. In particular, no data are available on the ultrastructural mapping of these proteins in the calcification site or the skeleton. This information is crucial to assessing the role of these proteins in biomineralization. Immunological techniques represent a valuable approach to localize a single component within a calcified skeleton. By using immunogold labeling and immunohistochemical assays, here we show the spatial arrangement of key matrix proteins in tissue and skeleton of the common zooxanthellate coral, Stylophora pistillata. To our knowledge, our results reveal for the first time that, at the nanoscale, skeletal proteins are embedded within the aragonite crystals in a highly ordered arrangement consistent with a diel calcification pattern. In the tissue, these proteins are not restricted to the calcifying epithelium, suggesting that they also play other roles in the coral’s metabolic pathways. PMID:25139990

  2. Immunolocalization of skeletal matrix proteins in tissue and mineral of the coral Stylophora pistillata.

    PubMed

    Mass, Tali; Drake, Jeana L; Peters, Esther C; Jiang, Wenge; Falkowski, Paul G

    2014-09-01

    The precipitation and assembly of calcium carbonate skeletons by stony corals is a precisely controlled process regulated by the secretion of an ECM. Recently, it has been reported that the proteome of the skeletal organic matrix (SOM) contains a group of coral acid-rich proteins as well as an assemblage of adhesion and structural proteins, which together, create a framework for the precipitation of aragonite. To date, we are aware of no report that has investigated the localization of individual SOM proteins in the skeleton. In particular, no data are available on the ultrastructural mapping of these proteins in the calcification site or the skeleton. This information is crucial to assessing the role of these proteins in biomineralization. Immunological techniques represent a valuable approach to localize a single component within a calcified skeleton. By using immunogold labeling and immunohistochemical assays, here we show the spatial arrangement of key matrix proteins in tissue and skeleton of the common zooxanthellate coral, Stylophora pistillata. To our knowledge, our results reveal for the first time that, at the nanoscale, skeletal proteins are embedded within the aragonite crystals in a highly ordered arrangement consistent with a diel calcification pattern. In the tissue, these proteins are not restricted to the calcifying epithelium, suggesting that they also play other roles in the coral's metabolic pathways. PMID:25139990

  3. Characterizing Skeletal Framework Proteins from the Stony Coral, Stylophora pistillata using Proteomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, J.; Mass, T.; Haramaty, L.; Zelzion, U.; Bhattacharya, D.; Falkowski, P. G.

    2012-12-01

    Carbonate formation by biological organisms is catalyzed by a set of proteins. In corals, the proteins form a subset of a poorly characterized skeletal organic matrix (SOM). This matrix is not simply cells occluded in the mineral, but is instead a suite of biomolecules secreted from cells for the purpose of nucleation and/or scaffolding. However, the mechanism(s) for SOM's role in biomineral formation remain to be elucidated, in part because, for many organisms including stony corals, the organic molecules have yet to be characterized much less modeled. In an effort to understand the calcification process, we sequenced the SOM protein complex in the zooxanthellate coral, Stylophora pistillata, by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Our analysis reveals several 'framework' proteins as well as three highly acidic proteins (proteins that contain >30% aspartic and glutamic acids). The SOM framework proteins show sequence homology with other stony corals as well as with calcite biomineralizers. Several of these proteins exhibit calcium-binding domains, while others are likely involved in attachment of the coral calicoblastic layer to the newly formed skeleton substrate. We have begun to express and purify the framework proteins to (1) confirm and visualize their presence in the extracted SOM and in intact skeleton by antibody staining and immunolocalization, and (2) test their interaction with the highly acidic SOM proteins that may direct aragonite nucleation. This work is the first comprehensive proteomic analysis of coral SOM. Together with our genomic work investigating highly acidic SOM candidates (Mass et al. 2012 AGU Fall Meeting abstract), this will allow us to construct a three-dimensional model of the coral calcifying space to better understand the mechanisms of coral biomineralization.

  4. Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins in legumes

    PubMed Central

    Battaglia, Marina; Covarrubias, Alejandra A.

    2013-01-01

    Plants are exposed to different external conditions that affect growth, development, and productivity. Water deficit is one of these adverse conditions caused by drought, salinity, and extreme temperatures. Plants have developed different responses to prevent, ameliorate or repair the damage inflicted by these stressful environments. One of these responses is the activation of a set of genes encoding a group of hydrophilic proteins that typically accumulate to high levels during seed dehydration, at the last stage of embryogenesis, hence named Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins. LEA proteins also accumulate in response to water limitation in vegetative tissues, and have been classified in seven groups based on their amino acid sequence similarity and on the presence of distinctive conserved motifs. These proteins are widely distributed in the plant kingdom, from ferns to angiosperms, suggesting a relevant role in the plant response to this unfavorable environmental condition. In this review, we analyzed the LEA proteins from those legumes whose complete genomes have been sequenced such as Phaseolus vulgaris, Glycine max, Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus, Cajanus cajan, and Cicer arietinum. Considering their distinctive motifs, LEA proteins from the different groups were identified, and their sequence analysis allowed the recognition of novel legume specific motifs. Moreover, we compile their transcript accumulation patterns based on publicly available data. In spite of the limited information on these proteins in legumes, the analysis and data compiled here confirm the high correlation between their accumulation and water deficit, reinforcing their functional relevance under this detrimental conditions. PMID:23805145

  5. Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins in legumes.

    PubMed

    Battaglia, Marina; Covarrubias, Alejandra A

    2013-01-01

    Plants are exposed to different external conditions that affect growth, development, and productivity. Water deficit is one of these adverse conditions caused by drought, salinity, and extreme temperatures. Plants have developed different responses to prevent, ameliorate or repair the damage inflicted by these stressful environments. One of these responses is the activation of a set of genes encoding a group of hydrophilic proteins that typically accumulate to high levels during seed dehydration, at the last stage of embryogenesis, hence named Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins. LEA proteins also accumulate in response to water limitation in vegetative tissues, and have been classified in seven groups based on their amino acid sequence similarity and on the presence of distinctive conserved motifs. These proteins are widely distributed in the plant kingdom, from ferns to angiosperms, suggesting a relevant role in the plant response to this unfavorable environmental condition. In this review, we analyzed the LEA proteins from those legumes whose complete genomes have been sequenced such as Phaseolus vulgaris, Glycine max, Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus, Cajanus cajan, and Cicer arietinum. Considering their distinctive motifs, LEA proteins from the different groups were identified, and their sequence analysis allowed the recognition of novel legume specific motifs. Moreover, we compile their transcript accumulation patterns based on publicly available data. In spite of the limited information on these proteins in legumes, the analysis and data compiled here confirm the high correlation between their accumulation and water deficit, reinforcing their functional relevance under this detrimental conditions. PMID:23805145

  6. Thermal bleaching induced changes in photosystem II function not reflected by changes in photosystem II protein content of Stylophora pistillata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeans, J.; Szabó, M.; Campbell, D. A.; Larkum, A. W. D.; Ralph, P. J.; Hill, R.

    2014-03-01

    Scleractinian corals exist in a symbiosis with marine dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium that is easily disrupted by changes in the external environment. Increasing seawater temperatures cause loss of pigments and expulsion of the symbionts from the host in a process known as coral bleaching; though, the exact mechanism and trigger of this process has yet to be elucidated. We exposed nubbins of the coral Stylophora pistillata to bleaching temperatures over a period of 14 daylight hours. Fifty-nine percent of the symbiont population was expelled over the course of this short-term treatment. Maximum quantum yield ( F V/ F M) of photosystem (PS) II for the in hospite symbiont population did not change significantly over the treatment period, but there was a significant decline in the quantity of PSII core proteins (PsbA and PsbD) at the onset of the experimental increase in temperature. F V/ F M from populations of expelled symbionts dropped sharply over the first 6 h of temperature treatment, and then toward the end of the experiment, it increased to an F V/ F M value similar to that of the in hospite population. This suggests that the symbionts were likely damaged prior to expulsion from the host, and the most damaged symbionts were expelled earlier in the bleaching. The quantity of PSII core proteins, PsbA and PsbD, per cell was significantly higher in the expelled symbionts than in the remaining in hospite population over 6-10 h of temperature treatment. We attribute this to a buildup of inactive PSII reaction centers, likely caused by a breakdown in the PSII repair cycle. Thus, thermal bleaching of the coral S. pistillata induces changes in PSII content that do not follow the pattern that would be expected based on the results of PSII function.

  7. A Profile of an Endosymbiont-enriched Fraction of the Coral Stylophora pistillata Reveals Proteins Relevant to Microbial-Host Interactions*

    PubMed Central

    Weston, Andrew J.; Dunlap, Walter C.; Shick, J. Malcolm; Klueter, Anke; Iglic, Katrina; Vukelic, Ana; Starcevic, Antonio; Ward, Malcolm; Wells, Mark L.; Trick, Charles G.; Long, Paul F.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the response of Symbiodinium sp. endosymbionts from the coral Stylophora pistillata to moderate levels of thermal “bleaching” stress, with and without trace metal limitation. Using quantitative high throughput proteomics, we identified 8098 MS/MS events relating to individual peptides from the endosymbiont-enriched fraction, including 109 peptides meeting stringent criteria for quantification, of which only 26 showed significant change in our experimental treatments; 12 of 26 increased expression in response to thermal stress with little difference affected by iron limitation. Surprisingly, there were no significant increases in antioxidant or heat stress proteins; those induced to higher expression were generally involved in protein biosynthesis. An outstanding exception was a massive 114-fold increase of a viral replication protein indicating that thermal stress may substantially increase viral load and thereby contribute to the etiology of coral bleaching and disease. In the absence of a sequenced genome for Symbiodinium or other photosymbiotic dinoflagellate, this proteome reveals a plethora of proteins potentially involved in microbial-host interactions. This includes photosystem proteins, DNA repair enzymes, antioxidant enzymes, metabolic redox enzymes, heat shock proteins, globin hemoproteins, proteins of nitrogen metabolism, and a wide range of viral proteins associated with these endosymbiont-enriched samples. Also present were 21 unusual peptide/protein toxins thought to originate from either microbial consorts or from contamination by coral nematocysts. Of particular interest are the proteins of apoptosis, vesicular transport, and endo/exocytosis, which are discussed in context of the cellular processes of coral bleaching. Notably, the protein complement provides evidence that, rather than being expelled by the host, stressed endosymbionts may mediate their own departure. PMID:22351649

  8. The Arabidopsis floral homeotic gene PISTILLATA is regulated by discrete cis-elements responsive to induction and maintenance signals.

    PubMed

    Honma, T; Goto, K

    2000-05-01

    PISTILLATA is a B-class floral organ identity gene required for the normal development of petals and stamens in Arabidopsis. PISTILLATA expression is induced in the stage 3 flowers (early expression) and is maintained until anthesis (late expression). To explore in more detail the developmentally regulated gene expression of PISTILLATA, we have analyzed the PISTILLATA promoter using uidA (beta)-glucuronidase gene) fusion constructs (PI::GUS) in transgenic Arabidopsis. Promoter deletion analyses suggest that early PISTILLATA expression is mediated by the distal region and that late expression is mediated by the proximal region. Based on the PI::GUS expression patterns in the loss- and gain-of-function alleles of meristem or organ identity genes, we have shown that LEAFY and UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS induce PISTILLATA expression in a flower-independent manner via a distal promoter, and that PISTILLATA and APETALA3 maintain PISTILLATA expression (autoregulation) in the later stages of flower development via a proximal promoter. In addition, we have demonstrated that de novo protein synthesis is required for the PISTILLATA autoregulatory circuit. PMID:10769227

  9. Polyphenol, Conditioning, and Conservation Effects on Protein Fractions and Degradability in Forage Legumes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage legume proteins were fractionated by the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System or ruminally incubated to assess how conditioning and conservation methods interact with polyphenols (condensed tannins or o-quinones) to alter protein degradability. The presence of polyphenols, conditioning...

  10. Protein fractions in forage legumes containing protein-binding polyphenols: Freeze-drying vs. conservation as hay or silage.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We compared protein fractions in freeze-dried herbage to hay or silage of forage legumes containing about 200 g/kg of crude protein. Protein was partitioned with buffer and detergents into rapidly (A and B1), moderately (B2), and slowly (B3) degraded and undegradable acid-detergent insoluble protein...

  11. Muscle and liver protein synthesis in growing rats fed diets containing raw legumes as the main source of protein

    SciTech Connect

    Goena, M.; Santidrian, S.; Cuevillas, F.; Larralde, J.

    1986-03-01

    Although legumes are widely used as protein sources, their effects on protein metabolism remain quite unexplored. The authors have measured the rates of gastrocnemius muscle and liver protein synthesis in growing rats fed ad libitum over periods of 12 days on diets containing raw field bean (Vicia faba L.), raw kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and raw bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia L.) as the major sources of protein. Diets were isocaloric and contained about 12% protein. Protein synthesis was evaluated by the constant-intravenous-infusion method, using L-//sup 14/C/-tyrosine, as well as by the determination of the RNA-activity (g of newly synthesized protein/day/g RNA). Results showed that, as compared to well-fed control animals, those fed the raw legume diets exhibited a marked reduction in the rate of growth with no changes in the amount of food intake (per 100 g b.wt.). These changes were accompanied by a significant reduction in the rate of muscle protein synthesis in all legume-treated rats, being this reduction greater in the animals fed the Ph. vulgaris and V. ervilia diets. Liver protein synthesis was slightly higher in the rats fed the V. faba and V. ervilia diets, and smaller in the Ph. vulgaris-fed rats. It is suggested that both sulfur amino acid deficiency and the presence of different anti-nutritive factors in raw legumes may account for these effects.

  12. Transcriptome analysis of the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata.

    PubMed

    Karako-Lampert, Sarit; Zoccola, Didier; Salmon-Divon, Mali; Katzenellenbogen, Mark; Tambutté, Sylvie; Bertucci, Anthony; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Deleury, Emeline; Allemand, Denis; Levy, Oren

    2014-01-01

    The principal architects of coral reefs are the scleractinian corals; these species are divided in two major clades referred to as "robust" and "complex" corals. Although the molecular diversity of the "complex" clade has received considerable attention, with several expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries and a complete genome sequence having been constructed, the "robust" corals have received far less attention, despite the fact that robust corals have been prominent focal points for ecological and physiological studies. Filling this gap affords important opportunities to extend these studies and to improve our understanding of the differences between the two major clades. Here, we present an EST library from Stylophora pistillata (Esper 1797) and systematically analyze the assembled transcripts compared to putative homologs from the complete proteomes of six well-characterized metazoans: Nematostella vectensis, Hydra magnipapillata, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, Ciona intestinalis and Homo sapiens. Furthermore, comparative analyses of the Stylophora pistillata ESTs were performed against several Cnidaria from the Scleractinia, Actiniaria and Hydrozoa, as well as against other stony corals separately. Functional characterization of S. pistillata transcripts into KOG/COG categories and further description of Wnt and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathways showed that the assembled EST library provides sufficient data and coverage. These features of this new library suggest considerable opportunities for extending our understanding of the molecular and physiological behavior of "robust" corals. PMID:24551124

  13. The Effect of Plant Proteins Derived from Cereals and Legumes on Heme Iron Absorption

    PubMed Central

    Weinborn, Valerie; Pizarro, Fernando; Olivares, Manuel; Brito, Alex; Arredondo, Miguel; Flores, Sebastián; Valenzuela, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effect of proteins from cereals and legumes on heme iron (Fe) absorption. The absorption of heme Fe without its native globin was measured. Thirty adult females participated in two experimental studies (15 per study). Study I focused on the effects of cereal proteins (zein, gliadin and glutelin) and study II on the effects of legume proteins (soy, pea and lentil) on heme Fe absorption. When heme was given alone (as a control), study I and II yielded 6.2% and 11.0% heme absorption (p > 0.05). In study I, heme Fe absorption was 7.2%, 7.5% and 5.9% when zein, gliadin and glutelin were added, respectively. From this, it was concluded that cereal proteins did not affect heme Fe absorption. In study II, heme Fe absorption was 7.3%, 8.1% and 9.1% with the addition of soy, pea and lentil proteins, respectively. Only soy proteins decreased heme Fe absorption (p < 0.05). These results suggest that with the exception of soy proteins, which decreased absorption, proteins derived from cereals and legumes do not affect heme Fe absorption. PMID:26529009

  14. The Effect of Plant Proteins Derived from Cereals and Legumes on Heme Iron Absorption.

    PubMed

    Weinborn, Valerie; Pizarro, Fernando; Olivares, Manuel; Brito, Alex; Arredondo, Miguel; Flores, Sebastián; Valenzuela, Carolina

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effect of proteins from cereals and legumes on heme iron (Fe) absorption. The absorption of heme Fe without its native globin was measured. Thirty adult females participated in two experimental studies (15 per study). Study I focused on the effects of cereal proteins (zein, gliadin and glutelin) and study II on the effects of legume proteins (soy, pea and lentil) on heme Fe absorption. When heme was given alone (as a control), study I and II yielded 6.2% and 11.0% heme absorption (p > 0.05). In study I, heme Fe absorption was 7.2%, 7.5% and 5.9% when zein, gliadin and glutelin were added, respectively. From this, it was concluded that cereal proteins did not affect heme Fe absorption. In study II, heme Fe absorption was 7.3%, 8.1% and 9.1% with the addition of soy, pea and lentil proteins, respectively. Only soy proteins decreased heme Fe absorption (p < 0.05). These results suggest that with the exception of soy proteins, which decreased absorption, proteins derived from cereals and legumes do not affect heme Fe absorption. PMID:26529009

  15. Structural, Culinary, Nutritional and Anti-Nutritional Properties of High Protein, Gluten Free, 100% Legume Pasta.

    PubMed

    Laleg, Karima; Cassan, Denis; Barron, Cécile; Prabhasankar, Pichan; Micard, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Wheat pasta has a compact structure built by a gluten network entrapping starch granules resulting in a low glycemic index, but is nevertheless unsuitable for gluten-intolerant people. High protein gluten-free legume flours, rich in fibers, resistant starch and minerals are thus a good alternative for gluten-free pasta production. In this study, gluten-free pasta was produced exclusively from faba, lentil or black-gram flours. The relationship between their structure, their cooking and Rheological properties and their in-vitro starch digestion was analyzed and compared to cereal gluten-free commercial pasta. Trypsin inhibitory activity, phytic acid and α-galactosides were determined in flours and in cooked pasta. All legume pasta were rich in protein, resistant starch and fibers. They had a thick but weak protein network, which is built during the pasta cooking step. This particular structure altered pasta springiness and increased cooking losses. Black-gram pasta, which is especially rich in soluble fibers, differed from faba and lentil pasta, with high springiness (0.85 vs. 0.75) and less loss during cooking. In comparison to a commercial cereal gluten-free pasta, all the legume pasta lost less material during cooking but was less cohesive and springy. Interestingly, due to their particular composition and structure, lentil and faba pasta released their starch more slowly than the commercial gluten-free pasta during the in-vitro digestion process. Anti-nutritional factors in legumes, such as trypsin inhibitory activity and α-galactosides were reduced by up to 82% and 73%, respectively, by pasta processing and cooking. However, these processing steps had a minor effect on phytic acid. This study demonstrates the advantages of using legumes for the production of gluten-free pasta with a low glycemic index and high nutritional quality. PMID:27603917

  16. Landmark Research in Legumes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Legumes are members of family Fabaceae or Leguminosae and include economically important grain legumes, oilseed crops, forage crops, shrubs and tropical or subtropical trees. Many legumes are rich source of quality protein for humans and animals and enrich the soil by producing their own nitrogen i...

  17. Indigenous and introduced potyviruses of legumes and Passiflora spp. from Australia: biological properties and comparison of coat protein sequences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coat protein sequences of 33 Potyvirus isolates from legume and Passiflora spp. were sequenced to determine the identity of infecting viruses. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences revealed the presence of seven distinct virus species....

  18. Underutilised legumes: potential sources for low-cost protein.

    PubMed

    Prakash, D; Niranjan, A; Tewari, S K; Pushpangadan, P

    2001-07-01

    Seeds of 104 leguminous species belonging to 17 genera were analysed for their protein contents. The promising ones were investigated for fibre, carbohydrate, ash, oil, fatty acids, amino acid profile and trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA). The variation of fibre contents was 4.1-8.9%, carbohydrate 18.4-49.2%, ash 1.8-7.2%, TIA 48.7-87.5 mg/g, oil 1.3-19.8% and protein 11.0-51.6%. The protein content (41-45%) in Acacia mellifera (41.6%), Albizzia lebbek (43.6%), Bauhinia triandra (42.7%), Lathyrus odoratus (42.8%), Parkinsonia aculeata (41.6%), Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (41.9%), Sesbania paludosa (41.2%) and S. sesban (43.8%) was in close proximity to soybean (42.8%), whereas Bauhinia retusa (51.6%), B. variegata (46.5%), Delonix elata (48.7%) and Gliricidia maculata (46.3%) showed higher percentages of protein than soybean. The essential amino acid composition of some of the seed proteins was reasonably well balanced (lysine up to 7.6%). The seeds of Bauhinia retusa (18.6%), B. triandra (16.5%), B. variegata (17.3%), Gliricidia maculata (16.2%), Parkia biglandulosa (18.9%) and Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (19.8%) had a good amount of oil, comparable to soybean (18-22%). The fatty acid composition of some genera/species was quite promising with high amount of unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:11474898

  19. ACE-inhibitory activity of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from lupin and other legumes.

    PubMed

    Boschin, Giovanna; Scigliuolo, Graziana Maria; Resta, Donatella; Arnoldi, Anna

    2014-02-15

    The objective of this investigation was to compare the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity of the hydrolysates obtained by pepsin digestion of proteins of some legumes, such as chickpea, common bean, lentil, lupin, pea, and soybean, by using the same experimental procedure. The ACE-inhibitory activity was measured by using the tripeptide hippuryl-histidyl-leucine (HHL), as model peptide, and HPLC-DAD, as analytical method. The peptide mixtures of all legumes were active, with soybean and lupin the most efficient, with IC50 values of 224 and 226 μg/ml, respectively. Considering the promising results obtained with lupin, and aiming to identify the protein(s) that release(s) the peptides responsible for the activity, the peptides obtained from the pepsin digestion of some industrial lupin protein isolates and purified protein fractions were tested. The most active mixture, showing an IC50 value of 138 μg/ml, was obtained hydrolysing a mixture of lupin α+β conglutin. PMID:24128446

  20. Effect of radiation processing on antinutrients, in-vitro protein digestibility and protein efficiency ratio bioassay of legume seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Niely, Hania F. G.

    2007-06-01

    The effects of irradiation (dose levels of 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy) on nutritive characteristics of peas ( Pisum satinum L), cowpeas ( Vigna unguiculata L.Walp), lentils ( Lens culinaris Med), kidneybeans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L), and chickpeas ( Cicer arietinum L) were examined. Analyses included proximate composition, levels of anti-nutrients (phytic acid, tannins), available lysine (AL), in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in the growing rat. The results showed that moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and ash were unchanged by the irradiation. Radiation processing significantly ( p<0.05) reduced the levels of phytic acid (PA), tannins (TN), and AL. IVPD and PER were significantly enhanced in a dose-dependent manner, relative to unirradiated control samples, for all legumes. The data sets for each legume exhibited high correlation coefficients between radiation dose and PA, TN, AL, IVPD, and PER. These results demonstrate the benefits of irradiation on the nutritional properties of these legumes.

  1. Alternative approaches to the manufacture of plant protein products from grain legumes.

    PubMed

    Braudo, E E; Danilenko, A N; Dianova, V T; Krokha, N G

    2001-10-01

    A biotechnological method for the modification of grain legume meals (pea, faba bean) is proposed. The essence of this method is the inducing of biochemical processes, which occur at the germination, through the treatment of a meal with an acid protease. Modified meals can replace soybean protein isolate as meat extenders. In particular, the modification of pea meal improves the colour of combined meat products and eliminates their beany off-flavour. The concentration of six-carbon aldehydes in combined sausages is reduced after the modification of pea meal. PMID:11712243

  2. Weak protein-protein interactions in lectins: the crystal structure of a vegetative lectin from the legume Dolichos biflorus.

    PubMed

    Buts, L; Dao-Thi, M H; Loris, R; Wyns, L; Etzler, M; Hamelryck, T

    2001-05-25

    The legume lectins are widely used as a model system for studying protein-carbohydrate and protein-protein interactions. They exhibit a fascinating quaternary structure variation, which becomes important when they interact with multivalent glycoconjugates, for instance those on cell surfaces. Recently, it has become clear that certain lectins form weakly associated oligomers. This phenomenon may play a role in the regulation of receptor crosslinking and subsequent signal transduction. The crystal structure of DB58, a dimeric lectin from the legume Dolichos biflorus reveals a separate dimer of a previously unobserved type, in addition to a tetramer consisting of two such dimers. This tetramer resembles that formed by DBL, the seed lectin from the same plant. A single amino acid substitution in DB58 affects the conformation and flexibility of a loop in the canonical dimer interface. This disrupts the formation of a stable DBL-like tetramer in solution, but does not prohibit its formation in suitable conditions, which greatly increases the possibilities for the cross-linking of multivalent ligands. The non-canonical DB58 dimer has a buried symmetrical alpha helix, which can be present in the crystal in either of two antiparallel orientations. Two existing structures and datasets for lectins with similar quaternary structures were reconsidered. A central alpha helix could be observed in the soybean lectin, but not in the leucoagglutinating lectin from Phaseolus vulgaris. The relative position and orientation of the carbohydrate-binding sites in the DB58 dimer may affect its ability to crosslink mulitivalent ligands, compared to the other legume lectin dimers. PMID:11491289

  3. The impact of heating and soaking on the in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis of protein varies in different species of tropical legumes.

    PubMed

    Torres, Julieta; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Muñoz, Luz S; Peters, Michael; Montoya, Carlos A

    2016-03-01

    The effects of different thermal (raw, autoclaving or boiling for 5 and 20min) and soaking (with or without) treatments on the degree of hydrolysis (DH) of protein were investigated for selected legumes (Canavalia brasiliensis; Lablab purpureus; pink, red and white colour hulls Vigna unguiculata). Each legume preparation underwent in vitro simulated gastrointestinal tract digestion comprising either pepsin (120min) or pepsin/pancreatin (120/240min) digestion. The DH was determined based on the amount of free amino groups released. Autoclaving for 5min increased the pepsin/pancreatin DH for all the unsoaked and soaked legumes (+20% to 46% units) except Canavalia, while boiling for 5min only increased DH for two soaked legumes (+12% to 28% units). Extending boiling from 5 to 20min increased the DH for three soaked legumes (+5% to 29% units). In conclusion, autoclaving, in general, extensively increased the sequential pepsin/pancreatin DH, while boiling only increased it for selected legumes. PMID:26471569

  4. [Comparative study of the composition and nutritional value of the seeds and protein concentrations in legumes].

    PubMed

    Cantoral, R; Fernández-Quintela, A; Martínez, J A; Macarulla, M T

    1995-09-01

    The nutritional properties of three legumes: pea (Pisum sativum), faba bean (Vicia faba) and soya (Glycine max) have been characterized. From these seeds, protein concentrates were elaborated by wet processing and two different procedures of drying were followed (freeze-drying and alcohol washing). The composition and content of several antinutritional factors (phytates, tannins, trypsin inhibitors and lectins) were assessed in all of them. Also some functional properties regarding their potential use in food technology were evaluated, such as protein solubility at different pH, as well as water and oil absorption capacities. All the obtained concentrates showed high protein contents, nevertheless protein extraction efficiency was smaller in alcohol-washed concentrates than in the lyophilized ones. In the other hand, the concentrates obtained from pea and faba bean showed higher yields than those obtained from soya. The content of antinutritional factors were markedly reduced after the concentration process. Furthermore, the functional properties of pea and faba bean protein concentrates point out their suitability for food preparation as previously reported for soya. PMID:9382685

  5. Expression and Functional Analysis of a Novel Group of Legume-specific WRKY and Exo70 Protein Variants from Soybean.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ze; Li, Panfeng; Yang, Yan; Chi, Yingjun; Fan, Baofang; Chen, Zhixiang

    2016-01-01

    Legumes fix atmospheric nitrogen through symbiosis with microorganisms and contain special traits in nitrogen assimilation and associated processes. Recently, we have reported a novel WRKY-related protein (GmWRP1) and a new clade of Exo70 proteins (GmExo70J) from soybean with homologs found only in legumes. GmWRP1 and some of the GmExo70J proteins are localized to Golgi apparatus through a novel N-terminal transmembrane domain. Here, we report further analysis of expression and functions of the novel GmWRP1 and GmExo70J genes. Promoter-GUS analysis in Arabidopsis revealed distinct tissue-specific expression patterns of the GmExo70J genes not only in vegetative but also in reproductive organs including mature tissues, where expression of previously characterized Exo70 genes is usually absent. Furthermore, expression of some GmExo70J genes including GmExo70J1, GmExo70J6 and GmExo70J7 increases greatly in floral organ-supporting receptacles during the development and maturation of siliques, indicating a possible role in seed development. More importantly, suppression of GmWRP1, GmExo70J7, GmExo70J8 and GmExo70J9 expression in soybean using virus- or artificial microRNA-mediated gene silencing resulted in accelerated leaf senescence and reduced nodule formation. These results strongly suggest that legume-specific GmWRP1 and GmExo70J proteins play important roles not only in legume symbiosis but also in other processes critical for legume growth and development. PMID:27572297

  6. Expression and Functional Analysis of a Novel Group of Legume-specific WRKY and Exo70 Protein Variants from Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ze; Li, Panfeng; Yang, Yan; Chi, Yingjun; Fan, Baofang; Chen, Zhixiang

    2016-01-01

    Legumes fix atmospheric nitrogen through symbiosis with microorganisms and contain special traits in nitrogen assimilation and associated processes. Recently, we have reported a novel WRKY-related protein (GmWRP1) and a new clade of Exo70 proteins (GmExo70J) from soybean with homologs found only in legumes. GmWRP1 and some of the GmExo70J proteins are localized to Golgi apparatus through a novel N-terminal transmembrane domain. Here, we report further analysis of expression and functions of the novel GmWRP1 and GmExo70J genes. Promoter-GUS analysis in Arabidopsis revealed distinct tissue-specific expression patterns of the GmExo70J genes not only in vegetative but also in reproductive organs including mature tissues, where expression of previously characterized Exo70 genes is usually absent. Furthermore, expression of some GmExo70J genes including GmExo70J1, GmExo70J6 and GmExo70J7 increases greatly in floral organ-supporting receptacles during the development and maturation of siliques, indicating a possible role in seed development. More importantly, suppression of GmWRP1, GmExo70J7, GmExo70J8 and GmExo70J9 expression in soybean using virus- or artificial microRNA-mediated gene silencing resulted in accelerated leaf senescence and reduced nodule formation. These results strongly suggest that legume-specific GmWRP1 and GmExo70J proteins play important roles not only in legume symbiosis but also in other processes critical for legume growth and development. PMID:27572297

  7. Indigenous and introduced potyviruses of legumes and Passiflora spp. from Australia: biological properties and comparison of coat protein nucleotide sequences.

    PubMed

    Coutts, Brenda A; Kehoe, Monica A; Webster, Craig G; Wylie, Stephen J; Jones, Roger A C

    2011-10-01

    Five Australian potyviruses, passion fruit woodiness virus (PWV), passiflora mosaic virus (PaMV), passiflora virus Y, clitoria chlorosis virus (ClCV) and hardenbergia mosaic virus (HarMV), and two introduced potyviruses, bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CAbMV), were detected in nine wild or cultivated Passiflora and legume species growing in tropical, subtropical or Mediterranean climatic regions of Western Australia. When ClCV (1), PaMV (1), PaVY (8) and PWV (5) isolates were inoculated to 15 plant species, PWV and two PaVY P. foetida isolates infected P. edulis and P. caerulea readily but legumes only occasionally. Another PaVY P. foetida isolate resembled five PaVY legume isolates in infecting legumes readily but not infecting P. edulis. PaMV resembled PaVY legume isolates in legumes but also infected P. edulis. ClCV did not infect P. edulis or P. caerulea and behaved differently from PaVY legume isolates and PaMV when inoculated to two legume species. When complete coat protein (CP) nucleotide (nt) sequences of 33 new isolates were compared with 41 others, PWV (8), HarMV (4), PaMV (1) and ClCV (1) were within a large group of Australian isolates, while PaVY (14), CAbMV (1) and BCMV (3) isolates were in three other groups. Variation among PWV and PaVY isolates was sufficient for division into four clades each (I-IV). A variable block of 56 amino acid residues at the N-terminal region of the CPs of PaMV and ClCV distinguished them from PWV. Comparison of PWV, PaMV and ClCV CP sequences showed that nt identities were both above and below the 76-77% potyvirus species threshold level. This research gives insights into invasion of new hosts by potyviruses at the natural vegetation and cultivated area interface, and illustrates the potential of indigenous viruses to emerge to infect introduced plants. PMID:21744001

  8. Antimicrobial and insecticidal protein isolated from seeds of Clitoria ternatea, a tropical forage legume.

    PubMed

    Kelemu, Segenet; Cardona, César; Segura, Gustavo

    2004-12-01

    The tropical forage legume Clitoria ternatea (L.) has important agronomic traits such as adaptation to a wide range of soil conditions and resistance to drought. It is resistant to a number of pathogens and pests. These important traits gave us reasons to look more closely at the plant. A highly basic small protein was purified from seeds of C. ternatea to homogeneity by using ultrafiltration with Centricon-3 membrane tubes and preparative granulated-bed isoelectric focusing (IEF). A single protein band was obtained on both sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and IEF gels. The protein, designated 'finotin', has broad and potent inhibitory effect on the growth of various important fungal pathogens of plants, namely Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani, Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Pyricularia grisea, Bipolaris oryzae and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. It also inhibits the common bean bacterial blight pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli. Moreover, finotin has powerful inhibitory properties against the bean bruchids Zabrotes subfasciatus and Acanthoscelides obtectus. PMID:15694280

  9. In-situ Ruminal Protein, Fiber, and Dry Matter Degradability of Legume Silages and Hays as Influenced by Protein-binding Polyphenols and Conditioning Methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conditioning and conservation methods may alter polyphenol binding in forage legumes and the degradability of crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and dry matter (DM) in the rumen. In this study, alfalfa, birdsfoot trefoil with 6 or 15 g/kg condensed tannins (CT), and red clover with ~1...

  10. SCARN a Novel Class of SCAR Protein That Is Required for Root-Hair Infection during Legume Nodulation.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Liping; Lin, Jie-Shun; Xu, Ji; Sato, Shusei; Parniske, Martin; Wang, Trevor L; Downie, J Allan; Xie, Fang

    2015-10-01

    Rhizobial infection of legume root hairs requires a rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton to enable the establishment of plant-made infection structures called infection threads. In the SCAR/WAVE (Suppressor of cAMP receptor defect/WASP family verpolin homologous protein) actin regulatory complex, the conserved N-terminal domains of SCAR proteins interact with other components of the SCAR/WAVE complex. The conserved C-terminal domains of SCAR proteins bind to and activate the actin-related protein 2/3 (ARP2/3) complex, which can bind to actin filaments catalyzing new actin filament formation by nucleating actin branching. We have identified, SCARN (SCAR-Nodulation), a gene required for root hair infection of Lotus japonicus by Mesorhizobium loti. Although the SCARN protein is related to Arabidopsis thaliana SCAR2 and SCAR4, it belongs to a distinct legume-sub clade. We identified other SCARN-like proteins in legumes and phylogeny analyses suggested that SCARN may have arisen from a gene duplication and acquired specialized functions in root nodule symbiosis. Mutation of SCARN reduced formation of infection-threads and their extension into the root cortex and slightly reduced root-hair length. Surprisingly two of the scarn mutants showed constitutive branching of root hairs in uninoculated plants. However we observed no effect of scarn mutations on trichome development or on the early actin cytoskeletal accumulation that is normally seen in root hair tips shortly after M. loti inoculation, distinguishing them from other symbiosis mutations affecting actin nucleation. The C-terminal domain of SCARN binds to ARPC3 and ectopic expression of the N-terminal SCAR-homology domain (but not the full length protein) inhibited nodulation. In addition, we found that SCARN expression is enhanced by M. loti in epidermal cells and that this is directly regulated by the NODULE INCEPTION (NIN) transcription factor. PMID:26517270

  11. SCARN a Novel Class of SCAR Protein That Is Required for Root-Hair Infection during Legume Nodulation

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Liping; Lin, Jie-shun; Xu, Ji; Sato, Shusei; Parniske, Martin; Wang, Trevor L.; Downie, J. Allan; Xie, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Rhizobial infection of legume root hairs requires a rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton to enable the establishment of plant-made infection structures called infection threads. In the SCAR/WAVE (Suppressor of cAMP receptor defect/WASP family verpolin homologous protein) actin regulatory complex, the conserved N-terminal domains of SCAR proteins interact with other components of the SCAR/WAVE complex. The conserved C-terminal domains of SCAR proteins bind to and activate the actin-related protein 2/3 (ARP2/3) complex, which can bind to actin filaments catalyzing new actin filament formation by nucleating actin branching. We have identified, SCARN (SCAR-Nodulation), a gene required for root hair infection of Lotus japonicus by Mesorhizobium loti. Although the SCARN protein is related to Arabidopsis thaliana SCAR2 and SCAR4, it belongs to a distinct legume-sub clade. We identified other SCARN-like proteins in legumes and phylogeny analyses suggested that SCARN may have arisen from a gene duplication and acquired specialized functions in root nodule symbiosis. Mutation of SCARN reduced formation of infection-threads and their extension into the root cortex and slightly reduced root-hair length. Surprisingly two of the scarn mutants showed constitutive branching of root hairs in uninoculated plants. However we observed no effect of scarn mutations on trichome development or on the early actin cytoskeletal accumulation that is normally seen in root hair tips shortly after M. loti inoculation, distinguishing them from other symbiosis mutations affecting actin nucleation. The C-terminal domain of SCARN binds to ARPC3 and ectopic expression of the N-terminal SCAR-homology domain (but not the full length protein) inhibited nodulation. In addition, we found that SCARN expression is enhanced by M. loti in epidermal cells and that this is directly regulated by the NODULE INCEPTION (NIN) transcription factor. PMID:26517270

  12. Adsorption at the air-water interface and emulsification properties of grain legume protein derivatives from pea and broad bean.

    PubMed

    Tsoukala, A; Papalamprou, E; Makri, E; Doxastakis, G; Braudo, E E

    2006-12-01

    Functional properties of native and modified (through induced autolysis) pea (Pisum sativum L.) and broad bean (Vicia faba L.) protein derivatives are studied. In specific, protein solubility and behavior at the air-water interface through surface pressure measurements are investigated. Furthermore the ability of the protein products to act as emulsifying agents and to stabilize emulsions is studied through oil droplet size distribution measurements and by the protein adsorbed at the oil-water interface. The data reveal that the ability of the proteins to act as surfactants and build up a rigid film around the oil droplets, mainly depends on their suitable molecular configuration and structure. Hydrolysis did not promote the functionality of the legume proteins. Broad bean exhibited better functionality than pea, before and after hydrolysis. Some comparisons were also made with lupin (Lupinus albus L.) protein isolate. PMID:17049437

  13. Legumes as a Model Plant Family

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The human population derives the majority of its nutrition either directly or indirectly (via animal protein) from two plant families: the grasses and the legumes. Grain legumes alone supply approximately 33% of human protein nutrition. Thus, it is critical for genetic improvement of legume crop spe...

  14. Perspectives into factors limiting in vivo digestion of legume proteins: antinutritional compounds or storage proteins?

    PubMed

    Carbonaro, M; Grant, G; Cappelloni, M; Pusztai, A

    2000-03-01

    The in vivo protein digestibility of raw and cooked common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and of protein fractions extracted from them was determined with growing rats. Overnight-fasted rats were intubated with a protein suspension or fed the same amount of protein added to a basal diet. The rats were killed 1 h later, the contents of stomach and small intestine were washed out, and their protein contents were measured. The in vivo digestibility of proteins of raw common bean flour was 72.4% and not significantly improved after cooking. In contrast, the digestibility of faba bean proteins was decreased from 86.5 to 60.6% by the thermal treatment. Globulins from either species had similar digestibilities (approximately 70%). Proteins in the soluble fraction of cooked beans were more digestible than those in the insoluble fraction, which contained the bulk of the proteins. Hemagglutination assay and trypsin inhibitor determination indicated that after the thermal treatment only very low, nonharmful, levels of both lectin and inhibitor remained. Faba bean contained more polyphenols than common bean samples, with most of the polyphenols being bound to globulins. However, protein-bound polyphenols were markedly decreased after cooking. SDS-PAGE characterization of the gastrointestinal digesta of globulins and amino acid analysis of undigested proteins of whole cooked common bean and faba bean suggested that it is mainly the structural properties of the storage proteins and not their binding of polyphenols, which determines the extent of protein aggregation on autoclaving and may therefore be responsible for their low digestibility. PMID:10725143

  15. Sativin: a novel antifungal miraculin-like protein isolated from legumes of the sugar snap Pisum sativum var. macrocarpon.

    PubMed

    Ye, X Y; Wang, H X; Ng, T B

    2000-07-01

    An antifungal protein designated sativin was isolated from the legumes of the sugar snap (also known as honey pea) Pisum sativum var. macrocarpon. The procedure entailed extraction, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel and ion exchange chromatography on CM-Sepharose. The protein exhibited a molecular weight of 38 kDa in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. It possessed an N-terminal amino acid sequence which showed similarity to those of miraculin (a sweet protein) and pisavin (a ribosome-inactivating protein from Pisum sativum var arvense Poir manifesting similarity to miraculin). Unlike pisavin, however, sativin demonstrated negligible ribonuclease activity and inhibited translation in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system with a very low potency (IC50= 14 microM). Sativin exerted antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum, Coprinus comatus and Pleurotus ostreatus but not against Rhizoctonia solani. PMID:10968407

  16. Mass Spectrometric-Based Selected Reaction Monitoring of Protein Phosphorylation during Symbiotic Signaling in the Model Legume, Medicago truncatula

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Junko; Barrett-Wilt, Gregory A.; Sussman, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Unlike the major cereal crops corn, rice, and wheat, leguminous plants such as soybean and alfalfa can meet their nitrogen requirement via endosymbiotic associations with soil bacteria. The establishment of this symbiosis is a complex process playing out over several weeks and is facilitated by the exchange of chemical signals between these partners from different kingdoms. Several plant components that are involved in this signaling pathway have been identified, but there is still a great deal of uncertainty regarding the early events in symbiotic signaling, i.e., within the first minutes and hours after the rhizobial signals (Nod factors) are perceived at the plant plasma membrane. The presence of several protein kinases in this pathway suggests a mechanism of signal transduction via posttranslational modification of proteins in which phosphate is added to the hydroxyl groups of serine, threonine and tyrosine amino acid side chains. To monitor the phosphorylation dynamics and complement our previous untargeted 'discovery' approach, we report here the results of experiments using a targeted mass spectrometric technique, Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM) that enables the quantification of phosphorylation targets with great sensitivity and precision. Using this approach, we confirm a rapid change in the level of phosphorylation in 4 phosphosites of at least 4 plant phosphoproteins that have not been previously characterized. This detailed analysis reveals aspects of the symbiotic signaling mechanism in legumes that, in the long term, will inform efforts to engineer this nitrogen-fixing symbiosis in important non-legume crops such as rice, wheat and corn. PMID:27203723

  17. Mass Spectrometric-Based Selected Reaction Monitoring of Protein Phosphorylation during Symbiotic Signaling in the Model Legume, Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Van Ness, Lori K; Jayaraman, Dhileepkumar; Maeda, Junko; Barrett-Wilt, Gregory A; Sussman, Michael R; Ané, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    Unlike the major cereal crops corn, rice, and wheat, leguminous plants such as soybean and alfalfa can meet their nitrogen requirement via endosymbiotic associations with soil bacteria. The establishment of this symbiosis is a complex process playing out over several weeks and is facilitated by the exchange of chemical signals between these partners from different kingdoms. Several plant components that are involved in this signaling pathway have been identified, but there is still a great deal of uncertainty regarding the early events in symbiotic signaling, i.e., within the first minutes and hours after the rhizobial signals (Nod factors) are perceived at the plant plasma membrane. The presence of several protein kinases in this pathway suggests a mechanism of signal transduction via posttranslational modification of proteins in which phosphate is added to the hydroxyl groups of serine, threonine and tyrosine amino acid side chains. To monitor the phosphorylation dynamics and complement our previous untargeted 'discovery' approach, we report here the results of experiments using a targeted mass spectrometric technique, Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM) that enables the quantification of phosphorylation targets with great sensitivity and precision. Using this approach, we confirm a rapid change in the level of phosphorylation in 4 phosphosites of at least 4 plant phosphoproteins that have not been previously characterized. This detailed analysis reveals aspects of the symbiotic signaling mechanism in legumes that, in the long term, will inform efforts to engineer this nitrogen-fixing symbiosis in important non-legume crops such as rice, wheat and corn. PMID:27203723

  18. Accumulation of extracellular proteins bearing unique proline-rich motifs in intercellular spaces of the legume nodule parenchyma.

    PubMed

    Sherrier, D J; Taylor, G S; Silverstein, K A T; Gonzales, M B; VandenBosch, K A

    2005-04-01

    Nodulins encoding repetitive proline-rich cell wall proteins (PRPs) are induced during early interactions with rhizobia, suggesting a massive restructuring of the plant extracellular matrix during infection and nodulation. However, the proteins corresponding to these gene products have not been isolated or characterized, nor have cell wall localizations been confirmed. Posttranslational modifications, conformation, and interactions with other wall polymers are difficult to predict on the basis of only the deduced amino acid sequence of PRPs. PsENOD2 is expressed in nodule parenchyma tissue during nodule organogenesis and encodes a protein with distinctive PRP motifs that are rich in glutamate and basic amino acids. A database search for the ENOD2 signature motifs indicates that similar proteins may have a limited phylogenetic distribution, as they are presently only known from legumes. To determine the ultrastructural location of the proteins, antibodies were raised against unique motifs from the predicted ENOD2 sequence. The antibodies recognized nodule-specific proteins in pea (Pisum sativum), with a major band detected at 110 kDa, representing a subset of PRPs from nodules. The protein was detected specifically in organelles of the secretory pathway and intercellular spaces in the nodule parenchyma, but it was not abundant in primary walls. Similar proteins with an analogous distribution were detected in soybean (Glycine max). The use of polyclonal antibodies raised against signature motifs of extracellular matrix proteins thus appears to be an effective strategy to identify and isolate specific structural proteins for functional analysis. PMID:15868212

  19. Edible grain legumes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edible grain legumes including dry bean, dry pea, chickpeas, and lentils, have served as important sources of protein for human diets for thousands of years. In the US, these crops are predominately produced for export markets. The objective of this study was to examine yield gains in these crops ov...

  20. Legume-, fish-, or high-protein-based hypocaloric diets: effects on weight loss and mitochondrial oxidation in obese men.

    PubMed

    Abete, Itziar; Parra, Dolores; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2009-02-01

    The nutritional composition of dietary intake could produce specific effects on metabolic variables such as mitochondrial oxidation, whose understanding could contribute to apply more individualized weight-lowering strategies. This study assessed the effects of four hypocaloric diets with high protein content or different food distribution on metabolic changes and mitochondrial oxidation accompanying weight loss. Thirty-five obese men (body mass index of 31.8 +/- 3.0 kg/m(2) and 38 +/- 7 years old) were randomly assigned to one of the four treatments (8 weeks): control diet (C-diet); legume diet (L-diet); fatty fish diet (FF-diet); or high-protein diet (HP-diet). Body composition, blood pressure, resting energy expenditure, mitochondrial oxidation, blood biomarkers, and dietary intake were assessed. The HP-diet and L-diet achieved the greater body weight reduction (-8.4 +/- 1.2% and -8.3 +/- 2.9%, respectively), as compared to the C-diet (-5.5 +/- 2.5%; P = .042). The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were reduced in all dietary groups except for the FF-diet. Total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly improved by the L-diet (P < .05), while the homeostatic model assessment index of insulin resistance value was significantly reduced in those men following the HP-diet. Mitochondrial oxidation was specifically activated by the HP-diet and L-diet at the end of the study. Interestingly, a lineal regression model explained about 25% (P = .029) of the mitochondrial oxidation variability as influenced by the diet changes once adjusted by resting energy expenditure. The specific consumption of legumes or high protein content within a hypocaloric diet could activate mitochondrial oxidation, which could involve additional benefits to those associated with the weight reduction. PMID:19298202

  1. LEA polypeptide profiling of recalcitrant and orthodox legume seeds reveals ABI3-regulated LEA protein abundance linked to desiccation tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Hundertmark, Michaela; Buitink, Julia

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to orthodox seeds that acquire desiccation tolerance during maturation, recalcitrant seeds are unable to survive drying. These desiccation-sensitive seeds constitute an interesting model for comparative analysis with phylogenetically close species that are desiccation tolerant. Considering the importance of LEA (late embryogenesis abundant) proteins as protective molecules both in drought and in desiccation tolerance, the heat-stable proteome was characterized in cotyledons of the legume Castanospermum australe and it was compared with that of the orthodox model legume Medicago truncatula. RNA sequencing identified transcripts of 16 homologues out of 17 LEA genes for which polypeptides are detected in M. truncatula seeds. It is shown that for 12 LEA genes, polypeptides were either absent or strongly reduced in C. australe cotyledons compared with M. truncatula seeds. Instead, osmotically responsive, non-seed-specific dehydrins accumulated to high levels in the recalcitrant cotyledons compared with orthodox seeds. Next, M. truncatula mutants of the ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3) gene were characterized. Mature Mtabi3 seeds were found to be desiccation sensitive when dried below a critical water content of 0.4g H2O g DW–1. Characterization of the LEA proteome of the Mtabi3 seeds revealed a subset of LEA proteins with severely reduced abundance that were also found to be reduced or absent in C. australe cotyledons. Transcripts of these genes were indeed shown to be ABI3 responsive. The results highlight those LEA proteins that are critical to desiccation tolerance and suggest that comparable regulatory pathways responsible for their accumulation are missing in both desiccation-sensitive genotypes, revealing new insights into the mechanistic basis of the recalcitrant trait in seeds. PMID:24043848

  2. Rumen-degradable protein in roll conditioned or macerated legume hays and silages estimated by in situ kinetics vs. alternative methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternatives to the in situ method for estimating rumen-degradable protein (RDP) in diverse forage legumes should be validated. In this study, RDP in roll conditioned or macerated silages and hays of Medicago, Lotus, and Trifolium species with differing polyphenol compositions were estimated from in...

  3. POLYPHENOLS AND MECHANICAL MACERATION SHIFT PROTEIN FRACTIONS IN LEGUME HAYS FROM RAPIDLY TO SLOWLY DEGRADED FORMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid proteolysis of forage protein during rumen fermentation can impair protein use by dairy cattle. The severity of conditioning at harvest may influence protein degradability in forages, particularly if protein-binding polyphenols are present. In 2002 and 2003, first and second cuttings of alfalf...

  4. Polyphenol, Conditioning, and Conservation Effects on Protein Fractions and Degradability in Forage Legumes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa herbage contains excessive levels of proteins that are highly susceptible to proteolysis during ensiling and rumen fermentation. As a result, only 10 to 30% of the protein in alfalfa, principally membrane proteins of inferior nutritional value, undergoes direct gastrointestinal digestion and...

  5. The physicochemical properties of legume protein isolates and their ability to stabilize oil-in-water emulsions with and without genipin.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Stuart P; Nickerson, Michael T; Low, Nicholas H

    2015-07-01

    The physicochemical and emulsifying properties of legume protein isolates prepared from chickpea (CPI), faba bean (FPI), lentil (LPI) and soy (SPI) were investigated in the presence and absence of genipin. Solubility was highest for CPI (~94 %), followed by LPI (~90 %), FPI (~85 %) and SPI (~50 %). Surface characteristics revealed similar zeta potentials (~ - 47 mV) for CPI, LPI and FPI, but lower for SPI (~ - 44 mV). Contrastingly, surface hydrophobicity was greatest for CPI (~137 arbitrary units, AU), followed by SPI/LPI (~70 AU) and FPI (~24 AU). A significant (from 16.73 to ~8.42 mN/m) reduction in interfacial tension was observed in canola oil-water mixtures in the presence of non-crosslinked legume protein isolates. The extent of legume protein isolate-genipin crosslinking was found to be similar for all isolates. Overall, creaming stability increased in the presence of genipin, with maximum stability observed for SPI (65 %), followed by FPI (61 %), LPI (56 %) and finally CPI (50 %). PMID:26139878

  6. Identification and characterization of a novel group of legume-specific, Golgi apparatus-localized WRKY and Exo70 proteins from soybean.

    PubMed

    Chi, Yingjun; Yang, Yan; Li, Guiping; Wang, Fei; Fan, Baofang; Chen, Zhixiang

    2015-06-01

    Many plant genes belong to families that arise from extensive proliferation and diversification allowing the evolution of functionally new proteins. Here we report the characterization of a group of proteins evolved from WRKY and exocyst complex subunit Exo70 proteins through fusion with a novel transmembrane (TM) domain in soybean (Glycine max). From the soybean genome, we identified a novel WRKY-related protein (GmWRP1) that contains a WRKY domain with no binding activity for W-box sequences. GFP fusion revealed that GmWRP1 was targeted to the Golgi apparatus through its N-terminal TM domain. Similar Golgi-targeting TM domains were also identified in members of a new subfamily of Exo70J proteins involved in vesicle trafficking. The novel TM domains are structurally most similar to the endosomal cytochrome b561 from birds and close homologues of GmWRP1 and GmEx070J proteins with the novel TM domain have only been identified in legumes. Transient expression of some GmExo70J proteins or the Golgi-targeting TM domain in tobacco altered the subcellular structures labelled by a fluorescent Golgi marker. GmWRP1 transcripts were detected at high levels in roots, flowers, pods, and seeds, and the expression levels of GmWRP1 and GmExo70J genes were elevated with increased age in leaves. The legume-specific, Golgi apparatus-localized GmWRP1 and GmExo70J proteins are probably involved in Golgi-mediated vesicle trafficking of biological molecules that are uniquely important to legumes. PMID:25805717

  7. Identification and characterization of a novel group of legume-specific, Golgi apparatus-localized WRKY and Exo70 proteins from soybean

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Yingjun; Yang, Yan; Li, Guiping; Wang, Fei; Fan, Baofang; Chen, Zhixiang

    2015-01-01

    Many plant genes belong to families that arise from extensive proliferation and diversification allowing the evolution of functionally new proteins. Here we report the characterization of a group of proteins evolved from WRKY and exocyst complex subunit Exo70 proteins through fusion with a novel transmembrane (TM) domain in soybean (Glycine max). From the soybean genome, we identified a novel WRKY-related protein (GmWRP1) that contains a WRKY domain with no binding activity for W-box sequences. GFP fusion revealed that GmWRP1 was targeted to the Golgi apparatus through its N-terminal TM domain. Similar Golgi-targeting TM domains were also identified in members of a new subfamily of Exo70J proteins involved in vesicle trafficking. The novel TM domains are structurally most similar to the endosomal cytochrome b561 from birds and close homologues of GmWRP1 and GmEx070J proteins with the novel TM domain have only been identified in legumes. Transient expression of some GmExo70J proteins or the Golgi-targeting TM domain in tobacco altered the subcellular structures labelled by a fluorescent Golgi marker. GmWRP1 transcripts were detected at high levels in roots, flowers, pods, and seeds, and the expression levels of GmWRP1 and GmExo70J genes were elevated with increased age in leaves. The legume-specific, Golgi apparatus-localized GmWRP1 and GmExo70J proteins are probably involved in Golgi-mediated vesicle trafficking of biological molecules that are uniquely important to legumes. PMID:25805717

  8. Legume crops phylogeny and genetic diversity for science and breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Economically, legumes (Fabaceae) represent the second most important family of crop plants after the grass family, Poaceae. Grain legumes account for 27% of world crop production and provide 33% of the dietary protein consumed by humans, while pasture and forage legumes provide vital part of animal ...

  9. Encapsulation of flaxseed oil using a benchtop spray dryer for legume protein-maltodextrin microcapsule preparation.

    PubMed

    Can Karaca, Asli; Low, Nicholas; Nickerson, Michael

    2013-05-29

    Flaxseed oil was microencapsulated employing a wall material matrix of either chickpea (CPI) or lentil protein isolate (LPI) and maltodextrin using a benchtop spray dryer. Effects of emulsion formulation (oil, protein and maltodextrin levels) and protein source (CPI vs LPI) on the physicochemical characteristics, oxidative stability, and release properties of the resulting capsules were investigated. Microcapsule formulations containing higher oil levels (20% oil, 20% protein, 60% maltodextrin) were found to have higher surface oil and lower encapsulation efficiencies. Overall, LPI-maltodextrin capsules gave higher flaxseed oil encapsulation efficiencies (∼88.0%) relative to CPI-maltodextrin matrices (∼86.3%). However, both designs were found to provide encapsulated flaxseed oil protection against oxidation over a 25 d room temperature storage study relative to free oil. Overall, ∼37.6% of encapsulated flaxseed oil was released after 2 h under simulated gastric fluid, followed by the release of an additional ∼46.6% over a 3 h period under simulated intestinal fluid conditions. PMID:23663097

  10. Coordinated changes in storage proteins during development and germination of elite seeds of Pongamia pinnata, a versatile biodiesel legume

    PubMed Central

    Kesari, Vigya; Rangan, Latha

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims The oleaginous legume Pongamia pinnata is a rapidly growing and economically important tree. The seeds are used increasingly as feedstock for biodiesel production, with the protein-rich residue providing valuable supplement to farm animal diets. However, little is known about seed development and the characteristics of germination. We therefore studied morphological, protein and ultrastructural changes during seed maturation and germination using seeds from a tree selected for superior morphological and reproductive characters (candidate plus tree). Methodology Phenology, sodium dodecyl sulphate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE), and scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to investigate seed development from 90 to 350 days after flowering (DAF), and germination and seedling development from 0 to 45 days after the start of imbibition (DAI) (Stages 0–VII). Principal results Seven distinct developmental stages were identified during seed development. Fresh weight, length, breadth and thickness increased from Stage I (90 DAF) to V (270 DAF) and decreased at Stages VI (315 DAF) and VII (350 DAF), when the seeds were fully ripe. Marked changes in total soluble protein content and SDS–PAGE profile were observed in vegetative and reproductive tissues and in the cotyledons of germinating seedlings. Polypeptide fragments of 150–14 kDa were observed during seed maturation and germination. In SDS–PAGE the expression of three main polypeptide bands (50, 18 and 14 kDa) increased from Stage I to Stage V and then almost became the same until Stage VII during seed maturation. During germination the expression of 50 kDa polypeptide decreased and that of 18 and 14 kDa increased from Stage 0 (ungerminated seed) to Stage VI (30 DAI), respectively; however, all three polypeptides (50, 18 and 14 kDa) completely disappeared at Stage VII (45 DAI). Ultrastructural changes during four stages of seed maturation (early immature, 90

  11. Effect of selected dehulled legume incorporation on functional and nutritional properties of protein enriched sorghum and wheat extrudates.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Subramanian; Borah, A; Singh, K K; Patil, R T

    2012-10-01

    The effect of legume incorporation (5%, 10% and 15%) on functional and nutritional properties of sorghum and wheat extrudates was investigated. Sorghum extrudates incorporated with legumes showed lower water absorption index water solubility index and pasting properties viz., peak viscosity, minimum viscosity, breakdown viscosity, final viscosity and total set back and similar degree of gelatinization and nutritional profile. At 15% incorporation level, water absorption index and water solubility index found to be maximum while degree of gelatinization and all the pasting properties showed lowest values for both sorghum and wheat extrudates. Similarly nutritional profile observed to be significantly higher for 15% as compared to 10% and 15% incorporation levels. Incorporation of legumes at 15% could be effective in producing high energy dense food products having better functional and nutritional properties. PMID:24082268

  12. CERBERUS, a novel U-box protein containing WD-40 repeats, is required for formation of the infection thread and nodule development in the legume-Rhizobium symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Yano, Koji; Shibata, Satoshi; Chen, Wen-Li; Sato, Shusei; Kaneko, Takakazu; Jurkiewicz, Anna; Sandal, Niels; Banba, Mari; Imaizumi-Anraku, Haruko; Kojima, Tomoko; Ohtomo, Ryo; Szczyglowski, Krzysztof; Stougaard, Jens; Tabata, Satoshi; Hayashi, Makoto; Kouchi, Hiroshi; Umehara, Yosuke

    2009-10-01

    Endosymbiotic infection of legume plants by Rhizobium bacteria is initiated through infection threads (ITs) which are initiated within and penetrate from root hairs and deliver the endosymbionts into nodule cells. Despite recent progress in understanding the mutual recognition and early symbiotic signaling cascades in host legumes, the molecular mechanisms underlying bacterial infection processes and successive nodule organogenesis are still poorly understood. We isolated a novel symbiotic mutant of Lotus japonicus, cerberus, which shows defects in IT formation and nodule organogenesis. Map-based cloning of the causal gene allowed us to identify the CERBERUS gene, which encodes a novel protein containing a U-box domain and WD-40 repeats. CERBERUS expression was detected in the roots and nodules, and was enhanced after inoculation of Mesorhizobium loti. Strong expression was detected in developing nodule primordia and the infected zone of mature nodules. In cerberus mutants, Rhizobium colonized curled root hair tips, but hardly penetrated into root hair cells. The occasional ITs that were formed inside the root hair cells were mostly arrested within the epidermal cell layer. Nodule organogenesis was aborted prematurely, resulting in the formation of a large number of small bumps which contained no endosymbiotic bacteria. These phenotypic and genetic analyses, together with comparisons with other legume mutants with defects in IT formation, indicate that CERBERUS plays a critical role in the very early steps of IT formation as well as in growth and differentiation of nodules. PMID:19508425

  13. Discovery of an unusual biosynthetic origin for circular proteins in legumes.

    PubMed

    Poth, Aaron G; Colgrave, Michelle L; Lyons, Russell E; Daly, Norelle L; Craik, David J

    2011-06-21

    Cyclotides are plant-derived proteins that have a unique cyclic cystine knot topology and are remarkably stable. Their natural function is host defense, but they have a diverse range of pharmaceutically important activities, including uterotonic activity and anti-HIV activity, and have also attracted recent interest as templates in drug design. Here we report an unusual biosynthetic origin of a precursor protein of a cyclotide from the butterfly pea, Clitoria ternatea, a representative member of the Fabaceae plant family. Unlike all previously reported cyclotides, the domain corresponding to the mature cyclotide from this Fabaceae plant is embedded within an albumin precursor protein. We confirmed the expression and correct processing of the cyclotide encoded by the Cter M precursor gene transcript following extraction from C. ternatea leaf and sequencing by tandem mass spectrometry. The sequence was verified by direct chemical synthesis and the peptide was found to adopt a classic knotted cyclotide fold as determined by NMR spectroscopy. Seven additional cyclotide sequences were also identified from C. ternatea leaf and flower, five of which were unique. Cter M displayed insecticidal activity against the cotton budworm Helicoverpa armigera and bound to phospholipid membranes, suggesting its activity is modulated by membrane disruption. The Fabaceae is the third largest family of flowering plants and many Fabaceous plants are of huge significance for human nutrition. Knowledge of Fabaceae cyclotide gene transcripts should enable the production of modified cyclotides in crop plants for a variety of agricultural or pharmaceutical applications, including plant-produced designer peptide drugs. PMID:21593408

  14. Characterization of condensed tannins purified from legume forages: chromophore production, protein precipitation, and inhibitory effects on cellulose digestion.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Tim A; Martinez, Tomas; Bae, Hee Dong; Muir, Alister D; Yanke, L Jay; Jones, Graham A

    2005-09-01

    To identify simple screening tools for selecting condensed tannin (CT)-containing forages as candidate sources for further study, CT were isolated from nine legumes, and their molecular weights (MW), chromophore production, capacity to precipitate bovine serum albumin (BSA) and Fraction 1 protein (Rubisco) isolated from alfalfa, and inhibition of filter paper digestion were compared. Sources were as follows: leaves of sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata Dum.-Cours.), crown vetch (Coronilla varia L.), and sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.); stems of hedysarum (Hedysarum alpinum L.); seeds of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.); and whole plants of birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus var. corniculatus L.) and three varieties of big trefoil (Lotus pedunculatus Cav.), viz., Lotus uliginosus Schkuhr, L. uliginosus var. glabriusculus, and L. uliginosus var. villosus. Molecular weights and sizes (degrees of polymerization) of the CT varied considerably within and among plant species. Average MW ranged from 3036 Da (crown vetch) to 7143 Da (lespedeza). All CT exhibited greater capacity (w/w basis) to bind alfalfa Rubisco than BSA. Relative astringencies (microg CT required to precipitate 1 mg protein) against BSA ranged from 262.5 for CT from lespedeza to 435.5 for CT from L. corniculatus, and against Rubisco, from 49.6 (sainfoin) to 108.2 (alfalfa seed). Including CT at 300 microg/ml in cultures of Fibrobacter succinogenes reduced digestion of cellulose filter paper by 19.8% (sainfoin) to 92.4% (crown vetch) and increased the specific activity of cell-associated endoglucanase. There were no correlations between inhibitory effects of CT on filter paper digestion and (1) chromophore formation during CT assay by butanol-HCl, vanillin-HCl, or H2SO4; (2) precipitation of BSA or alfalfa Rubisco; and (3) MW of CT. The most inhibitory CT for cellulose digestion included those with broad and with narrow MW distributions. Sainfoin was the most desirable source of CT, as it had the

  15. Legume proteomics: Progress, prospects, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Rathi, Divya; Gayen, Dipak; Gayali, Saurabh; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    Legumes are the major sources of food and fodder with strong commercial relevance, and are essential components of agricultural ecosystems owing to their ability to carry out endosymbiotic nitrogen fixation. In recent years, legumes have become one of the major choices of plant research. The legume proteomics is currently represented by more than 100 reference maps and an equal number of stress-responsive proteomes. Among the 48 legumes in the protein databases, most proteomic studies have been accomplished in two model legumes, soybean, and barrel medic. This review highlights recent contributions in the field of legume proteomics to comprehend the defence and regulatory mechanisms during development and adaptation to climatic changes. Here, we attempted to provide a concise overview of the progress in legume proteomics and discuss future developments in three broad perspectives: (i) proteome of organs/tissues; (ii) subcellular compartments; and (iii) spatiotemporal changes in response to stress. Such data mining may aid in discovering potential biomarkers for plant growth, in general, apart from essential components involved in stress tolerance. The prospect of integrating proteome data with genome information from legumes will provide exciting opportunities for plant biologists to achieve long-term goals of crop improvement and sustainable agriculture. PMID:26563903

  16. Evolution by gene duplication of Medicago truncatula PISTILLATA-like transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Roque, Edelín; Fares, Mario A; Yenush, Lynne; Rochina, Mari Cruz; Wen, Jiangqi; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Gómez-Mena, Concepción; Beltrán, José Pío; Cañas, Luis A

    2016-04-01

    PISTILLATA (PI) is a member of the B-function MADS-box gene family, which controls the identity of both petals and stamens in Arabidopsis thaliana. In Medicago truncatula (Mt), there are two PI-like paralogs, known as MtPI and MtNGL9. These genes differ in their expression patterns, but it is not known whether their functions have also diverged. Describing the evolution of certain duplicated genes, such as transcription factors, remains a challenge owing to the complex expression patterns and functional divergence between the gene copies. Here, we report a number of functional studies, including analyses of gene expression, protein-protein interactions, and reverse genetic approaches designed to demonstrate the respective contributions of each M. truncatula PI-like paralog to the B-function in this species. Also, we have integrated molecular evolution approaches to determine the mode of evolution of Mt PI-like genes after duplication. Our results demonstrate that MtPI functions as a master regulator of B-function in M. truncatula, maintaining the overall ancestral function, while MtNGL9 does not seem to have a role in this regard, suggesting that the pseudogenization could be the functional evolutionary fate for this gene. However, we provide evidence that purifying selection is the primary evolutionary force acting on this paralog, pinpointing the conservation of its biochemical function and, alternatively, the acquisition of a new role for this gene. PMID:26773809

  17. Molecular assessment of the effect of light and heterotrophy in the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata.

    PubMed

    Levy, Oren; Karako-Lampert, Sarit; Waldman Ben-Asher, Hiba; Zoccola, Didier; Pagès, Gilles; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine

    2016-04-27

    Corals acquire nutrients via the transfer of photosynthates by their endosymbionts (autotrophy), or via zooplankton predation by the animal (heterotrophy). During stress events, corals lose their endosymbionts, and undergo starvation, unless they increase their heterotrophic capacities. Molecular mechanisms by which heterotrophy sustains metabolism in stressed corals remain elusive. Here for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, we identified specific genes expressed in heterotrophically fed and unfed colonies of the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata, maintained under normal and light-stress conditions. Physiological parameters and gene expression profiling demonstrated that fed corals better resisted stress than unfed ones by exhibiting less oxidative damage and protein degradation. Processes affected in light-stressed unfed corals (HLU), were related to energy and metabolite supply, carbohydrate biosynthesis, ion and nutrient transport, oxidative stress, Ca(2+) homeostasis, metabolism and calcification (carbonic anhydrases, calcium-transporting ATPase, bone morphogenetic proteins). Two genes (cp2u1 and cp1a2), which belong to the cytochrome P450 superfamily, were also upregulated 249 and 10 times, respectively, in HLU corals. In contrast, few of these processes were affected in light-stressed fed corals (HLF) because feeding supplied antioxidants and energetic molecules, which help repair oxidative damage. Altogether, these results show that heterotrophy helps prevent the cascade of metabolic problems downstream of oxidative stress. PMID:27122555

  18. Intraspecific competitive networks in the Red Sea coral Stylophora pistillata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinkevich, B.; Loya, Y.

    1983-09-01

    Intraspecific competitive interactions were studied underwater in the Red Sea coral Stylophora pistillata during 1976 1981, through a series of field observations (FO) and field experiments (FE). The FO series were conducted on more than 200 pairs of colonies (with a gap of 1 3 cm between the nearest branches in a pair), which were checked monthly for possible interactions, during approximately five years. The FE series consisted of allografts, isografts and colony to colony attachements. S. pistillata exhibits two basic colour morphs, in which purple colonics are found to be superior to yellow morphs and competitively exculde them, even when they are not physically touching. When differences in size between the competing colonies were in the range of 2 3 orders of magnitude, a significant superiority of big colonies over little ones was recorded, irrespective of colour morphs. Five major schematic routes of intraspecific interactions are drawn and discussed. The outcome of interactions between two competing colonies is the synergistic effect of different aggressive forms, such as nematocyst discharge, overgrowth on branches or basal plates, a “retreat growth” phenomenon (possibly caused by pheromones), formation of border lines, abnormal growth forms and others. SEM observations indicate the existance of a gap (up to 30 μm) between allografts that appeared to be fused in naked-eye observations and the appearance of plasmic (?) filaments immediately above and within the contact zones. In contrast to the FE series the FO were free from any stress caused by experimental procedures and provided the opportunity to record additional forms of aggression, which were not observed in the FE series. In many cases, the duration of processes and the final outcome of interactions were much faster in FE than in FO. It is concluded that intraspecific interactions involve significant energetic expenditures that otherwise would be channelled into other metabolic requirements

  19. Direct regulation of the floral homeotic APETALA1 gene by APETALA3 and PISTILLATA in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sundström, Jens F; Nakayama, Naomi; Glimelius, Kristina; Irish, Vivian F

    2006-05-01

    The floral homeotic gene APETALA1 (AP1) specifies floral meristem identity and sepal and petal identity in Arabidopsis. Consistent with its multiple roles during floral development, AP1 is initially expressed throughout the floral meristem, and later its expression becomes restricted to sepal and petal primordia. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we show that the floral homeotic PISTILLATA (PI) protein, required for petal and stamen development, has the ability to bind directly to the promoter region of AP1. In support of the hypothesis that PI, and its interacting partner APETALA3 (AP3), regulates the transcription of AP1, we show that AP1 transcript levels are elevated in strong ap3-3 mutant plants. Kinetic studies, using transgenic Arabidopsis plants in which both AP3 and PI are under post-translational control, show that AP1 transcript levels are down regulated within 2 h of AP3/PI activation. This implies that the reduction in AP1 transcripts is an early event in the cascade following AP3/PI induction and provides independent support for the hypothesis that AP1 is a direct target of the AP3/PI heterodimer. Together these results suggest a model whereby AP3/PI directly acts, in combination with other factors, to restrict the expression of AP1 during early stages of floral development. PMID:16640596

  20. Evolution by gene duplication of Medicago truncatula PISTILLATA-like transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Roque, Edelín; Fares, Mario A.; Yenush, Lynne; Rochina, Mari Cruz; Wen, Jiangqi; Mysore, Kirankumar S.; Gómez-Mena, Concepción; Beltrán, José Pío; Cañas, Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    PISTILLATA (PI) is a member of the B-function MADS-box gene family, which controls the identity of both petals and stamens in Arabidopsis thaliana. In Medicago truncatula (Mt), there are two PI-like paralogs, known as MtPI and MtNGL9. These genes differ in their expression patterns, but it is not known whether their functions have also diverged. Describing the evolution of certain duplicated genes, such as transcription factors, remains a challenge owing to the complex expression patterns and functional divergence between the gene copies. Here, we report a number of functional studies, including analyses of gene expression, protein–protein interactions, and reverse genetic approaches designed to demonstrate the respective contributions of each M. truncatula PI-like paralog to the B-function in this species. Also, we have integrated molecular evolution approaches to determine the mode of evolution of Mt PI-like genes after duplication. Our results demonstrate that MtPI functions as a master regulator of B-function in M. truncatula, maintaining the overall ancestral function, while MtNGL9 does not seem to have a role in this regard, suggesting that the pseudogenization could be the functional evolutionary fate for this gene. However, we provide evidence that purifying selection is the primary evolutionary force acting on this paralog, pinpointing the conservation of its biochemical function and, alternatively, the acquisition of a new role for this gene. PMID:26773809

  1. Forage legumes - untrapped resource

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, R.F.

    1985-02-01

    Legumes are important in nutrition, nitrogen fixation and in reducing dependence on nitrogen fertilizers. At a meeting between scientists from Australia, New Zealand and the United States the role of legumes was assessed and coordinated research programs set up to deal with problems such as disease, soil, climate and selective breeding.

  2. COMPARATIVE GENOMICS IN LEGUMES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The legume plant family will soon include three sequenced genomes. The majority of the gene-containing portions of the model legumes Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus have been sequenced in clone-by-clone projects, and the sequencing of the soybean genome is underway in a whole-genome shotgun ...

  3. Medicinal properties of legumes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to discuss the USDA, ARS medicinal legume germplasm taxonomy, molecular techniques, maintenance, evaluation, utilization, and conventional breeding for use by students and scientists working on medicinal legume genetic resources. The results of this study will provide a valu...

  4. Legume biology: sequence to seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research on legumes is driven, to a large extent, by their importance as food crops worldwide. Some 25% of the world's major crop production is derived from legumes, and more than one-third of humanity's nutritional nitrogen requirement comes from legumes. Moreover, the ability of many legumes to es...

  5. Identification of Host-Plant Volatiles and Characterization of Two Novel General Odorant-Binding Proteins from the Legume Pod Borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pan; Zhang, Shichang; Li, Daiqin; Liu, Kaiyu; Wang, Guoxiu; Wang, Xiaoping; Ai, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Chemoreception is a key feature in selection of host plant by phytophagous insects, and odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are involved in chemical communication of both insects and vertebrates. The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is one of the key pest species of cowpea and widely distributed throughout tropical and subtropical regions, causing up to 80% of yield loss. In this study, we investigated the electrophysiological responses of female M. vitrata to floral volatiles from V. unguiculata. Seventeen electroantennogram-active compounds were identified from floral volatiles of V. unguiculata by coupled gas chromatography-electroantennography (GC-EAD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Then, we cloned two novel full-length GOBP genes (MvitGOBP1 and MvitGOBP2) from the antennae of M. vitrata using reverse transcription PCR. Protein sequence analysis indicated that they shared high sequence similarity with other Pyralididae insect GOBPs and had the typical six-cysteine signature. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that MvitGOBP1-2 mRNA was highly expressed in the antennae of female adult with several thousands-fold difference compare to other tissue. Next, the recombinant MvitGOBP1-2 was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using Ni ion affinity chromatography. Fluorescence binding assays demonstrated that MvitGOBP1-2 had different binding affinities with 17 volatile odorant molecules including butanoic acid butyl ester, limonene, 4-ethylpropiophenone, 1H-indol-4-ol, butanoic acid octyl ester and 2-methyl-3-phenylpropanal. In the field trapping experiment, these six floral volatiles could effectively attract female moths and showed significant difference compared with the blank lure. These results suggested that MvitGOBPs and the seventeen floral volatiles are likely to function in the olfactory behavior response of female moths, which may have played crucial roles in the selection of oviposition sites. The six

  6. Identification of Host-Plant Volatiles and Characterization of Two Novel General Odorant-Binding Proteins from the Legume Pod Borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Zhang, Na; Wang, Pan; Zhang, Shichang; Li, Daiqin; Liu, Kaiyu; Wang, Guoxiu; Wang, Xiaoping; Ai, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Chemoreception is a key feature in selection of host plant by phytophagous insects, and odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are involved in chemical communication of both insects and vertebrates. The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is one of the key pest species of cowpea and widely distributed throughout tropical and subtropical regions, causing up to 80% of yield loss. In this study, we investigated the electrophysiological responses of female M. vitrata to floral volatiles from V. unguiculata. Seventeen electroantennogram-active compounds were identified from floral volatiles of V. unguiculata by coupled gas chromatography-electroantennography (GC-EAD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Then, we cloned two novel full-length GOBP genes (MvitGOBP1 and MvitGOBP2) from the antennae of M. vitrata using reverse transcription PCR. Protein sequence analysis indicated that they shared high sequence similarity with other Pyralididae insect GOBPs and had the typical six-cysteine signature. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that MvitGOBP1-2 mRNA was highly expressed in the antennae of female adult with several thousands-fold difference compare to other tissue. Next, the recombinant MvitGOBP1-2 was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using Ni ion affinity chromatography. Fluorescence binding assays demonstrated that MvitGOBP1-2 had different binding affinities with 17 volatile odorant molecules including butanoic acid butyl ester, limonene, 4-ethylpropiophenone, 1H-indol-4-ol, butanoic acid octyl ester and 2-methyl-3-phenylpropanal. In the field trapping experiment, these six floral volatiles could effectively attract female moths and showed significant difference compared with the blank lure. These results suggested that MvitGOBPs and the seventeen floral volatiles are likely to function in the olfactory behavior response of female moths, which may have played crucial roles in the selection of oviposition sites. The six

  7. Investigation of genes encoding calcineurin B-like protein family in legumes and their expression analyses in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    PubMed

    Meena, Mukesh Kumar; Ghawana, Sanjay; Sardar, Atish; Dwivedi, Vikas; Khandal, Hitaishi; Roy, Riti; Chattopadhyay, Debasis

    2015-01-01

    Calcium ion (Ca2+) is a ubiquitous second messenger that transmits various internal and external signals including stresses and, therefore, is important for plants' response process. Calcineurin B-like proteins (CBLs) are one of the plant calcium sensors, which sense and convey the changes in cytosolic Ca2+-concentration for response process. A search in four leguminous plant (soybean, Medicago truncatula, common bean and chickpea) genomes identified 9 to 15 genes in each species that encode CBL proteins. Sequence analyses of CBL peptides and coding sequences (CDS) suggested that there are nine original CBL genes in these legumes and some of them were multiplied during whole genome or local gene duplication. Coding sequences of chickpea CBL genes (CaCBL) were cloned from their cDNAs and sequenced, and their annotations in the genome assemblies were corrected accordingly. Analyses of protein sequences and gene structures of CBL family in plant kingdom indicated its diverse origin but showed a remarkable conservation in overall protein structure with appearance of complex gene structure in the course of evolution. Expression of CaCBL genes in different tissues and in response to different stress and hormone treatment were studied. Most of the CaCBL genes exhibited high expression in flowers. Expression profile of CaCBL genes in response to different abiotic stresses and hormones related to development and stresses (ABA, auxin, cytokinin, SA and JA) at different time intervals suggests their diverse roles in development and plant defence in addition to abiotic stress tolerance. These data not only contribute to a better understanding of the complex regulation of chickpea CBL gene family, but also provide valuable information for further research in chickpea functional genomics. PMID:25853855

  8. Investigation of Genes Encoding Calcineurin B-Like Protein Family in Legumes and Their Expression Analyses in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Mukesh Kumar; Ghawana, Sanjay; Sardar, Atish; Dwivedi, Vikas; Khandal, Hitaishi; Roy, Riti; Chattopadhyay, Debasis

    2015-01-01

    Calcium ion (Ca2+) is a ubiquitous second messenger that transmits various internal and external signals including stresses and, therefore, is important for plants’ response process. Calcineurin B-like proteins (CBLs) are one of the plant calcium sensors, which sense and convey the changes in cytosolic Ca2+-concentration for response process. A search in four leguminous plant (soybean, Medicago truncatula, common bean and chickpea) genomes identified 9 to 15 genes in each species that encode CBL proteins. Sequence analyses of CBL peptides and coding sequences (CDS) suggested that there are nine original CBL genes in these legumes and some of them were multiplied during whole genome or local gene duplication. Coding sequences of chickpea CBL genes (CaCBL) were cloned from their cDNAs and sequenced, and their annotations in the genome assemblies were corrected accordingly. Analyses of protein sequences and gene structures of CBL family in plant kingdom indicated its diverse origin but showed a remarkable conservation in overall protein structure with appearance of complex gene structure in the course of evolution. Expression of CaCBL genes in different tissues and in response to different stress and hormone treatment were studied. Most of the CaCBL genes exhibited high expression in flowers. Expression profile of CaCBL genes in response to different abiotic stresses and hormones related to development and stresses (ABA, auxin, cytokinin, SA and JA) at different time intervals suggests their diverse roles in development and plant defence in addition to abiotic stress tolerance. These data not only contribute to a better understanding of the complex regulation of chickpea CBL gene family, but also provide valuable information for further research in chickpea functional genomics. PMID:25853855

  9. LegumeIP 2.0--a platform for the study of gene function and genome evolution in legumes.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Dai, Xinbin; Zhuang, Zhaohong; Zhao, Patrick X

    2016-01-01

    The LegumeIP 2.0 database hosts large-scale genomics and transcriptomics data and provides integrative bioinformatics tools for the study of gene function and evolution in legumes. Our recent updates in LegumeIP 2.0 include gene and protein sequences, gene models and annotations, syntenic regions, protein families and phylogenetic trees for six legume species: Medicago truncatula, Glycine max (soybean), Lotus japonicus, Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), Cicer arietinum (chickpea) and Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea) and two outgroup reference species: Arabidopsis thaliana and Poplar trichocarpa. Moreover, the LegumeIP 2.0 features the following new data resources and bioinformatics tools: (i) an integrative gene expression atlas for four model legumes that include 550 array hybridizations from M. truncatula, 962 gene expression profiles of G. max, 276 array hybridizations from L. japonicas and 56 RNA-Seq-based gene expression profiles for C. arietinum. These datasets were manually curated and hierarchically organized based on Experimental Ontology and Plant Ontology so that users can browse, search, and retrieve data for their selected experiments. (ii) New functions/analytical tools to query, mine and visualize large-scale gene sequences, annotations and transcriptome profiles. Users may select a subset of expression experiments and visualize and compare expression profiles for multiple genes. The LegumeIP 2.0 database is freely available to the public at http://plantgrn.noble.org/LegumeIP/. PMID:26578557

  10. Legume-rhizobia signal exchange: promiscuity and environmental effects

    PubMed Central

    Lira, Mario A.; Nascimento, Luciana R. S.; Fracetto, Giselle G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Although signal exchange between legumes and their rhizobia is among the best-known examples of this biological process, most of the more characterized data comes from just a few legume species and environmental stresses. Although a relative wealth of information is available for some model legumes and some of the major pulses such as soybean, little is known about tropical legumes. This relative disparity in current knowledge is also apparent in the research on the effects of environmental stress on signal exchange; cool-climate stresses, such as low-soil temperature, comprise a relatively large body of research, whereas high-temperature stresses and drought are not nearly as well understood. Both tropical legumes and their environmental stress-induced effects are increasingly important due to global population growth (the demand for protein), climate change (increasing temperatures and more extreme climate behavior), and urbanization (and thus heavy metals). This knowledge gap for both legumes and their environmental stresses is compounded because whereas most temperate legume-rhizobia symbioses are relatively specific and cultivated under relatively stable environments, the converse is true for tropical legumes, which tend to be promiscuous, and grow in highly variable conditions. This review will clarify some of this missing information and highlight fields in which further research would benefit our current knowledge. PMID:26441880

  11. Legume-rhizobia signal exchange: promiscuity and environmental effects.

    PubMed

    Lira, Mario A; Nascimento, Luciana R S; Fracetto, Giselle G M

    2015-01-01

    Although signal exchange between legumes and their rhizobia is among the best-known examples of this biological process, most of the more characterized data comes from just a few legume species and environmental stresses. Although a relative wealth of information is available for some model legumes and some of the major pulses such as soybean, little is known about tropical legumes. This relative disparity in current knowledge is also apparent in the research on the effects of environmental stress on signal exchange; cool-climate stresses, such as low-soil temperature, comprise a relatively large body of research, whereas high-temperature stresses and drought are not nearly as well understood. Both tropical legumes and their environmental stress-induced effects are increasingly important due to global population growth (the demand for protein), climate change (increasing temperatures and more extreme climate behavior), and urbanization (and thus heavy metals). This knowledge gap for both legumes and their environmental stresses is compounded because whereas most temperate legume-rhizobia symbioses are relatively specific and cultivated under relatively stable environments, the converse is true for tropical legumes, which tend to be promiscuous, and grow in highly variable conditions. This review will clarify some of this missing information and highlight fields in which further research would benefit our current knowledge. PMID:26441880

  12. LIN, a novel type of U-box/WD40 protein, controls early infection by rhizobia in legumes.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Ernö; Oláh, Boglárka; Kaló, Péter; Morales, Monica; Heckmann, Anne B; Borbola, Andrea; Lózsa, Anita; Kontár, Katalin; Middleton, Patrick; Downie, J Allan; Oldroyd, Giles E D; Endre, Gabriella

    2009-11-01

    The formation of a nitrogen-fixing nodule requires the coordinated development of rhizobial colonization and nodule organogenesis. Based on its mutant phenotype, lumpy infections (lin), LIN functions at an early stage of the rhizobial symbiotic process, required for both infection thread growth in root hair cells and the further development of nodule primordia. We show that spontaneous nodulation activated by the calcium- and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase is independent of LIN; thus, LIN is not necessary for nodule organogenesis. From this, we infer that LIN predominantly functions during rhizobial colonization and that the abortion of this process in lin mutants leads to a suppression of nodule development. Here, we identify the LIN gene in Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus, showing that it codes for a predicted E3 ubiquitin ligase containing a highly conserved U-box and WD40 repeat domains. Ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation is a universal mechanism to regulate many biological processes by eliminating rate-limiting enzymes and key components such as transcription factors. We propose that LIN is a regulator of the component(s) of the nodulation factor signal transduction pathway and that its function is required for correct temporal and spatial activity of the target protein(s). PMID:19776163

  13. Estimating Rumen Degradable Protein in Forage Legume Hays and Silages by In Situ Disappearance Kinetics vs. Alternative Methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, the in situ kinetic method is considered the “gold standard” for estimating rumen degradable protein (RDP) in forages. When such estimates are impractical (e.g. numerous samples, limited sample quantities, or lack of ruminally fistulated cattle) alternative RDP methods are used, but their...

  14. Red Light Represses the Photophysiology of the Scleractinian Coral Stylophora pistillata

    PubMed Central

    Wijgerde, Tim; van Melis, Anne; Silva, Catarina I. F.; Leal, Miguel C.; Vogels, Luc; Mutter, Claudia; Osinga, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Light spectrum plays a key role in the biology of symbiotic corals, with blue light resulting in higher coral growth, zooxanthellae density, chlorophyll a content and photosynthesis rates as compared to red light. However, it is still unclear whether these physiological processes are blue-enhanced or red-repressed. This study investigated the individual and combined effects of blue and red light on the health, zooxanthellae density, photophysiology and colouration of the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata over 6 weeks. Coral fragments were exposed to blue, red, and combined 50/50% blue red light, at two irradiance levels (128 and 256 μmol m−2 s−1). Light spectrum affected the health/survival, zooxanthellae density, and NDVI (a proxy for chlorophyll a content) of S. pistillata. Blue light resulted in highest survival rates, whereas red light resulted in low survival at 256 μmol m−2 s−1. Blue light also resulted in higher zooxanthellae densities compared to red light at 256 μmol m−2 s−1, and a higher NDVI compared to red and combined blue red light. Overall, our results suggest that red light negatively affects the health, survival, symbiont density and NDVI of S. pistillata, with a dominance of red over blue light for NDVI. PMID:24658108

  15. The model legume genomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary model legumes to-date have been Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus. Both species are tractable both genetically and in the greenhouse, and for both, a substantial sets of tools and resources for molecular genetic research have been assembled. As sequencing costs have declined, howev...

  16. Extrusion cooking: Legume pulses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extrusion is used commercially to produce high value breakfast and snack foods based on cereals such as wheat or corn. However, this processing method is not being commercially used for legume pulses seeds due to the perception that they do not expand well in extrusion. Extrusion cooking of pulses (...

  17. Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated cross-reactivity between mesquite pollen proteins and lima bean, an edible legume

    PubMed Central

    Dhyani, A; Arora, N; Jain, V K; Sridhara, S; Singh, B P

    2007-01-01

    Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated food allergy often develops as a consequence of allergic sensitization to pollen proteins. Mesquite (Prosopis juliflora) tree pollen is reported to be cross-reactive with other pollen species, but little has been reported on its cross-reactivity with plant-derived foods belonging to the same/different families. The present study investigates the in vitro cross-reactivity of mesquite pollen and lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus), an edible seed belonging to the Leguminosae family. Of 110 patients (asthma, rhinitis or both) tested intradermally, 20 showed marked positive reactions with Prosopis pollen extract. Of these, 12 patients showed elevated specific IgE to Prosopis pollen extract alone and four to both Phaseolus and pollen extract. In vitro cross-reactivity was investigated using inhibition assays [enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) inhibition, immunoblot inhibition], histamine release and lymphoproliferation. P. lunatus extract could inhibit IgE binding to P. juliflora in a dose-dependent manner, requiring 400 ng of protein for 50% inhibition in ELISA assay. Immunoblot and immunoblot inhibition demonstrated the presence of 20, 26, 35, 66 and 72 kDa as shared IgE binding components between the two extracts. Histamine release, peripheral blood mononuclear cells proliferation and interleukin (IL)-4 levels also suggested allergenic cross-reactivity. In conclusion, there is humoral and cellular cross-reactivity between Prosopis pollen and Phaseolus seed allergens. PMID:17614972

  18. Genetic engineering for high methionine grain legumes.

    PubMed

    Müntz, K; Christov, V; Saalbach, G; Saalbach, I; Waddell, D; Pickardt, T; Schieder, O; Wüstenhagen, T

    1998-08-01

    Methionine (Met) is the primary limiting essential amino acid in grain legumes. The imbalance in amino acid composition restricts their biological value (BV) to 55 to 75% of that of animal protein. So far improvement of the BV could not be achieved by conventional breeding. Therefore, genetic engineering was employed by several laboratories to resolve the problem. Three strategies have been followed. A) Engineering for increased free Met levels; B) engineering of endogenous storage proteins with increased numbers of Met residues; C) transfer of foreign genes encoding Met-rich proteins, e.g. the Brazil nut 2S albumin (BNA) and its homologue from sunflower, into grain legumes. The latter strategy turned out to be most promising. In all cases the gene was put under the control of a developmentally regulated seed specific promoter and transferred into grain legumes using the bacterial Agrobacterium tumefaciens-system. Integration into and copy numbers in the plant genome as well as Mendelian inheritance and gene dosage effects were verified. After correct precursor processing the mature 2S albumin was intracellularly deposited in protein bodies which are part of the vacuolar compartment. The foreign protein amounted to 5 to 10% of the total seed protein in the best transgenic lines of narbon bean (Vicia narbonensis L., used in the authors' laboratories), lupins (Lupinus angustifolius L., used in CSIRO, Australia), and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr., used by Pioneer Hi-Bred, Inc., USA). In the narbon bean the increase of Met was directly related to the amount of 2S albumin in the transgenic seeds, but in soybean it remained below the theoretically expected value. Nevertheless, trangenic soybean reached 100%, whereas narbon bean and lupins reached approximately 80% of the FAO-standard for nutritionally balanced food proteins. These results document that the Met problem of grain legumes can be resolved by genetic engineering. PMID:9739551

  19. Determinants of quaternary association in legume lectins

    PubMed Central

    Brinda, K.V.; Mitra, Nivedita; Surolia, Avadhesha; Vishveshwara, Saraswathi

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that the sequence of amino acids in proteins code for its tertiary structure. It is also known that there exists a relationship between sequence and the quaternary structure of proteins. The question addressed here is whether the nature of quaternary association can be predicted from the sequence, similar to the three-dimensional structure prediction from the sequence. The class of proteins called legume lectins is an interesting model system to investigate this problem, because they have very high sequence and tertiary structure homology, with diverse forms of quaternary association. Hence, we have used legume lectins as a probe in this paper to (1) gain novel insights about the relationship between sequence and quaternary structure; (2) identify the sequence motifs that are characteristic of a given type of quaternary association; and (3) predict the quaternary association from the sequence motif. PMID:15215518

  20. The Arabidopsis homeotic genes APETALA3 and PISTILLATA are sufficient to provide the B class organ identity function.

    PubMed

    Krizek, B A; Meyerowitz, E M

    1996-01-01

    The class B organ identity genes, APETALA3 and PISTILLATA, are required to specify petal and stamen identity in the Arabidopsis flower. We show here that the activities of these two genes are sufficient to specify petals and stamens in flowers, in combination with the class A and C genes, respectively. Flowers of plants constitutively expressing both PISTILLATA and APETALA3 under the control of the 35S promoter from cauliflower mosaic virus consist of two outer whorls of petals and inner whorls of stamens. These plants also exhibit vegetative phenotypes that are not present in either of the singly (APETALA3 or PISTILLATA) overexpressing lines. These phenotypes include leaf curling and the partial conversion of later-arising cauline leaves to petals. The presence of additional floral whorls in flowers ectopically expressing APETALA3 and PISTILLATA and the rescue of missing organs in class A mutants by ectopic B function suggest that APETALA3 and PISTILLATA play an additional role in proliferation of the floral meristem. PMID:8565821

  1. Trade-Offs between Economic and Environmental Impacts of Introducing Legumes into Cropping Systems.

    PubMed

    Reckling, Moritz; Bergkvist, Göran; Watson, Christine A; Stoddard, Frederick L; Zander, Peter M; Walker, Robin L; Pristeri, Aurelio; Toncea, Ion; Bachinger, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Europe's agriculture is highly specialized, dependent on external inputs and responsible for negative environmental impacts. Legume crops are grown on less than 2% of the arable land and more than 70% of the demand for protein feed supplement is imported from overseas. The integration of legumes into cropping systems has the potential to contribute to the transition to a more resource-efficient agriculture and reduce the current protein deficit. Legume crops influence the production of other crops in the rotation making it difficult to evaluate the overall agronomic effects of legumes in cropping systems. A novel assessment framework was developed and applied in five case study regions across Europe with the objective of evaluating trade-offs between economic and environmental effects of integrating legumes into cropping systems. Legumes resulted in positive and negative impacts when integrated into various cropping systems across the case studies. On average, cropping systems with legumes reduced nitrous oxide emissions by 18 and 33% and N fertilizer use by 24 and 38% in arable and forage systems, respectively, compared to systems without legumes. Nitrate leaching was similar with and without legumes in arable systems and reduced by 22% in forage systems. However, grain legumes reduced gross margins in 3 of 5 regions. Forage legumes increased gross margins in 3 of 3 regions. Among the cropping systems with legumes, systems could be identified that had both relatively high economic returns and positive environmental impacts. Thus, increasing the cultivation of legumes could lead to economic competitive cropping systems and positive environmental impacts, but achieving this aim requires the development of novel management strategies informed by the involvement of advisors and farmers. PMID:27242870

  2. Trade-Offs between Economic and Environmental Impacts of Introducing Legumes into Cropping Systems

    PubMed Central

    Reckling, Moritz; Bergkvist, Göran; Watson, Christine A.; Stoddard, Frederick L.; Zander, Peter M.; Walker, Robin L.; Pristeri, Aurelio; Toncea, Ion; Bachinger, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Europe's agriculture is highly specialized, dependent on external inputs and responsible for negative environmental impacts. Legume crops are grown on less than 2% of the arable land and more than 70% of the demand for protein feed supplement is imported from overseas. The integration of legumes into cropping systems has the potential to contribute to the transition to a more resource-efficient agriculture and reduce the current protein deficit. Legume crops influence the production of other crops in the rotation making it difficult to evaluate the overall agronomic effects of legumes in cropping systems. A novel assessment framework was developed and applied in five case study regions across Europe with the objective of evaluating trade-offs between economic and environmental effects of integrating legumes into cropping systems. Legumes resulted in positive and negative impacts when integrated into various cropping systems across the case studies. On average, cropping systems with legumes reduced nitrous oxide emissions by 18 and 33% and N fertilizer use by 24 and 38% in arable and forage systems, respectively, compared to systems without legumes. Nitrate leaching was similar with and without legumes in arable systems and reduced by 22% in forage systems. However, grain legumes reduced gross margins in 3 of 5 regions. Forage legumes increased gross margins in 3 of 3 regions. Among the cropping systems with legumes, systems could be identified that had both relatively high economic returns and positive environmental impacts. Thus, increasing the cultivation of legumes could lead to economic competitive cropping systems and positive environmental impacts, but achieving this aim requires the development of novel management strategies informed by the involvement of advisors and farmers. PMID:27242870

  3. DNA barcoding reveals the coral "laboratory-rat", Stylophora pistillata encompasses multiple identities.

    PubMed

    Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Yang, Sung-Yin; Alamaru, Ada; Chuang, Yao-Yang; Pichon, Michel; Obura, David; Fontana, Silvia; De Palmas, Stephane; Stefani, Fabrizio; Benzoni, Francesca; MacDonald, Angus; Noreen, Annika M E; Chen, Chienshun; Wallace, Carden C; Pillay, Ruby Moothein; Denis, Vianney; Amri, Affendi Yang; Reimer, James D; Mezaki, Takuma; Sheppard, Charles; Loya, Yossi; Abelson, Avidor; Mohammed, Mohammed Suleiman; Baker, Andrew C; Mostafavi, Pargol Ghavam; Suharsono, Budiyanto A; Chen, Chaolun Allen

    2013-01-01

    Stylophora pistillata is a widely used coral "lab-rat" species with highly variable morphology and a broad biogeographic range (Red Sea to western central Pacific). Here we show, by analysing Cytochorme Oxidase I sequences, from 241 samples across this range, that this taxon in fact comprises four deeply divergent clades corresponding to the Pacific-Western Australia, Chagos-Madagascar-South Africa, Gulf of Aden-Zanzibar-Madagascar, and Red Sea-Persian/Arabian Gulf-Kenya. On the basis of the fossil record of Stylophora, these four clades diverged from one another 51.5-29.6 Mya, i.e., long before the closure of the Tethyan connection between the tropical Indo-West Pacific and Atlantic in the early Miocene (16-24 Mya) and should be recognised as four distinct species. These findings have implications for comparative ecological and/or physiological studies carried out using Stylophora pistillata as a model species, and highlight the fact that phenotypic plasticity, thought to be common in scleractinian corals, can mask significant genetic variation. PMID:23519209

  4. Mis-expression of a PISTILLATA-like MADS box gene prevents fruit development in grapevine.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Lucie; Chaïb, Jamila; Martinez-Zapater, José-Miguel; Thomas, Mark R; Torregrosa, Laurent

    2013-03-01

    The FLESHLESS BERRY (Flb) somatic variant identified in the grapevine cultivar Ugni Blanc develops grape berries without flesh, suggesting a role for the altered gene in differentiation of flesh cells. Here we describe identification of the molecular defect responsible for this phenotype. Using a combination of genetic and transcriptomic approaches, we detected the insertion of a miniature inverted-repeat transposable element in the promoter region of the PISTILLATA-like (VvPI) gene, the grapevine homologue of Arabidopsis PISTILLATA. The transposon insertion causes specific ectopic expression of the corresponding VvPI allele during early fruit development, causing expression of genes specific for petal and stamen development within the fruit. A causal relationship between the insertion and the phenotype was demonstrated by phenotypic and molecular analyses of somatic revertants showing that ectopic expression and mutant phenotype were always linked to the presence of the transposon insertion. The various phenotypic effects of the flb mutation on ovary morphology, fruit set and fruit development, depending on the cell lineage affected, are presented for each phenotype, offering new insights into floral and fleshly fruit development. The results highlight the importance of VvPI repression after fertilization to achieve normal fleshy fruit development, and the complex genetic, genomic and cellular interactions required for the flower to fruit transition in grapevine. PMID:23181568

  5. DNA barcoding reveals the coral “laboratory-rat”, Stylophora pistillata encompasses multiple identities

    PubMed Central

    Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Yang, Sung-Yin; Alamaru, Ada; Chuang, Yao-Yang; Pichon, Michel; Obura, David; Fontana, Silvia; De Palmas, Stephane; Stefani, Fabrizio; Benzoni, Francesca; MacDonald, Angus; Noreen, Annika M. E.; Chen, Chienshun; Wallace, Carden C.; Pillay, Ruby Moothein; Denis, Vianney; Amri, Affendi Yang; Reimer, James D.; Mezaki, Takuma; Sheppard, Charles; Loya, Yossi; Abelson, Avidor; Mohammed, Mohammed Suleiman; Baker, Andrew C.; Mostafavi, Pargol Ghavam; Suharsono, Budiyanto A.; Chen, Chaolun Allen

    2013-01-01

    Stylophora pistillata is a widely used coral “lab-rat” species with highly variable morphology and a broad biogeographic range (Red Sea to western central Pacific). Here we show, by analysing Cytochorme Oxidase I sequences, from 241 samples across this range, that this taxon in fact comprises four deeply divergent clades corresponding to the Pacific-Western Australia, Chagos-Madagascar-South Africa, Gulf of Aden-Zanzibar-Madagascar, and Red Sea-Persian/Arabian Gulf-Kenya. On the basis of the fossil record of Stylophora, these four clades diverged from one another 51.5-29.6 Mya, i.e., long before the closure of the Tethyan connection between the tropical Indo-West Pacific and Atlantic in the early Miocene (16–24 Mya) and should be recognised as four distinct species. These findings have implications for comparative ecological and/or physiological studies carried out using Stylophora pistillata as a model species, and highlight the fact that phenotypic plasticity, thought to be common in scleractinian corals, can mask significant genetic variation. PMID:23519209

  6. Multiple Symbiont Acquisition Strategies as an Adaptive Mechanism in the Coral Stylophora pistillata

    PubMed Central

    Byler, Kristen A.; Carmi-Veal, Maya; Fine, Maoz; Goulet, Tamar L.

    2013-01-01

    In obligate symbioses, the host’s survival relies on the successful acquisition and maintenance of symbionts. Symbionts can either be transferred from parent to offspring via direct inheritance (vertical transmission) or acquired anew each generation from the environment (horizontal transmission). With vertical symbiont transmission, progeny benefit by not having to search for their obligate symbionts, and, with symbiont inheritance, a mechanism exists for perpetuating advantageous symbionts. But, if the progeny encounter an environment that differs from that of their parent, they may be disadvantaged if the inherited symbionts prove suboptimal. Conversely, while in horizontal symbiont acquisition host survival hinges on an unpredictable symbiont source, an individual host may acquire genetically diverse symbionts well suited to any given environment. In horizontal acquisition, however, a potentially advantageous symbiont will not be transmitted to subsequent generations. Adaptation in obligate symbioses may require mechanisms for both novel symbiont acquisition and symbiont inheritance. Using denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis and real-time PCR, we identified the dinoflagellate symbionts (genus Symbiodinium) hosted by the Red Sea coral Stylophora pistillata throughout its ontogenesis and over depth. We present evidence that S. pistillata juvenile colonies may utilize both vertical and horizontal symbiont acquisition strategies. By releasing progeny with maternally derived symbionts, that are also capable of subsequent horizontal symbiont acquisition, coral colonies may acquire physiologically advantageous novel symbionts that are then perpetuated via vertical transmission to subsequent generations. With symbiont inheritance, natural selection can act upon the symbiotic variability, providing a mechanism for coral adaptation. PMID:23555721

  7. How legumes recognize rhizobia

    PubMed Central

    Via, Virginia Dalla; Zanetti, María Eugenia; Blanco, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Legume plants have developed the capacity to establish symbiotic interactions with soil bacteria (known as rhizobia) that can convert N2 to molecular forms that are incorporated into the plant metabolism. The first step of this relationship is the recognition of bacteria by the plant, which allows to distinguish potentially harmful species from symbiotic partners. The main molecular determinant of this symbiotic interaction is the Nod Factor, a diffusible lipochitooligosaccharide molecule produced by rhizobia and perceived by LysM receptor kinases; however, other important molecules involved in the specific recognition have emerged over the years. Secreted exopolysaccharides and the lipopolysaccharides present in the bacterial cell wall have been proposed to act as signaling molecules, triggering the expression of specific genes related to the symbiotic process. In this review we will briefly discuss how transcriptomic analysis are helping to understand how multiple signaling pathways, triggered by the perception of different molecules produced by rhizobia, control the genetic programs of root nodule organogenesis and bacterial infection. This knowledge can help to understand how legumes have evolved to recognize and establish complex ecological relationships with particular species and strains of rhizobia, adjusting gene expression in response to identity determinants of bacteria. PMID:26636731

  8. LegumeIP 2.0—a platform for the study of gene function and genome evolution in legumes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Dai, Xinbin; Zhuang, Zhaohong; Zhao, Patrick X.

    2016-01-01

    The LegumeIP 2.0 database hosts large-scale genomics and transcriptomics data and provides integrative bioinformatics tools for the study of gene function and evolution in legumes. Our recent updates in LegumeIP 2.0 include gene and protein sequences, gene models and annotations, syntenic regions, protein families and phylogenetic trees for six legume species: Medicago truncatula, Glycine max (soybean), Lotus japonicus, Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), Cicer arietinum (chickpea) and Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea) and two outgroup reference species: Arabidopsis thaliana and Poplar trichocarpa. Moreover, the LegumeIP 2.0 features the following new data resources and bioinformatics tools: (i) an integrative gene expression atlas for four model legumes that include 550 array hybridizations from M. truncatula, 962 gene expression profiles of G. max, 276 array hybridizations from L. japonicas and 56 RNA-Seq-based gene expression profiles for C. arietinum. These datasets were manually curated and hierarchically organized based on Experimental Ontology and Plant Ontology so that users can browse, search, and retrieve data for their selected experiments. (ii) New functions/analytical tools to query, mine and visualize large-scale gene sequences, annotations and transcriptome profiles. Users may select a subset of expression experiments and visualize and compare expression profiles for multiple genes. The LegumeIP 2.0 database is freely available to the public at http://plantgrn.noble.org/LegumeIP/. PMID:26578557

  9. Genome Structure of the Legume, Lotus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Shusei; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Kaneko, Takakazu; Asamizu, Erika; Kato, Tomohiko; Nakao, Mitsuteru; Sasamoto, Shigemi; Watanabe, Akiko; Ono, Akiko; Kawashima, Kumiko; Fujishiro, Tsunakazu; Katoh, Midori; Kohara, Mitsuyo; Kishida, Yoshie; Minami, Chiharu; Nakayama, Shinobu; Nakazaki, Naomi; Shimizu, Yoshimi; Shinpo, Sayaka; Takahashi, Chika; Wada, Tsuyuko; Yamada, Manabu; Ohmido, Nobuko; Hayashi, Makoto; Fukui, Kiichi; Baba, Tomoya; Nakamichi, Tomoko; Mori, Hirotada; Tabata, Satoshi

    2008-01-01

    The legume Lotus japonicus has been widely used as a model system to investigate the genetic background of legume-specific phenomena such as symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Here, we report structural features of the L. japonicus genome. The 315.1-Mb sequences determined in this and previous studies correspond to 67% of the genome (472 Mb), and are likely to cover 91.3% of the gene space. Linkage mapping anchored 130-Mb sequences onto the six linkage groups. A total of 10 951 complete and 19 848 partial structures of protein-encoding genes were assigned to the genome. Comparative analysis of these genes revealed the expansion of several functional domains and gene families that are characteristic of L. japonicus. Synteny analysis detected traces of whole-genome duplication and the presence of synteny blocks with other plant genomes to various degrees. This study provides the first opportunity to look into the complex and unique genetic system of legumes. PMID:18511435

  10. Nitrogen yield advantage from grass-legume mixtures is robust over a wide range of legume proportions and environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Suter, Matthias; Connolly, John; Finn, John A; Loges, Ralf; Kirwan, Laura; Sebastià, Maria-Teresa; Lüscher, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    Current challenges to global food security require sustainable intensification of agriculture through initiatives that include more efficient use of nitrogen (N), increased protein self-sufficiency through homegrown crops, and reduced N losses to the environment. Such challenges were addressed in a continental-scale field experiment conducted over 3 years, in which the amount of total nitrogen yield (Ntot ) and the gain of N yield in mixtures as compared to grass monocultures (Ngainmix ) was quantified from four-species grass-legume stands with greatly varying legume proportions. Stands consisted of monocultures and mixtures of two N2 -fixing legumes and two nonfixing grasses. The amount of Ntot of mixtures was significantly greater (P ≤ 0.05) than that of grass monocultures at the majority of evaluated sites in all 3 years. Ntot and thus Ngainmix increased with increasing legume proportion up to one-third of legumes. With higher legume percentages, Ntot and Ngainmix did not continue to increase. Thus, across sites and years, mixtures with one-third proportion of legumes attained ~95% of the maximum Ntot acquired by any stand and had 57% higher Ntot than grass monocultures. Realized legume proportion in stands and the relative N gain in mixture (Ngainmix /Ntot in mixture) were most severely impaired by minimum site temperature (R = 0.70, P = 0.003 for legume proportion; R = 0.64, P = 0.010 for Ngainmix /Ntot in mixture). Nevertheless, the relative N gain in mixture was not correlated to site productivity (P = 0.500), suggesting that, within climatic restrictions, balanced grass-legume mixtures can benefit from comparable relative gains in N yield across largely differing productivity levels. We conclude that the use of grass-legume mixtures can substantially contribute to resource-efficient agricultural grassland systems over a wide range of productivity levels, implying important savings in N fertilizers and thus greenhouse gas emissions and a

  11. Chemical composition, digestibility and antinutritional factors content of two wild legumes: Styphonolobium burseroides and Acacia bilimekii.

    PubMed

    Sotelo, A; Migliaro, P; Toledo, A; Contreras, J

    1999-01-01

    The chemical composition, digestibility and toxin contents of two wild legumes: Styphnolobium burseroides and Acacia bilimekii, collected in a semi-arid zone of Mexico, were determined. Both legumes had a high fiber content. The seeds of Styphnolobium burseroides had a low protein content (14%), and the pod a high content of reducing sugars. However the seeds of Acacia bilimekii had a high protein concentration (35%). The seed proteins were low in sulphur amino acids and tryptophan in both legumes but were rich in lysine. Trypsin inhibitors and lectins were present in low concentrations; alkaloids and cyanogenic glucosides were not detected. The in vitro digestibility for monogastric animals was low but the same test with ruminal juice showed a high digestibility for both legumes. Based on their chemical composition and digestibility, these legumes could be a good alternative source in the feeding of ruminants. PMID:10646630

  12. Legume genomics: promise versus reality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Legume root nodules, the specialized organs in which symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) occurs, are structurally and metabolically complex organs. Their development and function depends upon coordinated gene expression between the host plant and rhizobial partner. Depending upon the symbiosis, nodule...

  13. Potential of legume-based grassland–livestock systems in Europe: a review

    PubMed Central

    Lüscher, A; Mueller-Harvey, I; Soussana, J F; Rees, R M; Peyraud, J L

    2014-01-01

    European grassland-based livestock production systems face the challenge of producing more meat and milk to meet increasing world demands and to achieve this using fewer resources. Legumes offer great potential for achieving these objectives. They have numerous features that can act together at different stages in the soil–plant–animal–atmosphere system, and these are most effective in mixed swards with a legume proportion of 30–50%. The resulting benefits include reduced dependence on fossil energy and industrial N-fertilizer, lower quantities of harmful emissions to the environment (greenhouse gases and nitrate), lower production costs, higher productivity and increased protein self-sufficiency. Some legume species offer opportunities for improving animal health with less medication, due to the presence of bioactive secondary metabolites. In addition, legumes may offer an adaptation option to rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations and climate change. Legumes generate these benefits at the level of the managed land-area unit and also at the level of the final product unit. However, legumes suffer from some limitations, and suggestions are made for future research to exploit more fully the opportunities that legumes can offer. In conclusion, the development of legume-based grassland–livestock systems undoubtedly constitutes one of the pillars for more sustainable and competitive ruminant production systems, and it can be expected that forage legumes will become more important in the future. PMID:26300574

  14. Proteomics and Metabolomics: Two Emerging Areas for Legume Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Ramalingam, Abirami; Kudapa, Himabindu; Pazhamala, Lekha T.; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2015-01-01

    The crop legumes such as chickpea, common bean, cowpea, peanut, pigeonpea, soybean, etc. are important sources of nutrition and contribute to a significant amount of biological nitrogen fixation (>20 million tons of fixed nitrogen) in agriculture. However, the production of legumes is constrained due to abiotic and biotic stresses. It is therefore imperative to understand the molecular mechanisms of plant response to different stresses and identify key candidate genes regulating tolerance which can be deployed in breeding programs. The information obtained from transcriptomics has facilitated the identification of candidate genes for the given trait of interest and utilizing them in crop breeding programs to improve stress tolerance. However, the mechanisms of stress tolerance are complex due to the influence of multi-genes and post-transcriptional regulations. Furthermore, stress conditions greatly affect gene expression which in turn causes modifications in the composition of plant proteomes and metabolomes. Therefore, functional genomics involving various proteomics and metabolomics approaches have been obligatory for understanding plant stress tolerance. These approaches have also been found useful to unravel different pathways related to plant and seed development as well as symbiosis. Proteome and metabolome profiling using high-throughput based systems have been extensively applied in the model legume species, Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus, as well as in the model crop legume, soybean, to examine stress signaling pathways, cellular and developmental processes and nodule symbiosis. Moreover, the availability of protein reference maps as well as proteomics and metabolomics databases greatly support research and understanding of various biological processes in legumes. Protein-protein interaction techniques, particularly the yeast two-hybrid system have been advantageous for studying symbiosis and stress signaling in legumes. In this review, several

  15. Seasonal Mesophotic Coral Bleaching of Stylophora pistillata in the Northern Red Sea

    PubMed Central

    Nir, Orit; Gruber, David F.; Shemesh, Eli; Glasser, Eliezra; Tchernov, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Coral bleaching occurs when environmental stress induces breakdown of the coral-algae symbiosis and the host initiates algae expulsion. Two types of coral bleaching had been thoroughly discussed in the scientific literature; the first is primarily associated with mass coral bleaching events; the second is a seasonal loss of algae and/or pigments. Here, we describe a phenomenon that has been witnessed for repeated summers in the mesophotic zone (40–63 m) in the northern Red Sea: seasonal bleaching and recovery of several hermatypic coral species. In this study, we followed the recurring bleaching process of the common coral Stylophora pistillata. Bleaching occurred from April to September with a 66% decline in chlorophyll a concentration, while recovery began in October. Using aquarium and transplantation experiments, we explored environmental factors such as temperature, photon flux density and heterotrophic food availability. Our experiments and observations did not yield one single factor, alone, responsible for the seasonal bleaching. The dinoflagellate symbionts (of the genus Symbiodinium) in shallow (5 m) Stylophora pistillata were found to have a net photosynthetic rate of 56.98–92.19 µmol O2 cm−2 day−1. However, those from mesophotic depth (60 m) during months when they are not bleached are net consumers of oxygen having a net photosynthetic rate between −12.86 - (−10.24) µmol O2 cm−2 day−1. But during months when these mesophotic corals are partially-bleached, they yielded higher net production, between −2.83–0.76 µmol O2 cm−2 day−1. This study opens research questions as to why mesophotic zooxanthellae are more successfully meeting the corals metabolic requirements when Chl a concentration decreases by over 60% during summer and early fall. PMID:24454772

  16. Effects of episodic low aragonite saturation and elevated temperature on the physiology of Stylophora pistillata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lürig, M.; Kunzmann, A.

    2015-05-01

    As global climate change is predicted to gradually alter the oceans' carbonate system and water temperature, knowledge about the effects an altered marine environment has on the physiology of reef building (hermatypic) coral species is more widely established. However, although it is recognized that seawater temperature and the carbonate system of a coral reef can change rapidly and with great amplitude, little is known about how the interaction of these natural fluctuations with long term effects of climate change may affect the metabolism and productivity of hermatypic corals. To investigate this, we acclimated the hermatypic coral Stylophora pistillata to a "worst case" scenario for carbon dioxide emissions (aragonite saturation state [ΩARAG] = 1.6), and tested how exposure to short term (24 h) elevated temperature (+ 3 °C) and further lowered ΩARAG (-1 unit) affected its photosynthesis and respiration. While episodic exposure to very low ΩARAG had only little effect on S. pistillata's physiology, short term heat stress caused a shift from net oxygen production to consumption and partial coral bleaching. Higher gross coral respiration, and lowered photosynthetic activity under episodically elevated temperature may have been the result of photoinhibition and partial coral bleaching. These findings suggest that fluctuating environmental conditions in combination with a low ΩARAG background signal may impair basic metabolic processes in calcifying corals. In a future high-CO2 world short term stress could be relevant for reef ecosystem processes, and may affect the resilience of coral reefs to other external influences and effects of climate change.

  17. Genome-wide identification and comparison of legume MLO gene family

    PubMed Central

    Rispail, Nicolas; Rubiales, Diego

    2016-01-01

    MLO proteins are highly conserved proteins with seven trans-membrane domains. Specific MLO genes have been linked to plant disease susceptibility. Others are involved in plant reproduction and in root thigmomorphogenesis. Functions of the remaining MLOs are still unknown. Here we performed a genome-wide survey of the MLO family in eight legume species from different clades of the Papillionoideae sub-family. A total of 118 MLO sequences were identified and characterized. Their deduced protein sequences shared the characteristics of MLO proteins. The total number of MLO genes per legume species varied from 13 to 20 depending on the species. Legume MLOs were evenly distributed over their genomes and tended to localize within syntenic blocks conserved across legume genomes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these sequences clustered in seven well-defined clades. Comparison of MLO protein sequences revealed 34 clade-specific motifs in the variable regions of the proteins. Comparative analyses of the MLO family between legume species also uncovered several evolutionary differences between the tropical legume species from the Phaseoloid clades and the other legume species. Altogether, this study provides interesting new features on the evolution of the MLO family. It also provides valuable clues to identify additional MLO genes from non-sequenced species. PMID:27596925

  18. Genome-wide identification and comparison of legume MLO gene family.

    PubMed

    Rispail, Nicolas; Rubiales, Diego

    2016-01-01

    MLO proteins are highly conserved proteins with seven trans-membrane domains. Specific MLO genes have been linked to plant disease susceptibility. Others are involved in plant reproduction and in root thigmomorphogenesis. Functions of the remaining MLOs are still unknown. Here we performed a genome-wide survey of the MLO family in eight legume species from different clades of the Papillionoideae sub-family. A total of 118 MLO sequences were identified and characterized. Their deduced protein sequences shared the characteristics of MLO proteins. The total number of MLO genes per legume species varied from 13 to 20 depending on the species. Legume MLOs were evenly distributed over their genomes and tended to localize within syntenic blocks conserved across legume genomes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these sequences clustered in seven well-defined clades. Comparison of MLO protein sequences revealed 34 clade-specific motifs in the variable regions of the proteins. Comparative analyses of the MLO family between legume species also uncovered several evolutionary differences between the tropical legume species from the Phaseoloid clades and the other legume species. Altogether, this study provides interesting new features on the evolution of the MLO family. It also provides valuable clues to identify additional MLO genes from non-sequenced species. PMID:27596925

  19. Using the Stylophora pistillata genome and cell cultures to understand the mechanism of aragonite precipitation in corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mass, T.; Drake, J.; Haramaty, L.; Zelzion, U.; Bhattacharya, D.; Rosenthal, Y.; Falkowski, P. G.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric CO 2 levels are rising rapidly, resulting in a decrease in both oceanic pH, and the carbonate saturation state (Ω). It has been hypothesized that calcifying marine organisms, including reef-building corals, will be affected by the decline of the carbonate saturation state. However, it is still unclear how corals will respond to these changes, as their skeletal formation is biologically mediated and occurs in isolated space rather than directly from seawater. In corals new skeletal material is precipitated in the subcalicoblastic space between the skeleton and the calicoblastic epithelium which, does not exceed a few nanometers and contains the ''calcifying fluid''. The goal of our project is to understand how these fluids respond to changes in the surrounding seawater and in turn affects the biologically mediated calcification mechanisms at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels. While it is generally thought that an organic matrix, which contain a suite of proteins, lipids and poly-saccharides, take part in calcification process, the specific mechanism by which the mineral is precipitated is unknown. The organic matrix composed of two fractions: the soluble organic matrix (SOM) and the insoluble organic matrix (IOM). It is suggested that the IOM plays a role as structural proteins forming a framework for crystal growth whereas the SOM plays a role in nucleation and crystal growth. To address this question we have investigated both the structural framework proteins (Drake et al abstract submitted to the AGU fall meeting) the role of proteins in nucleation and crystal growth (this work). Here, we established cell cultures and sequenced the 458-megabase genome of the stony coral, Stylophora pistillata, using next-generation sequencing technology. This genome contains 21,678 predicted protein-coding genes. Many of the known protein components of invertebrate skeletal matrices are acidic and/or contain repeated sequences. We searched for genes encoding

  20. NUTRITIONAL PHYSIOLOGY AND GENOMICS OF DEVELOPING LEGUME SEEDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Legume seeds are an important source of dietary nutrients for humans throughout the world. They provide basic energy in the form of starches and lipids, they are a source of amino acids for protein, and also provide essential minerals, fatty acids, vitamins, and various health-promoting phytochemic...

  1. Legume genomics: Understanding biology through DNA and RNA sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background. The legume family (Leguminosae) consists of approximately 17,000 species. A few of these species including, but not limited to; Phaseolus vulgaris, Cicer arietinum, and Cajanus cajan, are important dietary components, providing the dietary protein for approximately 300 million people wor...

  2. Interrelations between herbage yield, α-tocopherol, β-carotene, lutein, protein, and fiber in non-leguminous forbs, forage legumes, and a grass-clover mixture as affected by harvest date.

    PubMed

    Elgersma, Anjo; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2015-01-21

    Pastures with diverse botanical composition may enhance animal-derived product quality. A recent study demonstrated high vitamin concentrations and yields in some forb species. The objectives of the present study were to investigate interrelations between herbage yields, vitamin concentrations, protein and fiber contents and analyze the effect of harvest date. We hypothesized that interrelations would be similar across investigated forage species. Four nonleguminous forbs: salad burnet (Sanguisorba minor), caraway (Carum carvi), chicory (Cichorium intybus), and ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata), three legumes: yellow sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis), lucerne (Medicago sativa), and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) and a perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne)-white clover (Trifolium repens) mixture were sown in a field trial with two replicated and randomized blocks. Forage in 1.5 m × 9 m plots was grown in two consecutive years and cut four times per year (May-October). Analyses of variance were performed. In most herbages, α-tocopherol and β-carotene were positively correlated as were β-carotene and lutein; all vitamins were negatively correlated with fiber content and herbage yield. β-Carotene was positively correlated with protein content. α-Tocopherol and β-carotene contents were generally highest in October and lowest in July. Our results showed similar interrelationships in most investigated species, and we suggest that these species may be mixed when designing novel biodiverse mixtures for particular product quality characteristics. PMID:25573460

  3. Contrasting Roles of the Apoplastic Aspartyl Protease APOPLASTIC, ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1-DEPENDENT1 and LEGUME LECTIN-LIKE PROTEIN1 in Arabidopsis Systemic Acquired Resistance1,2[W

    PubMed Central

    Breitenbach, Heiko H.; Wenig, Marion; Wittek, Finni; Jordá, Lucia; Maldonado-Alconada, Ana M.; Sarioglu, Hakan; Colby, Thomas; Knappe, Claudia; Bichlmeier, Marlies; Pabst, Elisabeth; Mackey, David; Parker, Jane E.; Vlot, A. Corina

    2014-01-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is an inducible immune response that depends on ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1). Here, we show that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) EDS1 is required for both SAR signal generation in primary infected leaves and SAR signal perception in systemic uninfected tissues. In contrast to SAR signal generation, local resistance remains intact in eds1 mutant plants in response to Pseudomonas syringae delivering the effector protein AvrRpm1. We utilized the SAR-specific phenotype of the eds1 mutant to identify new SAR regulatory proteins in plants conditionally expressing AvrRpm1. Comparative proteomic analysis of apoplast-enriched extracts from AvrRpm1-expressing wild-type and eds1 mutant plants led to the identification of 12 APOPLASTIC, EDS1-DEPENDENT (AED) proteins. The genes encoding AED1, a predicted aspartyl protease, and another AED, LEGUME LECTIN-LIKE PROTEIN1 (LLP1), were induced locally and systemically during SAR signaling and locally by salicylic acid (SA) or its functional analog, benzo 1,2,3-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester. Because conditional overaccumulation of AED1-hemagglutinin inhibited SA-induced resistance and SAR but not local resistance, the data suggest that AED1 is part of a homeostatic feedback mechanism regulating systemic immunity. In llp1 mutant plants, SAR was compromised, whereas the local resistance that is normally associated with EDS1 and SA as well as responses to exogenous SA appeared largely unaffected. Together, these data indicate that LLP1 promotes systemic rather than local immunity, possibly in parallel with SA. Our analysis reveals new positive and negative components of SAR and reinforces the notion that SAR represents a distinct phase of plant immunity beyond local resistance. PMID:24755512

  4. Bioaccumulation of (63)Ni in the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata and isolated Symbiodinium using radiotracer techniques.

    PubMed

    Hédouin, Laetitia; Metian, Marc; Teyssié, Jean-Louis; Oberhänsli, François; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine; Warnau, Michel

    2016-08-01

    Development of nickel mining activities along the New Caledonia coasts threatens the biodiversity of coral reefs. Although the validation of tropical marine organisms as bioindicators of metal mining contamination has received much attention in the literature over the last decade, few studies have examined the potential of corals, the fundamental organisms of coral reefs, to monitor nickel (Ni) contamination in tropical marine ecosystems. In an effort to bridge this gap, the present work investigated the bioaccumulation of (63)Ni in the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata and in its isolated zooxanthellae Symbiodinium, using radiotracer techniques. Results highlight the high capacities of coral tissues (zooxanthellae and host tissues) to efficiently bioconcentrate (63)Ni compared to skeleton (Concentration Factors CF at 14 days of exposure are 3 orders of magnitude higher in tissues than in skeleton). When non-contaminated conditions were restored, (63)Ni was more efficiently retained in skeleton than in coral tissues, with biological half-lives (Tb½) of 44.3 and 6.5 days, respectively. In addition, our work showed that Symbiodinium bioconcentrated (63)Ni exponentially, with a vol/vol concentration factor at steady state (VCFSS) reaching 14,056. However, compilation of our results highlighted that despite efficient bioconcentration of (63)Ni in Symbiodinium, their contribution to the whole (63)Ni accumulation in coral nubbins represents less than 7%, suggesting that other biologically controlled processes occur in coral host allowing such efficient bioconcentration in coral tissues. PMID:27192479

  5. USE OF CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE: A TOOL TO DETERMINE DAMAGE IN PHOTOSYSTEMS UNDER WATER-STRESS CONDITIONS IN LEGUME SPECIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The importance of legumes in agriculture is due mainly to their richness in high-quality protein for human food and animal feed. In Mexico, one of the most limiting factors for legume production in rain-fed areas is the random availability of water. The effect of water stress varies greatly not on...

  6. Chemical composition of the underutilized legume Cassia hirsuta L.

    PubMed

    Vadivel, V; Janardhanan, K

    2000-01-01

    Seven accessions of the underutilized legume, Cassia hirsuta L., seeds collected from seven different agroclimatic regions of Tamil Nadu, India, were analyzed for proximate composition, total proteins, protein fractions, mineral profiles and selected antinutritional factors. Crude protein ranged from 15.52 to 20.74%, crude lipid 3.77-7.04%, crude fiber 4.68-6.92%, ash 3.98-6.42% and carbohydrates 62.45-70.16%. Energy values of the seeds were 1549-1634 kJ/100 g (DM), which are comparable to those of other legumes. Data on seed protein fractions revealed that globulins constituted the bulk of the seed protein as in most legumes. Mineral contents of the seeds showed greater variation. Potassium was the most abundant mineral (1029-1786 mg/100 g), whereas manganese was low (2.1-2.2 mg/100 g). Antinutritional factors such as total free phenolics, tannins, L-DOPA and lectins were analyzed. The results of the study demonstrated that the accessions of C. hirsuta seeds collected from Tamil Nadu, India, could be good sources of some important nutrients for humans. PMID:11086879

  7. [How I got to study legumes].

    PubMed

    Jaffé, W G

    1996-12-01

    In this paper the author presents a brief account of his involvement in the study of legume seeds form a nutritional and toxicological perspective. After observing that the Venezuelan peasants ate diets which often included cooked black beans and a form of corn bread called arepas, he performed nutritional trials which led him to recognize that raw beans contained thermolabile antinutritional factors and that their proteins were complementary to those of corn. Among the antinutritional factors, he isolated a hemagglutinating fraction which later was further characterized. Based on their properties he recognized the existence of four different types of Phaseolus vulgaris cultivars. Research on the nutritive value of bean diets also got him involved in the identification of a growth factor later called vitamin B12. PMID:9221715

  8. Legume genomics: understanding biology through DNA and RNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    O'Rourke, Jamie A.; Bolon, Yung-Tsi; Bucciarelli, Bruna; Vance, Carroll P.

    2014-01-01

    Background The legume family (Leguminosae) consists of approx. 17 000 species. A few of these species, including, but not limited to, Phaseolus vulgaris, Cicer arietinum and Cajanus cajan, are important dietary components, providing protein for approx. 300 million people worldwide. Additional species, including soybean (Glycine max) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa), are important crops utilized mainly in animal feed. In addition, legumes are important contributors to biological nitrogen, forming symbiotic relationships with rhizobia to fix atmospheric N2 and providing up to 30 % of available nitrogen for the next season of crops. The application of high-throughput genomic technologies including genome sequencing projects, genome re-sequencing (DNA-seq) and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) by the legume research community has provided major insights into genome evolution, genomic architecture and domestication. Scope and Conclusions This review presents an overview of the current state of legume genomics and explores the role that next-generation sequencing technologies play in advancing legume genomics. The adoption of next-generation sequencing and implementation of associated bioinformatic tools has allowed researchers to turn each species of interest into their own model organism. To illustrate the power of next-generation sequencing, an in-depth overview of the transcriptomes of both soybean and white lupin (Lupinus albus) is provided. The soybean transcriptome focuses on analysing seed development in two near-isogenic lines, examining the role of transporters, oil biosynthesis and nitrogen utilization. The white lupin transcriptome analysis examines how phosphate deficiency alters gene expression patterns, inducing the formation of cluster roots. Such studies illustrate the power of next-generation sequencing and bioinformatic analyses in elucidating the gene networks underlying biological processes. PMID:24769535

  9. Nutritional quality of legumes, and their role in cardiometabolic risk prevention: a review.

    PubMed

    Bouchenak, Malika; Lamri-Senhadji, Myriem

    2013-03-01

    Legumes (including alfalfa, clover, lupins, green beans and peas, peanuts, soybeans, dry beans, broad beans, dry peas, chickpeas, and lentils) represent an important component of the human diet in several areas of the world, especially in the developing countries, where they complement the lack of proteins from cereals, roots, and tubers. In some regions of the world, legume seeds are the only protein supply in the diet. The health benefits of legume consumption have received rising interest from researchers, and their consumption and production extends worldwide. Among European countries, higher legume consumption is observed around the Mediterranean, with per capita daily consumption between 8 and 23 g, while in Northern Europe, the daily consumption is less than 5 g per capita. The physiological effects of different legumes vary significantly. These differences may result from the polysaccharides composition, in particular, the quantity and variety of dietary fibers and starch, protein make-up, and variability in phytochemical content. The majority of legumes contain phytochemicals: bioactive compounds, including enzyme inhibitors, phytohemagglutinins (lectins), phytoestrogens, oligosaccharides, saponins, and phenolic compounds, which play metabolic roles in humans who frequently consume these foods. Dietary intake of phytochemicals may provide health benefits, protecting against numerous diseases or disorders, such as coronary heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure and inflammation. The synergistic or antagonistic effects of these phytochemical mixtures from food legumes, their interaction with other components of the diet, and the mechanism of their action have remained a challenge with regard to understanding the role of phytochemicals in health and diseases. Their mitigating effects and the mechanism of their action need to be further addressed if we are to understand the role of phytochemicals in health and diseases. This review provides an overview

  10. Legume Information System (LegumeInfo.org): a key component of a set of federated data resources for the legume family

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Legume Information System (LIS), at http://legumeinfo.org, is a genomic data portal (GDP) for the legume family. LIS provides access to genetic and genomic information for major crop and model legumes. With more than two-dozen domesticated legume species, there are numerous specialists working o...

  11. Ectopic expression of a Catalpa bungei (Bignoniaceae) PISTILLATA homologue rescues the petal and stamen identities in Arabidopsis pi-1 mutant.

    PubMed

    Jing, Danlong; Xia, Yan; Chen, Faju; Wang, Zhi; Zhang, Shougong; Wang, Junhui

    2015-02-01

    PISTILLATA (PI) plays crucial roles in Arabidopsis flower development by specifying petal and stamen identities. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying organ development of woody angiosperm in Catalpa, we isolated and identified a PI homologue, referred to as CabuPI (C. bungei PISTILLATA), from two genetically cognate C. bungei (Bignoniaceae) bearing single and double flowers. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses revealed that the gene is closest related to the eudicot PI homologues. Moreover, a highly conserved PI-motif is found in the C-terminal regions of CabuPI. Semi-quantitative and quantitative real time PCR analyses showed that the expression of CabuPI was restricted to petals and stamens. However, CabuPI expression in the petals and stamens persisted throughout all floral development stages, but the expression levels were different. In 35S::CabuPI transgenic homozygous pi-1 mutant Arabidopsis, the second and the third whorl floral organs produced normal petals and a different number of stamens, respectively. Furthermore, ectopic expression of the CabuPI in transgenic wild-type or heterozygote pi-1 mutant Arabidopsis caused the first whorl sepal partially converted into a petal-like structure. These results clearly reveal the functional conservation of PI homologues between C. bungei and Arabidopsis. PMID:25575990

  12. Cotton production in rotation with summer legumes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunn hemp (Crotolaria juncea) is a fast growing tropical legume that can accumulate large amounts of biomass and N in a relatively short period of time during the summer in the southeastern US. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of using this legume as an N source for cotton (Gossypi...

  13. A sustainable legume biomass energy farming system

    SciTech Connect

    Neathery, J.; Rubel, A.; Stencel, J.; Collins, M.

    1996-12-31

    Before environmentally sensitive areas are converted to biomass energy production, the production, the potential for sustainability of such systems must be assessed. The focus has been on woody or grass crops because of their high potential yields; however, yield sustainability is dependent on the application of fertilizer and lining materials, which in turn contribute to large costs. Growing legumes or mixtures of legumes with grasses could lower or alleviate the need for nitrate fertilizers. The incorporation of legumes into energy cropping systems could: (1) add soil organic matter; (2) introduce biologically fixed N; (3) improve soil structure and texture; (4) reduce soil erosion; (5) reduce production costs; and (6) decrease nitrate run-off in surface waters. Through the {open_quotes}rotation effect{close_quotes}, legumes cause increases in yield of subsequent non-legume crops beyond that accounted for by biologically-fixed N alone. In this paper, we describe a biomass energy system combining legume and grass biomass energy with fertilizer production from these same materials. Preliminary agronomic and engineering assessments for this type of biomass system are presented. The technologies needed to integrate nitrate production with legume energy farming and energy production through legume energy conversion are identified.

  14. Utilization of summer legumes as bioenergy feedstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunn hemp (Crotolaria juncea), is a fast growing, high biomass yielding tropical legume that may be a possible southeastern bioenergy crop. When comparing this legume to a commonly grown summer legume—cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata), sunn hemp was superior in biomass yield and subsequent energy yield. S...

  15. Extracellular Production and Degradation of Superoxide in the Coral Stylophora pistillata and Cultured Symbiodinium

    PubMed Central

    Saragosti, Eldad; Tchernov, Dan; Katsir, Adi; Shaked, Yeala

    2010-01-01

    Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are thought to play a major role in cell death pathways and bleaching in scleractinian corals. Direct measurements of ROS in corals are conspicuously in short supply, partly due to inherent problems with ROS quantification in cellular systems. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we characterized the dynamics of the reactive oxygen species superoxide anion radical (O2−) in the external milieu of the coral Stylophora pistillata. Using a sensitive, rapid and selective chemiluminesence-based technique, we measured extracellular superoxide production and detoxification activity of symbiont (non-bleached) and aposymbiont (bleached) corals, and of cultured Symbiodinium (from clades A and C). Bleached and non-bleached Stylophora fragments were found to produce superoxide at comparable rates of 10−11–10−9 mol O2− mg protein−1 min−1 in the dark. In the light, a two-fold enhancement in O2− production rates was observed in non-bleached corals, but not in bleached corals. Cultured Symbiodinium produced superoxide in the dark at a rate of . Light was found to markedly enhance O2− production. The NADPH Oxidase inhibitor Diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) strongly inhibited O2− production by corals (and more moderately by algae), possibly suggesting an involvement of NADPH Oxidase in the process. An extracellular O2− detoxifying activity was found for bleached and non-bleached Stylophora but not for Symbiodinium. The O2− detoxifying activity was partially characterized and found to resemble that of the enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD). Conclusions/Significance The findings of substantial extracellular O2− production as well as extracellular O2− detoxifying activity may shed light on the chemical interactions between the symbiont and its host and between the coral and its environment. Superoxide production by Symbiodinium possibly implies that algal bearing corals are more susceptible to an internal

  16. Release of hydrogen peroxide and antioxidants by the coral Stylophora pistillata to its external milieu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armoza-Zvuloni, R.; Shaked, Y.

    2014-09-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a common reactive oxygen species, plays multiple roles in coral health and disease. Elevated H2O2 production by the symbiotic algae during stress may result in symbiosis breakdown and bleaching of the coral. We have recently reported that various Red Sea corals release H2O2 and antioxidants to their external milieu, and can influence the H2O2 dynamics in the reef. Here, we present a laboratory characterization of H2O2 and antioxidant activity release kinetics by intact, non-stressed Stylophora pistillata. Experimenting with bleached and non-bleached corals and different stirring speeds, we explored the sources and modes of H2O2 and antioxidant release. Since H2O2 is produced and degraded simultaneously, we developed a methodology for resolving the actual H2O2 concentrations released by the corals. H2O2 and antioxidant activity steadily increased in the water surrounding the coral over short periods of 1-2 h. Over longer periods of 5-7 h, the antioxidant activity kept increasing with time, while H2O2 concentrations were stabilized at ~ 1 μM by 1-3 h, and then gradually declined. Solving for H2O2 release, corals were found to release H2O2 at increasing rates over 2-4 h, and then to slow down and stop by 5-7 h. Stirring was shown to induce the release of H2O2, possibly since the flow reduces the thickness of the diffusive boundary layer of the coral, and thus increases H2O2 mass flux. Antioxidant activity was released at similar rates by bleached and non-bleached corals, suggesting that the antioxidants did not originate from the symbiotic algae. H2O2, however, was not released from bleached corals, implying that the symbiotic algae are the source of the released H2O2. The observed flow-induced H2O2 release may aid corals in removing some of the internal H2O2 produced by their symbiotic algae, and may possibly assist in preventing coral bleaching under conditions of elevated temperature and irradiance.

  17. Release of hydrogen peroxide and antioxidant by the coral Stylophora pistillata to its external milieu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armoza-Zvuloni, R.; Shaked, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a common reactive oxygen species, plays multiple roles in coral health and disease. Elevated H2O2 production by the symbiotic algae during stress may result in symbiosis breakdown and bleaching of the coral. We have recently reported that various Red Sea corals release H2O2 and antioxidants to their external milieu and can influence the H2O2 dynamics in the reef. Here we present laboratory characterization of H2O2 and antioxidant activity release kinetics by intact, non-stressed Stylophora pistillata. Experimenting with bleached and non-bleached corals and different stirring speeds, we explored the sources and modes of H2O2 and antioxidant release. Since H2O2 is produced and degraded simultaneously, we developed methodology for resolving the actual rates of H2O2 release by the corals. H2O2 and antioxidant activity linearly increased in the water surrounding the coral over short periods of 1-2 h. Over longer periods of 5-7 h, the antioxidant activity kept increasing with time, while H2O2 concentrations were stabilized at ~ 1 μM by 2-3 h, and then gradually declined. Solving for H2O2 release, corals were found to release H2O2 at increasing rates over 2-4 h, and then slow down and stop by 5-7 h. Stirring was shown to induce the release of both H2O2 and antioxidant activity, possibly due to ventilation of the coral by the flow. Antioxidant activity was released at similar rates by bleached and non-bleached corals, suggesting that the antioxidant did not originate from the symbiotic algae. H2O2, however, was only minimally released from bleached corals, implying that the symbiotic algae are the source of the released H2O2. The observed flow-induced H2O2 release may aid corals in removing some of the internal H2O2 produced by their symbiotic algae and possibly assist in preventing coral bleaching under conditions of elevated temperature and irradiance.

  18. Effect of Feeding On The Carbon and Oxygen Isotopic Composition In The Tissues and Skeleton of The Zooxanthellate Coral Stylophora Pistillata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynaud-Vaganay, S.; Ferrier-Pagès, C.; Sambrotto, R.; Juillet-Leclerc, A.; Jaubert, J.

    and J.-P. Gattuso4 1Centre Scientifique de Monaco, Avenue Saint Martin, MC-98000, Principality of Monaco 2Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, 61 Rt. 9W/ P.O. Box 1000, Palisades, NY 10964 U.S.A 3Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, Laboratoire mixte CNRS- CEA, F-91180 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France 4Observatoire Océanologique, Laboratoire d'Océanographie, CNRS-UPMC, BP 28, F- 06234 Villefranche-sur-mer Cedex, France The effect of feeding on the carbon isotopic composition of zooxanthellae, animal tissue and skeleton was investigated in the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata. Two sets of corals were grown with filtered seawater under controlled conditions. One group of colonies was fed with Artemia nauplii and compared to a control group that was starved. Fed corals exhibited higher concentrations of chlorophyll protein calcification rates than starved colonies. The net photosynthetic rate was higher in starved than in fed corals, whereas dark respiration was not significantly different. The average ? C value of Artemia nauplii used for feeding was -12. ? C was 13 13 significantly heavier in zooxanthellae than in animal tissues, for both fed (-10.1vs. -11.7) and starved colonies (-10.9vs. -13.2). Isotopic data reflected the incorporation of Artemia carbon into the coral tissue in that the ? C was 13 significantly heavier in fed than in starved colonies (-11.7 to -13.2 respectively), although there was no difference in the ? C of the zooxanthellae fraction. Skeletal 13 ? C was similar in fed and starved colonies (mean = -4.6). Skeletal ? O 13 18 composition was, however, significantly different between the two treatments (-4.24 to -4.05 for fed and starved colonies respectively). These data are used to establish a conceptual model of the carbon flow between the various compartments of a symbiotic coral.

  19. Nutritional significance of lectins and enzyme inhibitors from legumes.

    PubMed

    Lajolo, Franco M; Genovese, Maria Inés

    2002-10-23

    Legumes have natural components, such as lectins, amylase, and trypsin inhibitors, that may adversely affect their nutritional properties. Much information has already been obtained on their antinutritional significance and how to inactivate them by proper processing. Chronic ingestion of residual levels is unlikely to pose risks to human health. On the other hand, the ability of these molecules to inhibit some enzymes such as trypsin, chymotrypsin, disaccharidases, and alpha-amylases, to selectively bind to glycoconjugates, and to enter the circulatory system may be a useful tool in nutrition and pharmacology. Trypsin inhibitors have also been studied as cancer risk reducing factors. These components seem to act as plant defense substances. However, increased contents may represent an impairment of the nutritional quality of legumes because these glycoproteins and the sulfur-rich protease inhibitors have been shown to be poorly digested and to participate in chemical reactions during processing reducing protein digestibility, a still unsolved question. PMID:12381157

  20. Scent glands in legume flowers.

    PubMed

    Marinho, C R; Souza, C D; Barros, T C; Teixeira, S P

    2014-01-01

    Scent glands, or osmophores, are predominantly floral secretory structures that secrete volatile substances during anthesis, and therefore act in interactions with pollinators. The Leguminosae family, despite being the third largest angiosperm family, with a wide geographical distribution and diversity of habits, morphology and pollinators, has been ignored with respect to these glands. Thus, we localised and characterised the sites of fragrance production and release in flowers of legumes, in which scent plays an important role in pollination, and also tested whether there are relationships between the structure of the scent gland and the pollinator habit: diurnal or nocturnal. Flowers in pre-anthesis and anthesis of 12 legume species were collected and analysed using immersion in neutral red, olfactory tests and anatomical studies (light and scanning electron microscopy). The main production site of floral scent is the perianth, especially the petals. The scent glands are distributed in a restricted way in Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Anadenanthera peregrina, Inga edulis and Parkia pendula, constituting mesophilic osmophores, and in a diffuse way in Bauhinia rufa, Hymenaea courbaril, Erythrostemon gilliesii, Poincianella pluviosa, Pterodon pubescens, Platycyamus regnellii, Mucuna urens and Tipuana tipu. The glands are comprised of cells of the epidermis and mesophyll that secrete mainly terpenes, nitrogen compounds and phenols. Relationships between the presence of osmophores and type of anthesis (diurnal and nocturnal) and the pollinator were not found. Our data on scent glands in Leguminosae are original and detail the type of diffuse release, which has been very poorly studied. PMID:23574349

  1. Secretion systems and signal exchange between nitrogen-fixing rhizobia and legumes

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Matthew S.; Sadowsky, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots and/or stem of leguminous plants involves a complex signal exchange between both partners. Since many microorganisms are present in the soil, legumes and rhizobia must recognize and initiate communication with each other to establish symbioses. This results in the formation of nodules. Rhizobia within nodules exchange fixed nitrogen for carbon from the legume. Symbiotic relationships can become non-beneficial if one partner ceases to provide support to the other. As a result, complex signal exchange mechanisms have evolved to ensure continued, beneficial symbioses. Proper recognition and signal exchange is also the basis for host specificity. Nodule formation always provides a fitness benefit to rhizobia, but does not always provide a fitness benefit to legumes. Therefore, legumes have evolved a mechanism to regulate the number of nodules that are formed, this is called autoregulation of nodulation. Sequencing of many different rhizobia have revealed the presence of several secretion systems - and the Type III, Type IV, and Type VI secretion systems are known to be used by pathogens to transport effector proteins. These secretion systems are also known to have an effect on host specificity and are a determinant of overall nodule number on legumes. This review focuses on signal exchange between rhizobia and legumes, particularly focusing on the role of secretion systems involved in nodule formation and host specificity. PMID:26191069

  2. Nutrient and nonnutrient components of legumes, and its chemopreventive activity: a review.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Chino, Xariss; Jiménez-Martínez, Cristian; Dávila-Ortiz, Gloria; Álvarez-González, Isela; Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Legumes in combination with other products are the staple food for a large part of the world population, especially the low-income fragment, because their seeds provide valuable amounts of carbohydrates, fiber, and proteins, and have an important composition of essential amino acids, the sulphured amino acids being the limiting ones. Furthermore, legumes also have nonnutritional compounds that may decrease the absorption of nutrients or produce toxic effects; however, it has been reported that depending on the dose, these nonnutritional compounds also have different bioactivities as antioxidant, hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic, and anticarcinogenic agents, which have been proven in scientific studies. It has been observed that in countries with a high consumption of legumes, the incidence of colorectal cancer is lower. Some studies have shown that legume seeds are an alternative chemopreventive therapy against various cancers especially colon; this was verified in various animal models of induced by azoxymethane, a colon specific carcinogenic compound, in which a diet was supplemented with different concentrations of beans, lentils, chickpeas, or soybeans, mostly. These studies have proven the anticancer activity of legumes in early stages of carcinogenesis. Therefore, it is important to review the information available to elucidate the chemopreventive mechanisms of action of legume compounds. PMID:25710272

  3. Tropical food legumes: virus diseases of economic importance and their control.

    PubMed

    Hema, Masarapu; Sreenivasulu, Pothur; Patil, Basavaprabhu L; Kumar, P Lava; Reddy, Dodla V R

    2014-01-01

    Diverse array of food legume crops (Fabaceae: Papilionoideae) have been adopted worldwide for their protein-rich seed. Choice of legumes and their importance vary in different parts of the world. The economically important legumes are severely affected by a range of virus diseases causing significant economic losses due to reduction in grain production, poor quality seed, and costs incurred in phytosanitation and disease control. The majority of the viruses infecting legumes are vectored by insects, and several of them are also seed transmitted, thus assuming importance in the quarantine and in the epidemiology. This review is focused on the economically important viruses of soybean, groundnut, common bean, cowpea, pigeonpea, mungbean, urdbean, chickpea, pea, faba bean, and lentil and begomovirus diseases of three minor tropical food legumes (hyacinth bean, horse gram, and lima bean). Aspects included are geographic distribution, impact on crop growth and yields, virus characteristics, diagnosis of causal viruses, disease epidemiology, and options for control. Effectiveness of selection and planting with virus-free seed, phytosanitation, manipulation of crop cultural and agronomic practices, control of virus vectors and host plant resistance, and potential of transgenic resistance for legume virus disease control are discussed. PMID:25410108

  4. Rheological and nutritional quality of selected dehulled legumes blended rice extrudates.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, S; Borah, Anjan; Singh, K K; Patil, R T

    2012-10-01

    Rheological and nutritional quality of ready-to-eat rice (Oryza sativa ) -legume viz. black gram (Vigna mungo), green gram (Vigna radiata), lentil (Lens culinaris) and peas (Pisum sativum) based extrudates were studied using low cost collet extruder. Extrudates were prepared keeping constant feed rate (25 kg/h) and moisture content (14% wb) at 0, 5, 10 and 15% legume incorporation levels. Rheological properties of porridge made of extrudate flour were evaluated using Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA). Maximum and minimum peak viscosity for rice extrudates alone and rice extrudates blended with 15% peas were 697 cp and 523 cp, respectively. There was a decreasing trend in degree of gelatinization with increase in legume incorporation level. Other RVA rheological parameters like trough break down and final viscosity were in the range of 266-226 cp, 431-297 cp and 452-375 cp respectively. Maximum values of protein, fat, fibre and ash contents were found in rice extrudates at 15% legumes blend levels. There was an increasing trend in nutrient contents with legume content in rice extrudates. Degree of gelatinization for rice alone extrudate was 29.4% and showed a decrease in gelatinization with increase in legumes extrudate and was minimum (22.4%) for rice blended with 15% dehulled green gram. Sensory evaluation scores for all extrudates showed the most acceptable range of 6 to 8. Thus, legume blend level (up to 15%) of dehulled legumes fetched good scores and showed promising trend for the production of low cost expanded extrudates and its instant flour. PMID:24082277

  5. Small RNA pathways and diversity in model legumes: lessons from genomics.

    PubMed

    Bustos-Sanmamed, Pilar; Bazin, Jérémie; Hartmann, Caroline; Crespi, Martin; Lelandais-Brière, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Small non-coding RNAs (smRNA) participate in the regulation of development, cell differentiation, adaptation to environmental constraints and defense responses in plants. They negatively regulate gene expression by degrading specific mRNA targets, repressing their translation or modifying chromatin conformation through homologous interaction with target loci. MicroRNAs (miRNA) and short-interfering RNAs (siRNA) are generated from long double stranded RNA (dsRNA) that are cleaved into 20-24-nucleotide dsRNAs by RNase III proteins called DICERs (DCL). One strand of the duplex is then loaded onto effective complexes containing different ARGONAUTE (AGO) proteins. In this review, we explored smRNA diversity in model legumes and compiled available data from miRBAse, the miRNA database, and from 22 reports of smRNA deep sequencing or miRNA identification genome-wide in three legumes: Medicago truncatula, soybean (Glycine max) and Lotus japonicus. In addition to conserved miRNAs present in other plant species, 229, 179, and 35 novel miRNA families were identified respectively in these 3 legumes, among which several seems legume-specific. New potential functions of several miRNAs in the legume-specific nodulation process are discussed. Furthermore, a new category of siRNA, the phased siRNAs, which seems to mainly regulate disease-resistance genes, was recently discovered in legumes. Despite that the genome sequence of model legumes are not yet fully completed, further analysis was performed by database mining of gene families and protein characteristics of DCLs and AGOs in these genomes. Although most components of the smRNA pathways are conserved, identifiable homologs of key smRNA players from non-legumes, like AGO10 or DCL4, could not yet be detected in M. truncatula available genomic and expressed sequence (EST) databases. In contrast to Arabidopsis, an important gene diversification was observed in the three legume models (for DCL2, AGO4, AGO2, and AGO10) or

  6. Potential of summer legumes for thermochemical conversion to synthetic fuel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Summer legumes are commonly used worldwide in crop rotations as a nitrogen source. One particular legume, sunn hemp (Crotolaria juncea), is a fast growing, high biomass yielding, tropical legume that may be a possible southeastern bioenergy crop. When comparing this legume to a commonly grown summer...

  7. Legume information system (LegumeInfo.org): a key component of a set of federated data resources for the legume family.

    PubMed

    Dash, Sudhansu; Campbell, Jacqueline D; Cannon, Ethalinda K S; Cleary, Alan M; Huang, Wei; Kalberer, Scott R; Karingula, Vijay; Rice, Alex G; Singh, Jugpreet; Umale, Pooja E; Weeks, Nathan T; Wilkey, Andrew P; Farmer, Andrew D; Cannon, Steven B

    2016-01-01

    Legume Information System (LIS), at http://legumeinfo.org, is a genomic data portal (GDP) for the legume family. LIS provides access to genetic and genomic information for major crop and model legumes. With more than two-dozen domesticated legume species, there are numerous specialists working on particular species, and also numerous GDPs for these species. LIS has been redesigned in the last three years both to better integrate data sets across the crop and model legumes, and to better accommodate specialized GDPs that serve particular legume species. To integrate data sets, LIS provides genome and map viewers, holds synteny mappings among all sequenced legume species and provides a set of gene families to allow traversal among orthologous and paralogous sequences across the legumes. To better accommodate other specialized GDPs, LIS uses open-source GMOD components where possible, and advocates use of common data templates, formats, schemas and interfaces so that data collected by one legume research community are accessible across all legume GDPs, through similar interfaces and using common APIs. This federated model for the legumes is managed as part of the 'Legume Federation' project (accessible via http://legumefederation.org), which can be thought of as an umbrella project encompassing LIS and other legume GDPs. PMID:26546515

  8. Legume information system (LegumeInfo.org): a key component of a set of federated data resources for the legume family

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Sudhansu; Campbell, Jacqueline D.; Cannon, Ethalinda K.S.; Cleary, Alan M.; Huang, Wei; Kalberer, Scott R.; Karingula, Vijay; Rice, Alex G.; Singh, Jugpreet; Umale, Pooja E.; Weeks, Nathan T.; Wilkey, Andrew P.; Farmer, Andrew D.; Cannon, Steven B.

    2016-01-01

    Legume Information System (LIS), at http://legumeinfo.org, is a genomic data portal (GDP) for the legume family. LIS provides access to genetic and genomic information for major crop and model legumes. With more than two-dozen domesticated legume species, there are numerous specialists working on particular species, and also numerous GDPs for these species. LIS has been redesigned in the last three years both to better integrate data sets across the crop and model legumes, and to better accommodate specialized GDPs that serve particular legume species. To integrate data sets, LIS provides genome and map viewers, holds synteny mappings among all sequenced legume species and provides a set of gene families to allow traversal among orthologous and paralogous sequences across the legumes. To better accommodate other specialized GDPs, LIS uses open-source GMOD components where possible, and advocates use of common data templates, formats, schemas and interfaces so that data collected by one legume research community are accessible across all legume GDPs, through similar interfaces and using common APIs. This federated model for the legumes is managed as part of the ‘Legume Federation’ project (accessible via http://legumefederation.org), which can be thought of as an umbrella project encompassing LIS and other legume GDPs. PMID:26546515

  9. Intake, digestion, and nitrogen utilization by sheep fed tropical legumes with contrasting tannin concentration and astringency.

    PubMed

    Barahona, R; Lascano, C E; Cochran, R; Morrill, J; Titgemeyer, E C

    1997-06-01

    We conducted an experiment to determine the effects of concentration and astringency of extractable and bound condensed tannins (CT) in tropical legumes on intake, digestibility, and nitrogen (N) utilization by sheep. The test legumes (Desmodium ovalifolium and Flemingia macrophylla) had similar concentrations of extractable CT (90 g/kg DM) but different concentrations of bound CT and astringency of tannins. Chopped, sun-dried forage of each legume was sprayed with either water (control) or polyethylene glycol (PEG, 35 g/kg of DM) to bind extractable CT and fed daily (26 g/kg BW) to eight sheep with ruminal and duodenal cannulas. The sheep also received starch-extracted cassava meal intraruminally (4 g/kg BW) as a constant source of readily fermentable carbohydrates. Intake of the two legumes was not different (P > .05), but it increased an average of 10% (P < .01) when extractable CT were reduced from 90 to 50 g/kg of DM with PEG. Ruminal and total tract digestibilities of OM, NDF, and ADF were greater (P < .01) with D. ovalifolium than with F. macrophylla and increased for both legumes with the addition of PEG. Greater (P < .01) N flow to the duodenum, N absorbed from the intestine, and fecal N were observed with F. macrophylla than with D. ovalifolium. Extraction of CT with PEG resulted in less (P < .05) ruminal escape protein and less (P < .01) fecal N with both legumes, but apparent postruminal N digestion was not affected. Changes in the concentration of extractable CT in tropical legumes can significantly affect forage intake, digestion, and N utilization by sheep. PMID:9250527

  10. Transport processes of the legume symbiosome membrane

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Victoria C.; Loughlin, Patrick C.; Day, David A.; Smith, Penelope M. C.

    2014-01-01

    The symbiosome membrane (SM) is a physical barrier between the host plant and nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the legume:rhizobia symbiosis, and represents a regulated interface for the movement of solutes between the symbionts that is under plant control. The primary nutrient exchange across the SM is the transport of a carbon energy source from plant to bacteroid in exchange for fixed nitrogen. At a biochemical level two channels have been implicated in movement of fixed nitrogen across the SM and a uniporter that transports monovalent dicarboxylate ions has been characterized that would transport fixed carbon. The aquaporin NOD26 may provide a channel for ammonia, but the genes encoding the other transporters have not been identified. Transport of several other solutes, including calcium and potassium, have been demonstrated in isolated symbiosomes, and genes encoding transport systems for the movement of iron, nitrate, sulfate, and zinc in nodules have been identified. However, definitively matching transport activities with these genes has proved difficult and many further transport processes are expected on the SM to facilitate the movement of nutrients between the symbionts. Recently, work detailing the SM proteome in soybean has been completed, contributing significantly to the database of known SM proteins. This represents a valuable resource for the identification of transporter protein candidates, some of which may correspond to transport processes previously described, or to novel transport systems in the symbiosis. Putative transporters identified from the proteome include homologs of transporters of sulfate, calcium, peptides, and various metal ions. Here we review current knowledge of transport processes of the SM and discuss the requirements for additional transport routes of other nutrients exchanged in the symbiosis, with a focus on transport systems identified through the soybean SM proteome. PMID:25566274

  11. Evaluation of phenotypic variation in a collection of Apios americana: an edible tuberous legume

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apios americana, sometimes called “potato bean,” is native to the central and eastern parts of the United States and southeastern Canada. Apios is a nitrogen-fixing legume with a vining habit that produces protein rich tubers at nodes along below-ground stolons originating from a “mother tuber.” A b...

  12. Common bean-Rhizobium symbiosis: functional genomics of legume response to abiotic stresses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is the world's most important grain legume for direct human consumption and a main source of proteins in Latin America and Africa. Environmental factors such as nutrient deficiency, soil acidity, and metal toxicity are important constraints for bean symbiotic nitroge...

  13. Predatory response of Xylocoris flavipes to bruchid pests of stored food legumes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological control may provide an affordable and sustainable option for reducing losses to pest Bruchidae in stored food legumes, a crucial source of dietary protein. Previous investigations have focused primarily on the role of parasitism in bruchid biological control, while the potential of gener...

  14. Intercropping Tropical Vine Legumes and Maize for Silage in Temperate Climates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize silage is used extensively in American dairy rations. Increasing protein content would enhance maize silage quality. This study examined nine forage legume species (Austrian winter pea, common bean, cowpea, lablab, scarlet runner bean, sesbania, sunn hemp, tropical kudzu, and velvet bean) gr...

  15. Mitochondrial genome sequence and expression profiling for the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report on the assembly of the 14,146 base pairs (bp) near complete mitochondrial sequencing of the legume pod borer (LPB), Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), which was used to estimate divergence and relationships within the lepidopteran lineage. Arrangement and orientation of 13 protein c...

  16. Isoflavone rumen metabolites: A missing link in the benefits of legumes on grazing animal production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clovers are widely used to add protein to ruminant diets. Clovers and other legumes also produce a class of small molecules called isoflavones. Isoflavones have estrogenic properties, which can interfere with reproduction in grazing ruminants, but they also have benefits. We identified potential b...

  17. Effects of Tropical High Tannin Non Legume and Low Tannin Legume Browse Mixtures on Fermentation Parameters and Methanogenesis Using Gas Production Technique

    PubMed Central

    Seresinhe, T.; Madushika, S. A. C.; Seresinhe, Y.; Lal, P. K.; Ørskov, E. R.

    2012-01-01

    In vitro experiments were conducted to evaluate the suitability of several mixtures of high tanniniferous non legumes with low tanniniferous legumes on in vitro gas production (IVGP), dry matter degradation, Ammonia-N, methane production and microbial population. Eight treatments were examined in a randomized complete block design using four non-legumes and two legumes (Carallia integerrima×Leucaena leucocephala (LL) (Trt 1), C. integerrima×Gliricidia sepium (GS) (Trt 2), Aporosa lindeliyana×LL (Trt 3), A. lindeliyana×GS (Trt 4), Ceiba perntandra×LL (Trt 5), C. perntandra×GS (Trt 6), Artocarpus heterophyllus×LL (Trt 7), A. heterophyllus×GS (Trt 8). The condensed tannin (CT) content of non legumes ranged from 6.2% (Carallia integerrima) to 4.9% (Ceiba perntandra) while the CT of legumes were 1.58% (Leucaena leucocephala) and 0.78% (Gliricidia sepium). Forage mixtures contained more than 14% of crude protein (CP) while the CT content ranged from 2.8% to 4.0% respectively. Differences (p<0.05) were observed in in vitro gas production (IGVP) within treatments over a 48 h period dominated by C. perntandra×G. sepium (Trt 6). The net gas production (p<0.05) was also high with Trt6 followed by A. heterophyllus×L. leucocephala (Trt 7) and A. heterophyllus×G. sepium (Trt 8). Highest (p>0.05) NH3-N (ml/200 mg DM) production was observed with the A. heterophyllus×G. sepium (Trt 8) mixture which may be attributed with it’s highest CP content. The correlation between IVGP and CT was 0.675 while IVGP and CP was 0.610. In vitro dry matter degradation (IVDMD) was highest in Trt 8 as well. Methane production ranged from 2.57 to 4.79 (ml/200 mg DM) to be synonimous with IVGP. A higher bacteria population (p<0.05) was found in C. perntandra×G. sepium (Trt 6) followed by Artocarpus heterophyllus+G. sepium (Trt 8) and the same trend was observed with the protozoa population as well. The results show that supplementing high tannin non leguminous forages by incremental

  18. Legume genomics: where we have been, where are we going?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the recognition in 2000 that several multi-institutional projects focusing on legume genomics were becoming a reality, the legume research community advocated for organization of an international meeting to address fundamental and applied aspects of legume genetic research. The purposes delinea...

  19. Fate of Photosynthetic Fixed Carbon in Light- and Shade-Adapted Colonies of the Symbiotic Coral Stylophora pistillata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muscatine, L.; Falkowski, P. G.; Porter, J. W.; Dubinsky, Z.

    1984-08-01

    The total daily flux of photosynthetically fixed carbon in light- and shade-adapted phenotypes of the symbiotic coral, Stylophora pistillata, was quantified. Light adapted corals fixed four times as much carbon and respired twice as much as shade corals. Specific growth rates of zooxanthellae in situ were estimated from average daily mitotic indices and from ammonium uptake rates (nitrate uptake or nitrate reductase activity could not be demonstrated). Specific growth rates were very low, demonstrating that of the total net carbon fixed daily, only a small fraction (less than 5%) goes into zooxanthellae cell growth. The balance of the net fixed carbon (more than 95%) is translocated to the host. New and conventional methods of measuring total daily translocation were compared. The `growth rate' method, which does not employ 14C, emerged as superior to the conventional in vitro and in vivo methods. The contribution of translocated carbon to animal maintenance respiration (CZAR) was 143% in light corals and 58% in shade corals. Thus, translocation in the former could supply not only the total daily carbon needed for respiration but also a fraction of the carbon needed for growth. Whereas light-adapted corals released only 6%, shade-adapted corals released almost half of their total fixed carbon as dissolved or particulate organic material. This much higher throughput of organic carbon may possibly benefit the heterotrophic microbial community in shade environments.

  20. Rapid Hydrogen Peroxide release from the coral Stylophora pistillata during feeding and in response to chemical and physical stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Armoza-Zvuloni, Rachel; Schneider, Avi; Sher, Daniel; Shaked, Yeala

    2016-01-01

    Corals make use of different chemical compounds during interactions with prey, predators and aggressors. Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) is produced and released by a wide range of organisms as part of their defense against grazers or pathogens. In coral reefs, the large fluxes and relatively long half-life of H2O2, make it a potentially important info-chemical or defense molecule. Here we describe a previously unstudied phenomenon of rapid H2O2 release from the reef-building coral Stylophora pistillata during feeding on zooplankton and in response to chemical and physical stimuli. Following stimuli, both symbiotic and bleached corals were found to rapidly release H2O2 to the surrounding water for a short period of time (few minutes). The H2O2 release was restricted to the site of stimulus, and an increase in physical stress and chemical stimuli concentration resulted in elevated H2O2 release. Omission of calcium (a key regulator of exocytotic processes) from the experimental medium inhibited H2O2 release. Hence we suggest that H2O2 is actively released in response to stimuli, rather than leaking passively from the coral tissue. We estimate that at the site of stimulus H2O2 can reach concentrations potentially high enough to deter predators or motile, potentially pathogenic, bacteria. PMID:26875833

  1. Carbon translocation from symbiont to host depends on irradiance and food availability in the tropical coral Stylophora pistillata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, P.; Grover, R.; Maguer, J. F.; Hoogenboom, M.; Ferrier-Pagès, C.

    2014-03-01

    Reef-building corals live in symbiosis with dinoflagellates that translocate a large proportion of their photosynthetically fixed carbon compounds to their coral host for its own metabolism. The carbon budget and translocation rate, however, vary depending on environmental conditions, coral host species, and symbiont clade. To quantify variability in carbon translocation in response to environmental conditions, this study assessed the effect of two different irradiance levels (120 and 250 μmol photons m-2 s-1) and feeding regimes (fed with Artemia salina nauplii and unfed) on the carbon budget of the tropical coral Stylophora pistillata. For this purpose, H13CO3 --enriched seawater was used to trace the conversion of photosynthetic carbon into symbiont and coral biomass and excrete particulate organic carbon. Results showed that carbon translocation (ca. 78 %) and utilization were similar under both irradiance levels for unfed colonies. In contrast, carbon utilization by fed colonies was dependent on the growth irradiance. Under low irradiance, heterotrophy was accompanied by lower carbon translocation (71 %), higher host and symbiont biomass, and higher calcification rates. Under high irradiance, heterotrophy was accompanied by higher rates of photosynthesis, respiration, and carbon translocation (90 %) as well as higher host biomass. Hence, levels of resource sharing within coral-dinoflagellate symbioses depend critically on environmental conditions.

  2. Developmental specialisations in the legume family.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Julie M I; Noel Ellis, T H

    2014-02-01

    The legume family is astonishingly diverse; inventiveness in the form of novel organs, modified organs and additional meristems, is rife. Evolutionary changes can be inferred from the phylogenetic pattern of this diversity, but a full understanding of the origin of these 'hopeful monsters' of meristematic potential requires clear phylogenetic reconstructions and extensive, species-rich, sequence data. The task is large, but rapid progress is being made in both these areas. Here we review specialisations that have been characterised in a subset of intensively studied papilionoid legume taxa at the vanguard of developmental genetic studies. PMID:24507507

  3. Genomic Survey, Gene Expression Analysis and Structural Modeling Suggest Diverse Roles of DNA Methyltransferases in Legumes

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Rohini; Kumari, Romika; Tiwari, Sneha; Goyal, Shweta

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation plays a crucial role in development through inheritable gene silencing. Plants possess three types of DNA methyltransferases (MTases), namely Methyltransferase (MET), Chromomethylase (CMT) and Domains Rearranged Methyltransferase (DRM), which maintain methylation at CG, CHG and CHH sites. DNA MTases have not been studied in legumes so far. Here, we report the identification and analysis of putative DNA MTases in five legumes, including chickpea, soybean, pigeonpea, Medicago and Lotus. MTases in legumes could be classified in known MET, CMT, DRM and DNA nucleotide methyltransferases (DNMT2) subfamilies based on their domain organization. First three MTases represent DNA MTases, whereas DNMT2 represents a transfer RNA (tRNA) MTase. Structural comparison of all the MTases in plants with known MTases in mammalian and plant systems have been reported to assign structural features in context of biological functions of these proteins. The structure analysis clearly specified regions crucial for protein-protein interactions and regions important for nucleosome binding in various domains of CMT and MET proteins. In addition, structural model of DRM suggested that circular permutation of motifs does not have any effect on overall structure of DNA methyltransferase domain. These results provide valuable insights into role of various domains in molecular recognition and should facilitate mechanistic understanding of their function in mediating specific methylation patterns. Further, the comprehensive gene expression analyses of MTases in legumes provided evidence of their role in various developmental processes throughout the plant life cycle and response to various abiotic stresses. Overall, our study will be very helpful in establishing the specific functions of DNA MTases in legumes. PMID:24586452

  4. Nutritive value of three tropical forage legumes and their influence on growth performance, carcass traits and organ weights of pigs.

    PubMed

    Kambashi, Bienvenu; Kalala, Gaetan; Dochain, Denis; Mafwila, Jacques; Rollin, Xavier; Boudry, Christelle; Picron, Pascale; Bindelle, Jérôme

    2016-08-01

    The effects of tropical forage legumes on feed intake, growth performance and carcass traits were investigated in 16 groups of two Large White × Duroc pigs. The diets consisted of a commercial corn-soybean meal diet as the basal diet and three forage-supplemented diets. Four groups of control pigs received daily 4 % of body weight of the basal diet, and 12 groups of experimental pigs were fed the basal diet at 3.2 % of body weight completed with fresh leaves of one of the three forage legumes (Psophocarpus scandens, Stylosanthes guianensis and Vigna unguiculata) ad libitum. The study lasted 90 days. The in vitro digestion and fermentation of the forage legumes were also determined. The in vitro digestible energy content of the legumes was between 0.72 and 0.77 that of the basal diet (14.4 MJ/kg dry matter (DM)). V . unguiculata was the most digestible forage legume expected for crude protein digestibility. Feeding forage legumes lowered the dry matter intake by 4.5 to 9.6 % (P < 0.05), final body weight (P = 0.013), slaughter weight, average daily gain and hot carcass weight (P < 0.05) without affecting the feed conversion ratio (FCR), dressing percentage and back fat thickness. In conclusion, using forage to feed pig could be interesting in pig smallholder production with limited access to concentrate, as FCR was not significantly affected. PMID:27154216

  5. [Immunoproteomics of non water-soluble allergens from 4 legumes flours: peanut, soybean, sesame and lentil].

    PubMed

    Bouakkadia, Hayette; Boutebba, Aissa; Haddad, Iman; Vinh, Joëlle; Guilloux, Laurence; Sutra, Jean-Pierre; Sénéchal, Hélène; Poncet, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Peanut, soybean, sesame and lentil are members of legumes worldwide consumed by human that can induce food allergy in genetically predisposed individuals. Several protein allergens, mainly water-soluble, have been described. We studied the non water-soluble fraction from these 4 food sources using immunoproteomics tools and techniques. Flour extracts were solubilized in detergent and chaotropes and analysed in 1 and 2 dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D). Results showed numerous proteins exhibiting wide ranges of isoelectric points and relative molecular masses. When IgE immunoreactivities of 18 food allergy patients were individually tested in 1 and 2D western-blots, a very diversified IgE repertoire was observed, reflecting extensive cross-reactivities but also co-sensitizations. Besides already well known and characterized allergens, mass spectrometry analysis allowed the identification of 22 allergens undescribed until now: 10 in peanut, 2 in soybean, 3 in sesame and 7 in lentil. Three allergens are legume storage proteins and the others belong to transport proteins, nucleotide binding proteins and proteins involved in the regulation of metabolism. Seven proteins are potentially similar to allergens described in plants and fungi and 11 are not related to any known allergen. Our results contribute to increase the repertoire of legume allergens that may improve the diagnosis, categorize patients and thus provide a better treatment of patients. PMID:26635049

  6. Grasses and Legumes: Genetics and Plant Breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Humans have been breeding forage and turf species for over 100 years. This chapter explores the progress that has been made in improving grasses and legumes for human benefit and the evolution of breeding and selection systems that have brought about those changes....

  7. Grain legume genetic resources for allele mining

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sequencing capacities for higher throughput at significantly lower costs have enabled larger scale genotyping of plant genetic resources. One challenge to sequencing the USDA grain legume collections of pea, chickpea and lentil core accessions is the amount of heterogeneity in the landrace accessio...

  8. Extrusion processing of main commercial legume pulses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extrusion is used commercially to produce high value breakfast and snack foods based on cereals such as wheat or corn. However, this processing method is not being commercially used for legume pulses seeds due to the perception that they do not expand well in extrusion. The rise in consumer demand f...

  9. Research Investment in "Other" Forage Legumes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Legumes are unique among forages in that they generally have two major advantages compared to grasses: 1) they can fix significant amounts of atmospheric N, thereby precluding the need for fossil-fuel-energy consuming synthetic N fertilizers; and 2) they allow more efficient animal production throug...

  10. Bowman-Birk inhibitors from legumes as colorectal chemopreventive agents

    PubMed Central

    Clemente, Alfonso; Arques, Maria del Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant functioning of serine proteases in inflammatory and carcinogenic processes within the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has prompted scientists to investigate the potential of serine protease inhibitors, both natural and synthetic, as modulators of their proteolytic activities. Protease inhibitors of the Bowman-Birk type, a major protease inhibitor family in legume seeds, which inhibit potently and specifically trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like proteases, are currently being investigated as colorectal chemopreventive agents. Physiologically relevant amounts of Bowman-Birk inhibitors (BBI) can reach the large intestine in active form due to their extraordinary resistance to extreme conditions within the GIT. Studies in animal models have proven that dietary BBI from several legume sources, including soybean, pea, lentil and chickpea, can prevent or suppress carcinogenic and inflammatory processes within the GIT. Although the therapeutic targets and the action mechanism of BBI have not yet been elucidated, the emerging evidence suggests that BBI exert their preventive properties via protease inhibition; in this sense, serine proteases should be considered as primary targets in early stages of carcinogenesis. The validation of candidate serine proteases as therapeutic targets together with the identification, within the wide array of natural BBI variants, of the most potent and specific protease inhibitors, are necessary to better understand the potential of this protein family as colorectal chemopreventive agents. PMID:25132747

  11. Primary Production and Photoadaptation in Light- and Shade-Adapted Colonies of the Symbiotic Coral, Stylophora pistillata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, J. W.; Muscatine, L.; Dubinsky, Z.; Falkowski, P. G.

    1984-08-01

    Photoadaptation by photosynthetic organisms to lowered light intensities occurs in part through changes in pigment concentrations and in characteristics of the photosynthetic response curve. We have characterized photoadaptive responses of light- and shade-adapted colonies of the reef coral Stylophora pistillata, which possesses symbiotic algae (zooxanthellae) and grows naturally under a variety of light intensities in the highly cavernous reefs of the Red Sea. Shade-adapted corals have significantly more chlorophyll per individual zooxanthella cell than light-adapted corals (2.98 compared to 12.97 pg chlorophyll a per cell), but not a significantly different number of cells per unit area (1.00 × 106 cells per square centimetre), with the result that the mass of chlorophyll per unit area is greater for shade-adapted corals than for light-adapted corals. Tissue nitrogen content per unit area is significantly lower (p < 0.05) in shade-adapted corals, correlating with a decrease in polyp density (0.10 > p > 0.05) in shade forms. These biomass characteristics are concomitant with a variety of functional responses to natural light intensities. Rate of photosynthesis at saturating light intensities is the same per unit area in both forms (20.2 μ g O2 cm-2 h-1 for shade specimens; 18.8 for light specimens); but it is significantly different when measured by amount of chlorophyll (1.6 μ g O2 (chl a)-1 h-1 for shade specimens compared with 5.0 for light specimens). The initial slope of the P:I curve, α , is significantly higher for shade specimens by area (0.21 for shade corals compared with 0.12 for light corals), but significantly lower for shade specimens by amount of chlorophyll a (0.01 for specimens from shade compared to 0.04 for specimens growing in the light). Ik (the point at which maximum production begins) is significantly lower for shade specimens (138 μ mol m-2 s-1 for shade compared to 273 for light), and likewise Ic (the compensation point at which net

  12. Toxicological effects of the sunscreen UV filter, benzophenone-2, on planulae and in vitro cells of the coral, Stylophora pistillata.

    PubMed

    Downs, C A; Kramarsky-Winter, Esti; Fauth, John E; Segal, Roee; Bronstein, Omri; Jeger, Rina; Lichtenfeld, Yona; Woodley, Cheryl M; Pennington, Paul; Kushmaro, Ariel; Loya, Yossi

    2014-03-01

    Benzophenone-2 (BP-2) is an additive to personal-care products and commercial solutions that protects against the damaging effects of ultraviolet light. BP-2 is an "emerging contaminant of concern" that is often released as a pollutant through municipal and boat/ship wastewater discharges and landfill leachates, as well as through residential septic fields and unmanaged cesspits. Although BP-2 may be a contaminant on coral reefs, its environmental toxicity to reefs is unknown. This poses a potential management issue, since BP-2 is a known endocrine disruptor as well as a weak genotoxicant. We examined the effects of BP-2 on the larval form (planula) of the coral, Stylophora pistillata, as well as its toxicity to in vitro coral cells. BP-2 is a photo-toxicant; adverse effects are exacerbated in the light versus in darkness. Whether in darkness or light, BP-2 induced coral planulae to transform from a motile planktonic state to a deformed, sessile condition. Planulae exhibited an increasing rate of coral bleaching in response to increasing concentrations of BP-2. BP-2 is a genotoxicant to corals, exhibiting a strong positive relationship between DNA-AP lesions and increasing BP-2 concentrations. BP-2 exposure in the light induced extensive necrosis in both the epidermis and gastro dermis. In contrast, BP-2 exposure in darkness induced autophagy and autophagic cell death.The LC50 of BP-2 in the light for an 8 and 24 hour exposure was 120 parts per million (ppm) and 165 parts per billion (ppb), respectively. The LC50s for BP-2 in darkness for the same time points were 144 parts per million and 548 parts per billion [corrected]. PMID:24352829

  13. The presence and inactivation of trypsin inhibitors, tannins, lectins and amylase inhibitors in legume seeds during germination. A review.

    PubMed

    Savelkoul, F H; van der Poel, A F; Tamminga, S

    1992-01-01

    During the germination of legume seeds, enzymes become active in order to degrade starch, storage-protein and proteinaceous antinutritional factors. The degradation of storage-protein is necessary to make peptides and amino acids available in order to stimulate seed growth and early plant growth. Proteinaceous antinutritional factors such as amylase inhibitors, lectins and trypsin inhibitors are present in legume seeds and protect them against predators. However, during germination, they degrade to a lower level by the action of several enzymes. The effect of germination on the content and activity of amylase inhibitors, lectins, tannins and trypsin inhibitors is discussed. PMID:1372122

  14. Recessive Loci Pps-1 and OM Differentially Regulate PISTILLATA-1 and APETALA3-1 Expression for Sepal and Petal Development in Papaver somniferum

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sharad K.; Shukla, Ashutosh K.; Dhawan, Om P.; Shasany, Ajit K.

    2014-01-01

    The involvement of PISTILLATA (PI) and APETALA (AP) transcription factors in the development of floral organs has previously been elucidated but little is known about their upstream regulation. In this investigation, two novel mutants generated in Papaver somniferum were analyzed - one with partially petaloid sepals and another having sepaloid petals. Progeny from reciprocal crosses of respective mutant parent genotypes showed a good fit to the monogenic Mendelian inheritance model, indicating that the mutant traits are likely controlled by the single, recessive nuclear genes named “Pps-1” and “OM” in the partially petaloid sepal and sepaloid petal phenotypes, respectively. Both paralogs of PISTILLATA (PapsPI-1 and PapsPI-3) were obtained from the sepals and petals of P. somniferum. Ectopic expression of PapsPI-1 in tobacco resulted in a partially petaloid sepal phenotype at a low frequency. Upregulation of PapsPI-1 and PapsAP3-1 in the petal and the petal part of partially petaloid sepal mutant and down-regulation of the same in sepaloid petal mutant indicates a differential pattern of regulation for flowering-related genes in various whorls. Similarly, it was found that the recessive mutation OM in sepaloid petal mutant downregulates PapsPI-1 and PapsAP3-1 transcripts. The recessive nature of the mutations was confirmed by the segregation ratios obtained in this analysis. PMID:24979593

  15. Recessive loci Pps-1 and OM differentially regulate PISTILLATA-1 and APETALA3-1 expression for sepal and petal development in Papaver somniferum.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sharad K; Shukla, Ashutosh K; Dhawan, Om P; Shasany, Ajit K

    2014-01-01

    The involvement of PISTILLATA (PI) and APETALA (AP) transcription factors in the development of floral organs has previously been elucidated but little is known about their upstream regulation. In this investigation, two novel mutants generated in Papaver somniferum were analyzed--one with partially petaloid sepals and another having sepaloid petals. Progeny from reciprocal crosses of respective mutant parent genotypes showed a good fit to the monogenic Mendelian inheritance model, indicating that the mutant traits are likely controlled by the single, recessive nuclear genes named "Pps-1" and "OM" in the partially petaloid sepal and sepaloid petal phenotypes, respectively. Both paralogs of PISTILLATA (PapsPI-1 and PapsPI-3) were obtained from the sepals and petals of P. somniferum. Ectopic expression of PapsPI-1 in tobacco resulted in a partially petaloid sepal phenotype at a low frequency. Upregulation of PapsPI-1 and PapsAP3-1 in the petal and the petal part of partially petaloid sepal mutant and down-regulation of the same in sepaloid petal mutant indicates a differential pattern of regulation for flowering-related genes in various whorls. Similarly, it was found that the recessive mutation OM in sepaloid petal mutant downregulates PapsPI-1 and PapsAP3-1 transcripts. The recessive nature of the mutations was confirmed by the segregation ratios obtained in this analysis. PMID:24979593

  16. Water deficit as a regulatory switch for legume root responses.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Debashree; Reddy, Attipalli R

    2011-06-01

    Plant roots perceive declining soil water potential as an initial signal which further triggers an array of physiological, morphological and molecular responses in the whole plant. Understanding the root responses with parallel insights on protein level changes has always been an area of interest for stress biologists. In a recent study, we reported drought stress-induced changes among certain structural and functional root proteins involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxification, primary and secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways as well as proteins associated with cell signalling in an economically important legume crop Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek. We also demonstrated photosynthetic gas exchange characteristics and root physiology under varying levels of water-deficit and recovery. In this report, we depict a closer analysis of the expression patterns of the identified proteins which were categorized into five major functional groups. These proteins represent a unique coherence and networking with each other as well as with the overall physiological and metabolic machinery in the plant cell. PMID:21849818

  17. Legume presence reduces the decomposition rate of non-legume roots, role of plant traits?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Deyn, Gerlinde B.; Saar, Sirgi; Barel, Janna; Semchenko, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Plant litter traits are known to play an important role in the rate of litter decomposition and mineralization, both for aboveground and belowground litter. However also the biotic and abiotic environment in which the litter decomposes plays a significant role in the rate of decomposition. The presence of living plants may accelerate litter decomposition rates via a priming effects. The size of this effect is expected to be related to the traits of the litter. In this study we focus on root litter, given that roots and their link to ecosystem processes have received relatively little attention in trait-based research. To test the effect of a growing legume plant on root decomposition and the role of root traits in this we used dead roots of 7 different grassland species (comprising grasses, a forb and legumes), determined their C, N, P content and quantified litter mass loss after eight weeks of incubation in soil with and without white clover. We expected faster root decomposition with white clover, especially for root litter with low N content. In contrast we found slower decomposition of grass and forb roots which were poor in N (negative priming) in presence of white clover, while decomposition rates of legume roots were not affected by the presence of white clover. Overall we found that root decomposition can be slowed down in the presence of a living plant and that this effect depends on the traits of the decomposing roots, with a pronounced reduction in root litter poor in N and P, but not in the relatively nutrient-rich legume root litters. The negative priming effect of legume plants on non-legume litter decomposition may have resulted from preferential substrate utilisation by soil microbes.

  18. Non-soya legume-based therapeutic lifestyle change diet reduces inflammatory status in diabetic patients: a randomised cross-over clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hosseinpour-Niazi, Somayeh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Fallah-Ghohroudi, Arefeh; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-07-01

    The present randomised cross-over clinical trial investigated the effects of two intervention diets (non-soya legume-based therapeutic lifestyle change (TLC) diet v. isoenergetic legume-free TLC diet) on inflammatory biomarkers among type 2 diabetic patients. A group of thirty-one participants (twenty-four women and seven men; weight 74.5 (SD 7.0) kg; age 58.1 (SD 6.0) years) were randomly assigned to one of the two following intervention diets for 8 weeks: legume-free TLC diet or non-soya legume-based TLC diet. The latter diet was the same as the legume-free TLC diet, except that two servings of red meat were replaced with different types of cooked non-soya legumes such as lentils, chickpeas, peas and beans over a period of 3 d per week. The intervention period was followed by a washout period of 4 weeks, after which the groups followed the alternate treatment for 8 weeks. Concentrations of inflammatory markers were measured at baseline and after the intervention periods. Compared with the legume-free TLC diet, the non-soya legume-based TLC diet significantly decreased high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, IL-6 and TNF-α in overweight diabetic patients. The replacement of two servings of red meat by non-soya legumes in the isoenergetic TLC diet for a period of 3 d per week reduced the plasma concentrations of inflammatory markers among overweight diabetic patients, independent of weight change. PMID:26077375

  19. Mimosoid legume plastome evolution: IR expansion, tandem repeat expansions, and accelerated rate of evolution in clpP

    PubMed Central

    Dugas, Diana V.; Hernandez, David; Koenen, Erik J.M.; Schwarz, Erika; Straub, Shannon; Hughes, Colin E.; Jansen, Robert K.; Nageswara-Rao, Madhugiri; Staats, Martijn; Trujillo, Joshua T.; Hajrah, Nahid H.; Alharbi, Njud S.; Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L.; Sabir, Jamal S. M.; Bailey, C. Donovan

    2015-01-01

    The Leguminosae has emerged as a model for studying angiosperm plastome evolution because of its striking diversity of structural rearrangements and sequence variation. However, most of what is known about legume plastomes comes from few genera representing a subset of lineages in subfamily Papilionoideae. We investigate plastome evolution in subfamily Mimosoideae based on two newly sequenced plastomes (Inga and Leucaena) and two recently published plastomes (Acacia and Prosopis), and discuss the results in the context of other legume and rosid plastid genomes. Mimosoid plastomes have a typical angiosperm gene content and general organization as well as a generally slow rate of protein coding gene evolution, but they are the largest known among legumes. The increased length results from tandem repeat expansions and an unusual 13 kb IR-SSC boundary shift in Acacia and Inga. Mimosoid plastomes harbor additional interesting features, including loss of clpP intron1 in Inga, accelerated rates of evolution in clpP for Acacia and Inga, and dN/dS ratios consistent with neutral and positive selection for several genes. These new plastomes and results provide important resources for legume comparative genomics, plant breeding, and plastid genetic engineering, while shedding further light on the complexity of plastome evolution in legumes and angiosperms. PMID:26592928

  20. Beneficial effects of legumes on parameters of the metabolic syndrome: a systematic review of trials in animal models.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Rosario; López-Jurado, María; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Porres, Jesús María; Kapravelou, Garyfallia

    2016-08-01

    Legume consumption plays a pivotal role in the prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). This systematic review aimed to highlight the beneficial effects of legume interventions for the prevention and/or improvement of parameters related to the MetS and the implicated metabolic pathways so far reported. The methodology involved a search in four electronic databases (Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane Library) from January 2007 to December 2014, considering as descriptors 'Metabolic Syndrome' and 'Fabaceae' and adequately adjusting the equation in each one of them. In total, forty-one studies were finally included. The majority of the studies described a regulating effect on glucose and lipid metabolism due to legume administration, whereas effects on blood pressure and renal parameters are not fully described. Regarding the metabolic pathways involved, they include the up-regulation of genes related to β-oxidation and acetyl-CoA degradation and the down-regulation of glycolytic and lipogenesis genes, as well as those associated with the acetyl-CoA synthesis. The ameliorating effects of legume consumption on the alterations associated with the MetS are clearly reported and coincide with changes in the expression of protein and genes involved in lipid and glucose metabolism. More research needs to be conducted including more legume species that are highly consumed as part of a healthy dietary pattern. PMID:27221057

  1. Mimosoid legume plastome evolution: IR expansion, tandem repeat expansions, and accelerated rate of evolution in clpP.

    PubMed

    Dugas, Diana V; Hernandez, David; Koenen, Erik J M; Schwarz, Erika; Straub, Shannon; Hughes, Colin E; Jansen, Robert K; Nageswara-Rao, Madhugiri; Staats, Martijn; Trujillo, Joshua T; Hajrah, Nahid H; Alharbi, Njud S; Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L; Sabir, Jamal S M; Bailey, C Donovan

    2015-01-01

    The Leguminosae has emerged as a model for studying angiosperm plastome evolution because of its striking diversity of structural rearrangements and sequence variation. However, most of what is known about legume plastomes comes from few genera representing a subset of lineages in subfamily Papilionoideae. We investigate plastome evolution in subfamily Mimosoideae based on two newly sequenced plastomes (Inga and Leucaena) and two recently published plastomes (Acacia and Prosopis), and discuss the results in the context of other legume and rosid plastid genomes. Mimosoid plastomes have a typical angiosperm gene content and general organization as well as a generally slow rate of protein coding gene evolution, but they are the largest known among legumes. The increased length results from tandem repeat expansions and an unusual 13 kb IR-SSC boundary shift in Acacia and Inga. Mimosoid plastomes harbor additional interesting features, including loss of clpP intron1 in Inga, accelerated rates of evolution in clpP for Acacia and Inga, and dN/dS ratios consistent with neutral and positive selection for several genes. These new plastomes and results provide important resources for legume comparative genomics, plant breeding, and plastid genetic engineering, while shedding further light on the complexity of plastome evolution in legumes and angiosperms. PMID:26592928

  2. Alternative food/feed perspectives of an underutilized legume Mucuna pruriens var. utilis--a review.

    PubMed

    Pugalenthi, M; Vadivel, V; Siddhuraju, P

    2005-12-01

    Mucuna pruriens var. utilis, an underutilized tropical legume has a nutritional quality comparable to soya beans and other conventional legumes as it contains similar proportions of protein, lipid, minerals, and other nutrients. The beans have been traditionally used as a food in a number of countries, viz., India, Philippines, Nigeria, Ghana, Brazil, and Malawi. Recently, the velvet beans are exploited as a protein source in the diets of fish, poultry, pig, and cattle after subjected to appropriate processing methods. Although the velvet beans contain high levels of protein and carbohydrate, their utilization is limited due to the presence of a number of antinutritional/antiphysiological compounds, phenolics, tannins, L-Dopa, lectins, protease inhibitors, etc., which may reduce the nutrient utilization. Unfortunately, even though many researchers all over the world working on Mucuna, only scanty and conflicting information are available regarding its utilization as a food/feed and no scientific gathering to date has focused on the food/feed applications of Mucuna. Hence, the present review has been emphasized on the nutritional potential of this underutilized, nonconventional legume and current state of its utilization as food/feed for both human beings and livestock throughout the world. PMID:16395632

  3. Characterization of zinc transport by divalent metal transporters of the ZIP family from the model legume medicago truncatula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To understand how plants from the Fabaceae family maintain zinc (Zn) homeostasis, we have characterized the kinetics of the Zn transporting proteins from the ZIP family of divalent metal transporters in the model legume Medicago truncatula. MtZIP1, MtZIP5, and MtZIP6 were the only members from this ...

  4. Spatial arrangement, population density and legume species effect of yield of forage sorghum-legume intercropping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a stress tolerant forage crop grown extensively in the Southern High Plains. However, sorghum forage quality is lower than that of corn. Intercropping sorghum with legumes can improve quality and productivity of forage. However, tall statured sorghum limits the resources...

  5. The Legume Information System (LIS): an integrated information resource for comparative legume biology.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Michael D; Archuleta, Eric; Farmer, Andrew; Gajendran, Kamal; Grant, David; Shoemaker, Randy; Beavis, William D; Waugh, Mark E

    2005-01-01

    The Legume Information System (LIS) (http://www.comparative-legumes.org), developed by the National Center for Genome Resources in cooperation with the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS), is a comparative legume resource that integrates genetic and molecular data from multiple legume species enabling cross-species genomic and transcript comparisons. The LIS virtual plant interface allows simplified and intuitive navigation of transcript data from Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus, Glycine max and Arabidopsis thaliana. Transcript libraries are represented as images of plant organs in different developmental stages, which are selected to query the analyzed and annotated data. Complex queries can be accomplished by adding modifiers, keywords and sequence names. The LIS also contains annotated genomic data featuring transcript alignments to validate gene predictions as well as motif and similarity analyses. The genomic browser supports comparative analysis via novel dynamic functional annotation comparisons. CMap, developed as part of the GMOD project (http://www.gmod.org/cmap/index.shtml), has been incorporated to support comparative analyses of community linkage and physical map data. LIS is being expanded to incorporate gene expression and biochemical pathways which will be seamlessly integrated forming a knowledge discovery framework. PMID:15608283

  6. Function of glutathione peroxidases in legume root nodules.

    PubMed

    Matamoros, Manuel A; Saiz, Ana; Peñuelas, Maria; Bustos-Sanmamed, Pilar; Mulet, Jose M; Barja, Maria V; Rouhier, Nicolas; Moore, Marten; James, Euan K; Dietz, Karl-Josef; Becana, Manuel

    2015-05-01

    Glutathione peroxidases (Gpxs) are antioxidant enzymes not studied so far in legume nodules, despite the fact that reactive oxygen species are produced at different steps of the symbiosis. The function of two Gpxs that are highly expressed in nodules of the model legume Lotus japonicus was examined. Gene expression analysis, enzymatic and nitrosylation assays, yeast cell complementation, in situ mRNA hybridization, immunoelectron microscopy, and LjGpx-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions were used to characterize the enzymes and to localize each transcript and isoform in nodules. The LjGpx1 and LjGpx3 genes encode thioredoxin-dependent phospholipid hydroperoxidases and are differentially regulated in response to nitric oxide (NO) and hormones. LjGpx1 and LjGpx3 are nitrosylated in vitro or in plants treated with S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO). Consistent with the modification of the peroxidatic cysteine of LjGpx3, in vitro assays demonstrated that this modification results in enzyme inhibition. The enzymes are highly expressed in the infected zone, but the LjGpx3 mRNA is also detected in the cortex and vascular bundles. LjGpx1 is localized to the plastids and nuclei, and LjGpx3 to the cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum. Based on yeast complementation experiments, both enzymes protect against oxidative stress, salt stress, and membrane damage. It is concluded that both LjGpxs perform major antioxidative functions in nodules, preventing lipid peroxidation and other oxidative processes at different subcellular sites of vascular and infected cells. The enzymes are probably involved in hormone and NO signalling, and may be regulated through nitrosylation of the peroxidatic cysteine essential for catalytic function. PMID:25740929

  7. Function of glutathione peroxidases in legume root nodules

    PubMed Central

    Matamoros, Manuel A.; Saiz, Ana; Peñuelas, Maria; Bustos-Sanmamed, Pilar; Mulet, Jose M.; Barja, Maria V.; Rouhier, Nicolas; Moore, Marten; James, Euan K.; Dietz, Karl-Josef; Becana, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione peroxidases (Gpxs) are antioxidant enzymes not studied so far in legume nodules, despite the fact that reactive oxygen species are produced at different steps of the symbiosis. The function of two Gpxs that are highly expressed in nodules of the model legume Lotus japonicus was examined. Gene expression analysis, enzymatic and nitrosylation assays, yeast cell complementation, in situ mRNA hybridization, immunoelectron microscopy, and LjGpx-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions were used to characterize the enzymes and to localize each transcript and isoform in nodules. The LjGpx1 and LjGpx3 genes encode thioredoxin-dependent phospholipid hydroperoxidases and are differentially regulated in response to nitric oxide (NO) and hormones. LjGpx1 and LjGpx3 are nitrosylated in vitro or in plants treated with S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO). Consistent with the modification of the peroxidatic cysteine of LjGpx3, in vitro assays demonstrated that this modification results in enzyme inhibition. The enzymes are highly expressed in the infected zone, but the LjGpx3 mRNA is also detected in the cortex and vascular bundles. LjGpx1 is localized to the plastids and nuclei, and LjGpx3 to the cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum. Based on yeast complementation experiments, both enzymes protect against oxidative stress, salt stress, and membrane damage. It is concluded that both LjGpxs perform major antioxidative functions in nodules, preventing lipid peroxidation and other oxidative processes at different subcellular sites of vascular and infected cells. The enzymes are probably involved in hormone and NO signalling, and may be regulated through nitrosylation of the peroxidatic cysteine essential for catalytic function. PMID:25740929

  8. Phytohormone regulation of legume-rhizobia interactions.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Brett J; Mathesius, Ulrike

    2014-07-01

    The symbiosis between legumes and nitrogen fixing bacteria called rhizobia leads to the formation of root nodules. Nodules are highly organized root organs that form in response to Nod factors produced by rhizobia, and they provide rhizobia with a specialized niche to optimize nutrient exchange and nitrogen fixation. Nodule development and invasion by rhizobia is locally controlled by feedback between rhizobia and the plant host. In addition, the total number of nodules on a root system is controlled by a systemic mechanism termed 'autoregulation of nodulation'. Both the local and the systemic control of nodulation are regulated by phytohormones. There are two mechanisms by which phytohormone signalling is altered during nodulation: through direct synthesis by rhizobia and through indirect manipulation of the phytohormone balance in the plant, triggered by bacterial Nod factors. Recent genetic and physiological evidence points to a crucial role of Nod factor-induced changes in the host phytohormone balance as a prerequisite for successful nodule formation. Phytohormones synthesized by rhizobia enhance symbiosis effectiveness but do not appear to be necessary for nodule formation. This review provides an overview of recent advances in our understanding of the roles and interactions of phytohormones and signalling peptides in the regulation of nodule infection, initiation, positioning, development, and autoregulation. Future challenges remain to unify hormone-related findings across different legumes and to test whether hormone perception, response, or transport differences among different legumes could explain the variety of nodules types and the predisposition for nodule formation in this plant family. In addition, the molecular studies carried out under controlled conditions will need to be extended into the field to test whether and how phytohormone contributions by host and rhizobial partners affect the long term fitness of the host and the survival and

  9. Genomic and genetic control of phosphate stress in legumes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) is critical for plant growth and development, particularly for N2-fixing legumes due to the high demand for P in root nodules. Genomic and molecular studies of P-stress in legumes have used a variety of research strategies and have focused primarily on white lupin, common bean, soybea...

  10. Nitrogen fertilizer response of cotton in rotation with summer legumes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential of using summer legumes as N sources in corn and vegetable rotations has recently been documented. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of using summer legumes [Crotolaria juncea and cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata)] as an N source for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) pro...

  11. Developing Postharvest Disinfestation Treatments of Legumes Using Radio Frequency Energy.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is an urgent need to develop technically effective and environmentally sound phytosanitary and quarantine treatments for the legume industry to replace chemical fumigation. The goal of this study was to develop practical non-chemical treatments for postharvest disinfestation of legumes using r...

  12. Developing Postharvest Disinfestation Treatments for Legumes Using Radio Frequency Energy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is an urgent need to develop technically effective and environmentally sound phytosanitary and quarantine treatments for the legume industry to replace chemical fumigation. The goal of this study was to develop practical non-chemical treatments for postharvest disinfestations of legumes using ...

  13. CAN WE IMPROVE THE NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF LEGUME SEEDS?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The FAO statistics for 2001 show that 274 million metric tonnes (Mt) of grain legumes were produced across the World, of which 177 million were soybeans (half of which were produced in the USA) compared with 2 trillion Mt of cereals. Legume seeds are put to a myriad of uses, both nutritional and in...

  14. Treatment protocol development for disinfesting legumes using radio frequency energy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is an urgent need to develop technically effective and environmentally sound phytosanitary and quarantine treatments for the legume industry to replace chemical fumigation. The goal of this study was to develop practical non-chemical treatments for postharvest disinfestations of legumes using ...

  15. Tuberous legumes: preliminary evaluation of tropical Australian and introduced species as fuel crops

    SciTech Connect

    Saxon, E.C.

    1981-04-01

    The evaluation of native and introduced legumes with starch-storing roots or tubers was undertaken to test whether plants traditionally collected as food by Australian aborigines might have a role in the development of crops for liquid fuel production (by fermentation of carbohydrates to ethanol). Tuberous-rooted legumes from overseas were planted at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, division of Tropical Crops and Pastures, Kimberley Research Station, Western Australia (15/sup 0/39'S, 128/sup 0/42'E) in December 1974, March 1978 and February 1979. Roots from the latter plantings were harvested in June 1979. Native plant material was collected during visits to aboriginal communities in the Kimberleys between April and June 1979. The native and introduced specimens were analyzed for fermentable carbohydrate and protein content. Several native plants appear more promising than introduced species as liquid fuel crops.

  16. Global Synthesis of Drought Effects on Food Legume Production.

    PubMed

    Daryanto, Stefani; Wang, Lixin; Jacinthe, Pierre-André

    2015-01-01

    Food legume crops play important roles in conservation farming systems and contribute to food security in the developing world. However, in many regions of the world, their production has been adversely affected by drought. Although water scarcity is a severe abiotic constraint of legume crops productivity, it remains unclear how the effects of drought co-vary with legume species, soil texture, agroclimatic region, and drought timing. To address these uncertainties, we collected literature data between 1980 and 2014 that reported monoculture legume yield responses to drought under field conditions, and analyzed this data set using meta-analysis techniques. Our results showed that the amount of water reduction was positively related with yield reduction, but the extent of the impact varied with legume species and the phenological state during which drought occurred. Overall, lentil (Lens culinaris), groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) were found to experience lower drought-induced yield reduction compared to legumes such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and green gram (Vigna radiate). Yield reduction was generally greater when legumes experienced drought during their reproductive stage compared to during their vegetative stage. Legumes grown in soil with medium texture also exhibited greater yield reduction compared to those planted on soil of either coarse or fine texture. In contrast, regions and their associated climatic factors did not significantly affect legume yield reduction. In the face of changing climate, our study provides useful information for agricultural planning and research directions for development of drought-resistant legume species to improve adaptation and resilience of agricultural systems in the drought-prone regions of the world. PMID:26061704

  17. Global Synthesis of Drought Effects on Food Legume Production

    PubMed Central

    Daryanto, Stefani; Wang, Lixin; Jacinthe, Pierre-André

    2015-01-01

    Food legume crops play important roles in conservation farming systems and contribute to food security in the developing world. However, in many regions of the world, their production has been adversely affected by drought. Although water scarcity is a severe abiotic constraint of legume crops productivity, it remains unclear how the effects of drought co-vary with legume species, soil texture, agroclimatic region, and drought timing. To address these uncertainties, we collected literature data between 1980 and 2014 that reported monoculture legume yield responses to drought under field conditions, and analyzed this data set using meta-analysis techniques. Our results showed that the amount of water reduction was positively related with yield reduction, but the extent of the impact varied with legume species and the phenological state during which drought occurred. Overall, lentil (Lens culinaris), groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) were found to experience lower drought-induced yield reduction compared to legumes such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and green gram (Vigna radiate). Yield reduction was generally greater when legumes experienced drought during their reproductive stage compared to during their vegetative stage. Legumes grown in soil with medium texture also exhibited greater yield reduction compared to those planted on soil of either coarse or fine texture. In contrast, regions and their associated climatic factors did not significantly affect legume yield reduction. In the face of changing climate, our study provides useful information for agricultural planning and research directions for development of drought-resistant legume species to improve adaptation and resilience of agricultural systems in the drought-prone regions of the world. PMID:26061704

  18. Randomized controlled trial on the effects of legumes on cardiovascular risk factors in women with abdominal obesity

    PubMed Central

    Safaeiyan, Abdolrasoul; Pourghassem-Gargari, Bahram; Zarrin, Rasoul; Fereidooni, Javid; Alizadeh, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The effect of legume-based hypocaloric diet on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in women is unclear. This study provides an opportunity to find effects of high-legume diet on CVD risk factors in women who consumed high legumes at baseline. METHODS This randomized controlled trial was undertaken in 34 premenopausal women with central obesity. After 2 weeks of a run-in period on an isocaloric diet, subjects were randomly assigned into two groups: (1) hypocaloric diet enriched with legumes (HDEL) (n = 17) (two servings per day) and (2) hypocaloric diet without legumes (HDWL) (n = 17) for 6 weeks. The following variables were assessed before intervention, 3, and 6 weeks after it: Waist to hip ratio (WHR), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high-sensitive-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), nitric oxides (NOx), and Malondialdehyde (MDA). RESULTS Both hypocaloric diets reduced hs-CRP in 3 weeks and returned it to basal values after 6 weeks (P = 0.004). HDWL significantly reduced WHR [P = 0.010 (3.2%)] and increased TC [P < 0.001 (6.3%)]. Despite the significant effect of HDEL on increasing TAC in 3 weeks [P = 0.050 (4%)], the level of TAC remained the same in 6 weeks. None of the diets had any significant effects on NOx and MDA. CONCLUSION The study indicated that beneficial effects of legumes on TC, LDL-C, and hs-CRP were achieved by three servings per week, and consuming more amounts of these products had no more advantages. PMID:26405440

  19. Phenolphthalein false-positive reactions from legume root nodules.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Daniel; Kovacs, Frank

    2014-03-01

    Presumptive tests for blood play a critical role in the examination of physical evidence and in the determination of subsequent analysis. The catalytic power of hemoglobin allows colorimetric reactions employing phenolphthalein (Kastle-Meyer test) to indicate "whether" blood is present. Consequently, DNA profiles extracted from phenolphthalein-positive stains are presumed to be from blood on the evidentiary item and can lead to the identification of "whose" blood is present. Crushed nodules from a variety of legumes yielded phenolphthalein false-positive reactions that were indistinguishable from true bloodstains both in color quality and in developmental time frame. Clothing and other materials stained by nodules also yielded phenolphthalein false-positive reactivity for several years after nodule exposure. Nodules from leguminous plants contain a protein (leghemoglobin) which is structurally and functionally similar to hemoglobin. Testing of purified leghemoglobin confirmed this protein as a source of phenolphthalein reactivity. A scenario is presented showing how the presence of leghemoglobin from nodule staining can mislead investigators. PMID:24313711

  20. [Aflatoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus in soya and other legumes].

    PubMed

    Topsy, K

    1977-01-01

    There is no doubt that our programme of applied nutrition must include soya on account of the high nutritive value of the legume. This underlines research undertaken here regarding the risks of contamination by A. flavus and the subsequent formation of aflatoxins on and in soya beans. We have studied on parallel lines soya beans and other legumes important in the local dietary habits. These legumes are either obtained locally or imported. On every specimen of legume we have tried to confirm, or otherwise, the presence of A. flavus and the aflatoxins. This was followed by experimenting on the conditions for growth and formation of aflatoxins on every one of the legumes. During subsequent experiments we have studied mixtures of legumes containing soya. Research on these lines has shown the inhibitory effects of legumes such as lentils, dried garden peas, Bengal gram, green peas, red peas, and broad beans on the growth of A. flavus and the formation of aflatoxins. Groundnut, on the other hand, seems to encourage such growth and such formation. The results of the experiments carried out, as above, lead us to conclude that soya must form part of our national food monitoring programme. PMID:418721

  1. Negotiation of mutualism: rhizobia and legumes

    PubMed Central

    Akçay, Erol; Roughgarden, Joan

    2006-01-01

    The evolution and persistence of biological cooperation have been an important puzzle in evolutionary theory. Here, we suggest a new approach based on bargaining theory to tackle the question. We present a mechanistic model for negotiation of benefits between a nitrogen-fixing nodule and a legume plant. To that end, we first derive growth rates for the nodule and plant from metabolic models of each as a function of material fluxes between them. We use these growth rates as pay-off functions in the negotiation process, which is analogous to collective bargaining between a firm and a workers' union. Our model predicts that negotiations lead to the Nash bargaining solution, maximizing the product of players' pay-offs. This work introduces elements of cooperative game theory into the field of mutualistic interactions. In the discussion of the paper, we argue for the benefits of such an approach in studying the question of biological cooperation. PMID:17015340

  2. Biological Potential of Sixteen Legumes in China

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yang; Cheng, Xuzhen; Wang, Lixia; Wang, Suhua; Ren, Guixing

    2011-01-01

    Phenolic acids have been identified in a variety of legumes including lima bean, broad bean, common bean, pea, jack bean, goa bean, adzuki bean, hyacinth bean, chicking vetch, garbanzo bean, dral, cow bean, rice bean, mung bean and soybean. The present study was carried out with the following aims: (1) to identify and quantify the individual phenolic acid and determine the total phenolic content (TPC); (2) to assess their antioxidant activity, inhibition activities of α-glucosidase, tyrosinase, and formation of advanced glycation endproducts; and (3) to investigate correlations among the phytochemicals and biological activity. Common bean possesses the highest antioxidant activity and advanced glycation endproducts formation inhibition activity. Adzuki bean has the highest α-glucosidase inhibition activity, and mung bean has the highest tyrosinase inhibition activity. There are significant differences in phytochemical content and functional activities among the bean species investigated. Selecting beans can help treat diseases such as dermatological hyperpigmentation illness, type 2 diabetes and associated cardiovascular diseases. PMID:22072935

  3. Use of metabolomics for the chemotaxonomy of legume-associated Ascochyta and allied genera

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Wonyong; Peever, Tobin L.; Park, Jeong-Jin; Park, Chung-Min; Gang, David R.; Xian, Ming; Davidson, Jenny A.; Infantino, Alessandro; Kaiser, Walter J.; Chen, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    Chemotaxonomy and the comparative analysis of metabolic features of fungi have the potential to provide valuable information relating to ecology and evolution, but have not been fully explored in fungal biology. Here, we investigated the chemical diversity of legume-associated Ascochyta and Phoma species and the possible use of a metabolomics approach using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for their classification. The metabolic features of 45 strains including 11 known species isolated from various legumes were extracted, and the datasets were analyzed using chemometrics methods such as principal component and hierarchical clustering analyses. We found a high degree of intra-species consistency in metabolic profiles, but inter-species diversity was high. Molecular phylogenies of the legume-associated Ascochyta/Phoma species were estimated using sequence data from three protein-coding genes and the five major chemical groups that were detected in the hierarchical clustering analysis were mapped to the phylogeny. Clusters based on similarity of metabolic features were largely congruent with the species phylogeny. These results indicated that evolutionarily distinct fungal lineages have diversified their metabolic capacities as they have evolved independently. This whole metabolomics approach may be an effective tool for chemotaxonomy of fungal taxa lacking information on their metabolic content. PMID:26847260

  4. Functional properties of thermally treated legume flours.

    PubMed

    Nagmani, B; Prakash, J

    1997-05-01

    Functional properties of four thermally treated decorticated legume flours namely, bengal gram (Cicer arietinum), black gram (Phaseolus f1p4o Roxb.), green gram (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) and lentils (Lens esculenta) were studied. Samples with moisture levels of 3.2, 3.3, 1.3 and 5.0% for all four were subjected to dry heat treatment in a covered vessel in pressure cooker. (Untreated flours served as controls. Thermal treatment lowered nitrogen solubility profiles of all flours and increased water absorption capacities in bengal gram (146) black gram (451) and lentil (206) over control values of 138, 441 and 180 ml/100 g of flour respectively. Fat absorption capacities decreased in thermally treated bengal gram and black gram (242 and 292) as against 298 and 303 ml/100 g for untreated samples respectively. Foaming capacity also showed a decrease in thermally treated bengal gram and black gram by 28 and 53% respectively over controls. Two deep fat fried Indian products namely, 'Seviya' and 'Chakli' were prepared using two of the legumes. Proximate compositional analysis revealed that products prepared with thermally treated flours absorbed less fat. The sensory scores for appearance, texture, flavour and overall quality obtained by Seviya were 6.04, 6.20, 5.98 and 6.40 for products prepared with untreated flour and 5.74, 5.78, 5.70 and 5.68 for product prepared with treated flour respectively. Chakli prepared with thermally treated flour obtained significantly lower scores of 6.08, 5.2, 5.42, and 5.88 as against 6.78, 6.68, 6.68 and 6.88 obtained by products prepared with untreated flour for similar attributes. PMID:9205596

  5. The role of the testa during development and in establishment of dormancy of the legume seed

    PubMed Central

    Smýkal, Petr; Vernoud, Vanessa; Blair, Matthew W.; Soukup, Aleš; Thompson, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    Timing of seed germination is one of the key steps in plant life cycles. It determines the beginning of plant growth in natural or agricultural ecosystems. In the wild, many seeds exhibit dormancy and will only germinate after exposure to certain environmental conditions. In contrast, crop seeds germinate as soon as they are imbibed usually at planting time. These domestication-triggered changes represent adaptations to cultivation and human harvesting. Germination is one of the common sets of traits recorded in different crops and termed the “domestication syndrome.” Moreover, legume seed imbibition has a crucial role in cooking properties. Different seed dormancy classes exist among plant species. Physical dormancy (often called hardseededness), as found in legumes, involves the development of a water-impermeable seed coat, caused by the presence of phenolics- and suberin-impregnated layers of palisade cells. The dormancy release mechanism primarily involves seed responses to temperature changes in the habitat, resulting in testa permeability to water. The underlying genetic controls in legumes have not been identified yet. However, positive correlation was shown between phenolics content (e.g., pigmentation), the requirement for oxidation and the activity of catechol oxidase in relation to pea seed dormancy, while epicatechin levels showed a significant positive correlation with soybean hardseededness. myeloblastosis family of transcription factors, WD40 proteins and enzymes of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were involved in seed testa color in soybean, pea and Medicago, but were not tested directly in relation to seed dormancy. These phenolic compounds play important roles in defense against pathogens, as well as affecting the nutritional quality of products, and because of their health benefits, they are of industrial and medicinal interest. In this review, we discuss the role of the testa in mediating legume seed germination, with a focus on

  6. The role of the testa during development and in establishment of dormancy of the legume seed.

    PubMed

    Smýkal, Petr; Vernoud, Vanessa; Blair, Matthew W; Soukup, Aleš; Thompson, Richard D

    2014-01-01

    Timing of seed germination is one of the key steps in plant life cycles. It determines the beginning of plant growth in natural or agricultural ecosystems. In the wild, many seeds exhibit dormancy and will only germinate after exposure to certain environmental conditions. In contrast, crop seeds germinate as soon as they are imbibed usually at planting time. These domestication-triggered changes represent adaptations to cultivation and human harvesting. Germination is one of the common sets of traits recorded in different crops and termed the "domestication syndrome." Moreover, legume seed imbibition has a crucial role in cooking properties. Different seed dormancy classes exist among plant species. Physical dormancy (often called hardseededness), as found in legumes, involves the development of a water-impermeable seed coat, caused by the presence of phenolics- and suberin-impregnated layers of palisade cells. The dormancy release mechanism primarily involves seed responses to temperature changes in the habitat, resulting in testa permeability to water. The underlying genetic controls in legumes have not been identified yet. However, positive correlation was shown between phenolics content (e.g., pigmentation), the requirement for oxidation and the activity of catechol oxidase in relation to pea seed dormancy, while epicatechin levels showed a significant positive correlation with soybean hardseededness. myeloblastosis family of transcription factors, WD40 proteins and enzymes of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were involved in seed testa color in soybean, pea and Medicago, but were not tested directly in relation to seed dormancy. These phenolic compounds play important roles in defense against pathogens, as well as affecting the nutritional quality of products, and because of their health benefits, they are of industrial and medicinal interest. In this review, we discuss the role of the testa in mediating legume seed germination, with a focus on structural

  7. Digestion rate of legume carbohydrates and glycemic index of legume-based meals.

    PubMed

    Araya, Héctor; Pak, Nelly; Vera, Gloria; Alviña, Marcela

    2003-03-01

    A study was performed to examine the rate of digestion of available carbohydrate in legumes and its mixtures with cereals, prepared as commonly eaten. The legumes and cereals studied were lentil (Lens sculenta), pea (Pisum sativum), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, var tortola), rice (Oryza sativa) and spaghetti. Foods were purchased at the city market. Total starch content and the carbohydrate digestion rates were determined using the enzymatic method proposed by Englyst et al. Total starch levels ranged from 7.78 g/100 g in cooked flour bean to 20.6 g/100 g in a bean-spaghetti dish, and dietary fiber contents ranged from 2.4 g/100 g in a cooked 70:30 lentil-rice mixture to 5.26 g/100 g in a cooked whole bean. The rapid digestion rate carbohydrates showed values from 4.8 in the bean soup to 8.9 in the bean-spaghetti combination. The same results show, expressed as rapid available glucose (RAG), the amount of rapid carbohydrate/100 g food or meal as eaten, and as the starch digestion index (SDI), the percentage of rapid carbohydrate digestion rate in relation to the total amount of carbohydrate. The RAG values ranged between 5.0 for cooked beans and 10 for cooked beans and spaghetti, and the SDI ranged between 40 for cooked pea flour and 62 for cooked bean flour. Legumes prepared as soup showed a higher rapid digestion rate than legumes prepared as whole grain. The bean-spaghetti based-meal and the lentil-based meal showed glycemic index mean and standard deviation values of 76.8 +/- 43.4 and 49.3 +/- 29.5, RAG values of 7.0 and 6.0, and SDI values of 57 and 54, respectively. The knowledge of the importance of the carbohydrate digestion rates in human health in increasing, and probably will soon be used in the development of the food pyramid. The foods with a moderate fraction of rapid digestion rate, such as legumes, should be included in the base of the pyramid. PMID:12701368

  8. Legumes, N2 fixation and the H2 cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layzell, D. B.

    2004-12-01

    Legume plants such as soybean or pea can form symbiotic, N2 fixing associations with bacteria that exist in root nodules. For every N2 fixed, 1 to 3 H2 are produced as a by-product of the nitrogenase reaction. Therefore, a typical N2 fixing legume crop produces about 200,000 L H2 gas (at STP) per hectare per crop season. This paper will summarize our current understanding of the processes leading to H2 production in legumes, the magnitude of H2 production associated with global cropping systems, and the implications for its production and oxidation on both the legumes and the soils in which they grow. Specific points may include: ˜ In symbioses lacking uptake hydrogenase (HUP) activity (thought to be the majority of crop legumes), the H2 diffuses into the soil where it is oxidized by soil microbes that grow up around the legume nodules. The kinetic properties of these microbes are very different (higher Km and Vmax) from that of microbes in soils exposed to normal air (ca. 0.5 ppm H2); ˜ Laboratory studies indicate that 60% of the reducing power from H2 is coupled to O2 uptake, whereas 40% is coupled to autotrophic CO2 fixation. The latter process should increase soil carbon stocks by about 25 kg C/ha/yr; ˜ At the site of the nitrogenase enzyme, H2 production is autocatalytic such that the higher the H2 concentration, the more H2 is produced and the less N2 fixed. The variable O2 diffusion barrier in legumes can act to restrict H2 diffusion from the nodule, thereby increasing the relative magnitude of H2 production versus N2 fixation; ˜ Studies to understand why legume symbioses make such an energy investment in H2 production have led to the discovery that H2 treated soils have improved fertility, supporting the growth and yield of legume and non-legume crops. This observation may account for the benefits of legumes when used in rotation with cereal crops, a phenomenon that has been used by farmers for over 2000 years, but which has remained unexplained. An

  9. Analysis of interspecies physicochemical variation of grain legume seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybiński, Wojciech; Rusinek, Robert; Szot, Bogusław; Bocianowski, Jan; Starzycki, Michał

    2014-10-01

    The paper presents an attempt to assess the reaction of seeds to mechanical loads taking into account their geometry expressed as seed thickness and 1000 seed weight. The initial material comprised 33 genotypes of grain legume plants and included cultivars registered in the country and breeding lines that are subject to pre-registration trials. The analysis of variance revealed significant diversity of the cultivars and lines of the species studied in terms of each of the analysed trait. The highest weight of 1000 seeds were obtained for white lupine seeds and peas, the lowest for andean lupine seeds. The maximum deformation and energy were obtained for white lupine seeds, the lowest for pea seeds, the maximum force and module the lowest values were determined for narrow-leafed lupine and pea. The highest values of protein were obtained for andean and yellow lupine, a fat content for andean and white lupine. The fatty acid profile as much as 70% or more were linoleic and oleic acids. Against the background of all the species are distinguished by white lupine seeds with a high content of oleic acid and the lowest of linoleic acid, for yellow lupine were obtained the inverse ratio of the two acids.

  10. Legumes Can Increase Cadmium Contamination in Neighboring Crops

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jianjun; Xu, Ligen; Yang, Xiantian; Yong, Jean W. H.; Chen, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Legumes are widely used in many cropping systems because they share their nitrogen fixation products and phosphorus mobilization activities with their neighbors. In the current study, however, we showed that co-cultivation with legumes increased cadmium (Cd) contamination in the adjacent crops. Both field and mesocosm experiments indicated that legumes increased Cd levels in edible parts and shoots of four neighboring crops and five maize varieties tested, regardless of the Cd levels in the soil. This enhanced Cd accumulation in crops was attributed to root interactions that alter the rhizosphere environment. Co-cultivation with legumes reduced soil pH, which somewhat increased the exchangeable forms of Cd. Our results have demonstrated the inevitable increases in Cd levels of crops as a direct result of co-cultivation with legumes even under situations when these levels are below the permissible threshold. With this new revelation, we need to consider carefully the current cropping systems involving legumes and perhaps to re-design the current and future cropping systems in view of avoiding food contamination by Cd. PMID:22905189

  11. Hormonal Control of Lateral Root and Nodule Development in Legumes

    PubMed Central

    Bensmihen, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Many plants can establish symbioses with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, some of which lead to nodulation, including legumes. Indeed, in the rhizobium/legume symbiosis, new root organs, called nodules, are formed by the plant in order to host the rhizobia in protective conditions, optimized for nitrogen fixation. In this way, these plants can benefit from the reduction of atmospheric dinitrogen into ammonia by the hosted bacteria, and in exchange the plant provides the rhizobia with a carbon source. Since this symbiosis is costly for the plant it is highly regulated. Both legume nodule and lateral root organogenesis involve divisions of the root inner tissues, and both developmental programs are tightly controlled by plant hormones. In fact, most of the major plant hormones, such as auxin, cytokinins, abscisic acid, and strigolactones, control both lateral root formation and nodule organogenesis, but often in an opposite manner. This suggests that the sensitivity of legume plants to some phytohormones could be linked to the antagonism that exists between the processes of nodulation and lateral root formation. Here, we will review the implication of some major phytohormones in lateral root formation in legumes, compare them with their roles in nodulation, and discuss specificities and divergences from non-legume eudicot plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:27135340

  12. Estimating variability in grain legume yields across Europe and the Americas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cernay, Charles; Ben-Ari, Tamara; Pelzer, Elise; Meynard, Jean-Marc; Makowski, David

    2015-06-01

    Grain legume production in Europe has recently come under scrutiny. Although legume crops are often promoted to provide environmental services, European farmers tend to turn to non-legume crops. It is assumed that high variability in legume yields explains this aversion, but so far this hypothesis has not been tested. Here, we estimate the variability of major grain legume and non-legume yields in Europe and the Americas from yield time series over 1961-2013. Results show that grain legume yields are significantly more variable than non-legume yields in Europe. These differences are smaller in the Americas. Our results are robust at the level of the statistical methods. In all regions, crops with high yield variability are allocated to less than 1% of cultivated areas. Although the expansion of grain legumes in Europe may be hindered by high yield variability, some species display risk levels compatible with the development of specialized supply chains.

  13. Estimating variability in grain legume yields across Europe and the Americas

    PubMed Central

    Cernay, Charles; Ben-Ari, Tamara; Pelzer, Elise; Meynard, Jean-Marc; Makowski, David

    2015-01-01

    Grain legume production in Europe has recently come under scrutiny. Although legume crops are often promoted to provide environmental services, European farmers tend to turn to non-legume crops. It is assumed that high variability in legume yields explains this aversion, but so far this hypothesis has not been tested. Here, we estimate the variability of major grain legume and non-legume yields in Europe and the Americas from yield time series over 1961–2013. Results show that grain legume yields are significantly more variable than non-legume yields in Europe. These differences are smaller in the Americas. Our results are robust at the level of the statistical methods. In all regions, crops with high yield variability are allocated to less than 1% of cultivated areas. Although the expansion of grain legumes in Europe may be hindered by high yield variability, some species display risk levels compatible with the development of specialized supply chains. PMID:26054055

  14. Legume seeds and colorectal cancer revisited: Protease inhibitors reduce MMP-9 activity and colon cancer cell migration.

    PubMed

    Lima, A I G; Mota, J; Monteiro, S A V S; Ferreira, R M S B

    2016-04-15

    MMP-9 activity is strongly related to cancer growth and metastization. This study aimed at assessing the inhibitory potential of the major seed protein fractions from eight selected legume species towards MMP-9 activity in colon carcinoma cells. Albumin and globulin fractions were screened for MMP-9 inhibitors, using a fluorometric assay and gelatin zymography. Their effect on HT29 cell proliferation and cell migration was tested, as well as on the corresponding intrinsic cellular MMP-9 activities. Seed proteins include potent inhibitors of MMP-9, particularly low molecular mass proteins. Their effectiveness differs greatly among species, with a positive correlation detected between their inhibitory activity and the reduction in cell migration. Lupin seeds contain the most efficient MMP-9 inhibitors of all legume seeds analyzed, inhibiting both gelatinases and HT29 migration and growth, while pea seeds showed no effect. Results reveal legume protein MMPIs as novel metalloproteinase inhibitors with possible pharmacological interest. This may be important for selecting leguminous species with potential use in anti-cancer diets. PMID:26616921

  15. The Purification, Properties, and Localization of an Abundant Legume Seed Lectin Cross-Reactive Material from Spartium junceum 1

    PubMed Central

    Hankins, Charles N.; Herman, Eliot M.; Kindinger, Juanita; Shannon, Leland M.

    1991-01-01

    The seeds of Spartium junceum contained a large quantity of lectin-like protein that did not appear to be either a hemagglutinin or active lectin. The cross-reactive material (CRM), like most legume seed lectins, was a tetrameric glycoprotein of about 130,000 Mr. The singlesized subunits of about 33,000 Mr were not covalently associated. The amino acid composition was typical of legume lectins and was rich in hydroxy-amino acids and poor in sulfur-containing amino acids. The Spartium CRM contained about 3.5% covalently associated carbohydrate, most likely of the high-mannose type, since the CRM was precipitated by concanavalin A. The CRM was localized by electron-microscopic immunocytochemistry and found to be exclusively in protein-filled vacuoles (protein bodies). Because this protein was so similar immunologically, structurally, and in its physiology, to classic legume seed lectins, it is most likely a lectin homolog. Similar seed lectin CRMs appear to be both common and widespread in the Leguminosae. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:16668191

  16. [Nutritional changes caused by the germination of legumes commonly eaten in Chile].

    PubMed

    Camacho, L; Sierra, C; Campos, R; Guzmán, E; Marcus, D

    1992-09-01

    The changes promoted by germination on phytates, oligosaccharides, crude protein, amino acids and riboflavin contents of black and white cultivars of beans, lentils, chicken-pea and peas, were studied. Seeds germination was carried out in darkness at 25 degrees C and 85% RH during 72 hours, previously soaked overnight in a solution of sodium hypochlorite at a concentration of 50 ppm. Germination capacity was assessed by determining hypocotyl and epicotyl lengths and percent of sprouted seed. The seeds were milled and freeze-dried for the chemical analysis. Germination promoted a significant increase in crude protein content and reduction also significant in phytates levels. These changes were attributed to an increase of proteases and phytase activities. In fact, this enzyme would make a solubilization of phytates and would release soluble protein and minerals. A significant reduction of flatulence oligosaccharides took place, which was also explained by an increase of alpha-galactosidase concentration. Sprouted seeds showed a higher content of almost all amino acid than crude legumes, although this change was variable. Significant increase of riboflavin was also found. Finally, germination decreased ashes and fat contents. These findings were determined in all legumes, although both cultivars of beans showed a higher response to the biochemical changes. PMID:1342162

  17. In situ release of mucus and DOC-lipid from the corals Acropora variabilis and Stylophora pistillata in different light regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crossland, C. J.

    1987-07-01

    Rates of mucus and DOC-lipid release were determined for colonies of Acropora variabilis and Stylophora pistillata at 5 m depth and for a colony of A. variabilis at 23 m depth. In addition, colonies at 5 m were shaded to simulate ambient irradiance at 6 m, 10 m and 16 m depth to evaluate the effect of light on the rates of release. A. variabilis released more mucus and DOC-lipid at 5 m than at 23 m depth. For both corals, the night rates were about 30% those of the day. A reduction in total integrated irradiance decreased mucus output from the corals. Similarly, DOC-lipid release showed a diurnal pattern and diminished with reduction in daily irradiance. For both coral species, DOC-lipid release rates were greater in the afternoon than in the morning. The night rates were less than 55% those of the day. The DOC-lipid comprised wax esters and a phospholipid fraction. The diurnal variation was due to changes in yield of wax esters which contributed >90% of the carbon released as DOC-lipid. In situ release of mucus and DOC-lipid was infuenced by light effects on phototrophic carbon metabolism. A daily budget for carbon released as mucus and DOC-lipid was estimated for each coral species at 5 m depth.

  18. [Baked product development based fermented legumes and cereals for schoolchildren snack].

    PubMed

    Granito, Marisela; Valero, Yolmar; Zambrano, Rosaura

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this work was to develop three foodstuffs based on mixes of wheat and fermented and non-fermented legumes, for the purpose of contributing with a healthy alternative for school snacks. To this aim, refined wheat flour was partially substituted with whole legume flours for the preparation of cakes, brownies and cookies, foodstuffs traditionally consumed by school age children. Cakes were formulated substituting 20% of wheat flour with Phaseolus vulgaris flour, brownies with 30% of Cajanus cajan flour and cookies with 30% of Vigna sinensis flour, using fermented and non-fermented legumes in the three products. When these products were subjected to sensorial evaluation through a test of degree of acceptability and using a hedonic scale of 7 points, values higher than 5 in the attributes taste, color and overall appraisal were found for all the products. In addition, the preference was measured with a group of 90 school children, corroborating the results obtained at laboratory level. Chemical characterization showed protein contents between 12 and 13% for the cake, 10 and 11% for the brownies and 10% for the cookies and protein digestibilities in vitro of 91%, 87% and 93%, respectively. The calorie supply, calculated per portion was of 199 kcal, 246 kcal and 237 kcal, for cakes, brownies and cookies, respectively. It was concluded that it is technically possible to incorporate fermented and non-fermented Phaseolus vulgaris, Vigna sinensis and Cajanus cajan, to highly consumed products such as cakes, brownies and cookies with a higher nutritional content and well-accepted by school-age children. PMID:21090280

  19. Priority regions for research on dryland cereals and legumes

    PubMed Central

    Hyman, Glenn; Barona, Elizabeth; Biradar, Chandrashekhar; Guevara, Edward; Dixon, John; Beebe, Steve; Castano, Silvia Elena; Alabi, Tunrayo; Gumma, Murali Krishna; Sivasankar, Shoba; Rivera, Ovidio; Espinosa, Herlin; Cardona, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Dryland cereals and legumes  are important crops in farming systems across the world.  Yet they are frequently neglected among the priorities for international agricultural research and development, often due to lack of information on their magnitude and extent. Given what we know about the global distribution of dryland cereals and legumes, what regions should be high priority for research and development to improve livelihoods and food security? This research evaluated the geographic dimensions of these crops and the farming systems where they are found worldwide. The study employed geographic information science and data to assess the key farming systems and regions for these crops. Dryland cereal and legume crops should be given high priority in 18 farming systems worldwide, where their cultivated area comprises more than 160 million ha. These regions include the dryer areas of South Asia, West and East Africa, the Middle East and North Africa, Central America and other parts of Asia. These regions are prone to drought and heat stress, have limiting soil constraints, make up half of the global population and account for 60 percent of the global poor and malnourished. The dryland cereal and legume crops and farming systems merit more research and development attention to improve productivity and address development problems. This project developed an open access dataset and information resource that provides the basis for future analysis of the geographic dimensions of dryland cereals and legumes. PMID:27303632

  20. Priority regions for research on dryland cereals and legumes.

    PubMed

    Hyman, Glenn; Barona, Elizabeth; Biradar, Chandrashekhar; Guevara, Edward; Dixon, John; Beebe, Steve; Castano, Silvia Elena; Alabi, Tunrayo; Gumma, Murali Krishna; Sivasankar, Shoba; Rivera, Ovidio; Espinosa, Herlin; Cardona, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Dryland cereals and legumes  are important crops in farming systems across the world.  Yet they are frequently neglected among the priorities for international agricultural research and development, often due to lack of information on their magnitude and extent. Given what we know about the global distribution of dryland cereals and legumes, what regions should be high priority for research and development to improve livelihoods and food security? This research evaluated the geographic dimensions of these crops and the farming systems where they are found worldwide. The study employed geographic information science and data to assess the key farming systems and regions for these crops. Dryland cereal and legume crops should be given high priority in 18 farming systems worldwide, where their cultivated area comprises more than 160 million ha. These regions include the dryer areas of South Asia, West and East Africa, the Middle East and North Africa, Central America and other parts of Asia. These regions are prone to drought and heat stress, have limiting soil constraints, make up half of the global population and account for 60 percent of the global poor and malnourished. The dryland cereal and legume crops and farming systems merit more research and development attention to improve productivity and address development problems. This project developed an open access dataset and information resource that provides the basis for future analysis of the geographic dimensions of dryland cereals and legumes. PMID:27303632

  1. Comparative analyses of phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity, and color of cool season legumes and other selected food legumes.

    PubMed

    Xu, B J; Yuan, S H; Chang, S K C

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of U.S.-produced cool season legumes. A total of 33 cool season legume samples were selected. Some common beans and soybeans were included for comparisons. Total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and condensed tannin content (CTC) were analyzed. Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) were used for analyzing antioxidant properties. Color of the legume flour and the seed coat was also analyzed. TPC, TFC, CTC, FRAP, DPPH, and ORAC values of legumes were significantly different not only between classes but also among samples within each class. Among cool season legume classes, lentils possessed the highest concentrations of the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities. Colored common beans and black soybeans exhibited higher TPC, TFC, CTC, FRAP, DPPH, and ORAC values than those of yellow peas, green peas, and chickpeas. Antioxidant activities (FRAP, DPPH, and ORAC) were strongly correlated (r= 0.96, 0.94, and 0.89, respectively, P < 0.01) with TPC. TPC and ORAC were moderately correlated (P < 0.01) with either the seed hull surface color or the flour color. PMID:17995859

  2. Linking Biomarker and Comparative Omics to Pathogens in Legumes.

    PubMed

    Diapari, Marwan

    2016-01-01

    It is envisioned that a more precise study of the association between the traits and biomarkers will dramatically decrease the time and costs required to bring new improved disease resistance lines to market. The field of omics has an enormous potential to assess diseases more precise, including the identification and understanding of pathogenic mechanisms in legume crops, and have been exemplified by a relatively large number of studies. Recently, molecular genetic studies have accumulated a huge amount of genotypic data, through a more affordable next generation sequencing (NGS) technology, causing the omics approaches to fall behind. In this paper I provide an overview of genomics and proteomics and their use in legume crops, including the use of comparative genomics to identify homologous markers within legume crops. PMID:26364313

  3. Interaction of proteases with legume seed inhibitors. Molecular features.

    PubMed

    de Seidl, D S

    1996-12-01

    After having found that raw black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) were toxic, while the cooked ones constitute the basic diet of the underdeveloped peoples of the world, in the sixties, our research directed by Dr. Jaffé, concentrated mainly around the detection and identification of the heat labile toxic factors in legume seeds. A micromethod for the detection of protease inhibitors (PI) in individual seeds was developed, for the purpose of establishing that the multiple trypsin inhibitors (TI) found in the Cubagua variety were expressions of single seeds and not a mixture of a non homogenous bean lot. Six isoinhibitors were isolated and purified, all of which were "double-headed" and interacted with trypsin (T) and chymotrypsin (CHT) independently and simultaneously, as shown by electrophoresis of their binary and ternary complexes with each and both enzymes. However, their affinity for the enzymes, including elastases, was rather variable, as well as their amino acid composition which consisted of 51 units for inhibitor V, the smallest, and 83 amino acids for inhibitor I, the largest. A low molecular weight protein fraction that inhibited subtilisin (S), but recognized neither T, CHT nor pancreatic elastase was detected in 63 varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris as well as in broad beans (Vicia faba), chick peas (Cicer arietinum), jack beans (Canavalia ensiformis), kidney beans (Vigna aureus), etc., It was absent though, in soybeans (Glycine max), lentils (Lens culinaris), green peas (Pisum sativum), cowpea (Vigna sinensis) and lupine seeds (Lupinus sp). Subtilisin inhibitors (SI) were isolated from black beans, broad beans, chick peas and jack beans. Their Mr is between 8-9KD and they show a rather high stability in the presence of denaturing agents. They are specific toward microbial proteases, in addition to subtilisins, Carlsberg and BPN', they inhibit the alkaline protease from Tritirachium album (Protease K), from Aspergillus oryzae and one isolated from

  4. Effect of processing methods on compositional evaluation of underutilized legume, Parkia roxburghii G. Don (yongchak) seeds.

    PubMed

    Sathya, Arumugam; Siddhuraju, Perumal

    2015-10-01

    The present study has been undertaken to analyze the effect of various processing methods like (i) soaking followed by autoclaving with (a) ash, (b) sodium bicarbonate, (c) sugar and (d) water; (ii) dry heating and (iii) fermentation on nutritional and antinutritional components of under-utilized tree legume Parkia roxburghii. The applied methods were found to enhance the protein (15-36 %) and lipid content (11-69 %) and to decrease the other proximal components. All the methods significantly reduced the antinutrients viz. condensed tannins, phytate, saponins, trypsin inhibitors, chymotrypsin inhibitors and lectins. Exceptionally, increased content was documented on total phenolics (117-207 %) and tannins (171-257 %). These reduced antinutritional loads have led to an increase in protein (9-20 %) and starch digestibility (75-254 %). Fermented kernels, the best processed form showed characteristic leguminous pattern for content and composition of amino acids, fatty acids and minerals. So knowledge gathering and exploration of nutritionally balanced under-utilized legumes would enhance food and nutritional security. PMID:26396363

  5. LEGUME GREEN FALLOW EFFECT ON SOIL WATER AT WHEAT PLANTING AND WHEAT YIELD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growing a legume cover crop in place of fallow in a winter wheat-fallow system can provide protection against erosion while adding nitrogen to the soil. However, the water used by the legume may reduce the following wheat yield. This study was conducted to quantify the effect of varying legume termi...

  6. Genome sequence of Ensifer medicae strain WSM1369; an effective microsymbiont of the annual legume Medicago sphaerocarpos

    PubMed Central

    Terpolilli, Jason; Garau, Giovanni; Hill, Yvette; Tian, Rui; Howieson, John; Bräu, Lambert; Goodwin, Lynne; Han, James; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Reeve, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Ensifer medicae WSM1369 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of Medicago. WSM1369 was isolated in 1993 from a nodule recovered from the roots of Medicago sphaerocarpos growing at San Pietro di Rudas, near Aggius in Sardinia (Italy). WSM1369 is an effective microsymbiont of the annual forage legumes M. polymorpha and M. sphaerocarpos. Here we describe the features of E. medicae WSM1369, together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 6,402,557 bp standard draft genome is arranged into 307 scaffolds of 307 contigs containing 6,656 protein-coding genes and 79 RNA-only encoding genes. This rhizobial genome is one of 100 sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project. PMID:24976897

  7. Bioactive Peptides in Cereals and Legumes: Agronomical, Biochemical and Clinical Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Malaguti, Marco; Dinelli, Giovanni; Leoncini, Emanuela; Bregola, Valeria; Bosi, Sara; Cicero, Arrigo F. G.; Hrelia, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    Cereals and legumes are key components of a healthy and balanced diet. Accordingly, many national nutritional guidelines emphasize their health promoting properties by placing them at the base of nutritional food pyramids. This concept is further validated by the observed correlation between a lower risk and occurrence of chronic diseases and the adherence to dietary patterns, like the Mediterranean diet, in which cereal grains, legumes and derived products represent a staple food. In the search for a dietary approach to control/prevent chronic degenerative diseases, protein derived bioactive peptides may represent one such source of health-enhancing components. These peptides may already be present in foods as natural components or may derive from hydrolysis by chemical or enzymatic treatments (digestion, hydrolysis or fermentation). Many reports are present in the literature regarding the bioactivity of peptides in vitro and a wide range of activities has been described, including antimicrobial properties, blood pressure-lowering (ACE inhibitory) effects, cholesterol-lowering ability, antithrombotic and antioxidant activities, enhancement of mineral absorption/bioavailability, cyto- or immunomodulatory effects, and opioid-like activities. However it is difficult to translate these observed effects to human. In fact, the active peptide may be degraded during digestion, or may not be absorbed or reach the target tissues at a concentration necessary to exert its function. This review will focus on bioactive peptides identified in cereals and legumes, from an agronomical and biochemical point of view, including considerations about requirements for the design of appropriate clinical trials necessary for the assessment of their nutraceutical effect in vivo. PMID:25405741

  8. Bioactive peptides in cereals and legumes: agronomical, biochemical and clinical aspects.

    PubMed

    Malaguti, Marco; Dinelli, Giovanni; Leoncini, Emanuela; Bregola, Valeria; Bosi, Sara; Cicero, Arrigo F G; Hrelia, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    Cereals and legumes are key components of a healthy and balanced diet. Accordingly, many national nutritional guidelines emphasize their health promoting properties by placing them at the base of nutritional food pyramids. This concept is further validated by the observed correlation between a lower risk and occurrence of chronic diseases and the adherence to dietary patterns, like the Mediterranean diet, in which cereal grains, legumes and derived products represent a staple food. In the search for a dietary approach to control/prevent chronic degenerative diseases, protein derived bioactive peptides may represent one such source of health-enhancing components. These peptides may already be present in foods as natural components or may derive from hydrolysis by chemical or enzymatic treatments (digestion, hydrolysis or fermentation). Many reports are present in the literature regarding the bioactivity of peptides in vitro and a wide range of activities has been described, including antimicrobial properties, blood pressure-lowering (ACE inhibitory) effects, cholesterol-lowering ability, antithrombotic and antioxidant activities, enhancement of mineral absorption/bioavailability, cyto- or immunomodulatory effects, and opioid-like activities. However it is difficult to translate these observed effects to human. In fact, the active peptide may be degraded during digestion, or may not be absorbed or reach the target tissues at a concentration necessary to exert its function. This review will focus on bioactive peptides identified in cereals and legumes, from an agronomical and biochemical point of view, including considerations about requirements for the design of appropriate clinical trials necessary for the assessment of their nutraceutical effect in vivo. PMID:25405741

  9. Legume adaptation to sulfur deficiency revealed by comparing nutrient allocation and seed traits in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Zuber, Hélène; Poignavent, Germain; Le Signor, Christine; Aimé, Delphine; Vieren, Eric; Tadla, Charlène; Lugan, Raphaël; Belghazi, Maya; Labas, Valérie; Santoni, Anne-Lise; Wipf, Daniel; Buitink, Julia; Avice, Jean-Christophe; Salon, Christophe; Gallardo, Karine

    2013-12-01

    Reductions in sulfur dioxide emissions and the use of sulfur-free mineral fertilizers are decreasing soil sulfur levels and threaten the adequate fertilization of most crops. To provide knowledge regarding legume adaptation to sulfur restriction, we subjected Medicago truncatula, a model legume species, to sulfur deficiency at various developmental stages, and compared the yield, nutrient allocation and seed traits. This comparative analysis revealed that sulfur deficiency at the mid-vegetative stage decreased yield and altered the allocation of nitrogen and carbon to seeds, leading to reduced levels of major oligosaccharides in mature seeds, whose germination was dramatically affected. In contrast, during the reproductive period, sulfur deficiency had little influence on yield and nutrient allocation, but the seeds germinated slowly and were characterized by low levels of a biotinylated protein, a putative indicator of germination vigor that has not been previously related to sulfur nutrition. Significantly, plants deprived of sulfur at an intermediary stage (flowering) adapted well by remobilizing nutrients from source organs to seeds, ensuring adequate quantities of carbon and nitrogen in seeds. This efficient remobilization of photosynthates may be explained by vacuolar sulfate efflux to maintain leaf metabolism throughout reproductive growth, as suggested by transcript and metabolite profiling. The seeds from these plants, deprived of sulfur at the floral transition, contained normal levels of major oligosaccharides but their germination was delayed, consistent with low levels of sucrose and the glycolytic enzymes required to restart seed metabolism during imbibition. Overall, our findings provide an integrative view of the legume response to sulfur deficiency. PMID:24118112

  10. Functional analysis reveals the possible role of the C-terminal sequences and PI motif in the function of lily (Lilium longiflorum) PISTILLATA (PI) orthologues

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ming-Kun; Hsieh, Wen-Ping; Yang, Chang-Hsien

    2012-01-01

    Two lily (Lilium longiflorum) PISTILLATA (PI) genes, Lily MADS Box Gene 8 and 9 (LMADS8/9), were characterized. LMADS9 lacked 29 C-terminal amino acids including the PI motif that was present in LMADS8. Both LMADS8/9 mRNAs were prevalent in the first and second whorl tepals during all stages of development and were expressed in the stamen only in young flower buds. LMADS8/9 could both form homodimers, but the ability of LMADS8 homodimers to bind to CArG1 was relatively stronger than that of LMADS9 homodimers. 35S:LMADS8 completely, and 35S:LMADS9 only partially, rescued the second whorl petal formation and partially converted the first whorl sepal into a petal-like structure in Arabidopsis pi-1 mutants. Ectopic expression of LMADS8-C (with deletion of the 29 amino acids of the C-terminal sequence) or LMADS8-PI (with only the PI motif deleted) only partially rescued petal formation in pi mutants, which was similar to what was observed in 35S:LMADS9/pi plants. In contrast, 35:LMADS9+L8C (with the addition of the 29 amino acids of the LMADS8 C-terminal sequence) or 35S:LMADS9+L8PI (with the addition of the LMADS8 PI motif) demonstrated an increased ability to rescue petal formation in pi mutants, which was similar to what was observed in 35S:LMADS8/pi plants. Furthermore, ectopic expression of LMADS8-M (with the MADS domain truncated) generated more severe dominant negative phenotypes than those seen in 35S:LMADS9-M flowers. These results revealed that the 29 amino acids including the PI motif in the C-terminal region of the lily PI orthologue are valuable for its function in regulating perianth organ formation. PMID:22068145

  11. Occurrence of associative effects between grasses and legumes in binary mixtures on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics.

    PubMed

    Niderkorn, V; Baumont, R; Le Morvan, A; Macheboeuf, D

    2011-04-01

    that, among the grass-legume mixtures tested in vitro, only the presence of SAN can interact with the grasses to reduce the degradation of proteins and the production of methane but with a transitory negative effect on fiber digestion. PMID:21415423

  12. Virulence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain A281 on legumes

    SciTech Connect

    Hood, E.E.; Fraley, R.T.; Chilton, M.D.

    1987-03-01

    This study addresses the basis of host range on legumes of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain A281, an L,L-succinamopine strain. The authors tested virulence of T-DNA and vir region constructs from this tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid with complementary Ti plasmid regions from heterologous nopaline and octopine strains.

  13. Resistance to ascochyta blights of cool season food legumes.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ascochyta blight is the most important disease problem of the cool season food legumes (peas, lentils, chickpeas, and faba beans) and is found in nearly all production regions around the world. Despite of the same common disease name, the pathogen species differ for each of the crops. These disease...

  14. Uses of tree legumes in semi-arid regions

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, P.

    1980-01-01

    Uses of tree legumes in semi-arid and arid regions are reviewed. This review is divided into sections according to the following general use categories: fuels; human food; livestock food; to increase yields of crops grown beneath their canopies;and control of desertification. (MHR)

  15. New legume hosts of Phakopsora pachyrhizi based on greenhouse evaluations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi, the causal organism of soybean rust, was first found on Glycine max in the continental U.S. in 2004, and subsequently on Pueraria lobata, Desmodium tortuosum, and three Phaseolus species in the field. The pathogen has been reported to occur on over 150 legume species worldwid...

  16. Differential Soil Acidity Tolerance of Tropical Legume Cover Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In tropical regions, soil acidity and low soil fertility are the most important yield limiting factors for sustainable crop production. Using legume cover crops as mulch is an important strategy not only to protect the soil loss from erosion but also ameliorating soil fertility. Information is limit...

  17. Insect Pest Management in Food Legumes: Future Strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food legumes such as chickpea, pigeonpea, cowpea, field pea, lentil, faba bean, blackgram, greengram, grasspea, and Phaseolus beans play an important role in the daily diets of people worldwide. A large number of insect pests attack these crops and cause extensive losses, namely Helicoverpa pod bo...

  18. Energy content of tropical grasses and legumes grown for bioenergy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biomass samples of the tropical grasses Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Staph, Brachiaria humidicola (Rendle) Schweick, Brachiaria decumbens Staph, Panicum maximum Jacq., Pennistetum alopecuroides (L.) Spreng and three species of the tropical legume Stylosanthes grown in Mato Grosso do Su...

  19. Grasses and Legumes for Bio-Based Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grasses and legumes are the foundation of ruminant animal agriculture, but over the last 50 years the use of forages has declined in the developed world, largely due to their displacement by high-energy grain feedstuffs. Keeping forages on the landscape to take advantage of their many environmental ...

  20. Converting perennial legumes to organic cropland without tillage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic producers are interested in developing a no-till system for crop production. In this study, we examined management tactics to convert perennial legumes to annual crops without tillage. Our hypothesis was that reducing carbohydrate production in the fall by mowing would favor winterkill. M...

  1. Contribution of legumes to the soil N pool.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fustec, Joëlle; Malagoli, Philippe; Mahieu, Stéphanie

    2010-05-01

    Grain legumes can be used for nitrogen acquisition in different ways in sustainable agriculture (Fustec et al., 2009). They are seen as a tool to reduce mineral N fertilizers in cropping systems. However, estimates of biological N fixation, N balance and N benefit either for the following crop or in mixed crops, remain unclear. The contribution of legumes to the soil N pool is difficult to measure, especially N rhizodeposition, since it is a critical point for assessing N benefits for other crops and for soil biological activity, and for reducing water pollution (Mayer et al., 2003). We adapted and refined the cotton-wick 15N stem labeling method for measuring the amount of soil N derived from rhizodeposition by field peas (Mahieu et al., 2007, 2009). The method was tested in different conditions in the field and in the greenhouse with various pea varieties and isolines. In addition, we used the cotton-wick method for assessing N transfers from pea to neighbouring durum wheat. In the greenhouse, a positive relationship was found between the amount of N rhizodeposits and the legume N content. N rhizodeposition was about 15% of the plant N and 30% in the field. In field pea / durum wheat intercrops, plant-plant N transfers were quantified and found to be bidirectional. Such results should be taken into account when estimating N benefits from biological N fixation by a grain legume crop and for the prediction of N economies in legume-based cropping systems. More studies dealing with rhizodeposit compounds and soil biological activity would now be necessary. Fustec et al. 2009. Agron. Sustain. Dev., DOI 10.1051/agro/2009003, in press. Mahieu et al. 2007. Plant Soil 295, 193-205. Mahieu et al. 2009. Soil Biol. Biochem. 41, 2236-2243. Mayer et al. 2003. Soil Biol. Biochem. 35, 21-28.

  2. The genetic and biochemical basis for nodulation of legumes by rhizobia

    SciTech Connect

    Pueppke, S.G.

    1996-05-01

    Soil bacteria of the genera Azorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, and Rhizobium are collectively termed rhizobia. They share the ability to penetrate legume roots and elicit morphological responses that lead to the appearance of nodules. Bacteria within these symbiotic structures fix atmosphere nitrogen and thus are of immense ecological and agricultural significance. Although modern genetic analysis of rhizobia began less than 20 years ago, dozens of nodulation genes have now been identified, some in multiple species of rhizobia. These genetic advances have led to the discovery of a host surveillance system encoded by nodD and to the identification of Nod factor signals. These derivatives of oligochitin are synthesized by the protein products of nodABC, nodFE, NodPQ, and other nodulation genes: they provoke symbiotic responses on the part of the host and have generated immense interest in recent years. The symbiotic functions of other nodulation genes are nonetheless uncertain, and there remain significant gaps in the knowledge of several large groups of rhizobia with interesting biological properties. This review focuses on the nodulation genes of rhizobia, with particular emphasis on the concept of biological specificity of symbiosis with legume host plants. 419 refs.

  3. Legumes and soybeans: overview of their nutritional profiles and health effects.

    PubMed

    Messina, M J

    1999-09-01

    Legumes play an important role in the traditional diets of many regions throughout the world. In contrast in Western countries beans tend to play only a minor dietary role despite the fact that they are low in fat and are excellent sources of protein, dietary fiber, and a variety of micronutrients and phytochemicals. Soybeans are unique among the legumes because they are a concentrated source of isoflavones. Isoflavones have weak estrogenic properties and the isoflavone genistein influences signal transduction. Soyfoods and isoflavones have received considerable attention for their potential role in preventing and treating cancer and osteoporosis. The low breast cancer mortality rates in Asian countries and the putative antiestrogenic effects of isoflavones have fueled speculation that soyfood intake reduces breast cancer risk. The available epidemiologic data are limited and only weakly supportive of this hypothesis, however, particularly for postmenopausal breast cancer. The data suggesting that soy or isoflavones may reduce the risk of prostate cancer are more encouraging. The weak estrogenic effects of isoflavones and the similarity in chemical structure between soybean isoflavones and the synthetic isoflavone ipriflavone, which was shown to increase bone mineral density in postmenopausal women, suggest that soy or isoflavones may reduce the risk of osteoporosis. Rodent studies tend to support this hypothesis, as do the limited preliminary data from humans. Given the nutrient profile and phytochemical contribution of beans, nutritionists should make a concerted effort to encourage the public to consume more beans in general and more soyfoods in particular. PMID:10479216

  4. Subspecialization of R2R3-MYB Repressors for Anthocyanin and Proanthocyanidin Regulation in Forage Legumes

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Nick W.

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of anthocyanin pigments and proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins) is regulated by MYB-bHLH-WDR (MBW) transcription factor complexes in all angiosperms studied to date. Tr-MYB133 and Tr-MYB134 were isolated from Trifolium repens and encode R2R3-MYBs that antagonize the activity of MBW activation complexes. These two genes are conserved in other legume species, and form two sub-clades within the larger anthocyanin/proanthocyanidin clade of MYB repressors. However, unlike petunia and Arabidopsis, these R2R3-MYB repressors do not prevent ectopic accumulation of anthocyanins or proanthocyanidins. Instead, they are expressed when anthocyanins or proanthocyanidins are being synthesized, and provide feedback regulation to MBW complexes. This feedback occurs because Tr-MYB133 and Tr-MYB134 are themselves regulated by MBW complexes. Tr-MYB133 is regulated by MBW complexes containing anthocyanin-related R2R3-MYB proteins (Tr-RED LEAF), while Tr-MYB134 is regulated by complexes containing the proanthocyanidin R2R3-MYBs (Tr-MYB14). Other features of the MBW gene regulation networks are also conserved within legumes, including the ability for the anthocyanin MBW complexes to activate the expression of the AN1/TT8 clade bHLH factor. The regulation of Tr-MYB133 and Tr-MYB134 by distinct, pathway-specific MBW complexes has resulted in subspecialization for controlling anthocyanin or proanthocyanidin synthesis. PMID:26779194

  5. Nutritional value and content of antinutritional compounds and toxics in ten wild legumes of Yucatan Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Sotelo, A; Contreras, E; Flores, S

    1995-02-01

    The chemical and toxicological composition of ten wild legumes collected in Yucatan, Mexico was determined. For each species the whole fruit, (seed and pod), were studied as well as the seed and pod separately. A higher protein content was found in the seeds of A. lebbeck and P. saman (37.07 and 37.60% respectively). In the seeds of L. longystilus, C. yucatanensis and P. keyense a high concentration of fat was found, especially in the first with 31.34%. A high quantity of fiber was found in the pods. In general, the samples were rich in lysine (especially seeds) and scant in sulfur amino acids and tryptophan. All the samples showed high concentration of potassium and calcium. Some of them exhibited significant concentrations of iron. The pods of P. saman and P. keyense showed a high content of lectins. In the seeds of C. yucatanensis and in the pod of P. keyense high concentrations of trypsin inhibitors were found 60 and 406.7 TUI/mg sample respectively. The presence of saponins, was detected in seven samples, of which the seed of P. keyense had the highest concentration. Alkaloids were found only in the whole fruit and pod of P. saman and cyanogenic glucosides were present in A. pennatula. In general terms, the whole legume showed better digestibility than the pods alone. PMID:7792259

  6. SoyBase and the legume information system: accessing information about the soybean and other legume genomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review describes two websites relevant for soybean research: SoyBase, and the Legume Information System (LIS). SoyBase and LIS have different objectives and areas of emphasis. SoyBase holds a wide range of specialized data in support of soybean breeding and research activities, with the primary...

  7. Nitrogen cycling: water use efficiency interactions in semi-arid ecosystems in relation to management of tree legumes (Prosopis)

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, P.; Clark, P.R.; Osborn, J.; Cannell, G.H.

    1980-04-01

    Plant productivity in semi-arid ecosystems is often limited by soil fertility as much as it is by moisture availability. A quantitative assessment of nitrogen limitations on water use efficiency has been made after careful review of plant water use efficiency data at high and low soil fertilities and after careful review of nitrogen inputs to semi arid ecosystems in the form of: blue-green algae-lichen crusts; non-symbiotic nitrogen fixers; rainfall; and tree legumes. This analysis indicates that plant productivity in semi-arid regions may be 10 fold more limited by nitrogen than moisture availability. Forage yields of non-nitrogen fixing trees and shrubs could be greatly increased by interplanting with drought adapted nitrogen fixers such as Prosopis and Acacia. Calculations based on water use efficiencies of annual legumes and nitrogen fixation values of tree legumes predict that well managed, spaced, and cared for orchards of specially selected Prosopis could produce 4000 Kgha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/ of 13% protein pods at 500 mm annual rainfall with only light fertilization with phosphate, potassium and sulfur. Field measurements of pod yields for 25 selections of 3 year old Prosopis grown under managed orchard conditions in southern California are presented. Spacing regimes and harvesting techniques for Prosopis are proposed to facilitate pod production.

  8. Effect of incorporating legume flour into semolina spaghetti on its cooking quality and glycaemic impact measured in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chillo, Stefania; Monro, J A; Mishra, S; Henry, C J

    2010-03-01

    Spaghetti is a favoured carbohydrate source because of its low glycaemic impact. The protein quality of semolina spaghetti is not ideal, however, and could be improved by including legume flour. We investigated whether incorporating legume flour in spaghetti, to improve its nutritional value, would affect its cooking quality and glycaemic impact. Four types of spaghetti containing 10% of either mung bean, soya bean, red lentil or chickpea flour were made and compared with a spaghetti control made only of durum semolina. Cooking quality was determined as the optimal cooking time (OCT), cooking loss (CL), dry matter (DM), swelling index, colour, hardness and adhesiveness. The spaghetti samples with legume flour were similar to one another and to the control in values of OCT, DM, swelling index, colour, CL, hardness and adhesiveness. Glycaemic impact of the samples was measured in vitro as release of rapidly available carbohydrate and slowly available carbohydrate during pancreatic digestion. The glycaemic index (GI) of the spaghetti samples was estimated by calculation, using data obtained for a reference food of known GI (shredded wheat horizontal line an extrusion-cooked wheat-only product). The shredded wheat underwent rapid parabolic digestion, and the near linear phase during which most of the starch was digested was completed between 20 and 60 min digestion. In contrast, the digestion of spaghetti was much slower and progressed almost linearly to completion. All spaghetti samples, moreover, were similarly susceptible to digestion, and compared with the wheat reference were all significantly lower in terms of relative glycaemic impact. We conclude that the incorporation of 10% legume flour in spaghetti to improve its nutritional value does not affect its cooking quality or increase its glycaemic impact. PMID:20113187

  9. Legume-Cereal Intercropping Improves Forage Yield, Quality and Degradability.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Yin, Binjie; Xie, Yuhuai; Li, Jing; Yang, Zaibin; Zhang, Guiguo

    2015-01-01

    Intercropping legume with cereal is an extensively applied planting pattern in crop cultivation. However, forage potential and the degradability of harvested mixtures from intercropping system remain unclear. To investigate the feasibility of applying an intercropping system as a forage supply source to ruminants, two consecutive experiments (experiments 1 and 2) involving a field cultivation trial and a subsequent in vivo degradable experiment were conducted to determine the forage production performance and the ruminally degradable characteristics of a harvested mixture from an alfalfa/corn-rye intercropping system. In experiment 1, the intercropping system was established by alternating alfalfa and corn or rye with a row ratio of 5:2. Dry matter (DM) and nutrient yields were determined. In experiment 2, forages harvested from the different treatments were used as feedstuff to identify nutrient degradation kinetics and distribution of components between the rapidly degradable (a), potentially degradable (b) and the degradation rate constant (c) of 'b' fraction by in sacco method in Small-Tail Han wether Sheep. The intercropping system of alfalfa and corn-rye provided higher forage production performance with net increases of 9.52% and 34.81% in DM yield, 42.13% and 16.74% in crude protein (CP) yield, 25.94% and 69.99% in degradable DM yield, and 16.96% and 5.50% in degradable CP yield than rotation and alfalfa sole cropping systems, respectively. In addition, the harvest mixture from intercropping system also had greater 'a' fraction, 'b' fraction, 'c' values, and effective degradability (E value) of DM and CP than corn or rye hay harvested from rotation system. After 48-h exposure to rumen microbes, intercropping harvest materials were degraded to a higher extent than separately degraded crop stems from the sole system as indicated by visual microscopic examination with more tissues disappeared. Thus, the intercropping of alfalfa and corn-rye exhibited a greater

  10. Legume-Cereal Intercropping Improves Forage Yield, Quality and Degradability

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yuhuai; Li, Jing.; Yang, Zaibin; Zhang, Guiguo

    2015-01-01

    Intercropping legume with cereal is an extensively applied planting pattern in crop cultivation. However, forage potential and the degradability of harvested mixtures from intercropping system remain unclear. To investigate the feasibility of applying an intercropping system as a forage supply source to ruminants, two consecutive experiments (experiments 1 and 2) involving a field cultivation trial and a subsequent in vivo degradable experiment were conducted to determine the forage production performance and the ruminally degradable characteristics of a harvested mixture from an alfalfa/corn-rye intercropping system. In experiment 1, the intercropping system was established by alternating alfalfa and corn or rye with a row ratio of 5:2. Dry matter (DM) and nutrient yields were determined. In experiment 2, forages harvested from the different treatments were used as feedstuff to identify nutrient degradation kinetics and distribution of components between the rapidly degradable (a), potentially degradable (b) and the degradation rate constant (c) of ‘b’ fraction by in sacco method in Small-Tail Han wether Sheep. The intercropping system of alfalfa and corn-rye provided higher forage production performance with net increases of 9.52% and 34.81% in DM yield, 42.13% and 16.74% in crude protein (CP) yield, 25.94% and 69.99% in degradable DM yield, and 16.96% and 5.50% in degradable CP yield than rotation and alfalfa sole cropping systems, respectively. In addition, the harvest mixture from intercropping system also had greater ‘a’ fraction, ‘b’ fraction, ‘c’ values, and effective degradability (E value) of DM and CP than corn or rye hay harvested from rotation system. After 48-h exposure to rumen microbes, intercropping harvest materials were degraded to a higher extent than separately degraded crop stems from the sole system as indicated by visual microscopic examination with more tissues disappeared. Thus, the intercropping of alfalfa and corn

  11. The First Attested Extraction of Ancient DNA in Legumes (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Mikić, Aleksandar M

    2015-01-01

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) is any DNA extracted from ancient specimens, important for diverse evolutionary researches. The major obstacles in aDNA studies are mutations, contamination and fragmentation. Its studies may be crucial for crop history if integrated with human aDNA research and historical linguistics, both general and relating to agriculture. Legumes (Fabaceae) are one of the richest end economically most important plant families, not only from Neolithic onwards, since they were used as food by Neanderthals and Paleolithic modern man. The idea of extracting and analyzing legume aDNA was considered beneficial for both basic science and applied research, with an emphasis on genetic resources and plant breeding. The first reported successful and attested extraction of the legume aDNA was done from the sample of charred seeds of pea (Pisum sativum) and bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) from Hissar, southeast Serbia, dated to 1,350-1,000 Before Christ. A modified version of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method and the commercial kit for DNA extraction QIAGEN DNAesy yielded several ng μl(-1) of aDNA of both species and, after the whole genome amplification and with a fragment of nuclear ribosomal DNA gene 26S rDNA, resulted in the detection of the aDNA among the PCR products. A comparative analysis of four informative chloroplast DNA regions (trnSG, trnK, matK, and rbcL) among the modern wild and cultivated pea taxa demonstrated not only that the extracted aDNA was genuine, on the basis of mutation rate, but also that the ancient Hissar pea was most likely an early domesticated crop, related to the modern wild pea of a neighboring region. It is anticipated that this premier extraction of legume aDNA may provide taxonomists with the answers to diverse questions, such as leaf development in legumes, as well as with novel data on the single steps in domesticating legume crops worldwide. PMID:26635833

  12. The First Attested Extraction of Ancient DNA in Legumes (Fabaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Mikić, Aleksandar M.

    2015-01-01

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) is any DNA extracted from ancient specimens, important for diverse evolutionary researches. The major obstacles in aDNA studies are mutations, contamination and fragmentation. Its studies may be crucial for crop history if integrated with human aDNA research and historical linguistics, both general and relating to agriculture. Legumes (Fabaceae) are one of the richest end economically most important plant families, not only from Neolithic onwards, since they were used as food by Neanderthals and Paleolithic modern man. The idea of extracting and analyzing legume aDNA was considered beneficial for both basic science and applied research, with an emphasis on genetic resources and plant breeding. The first reported successful and attested extraction of the legume aDNA was done from the sample of charred seeds of pea (Pisum sativum) and bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) from Hissar, southeast Serbia, dated to 1,350–1,000 Before Christ. A modified version of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method and the commercial kit for DNA extraction QIAGEN DNAesy yielded several ng μl-1 of aDNA of both species and, after the whole genome amplification and with a fragment of nuclear ribosomal DNA gene 26S rDNA, resulted in the detection of the aDNA among the PCR products. A comparative analysis of four informative chloroplast DNA regions (trnSG, trnK, matK, and rbcL) among the modern wild and cultivated pea taxa demonstrated not only that the extracted aDNA was genuine, on the basis of mutation rate, but also that the ancient Hissar pea was most likely an early domesticated crop, related to the modern wild pea of a neighboring region. It is anticipated that this premier extraction of legume aDNA may provide taxonomists with the answers to diverse questions, such as leaf development in legumes, as well as with novel data on the single steps in domesticating legume crops worldwide. PMID:26635833

  13. Replacing with whole grains and legumes reduces Lp-PLA2 activities in plasma and PBMCs in patients with prediabetes or T2D1

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Minjoo; Jeung, Se Ri; Jeong, Tae-Sook; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jong Ho

    2014-01-01

    To determine dietary effects on circulating lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) activity and enzyme activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), 99 patients with impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or newly-diagnosed T2D were randomly assigned to either a control group (usual diet with refined rice) or the whole grain and legume group. Substitution of whole grains and legumes for refined rice was associated with the replacement of 7% of energy from carbohydrates with energy from protein (about 4%) and fat. After 12 weeks, the whole grain and legume group showed a significant decrease in fasting glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, hemoglobin A1c, malondialdehyde, plasma Lp-PLA2 activity, and oxidized LDL (ox-LDL), and an increase in LDL particle size. The changes (Δs) in these variables in the whole grain and legume group were significantly different from those in controls after adjustment for the baseline levels. When all subjects were considered, Δ plasma Lp-PLA2 positively correlated with Δ glucose, Δ PBMC Lp-PLA2, Δ ox-LDL, and Δ urinary 8-epi-prostaglandin F2α after being adjusted for confounding factors. The Δ PBMC Lp-PLA2 correlated positively with Δ glucose and Δ ox-LDL, and negatively with Δ LDL particle size and baseline PBMC Lp-PLA2. The substitution of whole grains and legumes for refined rice resulted in a reduction in Lp-PLA2 activities in plasma and PBMCs partly through improved glycemic control, increased consumption of protein relative to carbohydrate, and reduced lipid peroxides. PMID:24904022

  14. Production of resistant starch by enzymatic debranching in legume flours.

    PubMed

    Morales-Medina, Rocío; Del Mar Muñío, María; Guadix, Emilia M; Guadix, Antonio

    2014-01-30

    Resistant starch (RS) was produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of flours from five different legumes: lentil, chickpea, faba bean, kidney bean and red kidney bean. Each legume was firstly treated thermally, then hydrolyzed with pullulanase for 24h at 50°C and pH 5 and lyophilized. At the end of each hydrolysis reaction, the RS amount ranged from 4.7% for red kidney beans to 7.5% for chickpeas. With respect to the curves of RS against hydrolysis time, a linear increase was observed initially and a plateau was generally achieved by the end of reaction. These curves were successfully modeled by a kinetic equation including three parameters: initial RS, RS at long operation time and a kinetic constant (k). Furthermore, the relative increase in hydrolysis, calculated using the kinetic parameters, was successfully correlated to the percentage of amylose. PMID:24299889

  15. UAV-based high-throughput phenotyping in legume crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankaran, Sindhuja; Khot, Lav R.; Quirós, Juan; Vandemark, George J.; McGee, Rebecca J.

    2016-05-01

    In plant breeding, one of the biggest obstacles in genetic improvement is the lack of proven rapid methods for measuring plant responses in field conditions. Therefore, the major objective of this research was to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing high-throughput remote sensing technology for rapid measurement of phenotyping traits in legume crops. The plant responses of several chickpea and peas varieties to the environment were assessed with an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) integrated with multispectral imaging sensors. Our preliminary assessment showed that the vegetation indices are strongly correlated (p<0.05) with seed yield of legume crops. Results endorse the potential of UAS-based sensing technology to rapidly measure those phenotyping traits.

  16. Mineral transfer in a legume/grass association

    SciTech Connect

    Habben, J.E.; Blevins, D.G.

    1986-04-01

    Previous pasture research has indicated that in a legume/grass association the grass has a higher concentration of specific minerals than grass grown alone. The purpose of this study was to determine if a deeply rooted legume could transfer minerals to an associated shallow rooted grass plant via their root systems. A greenhouse study was conducted using alfalfa and maize plants grown in a double tube design. Plants were established such that the top tube contained both alfalfa and maize roots while the bottom tube contained only the alfalfa roots. Alfalfa roots in the lower tube were exposed to 1 mCi of one of three different isotopes (/sup 32/P, /sup 86/Rb and /sup 45/Ca) over a 40 day period. Under these conditions, radioactive analysis of maize tissue showed a significant transfer of /sup 86/Rb and /sup 32/P.

  17. Symbiosis within Symbiosis: Evolving Nitrogen-Fixing Legume Symbionts.

    PubMed

    Remigi, Philippe; Zhu, Jun; Young, J Peter W; Masson-Boivin, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial accessory genes are genomic symbionts with an evolutionary history and future that is different from that of their hosts. Packages of accessory genes move from strain to strain and confer important adaptations, such as interaction with eukaryotes. The ability to fix nitrogen with legumes is a remarkable example of a complex trait spread by horizontal transfer of a few key symbiotic genes, converting soil bacteria into legume symbionts. Rhizobia belong to hundreds of species restricted to a dozen genera of the Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria, suggesting infrequent successful transfer between genera but frequent successful transfer within genera. Here we review the genetic and environmental conditions and selective forces that have shaped evolution of this complex symbiotic trait. PMID:26612499

  18. Treatment protocol development for disinfesting legumes using radio frequency energy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A pilot-scale 27 MHz, 6 kW RF unit was used to investigate RF heating and consequent quality attributes in three treated legumes. Only 5-7 min was needed to raise the central temperature of 3 kg samples to 60°C using RF energy, compared to more than 275 min when using forced hot air at 60°C. RF heat...

  19. Studies on amylase inhibitors in some Egyptian legume seeds.

    PubMed

    Shekib, L A; el-Iraqui, S M; Abo-Bakr, T M

    1988-01-01

    Amylase inhibitor activity was determined in four legume seeds which are widely consumed in Egypt. The effect of dehulling, heat treatment, soaking and germination were also assessed. The results showed that faba bean contained the highest activity of amylase inhibitor followed by cowpea, lentils, then chickpea. Dehulling resulted in raising the amylase inhibitor activities in all samples investigated, while heat treatment and cooking lowered it. Soaking for 10 h and germination eliminated completely the inhibitor from all samples. PMID:2467277

  20. Genetic analysis of tolerance to Boron toxicity in the legume Medicago truncatula

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medicago truncatula Gaertn. (barrel medic) is cultivated as a pasture legume for its high protein content and ability to improve soils through nitrogen fixation. Toxic concentrations of the micronutrient Boron (B) in agricultural soils hamper the production of cereal and leguminous crops. In cereals, the genetic analysis of B tolerance has led to the development of molecular selection tools to introgress and maintain the B tolerance trait in breeding lines. There is a comparable need for selection tools in legumes that grow on these toxic soils, often in rotation with cereals. Results Genetic variation for B tolerance in Medicago truncatula was utilised to generate two F2 populations from crosses between tolerant and intolerant parents. Phenotyping under B stress revealed a close correlation between B tolerance and biomass production and a segregation ratio explained by a single dominant locus. M. truncatula homologues of the Arabidopsis major intrinsic protein (MIP) gene AtNIP5;1 and the efflux-type transporter gene AtBOR1, both known for B transport, were identified and nearby molecular markers screened across F2 lines to verify linkage with the B-tolerant phenotype. Most (95%) of the phenotypic variation could be explained by the SSR markers h2_6e22a and h2_21b19a, which flank a cluster of five predicted MIP genes on chromosome 4. Three CAPS markers (MtBtol-1,-2,-3) were developed to dissect the region further. Expression analysis of the five predicted MIPs indicated that only MtNIP3 was expressed when leaf tissue and roots were assessed. MtNIP3 showed low and equal expression in the roots of tolerant and intolerant lines but a 4-fold higher expression level in the leaves of B-tolerant cultivars. The expression profile correlates closely with the B concentration measured in the leaves and roots of tolerant and intolerant plants. Whereas no significant difference in B concentration exists between roots of tolerant and intolerant plants, the B

  1. Identification and expression of isoflavone synthase, the key enzyme for biosynthesis of isoflavones in legumes.

    PubMed

    Jung, W; Yu, O; Lau, S M; O'Keefe, D P; Odell, J; Fader, G; McGonigle, B

    2000-02-01

    Isoflavones have drawn much attention because of their benefits to human health. These compounds, which are produced almost exclusively in legumes, have natural roles in plant defense and root nodulation. Isoflavone synthase catalyzes the first committed step of isoflavone biosynthesis, a branch of the phenylpropanoid pathway. To identify the gene encoding this enzyme, we used a yeast expression assay to screen soybean ESTs encoding cytochrome P450 proteins. We identified two soybean genes encoding isoflavone synthase, and used them to isolate homologous genes from other leguminous species including red clover, white clover, hairy vetch, mung bean, alfalfa, lentil, snow pea, and lupine, as well as from the nonleguminous sugarbeet. We expressed soybean isoflavone synthase in Arabidopsis thaliana, which led to production of the isoflavone genistein in this nonlegume plant. Identification of the isoflavone synthase gene should allow manipulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway for agronomic and nutritional purposes. PMID:10657130

  2. Quality of low-fat meatballs containing Legume flours as extenders.

    PubMed

    Serdaroğlu, Meltem; Yıldız-Turp, Gülen; Abrodímov, Kiyalbek

    2005-05-01

    Meatballs were extended with blackeye bean flour (BBF), chickpea flour (CF), lentil flour (LF) and rusk (R) at level of 10%. Raw and cooked meatballs were analyzed for moisture, fat, protein and ash content. Cooking properties and colour parameters were evaluated. BBF and LF resulted in greater cooking yield, fat retention and moisture retention values. Meatballs extended with LF were lighter than other samples. Meatballs formulated with BBF had the lowest reduction in diameter. Meatballs with BBF and CF had higher water holding capacity (WHC) than other treatment groups. All meatballs incorporating legume flours were tougher (lower penetration values) than the R treatment. According to sensory evaluation results all meatball treatments had high acceptability and received high scores (6.8 and above). Meatballs with BBF and CF had lower TBA values than meatballs with LF and R at 3rd month of frozen storage at -18°C. PMID:22063285

  3. A simplified HPLC method for determination of tryptophan in some cereals and legumes.

    PubMed

    Çevikkalp, Senem A; Löker, Gül B; Yaman, Mustafa; Amoutzopoulos, Birdem

    2016-02-15

    In the present study, a simple analytical method is proposed for determining tryptophan, and method is validated on some cereal and legume samples. In the method alkaline hydrolysis of proteins was used due to the destruction of tryptophan structure during acid hydrolysis. Following alkaline hydrolysis (120°C for 12h), hydrolysates are filtered through ashless filter paper and pH values are adjusted with hydrochloric acid solution. Separation and detection of tryptophan are performed on a reversed-phase column with fluorescence detection within 10min by using a mobile phase of acetonitrile and acetate buffer of pH 6.3 (1:9, v/v). For determination of tryptophan content, the procedure described in the study offers an alternative analysis method by enabling high speed analysis and the use of simple extraction process to the other available methods. PMID:26433283

  4. Biological nitrogen fixation in non-legume plants

    PubMed Central

    Santi, Carole; Bogusz, Didier; Franche, Claudine

    2013-01-01

    Background Nitrogen is an essential nutrient in plant growth. The ability of a plant to supply all or part of its requirements from biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) thanks to interactions with endosymbiotic, associative and endophytic symbionts, confers a great competitive advantage over non-nitrogen-fixing plants. Scope Because BNF in legumes is well documented, this review focuses on BNF in non-legume plants. Despite the phylogenic and ecological diversity among diazotrophic bacteria and their hosts, tightly regulated communication is always necessary between the microorganisms and the host plant to achieve a successful interaction. Ongoing research efforts to improve knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying these original relationships and some common strategies leading to a successful relationship between the nitrogen-fixing microorganisms and their hosts are presented. Conclusions Understanding the molecular mechanism of BNF outside the legume–rhizobium symbiosis could have important agronomic implications and enable the use of N-fertilizers to be reduced or even avoided. Indeed, in the short term, improved understanding could lead to more sustainable exploitation of the biodiversity of nitrogen-fixing organisms and, in the longer term, to the transfer of endosymbiotic nitrogen-fixation capacities to major non-legume crops. PMID:23478942

  5. Therapeutic Potential of Temperate Forage Legumes: A Review.

    PubMed

    Cornara, Laura; Xiao, Jianbo; Burlando, Bruno

    2016-07-29

    The discovery of bioactive molecules from botanical sources is an expanding field, preferentially oriented to plants having a tradition of use in medicine and providing high yields and availability. Temperate forage legumes are Fabaceae species that include worldwide-important crops. These plants possess therapeutic virtues that have not only been used in veterinary and folk medicine, but have also attracted the interest of official medicine. We have examined here Medicago sativa (alfalfa), Trifolium pratense and T. repens (clovers), Melilotus albus and M. officinalis (sweet clovers), Lotus corniculatus (birdsfoot trefoil), Onobrychis viciifolia (sainfoin), Lespedeza capitata (roundhead lespedeza), and Galega officinalis (goat's rue). The phytochemical complexes of these species contain secondary metabolites whose pharmacological potentials deserve investigation. Major classes of compounds include alkaloids and amines, cyanogenic glycosides, flavonoids, coumarins, condensed tannins, and saponins. Some of these phytochemicals have been related to antihypercholesterolemia, antidiabetic, antimenopause, anti-inflammatory, antiedema, anthelmintic, and kidney protective effects. Two widely prescribed drugs have been developed starting from temperate forage legumes, namely, the antithrombotic warfarin, inspired from sweet clover's coumarin, and the antidiabetic metformin, a derivative of sainfoin's guanidine. Available evidence suggests that temperate forage legumes are a potentially important resource for the extraction of active principles to be used as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. PMID:26507574

  6. Evaluation of the estrogenic effects of legume extracts containing phytoestrogens.

    PubMed

    Boué, Stephen M; Wiese, Thomas E; Nehls, Suzanne; Burow, Matthew E; Elliott, Steven; Carter-Wientjes, Carol H; Shih, Betty Y; McLachlan, John A; Cleveland, Thomas E

    2003-04-01

    Seven legume extracts containing phytoestrogens were analyzed for estrogenic activity. Methanol extracts were prepared from soybean (Glycine max L.), green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), alfalfa sprout (Medicago sativa L.), mung bean sprout (Vigna radiata L.), kudzu root (Pueraria lobata L.), and red clover blossom and red clover sprout (Trifolium pratense L.). Extracts of kudzu root and red clover blossom showed significant competitive binding to estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta). Estrogenic activity was determined using an estrogen-dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cell proliferation assay. Kudzu root, red clover blossom and sprout, mung bean sprout, and alfalfa sprout extracts displayed increased cell proliferation above levels observed with estradiol. The pure estrogen antagonist, ICI 182,780, suppressed cell proliferation induced by the extracts, suggesting an ER-related signaling pathway was involved. The ER subtype-selective activities of legume extracts were examined using transiently transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) cells. All seven of the extracts exhibited preferential agonist activity toward ERbeta. Using HPLC to collect fractions and MCF-7 cell proliferation, the active components in kudzu root extract were determined to be the isoflavones puerarin, daidzin, genistin, daidzein, and genistein. These results show that several legumes are a source of phytoestrogens with high levels of estrogenic activity. PMID:12670155

  7. How Many Peas in a Pod? Legume Genes Responsible for Mutualistic Symbioses Underground

    PubMed Central

    Kouchi, Hiroshi; Imaizumi-Anraku, Haruko; Hayashi, Makoto; Hakoyama, Tsuneo; Nakagawa, Tomomi; Umehara, Yosuke; Suganuma, Norio; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2010-01-01

    The nitrogen-fixing symbiosis between legume plants and Rhizobium bacteria is the most prominent plant–microbe endosymbiotic system and, together with mycorrhizal fungi, has critical importance in agriculture. The introduction of two model legume species, Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula, has enabled us to identify a number of host legume genes required for symbiosis. A total of 26 genes have so far been cloned from various symbiotic mutants of these model legumes, which are involved in recognition of rhizobial nodulation signals, early symbiotic signaling cascades, infection and nodulation processes, and regulation of nitrogen fixation. These accomplishments during the past decade provide important clues to understanding not only the molecular mechanisms underlying plant–microbe endosymbiotic associations but also the evolutionary aspects of nitrogen-fixing symbiosis between legume plants and Rhizobium bacteria. In this review we survey recent progress in molecular genetic studies using these model legumes. PMID:20660226

  8. Studies on the underexploited legumes, Indigofera linifolia and Sesbania bispinosa: nutrient composition and antinutritional factors.

    PubMed

    Siddhuraju, P; Vijayakumari, K; Janardhanan, K

    1995-08-01

    The nutrient composition and antinutritional factors of two Indian tribal pulses, Indigofera linifolia (L.f)Retz. and Sesbania bispinosa (Jacq.) W.F. Wight, were determined. The mature seeds contained 296.6-321.2 g kg-1 crude protein, 47.2-64.2 g kg-1 crude lipid, 56.7-72 g kg-1 crude fiber, 27.6-31.9 g kg-1 ash and 531.3-550.6 g kg-1 carbohydrates. The seeds of Indigofera linifolia were rich in K, Ca, Mn and Cu, whereas Sesbania bispinosa were rich in P and Zn. While albumins and globulins constituted the major proportion of seed proteins in Indigofera linifolia, globulins and glutelins formed the major bulk of seed proteins in Sesbania bispinosa. Seed lipids of both legumes contained a large proportion of unsaturated fatty acids with linoleic acid as the predominant one. These two pulses contained adequate levels of all the essential amino acids except sulpho-amino acids in total seed proteins and globulin fraction of Sesbania bispinosa. The in vitro protein digestibility of the raw seeds of Indigofera linifolia and Sesbania bispinosa were found to be 74.15% and 66.71% and cooked seeds 81.4% and 76.8%, respectively. Antinutritional factors such as total free phenolics, tannins, phytic acid, hydrogen cyanide, trypsin inhibitor and phytohaemagglutinating activities were also analysed. PMID:7584157

  9. Effect of the tropical tannin-rich shrub legumes Calliandra calothyrsus and Flemingia macrophylla on methane emission and nitrogen and energy balance in growing lambs.

    PubMed

    Tiemann, T T; Lascano, C E; Wettstein, H-R; Mayer, A C; Kreuzer, M; Hess, H D

    2008-05-01

    The objective of this study was to test whether the use of tannin-rich shrub legume forage is advantageous for methane mitigation and metabolic protein supply at unchanged energy supply when supplemented in combination with tannin-free legumes to sheep. In a 6 × 6 Latin-square design, foliage of two tannin-rich shrub legume species (Calliandra calothyrsus and Flemingia macrophylla) were used to replace either 1/3 or 2/3, respectively, of a herbaceous high-quality legume (Vigna unguiculata) in a diet composed of the tropical grass Brachiaria brizantha and Vigna in a ratio of 0.55 : 0.45. A Brachiaria-only diet served as the negative control. Each experimental period lasted for 28 days, with week 3 serving for balance measurement and data collection inclusive of a 2-day stay of the sheep in open-circuit respiration chambers for measurement of gaseous exchange. While Vigna supplementation improved protein and energy utilisation, the response to the partial replacement with tannin-rich legumes was less clear. The apparent total tract digestibilities of organic matter, NDF and ADF were reduced when the tannin-rich plants partially replaced Vigna, and the dose-response relationships were mainly linear. The tannin-rich plants caused the expected redistribution of more faecal N in relation to urinary N. While Flemingia addition still led to a net body N retention, even when fed at the higher proportion, adding higher amounts of Calliandra resulted in body protein mobilisation in the growing lambs. With respect to energy, supplementation of Vigna alone improved utilisation, while this effect was absent when a tannin-rich plant was added. The inclusion of the tannin-rich plants reduced methane emission per day and per unit of feed and energy intake by up to 24% relative to the Vigna-only-supplemented diet, but this seems to have been mostly the result of a reduced organic matter and fibre digestion. In conclusion, Calliandra seems less apt as protein supplement for

  10. NATURAL VARIATION OF STORAGE PROTEINS AND ISOFLAVONES IN WILD AND CULTIVATED SOYBEANS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Legumes play a vital role in the traditional diets of many regions around the world. Soybeans are unique among the legumes and are excellent sources of protein, oils, dietary fiber, and a variety of micronutrients and phytochemicals such as isoflavones. The overall objective of this ongoing resear...

  11. Development and quality characteristics of nutritionally enhanced potato legume based wari- an Indian traditional savoury.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Sukhpreet; Aggarwal, Poonam

    2016-04-01

    The present study was carried out to develop waris from potato and legume blends and to analyze them for organoleptic, physicochemical, phytochemical and shelf life quality. Wari is a partially fermented legume based savoury, used as adjunct in vegetable curries. In this study, potato (boiled and dehydrated) was used to supplement black gram or urad dhal waris. Two processing cultivars (Kufri Chipsona-1, Kufri Chandramukhi) and one commonly grown cultivar (Kufri Pukhraj) were evaluated for processing into waris. Based on preliminary sensory trails, waris with potato (70 %) and urad dhal (30 %) level of supplementation were found to be most acceptable and these waris were subjected to nutritional evaluation. Storage stability of the waris was assessed by storing the product at room temperature for a period of 12 months. Results were compared with dhal waris (control). Protein content was significantly higher in control waris compared to potato supplemented waris. Bioactive compounds including ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total antioxidant activity measured as DPPH radical scavenging activity increased significantly on incorporation of potato. Between the cultivars, waris enriched with Kufri Pukhraj, a table variety which is considered unfit for processing, displayed the highest phytochemical content and total antioxidant activity. Sensory evaluation indicated higher overall acceptability scores of potato enriched waris compared to control waris. Between the treatments i.e. boiled mash and dehydrated flour, waris supplemented with boiled potato mash showed a significantly higher content of phytochemicals and total antioxidant activity compared to potato flour waris. However no significant difference was observed in sensory quality of the product prepared either with fresh potato mash or potato flour. Storage studies showed that the potato waris can be stored safely for 12 months with its nutrient constituents intact. PMID:27413216

  12. Increased C availability at elevated carbon dioxide concentration improves N assimilation in a legume.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Alistair; Gibon, Yves; Stitt, Mark; Morgan, Patrick B; Bernacchi, Carl J; Ort, Donald R; Long, Stephen P

    2006-08-01

    Plant growth is typically stimulated at elevated carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]), but a sustained and maximal stimulation of growth requires acquisition of additional N in proportion to the additional C fixed at elevated [CO2]. We hypothesized that legumes would be able to avoid N limitation at elevated [CO2]. Soybean was grown without N fertilizer from germination to final senescence at elevated [CO2] over two growing seasons under fully open-air conditions, providing a model legume system. Measurements of photosynthesis and foliar carbohydrate content showed that plants growing at elevated [CO2] had a c. 25% increase in the daily integral of photosynthesis and c. 58% increase in foliar carbohydrate content, suggesting that plants at elevated [CO2] had a surplus of photosynthate. Soybeans had a low leaf N content at the beginning of the season, which was a further c. 17% lower at elevated [CO2]. In the middle of the season, ureide, total amino acid and N content increased markedly, and the effect of elevated [CO2] on leaf N content disappeared. Analysis of individual amino acid levels supported the conclusion that plants at elevated [CO2] overcame an early-season N limitation. These soybean plants showed a c. 16% increase in dry mass at final harvest and showed no significant effect of elevated [CO2] on leaf N, protein or total amino acid content in the latter part of the season. One possible explanation for these findings is that N fixation had increased, and that these plants had acclimated to the increased N demand at elevated [CO2]. PMID:16898025

  13. Gamma proteobacteria can nodulate legumes of the genus Hedysarum.

    PubMed

    Benhizia, Yacine; Benhizia, Hayet; Benguedouar, Ammar; Muresu, Rosella; Giacomini, Alessio; Squartini, Andrea

    2004-08-01

    The bacteria hosted in the root nodules of the three Mediterranean wild legume species Hedysarum carnosum, Hedysarum spinosissimum subsp. capitatum, and Hedysarum pallidum, growing in native stands in different habitats in Algeria were isolated. Bacteria were recovered on yeast-mannitol-agar or on minimal media from a total of 52 nodules. Isolates were analyzed by Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA) using the enzyme CfoI, and further sorted by RAPD fingerprinting. A total of ten different types were found and their amplified 16S rDNA was sequenced and compared to databases. The BLAST alignment indicates that all the species whose sequences share 98 to 100% identity to the bacteria found in these nodules belong to the class Gammaproteobacteria and include Pantoea agglomerans, Enterobacter kobei, Enterobacter cloacae, Leclercia adecarboxylata, Escherichia vulneris, and Pseudomonas sp. No evidence of any rhizobial-like sequence was found even upon amplifying from the bulk of microbial cells obtained from the squashed nodules, suggesting that the exclusive occupants of the nodules formed by the three plants tested are members of the orders Enterobacteriales or Pseudomonadales. This is the first report of Gammaproteobacteria associated with legume nodules. Despite the presence of the related crop plant Hedysarum coronarium, specifically nodulated by Rhizobium sullae, these three Hedysarum species demonstrate to have undergone a separate path in terms of endophytic interactions with bacteria. An hypothesis to account for differences between the symbiotic relationships engaged by man-managed legumes, and those found in plants whose ecology is independent from human action, is discussed. PMID:15368852

  14. Determination of Phytoestrogen Content in Fresh-Cut Legume Forage

    PubMed Central

    Hloucalová, Pavlína; Skládanka, Jiří; Horký, Pavel; Klejdus, Bořivoj; Pelikán, Jan; Knotová, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Phytoestrogens comprise a group of substances negatively influencing the development and function of animal reproductive organs. Their appearance in forage crops can reduce feeding values, cause dietary disorders, and lead to animal health damage. This study evaluated the occurrence of individual phytoestrogens in various species of annual and perennial legumes and their levels in dry forage. It appeared that feeding large amounts of red clover presents a potential risk, but red clover can be replaced with the annual Persian clover, in which markedly lower phytoestrogen levels were detected. Abstract The aim of the study was to determine phytoestrogen content in fresh-cut legume forage. This issue has been much discussed in recent years in connection with the health and safety of feedstuffs and thus livestock health. The experiments were carried out on two experimental plots at Troubsko and Vatín, Czech Republic during June and July in 2015. Samples were collected of the four forage legume species perennial red clover (variety “Amos”), alfalfa (variety “Holyně”), and annuals Persian clover and Alexandrian clover. Forage was sampled twice at regular three to four day intervals leading up to harvest and a third time on the day of harvest. Fresh and wilted material was analyzed using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Higher levels (p < 0.05) of isoflavones biochanin A (3.697 mg·g−1 of dry weight) and formononetin (4.315 mg·g−1 of dry weight) were found in red clover than in other species. The highest isoflavone content was detected in red clover, reaching 1.001% of dry matter (p < 0.05), representing a risk for occurrence of reproduction problems and inhibited secretion of animal estrogen. The phytoestrogen content was particularly increased in wilted forage. Significant isoflavone reduction was observed over three to four day intervals leading up to harvest. PMID:27429009

  15. Xylem colonization of the legume Sesbania rostrata by Azorhizobium caulinodans

    PubMed Central

    O'Callaghan, K. J.; Davey, M. R.; Cocking, E. C.

    1997-01-01

    A novel pathway of invasion of the legume Sesbania rostrata by Azorhizobium caulinodans is described that involves colonization of the root xylem, possibly following entry into the natural fissures created during emergence of lateral roots. Azorhizobia were detected microscopically, and their presence confirmed by the expression of a lacZ reporter gene. We have shown that rhizobial Nod factors are not required for either xylem colonization or for crack-entry of lateral roots. We discuss the extent to which this discovery of xylem colonization by azorhizobia is likely to improve our understanding of both symbiosis and of pathogenicity in plant–bacterial interactions.

  16. Coordinating nodule morphogenesis with rhizobial infection in legumes.

    PubMed

    Oldroyd, Giles E D; Downie, J Allan

    2008-01-01

    The formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules on legumes requires an integration of infection by rhizobia at the root epidermis and the initiation of cell division in the cortex, several cell layers away from the sites of infection. Several recent developments have added to our understanding of the signaling events in the epidermis associated with the perception of rhizobial nodulation factors and the role of plant hormones in the activation of cell division leading to nodule morphogenesis. This review focuses on the tissue-specific nature of the developmental processes associated with nodulation and the mechanisms by which these processes are coordinated during the formation of a nodule. PMID:18444906

  17. The structure of legume-rhizobium interaction networks and their response to tree invasions.

    PubMed

    Le Roux, Johannes J; Mavengere, Natasha R; Ellis, Allan G

    2016-01-01

    Establishing mutualistic interactions in novel environments is important for the successful establishment of some non-native plant species. These associations may, in turn, impact native species interaction networks as non-natives become dominant in their new environments. Using phylogenetic and ecological interaction network approaches we provide the first report of the structure of belowground legume-rhizobium interaction networks and how they change along a gradient of invasion (uninvaded, semi invaded and heavily invaded sites) by Australian Acacia species in South Africa's Cape Floristic Region. We found that native and invasive legumes interact with distinct rhizobial lineages, most likely due to phylogenetic uniqueness of native and invasive host plants. Moreover, legume-rhizobium interaction networks are not nested, but significantly modular with high levels of specialization possibly as a result of legume-rhizobium co-evolution. Although network topology remained constant across the invasion gradient, composition of bacterial communities associated with native legumes changed dramatically as acacias increasingly dominated the landscape. In stark contrast to aboveground interaction networks (e.g. pollination and seed dispersal) we show that invasive legumes do not infiltrate existing native legume-rhizobium networks but rather form novel modules. This absence of mutualist overlap between native and invasive legumes suggests the importance of co-invading rhizobium-acacia species complexes for Acacia invasion success, and argues against a ubiquitous role for the formation and evolutionary refinement of novel interactions. PMID:27255514

  18. Genetic diversity for seed mineral composition in the wild legume Teramnus labialis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Teramnus labialis is a wild, tropical legume whose seeds are collected and used as a food source by tribal populations. In order to assess the potential of this legume to provide dietary minerals for humans, fourteen diverse accessions were grown under controlled, nutrient-replete conditions and se...

  19. Will Elevated Carbon Dioxide Concentration Amplify the Benefits of Nitrogen Fixation in Legumes?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current evidence suggests there are three key features of the response of legumes to elevated [CO2]: (1) unlike other non-leguminous C3 plants, only legumes have the potential to maximize the benefit of elevated [CO2] by matching stimulated photosynthesis with increased N2 fixation; (2) this potenti...

  20. Western and Searls Prairie Clovers: North American Legumes for Rangeland Revegetation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Only a few North American legumes are commercially available for rangeland revegetation in the western U.S. Western prairie clover (Dalea ornata) and Searls prairie clover (D. searlsiae) are two North American legumes that hold promise for use in rangeland revegetation and conservation. Seeds of w...

  1. One Hundred Years of Some Specialty Legume Genetic Resource Contributions and Future Considerations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The NPGS specialty legume curation project includes about 60 genera, 358 species, and 3,604 accessions for uses ranging from forage to medicinal. Historical agricultural value of legumes for cover cropping forage, yield, and disease resistance is known. The earliest known velvetbean cultivar, Flor...

  2. Germination ecology of the native legumes, Sesbania drummondii and Glottidium vesicarium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sesbania drummondii and Glottidium vesicarium are native legumes that are active during the warmer months of the year; their seeds mature in the middle to late fall. Both species favor wet soils, including marshy areas, and the two legumes often coexist in the same habitat sites. Sesbania drummondii...

  3. Gastrointestinal discomfort from legumes varies with type and diminishes after 4 weeks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A questionnaire to identify perceived changes in flatulence with daily consumption of ½ cup legumes was administered as part of 3 studies that examined the effects of legumes on blood lipids. Forty men and women in each cohort of pinto beans vs. placebo (soup) ate the ½ cup of food daily for 12 week...

  4. Growth of tropical legume cover crops as influenced by nitrogen fertilization and Rhizobia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropical legume cover crops are important components in cropping systems due to their role in improving soil quality. Information is limited on the influence of nitrogen (N) fertilization on growth of tropical legume cover crops grown on Oxisols. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the...

  5. Radiation use efficiency, forage yield and quality of sorghum-legume intercropping systems in the Southern High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in intercropping of non-legume with legume crops to increase resources use efficiency is increasing. Increasing in radiation interception and its subsequent radiation use efficiency (RUE) by forage sorghum-legume intercropping systems can improve forage yield and quality. However, there is ...

  6. Nitrogen modulation of legume root architecture signaling pathways involves phytohormones and small regulatory molecules

    PubMed Central

    Mohd-Radzman, Nadiatul A.; Djordjevic, Michael A.; Imin, Nijat

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen, particularly nitrate is an important yield determinant for crops. However, current agricultural practice with excessive fertilizer usage has detrimental effects on the environment. Therefore, legumes have been suggested as a sustainable alternative for replenishing soil nitrogen. Legumes can uniquely form nitrogen-fixing nodules through symbiotic interaction with specialized soil bacteria. Legumes possess a highly plastic root system which modulates its architecture according to the nitrogen availability in the soil. Understanding how legumes regulate root development in response to nitrogen availability is an important step to improving root architecture. The nitrogen-mediated root development pathway starts with sensing soil nitrogen level followed by subsequent signal transduction pathways involving phytohormones, microRNAs and regulatory peptides that collectively modulate the growth and shape of the root system. This review focuses on the current understanding of nitrogen-mediated legume root architecture including local and systemic regulations by different N-sources and the modulations by phytohormones and small regulatory molecules. PMID:24098303

  7. NODULE ROOT and COCHLEATA Maintain Nodule Development and Are Legume Orthologs of Arabidopsis BLADE-ON-PETIOLE Genes[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Couzigou, Jean-Malo; Zhukov, Vladimir; Mondy, Samuel; Abu el Heba, Ghada; Cosson, Viviane; Ellis, T.H. Noel; Ambrose, Mike; Wen, Jiangqi; Tadege, Million; Tikhonovich, Igor; Mysore, Kirankumar S.; Putterill, Joanna; Hofer, Julie; Borisov, Alexei Y.; Ratet, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    During their symbiotic interaction with rhizobia, legume plants develop symbiosis-specific organs on their roots, called nodules, that house nitrogen-fixing bacteria. The molecular mechanisms governing the identity and maintenance of these organs are unknown. Using Medicago truncatula nodule root (noot) mutants and pea (Pisum sativum) cochleata (coch) mutants, which are characterized by the abnormal development of roots from the nodule, we identified the NOOT and COCH genes as being necessary for the robust maintenance of nodule identity throughout the nodule developmental program. NOOT and COCH are Arabidopsis thaliana BLADE-ON-PETIOLE orthologs, and we have shown that their functions in leaf and flower development are conserved in M. truncatula and pea. The identification of these two genes defines a clade in the BTB/POZ-ankyrin domain proteins that shares conserved functions in eudicot organ development and suggests that NOOT and COCH were recruited to repress root identity in the legume symbiotic organ. PMID:23136374

  8. Methane Emission and Milk Production of Dairy Cows Grazing Pastures Rich in Legumes or Rich in Grasses in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Dini, Yoana; Gere, José; Briano, Carolina; Manetti, Martin; Juliarena, Paula; Picasso, Valentin; Gratton, Roberto; Astigarraga, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the impact of changing pasture composition on reducing emissions of GHGs in dairy grazing systems is an important issue to mitigate climate change. The aim of this study was to estimate daily CH₄ emissions of dairy cows grazing two mixed pastures with contrasting composition of grasses and legumes: L pasture with 60% legumes on Dry Matter (DM) basis and G pasture with 75% grasses on DM basis. Milk production and CH₄ emissions were compared over two periods of two weeks during spring using eight lactating Holstein cows in a 2 × 2 Latin square design. Herbage organic matter intake (HOMI) was estimated by chromic oxide dilution and herbage organic matter digestibility (OMD) was estimated by faecal index. Methane emission was estimated by using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique adapted to collect breath samples over 5-day periods. OMD (0.71) and HOMI (15.7 kg OM) were not affected by pasture composition. Milk production (20.3 kg/d), milk fat yield (742 g/d) and milk protein yield (667 g/d) were similar for both pastures. This may be explained by the high herbage allowance (30 kg DM above 5 cm/cow) which allowed the cows to graze selectively, in particular in grass sward. Similarly, methane emission expressed as absolute value (368 g/d or 516 L/d) or expressed as methane yield (6.6% of Gross Energy Intake (GEI)) was not affected by treatments. In conclusion, at high herbage allowance, the quality of the diet selected by grazing cows did not differ between pastures rich in legumes or rich in grasses, and therefore there was no effect on milk or methane production. PMID:26486922

  9. Soil Fertility Map for Food Legumes Production Areas in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Yang, Tao; Redden, Robert; He, Weifeng; Zong, Xuxiao

    2016-01-01

    Given the limited resources of fossil energy, and the environmental risks of excess fertilizer on crops, it is time to reappraise the potential role of food legume biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) as sources of nitrogen for cropping systems in China. 150 soil samples across 17 provinces and 2 municipalities of China were collected and analyzed. A distribution map of the soil fertilities and their patterns of distribution was constructed. The pH results indicated that soils were neutral to slightly alkaline overall. The soil organic matter (SOM) and the available nitrogen (AN) content were relatively low, while the available phosphorus (AP) and available potassium (AK) contents were from moderate to high. Production areas of food legumes (faba bean, pea, adzuki bean, mung bean and common bean) were clearly separated into 4 soil fertility type clusters. In addition, regions with SOM, AN, AP and AK deficiency, high acidity and high alkalinity were listed as target areas for further soil improvement. The potential was considered for biological nitrogen fixation to substitute for the application of mineral nitrogen fertiliser. PMID:27212262

  10. Soil Fertility Map for Food Legumes Production Areas in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling; Yang, Tao; Redden, Robert; He, Weifeng; Zong, Xuxiao

    2016-01-01

    Given the limited resources of fossil energy, and the environmental risks of excess fertilizer on crops, it is time to reappraise the potential role of food legume biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) as sources of nitrogen for cropping systems in China. 150 soil samples across 17 provinces and 2 municipalities of China were collected and analyzed. A distribution map of the soil fertilities and their patterns of distribution was constructed. The pH results indicated that soils were neutral to slightly alkaline overall. The soil organic matter (SOM) and the available nitrogen (AN) content were relatively low, while the available phosphorus (AP) and available potassium (AK) contents were from moderate to high. Production areas of food legumes (faba bean, pea, adzuki bean, mung bean and common bean) were clearly separated into 4 soil fertility type clusters. In addition, regions with SOM, AN, AP and AK deficiency, high acidity and high alkalinity were listed as target areas for further soil improvement. The potential was considered for biological nitrogen fixation to substitute for the application of mineral nitrogen fertiliser. PMID:27212262

  11. Diversifying selection by Desmodiinae legume species on Bradyrhizobium symbionts.

    PubMed

    Parker, Matthew A; Jankowiak, Jennifer G; Landrigan, Grace K

    2015-07-01

    Desmodium and Hylodesmum (Papilionoideae Subtribe Desmodiinae) are among the most common herbaceous perennial legumes native to eastern North America. To analyze the population structure of their Bradyrhizobium sp. root-nodule bacteria, 159 isolates were sampled from ten host species across a 1000 km region. Phylogenetic analysis of four housekeeping loci (2164 bp) and two loci in the symbiosis island (SI) chromosomal region (1374 bp) indicated extensive overlap in symbiont utilization, with each common bacterial clade found on 2-7 species of these legume genera. However, host species differed considerably in the relative proportion of symbionts belonging to different Bradyrhizobium clades. High phylogenetic incongruence between trees for housekeeping loci and SI loci suggested that diversification of these Bradyrhizobium lineages involved substantial horizontal gene transfer. Plant inoculation with strains from six Bradyrhizobium clades revealed marked disparity in relative bacterial reproductive success across four Desmodium species. Estimated yield of Bradyrhizobium progeny cells per plant ranged from zero to >10(9), and strains with high fitness on one host sometimes reproduced poorly on other host species. Diversifying selection on bacteria, arising from differential success in habitats with different Desmodium and Hylodesmum taxa, is therefore likely to affect Bradyrhizobium diversity patterns at the landscape level. PMID:26130822

  12. Legume Genome Initiative at the University of Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce A. Roe

    2004-02-27

    Consolidated Appropriations Resolution, 2003 Conference Report for the Department of Energy's Biological and Environmental Research (BER) program provided $481,000 for the Legume Genome Initiative at the University of Oklahoma. These funds were used to support our research that is aimed at determining the entire sequence of the gene rich regions of the genome of the legume, Medicago truncatula, by allowing us to obtain a greater degree of finished BAC sequences from the draft sequences we have already obtained through research funded by the Noble Foundation. During the funding period we increased the number of Medicago truncatula BACs with finished (Bermuda standard) sequences from 109 to 359, and the total number of BACs for which we collected sequence data from 584 to 842, 359 of which reached phase 2 (ordered and oriented contigs). We also sequenced a series of pooled BAC clones that cover additional euchromatic (gene rich) genomic regions. This work resulted in 6 refereed publications, see below. Genes whose sequence was determined during this study included multiple members of the plant disease resistance (R-gene) family as well as several genes involved in flavinoid biosynthesis, nitrogen fixation and plant-microbial symbosis. This work also served as a prelude to obtaining NSF funding for the international collaborative effort to complete the entire sequence of the Medicago truncatula genomic euchromatic regions using a BAC based approach.

  13. Determination of Phytoestrogen Content in Fresh-Cut Legume Forage.

    PubMed

    Hloucalová, Pavlína; Skládanka, Jiří; Horký, Pavel; Klejdus, Bořivoj; Pelikán, Jan; Knotová, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine phytoestrogen content in fresh-cut legume forage. This issue has been much discussed in recent years in connection with the health and safety of feedstuffs and thus livestock health. The experiments were carried out on two experimental plots at Troubsko and Vatín, Czech Republic during June and July in 2015. Samples were collected of the four forage legume species perennial red clover (variety "Amos"), alfalfa (variety "Holyně"), and annuals Persian clover and Alexandrian clover. Forage was sampled twice at regular three to four day intervals leading up to harvest and a third time on the day of harvest. Fresh and wilted material was analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Higher levels ( p < 0.05) of isoflavones biochanin A (3.697 mg·g (-1) of dry weight) and formononetin (4.315 mg·g (-1) of dry weight) were found in red clover than in other species. The highest isoflavone content was detected in red clover, reaching 1.001% of dry matter ( p < 0.05), representing a risk for occurrence of reproduction problems and inhibited secretion of animal estrogen. The phytoestrogen content was particularly increased in wilted forage. Significant isoflavone reduction was observed over three to four day intervals leading up to harvest. PMID:27429009

  14. Large-Scale Phosphoprotein Analysis in Medicago truncatula Roots Provides Insight into in Vivo Kinase Activity in Legumes1[W

    PubMed Central

    Grimsrud, Paul A.; den Os, Désirée; Wenger, Craig D.; Swaney, Danielle L.; Schwartz, Daniel; Sussman, Michael R.; Ané, Jean-Michel; Coon, Joshua J.

    2010-01-01

    Nitrogen fixation in legumes requires the development of root organs called nodules and their infection by symbiotic rhizobia. Over the last decade, Medicago truncatula has emerged as a major model plant for the analysis of plant-microbe symbioses and for addressing questions pertaining to legume biology. While the initiation of symbiosis and the development of nitrogen-fixing root nodules depend on the activation of a protein phosphorylation-mediated signal transduction cascade in response to symbiotic signals produced by the rhizobia, few sites of in vivo phosphorylation have previously been identified in M. truncatula. We have characterized sites of phosphorylation on proteins from M. truncatula roots, from both whole cell lysates and membrane-enriched fractions, using immobilized metal affinity chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Here, we report 3,457 unique phosphopeptides spanning 3,404 nonredundant sites of in vivo phosphorylation on 829 proteins in M. truncatula Jemalong A17 roots, identified using the complementary tandem mass spectrometry fragmentation methods electron transfer dissociation and collision-activated dissociation. With this being, to our knowledge, the first large-scale plant phosphoproteomic study to utilize electron transfer dissociation, analysis of the identified phosphorylation sites revealed phosphorylation motifs not previously observed in plants. Furthermore, several of the phosphorylation motifs, including LxKxxs and RxxSxxxs, have yet to be reported as kinase specificities for in vivo substrates in any species, to our knowledge. Multiple sites of phosphorylation were identified on several key proteins involved in initiating rhizobial symbiosis, including SICKLE, NUCLEOPORIN133, and INTERACTING PROTEIN OF DMI3. Finally, we used these data to create an open-access online database for M. truncatula phosphoproteomic data. PMID:19923235

  15. Large-scale phosphoprotein analysis in Medicago truncatula roots provides insight into in vivo kinase activity in legumes.

    PubMed

    Grimsrud, Paul A; den Os, Désirée; Wenger, Craig D; Swaney, Danielle L; Schwartz, Daniel; Sussman, Michael R; Ané, Jean-Michel; Coon, Joshua J

    2010-01-01

    Nitrogen fixation in legumes requires the development of root organs called nodules and their infection by symbiotic rhizobia. Over the last decade, Medicago truncatula has emerged as a major model plant for the analysis of plant-microbe symbioses and for addressing questions pertaining to legume biology. While the initiation of symbiosis and the development of nitrogen-fixing root nodules depend on the activation of a protein phosphorylation-mediated signal transduction cascade in response to symbiotic signals produced by the rhizobia, few sites of in vivo phosphorylation have previously been identified in M. truncatula. We have characterized sites of phosphorylation on proteins from M. truncatula roots, from both whole cell lysates and membrane-enriched fractions, using immobilized metal affinity chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Here, we report 3,457 unique phosphopeptides spanning 3,404 nonredundant sites of in vivo phosphorylation on 829 proteins in M. truncatula Jemalong A17 roots, identified using the complementary tandem mass spectrometry fragmentation methods electron transfer dissociation and collision-activated dissociation. With this being, to our knowledge, the first large-scale plant phosphoproteomic study to utilize electron transfer dissociation, analysis of the identified phosphorylation sites revealed phosphorylation motifs not previously observed in plants. Furthermore, several of the phosphorylation motifs, including LxKxxs and RxxSxxxs, have yet to be reported as kinase specificities for in vivo substrates in any species, to our knowledge. Multiple sites of phosphorylation were identified on several key proteins involved in initiating rhizobial symbiosis, including SICKLE, NUCLEOPORIN133, and INTERACTING PROTEIN OF DMI3. Finally, we used these data to create an open-access online database for M. truncatula phosphoproteomic data. PMID:19923235

  16. Leveraging model legume information to find candidate genes for soybean sudden death syndrome using the legume information system.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Michael D; Gajendran, Kamal; Farmer, Andrew D; Archuleta, Eric; Beavis, William D

    2007-01-01

    Comparative genomics is an emerging and powerful approach to achieve crop improvement. Using comparative genomics, information from model plant species can accelerate the discovery of genes responsible for disease and pest resistance, tolerance to plant stresses such as drought, and enhanced nutritional value including production of anti-oxidants and anti-cancer compounds. We demonstrate here how to use the Legume Information System for a comparative genomics study, leveraging genomic information from Medicago truncatula (barrel medic), the model legume, to find candidate genes involved with sudden death syndrome (SDS) in Glycine max (soybean). Specifically, genetic maps, physical maps, and annotated tentative consensus and expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences from G. max and M. truncatula can be compared. In addition, the recently published M. truncatula genomic sequences can be used to identify M. truncatula candidate genes in a genomic region syntenic to a quantitative trait loci region for SDS in soybean. Genomic sequences of candidate genes from M. truncatula can then be used to identify ESTs with sequence similarities from soybean for primer design and cloning of potential soybean disease causing alleles. PMID:18287696

  17. Methane Emission and Milk Production of Dairy Cows Grazing Pastures Rich in Legumes or Rich in Grasses in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Dini, Yoana; Gere, José; Briano, Carolina; Manetti, Martin; Juliarena, Paula; Picasso, Valentin; Gratton, Roberto; Astigarraga, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary GHGs emissions are relevant in evaluating environmental impact of farming systems. Methane (CH4) produced by enteric fermentation accounts for half of all anthropogenic emissions of GHGs in Uruguay, where ruminant production is based on year round grazing of forages. Here we compared milk production and CH4 emissions by dairy cows grazing two contrasting mixed pastures (rich in legumes or rich in grasses) using the SF6 tracer technique adapted to collect breath samples over 5-days periods. There were no differences in milk or CH4 production between the contrasting pastures, probably because of the high herbage allowance that enabled selective grazing by cows. Abstract Understanding the impact of changing pasture composition on reducing emissions of GHGs in dairy grazing systems is an important issue to mitigate climate change. The aim of this study was to estimate daily CH4 emissions of dairy cows grazing two mixed pastures with contrasting composition of grasses and legumes: L pasture with 60% legumes on Dry Matter (DM) basis and G pasture with 75% grasses on DM basis. Milk production and CH4 emissions were compared over two periods of two weeks during spring using eight lactating Holstein cows in a 2 × 2 Latin square design. Herbage organic matter intake (HOMI) was estimated by chromic oxide dilution and herbage organic matter digestibility (OMD) was estimated by faecal index. Methane emission was estimated by using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique adapted to collect breath samples over 5-day periods. OMD (0.71) and HOMI (15.7 kg OM) were not affected by pasture composition. Milk production (20.3 kg/d), milk fat yield (742 g/d) and milk protein yield (667 g/d) were similar for both pastures. This may be explained by the high herbage allowance (30 kg DM above 5 cm/cow) which allowed the cows to graze selectively, in particular in grass sward. Similarly, methane emission expressed as absolute value (368 g/d or 516 L/d) or expressed as

  18. Purification and thermal dependence of glutathione reductase from two forage legume species.

    PubMed

    Kidambi, S P; Mahan, J R; Matches, A G

    1990-02-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) are forage legumes that differ in their responses to high and low temperature stresses. Thermal limitations on the function of glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2) could adversely affect the ability of the plant to cope with adverse temperatures. Our objectives were to (a) purify glutathione reductase from ;Cimarron' alfalfa and ;PI 212241' sainfoin and (b) investigate the intraspecies variation in the thermal dependency of glutathione reductase from each of three cultivars of alfalfa and two cultivars and an introduction of sainfoin. Glutathione reductase was purified 1222-and 1948-fold to a specific activity of 281 and 273 units per milligram of protein, from one species each of alfalfa and sainfoin, respectively. The relative molecular mass of the protein was approximately 140 kilodaltons with subunits of 57 and 37 kilodaltons under denaturing conditions. The activation energies were approximately 50 kilojoules per mole for both species. Over a 5 to 45 degrees C temperature gradient, large variation among species and genotypes within species was found for: (a) the minimum apparent Michaelis constant (0.6-2.1 micromoles of NADPH), (b) the temperature at which the minimum apparent Michaelis constant was observed (10-25 degrees C), and (c) the thermal kinetic windows (6-19 degrees C width). Future studies will focus on relating the thermal dependence of the Michaelis constant of the glutathione reductases and plant growth rates and forage quality of these species throughout the growing season. PMID:16667283

  19. Pasture management strategies for reducing the risk of legume bloat in cattle.

    PubMed

    Majak, W; Hall, J W; McCaughey, W P

    1995-05-01

    Results from two decades (1973-1993) of bloat research at Kamloops are reviewed. The trials were conducted with groups of ruminally fistulated cattle either grazing or fed daily fresh-cut alfalfa (Medicago sativa) herbage. Studies were conducted during the growing season (May to September) and in the fall (October and November). The alfalfa was usually in the vegetative to early bloom stages of growth. Visual assessments of bloat severity on a scale of 1 to 5 were made .5 to 2 h after feeding started, at which time ruminal cannulas were opened to relieve ruminal pressure. Every cultivar of alfalfa tested caused bloat, but sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia), birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus), and cicer milkvetch (Astragalus cicer) did not. This confirms the bloat-safe features of these alternate legume forages. Bloat was positively associated with the level of Fraction 1 protein and total soluble protein in alfalfa, supporting the concept of a decreased probability of bloat with advancing stages of plant maturity. There was no association between alfalfa saponins and bloat. Prefeeding ruminal chlorophyll levels were higher and ruminal clearance rates were lower in cattle that were susceptible to bloat. Cattle that bloated on a given day consumed 18 to 25% less alfalfa immediately before bloat than non-bloaters did in the same time period. Ruminal cations were associated with bloat incidence but cation manipulation through supplementation did not prevent bloat. Of all the feed additives tested, only poloxalene (Bloat Guard) completely prevented bloat.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7665381

  20. Potential use of phytocystatins in crop improvement, with a particular focus on legumes.

    PubMed

    Kunert, Karl J; van Wyk, Stefan G; Cullis, Christopher A; Vorster, Barend J; Foyer, Christine H

    2015-06-01

    Phytocystatins are a well-characterized class of naturally occurring protease inhibitors that function by preventing the catalysis of papain-like cysteine proteases. The action of cystatins in biotic stress resistance has been studied intensively, but relatively little is known about their functions in plant growth and defence responses to abiotic stresses, such as drought. Extreme weather events, such as drought and flooding, will have negative impacts on the yields of crop plants, particularly grain legumes. The concepts that changes in cellular protein content and composition are required for acclimation to different abiotic stresses, and that these adjustments are achieved through regulation of proteolysis, are widely accepted. However, the nature and regulation of the protein turnover machinery that underpins essential stress-induced cellular restructuring remain poorly characterized. Cysteine proteases are intrinsic to the genetic programmes that underpin plant development and senescence, but their functions in stress-induced senescence are not well defined. Transgenic plants including soybean that have been engineered to constitutively express phytocystatins show enhanced tolerance to a range of different abiotic stresses including drought, suggesting that manipulation of cysteine protease activities by altered phytocystatin expression in crop plants might be used to improve resilience and quality in the face of climate change. PMID:25944929

  1. Legume promotion in counselling: an e-mail survey of dietitians.

    PubMed

    Desrochers, N; Brauer, P M

    2001-01-01

    Little is known about dietitians current practice in counselling clients about the use of legumes in a low fat, high fibre diet. An exploratory e-mail questionnaire was sent to members of Dietitians of Canada to assess: dietitian use and preferences for legumes, dietitian practice, opinions about clients attitudes and preferences, and resource needs. Counsellors (n=256) had high personal use of legumes (64% > or = 1 serving/week) and frequently recommended legumes in counselling. The legumes most preferred by respondents and their clients were: peanuts, kidney beans, split peas, chickpeas, and lentils. Respondents often recommended canned bean products (76%) and tofu (61%), but other legume grocery products were less often recommended. The most common client issues identified were: flatulence (87% agreed), lack of familiarity (85%), and knowledge of preparation (82%). Dietitians were not satisfied with current resources to support practice, especially those respondents providing primarily clinical counselling services. The most requested resources were: recipes (90%), pamphlets (82%), food demonstrations (75%) and Internet sites (63%). Client level research is now needed to confirm the importance of the issues identified and to develop and test strategies for legume promotion in counselling. PMID:11742561

  2. Exploitation of the nutritional and functional characteristics of traditional Italian legumes: the potential of sourdough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Curiel, José Antonio; Coda, Rossana; Centomani, Isabella; Summo, Carmine; Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the composition of nineteen traditional Italian legumes and at investigating the potential of the sourdough fermentation with selected lactic acid bacteria to improve the nutritional and functional features. Traditional Italian legumes, all with product certifications and belonging to Phaseolus vulgaris, Cicer arietinum, Lathyrus sativus, Lens culinaris and Pisum sativum species, were used in this study. Seeds were milled, and flours were analyzed for proximate composition and subjected to sourdough fermentation at 30°C for 24h. Lactobacillus plantarum C48 and Lactobacillus brevis AM7 were used as selected starters. Compared to control doughs, without bacterial inoculum, the concentrations of free amino acids (FAA), soluble fibres, and total phenols increased for all legume sourdoughs. Raffinose decreased of up to ca. 64%. During sourdough fermentation, the level of GABA markedly increased and reached values up to 624mg/kg. Condensed tannins decreased. At the same time, almost all legume sourdoughs showed increases of the antioxidant and phytase activities. As shown by PCA analysis based on data of total FAA, GABA, raffinose, soluble/insoluble dietary fibre, condensed tannins and antioxidant and phytase activities, all legume sourdoughs were clearly differentiated from control doughs. The traditional Italian legumes are bio-diverse, and all showed high levels of nutritional elements and suitability for optimal sourdough fermentation. Legume flours subjected to sourdough fermentation would be suitable to be used alone or better in mixture with cereals, and as gluten-free ingredients for making novel and healthy foods. PMID:25522057

  3. Polyploidy Did Not Predate the Evolution of Nodulation in All Legumes

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Steven B.; Ilut, Dan; Farmer, Andrew D.; Maki, Sonja L.; May, Gregory D.; Singer, Susan R.; Doyle, Jeff J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Several lines of evidence indicate that polyploidy occurred by around 54 million years ago, early in the history of legume evolution, but it has not been known whether this event was confined to the papilionoid subfamily (Papilionoideae; e.g. beans, medics, lupins) or occurred earlier. Determining the timing of the polyploidy event is important for understanding whether polyploidy might have contributed to rapid diversification and radiation of the legumes near the origin of the family; and whether polyploidy might have provided genetic material that enabled the evolution of a novel organ, the nitrogen-fixing nodule. Although symbioses with nitrogen-fixing partners have evolved in several lineages in the rosid I clade, nodules are widespread only in legume taxa, being nearly universal in the papilionoids and in the mimosoid subfamily (e.g., mimosas, acacias) – which diverged from the papilionoid legumes around 58 million years ago, soon after the origin of the legumes. Methodology/Principal Findings Using transcriptome sequence data from Chamaecrista fasciculata, a nodulating member of the mimosoid clade, we tested whether this species underwent polyploidy within the timeframe of legume diversification. Analysis of gene family branching orders and synonymous-site divergence data from C. fasciculata, Glycine max (soybean), Medicago truncatula, and Vitis vinifera (grape; an outgroup to the rosid taxa) establish that the polyploidy event known from soybean and Medicago occurred after the separation of the mimosoid and papilionoid clades, and at or shortly before the Papilionoideae radiation. Conclusions The ancestral legume genome was not fundamentally polyploid. Moreover, because there has not been an independent instance of polyploidy in the Chamaecrista lineage there is no necessary connection between polyploidy and nodulation in legumes. Chamaecrista may serve as a useful model in the legumes that lacks a paleopolyploid history, at least relative to

  4. Phosphorus homeostasis in legume nodules as an adaptive strategy to phosphorus deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sulieman, Saad; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2015-10-01

    Legumes have a significant role in effective management of fertilizers and improving soil health in sustainable agriculture. Because of the high phosphorus (P) requirements of N2-fixing nodule, P deficiency represents an important constraint for legume crop production, especially in tropical marginal countries. P deficiency is an important constraint for legume crop production, especially in poor soils present in many tropical degraded areas. Unlike nitrogen, mineral P sources are nonrenewable, and high-grade rock phosphates are expected to be depleted in the near future. Accordingly, developing legume cultivars with effective N2 fixation under P-limited conditions could have a profound significance for improving agricultural sustainability. Legumes have evolved strategies at both morphological and physiological levels to adapt to P deficiency. Molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptive strategies to P deficiency have been elucidated in legumes. These include maintenance of the P-homeostasis in nodules as a main adaptive strategy for rhizobia-legume symbiosis under P deficiency. The stabilization of P levels in the symbiotic tissues can be achieved through several mechanisms, including elevated P allocation to nodules, formation of a strong P sink in nodules, direct P acquisition via nodule surface and P remobilization from organic-P containing substances. The detailed biochemical, physiological and molecular understanding will be essential to the advancement of genetic and molecular approaches for enhancement of legume adaptation to P deficiency. In this review, we evaluate recent progress made to gain further and deeper insights into the physiological, biochemical and molecular reprogramming that legumes use to maintain P-homeostasis in nodules during P scarcity. PMID:26398789

  5. Two microRNAs linked to nodule infection and nitrogen-fixing ability in the legume Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    De Luis, Ana; Markmann, Katharina; Cognat, Valérie; Holt, Dennis B; Charpentier, Myriam; Parniske, Martin; Stougaard, Jens; Voinnet, Olivier

    2012-12-01

    Legumes overcome nitrogen shortage by developing root nodules in which symbiotic bacteria fix atmospheric nitrogen in exchange for host-derived carbohydrates and mineral nutrients. Nodule development involves the distinct processes of nodule organogenesis, bacterial infection, and the onset of nitrogen fixation. These entail profound, dynamic gene expression changes, notably contributed to by microRNAs (miRNAs). Here, we used deep-sequencing, candidate-based expression studies and a selection of Lotus japonicus mutants uncoupling different symbiosis stages to identify miRNAs involved in symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Induction of a noncanonical miR171 isoform, which targets the key nodulation transcription factor Nodulation Signaling Pathway2, correlates with bacterial infection in nodules. A second candidate, miR397, is systemically induced in the presence of active, nitrogen-fixing nodules but not in that of noninfected or inactive nodule organs. It is involved in nitrogen fixation-related copper homeostasis and targets a member of the laccase copper protein family. These findings thus identify two miRNAs specifically responding to symbiotic infection and nodule function in legumes. PMID:23071252

  6. In vitro antioxidant activity of extracts from common legumes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Du, Shuang-kui; Wang, Hanxin; Cai, Meng

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro antioxidant activity of pinto bean, cowpea, baby lima bean, lentil, chickpea, small red bean, red kidney bean, black kidney bean, navy bean, and mung bean extracts were investigated. Significant differences were observed in the phenolic content and the antioxidant activity amongst the legume extracts. Lentils demonstrated the highest phenolic content (47.6 mg/g), total antioxidant activity (720.68 U/g), DPPH• scavenging activity (38.5%), and total reducing power, whereas baby lima beans and navy beans had the lowest. Amongst the extracts, hydroxyl radicals (•OH) scavenging was higher in black kidney bean (85.68%) and baby lima bean (74.97%) extracts. The total antioxidant activity (r=0.84), DPPH• scavenging activity (r=0.83), and total reducing power (r=0.84) were positively correlated with the total phenolic content. However, •OH scavenging and the phenolic content were not correlated. PMID:24444962

  7. Biomass potential of selected grass and legume crops

    SciTech Connect

    Cherney, J.H.; Johnson, K.D.; Volenec, J.J.; Greene, D.K. )

    1991-01-01

    Optimum management strategies for herbaceous biomass crops must be investigated concurrently with the development of cost-effective conversion processes. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the agronomic feasibility of several combinations of species and management systems for producing herbaceous biomass on sites ranging from good to marginal cropland in the Midwest region of the United States. Of the perennial grasses and legumes investigated, switchgrass showed the most potential as a biomass species. It requires minimum fertilizer inputs for high yield, is very persistent, and is effective in reducing soil erosion. Sorghum double-cropped with winter annual rye was very productive but required more inputs than switchgrass. Interseeding sorghum into perennial grasses was not a viable option, due to its great dependence on environmental variables. Plant composition varied greatly across species but was not greatly affected by environment or management treatmenst.

  8. Legumes are different: Leaf nitrogen, photosynthesis, and water use efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Mark Andrew; Turnbull, Tarryn L.; Sprent, Janet I.; Buchmann, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Using robust, pairwise comparisons and a global dataset, we show that nitrogen concentration per unit leaf mass for nitrogen-fixing plants (N2FP; mainly legumes plus some actinorhizal species) in nonagricultural ecosystems is universally greater (43–100%) than that for other plants (OP). This difference is maintained across Koppen climate zones and growth forms and strongest in the wet tropics and within deciduous angiosperms. N2FP mostly show a similar advantage over OP in nitrogen per leaf area (Narea), even in arid climates, despite diazotrophy being sensitive to drought. We also show that, for most N2FP, carbon fixation by photosynthesis (Asat) and stomatal conductance (gs) are not related to Narea—in distinct challenge to current theories that place the leaf nitrogen–Asat relationship at the center of explanations of plant fitness and competitive ability. Among N2FP, only forbs displayed an Narea–gs relationship similar to that for OP, whereas intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi; Asat/gs) was positively related to Narea for woody N2FP. Enhanced foliar nitrogen (relative to OP) contributes strongly to other evolutionarily advantageous attributes of legumes, such as seed nitrogen and herbivore defense. These alternate explanations of clear differences in leaf N between N2FP and OP have significant implications (e.g., for global models of carbon fluxes based on relationships between leaf N and Asat). Combined, greater WUE and leaf nitrogen—in a variety of forms—enhance fitness and survival of genomes of N2FP, particularly in arid and semiarid climates. PMID:27035971

  9. Legumes are different: Leaf nitrogen, photosynthesis, and water use efficiency.

    PubMed

    Adams, Mark Andrew; Turnbull, Tarryn L; Sprent, Janet I; Buchmann, Nina

    2016-04-12

    Using robust, pairwise comparisons and a global dataset, we show that nitrogen concentration per unit leaf mass for nitrogen-fixing plants (N2FP; mainly legumes plus some actinorhizal species) in nonagricultural ecosystems is universally greater (43-100%) than that for other plants (OP). This difference is maintained across Koppen climate zones and growth forms and strongest in the wet tropics and within deciduous angiosperms. N2FP mostly show a similar advantage over OP in nitrogen per leaf area (Narea), even in arid climates, despite diazotrophy being sensitive to drought. We also show that, for most N2FP, carbon fixation by photosynthesis (Asat) and stomatal conductance (gs) are not related to Narea-in distinct challenge to current theories that place the leaf nitrogen-Asat relationship at the center of explanations of plant fitness and competitive ability. Among N2FP, only forbs displayed an Narea-gs relationship similar to that for OP, whereas intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi; Asat/gs) was positively related to Narea for woody N2FP. Enhanced foliar nitrogen (relative to OP) contributes strongly to other evolutionarily advantageous attributes of legumes, such as seed nitrogen and herbivore defense. These alternate explanations of clear differences in leaf N between N2FP and OP have significant implications (e.g., for global models of carbon fluxes based on relationships between leaf N and Asat). Combined, greater WUE and leaf nitrogen-in a variety of forms-enhance fitness and survival of genomes of N2FP, particularly in arid and semiarid climates. PMID:27035971

  10. Soil spatial variability and symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes

    SciTech Connect

    Reichardt, K. )

    1990-09-01

    The isotope dilution method for the estimation of N{sub 2} fixation by legumes is analyzed, comparing the application of {sup 15}N-enriched fertilizer with {sup 15}N-labeled soil. Soil variability of other dynamic processes in the soil are discussed in light of the distribution of the {sup 15}N label in the system. Field data were collected along six transects, 45 m long, with 30 plots (replicates) each. The legume (Vicia faba L.) was used as a fixing crop, barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and oil radish (Raphinus sativus L.) as nonfixing standard crops. Isotope methods were also compared with the yield difference method. Results show that isotope methods were very sensitive to the distribution of the label in the soil and that dynamic processes involving N can significantly affect this distribution over a whole field. Best results were obtained with {sup 15}N-labeled soil. The particular site used, having been farmed for more than 20 years with {sup 15}N trials, showed a homogeneous residual {sup 15}N label that made it possible to estimate N{sub 2} fixation without the application of extra label. Estimates of N{sub 2} fixation with the isotope method were well correlated with the yield difference method when fertilizer use efficiency of the fixing and nonfixing crops were similar. Results also indicate that a good reference crop for one method might not be the best for the other method, and one reason for this is the variability of soil parameters and of dynamic processes occurring in the soil.

  11. WRKY domain-encoding genes of a crop legume chickpea (Cicer arietinum): comparative analysis with Medicago truncatula WRKY family and characterization of group-III gene(s)

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Kamal; Srivastava, Vikas; Purayannur, Savithri; Kaladhar, V. Chandra; Cheruvu, Purnima Jaiswal; Verma, Praveen Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The WRKY genes have been identified as important transcriptional modulators predominantly during the environmental stresses, but they also play critical role at various stages of plant life cycle. We report the identification of WRKY domain (WD)-encoding genes from galegoid clade legumes chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and barrel medic (Medicago truncatula). In total, 78 and 98 WD-encoding genes were found in chickpea and barrel medic, respectively. Comparative analysis suggests the presence of both conserved and unique WRKYs, and expansion of WRKY family in M. truncatula primarily by tandem duplication. Exclusively found in galegoid legumes, CaWRKY16 and its orthologues encode for a novel protein having a transmembrane and partial Exo70 domains flanking a group-III WD. Genomic region of galegoids, having CaWRKY16, is more dynamic when compared with millettioids. In onion cells, fused CaWRKY16-EYFP showed punctate fluorescent signals in cytoplasm. The chickpea WRKY group-III genes were further characterized for their transcript level modulation during pathogenic stress and treatments of abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid (SA) by real-time PCR. Differential regulation of genes was observed during Ascochyta rabiei infection and SA treatment. Characterization of A. rabiei and SA inducible gene CaWRKY50 showed that it localizes to plant nucleus, binds to W-box, and have a C-terminal transactivation domain. Overexpression of CaWRKY50 in tobacco plants resulted in early flowering and senescence. The in-depth comparative account presented here for two legume WRKY genes will be of great utility in hastening functional characterization of crop legume WRKYs and will also help in characterization of Exo70Js. PMID:27060167

  12. WRKY domain-encoding genes of a crop legume chickpea (Cicer arietinum): comparative analysis with Medicago truncatula WRKY family and characterization of group-III gene(s).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kamal; Srivastava, Vikas; Purayannur, Savithri; Kaladhar, V Chandra; Cheruvu, Purnima Jaiswal; Verma, Praveen Kumar

    2016-06-01

    The WRKY genes have been identified as important transcriptional modulators predominantly during the environmental stresses, but they also play critical role at various stages of plant life cycle. We report the identification of WRKY domain (WD)-encoding genes from galegoid clade legumes chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and barrel medic (Medicago truncatula). In total, 78 and 98 WD-encoding genes were found in chickpea and barrel medic, respectively. Comparative analysis suggests the presence of both conserved and unique WRKYs, and expansion of WRKY family in M. truncatula primarily by tandem duplication. Exclusively found in galegoid legumes, CaWRKY16 and its orthologues encode for a novel protein having a transmembrane and partial Exo70 domains flanking a group-III WD. Genomic region of galegoids, having CaWRKY16, is more dynamic when compared with millettioids. In onion cells, fused CaWRKY16-EYFP showed punctate fluorescent signals in cytoplasm. The chickpea WRKY group-III genes were further characterized for their transcript level modulation during pathogenic stress and treatments of abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid (SA) by real-time PCR. Differential regulation of genes was observed during Ascochyta rabiei infection and SA treatment. Characterization of A. rabiei and SA inducible gene CaWRKY50 showed that it localizes to plant nucleus, binds to W-box, and have a C-terminal transactivation domain. Overexpression of CaWRKY50 in tobacco plants resulted in early flowering and senescence. The in-depth comparative account presented here for two legume WRKY genes will be of great utility in hastening functional characterization of crop legume WRKYs and will also help in characterization of Exo70Js. PMID:27060167

  13. Chemical composition, nutritive value, and toxicological evaluation of Bauhinia cheilantha seeds: a legume from semiarid regions widely used in folk medicine.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Daniel Câmara; Farias, Davi Felipe; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano; Arantes, Mariana Reis; Oliveira, José Tadeu Abreu; Sousa, Daniele Oliveira Bezerra; Pereira, Mirella Leite; Oliveira, Hermogenes David; Andrade-Neto, Manoel; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria

    2013-01-01

    Among the Bauhinia species, B. cheilantha stands out for its seed protein content. However, there is no record of its nutritional value, being used in a nonsustainable way in the folk medicine and for large-scale extraction of timber. The aim of this study was to investigate the food potential of B. cheilantha seeds with emphasis on its protein quality to provide support for flora conservation and use as raw material or as prototype for the development of bioproducts with high added socioeconomic value. B. cheilantha seeds show high protein content (35.9%), reasonable essential amino acids profile, low levels of antinutritional compounds, and nutritional parameters comparable to those of legumes widely used such as soybean and cowpea. The heat treatment of the seeds as well as the protein extraction process (to obtain the protein concentrate) increased the acceptance of diets by about 100% when compared to that of raw Bc diet. These wild legume seeds can be promising alternative source of food to overcome the malnutrition problem faced by low income people adding socioeconomic value to the species. PMID:23691507

  14. Chemical Composition, Nutritive Value, and Toxicological Evaluation of Bauhinia cheilantha Seeds: A Legume from Semiarid Regions Widely Used in Folk Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Daniel Câmara; Farias, Davi Felipe; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano; Arantes, Mariana Reis; Oliveira, José Tadeu Abreu; Sousa, Daniele Oliveira Bezerra; Pereira, Mirella Leite; Oliveira, Hermogenes David; Andrade-Neto, Manoel; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria

    2013-01-01

    Among the Bauhinia species, B. cheilantha stands out for its seed protein content. However, there is no record of its nutritional value, being used in a nonsustainable way in the folk medicine and for large-scale extraction of timber. The aim of this study was to investigate the food potential of B. cheilantha seeds with emphasis on its protein quality to provide support for flora conservation and use as raw material or as prototype for the development of bioproducts with high added socioeconomic value. B. cheilantha seeds show high protein content (35.9%), reasonable essential amino acids profile, low levels of antinutritional compounds, and nutritional parameters comparable to those of legumes widely used such as soybean and cowpea. The heat treatment of the seeds as well as the protein extraction process (to obtain the protein concentrate) increased the acceptance of diets by about 100% when compared to that of raw Bc diet. These wild legume seeds can be promising alternative source of food to overcome the malnutrition problem faced by low income people adding socioeconomic value to the species. PMID:23691507

  15. Survival of Rhizobium phaseoli in coal-based legume inoculants applied to seeds

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, S.L.; Berryhill, D.L.

    1983-02-01

    Eight coals used as carriers in legume inoculants promoted the survival of Rhizobium phaseoli on pinto bean seeds. Although peat was more protective, most coal-based inoculants provided >10/sup 4/ viable rhizobia per seed after 4 weeks.

  16. Changes in nonnutritional factors and antioxidant activity during germination of nonconventional legumes.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Yolanda; Díaz, María Felicia; Jiménez, Tania; Benítez, Vanesa; Herrera, Teresa; Cuadrado, Carmen; Martín-Pedrosa, Mercedes; Martín-Cabrejas, María A

    2013-08-28

    The present study describes the effects of germination on nonnutritional factors and antioxidant activity in the nonconventional legumes Vigna unguiculata (cowpea), Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean), Lablab purpureus (dolichos), and Stizolobium niveum (mucuna). Protease inhibitors and lectins were detected in raw legumes and were significantly decreased during the germination. Regarding total and individual inositol phosphates (IP5-IP3), important reductions of IP6 and high increases in the rest of inositol phosphates were also detected during this process. In addition, total phenols, catechins, and proanthocyanidins increased, accompanied by an overall rise of antioxidant activity (79.6 μmol of Trolox/g of DW in the case of mucuna). Germination has been shown to be a very effective process to reduce nonnutritional factors and increase bioactive phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of these nonconventional legumes. For this reason, they could be used as ingredients to obtain high-value legume flours for food formulation. PMID:23909570

  17. Nuts and legume seeds for cardiovascular risk reduction: scientific evidence and mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Souza, Rávila G M; Gomes, Aline C; Naves, Maria M V; Mota, João F

    2015-06-01

    Consumption of tree nuts and legume seeds is associated with a reduction in cardiovascular risk. The reduction in blood lipids and in inflammatory and oxidative processes exhibited by bioactive compounds such as monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, fibers, phenolic compounds, tocopherols, phospholipids, carotenoids, some minerals, and arginine, has stimulated research on the mechanisms of action of these substances through distinct experimental approaches. It is, therefore, important to know the metabolic effect of each nut and legume seed or the mixture of them to choose the most suitable nutritional interventions in clinical practice. The aim of this narrative bibliographic review was to investigate the effects of tree nuts and legume seeds on biomarkers of cardiovascular risk, as well as their mechanisms of action with regard to lipid profiles, insulin resistance, arterial pressure, oxidative stress, and inflammation. The findings indicate that a mixture of nuts and legume seeds optimizes the protective effect against cardiovascular risk. PMID:26011909

  18. Transcriptome Sequencing of Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus) to Identify Putative Positive Selection in Phaseolus and Legumes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fengqi; Cao, Depan; Liu, Yang; Yang, Ting; Wang, Guirong

    2015-01-01

    The identification of genes under positive selection is a central goal of evolutionary biology. Many legume species, including Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) and Phaseolus lunatus (lima bean), have important ecological and economic value. In this study, we sequenced and assembled the transcriptome of one Phaseolus species, lima bean. A comparison with the genomes of six other legume species, including the common bean, Medicago, lotus, soybean, chickpea, and pigeonpea, revealed 15 and 4 orthologous groups with signatures of positive selection among the two Phaseolus species and among the seven legume species, respectively. Characterization of these positively selected genes using Non redundant (nr) annotation, gene ontology (GO) classification, GO term enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses revealed that these genes are mostly involved in thylakoids, photosynthesis and metabolism. This study identified genes that may be related to the divergence of the Phaseolus and legume species. These detected genes are particularly good candidates for subsequent functional studies. PMID:26151849

  19. Contrasted nitrogen utilization in annual C 3 grass and legume crops: Physiological explorations and ecological considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Pozo, Alejandro; Garnier, Eric; Aronson, James

    2000-01-01

    Although it is well known that legumes have unusually high levels of nitrogen in both reproductive and vegetative organs, the physiological implications of this pattern have been poorly assessed. We conducted a literature survey and used data from two (unpublished) experiments on annual legumes and C 3 grasses in order to test whether these high nitrogen concentrations in legumes are correlated to high rates of carbon gain. Three different temporal/spatial scales were considered: full growing season/stand, days to month/whole plant and seconds/leaf. At the stand level, and for plants grown under both extratropical and tropical settings, biomass per unit organic-nitrogen was lower in legume than in grass crops. At a shorter time scale, the relative growth rate per unit plant nitrogen (`nitrogen productivity') was lower in faba bean ( Vicia faba var. minor cv. Tina) than in wheat ( Triticum aestivum cv. Alexandria), and this was confirmed in a comparison of two wild, circum-Mediterranean annuals - Medicago minima, a legume, and Bromus madritensis, a grass. Finally, at the leaf level, a synthesis of published data comparing soybean ( Glycine max) and rice ( Oryza sativa) on the one hand, and our own data on faba bean and wheat on the other hand, demonstrates that the photosynthetic rate per unit leaf nitrogen (the photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency) is consistently lower in legumes than in grasses. These results demonstrate that, regardless of the scale considered and although the organic-nitrogen concentration in vegetative organs of legumes is higher than in grasses, this does not lead to higher rates of carbon gain in the former. Various physiological factors affecting the efficiency of nitrogen utilization at the three time scales considered are discussed. The suggestion is made that the ecological significance of the high nitrogen concentration in legumes may be related to a high nitrogen demand for high quality seed production at a time when nitrogen

  20. An improved genome release (version Mt4.0) for the model legume Medicago truncatula

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Medicago truncatula, a close relative of alfalfa, is a preeminent model for studying nitrogen fixation, symbiosis, and legume genomics. The Medicago sequencing project began in 2003 with the goal to decipher sequences originated from the euchromatic portion of the genome. The initial sequencing approach was based on a BAC tiling path, culminating in a BAC-based assembly (Mt3.5) as well as an in-depth analysis of the genome published in 2011. Results Here we describe a further improved and refined version of the M. truncatula genome (Mt4.0) based on de novo whole genome shotgun assembly of a majority of Illumina and 454 reads using ALLPATHS-LG. The ALLPATHS-LG scaffolds were anchored onto the pseudomolecules on the basis of alignments to both the optical map and the genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) map. The Mt4.0 pseudomolecules encompass ~360 Mb of actual sequences spanning 390 Mb of which ~330 Mb align perfectly with the optical map, presenting a drastic improvement over the BAC-based Mt3.5 which only contained 70% sequences (~250 Mb) of the current version. Most of the sequences and genes that previously resided on the unanchored portion of Mt3.5 have now been incorporated into the Mt4.0 pseudomolecules, with the exception of ~28 Mb of unplaced sequences. With regard to gene annotation, the genome has been re-annotated through our gene prediction pipeline, which integrates EST, RNA-seq, protein and gene prediction evidences. A total of 50,894 genes (31,661 high confidence and 19,233 low confidence) are included in Mt4.0 which overlapped with ~82% of the gene loci annotated in Mt3.5. Of the remaining genes, 14% of the Mt3.5 genes have been deprecated to an “unsupported” status and 4% are absent from the Mt4.0 predictions. Conclusions Mt4.0 and its associated resources, such as genome browsers, BLAST-able datasets and gene information pages, can be found on the JCVI Medicago web site (http://www.jcvi.org/medicago). The assembly and annotation has

  1. Early Steps in Proanthocyanidin Biosynthesis in the Model Legume Medicago truncatula1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Yongzhen; Peel, Gregory J.; Wright, Elane; Wang, Zengyu; Dixon, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    Oligomeric proanthocyanidins (PAs) composed primarily of epicatechin units accumulate in the seed coats of the model legume Medicago truncatula, reaching maximal levels at around 20 d after pollination. Genes encoding the single Medicago anthocyanidin synthase (ANS; EC 1.14.11.19) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR; EC 1.17.1.3) were cloned and the corresponding enzymes functionally identified. Recombinant MtANS converted leucocyanidin to cyanidin, and, more efficiently, dihydroquercetin to the flavonol quercetin. Levels of transcripts encoding dihydroflavonol reductase, ANS, and anthocyanidin reductase (ANR), the enzyme responsible for conversion of anthocyanidin to (−)-epicatechin, paralleled the accumulation of PAs in developing seeds, whereas LAR transcripts appeared to be more transiently expressed. LAR, ANS, and ANR proteins were localized to the cytosol in transfected tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves. Antisense down-regulation of ANS in M. truncatula resulted in reduced anthocyanin and PA levels, but had no impact on flavonol levels. Transgenic tobacco plants constitutively overexpressing MtLAR showed reduced anthocyanin content, but no catechin or increased levels of PAs were detected either in leaves or in flowers. Our results confirm previously ascribed in vivo functions for ANS and ANR. However, the apparent lack of catechin in M. truncatula PAs, the poor correlation between LAR expression and PA accumulation, and the lack of production of catechin monomers or oligomers in transgenic plants overexpressing MtLAR question the role of MtLAR in PA biosynthesis in Medicago. PMID:17885080

  2. Exploring root symbiotic programs in the model legume Medicago truncatula using EST analysis

    PubMed Central

    Journet, Etienne-Pascal; van Tuinen, Diederik; Gouzy, Jérome; Crespeau, Hervé; Carreau, Véronique; Farmer, Mary-Jo; Niebel, Andreas; Schiex, Thomas; Jaillon, Olivier; Chatagnier, Odile; Godiard, Laurence; Micheli, Fabienne; Kahn, Daniel; Gianinazzi-Pearson, Vivienne; Gamas, Pascal

    2002-01-01

    We report on a large-scale expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing and analysis program aimed at characterizing the sets of genes expressed in roots of the model legume Medicago truncatula during interactions with either of two microsymbionts, the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti or the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices. We have designed specific tools for in silico analysis of EST data, in relation to chimeric cDNA detection, EST clustering, encoded protein prediction, and detection of differential expression. Our 21 473 5′- and 3′-ESTs could be grouped into 6359 EST clusters, corresponding to distinct virtual genes, along with 52 498 other M.truncatula ESTs available in the dbEST (NCBI) database that were recruited in the process. These clusters were manually annotated, using a specifically developed annotation interface. Analysis of EST cluster distribution in various M.truncatula cDNA libraries, supported by a refined R test to evaluate statistical significance and by ‘electronic northern’ representation, enabled us to identify a large number of novel genes predicted to be up- or down-regulated during either symbiotic root interaction. These in silico analyses provide a first global view of the genetic programs for root symbioses in M.truncatula. A searchable database has been built and can be accessed through a public interface. PMID:12490726

  3. Exploring root symbiotic programs in the model legume Medicago truncatula using EST analysis.

    PubMed

    Journet, Etienne-Pascal; van Tuinen, Diederik; Gouzy, Jérome; Crespeau, Hervé; Carreau, Véronique; Farmer, Mary-Jo; Niebel, Andreas; Schiex, Thomas; Jaillon, Olivier; Chatagnier, Odile; Godiard, Laurence; Micheli, Fabienne; Kahn, Daniel; Gianinazzi-Pearson, Vivienne; Gamas, Pascal

    2002-12-15

    We report on a large-scale expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing and analysis program aimed at characterizing the sets of genes expressed in roots of the model legume Medicago truncatula during interactions with either of two microsymbionts, the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti or the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices. We have designed specific tools for in silico analysis of EST data, in relation to chimeric cDNA detection, EST clustering, encoded protein prediction, and detection of differential expression. Our 21 473 5'- and 3'-ESTs could be grouped into 6359 EST clusters, corresponding to distinct virtual genes, along with 52 498 other M.truncatula ESTs available in the dbEST (NCBI) database that were recruited in the process. These clusters were manually annotated, using a specifically developed annotation interface. Analysis of EST cluster distribution in various M.truncatula cDNA libraries, supported by a refined R test to evaluate statistical significance and by 'electronic northern' representation, enabled us to identify a large number of novel genes predicted to be up- or down-regulated during either symbiotic root interaction. These in silico analyses provide a first global view of the genetic programs for root symbioses in M.truncatula. A searchable database has been built and can be accessed through a public interface. PMID:12490726

  4. Will elevated carbon dioxide concentration amplify the benefits of nitrogen fixation in legumes?

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, A.; Ainsworth, E. A.; Leakey, A. D. B.

    2009-11-01

    Growth at elevated [CO{sub 2}] stimulates photosynthesis and increases carbon (C) supply in all C3 species. A sustained and maximal stimulation in productivity at elevated [CO{sub 2}] requires an enhanced nutrient supply to match the increase in C acquisition. The ability of legumes to exchange C for nitrogen (N) with their N{sub 2}-fixing symbionts has led to the hypothesis that legumes will have a competitive advantage over nonleguminous species when grown at elevated [CO{sub 2}]. On balance, evidence suggests that in managed systems, legumes are more responsive to elevated [CO{sub 2}] than other plants (e.g. Ainsworth and Long, 2005); however, in natural ecosystems, nutrient availability can limit the response of legumes to elevated [CO{sub 2}] (Hungate et al., 2004; van Groenigen et al., 2006). Here, we consider these observations, outline the mechanisms that underlie them, and examine recent work that advances our understanding of how legumes respond to growth at elevated [CO{sub 2}]. First we highlight the global importance of legumes and provide a brief overview of the symbiotic relationship.

  5. [Genetic diversity of rhizobia isolated from common legumes in the Karst area. Northwest Guangxi].

    PubMed

    Liu, Lu; He, Xun-yang; Xie, Qiang; Wang, Ke-lin

    2015-12-01

    Legumes, with a strong resistance to the adverse environmental conditions, are pioneer plants in degraded habitats, and play an important role in ecosystem restoration. In this study, the nodulation characteristics of 24 legumes were surveyed in the Karst area of Northwest Guangxi. A total of 39 nodule samples were collected from 15 legumes, the DNA was extracted and the 16S rDNA and nifH gene were amplified. A phylogenetic tree was then constructed to analyze the genetic diversity of rhizobia. The results showed that 15 legumes were nodulated, of which 14 belonged to the Papilionoideae, one to the Mimosaceae, and none to the Caesalpinoideae. No nodules were found on some legumes that were reported as nodulated, which might result from soil water stress in Karst. BLAST result and phylogenetic analyse indicated that most of the legumes were associated with rhizobia that belonged to the genus Bradyrhizobium, with the exception of two samples from Callerya nitida that were associated with the genus Mesorhizobium. In the phylogenetic tree, the sequences obtained from the same plot or the sequences from the same host species clustered together in most cases. This finding suggested that host selection and the ecological environment are the major factors that influence the genotype of rhizobia. PMID:27112003

  6. Physical, chemical and nutritional characteristics of premature-processed and matured green legumes.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Sila; Malleshi, N G

    2012-08-01

    Premature green legumes are good sources of nutraceuticals and antioxidants and are consumed as snacks as well as vegetables. They are seasonal and have limited shelf-life. Efforts are provided to prepare shelf-stable green legumes to extend their availability throughout the year. Green legumes from chick pea or Bengal gram (Cicer arietinum) and field bean (Dolichos lablab) have been processed to enhance their shelf-life, and determined their nutritional, physico-chemical and nutraceutical qualities. The shelf stable green legumes (SSGL) show higher water absorption capacity compared to matured dry legumes (MDL). The total colour change in the processed/dried SSGL and MDL samples increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) compared to the freshly harvested green samples. The carotenoid content of Bengal gram and field bean SSGLs are 8.0 and 3.2 mg/100 g, and chlorophyll contents are 12.5 and 0.5 mg/100 g, respectively, which are in negligible quantities in matured legumes; the corresponding polyphenol contents are 197.8 and 153.1 mg/100 g. These results indicate that SSGLs possess potential antioxidant activity. PMID:23904654

  7. Soil oribatid mite communities under three species of legumes in an ultisol in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Badejo, M Adetola; Espindola, Jose Antonio Azevedo; Guerra, Jose Guilherme Marinho; De Aquino, Adriana Maria; Correa, Maria Elizabeth Fernandes

    2002-01-01

    Oribatid mite densities in the topsoil and their activity at the soil surface were monitored under three species of perennial legume cover crops namely, Arachis pintoi, Macroptilium atropupureum and Pueraria phaseoloides, grass (Panicum maximum) and bare plots on three occasions in 1998 and 1999 in a derived savanna zone in Brazil. Both densities and activity at the soil surface were higher in the early but cool dry season in April 1998 than in the early wet but warm season in November 1998 and 1999. Three taxonomic groups of macropyline oribatid mites, namely Nothrus, Archegozetes and Masthermannia as well as a brachypyline taxon, Scheloribates were suggested as possible indicators of effect of legumes on soil biota because their populations increased under the legumes and/or the irresidues. Nothrus in particular increased in abundance more than any other taxon in the presence of residues of A. pintoi. Each legume supported a unique oribatid mite community in terms of species composition and relative abundance. The large numbers of Archegozeres trapped from all the legume and grass plots in April and November 1998 were also attributed to highly conducive conditions provided by the vegetation cover and their residues. The results suggest that the oribatid mite community of the study area was numerically stable as the peak populations of different species were not synchronized. Many taxonomic groups of pycnonotic brachypyline mites were absent. Legume cover crops, especially A. pintoi, and their residues have potential in restoring oribatid mite populations to precultivation levels. PMID:12797403

  8. Comparative study of the functional properties of three legume seed isolates: adzuki, pea and soy bean.

    PubMed

    Barac, Miroljub B; Pesic, Mirjana B; Stanojevic, Sladjana P; Kostic, Aleksandar Z; Bivolarevic, Vanja

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this work was to compare functional properties including solubility, emulsifying and foaming properties of native and thermally treated adzuki, soy and pea protein isolates prepared under the same conditions. These functional properties were tested at four pH values: pH 3.0, pH 5.0, pH 7.0 and pH 8.0. The lowest solubility at all pH values were obtained for isolate of adzuki whereas isolates of soybean had the highest values at almost all pHs. Thermal treatment reduced solubility of soy and pea isolates at all pH values, whereas solubility of adzuki isolate was unchanged, except at pH 8. Native isolate of adzuki had the best emulsifying properties at pH 7.0 whereas at the other pH values some of native pea and soybean protein isolates were superior. After thermal treatment, depending on tested pH and selected variety all of three species could be a good emulsifier. Native soy protein isolates formed the most stable foams at all pHs. Thermal treatment significantly improved foaming properties of adzuki isolate, whereas reduced foaming capacity of soy and pea isolates, but could improve foam stability of these isolates at specific pH. Appropriate selection of legume seed as well as variety could have great importance in achievement of desirable functional properties of final products. All three tested species could find specific application in wide range of food products. PMID:25892775

  9. Interaction between a tannin-containing legume and endophyte-infected tall fescue seed on lambs' feeding behavior and physiology.

    PubMed

    Villalba, J J; Spackman, C; Goff, B M; Klotz, J L; Griggs, T; MacAdam, J W

    2016-02-01

    It was hypothesized that a tannin-rich legume such as sainfoin attenuates the negative postingestive effects of ergot alkaloids in tall fescue. Thirty-two 4-mo-old lambs were individually penned and randomly assigned to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with 2 legume species, sainfoin (SAN; 2.9% condensed tannins) or cicer milkvetch (CIC; without tannins) and a mixed ration containing tall fescue seed (50:30:20 seed:beet pulp:alfalfa) with 2 levels of endophyte infection (endophyte-infected tall fescue seed [E+; 3,150 ug/L ergovaline] or endophyte-free tall fescue seed [E-]). For a 10-d baseline period, half of the lambs were fed SAN and half were fed CIC and all lambs had ad libitum amounts of E-. In an ensuing 10-d experimental period, the protocol was the same except half of the lambs fed SAN or CIC received E+ instead of E-. Subsequently, all lambs could choose between their respective legume and seed-containing ration and between E+ and E-. Finally, an in vitro radial diffusion assay was conducted to determine whether tannins isolated from SAN would bind to alkaloids isolated from E+. All groups consumed similar amounts of E- during baseline period ( > 0.10), but lambs ate more E- than E+ during the experimental period ( < 0.05) and lambs offered SAN ate more E+ than lambs offered CIC ( < 0.05). Groups fed E- during the baseline and experimental periods had similar rectal temperatures ( > 0.10), but lambs fed E+ had lower rectal temperatures per gram of feed ingested when supplemented with SAN than with CIC ( < 0.05). Lambs fed E+ had greater concentrations of hemoglobin and more red blood cells than lambs fed E- ( < 0.05), but plasmatic concentrations of cortisol and prolactin did not differ among treatments ( > 0.10). All lambs preferred their treatment ration over their treatment legume, but lambs in the SAN and E+ treatment ate more legume + ration than lambs in the CIC and E+ (CIC-E+; < 0.05) treatment. All lambs preferred E- over E+, but lambs in the CIC

  10. Interplay between metal binding and cis/trans isomerization in legume lectins: structural and thermodynamic study of P. angolensis lectin.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Pino, Abel; Buts, Lieven; Wyns, Lode; Loris, Remy

    2006-08-01

    The interplay between metal binding, carbohydrate binding activity, stability and structure of the lectin from Pterocarpus angolensis was investigated. Removal of the metals leads to a more flexible form of the protein with significantly less conformational stability. Crystal structures of this metal-free form show significant structural rearrangements, although some structural features that allow the binding of sugars are retained. We propose that substitution of an asparagine residue at the start of the C-terminal beta-strand of the legume lectin monomer hinders the trans-isomerization of the cis-peptide bond upon demetallization and constitutes an intramolecular switch governing the isomer state of the non-proline bond and ultimately the lectin phenotype. PMID:16824540

  11. Legumes increase rhizosphere carbon and nitrogen relative to cereals in California agricultural plots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, R.; Maltais-landry, G.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) is an essential nutrient to plant growth, therefore a sufficient supply is needed for high yields. By using N-fixing plants like legumes in crop rotation, we can increase soil N and yields of following crops. Furthermore, legumes also affect soil carbon (C) and C:N ratios, which impacts nutrient cycling in soils. We assessed the effects of two legumes (vetch, fava bean) and a cereal mixture (oats and wheat) on soil N and C by comparing both rhizosphere and bulk soils. We studied the impacts of these plants with different management types (organic, low-input conventional, unfertilized) to see if plant effects on soil C and N changed across management. We used plots from the Long-Term Research on Agricultural Systems (LTRAS) experiment (Davis, CA) to conduct this experiment, where three plots were under each management type. Within each of these plots, we sampled three micro-plots, where we collected rhizosphere soil from fava bean, vetch, and cereals as well as bulk soil, i.e. non-rhizosphere soil. We collected 108 samples, each of which were dried and ball-milled into a fine, uniform powder. Tin capsules with 15-30mg of soil were then analyzed with a Carlo Erba Elemental analyzer to measure how much N and C was present in each of the samples. The different management types didn't affect the relationship among plants, but soil C and N were highest in organic and lowest in unfertilized plots. We found that N was significantly higher in legume rhizosphere than cereal rhizosphere and bulk soils. Soil C was also higher in legumes vs. cereals and bulk soils, but the only significant difference was with the bulk soils. This ultimately resulted in lower C:N ratios in the rhizosphere of legumes, only vetch, however, had significantly lower soil C:N than cereals. Vetch had higher N, and lower C and C:N than fava bean, but the difference between the two legumes was never significant. Similarly, cereals had higher C and N and lower C:N than bulk soils, although

  12. Determination of saponins in legumes by direct densitometry.

    PubMed

    Gurfinkel, D M; Rao, A V

    2002-01-30

    Research has shown that dietary saponins may have health benefits. A simple, rapid method for the determination of saponins in legumes, using densitometry, is described. Saponin preparations, after pretreatment to remove nonsaponin components, are spotted in rows on a thin-layer chromatography plate, along with soyasaponin standards. The plate, without solvent development, is directly treated with sulfuric acid and heated. Violet spots develop which have a density proportional to the amount of saponin present. The standard curve has a correlation coefficient of 0.99 and is linear over the range of 1.25 to 10 microg of soyasaponins applied. The method has a coefficient of variation of less than 3% and compares favorably with quantitative thin-layer chromatography. Using this method the saponin contents of defatted soy flour (0.58%), dried navy beans (0.32%), and dried kidney beans (0.29%) were determined, and these results were found to be consistent with previous reports in the literature. PMID:11804507

  13. Clitoria ternatea L. as a Potential High Quality Forage Legume

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, Matheus Lima Corrêa; Vieira, Ricardo Augusto Mendonça; Rocha, Norberto Silva; Araujo, Raphael Pavesi; Glória, Leonardo Siqueira; Fernandes, Alberto Magno; de Lacerda, Paulo Drude; Júnior, Antonio Gesualdi

    2014-01-01

    Samples of Clitoria ternatea L. (Cunhã) were harvested at 35, 50, 70, and 90 d after a uniformity harvest in a field study designed as a completely randomized design with a total of 18 experimental plots. The dry matter yield of the whole plant was separated quantitatively into leaves, stems, and pods at each harvesting age. Chemical analyses and in vitro gas production kinetics were performed to assess the quality of the plant parts. Yields, chemical composition, and estimates of gas production parameters were analyzed by fitting a mixed statistical model with two types of covariance structures as follows: variance components and an unrestricted structure with heterogeneous variances. Fast and slow gas yielding pools were detected for both leaves and stems, but only a single pool was detected for pods. The homoscedasticity assumption was more likely for all variables, except for some parameters of the gas production kinetics of leaves and stems. There was no presence of typical pods at 35 and 50 d. In the leaves, the fibrous fractions were affected, whereas the non-fibrous fractions were unaffected by the harvesting age. The harvesting age affected the majority of the chemical constituents and gas kinetic parameters related to the stems. The leaves of this legume were the least affected part by the aging process. PMID:25049940

  14. Clitoria ternatea L. as a Potential High Quality Forage Legume.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Matheus Lima Corrêa; Vieira, Ricardo Augusto Mendonça; Rocha, Norberto Silva; Araujo, Raphael Pavesi; Glória, Leonardo Siqueira; Fernandes, Alberto Magno; de Lacerda, Paulo Drude; Júnior, Antonio Gesualdi

    2014-02-01

    Samples of Clitoria ternatea L. (Cunhã) were harvested at 35, 50, 70, and 90 d after a uniformity harvest in a field study designed as a completely randomized design with a total of 18 experimental plots. The dry matter yield of the whole plant was separated quantitatively into leaves, stems, and pods at each harvesting age. Chemical analyses and in vitro gas production kinetics were performed to assess the quality of the plant parts. Yields, chemical composition, and estimates of gas production parameters were analyzed by fitting a mixed statistical model with two types of covariance structures as follows: variance components and an unrestricted structure with heterogeneous variances. Fast and slow gas yielding pools were detected for both leaves and stems, but only a single pool was detected for pods. The homoscedasticity assumption was more likely for all variables, except for some parameters of the gas production kinetics of leaves and stems. There was no presence of typical pods at 35 and 50 d. In the leaves, the fibrous fractions were affected, whereas the non-fibrous fractions were unaffected by the harvesting age. The harvesting age affected the majority of the chemical constituents and gas kinetic parameters related to the stems. The leaves of this legume were the least affected part by the aging process. PMID:25049940

  15. Acylated flavonol glycosides from the forage legume, Onobrychis viciifolia (sainfoin).

    PubMed

    Veitch, Nigel C; Regos, Ionela; Kite, Geoffrey C; Treutter, Dieter

    2011-04-01

    Ten acylated flavonol glycosides were isolated from aqueous acetone extracts of the aerial parts of the forage legume, Onobrychis viciifolia, and their structures determined using spectroscopic methods. Among these were eight previously unreported examples which comprised either feruloylated or sinapoylated derivatives of 3-O-di- and 3-O-triglycosides of kaempferol (3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxyflavone) or quercetin (3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavone). The diglycosides were acylated at the primary Glc residue of O-α-Rhap(1→6)-β-Glcp (rutinose), whereas the triglycosides were acylated at the terminal Rha residues of the branched trisaccharides, O-α-Rhap(1→2)[α-Rhap(1→6)]-β-Galp or O-α-Rhap(1→2)[α-Rhap(1→6)]-β-Glcp. Identification of the primary 3-O-linked hexose residues as either Gal or Glc was carried out by negative ion electrospray and serial MS, and cryoprobe NMR spectroscopy. Analysis of UV and MS spectra of the acylated flavonol glycosides provided additional diagnostic features relevant to direct characterisation of these compounds in hyphenated analyses. Quantitative analysis of the acylated flavonol glycosides present in different aerial parts of sainfoin revealed that the highest concentrations were in mature leaflets. PMID:21292287

  16. Production and transcriptional regulation of proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in forage legumes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Meiliang; Wei, Li; Sun, Zhanmin; Gao, Lihua; Meng, Yu; Tang, Yixiong; Wu, Yanmin

    2015-05-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PA), also known as condensed tannins, contribute to important forage legumes traits including disease resistance and forage quality. PA in forage plants has both positive and negative effects on feed digestibility and animal performance. The analytical methods and their applicability in measuring the contents of PA in forage plants are essential to studies on their nutritional effects. In spite of important breakthroughs in our understanding of the PA biosynthesis, important questions still remain to be answered such as the PA polymerization and transport. Recent advances in the understanding of transcription factor-mediated gene regulation mechanisms in anthocyanin and PA biosynthetic pathway in model plants suggest new approaches for the metabolic engineering of PA in forage plants. The present review will attempt to present the state-of-the-art of research in these areas and provide an update on the production and metabolic engineering of PA in forage plants. We hope that this will contribute to a better understanding of the ways in which PA production to manipulate the content of PA for beneficial effects in forage plants. PMID:25805345

  17. In vitro digestion of bloat-safe and bloat-causing legumes by rumen microorganisms: gas and foam production.

    PubMed

    Fay, J P; Cheng, K J; Hanna, M R; Howarth, R E; Costerton, J W

    1980-08-01

    Leaves of three bloat-safe legumes -- birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.), sainfoin (Onobrychis viciaefolia Scop.), and cicer milkvetch (Astralagus cicer L.) -- and of three bloat-causing legumes -- alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) -- were incubated with strained rumen fluid or with mixed rumen fluid and solids. Gas released was measured during the early period (0 to 22 h) of this in vitro digestion. Gas volume was greater with a 1:1 (wt/vol) mixture of solid and fluid rumen contents than with rumen fluid alone. It was greater with whole and chewed leaves from the bloat-causing legumes than with whole leaves from the bloat-safe legumes. However, when leaves were homogenized, volumes of gas from bloat-causing and bloat-safe legumes were similar. More gas was released from homogenized leaves than from the same weight of whole leaves. The amount of foam produced on chewed herbage and homogenized leaves of bloat-causing legumes was greater than on those of bloat-safe legumes. These results are consistent with the rate of disintegration and digestion of legumes by rumen bacteria being an important determinant in pasture bloat. Measurement of gas produced early in in vitro digestion may provide a useful bioassay for evaluating the bloat-causing potential of legumes in breeding selections if variability of the method can be reduced. PMID:7419778

  18. Mitochondrial Genome Sequence and Expression Profiling for the Legume Pod Borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    PubMed Central

    Margam, Venu M.; Coates, Brad S.; Hellmich, Richard L.; Agunbiade, Tolulope; Seufferheld, Manfredo J.; Sun, Weilin; Ba, Malick N.; Sanon, Antoine; Binso-Dabire, Clementine L.; Baoua, Ibrahim; Ishiyaku, Mohammad F.; Covas, Fernando G.; Srinivasan, Ramasamy; Armstrong, Joel; Murdock, Larry L.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.

    2011-01-01

    We report the assembly of the 14,054 bp near complete sequencing of the mitochondrial genome of the legume pod borer (LPB), Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), which we subsequently used to estimate divergence and relationships within the lepidopteran lineage. The arrangement and orientation of the 13 protein-coding, 2 rRNA, and 19 tRNA genes sequenced was typical of insect mitochondrial DNA sequences described to date. The sequence contained a high A+T content of 80.1% and a bias for the use of codons with A or T nucleotides in the 3rd position. Transcript mapping with midgut and salivary gland ESTs for mitochondrial genome annotation showed that translation from protein-coding genes initiates and terminates at standard mitochondrial codons, except for the coxI gene, which may start from an arginine CGA codon. The genomic copy of coxII terminates at a T nucleotide, and a proposed polyadenylation mechanism for completion of the TAA stop codon was confirmed by comparisons to EST data. EST contig data further showed that mature M. vitrata mitochondrial transcripts are monocistronic, except for bicistronic transcripts for overlapping genes nd4/nd4L and nd6/cytb, and a tricistronic transcript for atp8/atp6/coxIII. This processing of polycistronic mitochondrial transcripts adheres to the tRNA punctuated cleavage mechanism, whereby mature transcripts are cleaved only at intervening tRNA gene sequences. In contrast, the tricistronic atp8/atp6/coxIII in Drosophila is present as separate atp8/atp6 and coxIII transcripts despite the lack of an intervening tRNA. Our results indicate that mitochondrial processing mechanisms vary between arthropod species, and that it is crucial to use transcriptional information to obtain full annotation of mitochondrial genomes. PMID:21311752

  19. The potential health benefits of legumes as a good source of dietary fibre.

    PubMed

    Trinidad, Trinidad P; Mallillin, Aida C; Loyola, Anacleta S; Sagum, Rosario S; Encabo, Rosario R

    2010-02-01

    Dietary fibre has been shown to have important health implications in the prevention of risks of chronic diseases. The objective of the present study was to determine the potential health benefits of legumes as a good source of dietary fibre. Six to ten local legumes were studied as follows: cowpeas, mung beans, pole sitao, chickpeas, green peas, groundnuts, pigeon peas, kidney beans, lima beans and soyabeans. The following studies were conducted: (a) mineral availability, in vitro; (b) glycaemic index (GI) in non-diabetic and diabetic human subjects; (c) the cholesterol-lowering effect in human subjects with moderately raised serum cholesterol levels. The highest Fe availability among legumes was for lima beans (9.5 (sem 0.1)) while for Zn and Ca, the highest availability was for kidney beans (49.3 (sem 4.5)) and pigeon peas (75.1 (sem 7.1)), respectively. Groundnuts have the lowest Fe (1.3 (sem 1.1)), Zn (7.9 (sem 1.3)) and Ca (14.6 (sem 2.8)) availability. Legumes are low-GI foods ( < 55), ranging from 6 (chickpeas) to 13 (mung beans). Kidney beans showed significant reductions for both total (6 %) and LDL-cholesterol (9 %), and groundnuts for total cholesterol (7 %; P < 0.05). We conclude that mineral availability from legumes differs and may be attributed to their mineral content, mineral-mineral interaction and from their phytic and tannic acid content; legumes are considered low-GI foods and have shown potential hypocholesterolaemic effects. The above studies can be a scientific basis for considering legumes as functional foods. PMID:19825218

  20. Effect of dietary legumes on bone-specific gene expression in ovariectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Hyoun-Jung; Paik, Doo-Jin; Kim, Deog-Yoon

    2013-01-01

    In previous studies, we found that the consumption of legumes decreased bone turnover in ovariectomized rats. The purpose of the present study is to determine whether the protective effects on bone mineral density (BMD) and the microarchitecture of a diet containing legumes are comparable. In addition, we aim to determine their protective actions in bones by studying bone specific gene expression. Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats are being divided into six groups during the 12 week study: 1) rats that underwent sham operations (Sham), 2) ovariectomized rats fed an AIN-93M diet (OVX), 3) ovariectomized rats fed an AIN-93M diet with soybeans (OVX-S), 4) ovariectomized rats fed an AIN-93M diet with mung beans (OVX-M), 5) ovariectomized rats fed an AIN-93M diet with cowpeas (OVX-C), and 6) ovariectomized rats fed an AIN-93M diet with azuki beans (OVX-A). Consumption of legumes significantly increased BMD of the spine and femur and bone volume of the femur compared to the OVX. Serum calcium and phosphate ratio, osteocalcin, expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG), and the receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) ratio increased significantly, while urinary excretion of calcium and deoxypyridinoline and expression of TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly reduced in OVX rats fed legumes, compared to OVX rats that were not fed legumes. This study demonstrates that consumption of legumes has a beneficial effect on bone through modulation of OPG and RANKL expression in ovariectomized rats and that legume consumption can help compensate for an estrogen-deficiency by preventing bone loss induced by ovarian hormone deficiency. PMID:23766879

  1. In vitro and in vivo effects of phytoestrogens on protein turnover in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) white muscle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybeans and other legumes investigated as fishmeal replacements in aquafeeds contain phytoestrogens capable of binding to and activating estrogen receptors. Estradiol has catabolic effects in salmonid white muscle, partially through increases in protein turnover. The current study determines whet...

  2. Dietary supplementation with fermented legumes modulate hyperglycemia and acetylcholinesterase activities in Streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ademiluyi, Adedayo O; Oboh, Ganiyu; Boligon, Aline A; Athayde, Margareth L

    2015-12-01

    The study investigated the hypoglycemic and anticholinesterase activities of some fermented legumes (bambara groundnut and locust bean) in Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The rats were made diabetic by intraperitoneal administration of STZ (35mg/kg b.w.) and were fed diets containing fermented legumes (10% inclusion) for 14 days. The effect of the diets on blood glucose, pancreatic glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, α-amylase, intestinal α-glucosidase and acetylcholinesterase activities were studied. Significant (P<0.05) increase in blood glucose, pancreatic MDA, α-amylase, intestinal α-glucosidase and acetylcholinesterase activities with concomitant decrease in pancreatic GPx and GSH contents were observed in diabetic rats. However, this trend was reversed in rats fed fermented legumes supplemented diets for 14 days. The HPLC-DAD finger printing revealed the presence of gallic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, epicatechin, rutin, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, quercetin and kaempferol as the dominant phenolic compounds of the fermented legumes. However, possible contributing role of some bioactive peptides could not be ruled out. Hence, the hypoglycemic and antiacetylcholinesterase activities of the fermented legume condiments could be attributed to their constituent phytochemicals. PMID:26349771

  3. Emerging Genomic Tools for Legume Breeding: Current Status and Future Prospects.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Manish K; Roorkiwal, Manish; Singh, Vikas K; Ramalingam, Abirami; Kudapa, Himabindu; Thudi, Mahendar; Chitikineni, Anu; Rathore, Abhishek; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2016-01-01

    Legumes play a vital role in ensuring global nutritional food security and improving soil quality through nitrogen fixation. Accelerated higher genetic gains is required to meet the demand of ever increasing global population. In recent years, speedy developments have been witnessed in legume genomics due to advancements in next-generation sequencing (NGS) and high-throughput genotyping technologies. Reference genome sequences for many legume crops have been reported in the last 5 years. The availability of the draft genome sequences and re-sequencing of elite genotypes for several important legume crops have made it possible to identify structural variations at large scale. Availability of large-scale genomic resources and low-cost and high-throughput genotyping technologies are enhancing the efficiency and resolution of genetic mapping and marker-trait association studies. Most importantly, deployment of molecular breeding approaches has resulted in development of improved lines in some legume crops such as chickpea and groundnut. In order to support genomics-driven crop improvement at a fast pace, the deployment of breeder-friendly genomics and decision support tools seems appear to be critical in breeding programs in developing countries. This review provides an overview of emerging genomics and informatics tools/approaches that will be the key driving force for accelerating genomics-assisted breeding and ultimately ensuring nutritional and food security in developing countries. PMID:27199998

  4. Emerging Genomic Tools for Legume Breeding: Current Status and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Manish K.; Roorkiwal, Manish; Singh, Vikas K.; Ramalingam, Abirami; Kudapa, Himabindu; Thudi, Mahendar; Chitikineni, Anu; Rathore, Abhishek; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2016-01-01

    Legumes play a vital role in ensuring global nutritional food security and improving soil quality through nitrogen fixation. Accelerated higher genetic gains is required to meet the demand of ever increasing global population. In recent years, speedy developments have been witnessed in legume genomics due to advancements in next-generation sequencing (NGS) and high-throughput genotyping technologies. Reference genome sequences for many legume crops have been reported in the last 5 years. The availability of the draft genome sequences and re-sequencing of elite genotypes for several important legume crops have made it possible to identify structural variations at large scale. Availability of large-scale genomic resources and low-cost and high-throughput genotyping technologies are enhancing the efficiency and resolution of genetic mapping and marker-trait association studies. Most importantly, deployment of molecular breeding approaches has resulted in development of improved lines in some legume crops such as chickpea and groundnut. In order to support genomics-driven crop improvement at a fast pace, the deployment of breeder-friendly genomics and decision support tools seems appear to be critical in breeding programs in developing countries. This review provides an overview of emerging genomics and informatics tools/approaches that will be the key driving force for accelerating genomics-assisted breeding and ultimately ensuring nutritional and food security in developing countries. PMID:27199998

  5. Evolutionary signals of symbiotic persistence in the legume-rhizobia mutualism.

    PubMed

    Werner, Gijsbert D A; Cornwell, William K; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Kiers, E Toby

    2015-08-18

    Understanding the origins and evolutionary trajectories of symbiotic partnerships remains a major challenge. Why are some symbioses lost over evolutionary time whereas others become crucial for survival? Here, we use a quantitative trait reconstruction method to characterize different evolutionary stages in the ancient symbiosis between legumes (Fabaceae) and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, asking how labile is symbiosis across different host clades. We find that more than half of the 1,195 extant nodulating legumes analyzed have a high likelihood (>95%) of being in a state of high symbiotic persistence, meaning that they show a continued capacity to form the symbiosis over evolutionary time, even though the partnership has remained facultative and is not obligate. To explore patterns associated with the likelihood of loss and retention of the N2-fixing symbiosis, we tested for correlations between symbiotic persistence and legume distribution, climate, soil and trait data. We found a strong latitudinal effect and demonstrated that low mean annual temperatures are associated with high symbiotic persistence in legumes. Although no significant correlations between soil variables and symbiotic persistence were found, nitrogen and phosphorus leaf contents were positively correlated with legumes in a state of high symbiotic persistence. This pattern suggests that highly demanding nutrient lifestyles are associated with more stable partnerships, potentially because they "lock" the hosts into symbiotic dependency. Quantitative reconstruction methods are emerging as a powerful comparative tool to study broad patterns of symbiont loss and retention across diverse partnerships. PMID:26041807

  6. Saponins from edible legumes: chemistry, processing, and health benefits.

    PubMed

    Shi, John; Arunasalam, Konesh; Yeung, David; Kakuda, Yukio; Mittal, Gauri; Jiang, Yueming

    2004-01-01

    Demand for bean products is growing because of the presence of several health-promoting components in edible bean products such as saponins. Saponins are naturally occurring compounds that are widely distributed in all cells of legume plants. Saponins, which derive their name from their ability to form stable, soaplike foams in aqueous solutions, constitute a complex and chemically diverse group of compounds. In chemical terms, saponins contain a carbohydrate moiety attached to a triterpenoid or steroids. Saponins are attracting considerable interest as a result of their diverse properties, both deleterious and beneficial. Clinical studies have suggested that these health-promoting components, saponins, affect the immune system in ways that help to protect the human body against cancers, and also lower cholesterol levels. Saponins decrease blood lipids, lower cancer risks, and lower blood glucose response. A high saponin diet can be used in the inhibition of dental caries and platelet aggregation, in the treatment of hypercalciuria in humans, and as an antidote against acute lead poisoning. In epidemiological studies, saponins have been shown to have an inverse relationship with the incidence of renal stones. Thermal processing such as canning is the typical method to process beans. This study reviews the effect of thermal processing on the characteristics and stability of saponins in canned bean products. Saponins are thermal sensitive. During soaking and blanching, portions of saponins are dissolved in water and lost in the soaking, washing, and blanching liquors. An optimum thermal process can increase the stability and maintain the saponins in canned bean products, which is useful for assisting the food industry to improve thermal processing technology and enhance bean product quality. PMID:15117556

  7. Metabolic engineering of proanthocyanidin production by repressing the isoflavone pathways and redirecting anthocyanidin precursor flux in legume.

    PubMed

    Li, Penghui; Dong, Qiang; Ge, Shujun; He, Xianzhi; Verdier, Jerome; Li, Dongqin; Zhao, Jian

    2016-07-01

    MtPAR is a proanthocyanidin (PA) biosynthesis regulator; the mechanism underlying its promotion of PA biosynthesis is not fully understood. Here, we showed that MtPAR promotes PA production by a direct repression of biosynthesis of isoflavones, the major flavonoids in legume, and by redirecting immediate precursors, such as anthocyanidins, flux into PA pathway. Ectopic expression of MtPAR repressed isoflavonoid production by directly binding and suppressing isoflavone biosynthetic genes such as isoflavone synthase (IFS). Meanwhile, MtPAR up-regulated PA-specific genes and decreased the anthocyanin levels without altering the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes. MtPAR may shift the anthocyanidin precursor flux from anthocyanin pathway to PA biosynthesis. MtPAR complemented PA-deficient phenotype of Arabidopsis tt2 mutant seeds, demonstrating their similar action on PA production. We showed the direct interactions between MtPAR, MtTT8 and MtWD40-1 proteins from Medicago truncatula and Glycine max, to form a ternary complex to trans-activate PA-specific ANR gene. Finally, MtPAR expression in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) hairy roots and whole plants only promoted the production of small amount of PAs, which was significantly enhanced by co-expression of MtPAR and MtLAP1. Transcriptomic and metabolite profiling showed an additive effect between MtPAR and MtLAP1 on the production of PAs, supporting that efficient PA production requires more anthocyanidin precursors. This study provides new insights into the role and mechanism of MtPAR in partitioning precursors from isoflavone and anthocyanin pathways into PA pathways for a specific promotion of PA production. Based on this, a strategy by combining MtPAR and MtLAP1 co-expression to effectively improve metabolic engineering performance of PA production in legume forage was developed. PMID:26806316

  8. Impact of antinutritional factors in food proteins on the digestibility of protein and the bioavailability of amino acids and on protein quality.

    PubMed

    Sarwar Gilani, G; Wu Xiao, Chao; Cockell, Kevin A

    2012-08-01

    Dietary antinutritional factors have been reported to adversely affect the digestibility of protein, bioavailability of amino acids and protein quality of foods. Published data on these negative effects of major dietary antinutritional factors are summarized in this manuscript. Digestibility and the quality of mixed diets in developing countries are considerably lower than of those in developed regions. For example, the digestibility of protein in traditional diets from developing countries such as India, Guatemala and Brazil is considerably lower compared to that of protein in typical North American diets (54-78 versus 88-94 %). Poor digestibility of protein in the diets of developing countries, which are based on less refined cereals and grain legumes as major sources of protein, is due to the presence of less digestible protein fractions, high levels of insoluble fibre, and/or high concentrations of antinutritional factors present endogenously or formed during processing. Examples of naturally occurring antinutritional factors include glucosinolates in mustard and canola protein products, trypsin inhibitors and haemagglutinins in legumes, tannins in legumes and cereals, gossypol in cottonseed protein products, and uricogenic nucleobases in yeast protein products. Heat/alkaline treatments of protein products may yield Maillard reaction compounds, oxidized forms of sulphur amino acids, D-amino acids and lysinoalanine (LAL, an unnatural nephrotoxic amino acid derivative). Among common food and feed protein products, soyabeans are the most concentrated source of trypsin inhibitors. The presence of high levels of dietary trypsin inhibitors from soyabeans, kidney beans or other grain legumes have been reported to cause substantial reductions in protein and amino acid digestibility (up to 50 %) and protein quality (up to 100 %) in rats and/or pigs. Similarly, the presence of high levels of tannins in sorghum and other cereals, fababean and other grain legumes can cause

  9. Bacteria colonizing root nodules of wild legumes exhibit virulence-associated properties of mammalian pathogens.

    PubMed

    Muresu, Rosella; Maddau, Giuseppe; Delogu, Giuseppe; Cappuccinelli, Piero; Squartini, Andrea

    2010-02-01

    Bacteria not proficient in nitrogen fixing symbiosis were proven able to invade root nodules of three wild legumes of the genus Hedysarum in Algeria and to be multiplying in these in place of the natural rhizobium symbionts. The involved species featured taxa known as human pathogens including: Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter kobei, Escherichia vulneris, Pantoea agglomerans and Leclercia adecarboxylata. A direct screening of the phenotypic determinants of virulence using human cultured cells tested positive for the traits of cytotoxicity, vital stain exclusion and adhesion to epithelia. Antibiogram analyses revealed also a complex pattern of multiple antibiotic resistances. The data suggest that legume root nodules can be a site of survival and of active multiplication for populations of mammalian pathogens, which could thus alternate between the target animal and a number of neutral plant hosts. The worldwide distribution of as yet uninvestigated legumes raises the concern that these represent a general niche that could enhance the hazards posed by microorganisms of clinical nature. PMID:19916054

  10. PGPRs and nitrogen-fixing legumes: a perfect team for efficient Cd phytoremediation?

    PubMed

    Gómez-Sagasti, María T; Marino, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic, biologically non-essential and highly mobile metal that has become an increasingly important environmental hazard to both wildlife and humans. In contrast to conventional remediation technologies, phytoremediation based on legume-rhizobia symbiosis has emerged as an inexpensive decontamination alternative which also revitalize contaminated soils due to the role of legumes in nitrogen cycling. In recent years, there is a growing interest in understanding symbiotic legume-rhizobia relationship and its interactions with Cd. The aim of the present review is to provide a comprehensive picture of the main effects of Cd in N2-fixing leguminous plants and the benefits of exploiting this symbiosis together with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria to boost an efficient reclamation of Cd-contaminated soils. PMID:25763004

  11. Human selection and the relaxation of legume defences against ineffective rhizobia.

    PubMed

    Kiers, E Toby; Hutton, Mark G; Denison, R Ford

    2007-12-22

    Enforcement mechanisms are thought to be important in maintaining mutualistic cooperation between species. A clear example of an enforcement mechanism is how legumes impose sanctions on rhizobial symbionts that fail to provide sufficient fixed N2. However, with domestication and breeding in high-soil-N environments, humans may have altered these natural legume defences and reduced the agricultural benefits of the symbiosis. Using six genotypes of soya beans, representing 60 years of breeding, we show that, as a group, older cultivars were better able to maintain fitness than newer cultivars (seed production) when infected with a mixture of effective and ineffective rhizobial strains. Additionally, we found small differences among cultivars in the ratio of effective:ineffective rhizobia released from their nodules, an indicator of future rhizobial strain fitness. When infected by symbionts varying in quality, legume defences against poor-quality partners have apparently worsened under decades of artificial selection. PMID:17939985

  12. Managing the U.S. germplasm collection of temperate forage legumes to serve diverse collection users and global conservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa and other forage legume crops support livestock production around the world. Breeders and scientists have long capitalized on the genetic diversity in the U.S. Temperate Forage Legume Collection to support a wide range of crop improvement and scientific inquiries. The Collection also serves...

  13. Piloting a Cooperative Extension Service Nutrition Education Program on First-Grade Children's Willingness to Try Foods Containing Legumes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Cassandra S.; Hermann, Janice R.

    2011-01-01

    Many nutrition education campaigns targeting children in the United States focus on increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, but most don't specifically promote legumes. The project described here sought to pilot the effect of an Extension nutrition education program on first grade children's willingness to try foods containing legumes. A…

  14. Interaction between a tannin-containing legume and endophyte-infected tall fescue seed on lambs’ feeding behavior and physiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It was hypothesized that a tannin-rich legume like sainfoin reduces the negative post-ingestive effects of ergot alkaloids in tall fescue. Thirty-two 4-month-old lambs were individually penned and randomly assigned to a 2X2 factorial arrangement with two legume species (1-sainfoin [SAN; ' 3% condens...

  15. Interaction between a tannin-containing legume and endophyte-infected tall fescue seed on lambs’ feeding behavior and physiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It was hypothesized that a tannin-rich legume like sainfoin reduces the negative postingestive effects of ergot alkaloids in tall fescue. Thirty-two 3-month-old lambs were individually penned and randomly assigned to a 2X2 factorial experimental design with two legume species (1-sainfoin [SF; tannin...

  16. PvTFDB: a Phaseolus vulgaris transcription factors database for expediting functional genomics in legumes

    PubMed Central

    Bhawna; Bonthala, V.S.; Gajula, MNV Prasad

    2016-01-01

    The common bean [Phaseolus vulgaris (L.)] is one of the essential proteinaceous vegetables grown in developing countries. However, its production is challenged by low yields caused by numerous biotic and abiotic stress conditions. Regulatory transcription factors (TFs) symbolize a key component of the genome and are the most significant targets for producing stress tolerant crop and hence functional genomic studies of these TFs are important. Therefore, here we have constructed a web-accessible TFs database for P. vulgaris, called PvTFDB, which contains 2370 putative TF gene models in 49 TF families. This database provides a comprehensive information for each of the identified TF that includes sequence data, functional annotation, SSRs with their primer sets, protein physical properties, chromosomal location, phylogeny, tissue-specific gene expression data, orthologues, cis-regulatory elements and gene ontology (GO) assignment. Altogether, this information would be used in expediting the functional genomic studies of a specific TF(s) of interest. The objectives of this database are to understand functional genomics study of common bean TFs and recognize the regulatory mechanisms underlying various stress responses to ease breeding strategy for variety production through a couple of search interfaces including gene ID, functional annotation and browsing interfaces including by family and by chromosome. This database will also serve as a promising central repository for researchers as well as breeders who are working towards crop improvement of legume crops. In addition, this database provide the user unrestricted public access and the user can download entire data present in the database freely. Database URL: http://www.multiomics.in/PvTFDB/ PMID:27465131

  17. Effector-Triggered Immunity Determines Host Genotype-Specific Incompatibility in Legume-Rhizobium Symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Michiko; Miwa, Hiroki; Masuda, Sachiko; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Okazaki, Shin

    2016-08-01

    Symbiosis between legumes and rhizobia leads to the formation of N2-fixing root nodules. In soybean, several host genes, referred to as Rj genes, control nodulation. Soybean cultivars carrying the Rj4 gene restrict nodulation by specific rhizobia such as Bradyrhizobium elkanii We previously reported that the restriction of nodulation was caused by B. elkanii possessing a functional type III secretion system (T3SS), which is known for its delivery of virulence factors by pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, we investigated the molecular basis for the T3SS-dependent nodulation restriction in Rj4 soybean. Inoculation tests revealed that soybean cultivar BARC-2 (Rj4/Rj4) restricted nodulation by B. elkanii USDA61, whereas its nearly isogenic line BARC-3 (rj4/rj4) formed nitrogen-fixing nodules with the same strain. Root-hair curling and infection threads were not observed in the roots of BARC-2 inoculated with USDA61, indicating that Rj4 blocked B. elkanii infection in the early stages. Accumulation of H2O2 and salicylic acid (SA) was observed in the roots of BARC-2 inoculated with USDA61. Transcriptome analyses revealed that inoculation of USDA61, but not its T3SS mutant in BARC-2, induced defense-related genes, including those coding for hypersensitive-induced responsive protein, which act in effector-triggered immunity (ETI) in Arabidopsis. These findings suggest that B. elkanii T3SS triggers the SA-mediated ETI-type response in Rj4 soybean, which consequently blocks symbiotic interactions. This study revealed a common molecular mechanism underlying both plant-pathogen and plant-symbiont interactions, and suggests that establishment of a root nodule symbiosis requires the evasion or suppression of plant immune responses triggered by rhizobial effectors. PMID:27373538

  18. Reactive Oxygen Species and Nitric Oxide Control Early Steps of the Legume - Rhizobium Symbiotic Interaction.

    PubMed

    Damiani, Isabelle; Pauly, Nicolas; Puppo, Alain; Brouquisse, Renaud; Boscari, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    The symbiotic interaction between legumes and nitrogen-fixing rhizobium bacteria leads to the formation of a new organ, the nodule. Early steps of the interaction are characterized by the production of bacterial Nod factors, the reorientation of root-hair tip growth, the formation of an infection thread (IT) in the root hair, and the induction of cell division in inner cortical cells of the root, leading to a nodule primordium formation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) have been detected in early steps of the interaction. ROS/NO are determinant signals to arbitrate the specificity of this mutualistic association and modifications in their content impair the development of the symbiotic association. The decrease of ROS level prevents root hair curling and ITs formation, and that of NO conducts to delayed nodule formation. In root hairs, NADPH oxidases were shown to produce ROS which could be involved in the hair tip growth process. The use of enzyme inhibitors suggests that nitrate reductase and NO synthase-like enzymes are the main route for NO production during the early steps of the interaction. Transcriptomic analyses point to the involvement of ROS and NO in the success of the infection process, the induction of early nodulin gene expression, and the repression of plant defense, thereby favoring the establishment of the symbiosis. The occurrence of an interplay between ROS and NO was further supported by the finding of both S-sulfenylated and S-nitrosylated proteins during early symbiotic interaction, linking ROS/NO production to a redox-based regulation of the symbiotic process. PMID:27092165

  19. The Metabolic Role of the Legume Endosperm: A Noninvasive Imaging Study1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Melkus, Gerd; Rolletschek, Hardy; Radchuk, Ruslana; Fuchs, Johannes; Rutten, Twan; Wobus, Ulrich; Altmann, Thomas; Jakob, Peter; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla

    2009-01-01

    Although essential for normal seed development in the legumes, the metabolic role of the endosperm remains uncertain. We designed noninvasive nuclear magnetic resonance tools for the in vivo study of key metabolites in the transient liquid endosperm of intact pea (Pisum sativum) seeds. The steady-state levels of sucrose, glutamine, and alanine could be monitored and their distribution within the embryo sac visualized. Seed structure was digitalized as a three-dimensional model, providing volume information for distinct seed organs. The nuclear magnetic resonance method, combined with laser microdissection, isotope labeling, in situ hybridization, and electron microscopy, was used to contrast the wild-type endosperm with that of a mutant in which embryo growth is retarded. Expression of sequences encoding amino acid and sucrose transporters was up-regulated earlier in the endosperm than in the embryo, and this activity led to the accumulation of soluble metabolites in the endosperm vacuole. The endosperm provides a temporary source of nutrition, permits space for embryo growth, and acts as a buffer between the maternal organism and its offspring. The concentration of sucrose in the endosperm vacuole is developmentally controlled, while the total amount accumulated depends on the growth of the embryo. The endosperm concentration of glutamine is a limiting factor for protein storage. The properties of the endosperm ensure that the young embryo develops within a homeostatic environment, necessary to sustain embryogenesis. We argue for a degree of metabolite-mediated control exerted by the endosperm on the growth of, and assimilate storage by, the embryo. PMID:19748915

  20. PvTFDB: a Phaseolus vulgaris transcription factors database for expediting functional genomics in legumes.

    PubMed

    Bhawna; Bonthala, V S; Gajula, Mnv Prasad

    2016-01-01

    The common bean [Phaseolus vulgaris (L.)] is one of the essential proteinaceous vegetables grown in developing countries. However, its production is challenged by low yields caused by numerous biotic and abiotic stress conditions. Regulatory transcription factors (TFs) symbolize a key component of the genome and are the most significant targets for producing stress tolerant crop and hence functional genomic studies of these TFs are important. Therefore, here we have constructed a web-accessible TFs database for P. vulgaris, called PvTFDB, which contains 2370 putative TF gene models in 49 TF families. This database provides a comprehensive information for each of the identified TF that includes sequence data, functional annotation, SSRs with their primer sets, protein physical properties, chromosomal location, phylogeny, tissue-specific gene expression data, orthologues, cis-regulatory elements and gene ontology (GO) assignment. Altogether, this information would be used in expediting the functional genomic studies of a specific TF(s) of interest. The objectives of this database are to understand functional genomics study of common bean TFs and recognize the regulatory mechanisms underlying various stress responses to ease breeding strategy for variety production through a couple of search interfaces including gene ID, functional annotation and browsing interfaces including by family and by chromosome. This database will also serve as a promising central repository for researchers as well as breeders who are working towards crop improvement of legume crops. In addition, this database provide the user unrestricted public access and the user can download entire data present in the database freely.Database URL: http://www.multiomics.in/PvTFDB/. PMID:27465131

  1. Reactive Oxygen Species and Nitric Oxide Control Early Steps of the Legume – Rhizobium Symbiotic Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Damiani, Isabelle; Pauly, Nicolas; Puppo, Alain; Brouquisse, Renaud; Boscari, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    The symbiotic interaction between legumes and nitrogen-fixing rhizobium bacteria leads to the formation of a new organ, the nodule. Early steps of the interaction are characterized by the production of bacterial Nod factors, the reorientation of root-hair tip growth, the formation of an infection thread (IT) in the root hair, and the induction of cell division in inner cortical cells of the root, leading to a nodule primordium formation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) have been detected in early steps of the interaction. ROS/NO are determinant signals to arbitrate the specificity of this mutualistic association and modifications in their content impair the development of the symbiotic association. The decrease of ROS level prevents root hair curling and ITs formation, and that of NO conducts to delayed nodule formation. In root hairs, NADPH oxidases were shown to produce ROS which could be involved in the hair tip growth process. The use of enzyme inhibitors suggests that nitrate reductase and NO synthase-like enzymes are the main route for NO production during the early steps of the interaction. Transcriptomic analyses point to the involvement of ROS and NO in the success of the infection process, the induction of early nodulin gene expression, and the repression of plant defense, thereby favoring the establishment of the symbiosis. The occurrence of an interplay between ROS and NO was further supported by the finding of both S-sulfenylated and S-nitrosylated proteins during early symbiotic interaction, linking ROS/NO production to a redox-based regulation of the symbiotic process. PMID:27092165

  2. A survey of the nutritional and haemagglutination properties of legume seeds generally available in the UK.

    PubMed

    Grant, G; More, L J; McKenzie, N H; Stewart, J C; Pusztai, A

    1983-09-01

    Eighty-five samples from fifteen different legume seed lines generally available in the UK were examined by measurements of their net protein utilization by rats and by haemagglutination tests with erythrocytes from a number of different animal species. From these results the seeds were classified into four broad groups. Group a seeds from most varieties of kidney (Phaseolus vulgaris), runner (Phaseolus coccineus) and tepary (Phaseolus acutifolius) beans showed high reactivity with all cell types and were also highly toxic. Group b, which contained seeds from lima or butter beans (Phaseolus lunatus) and winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus), agglutinated only human and pronase-treated rat erythrocytes. These seeds did not support proper growth of the rats although the animals survived the 10 d experimental period. Group c consisted of seeds from lentils (Lens culinaris), peas (Pisum sativum), chick-peas (Cicer arietinum), blackeyed peas (Vigna sinensis), pigeon peas (Cajanus cajan), mung beans (Phaseolus aureus), field or broad beans (Vicia faba) and aduki beans (Phaseolus angularis). These generally had low reactivity with all cells and were non-toxic. Group d, represented by soya (Glycine max) and pinto (Phaseolus vulgaris) beans, generally had low reactivity with all cells but caused growth depression at certain dietary concentrations. This growth depression was probably mainly due to antinutritional factors other than lectins. Lectins from group a seeds showed many structural and immunological similarities. However the subunit composition of the lectin from the tepary bean samples was different from that of the other bean lectins in this or any other groups. PMID:6615758

  3. Association between legume intake and self-reported diabetes among adult men and women in India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It is postulated that a diet high in legumes may be beneficial in preventing diabetes. However, little empirical evidence on this association exists in developing countries. We aimed to examine the association between legume intake and self-reported diabetes status in adult men and women in India. Methods The analysis is based on a population-based cross sectional study of 99,574 women and 56,742 men aged 20–49 years included in India’s third National Family Health Survey conducted in 2005–06. Association of legume intake, determined by the frequency of consumption of pulses and beans (daily, weekly and occasionally or never), with the reported prevalence of diabetes were estimated using multiple logistic regression after adjusting for frequency of consumption of other food items, BMI status, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, watching television, age, education, living standard of the household, residence and geographic regions. Results Daily (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.59–0.87; p=0.001) and weekly (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.54–0.80; p<0.001) legumes intake were associated with a significantly reduced prevalence of diabetes among adult Indian women even after controlling for the effects of potentially confounding factors, whereas non-significant inverse associations were observed in men. Conclusion Daily or weekly intake of legumes was inversely associated with presence of diabetes in the Indian population. However, this is an observational finding and uncontrolled confounding cannot be excluded as an explanation for the association. More epidemiological research with better measures of legumes intake and clinical measures of diabetes is needed to clarify this relationship. PMID:23915141

  4. Legumes mitigate ecological consequences of a topographic gradient in a northern Mongolian steppe.

    PubMed

    Casper, Brenda B; Goldman, Robert; Lkhagva, Ariuntsetseg; Helliker, Brent R; Plante, Alain F; Spence, Laura A; Liancourt, Pierre; Boldgiv, Bazartseren; Petraitis, Peter S

    2012-05-01

    Topography should create spatial variation in water and nutrients and play an especially important role in the ecology of water-limited systems. We use stable isotopes to discern how plants respond both to ecological gradients associated with elevation and to neighboring legumes on a south-facing slope in the semi-arid, historically grazed steppe of northern Mongolia. Out of three target species, Potentilla acaulis, Potentilla sericea, and Festuca lenensis, when >30 cm from a legume, all showed a decrease in leaf δ(15)N with increasing elevation. This, together with measures of soil δ(15)N, suggests greater N processing at the moister, more productive, lower elevation, and more N fixation at the upper elevation, where cover of legumes and lichens and plant-available nitrate were greater. Total soil N was greater at the lower elevation, but not lichen biomass or root colonization by AMF. Leaf δ(13)C values for P. acaulis and F. lenensis are consistent with increasing water stress with elevation; δ(13)C values indicated the greatest intrinsic water use efficiency for P. sericea, which is more abundant at the upper elevation. Nearby legumes (<10 cm) moderate the effect of elevation on leaf δ(15)N, confirming legumes' meaningful input of N, and affect leaf δ(13)C for two species, suggesting an influence on the efficiency of carbon fixation. Variation in leaf %N and %C as a function of elevation and proximity to a legume differs among species. Apparently, most N input is at upper elevations, pointing to the possible importance of grazers, in addition to hydrological processes, as transporters of N throughout this landscape. PMID:22108852

  5. Remodeling of the Infection Chamber before Infection Thread Formation Reveals a Two-Step Mechanism for Rhizobial Entry into the Host Legume Root Hair1

    PubMed Central

    Teillet, Alice; Chabaud, Mireille; Ivanov, Sergey; Genre, Andrea; Limpens, Erik; de Carvalho-Niebel, Fernanda; Barker, David G.

    2015-01-01

    In many legumes, root entry of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing rhizobia occurs via host-constructed tubular tip-growing structures known as infection threads (ITs). Here, we have used a confocal microscopy live-tissue imaging approach to investigate early stages of IT formation in Medicago truncatula root hairs (RHs) expressing fluorescent protein fusion reporters. This has revealed that ITs only initiate 10 to 20 h after the completion of RH curling, by which time major modifications have occurred within the so-called infection chamber, the site of bacterial entrapment. These include the accumulation of exocytosis (M. truncatula Vesicle-Associated Membrane Protein721e)- and cell wall (M. truncatula EARLY NODULIN11)-associated markers, concomitant with radial expansion of the chamber. Significantly, the infection-defective M. truncatula nodule inception-1 mutant is unable to create a functional infection chamber. This underlines the importance of the NIN-dependent phase of host cell wall remodeling that accompanies bacterial proliferation and precedes IT formation, and leads us to propose a two-step model for rhizobial infection initiation in legume RHs. PMID:25659382

  6. Common Bean: A Legume Model on the Rise for Unraveling Responses and Adaptations to Iron, Zinc, and Phosphate Deficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Guerrero, Norma A.; Isidra-Arellano, Mariel C.; Mendoza-Cozatl, David G.; Valdés-López, Oswaldo

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) was domesticated ∼8000 years ago in the Americas and today is a staple food worldwide. Besides caloric intake, common bean is also an important source of protein and micronutrients and it is widely appreciated in developing countries for their affordability (compared to animal protein) and its long storage life. As a legume, common bean also has the economic and environmental benefit of associating with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, thus reducing the use of synthetic fertilizers, which is key for sustainable agriculture. Despite significant advances in the plant nutrition field, the mechanisms underlying the adaptation of common bean to low nutrient input remains largely unknown. The recent release of the common bean genome offers, for the first time, the possibility of applying techniques and approaches that have been exclusive to model plants to study the adaptive responses of common bean to challenging environments. In this review, we discuss the hallmarks of common bean domestication and subsequent distribution around the globe. We also discuss recent advances in phosphate, iron, and zinc homeostasis, as these nutrients often limit plant growth, development, and yield. In addition, iron and zinc are major targets of crop biofortification to improve human nutrition. Developing common bean varieties able to thrive under nutrient limiting conditions will have a major impact on human nutrition, particularly in countries where dry beans are the main source of carbohydrates, protein and minerals. PMID:27200068

  7. Effects of gluten and emulsifier on some properties of erişte prepared with legume flours.

    PubMed

    Bilgiçli, Nermin; Demir, M Kürşat; Ertaş, Nilgün; Herken, Emine Nur

    2011-02-01

    In the present study, erişte was produced from 70% coarse and fine flours of common bean/lentil+30% wheat semolina (WS) with the addition of gluten (0%, 2.5% and 5%) and sodium stearoyl 2-lactylate (SSL) (0% and 0.6%). Chemical, nutritional, and sensory properties and cooking quality of erişte samples were investigated. As coarse common bean flour (CCF) and coarse lentil flour (CLF) have higher rates for ash and protein, these parameters were also found higher in the end products prepared from CCF and CLF than those prepared from fine common bean flour (FCF) and fine lentil flour (FLF). Protein contents and in vitro protein digestibility values of erişte containing common bean flours increased with gluten addition while ash values decreased in the samples containing 5% gluten. SSL addition did not alter the chemical properties, but it increased brightness and decreased redness values of samples produced from CCF and CLF. Generally SSL addition increased weight and volume increase values of erişte samples made with all legume flours. According to the sensory analysis results, gluten addition improved the surface smoothness and appearance in samples made with CCF, FLF and CLF. Samples made from CCF and CLF were preferred to samples made from FCF and FLF with respect to taste, odor and stickiness. PMID:20795775

  8. Common Bean: A Legume Model on the Rise for Unraveling Responses and Adaptations to Iron, Zinc, and Phosphate Deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Castro-Guerrero, Norma A; Isidra-Arellano, Mariel C; Mendoza-Cozatl, David G; Valdés-López, Oswaldo

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) was domesticated ∼8000 years ago in the Americas and today is a staple food worldwide. Besides caloric intake, common bean is also an important source of protein and micronutrients and it is widely appreciated in developing countries for their affordability (compared to animal protein) and its long storage life. As a legume, common bean also has the economic and environmental benefit of associating with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, thus reducing the use of synthetic fertilizers, which is key for sustainable agriculture. Despite significant advances in the plant nutrition field, the mechanisms underlying the adaptation of common bean to low nutrient input remains largely unknown. The recent release of the common bean genome offers, for the first time, the possibility of applying techniques and approaches that have been exclusive to model plants to study the adaptive responses of common bean to challenging environments. In this review, we discuss the hallmarks of common bean domestication and subsequent distribution around the globe. We also discuss recent advances in phosphate, iron, and zinc homeostasis, as these nutrients often limit plant growth, development, and yield. In addition, iron and zinc are major targets of crop biofortification to improve human nutrition. Developing common bean varieties able to thrive under nutrient limiting conditions will have a major impact on human nutrition, particularly in countries where dry beans are the main source of carbohydrates, protein and minerals. PMID:27200068

  9. A novel member of the Tombusviridae from a wild legume, Gompholobium preissii.

    PubMed

    Koh, Shu Hui; Ong, Jamie W L; Admiraal, Ryan; Sivasithamparam, Krishnapillai; Jones, Michael G K; Wylie, Stephen J

    2016-10-01

    As part of an investigation into viruses of wild plants in Australia, a contiguous sequence of 3935 nucleotides was obtained after shotgun sequencing of RNA isolated from an asymptomatic wild legume, Gompholobium preissii. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequence revealed that it most closely resembled that of Trailing lespedeza virus 1 (TLV1), a virus isolated from a wild legume in America. The proposed virus, named Gompholobium virus A, and TLV1 are genetically closest to viruses in the genera Alphacarmovirus and Pelarspovirus, family Tombusviridae, but they share features distinguishing them from both groups. PMID:27456427

  10. New genetic opportunities from legume intercrops for controlling Striga spp. parasitic weeds.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Antony M; Hassanali, Ahmed; Chamberlain, Keith; Khan, Zeyaur; Pickett, John A

    2009-05-01

    In smallholder farming in East Africa, intercropping of maize with the cattle forage legume, Desmodium uncinatum Jacq., prevents parasitism by Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. (witchweed) through an allelopathic mechanism. Isoschaftoside, a di-C-glycosylflavone, isolated from the root extract and root exudate of Desmodium, interferes with in vitro radicle development of germinated Striga. The biosynthetic pathway of this class of compound is already mostly present in edible legumes and in cereals, so characterisation of the enzyme and genes that control C-glycosylflavone biosynthesis has the potential to create this protection mechanism in other agriculturally important plants. PMID:19266493

  11. Protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteins are the major structural and functional components of all cells in the body. They are macromolecules that comprise 1 or more chains of amino acids that vary in their sequence and length and are folded into specific 3-dimensional structures. The sizes and conformations of proteins, therefor...

  12. Proteins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolittle, Russell F.

    1985-01-01

    Examines proteins which give rise to structure and, by virtue of selective binding to other molecules, make genes. Binding sites, amino acids, protein evolution, and molecular paleontology are discussed. Work with encoding segments of deoxyribonucleic acid (exons) and noncoding stretches (introns) provides new information for hypotheses. (DH)

  13. Epidemiology and integrated management of persistently transmitted aphid-borne viruses of legume and cereal crops in West Asia and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Makkouk, Khaled M; Kumari, Safaa G

    2009-05-01

    Cool-season food legumes (faba bean, lentil, chickpea and pea) and cereals (bread and durum wheat and barley) are the most important and widely cultivated crops in West Asia and North Africa (WANA), where they are the main source of carbohydrates and protein for the majority of the population. Persistently transmitted aphid-borne viruses pose a significant limitation to legume and cereal production worldwide. Surveys conducted in many countries in WANA during the last three decades established that the most important of these viruses are: Faba bean necrotic yellows virus (FBNYV: genus Nanovirus; family Nanoviridae), Bean leafroll virus (BLRV: genus Luteovirus; family Luteoviridae), Beet western yellows virus (BWYV: genus Polerovirus; family Luteoviridae), Soybean dwarf virus (SbDV: genus Luteovirus; family Luteoviridae) and Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV: genus Polerovirus; family Luteoviridae) which affect legume crops, and Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV (BYDV-PAV: genus Luteovirus; family Luteoviridae), Barley yellow dwarf virus-MAV (BYDV-MAV: genus Luteovirus; family Luteoviridae) and Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV (CYDV-RPV: genus Polerovirus; family Luteoviridae) which affect cereal crops. Loss in yield caused by these viruses is usually high when infection occurs early in the growing season. Many aphid vector species for the above-mentioned viruses are reported to be prevalent in the WANA region. In addition, in this region many wild species (annual or perennial) were found infected with these viruses and may play an important role in their ecology and spread. Fast spread of these diseases was always associated with high aphid vector populations and activity. Although virus disease management can be achieved by combining several control measures, development of resistant genotypes is undoubtedly one of the most appropriate control methods. Over the last three decades barley and wheat genotypes resistant to BYDV, faba bean genotypes resistant to BLRV, and

  14. Effects of nano-ZnO on the agronomically relevant Rhizobium-legume symbiosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of nano-ZnO (nZnO) on Rhizobium-legume symbiosis was studied with garden pea and its compatible bacterial partner Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841. Exposure of peas to nZnO had no impact on germination, but significantly affected root length. Chronic exposure of plant to nZnO impac...

  15. Symbiont abundance is more important than pre-infection partner choice in a Rhizobium - legume mutualism.

    PubMed

    Van Cauwenberghe, Jannick; Lemaire, Benny; Stefan, Andrei; Efrose, Rodica; Michiels, Jan; Honnay, Olivier

    2016-07-01

    It is known that the genetic diversity of conspecific rhizobia present in root nodules differs greatly among populations of a legume species, which has led to the suggestion that both dispersal limitation and the local environment affect rhizobial genotypic composition. However, it remains unclear whether rhizobial genotypes residing in root nodules are representative of the entire population of compatible symbiotic rhizobia. Since symbiotic preferences differ among legume populations, the genetic composition of rhizobia found within nodules may reflect the preferences of the local hosts, rather than the full diversity of potential nodulating rhizobia present in the soil. Here, we assessed whether Vicia cracca legume hosts of different provenances select different Rhizobium leguminosarum genotypes than sympatric V. cracca hosts, when presented a natural soil rhizobial population. Through combining V. cracca plants and rhizobia from adjacent and more distant populations, we found that V. cracca hosts are relatively randomly associated with rhizobial genotypes. This indicates that pre-infection partner choice is relatively weak in certain legume hosts when faced with a natural population of rhizobia. PMID:27269381

  16. Effects of nano-TiO2 on the agronomically-relevant Rhizobium-legume symbiosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of nano-TiO2 on Rhizobium-legume symbiosis was studied using garden peas and the compatible bacterial partner Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841. Exposure to nano-TiO2 did not affect the germination of peas grown aseptically, nor did it impact the gross root structure. However, nano-...

  17. Sorghum-sudangrass yield responses to nitrogen fertilizer following legume and nonlegume forages.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rotation effects on the yield and N response of sorghum-sudangrass have not been reported. In this study, sorghum-sudangrass was grown in southern Wisconsin on a silt-loam soil for two years following one full production year of legume (alfalfa or birdsfoot trefoil) or nonlegume (reed canarygrass or...

  18. Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting seed mineral content in the model legume Medicago truncatula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing the amount of bioavailable micronutrients such as iron and zinc in plant foods for human consumption is a challenge especially in developing countries where plant foods comprise a significant portion of the diet. Legume seeds have the potential to provide the essential nutrients required...

  19. Temperature and moisture dependent dielectric properties of legume flours associated with dielectric heating

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dielectric properties of flour samples from four legumes (chickpea, green pea, lentil, and soybean) at four different moisture contents were measured using an open-ended coaxial probe and impedance analyzer at frequencies of 10 to 1800 MHz and temperatures of 20 to 90°C. The dielectric constant and ...

  20. Multiple polyploidy events in the early radiation of nodulating and non-nodulating legumes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unresolved questions about evolution of the large and diverse legume family include the timing of polyploidy (whole-genome duplication; WGDs) relative to the origin of the major lineages within the Fabaceae and to the origin of symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Previous work has established that a WGD af...

  1. Summer legume 'green' nitrogen crops affect winter wheat forage in continuous rotations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Costs for inorganic nitrogen (N) fertilizers in the southern Great Plains (SGP) have increased in recent years with the rise in oil prices. In response, producers have become interested in the potential merits of using annual legumes as N sources. This study described the influence of two summer for...

  2. Rye-legume winter cover crop mixtures and Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth is a significant challenge for cotton production in Georgia and much of the Southern US. Winter cover crops, rye and rye mixtures with legumes, were evaluated for weed suppression and their influence on cotton production. Two studies were ini...

  3. A comparative study on phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of legumes as affected by extraction solvents.

    PubMed

    Xu, B J; Chang, S K C

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how 6 commonly used solvent systems affected the yields of phenolic substances and the antioxidant capacity of extracts from 8 major classes of food legumes. Several antioxidant-related phytochemical compositions, namely, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoids content (TFC), and condensed tannins content (CTC), were investigated. In addition, antioxidant activities were tested using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). The results showed that the 50% acetone extracts exhibited the highest TPC for yellow pea, green pea, chickpea, and yellow soybean. Acidic 70% acetone (+0.5% acetic acid) extracts exhibited the highest TPC, TFC, and FRAP values for black bean, lentil, black soybean, and red kidney bean. The 80% acetone extracts exhibited the highest TFC, CTC, and DPPH-free radical scavenging activity for yellow pea, green pea, chickpea, and yellow soybean. The 70% ethanol extracts exhibited the greatest ORAC value for all selected legumes. These results indicated that solvents with different polarity had significant effects on total phenolic contents, extracted components, and antioxidant activities. High correlations between phenolic compositions and antioxidant activities of legume extracts were observed. The information is of interest to the nutraceutical food/ingredient industries since legumes are a rich source of antioxidants. PMID:17995858

  4. Combining ability of binary mixtures of introduced, cool- and warm-season grasses and legumes.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When two forage species are grown together they can be compatible, compete, or interact with each other. We estimated the combining ability effects for introduced, cool- and warm-season grasses and legumes grown in binary mixtures in NW Oklahoma. Six pure stands and 15 mixtures were transplanted int...

  5. Phytochemical screening of five medicinal legumes and their evaluation for in vitro anti-tubercular activity

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, J. Komal; Devi Prasad, A. G.; Chaturvedi, Vinita

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis is a leading cause of death in the world. A new alternative for the treatment of tuberculosis is urgently required, due to the emergence of multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Aim: There is currently considerable interest in developing potential drugs from medicinal plants for treating tuberculosis. To evaluate anti-tubercular activity in the leaves of Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams., Humboldtia brunonis Wall., Indigofera cassioides Rottl.ex DC., Derris scandens Benth. and Ceasalpinia mimosoides Lamk. Materials and Methods: Non-polar and polar solvent extracts of leaves of these medicinal legumes were tested against M. tuberculosis H37RV and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by the agar based proportion assay. Results: Phytochemical screening for secondary metabolites revealed the presence of saponins, steroids, anthro-quinones, terpinods, flavonoids and phlabotanins. Crude leaf extracts of these plants have shown MIC value of 50 μg/ml as against the standard drug Isoniazid value of 0.025 μg/ml. Conclusion: Results showed that crude extracts of legume leaves screened exhibited potential anti-tubercular activity against M. tuberculosis and further work is required to identify the active molecule of these legumes, to get a novel anti-tubercular drug. This is the maiden finding on anti-tubercular activity of these medicinal legumes. PMID:25364208

  6. Comparison of rye and legume-rye cover crop mixtures for vegetable production in California.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rye (Secale cereale L.) is an important cover crop in high-value vegetable production in California but legume-rye mixes have received little research attention. A 2-yr winter study on organic farms in Salinas and Hollister, CA evaluated ground cover, above ground dry matter (DM) and C:N, and weed ...

  7. Evaluating shade effects on crop productivity in sorghum-legume intercropping systems using support vector machines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum-legume intercropping has the potential to improve forage productivity, resource use efficiency, and forage quality under irrigation in the Southern High Plains of the United States. Crop production is conversion of solar radiation into biomass and solar radiation is wasted early in the seaso...

  8. 7 CFR 201.56-6 - Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-6 Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae). Kinds of seed: Alfalfa, alyceclover, asparagusbean..., asparagusbean, and cowpea. (1) General description. (i) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot. (ii) Food...

  9. 7 CFR 201.56-6 - Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-6 Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae). Kinds of seed: Alfalfa, alyceclover, asparagusbean..., asparagusbean, and cowpea. (1) General description. (i) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot. (ii) Food...

  10. 7 CFR 201.56-6 - Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-6 Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae). Kinds of seed: Alfalfa, alyceclover, asparagusbean..., asparagusbean, and cowpea. (1) General description. (i) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot. (ii) Food...

  11. 7 CFR 201.56-6 - Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-6 Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae). Kinds of seed: Alfalfa, alyceclover, asparagusbean..., asparagusbean, and cowpea. (1) General description. (i) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot. (ii) Food...

  12. 7 CFR 201.56-6 - Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-6 Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae). Kinds of seed: Alfalfa, alyceclover, asparagusbean..., asparagusbean, and cowpea. (1) General description. (i) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot. (ii) Food...

  13. Use of metabolomics for the chemotaxonomy of legume-associated Ascochyta and allied genera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemotaxonomy and the comparative analysis of metabolic features of fungi have the potential to provide valuable information relating to ecology and evolution, but have not been fully explored in fungal biology. Here, we investigated the chemical diversity of legume-associated Ascochyta and Phoma sp...

  14. Crop rotations that include legumes and reduced tillage improve the energy efficiency of crop production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Text: Modern crop production requires large inputs of energy and these inputs represent a substantial cost. Management practices such as crop rotation and choice of tillage practice influence the energy balance for a production system. Legumes support bacteria that are capable of fixing nitrogen (N)...

  15. Plant growth and soil microbial community structure of legumes and grasses grown in monoculture or mixture.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meimei; Chen, Baodong; Marschner, Petra

    2008-01-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of soil moisture content on plant growth and the rhizosphere microbial community structure of four plant species (white clover, alfalfa, sudan grass, tall fescue), grown individually or in a mixture. The soil moisture content was adjusted to 55% or 80% water holding capacity (WHC). The results indicated that the total plant biomass of one pot was lower at 55% WHC. At a given soil moisture, the total plant biomass of white clover and tall fescue in the mixture was lower than that in a monoculture, indicating their poor competitiveness. For leguminous plants, the decrease in soil moisture reduced the total microbial biomass, bacterial biomass, fungal biomass, and fungal/bacterial ratio in soil as assessed by the phospholipid fatty acid analysis, whereas, lower soil moisture increased those parameters in the tall fescue. The microbial biomass in the soil with legumes was higher than that in the soil with grasses and the two plant groups differed in soil microbial community composition. At high soil moisture content, microbial communities of the plant mixture were similar to those of the legume monoculture, and the existence of legumes in the mixture enhanced the bacterial and fungal biomass in the soil compared to the grasses grown in the monoculture, indicating that legumes played a dominant role in the soil microbial community changes in the plant mixture. PMID:19143348

  16. Temperature and Moisture Dependent Dielectric Properties of Legume Flours Associated with Dielectric Heating

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dielectric property data are important in developing thermal treatments using radio frequency (RF) and microwave (MW) energy and essential to estimate the heating uniformity in electromagnetic fields. Dielectric properties of flour samples from four legumes (chickpea, green pea, lentil, and soybean)...

  17. INTERACTIVE IDENTIFICATION OF GENUS OF LEGUME (FABACEAE) FRUITS AND SEEDS VIA THE INTERNET

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The legume (or Fabaceae) family has 686 genera and more than 17,600 species. Fruit data (157 characters) were collected for 669 genera, seed data (127 characters) for 655 genera, and distributional data (six characters) for all genera. Our final data matrix has 105,033 items of fruit data, 83,185 it...

  18. Crop rotations that include legumes and reduced tillage improve the energy efficiency of crop production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modern crop production requires large inputs of energy and these inputs represent a substantial cost. Management practices such as crop rotation and choice of tillage practice influence the energy balance for a production system. Legumes support bacteria that are capable of fixing nitrogen (N). This...

  19. Photosynthesis in tropical cover crop legumes influenced by irradiance, external carbon dioxide concentration and temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In plantation crops perennial tropical legumes are grown as understory plants, receive limited irradiance, and are subjected to elevated levels of CO2 and temperature. Independent short-term effects of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), external carbon dioxide concentration [CO2] and temper...

  20. Crimped Cover Crop Legume Residue Effects on Sweet Corn (Zea mays L.) Yield in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crimped legume residue can control weeds and supply N for sweet corn production if biomass is sufficient. Three sweet corn (Zea mays L.) open pollinated variety “Suresweet 2011” plantings (April, 2013; July 2013; February 2014) were conducted on an Oxisol (very fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic and...

  1. Legume NADPH Oxidases Have Crucial Roles at Different Stages of Nodulation

    PubMed Central

    Montiel, Jesús; Arthikala, Manoj-Kumar; Cárdenas, Luis; Quinto, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Plant NADPH oxidases, formerly known as respiratory burst oxidase homologues (RBOHs), are plasma membrane enzymes dedicated to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. These oxidases are implicated in a wide variety of processes, ranging from tissue and organ growth and development to signaling pathways in response to abiotic and biotic stimuli. Research on the roles of RBOHs in the plant’s response to biotic stresses has mainly focused on plant-pathogen interactions; nonetheless, recent findings have shown that these oxidases are also involved in the legume-rhizobia symbiosis. The legume-rhizobia symbiosis leads to the formation of the root nodule, where rhizobia reduce atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia. A complex signaling and developmental pathway in the legume root hair and root facilitate rhizobial entrance and nodule organogenesis, respectively. Interestingly, several reports demonstrate that RBOH-mediated ROS production displays versatile roles at different stages of nodulation. The evidence collected to date indicates that ROS act as signaling molecules that regulate rhizobial invasion and also function in nodule senescence. This review summarizes discoveries that support the key and versatile roles of various RBOH members in the legume-rhizobia symbiosis. PMID:27213330

  2. Legume Cover Crops are More Beneficial than Natual Fallows in MInimally Tilled Ugandan Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is important to establish the various eff ects of legume cover crops on soil physicochemical properties because they have been considered for use as improved fallows (with shorter rest periods) to enhance development and maintenance of soil productivity. Our objectives were to assess: (i) abovegr...

  3. Assessment of anthocyanin and agronomic trait variation in some commonly used medicinal legumes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several legumes including Canavalia ensiformis, Desmodium adscendens, Indigofera suffruticosa, Senna covesii, and S. occidentalis are currently used as medicinal plants. These species contain anthocyanins as well with potential to be used in the pharmaceutical markets. The USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic R...

  4. Enhancing Legume Ecosystem Services through an Understanding of Plant-Pollinator Interplay.

    PubMed

    Suso, María J; Bebeli, Penelope J; Christmann, Stefanie; Mateus, Célia; Negri, Valeria; Pinheiro de Carvalho, Miguel A A; Torricelli, Renzo; Veloso, Maria M

    2016-01-01

    Legumes are bee-pollinated, but to a different extent. The importance of the plant-pollinator interplay (PPI), in flowering crops such as legumes lies in a combination of the importance of pollination for the production service and breeding strategies, plus the increasing urgency in mitigating the decline of pollinators through the development and implementation of conservation measures. To realize the full potential of the PPI, a multidisciplinary approach is required. This article assembles an international team of genebank managers, geneticists, plant breeders, experts on environmental governance and agro-ecology, and comprises several sections. The contributions in these sections outline both the state of the art of knowledge in the field and the novel aspects under development, and encompass a range of reviews, opinions and perspectives. The first three sections explore the role of PPI in legume breeding strategies. PPI based approaches to crop improvement can make it possible to adapt and re-design breeding strategies to meet both goals of: (1) optimal productivity, based on an efficient use of pollinators, and (2) biodiversity conservation. The next section deals with entomological aspects and focuses on the protection of the "pest control service" and pollinators in legume crops. The final section addresses general approaches to encourage the synergy between food production and pollination services at farmer field level. Two basic approaches are proposed: (a) Farming with Alternative Pollinators and (b) Crop Design System. PMID:27047514

  5. Keeping N in its place: Legumes and N cycling in agro-ecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The extent to which legumes add and retain N in agro-ecosystems depends on plant, rhizobial, soil, and weather conditions and on crop management. In some regions, deeply rooted alfalfa removes subsoil nitrate and water, reducing nitrogen (N) losses through leaching and tile drainage, fixes the remai...

  6. Inoculation of Woody Legumes with Selected Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Rhizobia To Recover Desertified Mediterranean Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, M. A.; Salamanca, C. P.; Barea, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    Revegetation strategies, either for reclamation or for rehabilitation, are being used to recover desertified ecosystems. Woody legumes are recognized as species that are useful for revegetation of water-deficient, low-nutrient environments because of their ability to form symbiotic associations with rhizobial bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi, which improve nutrient acquisition and help plants to become established and cope with stress situations. A range of woody legumes used in revegetation programs, particularly in Mediterranean regions, were assayed. These legumes included both exotic and native species and were used in a test of a desertified semiarid ecosystem in southeast Spain. Screening for the appropriate plant species-microsymbiont combinations was performed previously, and a simple procedure to produce plantlets with optimized mycorrhizal and nodulated status was developed. The results of a 4-year trial showed that (i) only the native shrub legumes were able to become established under the local environmental conditions (hence, a reclamation strategy is recommended) and (ii) biotechnological manipulation of the seedlings to be used for revegetation (by inoculation with selected rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi) improved outplanting performance, plant survival, and biomass development. PMID:16348838

  7. Lotus utahensis: southern great basin legume for possible use in rangeland revegetation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangeland ecosystems in the western USA are increasingly vulnerable to wildland fires, weed invasion, and mismanagement. On many of these rangelands, revegetation/restoration may be required to improve degraded conditions, speed recovery, and minimize soil erosion. Legumes native to the Great Basi...

  8. Legume NADPH Oxidases Have Crucial Roles at Different Stages of Nodulation.

    PubMed

    Montiel, Jesús; Arthikala, Manoj-Kumar; Cárdenas, Luis; Quinto, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Plant NADPH oxidases, formerly known as respiratory burst oxidase homologues (RBOHs), are plasma membrane enzymes dedicated to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. These oxidases are implicated in a wide variety of processes, ranging from tissue and organ growth and development to signaling pathways in response to abiotic and biotic stimuli. Research on the roles of RBOHs in the plant's response to biotic stresses has mainly focused on plant-pathogen interactions; nonetheless, recent findings have shown that these oxidases are also involved in the legume-rhizobia symbiosis. The legume-rhizobia symbiosis leads to the formation of the root nodule, where rhizobia reduce atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia. A complex signaling and developmental pathway in the legume root hair and root facilitate rhizobial entrance and nodule organogenesis, respectively. Interestingly, several reports demonstrate that RBOH-mediated ROS production displays versatile roles at different stages of nodulation. The evidence collected to date indicates that ROS act as signaling molecules that regulate rhizobial invasion and also function in nodule senescence. This review summarizes discoveries that support the key and versatile roles of various RBOH members in the legume-rhizobia symbiosis. PMID:27213330

  9. Enhancing Legume Ecosystem Services through an Understanding of Plant–Pollinator Interplay

    PubMed Central

    Suso, María J.; Bebeli, Penelope J.; Christmann, Stefanie; Mateus, Célia; Negri, Valeria; Pinheiro de Carvalho, Miguel A. A.; Torricelli, Renzo; Veloso, Maria M.

    2016-01-01

    Legumes are bee-pollinated, but to a different extent. The importance of the plant–pollinator interplay (PPI), in flowering crops such as legumes lies in a combination of the importance of pollination for the production service and breeding strategies, plus the increasing urgency in mitigating the decline of pollinators through the development and implementation of conservation measures. To realize the full potential of the PPI, a multidisciplinary approach is required. This article assembles an international team of genebank managers, geneticists, plant breeders, experts on environmental governance and agro-ecology, and comprises several sections. The contributions in these sections outline both the state of the art of knowledge in the field and the novel aspects under development, and encompass a range of reviews, opinions and perspectives. The first three sections explore the role of PPI in legume breeding strategies. PPI based approaches to crop improvement can make it possible to adapt and re-design breeding strategies to meet both goals of: (1) optimal productivity, based on an efficient use of pollinators, and (2) biodiversity conservation. The next section deals with entomological aspects and focuses on the protection of the “pest control service” and pollinators in legume crops. The final section addresses general approaches to encourage the synergy between food production and pollination services at farmer field level. Two basic approaches are proposed: (a) Farming with Alternative Pollinators and (b) Crop Design System. PMID:27047514

  10. USE OF MEDICAGO TRUNCATULA TO MODEL THE INTERACTION BETWEEN PLANT-PARASITIC NEMATODES AND LEGUMES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are using Medicago truncatula as a model plant for examination of the interaction between plant-parasitic nematodes and legumes. One objective of this work is to identify and characterize genes from the plant that are involved in the host response to nematodes or in host resistance. Using bioinfo...

  11. Effects of lasalocid or monensin on legume or grain (feedlot) bloat.

    PubMed

    Bartley, E E; Nagaraja, T G; Pressman, E S; Dayton, A D; Katz, M P; Fina, L R

    1983-06-01

    Doses of .66 to .99 mg monensin/kg body weight reduced legume bloat in cattle about 66% when compared with pretreatment bloat scores. Similar doses of lasalocid reduced legume bloat about 26%. A dose of 44 mg poloxalene/kg body weight (recommended dose for field use) reduced legume bloat 100%. Monensin or lasalocid combined with 25 or 50% of the recommended dose of poloxalene reduced bloat under that of the antibiotics alone, but did not achieve 100% reduction. The antibiotic thiopeptin provided no preventive effect on legume bloat. Lasalocid, monensin or an experimental polyether antibiotic (X-14,547 A) at a dose of 1.32 mg/kg body weight when tested on cattle bloated on high grain diets reduced bloat by 92, 64 and 25%, respectively. Lasalocid at .66 mg/kg effectively prevented bloat from developing when given to animals before the feeding of high grain diets; however, a 1.32-mg dose was required to control bloat in cattle that were already bloating before they were given lasalocid. A dose of 1.32 mg salinomycin was ineffective in controlling grain bloat. PMID:6874619

  12. Condensed tannins in some forage legumes: their role in the prevention of ruminant pasture bloat.

    PubMed

    Lees, G L

    1992-01-01

    For the past 20 years, the focus in our laboratory has been on finding the causes of ruminant pasture bloat and eventually breeding a bloat-safe alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.); i.e., with bloat potential reduced to the economic threshold. In the mid-seventies, the mechanisms of bloat were explored and found to be more physical than chemical. Characteristic of all bloating legumes after ingestion was a very rapid initial rate of ingestion by rumen microbes. Through the study of bloating and non-bloating legumes, factors were elucidated in the plant that would slow this process. One of these factors was the presence of condensed tannins in the herbage. Some of the non-bloating legumes contained these secondary metabolites, but no condensed tannins were found in any of the bloating legumes. Therefore, species containing an appreciable amount of condensed tannins in their leaves and stems are considered to be non-bloating. Conventional breeding methods have not been successful in producing an alfalfa with condensed tannins in its herbage. New approaches using tissue culture techniques are being attempted, but genetic engineering has the greatest potential for success. PMID:1417702

  13. Polyploids did not Predate the Evolution of Nodulation in all Legumes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several lines of evidence indicate that polyploidy occurred by around 54 million years ago, early in the history of legume evolution, but it has not been known whether this event was confined to the papilionoid subfamily (Papilionoideae; e.g., beans, medics, lupins) or occurred earlier. Determining...

  14. Achievements and challenges in legume breeding for pest and disease resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yield stability of legume crops is constrained by a number of pest and diseases. Major diseases are rusts, powdery and downy mildews, ascochyta blight, botrytis gray molds, anthracnoses, damping-off, root rots, collar rot, vascular wilts and white mold. Parasitic weeds, viruses, bacteria, nematodes ...

  15. Grain legume impacts on soil biological processes in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain legumes occupy about 20 million hectares in Africa. The major crops are cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), which is grown on about 11 million hectares mostly in west Africa, and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), grown on about 5 million hectares mostly in eastern and southern Africa. These grain le...

  16. Forage Production on Dry Rangelands of Binary Grass-Legume Mixtures at Four Plant Densities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage production on Western US rangelands can be increased with the right combination of plants. Our objective was to demonstrate the relative forage production advantage of including a legume on dry rangelands. A falcata and rhizomatous alfalfa (medicago sativa L.), alti wildrye [Leymus andustus...

  17. The Ribosomal RNA is a Useful Marker to Visualize Rhizobia Interacting with Legume Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinaudi, Luciana; Isola, Maria C.; Giordano, Walter

    2004-01-01

    Symbiosis between rhizobia and leguminous plants leads to the formation of nitrogen-fixing root nodules. In the present article, we recommend the use of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) isolated from legume nodules in an experimental class with the purpose of introducing students to the structure of eukaryotic and prokaryotic ribosomes and of…

  18. Earthworms and legumes control litter decomposition in a plant diversity gradient.

    PubMed

    Milcu, Alexandru; Partsch, Stephan; Scherber, Christoph; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Scheu, Stefan

    2008-07-01

    The role of species and functional group diversity of primary producers for decomposers and decomposition processes is little understood. We made use of the "Jena Biodiversity Experiment" and tested the hypothesis that increasing plant species (1, 4, and 16 species) and functional group diversity (1, 2, 3, and 4 groups) beneficially affects decomposer density and activity and therefore the decomposition of plant litter material. Furthermore, by manipulating the densities of decomposers (earthworms and springtails) within the plant diversity gradient we investigated how the interactions between plant diversity and decomposer densities affect the decomposition of litter belonging to different plant functional groups (grasses, herbs, and legumes). Positive effects of increasing plant species or functional group diversity on earthworms (biomass and density) and microbial biomass were mainly due to the increased incidence of legumes with increasing diversity. Neither plant species diversity nor functional group diversity affected litter decomposition, However, litter decomposition varied with decomposer and plant functional group identity (of both living plants and plant litter). While springtail removal generally had little effect on decomposition, increased earthworm density accelerated the decomposition of nitrogen-rich legume litter, and this was more pronounced at higher plant diversity. The results suggest that earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L.) and legumes function as keystone organisms for grassland decomposition processes and presumably contribute to the recorded increase in primary productivity with increasing plant diversity. PMID:18705374

  19. Temperate forage legume and grass genetic resources: capitalizing on the U.S. germplasm system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. germplasm collection for temperate forage legumes and grasses provides diverse genetic resources to support the development of fodder crops adapted to conventional and organic farming practices. The collection contains 12,000 accessions of Medicago, Trifolium and Lotus representing 368 taxa...

  20. Identification of QTL affecting seed mineral concentrations and content in the model legume Medicago truncatula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing the amount of bioavailable micronutrients such as iron and zinc in plant foods for human consumption is a challenge, especially in developing countries where plant foods comprise a significant portion of the diet. Legume seeds have the potential to provide the essential nutrients require...

  1. North American Legumes for Rangeland Restoration, Conservation, and Forage Production in the Western U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land managers do not have many alternatives to choose from when seeding North American legume species on rangelands of the western U.S. As part of an initiative to address that need, research was conducted with basalt milkvetch (Astragalus filipes), western prairie clover (Dalea ornata), and Searls...

  2. Importance of grass-legume choices on cattle grazing behavior, performance, and meat characteristics.

    PubMed

    Maughan, B; Provenza, F D; Tansawat, R; Maughan, C; Martini, S; Ward, R; Clemensen, A; Song, X; Cornforth, D; Villalba, J J

    2014-05-01

    We determined if tall fescue in a mixture with either tannin-containing sainfoin or saponin-containing alfalfa affected cattle foraging behavior, performance, meat quality, and consumer acceptance of meat. Foraging behavior, BW, and pasture biomass before and after grazing were monitored when cattle strip-grazed 3 replications of 2 treatments from May through September 2010 (12 calves/replication) and from June through September 2012 (8 calves/replication). Animals were allowed a choice between tall fescue and sainfoin (SAN) or tall fescue and alfalfa (ALF) growing in strips (fescue, legume, and fescue-legume mixture). Incidence of use (scan samples) of legumes increased from the beginning to the end of the trials (P < 0.05), suggesting that cattle learned to mix legumes with tall fescue. Scan samples and assessments of pasture biomass removal revealed greater use of sainfoin than alfalfa when both legumes were abundant in the spring (P < 0.05); that pattern reversed toward the end of the growing season (P < 0.05) as the abundance of sainfoin declined more than that of alfalfa. Intake of forage per kilogram of gain was greater for SAN than for ALF in 2010 (P = 0.0003) and showed a tendency to be greater for SAN than ALF in 2012 (P = 0.19). There were no differences in ADG between SAN and ALF in either year (1 kg/d; P > 0.05). No incidences of bloat were detected. When cattle (3 calves/treatment in 2010 and 8 calves/treatment in 2012) were slaughtered in September to assess meat quality and consumer acceptance, carcasses were lean (4% to 6% fat content of the longissimus muscle), but compared with ALF, SAN had higher marbling scores, quality grades (Select versus Standard), and back fat thicknesses (P < 0.05) in 2012. Steaks from cattle finished on SAN were redder in color than steaks from cattle finished on ALF (P < 0.05; 2012). Meat samples from SAN and ALF showed some differences in unsaturated fatty acid profiles and volatiles concentrations (P < 0.05), but

  3. Genotype Delimitation in the Nod-Independent Model Legume Aeschynomene evenia

    PubMed Central

    Arrighi, Jean-François; Cartieaux, Fabienne; Chaintreuil, Clémence; Brown, Spencer; Boursot, Marc; Giraud, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Research on the nitrogen-fixing symbiosis has been so far focused on two model legumes, Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus, which use a sophisticated infection process involving infection thread formation. However, in 25% of the legumes, the bacterial entry occurs more simply in an intercellular fashion. Among them, some semi-aquatic Aeschynomene species present the distinctive feature to form nitrogen-fixing nodules on both roots and stems following elicitation by photosynthetic bradyrhizobia that do not produce Nod factors. This interaction is believed to represent a living testimony of the ancestral state of the rhizobium-legume symbiosis. To decipher the molecular mechanisms of this unique Nod-independent nitrogen-fixing symbiosis, we previously identified A. evenia C. Wright as an appropriate model legume, because it displays all the requisites for molecular and genetic approaches. To advance the use of this new model legume species, here we characterized the intraspecific diversity found in A. evenia. For this, the accessions available in germplasm banks were collected and subjected to morphological investigations, genotyping with RAPD and SSR markers, molecular phylogenies using ITS and single nuclear gene sequences, and cross-compatibility tests. These combined analyses revealed an important intraspecific differentiation that led us to propose a new taxonomic classification for A. evenia comprising two subspecies and four varieties. The A. evenia ssp. evenia contains var. evenia and var. pauciciliata whereas A. evenia ssp. serrulata comprises var. serrulata and var. major. This study provides information to exploit efficiently the diversity encountered in A. evenia and proposes subsp. evenia as the most appropriate subspecies for future projects aimed at identifying plant determinants of the Nod-independent symbiotic process. PMID:23717496

  4. Multiple Polyploidy Events in the Early Radiation of Nodulating and Nonnodulating Legumes

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Steven B.; McKain, Michael R.; Harkess, Alex; Nelson, Matthew N.; Dash, Sudhansu; Deyholos, Michael K.; Peng, Yanhui; Joyce, Blake; Stewart, Charles N.; Rolf, Megan; Kutchan, Toni; Tan, Xuemei; Chen, Cui; Zhang, Yong; Carpenter, Eric; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Doyle, Jeff J.; Leebens-Mack, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Unresolved questions about evolution of the large and diverse legume family include the timing of polyploidy (whole-genome duplication; WGDs) relative to the origin of the major lineages within the Fabaceae and to the origin of symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Previous work has established that a WGD affects most lineages in the Papilionoideae and occurred sometime after the divergence of the papilionoid and mimosoid clades, but the exact timing has been unknown. The history of WGD has also not been established for legume lineages outside the Papilionoideae. We investigated the presence and timing of WGDs in the legumes by querying thousands of phylogenetic trees constructed from transcriptome and genome data from 20 diverse legumes and 17 outgroup species. The timing of duplications in the gene trees indicates that the papilionoid WGD occurred in the common ancestor of all papilionoids. The earliest diverging lineages of the Papilionoideae include both nodulating taxa, such as the genistoids (e.g., lupin), dalbergioids (e.g., peanut), phaseoloids (e.g., beans), and galegoids (=Hologalegina, e.g., clovers), and clades with nonnodulating taxa including Xanthocercis and Cladrastis (evaluated in this study). We also found evidence for several independent WGDs near the base of other major legume lineages, including the Mimosoideae–Cassiinae–Caesalpinieae (MCC), Detarieae, and Cercideae clades. Nodulation is found in the MCC and papilionoid clades, both of which experienced ancestral WGDs. However, there are numerous nonnodulating lineages in both clades, making it unclear whether the phylogenetic distribution of nodulation is due to independent gains or a single origin followed by multiple losses. PMID:25349287

  5. Multiple polyploidy events in the early radiation of nodulating and nonnodulating legumes.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Steven B; McKain, Michael R; Harkess, Alex; Nelson, Matthew N; Dash, Sudhansu; Deyholos, Michael K; Peng, Yanhui; Joyce, Blake; Stewart, Charles N; Rolf, Megan; Kutchan, Toni; Tan, Xuemei; Chen, Cui; Zhang, Yong; Carpenter, Eric; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Doyle, Jeff J; Leebens-Mack, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Unresolved questions about evolution of the large and diverse legume family include the timing of polyploidy (whole-genome duplication; WGDs) relative to the origin of the major lineages within the Fabaceae and to the origin of symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Previous work has established that a WGD affects most lineages in the Papilionoideae and occurred sometime after the divergence of the papilionoid and mimosoid clades, but the exact timing has been unknown. The history of WGD has also not been established for legume lineages outside the Papilionoideae. We investigated the presence and timing of WGDs in the legumes by querying thousands of phylogenetic trees constructed from transcriptome and genome data from 20 diverse legumes and 17 outgroup species. The timing of duplications in the gene trees indicates that the papilionoid WGD occurred in the common ancestor of all papilionoids. The earliest diverging lineages of the Papilionoideae include both nodulating taxa, such as the genistoids (e.g., lupin), dalbergioids (e.g., peanut), phaseoloids (e.g., beans), and galegoids (=Hologalegina, e.g., clovers), and clades with nonnodulating taxa including Xanthocercis and Cladrastis (evaluated in this study). We also found evidence for several independent WGDs near the base of other major legume lineages, including the Mimosoideae-Cassiinae-Caesalpinieae (MCC), Detarieae, and Cercideae clades. Nodulation is found in the MCC and papilionoid clades, both of which experienced ancestral WGDs. However, there are numerous nonnodulating lineages in both clades, making it unclear whether the phylogenetic distribution of nodulation is due to independent gains or a single origin followed by multiple losses. PMID:25349287

  6. Responses of Legume Versus Nonlegume Tropical Tree Seedlings to Elevated CO2 Concentration1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Cernusak, Lucas A.; Winter, Klaus; Martínez, Carlos; Correa, Edwin; Aranda, Jorge; Garcia, Milton; Jaramillo, Carlos; Turner, Benjamin L.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated responses of growth, leaf gas exchange, carbon-isotope discrimination, and whole-plant water-use efficiency (WP) to elevated CO2 concentration ([CO2]) in seedlings of five leguminous and five nonleguminous tropical tree species. Plants were grown at CO2 partial pressures of 40 and 70 Pa. As a group, legumes did not differ from nonlegumes in growth response to elevated [CO2]. The mean ratio of final plant dry mass at elevated to ambient [CO2] (ME/MA) was 1.32 and 1.24 for legumes and nonlegumes, respectively. However, there was large variation in ME/MA among legume species (0.92–2.35), whereas nonlegumes varied much less (1.21–1.29). Variation among legume species in ME/MA was closely correlated with their capacity for nodule formation, as expressed by nodule mass ratio, the dry mass of nodules for a given plant dry mass. WP increased markedly in response to elevated [CO2] in all species. The ratio of intercellular to ambient CO2 partial pressures during photosynthesis remained approximately constant at ambient and elevated [CO2], as did carbon isotope discrimination, suggesting that WP should increase proportionally for a given increase in atmospheric [CO2]. These results suggest that tree legumes with a strong capacity for nodule formation could have a competitive advantage in tropical forests as atmospheric [CO2] rises and that the water-use efficiency of tropical tree species will increase under elevated [CO2]. PMID:21788363

  7. Mutualism and Adaptive Divergence: Co-Invasion of a Heterogeneous Grassland by an Exotic Legume-Rhizobium Symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Stephanie S.; Stanton, Maureen L.; Rice, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    Species interactions play a critical role in biological invasions. For example, exotic plant and microbe mutualists can facilitate each other's spread as they co-invade novel ranges. Environmental context may influence the effect of mutualisms on invasions in heterogeneous environments, however these effects are poorly understood. We examined the mutualism between the legume, Medicago polymorpha, and the rhizobium, Ensifer medicae, which have both invaded California grasslands. Many of these invaded grasslands are composed of a patchwork of harsh serpentine and relatively benign non-serpentine soils. We grew legume genotypes collected from serpentine or non-serpentine soil in both types of soil in combination with rhizobium genotypes from serpentine or non-serpentine soils and in the absence of rhizobia. Legumes invested more strongly in the mutualism in the home soil type and trends in fitness suggested that this ecotypic divergence was adaptive. Serpentine legumes had greater allocation to symbiotic root nodules in serpentine soil than did non-serpentine legumes and non-serpentine legumes had greater allocation to nodules in non-serpentine soil than did serpentine legumes. Therefore, this invasive legume has undergone the rapid evolution of divergence for soil-specific investment in the mutualism. Contrary to theoretical expectations, the mutualism was less beneficial for legumes grown on the stressful serpentine soil than on the non-serpentine soil, possibly due to the inhibitory effects of serpentine on the benefits derived from the interaction. The soil-specific ability to allocate to a robust microbial mutualism may be a critical, and previously overlooked, adaptation for plants adapting to heterogeneous environments during invasion. PMID:22174755

  8. Sinorhizobium fredii HH103 bacteroids are not terminally differentiated and show altered O-antigen in nodules of the Inverted Repeat-Lacking Clade legume Glycyrrhiza uralensis.

    PubMed

    Crespo-Rivas, Juan C; Guefrachi, Ibtissem; Mok, Kenny C; Villaécija-Aguilar, José A; Acosta-Jurado, Sebastián; Pierre, Olivier; Ruiz-Sainz, José E; Taga, Michiko E; Mergaert, Peter; Vinardell, José M

    2016-09-01

    In rhizobial species that nodulate inverted repeat-lacking clade (IRLC) legumes, such as the interaction between Sinorhizobium meliloti and Medicago, bacteroid differentiation is driven by an endoreduplication event that is induced by host nodule-specific cysteine rich (NCR) antimicrobial peptides and requires the participation of the bacterial protein BacA. We have studied bacteroid differentiation of Sinorhizobium fredii HH103 in three host plants: Glycine max, Cajanus cajan and the IRLC legume Glycyrrhiza uralensis. Flow cytometry, microscopy analyses and viability studies of bacteroids as well as confocal microscopy studies carried out in nodules showed that S. fredii HH103 bacteroids, regardless of the host plant, had deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) contents, cellular sizes and survival rates similar to those of free-living bacteria. Contrary to S. meliloti, S. fredii HH103 showed little or no sensitivity to Medicago NCR247 and NCR335 peptides. Inactivation of S. fredii HH103 bacA neither affected symbiosis with Glycyrrhiza nor increased bacterial sensitivity to Medicago NCRs. Finally, HH103 bacteroids isolated from Glycyrrhiza, but not those isolated from Cajanus or Glycine, showed an altered lipopolysaccharide. Our studies indicate that, in contrast to the S. meliloti-Medicago model symbiosis, bacteroids in the S. fredii HH103-Glycyrrhiza symbiosis do not undergo NCR-induced and bacA-dependent terminal differentiation. PMID:26521863

  9. Analysis of Large Seeds from Three Different Medicago truncatula Ecotypes Reveals a Potential Role of Hormonal Balance in Final Size Determination of Legume Grains.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Kaustav; Uluçay, Orhan; Şakiroğlu, Muhammet; Udvardi, Michael K; Verdier, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    Legume seeds are important as protein and oil source for human diet. Understanding how their final seed size is determined is crucial to improve crop yield. In this study, we analyzed seed development of three accessions of the model legume, Medicago truncatula, displaying contrasted seed size. By comparing two large seed accessions to the reference accession A17, we described mechanisms associated with large seed size determination and potential factors modulating the final seed size. We observed that early events during embryogenesis had a major impact on final seed size and a delayed heart stage embryo development resulted to large seeds. We also observed that the difference in seed growth rate was mainly due to a difference in embryo cell number, implicating a role of cell division rate. Large seed accessions could be explained by an extended period of cell division due to a longer embryogenesis phase. According to our observations and recent reports, we observed that auxin (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) ratio could be a key determinant of cell division regulation at the end of embryogenesis. Overall, our study highlights that timing of events occurring during early seed development play decisive role for final seed size determination. PMID:27618017

  10. Characterisation of the legume SERK-NIK gene superfamily including splice variants: Implications for development and defence

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE (SERK) genes are part of the regulation of diverse signalling events in plants. Current evidence shows SERK proteins function both in developmental and defence signalling pathways, which occur in response to both peptide and steroid ligands. SERKs are generally present as small gene families in plants, with five SERK genes in Arabidopsis. Knowledge gained primarily through work on Arabidopsis SERKs indicates that these proteins probably interact with a wide range of other receptor kinases and form a fundamental part of many essential signalling pathways. The SERK1 gene of the model legume, Medicago truncatula functions in somatic and zygotic embryogenesis, and during many phases of plant development, including nodule and lateral root formation. However, other SERK genes in M. truncatula and other legumes are largely unidentified and their functions unknown. Results To aid the understanding of signalling pathways in M. truncatula, we have identified and annotated the SERK genes in this species. Using degenerate PCR and database mining, eight more SERK-like genes have been identified and these have been shown to be expressed. The amplification and sequencing of several different PCR products from one of these genes is consistent with the presence of splice variants. Four of the eight additional genes identified are upregulated in cultured leaf tissue grown on embryogenic medium. The sequence information obtained from M. truncatula was used to identify SERK family genes in the recently sequenced soybean (Glycine max) genome. Conclusions A total of nine SERK or SERK-like genes have been identified in M. truncatula and potentially 17 in soybean. Five M. truncatula SERK genes arose from duplication events not evident in soybean and Lotus. The presence of splice variants has not been previously reported in a SERK gene. Upregulation of four newly identified SERK genes (in addition to the previously described MtSERK1) in

  11. Crystal structure of arcelin-5, a lectin-like defense protein from Phaseolus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Hamelryck, T W; Poortmans, F; Goossens, A; Angenon, G; Van Montagu, M; Wyns, L; Loris, R

    1996-12-20

    In the seeds of the legume plants, a class of sugar-binding proteins with high structural and sequential identity is found, generally called the legume lectins. The seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) contain, besides two such lectins, a lectin-like defense protein called arcelin, in which one sugar binding loop is absent. Here we report the crystal structure of arcelin-5 (Arc5), one of the electrophoretic variants of arcelin, solved at a resolution of 2.7 A. The R factor of the refined structure is 20.6%, and the free R factor is 27.1%. The main difference between Arc5 and the legume lectins is the absence of the metal binding loop. The bound metals are necessary for the sugar binding capabilities of the legume lectins and stabilize an Ala-Asp cis-peptide bond. Surprisingly, despite the absence of the metal binding site in Arc5, this cis-peptide bond found in all legume lectin structures is still present, although the Asp residue has been replaced by a Tyr residue. Despite the high identity between the different legume lectin sequences, they show a broad range of quaternary structures. The structures of three different dimers and three different tetramers have been solved. Arc5 crystallized as a monomer, bringing the number of known quaternary structures to seven. PMID:8955116

  12. Optimal Xylocoris flavipes (Reuter) (Hemiptera:Anthocoridae) density and time of introduction for suppression of bruchid progeny in stored legumes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of both predator density and elapsed time between initial infestation and introduction of predators were determined for suppression of bruchids infesting stored grain legumes by Xylocoris flavipes (Reuter)(Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). Suppression of Acanthoscelides obtectus approached er...

  13. Whole Grains, Legumes, and the Subsequent Meal Effect: Implications for Blood Glucose Control and the Role of Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Janine A.

    2012-01-01

    Whole grains and legumes are known to reduce postprandial glycemia and, in some instances, insulinemia. However, the subsequent meal effect of ingesting whole grains and legumes is less well known. That is, inclusion of whole grains or legumes at breakfast decreases postprandial glycemia at lunch and/or dinner on the same day whereas consumption of a whole grain or lentil dinner reduces glycemia at breakfast the following morning. This effect is lost upon milling, processing, and cooking at high temperatures. The subsequent meal effect has important implications for the control of day-long blood glucose, and may be partly responsible for the reduction in diabetes incidence associated with increased whole grain and legume intake. This paper describes the subsequent meal effect and explores the role of acute glycemia, presence of resistant starch, and fermentation of indigestible carbohydrate as the mechanisms responsible for this effect. PMID:22132324

  14. Biosynthesis of hydroxycinnamoyl esters and amides in legume species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In forage crops, protein that is degraded following harvest is poorly utilized by ruminant animals, resulting in both economic and environmental consequences. In red clover, secondary reactions of quinones resulting from polyphenol oxidase (PPO)-mediated oxidation of the caffeic acid derivatives pha...

  15. Transcriptome Sequencing, and Rapid Development and Application of SNP Markers for the Legume Pod Borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    PubMed Central

    Margam, Venu M.; Coates, Brad S.; Bayles, Darrell O.; Hellmich, Richard L.; Agunbiade, Tolulope; Seufferheld, Manfredo J.; Sun, Weilin; Kroemer, Jeremy A.; Ba, Malick N.; Binso-Dabire, Clementine L.; Baoua, Ibrahim; Ishiyaku, Mohammad F.; Covas, Fernando G.; Srinivasan, Ramasamy; Armstrong, Joel; Murdock, Larry L.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.

    2011-01-01

    The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an insect pest species of crops grown by subsistence farmers in tropical regions of Africa. We present the de novo assembly of 3729 contigs from 454- and Sanger-derived sequencing reads for midgut, salivary, and whole adult tissues of this non-model species. Functional annotation predicted that 1320 M. vitrata protein coding genes are present, of which 631 have orthologs within the Bombyx mori gene model. A homology-based analysis assigned M. vitrata genes into a group of paralogs, but these were subsequently partitioned into putative orthologs following phylogenetic analyses. Following sequence quality filtering, a total of 1542 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were predicted within M. vitrata contig assemblies. Seventy one of 1078 designed molecular genetic markers were used to screen M. vitrata samples from five collection sites in West Africa. Population substructure may be present with significant implications in the insect resistance management recommendations pertaining to the release of biological control agents or transgenic cowpea that express Bacillus thuringiensis crystal toxins. Mutation data derived from transcriptome sequencing is an expeditious and economical source for genetic markers that allow evaluation of ecological differentiation. PMID:21754987

  16. The legume NOOT-BOP-COCH-LIKE genes are conserved regulators of abscission, a major agronomical trait in cultivated crops.

    PubMed

    Couzigou, Jean-Malo; Magne, Kevin; Mondy, Samuel; Cosson, Viviane; Clements, Jonathan; Ratet, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Plants are able to lose organs selectively through a process called abscission. This process relies on the differentiation of specialized territories at the junction between organs and the plant body that are called abscission zones (AZ). Several genes control the formation or functioning of these AZ. We have characterized BLADE-ON-PETIOLE (BOP) orthologues from several legume plants and studied their roles in the abscission process using a mutant approach. Here, we show that the Medicago truncatula NODULE ROOT (NOOT), the Pisum sativum COCHLEATA (COCH) and their orthologue in Lotus japonicus are strictly necessary for the abscission of not only petals, but also leaflets, leaves and fruits. We also showed that the expression pattern of the M. truncatula pNOOT::GUS fusion is associated with functional and vestigial AZs when expressed in Arabidopsis. In addition, we show that the stip mutant from Lupinus angustifolius, defective in stipule formation and leaf abscission, is mutated in a BOP orthologue. In conclusion, this study shows that this clade of proteins plays an important conserved role in promoting abscission of all aerial organs studied so far. PMID:26390061

  17. Accumulation of seleno-amino acids in legume and grass plant species grown in selenium-laden soils

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, L.; Guo, X.; Banuelos, G.S.

    1997-03-01

    Seleno-amino acid accumulation was studied for two legume and two grass species grown in Selenium (Se)-laden soils. An antagonistic relationship was found between the tissue Se-amino acid concentration and the corresponding sulfur-amino acid concentration. This relationship demonstrates a competitive interaction between Se and sulfate at the amino acid synthesis level. The nonsulfur-containing amino acids were not substantially affected by the increase of tissue Se concentration. Sour clover (Melilotus indica L.) was able to accumulate much greater tissue Se concentration than the other three species. Tissue methionine concentration of sour clover, rabbitfoot grass (Polypogon monspeliensis L.), and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) was not significantly affected by the increase of tissue selenomethionine concentration, but a highly significant negative correlation was found in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). This discrepancy suggests that a less antagonistic effect on sulfur-amino acids under the increase of Se-amino acid analogues in the tissue might be able to minimize Se toxicity to the plant. Both Se-methylselenocysteine (nonprotein amino acid) and selenomethionine (protein amino acid) accumulated in the plants when grown in Se-laden soils. Possible effects of these Se-amino acids accumulated by plants on animal health should be tested before the plants are used for forage supplementation.

  18. Induction of isoflavonoid pathway in the model legume Lotus japonicus: molecular characterization of enzymes involved in phytoalexin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Shimada, N; Akashi, T; Aoki, T; Ayabe, S -i.

    2000-12-01

    Treatment of the seedlings of Lotus japonicus, a model legume for molecular genetic studies, with reduced glutathione (GSH) resulted in the accumulation of an isoflavan phytoalexin, vestitol. Using PCR strategies based on the conserved amino acid sequences, full length P450 cDNAs were obtained from GSH-treated seedling roots. When the clones, LjCYP-1 (CYP93C family) and LjCYP-2 (CYP81E family), were heterologously expressed in yeast, the proteins exhibited 2-hydroxyisoflavanone synthase (IFS) and isoflavone 2'-hydroxylase (I2'H) activities, respectively. The transcription levels of LjCYP-1, LjCYP-2 and isoflavone reductase, which are all involved in vestitol biosynthesis, coordinately increased upon elicitation. Genomic Southern blot analysis indicated that the IFS gene forms a small gene family and a single copy of the I2'H gene is present in the L. japonicus genome. Molecular biological aspects of P450s involved in the isoflavonoid pathway and the genomic approach to flavonoid metabolism in this unique plant are discussed. PMID:11164575

  19. Molecular basis of lipo-chitooligosaccharide recognition by the lysin motif receptor-like kinase LYR3 in legumes.

    PubMed

    Malkov, Nikita; Fliegmann, Judith; Rosenberg, Charles; Gasciolli, Virginie; Timmers, Antonius C J; Nurisso, Alessandra; Cullimore, Julie; Bono, Jean-Jacques

    2016-05-15

    LYR3 [LysM (lysin motif) receptor-like kinase 3] of Medicago truncatula is a high-affinity binding protein for symbiotic LCO (lipo-chitooligosaccharide) signals, produced by rhizobia bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The present study shows that LYR3 from several other legumes, but not from two Lupinus species which are incapable of forming the mycorrhizal symbiosis, bind LCOs with high affinity and discriminate them from COs (chitooligosaccharides). The biodiversity of these proteins and the lack of binding to the Lupinus proteins were used to identify features required for high-affinity LCO binding. Swapping experiments between each of the three LysMs of the extracellular domain of the M. truncatula and Lupinus angustifolius LYR3 proteins revealed the crucial role of the third LysM in LCO binding. Site-directed mutagenesis identified a tyrosine residue, highly conserved in all LYR3 LCO-binding proteins, which is essential for high-affinity binding. Molecular modelling suggests that it may be part of a hydrophobic tunnel able to accommodate the LCO acyl chain. The lack of conservation of these features in the binding site of plant LysM proteins binding COs provides a mechanistic explanation of how LCO recognition might differ from CO perception by structurally related LysM receptors. PMID:26987814

  20. Metacommunity process rather than continental tectonic history better explains geographically structured phylogenies in legumes.

    PubMed Central

    Lavin, Matt; Schrire, Brian P; Lewis, Gwilym; Pennington, R Toby; Delgado-Salinas, Alfonso; Thulin, Mats; Hughes, Colin E; Matos, Angela Beyra; Wojciechowski, Martin F

    2004-01-01

    Penalized likelihood estimated ages of both densely sampled intracontinental and sparsely sampled transcontinental crown clades in the legume family show a mostly Quaternary to Neogene age distribution. The mode ages of the intracontinental crown clades range from 4-6 Myr ago, whereas those of the transcontinental crown clades range from 8-16 Myr ago. Both of these young age estimates are detected despite methodological approaches that bias results toward older ages. Hypotheses that resort to vicariance or continental history to explain continental disjunct distributions are dismissed because they require mostly Palaeogene and older tectonic events. An alternative explanation centring on dispersal that may well explain the geographical as well as the ecological phylogenetic structure of legume phylogenies is Hubbell's unified neutral theory of biodiversity and biogeography. This is the only dispersalist theory that encompasses evolutionary time and makes predictions about phylogenetic structure. PMID:15519969

  1. Consumption of Whole Grains, Refined Cereals, and Legumes and Its Association With Colorectal Cancer Among Jordanians.

    PubMed

    Tayyem, Reema F; Bawadi, Hiba A; Shehadah, Ihab; Agraib, Lana M; Al-Awwad, Narmeen J; Heath, Dennis D; Bani-Hani, Kamal E

    2016-09-01

    Background The role of whole grains, refined cereals, and legumes in preventing or initiating colorectal cancer (CRC) is still uncertain. The aim of this study is to examine the possible association between the consumption of whole grains, refined cereals, and legumes and the risk of developing CRC among Jordanian population. Methods A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to collect dietary data with regard to intake of whole grains, refined cereals, and legumes. A total of 220 diagnosed CRC participants and 281 CRC-free control participants matched by age, gender, occupation, and marital status were recruited. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of developing CRC in relation to the consumption of different types of whole grains, refined cereals, and legumes. Results The odds ratio (OR) for developing CRC among cases consumed refined wheat bread at all meals was 3.1 compared with controls (95% CI: 1.2-7.9, P-Trend = 0.001); whereas the OR associated with whole wheat bread was 0.44 (95% CI: 0.22-0.92, P-Trend = 0.001). The statistical evaluation for daily consumption of rice suggested a direct association with the risk of developing CRC, OR = 3.0 (95% CI: 0.27-33.4, P-Trend = 0.020). Weekly consumption of macaroni was associated with CRC with OR of 2.4 (95% CI: 1.1-5.3, P-Trend = 0.001). The consumption of corn, bulgur, lentils, and peas suggested a protective trend, although the trend was not statistically significant. Conclusion This study provides additional indicators of the protective role of whole grains and suggests a direct association between consumption of refined grains and higher possibility for developing CRC. PMID:26631260

  2. Integration of Lupinus angustifolius L. (narrow-leafed lupin) genome maps and comparative mapping within legumes.

    PubMed

    Wyrwa, Katarzyna; Książkiewicz, Michał; Szczepaniak, Anna; Susek, Karolina; Podkowiński, Jan; Naganowska, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    Narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) has recently been considered a reference genome for the Lupinus genus. In the present work, genetic and cytogenetic maps of L. angustifolius were supplemented with 30 new molecular markers representing lupin genome regions, harboring genes involved in nitrogen fixation during the symbiotic interaction of legumes and soil bacteria (Rhizobiaceae). Our studies resulted in the precise localization of bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) carrying sequence variants for early nodulin 40, nodulin 26, nodulin 45, aspartate aminotransferase P2, asparagine synthetase, cytosolic glutamine synthetase, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. Together with previously mapped chromosomes, the integrated L. angustifolius map encompasses 73 chromosome markers, including 5S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and 45S rDNA, and anchors 20 L. angustifolius linkage groups to corresponding chromosomes. Chromosomal identification using BAC fluorescence in situ hybridization identified two BAC clones as narrow-leafed lupin centromere-specific markers, which served as templates for preliminary studies of centromere composition within the genus. Bioinformatic analysis of these two BACs revealed that centromeric/pericentromeric regions of narrow-leafed lupin chromosomes consisted of simple sequence repeats ordered into tandem repeats containing the trinucleotide and pentanucleotide simple sequence repeats AGG and GATAC, structured into long arrays. Moreover, cross-genus microsynteny analysis revealed syntenic patterns of 31 single-locus BAC clones among several legume species. The gene and chromosome level findings provide evidence of ancient duplication events that must have occurred very early in the divergence of papilionoid lineages. This work provides a strong foundation for future comparative mapping among legumes and may facilitate understanding of mechanisms involved in shaping legume chromosomes. PMID:27168155

  3. Carbon metabolism in legume nodules. Progress report, June 1, 1982-January 30, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    LaRue, T.A.

    1983-02-01

    The oxidation and reduction of flavins and pyridine nucleotides in intact bacteria can be monitored by their changes in fluorescence. This technique permits study in nitrogen fixing bacteria of the effect of inhibitors of electron transport, and of the effect of substrates which may provide reductant for nitrogenase or oxidative phosphorylation. The nitrogen fixing ability of intact legume plants or bacteroids isolated from nodules can be manipulated downward by appropriate brief treatment of supra-optimal oxygen concentrations.

  4. Genetics- and genomics-based interventions for nutritional enhancement of grain legume crops: status and outlook.

    PubMed

    Bohra, Abhishek; Sahrawat, Kanwar L; Kumar, Shiv; Joshi, Rohit; Parihar, Ashok K; Singh, Ummed; Singh, Deepak; Singh, Narendra P

    2015-05-01

    Meeting the food demands and ensuring nutritional security of the ever increasing global population in the face of degrading natural resource base and impending climate change is the biggest challenge of the twenty first century. The consequences of mineral/micronutrient deficiencies or the hidden hunger in the developing world are indeed alarming and need urgent attention. In addressing the problems associated with mineral/micronutrient deficiency, grain legumes as an integral component of the farming systems in the developing world have to play a crucial role. For resource-poor populations, a strategy based on selecting and/or developing grain legume cultivars with grains denser in micronutrients, by biofortification, seems the most appropriate and attractive approach to address the problem. This is evident from the on-going global research efforts on biofortification to provide nutrient-dense grains for use by the poorest of the poor in the developing countries. Towards this end, rapidly growing genomics technologies hold promise to hasten the progress of breeding nutritious legume crops. In conjunction with the myriad of expansions in genomics, advances in other 'omics' technologies particularly plant ionomics or ionome profiling open up novel opportunities to comprehensively examine the elemental composition and mineral networks of an organism in a rapid and cost-effective manner. These emerging technologies would effectively guide the scientific community to enrich the edible parts of grain legumes with bio-available minerals and enhancers/promoters. We believe that the application of these new-generation tools in turn would provide crop-based solutions to hidden hunger worldwide for achieving global nutritional security. PMID:25592547

  5. Dose-dependent response of nitrogen stable isotope ratio to proportion of legumes in diet to authenticate lamb meat produced from legume-rich diets.

    PubMed

    Devincenzi, T; Delfosse, O; Andueza, D; Nabinger, C; Prache, S

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the dose-dependent response in lamb meat of stable nitrogen isotope ratio to the dietary proportion of legumes, and the ability of the nitrogen isotope signature of the meat to authenticate meat produced from legume-rich diets. Four groups of nine male Romane lambs grazing a cocksfoot pasture were supplemented with different levels of fresh alfalfa forage to obtain four dietary proportions of alfalfa (0%, 25%, 50% and 75%) for 98 days on average before slaughter (groups L0, L25, L50 and L75). We measured the stable nitrogen isotope ratio in the forages and in the longissimus thoracis muscle. The δ(15)N value of the meat decreased linearly with the dietary proportion of alfalfa. The distribution of the δ(15)N values of the meat discriminated all the L0 lambs from the L75 lambs, and gave a correct classification score of 85.3% comparing lambs that ate alfalfa with those that did not. PMID:24444961

  6. EXTRACELLULAR PROTEINS INVOLVED IN SOYBEAN CULTIVAR-SPECIFIC NODULATION ARE ASSOCIATED WITH PILUS-LIKE SURFACE APPENDANGES AND EXPORTED BY A TYPE III PROTEIN SECRETION SYSTEM IN SINORHIZOBIUM FREDII USDA257

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several Gram-negative plant and animal pathogenic bacteria have evolved a type III secretion system (TTSS) to deliver effector proteins directly into the host cell cytosol. Sinorhizobium fredii USDA257, a symbiont of soybean and many other legumes, secretes signal-responsive proteins (SR proteins) ...

  7. Physiological and Molecular Aspects of Tolerance to Environmental Constraints in Grain and Forage Legumes.

    PubMed

    Adnane, Bargaz; Mainassara, Zaman-Allah; Mohamed, Farissi; Mohamed, Lazali; Jean-Jacques, Drevon; Rim, Maougal T; Georg, Carlsson

    2015-01-01

    Despite the agronomical and environmental advantages of the cultivation of legumes, their production is limited by various environmental constraints such as water or nutrient limitation, frost or heat stress and soil salinity, which may be the result of pedoclimatic conditions, intensive use of agricultural lands, decline in soil fertility and environmental degradation. The development of more sustainable agroecosystems that are resilient to environmental constraints will therefore require better understanding of the key mechanisms underlying plant tolerance to abiotic constraints. This review provides highlights of legume tolerance to abiotic constraints with a focus on soil nutrient deficiencies, drought, and salinity. More specifically, recent advances in the physiological and molecular levels of the adaptation of grain and forage legumes to abiotic constraints are discussed. Such adaptation involves complex multigene controlled-traits which also involve multiple sub-traits that are likely regulated under the control of a number of candidate genes. This multi-genetic control of tolerance traits might also be multifunctional, with extended action in response to a number of abiotic constraints. Thus, concrete efforts are required to breed for multifunctional candidate genes in order to boost plant stability under various abiotic constraints. PMID:26287163

  8. Control of plant virus diseases in cool-season grain legume crops.

    PubMed

    Makkouk, Khaled M; Kumari, Safaa G; van Leur, Joop A G; Jones, Roger A C

    2014-01-01

    Cool-season grain legume crops become infected with a wide range of viruses, many of which cause serious diseases and major yield losses. This review starts by discussing which viruses are important in the principal cool-season grain legume crops in different parts of the world, the losses they cause and their economic impacts in relation to control. It then describes the main types of control measures available: host resistance, phytosanitary measures, cultural measures, chemical control, and biological control. Examples are provided of successful deployment of the different types of measures to control virus epidemics in cool-season grain legume crops. Next it emphasizes the need for integrated approaches to control because single control measures used alone rarely suffice to adequately reduce virus-induced yield losses in these crops. Development of effective integrated disease management (IDM) strategies depends on an interdisciplinary team approach to (i) understand the ecological and climatic factors which lead to damaging virus epidemics and (ii) evaluate the effectiveness of individual control measures. In addition to using virus-resistant cultivars, other IDM components include sowing virus-tested seed stocks, selecting cultivars with low seed transmission rates, using diverse phytosanitary or cultural practices that minimize the virus source or reduce its spread, and using selective pesticides in an environmentally responsible way. The review finishes by briefly discussing the implications of climate change in increasing problems associated with control and the opportunities to control virus diseases more effectively through new technologies. PMID:25410103

  9. Functional conservation and diversification of the soybean maturity gene E1 and its homologs in legumes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xingzheng; Zhai, Hong; Wang, Yaying; Tian, Xiaojie; Zhang, Yupeng; Wu, Hongyan; Lü, Shixiang; Yang, Guang; Li, Yuqiu; Wang, Lu; Hu, Bo; Bu, Qingyun; Xia, Zhengjun

    2016-01-01

    Gene regulatory networks involved in flowering time and photoperiodic responses in legumes remain unknown. Although the major maturity gene E1 has been successfully deciphered in soybean, knowledge on the functional conservation of this gene is limited to a certain extent to E1 homologs in legumes. The ectopic expression of Phvul.009G204600 (PvE1L), an E1 homolog from common bean, delayed the onset of flowering in soybean. By contrast, the ectopic expression of Medtr2g058520 (MtE1L) from Medicago truncatula did not affect the flowering of soybean. Characterization of the late-flowering mte1l mutant indicated that MtE1L promoted flowering in Medicago truncatula. Moreover, all transgenic E1, PvE1L and MtE1L soybean lines exhibited phenotypic changes in terms of plant height. Transgenic E1 or PvE1L plants were taller than the wild-type, whereas transgenic MtE1L plants produced dwarf phenotype with few nodes and short internode. Thus, functional conservation and diversification of E1 family genes from legumes in the regulation of flowering and plant growth may be associated with lineage specification and genomic duplication. PMID:27405888

  10. Rhizobium-Legume Symbiosis and Nitrogen Fixation under Severe Conditions and in an Arid Climate

    PubMed Central

    Zahran, Hamdi Hussein

    1999-01-01

    Biological N2 fixation represents the major source of N input in agricultural soils including those in arid regions. The major N2-fixing systems are the symbiotic systems, which can play a significant role in improving the fertility and productivity of low-N soils. The Rhizobium-legume symbioses have received most attention and have been examined extensively. The behavior of some N2-fixing systems under severe environmental conditions such as salt stress, drought stress, acidity, alkalinity, nutrient deficiency, fertilizers, heavy metals, and pesticides is reviewed. These major stress factors suppress the growth and symbiotic characteristics of most rhizobia; however, several strains, distributed among various species of rhizobia, are tolerant to stress effects. Some strains of rhizobia form effective (N2-fixing) symbioses with their host legumes under salt, heat, and acid stresses, and can sometimes do so under the effect of heavy metals. Reclamation and improvement of the fertility of arid lands by application of organic (manure and sewage sludge) and inorganic (synthetic) fertilizers are expensive and can be a source of pollution. The Rhizobium-legume (herb or tree) symbiosis is suggested to be the ideal solution to the improvement of soil fertility and the rehabilitation of arid lands and is an important direction for future research. PMID:10585971

  11. Characterisation of dietary fibre components in cereals and legumes used in Serbian diet.

    PubMed

    Dodevska, Margarita S; Djordjevic, Brizita I; Sobajic, Sladjana S; Miletic, Ivanka D; Djordjevic, Predrag B; Dimitrijevic-Sreckovic, Vesna S

    2013-12-01

    The typical Serbian diet is characterised by high intake of cereal products and also legumes are often used. The content of total fibre as well as certain fibre fractions was determined in cereals, cereal products, and cooked legumes. The content of total fibre in cooked cereals and cereal products ranged from 2.5 to 20.8 g/100 g, and in cooked legumes from 14.0 to 24.5 g/100 g (on dry matter basis). Distribution of analysed fibre fractions and their quantities differed significantly depending on food groups. Fructans and arabinoxylans were the most significant fibre fractions in rye flakes, and β-glucan in oat flakes, cellulose and resistant starch were present in significant amounts in peas and kidney beans. When the size of regular food portions was taken into consideration, the best sources of total dietary fibre were peas and kidney beans (more than 11 g/serving). The same foods were the best sources of cellulose (4.98 and 3.56 g/serving) and resistant starch (3.90 and 2.83 g/serving). High intake of arabinoxylans and fructans could be accomplished with cooked wheat (3.20 g and 1.60 g/serving, respectively). Oat (1.39 g/serving) and barley flakes (1.30 g/serving) can be recommended as the best sources of β-glucan. PMID:23870869

  12. Trypsin inhibitor from 3 legume seeds: fractionation and proteolytic inhibition study.

    PubMed

    Wati, Richa Kusuma; Theppakorn, Theerapong; Benjakul, Soottawat; Rawdkuen, Saroat

    2010-04-01

    The trypsin inhibitor from navy beans (Phaseoulus vulgaris), red kidney beans (Phaseoulus vulgaris L.), and adzuki beans (Vigna angularis) provided by the Royal Project Foundation in Thailand was isolated by heat and ammonium sulfate (AS) precipitation. Incubation at 70 degrees C for 10 min produced the highest trypsin inhibitor recovery for all legumes. The AS precipitation with 60% to 80% saturation (precipitate IV) resulted in 41-, 88-, and 34-fold of the purity and (-)26%, 126%, and (-)47% of percentage of activity increase for navy beans, red kidney beans, and adzuki beans, respectively. The trypsin inhibitors had a molecular weight of 132 kDa for navy beans, 118 kDa for red kidney beans, and 13 kDa for adzuki beans under nonreducing conditions. The obtained precipitate IV fraction from each legume effectively prevented the degradation of the tilapia muscle with concentration dependent. The myosin heavy chain increased as the concentration of the inhibitor fraction increased, especially at the highest level of addition. The result indicated that the precipitate IV from these legumes have potential for use as a protease inhibitor in fishery related products. PMID:20492270

  13. Comparative study on the vitamin C contents of the food legume seeds.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Michie; Oba, Kazuko

    2008-02-01

    We found that dehydrated legume seeds (6 genera, 19 species and cultivated varieties) contained considerable amounts of vitamin C (VC). The average value of total VC content per 100 g of dry weight in dehydrated seeds varied from 0.24 mg (kidney beans) to 4.14 mg (green peas). Yard beans showed highest values among all legumes examined here in the both dehydrated and rehydrated forms (3.19 and 10.8 mg, respectively). By soaking for 16 h in the dark at 20(o)C, total VC contents of black grams and mung beans increased to 3.1- and 4.5-fold, respectively. However, three varieties of green peas (Hakuryu, Kurumeyutaka, and Nankaimidori) significantly lost their VC during the same soaking treatment. Total VC content of a rehydrated and cooked mung beans was higher than that of a dehydrated form. Appreciable amounts of total VC were detected in the immature seeds of six different genera such as yard beans, kidney beans, broad beans, green peas, soybeans and peanuts. Except for mung beans, 70-100% of VC in dehydrated seeds of adzuki beans, broad beans, green peas, black soybeans, and soybeans was lost by boiling. Total VC and L-ascorbic acid in mung beans, green peas, broad beans, black soybeans, and adzuki beans remained even after boiling, suggesting that it is possible to obtain VC from the cooked forms of these legume seeds. PMID:18388400

  14. Lipid nutritional value of legumes: Evaluation of different extraction methods and determination of fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Caprioli, Giovanni; Giusti, Federica; Ballini, Roberto; Sagratini, Gianni; Vila-Donat, Pilar; Vittori, Sauro; Fiorini, Dennis

    2016-02-01

    This study sought to contribute to the assessment of the nutritional properties of legumes by determining the fatty acid (FA) composition of 29 legume samples after the evaluation of nine extraction methods. The Folch method and liquid-solid extraction with hexane/isopropanol or with hexane/acetone were investigated, as was the effect of previous hydration of samples. Soxhlet extractions were also evaluated with different solvent mixtures. Results on FA composition using the hexane/isopropanol extraction method were the same in terms of FA composition of the Folch method, but the extraction yield was only around 20-40% of that of the Folch method preceded by hydration. Some types of legumes showed particularly interesting values for the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) n-6/n-3, such as lentils, with the value of 4.0, and Azuki beans, at 3.2. In lentils, the PUFAs% ranged from 42.0% to 57.4%, while in Azuki beans it was 57.5%. PMID:26304436

  15. Nitrogen fixation (Acetylene Reduction) by annual winter legumes on a coal surface mine

    SciTech Connect

    Gabrielson, F.C.

    1982-01-01

    The winter annuals, crimson clover, rose clover, subterranean clover and hairy vetch, were evaluated for nitrogen fixing capacity on coal surface mine substrates by measuring their ability to reduce acetylene to ethylene. The effects of fertilizer, Abruzzi rye, Kentucky 31 fescue grass and a phytotoxic plant Chenopodium album on nitrogen fixation were also assessed. Crimson clover was recommended as the best legume to use on topsoil and shale in the south. Hairy vetch gave good results on shale and subterranean clover did well on topsoil. The use of these species for revegetation is discussed. Overall, no correlation between substrate pH and ethylene levels was found and effects of substrate depended upon the legume species. Super phosphate fertilizer supported less nitrogen fixation than 13-13-13. Abruzzi rye in some unknown way inhibited plant density and nitrogen fixation by legumes but not by free living substrate micro-organisms. Shale from under dead Chenopodium plants in both field and greehouse experiments did not inhibit nitrogen fixation. 7 tables.

  16. Nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction) by annual winter legumes on a coal surface mine

    SciTech Connect

    Gabrielson, F.C.

    1982-01-01

    The winter annuals, crimson clover, rose clover, subterranean clover and hairy vetch, were evaluated for their ability to fix nitrogen on coal surface mine substrates by measuring their ability to reduce acetylene to ethylene. The effects of fertilizer, Abruzzi ryegrass, Kentucky 31 fescue grass and a phytotoxic plant Chenopodium album on nitrogen fixation was also assessed. Crimson clover was recommended as the best legume to use on topsoil and shale in the South. Hairy vetch gave good results on shale and subterranean clover did well on topsoil. The use of these species for revegetation is discussed. Overall, no correlation between substrate pH and ethylene levels was found and effects of substrate depended upon the legume species. Super phosphate fertilizer supported less nitrogen fixation than 13-13-13. Abruzzi ryegrass in some unknown way inhibited plant density and nitrogen fixation by legumes but not by free living substrate micro-organisms. Shale from under dead Chenopodium plants in both field and greenhouse experiments did not inhibit nitrogen fixation. 11 references, 7 tables.

  17. Naturally occurring diversity helps to reveal genes of adaptive importance in legumes

    PubMed Central

    Gentzbittel, Laurent; Andersen, Stig U.; Ben, Cécile; Rickauer, Martina; Stougaard, Jens; Young, Nevin D.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental changes challenge plants and drive adaptation to new conditions, suggesting that natural biodiversity may be a source of adaptive alleles acting through phenotypic plasticity and/or micro-evolution. Crosses between accessions differing for a given trait have been the most common way to disentangle genetic and environmental components. Interestingly, such man-made crosses may combine alleles that never meet in nature. Another way to discover adaptive alleles, inspired by evolution, is to survey large ecotype collections and to use association genetics to identify loci of interest. Both of these two genetic approaches are based on the use of biodiversity and may eventually help us in identifying the genes that plants use to respond to challenges such as short-term stresses or those due to global climate change. In legumes, two wild species, Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus, plus the cultivated soybean (Glycine max) have been adopted as models for genomic studies. In this review, we will discuss the resources, limitations and future plans for a systematic use of biodiversity resources in model legumes to pinpoint genes of adaptive importance in legumes, and their application in breeding. PMID:25954294

  18. Physiological and Molecular Aspects of Tolerance to Environmental Constraints in Grain and Forage Legumes

    PubMed Central

    Bargaz, Adnane; Zaman-Allah, Mainassara; Farissi, Mohamed; Lazali, Mohamed; Drevon, Jean-Jacques; Maougal, Rim T.; Carlsson, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Despite the agronomical and environmental advantages of the cultivation of legumes, their production is limited by various environmental constraints such as water or nutrient limitation, frost or heat stress and soil salinity, which may be the result of pedoclimatic conditions, intensive use of agricultural lands, decline in soil fertility and environmental degradation. The development of more sustainable agroecosystems that are resilient to environmental constraints will therefore require better understanding of the key mechanisms underlying plant tolerance to abiotic constraints. This review provides highlights of legume tolerance to abiotic constraints with a focus on soil nutrient deficiencies, drought, and salinity. More specifically, recent advances in the physiological and molecular levels of the adaptation of grain and forage legumes to abiotic constraints are discussed. Such adaptation involves complex multigene controlled-traits which also involve multiple sub-traits that are likely regulated under the control of a number of candidate genes. This multi-genetic control of tolerance traits might also be multifunctional, with extended action in response to a number of abiotic constraints. Thus, concrete efforts are required to breed for multifunctional candidate genes in order to boost plant stability under various abiotic constraints. PMID:26287163

  19. Activation of Symbiosis Signaling by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Legumes and Rice[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jongho; Miller, J. Benjamin; Granqvist, Emma; Wiley-Kalil, Audrey; Gobbato, Enrico; Maillet, Fabienne; Cottaz, Sylvain; Samain, Eric; Venkateshwaran, Muthusubramanian; Fort, Sébastien; Morris, Richard J.; Ané, Jean-Michel; Dénarié, Jean; Oldroyd, Giles E.D.

    2015-01-01

    Establishment of arbuscular mycorrhizal interactions involves plant recognition of diffusible signals from the fungus, including lipochitooligosaccharides (LCOs) and chitooligosaccharides (COs). Nitrogen-fixing rhizobial bacteria that associate with leguminous plants also signal to their hosts via LCOs, the so-called Nod factors. Here, we have assessed the induction of symbiotic signaling by the arbuscular mycorrhizal (Myc) fungal-produced LCOs and COs in legumes and rice (Oryza sativa). We show that Myc-LCOs and tetra-acetyl chitotetraose (CO4) activate the common symbiosis signaling pathway, with resultant calcium oscillations in root epidermal cells of Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus. The nature of the calcium oscillations is similar for LCOs produced by rhizobial bacteria and by mycorrhizal fungi; however, Myc-LCOs activate distinct gene expression. Calcium oscillations were activated in rice atrichoblasts by CO4, but not the Myc-LCOs, whereas a mix of CO4 and Myc-LCOs activated calcium oscillations in rice trichoblasts. In contrast, stimulation of lateral root emergence occurred following treatment with Myc-LCOs, but not CO4, in M. truncatula, whereas both Myc-LCOs and CO4 were active in rice. Our work indicates that legumes and non-legumes differ in their perception of Myc-LCO and CO signals, suggesting that different plant species respond to different components in the mix of signals produced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. PMID:25724637

  20. Nodulation outer proteins: double-edged swords of symbiotic rhizobia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizobia are nitrogen-fixing bacteria that establish a nodule symbiosis with legumes. Nodule formation is the result of a complex bacterial infection process, which depends on signals and surface determinants produced by both symbiotic partners. Among them, rhizobial nodulation outer proteins (Nops)...

  1. Effects of legume forages on ovine gastrointestinal parasite development, migration and survival.

    PubMed

    Marley, C L; Fraser, M D; Roberts, J E; Fychan, R; Jones, R

    2006-06-15

    Lambs grazing certain legumes have reduced parasite intensities compared to lambs grazing ryegrass swards. Eighteen replicates of white clover (cv. AberHerald), lucerne (cv. Luzelle), red clover (cv. Merviot) and perennial ryegrass (cv. Abersilo) were sown at equivalent field rates in 25 cm diameter PVC pots and maintained outside for 6 months. On day 0, forage in each pot was cut to 50 mm from soil level and the pots were placed in a glasshouse (at 19-25 degrees C and 70% humidity) in a randomised block design. Ten grams sheep faeces containing 2,133 Haemonchus contortus eggs per gram were placed on the soil in each pot. Six replicates of each forage were destructively sampled on days 14, 21 and 29. Forage samples were cut at 50 mm from the soil surface and at the soil surface to give two samples per pot. The number of nematodes was determined by a modification of the Whitehead tray method. The ratio of free-living to infective-stage larvae was determined from at least 10% of the larvae. The number of H. contortus larvae kgdrymatter(-1) (DM) forage was calculated and the data rank transformed prior to analysis by ANOVA. There were fewer larvae on legumes compared with ryegrass on samples from forage above 50 mm (P<0.001) but there was no forage effect on larvae below this height. The sum of larvae present on all forage per kilogram DM showed fewer larvae on red clover compared with ryegrass on day 21 (P<0.05). There was an effect of day on the total number of larvae on forage (P<0.001) but there were no foragexday interactions. Analysis of the data according to the leaf area above 50 mm from the soil surface confirmed these results, that there were fewer larvae on legume forages than ryegrass above this height (P<0.01). Overall, red clover affected the development of H. contortus and all legumes affected larval migration above 50 mm compared with ryegrass but survival of larvae was similar on all forages. Further work is needed to determine if these effects of

  2. Effects of the legume Vigna unguiculata crop on carbon and nitrogen cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Navarro, Virginia; Zornoza, Raúl; Fernández, Juan; Faz Cano, Ángel

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of a legume crop (Vigna unguiculata) on soil properties related to the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles, taking into account different management practices (conventional and organic) and two genotypes. The study was randomly designed in blocks with four replications, in plots of 10 m2. The crop cycle spanned from 29 May 2014 to 13 August 2014. We collected soil samples (0-30 cm) from each plot at the beginning and at the end of the cycle to measure soil total N, organic C, recalcitrant C, organic C labile fractions, microbial biomass C (MBC) and the enzyme activities β-glucosidase and β-glucosaminidase. We collected plant samples (seeds, pods, roots and stem/leaves) at two different maturity stages (fresh and dry pods) to assess the influence of management practices and genotype in the accumulation of N, as indicative of the content of proteins in the crop. In the final plant sampling, we also determined crop production. The results showed that no significant differences were observed between management practices and genotypes in any of the soil properties measured. However, total N, recalcitrant C, most labile C fraction, MBC and β-glucosidase increased at the final sampling compared to initial values. We observed that genotype had a significant effect on the concentration of the second fraction of labile C under organic management. N content in the different plant tissues was significantly higher in the intermediate sampling than in the final harvest, without significant differences between management practices and genotypes. We observed a significant positive correlation between N content in roots, seeds and pods. N content was always higher in seeds, indicating the high quantity of proteins in this crop. C content was significantly lower in stem/leaves than in the rest of tissues, without significant differences among them. No effect of management practice, maturity stage or genotype was observed with regard to C

  3. Nutrient demand interacts with legume maturity to affect rumen pool sizes in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kammes, K L; Ying, Y; Allen, M S

    2012-05-01

    Effects of legume maturity on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, ruminal fermentation and pool sizes, and digestion and passage kinetics, and the relationship of these effects with preliminary DMI (pDMI) were evaluated using 16 ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein cows in a crossover design with a 14-d preliminary period and two 17-d treatment periods. During the preliminary period, the pDMI of individual cows ranged from 22.9 to 30.0 kg/d (mean=25.9 kg/d) and the 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield ranged from 34.1 to 68.2 kg/d (mean=43.7 kg/d). Experimental treatments were diets containing alfalfa silage harvested either a) early-cut, less mature (EC) or b) late-cut, more mature (LC) as the sole forage. Early- and late-cut alfalfa contained 40.8 and 53.1% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and 23.7 and 18.1% crude protein, respectively. Forage:concentrate ratios were 53:47 and 42:58 for EC and LC, respectively; both diets contained approximately 22% forage NDF and 27% total NDF. Preliminary DMI, an index of nutrient demand, was determined during the last 4d of the preliminary period when cows were fed a common diet and used as a covariate. Main effects of alfalfa maturity and their interaction with pDMI were tested by ANOVA. Alfalfa maturity and its interaction with pDMI did not affect milk yield but EC increased DMI compared with LC; thus, EC had lower efficiency of milk production than LC. The EC diet decreased milk fat concentration more per kilogram of pDMI increase than the LC diet, but milk fat yield was not affected. The lower concentration and faster passage rate of indigestible NDF for EC resulted in lower rumen pools of indigestible NDF, total NDF, and dry matter than did LC, which EC increased at a slower rate than did LC as pDMI increased. The EC diet decreased starch intake and increased ruminal pH compared with the LC diet. The rate of ruminal starch digestion was related to level of intake, but this did not affect ruminal or postruminal starch

  4. Antioxidant and photosystem II responses contribute to explain the drought-heat contrasting tolerance of two forage legumes.

    PubMed

    Signorelli, Santiago; Casaretto, Esteban; Sainz, Martha; Díaz, Pedro; Monza, Jorge; Borsani, Omar

    2013-09-01

    Identification of metabolic targets of environmental stress factors is critical to improve the stress tolerance of plants. Studying the biochemical and physiological responses of plants with different capacities to deal with stress is a valid approach to reach this objective. Lotus corniculatus (lotus) and Trifolium pratense (clover) are legumes with contrasting summer stress tolerances. In stress conditions, which are defined as drought, heat or a combination of both, we found that differential biochemical responses of leaves explain these behaviours. Lotus and clover showed differences in water loss control, proline accumulation and antioxidant enzymatic capacity. Drought and/or heat stress induced a large accumulation of proline in the tolerant species (lotus), whereas heat stress did not cause proline accumulation in the sensitive species (clover). In lotus, Mn-SOD and Fe-SOD were induced by drought, but in clover, the SOD-isoform profile was not affected by stress. Moreover, lotus has more SOD-isoforms and a higher total SOD activity than clover. The functionality and electrophoretic profile of photosystem II (PSII) proteins under stress also exhibited differences between the two species. In lotus, PSII activity was drastically affected by combined stress and, interestingly, was correlated with D2 protein degradation. Possible implications of this event as an adaption mechanism in tolerant species are discussed. We conclude that the stress-tolerant capability of lotus is related to its ability to respond to oxidative damage and adaption of the photosynthetic machinery. This reveals that these two aspects should be included in the evaluation of the tolerance of species to stress conditions. PMID:23792824

  5. Preparative Procedures Markedly Influence the Appearance and Structural Integrity of Protein Storage Vacuoles in Soybean Seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In legumes, vacuoles serve as the final depository for storage proteins. The protein storage vacuoles (PSVs) of soybean contain electron-transparent globoid regions in which phytic acid (myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate) is sequestered. Here, I report the effect of preparative procedures o...

  6. GENETIC VARIATION FOR SEED MINERAL AND PROTEIN CONCENTRATION IN DIVERSE GERMPLASM OF CHICKPEA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) is an important food legume that can provide significant amounts of dietary minerals and protein to humans. In order to better understand the genetic diversity that exists for these nutrients, we have assessed seed mineral concentration and seed protein concentration in 2...

  7. Effects of antinutritional factors on protein digestibility and amino acid availability in foods.

    PubMed

    Gilani, G Sarwar; Cockell, Kevin A; Sepehr, Estatira

    2005-01-01

    Digestibility of protein in traditional diets from developing countries such as India, Guatemala, and Brazil is considerably lower compared to that of protein in typical North American diets (54-78 versus 88-94%). The presence of less digestible protein fractions, high levels of insoluble fiber, and high concentrations of antinutritional factors in the diets of developing countries, which are based on less refined cereals and grain legumes as major sources of protein, are responsible for poor digestibility of protein. The effects of the presence of some of the important antinutritional factors on protein and amino digestibilities of food and feed products are reviewed in this chapter. Food and feed products may contain a number of antinutritional factors that may adversely affect protein digestibility and amino acid availability. Antinutritional factors may occur naturally, such as glucosinolates in mustard and rapeseed protein products, trypsin inhibitors and hemagglutinins in legumes, tannins in legumes and cereals, phytates in cereals and oilseeds, and gossypol in cottonseed protein products. Antinutritional factors may also be formed during heat/alkaline processing of protein products, yielding Maillard compounds, oxidized forms of sulfur amino acids, D-amino acids, and lysinoalanine (LAL, an unnatural amino acid derivative). The presence of high levels of dietary trypsin inhibitors from soybeans, kidney beans, or other grain legumes can cause substantial reductions in protein and amino acid digestibilities (up to 50%) in rats and pigs. Similarly, the presence of high levels of tannins in cereals, such as sorghum, and grain legumes, such as fababean (Vicia faba L.), can result in significantly reduced protein and amino acid digestibilities (up to 23%) in rats, poultry, and pigs. Studies involving phytase supplementation of production rations for swine or poultry have provided indirect evidence that normally encountered levels of phytates in cereals and legumes

  8. Terminal Bacteroid Differentiation Is Associated With Variable Morphological Changes in Legume Species Belonging to the Inverted Repeat-Lacking Clade.

    PubMed

    Montiel, Jesús; Szűcs, Attila; Boboescu, Iulian Z; Gherman, Vasile D; Kondorosi, Éva; Kereszt, Attila

    2016-03-01

    Medicago and closely related legume species from the inverted repeat-lacking clade (IRLC) impose terminal differentiation onto their bacterial endosymbionts, manifested in genome endoreduplication, cell enlargement, and loss of cell-division capacity. Nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR) secreted host peptides are plant effectors of this process. As bacteroids in other IRLC legumes, such as Cicer arietinum and Glycyrrhiza lepidota, were reported not to display features of terminal differentiation, we investigated the fate of bacteroids in species from these genera as well as in four other species representing distinct genera of the phylogenetic tree for this clade. Bacteroids in all tested legumes proved to be larger in size and DNA content than cultured cells; however, the degree of cell elongation was rather variable in the different species. In addition, the reproductive ability of the bacteroids isolated from these legumes was remarkably reduced. In all IRLC species with available sequence data, the existence of NCR genes was found. These results indicate that IRLC legumes provoke terminal differentiation of their endosymbionts with different morphotypes, probably with the help of NCR peptides. PMID:26713350

  9. Phytochemical profiles and health-promoting effects of cool-season food legumes as influenced by thermal processing.

    PubMed

    Xu, Baojun; Chang, Sam K C

    2009-11-25

    The effects of four thermal processing methods (conventional boiling, conventional steaming, pressure boiling, and pressure steaming) on phytochemical profiles, antioxidant capacities, and antiproliferation properties of commonly consumed cool-season food legumes, including green pea, yellow pea, chickpea, and lentil, were investigated. Four groups of individual phenolic compounds, including phenolic acids, anthocyanins, and flavan-3-ols, as well as flavonols and flavones were quantified using HPLC, respectively. As compared to the original raw legumes, all processing methods caused significant (p<0.05) reduction in total phenolic content, procyanidin content, total saponin content, phytic acid content, chemical antioxidant capacities in terms of ferric reducing antioxidant power and peroxyl radical scavenging capacity, and cellular antioxidant activity as well as antiproliferation capacities of cool-season food legumes. Different cooking methods have varied effects on reducing total phenolics, saponins, phytic acids, and individual phenolic compounds. For all cool-season food legumes, steaming appeared to be a better cooking method than boiling in retaining antioxidants and phenolic components, whereas boiling appeared to be effective in reducing saponin and phytic acid contents. In the case of lentil, all thermal processing methods (except conventional steaming) caused significant (p<0.05) decreases in gallic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric, sinapic, subtotal benzoic, subtotal cinnamic acid, and total phenolic acid. All thermal processing methods caused significant (p<0.05) decreases in (+)-catechin and flavan-3-ols in each cool-season food legume. PMID:19873971

  10. Genetic diversity and distribution of rhizobia associated with the medicinal legumes Astragalus spp. and Hedysarum polybotrys in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hui; Ji, Zhao Jun; Jiao, Yin Shan; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Feng; Guo, Bao Lin; Chen, Wen Xin

    2016-03-01

    With the increasing cultivation of medicinal legumes in agricultural fields, the rhizobia associated with these plants are facing new stresses, mainly from fertilization and irrigation. In this study, investigations on the nodulation of three cultivated medicinal legumes, Astragalus mongholicus, Astragalus membranaceus and Hedysarum polybotrys were performed. Bacterial isolates from root nodules of these legumes were subjected to genetic diversity and multilocus sequence analyses. In addition, the distribution of nodule bacteria related to soil factors and host plants was studied. A total 367 bacterial isolates were obtained and 13 genospecies were identified. The predominant microsymbionts were identified as Mesorhizobium septentrionale, Mesorhizobium temperatum, Mesorhizobium tianshanense, Mesorhizobium ciceri and Mesorhizobium muleiense. M. septentrionale was found in most root nodules especially from legumes grown in the barren soils (with low available nitrogen and low organic carbon contents), while M. temperatum was predominant in nodules where the plants were grown in the nitrogen-rich fields. A. mongholicus tended to be associated with M. septentrionale, M. temperatum and M. ciceri in different soils, while A. membranaceus and H. polybotrys tended to be associated with M. tianshanense and M. septentrionale, respectively. This study showed that soil fertility may be the main determinant for the distribution of rhizobia associated with these cultured legume plants. PMID:26915496

  11. Diversity and symbiotic effectiveness of beta-rhizobia isolated from sub-tropical legumes of a Brazilian Araucaria Forest.

    PubMed

    Lammel, Daniel R; Cruz, Leonardo M; Carrer, Helaine; Cardoso, Elke J B N

    2013-12-01

    While the occurrence of Betaproteobacteria occupying the nodules of tropical legumes has been shown, little is known about subtropical areas. Araucaria Forest is a subtropical endangered ecosystem, and a better understanding of the legume-rhizobial symbionts may allow their use in land reclamation. The 16S rRNA gene of bacteria isolated from nine leguminous species was sequenced and their nodulation tested in Mimosa scabrella and Phaseolus vulgaris. 196 isolates were identified as eight genotypes: Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Bradyrhizobium sp1-2, Rhizobium, and Burkholderia sp1-3. The majority of the isolates from native plants (87 %) were taxonomically related to β-rhizobia, namely Burkholderia, however the legumes Galactia crassifolia and Collea speciosa were nodulated by both α and β-rhizobia, and Acacia dealbata, an exotic plant, only by α-rhizobia. The nifH genes of some isolates were sequenced and N-fixing potential shown by the acetylene reduction test. Most of the isolates nodulated the test plants, some were effective in M. scabrella, but all presented low efficiency in the exotic promiscuous legume P. vulgaris. Pantoea and Pseudomonas did not nodulate and probably are endophytic bacteria. The presented data shows diversity of α, β and γ-Proteobacteria in nodules of subtropical legumes, and suggests host specificity with β-rhizobia. Potential isolates were found for M. scabrella, indicating that a high N-fixing strain may be further inoculated in plants for use in reforestation. PMID:23861038

  12. Proteomic approaches to study structure, functions and toxicity of legume seeds lectins. Perspectives for the assessment of food quality and safety.

    PubMed

    Nasi, Antonella; Picariello, Gianluca; Ferranti, Pasquale

    2009-04-13

    Lectins are a structurally diverse class of (glyco)proteins which bind mono- and oligosaccharides with high specificity and in a reversible way. For many years, the unique sugar binding properties of plant lectins have been exploited for the development of biochemical tools for glycoprotein isolation and characterisation, and the use of lectins as a glycoprofiling tool has became much more sophisticated with the advent of lectin microarrays, in which a panel of lectins are immobilized on a single chip for glycomic analysis. Among the numerous lectins studied so far, those from legumes represent the largest family. They can be present at relatively high amounts depending on genetic as well as environmental factors, and are accumulated especially in the seeds. For this reason, some lectins as the phytohemagglutinin from the common bean Phaseolus vulgaris constitute a possible risk, since consumption of raw or incorrectly processed beans has been shown to cause outbreaks of gastroenteritis, nausea and diarrhoea. On the other hand, for these anti-nutritional properties, bean extracts enriched in lectins or in lectin-related amylase inhibitors are also finding a growing use as active ingredients of "weight-blockers" in dietetic preparations for obesity treatment. Current methods to determine the lectin levels in foods are based on immunoenzymatic or toxicity tests, which are largely aspecific. Very recently, the availability of proteomic methodologies has allowed to start development and validation of sensitive and specific assays for detecting trace amounts of harmful lectins in either raw or processed foods. In this review, the main aspects of current and perspective applications of mass spectrometry and proteomic technologies to the structural characterisation of legumes are presented, with focus on issues related to detection, identification, and quantification of phytohemagglutinins relevant for their biochemical, immunological and toxicological aspects. PMID

  13. Growth, photosynthetic acclimation and yield quality in legumes under climate change simulations: an updated survey.

    PubMed

    Irigoyen, J J; Goicoechea, N; Antolín, M C; Pascual, I; Sánchez-Díaz, M; Aguirreolea, J; Morales, F

    2014-09-01

    Continued emissions of CO2, derived from human activities, increase atmospheric CO2 concentration. The CO2 rise stimulates plant growth and affects yield quality. Effects of elevated CO2 on legume quality depend on interactions with N2-fixing bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi. Growth at elevated CO2 increases photosynthesis under short-term exposures in C3 species. Under long-term exposures, however, plants generally acclimate to elevated CO2 decreasing their photosynthetic capacity. An updated survey of the literature indicates that a key factor, perhaps the most important, that characteristically influences this phenomenon, its occurrence and extent, is the plant source-sink balance. In legumes, the ability of exchanging C for N at nodule level with the N2-fixing symbionts creates an extra C sink that avoids the occurrence of photosynthetic acclimation. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonizing roots may also result in increased C sink, preventing photosynthetic acclimation. Defoliation (Anthyllis vulneraria, simulated grazing) or shoot cutting (alfalfa, usual management as forage) largely increases root/shoot ratio. During re-growth at elevated CO2, new shoots growth and nodule respiration function as strong C sinks that counteracts photosynthetic acclimation. In the presence of some limiting factor, the legumes response to elevated CO2 is weakened showing photosynthetic acclimation. This survey has identified limiting factors that include an insufficient N supply from bacterial strains, nutrient-poor soils, low P supply, excess temperature affecting photosynthesis and/or nodule activity, a genetically determined low nodulation capacity, an inability of species or varieties to increase growth (and therefore C sink) at elevated CO2 and a plant phenological state or season when plant growth is stopped. PMID:25113447

  14. Burkholderia kirstenboschensis sp. nov. nodulates papilionoid legumes indigenous to South Africa.

    PubMed

    Steenkamp, Emma T; van Zyl, Elritha; Beukes, Chrizelle W; Avontuur, Juanita R; Chan, Wai Yin; Palmer, Marike; Mthombeni, Lunghile S; Phalane, Francina L; Sereme, T Karabo; Venter, Stephanus N

    2015-12-01

    Despite the diversity of Burkholderia species known to nodulate legumes in introduced and native regions, relatively few taxa have been formally described. For example, the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa is thought to represent one of the major centres of diversity for the rhizobial members of Burkholderia, yet only five species have been described from legumes occurring in this region and numerous are still awaiting taxonomic treatment. Here, we investigated the taxonomic status of 12 South African root-nodulating Burkholderia isolates from native papilionoid legumes (Hypocalyptus coluteoides, H. oxalidifolius, H. sophoroides and Virgilia oroboides). Analysis of four gene regions (16S rRNA, recA, atpD and rpoB) revealed that the isolates represent a genealogically unique and exclusive assemblage within the genus. Its distinctness was supported by all other aspects of the polyphasic approach utilized, including the genome-based criteria DNA-DNA hybridization (≥70.9%) and average nucleotide identities (≥96%). We accordingly propose the name B. kirstenboschensis sp. nov. for this taxon with isolate Kb15(T) (=LMG 28727(T); =SARC 695(T)) as its type strain. Our data showed that intraspecific genome size differences (≥0.81 Mb) and the occurrence of large DNA regions that are apparently unique to single individuals (16-23% of an isolate's genome) can significantly limit the value of data obtained from DNA-DNA hybridization experiments. Substitution of DNA-DNA hybridization with whole genome sequencing as a prerequisite for the description of Burkholderia species will undoubtedly speed up the pace at which their diversity are documented, especially in hyperdiverse regions such as the Cape Floristic Region. PMID:26472229

  15. Nodules from Fynbos legume Virgilia divaricata have high functional plasticity under variable P supply levels.

    PubMed

    Vardien, Waafeka; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, Jolanta; Przybylowicz, Wojciech J; Wang, Yaodong; Steenkamp, Emma T; Valentine, Alex J

    2014-11-15

    Legumes have the unique ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen (N2) via symbiotic bacteria in their nodules but depend heavily on phosphorus (P), which affects nodulation, and the carbon costs and energy costs of N2 fixation. Consequently, legumes growing in nutrient-poor ecosystems (e.g., sandstone-derived soils) have to enhance P recycling and/or acquisition in order to maintain N2 fixation. In this study, we investigated the flexibility of P recycling and distribution within the nodules and their effect on N nutrition in Virgilia divaricata Adamson, Fabaceae, an indigenous legume in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa. Specifically, we assessed tissue elemental localization using micro-particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), measured N fixation using nutrient concentrations derived from inductively coupled mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS), calculated nutrient costs, and determined P recycling from enzyme activity assays. Morphological and physiological features characteristic of adaptation to P deprivation were observed for V. divaricata. Decreased plant growth and nodule production with parallel increased root:shoot ratios are some of the plastic features exhibited in response to P deficiency. Plants resupplied with P resembled those supplied with optimal P levels in terms of growth and nutrient acquisition. Under low P conditions, plants maintained an increase in N2-fixing efficiency despite lower levels of orthophosphate (Pi) in the nodules. This can be attributed to two factors: (i) an increase in Fe concentration under low P, and (ii) greater APase activity in both the roots and nodules under low P. These findings suggest that V. divaricata is well adapted to acquire N under P deficiency, owing to the plasticity of its nodule physiology. PMID:25217716

  16. Carbon metabolism in legume nodules. Progress report, July 1982-July 1983

    SciTech Connect

    LaRue, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    The goal is to understand how the legume nodule metabolizes carbohydrate to provide energy and reductant for symbiotic fixation. The working hypothesis has been that the plant cytosol is microacrobic and that some carbon metabolism may be via anaerobic pathways similar to those in roots of flood tolerant plants. A method of analyzing redox changes in intact mitochondria, bacteroids or bacteria was adapted; a method of manipulating nitrogenase activity by oxygen inhibition was developed; the production of alcohol by soybean nodules was studied; and enzymes metabolizing alcohol/aldehyde were found in other nitrogen fixing systems. (ACR)

  17. Seed feeding beetles (Bruchidae, Curculionidae, Brentidae) from legumes (Dalea ornata, Astragalus filipes) and other forbs needed for restoring rangelands of the Intermountain West

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Larval seed beetles are common seed predators that feed within individual seeds, and legume plants are especially plagued by seed beetles. This can be problematic for seed growers who raise seeds of North American legumes native to the Intermountain Region of the western U.S. for use in the reveget...

  18. NrcR, a New Transcriptional Regulator of Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 Involved in the Legume Root-Nodule Symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Del Cerro, Pablo; Rolla-Santos, Amanda A P; Valderrama-Fernández, Rocío; Gil-Serrano, Antonio; Bellogín, Ramón A; Gomes, Douglas Fabiano; Pérez-Montaño, Francisco; Megías, Manuel; Hungría, Mariangela; Ollero, Francisco Javier

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of nitrogen-fixing rhizobium-legume symbioses requires a highly complex cascade of events. In this molecular dialogue the bacterial NodD transcriptional regulators in conjunction with plant inducers, mostly flavonoids, are responsible for the biosynthesis and secretion of Nod factors which are key molecules for successful nodulation. Other transcriptional regulators related to the symbiotic process have been identified in rhizobial genomes, including negative regulators such as NolR. Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 is an important symbiont of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and its genome encompasses intriguing features such as five copies of nodD genes, as well as other possible transcriptional regulators including the NolR protein. Here we describe and characterize a new regulatory gene located in the non-symbiotic plasmid pRtrCIAT899c, that shows homology (46% identity) with the nolR gene located in the chromosome of CIAT 899. The mutation of this gene, named nrcR (nolR-like plasmid c Regulator), enhanced motility and exopolysaccharide production in comparison to the wild-type strain. Interestingly, the number and decoration of Nod Factors produced by this mutant were higher than those detected in the wild-type strain, especially under salinity stress. The nrcR mutant showed delayed nodulation and reduced competitiveness with P. vulgaris, and reduction in nodule number and shoot dry weight in both P. vulgaris and Leucaena leucocephala. Moreover, the mutant exhibited reduced capacity to induce the nodC gene in comparison to the wild-type CIAT 899. The finding of a new nod-gene regulator located in a non-symbiotic plasmid may reveal the existence of even more complex mechanisms of regulation of nodulation genes in R. tropici CIAT 899 that may be applicable to other rhizobial species. PMID:27096734

  19. A Phylogenetically Conserved Group of Nuclear Factor-Y Transcription Factors Interact to Control Nodulation in Legumes1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Laloum, Tom; Lepage, Agnès; Ariel, Federico; Frances, Lisa; Gamas, Pascal; de Carvalho-Niebel, Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    The endosymbiotic association between legumes and soil bacteria called rhizobia leads to the formation of a new root-derived organ called the nodule in which differentiated bacteria convert atmospheric nitrogen into a form that can be assimilated by the host plant. Successful root infection by rhizobia and nodule organogenesis require the activation of symbiotic genes that are controlled by a set of transcription factors (TFs). We recently identified Medicago truncatula nuclear factor-YA1 (MtNF-YA1) and MtNF-YA2 as two M. truncatula TFs playing a central role during key steps of the Sinorhizobium meliloti-M. truncatula symbiotic interaction. NF-YA TFs interact with NF-YB and NF-YC subunits to regulate target genes containing the CCAAT box consensus sequence. In this study, using a yeast two-hybrid screen approach, we identified the NF-YB and NF-YC subunits able to interact with MtNF-YA1 and MtNF-YA2. In yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and in planta, we further demonstrated by both coimmunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation that these NF-YA, -B, and -C subunits interact and form a stable NF-Y heterotrimeric complex. Reverse genetic and chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR approaches revealed the importance of these newly identified NF-YB and NF-YC subunits for rhizobial symbiosis and binding to the promoter of MtERN1 (for Ethylene Responsive factor required for Nodulation), a direct target gene of MtNF-YA1 and MtNF-YA2. Finally, we verified that a similar trimer is formed in planta by the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) NF-Y subunits, revealing the existence of evolutionary conserved NF-Y protein complexes to control nodulation in leguminous plants. This sheds light on the process whereby an ancient heterotrimeric TF mainly controlling cell division in animals has acquired specialized functions in plants. PMID:26432878

  20. Proof that Burkholderia Strains Form Effective Symbioses with Legumes: a Study of Novel Mimosa-Nodulating Strains from South America

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen-Ming; de Faria, Sergio M.; Straliotto, Rosângela; Pitard, Rosa M.; Simões-Araùjo, Jean L.; Chou, Jui-Hsing; Chou, Yi-Ju; Barrios, Edmundo; Prescott, Alan R.; Elliott, Geoffrey N.; Sprent, Janet I.; Young, J. Peter W.; James, Euan K.

    2005-01-01

    Twenty Mimosa-nodulating bacterial strains from Brazil and Venezuela, together with eight reference Mimosa-nodulating rhizobial strains and two other β-rhizobial strains, were examined by amplified rRNA gene restriction analysis. They fell into 16 patterns and formed a single cluster together with the known β-rhizobia, Burkholderia caribensis, Burkholderia phymatum, and Burkholderia tuberum. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of 15 of the 20 strains were determined, and all were shown to belong to the genus Burkholderia; four distinct clusters could be discerned, with strains isolated from the same host species usually clustering very closely. Five of the strains (MAP3-5, Br3407, Br3454, Br3461, and Br3469) were selected for further studies of the symbiosis-related genes nodA, the NodD-dependent regulatory consensus sequences (nod box), and nifH. The nodA and nifH sequences were very close to each other and to those of B. phymatum STM815, B. caribensis TJ182, and Cupriavidus taiwanensis LMG19424 but were relatively distant from those of B. tuberum STM678. In addition to nodulating their original hosts, all five strains could also nodulate other Mimosa spp., and all produced nodules on Mimosa pudica that had nitrogenase (acetylene reduction) activities and structures typical of effective N2-fixing symbioses. Finally, both wild-type and green fluorescent protein-expressing transconjugant strains of Br3461 and MAP3-5 produced N2-fixing nodules on their original hosts, Mimosa bimucronata (Br3461) and Mimosa pigra (MAP3-5), and hence this confirms strongly that Burkholderia strains can form effective symbioses with legumes. PMID:16269788

  1. Seasonal and Species Variation of the Hepatotoxin Indospicine in Australian Indigofera Legumes As Measured by UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Tan, Eddie T T; Materne, Christopher M; Silcock, Richard G; D'Arcy, Bruce R; Al Jassim, Rafat; Fletcher, Mary T

    2016-08-31

    Livestock industries have maintained a keen interest in pasture legumes because of the high protein content and nutritive value. Leguminous Indigofera plant species have been considered as having high feeding values to be utilized as pasture, but the occurrence of the toxic constituent indospicine in some species has restricted this utility. Indospicine has caused both primary and secondary hepatotoxicosis and also reproductive losses, but has only previously been determined in a small number of Indigofera species. This paper validates a high-throughput ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method to determine the indospicine content of various Indigofera species found in Australian pasture. Twelve species of Indigofera together with Indigastrum parviflorum plants were collected and analyzed. Of the 84 samples analyzed, *I. spicata (the asterisk indicates a naturalized species) contained the highest indospicine level (1003 ± 328 mg/kg DM, n = 4) followed by I. linnaei (755 ± 490 mg/kg DM, n = 51). Indospicine was not detected in 9 of the remaining 11 species and at only low levels (<10 mg/kg DM) in 2 of 8 I. colutea specimens and in 1 of 5 I. linifolia specimens. Indospicine concentrations were below quantitation levels for other Indigofera spp. (I. adesmiifolia, I. georgei, I. hirsuta, I. leucotricha, *I. oblongifolia, I. australis, and I. trita) and Indigastrum parviflorum. One of the more significant findings to emerge from this study is that the indospicine content of I. linnaei is highly variable (from 159 to 2128 mg/kg DM, n = 51) and differs across both regions and seasons. Its first regrowth after spring rain has a higher (p < 0.01) indospicine content than growth following more substantial summer rain. The species collected include the predominant Indigofera in Australia pasture, and of these, only *I. spicata and I. linnaei contain high enough levels of indospicine to pose a potential toxic threat to grazing

  2. NrcR, a New Transcriptional Regulator of Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 Involved in the Legume Root-Nodule Symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    del Cerro, Pablo; Rolla-Santos, Amanda A. P.; Valderrama-Fernández, Rocío; Gil-Serrano, Antonio; Bellogín, Ramón A.; Gomes, Douglas Fabiano; Pérez-Montaño, Francisco; Megías, Manuel; Hungría, Mariangela; Ollero, Francisco Javier

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of nitrogen-fixing rhizobium-legume symbioses requires a highly complex cascade of events. In this molecular dialogue the bacterial NodD transcriptional regulators in conjunction with plant inducers, mostly flavonoids, are responsible for the biosynthesis and secretion of Nod factors which are key molecules for successful nodulation. Other transcriptional regulators related to the symbiotic process have been identified in rhizobial genomes, including negative regulators such as NolR. Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 is an important symbiont of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and its genome encompasses intriguing features such as five copies of nodD genes, as well as other possible transcriptional regulators including the NolR protein. Here we describe and characterize a new regulatory gene located in the non-symbiotic plasmid pRtrCIAT899c, that shows homology (46% identity) with the nolR gene located in the chromosome of CIAT 899. The mutation of this gene, named nrcR (nolR-like plasmid c Regulator), enhanced motility and exopolysaccharide production in comparison to the wild-type strain. Interestingly, the number and decoration of Nod Factors produced by this mutant were higher than those detected in the wild-type strain, especially under salinity stress. The nrcR mutant showed delayed nodulation and reduced competitiveness with P. vulgaris, and reduction in nodule number and shoot dry weight in both P. vulgaris and Leucaena leucocephala. Moreover, the mutant exhibited reduced capacity to induce the nodC gene in comparison to the wild-type CIAT 899. The finding of a new nod-gene regulator located in a non-symbiotic plasmid may reveal the existence of even more complex mechanisms of regulation of nodulation genes in R. tropici CIAT 899 that may be applicable to other rhizobial species. PMID:27096734

  3. Intactness of cell wall structure controls the in vitro digestion of starch in legumes.

    PubMed

    Dhital, Sushil; Bhattarai, Rewati R; Gorham, John; Gidley, Michael J

    2016-03-16

    Increasing the level of starch that is not digested by the end of the small intestine and therefore enters the colon ('resistant starch') is a major opportunity for improving the nutritional profile of foods. One mechanism that has been shown to be successful is entrapment of starch within an intact plant tissue structure. However, the level of tissue intactness required for resistance to amylase digestion has not been defined. In this study, intact cells were isolated from a range of legumes after thermal treatment at 60 °C (starch not gelatinised) or 95 °C (starch gelatinised) followed by hydrolysis using pancreatic alpha amylase. It was found that intact cells, isolated at either temperature, were impervious to amylase. However, application of mechanical force damaged the cell wall and made starch accessible to digestive enzymes. This shows that the access of enzymes to the entrapped swollen starch is the rate limiting step controlling hydrolysis of starch in cooked legumes. The results suggest that a single cell wall could be sufficient to provide an effective delivery of starch to the large intestine with consequent nutritional benefits, provided that mechanical damage during digestion is avoided. PMID:26786854

  4. Carbohydrate fractions of legumes: uses in human nutrition and potential for health.

    PubMed

    Guillon, F; Champ, M M-J

    2002-12-01

    Starch and fibre can be extracted, using wet or dry processes, from a variety of grain legumes and used as ingredients for food. alpha-Galactosides can be isolated during wet processes from the soluble extract. Starch isolates or concentrates are mostly produced from peas, whereas dietary fibre fractions from peas and soyabean are commercially available. The physico-chemical characteristics of fibre fractions very much depend on their origin, outer fibres being very cellulosic whereas inner fibres contain a majority of pectic substances. Inner fibres are often used as texturing agents whereas outer fibres find their main uses in bakery and extruded products, where they can be introduced to increase the fibre content of the food. Most investigations on impacts on health have been performed on soyabean fibres. When positive observations were made on lipaemia, glucose tolerance or faecal excretion, they were unfortunately often obtained after non-realistic daily doses of fibres. Legume starches contain a higher amount of amylose than most cereal or tuber starches. This confers these starches a lower bioavailability than that of most starches, when raw or retrograded. Their low glycaemic index can be considered as beneficial for health and especially for the prevention of diseases related to insulin resistance. When partly retrograded, these starches can provide significant amount of butyrate to the colonic epithelium and may help in colon cancer prevention. alpha-Galactosides are usually considered as responsible for flatus but their apparent prebiotic effects may be an opportunity to valorize these oligosaccharides. PMID:12498630

  5. Did greater burial depth increase the seed size of domesticated legumes?

    PubMed

    Kluyver, Thomas A; Charles, Michael; Jones, Glynis; Rees, Mark; Osborne, Colin P

    2013-10-01

    The independent domestication of crop plants in several regions of the world formed the basis of human civilizations, and attracts considerable interest from archaeologists and biologists. Selection under cultivation led to a suite of domestication traits which distinguish crops from their wild progenitors, including larger seeds in most seed crops. This selection may be classified as 'conscious' or 'unconscious' selection according to whether humans were aware of the changes that they were driving. The hypothesis that human cultivation buried seeds deeper than natural dispersal, exerting unconscious selection favouring larger seeds with greater reserves, was tested. Using a comparative approach, accessions of eight grain legumes, originating from independent domestication centres across several continents, were sampled. Seeds were planted at different depths in a controlled environment, and seedling emergence scored for 5 weeks after sowing. Domestication in all species was associated with increased seed mass. In three species, greater mass was not correlated with increased ability to emerge from depth. In five species, emergence depth did correlate with mass, suggesting that selection during domestication may have acted on emergence depth. However, domestication only had a significant effect in two of these species (lentil and mung bean), and the increase in depth was no more than predicted by a cube-root allometric relationship with seed mass. The results do not support the hypothesis that burial under cultivation was a general selection mechanism for increased seed mass during the domestication of grain legumes, but it may have acted in particular species or regions. PMID:24058143

  6. N-fixation in legumes--An assessment of the potential threat posed by ozone pollution.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, D K L; Mills, G; Hayes, F; Norris, D; Coyle, M; Wilkinson, S; Davies, W

    2016-01-01

    The growth, development and functioning of legumes are often significantly affected by exposure to tropospheric ozone (O3) pollution. However, surprisingly little is known about how leguminous Nitrogen (N) fixation responds to ozone, with a scarcity of studies addressing this question in detail. In the last decade, ozone impacts on N-fixation in soybean, cowpea, mung bean, peanut and clover have been shown for concentrations which are now commonly recorded in ambient air or are likely to occur in the near future. We provide a synthesis of the existing literature addressing this issue, and also explore the effects that may occur on an agroecosystem scale by predicting reductions in Trifolium (clovers) root nodule biomass in United Kingdom (UK) pasture based on ozone concentration data for a "high" (2006) and "average" ozone year (2008). Median 8% and 5% reductions in clover root nodule biomass in pasture across the UK were predicted for 2006 and 2008 respectively. Seasonal exposure to elevated ozone, or short-term acute concentrations >100 ppb, are sufficient to reduce N-fixation and/or impact nodulation, in a range of globally-important legumes. However, an increasing global burden of CO2, the use of artificial fertiliser, and reactive N-pollution may partially mitigate impacts of ozone on N-fixation. PMID:26385644

  7. Effects of nano-TiO₂ on the agronomically-relevant Rhizobium-legume symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ruimei; Huang, Yu Chu; Grusak, Michael A; Huang, C P; Sherrier, D Janine

    2014-01-01

    The impact of nano-TiO₂ on Rhizobium-legume symbiosis was studied using garden peas and the compatible bacterial partner Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841. Exposure to nano-TiO₂ did not affect the germination of peas grown aseptically, nor did it impact the gross root structure. However, nano-TiO₂ exposure did impact plant development by decreasing the number of secondary lateral roots. Cultured R. leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841 was also impacted by exposure to nano-TiO₂, resulting in morphological changes to the bacterial cells. Moreover, the interaction between these two organisms was disrupted by nano-TiO₂ exposure, such that root nodule development and the subsequent onset of nitrogen fixation were delayed. Further, the polysaccharide composition of the walls of infected cells of nodules was altered, suggesting that the exposure induced a systemic response in host plants. Therefore, nano-TiO₂ contamination in the environment is potentially hazardous to the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis system. PMID:23933452

  8. Rhizobium cellulase CelC2 is essential for primary symbiotic infection of legume host roots

    PubMed Central

    Robledo, M.; Jiménez-Zurdo, J. I.; Velázquez, E.; Trujillo, M. E.; Zurdo-Piñeiro, J. L.; Ramírez-Bahena, M. H.; Ramos, B.; Díaz-Mínguez, J. M.; Dazzo, F.; Martínez-Molina, E.; Mateos, P. F.

    2008-01-01

    The rhizobia–legume, root-nodule symbiosis provides the most efficient source of biologically fixed ammonia fertilizer for agricultural crops. Its development involves pathways of specificity, infectivity, and effectivity resulting from expressed traits of the bacterium and host plant. A key event of the infection process required for development of this root-nodule symbiosis is a highly localized, complete erosion of the plant cell wall through which the bacterial symbiont penetrates to establish a nitrogen-fixing, intracellular endosymbiotic state within the host. This process of wall degradation must be delicately balanced to avoid lysis and destruction of the host cell. Here, we describe the purification, biochemical characterization, molecular genetic analysis, biological activity, and symbiotic function of a cell-bound bacterial cellulase (CelC2) enzyme from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii, the clover-nodulating endosymbiont. The purified enzyme can erode the noncrystalline tip of the white clover host root hair wall, making a localized hole of sufficient size to allow wild-type microsymbiont penetration. This CelC2 enzyme is not active on root hairs of the nonhost legume alfalfa. Microscopy analysis of the symbiotic phenotypes of the ANU843 wild type and CelC2 knockout mutant derivative revealed that this enzyme fulfils an essential role in the primary infection process required for development of the canonical nitrogen-fixing R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii-white clover symbiosis. PMID:18458328

  9. DNA barcodes reveal microevolutionary signals in fire response trait in two legume genera

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Abubakar; Daru, Barnabas H.; Stirton, Charles H.; Chimphango, Samson B. M.; van der Bank, Michelle; Maurin, Olivier; Muasya, A. Muthama

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale DNA barcoding provides a new technique for species identification and evaluation of relationships across various levels (populations and species) and may reveal fundamental processes in recently diverged species. Here, we analysed DNA sequence variation in the recently diverged legumes from the Psoraleeae (Fabaceae) occurring in the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of southern Africa to test the utility of DNA barcodes in species identification and discrimination. We further explored the phylogenetic signal on fire response trait (reseeding and resprouting) at species and generic levels. We showed that Psoraleoid legumes of the CFR exhibit a barcoding gap yielding the combination of matK and rbcLa (matK + rbcLa) data set as a better barcode than single regions. We found a high score (100 %) of correct identification of individuals to their respective genera but a very low score (<50 %) in identifying them to species. We found a considerable match (54 %) between genetic species and morphologically delimited species. We also found that different lineages showed a weak but significant phylogenetic conservatism in their response to fire as reseeders or resprouters, with more clustering of resprouters than would be expected by chance. These novel microevolutionary patterns might be acting continuously over time to produce multi-scale regularities of biodiversity. This study provides the first insight into the DNA barcoding campaign of land plants in species identification and detection of the phylogenetic signal in recently diverged lineages of the CFR. PMID:26507570

  10. Oxalate content of soybean seeds (Glycine max: Leguminosae), soyfoods, and other edible legumes.

    PubMed

    Massey, L K; Palmer, R G; Horner, H T

    2001-09-01

    Consumption of soybeans and food products made from them is increasing because of their desirable nutritional value. However, the oxalate content of seeds from 11 cultivars of soybean showed relatively high levels of total oxalate from 0.67 to 3.5 g/100 g of dry weight. Oxalate primarily was found as calcium oxalate crystals. Thirteen tested commercial soyfoods contained between 16 and 638 mg of total oxalate per serving. These values compare to those of three other legume foods, peanut butter, refried beans, and lentils, which contained 197, 193, and 100 mg of total oxalate per serving, respectively. After oxalate has been absorbed from the diet, it cannot be metabolized and is excreted by the kidney into urine, where it binds to calcium forming an insoluble salt that may precipitate to form kidney stones. The amounts of total oxalate in soybean seeds, soy foods, and other common legume foods exceed current recommendations for oxalate consumption by individuals who have a history of calcium oxalate kidney/urinary stones. This study serves as the basis to find soybean cultivars lower in oxalate, which will have lower risk for kidney stone formation after human consumption. PMID:11559120

  11. Changes in the carbohydrate composition of legumes after soaking and cooking.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Valverde, C; Frías, J; Valverde, S

    1993-05-01

    Using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method, researchers analyzed the sugar composition of chick-peas, kidney beans, and lentils at various points in the preparation and cooking process: after soaking, after "normal" cooking (ie, boiling), after pressure-cooking, and after cooked legumes had been held at 35 degrees C for 5 hours. There was a considerable decrease in the amount of monosaccharides, disaccharides, and raffinose oligosaccharides in chick-peas and kidney beans after soaking and cooking. This change in carbohydrate composition was less pronounced when the cooking water was not drained before analysis, which was the method used when analyzing the lentils. Method of cooking (either boiling or pressure-cooking) did not have different effects on the sugar composition of chick-peas and lentils, but loss of oligosaccharides was slightly higher when kidney beans were boiled than when they were pressure-cooked. Loss of alpha-galactosides occurred in chick-peas and kidney beans that had been boiled and then held at 35 degrees C for 5 hours. The HPLC analysis showed that manninotriose was not one of the oligosaccharides present in these legumes. PMID:8315164

  12. Partly transparent young legume pods: Do they mimic caterpillars for defense and simultaneously enable better photosynthesis?

    PubMed Central

    Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2015-01-01

    Being partly or fully transparent as a defense from predation is mostly known in various groups of aquatic animals and various terrestrial arthropods. Plants, being photosynthetic and having cell walls made of various polymers, cannot be wholly transparent. In spite of these inherent limitations, some succulent plant species of arid zones have partially transparent “windows” in order to perform photosynthesis in their below-ground leaves, as defense from herbivores as well as for protection from harsh environmental conditions. Similarly, transparent “windows” or even wholly transparent leaves are found in certain thick or thin, above-ground organs irrespective of aridity. The young pods of various wild annual Mediterranean legume species belonging to the genera Lathyrus, Pisum and Vicia are partly transparent and may therefore look like caterpillars when viewed with back illumination. I propose that this character serves 2 functions: (1) being a type of defensive caterpillar mimicry that may reduce their consumption by various herbivores in that very sensitive stage, and (2) simultaneously allowing better photosynthesis in the rapidly growing seeds and pods. Unlike animals that are transparent for either defensive or aggressive crypsis, in the case of young legume pods it allows them to visually mimic caterpillars for defense. PMID:26633565

  13. A Peptidoglycan-Remodeling Enzyme Is Critical for Bacteroid Differentiation in Bradyrhizobium spp. During Legume Symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Gully, Djamel; Gargani, Daniel; Bonaldi, Katia; Grangeteau, Cédric; Chaintreuil, Clémence; Fardoux, Joël; Nguyen, Phuong; Marchetti, Roberta; Nouwen, Nico; Molinaro, Antonio; Mergaert, Peter; Giraud, Eric

    2016-06-01

    In response to the presence of compatible rhizobium bacteria, legumes form symbiotic organs called nodules on their roots. These nodules house nitrogen-fixing bacteroids that are a differentiated form of the rhizobium bacteria. In some legumes, the bacteroid differentiation comprises a dramatic cell enlargement, polyploidization, and other morphological changes. Here, we demonstrate that a peptidoglycan-modifying enzyme in Bradyrhizobium strains, a DD-carboxypeptidase that contains a peptidoglycan-binding SPOR domain, is essential for normal bacteroid differentiation in Aeschynomene species. The corresponding mutants formed bacteroids that are malformed and hypertrophied. However, in soybean, a plant that does not induce morphological differentiation of its symbiont, the mutation does not affect the bacteroids. Remarkably, the mutation also leads to necrosis in a large fraction of the Aeschynomene nodules, indicating that a normally formed peptidoglycan layer is essential for avoiding the induction of plant immune responses by the invading bacteria. In addition to exopolysaccharides, capsular polysaccharides, and lipopolysaccharides, whose role during symbiosis is well defined, our work demonstrates an essential role in symbiosis for yet another rhizobial envelope component, the peptidoglycan layer. PMID:26959836

  14. Tropical Legume Crop Rotation and Nitrogen Fertilizer Effects on Agronomic and Nitrogen Efficiency of Rice

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Motior M.; Islam, Aminul M.; Azirun, Sofian M.; Boyce, Amru N.

    2014-01-01

    Bush bean, long bean, mung bean, and winged bean plants were grown with N fertilizer at rates of 0, 2, 4, and 6 g N m−2 preceding rice planting. Concurrently, rice was grown with N fertilizer at rates of 0, 4, 8, and 12 g N m−2. No chemical fertilizer was used in the 2nd year of crop to estimate the nitrogen agronomic efficiency (NAE), nitrogen recovery efficiency (NRE), N uptake, and rice yield when legume crops were grown in rotation with rice. Rice after winged bean grown with N at the rate of 4 g N m−2 achieved significantly higher NRE, NAE, and N uptake in both years. Rice after winged bean grown without N fertilizer produced 13–23% higher grain yield than rice after fallow rotation with 8 g N m−2. The results revealed that rice after winged bean without fertilizer and rice after long bean with N fertilizer at the rate of 4 g N m−2 can produce rice yield equivalent to that of rice after fallow with N fertilizer at rates of 8 g N m−2. The NAE, NRE, and harvest index values for rice after winged bean or other legume crop rotation indicated a positive response for rice production without deteriorating soil fertility. PMID:24971378

  15. Phytosterol, squalene, tocopherol content and fatty acid profile of selected seeds, grains, and legumes.

    PubMed

    Ryan, E; Galvin, K; O'Connor, T P; Maguire, A R; O'Brien, N M

    2007-09-01

    The unsaponifiable lipid fraction of plant-based foods is a potential source of bioactive components such as phytosterols, squalene, and tocopherols. The objective of the present study was to determine the levels of phytosterols, and squalene, as well as tocopherols (alpha and beta + gamma) in selected grains, seeds, and legumes. The method comprised acid hydrolysis and lipid extraction followed by alkaline saponification, prior to analysis by HPLC. In addition, the fatty acid profile of the foods was determined via total lipid extraction, fatty acid derivitisation and GC analysis. In general, beta-sitosterol was the most prevalent phytosterol, ranging in concentration from 24.9 mg/100 g in pumpkin seed to 191.4 mg/100 g in peas. Squalene identified in all foods examined in this study, was particularly abundant in pumpkin seed (89.0 mg/100 g). The sum of alpha- and beta+ gamma-tocopherols ranged from 0.1 mg/100 g in rye to 15.9 mg/100 g in pumpkin seeds. Total oil content ranged from 0.9% (w/w) in butter beans to 42.3% (w/w) in pumpkin seed and the type of fat, in all foods examined, was predominantly unsaturated. In conclusion, seeds, grains, and legumes are a rich natural source of phytosterols. Additionally, they contain noticeable amounts of squalene and tocopherols, and in general, their fatty acid profile is favorable. PMID:17594521

  16. A Legume Genetic Framework Controls Infection of Nodules by Symbiotic and Endophytic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Zgadzaj, Rafal; James, Euan K.; Kelly, Simon; Kawaharada, Yasuyuki; de Jonge, Nadieh; Jensen, Dorthe B.; Madsen, Lene H.; Radutoiu, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Legumes have an intrinsic capacity to accommodate both symbiotic and endophytic bacteria within root nodules. For the symbionts, a complex genetic mechanism that allows mutual recognition and plant infection has emerged from genetic studies under axenic conditions. In contrast, little is known about the mechanisms controlling the endophytic infection. Here we investigate the contribution of both the host and the symbiotic microbe to endophyte infection and development of mixed colonised nodules in Lotus japonicus. We found that infection threads initiated by Mesorhizobium loti, the natural symbiont of Lotus, can selectively guide endophytic bacteria towards nodule primordia, where competent strains multiply and colonise the nodule together with the nitrogen-fixing symbiotic partner. Further co-inoculation studies with the competent coloniser, Rhizobium mesosinicum strain KAW12, show that endophytic nodule infection depends on functional and efficient M. loti-driven Nod factor signalling. KAW12 exopolysaccharide (EPS) enabled endophyte nodule infection whilst compatible M. loti EPS restricted it. Analysis of plant mutants that control different stages of the symbiotic infection showed that both symbiont and endophyte accommodation within nodules is under host genetic control. This demonstrates that when legume plants are exposed to complex communities they selectively regulate access and accommodation of bacteria occupying this specialized environmental niche, the root nodule. PMID:26042417

  17. Oligosaccharides in several Philippine indigenous food legumes: determination, localization and removal.

    PubMed

    Revilleza, M J; Mendoza, E M; Raymundo, L C

    1990-01-01

    The oligosaccharide profile of raw mature seeds of seven different legumes indigenous to the Philippines was measured in 70% ethanol extracts of the seeds by thin layer chromatography using HPTLC plates and quantified by a densitometer. Based on the results, the legumes could be ranked according to decreasing oligosaccharide content or flatulence potential as follows: Sam-samping (Clitoria ternatea) greater than hyacinth bean (Dolichos lablab) greater than sabawel (Mucuna pruriens) greater than lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) greater than swordbean (Canavalia gladiata) greater than rice bean (Vigna umbellata) greater than jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). Sam-samping had 4.79% total oligosaccharides and hyacinth bean or batao, 3.66%. A jack bean accession had 1.79% oligosaccharides. Simple processing methods were tested to detoxify the oligosaccharides. Soaking the batao seeds had no effect while boiling even resulted in a net 23-31% increase in the levels of raffinose, stachyose and verbascose. On the other hand, two min of dry roasting resulted in complete removal of oligosaccharides whereas germination resulted in about 30-40% decrease after 1 and 2 days, respectively. PMID:2345736

  18. Pre-breeding for diversification of primary gene pool and genetic enhancement of grain legumes

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shivali; Upadhyaya, H. D.; Varshney, R. K.; Gowda, C. L. L.

    2013-01-01

    The narrow genetic base of cultivars coupled with low utilization of genetic resources are the major factors limiting grain legume production and productivity globally. Exploitation of new and diverse sources of variation is needed for the genetic enhancement of grain legumes. Wild relatives with enhanced levels of resistance/tolerance to multiple stresses provide important sources of genetic diversity for crop improvement. However, their exploitation for cultivar improvement is limited by cross-incompatibility barriers and linkage drags. Pre-breeding provides a unique opportunity, through the introgression of desirable genes from wild germplasm into genetic backgrounds readily used by the breeders with minimum linkage drag, to overcome this. Pre-breeding activities using promising landraces, wild relatives, and popular cultivars have been initiated at International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) to develop new gene pools in chickpea, pigeonpea, and groundnut with a high frequency of useful genes, wider adaptability, and a broad genetic base. The availability of molecular markers will greatly assist in reducing linkage drags and increasing the efficiency of introgression in pre-breeding programs. PMID:23970889

  19. Biomass production by fescue and switchgrass alone and in mixed swards with legumes. Final project report

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, M.

    1994-06-01

    In assessing the role of biomass in alleviating potential global warming, the absence of information on the sustainability of biomass production on soils of limited agricultural potential is cited as a major constraint to the assessment of the role of biomass. Research on the sustainability of yields, recycling of nutrients, and emphasis on reduced inputs of agricultural chemicals in the production of biomass are among the critical research needs to clarify optimum cropping practice in biomass production. Two field experiments were conducted between 1989 and 1993. One study evaluated biomass production and composition of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) grown alone and with bigflower vetch (Vicia grandiflora L.) and the other assessed biomass productivity and composition of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) grown alone and with perennial legumes. Switchgrass received 0, 75 or 150 kg ha{sup {minus}1} of N annually as NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} or was interseeded with vetch. Tall fescue received 0, 75, 150 or 225 kg ha{sup {minus}1} of N annually or was interseeded with alfalfa (Medicago L.) or birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.). It is hoped that production systems can be designed to produce high yields of biomass with minimal inputs of fertilizer N. Achievement of this goal would reduce the potential for movement of NO{sub 3} and other undesirable N forms outside the biomass production system into the environment. In addition, management systems involving legumes could reduce the cost of biomass production.

  20. Partly transparent young legume pods: Do they mimic caterpillars for defense and simultaneously enable better photosynthesis?

    PubMed

    Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2015-01-01

    Being partly or fully transparent as a defense from predation is mostly known in various groups of aquatic animals and various terrestrial arthropods. Plants, being photosynthetic and having cell walls made of various polymers, cannot be wholly transparent. In spite of these inherent limitations, some succulent plant species of arid zones have partially transparent "windows" in order to perform photosynthesis in their below-ground leaves, as defense from herbivores as well as for protection from harsh environmental conditions. Similarly, transparent "windows" or even wholly transparent leaves are found in certain thick or thin, above-ground organs irrespective of aridity. The young pods of various wild annual Mediterranean legume species belonging to the genera Lathyrus, Pisum and Vicia are partly transparent and may therefore look like caterpillars when viewed with back illumination. I propose that this character serves 2 functions: (1) being a type of defensive caterpillar mimicry that may reduce their consumption by various herbivores in that very sensitive stage, and (2) simultaneously allowing better photosynthesis in the rapidly growing seeds and pods. Unlike animals that are transparent for either defensive or aggressive crypsis, in the case of young legume pods it allows them to visually mimic caterpillars for defense. PMID:26633565

  1. Identification of plant food raw material by RAPD-PCR: legumes.

    PubMed

    Weder, Jürgen K P

    2002-07-31

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles were used to differentiate between several food and feed legume species. Template DNA was extracted from 63 seed meal samples representing 27 legume species (common, scarlet runner, lima, moth, and adzuki beans; broadbeans; soybeans; swordbeans; jackbeans; Florida velvetbeans; common, pigeon, and broad-leaved peas; chickpeas; grasspeas; green, black, and Bengal grams; horsegram; lentils; alfalfa; lupins; common sainfoin; and birdsfoot and sweet trefoil) with sodium dodecyl sulfate-containing buffer and purified by chloroform/isoamyl alcohol treatment and precipitation with 2-propanol. Amplification was performed with commercial RAPD-PCR beads and six 10-mer primers. Three primers (1, 5, and 6) generated RAPD profiles with all 63 templates. Two of these primers produced identical profiles only for two species of the same genus. Identification of all 27 species in homogeneous food or feed samples such as meals was demonstrated by applying either primer 5 or primer 6 and primer 3 to differentiate between swordbeans and jackbeans. PMID:12137460

  2. Direct and interactive effects of light and nutrients on the legume-rhizobia mutualism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Jennifer A.; Bowling, Evan James; Gentry, Lowell E.; Glasser, Paul A.; Monarch, Elizabeth A.; Olesen, Whitney M.; Waxmonsky, Jillian; Young, Ryan Thomas

    2012-02-01

    The relative abundance of traded resources can alter the outcomes of symbioses, potentially shifting mutually-beneficial interactions into interactions that are detrimental to one or both partners. We manipulated the legume-rhizobia symbiosis and light and nutrient levels to investigate how the net growth benefits to both partners shift across environments differing in the availability of both traded resources. In low nutrient, high light environments, rhizobia increased mean plant biomass by 62%. In contrast, when plants were light-limited, rhizobia did not increase above-ground biomass and reduced mean below-ground biomass by 46%. Similarly, rhizobia only increased plant biomass under low nutrient conditions. Resource availability also affected nodule traits correlated with rhizobia fitness, with light-limited plants producing fewer and smaller nodules. Our results suggest that the growth benefits to both partners in the legume-rhizobia symbiosis depend on the availability of both traded resources. We also detected evidence, however, that plants may reduce investment in symbionts as the net benefits of association decrease, potentially limiting how far this interaction shifts toward parasitism in low-light, high nutrient environments.

  3. Mosaic origins of Bradyrhizobium legume symbionts on the Caribbean island of Guadeloupe.

    PubMed

    Parker, Matthew A; Rousteau, Alain

    2014-08-01

    To analyze geographic affinities of Bradyrhizobium sp. symbionts associated with the diverse legume flora on the Caribbean island of Guadeloupe, 39 isolates from 18 legume genera were compared to a reference set of 269 Bradyrhizobium strains from North America, Central America, Puerto Rico and the Philippines. A multilocus sequence analysis (4192 bp) showed that nucleotide diversity in Guadeloupe equaled or exceeded that found in all other regional Bradyrhizobium populations examined. Bayesian phylogenetic tree analysis grouped the Guadeloupe Bradyrhizobium strains into clades with at least 20 distinct sets of non-Guadeloupe relatives, implying that the island was colonized numerous times from multiple source regions. However, for 18% of the Guadeloupe isolates, inferred geographic affinities for the nifD locus, in the symbiosis island region of the Bradyrhizobium chromosome, conflicted with the source region deduced from a tree based on six concatenated housekeeping genes. Geographic mosaic ancestry was therefore evident among Guadeloupe bradyrhizobia. Horizontal gene transfer subsequent to island colonization appears to have generated strains that carry combinations of genes from disparate source regions. PMID:24747127

  4. Legume genome evolution viewed through the Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus genomes

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Steven B.; Sterck, Lieven; Rombauts, Stephane; Sato, Shusei; Cheung, Foo; Gouzy, Jérôme; Wang, Xiaohong; Mudge, Joann; Vasdewani, Jayprakash; Schiex, Thomas; Spannagl, Manuel; Monaghan, Erin; Nicholson, Christine; Humphray, Sean J.; Schoof, Heiko; Mayer, Klaus F. X.; Rogers, Jane; Quétier, Francis; Oldroyd, Giles E.; Debellé, Frédéric; Cook, Douglas R.; Retzel, Ernest F.; Roe, Bruce A.; Town, Christopher D.; Tabata, Satoshi; Van de Peer, Yves; Young, Nevin D.

    2006-01-01

    Genome sequencing of the model legumes, Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus, provides an opportunity for large-scale sequence-based comparison of two genomes in the same plant family. Here we report synteny comparisons between these species, including details about chromosome relationships, large-scale synteny blocks, microsynteny within blocks, and genome regions lacking clear correspondence. The Lotus and Medicago genomes share a minimum of 10 large-scale synteny blocks, each with substantial collinearity and frequently extending the length of whole chromosome arms. The proportion of genes syntenic and collinear within each synteny block is relatively homogeneous. Medicago–Lotus comparisons also indicate similar and largely homogeneous gene densities, although gene-containing regions in Mt occupy 20–30% more space than Lj counterparts, primarily because of larger numbers of Mt retrotransposons. Because the interpretation of genome comparisons is complicated by large-scale genome duplications, we describe synteny, synonymous substitutions and phylogenetic analyses to identify and date a probable whole-genome duplication event. There is no direct evidence for any recent large-scale genome duplication in either Medicago or Lotus but instead a duplication predating speciation. Phylogenetic comparisons place this duplication within the Rosid I clade, clearly after the split between legumes and Salicaceae (poplar). PMID:17003129

  5. Controlling the reproductive fate of rhizobia: how universal are legume sanctions?

    PubMed

    Oono, Ryoko; Denison, R Ford; Kiers, E Toby

    2009-01-01

    When a single host plant is infected by more than one strain of rhizobia, they face a tragedy of the commons. Although these rhizobia benefit collectively from nitrogen fixation, which increases host-plant photosynthesis, each strain might nonetheless increase its own reproduction, relative to competing strains, by diverting resources away from nitrogen fixation. Host sanctions can limit the evolutionary success of such rhizobial cheaters (strains that would otherwise benefit by fixing less nitrogen). Host sanctions have been shown in soybean (Glycine max) nodules, where the next generation of symbiotic rhizobia is descended from bacteroids (the differentiated cells that can fix nitrogen). Evidence for sanctions is less clear in legume species that induce rhizobial dimorphism inside their nodules. There, bacteroids are swollen and cannot reproduce regardless of how much nitrogen they fix, but sanctions could reduce reproduction of their undifferentiated clonemates within the same nodule. This rhizobial dimorphism can affect rhizobial evolution, including cheating options, in ways that may affect future generations of legumes. Both the importance of sanctions to hosts and possible physiological mechanisms for sanctions may depend on whether bacteroids are potentially reproductive. PMID:19594691

  6. Modulation of physicochemical and conformational properties of kidney bean vicilin (phaseolin) by glycation with glucose: implications for structure-function relationships of legume vicilins.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chuan-He; Sun, Xin; Foegeding, Edward Allen

    2011-09-28

    The structure-function relationships of plant oligomeric globulins are still not fully recognized. The present work investigated the influence of glycation with glucose (at 1:50 and 1:100 protein/sugar molar ratios; incubation periods of 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 h) on the physicochemical and conformational properties of kidney bean vicilin (phaseolin), with the aim of understanding the structure-function relationships of legume vicilins. Protein solubility (PS), surface charge (isoelectric point) and hydrophobicity (H0), and secondary, tertiary, and/or quaternary conformations, as well as the emulsifying activities (emulsifying activity and emulsion stability indices, EAI and ESI) were evaluated. The 2.5 h incubation period of glycation led to least PS and highest H0, and after that, the PS and H0, on the contrary, gradually changed with increasing incubation period. The glycation increased the α-helix content and highly ordered secondary structures (α-helix+β-strand), as evidenced by far-UV circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Combined analyses of differential scanning calorimetry, intrinsic emission fluorescence, and near-UV CD spectroscopy indicated that phaseolin underwent a tertiary conformation unfolding and subsequent rearrangement process (to form a new tertiary conformation), whereas the quaternary conformational flexibility progressively increased upon increasing degree of glycation. The conformation rearrangement was more distinct at the 1:100 molar ratio than at the 1:50 counterpart. The glycation at 5.0 and 10.0 h periods considerably increased the EAI, but only at the 1:50 molar ratio was the ESI progressively increased with the incubation period. These results confirmed that besides surface properties (e.g., PS and H0), the flexibility in tertiary and/or quaternary conformations played a major role in the emulsifying properties of glycated vicilins. The findings would have important implications for understanding the structure-function relationships of

  7. Legumes or nitrification inhibitors to reduce N2O emissions in subtropical cereal cropping systems? A simulation study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The DAYCENT biogeochemical model was used to investigate how the use of fertilisers coated with nitrification inhibitors and the introduction of legumes in the crop rotation can affect subtropical cereal production and N2O emissions. The model was validated using comprehensive multi-seasonal, high-f...

  8. Achievements and prospects of genomics-assisted breeding in three legume crops of the semi-arid tropics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advances in sequencing and genotyping technologies have enabled generation of several thousand markers including SSRs, SNPs, DArTs, hundreds of thousands transcript reads and BAC-end sequences in chickpea, pigeonpea and groundnut, three major legume crops of the semi-arid tropics. Comprehensive tran...

  9. High diversity of Bradyrhizobium strains isolated from several legume species and land uses in Brazilian tropical ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Azarias Guimarães, Amanda; Florentino, Ligiane Aparecida; Alves Almeida, Kize; Lebbe, Liesbeth; Barroso Silva, Karina; Willems, Anne; de Souza Moreira, Fatima Maria

    2015-09-01

    The genus Bradyrhizobium stands out among nitrogen-fixing legume-nodulating bacteria because it predominates among the efficient microsymbionts of forest, forage, and green manure legume species, as well as important species of grain legumes, such as soybean, cowpea, and peanut. Therefore, the diversity of Bradyrhizobium strains is a relevant resource from environmental and economic perspectives, and strains isolated from diverse legume species and land uses in Brazilian tropical ecosystems were assessed in this study. To accomplish this, sequences of four housekeeping genes (atpD, dnaK, gyrB, and recA) were individually analysed, with the first three also being considered using multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA). The sensitivity of the strains to different antibiotics, their tolerance to different levels of salinity, and their ability to nodulate soybean plants were also measured. The phylogenetic trees based on each individual gene, and on the concatenated housekeeping genes, revealed several strain clusters separated from any currently described species. The Bradyrhizobium strains studied were generally resistant to antibiotics. All strains were able to grow at salinity levels of up to 0.5% NaCl, whereas only strains UFLA03-142, UFLA03-143, UFLA03-145, and UFLA03-146 grew in the presence of 1% NaCl. Together, the results indicated that some of the strains studied were potential novel species, indicating that the various soils and ecosystems in Brazil may harbour an as yet unknown diversity of rhizobia. PMID:26234199

  10. THE ROLE OF CROP/POLLINATOR RELATIONSHIP UNDERSTANDING IN BREEDING FOR POLLINATOR-FRIENDLY LEGUME VARIETIES; FROM A BREEDING PERSPECTIVE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Following the reports of the decline in solitary and social bees, breeders are encouraged to develop a breeding approach that strives to integrate food production into the healthy functioning of the agro-ecosystems. In the particular case of legumes, this approach should preserve bee fauna by provi...

  11. Transcriptome sequencing, and rapid development and application of SNP markers for the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an insect pest species that is destructive to crops grown by subsistence farmers in tropical regions of West Africa. We present the de novo assembly of 3729 contigs from 454- and Sanger-derived sequencing reads for midgut, salivary, ...

  12. Effect of soaking, boiling, and steaming on total phenolic contentand antioxidant activities of cool season food legumes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Baojun; Chang, Sam K C

    2008-09-01

    The effects of soaking, boiling and steaming processes on the total phenolic components and antioxidant activity in commonly consumed cool season food legumes (CSFL's), including green pea, yellow pea, chickpea and lentil were investigated. As compared to original unprocessed legumes, all processing steps caused significant (p<0.05) decreases in total phenolic content (TPC), DPPH free radical scavenging activity (DPPH) in all tested CSFL's. All soaking and atmospheric boiling treatments caused significant (p<0.05) decreases in oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC). However, pressure boiling and pressure steaming caused significant (p<0.05) increases in ORAC values. Steaming treatments resulted in a greater retention of TPC, DPPH, and ORAC values in all tested CSFL's as compared to boiling treatments. To obtain cooked legumes with similar palatability and firmness, pressure boiling shortened processing time as compared to atmospheric boiling, resulted in insignificant differences in TPC, DPPH for green and yellow pea. However, TPC and DPPH in cooked lentils differed significantly between atmospheric and pressure boiling. As compared to atmospheric processes, pressure processes significantly increased ORAC values in both boiled and steamed CSFL's. Greater TPC, DPPH and ORAC values were detected in boiling water than that in soaking and steaming water. Boiling also caused more solid loss than steaming. Steam processing exhibited several advantages in retaining the integrity of the legume appearance and texture of the cooked product, shortening process time, and greater retention of antioxidant components and activities. PMID:26050159

  13. Genome Sequence of Bradyrhizobium stylosanthis Strain BR 446T, a Nitrogen-Fixing Symbiont of the Legume Pasture Stylosanthes guianensis

    PubMed Central

    Delamuta, Jakeline Renata Marçon; Ribeiro, Renan Augusto; Gomes, Douglas Fabiano; Souza, Renata Carolini; Chueire, Ligia Maria Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Bradyrhizobium stylosanthis BR 446T is a nitrogen-fixing symbiont of the tropical legume pasture Stylosanthes guianensis. Its draft genome contains 8,801,717 bp and 8,239 coding sequences (CDSs). Several putative genes that might confer high competitiveness and saprophytic capacity under the stressful conditions of tropical soils were identified in the genome. PMID:27365354

  14. Genome Sequence of Bradyrhizobium stylosanthis Strain BR 446T, a Nitrogen-Fixing Symbiont of the Legume Pasture Stylosanthes guianensis.

    PubMed

    Delamuta, Jakeline Renata Marçon; Ribeiro, Renan Augusto; Gomes, Douglas Fabiano; Souza, Renata Carolini; Chueire, Ligia Maria Oliveira; Hungria, Mariangela

    2016-01-01

    Bradyrhizobium stylosanthis BR 446(T) is a nitrogen-fixing symbiont of the tropical legume pasture Stylosanthes guianensis Its draft genome contains 8,801,717 bp and 8,239 coding sequences (CDSs). Several putative genes that might confer high competitiveness and saprophytic capacity under the stressful conditions of tropical soils were identified in the genome. PMID:27365354

  15. Functional nodFE genes are present in Sinorhizobium sp. strain MUS10, a symbiont of tropical legume Sesbania rostrata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sinorhizobium sp. strain MUS10, a rhizobium from the Indian subcontinent, forms nitrogen-fixing nodules on the stems and roots of tropical legume Sesbania rostrata. The structure of Nod factors (NFs) of MUS10 are similar to those of Azorhizobium caulinodans, S. saheli bv sesbaniae and S. terangae bv...

  16. The spatial genetic differentiation of the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) populations in West Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata, is an endemic insect pest that causes significant yield loss to the cowpea crop in West Africa, and contributes to food shortages and malnutrition in native human populations. The genetic structure of Maruca vitrata was investigated among five sites from Burkin...

  17. NITROGEN CAPTURE BY GRAPEVINE ROOTS AND ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI FROM LEGUME COVER CROP RESIDUES UNDER LOW RATES OF MINERAL FERTILIZATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of minimal fertilization on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF)-mediated 15N capture from a legume crop (Medicago polymorpha) was examined in Vitis vinifera. We hypothesized that, because the mycorrhizal host was grown in nutrient-limiting soil, minimal fertilization would increase both...

  18. Genepool of Wild Populations of Forage and Grain Legume Crops of Northwest and Central Regions of Russia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An international plant collection expedition to the northwest and central regions of Russia was undertaken in 2007 to collect seed of wild-growing perennial grass and legume species that have potential for forage and turf applications. These collections are of interest in breeding and selection pro...

  19. Large-scale microsatellite development in grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L.), an orphan legume of the arid areas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L., 2n = 14), a member of the family Leguminosae, holds great agronomic potential as grain and forage legume crop in the arid areas for its superb resilience to abiotic stresses such as drought, flood and salinity. The crop could not make much progress through conventional...

  20. Soil carbon sequestration by three perennial legume pastures is greater in deeper soil layers than in the surface soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, X.-K.; Turner, N. C.; Song, L.; Gu, Y.-J.; Wang, T.-C.; Li, F.-M.

    2016-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays a vital role as both a sink for and source of atmospheric carbon. Revegetation of degraded arable land in China is expected to increase soil carbon sequestration, but the role of perennial legumes on soil carbon stocks in semiarid areas has not been quantified. In this study, we assessed the effect of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and two locally adapted forage legumes, bush clover (Lespedeza davurica S.) and milk vetch (Astragalus adsurgens Pall.) on the SOC concentration and SOC stock accumulated annually over a 2 m soil profile. The results showed that the concentration of SOC in the bare soil decreased slightly over the 7 years, while 7 years of legume growth substantially increased the concentration of SOC over the 0-2.0 m soil depth. Over the 7-year growth period the SOC stocks increased by 24.1, 19.9 and 14.6 Mg C ha-1 under the alfalfa, bush clover and milk vetch stands, respectively, and decreased by 4.2 Mg C ha-1 in the bare soil. The sequestration of SOC in the 1-2 m depth of the soil accounted for 79, 68 and 74 % of the SOC sequestered in the 2 m deep soil profile under alfalfa, bush clover and milk vetch, respectively. Conversion of arable land to perennial legume pasture resulted in a significant increase in SOC, particularly at soil depths below 1 m.