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Sample records for leishmania braziliensis em

  1. Extreme inbreeding in Leishmania braziliensis

    PubMed Central

    Rougeron, Virginie; De Meeûs, Thierry; Hide, Mallorie; Waleckx, Etienne; Bermudez, Herman; Arevalo, Jorge; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; De Doncker, Simone; Le Ray, Dominique; Ayala, Francisco J.; Bañuls, Anne-Laure

    2009-01-01

    Leishmania species of the subgenus Viannia and especially Leishmania braziliensis are responsible for a large proportion of New World leishmaniasis cases. The reproductive mode of Leishmania species has often been assumed to be predominantly clonal, but remains unsettled. We have investigated the genetic polymorphism at 12 microsatellite loci on 124 human strains of Leishmania braziliensis from 2 countries, Peru and Bolivia. There is substantial genetic diversity, with an average of 12.4 ± 4.4 alleles per locus. There is linkage disequilibrium at a genome-wide scale, as well as a substantial heterozygote deficit (more than 50% the expected value from Hardy−Weinberg equilibrium), which indicates high levels of inbreeding. These observations are inconsistent with a strictly clonal model of reproduction, which implies excess heterozygosity. Moreover, there is large genetic heterogeneity between populations within countries (Wahlund effect), which evinces a strong population structure at a microgeographic scale. Our findings are compatible with the existence of population foci at a microgeographic scale, where clonality alternates with sexuality of an endogamic nature, with possible occasional recombination events between individuals of different genotypes. These findings provide key clues on the ecology and transmission patterns of Leishmania parasites. PMID:19497885

  2. Antigenic specificity of the 72-kilodalton major surface glycoprotein of Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis.

    PubMed Central

    Kutner, S; Pellerin, P; Breniere, S F; Desjeux, P; Dedet, J P

    1991-01-01

    We examined the expression and the antigenicity of the major surface polypeptides of Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis and Leishmania donovani chagasi, parasites which commonly coexist in the same endemic areas of Bolivia. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protein profiles from surface-iodinated promastigotes showed the presence of a unique iodinatable polypeptide of 72 kDa on the L. b. braziliensis surface and of two major components of 65 and 50 kDa exposed at the surface of L. d. chagasi. Comparison of the peptide digestion profiles of the major iodinated polypeptides of both strains showed no similarity between the maps of the 72- and the 65-kDa polypeptides of L. b. braziliensis and L. d. chagasi, respectively. Immunoprecipitation of surface-labeled L. b. braziliensis Nonidet P-40 extracts with 35 serum specimens obtained from Bolivian patients with cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis showed that all serum specimens recognized predominantly the 72-kDa antigen and high-molecular-mass proteins in some cases. The recognition patterns were independent of the geographical origin of the patient, the type of lesion, and the serum antibody titer. Serum specimens from children with visceral leishmaniasis did not precipitate the L. b. braziliensis 72-kDa antigen. Hamster hyperimmune serum against L. b. braziliensis also recognized the 72-kDa surface antigen. However, this recognition was inhibited in the presence of the homologous nonlabeled antigen but not in the presence of heterologous (L. d. chagasi and Trypanosoma cruzi) antigens. The specific recognition of 72-kDa surface antigen in both natural and experimental L. b. braziliensis infections suggests that this antigen could be a good candidate for use in the differential immunodiagnosis and prognosis of the disease. Images PMID:2037677

  3. Multilocus Sequence Analysis for Leishmania braziliensis Outbreak Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Marlow, Mariel A.; Boité, Mariana C.; Ferreira, Gabriel Eduardo M.; Steindel, Mario; Cupolillo, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    With the emergence of leishmaniasis in new regions around the world, molecular epidemiological methods with adequate discriminatory power, reproducibility, high throughput and inter-laboratory comparability are needed for outbreak investigation of this complex parasitic disease. As multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) has been projected as the future gold standard technique for Leishmania species characterization, we propose a MLSA panel of six housekeeping gene loci (6pgd, mpi, icd, hsp70, mdhmt, mdhnc) for investigating intraspecific genetic variation of L. (Viannia) braziliensis strains and compare the resulting genetic clusters with several epidemiological factors relevant to outbreak investigation. The recent outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. (V.) braziliensis in the southern Brazilian state of Santa Catarina is used to demonstrate the applicability of this technique. Sequenced fragments from six genetic markers from 86 L. (V.) braziliensis strains from twelve Brazilian states, including 33 strains from Santa Catarina, were used to determine clonal complexes, genetic structure, and phylogenic networks. Associations between genetic clusters and networks with epidemiological characteristics of patients were investigated. MLSA revealed epidemiological patterns among L. (V.) braziliensis strains, even identifying strains from imported cases among the Santa Catarina strains that presented extensive homogeneity. Evidence presented here has demonstrated MLSA possesses adequate discriminatory power for outbreak investigation, as well as other potential uses in the molecular epidemiology of leishmaniasis. PMID:24551258

  4. Identification and functional evaluation of Leishmania braziliensis Nicotinamide Mononucleotide Adenylyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Luis E; Neme, Rafik; Ramírez, María H

    2015-11-01

    The progressive increase in Leishmania resistance to current control approaches prompts the need to develop therapeutic strategies based on comprehensive knowledge of the parasite's biology. The enzyme Nicotinamide Mononucleotide Adenylyltransferase (NMNAT, EC 2.7.7.1) catalyzes the central step in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) biosynthesis, making it essential for the survival of all organisms. NAD(+) metabolism is related to the maintenance of several biochemical, cellular, and physiological processes; consequently, the characterization and analysis of the enzymes involved in its biosynthesis represent key steps in the development of control strategies. In this study, the NMNAT enzymes of different Leishmania species were identified using bioinformatics procedures. The sequences were used to construct structural homology models that revealed characteristic elements common to NMNATs. The open reading frame of Leishmania braziliensis NMNAT was cloned from complementary DNA and the enzymatic activity of the corresponding recombinant protein was confirmed through enzymatic assays. Primary structure analysis revealed a Leishmania-specific amino-terminal insertion in NMNAT. The deletion of this insertion is negatively correlated with in vitro enzymatic activity. From our observations, we suggest the amino-terminal insertion of Leishmania NMNATs as a promising pharmacological target for the development of specific control strategies. PMID:26318236

  5. Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis: Differences and Similarities to Evade the Innate Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Falcão, Sarah de Athayde Couto; Jaramillo, Tatiana M. G.; Ferreira, Luciana G.; Bernardes, Daniela M.; Santana, Jaime M.; Favali, Cecília B. F.

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a severe form of the disease, caused by Leishmania infantum in the New World. Patients present an anergic immune response that favors parasite establishment and spreading through tissues like bone marrow and liver. On the other hand, Leishmania braziliensis causes localized cutaneous lesions, which can be self-healing in some individuals. Interactions between host and parasite are essential to understand disease pathogenesis and progression. In this context, dendritic cells (DCs) act as essential bridges that connect innate and adaptive immune responses. In this way, the aim of this study was to compare the effects of these two Leishmania species, in some aspects of human DCs’ biology for better understanding of the evasion mechanisms of Leishmania from host innate immune response. To do so, DCs were obtained from monocytes from whole peripheral blood of healthy volunteer donors and from those infected with L. infantum or L. braziliensis for 24 h. We observed similar rates of infection (around 40%) as well as parasite burden for both Leishmania species. Concerning surface molecules, we observed that both parasites induced CD86 expression when DCs were infected for 24 h. On the other hand, we detected a lower surface expression of CD209 in the presence of both L. braziliensis and L. infantum, but only the last one promoted the survival of DCs after 24 h. Therefore, DCs infected by both Leishmania species showed a higher expression of CD86 and a decrease of CD209 expression, suggesting that both enter DCs through CD209 molecule. However, only L. infantum had the ability to inhibit DC apoptotic death, as an evasion mechanism that enables its spreading to organs like bone marrow and liver. Lastly, L. braziliensis was more silent parasite, once it did not inhibit DC apoptosis in our in vitro model. PMID:27536300

  6. Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis: Differences and Similarities to Evade the Innate Immune System.

    PubMed

    Falcão, Sarah de Athayde Couto; Jaramillo, Tatiana M G; Ferreira, Luciana G; Bernardes, Daniela M; Santana, Jaime M; Favali, Cecília B F

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a severe form of the disease, caused by Leishmania infantum in the New World. Patients present an anergic immune response that favors parasite establishment and spreading through tissues like bone marrow and liver. On the other hand, Leishmania braziliensis causes localized cutaneous lesions, which can be self-healing in some individuals. Interactions between host and parasite are essential to understand disease pathogenesis and progression. In this context, dendritic cells (DCs) act as essential bridges that connect innate and adaptive immune responses. In this way, the aim of this study was to compare the effects of these two Leishmania species, in some aspects of human DCs' biology for better understanding of the evasion mechanisms of Leishmania from host innate immune response. To do so, DCs were obtained from monocytes from whole peripheral blood of healthy volunteer donors and from those infected with L. infantum or L. braziliensis for 24 h. We observed similar rates of infection (around 40%) as well as parasite burden for both Leishmania species. Concerning surface molecules, we observed that both parasites induced CD86 expression when DCs were infected for 24 h. On the other hand, we detected a lower surface expression of CD209 in the presence of both L. braziliensis and L. infantum, but only the last one promoted the survival of DCs after 24 h. Therefore, DCs infected by both Leishmania species showed a higher expression of CD86 and a decrease of CD209 expression, suggesting that both enter DCs through CD209 molecule. However, only L. infantum had the ability to inhibit DC apoptotic death, as an evasion mechanism that enables its spreading to organs like bone marrow and liver. Lastly, L. braziliensis was more silent parasite, once it did not inhibit DC apoptosis in our in vitro model. PMID:27536300

  7. Leishmanicidal activity of synthetic chalcones in Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis.

    PubMed

    de Mello, Tatiane F P; Bitencourt, Heriberto R; Pedroso, Raissa B; Aristides, Sandra M A; Lonardoni, Maria V C; Silveira, Thais G V

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is based on a small group of compounds that were developed decades ago, all of which are highly toxic and have a high rate of treatment failure. The chalcones show leishmanicidal activity, yet few studies have evaluated this activity against Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, one of the most important species of Leishmania across Latin America. Four new synthetic chalcones (1-4) were evaluated for inhibitory activity in vitro against promastigotes and intracellular parasites 24h post infection of L. (V.) braziliensis, cytotoxicity for macrophages J774.A1 and red blood cells, and the ability to stimulate nitric oxide production. The results for the inhibitory concentration for 50% of the promastigotes (IC50) (1.38±1.09-6.36±2.04μM), cytotoxic concentration for 50% of the macrophages (CC50) (13.49±3.13-199.43±4.11μM), and selectivity index (SI) (3.76 to 33.94) indicate that all chalcones (1-4) showed an effect on promastigotes of L. (V.) braziliensis; chalcone 2 had the highest SI. The haemolytic assay with chalcones 1 (301.93μM), 2 (534.18μM), 3 (419.46μM) and 4 (381.11μM) showed 0.00%, 2.33%, 0.57% and 1.74% haemolysis, respectively. All chalcones significantly reduced the infection index of macrophages by parasites; for chalcones (1-3) this effect may be dependent on nitric-oxide production by macrophages. The chalcones tested exhibited inhibitory activity for promastigotes and intracellular parasites of L. (V.) braziliensis, with low toxicity for macrophages and red blood cells. The anti-Leishmania activity of chalcones (1-3) may depend on the stimulation of nitric-oxide production in the initial stage of infection. These results show an initially encouraging potential for the use of chalcones (1-4) to treat ACL. PMID:24269198

  8. Zosteriform cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania ( Viannia ) panamensis and Leishmania ( Viannia ) braziliensis: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Morales, Camilo Andrés; Palacio, Juliana; Rodríguez, Gerzaín; Camargo, Yenny Carolina

    2014-01-01

    In Colombia, zosteriform leishmaniasis is a little-known and infrequent clinical variant of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Its clinical features include one or more plaques made up of papules and pseudo-vesicles, which conform to a lineal pattern, as well as satellite lesions that affect one or more dermatomes, without crossing the median line. We present three zosteriform cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in which Leishmania panamensis and Leishmania braziliensis were identified as the infective species. In light of the fact that the disease occurs infrequently, diagnosis was reached by taking into account epidemiological and clinical suspicion. PMID:25504121

  9. Drought, Smallpox, and Emergence of Leishmania braziliensis in Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Vianna) braziliensis is a major health problem in the state of Ceará in northeastern Brazil. We propose that the disease emerged as a consequence of the displacement of persons from Ceará to the Amazon region following the Great Drought and smallpox epidemic of 1877–1879. As the economic and social situation in Ceará deteriorated, ≈55,000 residents migrated to the Amazon region to find work, many on rubber plantations. Those that returned likely introduced L. (V.) brazilensis into Ceará, where the first cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were reported early in the 20th century. The absence of an animal reservoir in Ceará, apart from dogs, supports the hypothesis. The spread of HIV/AIDS into the region and the possibility of concurrent cutaneous leishmaniasis raise the possibility of future problems. PMID:19523291

  10. Structural and functional studies of Leishmania braziliensis Hsp90.

    PubMed

    Silva, K P; Seraphim, T V; Borges, J C

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquitous Hsp90 is critical for protein homeostasis in the cells, stabilizing "client" proteins in a functional state. Hsp90 activity depends on its ability to bind and hydrolyze ATP, involving various conformational changes that are regulated by co-chaperones, posttranslational modifications and small molecules. Compounds like geldanamycin (GA) and radicicol inhibit the Hsp90 ATPase activity by occupying the ATP binding site, which can lead client protein to degradation and also inhibit cell growth and differentiation in protozoan parasites. Our goal was to produce the recombinant Hsp90 of Leishmania braziliensis (LbHsp90) and construct of its N-terminal (LbHsp90N) and N-domain and middle-domain (LbHsp90NM), which lacks the C-terminal dimerization domain, in order to understand how Hsp90 works in protozoa. The recombinant proteins were produced folded as attested by spectroscopy experiments. Hydrodynamic experiments revealed that LbHsp90N and LbHsp90NM behaved as elongated monomers while LbHsp90 is an elongated dimer. All proteins prevented the in vitro citrate synthase and malate dehydrogenase aggregation, attesting that they have chaperone activity, and interacted with adenosine ligands with similar dissociation constants. The LbHsp90 has low ATPase activity (k(cat)=0.320min(-1)) in agreement with Hsp90 orthologs, whereas the LbHsp90NM has negligible activity, suggesting the importance of the dimeric protein for this activity. The GA interacts with LbHsp90 and with its domain constructions with different affinities and also inhibits the LbHsp90 ATPase activity with an IC(50) of 0.7μM. All these results shed light on the LbHsp90 activity and are the first step to understanding the Hsp90 molecular chaperone system in L. braziliensis. PMID:22910377

  11. In vitro evaluation of photodynamic therapy using curcumin on Leishmania major and Leishmania braziliensis.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Juliana Guerra; Fontana, Letícia Correa; de Oliveira, Marco Antonio; Kurachi, Cristina; Raniero, Leandro José; Ferreira-Strixino, Juliana

    2016-07-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by the Leishmania protozoan. The conventional treatment is long-lasting and aggressive, in addition to causing harmful effect. Photodynamic therapy has emerged as a promising alternative treatment, which allows local administration with fewer side effects. This study investigated the photodynamic activity of curcumin on Leishmania major and Leishmania braziliensis promastigote. Both species were submitted to incubation with curcumin in serial dilutions from 500 μg/ml up to 7.8 μg/ml. Control groups were kept in the dark while PDT groups received a fluency of 10 J/cm(2) at 450 nm. Mitochondrial activity was assessed by MTT assay 18 h after light treatment, and viability was measured by Trypan blue dye exclusion test. Morphological alterations were observed by Giemsa staining. Confocal microscopy showed the uptake of curcumin by both tested Leishmania species. Mitochondrial activity was inconclusive to determine viability; however, Trypan blue test was able to show that curcumin photodynamic treatment had a significant effect on viability of parasites. The morphology of promastigotes was highly affected by the photodynamic therapy. These results indicated that curcumin may be a promising alternative photosensitizer, because it presents no toxicity in the dark; however, further tests in co-culture with macrophages and other species of Leishmania should be conducted to determine better conditions before in vivo tests are performed. PMID:27056699

  12. A vaccine combining two Leishmania braziliensis proteins offers heterologous protection against Leishmania infantum infection.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Mariana C; Lage, Daniela P; Martins, Vívian T; Costa, Lourena E; Lage, Letícia M R; Carvalho, Ana Maria R S; Ludolf, Fernanda; Santos, Thaís T O; Roatt, Bruno M; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Tavares, Carlos A P; Coelho, Eduardo A F

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, two Leishmania braziliensis proteins, one hypothetical and the eukaryotic initiation factor 5a (EiF5a), were cloned and used as a polyproteins vaccine for the heterologous protection of BALB/c mice against infantum infection. Animals were immunized with the antigens separately or in association, and in both cases saponin was used as an adjuvant. In the results, spleen cells from mice inoculated with the individual or polyproteins vaccine and lately challenged produced significantly higher levels of protein- and parasite-specific IFN-γ, IL-12, and GM-CSF, when both a capture ELISA and flow cytometry assays were performed. Evaluating the parasite load by a limiting dilution as well as by RT-PCR, these animals presented significant reductions in the parasite number in all evaluated organs, when compared to the control (saline and saponin) groups. The best protection was reached when the polyproteins vaccine was employed. Protection was associated with the IFN-γ production against parasite extracts, which was mediated by both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and correlated with the antileishmanial nitrite production. In this context, this vaccine combining two L. braziliensis proteins was able to induce a heterologous protection against VL, and could be considered in future studies to be tested against other Leishmania species or in other mammalian hosts. PMID:27387277

  13. First record of Leishmania braziliensis presence detected in bats, Mato Grosso do Sul, southwest Brazil.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Julie Teresa; da Costa Lima Junior, Manoel Sebastião; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; de Oliveira França, Adriana; Cepa Matos, Maria de Fatima; Bordignon, Marcelo Oscar

    2013-10-01

    Leishmaniasis, a zoonotic disease caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania, has expanded beyond its natural range and is becoming increasingly urban. Using PCR and PCR-RFLP, we detected Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in two bats (Chiroptera) in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, an endemic area. This is the first record of L. (V.) braziliensis in bats. It is also the first record of any Leishmania sp. in bats in the state. The animals testing positive were found in both a rural site and an urban site. These results indicate the need for further research into the viability of Leishmania in bats and could potentially have implications for public health in Mato Grosso do Sul, given the large populations of urban bats, their mobility, and their ability to roost at close proximity to humans within residences and other buildings. PMID:23886850

  14. Interactions between neutrophils and Leishmania braziliensis amastigotes facilitate cell activation and parasite clearance

    PubMed Central

    Carlsen, Eric D.; Jie, Zuliang; Liang, Yuejin; Henard, Calvin A.; Hay, Christie; Sun, Jiaren; de Matos Guedes, Herbert; Soong, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania amazonensis are both causative agents of cutaneous leishmaniasis in South America. However, patient prognosis and the host immune response differ considerably depending on the infecting parasite species. The mechanisms underlying these differences appear to be multifactorial, with both host and parasite components contributing to disease outcome. Because neutrophils are a prominent component of the inflammatory infiltrate in chronic cutaneous, diffuse cutaneous, and mucocutaneous lesions, we examined neutrophil activation and microbicidal activity against amastigotes of L. amazonensis and L. braziliensis. We found that murine neutrophils internalized L. braziliensis amastigotes with greater efficiency than did L. amazonensis amastigotes. Additionally, L. braziliensis infection was a potent trigger for neutrophil activation, oxidative burst, degranulation, and production of IL-22 and IL-10, while L. amazonensis amastigotes poorly induced these responses. Finally, neutrophils were able to kill L. braziliensis amastigotes, especially when cells were activated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). L. amazonensis amastigotes, however, were highly resistant to neutrophil microbicidal mechanisms. This study reveals, for the first time, differential neutrophil responsiveness to distinct species of Leishmania amastigotes and highlights the complexity of neutrophil-amastigote interactions during chronic leishmaniasis. PMID:25766649

  15. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in western Venezuela caused by infection with Leishmania venezuelensis and L. braziliensis variants.

    PubMed

    Bonfante-Garrido, R; Meléndez, E; Barroeta, S; de Alejos, M A; Momen, H; Cupolillo, E; McMahon-Pratt, D; Grimaldi, G

    1992-01-01

    Between 1975 and 1987, epidemiological studies were carried out in several rural and urban communities in the central part of western Venezuela, especially in the state of Lara. 115 positive cultures were obtained from human cases and identified by their reactivity patterns to a cross-panel of specific monoclonal antibodies using a radioimmune binding assay; 53 were Leishmania venezuelensis and 62 were L. braziliensis. Most of these stocks were also characterized by isoenzyme electrophoresis, which confirmed the identification of the L. venezuelensis isolates. The enzyme electrophoretic profiles of the L. braziliensis isolates, however, revealed two populations with distinct electromorphs, one related to the World Health Organization L. braziliensis reference strain while the other population appeared to be a hybrid between L. braziliensis and L. guyanensis. L. braziliensis variants showed the widest geographical distribution, and were found in 7 states: Districto Federal (Caracas); Lara (Barquisimeto, Crespo, Iribarren, Jimenez, Morán, Palavecino, Torres, Urdaneta); Nueva Esparta (Margarita); Portuguesa (Las Cruces, Rio Amarillo); Trujillo (Cuicas); Yaracuy (Agua Fria, Cambural, Guaremal); and Zulia (Zipa-Yare). L. venezuelensis was found in the following endemic regions: Lara (Barquisimeto, Iribarren, Jimenez, Morán); Merida (Zéa); and Yaracuy (Campos Elias), showing that this parasite has a much wider geographical distribution than was initially recognized and that both these species can occur simultaneously within the same endemic region. Five isolates of L. braziliensis were made from infected donkeys (Equus asinus) in Urdaneta, Lara State, suggesting a possible domestic reservoir of L. braziliensis. PMID:1440772

  16. Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by members of Leishmania braziliensis complex in Nayarit, State of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Tejeda, G; Rodríguez, N; Parra, C I; Hernandez-Montes, O; Barker, D C; Monroy-Ostria, A

    2001-01-01

    An epidemiological study was carried out in the northern Mexican state, Nayarit. Fourteen patients with possible cutaneous leishmaniasis skin lesions gave positive Montenegro skin tests. Biopsies were taken from the skin ulcer and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers for the Leishmania mexicana complex; however all biopsies were not amplified. PCR carried out with specific primers for the L. braziliensis complex resulted in the amplification of all patient DNA. DNA from 12 out of 14 biopsies gave positive amplification with primers species specific for L. (Viannia) braziliensis and hybridized with a species specific L. (V.) braziliensis probe. These results demonstrate the presence in Nayarit of at least two members of the L. braziliensis complex. Most of the cutaneous lesions were caused by L. (V.) braziliensis and two by another species belonging to the L. braziliensis complex. As far as we are aware, this is the first report of L. (V.) braziliensis in Nayarit. The main risk factor associated with the contraction of this disease in Nayarit is attributed to working on coffee plantations. PMID:11285471

  17. Ultradeformable Archaeosomes for Needle Free Nanovaccination with Leishmania braziliensis Antigens.

    PubMed

    Higa, Leticia H; Arnal, Laura; Vermeulen, Mónica; Perez, Ana Paula; Schilrreff, Priscila; Mundiña-Weilenmann, Cecilia; Yantorno, Osvaldo; Vela, María Elena; Morilla, María José; Romero, Eder Lilia

    2016-01-01

    Total antigens from Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes, solubilized with sodium cholate (dsLp), were formulated within ultradeformable nanovesicles (dsLp-ultradeformable archaeosomes, (dsLp-UDA), and dsLp-ultradeformable liposomes (dsLp-UDL)) and topically administered to Balb/c mice. Ultradeformable nanovesicles can penetrate the intact stratum corneum up to the viable epidermis, with no aid of classical permeation enhancers that can damage the barrier function of the skin. Briefly, 100 nm unilamellar dsLp-UDA (soybean phosphatidylcholine: Halorubrum tebenquichense total polar lipids (TPL): sodium cholate, 3:3:1 w:w) of -31.45 mV Z potential, containing 4.84 ± 0.53% w/w protein/lipid dsLp, 235 KPa Young modulus were prepared. In vitro, dsLp-UDA was extensively taken up by J774A1 and bone marrow derive cells, and the only that induced an immediate secretion of IL-6, IL-12p40 and TNF-α, followed by IL-1β, by J774A1 cells. Such extensive uptake is a key feature of UDA ascribed to the highly negatively charged archaeolipids of the TPL, which are recognized by a receptor specialized in uptake and not involved in downstream signaling. Despite dsLp alone was also immunostimulatory on J774A1 cells, applied twice a week on consecutive days along 7 weeks on Balb/c mice, it raised no measurable response unless associated to UDL or UDA. The highest systemic response, IgGa2 mediated, 1 log lower than im dsLp Al2O3, was elicited by dsLp-UDA. Such findings suggest that in vivo, UDL and UDA acted as penetration enhancers for dsLp, but only dsLp-UDA, owed to its pronounced uptake by APC, succeeded as topical adjuvants. The actual TPL composition, fully made of sn2,3 ether linked saturated archaeolipids, gives the UDA bilayer resistance against chemical, physical and enzymatic attacks that destroy ordinary phospholipids bilayers. Together, these properties make UDA a promising platform for topical drug targeted delivery and vaccination, that may be of help for countries with

  18. Ultradeformable Archaeosomes for Needle Free Nanovaccination with Leishmania braziliensis Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Higa, Leticia H.; Arnal, Laura; Vermeulen, Mónica; Perez, Ana Paula; Schilrreff, Priscila; Mundiña-Weilenmann, Cecilia; Yantorno, Osvaldo; Vela, María Elena; Morilla, María José; Romero, Eder Lilia

    2016-01-01

    Total antigens from Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes, solubilized with sodium cholate (dsLp), were formulated within ultradeformable nanovesicles (dsLp-ultradeformable archaeosomes, (dsLp-UDA), and dsLp-ultradeformable liposomes (dsLp-UDL)) and topically administered to Balb/c mice. Ultradeformable nanovesicles can penetrate the intact stratum corneum up to the viable epidermis, with no aid of classical permeation enhancers that can damage the barrier function of the skin. Briefly, 100 nm unilamellar dsLp-UDA (soybean phosphatidylcholine: Halorubrum tebenquichense total polar lipids (TPL): sodium cholate, 3:3:1 w:w) of -31.45 mV Z potential, containing 4.84 ± 0.53% w/w protein/lipid dsLp, 235 KPa Young modulus were prepared. In vitro, dsLp-UDA was extensively taken up by J774A1 and bone marrow derive cells, and the only that induced an immediate secretion of IL-6, IL-12p40 and TNF-α, followed by IL-1β, by J774A1 cells. Such extensive uptake is a key feature of UDA ascribed to the highly negatively charged archaeolipids of the TPL, which are recognized by a receptor specialized in uptake and not involved in downstream signaling. Despite dsLp alone was also immunostimulatory on J774A1 cells, applied twice a week on consecutive days along 7 weeks on Balb/c mice, it raised no measurable response unless associated to UDL or UDA. The highest systemic response, IgGa2 mediated, 1 log lower than im dsLp Al2O3, was elicited by dsLp-UDA. Such findings suggest that in vivo, UDL and UDA acted as penetration enhancers for dsLp, but only dsLp-UDA, owed to its pronounced uptake by APC, succeeded as topical adjuvants. The actual TPL composition, fully made of sn2,3 ether linked saturated archaeolipids, gives the UDA bilayer resistance against chemical, physical and enzymatic attacks that destroy ordinary phospholipids bilayers. Together, these properties make UDA a promising platform for topical drug targeted delivery and vaccination, that may be of help for countries with

  19. Low plasma membrane expression of the miltefosine transport complex renders Leishmania braziliensis refractory to the drug.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Cañete, María P; Carvalho, Luís; Pérez-Victoria, F Javier; Gamarro, Francisco; Castanys, Santiago

    2009-04-01

    Miltefosine (hexadecylphosphocholine, MLF) is the first oral drug with recognized efficacy against both visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis. However, some clinical studies have suggested that MLF shows significantly less efficiency against the cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis. In this work, we have determined the cellular and molecular basis for the natural MLF resistance observed in L. braziliensis. Four independent L. braziliensis clinical isolates showed a marked decrease in MLF sensitivity that was due to their inability to internalize the drug. MLF internalization in the highly sensitive L. donovani species requires at least two proteins in the plasma membrane, LdMT, a P-type ATPase involved in phospholipid translocation, and its beta subunit, LdRos3. Strikingly, L. braziliensis parasites showed highly reduced levels of this MLF translocation machinery at the plasma membrane, mainly because of the low expression levels of the beta subunit, LbRos3. Overexpression of LbRos3 induces increased MLF sensitivity not only in L. braziliensis promastigotes but also in intracellular amastigotes. These results further highlight the importance of the MLF translocation machinery in determining MLF potency and point toward the development of protocols to routinely monitor MLF susceptibility in geographic areas where L. braziliensis might be prevalent. PMID:19188379

  20. Sand fly fauna in Chapare, Bolivia: an endemic focus of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Marinely; Diaz, Mery; Espinoza, Jorge; Parrado, Rudy; Reithinger, Richard; García, Ana Lineth

    2012-09-01

    Data on the distribution and abundance of Lutzomyia spp. (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Bolivia is scarce. Sand flies from an area of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis endemicity in the Isiboro-Secure National Park in the Department of Cochabamba were captured and identified to species. In total, 945 sand flies (789 females and 156 males) belonging to 15 species were collected from the four collection points in two study villages in 2007. With 549 (58.1%) specimens, Lutzomyia shawi was the most abundant species, followed by Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) sp. (22.2%), Lutzomyia llanosmartinsi (8.3%), Lutzomyia antunesi (4.3%), and Lutzomyia olmeca (2.1%). Abundance and species composition varied between rainy and dry seasons, with 99.3% of all sand flies being collected outdoors. Because of species abundance and confirmed Leishmania infection in previous entomological collections, we believe Lu. shawi is the vector of L. (Viannia) braziliensis in Isiboro-Secure National Park. PMID:23025199

  1. Psychodopygus complexus, a new vector of Leishmania braziliensis to humans in Pará State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Souza, A; Ishikawa, E; Braga, R; Silveira, F; Lainson, R; Shaw, J

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports the finding of 4 specimens of Psychodopygus complexus, captured in the Paragominas region of Pará State, Brazil, naturally infected with trypanosomatids that were positively identified as Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. Attention is drawn to the importance of this species as a vector since it is highly anthropophilic and has a very extensive geographical distribution in the lower Amazon region of Pará State south of the Amazon river, including the island of Marajó. PMID:8761563

  2. Can Equids Be a Reservoir of Leishmania braziliensis in Endemic Areas?

    PubMed Central

    Truppel, Jessé Henrique; Otomura, Flavio; Teodoro, Ueslei; Massafera, Rubens; da Costa-Ribeiro, Magda Clara Vieira; Catarino, Carolina Motter; Dalagrana, Luana; Costa Ferreira, Maria Eugênia Moreira; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we detected Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis infection in equids living in endemic regions of cutaneous leishmaniasis. To determine the role of these animals in the Leishmania cycle, we used two approaches: serological and molecular methods. Antibodies to the parasite were assayed using the Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Blood samples were collected and tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the positive products were sequenced. The results showed that 11.0% (25/227) of the equids were seropositive for Leishmania sp, and 16.3% (37/227) were PCR positive. Antibodies were detected in 20 horses, 3 donkeys, and 2 mules, and the parasite DNA was detected in 30 horses, 5 donkeys, and 2 mules. Sequencing the amplified DNA revealed 100% similarity with sequences for Viannia complex, corroborating the results of PCR for L. braziliensis. Our results show that equids are infected with L. braziliensis, which could be food sources for phlebotomines in the peridomiciliary environment and consequently play a role in the cutaneous leishmaniasis cycle. PMID:24721908

  3. Ultrastructural and morphological changes in Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis treated with synthetic chalcones.

    PubMed

    de Mello, Tatiane F P; Cardoso, Bruna M; Bitencourt, Heriberto R; Donatti, Lucélia; Aristides, Sandra M A; Lonardoni, Maria V C; Silveira, Thais G V

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis has an estimated incidence of 1.5 million new cases per year and the treatment options available are old, expensive, toxic, and difficult to administer. Chalcones have shown good activity against several species of Leishmania. However few studies have discussed the mechanisms of action and drug target of this group of compounds in Leishmania. The synthetic chalcones that were evaluated in the present study were previously shown to exhibit activity against Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. The objective of the present study was to identify ultrastructural and morphological changes in L. (V.) braziliensis after treatment with three synthetic chalcones (1-3). Promastigotes were treated with chalcones 1-3 and evaluated by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Cellular and nuclear morphology of the parasites, changes in membrane permeability, and DNA fragmentation in agarose electrophoresis gel were also investigated after exposure to synthetic chalcones. All three synthetic chalcones (1-3) induced ultrastructural alterations in mitochondria, intense vacuolization, two nuclei with rounding of parasites, and cellular and nuclear shrinkage. Chalcones 1-3 also induced no changes in membrane permeability, and presence of nucleosome-sized DNA fragments. Synthetic chalcones 1-3 induced ultrastructural and morphological changes, suggesting that chalcones 1-3 induce apoptosis-like cell death. Further studies should be conducted to elucidate other aspects of the action of these chalcones against Leishmania spp. and their use for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:26632504

  4. Two biochemically distinct lipophosphoglycans from Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania infantum trigger different innate immune responses in murine macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The dominant, cell surface lipophosphoglycan (LPG) of Leishmania is a multifunctional molecule involved in the interaction with vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Although the role of LPG on infection has been extensively studied, it is not known if LPG interspecies variations contribute to the different immunopathologies of leishmaniases. To investigate the issue of interspecies polymorphisms, two Leishmania species from the New World that express structural variations of side chains of LPG repeat units were examined. In this context, the procyclic form of L. braziliensis LPG (strain M2903), is devoid of side chains, while the L. infantum LPG (strain BH46) has up to three glucoses residues in the repeat units. Methods Mice peritoneal macrophages from Balb/c, C57BL/6 and knock-out (TLR2 −/−, TLR4 −/−) were primed with IFN-γ and stimulated with purified LPG from both species. Nitric oxide and cytokine production, MAPKs (ERK, p38 and JNK) and NF-kB activation were evaluated. Results Macrophages stimulated with L. braziliensis LPG, had a higher TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and NO production than those stimulated with that of L. infantum. Furthermore, the LPGs from the two species resulted in differential kinetics of signaling via MAPK activation. L. infantum LPG exhibited a gradual activation profile, whereas L. braziliensis LPG showed a sharp but transient activation. L. braziliensis LPG was able to activate NF-kB. Conclusion These data suggest that two biochemically distinct LPGs were able to differentially modulate macrophage functions. PMID:23497381

  5. Intermediate Monocytes Contribute to Pathologic Immune Response in Leishmania braziliensis Infections

    PubMed Central

    Passos, Sara; Carvalho, Lucas P.; Costa, Rúbia S.; Campos, Taís M.; Novais, Fernanda O.; Magalhães, Andréa; Machado, Paulo R. L.; Beiting, Daniel; Mosser, David; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Scott, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Ulcer development in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania braziliensis is associated with high levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF). We found that early after infection, before ulcer development, the frequency of CD16+ (both intermediate [CD14+CD16+] and nonclassical [CD14dimCD16+]) monocytes was increased in the peripheral blood of patients with L. braziliensis, compared with uninfected controls. These results suggest that CD16+ monocytes might promote disease. Also, we found that intermediate monocytes expressed CCR2 and that increased levels of CCL2 protein were present in lesions from patients, suggesting that intermediate monocytes are more likely than nonclassical monocytes to migrate to the lesion site. Finally, we found that the intermediate monocytes produced TNF. Our results show that intermediate monocytes are increased in frequency soon after infection; express CCR2, which would promote their migration into the lesions; and, owing to their production of TNF, can enhance the inflammatory response. PMID:25139016

  6. Characterization of Neutrophil Function in Human Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania braziliensis

    PubMed Central

    Conceição, Jacilara; Davis, Richard; Carneiro, Pedro Paulo; Giudice, Angela; Muniz, Aline C.; Wilson, Mary E.; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Bacellar, Olívia

    2016-01-01

    Infection with different Leishmania spp. protozoa can lead to a variety of clinical syndromes associated in many cases with inflammatory responses in the skin. Although macrophages harbor the majority of parasites throughout chronic infection, neutrophils are the first inflammatory cells to migrate to the site of infection. Whether neutrophils promote parasite clearance or exacerbate disease in murine models varies depending on the susceptible or resistant status of the host. Based on the hypothesis that neutrophils contribute to a systemic inflammatory state in humans with symptomatic L. braziliensis infection, we evaluated the phenotype of neutrophils from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) during the course of L. braziliensis infection. After in vitro infection with L. braziliensis, CL patient neutrophils produced more reactive oxygen species (ROS) and higher levels of CXCL8 and CXCL9, chemokines associated with recruitment of neutrophils and Th1-type cells, than neutrophils from control healthy subjects (HS). Despite this, CL patient and HS neutrophils were equally capable of phagocytosis of L. braziliensis. There was no difference between the degree of activation of neutrophils from CL versus healthy subjects, assessed by CD66b and CD62L expression using flow cytometry. Of interest, these studies revealed that both parasite-infected and bystander neutrophils became activated during incubation with L. braziliensis. The enhanced ROS and chemokine production in neutrophils from CL patients reverted to baseline after treatment of disease. These data suggest that the circulating neutrophils during CL are not necessarily more microbicidal, but they have a more pro-inflammatory profile after parasite restimulation than neutrophils from healthy subjects. PMID:27167379

  7. Characterization of Neutrophil Function in Human Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania braziliensis.

    PubMed

    Conceição, Jacilara; Davis, Richard; Carneiro, Pedro Paulo; Giudice, Angela; Muniz, Aline C; Wilson, Mary E; Carvalho, Edgar M; Bacellar, Olívia

    2016-05-01

    Infection with different Leishmania spp. protozoa can lead to a variety of clinical syndromes associated in many cases with inflammatory responses in the skin. Although macrophages harbor the majority of parasites throughout chronic infection, neutrophils are the first inflammatory cells to migrate to the site of infection. Whether neutrophils promote parasite clearance or exacerbate disease in murine models varies depending on the susceptible or resistant status of the host. Based on the hypothesis that neutrophils contribute to a systemic inflammatory state in humans with symptomatic L. braziliensis infection, we evaluated the phenotype of neutrophils from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) during the course of L. braziliensis infection. After in vitro infection with L. braziliensis, CL patient neutrophils produced more reactive oxygen species (ROS) and higher levels of CXCL8 and CXCL9, chemokines associated with recruitment of neutrophils and Th1-type cells, than neutrophils from control healthy subjects (HS). Despite this, CL patient and HS neutrophils were equally capable of phagocytosis of L. braziliensis. There was no difference between the degree of activation of neutrophils from CL versus healthy subjects, assessed by CD66b and CD62L expression using flow cytometry. Of interest, these studies revealed that both parasite-infected and bystander neutrophils became activated during incubation with L. braziliensis. The enhanced ROS and chemokine production in neutrophils from CL patients reverted to baseline after treatment of disease. These data suggest that the circulating neutrophils during CL are not necessarily more microbicidal, but they have a more pro-inflammatory profile after parasite restimulation than neutrophils from healthy subjects. PMID:27167379

  8. Diagnosis of American cutaneous leishmaniasis by enzyme immunoassay using membrane antigens of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis.

    PubMed

    Skraba, Cissiara Manetti; Pedroso, Raíssa Bocchi; Fiorini, Adriana; Rosado, Fábio Rogério; Aristides, Sandra Mara Alessi; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Teixeira, Jorge Juarez Vieira; Silveira, Thaís Gomes Verzignassi

    2014-04-01

    This study evaluated the reactivity of membrane antigens of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis for the diagnosis of ACL by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Promastigotes of L. (V.) braziliensis were grown in medium 199 and lysed in a sonicator. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blotting showed that specific proteins of L. (V.) braziliensis (apparent molecular weights 36 kDa and 48-56 kDa) were recognized by sera from ACL patients. These proteins were eluted from the SDS-PAGE and tested in EIA-IgG with sera from ACL patients, healthy individuals, patients with toxoplasmosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, syphilis, tuberculosis, leprosy, and Chagas disease. The EIA-IgG with membrane antigens allowed us to distinguish patients with ACL from healthy individuals and patients with other diseases (P < 0.0001), and showed a sensitivity of 93.3% and specificity of 90.8%, not including Chagas disease patients. 2D-SDS-PAGE followed by Western blotting was performed to improve the characterization of the antigens, and showed a component with isoelectric points near the acid pH side and apparent molecular weights of 48-56 kDa. The results showed good sensitivity and specificity of EIA-IgG with membrane antigens, indicating their potential use for diagnosis of ACL, as well as seroepidemiological surveys and follow-up of clinically cured patients. PMID:24485589

  9. In vitro leishmanicidal activities of sesquiterpene lactones from Tithonia diversifolia against Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes and amastigotes.

    PubMed

    de Toledo, Juliano S; Ambrósio, Sergio R; Borges, Carly H G; Manfrim, Viviane; Cerri, Daniel G; Cruz, Angela K; Da Costa, Fernando B

    2014-01-01

    Natural compounds represent a rich and promising source of novel, biologically active chemical entities for treating leishmaniasis. Sesquiterpene lactones are a recognized class of terpenoids with a wide spectrum of biological activities, including activity against Leishmania spp. In this work, a sesquiterpene lactone-rich preparation-a leaf rinse extract (LRE) from Tithonia diversifolia-was tested against promastigote forms of L. braziliensis. The results revealed that the LRE is a rich source of potent leishmanicidal compounds, with an LD50 value 1.5 ± 0.50 µg·mL-1. Therefore, eight sesquiterpene lactones from the LRE were initially investigated against promastigote forms of L. braziliensis. One of them did not present any significant leishmanicidal effect (LD50 > 50 µg·mL-1). Another had a cytotoxic effect against macrophages (4.5 µg·mL-1). The five leishmanicidal compounds with the highest level of selectivity were further evaluated against intracellular parasites (amastigotes) using peritoneal macrophages. Tirotundin 3-O-methyl ether, tagitinin F, and a guaianolide reduced the internalization of parasites after 48 h, in comparison with the negative control. This is the first report on sesquiterpene lactones that have potent leishmanicidal effects on both developmental stages of L. braziliensis. PMID:24830711

  10. Host-biting rate and susceptibility of some suspected vectors to Leishmania braziliensis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background American tegumentary leishmaniasis is a serious Brazilian public health problem. This diseases is attributed to seven species of Leishmania, however, the majority of cases are associated with Leishmania braziliensis. Some phlebotomine species have been implicated in the transmission of this parasite, nonetheless only Psychodopygus wellcomei has had its vectorial competence demonstrated. Thus this study sought to assess some parameters related to the vectorial capacity of anthropophilic species of sand fly occurring in São Paulo state: Pintomyia fischeri, Migonemyia migonei Nyssomyia intermedia, Nyssomyia whitmani, Expapillata firmatoi and Psychodopygus ayrozai, under laboratory conditions. These parameters were the duration of the gonotrophic cycle, proportion of females which feed on hamster, the rate of infection by L. braziliensis and the duration of the extrinsic incubation period. Methods The sandflies were collected in three regions of the São Paulo state: Greater São Paulo and the Mogi Guaçu and Iporanga municipalities. To assess the proportion of engorged females the insects were fed on hamsters to estimate the duration of the gonotrophic cycle. To estimate the susceptibility to infection of each species, their females were fed on hamsters infected with Leishmania braziliensis and dissected to ascertain the localization of the flagellates and estimate the extrinsic incubation period. Results Low hamster attractiveness to Ps. ayrozai was observed. A high proportion of engorged females was observed when the hamster had its whole body exposed. The gonotrophic cycle ranged between three and eight days. Mg. migonei, Pi. fischeri, Ny. neivai, Ny. intermedia, Ny. whitmani and Ex.firmatoi presented susceptibility to infection by L. braziliensis. The highest infection rate (34.4%) was observed for Ny. whitmani and the lowest for Ny. intermedia (6.6%). Mg. migonei presented late-stage infection forms on the fifth day after feeding, but in the other

  11. [Effect of intralesional treatment with emetine hydrochloride on Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in hamsters].

    PubMed

    Cazorla, D; Yépez, J; Añez, N; Sánchez de Mirt, A

    2001-03-01

    The therapeutic effect of the emetine hydrochloride alkaloid administered intralesionally was compared with that of standard parenteral treatment with Glucantime in outbred male hamsters experimentally infected with 4 x 10(3) amastigotes of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. Both chemotherapeutic agents reduced significantly (P < 0.01) the average lesion sizes in experimental animals in comparison with those untreated. The alkaloid infiltration was found to be as effective as the antimonial injection for clinical resolution. The ultrastructural effects on the Leishmania parasites exposed to emetine were observed mainly in the inner cytoplasm, which appeared disorganized, pycnotic and with loss of morphological definition; however, any known emetine hydrochloride action mechanism factor could not be directly related with ultrastructure effects detected on leishmanial parasites. Smears, conventional histopathology, culture in NNN medium and indirect immunoperoxidase method showed viable amastigotes in nodules and/or scars of all the evaluated hamsters 75 to 230 days after the end of treatment. These findings suggest that measurement of the size of cutaneous leishmania lesions does not appear to be a valid criterion for evaluating the efficiency of chemotherapy in experimental LT. Detection of leishmania parasites in the lesion scars, supports the hypothesis that man could be considered as an domestic reservoir. PMID:11294031

  12. Testing of Four Leishmania Vaccine Candidates in a Mouse Model of Infection with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, the Main Causative Agent of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the New World▿

    PubMed Central

    Salay, G.; Dorta, M. L.; Santos, N. M.; Mortara, R. A.; Brodskyn, C.; Oliveira, C. I.; Barbiéri, C. L.; Rodrigues, M. M.

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated whether four recombinant antigens previously used for vaccination against experimental infection with Leishmania (Leishmania) major could also induce protective immunity against a challenge with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, the species responsible for 90% of the 28,712 annual cases of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis recorded in Brazil during the year of 2004. Initially, we isolated the homolog genes encoding four L. (V.) braziliensis antigens: (i) homologue of receptor for activated C kinase, (ii) thiol-specific antioxidant, (iii) Leishmania elongation and initiation factor, and (iv) L. (L.) major stress-inducible protein 1. At the deduced amino acid level, all four open reading frames had a high degree of identity with the previously described genes of L. (L.) major being expressed on promastigotes and amastigotes of L. (V.) braziliensis. These genes were inserted into the vector pcDNA3 or expressed as bacterial recombinant proteins. After immunization with recombinant plasmids or proteins, BALB/c mice generated specific antibody or cell-mediated immune responses (gamma interferon production). After an intradermal challenge with L. (V.) braziliensis infective promastigotes, no significant reduction on the lesions was detected. We conclude that the protective immunity afforded by these four vaccine candidates against experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. (L.) major could not be reproduced against a challenge with L. (V.) braziliensis. Although negative, we consider our results important since they suggest that studies aimed at the development of an effective vaccine against L. (V.) braziliensis, the main causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the New World, should be redirected toward distinct antigens or different vaccination strategies. PMID:17626159

  13. Testing of four Leishmania vaccine candidates in a mouse model of infection with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, the main causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the New World.

    PubMed

    Salay, G; Dorta, M L; Santos, N M; Mortara, R A; Brodskyn, C; Oliveira, C I; Barbiéri, C L; Rodrigues, M M

    2007-09-01

    We evaluated whether four recombinant antigens previously used for vaccination against experimental infection with Leishmania (Leishmania) major could also induce protective immunity against a challenge with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, the species responsible for 90% of the 28,712 annual cases of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis recorded in Brazil during the year of 2004. Initially, we isolated the homolog genes encoding four L. (V.) braziliensis antigens: (i) homologue of receptor for activated C kinase, (ii) thiol-specific antioxidant, (iii) Leishmania elongation and initiation factor, and (iv) L. (L.) major stress-inducible protein 1. At the deduced amino acid level, all four open reading frames had a high degree of identity with the previously described genes of L. (L.) major being expressed on promastigotes and amastigotes of L. (V.) braziliensis. These genes were inserted into the vector pcDNA3 or expressed as bacterial recombinant proteins. After immunization with recombinant plasmids or proteins, BALB/c mice generated specific antibody or cell-mediated immune responses (gamma interferon production). After an intradermal challenge with L. (V.) braziliensis infective promastigotes, no significant reduction on the lesions was detected. We conclude that the protective immunity afforded by these four vaccine candidates against experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. (L.) major could not be reproduced against a challenge with L. (V.) braziliensis. Although negative, we consider our results important since they suggest that studies aimed at the development of an effective vaccine against L. (V.) braziliensis, the main causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the New World, should be redirected toward distinct antigens or different vaccination strategies. PMID:17626159

  14. Cross-protective efficacy of Leishmania infantum LiHyD protein against tegumentary leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major and Leishmania braziliensis species.

    PubMed

    Lage, Daniela Pagliara; Martins, Vívian Tamietti; Duarte, Mariana Costa; Costa, Lourena Emanuele; Tavares, Grasiele de Sousa Vieira; Ramos, Fernanda Fonseca; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel Angel; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Tavares, Carlos Alberto Pereira; Coelho, Eduardo Antonio Ferraz

    2016-06-01

    Vaccination can be considered the most cost-effective strategy to control neglected diseases, but nowadays there is not an effective vaccine available against leishmaniasis. In the present study, a vaccine based on the combination of the Leishmania-specific hypothetical protein (LiHyD) with saponin was tested in BALB/c mice against infection caused by Leishmania major and Leishmania braziliensis species. This antigen was firstly identified in Leishmania infantum and showed to be protective against infection of BALB/c mice using this parasite species. The immunogenicity of rLiHyD/saponin vaccine was evaluated, and the results showed that immunized mice produced high levels of IFN-γ, IL-12 and GM-CSF after in vitro stimulation with rLiHyD, as well as by using L. major or L. braziliensis protein extracts. After challenge, vaccinated animals showed significant reductions in the infected footpad swellings, as well as in the parasite burden in the infection site, liver, spleen, and infected paws draining lymph nodes, when compared to those that were inoculated with the vaccine diluent (saline) or immunized with saponin. The immunization of rLiHyD without adjuvant was not protective against both challenges. The partial protection obtained by the rLiHyD/saponin vaccine was associated with a parasite-specific IL-12-dependent IFN-γ secretion, which was produced mainly by CD4(+) T cells. In these animals, a decrease in the parasite-mediated IL-4 and IL-10 responses, associated with the presence of high levels of LiHyD- and parasite-specific IgG2a isotype antibodies, were also observed. The present study showed that a hypothetical protein that was firstly identified in L. infantum, when combined to a Th1 adjuvant, was able to confer a cross-protection against highly infective stationary-phase promastigotes of two Leishmania species causing tegumentary leishmaniasis. PMID:26976272

  15. The Role of Nitric Oxide and Reactive Oxygen Species in the Killing of Leishmania braziliensis by Monocytes from Patients with Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Pedro Paulo; Conceição, Jacilara; Macedo, Michael; Magalhães, Viviane; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Bacellar, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    Human cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania braziliensis, presents an exaggerated Th1 response that is associated with ulcer development. Macrophages are the primary cells infected by Leishmania parasites and both reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) are important in the control of Leishmania by these cells. The mechanism involved in the killing of L. braziliensis is not well established. In this study, we evaluate the role of ROS and NO in the control of L. braziliensis infection by monocytes from CL patients. After in vitro infection with L. braziliensis, the oxidative burst by monocytes from CL patients was higher when compared to monocytes from healthy subjects (HS). Inhibition of the ROS pathway caused a significant decrease in the oxidative burst in L. braziliensis infected monocytes from both groups. In addition, we evaluated the intracellular expression of ROS and NO in L. braziliensis-infected monocytes. Monocytes from CL patients presented high expression of ROS after infection with L. braziliensis. The expression of NO was higher in monocytes from CL patients as compared to expression in monocytes from HS. A strong positive correlation between NO production and lesion size of CL patients was observed. The inhibition of ROS production in leishmania-infected monocytes from CL patients allowed the growth of viable promastigotes in culture supernatants. Thus, we demonstrate that while production of ROS is involved in L. braziliensis killing, NO alone is not sufficient to control infection and may contribute to the tissue damage observed in human CL. PMID:26840253

  16. Naturally azole-resistant Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes are rendered susceptible in the presence of terbinafine: comparative study with azole-susceptible Leishmania mexicana promastigotes.

    PubMed Central

    Rangel, H; Dagger, F; Hernandez, A; Liendo, A; Urbina, J A

    1996-01-01

    Leishmania braziliensis (isolate 2903) was naturally resistant to ketoconazole or the bis-triazole D0870, inhibitors of sterol C-14 demethylase, which produced only moderate effects on the proliferation of promastigotes at 10 microM. In contrast, Leishmania mexicana (isolate NR) was extremely susceptible to the azoles, as complete growth arrest and cell lysis were induced by incubation of the parasites with 0.05 microM concentrations of the drugs for 72 h. The opposite response was observed with terbinafine, an inhibitor of squalene epoxidase: L. braziliensis 2903 was three times more susceptible to the drug than L. mexicana NR (MICs of 5 and 15 microM, respectively). However, when the L. braziliensis stock was grown in the presence of 1 microM terbinafine, which by itself produced only marginal (< 10%) effects on growth, it became highly susceptible to the azoles, with an MIC of 0.03 microM. Analysis of cellular free sterols by high-resolution capillary gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry showed that 14-methyl sterols can support normal growth of L. braziliensis 2903 but not of L. mexicana NR. On the other hand, the higher susceptibility of the L. braziliensis isolate to terbinafine was correlated with a massive accumulation of squalene in the presence of the allylamine while no significant effects on L. mexicana sterol composition were observed at drug concentrations up to 1 microM. Thus, the > 300-fold increase in the susceptibility of L. braziliensis promastigotes to azoles in the presence of terbinafine was attributed to the combined effect of squalene and the methylated sterol precursors on the physical properties of the cell's membranes, leading to the loss of cell viability. Combination therapy with azoles and terbinafine in the treatment of human L. braziliensis infections deserves further study. PMID:9124841

  17. Effects of sand fly vector saliva on development of cutaneous lesions and the immune response to Leishmania braziliensis in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Lima, H C; Titus, R G

    1996-12-01

    The saliva of the sand fly vector of leishmaniasis significantly enhanced infection with doses of >10(4) Leishmania braziliensis parasites in BALB/c mice. With a dose of 10(7) L. braziliensis parasites, 60 to 70% of the mice developed lifetime infections. Mice infected with L. braziliensis plus saliva produced two- to threefold more interleukin-4 than did mice infected with L. braziliensis alone. Treatment with a neutralizing anti-interleukin-4 antibody abrogated the effects of the saliva. PMID:8945606

  18. Plants used in the treatment of leishmanial ulcers due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in an endemic area of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    França, F; Lago, E L; Marsden, P D

    1996-01-01

    This paper records the plants used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (L(V)b) among the rural population of a cocoa-producing coastal area of Bahia state, Brazil. An enquiry conducted among a hundred patients identified 49 plants species used to treat skin ulceration caused by this Leishmania species. The principal plants used are caju-branco (Anacardium occidentale, Anacardiaceae), used by 65% of the population, folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta,Melastomataceae) 39%, alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus, Lamiaceae) 33%, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides, Chenopodiaceae) 31%, erva-de-santa-maria (Solanum americanum, Solanaceae) (25%) and transagem (Plantago major, Plantaginaceae) 2%. PMID:8701041

  19. Vaccination with L. infantum chagasi Nucleosomal Histones Confers Protection against New World Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania braziliensis

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Marcia W.; Santos, Diego M.; Fukutani, Kiyoshi F.; Clarencio, Jorge; Miranda, Jose Carlos; Brodskyn, Claudia; Barral, Aldina; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Soto, Manuel; de Oliveira, Camila I.

    2012-01-01

    Background Nucleosomal histones are intracellular proteins that are highly conserved among Leishmania species. After parasite destruction or spontaneous lysis, exposure to these proteins elicits a strong host immune response. In the present study, we analyzed the protective capability of Leishmania infantum chagasi nucleosomal histones against L. braziliensis infection using different immunization strategies. Methodology/Principal Findings BALB/c mice were immunized with either a plasmid DNA cocktail (DNA) containing four Leishmania nucleosomal histones or with the DNA cocktail followed by the corresponding recombinant proteins plus CpG (DNA/Protein). Mice were later challenged with L. braziliensis, in the presence of sand fly saliva. Lesion development, parasite load and the cellular immune response were analyzed five weeks after challenge. Immunization with either DNA alone or with DNA/Protein was able to inhibit lesion development. This finding was highlighted by the absence of infected macrophages in tissue sections. Further, parasite load at the infection site and in the draining lymph nodes was also significantly lower in vaccinated animals. This outcome was associated with increased expression of IFN-γ and down regulation of IL-4 at the infection site. Conclusion The data presented here demonstrate the potential use of L. infantum chagasi nucleosomal histones as targets for the development of vaccines against infection with L. braziliensis, as shown by the significant inhibition of disease development following a live challenge. PMID:23284976

  20. Glycoinositolphospholipids from Leishmania braziliensis and L. infantum: Modulation of Innate Immune System and Variations in Carbohydrate Structure

    PubMed Central

    Assis, Rafael Ramiro; Ibraim, Izabela Coimbra; Noronha, Fátima Soares; Turco, Salvatore Joseph; Soares, Rodrigo Pedro

    2012-01-01

    The essential role of the lipophosphoglycan (LPG) of Leishmania in innate immune response has been extensively reported. However, information about the role of the LPG-related glycoinositolphospholipids (GIPLs) is limited, especially with respect to the New World species of Leishmania. GIPLs are low molecular weight molecules covering the parasite surface and are similar to LPG in sharing a common lipid backbone and a glycan motif containing up to 7 sugars. Critical aspects of their structure and functions are still obscure in the interaction with the vertebrate host. In this study, we evaluated the role of those molecules in two medically important South American species Leishmania infantum and L. braziliensis, causative agents of visceral (VL) and cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL), respectively. GIPLs derived from both species did not induce NO or TNF-α production by non-primed murine macrophages. Additionally, primed macrophages from mice (BALB/c, C57BL/6, TLR2−/− and TLR4−/−) exposed to GIPLs from both species, with exception to TNF-α, did not produce any of the cytokines analyzed (IL1-β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12p40, IFN-γ) or p38 activation. GIPLs induced the production of TNF-α and NO by C57BL/6 mice, primarily via TLR4. Pre incubation of macrophages with GIPLs reduced significantly the amount of NO and IL-12 in the presence of IFN-γ or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which was more pronounced with L. braziliensis GIPLs. This inhibition was reversed after PI-specific phospholipase C treatment. A structural analysis of the GIPLs showed that L. infantum has manose rich GIPLs, suggestive of type I and Hybrid GIPLs while L. braziliensis has galactose rich GIPLs, suggestive of Type II GIPLs. In conclusion, there are major differences in the structure and composition of GIPLs from L. braziliensis and L. infantum. Also, GIPLs are important inhibitory molecules during the interaction with macrophages. PMID:22389743

  1. Antibody subclass profile against Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania amazonensis in the diagnosis and follow-up of mucosal leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Junqueira Pedras, Mariana; Orsini, Marcela; Castro, Marcelo; Passos, Valéria M A; Rabello, Ana

    2003-11-01

    Sensitivities and specificities of IgG subclasses-ELISA and IgG-indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) against Leishmania braziliensis (Lb) and L. amazonensis (La) antigens were determined in 17 patients with mucosal (ML) and 19 with muco-cutaneous (MCL) leishmaniasis. Using IFAT-IgG both antigens gave high sensitivities and were statistically similar, being 89.5% with La and 100% with Lb. Using ELISA, the highest sensitivity was achieved with total IgG for ML (94.7% with both antigens) and MCL (100% with both antigens). Cross-reactivity, observed with Chagas disease and malaria sera reduced the specificity of the IgG-based assays, being 50 to 70% with IFAT and 40 to 70% with ELISA. An increase in specificity was obtained with IgG1-ELISA (90% with Lb and 100% with La). Serum levels of anti-Lb-IgG and IgG3 dropped 90 days after treatment. IgG subclasses antibody detection constitute an valuable alternative to increase the efficiency of sorological diagnostics of ML/MCL. PMID:14596966

  2. Ca2+ transport in isolated mitochondrial vesicles from Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes.

    PubMed

    Benaim, G; Bermudez, R; Urbina, J A

    1990-02-01

    Leishmania braziliensis maintained very low (50 +/- 20 nM) intracellular concentrations of calcium ions under normal conditions, as shown by the fluorimetric indicator QUIN2. Digitonin-permeabilized cells liberated large amounts of calcium ions in the presence of the ionophore A23187, indicating the presence of a large intracellular reservoir for this ion. Given the extraordinary extension of the single giant mitochondrion of Kinetoplastida and the known capacity of mitochondria from other sources to accumulate calcium, we tested the capacity of this organelle to accumulate calcium ions in Leishmania. Coupled mitochondrial vesicles, five-fold enriched in succinate-cytochrome c oxidoreductase, were obtained from promastigotes by gentle grinding (45 s) with glass beads in hypertonic buffer solution, followed by differential centrifugation. These vesicles had a respiratory control ratio of 1.82 +/- 0.15, and two phosphorylation sites (sites II and III) using succinate as electron donor, and were capable of calcium uptake in the presence of several respiratory substrates; this uptake was enhanced in the presence of ADP and Pi and was blocked by classical electron transport inhibitors. Uncouplers such as carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxy-phenylhydrazone (FCCP) and the calcium ionophore A23187 released previously accumulated calcium ions, suggesting that the driving force for the calcium uptake by the vesicles is the respiratory generated electrochemical potential gradient of protons. A study of the affinity of this system for calcium showed that even at 90 microM free calcium, succinate-induced calcium uptake is not saturated while approaching a level of 200 nmol min-1 (mg protein)-1, indicating a low-affinity, large-capacity system.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2304488

  3. Severe Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient Coinfected with Leishmania braziliensis and Its Endosymbiotic Virus

    PubMed Central

    Parmentier, Laurent; Cusini, Alexia; Müller, Norbert; Zangger, Haroun; Hartley, Mary-Anne; Desponds, Chantal; Castiglioni, Patrik; Dubach, Patrick; Ronet, Catherine; Beverley, Stephen M.; Fasel, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Leishmania parasites cause a broad range of disease, with cutaneous afflictions being, by far, the most prevalent. Variations in disease severity and symptomatic spectrum are mostly associated to parasite species. One risk factor for the severity and emergence of leishmaniasis is immunosuppression, usually arising by coinfection of the patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Interestingly, several species of Leishmania have been shown to bear an endogenous cytoplasmic dsRNA virus (LRV) of the Totiviridae family, and recently we correlated the presence of LRV1 within Leishmania parasites to an exacerbation murine leishmaniasis and with an elevated frequency of drug treatment failures in humans. This raises the possibility of further exacerbation of leishmaniasis in the presence of both viruses, and here we report a case of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis bearing LRV1 with aggressive pathogenesis in an HIV patient. LRV1 was isolated and partially sequenced from skin and nasal lesions. Genetic identity of both sequences reinforced the assumption that nasal parasites originate from primary skin lesions. Surprisingly, combined antiretroviral therapy did not impact the devolution of Leishmania infection. The Leishmania infection was successfully treated through administration of liposomal amphotericin B. PMID:26834198

  4. Severe Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient Coinfected with Leishmania braziliensis and Its Endosymbiotic Virus.

    PubMed

    Parmentier, Laurent; Cusini, Alexia; Müller, Norbert; Zangger, Haroun; Hartley, Mary-Anne; Desponds, Chantal; Castiglioni, Patrik; Dubach, Patrick; Ronet, Catherine; Beverley, Stephen M; Fasel, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    Leishmania parasites cause a broad range of disease, with cutaneous afflictions being, by far, the most prevalent. Variations in disease severity and symptomatic spectrum are mostly associated to parasite species. One risk factor for the severity and emergence of leishmaniasis is immunosuppression, usually arising by coinfection of the patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Interestingly, several species of Leishmania have been shown to bear an endogenous cytoplasmic dsRNA virus (LRV) of the Totiviridae family, and recently we correlated the presence of LRV1 within Leishmania parasites to an exacerbation murine leishmaniasis and with an elevated frequency of drug treatment failures in humans. This raises the possibility of further exacerbation of leishmaniasis in the presence of both viruses, and here we report a case of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis bearing LRV1 with aggressive pathogenesis in an HIV patient. LRV1 was isolated and partially sequenced from skin and nasal lesions. Genetic identity of both sequences reinforced the assumption that nasal parasites originate from primary skin lesions. Surprisingly, combined antiretroviral therapy did not impact the devolution of Leishmania infection. The Leishmania infection was successfully treated through administration of liposomal amphotericin B. PMID:26834198

  5. Anti-leishmanial evaluation of C2-aryl quinolines: mechanistic insight on bioenergetics and sterol biosynthetic pathway of Leishmania braziliensis.

    PubMed

    Bompart, Daznia; Núñez-Durán, Jorge; Rodríguez, Daniel; Kouznetsov, Vladimir V; Meléndez Gómez, Carlos M; Sojo, Felipe; Arvelo, Francisco; Visbal, Gonzalo; Alvarez, Alvaro; Serrano-Martín, Xenón; García-Marchán, Yael

    2013-07-15

    A series of diverse simple C2-aryl quinolines was synthesized de novo via a straightforward synthesis based on the acid-catalyzed multicomponent imino Diels-Alder reactions. Seven selected quinolines were evaluated at different stages of Leishmania braziliensis parasite. Among them, the 6-ethyl-2-phenylquinoline 5f was able to inhibit the growth of promastigotes of this parasite without affecting the mammalian cells viability and decreasing the number of intracellular L. braziliensis amastigotes on BMDM macrophages. The mechanism of action studied for the selected compound consisted in: (1) alteration of parasite bioenergetics, by disrupting mitochondrial electrochemical potential and alkalinization of acidocalcisomes, and (2) inhibition of ergosterol biosynthetic pathway in promastigote forms. These results validate the efficiency of quinoline molecules as leishmanicide compounds. PMID:23719286

  6. Immunoproteomic and bioinformatic approaches to identify secreted Leishmania amazonensis, L. braziliensis, and L. infantum proteins with specific reactivity using canine serum.

    PubMed

    Lima, B S S; Fialho, L C; Pires, S F; Tafuri, W L; Andrade, H M

    2016-06-15

    Leishmania spp have a wide range of hosts, and each host can harbor several Leishmania species. Dogs, for example, are frequently infected by Leishmania infantum, where they constitute its main reservoir, but they also serve as hosts for L. braziliensis and L. amazonensis. Serological tests for antibody detection are valuable tools for diagnosis of L. infantum infection due to the high levels of antibodies induced, unlike what is observed in L. amazonensis and L. braziliensis infections. Likewise, serology-based antigen-detection can be useful as an approach to diagnose any Leishmania species infection using different corporal fluid samples. Immunogenic and secreted proteins constitute powerful targets for diagnostic methods in antigen detection. As such, we performed immunoproteomic (2-DE, western blot and mass spectrometry) and bioinformatic screening to search for reactive and secreted proteins from L. amazonensis, L. braziliensis, and L. infantum. Twenty-eight non-redundant proteins were identified, among which, six were reactive only in L. amazonensis extracts, 10 in L. braziliensis extracts, and seven in L. infantum extracts. After bioinformatic analysis, seven proteins were predicted to be secreted, two of which were reactive only in L. amazonensis extracts (52kDa PDI and the glucose-regulated protein 78), one in L. braziliensis extracts (pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 beta subunit) and three in L. infantum extracts (two conserved hypothetical proteins and elongation factor 1-beta). We propose that proteins can be suitable targets for diagnostic methods based on antigen detection. PMID:27198787

  7. Sunlight triggered photodynamic ultradeformable liposomes against Leishmania braziliensis are also leishmanicidal in the dark.

    PubMed

    Montanari, Jorge; Maidana, Cristina; Esteva, Mónica Inés; Salomon, Cristina; Morilla, Maria Jose; Romero, Eder L

    2010-11-01

    Being independent of artificial power sources, self administered sunlight triggered photodynamic therapy could be a suitable alternative treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis, that avoids the need for injectables and the toxic side effects of pentavalent antimonials. In this work we have determined the in vitro leishmanicidal activity of sunlight triggered photodynamic ultradeformable liposomes (UDL). ZnPc is a hydrophobic Zn phthalocyanine that showed 20% anti-promastigote activity (APA) and 20% anti-amastigote activity (AA) against Leishmania braziliensis (strain 2903) after 15min sunlight irradiation (15J/cm(2)). However, when loaded in UDL as UDL-ZnPc (1.25μM ZnPc-1mM phospholipids) it elicited 100% APA and 80% AA at the same light dose. In the absence of host cell toxicity, UDL and UDL-ZnPc also showed non-photodynamic leishmanicidal activity. Confocal laser scanning microscopy of cryosectioned human skin mounted in non-occlusive Saarbrücken Penetration Model, showed that upon transcutaneous administration ZnPc penetrated nearly 10 folds deeper as UDL-ZnPc than if loaded in conventional liposomes (L-ZnPc). Quantitative determination of ZnPc confirmed that UDL-ZnPc penetrated homogeneously in the stratum corneum, carrying 7 folds higher amount of ZnPc 8 folds deeper than L-ZnPc. It is envisioned that the multiple leishmanicidal effects of UDL-ZnPc could play a synergistic role in prophylaxis or therapeutic at early stages of the infection. PMID:20727925

  8. Disposition of antimony in rhesus monkeys infected with Leishmania braziliensis and treated with meglumine antimoniate.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Karen; Vieira, Flávia A; Porrozzi, Renato; Marchevsky, Renato S; Miekeley, Norbert; Grimaldi, Gabriel; Paumgartten, Francisco J R

    2012-01-01

    Antimony (Sb) disposition and toxicity was evaluated in Leishmania braziliensis-infected monkeys (Macaca mulatta) treated with a 21-d course of low (LOW) or standard (STD) meglumine antimoniate (MA) dosage regimens (5 or 20 mg Sb(V)/kg body weight/d im). Antimony levels in biological matrices were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS), while on-line ion chromatography coupled to ICPMS was used to separate and quantify Sb species in plasma. Nadir Sb levels rose steadily from 19.6 ± 4 and 65.1 ± 17.4 ng/g, 24 h after the first injection, up to 27.4 ± 5.8 and 95.7 ± 6.6 ng/g, 24 h after the 21st dose in LOW and SDT groups, respectively. Subsequently, Sb plasma levels gradually declined with a terminal elimination phase half-life of 35.8 d. Antimony speciation in plasma on posttreatment days 1-9 indicated that as total Sb levels declined, proportion of Sb(V) remained nearly constant (11-20%), while proportion of Sb(III) rose from 5% (d 1) to 50% (d 9). Plasma [Sb]/erythrocyte [Sb] ratio was >1 until 12 h after dosing and reversed thereafter. Tissue Sb concentrations (posttreatment days 55 and 95) were as follows: >1000 ng/g in thyroid, nails, liver, gall bladder and spleen; >200 and <1000 ng/g in lymph nodes, kidneys, adrenals, bones, skeletal muscles, heart and skin; and <200 ng/g in various brain structures, thymus, stomach, colon, pancreas. and teeth. Results from this study are therefore consistent with view that Sb(V) is reduced to Sb(III), the active form, within cells from where it is slowly eliminated. Localization of Sb active forms in the thyroid gland and liver and the pathophysiological consequences of marked Sb accumulation in these tissues warrant further studies. PMID:22129235

  9. Natural infection of cortelezzii complex (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) with Leishmania braziliensis in Chaco, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Juan; Pereira, Daniela Pita; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Filho, José Dilermando Andrade; Salomón, Oscar; Szelag, Enrique

    2012-08-01

    In Argentina, American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) extends up to 29°S in the phytogeographic regions of the Yungas (west), Chaco (center) and Paranaense (east). Since the Phlebotominae vectors of this disease in the western Chaco (dry Chaco) are unknown, in the present work, we studied the natural infection in Phlebotominae by PCR-ERFLP and Dot blot in order to incriminate these organisms as potential vectors. Captures with CDC-type traps were performed monthly in the domicile, the peridomicile and the forest in the Municipio Misión Nueva Pompeya, Chaco, Argentina, in two sites with human cases of ACL: Los Pozos (24°54'S, 61°22'W) and Fortín Arenales (24°58'S, 61°21'W), from November 2006 to December 2007. A total of 1702 Phlebotominae were captured: Mygonemyia migonei (83.8%), cortelezzii complex (11.1%), Mycropigomyia peresi (3.3%), Mycropygomy quinquefer (1.2%), Pintomyia torresi (0.2%) and Nyssomyia neivai (0.2%). Although no significant differences were found in species diversity, there were significant differences in abundance between both sites studied. A total of 80 phlebotomine females were analyzed: 50 of the cortelezzii complex and 30 My. migonei. No intestinal flagellates were observed by light microscopy. Two pools of 10 individuals of the cortelezzii complex of the peridomicile and forest of Fortín Arenales were reactive by PCR and Dot blot for Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. In Argentina, Evandromyia cortelezzii has been incriminated as a likely vector of ACL because of its abundance in areas of sporadic outbreaks. In the present work, Ev. cortelezzii females were found naturally infected, thus reinforcing the hypothesis that the members of the cortelezzii complex act as vectors of the disease. PMID:22569560

  10. First Evidence of a Hybrid of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis/L. (V.) peruviana DNA Detected from the Phlebotomine Sand Fly Lutzomyia tejadai in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2016-01-01

    The natural infection of sand flies by Leishmania was examined in the Department of Huanuco of Peru, where cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by a hybrid of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis/L. (V.) peruviana is endemic. A total of 2,997 female sand flies were captured by CDC light traps and Shannon traps, of which 2,931 and 66 flies were identified as Lutzomyia tejadai and Lu fischeri, respectively. Using crude DNA extracted from individual sand flies as a template, Leishmania DNA was detected from one Lu. tejadai. The parasite species was identified as a hybrid of L. (V.) braziliensis/L. (V.) peruviana on the basis of cytochrome b and mannose phosphate isomerase gene analyses. The result suggested that Lu. tejadai is responsible for the transmission of the hybrid Leishmania circulating in this area. PMID:26735142

  11. First Evidence of a Hybrid of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis/L. (V.) peruviana DNA Detected from the Phlebotomine Sand Fly Lutzomyia tejadai in Peru.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hirotomo; Cáceres, Abraham G; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2016-01-01

    The natural infection of sand flies by Leishmania was examined in the Department of Huanuco of Peru, where cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by a hybrid of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis/L. (V.) peruviana is endemic. A total of 2,997 female sand flies were captured by CDC light traps and Shannon traps, of which 2,931 and 66 flies were identified as Lutzomyia tejadai and Lu fischeri, respectively. Using crude DNA extracted from individual sand flies as a template, Leishmania DNA was detected from one Lu. tejadai. The parasite species was identified as a hybrid of L. (V.) braziliensis/L. (V.) peruviana on the basis of cytochrome b and mannose phosphate isomerase gene analyses. The result suggested that Lu. tejadai is responsible for the transmission of the hybrid Leishmania circulating in this area. PMID:26735142

  12. American tegumentary leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis: assessment of parasite genetic variability at intra- and inter-patient levels

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The genetic variability of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis was assessed at intra and interpatient levels of individuals with different clinical manifestations of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL). Methods Fifty-two samples, of which 13 originated from cutaneous lesions and 39 from mucosal lesions, provided by 35 patients, were examined by low-stringency single-specific-primer PCR (LSSP-PCR) and phenetic analysis. Genetic variability of L. (V.) braziliensis, in kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) signatures, was compared both from different patients and from different lesions of the same patient. Phenetic analysis was performed to evaluate the degree of heterogeneity of the kDNA minicircles. In order to evaluate inter and intrapatient L. (V.) braziliensis genetic variability, the percentage of shared bands and analysis of the coefficients of similarity were analyzed. Results Different genetic profiles, representing kDNA signatures of the parasite, were obtained by LSSP-PCR analysis of each sample. Phenetic analysis grouped genetic profiles of different levels of differentiation from more similar to most divergent. The percentage of shared bands at the inter and intrapatient levels was 77% and 89%, respectively. Comparison of the average inter and intrapatient coefficients of similarity and their standard deviations were statistically significant (p < 0.001). Conclusion Genetic variability at the intrapatient level was less pronounced than that between different patients. A conceptual model was proposed to better understand the complexity at both levels. PMID:23786878

  13. Cytochemical localization of ATP diphosphohydrolase from Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis promastigotes and identification of an antigenic and catalytically active isoform.

    PubMed

    Rezende-Soares, F A; Carvalho-Campos, C; Marques, M J; Porcino, G N; Giarola, N L L; Costa, B L S; Taunay-Rodrigues, A; Faria-Pinto, P; Souza, M A; Diniz, V A; Corte-Real, S; Juliano, M A; Juliano, L; Vasconcelos, E G

    2010-04-01

    An ATP diphosphohydrolase (EC 3.6.1.5) activity was identified in a Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis promastigotes preparation (Lb). Ultrastructural cytochemical microscopy showed this protein on the parasite surface and also stained a possible similar protein at the mitochondrial membrane. Isolation of an active ATP diphosphohydrolase isoform from Lb was obtained by cross-immunoreactivity with polyclonal anti-potato apyrase antibodies. These antibodies, immobilized on Protein A-Sepharose, immunoprecipitated a polypeptide of approximately 48 kDa and, in lower amount, a polypeptide of approximately 43 kDa, and depleted 83% ATPase and 87% of the ADPase activities from detergent-homogenized Lb. Potato apyrase was recognized in Western blots by IgG antibody from American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) patients, suggesting that the parasite and vegetable proteins share antigenic conserved epitopes. Significant IgG seropositivity in serum samples diluted 1:50 from ACL patients (n=20) for Lb (65%) and potato apyrase (90%) was observed by ELISA technique. Significant IgG antibody reactivity was also observed against synthetic peptides belonging to a conserved domain from L. braziliensis NDPase (80% seropositivity) and its potato apyrase counterpart (50% seropositivity), in accordance with the existence of shared antigenic epitopes and demonstrating that in leishmaniasis infection the domain r82-103 from L. braziliensis NDPase is a target for the human immune response. PMID:19961654

  14. Amastin Knockdown in Leishmania braziliensis Affects Parasite-Macrophage Interaction and Results in Impaired Viability of Intracellular Amastigotes.

    PubMed

    de Paiva, Rita Marcia Cardoso; Grazielle-Silva, Viviane; Cardoso, Mariana Santos; Nakagaki, Brenda Naemi; Mendonça-Neto, Rondon Pessoa; Canavaci, Adriana Monte Cassiano; Souza Melo, Normanda; Martinelli, Patrícia Massara; Fernandes, Ana Paula; daRocha, Wanderson Duarte; Teixeira, Santuza M R

    2015-12-01

    Leishmaniasis, a human parasitic disease with manifestations ranging from cutaneous ulcerations to fatal visceral infection, is caused by several Leishmania species. These protozoan parasites replicate as extracellular, flagellated promastigotes in the gut of a sandfly vector and as amastigotes inside the parasitophorous vacuole of vertebrate host macrophages. Amastins are surface glycoproteins encoded by large gene families present in the genomes of several trypanosomatids and highly expressed in the intracellular amastigote stages of Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. Here, we showed that the genome of L. braziliensis contains 52 amastin genes belonging to all four previously described amastin subfamilies and that the expression of members of all subfamilies is upregulated in L. braziliensis amastigotes. Although primary sequence alignments showed no homology to any known protein sequence, homology searches based on secondary structure predictions indicate that amastins are related to claudins, a group of proteins that are components of eukaryotic tight junction complexes. By knocking-down the expression of δ-amastins in L. braziliensis, their essential role during infection became evident. δ-amastin knockdown parasites showed impaired growth after in vitro infection of mouse macrophages and completely failed to produce infection when inoculated in BALB/c mice, an attenuated phenotype that was reverted by the re-expression of an RNAi-resistant amastin gene. Further highlighting their essential role in host-parasite interactions, electron microscopy analyses of macrophages infected with amastin knockdown parasites showed significant alterations in the tight contact that is normally observed between the surface of wild type amastigotes and the membrane of the parasitophorous vacuole. PMID:26641088

  15. Cellular Growth and Mitochondrial Ultrastructure of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis Promastigotes Are Affected by the Iron Chelator 2,2-Dipyridyl

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita-Rodrigues, Camila; Menna-Barreto, Rubem F. S.; Sabóia-Vahia, Leonardo; Da-Silva, Silvia A. G.; de Souza, Elen M.; Waghabi, Mariana C.; Cuervo, Patrícia; De Jesus, José B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Iron is an essential element for the survival of microorganisms in vitro and in vivo, acting as a cofactor of several enzymes and playing a critical role in host-parasite relationships. Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis is a parasite that is widespread in the new world and considered the major etiological agent of American tegumentary leishmaniasis. Although iron depletion leads to promastigote and amastigote growth inhibition, little is known about the role of iron in the biology of Leishmania. Furthermore, there are no reports regarding the importance of iron for L. (V.) braziliensis. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, the effect of iron on the growth, ultrastructure and protein expression of L. (V.) braziliensis was analyzed by the use of the chelator 2,2-dipyridyl. Treatment with 2,2-dipyridyl affected parasites' growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Multiplication of the parasites was recovered after reinoculation in fresh culture medium. Ultrastructural analysis of treated promastigotes revealed marked mitochondrial swelling with loss of cristae and matrix and the presence of concentric membranar structures inside the organelle. Iron depletion also induced Golgi disruption and intense cytoplasmic vacuolization. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis of tetramethylrhodamine ester-stained parasites showed that 2,2-dipyridyl collapsed the mitochondrial membrane potential. The incubation of parasites with propidium iodide demonstrated that disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential was not associated with plasma membrane permeabilization. TUNEL assays indicated no DNA fragmentation in chelator-treated promastigotes. In addition, two-dimensional electrophoresis showed that treatment with the iron chelator induced up- or down-regulation of proteins involved in metabolism of nucleic acids and coordination of post-translational modifications, without altering their mRNA levels. Conclusions Iron chelation leads to a

  16. Amastin Knockdown in Leishmania braziliensis Affects Parasite-Macrophage Interaction and Results in Impaired Viability of Intracellular Amastigotes

    PubMed Central

    Nakagaki, Brenda Naemi; Mendonça-Neto, Rondon Pessoa; Canavaci, Adriana Monte Cassiano; Souza Melo, Normanda; Martinelli, Patrícia Massara; Fernandes, Ana Paula; daRocha, Wanderson Duarte; Teixeira, Santuza M. R.

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis, a human parasitic disease with manifestations ranging from cutaneous ulcerations to fatal visceral infection, is caused by several Leishmania species. These protozoan parasites replicate as extracellular, flagellated promastigotes in the gut of a sandfly vector and as amastigotes inside the parasitophorous vacuole of vertebrate host macrophages. Amastins are surface glycoproteins encoded by large gene families present in the genomes of several trypanosomatids and highly expressed in the intracellular amastigote stages of Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. Here, we showed that the genome of L. braziliensis contains 52 amastin genes belonging to all four previously described amastin subfamilies and that the expression of members of all subfamilies is upregulated in L. braziliensis amastigotes. Although primary sequence alignments showed no homology to any known protein sequence, homology searches based on secondary structure predictions indicate that amastins are related to claudins, a group of proteins that are components of eukaryotic tight junction complexes. By knocking-down the expression of δ-amastins in L. braziliensis, their essential role during infection became evident. δ-amastin knockdown parasites showed impaired growth after in vitro infection of mouse macrophages and completely failed to produce infection when inoculated in BALB/c mice, an attenuated phenotype that was reverted by the re-expression of an RNAi-resistant amastin gene. Further highlighting their essential role in host-parasite interactions, electron microscopy analyses of macrophages infected with amastin knockdown parasites showed significant alterations in the tight contact that is normally observed between the surface of wild type amastigotes and the membrane of the parasitophorous vacuole. PMID:26641088

  17. Chemotherapeutic Potential of 17-AAG against Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Diego M.; Petersen, Antonio L. O. A.; Celes, Fabiana S.; Borges, Valeria M.; Veras, Patricia S. T.; de Oliveira, Camila I.

    2014-01-01

    Background Leishmaniasis remains a worldwide public health problem. The limited therapeutic options, drug toxicity and reports of resistance, reinforce the need for the development of new treatment options. Previously, we showed that 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), a Heat Shock Protein 90 (HSP90)-specific inhibitor, reduces L. (L.) amazonensis infection in vitro. Herein, we expand the current knowledge on the leishmanicidal activity of 17-AAG against cutaneous leishmaniasis, employing an experimental model of infection with L. (V.) braziliensis. Methodology/Principal findings Exposure of axenic L. (V.) braziliensis promastigotes to 17-AAG resulted in direct dose-dependent parasite killing. These results were extended to L. (V.) braziliensis-infected macrophages, an effect that was dissociated from the production of nitric oxide (NO), superoxide (O−2) or inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α, IL-6 and MCP-1. The leishmanicidal effect was then demonstrated in vivo, employing BALB/c mice infected with L. braziliensis. In this model, 17-AAG treatment resulted in smaller skin lesions and parasite counts were also significantly reduced. Lastly, 17-AAG showed a similar effect to amphotericin B regarding the ability to reduce parasite viability. Conclusion/Significance 17-AAG effectively inhibited the growth of L. braziliensis, both in vitro and in vivo. Given the chronicity of L. (V.) braziliensis infection and its association with mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, 17-AAG can be envisaged as a new chemotherapeutic alternative for cutaneous Leishmaniasis. PMID:25340794

  18. American cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis resistant to meglumine antimoniate, but with good response to pentamidine: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Maria Inês Fernandes; Baptista, Cibele; Rubin, Evelyn Figueiredo; Vasconcellos, Erica de Camargo Ferreira e; Lyra, Marcelo Rosandiski; Salgueiro, Mariza de Matos; Saheki, Maurício Naoto; Rosalino, Cláudia Maria Valete; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Silva, Aline Fagundes da; Confort, Eliame Mouta; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    This is a case report of a Brazilian soldier with cutaneous leishmaniasis. The lesion relapsed following two systemic treatments with meglumine antimoniate. The patient was treated with amphotericin B, which was interrupted due to poor tolerance. Following isolation of Leishmania sp., six intralesional infiltrations of meglumine antimoniate resulted in no response. Leishmania sp promastigotes were again isolated. The patient was submitted to intramuscular 4 mg/kg pentamidine. Parasites from the first and second biopsies were identified as Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis; those isolated from the first biopsy were more sensitive to meglumine antimoniate in vitro than those isolated from the second biopsy. No relapse was observed. PMID:21552747

  19. Association of the Endobiont Double-Stranded RNA Virus LRV1 With Treatment Failure for Human Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania braziliensis in Peru and Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Adaui, Vanessa; Lye, Lon-Fye; Akopyants, Natalia S; Zimic, Mirko; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Garcia, Lineth; Maes, Ilse; De Doncker, Simonne; Dobson, Deborah E; Arevalo, Jorge; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Beverley, Stephen M

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis, caused in South America by Leishmania braziliensis, is difficult to cure by chemotherapy (primarily pentavalent antimonials [Sb(V)]). Treatment failure does not correlate well with resistance in vitro, and the factors responsible for treatment failure in patients are not well understood. Many isolates of L. braziliensis (>25%) contain a double-stranded RNA virus named Leishmaniavirus 1 (LRV1), which has also been reported in Leishmania guyanensis, for which an association with increased pathology, metastasis, and parasite replication was found in murine models. Here we probed the relationship of LRV1 to drug treatment success and disease in 97 L. braziliensis-infected patients from Peru and Bolivia. In vitro cultures were established, parasites were typed as L. braziliensis, and the presence of LRV1 was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, followed by sequence analysis. LRV1 was associated significantly with an increased risk of treatment failure (odds ratio, 3.99; P = .04). There was no significant association with intrinsic Sb(V) resistance among parasites, suggesting that treatment failure arises from LRV1-mediated effects on host metabolism and/or parasite survival. The association of LRV1 with clinical drug treatment failure could serve to guide more-effective treatment of tegumentary disease caused by L. braziliensis. PMID:26123565

  20. Transcriptome Patterns from Primary Cutaneous Leishmania braziliensis Infections Associate with Eventual Development of Mucosal Disease in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Maretti-Mira, Ana Claudia; Bittner, Jaime; Oliveira-Neto, Manoel Paes; Liu, Minghsun; Kang, Dezhi; Li, Huiying; Pirmez, Claude; Craft, Noah

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Localized Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (LCL) and Mucosal Leishmaniasis (ML) are two extreme clinical forms of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis that usually begin as solitary primary cutaneous lesions. Host and parasite factors that influence the progression of LCL to ML are not completely understood. In this manuscript, we compare the gene expression profiles of primary cutaneous lesions from patients who eventually developed ML to those that did not. Methods Using RNA-seq, we analyzed both the human and Leishmania transcriptomes in primary cutaneous lesions. Results Limited number of reads mapping to Leishmania transcripts were obtained. For human transcripts, compared to ML patients, lesions from LCL patients displayed a general multi-polarization of the adaptive immune response and showed up-regulation of genes involved in chemoattraction of innate immune cells and in antigen presentation. We also identified a potential transcriptional signature in the primary lesions that may predict long-term disease outcome. Conclusions We were able to simultaneously sequence both human and Leishmania mRNA transcripts in primary cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions. Our results suggest an intrinsic difference in the immune capacity of LCL and ML patients. The findings correlate the complete cure of L. braziliensis infection with a controlled inflammatory response and a balanced activation of innate and adaptive immunity. PMID:23029578

  1. Ecto-Nucleotidase Activities of Promastigotes from Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis Relates to Parasite Infectivity and Disease Clinical Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Pauline M.; Gomes, Rodrigo S.; Figueiredo, Amanda B.; Serafim, Tiago D.; Tafuri, Wagner L.; de Souza, Carolina C.; Moura, Sandra A. L.; Fietto, Juliana L. R.; Melo, Maria N.; Ribeiro-Dias, Fátima; Oliveira, Milton A. P.; Rabello, Ana; Afonso, Luís C. C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis has been associated with a broad range of clinical manifestations ranging from a simple cutaneous ulcer to destructive mucosal lesions. Factors leading to this diversity of clinical presentations are not clear, but parasite factors have lately been recognized as important in determining disease progression. Given the fact that the activity of ecto-nucleotidases correlates with parasitism and the development of infection, we evaluated the activity of these enzymes in promastigotes from 23 L. braziliensis isolates as a possible parasite-related factor that could influence the clinical outcome of the disease. Methodology/Principal Findings Our results show that the isolates differ in their ability to hydrolyze adenine nucleotides. Furthermore, we observed a positive correlation between the time for peak of lesion development in C57BL/6J mice and enzymatic activity and clinical manifestation of the isolate. In addition, we found that L. (V.) braziliensis isolates obtained from mucosal lesions hydrolyze higher amounts of adenine nucleotides than isolates obtained from skin lesions. One isolate with high (PPS6m) and another with low (SSF) ecto-nucleotidase activity were chosen for further studies. Mice inoculated with PPS6m show delayed lesion development and present larger parasite loads than animals inoculated with the SSF isolate. In addition, PPS6m modulates the host immune response by inhibiting dendritic cell activation and NO production by activated J774 macrophages. Finally, we observed that the amastigote forms from PPS6m and SSF isolates present low enzymatic activity that does not interfere with NO production and parasite survival in macrophages. Conclusions/Significance Our data suggest that ecto-nucleotidases present on the promastigote forms of the parasite may interfere with the establishment of the immune response with consequent impaired ability to control parasite dissemination and this may be an important

  2. Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase 1): localization and in vitro inhibition of promastigotes growth by polyclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Porcino, Gabriane Nascimento; Carvalho-Campos, Cristiane; Maia, Ana Carolina Ribeiro Gomes; Detoni, Michelle Lima; Faria-Pinto, Priscila; Coimbra, Elaine Soares; Marques, Marcos José; Juliano, Maria Aparecida; Juliano, Luiz; Diniz, Vanessa Álvaro; Corte-Real, Suzana; Vasconcelos, Eveline Gomes

    2012-10-01

    Nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase) activity was recently characterized in Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis promastigotes (Lb), and an antigenic conserved domain (r82-121) from the specific NTPDase 1 isoform was identified. In this work, mouse polyclonal antibodies produced against two synthetic peptides derived from this domain (LbB1LJ, r82-103; LbB2LJ, r102-121) were used. The anti-LbB1LJ or anti-LbB2LJ antibodies were immobilized on protein A-sepharose and immunoprecipitated the NTPDase 1 of 48 kDa and depleted approximately 40% of the phosphohydrolytic activity from detergent-homogenized Lb preparation. Ultrastructural immunocytochemical microscopy identified the NTPDase 1 on the parasite surface and in its subcellular cytoplasmic vesicles, mitochondria, kinetoplast and nucleus. The ATPase and ADPase activities of detergent-homogenized Lb preparation were partially inhibited by anti-LbB1LJ antibody (43-79%), which was more effective than that inhibition (18-47%) by anti-LbB2LJ antibody. In addition, the immune serum anti-LbB1LJ (67%) or anti-LbB2LJ (33%) was cytotoxic, significantly reducing the promastigotes growth in vitro. The results appoint the conserved domain from the L. braziliensis NTPDase as an important target for inhibitor design and the potential application of these biomolecules in experimental protocols of disease control. PMID:22921497

  3. Phototoxic effects of silicon bis (dimetilaminoetanoxi)-phthalocyanine (SiPc) on the viability of Leishmania major and Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra Pinto, Juliana; Ferreira-Strixino, Juliana; Mittmann, Josane

    2016-06-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is an infectious disease caused by protozoans of the genus Leishmania. The treatment may consist of pentavalent antimonials or pentamidine and amphotericin. However, these treatments are extremely aggressive. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) involves the same mechanism of photodynamic therapy which associates a photosensitizer with oxygen and a light source generating a photochemical reaction leading to cell death. The aim of this study was to verify the potential use of silicon bis (dimetilaminoetanoxi)-phthalocyanine (SiPc) compound in photodynamic treatment through evaluation of its phototoxic effect in promastigotes of the genus Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania major. Treatment with SiPc was able to drastically affect the viability of the parasites as well as affect their growth and morphology, after PACT treatment. The data shown in this study allows us to conclude that SiPc is a promising photosensitizer (PS) since it does not affect parasite growth and viability in the dark. After PACT with this phthalocyanine, over 99% of parasites were killed with the higher concentration and a light dose used. These results suggest that SiPc can be used in future to treat CL, however, further studies are necessary to determine whether the PS are toxic to mononuclear phagocytic cells and epithelial cells which will also be affected by therapy when applied topically.

  4. Evaluation of photodynamic antimicrobial therapy (PACT) against promastigotes form of the Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis: in vitro study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Artur F. S.; Sangiorgi, Bruno B.; Galdino, Suely L.; Pitta, Ivan R.; Barral Netto, Manoel; Correia, Neandder A.; Pinheiro, Antônio L. B.

    2012-03-01

    Leishmaniasis is a complex disease that affects more than 12 million people in 88 countries worldwide. Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis is the most common species in the Americas and the most important causative agent of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil. The therapeutic arsenal routinely employed to treat patients with leishmaniasis is limited and unsatisfactory. For cutaneous leishmaniasis, pentavalent antimonials are the first line therapeutic scheme recommended by the WHO. These compounds are highly toxic, poorly tolerated and their effectiveness highly variable. In this work, a technique with, so far, an unknown disadvantage is discussed. The aim of this study was to verify the effectiveness of PACT in vitro, as a new technique for the treatment of Leishmaniasis. For this, semiconductor laser (λ = 660nm, 40mW, 4.2J/cm2, CW) associated to phenothiazine's derivatives (5 and 10 μg/ml, TBO, Methylene Blue or Phenothiazine) on the promastigotes form of Leishmania braziliensis in a single session was used. Viability of the parasites was assessed in quadruplicates of each group. The samples were removed and analyzed in a hemocytometer 72h after PACT. We found an important decrease in the number of viable parasites on all treated groups in comparison to their controls. The results of present study showed significant percentage of lethality (above 95%) of the protocol. The 99.23% of lethality was achieved with 10 μg/ml of TBO. No lethality was seen on groups treated neither with laser nor with each compounds separately. The results are promising and indicative that the use of PACT may be a powerful treatment of leishmaniasis when compared to already available ones.

  5. Differential Gene Expression and Infection Profiles of Cutaneous and Mucosal Leishmania braziliensis Isolates from the Same Patient

    PubMed Central

    Alves-Ferreira, Eliza V. C.; Toledo, Juliano S.; De Oliveira, Arthur H. C.; Ferreira, Tiago R.; Ruy, Patricia C.; Pinzan, Camila F.; Santos, Ramon F.; Boaventura, Viviane; Rojo, David; López-Gonzálvez, Ángelez; Rosa, Jose C.; Barbas, Coral; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Barral, Aldina; Cruz, Angela K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Leishmaniasis is a complex disease in which clinical outcome depends on factors such as parasite species, host genetics and immunity and vector species. In Brazil, Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis is a major etiological agent of cutaneous (CL) and mucosal leishmaniasis (MCL), a disfiguring form of the disease, which occurs in ~10% of L. braziliensis-infected patients. Thus, clinical isolates from patients with CL and MCL may be a relevant source of information to uncover parasite factors contributing to pathogenesis. In this study, we investigated two pairs of L. (V.) braziliensis isolates from mucosal (LbrM) and cutaneous (LbrC) sites of the same patient to identify factors distinguishing parasites that migrate from those that remain at the primary site of infection. Methodology/Principal Findings We observed no major genomic divergences among the clinical isolates by molecular karyotype and genomic sequencing. RT-PCR revealed that the isolates lacked Leishmania RNA virus (LRV). However, the isolates exhibited distinct in vivo pathogenesis in BALB/c mice; the LbrC isolates were more virulent than the LbrM isolates. Metabolomic analysis revealed significantly increased levels of 14 metabolites in LbrC parasites and 31 metabolites in LbrM parasites that were mainly related to inflammation and chemotaxis. A proteome comparative analysis revealed the overexpression of LbrPGF2S (prostaglandin f2-alpha synthase) and HSP70 in both LbrC isolates. Overexpression of LbrPGF2S in LbrC and LbrM promastigotes led to an increase in infected macrophages and the number of amastigotes per cell at 24–48 h post-infection (p.i.). Conclusions/Significance Despite sharing high similarity at the genome structure and ploidy levels, the parasites exhibited divergent expressed genomes. The proteome and metabolome results indicated differential profiles between the cutaneous and mucosal isolates, primarily related to inflammation and chemotaxis. BALB/c infection revealed that

  6. Prediction of CD8+ Epitopes in Leishmania braziliensis Proteins Using EPIBOT: In Silico Search and In Vivo Validation

    PubMed Central

    Tosta, Rafael; Carvalho, Augusto M.; Barbosa, Carlos Henrique; Bellio, Maria; de Oliveira, Camila I.; Barral-Netto, Manoel

    2015-01-01

    Background Leishmaniasis is caused by intracellular Leishmania parasites that induce a T-cell mediated response associated with recognition of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell Line 1Lineepitopes. Identification of CD8+ antigenic determinants is crucial for vaccine and therapy development. Herein, we developed an open-source software dedicated to search and compile data obtained from currently available on line prediction algorithms. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed a two-phase algorithm and implemented in an open source software called EPIBOT, that consolidates the results obtained with single prediction algorithms, generating a final output in which epitopes are ranked. EPIBOT was initially trained using a set of 831 known epitopes from 397 proteins from IEDB. We then screened 63 Leishmania braziliensis vaccine candidates with the EPIBOT trained tool to search for CD8+ T cell epitopes. A proof-of-concept experiment was conducted with the top eight CD8+ epitopes, elected by EPIBOT. To do this, the elected peptides were synthesized and validated for their in vivo cytotoxicity. Among the tested epitopes, three were able to induce lysis of pulsed-target cells. Conclusion Our results show that EPIBOT can successfully search across existing prediction tools, generating a compiled list of candidate CD8+ epitopes. This software is fast and a simple search engine that can be customized to search over different MHC alleles or HLA haplotypes. PMID:25905908

  7. Human cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in Santiago del Estero, Argentina: identification of parasites by monoclonal antibodies and isoenzymes.

    PubMed

    Cuba, C A; Torno, C O; Ledesma, O; Visciarelli, E; Garcia, S; Prat, M I; Costamagna, R; Barbieri, L; Evans, D A

    1996-01-01

    Diagnostic and parasite characterization and identification studies were carried out in human patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions in Santiago del Estero, Northern Province of Argentina. Diagnostic procedures were biopsies of lesions for smears and inoculations in hamster, needle aspirations of material from ulcers for "in vitro" cultures. Immunodiagnostic techniques applied were IFAT-IgG and Montenegro skin test. Primary isolation of eight stocks of leishmanial parasites was achieved from patients with active lesions. All stocks were biologically characterized by their behaviour in hamster, measurements of amastigote and promastigotes and growth "in vitro". Eight stocks were characterized and identified at species level by their reactivity to a cross-panel of sub-genus and species-specific Monoclonal Antibodies through an Indirect Immunofluorescence technique and a Dot-ELISA. We conclude from the serodeme analysis of Argentina stocks that: stocks MHOM/AR/92/SE-1; SE-2; SE-4; SE-8; SE-8-I; SE-30; SE-34 and SE-36 are Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. Three Leishmania stocks (SE-1; SE-2 and SE-30) did not react with one highly species-specific Monoclonal Antibody (Clone: B-18, Leishmania-(Viannia) braziliensis marker) disclosing two serodeme group patterns. Five out of eight soluble extracts of leishmanial promastigotes were electrophoresed on thin-layer starch gels and examined for the enzyme MPI, Mannose Phosphate Isomerase; MDH, Malate Dehydrogenase; 6PGD, 6 Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase; NH, Nucleoside Hydrolase, 2-deoxyinosine as substrate; SOD, Superoxide Dismutase; GPI, Glucose Phosphate Isomerase and ES, Esterase. From the isoenzyme studies we concluded that stocks: MHOM/AR/92/SE-1; SE-2; SE-4; SE-8 and SE-8-I are isoenzymatically Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. We need to analyze more enzymes before assigning them to a braziliensis zymodeme. PMID:9293087

  8. Native Rodent Species Are Unlikely Sources of Infection for Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis along the Transoceanic Highway in Madre de Dios, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Shender, Lisa A.; De Los Santos, Maxy; Montgomery, Joel M.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Ghersi, Bruno M.; Razuri, Hugo; Lescano, Andres G.; Mazet, Jonna A. K.

    2014-01-01

    An estimated 2.3 million disability-adjusted life years are lost globally from leishmaniasis. In Peru's Amazon region, the department of Madre de Dios (MDD) rises above the rest of the country in terms of the annual incidence rates of human leishmaniasis. Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis is the species most frequently responsible for the form of disease that results in tissue destruction of the nose and mouth. However, essentially nothing is known regarding the reservoirs of this vector-borne, zoonotic parasite in MDD. Wild rodents have been suspected, or proven, to be reservoirs of several Leishmania spp. in various ecosystems and countries. Additionally, people who live or work in forested terrain, especially those who are not regionally local and whose immune systems are thus naïve to the parasite, are at most risk for contracting L. (V.) braziliensis. Hence, the objective of this study was to collect tissues from wild rodents captured at several study sites along the Amazonian segment of the newly constructed Transoceanic Highway and to use molecular laboratory techniques to analyze samples for the presence of Leishmania parasites. Liver tissues were tested via polymerase chain reaction from a total of 217 rodents; bone marrow and skin biopsies (ear and tail) were also tested from a subset of these same animals. The most numerous rodent species captured and tested were Oligoryzomys microtis (40.7%), Hylaeamys perenensis (15.7%), and Proechimys spp. (12%). All samples were negative for Leishmania, implying that although incidental infections may occur, these abundant rodent species are unlikely to serve as primary reservoirs of L. (V.) braziliensis along the Transoceanic Highway in MDD. Therefore, although these rodent species may persist and even thrive in moderately altered landscapes, we did not find any evidence to suggest they pose a risk for L. (V.) braziliensis transmission to human inhabitants in this highly prevalent region. PMID:25062033

  9. Proteins Selected in Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis by an Immunoproteomic Approach with Potential Serodiagnosis Applications for Tegumentary Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Mariana C.; Pimenta, Daniel C.; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Magalhães, Rubens D. M.; Diniz, João L. C. P.; Costa, Lourena E.; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel A.; Lage, Paula S.; Bartholomeu, Daniela C.; Alves, Maria Julia M.; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Soto, Manuel; Tavares, Carlos A. P.; Gonçalves, Denise U.; Rocha, Manoel O. C.

    2015-01-01

    The serodiagnosis of human tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) presents some problems, such as the low level of antileishmanial antibodies found in most of the patients, as well as the cross-reactivity in subjects infected by other trypanosomatids. In the present study, an immunoproteomic approach was performed aimed at identification of antigens in total extracts of stationary-phase promastigote and amastigote-like forms of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis using sera from TL patients. With the purpose of reducing the cross-reactivity of the identified proteins, spots recognized by sera from TL patients, as well as those recognized by antibodies present in sera from noninfected patients living in areas where TL is endemic and sera from Chagas disease patients, were discarded. Two Leishmania hypothetical proteins and 18 proteins with known functions were identified as antigenic. The study was extended with some of them to validate the results of the immunoscreening. The coding regions of five of the characterized antigens (enolase, tryparedoxin peroxidase, eukaryotic initiation factor 5a, β-tubulin, and one of the hypothetical proteins) were cloned in a prokaryotic expression vector, and the corresponding recombinant proteins were purified and evaluated for the serodiagnosis of TL. The antigens presented sensitivity and specificity values ranging from 95.4 to 100% and 82.5 to 100%, respectively. As a comparative antigen, a preparation of Leishmania extract showed sensitivity and specificity values of 65.1 and 57.5%, respectively. The present study has enabled the identification of proteins able to be employed for the serodiagnosis of TL. PMID:26376929

  10. Proteins Selected in Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis by an Immunoproteomic Approach with Potential Serodiagnosis Applications for Tegumentary Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Mariana C; Pimenta, Daniel C; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Magalhães, Rubens D M; Diniz, João L C P; Costa, Lourena E; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel A; Lage, Paula S; Bartholomeu, Daniela C; Alves, Maria Julia M; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Soto, Manuel; Tavares, Carlos A P; Gonçalves, Denise U; Rocha, Manoel O C; Coelho, Eduardo A F

    2015-11-01

    The serodiagnosis of human tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) presents some problems, such as the low level of antileishmanial antibodies found in most of the patients, as well as the cross-reactivity in subjects infected by other trypanosomatids. In the present study, an immunoproteomic approach was performed aimed at identification of antigens in total extracts of stationary-phase promastigote and amastigote-like forms of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis using sera from TL patients. With the purpose of reducing the cross-reactivity of the identified proteins, spots recognized by sera from TL patients, as well as those recognized by antibodies present in sera from noninfected patients living in areas where TL is endemic and sera from Chagas disease patients, were discarded. Two Leishmania hypothetical proteins and 18 proteins with known functions were identified as antigenic. The study was extended with some of them to validate the results of the immunoscreening. The coding regions of five of the characterized antigens (enolase, tryparedoxin peroxidase, eukaryotic initiation factor 5a, β-tubulin, and one of the hypothetical proteins) were cloned in a prokaryotic expression vector, and the corresponding recombinant proteins were purified and evaluated for the serodiagnosis of TL. The antigens presented sensitivity and specificity values ranging from 95.4 to 100% and 82.5 to 100%, respectively. As a comparative antigen, a preparation of Leishmania extract showed sensitivity and specificity values of 65.1 and 57.5%, respectively. The present study has enabled the identification of proteins able to be employed for the serodiagnosis of TL. PMID:26376929

  11. Infectiousness of Sylvatic and Synanthropic Small Rodents Implicates a Multi-host Reservoir of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis

    PubMed Central

    F. Brito, Maria E.; Carvalho, Francisco G.; Carvalho, Ana Waléria S.; Soares, Fábia; Carvalho, Silvia M.; Costa, Pietra L.; Zampieri, Ricardo; Floeter-Winter, Lucile M.; Shaw, Jeffrey J.; Brandão-Filho, Sinval P.

    2015-01-01

    Background The possibility that a multi-host wildlife reservoir is responsible for maintaining transmission of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis causing human cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis is tested by comparative analysis of infection progression and infectiousness to sandflies in rodent host species previously shown to have high natural infection prevalences in both sylvatic or/and peridomestic habitats in close proximity to humans in northeast Brazil. Methods The clinical and parasitological outcomes, and infectiousness to sandflies, were observed in 54 colonized animals of three species (18 Necromys lasiurus, 18 Nectomys squamipes and 18 Rattus rattus) experimentally infected with high (5.5×106/ml) or low (2.8×105/ml) dose L. (V.) braziliensis (MBOL/BR/2000/CPqAM95) inoculum. Clinical signs of infection were monitored daily. Whole animal xenodiagnoses were performed 6 months post inoculation using Lutzomyia longipalpis originating from flies caught in Passira, Pernambuco, after this parasite evaluation was performed at necropsy. Heterogeneities in Leishmania parasite loads were measured by quantitative PCR in ear skin, liver and spleen tissues. Results All three rodent species proved to establish infection characterized by short-term self-resolving skin lesions, located on ears and tail but not on footpads (one site of inoculation), and variable parasite loads detected in all three tissues with maximum burdens of 8.1×103 (skin), 2.8×103 (spleen), and 8.9×102 (liver). All three host species, 18/18 N. lasiurus, 10/18 N. squamipes and 6/18 R. rattus, also proved infectious to sandflies in cross-sectional study. R. rattus supported significantly lower tissue parasite loads compared to those in N. lasiurus and N. squamipes, and N. lasiurus appeared to be more infectious, on average, than either N. squamipes or R. rattus. Conclusions A multi-host reservoir of cutaneous leishmaniasis is indicated in this region of Brazil, though with apparent

  12. In vitro characterization of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis isolates from patients with different responses to Glucantime(®) treatment from Northwest Paraná, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Andrea Claudia Bekner Silva; Pedroso, Raíssa Bocchi; de Mello, Tatiane França Perles; Donatti, Lucélia; Venazzi, Eneide Aparecida Sabaini; Demarchi, Izabel Galhardo; Aristides, Sandra Mara Alessi; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Silveira, Thaís Gomes Verzignassi

    2016-08-01

    Leishmaniasis is a group of diseases that presents various clinical manifestations. Many studies have shown that the parasite plays an important role in the clinical manifestations and prognosis of this disease. The cutaneous and mucosal forms of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) are associated with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, which exhibits intraspecific genetic polymorphisms and various clinical manifestations. The present study focused on four different L. braziliensis strains that were isolated from patients with distinct Glucantime(®) treatment responses. The isolates were described based on their molecular, biological, and infective characteristics. Growth patterns in culture medium and different grow phases were analyzed, MID-Logarithimic (Mid-LOG), Logarithimic (LOG) and Stationary (STAT) phases. Complement resistance was evaluated using guinea pig serum. Infection to murine peritoneal macrophages, cytokine and nitric oxide were analyzed. Ultrastructural features were determined by transmission electron microscopy, and molecular characteristics were determined based on random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). All of the L. braziliensis isolates showed typical growth and similar complement sensitivity patterns. Markedly lower infectivity indexes were observed for all strains in the LOG phase, with different cytokine profiles. The ultrastructure analysis revealed distinct differences between the MID-LOG, LOG, and STAT phases. The RAPD results showed a divergence between the isolates of the L. braziliensis. The in vitro characterization of L. braziliensis isolates from humans with different treatment responses using various parameters enabled us to observe differences among the isolates. Molecular and in vivo characterizations are currently under study to improve understanding of the parasite-host interaction that can imply in the clinical manifestation differences. PMID:27181585

  13. A Luciferase-Expressing Leishmania braziliensis Line That Leads to Sustained Skin Lesions in BALB/c Mice and Allows Monitoring of Miltefosine Treatment Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Adriano C.; Oliveira, Jordana C.; Espada, Caroline R.; Reimão, Juliana Q.; Trinconi, Cristiana T.; Uliana, Silvia R. B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Leishmania braziliensis is the most prevalent species isolated from patients displaying cutaneous and muco-cutaneous leishmaniasis in South America. However, there are difficulties for studying L. braziliensis pathogenesis or response to chemotherapy in vivo due to the natural resistance of most mouse strains to infection with these parasites. The aim of this work was to develop an experimental set up that could be used to assess drug efficacy against L. braziliensis. The model was tested using miltefosine. Methodology/Principal Findings A L. braziliensis line, originally isolated from a cutaneous leishmaniasis patient, was passaged repeatedly in laboratory rodents and further genetically manipulated to express luciferase. Once collected from a culture of parasites freshly transformed from amastigotes, 106 wild type or luciferase-expressing stationary phase promastigotes were inoculated subcutaneously in young BALB/c mice or golden hamsters. In both groups, sustained cutaneous lesions developed at the site of inoculation, no spontaneous self- healing being observed 4 months post-inoculation, if left untreated. Compared to the wild type line features, no difference was noted for the luciferase-transgenic line. Infected animals were treated with 5 or 15 mg/kg/day miltefosine orally for 15 days. At the end of treatment, lesions had regressed and parasites were not detected. However, relapses were observed in animals treated with both doses of miltefosine. Conclusions/Significance Here we described experimental settings for a late-healing model of cutaneous leishmaniasis upon inoculation of a luciferase-expressing L. braziliensis line that can be applied to drug development projects. These settings allowed the monitoring of the transient efficacy of a short-term miltefosine administration. PMID:27144739

  14. Identification of two p23 co-chaperone isoforms in Leishmania braziliensis exhibiting similar structures and Hsp90 interaction properties despite divergent stabilities.

    PubMed

    Batista, Fernanda A H; Almeida, Glessler S; Seraphim, Thiago V; Silva, Kelly P; Murta, Silvane M F; Barbosa, Leandro R S; Borges, Júlio C

    2015-01-01

    The small acidic protein called p23 acts as a co-chaperone for heat-shock protein of 90 kDa (Hsp90) during its ATPase cycle. p23 proteins inhibit Hsp90 ATPase activity and show intrinsic chaperone activity. A search for p23 in protozoa, especially trypanosomatids, led us to identify two putative proteins in the Leishmania braziliensis genome that share approximately 30% identity with each other and with the human p23. To understand the presence of two p23 isoforms in trypanosomatids, we obtained the recombinant p23 proteins of L. braziliensis (named Lbp23A and Lbp23B) and performed structural and functional studies. The recombinant proteins share similar solution structures; however, temperature- and chemical-induced unfolding experiments showed that Lbp23A is more stable than Lbp23B, suggesting that they may have different functions. Lbp23B prevented the temperature-induced aggregation of malic dehydrogenase more efficiently than did Lbp23A, whereas the two proteins had equivalent efficiencies with respect to preventing the temperature-induced aggregation of luciferase. Both proteins interacted with L. braziliensis Hsp90 (LbHsp90) and inhibited its ATPase activity, although their efficiencies differed. In vivo identification studies suggested that both proteins are present in L. braziliensis cells grown under different conditions, although Lbp23B may undergo post-translation modifications. Interaction studies indicated that both Lbp23 proteins interact with LbHsp90. Taken together, our data suggest that the two protozoa p23 isoforms act similarly when regulating Hsp90 function. However, they also have some differences, indicating that the L. braziliensis Hsp90 machine has features providing an opportunity for novel forms of selective inhibition of protozoan Hsp90. PMID:25369258

  15. Low resolution structural characterization of the Hsp70-interacting protein - Hip - from Leishmania braziliensis emphasizes its high asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Dores-Silva, P R; Silva, E R; Gomes, F E R; Silva, K P; Barbosa, L R S; Borges, J C

    2012-04-15

    The Hsp70 is an essential molecular chaperone in protein metabolism since it acts as a pivot with other molecular chaperone families. Several co-chaperones act as regulators of the Hsp70 action cycle, as for instance Hip (Hsp70-interacting protein). Hip is a tetratricopeptide repeat protein (TPR) that interacts with the ATPase domain in the Hsp70-ADP state, stabilizing it and preventing substrate dissociation. Molecular chaperones from protozoans, which can cause some neglected diseases, are poorly studied in terms of structure and function. Here, we investigated the structural features of Hip from the protozoa Leishmania braziliensis (LbHip), one of the causative agents of the leishmaniasis disease. LbHip was heterologously expressed and purified in the folded state, as attested by circular dichroism and intrinsic fluorescence emission techniques. LbHip forms an elongated dimer, as observed by analytical gel filtration chromatography, analytical ultracentrifugation and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). With the SAXS data a low resolution model was reconstructed, which shed light on the structure of this protein, emphasizing its elongated shape and suggesting its domain organization. We also investigated the chemical-induced unfolding behavior of LbHip and two transitions were observed. The first transition was related to the unfolding of the TPR domain of each protomer and the second transition of the dimer dissociation. Altogether, LbHip presents a similar structure to mammalian Hip, despite their low level of conservation, suggesting that this class of eukaryotic protein may use a similar mechanism of action. PMID:22387434

  16. In vitro study of the photodynamic antimicrobial therapy (PACT) against promastigotes form of the leishmania (viannia) braziliensis: in vitro study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Artur F. S.; Sangiorgi, Bruno B.; Galdino, Suely L.; Pitta, Ivan R.; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Pinheiro, Antônio L. B.

    2013-03-01

    Leishmaniasis, a protozoan parasitic disease that remains a major worldwide health problem with high endemicity in developing countries. Treatment of cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) should be decided by the clinical lesions, etiological species and its potential to develop into mucosal Leishmaniasis. High cost, systemic toxicity, and diminished efficacy due to development of parasite resistance are the serious drawbacks of current treatment options. Thus, identifying new, effective, and safer anti-leishmanial drug(s) is of paramount importance. The aim of this study was to verify the effectiveness of PACT in vitro, as a new technique for the treatment of Leishmaniasis. For this, semiconductor laser (λ = 660nm, 40mW, 8.4J/cm2, CW) associated to phenothiazine's derivatives (5 and 10 μg/ml, TBO, Methylene Blue or Phenothiazine) on the promastigotes form of Leishmania braziliensis in a single session was used. Viability of the parasites was assessed in quadruplicates of each group. The samples were removed and analyzed in a hemocytometer 72h after PACT. We found an important decrease in the number of viable parasites on all treated groups in comparison to their controls. The results of present study showed significant percentage of lethality (above 92%) of the protocol. The 98.33% of lethality was achieved with 10 μg/ml of FTZ. No lethality was seen on groups treated neither with laser nor with each compounds separately. The results are promising and indicative that the use of PACT may be a powerful treatment of Leishmaniasis when compared to already available ones.

  17. Low sequence identity but high structural and functional conservation: The case of Hsp70/Hsp90 organizing protein (Hop/Sti1) of Leishmania braziliensis.

    PubMed

    Batista, Fernanda A H; Seraphim, Thiago V; Santos, Clelton A; Gonzaga, Marisvanda R; Barbosa, Leandro R S; Ramos, Carlos H I; Borges, Júlio C

    2016-06-15

    Parasites belonging to the genus Leishmania are subjected to extensive environmental changes during their life cycle; molecular chaperones/co-chaperones act as protagonists in this scenario to maintain cellular homeostasis. Hop/Sti1 is a co-chaperone that connects the Hsp90 and Hsp70 systems, modulating their ATPase activities and affecting the fate of client proteins because it facilitates their transfer from the Hsp70 to the Hsp90 chaperone. Hop/Sti1 is one of the most prevalent co-chaperones, highlighting its importance despite the relatively low sequence identity among orthologue proteins. This multi-domain protein comprises three tetratricopeptides domains (TPR1, TPR2A and TPR2B) and two Asp/Pro-rich domains. Given the importance of Hop/Sti1 for the chaperone system and for Leishmania protozoa viability, the Leishmania braziliensis Hop (LbHop) and a truncated mutant (LbHop(TPR2AB)) were characterized. Structurally, both proteins are α-helix-rich and highly elongated monomeric proteins. Functionally, they inhibited the ATPase activity of Leishmania braziliensis Hsp90 (LbHsp90) to a similar extent, and the thermodynamic parameters of their interactions with LbHsp90 were similar, indicating that TPR2A-TPR2B forms the functional center for the LbHop interaction with LbHsp90. These results highlight the structural and functional similarity of Hop/Sti1 proteins, despite their low sequence conservation compared to the Hsp70 and Hsp90 systems, which are phylogenetic highly conserved. PMID:27103305

  18. BALB/c Mice Infected with Antimony Treatment Refractory Isolate of Leishmania braziliensis Present Severe Lesions due to IL-4 Production

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Diego L.; Carregaro, Vanessa; Lima-Júnior, Djalma S.; Silva, Neide M.; Milanezi, Cristiane M.; Cardoso, Cristina R.; Giudice, Ângela; de Jesus, Amélia R.; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Almeida, Roque P.; Silva, João S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Leishmania braziliensis is the main causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil. Protection against infection is related to development of Th1 responses, but the mechanisms that mediate susceptibility are still poorly understood. Murine models have been the most important tools in understanding the immunopathogenesis of L. major infection and have shown that Th2 responses favor parasite survival. In contrast, L. braziliensis–infected mice develop strong Th1 responses and easily resolve the infection, thus making the study of factors affecting susceptibility to this parasite difficult. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we describe an experimental model for the evaluation of the mechanisms mediating susceptibility to L. braziliensis infection. BALB/c mice were inoculated with stationary phase promastigotes of L. braziliensis, isolates LTCP393(R) and LTCP15171(S), which are resistant and susceptible to antimony and nitric oxide (NO), respectively. Mice inoculated with LTCP393(R) presented larger lesions that healed more slowly and contained higher parasite loads than lesions caused by LTCP15171(S). Inflammatory infiltrates in the lesions and production of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10 and TGF-β were similar in mice inoculated with either isolate, indicating that these factors did not contribute to the different disease manifestations observed. In contrast, IL-4 production was strongly increased in LTCP393(R)-inoculated animals and also arginase I (Arg I) expression. Moreover, anti-IL-4 monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatment resulted in decreased lesion thickness and parasite burden in animals inoculated with LTCP393(R), but not in those inoculated with LTCP15171(S). Conclusion/Significance We conclude that the ability of L. braziliensis isolates to induce Th2 responses affects the susceptibility to infection with these isolates and contributes to the increased virulence and severity of disease associated with them. Since these data reflect what happens

  19. Combination of In Silico Methods in the Search for Potential CD4+ and CD8+ T Cell Epitopes in the Proteome of Leishmania braziliensis

    PubMed Central

    e Silva, Rafael de Freitas; Ferreira, Luiz Felipe Gomes Rebello; Hernandes, Marcelo Zaldini; de Brito, Maria Edileuza Felinto; de Oliveira, Beatriz Coutinho; da Silva, Ailton Alvaro; de-Melo-Neto, Osvaldo Pompílio; Rezende, Antônio Mauro; Pereira, Valéria Rêgo Alves

    2016-01-01

    The leishmaniases are neglected tropical diseases widespread throughout the globe, which are caused by protozoans from the genus Leishmania and are transmitted by infected phlebotomine flies. The development of a safe and effective vaccine against these diseases has been seen as the best alternative to control and reduce the number of cases. To support vaccine development, this work has applied an in silico approach to search for high potential peptide epitopes able to bind to different major histocompatibility complex Class I and Class II (MHC I and MHC II) molecules from different human populations. First, the predicted proteome of Leishmania braziliensis was compared and analyzed by modern linear programs to find epitopes with the capacity to trigger an immune response. This approach resulted in thousands of epitopes derived from 8,000 proteins conserved among different Leishmania species. Epitopes from proteins similar to those found in host species were excluded, and epitopes from proteins conserved between different Leishmania species and belonging to surface proteins were preferentially selected. The resulting epitopes were then clustered, to avoid redundancies, resulting in a total of 230 individual epitopes for MHC I and 2,319 for MHC II. These were used for molecular modeling and docking with MHC structures retrieved from the Protein Data Bank. Molecular docking then ranked epitopes based on their predicted binding affinity to both MHC I and II. Peptides corresponding to the top 10 ranked epitopes were synthesized and evaluated in vitro for their capacity to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from post-treated cutaneous leishmaniasis patients, with PBMC from healthy donors used as control. From the 10 peptides tested, 50% showed to be immunogenic and capable to stimulate the proliferation of lymphocytes from recovered individuals. PMID:27621732

  20. Combination of In Silico Methods in the Search for Potential CD4(+) and CD8(+) T Cell Epitopes in the Proteome of Leishmania braziliensis.

    PubMed

    E Silva, Rafael de Freitas; Ferreira, Luiz Felipe Gomes Rebello; Hernandes, Marcelo Zaldini; de Brito, Maria Edileuza Felinto; de Oliveira, Beatriz Coutinho; da Silva, Ailton Alvaro; de-Melo-Neto, Osvaldo Pompílio; Rezende, Antônio Mauro; Pereira, Valéria Rêgo Alves

    2016-01-01

    The leishmaniases are neglected tropical diseases widespread throughout the globe, which are caused by protozoans from the genus Leishmania and are transmitted by infected phlebotomine flies. The development of a safe and effective vaccine against these diseases has been seen as the best alternative to control and reduce the number of cases. To support vaccine development, this work has applied an in silico approach to search for high potential peptide epitopes able to bind to different major histocompatibility complex Class I and Class II (MHC I and MHC II) molecules from different human populations. First, the predicted proteome of Leishmania braziliensis was compared and analyzed by modern linear programs to find epitopes with the capacity to trigger an immune response. This approach resulted in thousands of epitopes derived from 8,000 proteins conserved among different Leishmania species. Epitopes from proteins similar to those found in host species were excluded, and epitopes from proteins conserved between different Leishmania species and belonging to surface proteins were preferentially selected. The resulting epitopes were then clustered, to avoid redundancies, resulting in a total of 230 individual epitopes for MHC I and 2,319 for MHC II. These were used for molecular modeling and docking with MHC structures retrieved from the Protein Data Bank. Molecular docking then ranked epitopes based on their predicted binding affinity to both MHC I and II. Peptides corresponding to the top 10 ranked epitopes were synthesized and evaluated in vitro for their capacity to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from post-treated cutaneous leishmaniasis patients, with PBMC from healthy donors used as control. From the 10 peptides tested, 50% showed to be immunogenic and capable to stimulate the proliferation of lymphocytes from recovered individuals. PMID:27621732

  1. The Effect of (-)-Epigallocatechin 3-O - Gallate In Vitro and In Vivo in Leishmania braziliensis: Involvement of Reactive Oxygen Species as a Mechanism of Action

    PubMed Central

    Inacio, Job D. F.; Gervazoni, Luiza; Canto-Cavalheiro, Marilene M.; Almeida-Amaral, Elmo E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease associated with extensive mortality and morbidity. The treatment for leishmaniasis is currently based on pentavalent antimonials and amphotericin B; however, these drugs result in numerous adverse side effects. Natural compounds have been used as novel treatments for parasitic diseases. In this paper, we evaluated the effect of (-)-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (EGCG) on Leishmania braziliensis in vitro and in vivo and described the mechanism of EGCG action against L. braziliensis promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. Methodology/Principal Finding In vitro activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurements were determined during the promastigote and intracellular amastigote life stages. The effect of EGCG on mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) was assayed using JC-1, and intracellular ATP concentrations were measured using a luciferin-luciferase system. The in vivo experiments were performed in infected BALB/c mice orally treated with EGCG. EGCG reduced promastigote viability and the infection index in a time- and dose-dependent manner, with IC50 values of 278.8 µM and 3.4 µM, respectively, at 72 h and a selectivity index of 149.5. In addition, EGCG induced ROS production in the promastigote and intracellular amastigote, and the effects were reversed by polyethylene glycol (PEG)-catalase. Additionally, EGCG reduced ΔΨm, thereby decreasing intracellular ATP concentrations in promastigotes. Furthermore, EGCG treatment was also effective in vivo, demonstrating oral bioavailability and reduced parasitic loads without altering serological toxicity markers. Conclusions/Significance In conclusion, our study demonstrates the leishmanicidal effects of EGCG against the two forms of L. braziliensis, the promastigote and amastigote. In addition, EGCG promotes ROS production as a part of its mechanism of action, resulting in decreased ΔΨm and reduced intracellular ATP concentrations. These actions ultimately

  2. Improving Serodiagnosis of Human and Canine Leishmaniasis with Recombinant Leishmania braziliensis Cathepsin L-like Protein and a Synthetic Peptide Containing Its Linear B-cell Epitope

    PubMed Central

    Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Mendes, Tiago Antônio de Oliveira; Gomes, Matheus de Souza; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Background The early and correct diagnosis of human leishmaniasis is essential for disease treatment. Another important step in the control of visceral leishmaniasis is the identification of infected dogs, which are the main domestic reservoir of L. infantum. Recombinant proteins and synthetic peptides based on Leishmania genes have emerged as valuable targets for serodiagnosis due to their increased sensitivity, specificity and potential for standardization. Cathepsin L-like genes are surface antigens that are secreted by amastigotes and have little similarity to host proteins, factors that enable this protein as a good target for serodiagnosis of the leishmaniasis. Methodology/Principal Findings We mapped a linear B-cell epitope within the Cathepsin L-like protein from L. braziliensis. A synthetic peptide containing the epitope and the recombinant protein was evaluated for serodiagnosis of human tegumentary and visceral leishmaniasis, as well as canine visceral leishmaniasis. Conclusions/Significance The recombinant protein performed best for human tegumentary and canine visceral leishmaniasis, with 96.30% and 89.33% accuracy, respectively. The synthetic peptide was the best to discriminate human visceral leishmaniasis, with 97.14% specificity, 94.55% sensitivity and 96.00% accuracy. Comparison with T. cruzi-infected humans and dogs suggests that the identified epitope is specific to Leishmania parasites, which minimizes the likelihood of cross-reactions. PMID:25569432

  3. Mapping B-cell epitopes for the peroxidoxin of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and its potential for the clinical diagnosis of tegumentary and visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Mendes, Tiago Antônio de Oliveira; Nagem, Ronaldo Alves Pinto; Santos, Thaís Teodoro de Oliveira; Silva, Ana Luíza Teixeira; Santoro, Marcelo Matos; de Carvalho, Silvio Fernando Guimarães; Coelho, Eduardo Antônio Ferraz; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

    2014-01-01

    The search toward the establishment of novel serological tests for the diagnosis of leishmaniasis and proper differential diagnosis may represent one alternative to the invasive parasitological methods currently used to identify infected individuals. In the present work, we investigated the potential use of recombinant peroxidoxin (rPeroxidoxin) of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis as a potential antigen for the immunodiagnosis of human tegumentary (TL) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Linear B-cell epitope mapping was performed to identify polymorphic epitopes when comparing orthologous sequences present in Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent for Chagas disease (CD), and the Homo sapiens and Canis familiaris hosts. The serological assay (ELISA) demonstrated that TL, VL and CVL individuals showed high levels of antibodies against rPeroxidoxin, allowing identification of infected ones with considerable sensitivity and great ability to discriminate (specificity) between non-infected and CD individuals (98.46% and 100%; 98.18% and 95.71%; 95.79% and 100%, respectively). An rPeroxidoxin ELISA also showed a greater ability to discriminate between vaccinated and infected animals, which is an important requirement for the public campaign control of CVL. A depletion ELISA assay using soluble peptides of this B-cell epitope confirmed the recognition of these sites only by Leishmania-infected individuals. Moreover, this work identifies two antigenic polymorphic linear B-cell epitopes of L. braziliensis. Specific recognition of TL and VL patients was confirmed by significantly decreased IgG reactivity against rPeroxidoxin after depletion of peptide-1- and peptide-2-specific antibodies (peptide 1: reduced by 32%, 42% and 5% for CL, ML and VL, respectively; peptide-2: reduced by 24%, 22% and 13% for CL, ML and VL, respectively) and only peptide-2 for CVL (reduced 9%). Overall, rPeroxidoxin may be a potential antigen for the immunodiagnosis of TL

  4. In vitro and in vivo leishmanicidal activity of Astronium fraxinifolium (Schott) and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng against Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Silvio César Gomes; Teixeira, Maria Jania; Lopes, José Evaldo Gonçalves; de Morais, Selene Maia; Torres, Alba Fabiola; Braga, Milena Aguiar; Rodrigues, Raphael Oliveira; Santiago, Gilvandete Maria Pinheiro; Martins, Alice Costa; Nagao-Dias, Aparecida Tiemi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate antileishmanial activity of Astronium fraxinifolium and Plectranthus amboinicus. For the in vitro tests, essential oil of P. amboinicus (OEPA) and ethanolic extracts from A. fraxinifolium (EEAF) were incubated with 10(6) promastigotes of L. (Viannia) braziliensis. The OEPA was able to reduce the parasite growth after 48 h; nonetheless, all the EEAFs could totally abolish the parasite growth. For the in vivo studies, BALB/c mice were infected subcutaneously (s.c.) with 10(7) L. braziliensis promastigotes. Treatment was done by administering OEPA intralesionally (i.l.) for 14 days. No difference was found in lesion thickness when those animals were compared with the untreated animals. Further, golden hamsters were infected s.c. with 10(6) L. braziliensis promastigotes. The first protocol of treatment consisted of ethanolic leaf extract from A. fraxinifolium (ELEAF) administered i.l. for 4 days and a booster dose at the 7th day. The animals showed a significant reduction of lesion thickness in the 6th week, but it was not comparable to the animals treated with Glucantime. The second protocol consisted of 15 daily intralesional injections. The profiles of lesion thickness were similar to the standard treatment. In conclusion, in vivo studies showed a high efficacy when the infected animals were intralesionally treated with leaf ethanolic extract from A. fraxinifolium. PMID:24829921

  5. In Vitro and In Vivo Leishmanicidal Activity of Astronium fraxinifolium (Schott) and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng against Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, Silvio César Gomes; Teixeira, Maria Jania; Lopes Júnior, José Evaldo Gonçalves; de Morais, Selene Maia; Torres, Alba Fabiola; Braga, Milena Aguiar; Rodrigues, Raphael Oliveira; Santiago, Gilvandete Maria Pinheiro; Martins, Alice Costa; Nagao-Dias, Aparecida Tiemi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate antileishmanial activity of Astronium fraxinifolium and Plectranthus amboinicus. For the in vitro tests, essential oil of P. amboinicus (OEPA) and ethanolic extracts from A. fraxinifolium (EEAF) were incubated with 106  promastigotes of L. (Viannia) braziliensis. The OEPA was able to reduce the parasite growth after 48 h; nonetheless, all the EEAFs could totally abolish the parasite growth. For the in vivo studies, BALB/c mice were infected subcutaneously (s.c.) with 107  L. braziliensis promastigotes. Treatment was done by administering OEPA intralesionally (i.l.) for 14 days. No difference was found in lesion thickness when those animals were compared with the untreated animals. Further, golden hamsters were infected s.c. with 106  L. braziliensis promastigotes. The first protocol of treatment consisted of ethanolic leaf extract from A. fraxinifolium (ELEAF) administered i.l. for 4 days and a booster dose at the 7th day. The animals showed a significant reduction of lesion thickness in the 6th week, but it was not comparable to the animals treated with Glucantime. The second protocol consisted of 15 daily intralesional injections. The profiles of lesion thickness were similar to the standard treatment. In conclusion, in vivo studies showed a high efficacy when the infected animals were intralesionally treated with leaf ethanolic extract from A. fraxinifolium. PMID:24829921

  6. A galactosyl(alpha 1-3)mannose epitope on phospholipids of Leishmania mexicana and L. braziliensis is recognized by trypanosomatid-infected human sera.

    PubMed Central

    Avila, J L; Rojas, M

    1990-01-01

    An immunoglobulin M antibody reactive with galactosyl(alpha 1-3)mannose [Gal(alpha 1-3)Man] residues present on phospholipids extracted from Leishmania mexicana and L. braziliensis was found to be present in high titer in the serum of every normal individual studied. Periodate oxidation, acid hydrolysis, or acetylation suppressed immunoreactivity, suggesting that an oligosaccharide chain was responsible for antibody binding. Interaction occurs only with alpha-Gal terminal residues, since treatment of purified glycophospholipids with alpha-galactosidase but not with beta-galactosidase abolished it. Antibody bound to galactosyl(alpha 1-3)galactose-linked synthetic antigens but did not bind to the same residues present in rabbit, rat, and guinea pig erythrocytes or in murine laminin. Antigen-antibody binding was strongly blocked with Gal(alpha 1-3)Man and Gal(beta 1-4)Man. These results plus inhibition studies with several oligosaccharides suggest that they are indeed different from antibodies against the galactosyl(alpha 1-3)galactose residue. Anti-Gal(alpha 1-3)Man antibody values were significantly elevated in 89% of patients with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, 84% of patients with localized cutaneous leishmaniasis, 69% of patients with mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, and 44 and 62% of patients with Trypanosoma cruzi or T. rangeli infection, respectively, but not in patients with 15 other different infectious and inflammatory diseases. Anti-Gal(alpha 1-3)Man antibody readily absorbed to American Leishmania and Trypanosoma culture forms, suggesting a surface membrane localization of reactive epitope. Gal(alpha 1-3)Man-bearing glycophospholipid was easily extracted from American Leishmania promastigotes and T. cruzi trypomastigotes as well as from American Trypanosoma culture forms. The possibility that this antibody arises against parasitic glycophospholipid-linked Gal(alpha 1-3)Man terminal residues is proposed. PMID:1696285

  7. Topical and Intradermal Efficacy of Photodynamic Therapy with Methylene Blue and Light-Emitting Diode in the Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania braziliensis

    PubMed Central

    Sbeghen, Mônica Raquel; Voltarelli, Evandra Maria; Campois, Tácito Graminha; Kimura, Elza; Aristides, Sandra Mara Alessi; Hernandes, Luzmarina; Caetano, Wilker; Hioka, Noboru; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Silveira, Thaís Gomes Verzignassi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The topical and intradermal photodynamic therapy (PDT) effect of methylene blue (MB) using light-emitting diode (LED) as light source (MB/LED-PDT) in the treatment of lesions of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) caused by Leishmania braziliensis in hamsters were investigated. Methods: Hamsters were infected in the footpad with 4×107 promastigotes of L. braziliensis and divided in 4 groups: Control group was not treated, AmB group was treated with amphotericin B, MB-Id group received intradermal MB at the edge of the lesion and MB-Tp group received MB topic. After treatment with MB, the animals were illuminated using red LEDs at the 655 nm wavelength for 1 hour. The MB/LED-PDT was carried out three times a week for 12 weeks. Results: Animals of MB-Tp group presented lesion healing with significant diminution in extent of the lesion, and reduced parasite burden compared to control group; however, no significant difference was seen compared to the AmB group. MB-Tp group also showed reconstitution of the epithelium, the formation of collagen fibers, organization in the epidermis, a little disorganization and inflammation in the dermis. MB-Id was ineffective in all parameters evaluated, and it was comparable to the control group results. Conclusion: These data show that PDT with the use of MB-Tp and LED may be an alternative for the treatment of ACL. However, additional studies are being conducted to assess the potential of MB/LED-PDT, alone or in combination with conventional therapy, for the treatment of ACL. PMID:26464777

  8. Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis amastigotes from patients with mucosal leishmaniasis have increased ability to disseminate and are controlled by nitric oxide at the early stage of murine infection.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Clayson M; Ávila, Lucilla R; Santos, Jéssica C; Oliveira, Pollyana G; Tomé, Fernanda D; Pereira, Ledice I A; Dorta, Miriam L; Lino, Ruy S; Ribeiro-Dias, Fátima; Oliveira, Milton A P

    2016-06-01

    Mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) caused by Leishmania (Vianna) braziliensis usually appears after the healing of the primary lesion when amastigotes disseminate from the infection site to the mucosal area. Here, we investigated murine infection with amastigotes obtained from patients with ML or localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL). Amastigotes were used to infect wild type, IFN-γ KO and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) KO mice. Amastigotes from patients with LCL induced lesions that appeared earlier in IFN-γ KO than parasites from ML. The lesion after infection with ML appeared early in iNOS KO than in IFN-γ KO mice and in iNOS KO mice parasites from ML and LCL cause similar lesions at the initial phase of infection, while parasites from ML induced greater lesions than the ones from LCL at the late phase. A greater number of parasites were observed in spleen of IFN-γ KO and iNOS KO mice infected with amastigotes from patients with ML than those with LCL. Parasites from ML infect a lower percentage of macrophages and are killed independent on IFN-γ and dependent on NO. The data suggest that amastigotes responsible for mucosal lesion in humans develop slowly on the initial phase of infection due to high susceptibility to NO and they have an increased ability to disseminate. PMID:27073255

  9. In Vitro Sensitivity of Paired Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis Samples Isolated before Meglumine Antimoniate Treatment and after Treatment Failure or Reactivation of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Baptista, Cibele; Miranda, Luciana de Freitas Campos; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Leon, Leonor Laura Pinto; Conceição-Silva, Fátima; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the in vitro sensitivity of paired Leishmania braziliensis samples isolated from the same patient before pentavalent antimonial treatment (Sample A) and after treatment failure or cutaneous leishmaniasis reactivation (Sample B) in patients undergoing intralesional administration or injections (5 mgSbV/kg/d) of meglumine antimoniate. Fourteen samples from 7 patients were studied. After 24 h of drug exposure, 50% lethal dose (LD50) values for promastigotes ranged from 0.37 mg/mL to 5.86 mg/mL for samples obtained before treatment (A) and 0.89 mg/mL to 7.80 mg/mL for samples obtained after treatment (B). After 48 h, LD50 values ranged from 0.37 mg/mL to 5.75 mg/mL and 0.70 mg/mL to 7.68 mg/mL for A and B samples, respectively. After 48 h, LD50 values for amastigotes ranged from 11.7 to 44.3 μg/mL for A samples and 13.7 to 52.7 μg/mL for B samples. Of 7 patients, 1 discontinued treatment and 6 were cured after retreatment with amphotericin B (4 cases) or meglumine antimoniate (2 cases). Overall the B samples had higher LD50 values than A samples; however the difference was not significant. These results do not support the hypothesis that low-dose and intralesional treatments induce selection of resistant parasites in vitro and suggest that other factors may influence therapeutic outcome in patients with poor response to initial treatment. PMID:25802480

  10. In vitro sensitivity of paired Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis samples isolated before meglumine antimoniate treatment and after treatment failure or reactivation of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Cibele; Miranda, Luciana de Freitas Campos; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Leon, Leonor Laura Pinto; Conceição-Silva, Fátima; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the in vitro sensitivity of paired Leishmania braziliensis samples isolated from the same patient before pentavalent antimonial treatment (Sample A) and after treatment failure or cutaneous leishmaniasis reactivation (Sample B) in patients undergoing intralesional administration or injections (5 mgSb(V)/kg/d) of meglumine antimoniate. Fourteen samples from 7 patients were studied. After 24 h of drug exposure, 50% lethal dose (LD50) values for promastigotes ranged from 0.37 mg/mL to 5.86 mg/mL for samples obtained before treatment (A) and 0.89 mg/mL to 7.80 mg/mL for samples obtained after treatment (B). After 48 h, LD50 values ranged from 0.37 mg/mL to 5.75 mg/mL and 0.70 mg/mL to 7.68 mg/mL for A and B samples, respectively. After 48 h, LD50 values for amastigotes ranged from 11.7 to 44.3 μg/mL for A samples and 13.7 to 52.7 μg/mL for B samples. Of 7 patients, 1 discontinued treatment and 6 were cured after retreatment with amphotericin B (4 cases) or meglumine antimoniate (2 cases). Overall the B samples had higher LD50 values than A samples; however the difference was not significant. These results do not support the hypothesis that low-dose and intralesional treatments induce selection of resistant parasites in vitro and suggest that other factors may influence therapeutic outcome in patients with poor response to initial treatment. PMID:25802480

  11. Eco-epidemiological survey of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis American cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in Ribeira Valley River, Paraná State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Edilene Alcântara; Luz, Ennio; Telles, Flávio Queiroz; Pandey, Ashok; Biseto, Alceu; Dinaiski, Marlene; Sbalqueiro, Ives; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz

    2005-02-01

    Leishmaniasis is endemic since last century in Adrianópolis Municipality, Ribeira Valley and is a serious public health. A study carried out during 1993-2003 on epidemiological surveys conducted in rural communities showed 339 new cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) detected from four municipalities (Adrianópolis, Cerro Azul, Doutor Ulysses and Rio Branco do Sul). A larger prevalence of cutaneous lesions was observed in rural workers (36%), women with domestic activities (18%), and younger students (31%). Multiple lesions were noticed in 53% of patients, but only one case of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis was reported. Twenty stocks were isolated from patients with characteristics lesions and were identified as Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis using multi-locus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) and Random Amplified DNA (RAPD). In Phlebotominae survey, five species were obtained. Lutzomyia intermedia sl. represented 97.5% in peridomiciliar area and 100% in domicile. A canine serological survey made (Indirect Immunofluorescence Antibody Test, IFAT and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay, ELISA) in six rural county of Adrianópolis Municipality during 1998-1999 showed that 15.1% (24/159) of dogs were sera reactive. No lesions were observed in dogs and no parasite was isolated from lymph node aspirates and biopsies. In wild reservoirs study, only seven animals (Cricetidae, Desmodus sp. and edentates) were captured, but no parasites were found in culture from deep organs. The paper presents results of our 10 years study on cutaneous leishmaniasis survey in the Ribeira River Valley, East Region of Paraná State, Brazil. Environment changes in this region are also discussed. PMID:15652328

  12. Low Resolution Structural Studies Indicate that the Activator of Hsp90 ATPase 1 (Aha1) of Leishmania braziliensis Has an Elongated Shape Which Allows Its Interaction with Both N- and M-Domains of Hsp90

    PubMed Central

    Seraphim, Thiago V.; Alves, Marina M.; Silva, Indjara M.; Gomes, Francisco E. R.; Silva, Kelly P.; Murta, Silvane M. F.; Barbosa, Leandro R. S.; Borges, Júlio C.

    2013-01-01

    The Hsp90 molecular chaperone is essential for protein homeostasis and in the maturation of proteins involved with cell-cycle control. The low ATPase activity of Hsp90 is critical to drive its functional cycle, which is dependent on the Hsp90 cochaperones. The Activator of Hsp90 ATPase-1 (Aha1) is a protein formed by two domains, N- and C-terminal, that stimulates the Hsp90 ATPase activity by several folds. Although the relevance of Aha1 for Hsp90 functions has been proved, as well as its involvement in the desensitization to inhibitors of the Hsp90, the knowledge on its overall structure and behavior in solution is limited. In this work we present the functional and structural characterization of Leishmania braziliensis Aha1 (LbAha1). This protozoan is the causative agent of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, a neglected disease. The recombinant LbAha1 behaves as an elongated monomer and is organized into two folded domains interconnected by a flexible linker. Functional experiments showed that LbAha1 interacts with L. braziliensis Hsp90 (LbHsp90) with micromolar dissociation constant in a stoichiometry of 2 LbAha1 to 1 LbHsp90 dimer and stimulates 10-fold the LbHsp90 ATPase activity showing positive cooperativity. Furthermore, the LbHsp90::LbAha1 complex is directed by enthalphy and opposed by entropy, probably due to the spatial freedom restrictions imposed by the proteins’ interactions. Small-angle X-ray scattering data allowed the reconstruction of low resolution models and rigid body simulations of LbAha1, indicating its mode of action on LbHsp90. Western blot experiments allowed Aha1 identification (as well as Hsp90) in three Leishmania species at two temperatures, suggesting that Aha1 is a cognate protein. All these data shed light on the LbAha1 mechanism of action, showing that it has structural dimensions and flexibility that allow interacting with both N-terminal and middle domains of the LbHsp90. PMID:23826147

  13. Low resolution structural studies indicate that the activator of Hsp90 ATPase 1 (Aha1) of Leishmania braziliensis has an elongated shape which allows its interaction with both N- and M-domains of Hsp90.

    PubMed

    Seraphim, Thiago V; Alves, Marina M; Silva, Indjara M; Gomes, Francisco E R; Silva, Kelly P; Murta, Silvane M F; Barbosa, Leandro R S; Borges, Júlio C

    2013-01-01

    The Hsp90 molecular chaperone is essential for protein homeostasis and in the maturation of proteins involved with cell-cycle control. The low ATPase activity of Hsp90 is critical to drive its functional cycle, which is dependent on the Hsp90 cochaperones. The Activator of Hsp90 ATPase-1 (Aha1) is a protein formed by two domains, N- and C-terminal, that stimulates the Hsp90 ATPase activity by several folds. Although the relevance of Aha1 for Hsp90 functions has been proved, as well as its involvement in the desensitization to inhibitors of the Hsp90, the knowledge on its overall structure and behavior in solution is limited. In this work we present the functional and structural characterization of Leishmania braziliensis Aha1 (LbAha1). This protozoan is the causative agent of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, a neglected disease. The recombinant LbAha1 behaves as an elongated monomer and is organized into two folded domains interconnected by a flexible linker. Functional experiments showed that LbAha1 interacts with L. braziliensis Hsp90 (LbHsp90) with micromolar dissociation constant in a stoichiometry of 2 LbAha1 to 1 LbHsp90 dimer and stimulates 10-fold the LbHsp90 ATPase activity showing positive cooperativity. Furthermore, the LbHsp90::LbAha1 complex is directed by enthalphy and opposed by entropy, probably due to the spatial freedom restrictions imposed by the proteins' interactions. Small-angle X-ray scattering data allowed the reconstruction of low resolution models and rigid body simulations of LbAha1, indicating its mode of action on LbHsp90. Western blot experiments allowed Aha1 identification (as well as Hsp90) in three Leishmania species at two temperatures, suggesting that Aha1 is a cognate protein. All these data shed light on the LbAha1 mechanism of action, showing that it has structural dimensions and flexibility that allow interacting with both N-terminal and middle domains of the LbHsp90. PMID:23826147

  14. 2.8-Å Cryo-EM Structure of the Large Ribosomal Subunit from the Eukaryotic Parasite Leishmania.

    PubMed

    Shalev-Benami, Moran; Zhang, Yan; Matzov, Donna; Halfon, Yehuda; Zackay, Arie; Rozenberg, Haim; Zimmerman, Ella; Bashan, Anat; Jaffe, Charles L; Yonath, Ada; Skiniotis, Georgios

    2016-07-12

    Leishmania is a single-cell eukaryotic parasite of the Trypanosomatidae family, whose members cause an array of tropical diseases. The often fatal outcome of infections, lack of effective vaccines, limited selection of therapeutic drugs, and emerging resistant strains, underline the need to develop strategies to combat these pathogens. The Trypanosomatid ribosome has recently been highlighted as a promising therapeutic target due to structural features that are distinct from other eukaryotes. Here, we present the 2.8-Å resolution structure of the Leishmania donovani large ribosomal subunit (LSU) derived from a cryo-EM map, further enabling the structural observation of eukaryotic rRNA modifications that play a significant role in ribosome assembly and function. The structure illustrates the unique fragmented nature of leishmanial LSU rRNA and highlights the irregular distribution of rRNA modifications in Leishmania, a characteristic with implications for anti-parasitic drug development. PMID:27373148

  15. Calmodulin Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism for Leishmania Identification and Typing.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Aracelis; Samudio, Franklyn; González, Kadir; Saldaña, Azael; Brandão, Adeilton; Calzada, Jose E

    2016-08-01

    A precise identification of Leishmania species involved in human infections has epidemiological and clinical importance. Herein, we describe a preliminary validation of a restriction fragment length polymorphism assay, based on the calmodulin intergenic spacer region, as a tool for detecting and typing Leishmania species. After calmodulin amplification, the enzyme HaeIII yielded a clear distinction between reference strains of Leishmania mexicana, Leishmania amazonensis, Leishmania infantum, Leishmania lainsoni, and the rest of the Viannia reference species analyzed. The closely related Viannia species: Leishmania braziliensis, Leishmania panamensis, and Leishmania guyanensis, are separated in a subsequent digestion step with different restriction enzymes. We have developed a more accessible molecular protocol for Leishmania identification/typing based on the exploitation of part of the calmodulin gene. This methodology has the potential to become an additional tool for Leishmania species characterization and taxonomy. PMID:27352873

  16. Isoenzyme characterization of Leishmania isolated from human cases with localized cutaneous leishmaniasis from the State of Campeche, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Canto-Lara, S B; Cardenas-Maruffo, M F; Vargas-Gonzalez, A; Andrade-Narvaez, F

    1998-04-01

    Seventy-five isolates from the State of Campeche, Mexico, an area endemic for localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL), were characterized by isoenzyme markers (glucose phosphate isomerase, mannose phospate isomerase, nucleoside hydrolase, phosphoglucomutase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase). Seventy (93.3%) were identified as Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana and 5 (6.7%) as L. (Viannia) braziliensis. This is the first report of authochthonus human LCL caused by L. (V.) braziliensis in the State of Campeche, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. PMID:9574789

  17. The Comparative Genomics and Phylogenomics of Leishmania amazonensis Parasite

    PubMed Central

    Tschoeke, Diogo A; Nunes, Gisele L; Jardim, Rodrigo; Lima, Joana; Dumaresq, Aline SR; Gomes, Monete R; de Mattos Pereira, Leandro; Loureiro, Daniel R; Stoco, Patricia H; de Matos Guedes, Herbert Leonel; de Miranda, Antonio Basilio; Ruiz, Jeronimo; Pitaluga, André; Silva, Floriano P; Probst, Christian M; Dickens, Nicholas J; Mottram, Jeremy C; Grisard, Edmundo C; Dávila, Alberto MR

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by Leishmania species. Leishmania amazonensis is a New World Leishmania species belonging to the Mexicana complex, which is able to cause all types of leishmaniasis infections. The L. amazonensis reference strain MHOM/BR/1973/M2269 was sequenced identifying 8,802 codifying sequences (CDS), most of them of hypothetical function. Comparative analysis using six Leishmania species showed a core set of 7,016 orthologs. L. amazonensis and Leishmania mexicana share the largest number of distinct orthologs, while Leishmania braziliensis presented the largest number of inparalogs. Additionally, phylogenomic analysis confirmed the taxonomic position for L. amazonensis within the “Mexicana complex”, reinforcing understanding of the split of New and Old World Leishmania. Potential non-homologous isofunctional enzymes (NISE) were identified between L. amazonensis and Homo sapiens that could provide new drug targets for development. PMID:25336895

  18. Atypical mucocutaneous involvement with Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Pulimood, S A; Rupali, P; Ajjampur, S S R; Thomas, M; Mehrotra, S; Sundar, S

    2012-01-01

    Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis has rarely been reported from India. The usual causative organisms of this infection are Leishmania braziliensis and L. tropica. Another species, L. donovani, which usually causes visceral leishmaniasis, has recently been reported to cause mucocutaneous disease in a few patients from Sri Lanka. We report two patients who had undiagnosed chronic skin lesions for several years. Skin biopsies revealed Leishmania and the species was characterized as L. donovani in both patients. There was considerable improvement in the skin lesions following treatment with liposomal amphotericin B. PMID:22963292

  19. Geographic Distribution of Leishmania Species in Ecuador Based on the Cytochrome B Gene Sequence Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hirotomo; Gomez, Eduardo A; Martini-Robles, Luiggi; Muzzio, Jenny; Velez, Lenin; Calvopiña, Manuel; Romero-Alvarez, Daniel; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2016-07-01

    A countrywide epidemiological study was performed to elucidate the current geographic distribution of causative species of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Ecuador by using FTA card-spotted samples and smear slides as DNA sources. Putative Leishmania in 165 samples collected from patients with CL in 16 provinces of Ecuador were examined at the species level based on the cytochrome b gene sequence analysis. Of these, 125 samples were successfully identified as Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis, L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (V.) naiffi, L. (V.) lainsoni, and L. (Leishmania) mexicana. Two dominant species, L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (V.) braziliensis, were widely distributed in Pacific coast subtropical and Amazonian tropical areas, respectively. Recently reported L. (V.) naiffi and L. (V.) lainsoni were identified in Amazonian areas, and L. (L.) mexicana was identified in an Andean highland area. Importantly, the present study demonstrated that cases of L. (V.) braziliensis infection are increasing in Pacific coast areas. PMID:27410039

  20. Geographic Distribution of Leishmania Species in Ecuador Based on the Cytochrome B Gene Sequence Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Hirotomo; Gomez, Eduardo A.; Martini-Robles, Luiggi; Muzzio, Jenny; Velez, Lenin; Calvopiña, Manuel; Romero-Alvarez, Daniel; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2016-01-01

    A countrywide epidemiological study was performed to elucidate the current geographic distribution of causative species of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Ecuador by using FTA card-spotted samples and smear slides as DNA sources. Putative Leishmania in 165 samples collected from patients with CL in 16 provinces of Ecuador were examined at the species level based on the cytochrome b gene sequence analysis. Of these, 125 samples were successfully identified as Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis, L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (V.) naiffi, L. (V.) lainsoni, and L. (Leishmania) mexicana. Two dominant species, L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (V.) braziliensis, were widely distributed in Pacific coast subtropical and Amazonian tropical areas, respectively. Recently reported L. (V.) naiffi and L. (V.) lainsoni were identified in Amazonian areas, and L. (L.) mexicana was identified in an Andean highland area. Importantly, the present study demonstrated that cases of L. (V.) braziliensis infection are increasing in Pacific coast areas. PMID:27410039

  1. Molecular diagnosis of Leishmania mexicana in a cutaneous leishmaniasis case in Sinaloa, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Diaz, Yssete O; Lopez-Moreno, Carmina Y; Rendon-Maldonado, Jose G; Lopez-Moreno, Hector S

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis has been considered endemic in Sinaloa, Mexico, since 1994. Despite that Leishmania mexicana is the main etiological agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in other regions of Mexico, the species causing CL in patients from Sinaloa state has not been previously established, although Leishmania braziliensis has been found in the neighboring southern state, Nayarit. L. braziliensis is also associated with mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, which is a more complicated clinical variant. Due to the implications on individual and public health, the objective of this report was to identify the Leishmania species present in Sinaloa, Mexico. Using the first internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, we identified L. mexicana in a CL patient from Sinaloa and confirmed the extended distribution of this parasite in Mexico. PMID:21923263

  2. Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) associated with opossum nests at urban sites in southeastern Brazil: a risk factor for urban and periurban zoonotic Leishmania transmission?

    PubMed

    Cutolo, Andre Antonio; Teodoro, Anna Karollina Menezes; Ovallos, Fredy Galvis; Allegretti, Silmara Marques; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi

    2014-06-01

    Sandflies associated with opossum nests are reported for the first time in the yards of residences located in the urban area of the municipality of Monte Mor, situated in the metropolitan region of Campinas, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Eleven specimens of Evandromyia cortelezzii and one of Evandromyia lenti were captured in two Didelphis albiventris nests. Ev. cortelezzii is considered a secondary vector species for the transmission of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in the Neotropics. This association may contribute to the introduction, establishment and maintenance of urban and periurban zoonotic transmission outbreaks of Leishmania and should therefore be investigated further. PMID:24789554

  3. Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) associated with opossum nests at urban sites in southeastern Brazil: a risk factor for urban and periurban zoonotic Leishmania transmission?

    PubMed Central

    Cutolo, Andre Antonio; Teodoro, Anna Karollina Menezes; Ovallos, Fredy Galvis; Allegretti, Silmara Marques; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi

    2014-01-01

    Sandflies associated with opossum nests are reported for the first time in the yards of residences located in the urban area of the municipality of Monte Mor, situated in the metropolitan region of Campinas, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Eleven specimens of Evandromyia cortelezzii and one of Evandromyia lenti were captured in two Didelphis albiventris nests. Ev. cortelezzii is considered a secondary vector species for the transmission of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in the Neotropics. This association may contribute to the introduction, establishment and maintenance of urban and periurban zoonotic transmission outbreaks of Leishmania and should therefore be investigated further. PMID:24789554

  4. Comparative in-silico genome analysis of Leishmania (Leishmania) donovani: A step towards its species specificity

    PubMed Central

    S., Satheesh Kumar; R.K., Gokulasuriyan; Ghosh, Monidipa

    2014-01-01

    Comparative genome analysis of recently sequenced Leishmania (L.) donovani was unexplored so far. The present study deals with the complete scanning of L. (L.) donovani genome revealing its interspecies variations. 60 distinctly present genes in L. (L.) donovani were identified when the whole genome was compared with Leishmania (L.) infantum. Similarly 72, 159, and 265 species specific genes were identified in L. (L.) donovani when compared to Leishmania (L.) major, Leishmania (L.) mexicana and Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis respectively. The cross comparison of L. (L.) donovani in parallel with the other sequenced species of leishmanial led to the identification of 55 genes which are highly specific and expressed exclusively in L. (L.) donovani. We found mainly the discrepancies of surface proteins such as amastins, proteases, and peptidases. Also 415 repeat containing proteins in L. (L.) donovani and their differential distribution in other leishmanial species were identified which might have a potential role during pathogenesis. The genes identified can be evaluated as drug targets for anti-leishmanial treatment, exploring the scope for extensive future investigations. PMID:25606461

  5. Leishmania (Viannia) subgenus kDNA amplification for the diagnosis of mucosal leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Disch, Jolande; Pedras, Mariana Junqueira; Orsini, Marcela; Pirmez, Claude; de Oliveira, Maria Cláudia; Castro, Marcelo; Rabello, Ana

    2005-03-01

    The utility of 2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays amplifying genus or Viannia subgenus Leishmania minicircle kDNA for the diagnostics of ML was assessed. The Viannia subgenus product was yielded after PCR from isolates of L. (Viannia) braziliensis, L. (Viannia) colombiensis, and L. (Viannia) guyanensis, whereas no product was obtained with the non-Viannia-pertaining species: L. (Leishmania) amazonensis, L. (Leishmania) donovani, and L. (Leishmania) chagasi. With both assays, 11 of 13 (86.4%) patients with confirmed ML could be identified, whereas only 2 (16.7%) of these patients were positive by microscopy. All amplified genus-specific products gave a positive signal by hybridization with a Leishmania (Viannia) subgenus-specific radioactive probe. The Viannia subgenus-specific kDNA PCR represents a sensitive and specific tool for the diagnosis of ML, remarkably improving the sensitivity of parasitological methods and offering an alternative for the radioactive-dependent assays for subgenus characterization. PMID:15766604

  6. Identification of highly specific and cross-reactive antigens of Leishmania species by antibodies from Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi naturally infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Vale, A M; Fujiwara, R T; da Silva Neto, A F; Miret, J A; Alvarez, D C C; da Silva, J C F; Campos-Neto, A; Reed, S; Mayrink, W; Nascimento, E

    2009-02-01

    The Leishmania species present a genetic homology that ranges from 69 to 90%. Because of this homology, heterologous antigens have been used in the immunodiagnosis and vaccine development against Leishmania infections. In the current work, we describe the identification of species-specific and cross-reactive antigens among several New World Leishmania species, using symptomatic and asymptomatic naturally Leishmania chagasi-infected dog sera. Soluble antigens from five strains of New World Leishmania were separated by electrophoresis in SDS-PAGE and immunoblotted. Different proteins were uniquely recognized in the L. chagasi panel by either symptomatic or asymptomatic dog sera suggesting their use as markers for the progression of disease and diagnosis of the initial (sub-clinical) phase of the infection. Cross-reactive antigens were identified using heterologous antigenic panels (L. amazonensis strains PH8 and BH6, L. guyanensis and L. braziliensis). L. guyanensis panel showed the highest cross-reactivity against L. chagasi specific antibodies, suggesting that proteins from this extract might be suitable for the diagnosis of visceral canine leishmaniasis. Interestingly, the 51 and 97 kDa proteins of Leishmania were widely recognized (77.8% to 100%) among all antigenic panels tested, supporting their potential use for immunodiagnosis. Finally, we identified several leishmanial antigens that might be useful for routine diagnosis and seroepidemiological studies of the visceral canine leishmaniasis. PMID:18990196

  7. Typing of four genetic loci discriminates among closely related species of New World Leishmania.

    PubMed

    Tsukayama, Pablo; Lucas, Carmen; Bacon, David J

    2009-02-01

    All New World Leishmania species can cause cutaneous lesions, while only Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis has been associated with mucosal metastases. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) is the optimal standard for species identification but is slow and costly. New methods for species identification are needed to ensure proper identification and therapy. The coding regions of four metabolic enzyme markers in the MLEE typing method: mannose phosphate isomerase (MPI), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI), and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD), were analysed from seven species of New World Leishmania isolated from patients with either cutaneous or mucosal lesions to identify specific genetic polymorphisms responsible for the phenotypic variations observed in the MLEE typing scheme. We identified species-specific polymorphisms and determined that a combination of sequencing of the mpi and 6pgd genes was sufficient to differentiate among seven closely related species of New World Leishmania and among isolates of L. braziliensis shown previously to have atypical MLEE patterns. When DNA isolated from 10 cutaneous lesion biopsies were evaluated, the sequence typing method was 100% concordant with the published MLEE/monoclonal antibody identification methods. The identification of species-specific polymorphisms can be used to design a DNA-based test with greater discriminatory power that requires shorter identification times. When the causative agent of the disease is L. braziliensis, this method ensures correct species identification, even when the agent is a genetic variant. Proper identification could facilitate adequate treatment, preventing the onset of the disfiguring mucosal form of the disease. PMID:18817779

  8. Multilocus sequence typing approach for a broader range of species of Leishmania genus: describing parasite diversity in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Marco, Jorge D; Barroso, Paola A; Locatelli, Fabricio M; Cajal, S Pamela; Hoyos, Carlos L; Nevot, M Cecilia; Lauthier, Juan J; Tomasini, Nicolás; Juarez, Marisa; Estévez, J Octavio; Korenaga, Masataka; Nasser, Julio R; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Ruybal, Paula

    2015-03-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne protozoan infection affecting over 350 million people around the world. In Argentina cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in nine provinces and visceral leishmaniasis is spreading from autochthonous transmission foci in seven provinces. However, there is limited information about the diversity of the parasite in this country. Implementation of molecular strategies for parasite typing, particularly multilocus sequence typing (MLST), represents an improved approach for genetic variability and population dynamics analyses. We selected six loci as candidates implemented in reference strains and Argentinean isolates. Phylogenetic analysis showed high correlation with taxonomic classification of the parasite. Autochthonous Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis showed higher genetic diversity than L. (Leishmania) infantum but low support was obtained for intra-L. braziliensis complex variants suggesting the need of new loci that contribute to phylogenetic resolution for an improved MLST or nested-MLST scheme. This study represents the first characterization of genetic variability of Leishmania spp. in Argentina. PMID:25558029

  9. Leishmania spp. Epidemiology of Canine Leishmaniasis in the Yucatan Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    López-Céspedes, A.; Longoni, S. S.; Sauri-Arceo, C. H.; Sánchez-Moreno, M.; Rodríguez-Vivas, R. I.; Escobedo-Ortegón, F. J.; Barrera-Pérez, M. A.; Bolio-González, M. E.; Marín, C.

    2012-01-01

    Canine Leishmaniasis is widespread in various Mexican states, where different species of Leishmania have been isolated from dogs. In the present study, we describe the detection of L. braziliensis, L. infantum, and L. mexicana in serum of dogs from the states of Yucatan and Quintana Roo in the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico). A total of 412 sera were analyzed by ELISA using the total extract of the parasite and the iron superoxide dismutase excreted by different trypanosomatids as antigens. We found the prevalence of L. braziliensis to be 7.52%, L. infantum to be 6.07%, and L. mexicana to be 20.63%, in the dog population studied. The results obtained with ELISA using iron superoxide dismutase as the antigen were confirmed by western blot analysis with its greater sensitivity, and the agreement between the two techniques was very high. PMID:22927792

  10. Rapid identification of Leishmania species by specific hybridization of kinetoplast DNA in cutaneous lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, D F; Pratt, D M

    1982-01-01

    Kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) was isolated from various species of the protozoic parasite Leishmania and analyzed by nucleic acid hybridization to detect species-related heterogeneity of kDNA. Purified DNA isolated from L. mexicana and L. braziliensis displayed no homology in nucleic acid hybridization studies. These results confirmed that rapid kDNA sequence change and evolution is occurring in New World species of Leishmania and suggested that such isolated kDNA could be used as a specific hybridization probe for the rapid identification of Leishmania species by using whole organisms. This work further demonstrates that such species-specific identification is feasible on isolated Leishmania promastigotes and, more important, directly on tissue touch blots derived from the cutaneous lesion. Thus, specific hybridization of isolated kDNA provides the basis for a rapid, accurate method for the diagnosis of human leishmaniasis directly from infected tissue. Images PMID:6960359

  11. Rapid identification of Leishmania species by specific hybridization of kinetoplast DNA in cutaneous lesions.

    PubMed

    Wirth, D F; Pratt, D M

    1982-11-01

    Kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) was isolated from various species of the protozoic parasite Leishmania and analyzed by nucleic acid hybridization to detect species-related heterogeneity of kDNA. Purified DNA isolated from L. mexicana and L. braziliensis displayed no homology in nucleic acid hybridization studies. These results confirmed that rapid kDNA sequence change and evolution is occurring in New World species of Leishmania and suggested that such isolated kDNA could be used as a specific hybridization probe for the rapid identification of Leishmania species by using whole organisms. This work further demonstrates that such species-specific identification is feasible on isolated Leishmania promastigotes and, more important, directly on tissue touch blots derived from the cutaneous lesion. Thus, specific hybridization of isolated kDNA provides the basis for a rapid, accurate method for the diagnosis of human leishmaniasis directly from infected tissue. PMID:6960359

  12. Identification of causative Leishmania species in Giemsa-stained smears prepared from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in Peru using PCR-RFLP.

    PubMed

    Koarashi, Yu; Cáceres, Abraham G; Saca, Florencia Margarita Zúniga; Flores, Elsa Elvira Palacios; Trujillo, Adela Celis; Alvares, José Luis Abanto; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Arikawa, Jiro; Katakura, Ken; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Kato, Hirotomo

    2016-06-01

    A PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) targeting the mannose phosphate isomerase gene was established to differentiate Leishmania species distributed near the Department of Huanuco, Peru. The technique was applied to 267 DNA samples extracted from Giemsa-stained smears of cutaneous lesions taken from patients suspected for cutaneous leishmaniasis in the area, and the present status of causative Leishmania species was identified. Of 114 PCR-amplified samples, 22, 19, 24 and 49 samples were identified to be infected by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, L. (V.) peruviana, L. (V.) guyanensis, and a hybrid of L. (V.) braziliensis/L. (V.) peruviana, respectively, and the validity of PCR-RFLP was confirmed by sequence analysis. Since PCR-RFLP is simple and rapid, the technique will be a useful tool for the epidemiological study of leishmaniasis. PMID:26943992

  13. LR1: a candidate RNA virus of Leishmania.

    PubMed Central

    Tarr, P I; Aline, R F; Smiley, B L; Scholler, J; Keithly, J; Stuart, K

    1988-01-01

    Although viruses are important biological agents and useful molecular tools, little is known about the viruses of parasites. We report here the discovery of a candidate for an RNA virus in a kinetoplastid parasite. This potential virus, which we term LR1, is present in the promastigote form of the human pathogen Leishmania braziliensis guyanensis CUMC1-1A but not in 11 other stocks of Leishmania that were examined nor in Trypanosoma brucei. The candidate viral RNA has a size of approximately 6000 nucleotides, is single-stranded, and is largely, if not exclusively, located in the cytoplasm. No homologous LR1 sequences are detected in genomic DNA. The candidate viral RNA is associated with a spherical particle 32 nm in diameter that has a sedimentation coefficient of approximately 130 S. There is as yet no evident effect of this potential virus on parasite physiology or the disease caused by the parasite. Images PMID:3200841

  14. In Vitro and In Vivo Efficacy of Ether Lipid Edelfosine against Leishmania spp. and SbV-Resistant Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Yepes, Edward; Müller, Ingrid; Modolell, Manuel; Muñoz, Diana L.; Robledo, Sara M.; Muskus, Carlos E.; López-Abán, Julio; Muro, Antonio; Vélez, Iván D.; Mollinedo, Faustino

    2012-01-01

    Background The leishmaniases are a complex of neglected tropical diseases caused by more than 20 Leishmania parasite species, for which available therapeutic arsenal is scarce and unsatisfactory. Pentavalent antimonials (SbV) are currently the first-line pharmacologic therapy for leishmaniasis worldwide, but resistance to these compounds is increasingly reported. Alkyl-lysophospoholipid analogs (ALPs) constitute a family of compounds with antileishmanial activity, and one of its members, miltefosine, has been approved as the first oral treatment for visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis. However, its clinical use can be challenged by less impressive efficiency in patients infected with some Leishmania species, including L. braziliensis and L. mexicana, and by proneness to develop drug resistance in vitro. Methodology/Principal Findings We found that ALPs ranked edelfosine>perifosine>miltefosine>erucylphosphocholine for their antileishmanial activity and capacity to promote apoptosis-like parasitic cell death in promastigote and amastigote forms of distinct Leishmania spp., as assessed by proliferation and flow cytometry assays. Effective antileishmanial ALP concentrations were dependent on both the parasite species and their development stage. Edelfosine accumulated in and killed intracellular Leishmania parasites within macrophages. In vivo antileishmanial activity was demonstrated following oral treatment with edelfosine of mice and hamsters infected with L. major, L. panamensis or L. braziliensis, without any significant side-effect. Edelfosine also killed SbV-resistant Leishmania parasites in in vitro and in vivo assays, and required longer incubation times than miltefosine to generate drug resistance. Conclusions/Significance Our data reveal that edelfosine is the most potent ALP in killing different Leishmania spp., and it is less prone to lead to drug resistance development than miltefosine. Edelfosine is effective in killing Leishmania in culture and within

  15. Distinct Leishmania Species Infecting Wild Caviomorph Rodents (Rodentia: Hystricognathi) from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cássia-Pires, Renata; Boité, Mariana C.; D'Andrea, Paulo S.; Herrera, Heitor M.; Cupolillo, Elisa; Jansen, Ana Maria; Roque, André Luiz R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Caviomorph rodents, some of the oldest Leishmania spp. hosts, are widely dispersed in Brazil. Despite both experimental and field studies having suggested that these rodents are potential reservoirs of Leishmania parasites, not more than 88 specimens were analyzed in the few studies of natural infection. Our hypothesis was that caviomorph rodents are inserted in the transmission cycles of Leishmania in different regions, more so than is currently recognized. Methodology We investigated the Leishmania infection in spleen fragments of 373 caviomorph rodents from 20 different species collected in five Brazilian biomes in a period of 13 years. PCR reactions targeting kDNA of Leishmania sp. were used to diagnose infection, while Leishmania species identification was performed by DNA sequencing of the amplified products obtained in the HSP70 (234) targeting. Serology by IFAT was performed on the available serum of these rodents. Principal findings In 13 caviomorph rodents, DNA sequencing analyses allowed the identification of 4 species of the subgenus L. (Viannia): L. shawi, L. guyanensis, L. naiffi, and L. braziliensis; and 1 species of the subgenus L. (Leishmania): L. infantum. These include the description of parasite species in areas not previously included in their known distribution: L. shawi in Thrichomys inermis from Northeastern Brazil and L. naiffi in T. fosteri from Western Brazil. From the four other positive rodents, two were positive for HSP70 (234) targeting but did not generate sequences that enabled the species identification, and another two were positive only in kDNA targeting. Conclusions/Significance The infection rate demonstrated by the serology (51.3%) points out that the natural Leishmania infection in caviomorph rodents is much higher than that observed in the molecular diagnosis (4.6%), highlighting that, in terms of the host species responsible for maintaining Leishmania species in the wild, our current knowledge represents only the

  16. Further Evidence of an Association between the Presence of Leishmania RNA Virus 1 and the Mucosal Manifestations in Tegumentary Leishmaniasis Patients.

    PubMed

    Cantanhêde, Lilian Motta; da Silva Júnior, Cipriano Ferreira; Ito, Marcos Massayuki; Felipin, Kátia Paula; Nicolete, Roberto; Salcedo, Juan Miguel Villalobos; Porrozzi, Renato; Cupolillo, Elisa; Ferreira, Ricardo de Godoi Mattos

    2015-01-01

    Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (TL) is endemic in Latin America, and Brazil contributes approximately 20 thousand cases per year. The pathogenesis of TL, however, is still not fully understood. Clinical manifestations vary from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) to more severe outcomes, such as disseminated leishmaniasis (DL), mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL). Many factors have been associated with the severity of the disease and the development of lesions. Recent studies have reported that the presence of Leishmania RNA virus 1 infecting Leishmania (Leishmania RNA virus 1, LRV1) is an important factor associated with the severity of ML in experimental animal models. In the present study, 156 patients who attended Rondonia's Hospital of Tropical Medicine with both leishmaniasis clinical diagnoses (109 CL; 38 ML; 5 CL+ML; 3 DL and 1 DCL) and molecular diagnoses were investigated. The clinical diagnosis were confirmed by PCR by targeting hsp70 and kDNA DNA sequences and the species causing the infection were determined by HSP70 PCR-RFPL. The presence of LVR1 was tested by RT-PCR. Five Leishmania species were detected: 121 (77.6%) samples were positive for Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, 18 (11.5%) were positive for Leishmania (V.) guyanensis, 3 (1.8%) for Leishmania (V.) lainsoni, 2 (1.3%) for Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and 2 (1.3%) for Leishmania (V.) shawi. Six (3.9%) samples were positive for Leishmania sp. but the species could not be determined, and 4 (2.6%) samples were suggestive of mixed infection by L. (V.) braziliensis and L. (V.) guyanensis. The virus was detected in L. braziliensis (N = 54), L. guyanensis (N = 5), L. amazonensis (N = 2), L. lainsoni (N = 1) and inconclusive samples (N = 6). Patients presenting with CL+ML, DL and DCL were excluded from further analysis. Association between the presence of the virus and the disease outcome were tested among the remaining 147 patients (CL = 109 and ML = 38). Of them, 71

  17. Further Evidence of an Association between the Presence of Leishmania RNA Virus 1 and the Mucosal Manifestations in Tegumentary Leishmaniasis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cantanhêde, Lilian Motta; da Silva Júnior, Cipriano Ferreira; Ito, Marcos Massayuki; Felipin, Kátia Paula; Nicolete, Roberto; Salcedo, Juan Miguel Villalobos; Porrozzi, Renato; Cupolillo, Elisa; Ferreira, Ricardo de Godoi Mattos

    2015-01-01

    Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (TL) is endemic in Latin America, and Brazil contributes approximately 20 thousand cases per year. The pathogenesis of TL, however, is still not fully understood. Clinical manifestations vary from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) to more severe outcomes, such as disseminated leishmaniasis (DL), mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL). Many factors have been associated with the severity of the disease and the development of lesions. Recent studies have reported that the presence of Leishmania RNA virus 1 infecting Leishmania (Leishmania RNA virus 1, LRV1) is an important factor associated with the severity of ML in experimental animal models. In the present study, 156 patients who attended Rondonia's Hospital of Tropical Medicine with both leishmaniasis clinical diagnoses (109 CL; 38 ML; 5 CL+ML; 3 DL and 1 DCL) and molecular diagnoses were investigated. The clinical diagnosis were confirmed by PCR by targeting hsp70 and kDNA DNA sequences and the species causing the infection were determined by HSP70 PCR-RFPL. The presence of LVR1 was tested by RT-PCR. Five Leishmania species were detected: 121 (77.6%) samples were positive for Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, 18 (11.5%) were positive for Leishmania (V.) guyanensis, 3 (1.8%) for Leishmania (V.) lainsoni, 2 (1.3%) for Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and 2 (1.3%) for Leishmania (V.) shawi. Six (3.9%) samples were positive for Leishmania sp. but the species could not be determined, and 4 (2.6%) samples were suggestive of mixed infection by L. (V.) braziliensis and L. (V.) guyanensis. The virus was detected in L. braziliensis (N = 54), L. guyanensis (N = 5), L. amazonensis (N = 2), L. lainsoni (N = 1) and inconclusive samples (N = 6). Patients presenting with CL+ML, DL and DCL were excluded from further analysis. Association between the presence of the virus and the disease outcome were tested among the remaining 147 patients (CL = 109 and ML = 38). Of them, 71

  18. The identity of Leishmania isolated from sand flies and vertebrate hosts in a major focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Baturite, northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, I A; Vasconcelos, A W; Fe Filho, N M; Queiroz, R G; Santana, E W; Bozza, M; Sallenave, S M; Valim, C; David, J R; Lopes, U G

    1994-02-01

    During a field investigation carried out in Baturite, Brazil from 1989 to 1991, sand flies, sympatric rodents, domestic dogs and humans were surveyed for leishmaniasis. Twenty strains of Leishmania were isolated by in vitro culture from Lutzomyia whitmani, three strains were obtained from Rattus rattus, two strains from dogs, and five strains from humans. The isolates were characterized by isoenzyme electrophoresis by hybridization with kinetoplast DNA-specific probes. All the samples were identified as L. (Viannia) braziliensis. The importance of these results in the dynamics of the Leishmania infection in this focus is discussed. PMID:8116807

  19. Leishmania (Viannia) Infection in the Domestic Dog in Chaparral, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Santaella, Julián; Ocampo, Clara B.; Saravia, Nancy G.; Méndez, Fabián; Góngora, Rafael; Gomez, Maria Adelaida; Munstermann, Leonard E.; Quinnell, Rupert J.

    2011-01-01

    Peridomestic transmission of American cutaneous leishmaniasis is increasingly reported and dogs may be a reservoir of Leishmania (Viannia) in this setting. We investigated the prevalence of infection in dogs in Chaparral County, Colombia, the focus of an epidemic of human cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis. Two (0.72%) of 279 dogs had lesions typical of cutaneous leishmaniasis that were biopsy positive by kinetoplast DNA polymerase chain reaction–Southern blotting. Seroprevalence was 2.2% (6 of 279) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Buffy coat and ear skin biopsy specimens were positive by polymerase chain reaction–Southern blotting in 7.3% (10 of 137) and 11.4% (12 of 105) of dogs, respectively. Overall 20% of dogs (21 of 105) showed positive results for one or more tests. Amplification and sequencing of the Leishmania 7SL RNA gene identified L. guyanensis in one dog and L. braziliensis in two dogs. No association was identified between the risk factors evaluated and canine infection. Dogs may contribute to transmission but their role in this focus appears to be limited. PMID:21540374

  20. Reduced Antimony Accumulation in ARM58-Overexpressing Leishmania infantum

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Carola; Tejera Nevado, Paloma; Zander, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    Antimony-based drugs are still the mainstay of chemotherapy against Leishmania infections in many countries where the parasites are endemic. The efficacy of antimonials has been compromised by increasing numbers of resistant infections, the basis of which is not fully understood and likely involves multiple factors. By using a functional cloning strategy, we recently identified a novel antimony resistance marker, ARM58, from the parasite Leishmania braziliensis that protects the parasites against antimony-based antileishmanial compounds. Here we show that the Leishmania infantum homologue also confers resistance against antimony but not against other antileishmanial drugs and that its function depends critically on one of four conserved domains of unknown function. This critical domain requires at least two hydrophobic amino acids and is predicted to form a transmembrane structure. Overexpression of ARM58 in antimony-exposed parasites reduces the intracellular Sb accumulation by over 70%, indicating a role for ARM58 in Sb extrusion pathways, but without involvement of energy-dependent transporter proteins. PMID:24366738

  1. Sialic acids in different Leishmania sp., its correlation with nitric oxide resistance and host responses.

    PubMed

    Ghoshal, Angana; Gerwig, Gerrit J; Kamerling, Johannis P; Mandal, Chitra

    2010-05-01

    The presence of different derivatives of sialic acids (SA) on Leishmania donovani instigated us to investigate their status on different strains of Leishmania sp. causing different forms of the disease. Leishmania tropica (K27), Leishmania major (JISH118) and Leishmania mexicana (LV4) responsible for cutaneous, Leishmania braziliensis (L280) and Leishmania amazonensis (LV81) causing diffuse and Leishmania infantum (MON29) responsible for visceral leishmaniasis were included in this study. The strains showed a differential distribution of SA in spite of their close resemblance in pathogenesis. K27, JISH118, L280 and MON29 were categorized as high SA-containing strains having enhanced 9-O-acetyl sialic acid (9-O-AcSA(high)) whereas LV4 and LV81 evidenced considerably reduced SA. Interestingly, 9-O-AcSA(high) promastigotes showed significant viability as compared to their de-O-acetylated forms after exposure to NaNO(2) suggesting the involvement of 9-O-AcSA in conferring nitric oxide (NO) resistance. Enhanced intracellular survivability was demonstrated following infection of human macrophages with 9-O-AcSA(high) promastigotes in contrast to their de-O-acetylated forms indicating their contribution in bestowing a survival benefit. Additionally, reduced accumulation of NO, interleukin-12 and interferon-gamma in the supernatant of macrophages infected with 9-O-AcSA(high) promastigotes indicated suppression of leishmanicidal host responses. However, LV4 and LV81 with least 9-O-AcSA, before and after de-O-acetylation, showed unaltered NO resistance, multiplicity and host responses signifying the probable involvement of other determinants which may be a function of their inherent parasitic attribute. Hence, enhanced levels of 9-O-AcSA serve as one of the potential determinants responsible for increased NO resistance and survivability of parasites by inhibition of host responses. PMID:20085901

  2. In vitro cytokines profile and ultrastructural changes of microglia and macrophages following interaction with Leishmania.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Patricia Karla Santos; Brito, Maysa de Vasconcelos; Silveira, Fernando Tobias; Salgado, Cláudio Guedes; De Souza, Wanderley; Picanço-Diniz, Cristovam Wanderley; Picanço-Diniz, José Antonio Junior

    2014-07-01

    In the present study, we assessed morphological changes and cytokine production after in vitro interaction with causative agents of American cutaneous leishmaniasis and compared the microglia and macrophage immune responses. Cultures of microglia and macrophages infected with stationary-phase promastigotes of Leishmania (Viannia) shawi, Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis or Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis were evaluated 24, 48 and 72 h after interaction. Macrophages only presented the classical phagocytic process while microglia also displayed large cytoplasmic projections similar to the ruffles described in macropinocytosis. In the macrophage cultures, the percentage of infected cells increased over time, in a fashion that was dependent on the parasite species. In contrast, in microglial cells as the culture time progressed, there was a significant reduction in the percentage of infected cells independent of parasite species. Measurements of cytokines in macrophage cultures 48 h after interactions revealed distinct expression patterns for different parasites, whereas in microglial cultures they were similar for all Leishmania tested species. Taken together, our results suggest that microglia may have a higher phagocytic ability and cytotoxic potential than macrophages for all investigated species. The robust response of microglia against all parasite species may suggest microglia have an important role in the defence against cerebral leishmaniasis. PMID:24717447

  3. Detection of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi in Brazilian bats.

    PubMed

    Savani, Elisa San Martin Mouriz; de Almeida, Marilene Fernandes; de Oliveira Camargo, Maria Cecília Gibrail; D'Auria, Sandra Regina Nicoletti; Silva, Miriam Martos Sodré; de Oliveira, Maria Lúcia; Sacramento, Débora

    2010-02-26

    Although bats are one of the most abundant mammals in the new world and are present in virtually all ecosystems, including urban and peri-urban environments, few studies have investigated the role of these animals in the epidemiological chain of leishmaniosis. Here, we report a study of 683 bats captured in São Paulo county (southeastern from Brazil), which were screened by serology, parasitologic methods and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for trypanosomatids. The indirect immunofluorescent antibody test demonstrated that 0.9% of bats react positively for leishmaniosis and PCR detected the presence of DNA of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis in 18 bats and Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi in 3 specimens. These results indicate that further studies are necessary to evaluate the role of bats in maintenance of the Leishmania life cycle, especially in areas where these diseases are endemic. PMID:19939568

  4. Characterization and localization of ORFF gene from the LD1 locus of Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Jain, Manju; Madhubala, Rentala

    2008-06-15

    The Leishmania genome project has identified new genes at a rapid rate. The 32.8-megabase haploid genome of Leishmania major (Friedlin strain) is published and the comparative analysis of genome sequences of two other species, Leishmania infantum and Leishmanai braziliensis has been done. The haploid genome of Leishmania major (Friedlin strain) has around 8272 protein-coding genes, of which only 36% can be ascribed a putative function. Out of these open reading frames around 910 Leishmania major genes have no orthologs in the other two Tritryp genomes. These "Leishmania -restricted" genes hold a potential as novel drug targets and potential vaccine candidates. Open reading frame, ORFF, is a single copy gene located on the chromosome 35 as a part of the multigene LD1 locus. Indirect immunofluorescence study and creation of ORFF-GFP fusion showed that ORFF is localized in the DNA containing compartments of Leishmania donovani, the nucleus and the kinetoplast. In order to characterize ORFF gene of L. donovani, we have created ORFF over-expressors and single allele deletion mutants by homologous replacement strategy. ORFF is likely to be an important gene for the parasite growth since results from over-expression studies and characterization of ORFF heterozygous knockout mutants reveal marked alterations in the cell cycle phenotype compared to the wild-type parasites. Flowcytometry based cell cycle analysis showed selective increase in the DNA synthetic phase of the ORFF over-expressors and a subversion of the same in heterozygous knockouts of ORFF suggesting its potential role in cell cycle progression. PMID:18423903

  5. Canine cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by neotropical Leishmania infantum despite of systemic disease: A case report.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Amanda; Lobo, Rogério; Cupolillo, Elisa; Bustamante, Fábio; Porrozzi, Renato

    2012-12-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is an anthropozoonosis caused by a protozoan Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi). Here, we report a typical case of canine cutaneous leishmaniasis due to L. infantum infection without any other systemic symptom in one dog in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A mongrel female dog was admitted in a veterinary clinic with reports of chronic wounds in the body. Physical examination revealed erosive lesions in the limbs, nasal ulcers, presence of ectoparasites and seborrheic dermatitis. Blood samples and fragments of healthy and injured skin were collected. The complete hemogram revealed aregenerative normocytic normochromic anemia and erythrocyte rouleaux, and biochemical analysis revealed normal renal and hepatic functions. Cytology of the muzzle and skin lesions suggested pyogranulomatous inflammatory process. The histopathology of a skin fragment was performed and revealed suspicion of protozoa accompanied by necrotizing dermatitis. The diagnosis of leishmaniasis was accomplished by positive serology, isolation of Leishmania from the skin lesion, and also by molecular test (PCR targeting the conserved region of Leishmania kDNA). Culture was positive for damaged skin samples. PCR targeting a fragment of Leishmania hsp70 gene was performed employing DNA extracted from damaged skin. RFLP of the amplified hsp70 fragment identified the parasite as L. infantum, instead of Leishmania braziliensis, the main agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Rio de Janeiro. Characterization of isolated promastigotes by five different enzymatic systems confirmed the species identification of the etiological agent. Serology was positive by ELISA and rapid test. This case warns to the suspicion of viscerotropic Leishmania in cases of chronic skin lesions and brings the discussion of the mechanisms involved in the parasite tissue tropism. PMID:22583758

  6. An effective in vitro and in vivo antileishmanial activity and mechanism of action of 8-hydroxyquinoline against Leishmania species causing visceral and tegumentary leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Costa Duarte, Mariana; dos Reis Lage, Letícia Martins; Lage, Daniela Pagliara; Mesquita, Juliana Tonini; Salles, Beatriz Cristina Silveira; Lavorato, Stefânia Neiva; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Alves, Ricardo José; Tavares, Carlos Alberto Pereira; Tempone, André Gustavo; Coelho, Eduardo Antonio Ferraz

    2016-02-15

    The development of new therapeutic strategies to treat leishmaniasis has become a priority. In the present study, the antileishmanial activity of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQN) was investigated against in vitro promastigotes and in vivo intra-macrophage amastigotes of three Leishmania species: Leishmania amazonensis, Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis. Studies were performed to establish the 50% Leishmania inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 8-HQN, as well as its 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) on murine macrophages and in human red blood cells. The inhibition of macrophages infection was also evaluated using parasites that were pre-treated with 8-HQN. The effects of this compound on nitric oxide (NO) production and in the mitochondrial membrane potential were also evaluated. Finally, the therapeutic efficacy of 8-HQN was assessed in a known murine model, L. amazonensis-chronically infected BALB/c mice. Our results showed that 8-HQN was effective against promastigote and amastigote stages of all tested Leishmania species, presenting a selectivity index of 328.0, 62.0 and 47.0 for L. amazonensis, L. infantum and L. braziliensis, respectively. It was effective in treating infected macrophages, as well as in preventing the infection of these cells using pre-treated parasites. In addition, 8-HQN caused an alteration in the mitochondrial membrane potential of the parasites. When administered at 10mg/kg body weight/day by subcutaneous route, this product was effective in reducing the lesion diameter, as well as the parasite load in evaluated tissues and organs of infected animals. The results showed the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of 8-HQN against three different Leishmania species causing tegumentary and/or visceral leishmaniasis, and it could well be used for future therapeutic optimization studies to treat leishmaniasis. PMID:26827866

  7. Population Structure and Evidence for Both Clonality and Recombination among Brazilian Strains of the Subgenus Leishmania (Viannia)

    PubMed Central

    Kuhls, Katrin; Cupolillo, Elisa; Silva, Soraia O.; Schweynoch, Carola; Côrtes Boité, Mariana; Mello, Maria N.; Mauricio, Isabel; Miles, Michael; Wirth, Thierry; Schönian, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Parasites of the subgenus Leishmania (Viannia) cause varying clinical symptoms ranging from cutaneous leishmaniases (CL) with single or few lesions, disseminated CL (DL) with multiple lesions to disfiguring forms of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL). In this population genetics study, 37 strains of L. (V.) guyanensis, 63 of L. (V.) braziliensis, four of L. (V.) shawi, six of L. (V.) lainsoni, seven of L. (V.) naiffi, one each of L. (V.) utingensis and L. (V.) lindenbergi, and one L. (V.) lainsoni/L. naiffi hybrid from different endemic foci in Brazil were examined for variation at 15 hyper-variable microsatellite markers. Methodology/Principal findings: The multilocus microsatellite profiles obtained for the 120 strains were analysed using both model- and distance-based methods. Significant genetic diversity was observed for all L. (Viannia) strains studied. The two cluster analysis approaches identified two principal genetic groups or populations, one consisting of strains of L. (V.) guyanensis from the Amazon region and the other of strains of L. (V.) braziliensis isolated along the Atlantic coast of Brazil. A third group comprised a heterogeneous assembly of species, including other strains of L. braziliensis isolated from the north of Brazil, which were extremely polymorphic. The latter strains seemed to be more closely related to those of L. (V.) shawi, L. (V.) naiffi, and L. (V.) lainsoni, also isolated in northern Brazilian foci. The MLMT approach identified an epidemic clone consisting of 13 strains of L. braziliensis from Minas Gerais, but evidence for recombination was obtained for the populations of L. (V.) braziliensis from the Atlantic coast and for L. (V.) guyanensis. Conclusions/Significance: Different levels of recombination versus clonality seem to occur within the subgenus L. (Viannia). Though clearly departing from panmixia, sporadic, but long-term sustained recombination might explain the tremendous genetic diversity and

  8. Laboratory tests performed on Leishmania seroreactive dogs euthanized by the leishmaniasis control program.

    PubMed

    Silva, D A; Madeira, M F; Teixeira, A C; de Souza, C M; Figueiredo, F B

    2011-06-30

    In 2008, in the west zone of Rio de Janeiro municipality-Brazil, the leishmaniasis control program identified 155 dogs with titers ≥ 40 by Indirect ImmunoFluorescence (IIF) on blood collected onto filter paper. The objective of this study was to describe the laboratory test findings performed in dogs euthanized by the leishmaniasis program control of Rio de Janeiro municipality. Dogs were examined, subjected to euthanasia and collection of clinical specimens. Parasite isolation was obtained in 29 animals: Leishmania chagasi was isolated in 14 dogs; Leishmania braziliensis was isolated in five dogs; Trypanosoma caninum was obtained in seven animals and one dog had mixed infection (L. braziliensis and L. chagasi). By Polymerase Chain Reaction, seventeen animals were positive in intact skin fragments. In the serological reassessment of serum samples, 28% and 22% were positive for IIF and enzyme immunoassay, respectively. Ninety-one (59%) dogs were negative for all tests performed in this study. The findings indicate that the visceral leishmaniasis control program needs to be adjusted in order to avoid non-infected dogs from being removed or permit that dogs infected with L. chagasi to remain undetected in endemic areas. PMID:21349644

  9. Screening Leishmania donovani complex-specific genes required for visceral disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Wei; Matlashewski, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania protozoan parasites are the causing agent of leishmaniasis. Depending on the infecting species, Leishmania infection can causes a wide variety of diseases such as self-healing cutaneous lesions by L. major and fatal visceral leishmaniasis by L. donovani and L. infantum. Comparison of the visceral disease causing L. infantum genome with cutaneous disease causing L. major and L. braziliensis genomes has identified 25 L. infantum (L. donovani complex) species-specific genes that are absent or pseudogenes in L. major and L. braziliensis. To investigate whether these L. donovani complex species-specific genes are involved in visceral infection, we cloned these genes from L. donovani and introduced them into L. major and then determined whether the transgenic L. major had an increased ability to survive in liver and spleen of BALB/c mice. Several of these L. donovani complex specific genes were found to significantly increase L. major survival in visceral organs in BALB/c mice including the A2 and Ld2834 genes, while down regulation of these genes in L. donovani by either antisense RNA or gene knockout dramatically reduced L. donovani virulence in BALB/c mice. This demonstrated that L. donovani complex species-specific genes play important roles in visceral infection. In this chapter, we describe procedures to screen L. donovani complex specific genes required for visceral infection by cross species transgenic expression, gene deletion targeting and measuring infection levels in mice. PMID:25388124

  10. DETC Induces Leishmania Parasite Killing in Human In Vitro and Murine In Vivo Models: A Promising Therapeutic Alternative in Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Khouri, Ricardo; Novais, Fernanda; Santana, Gisélia; de Oliveira, Camila Indiani; Vannier dos Santos, Marcos André; Barral, Aldina; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Van Weyenbergh, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Background Chemotherapy remains the primary tool for treatment and control of human leishmaniasis. However, currently available drugs present serious problems regarding side-effects, variable efficacy, and cost. Affordable and less toxic drugs are urgently needed for leishmaniasis. Methodology/Principal Findings We demonstrate, by microscopy and viability assays, that superoxide dismutase inhibitor diethyldithiocarbamate (DETC) dose-dependently induces parasite killing (p<0.001) and is able to “sterilize” Leishmania amazonensis infection at 2 mM in human macrophages in vitro. We also show that DETC-induced superoxide production (p<0.001) and parasite destruction (p<0.05) were reverted by the addition of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine, indicating that DETC-induced killing occurs through oxidative damage. Furthermore, ultrastructural analysis by electron microscopy demonstrates a rapid and highly selective destruction of amastigotes in the phagosome upon DETC treatment, without any apparent damage to the host cell, including its mitochondria. In addition, DETC significantly induced parasite killing in Leishmania promastigotes in axenic culture. In murine macrophages infected with Leishmania braziliensis, DETC significantly induced in vitro superoxide production (p = 0.0049) and parasite killing (p = 0.0043). In vivo treatment with DETC in BALB/C mice infected with Leishmania braziliensis caused a significant decrease in lesion size (p<0.0001), paralleled by a 100-fold decrease (p = 0.0087) in parasite burden. Conclusions/Significance Due to its strong leishmanicidal effect in human macrophages in vitro, its in vivo effectiveness in a murine model, and its previously demonstrated in vivo safety profile in HIV treatment, DETC treatment might be considered as a valuable therapeutic option in human leishmaniasis, including HIV/Leishmania co-infection. PMID:21200432

  11. The efficacy of 2-nitrovinylfuran derivatives against Leishmania in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sifontes-Rodríguez, Sergio; Monzote-Fidalgo, Lianet; Castañedo-Cancio, Nilo; Montalvo-Álvarez, Ana Margarita; López-Hernández, Yamilé; Diogo, Niurka Mollineda; Infante-Bourzac, Juan Francisco; Pérez-Martín, Oliver; Meneses-Marcel, Alfredo; García-Trevijano, José Antonio Escario; Cabrera-Pérez, Miguel Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent advances in the treatment of some forms of leishmaniasis, the available drugs are still far from ideal due to inefficacy, parasite resistance, toxicity and cost. The wide-spectrum antimicrobial activity of 2-nitrovinylfuran compounds has been described, as has their activity against Trichomonas vaginalis and other protozoa. Thus, the aim of this study was to test the antileishmanial activities of six 2-nitrovinylfurans in vitro and in a murine model of leishmaniasis. Minimum parasiticide concentration (MPC) and 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values for these compounds against the promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis, Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis were determined, as were the efficacies of two selected compounds in an experimental model of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by L. amazonensis in BALB/c mice. All of the compounds were active against the promastigotes of the three Leishmania species tested. IC50 and MPC values were in the ranges of 0.8-4.7 µM and 1.7-32 µM, respectively. The compounds 2-bromo-5-(2-bromo-2-nitrovinyl)-furan (furvina) and 2-bromo-5-(2-methyl-2-nitrovinyl)-furan (UC245) also reduced lesion growth in vivo at a magnitude comparable to or higher than that achieved by amphotericin B treatment. The results demonstrate the potential of this class of compounds as antileishmanial agents and support the clinical testing of Dermofural(r) (a furvina-containing antifungal ointment) for the treatment of CL. PMID:25946239

  12. The efficacy of 2-nitrovinylfuran derivatives against Leishmania in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sifontes-Rodríguez, Sergio; Monzote-Fidalgo, Lianet; Castañedo-Cancio, Nilo; Montalvo-Álvarez, Ana Margarita; López-Hernández, Yamilé; Diogo, Niurka Mollineda; Infante-Bourzac, Juan Francisco; Pérez-Martín, Oliver; Meneses-Marcel, Alfredo; García-Trevijano, José Antonio Escario; Cabrera-Pérez, Miguel Ángel

    2015-04-01

    Despite recent advances in the treatment of some forms of leishmaniasis, the available drugs are still far from ideal due to inefficacy, parasite resistance, toxicity and cost. The wide-spectrum antimicrobial activity of 2-nitrovinylfuran compounds has been described, as has their activity against Trichomonas vaginalis and other protozoa. Thus, the aim of this study was to test the antileishmanial activities of six 2-nitrovinylfurans in vitro and in a murine model of leishmaniasis. Minimum parasiticide concentration (MPC) and 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values for these compounds against the promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis, Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis were determined, as were the efficacies of two selected compounds in an experimental model of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by L. amazonensis in BALB/c mice. All of the compounds were active against the promastigotes of the three Leishmania species tested. IC50 and MPC values were in the ranges of 0.8-4.7 µM and 1.7-32 µM, respectively. The compounds 2-bromo-5-(2-bromo-2-nitrovinyl)-furan (furvina) and 2-bromo-5-(2-methyl-2-nitrovinyl)-furan (UC245) also reduced lesion growth in vivo at a magnitude comparable to or higher than that achieved by amphotericin B treatment. The results demonstrate the potential of this class of compounds as antileishmanial agents and support the clinical testing of Dermofural(r) (a furvina-containing antifungal ointment) for the treatment of CL. PMID:25946239

  13. Identification and Biological Characterization of Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis Isolated from a Patient with Tegumentary Leishmaniasis in Goiás, a Nonendemic Area for This Species in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Alause da Silva; Borges, Arissa Felipe; Cappellazzo Coelho, Adriano; Dorta, Miriam Leandro; Lino Junior, Ruy de Souza; Pereira, Ledice Inacia de Araújo; Pinto, Sebastião Alves; Pelli de Oliveira, Milton Adriano; de Matos, Grazzielle Guimarães; Abrahamsohn, Ises A.; Uliana, Silvia Reni B.; Lima, Glória Maria Collet de Araújo; Ribeiro-Dias, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize clinical field isolates of Leishmania spp. obtained from patients with American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (ATL) who live in Goiás state, Brazil. The presumed areas of infection were in Goiás, Tocantins, and Pará states. Three isolates of parasites were identified as L. (Viannia) braziliensis and one as L. (V.) guyanensis. The in vitro growth profiles were found to be similar for all parasites. Nevertheless, in C57BL/6 mice, L. (V.) guyanensis infection was better controlled than L. (V.) braziliensis. Yet in C57BL/6 mice deficient in interferon gamma, L. (V.) guyanensis lesions developed faster than those caused by L. (V.) braziliensis isolates. In BALB/c mice, the development of lesions was similar for isolates from both species; however, on the 11th week of infection, amastigotes could not be observed in macrophages from L. (V.) guyanensis-infected mice. Thus, L. (V.) guyanensis can be circulating in Goiás, a state where autochthonous cases of this species had not yet been reported. Considering the difficulties to differentiate L. (V.) guyanensis from L. (V.) braziliensis at the molecular, morphological, and clinical (human and murine models) levels, the presence of L. (V.) guyanensis infections is possibly underestimated in several regions of Brazil. PMID:26583102

  14. FIRST REPORT OF CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS CAUSED BYLeishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi IN AN URBAN AREA OF RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    LYRA, Marcelo Rosandiski; PIMENTEL, Maria Inês Fernandes; MADEIRA, Maria de Fátima; ANTONIO, Liliane de Fátima; LYRA, Janine Pontes de Miranda; FAGUNDES, Aline; SCHUBACH, Armando de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is an infectious disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, and transmitted by sandflies. In the state of Rio de Janeiro, almost all of the cases of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) are caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, while cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi. The resurgence of autochthonous VL cases in Rio de Janeiro is related to the geographic expansion of the vector Lutzomyia longipalpis and its ability to adapt to urban areas. We report the first case of leishmaniasis with exclusively cutaneous manifestations caused by L. (L.) infantum chagasi in an urban area of Rio de Janeiro. An eighty-one-year-old woman presented three pleomorphic skin lesions that were not associated with systemic symptoms or visceromegalies. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis identified L. (L.) infantum chagasi, but direct smear and PCR of bone narrow were negative for Leishmania sp. (suggesting exclusively cutaneous involvement). We discuss the different dermatological presentations of viscerotropic leishmaniasis of the New and Old World, and the clinical and epidemiological importance of the case. Etiologic diagnosis of ATL based upon exclusive clinical criteria may lead to incorrect conclusions. We should be aware of the constant changes in epidemiological patterns related to leishmaniases. PMID:26603237

  15. High Resolution Melting Analysis Targeting hsp70 as a Fast and Efficient Method for the Discrimination of Leishmania Species

    PubMed Central

    Zampieri, Ricardo Andrade; Laranjeira-Silva, Maria Fernanda; Muxel, Sandra Marcia; Stocco de Lima, Ana Carolina; Shaw, Jeffrey Jon; Floeter-Winter, Lucile Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania cause a large spectrum of clinical manifestations known as Leishmaniases. These diseases are increasingly important public health problems in many countries both within and outside endemic regions. Thus, an accurate differential diagnosis is extremely relevant for understanding epidemiological profiles and for the administration of the best therapeutic protocol. Methods/Principal Findings Exploring the High Resolution Melting (HRM) dissociation profiles of two amplicons using real time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) targeting heat-shock protein 70 coding gene (hsp70) revealed differences that allowed the discrimination of genomic DNA samples of eight Leishmania species found in the Americas, including Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi, L. (L.) amazonensis, L. (L.) mexicana, L. (Viannia) lainsoni, L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (V.) guyanensis, L. (V.) naiffi and L. (V.) shawi, and three species found in Eurasia and Africa, including L. (L.) tropica, L. (L.) donovani and L. (L.) major. In addition, we tested DNA samples obtained from standard promastigote culture, naturally infected phlebotomines, experimentally infected mice and clinical human samples to validate the proposed protocol. Conclusions/Significance HRM analysis of hsp70 amplicons is a fast and robust strategy that allowed for the detection and discrimination of all Leishmania species responsible for the Leishmaniases in Brazil and Eurasia/Africa with high sensitivity and accuracy. This method could detect less than one parasite per reaction, even in the presence of host DNA. PMID:26928050

  16. An Innovative Field-Applicable Molecular Test to Diagnose Cutaneous Leishmania Viannia spp. Infections

    PubMed Central

    Saldarriaga, Omar A.; Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Porrozzi, Renato; Baldeviano, Gerald C.; Lescano, Andrés G.; de Los Santos, Maxy B.; Fernandez, Olga L.; Saravia, Nancy G.; Costa, Erika; Melby, Peter C.; Travi, Bruno L.

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis is widely distributed in Central and South America. Leishmania of the Viannia subgenus are the most frequent species infecting humans. L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (V.) panamensis are also responsible for metastatic mucosal leishmaniasis. Conventional or real time PCR is a more sensitive diagnostic test than microscopy, but the cost and requirement for infrastructure and trained personnel makes it impractical in most endemic regions. Primary health systems need a sensitive and specific point of care (POC) diagnostic tool. We developed a novel POC molecular diagnostic test for cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) spp. Parasite DNA was amplified using isothermal Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) with primers and probes that targeted the kinetoplast DNA. The amplification product was detected by naked eye with a lateral flow (LF) immunochromatographic strip. The RPA-LF had an analytical sensitivity equivalent to 0.1 parasites per reaction. The test amplified the principal L. Viannia species from multiple countries: L. (V.) braziliensis (n = 33), L. (V.) guyanensis (n = 17), L. (V.) panamensis (n = 9). The less common L. (V.) lainsoni, L. (V.) shawi, and L. (V.) naiffi were also amplified. No amplification was observed in parasites of the L. (Leishmania) subgenus. In a small number of clinical samples (n = 13) we found 100% agreement between PCR and RPA-LF. The high analytical sensitivity and clinical validation indicate the test could improve the efficiency of diagnosis, especially in chronic lesions with submicroscopic parasite burdens. Field implementation of the RPA-LF test could contribute to management and control of cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis. PMID:27115155

  17. An Innovative Field-Applicable Molecular Test to Diagnose Cutaneous Leishmania Viannia spp. Infections.

    PubMed

    Saldarriaga, Omar A; Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Porrozzi, Renato; Baldeviano, Gerald C; Lescano, Andrés G; de Los Santos, Maxy B; Fernandez, Olga L; Saravia, Nancy G; Costa, Erika; Melby, Peter C; Travi, Bruno L

    2016-04-01

    Cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis is widely distributed in Central and South America. Leishmania of the Viannia subgenus are the most frequent species infecting humans. L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (V.) panamensis are also responsible for metastatic mucosal leishmaniasis. Conventional or real time PCR is a more sensitive diagnostic test than microscopy, but the cost and requirement for infrastructure and trained personnel makes it impractical in most endemic regions. Primary health systems need a sensitive and specific point of care (POC) diagnostic tool. We developed a novel POC molecular diagnostic test for cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) spp. Parasite DNA was amplified using isothermal Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) with primers and probes that targeted the kinetoplast DNA. The amplification product was detected by naked eye with a lateral flow (LF) immunochromatographic strip. The RPA-LF had an analytical sensitivity equivalent to 0.1 parasites per reaction. The test amplified the principal L. Viannia species from multiple countries: L. (V.) braziliensis (n = 33), L. (V.) guyanensis (n = 17), L. (V.) panamensis (n = 9). The less common L. (V.) lainsoni, L. (V.) shawi, and L. (V.) naiffi were also amplified. No amplification was observed in parasites of the L. (Leishmania) subgenus. In a small number of clinical samples (n = 13) we found 100% agreement between PCR and RPA-LF. The high analytical sensitivity and clinical validation indicate the test could improve the efficiency of diagnosis, especially in chronic lesions with submicroscopic parasite burdens. Field implementation of the RPA-LF test could contribute to management and control of cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis. PMID:27115155

  18. Leishmania species: mechanisms of complement activation by five strains of promastigotes.

    PubMed

    Mosser, D M; Burke, S K; Coutavas, E E; Wedgwood, J F; Edelson, P J

    1986-12-01

    The interaction of fresh serum with promastigotes of Leishmania major, L. donovani, L. mexicana mexicana, L. mexicana amazonensis, and L. braziliensis guyanensis results in lysis of all strains tested with either fresh human or guinea pig serum at 37 C for 30 min. Lysis does not occur in the cold and requires divalent cations and complement that is active hemolytically. Serum deficient in the eighth component of complement is not lytic. Lysis of L. major, L. mexicana, and L. braziliensis proceeds fully in human serum containing EGTA/Mg2+ or in guinea pig serum deficient in the fourth complement component. These species consume only small amounts of C4 from human serum and do not require calcium to optimally bind C3. The data indicate that all are activators of the alternative complement pathway and that the classical pathway is not required for the lysis of these organisms. Promastigotes of L. donovani, in contrast, activate the classical pathway. The presence of calcium is required for both optimal C3 binding and parasite lysis, and L. donovani promastigotes consume C4 when incubated in human serum. In high concentrations, human serum agglutinates all tested Leishmania spp. The agglutinating factor does not require divalent cations, is heat stable, and works at 4 C, suggesting that it is an antibody. This "naturally occurring" antibody cross reacts with all Leishmania spp. and agglutinates them. The adsorption of serum with any Leishmania species or with beads that are Protein A coated, removes the agglutinogen. This factor causes a slight enhancement in alternative pathway activation by L. major and mediates the classical activation by L. donovani. In adsorbed serum, L. donovani promastigotes only weakly activate the alternative complement pathway. Increased concentrations of adsorbed serum are therefore necessary for lysis to proceed. The titer can be partially restored by the addition of heat inactivated serum. Using purified components of the classical cascade

  19. The isolation and molecular characterization of Leishmania spp. from patients with American tegumentary leishmaniasis in northwest Argentina.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Fabricio M; Cajal, S Pamela; Barroso, Paola A; Lauthier, Juan J; Mora, María C; Juarez, Marisa; Kato, Hirotomo; Nasser, Julio R; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Korenaga, Masataka; Marco, Jorge D

    2014-03-01

    American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is a group of zoonotic diseases caused by kinetoplastid flagellates of the genus Leishmania. A total of 66 patients diagnosed as positive ATL cases from northwest Argentina were included in this study. Leishmania stocks were isolated in vitro and analyzed over promastigote cultures sown on FTA through nested PCR and sequence of cytochrome b (cyt b). The molecular analysis resulted in the incrimination of L. (Viannia) braziliensis as the predominant species in the studied area, identifying two genotypes of L. (V.) braziliensis, 24 cases of Ab-1 cyt b and 41 cases of Ab-2 cyt b. One L. (V.) guyanensis strain was obtained from a traveler from the Brazilian Amazon. The prevalence of different genotypes was in agreement with previous studies, suggesting the necessity for new systems to study the genetic diversity in more detail. Most of the cases typified in this study were registered in the area of Zenta Valley (Orán, Hipólito Yrigoyen, and Pichanal cities), pointing a link between genotype and geographical origin of the sample. Sex and age distribution of the patients indicate that the transmission was predominantly associated with rural areas or rural activities, although the results might not exclude the possibility of peri-urban transmission. This work represents, so far, the largest isolation and molecular characterization of ATL cases in Argentina. PMID:24291551

  20. A Telomeric Cluster of Antimony Resistance Genes on Chromosome 34 of Leishmania infantum.

    PubMed

    Tejera Nevado, Paloma; Bifeld, Eugenia; Höhn, Katharina; Clos, Joachim

    2016-09-01

    The mechanisms underlying the drug resistance of Leishmania spp. are manifold and not completely identified. Apart from the highly conserved multidrug resistance gene family known from higher eukaryotes, Leishmania spp. also possess genus-specific resistance marker genes. One of them, ARM58, was first identified in Leishmania braziliensis using a functional cloning approach, and its domain structure was characterized in L. infantum Here we report that L. infantum ARM58 is part of a gene cluster at the telomeric end of chromosome 34 also comprising the neighboring genes ARM56 and HSP23. We show that overexpression of all three genes can confer antimony resistance to intracellular amastigotes. Upon overexpression in L. donovani, ARM58 and ARM56 are secreted via exosomes, suggesting a scavenger/secretion mechanism of action. Using a combination of functional cloning and next-generation sequencing, we found that the gene cluster was selected only under antimonyl tartrate challenge and weakly under Cu(2+) challenge but not under sodium arsenite, Cd(2+), or miltefosine challenge. The selective advantage is less pronounced in intracellular amastigotes treated with the sodium stibogluconate, possibly due to the known macrophage-stimulatory activity of this drug, against which these resistance markers may not be active. Our data point to the specificity of these three genes for antimony resistance. PMID:27324767

  1. Lipophosphoglycans from Leishmania amazonensis Strains Display Immunomodulatory Properties via TLR4 and Do Not Affect Sand Fly Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Paula M.; Assis, Rafael R.; Torrecilhas, Ana C.; Saraiva, Elvira M.; Pessoa, Natália L.; Campos, Marco A.; Marialva, Eric F.; Ríos-Velasquez, Cláudia M.; Pessoa, Felipe A.; Secundino, Nágila F.; Rugani, Jerônimo N.; Nieves, Elsa; Turco, Salvatore J.; Melo, Maria N.

    2016-01-01

    The immunomodulatory properties of lipophosphoglycans (LPG) from New World species of Leishmania have been assessed in Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis, the causative agents of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, respectively. This glycoconjugate is highly polymorphic among species with variation in sugars that branch off the conserved Gal(β1,4)Man(α1)-PO4 backbone of repeat units. Here, the immunomodulatory activity of LPGs from Leishmania amazonensis, the causative agent of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, was evaluated in two strains from Brazil. One strain (PH8) was originally isolated from the sand fly and the other (Josefa) was isolated from a human case. The ability of purified LPGs from both strains was investigated during in vitro interaction with peritoneal murine macrophages and CHO cells and in vivo infection with Lutzomyia migonei. In peritoneal murine macrophages, the LPGs from both strains activated TLR4. Both LPGs equally activate MAPKs and the NF-κB inhibitor p-IκBα, but were not able to translocate NF-κB. In vivo experiments with sand flies showed that both stains were able to sustain infection in L. migonei. A preliminary biochemical analysis indicates intraspecies variation in the LPG sugar moieties. However, they did not result in different activation profiles of the innate immune system. Also those polymorphisms did not affect infectivity to the sand fly. PMID:27508930

  2. Lipophosphoglycans from Leishmania amazonensis Strains Display Immunomodulatory Properties via TLR4 and Do Not Affect Sand Fly Infection.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Paula M; Assis, Rafael R; Torrecilhas, Ana C; Saraiva, Elvira M; Pessoa, Natália L; Campos, Marco A; Marialva, Eric F; Ríos-Velasquez, Cláudia M; Pessoa, Felipe A; Secundino, Nágila F; Rugani, Jerônimo N; Nieves, Elsa; Turco, Salvatore J; Melo, Maria N; Soares, Rodrigo P

    2016-08-01

    The immunomodulatory properties of lipophosphoglycans (LPG) from New World species of Leishmania have been assessed in Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis, the causative agents of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, respectively. This glycoconjugate is highly polymorphic among species with variation in sugars that branch off the conserved Gal(β1,4)Man(α1)-PO4 backbone of repeat units. Here, the immunomodulatory activity of LPGs from Leishmania amazonensis, the causative agent of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, was evaluated in two strains from Brazil. One strain (PH8) was originally isolated from the sand fly and the other (Josefa) was isolated from a human case. The ability of purified LPGs from both strains was investigated during in vitro interaction with peritoneal murine macrophages and CHO cells and in vivo infection with Lutzomyia migonei. In peritoneal murine macrophages, the LPGs from both strains activated TLR4. Both LPGs equally activate MAPKs and the NF-κB inhibitor p-IκBα, but were not able to translocate NF-κB. In vivo experiments with sand flies showed that both stains were able to sustain infection in L. migonei. A preliminary biochemical analysis indicates intraspecies variation in the LPG sugar moieties. However, they did not result in different activation profiles of the innate immune system. Also those polymorphisms did not affect infectivity to the sand fly. PMID:27508930

  3. Detection of IgG Anti-Leishmania Antigen by Flow Cytometry as a Diagnostic Test for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Pedral-Sampaio, Geraldo; Alves, Jessé S; Schriefer, Albert; Magalhães, Andréa; Meyer, Roberto; Glesby, Marshall J; Carvalho, Edgar M; Carvalho, Lucas P

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) relies on clinical presentation, parasite isolation, histopathologic evaluation and positive Montenegro skin test. However, the low amounts of parasites in the lesion of these individuals make parasite isolation and histopatologic diagnosis unreliable, often leading to false-negative results. Also, 15% of people living in endemic areas have sub-clinical infection characterized by positive Montenegro skin test, which may contribute to misdiagnosis. Although the main Leishmania killing mechanism is through cell-mediated immune response, antibodies against Leishmania antigens are found in infected individuals. Here our goal was to develop a new serological technique using polystyrene microspheres sensitized with soluble Leishmania antigens as a tool for the detection of IgG in serum from CL patients by flow cytometry. To validate the assay we carried out a comparative test (ELISA) commonly used as a diagnostic test for parasitic diseases. To determine cross-reactivity we used serum from patients with Chagas disease, caused by a trypanosome that has several proteins with high homology to those of the Leishmania genus. We observed that the flow cytometry technique was more sensitive than the ELISA, but, less specific. Our results show that the flow cytometry serologic test can be used to confirm CL cases in L. braziliensis transmission areas, however, presence of Chagas disease has to be ruled out in these individuals. PMID:27622535

  4. Characterization of the pattern of ribosomal protein L19 production during the lifecycle of Leishmania spp.

    PubMed

    de Almeida-Bizzo, Janayna Hammes; Alves, Lysangela Ronalte; Castro, Felipe F; Garcia, Juliana Bório Ferreira; Goldenberg, Samuel; Cruz, Angela Kaysel

    2014-12-01

    Leishmania is a genus of protozoan parasites causing a wide clinical spectrum of diseases in humans. Analysis of a region of chromosome 6 from Leishmania major (Iribar et al.) showed that the transcript of a putative L19 ribosomal protein (RPL19) was most abundant at the amastigote stage. We therefore decided to characterize L19 protein abundance throughout the lifecycle of Leishmania. Differential expression of the L19 gene during development has been observed for all Leishmania species studied to date (L. major, L. braziliensis, L. donovani, and L. amazonensis). Immunoblotting with polyclonal antibodies against L. major RPL19 revealed that changes to L19 protein abundance follow a similar pattern in various species. The amount of L19 protein was higher in exponentially growing promastigotes than in stationary phase promastigotes. The L19 protein was barely detectable in amastigotes, despite the abundance of L19 transcripts observed in L. major at this stage. Immunofluorescence assays showed a granular, dispersed distribution of RPL19 throughout the cytoplasm. Subcellular fractionation confirmed the presence of the protein in the ribosomal fraction, but not in the cytosol of L. major. We generated a L. major transfectant bearing a plasmid-borne L19 gene. Overproduction of the L19 transcript and protein resulted in impaired growth of the transfectants in association with high polysome peaks. We also showed by metabolic labeling that L19 overexpressing clones display low rates of translation. These data suggest that L19 overexpression affects negatively translation elongation or termination. The lack of correlation between L19 transcript and protein abundances suggest that the translation of L19 is differentially controlled during development in the various species investigated. PMID:25290356

  5. Reproductive biology of the isopod Excirolana braziliensis at the southern edge of its geographical range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Gastón; Defeo, Omar

    2006-12-01

    A full analysis of the reproductive biology of the isopod Excirolana braziliensis Richardson 1912 was conducted in a sandy beach of Uruguay, located at the southernmost edge of its distributional range in the Atlantic Ocean. Reproductive and recruitment periods of E. braziliensis were concentrated in austral summer. Females with oostegites appeared in November, whereas total biomass, individual sizes and fecundity of ovigerous females peaked between December and January. These concurrent traits were responsible for the significant peak of juveniles in January. The size at maturity was 9.88 mm. Four embryonic developmental stages were described and identified: mean length linearly increased from stages I to III, whereas dry weight exponentially decreased from stages I to IV. The high reproductive output (0.41-0.58), reported for the first time in this isopod, exceeds the rates documented for other isopods. Reproduction of E. braziliensis at the southern edge of its range is semelparous: females produce one brood during the reproductive season, exhaust their energy reserves during incubation, and probably die at the end of the reproductive season. A macroscale comparison suggests that E. braziliensis at the southern edge of its range counteracts its narrow reproductive period by a short incubation period with larger individual mature female and embryo sizes, higher fecundity and a higher percentage of ovigerous females than in subtropical and tropical populations. These extreme reproductive indicators could be attributed to the internal retention of embryos that assures offspring survival, coupled with a high adaptation capability to environmental variations across its range.

  6. Leishmania(Leishmania) chagasi in captive wild felids in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dahroug, Magyda A A; Almeida, Arleana B P F; Sousa, Valéria R F; Dutra, Valéria; Turbino, Nívea C M R; Nakazato, Luciano; de Souza, Roberto L

    2010-01-01

    This study used a PCR-RFLP test to determine the presence of Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi in 16 captive wild felids [seven Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771); five Panthera onca (Linnaeus, 1758) and four Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758)] at the zoological park of the Federal University of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Amplification of Leishmania spp. DNA was seen in samples from five pumas and one jaguar, and the species was characterized as L. chagasi using restriction enzymes. It is already known that domestic felids can act as a reservoir of L. chagasi in endemic areas, and further studies are necessary to investigate their participation in the epidemiological chain of leishmaniasis. PMID:19740501

  7. Stage-Specific Adhesion of Leishmania Promastigotes to Sand Fly Midguts Assessed Using an Improved Comparative Binding Assay

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Raymond; Bates, Michelle D.; Dostalova, Anna; Jecna, Lucie; Dillon, Rod J.; Volf, Petr; Bates, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The binding of Leishmania promastigotes to the midgut epithelium is regarded as an essential part of the life-cycle in the sand fly vector, enabling the parasites to persist beyond the initial blood meal phase and establish the infection. However, the precise nature of the promastigote stage(s) that mediate binding is not fully understood. Methodology/Principal Findings To address this issue we have developed an in vitro gut binding assay in which two promastigote populations are labelled with different fluorescent dyes and compete for binding to dissected sand fly midguts. Binding of procyclic, nectomonad, leptomonad and metacyclic promastigotes of Leishmania infantum and L. mexicana to the midguts of blood-fed, female Lutzomyia longipalpis was investigated. The results show that procyclic and metacyclic promastigotes do not bind to the midgut epithelium in significant numbers, whereas nectomonad and leptomonad promastigotes both bind strongly and in similar numbers. The assay was then used to compare the binding of a range of different parasite species (L. infantum, L. mexicana, L. braziliensis, L. major, L. tropica) to guts dissected from various sand flies (Lu. longipalpis, Phlebotomus papatasi, P. sergenti). The results of these comparisons were in many cases in line with expectations, the natural parasite binding most effectively to its natural vector, and no examples were found where a parasite was unable to bind to its natural vector. However, there were interesting exceptions: L. major and L. tropica being able to bind to Lu. longipalpis better than L. infantum; L. braziliensis was able to bind to P. papatasi as well as L. major; and significant binding of L. major to P. sergenti and L. tropica to P. papatasi was observed. Conclusions/Significance The results demonstrate that Leishmania gut binding is strictly stage-dependent, is a property of those forms found in the middle phase of development (nectomonad and leptomonad forms), but is absent

  8. Effect of glucantime on field and patient isolates of New World Leishmania: use of growth parameters of promastigotes to assess antimony susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Moreira, E S; Anacleto, C; Petrillo-Peixoto, M L

    1998-09-01

    The effect of pentavalent meglumine antimoniate (glucantime) on the growth kinetics of promastigotes of 13 South American Leishmania strains isolated from patients, sylvatic reservoirs, and vectors was studied. Four of five L. (Viannia) braziliensis human isolates were obtained from drug-responsive patients and one was isolated from an unresponsive mucocutaneous-type infection. Studies involved the cell yield at the late log phase, the growth rate, and the growth-curve patterns of promastigotes in vitro. Restriction-fragment-length polymorphism, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and hybridization with the gene coding for a P-glycoprotein from L. (V.) guyanensis were used in an attempt to correlate the resistance phenotype with gene amplification. Consistent differences observed in both cell yield and growth rate among the isolates in the presence of glucantime indicated these parameters to be good criteria for the estimation of susceptibility to glucantime. Drug susceptibility varied widely between strains, indicating a great genetic heterogeneity of the isolates. Five L. (V.) braziliensis strains and three L. (V.) guyanensis strains were shown to be susceptible to glucantime. Five isolates were resistant, four of which were obtained from sylvatic vectors and one, from a patient with an unresponsive mucocutaneous infection. Molecular analyses of total DNA indicated the presence of a pgpA-related gene in all strains tested. No amplified sequence could be detected, suggesting that pgpA amplification is not involved in glucantime resistance in these wild Leishmania strains. PMID:9766900

  9. First description of Migonemyia migonei (França) and Nyssomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho) (Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) natural infected by Leishmania infantum in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Moya, Sofía L; Giuliani, Magalí G; Manteca Acosta, Mariana; Salomón, Oscar D; Liotta, Domingo J

    2015-12-01

    Leishmania infantum is the etiological agent of the Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) disease in America, with Lutzomyia longipalpis phlebotomine sandflies as its proven vectors in Argentina, and infected dogs as its main urban reservoir. In Puerto Iguazú City (Misiones province, Argentina), human and canine cases of VL were recorded. Additionally, in the rural area known as "2000 Hectáreas", less than 10km away from the city, several human cases of Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (TL) were registered determining an endemic area with Leishmania braziliensis as the etiological agent. Because of this, several phlebotomine captures were done in this site showing that Nyssomyia whitmani is the most abundant sandfly followed by Migonemyia migonei. In this study, three of the sandflies captured were found infected whit L. infantum parasites, detected by PCR and sequencing. Two of them were N. whitmani and the other one was a M. migonei specimen, being this the first report of L. infantum natural infection for Argentina in these sandfly species. N. whitmani is the main vector of L. braziliensis in this area, and M. migonei has been suggested as a putative vector in other locations where human and canine cases of VL where reported with L. longipalpis apparently absent. In this context, we consider necessary further studies that could define the role of M. migonei and N. whitmani as specific or permissive vectors of L. infantum, their vectorial competence and capacity, and their actual role in the transmission of both Tegumentary and Visceral Leishmaniasis in the study area. PMID:26409011

  10. Impact of LbSapSal Vaccine in Canine Immunological and Parasitological Features before and after Leishmania chagasi-Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Resende, Lucilene Aparecida; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Gama-Ker, Henrique; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; de Mendonça, Ludmila Zanandreis; Alves, Marina Luiza Rodrigues; da Silveira-Lemos, Denise; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Gontijo, Nelder Figueiredo; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro

    2016-01-01

    Dogs represent the most important domestic reservoir of L. chagasi (syn. L. infantum). A vaccine against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) would be an important tool for decreasing the anxiety related to possible L. chagasi infection and for controlling human visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Because the sand fly salivary proteins are potent immunogens obligatorily co-deposited during transmission of Leishmania parasites, their inclusion in an anti-Leishmania vaccine has been investigated in past decades. We investigated the immunogenicity of the “LbSapSal” vaccine (L. braziliensis antigens, saponin as adjuvant, and Lutzomyia longipalpis salivary gland extract) in dogs at baseline (T0), during the post-vaccination protocol (T3rd) and after early (T90) and late (T885) times following L. chagasi-challenge. Our major data indicated that immunization with “LbSapSal” is able to induce biomarkers characterized by enhanced amounts of type I (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-12, interferon [IFN]-γ) cytokines and reduction in type II cytokines (IL-4 and TGF-β), even after experimental challenge. The establishment of a prominent pro-inflammatory immune response after “LbSapSal” immunization supported the increased levels of nitric oxide production, favoring a reduction in spleen parasitism (78.9%) and indicating long-lasting protection against L. chagasi infection. In conclusion, these results confirmed the hypothesis that the “LbSapSal” vaccination is a potential tool to control the Leishmania chagasi infection. PMID:27556586

  11. Impact of LbSapSal Vaccine in Canine Immunological and Parasitological Features before and after Leishmania chagasi-Challenge.

    PubMed

    Resende, Lucilene Aparecida; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Gama-Ker, Henrique; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Mendonça, Ludmila Zanandreis de; Alves, Marina Luiza Rodrigues; Silveira-Lemos, Denise da; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Gontijo, Nelder Figueiredo; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro

    2016-01-01

    Dogs represent the most important domestic reservoir of L. chagasi (syn. L. infantum). A vaccine against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) would be an important tool for decreasing the anxiety related to possible L. chagasi infection and for controlling human visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Because the sand fly salivary proteins are potent immunogens obligatorily co-deposited during transmission of Leishmania parasites, their inclusion in an anti-Leishmania vaccine has been investigated in past decades. We investigated the immunogenicity of the "LbSapSal" vaccine (L. braziliensis antigens, saponin as adjuvant, and Lutzomyia longipalpis salivary gland extract) in dogs at baseline (T0), during the post-vaccination protocol (T3rd) and after early (T90) and late (T885) times following L. chagasi-challenge. Our major data indicated that immunization with "LbSapSal" is able to induce biomarkers characterized by enhanced amounts of type I (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-12, interferon [IFN]-γ) cytokines and reduction in type II cytokines (IL-4 and TGF-β), even after experimental challenge. The establishment of a prominent pro-inflammatory immune response after "LbSapSal" immunization supported the increased levels of nitric oxide production, favoring a reduction in spleen parasitism (78.9%) and indicating long-lasting protection against L. chagasi infection. In conclusion, these results confirmed the hypothesis that the "LbSapSal" vaccination is a potential tool to control the Leishmania chagasi infection. PMID:27556586

  12. Cytokine and nitric oxide patterns in dogs immunized with LBSap vaccine, before and after experimental challenge with Leishmania chagasi plus saliva of Lutzomyia longipalpis.

    PubMed

    Resende, Lucilene Aparecida; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Viana, Kelvinson Fernandes; Mendonça, Ludmila Zanandreis; Lanna, Mariana Ferreira; Silveira-Lemos, Denise; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro

    2013-12-01

    In the studies presented here, dogs were vaccinated against Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi challenge infection using a preparation of Leishmania braziliensis promastigote proteins and saponin as adjuvant (LBSap). Vaccination with LBSap induced a prominent type 1 immune response that was characterized by increased levels of interleukin (IL-) 12 and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) upon stimulation with soluble vaccine antigen. Importantly, results showed that this type of responsiveness was sustained after challenge infection; at day 90 and 885 after L. chagasi challenge infection, PBMCs from LBSap vaccinated dogs produced more IL-12, IFN-γ and concomitant nitric oxide (NO) when stimulated with Leishmania antigens as compared to PBMCs from respective control groups (saponin, LB- treated, or non-treated control dogs). Moreover, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β decreased in the supernatant of SLcA-stimulated PBMCs in the LBSap group at 90 days. Bone marrow parasitological analysis revealed decreased frequency of parasitism in the presence of vaccine antigen. It is concluded that vaccination of dogs with LBSap vaccine induced a long-lasting type 1 immune response against L. chagasi challenge infection. PMID:24129068

  13. Imidazole-containing phthalazine derivatives inhibit Fe-SOD performance in Leishmania species and are active in vitro against visceral and mucosal leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Moreno, M; Gómez-Contreras, F; Navarro, P; Marín, C; Ramírez-Macías, I; Rosales, M J; Campayo, L; Cano, C; Sanz, A M; Yunta, M J R

    2015-07-01

    The in vitro leishmanicidal activity of a series of imidazole-containing phthalazine derivatives 1-4 was tested on Leishmania infantum, Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania donovani parasites, and their cytotoxicity on J774·2 macrophage cells was also measured. All compounds tested showed selectivity indexes higher than that of the reference drug glucantime for the three Leishmania species, and the less bulky monoalkylamino substituted derivatives 2 and 4 were clearly more effective than their bisalkylamino substituted counterparts 1 and 3. Both infection rate measures and ultrastructural alterations studies confirmed that 2 and 4 were highly leishmanicidal and induced extensive parasite cell damage. Modifications to the excretion products of parasites treated with 2 and 4 were also consistent with substantial cytoplasmic alterations. On the other hand, the most active compounds 2 and 4 were potent inhibitors of iron superoxide dismutase enzyme (Fe-SOD) in the three species considered, whereas their impact on human CuZn-SOD was low. Molecular modelling suggests that 2 and 4 could deactivate Fe-SOD due to a sterically favoured enhanced ability to interact with the H-bonding net that supports the antioxidant features of the enzyme. PMID:25823476

  14. The genus Leishmania

    PubMed Central

    Garnham, P. C. C.

    1971-01-01

    The systematic position of the so-called ”species” of Leishmania is examined and an attempt made to determine their phylogenetic relationships. The morphology of the organisms as seen by light- and electron-microscopy is described; neither method provides useful criteria for the determination of species. The behaviour of the parasites in insect and in vertebrate hosts offers a better method of classification. In this way, the species may be divided into 4 main groups, comprising the mammalian species involving man, the distinctive species L. enriettii in the guinea-pig, those infecting lizards, and species apparently in various stages of evolution in phlebotomines. The so-called ”human” group is divided into visceral forms (originating chiefly in wild canidae) and cutaneous forms (probably of rodent origin). The named species of the former group include L. donovani and L. infantum. The cutaneous species include L. tropica tropica (=minor), L. tropica major, L. brasiliensis, L. peruana, L. guyanensis, and L. mexicana. L. pifanoi is probably not a distinct species but represents various forms as modified by the failure of cell-mediated immunity in the host. Leishmanial infections can be identified first by ascertaining the geographical area where the infection was acquired, and then by more or less complicated laboratory investigations including characteristics in culture, serological tests, the response of special hosts in terms of symptomatology, and the behaviour of the parasite in the phlebotomine host. No test is infallible, and an effective simple test is urgently needed. The preservation of Leishmania strains is an important research procedure and a method for conserving parasites by lyophilization is described briefly. PMID:5316250

  15. Silver and Nitrate Oppositely Modulate Antimony Susceptibility through Aquaglyceroporin 1 in Leishmania (Viannia) Species.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Juvana M; Baba, Elio H; Machado-de-Avila, Ricardo A; Chavez-Olortegui, Carlos; Demicheli, Cynthia P; Frézard, Frédéric; Monte-Neto, Rubens L; Murta, Silvane M F

    2016-08-01

    Antimony (Sb) resistance in leishmaniasis chemotherapy has become one of the major challenges to the control of this spreading worldwide public health problem. Since the plasma membrane pore-forming protein aquaglyceroporin 1 (AQP1) is the major route of Sb uptake in Leishmania, functional studies are relevant to characterize drug transport pathways in the parasite. We generated AQP1-overexpressing Leishmania guyanensis and L. braziliensis mutants and investigated their susceptibility to the trivalent form of Sb (Sb(III)) in the presence of silver and nitrate salts. Both AQP1-overexpressing lines presented 3- to 4-fold increased AQP1 expression levels compared with those of their untransfected counterparts, leading to an increased Sb(III) susceptibility of about 2-fold. Competition assays using silver nitrate, silver sulfadiazine, or silver acetate prior to Sb(III) exposure increased parasite growth, especially in AQP1-overexpressing mutants. Surprisingly, Sb(III)-sodium nitrate or Sb(III)-potassium nitrate combinations showed significantly enhanced antileishmanial activities compared to those of Sb(III) alone, especially against AQP1-overexpressing mutants, suggesting a putative nitrate-dependent modulation of AQP1 activity. The intracellular level of antimony quantified by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry showed that the concomitant exposure to Sb(III) and nitrate favors antimony accumulation in the parasite, increasing the toxicity of the drug and culminating with parasite death. This is the first report showing evidence of AQP1-mediated Sb(III) susceptibility modulation by silver in Leishmania and suggests the potential antileishmanial activity of the combination of nitrate salts and Sb(III). PMID:27161624

  16. Moving from unsequenced to sequenced genome: Reanalysis of the proteome of Leishmania donovani☆

    PubMed Central

    Nirujogi, Raja Sekhar; Pawar, Harsh; Renuse, Santosh; Kumar, Praveen; Chavan, Sandip; Sathe, Gajanan; Sharma, Jyoti; Khobragade, Sweta; Pande, Janhavee; Modak, Bhakti; Prasad, T.S. Keshava; Harsha, H.C.; Patole, Milind S.; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2015-01-01

    The kinetoplastid protozoan parasite, Leishmania donovani, is the causative agent of kala azar or visceral leishmaniasis. Kala azar is a severe form of leishmaniasis that is fatal in the majority of untreated cases. Studies on proteomic analysis of L. donovani thus far have been carried out using homology-based identification based on related Leishmania species (L. infantum, L. major and L. braziliensis) whose genomes have been sequenced. Recently, the genome of L. donovani was fully sequenced and the data became publicly available. We took advantage of the availability of its genomic sequence to carry out a more accurate proteogenomic analysis of L. donovani proteome using our previously generated dataset. This resulted in identification of 17,504 unique peptides upon database-dependent search against the annotated proteins in L. donovani. These peptides were assigned to 3999 unique proteins in L. donovani. 2296 proteins were identified in both the life stages of L. donovani, while 613 and 1090 proteins were identified only from amastigote and promastigote stages, respectively. The proteomic data was also searched against six-frame translated L. donovani genome, which led to 255 genome search-specific peptides (GSSPs) resulting in identification of 20 novel genes and correction of 40 existing gene models in L. donovani. Biological significance Leishmania donovani genome sequencing was recently completed, which permitted us to use a proteogenomic approach to map its proteome and to carry out annotation of it genome. This resulted in mapping of 50% (3999 proteins) of L. donovani proteome. Our study identified 20 novel genes previously not predicted from the L. donovani genome in addition to correcting annotations of 40 existing gene models. The identified proteins may help in better understanding of stage-specific protein expression profiles in L. donovani and to identify novel stage-specific drug targets in L. donovani which could be used in the treatment of

  17. Molecular epidemiology and diagnosis of Leishmania: what have we learnt from genome structure, dynamics and function?

    PubMed

    Dujardin, J C; Victoir, K; De Doncker, S; Guerbouj, S; Arévalo, J; Le Ray, D

    2002-04-01

    This paper reviews our exploration of the dynamics of the Leishmania genome and its contribution to epidemiology and diagnosis. We used as a model Peruvian populations of L. (Viannia) braziliensis and L. (V.) peruviana, 2 species very close phylogenetically, but phenotypically very different in biotope and pathology. We initially focused on karyotype analysis. Our data showed that chromosomes were subject to a fast rate of evolution, and were sensitive indicators of genetic drift. Therefore, molecular karyotyping appeared an adequate tool for monitoring (i) emergence of close species, (ii) ecogeographical differentiation at the intraspecific level, and (iii) strain 'fingerprinting'. Chromosome size variation was mostly due to the number of tandemly repeated genes (rDNA, mini-exon, gp63, and cysteine proteinase genes), and could involve the deletion of unique genes (L. (V.) braziliensis-specific gp63 families). Considering the importance of these genes in parasitism, their rearrangement might have functional implications: adaptation to different environments and pleomorphic pathogenicity. Our knowledge of genome structure and dynamics was used to develop new polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Amplification of gp63 genes followed by cleavage with restriction enzymes and study of restriction fragment length polymorphism (gp63 PCR-RFLP) allowed the discrimination of all species tested, even directly in biopsies with 95% sensitivity (compared with PCR amplification of kinetoplast deoxyribonucleic acid). At the intra-specific level, RFLP was also observed and corresponded to mutations in major immunogen domains of gp63. These seem to be under strong selection pressure, and the technique should facilitate addressing how the host's immune pressure may modulate parasite population structure. Altogether, gp63 PCR-RFLP represents a significant operational improvement over the other techniques for molecular epidemiology and diagnosis: it combines sensitivity

  18. Plasmenylethanolamine synthesis in Leishmania major.

    PubMed

    Pawlowic, Mattie C; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Moitra, Samrat; Biyani, Neha; Zhang, Kai

    2016-07-01

    Ethanolamine glycerophospholipids are ubiquitous cell membrane components. Trypanosomatid parasites of the genus Leishmania synthesize the majority of their ethanolamine glycerophospholipids as 1-O-alk-1'-enyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine or plasmenylethanolamine (PME) through the Kennedy pathway. PME is a subtype of ether phospholipids also known as ethanolamine plasmalogen whose functions are not well characterized. In this study, we investigated the role of PME synthesis in Leishmania major through the characterization of an ethanolamine phosphotransferase (EPT) mutant. EPT-null parasites are largely devoid of PME and fully viable in regular medium but fail to proliferate in the absence of fetal bovine serum. They exhibit significant abnormalities in the synthesis and localization of GPI-anchored surface molecules. EPT-null mutants also show attenuated virulence in BALB/c mice. Furthermore, in addition to PME synthesis, ethanolamine also contributes to the production of phosphatidylcholine, the most abundant class of lipids in Leishmania. Together, these findings suggest that ethanolamine production is likely required for Leishmania promastigotes to generate bulk phospholipids, to handle stress, and to control the expression of membrane bound virulence factors. PMID:27062077

  19. Phlebotomine sandfly (Diptera: Psychodidae) diversity and their Leishmania DNA in a hot spot of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis human cases along the Brazilian border with Peru and Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Teles, Carolina Bioni Garcia; dos Santos, Ana Paula de Azevedo; Freitas, Rui Alves; de Oliveira, Arley Faria José; Ogawa, Guilherme Maerschner; Rodrigues, Moreno Souza; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Camargo, Luís Marcelo Aranha

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we identified the phlebotomine sandfly vectors involved in the transmission of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) in Assis Brasil, Acre, Brazil, which is located on the Brazil-Peru-Bolivia frontier. The genotyping of Leishmania in phlebotomines was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. A total of 6,850 sandflies comprising 67 species were captured by using CDC light traps in rural areas of the municipality. Three sandfly species were found in the state of Acre for the first time: Lutzomyia georgii, Lu. complexa and Lu. evangelistai. The predominant species was Lu. auraensis/Lu. ruifreitasi and Lu. davisi (total 59.27%). 32 of 368 pools were positive for the presence of Leishmania DNA (16 pools corresponding to Lu. davisi, and 16 corresponding to Lu. auraensis/Lu. ruifreitasi), with a minimal infection prevalence of 1.85% in Lu. davisi and 2.05% in Lu. auraensis/Lu. ruifreitasi. The Leishmania species found showed maximum identity with L. (Viannia) guyanensis and L. (V.) braziliensis in both phlebotomine species. Based on these results and similar scenarios previously described along the Brazil/Peru/Bolivia tri-border, the studied area must take into consideration the possibility of Lu. davisi and Lu. auraensis/Lu. ruifreitasi as probable vectors of ACL in this municipality. PMID:27304023

  20. Phlebotomine sandfly (Diptera: Psychodidae) diversity and their Leishmania DNA in a hot spot of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis human cases along the Brazilian border with Peru and Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Teles, Carolina Bioni Garcia; Santos, Ana Paula de Azevedo Dos; Freitas, Rui Alves; Oliveira, Arley Faria José de; Ogawa, Guilherme Maerschner; Rodrigues, Moreno Souza; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Camargo, Luís Marcelo Aranha

    2016-06-10

    In this study, we identified the phlebotomine sandfly vectors involved in the transmission of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) in Assis Brasil, Acre, Brazil, which is located on the Brazil-Peru-Bolivia frontier. The genotyping of Leishmania in phlebotomines was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. A total of 6,850 sandflies comprising 67 species were captured by using CDC light traps in rural areas of the municipality. Three sandfly species were found in the state of Acre for the first time: Lutzomyia georgii, Lu. complexa and Lu. evangelistai. The predominant species was Lu. auraensis/Lu. ruifreitasi and Lu. davisi (total 59.27%). 32 of 368 pools were positive for the presence of Leishmania DNA (16 pools corresponding to Lu. davisi, and 16 corresponding to Lu. auraensis/Lu. ruifreitasi), with a minimal infection prevalence of 1.85% in Lu. davisi and 2.05% in Lu. auraensis/Lu. ruifreitasi. The Leishmania species found showed maximum identity with L. (Viannia) guyanensis and L. (V.) braziliensis in both phlebotomine species. Based on these results and similar scenarios previously described along the Brazil/Peru/Bolivia tri-border, the studied area must take into consideration the possibility of Lu. davisi and Lu. auraensis/Lu. ruifreitasi as probable vectors of ACL in this municipality. PMID:27304023

  1. First Human Cases of Leishmania (Viannia) lainsoni Infection and a Search for the Vector Sand Flies in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Hirotomo; Bone, Abdon E.; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Hashiguchi, Kazue; Shiguango, Gonzalo F.; Gonzales, Silvio V.; Velez, Lenin N.; Guevara, Angel G.; Gomez, Eduardo A.; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2016-01-01

    An epidemiological study of leishmaniasis was performed in Amazonian areas of Ecuador since little information on the prevalent Leishmania and sand fly species responsible for the transmission is available. Of 33 clinical specimens from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), causative parasites were identified in 25 samples based on cytochrome b gene analysis. As reported previously, Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis and L. (V.) braziliensis were among the causative agents identified. In addition, L. (V.) lainsoni, for which infection is reported in Brazil, Bolivia, Peru, Suriname, and French Guiana, was identified in patients with CL from geographically separate areas in the Ecuadorian Amazon, corroborating the notion that L. (V.) lainsoni is widely distributed in South America. Sand flies were surveyed around the area where a patient with L. (V.) lainsoni was suspected to have been infected. However, natural infection of sand flies by L. (V.) lainsoni was not detected. Further extensive vector searches are necessary to define the transmission cycle of L. (V.) lainsoni in Ecuador. PMID:27191391

  2. First Human Cases of Leishmania (Viannia) lainsoni Infection and a Search for the Vector Sand Flies in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hirotomo; Bone, Abdon E; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Hashiguchi, Kazue; Shiguango, Gonzalo F; Gonzales, Silvio V; Velez, Lenin N; Guevara, Angel G; Gomez, Eduardo A; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2016-05-01

    An epidemiological study of leishmaniasis was performed in Amazonian areas of Ecuador since little information on the prevalent Leishmania and sand fly species responsible for the transmission is available. Of 33 clinical specimens from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), causative parasites were identified in 25 samples based on cytochrome b gene analysis. As reported previously, Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis and L. (V.) braziliensis were among the causative agents identified. In addition, L. (V.) lainsoni, for which infection is reported in Brazil, Bolivia, Peru, Suriname, and French Guiana, was identified in patients with CL from geographically separate areas in the Ecuadorian Amazon, corroborating the notion that L. (V.) lainsoni is widely distributed in South America. Sand flies were surveyed around the area where a patient with L. (V.) lainsoni was suspected to have been infected. However, natural infection of sand flies by L. (V.) lainsoni was not detected. Further extensive vector searches are necessary to define the transmission cycle of L. (V.) lainsoni in Ecuador. PMID:27191391

  3. In Vitro Evaluation of a Soluble Leishmania Promastigote Surface Antigen as a Potential Vaccine Candidate against Human Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Bahi-Jaber, Narges; Petitdidier, Elodie; Markikou-Ouni, Wafa; Aoun, Karim; Moreno, Javier; Carrillo, Eugenia; Salotra, Poonam; Kaushal, Himanshu; Negi, Narender Singh; Arevalo, Jorge; Falconi-Agapito, Francesca; Privat, Angela; Cruz, Maria; Pagniez, Julie; Papierok, Gérard-Marie; Rhouma, Faten Bel Haj; Torres, Pilar; Lemesre, Jean-Loup; Chenik, Mehdi; Meddeb-Garnaoui, Amel

    2014-01-01

    PSA (Promastigote Surface Antigen) belongs to a family of membrane-bound and secreted proteins present in several Leishmania (L.) species. PSA is recognized by human Th1 cells and provides a high degree of protection in vaccinated mice. We evaluated humoral and cellular immune responses induced by a L. amazonensis PSA protein (LaPSA-38S) produced in a L. tarentolae expression system. This was done in individuals cured of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to L. major (CCLm) or L. braziliensis (CCLb) or visceral leishmaniasis due to L. donovani (CVLd) and in healthy individuals. Healthy individuals were subdivided into immune (HHR-Lm and HHR-Li: Healthy High Responders living in an endemic area for L. major or L. infantum infection) or non immune/naive individuals (HLR: Healthy Low Responders), depending on whether they produce high or low levels of IFN-γ in response to Leishmania soluble antigen. Low levels of total IgG antibodies to LaPSA-38S were detected in sera from the studied groups. Interestingly, LaPSA-38S induced specific and significant levels of IFN-γ, granzyme B and IL-10 in CCLm, HHR-Lm and HHR-Li groups, with HHR-Li group producing TNF-α in more. No significant cytokine response was observed in individuals immune to L. braziliensis or L. donovani infection. Phenotypic analysis showed a significant increase in CD4+ T cells producing IFN-γ after LaPSA-38S stimulation, in CCLm. A high positive correlation was observed between the percentage of IFN-γ-producing CD4+ T cells and the released IFN-γ. We showed that the LaPSA-38S protein was able to induce a mixed Th1 and Th2/Treg cytokine response in individuals with immunity to L. major or L. infantum infection indicating that it may be exploited as a vaccine candidate. We also showed, to our knowledge for the first time, the capacity of Leishmania PSA protein to induce granzyme B production in humans with immunity to L. major and L. infantum infection. PMID:24786587

  4. In vitro evaluation of a soluble Leishmania promastigote surface antigen as a potential vaccine candidate against human leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Chamakh-Ayari, Rym; Bras-Gonçalves, Rachel; Bahi-Jaber, Narges; Petitdidier, Elodie; Markikou-Ouni, Wafa; Aoun, Karim; Moreno, Javier; Carrillo, Eugenia; Salotra, Poonam; Kaushal, Himanshu; Negi, Narender Singh; Arevalo, Jorge; Falconi-Agapito, Francesca; Privat, Angela; Cruz, Maria; Pagniez, Julie; Papierok, Gérard-Marie; Rhouma, Faten Bel Haj; Torres, Pilar; Lemesre, Jean-Loup; Chenik, Mehdi; Meddeb-Garnaoui, Amel

    2014-01-01

    PSA (Promastigote Surface Antigen) belongs to a family of membrane-bound and secreted proteins present in several Leishmania (L.) species. PSA is recognized by human Th1 cells and provides a high degree of protection in vaccinated mice. We evaluated humoral and cellular immune responses induced by a L. amazonensis PSA protein (LaPSA-38S) produced in a L. tarentolae expression system. This was done in individuals cured of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to L. major (CCLm) or L. braziliensis (CCLb) or visceral leishmaniasis due to L. donovani (CVLd) and in healthy individuals. Healthy individuals were subdivided into immune (HHR-Lm and HHR-Li: Healthy High Responders living in an endemic area for L. major or L. infantum infection) or non immune/naive individuals (HLR: Healthy Low Responders), depending on whether they produce high or low levels of IFN-γ in response to Leishmania soluble antigen. Low levels of total IgG antibodies to LaPSA-38S were detected in sera from the studied groups. Interestingly, LaPSA-38S induced specific and significant levels of IFN-γ, granzyme B and IL-10 in CCLm, HHR-Lm and HHR-Li groups, with HHR-Li group producing TNF-α in more. No significant cytokine response was observed in individuals immune to L. braziliensis or L. donovani infection. Phenotypic analysis showed a significant increase in CD4+ T cells producing IFN-γ after LaPSA-38S stimulation, in CCLm. A high positive correlation was observed between the percentage of IFN-γ-producing CD4+ T cells and the released IFN-γ. We showed that the LaPSA-38S protein was able to induce a mixed Th1 and Th2/Treg cytokine response in individuals with immunity to L. major or L. infantum infection indicating that it may be exploited as a vaccine candidate. We also showed, to our knowledge for the first time, the capacity of Leishmania PSA protein to induce granzyme B production in humans with immunity to L. major and L. infantum infection. PMID:24786587

  5. LBSapSal-vaccinated dogs exhibit increased circulating T-lymphocyte subsets (CD4+ and CD8+) as well as a reduction of parasitism after challenge with Leishmania infantum plus salivary gland of Lutzomyia longipalpis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The development of a protective vaccine against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is an alternative approach for interrupting the domestic cycle of Leishmania infantum. Given the importance of sand fly salivary proteins as potent immunogens obligatorily co-deposited during transmission of Leishmania parasites, their inclusion in an anti-Leishmania vaccine has been investigated in the last few decades. In this context, we previously immunized dogs with a vaccine composed of L. braziliensis antigens plus saponin as the adjuvant and sand fly salivary gland extract (LBSapSal vaccine). This vaccine elicited an increase in both anti-saliva and anti-Leishmania IgG isotypes, higher counts of specific circulating CD8+ T cells, and high NO production. Methods We investigated the immunogenicity and protective effect of LBSapSal vaccination after intradermal challenge with 1 × 107 late-log-phase L. infantum promastigotes in the presence of sand fly saliva of Lutzomyia longipalpis. The dogs were followed for up to 885 days after challenge. Results The LBSapSal vaccine presents extensive antigenic diversity with persistent humoral and cellular immune responses, indicating resistance against CVL is triggered by high levels of total IgG and its subtypes (IgG1 and IgG2); expansion of circulating CD5+, CD4+, and CD8+ T lymphocytes and is Leishmania-specific; and reduction of splenic parasite load. Conclusions These results encourage further study of vaccine strategies addressing Leishmania antigens in combination with proteins present in the saliva of the vector. PMID:24507702

  6. Biogeographic patterns in life history traits of the Pan-American sandy beach isopod Excirolana braziliensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, Ricardo S.; Defeo, Omar

    2004-11-01

    Biogeographic patterns in life history traits of the Pan-American sandy beach isopod Excirolana braziliensis were analyzed to determine latitudinal variations along its distribution, from tropical (9°N) to temperate (39°S) sandy beaches in Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Population features exhibited systematic geographical patterns of variation: (1) an increase in individual sizes and growth rates towards temperate beaches, following an inverse relationship with mean water temperature of the surf zone; (2) a shift from almost continuous to seasonal growth from subtropical to temperate Atlantic beaches and a positive relationship between amplitude of intra-annual growth oscillations and temperature range; (3) a linear decrease in life span and an increase in natural mortality from temperate to subtropical beaches; and (4) an increase in the individual mass-at-size (length-mass relationship) from subtropical to temperate beaches. Analyses discriminated by sex were consistent with the patterns illustrated above. Local effects of temperature and beach morphodynamics are discussed. Our results demonstrate that the population dynamics of E. braziliensis is highly plastic over latitudinal gradients, with large-scale variations in temperature and concurrent environmental variables leading to an adjustment of the phenotype-environment relationship.

  7. Leishmania-based expression systems.

    PubMed

    Taheri, Tahereh; Seyed, Negar; Mizbani, Amir; Rafati, Sima

    2016-09-01

    Production of therapeutic or medical recombinant proteins, such as monoclonal antibodies, proteins, or active enzymes, requires a highly efficient system allowing natural folding and perfect post-translation modifications of the expressed protein. These requirements lead to the generation of a variety of gene expression systems from bacteria to eukaryotes. To achieve the best form of eukaryotic proteins, two factors need to be taken into consideration: choosing a suitable organism to express the protein of interest, and selecting an efficient delivery system. For this reason, the expression of recombinant proteins in eukaryotic nonpathogenic Leishmania parasites is an interesting approach which meets both criteria. Here, new Leishmania-based expression systems are compared with current systems that have long histories in research and industry. PMID:27435294

  8. Miltefosine and Antimonial Drug Susceptibility of Leishmania Viannia Species and Populations in Regions of High Transmission in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Olga Lucía; Diaz-Toro, Yira; Muvdi, Sandra; Rodríguez, Isabel; Gomez, María Adelaida; Saravia, Nancy Gore

    2014-01-01

    Background Pentavalent antimonials have been the first line treatment for dermal leishmaniasis in Colombia for over 30 years. Miltefosine is administered as second line treatment since 2005. The susceptibility of circulating populations of Leishmania to these drugs is unknown despite clinical evidence supporting the emergence of resistance. Methodology/Principal Findings In vitro susceptibility was determined for intracellular amastigotes of 245 clinical strains of the most prevalent Leishmania Viannia species in Colombia to miltefosine (HePC) and/or meglumine antimoniate (SbV); 163, (80%) were evaluated for both drugs. Additionally, susceptibility to SbV was examined in two cohorts of 85 L. V. panamensis strains isolated between 1980–1989 and 2000–2009 in the municipality of Tumaco. Susceptibility to each drug differed among strains of the same species and between species. Whereas 68% of L. V. braziliensis strains presented in vitro resistance to HePC, 69% were sensitive to SbV. Resistance to HePC and SbV occurred respectively, in 20% y 21% of L. panamensis strains. Only 3% of L. V. guyanensis were resistant to HePC, and none to SbV. Drug susceptibility differed between geographic regions and time periods. Subpopulations having disparate susceptibility to SbV were discerned among L. V. panamensis strains isolated during 1980–1990 in Tumaco where resistant strains belonged to zymodeme 2.3, and sensitive strains to zymodeme 2.2. Conclusions/Significance Large scale evaluation of clinical strains of Leishmania Viannia species demonstrated species, population, geographic, and epidemiologic differences in susceptibility to meglumine antimoniate and miltefosine, and provided baseline information for monitoring susceptibility to these drugs. Sensitive and resistant clinical strains within each species, and zymodeme as a proxy marker of antimony susceptibility for L. V. panamensis, will be useful in deciphering factors involved in susceptibility and the distribution

  9. Detection and quantification of Leishmania infantum in naturally and experimentally infected animal samples.

    PubMed

    Losada-Barragán, Monica; Cavalcanti, Amanda; Umaña-Pérez, Adriana; Porrozzi, Renato; Cuervo-Escobar, Sergio; Vallejo, Andrés Felipe; Sánchez-Gómez, Myriam; Cuervo, Patricia

    2016-08-15

    Leishmania infantum is one of the causative agents of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). VL is the most severe form of leishmaniasis and can be fatal if it is not properly treated. Although several PCR works are intended to detect L. infantum, in silico analysis of available primers and/or primer-probes reveals potential cross species amplification. Here, a TaqMan-based quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) assay was developed for specific detection and quantitation of L. infantum in tissue samples from experimentally or naturally infected animals, mice or dogs, respectively. For this assay, primers and probes were designed for the kinetoplast minicircle DNA of L. infantum. The qPCR assay achieved a detection limit of 0.01pg of parasite DNA, and allowed specific amplification of L. infantum in both asymptomatic and symptomatic naturally infected dogs with inter-assay variation coefficients between 0.05-0.11. There was no cross amplification with dog DNA or with L. braziliensis, L. donovani, L. major, L. tropica or Trypanosoma cruzi. In addition, our assay detected a significantly higher parasite load in symptomatic than in the asymptomatic animals (p<0.0001). We believe this approach will be a valuable tool for the specific detection of L. infantum in regions of sympatric transmission of VL-causing parasites. PMID:27514885

  10. Live Attenuated Leishmania donovani p27 Gene Knockout Parasites Are Non-pathogenic and Elicit Long Term Protective Immunity in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Ranadhir; Dagur, Pradeep K.; Selvapandiyan, Angamuthu; McCoy, J. Philip; Salotra, Poonam; Duncan, Robert; Nakhasi, Hira L.

    2013-01-01

    Leishmaniasis causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide and there are no vaccines available against this disease. Previously, we had shown that the amastigote specific protein p27 (Ldp27) is a component of an active cytochrome c oxidase complex in L. donovani and upon deletion of its gene the parasite had reduced virulence in vivo. In this study, we have shown that Ldp27−/− parasites do not survive beyond 20 weeks in BALB/c mice, hence are safe as an immunogen. Upon virulent challenge, 12 weeks post-immunized mice showed significantly lower parasite burden in liver and spleen. When mice were challenged 20 weeks post immunization, there was still a significant reduction in parasite burden suggesting long term protection by Ldp27−/− immunization. Immunization with Ldp27−/− induced both pro- and anti- inflammatory cytokine responses and activated splenocytes for enhanced leishmaniacidal activity in association with NO production. Protection in both short and long term immunized mice after challenge with the wild type parasite correlated with the stimulation of multifunctional Th1 type CD4 and CD8 T cells. Adoptive transfer of T cells from long term immunized mice conferred protection against virulent challenge in naïve recipient mice suggesting involvement of memory T cell response in the protection against Leishmania infection. Immunization of mice with Ldp27−/− also demonstrated cross-protection against the Leishmania major and Leishmania braziliensis infection. Our data show that genetically modified live attenuated Ldp27−/− parasites are safe, induce protective immunity even in the absence of parasites and can provide protection against homologous and heterologous Leishmania species. PMID:23338240

  11. Identification, biochemical characterization, and in-vivo expression of the intracellular invertase BfrA from the pathogenic parasite Leishmania major.

    PubMed

    Belaz, Sorya; Rattier, Thibault; Lafite, Pierre; Moreau, Philippe; Routier, Françoise H; Robert-Gangneux, Florence; Gangneux, Jean-Pierre; Daniellou, Richard

    2015-10-13

    The parasitic life cycle of Leishmania includes an extracellular promastigote stage that occurs in the gut of the insect vector. During that period, the sucrose metabolism and more specifically the first glycosidase of this pathway are essential for growth and survival of the parasite. We investigated the expression of the invertase BfrA in the promastigote and amastigote stages of three parasite species representative of the three various clinical forms and of various geographical areas, namely Leishmania major, L. donovani and L. braziliensis. Thereafter, we cloned, overexpressed and biochemically characterized this invertase BfrA from L. major, heterologously expressed in both Escherichia coli and L. tarentolae. For all species, expression levels of BfrA mRNA were correlated to the time of the culture and the parasitic stage (promastigotes > amastigotes). BfrA exhibited no activity when expressed as a glycoprotein in L. tarentolae but proved to be an invertase when not glycosylated, yet owing low sequence homology with other invertases from the same family. Our data suggest that BfrA is an original invertase that is located inside the parasite. It is expressed in both parasitic stages, though to a higher extent in promastigotes. This work provides new insight into the parasite sucrose metabolism. PMID:26279524

  12. Phylogenomic reconstruction supports supercontinent origins for Leishmania.

    PubMed

    Harkins, Kelly M; Schwartz, Rachel S; Cartwright, Reed A; Stone, Anne C

    2016-03-01

    Leishmania, a genus of parasites transmitted to human hosts and mammalian/reptilian reservoirs by an insect vector, is the causative agent of the human disease complex leishmaniasis. The evolutionary relationships within the genus Leishmania and its origins are the source of ongoing debate, reflected in conflicting phylogenetic and biogeographic reconstructions. This study employs a recently described bioinformatics method, SISRS, to identify over 200,000 informative sites across the genome from newly sequenced and publicly available Leishmania data. This dataset is used to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships of this genus. Additionally, we constructed a large multi-gene dataset, using it to reconstruct the phylogeny and estimate divergence dates for species. We conclude that the genus Leishmania evolved at least 90-100 million years ago, supporting a modified version of the Multiple Origins hypothesis that we call the Supercontinent hypothesis. According to this scenario, separate Leishmania clades emerged prior to, and during, the breakup of Gondwana. Additionally, we confirm that reptile-infecting Leishmania are derived from mammalian forms and that the species that infect porcupines and sloths form a clade long separated from other species. Finally, we firmly place the guinea-pig infecting species, Leishmaniaenriettii, the globally dispersed Leishmaniasiamensis, and the newly identified Australian species from a kangaroo, as sibling species whose distribution arises from the ancient connection between Australia, Antarctica, and South America. PMID:26708057

  13. Leishmania major, the predominant Leishmania species responsible for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Mali.

    PubMed

    Paz, Carlos; Samake, Sibiry; Anderson, Jennifer M; Faye, Ousmane; Traore, Pierre; Tall, Koureishi; Cisse, Moumine; Keita, Somita; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Doumbia, Seydou

    2013-03-01

    Leishmania major is the only species of Leishmania known to cause cutaneous leishmanisis (CL) in Mali. We amplified Leishmania DNA stored on archived Giemsa-stained dermal scraping slides obtained from self-referral patients with clinically suspected CL seen in the Center National d'Appui A La Lutte Contre La Maladie (CNAM) in Bamako, Mali, to determine if any other Leishmania species were responsible for CL in Mali and evaluate its geographic distribution. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification was performed using a Leishmania species-specific primer pair that can amplify DNA from L. major, L. tropica, L. infantum, and L. donovani parasites, possible causative agents of CL in Mali. L. major was the only species detected in 41 microscopically confirmed cases of CL from five regions of Mali (Kayes, Koulikoro, Ségou, Mopti, and Tombouctou). These results implicate L. major as the predominant, possibly exclusive species responsible for CL in Mali. PMID:23324218

  14. Adenine Aminohydrolase from Leishmania donovani

    PubMed Central

    Boitz, Jan M.; Strasser, Rona; Hartman, Charles U.; Jardim, Armando; Ullman, Buddy

    2012-01-01

    Adenine aminohydrolase (AAH) is an enzyme that is not present in mammalian cells and is found exclusively in Leishmania among the protozoan parasites that infect humans. AAH plays a paramount role in purine metabolism in this genus by steering 6-aminopurines into 6-oxypurines. Leishmania donovani AAH is 38 and 23% identical to Saccharomyces cerevisiae AAH and human adenosine deaminase enzymes, respectively, catalyzes adenine deamination to hypoxanthine with an apparent Km of 15.4 μm, and does not recognize adenosine as a substrate. Western blot analysis established that AAH is expressed in both life cycle stages of L. donovani, whereas subcellular fractionation and immunofluorescence studies confirmed that AAH is localized to the parasite cytosol. Deletion of the AAH locus in intact parasites established that AAH is not an essential gene and that Δaah cells are capable of salvaging the same range of purine nucleobases and nucleosides as wild type L. donovani. The Δaah null mutant was able to infect murine macrophages in vitro and in mice, although the parasite loads in both model systems were modestly reduced compared with wild type infections. The Δaah lesion was also introduced into a conditionally lethal Δhgprt/Δxprt mutant in which viability was dependent on pharmacologic ablation of AAH by 2′-deoxycoformycin. The Δaah/Δhgprt/Δxprt triple knock-out no longer required 2′-deoxycoformycin for growth and was avirulent in mice with no persistence after a 4-week infection. These genetic studies underscore the paramount importance of AAH to purine salvage by L. donovani. PMID:22238346

  15. Vaccine Development Against Leishmania donovani

    PubMed Central

    Das, Amrita; Ali, Nahid

    2012-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania donovani and Leishmania infantum/chagasi represents the second most challenging infectious disease worldwide, leading to nearly 500,000 new cases and 60,000 deaths annually. Zoonotic VL caused by L. infantum is a re-emergent canid zoonoses which represents a complex epidemiological cycle in the New world where domestic dogs serve as a reservoir host responsible for potentially fatal human infection and where dog culling is the only measure for reservoir control. Life-long immunity to VL has motivated development of prophylactic vaccines against the disease but very few have progressed beyond the experimental stage. No licensed vaccine is available till date against any form of leishmaniasis. High toxicity and increasing resistance to the current chemotherapeutic regimens have further complicated the situation in VL endemic regions of the world. Advances in vaccinology, including recombinant proteins, novel antigen-delivery systems/adjuvants, heterologous prime-boost regimens and strategies for intracellular antigen presentation, have contributed to recent advances in vaccine development against VL. Attempts to develop an effective vaccine for use in domestic dogs in areas of canine VL should be pursued for preventing human infection. Studies in animal models and human patients have revealed the pathogenic mechanisms of disease progression and features of protective immunity. This review will summarize the accumulated knowledge of pathogenesis, immune response, and prerequisites for protective immunity against human VL. Authors will discuss promising vaccine candidates, their developmental status and future prospects in a quest for rational vaccine development against the disease. In addition, several challenges such as safety issues, renewed and coordinated commitment to basic research, preclinical studies and trial design will be addressed to overcome the problems faced in developing prophylactic strategies for

  16. Glycoinositol phospholipids from American Leishmania and Trypanosoma spp: partial characterization of the glycan cores and the human humoral immune response to them.

    PubMed

    Avila, J L; Rojas, M; Acosta, A

    1991-10-01

    The glycoinositol phospholipid (GIPL) profiles of American Leishmania spp. (L. mexicana and L. braziliensis), Leishmania donovani, and American Trypanosoma spp. (T. cruzi and T. rangeli) were compared. The major GIPLs in these parasites include tetraglycosyl-, pentaglycosyl-, and hexaglycosylphosphatidylinositol. These were partially identified by their comigration by high-performance thin-layer chromatography with purified L. major GIPLs, gas-liquid chromatography of the monosaccharides released after aqueous HF treatment, N-acetylation and methanolysis, sensitivity to exoglycosidases, and antibody absorption on several specific natural haptens. Members of the genus Leishmania have two other highly polar glycolipids, while the T. rangeli glycolipid profile was quite different from those of other kinetoplastids that were studied. On a weight basis, the glycan core of L. major GIPL-1 is the most reactive, followed by GIPL-3 and GIPL-2. Antibodies to the core glycans of GIPL-1, GIPL-2, and GIPL-3 were present at a low titer in the serum of every normal individual studied, while elevated GIPL-2 antibody levels were present in 80 to 100% of T. cruzi-, T. rangeli-, or L. donovani-infected patients, with lower values being found for GIPL-3 (30 to 60%) and GIPL-1 (30 to 50%). Except for GIPL-2 antibodies, which were mainly located on immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM, GIPL-1 and GIPL-3 antibodies were mainly distributed in IgM, with lower reactivity present in IgG. Antigen-antibody binding was very selectively blocked with Gal(alpha 1-3)Man, or Gal(beta 1-4)Man, Gal(alpha 1-3)Gal, and Gal(alpha 1-6)Gal for GIPL-1, GIPL-2, and GIPL-3 antibodies, respectively. PMID:1719024

  17. Glycoinositol phospholipids from American Leishmania and Trypanosoma spp: partial characterization of the glycan cores and the human humoral immune response to them.

    PubMed Central

    Avila, J L; Rojas, M; Acosta, A

    1991-01-01

    The glycoinositol phospholipid (GIPL) profiles of American Leishmania spp. (L. mexicana and L. braziliensis), Leishmania donovani, and American Trypanosoma spp. (T. cruzi and T. rangeli) were compared. The major GIPLs in these parasites include tetraglycosyl-, pentaglycosyl-, and hexaglycosylphosphatidylinositol. These were partially identified by their comigration by high-performance thin-layer chromatography with purified L. major GIPLs, gas-liquid chromatography of the monosaccharides released after aqueous HF treatment, N-acetylation and methanolysis, sensitivity to exoglycosidases, and antibody absorption on several specific natural haptens. Members of the genus Leishmania have two other highly polar glycolipids, while the T. rangeli glycolipid profile was quite different from those of other kinetoplastids that were studied. On a weight basis, the glycan core of L. major GIPL-1 is the most reactive, followed by GIPL-3 and GIPL-2. Antibodies to the core glycans of GIPL-1, GIPL-2, and GIPL-3 were present at a low titer in the serum of every normal individual studied, while elevated GIPL-2 antibody levels were present in 80 to 100% of T. cruzi-, T. rangeli-, or L. donovani-infected patients, with lower values being found for GIPL-3 (30 to 60%) and GIPL-1 (30 to 50%). Except for GIPL-2 antibodies, which were mainly located on immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM, GIPL-1 and GIPL-3 antibodies were mainly distributed in IgM, with lower reactivity present in IgG. Antigen-antibody binding was very selectively blocked with Gal(alpha 1-3)Man, or Gal(beta 1-4)Man, Gal(alpha 1-3)Gal, and Gal(alpha 1-6)Gal for GIPL-1, GIPL-2, and GIPL-3 antibodies, respectively. Images PMID:1719024

  18. Regulation of immunity during visceral Leishmania infection.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Vasco; Cordeiro-da-Silva, Anabela; Laforge, Mireille; Silvestre, Ricardo; Estaquier, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Unicellular eukaryotes of the genus Leishmania are collectively responsible for a heterogeneous group of diseases known as leishmaniasis. The visceral form of leishmaniasis, caused by L. donovani or L. infantum, is a devastating condition, claiming 20,000 to 40,000 lives annually, with particular incidence in some of the poorest regions of the world. Immunity to Leishmania depends on the development of protective type I immune responses capable of activating infected phagocytes to kill intracellular amastigotes. However, despite the induction of protective responses, disease progresses due to a multitude of factors that impede an optimal response. These include the action of suppressive cytokines, exhaustion of specific T cells, loss of lymphoid tissue architecture and a defective humoral response. We will review how these responses are orchestrated during the course of infection, including both early and chronic stages, focusing on the spleen and the liver, which are the main target organs of visceral Leishmania in the host. A comprehensive understanding of the immune events that occur during visceral Leishmania infection is crucial for the implementation of immunotherapeutic approaches that complement the current anti-Leishmania chemotherapy and the development of effective vaccines to prevent disease. PMID:26932389

  19. Quantification of Leishmania (Viannia) Kinetoplast DNA in Ulcers of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Reveals Inter-site and Inter-sampling Variability in Parasite Load

    PubMed Central

    Suárez, Milagros; Valencia, Braulio M.; Jara, Marlene; Alba, Milena; Boggild, Andrea K.; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Arevalo, Jorge; Adaui, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a skin disease caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania. Few studies have assessed the influence of the sample collection site within the ulcer and the sampling method on the sensitivity of parasitological and molecular diagnostic techniques for CL. Sensitivity of the technique can be dependent upon the load and distribution of Leishmania amastigotes in the lesion. Methodology/Principal Findings We applied a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay for Leishmania (Viannia) minicircle kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) detection and parasite load quantification in biopsy and scraping samples obtained from 3 sites within each ulcer (border, base, and center) as well as in cytology brush specimens taken from the ulcer base and center. A total of 248 lesion samples from 31 patients with laboratory confirmed CL of recent onset (≤3 months) were evaluated. The kDNA-qPCR detected Leishmania DNA in 97.6% (242/248) of the examined samples. Median parasite loads were significantly higher in the ulcer base and center than in the border in biopsies (P<0.0001) and scrapings (P = 0.0002). There was no significant difference in parasite load between the ulcer base and center (P = 0.80, 0.43, and 0.07 for biopsy, scraping, and cytology brush specimens, respectively). The parasite load varied significantly by sampling method: in the ulcer base and center, the descending order for the parasite load levels in samples was: cytology brushes, scrapings, and biopsies (P<0.0001); in the ulcer border, scrapings had higher parasite load than biopsies (P<0.0001). There was no difference in parasite load according to L. braziliensis and L. peruviana infections (P = 0.4). Conclusion/Significance Our results suggest an uneven distribution of Leishmania amastigotes in acute CL ulcers, with higher parasite loads in the ulcer base and center, which has implications for bedside collection of diagnostic specimens. The use of scrapings and cytology brushes is

  20. A recombinant Leishmania antigen that stimulates human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to express a Th1-type cytokine profile and to produce interleukin 12

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Leishmania braziliensis causes cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis in humans. Most patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis heal spontaneously and may therefore have developed protective immunity. There appears to be a mixed cytokine profile associated with active cutaneous or mucosal disease, and a dominant T helper (Th)1-type response associated with healing. Leishmanial antigens that elicit these potent proliferative and cytokine responses from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) are now being identified. Herein, we report on the cloning and expression of a L. braziliensis gene homologous to the eukaryotic ribosomal protein eIF4A (LeIF) and patient PBMC responses to rLeIF. Patients with mucosal and self-healing cutaneous disease had significantly higher proliferative responses than those with cutaneous lesions. Whereas the parasite lysate stimulated patient PBMC to produce a mixed Th1/Th2-type cytokine profile, LeIF stimulated the production of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin 2 (IL-2), and tumor necrosis factor alpha but not IL-4 or IL-10. Recombinant LeIF (rLeIF) downregulated both IL-10 mRNA in the "resting" PBMC of leishmaniasis patients and LPS-induced IL-10 production by patient PBMC. rLeIF also stimulated the production of IL-12 in cultured PBMC from both patients and uninfected individuals. The production of IFN-gamma by patient PBMC stimulated with either rLeIF or parasite lysate was IL-12 dependent, whereas anti-IFN-gamma monoclonal antibody only partially blocked the LeIF-induced production of IL-12. In vitro production of both IFN-gamma and IL-12 was abrogated by exogenous human recombinant IL-10. Therefore, we have identified a recombinant leishmanial antigen that elicits IL-12 production and Th1-type responses in patients as well as IL-12 production in normal human PBMC. PMID:7699334

  1. Cloning and Expression of Leishmania infantum LPG3 Gene by the Lizard Leishmania Expression System

    PubMed Central

    Pirdel, Leila; Hosseini, Ahmad Zavaran; Kazemi, Bahram; Rasouli, Manoochehr; Bandehpour, Mojgan; Soudi, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Background Various prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems have been developed for the production of recombinant proteins. In the present study, we used a new protein expression system based on the Iranian Lizard Leishmania, a trypanosomatid protozoan as a host, for the expression of LPG3 gene from Leishmania infantum (L.infantum). Methods The LPG3 gene was cloned in the expression cassette for integration into the small subunit of the ribosomal RNA locus of Lizard Leishmania genome by electroporation. Expression of the recombinant LPG3 protein was confirmed by western blotting and immunofluorescence staining. Results Western blotting confirmed the expression and production of rLPG3 protein. Immunofluoresence analysis also revealed the staining throughout the cytoplasm of transfected parasites, indicating that the protein has been expressed. Conclusion These results demonstrate that Leishmania cells can be suggested an expression system for the production of recombinant LPG3 (rLPG3) to further research in vaccine designing against leishmaniasis. PMID:23407850

  2. Effects of nitro-heterocyclic derivatives against Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes.

    PubMed

    Petri e Silva, Simone Carolina Soares; Palace-Berl, Fanny; Tavares, Leoberto Costa; Soares, Sandra Regina Castro; Lindoso, José Angelo Lauletta

    2016-04-01

    Leishmaniasis is an overlooked tropical disease affecting approximately 1 million people in several countries. Clinical manifestation depends on the interaction between Leishmania and the host's immune response. Currently available treatment options for leishmaniasis are limited and induce severe side effects. In this research, we tested nitro-heterocyclic compounds (BSF series) as a new alternative against Leishmania. Its activity was measured in Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes using MTT colorimetric assay. Additionally, we assessed the phosphatidylserine exposure by promastigotes, measured by flow cytometry, as well as nitric oxide production, measured by Griess' method. The nitro-heterocyclic compounds (BSF series) showed activity against L. (L.) infantum promastigotes, inducting the phosphatidylserine exposition by promastigotes, decreasing intracellular amastigotes and increasing oxide nitric production. The selectivity index was more prominent to Leishmania than to macrophages. Compared to amphotericin b, our compounds presented higher IC50, however the selectivity index was more specific to parasite than to amphotericin b. In conclusion, these nitro-heterocyclic compounds showed to be promising as an anti-Leishmania drug, in in vitro studies. PMID:26795261

  3. Natural infection of bats with Leishmania in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kassahun, Aysheshm; Sadlova, Jovana; Benda, Petr; Kostalova, Tatiana; Warburg, Alon; Hailu, Asrat; Baneth, Gad; Volf, Petr; Votypka, Jan

    2015-10-01

    The leishmaniases, a group of diseases with a worldwide-distribution, are caused by different species of Leishmania parasites. Both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis remain important public health problems in Ethiopia. Epidemiological cycles of these protozoans involve various sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors and mammalian hosts, including humans. In recent years, Leishmania infections in bats have been reported in the New World countries endemic to leishmaniasis. The aim of this study was to survey natural Leishmania infection in bats collected from various regions of Ethiopia. Total DNA was isolated from spleens of 163 bats belonging to 23 species and 18 genera. Leishmania infection was detected by real-time (RT) PCR targeting a kinetoplast (k) DNA and internal transcribed spacer one (ITS1) gene of the parasite. Detection was confirmed by sequencing of the PCR products. Leishmania kDNA was detected in eight (4.9%) bats; four of them had been captured in the Aba-Roba and Awash-Methara regions that are endemic for leishmaniasis, while the other four specimens originated from non-endemic localities of Metu, Bedele and Masha. Leishmania isolates from two bats were confirmed by ITS1 PCR to be Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major, isolated from two individual bats, Cardioderma cor and Nycteris hispida, respectively. These results represent the first confirmed observation of natural infection of bats with the Old World Leishmania. Hence, bats should be considered putative hosts of Leishmania spp. affecting humans with a significant role in the transmission. PMID:26232657

  4. Mutagenicity, genotoxicity, and scavenging activities of extracts from the soft coral Chromonephthea braziliensis: a possibility of new bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Carpes, R M; Fleury, B G; Lages, B G; Pinto, A C; Aiub, C A F; Felzenszwalb, I

    2013-01-01

    Coral reefs are diverse ecosystems that have a high density of biodiversity leading to intense competition among species. These species may produce unknown substances, many with pharmacological value. Chromonephthea braziliensis is an invasive soft coral from the Indo-Pacific Ocean that is possibly transported by oil platforms and whose presence can be a threat to a region's biodiversity. This species produces secondary metabolites that are responsible for inducing damage to the local ecosystem. In the present study, extracts were prepared from dried colonies of C. braziliensis (solvents: hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and methanol). We evaluated their mutagenicity using the Salmonella reverse mutation assay (TA97, TA98, TA100, and TA102 strains), their genotoxicity using the DNA breakage analysis and micronucleus assay, and scavenging activity using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl-free radical assay. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity were not observed for any of the extracts. Genotoxicity was observed for the dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts at high concentrations, but no DNA damage was observed in the micronucleus assay. Scavenging activity was not detected. PMID:24085422

  5. Transmission Potential of Antimony-Resistant Leishmania Field Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Seblova, Veronika; Oury, Bruno; Eddaikra, Naouel; Aït-Oudhia, Khatima; Pratlong, Francine; Gazanion, Elodie; Maia, Carla; Volf, Petr

    2014-01-01

    We studied the development of antimony-resistant Leishmania infantum in natural vectors Lutzomyia longipalpis and Phlebotomus perniciosus to ascertain the risk of parasite transmission by sand flies. All three resistant strains produced fully mature late-stage infections in sand flies; moreover, the resistant phenotype was maintained after the passage through the vector. These results highlight the risk of circulation of resistant Leishmania strains and question the use of human drugs for treatment of dogs as Leishmania reservoirs. PMID:25049256

  6. Transmission potential of antimony-resistant leishmania field isolates.

    PubMed

    Seblova, Veronika; Oury, Bruno; Eddaikra, Naouel; Aït-Oudhia, Khatima; Pratlong, Francine; Gazanion, Elodie; Maia, Carla; Volf, Petr; Sereno, Denis

    2014-10-01

    We studied the development of antimony-resistant Leishmania infantum in natural vectors Lutzomyia longipalpis and Phlebotomus perniciosus to ascertain the risk of parasite transmission by sand flies. All three resistant strains produced fully mature late-stage infections in sand flies; moreover, the resistant phenotype was maintained after the passage through the vector. These results highlight the risk of circulation of resistant Leishmania strains and question the use of human drugs for treatment of dogs as Leishmania reservoirs. PMID:25049256

  7. Diffuse intralobular liver fibrosis in dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi.

    PubMed

    Melo, Ferdinan; Amaral, Marina; Oliveira, Patricia; Lima, Wanderson; Andrade, Marina; Michalick, Marilene; Raso, Pedro; Tafuri, Washington; Tafuri, Wagner

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diffuse intralobular fibrosis in dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi. One hundred five infected animals with positive serologic tests for Leishmania were divided into two clinical groups: 69 symptomatic animals and 36 asymptomatic. Special staining with Gomori, Heidenhain, Silver, and Picrosirius Red was applied to characterize fibrilopoesis. The tissue parasite load was measured by immunohistochemistry and associated histomorphometric analyses. Intralobular fibrosis was observed in all dogs, and more collagen deposition was confirmed in the infected animals than in the controls by these histomorphometric studies. There were significant differences among the distinct clinical groups. In fact, symptomatic dogs showed an increased collagen deposition in the liver compared with asymptomatic ones. A peculiar diffuse intralobular fibrosis, where the collagen fibers encircled small groups of hepatocyte(s), was observed in two cases (1.9%). PMID:18689624

  8. Different Leishmania Species Drive Distinct Neutrophil Functions.

    PubMed

    Hurrell, Benjamin P; Regli, Ivo B; Tacchini-Cottier, Fabienne

    2016-05-01

    Leishmaniases are vector-borne diseases of serious public health importance. During a sand fly blood meal, Leishmania parasites are deposited in the host dermis where neutrophils are rapidly recruited. Neutrophils are the first line of defense and can kill pathogens by an array of mechanisms. They can also form web-like structures called neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) that can trap and/or kill microbes. The function of neutrophils in leishmaniasis was reported to be either beneficial by contributing to parasite killing or detrimental by impairing immune response development and control of parasite load. Here we review recent data showing that different Leishmania species elicit distinct neutrophil functions thereby influencing disease outcomes. Emerging evidence suggests that neutrophils should be considered important modulators of leishmaniasis. PMID:26944469

  9. Genetic and clinical characterization of canine leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Paola A; Nevot, M Cecilia; Hoyos, Carlos L; Locatelli, Fabricio M; Lauthier, Juan J; Ruybal, Paula; Cardozo, Rubén M; Russo, Pablo D; Vassiliades, Carola N; Mora, María C; Estévez, J Octavio; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Korenaga, Masataka; Basombrío, Miguel A; Marco, Jorge D

    2015-10-01

    Leishmaniases comprise zoonotic diseases caused by protozoan flagellates of the Leishmania genus. They are endemic to South America, and the visceral form has been recently reported in Argentina. Dogs can play different roles in the Leishmania transmission cycles, depending mainly on the species of parasite involved. Here we focused on the clinical characterization of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in Northeast Argentina and on the molecular typing of its etiological agent. The nested polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis of the Leishmania cytochrome b (cyt b) gene was performed on DNA templates purified from lymph nodes, bone marrow or spleen aspirates obtained from 48 dogs previously diagnosed by the observation of Leishmania amastigotes on smears from these aspirates. Their clinical and epidemiological data were also recorded. Systemic abnormalities were observed in 46 subjects (95.8%), most frequently lymphadenopathy, and emaciation (89.6 and 75%). Furthermore, 87% also presented tegumentary abnormalities, such as alopecia (54.2%) or secondary skin lesions (47.9%), among others. Twenty three dogs were positive for cyt b amplification. The sequence analysis showed the presence of two genotypes, LiA1 and LiA2, assigned to Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, with 99.9 and 100% homology with the reference strain MHOM/TN/80/IPT1 respectively. LiA1 was identified in 18 cases (78.3%) and LiA2 in five (21.7%). Two cyt b variants of L. (L.) infantum were incriminated as the causative agents of CanL cases from three cities: Posadas, Garupá, and Ituzaingó. All three cities are located in the northeastern area of the country, where these parasites seem to be spreading in urban areas. PMID:26277067

  10. Detection of Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica in domestic cats in the Ege Region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Paşa, Serdar; Tetik Vardarlı, Aslı; Erol, Nural; Karakuş, Mehmet; Töz, Seray; Atasoy, Abidin; Balcıoğlu, İ Cüneyt; Emek Tuna, Gülten; Ermiş, Özge V; Ertabaklar, Hatice; Özbel, Yusuf

    2015-09-15

    Leishmaniosis is a group of diseases caused by different species of Leishmania parasites in mammalian species. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of Leishmania spp. DNA in cats using real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays targeting internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) and heat-shock protein 70 gene (Hsp70) regions with Leishmania species-specific primers and probes. Blood samples were collected from 147 cats (73 female; 74 male) in the endemic regions for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in the western provinces of Turkey and analyzed using two RT-PCR assays. Additionally, Hsp70 RT-PCR products were sequenced. ELISA assays for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) were also carried out for 145 of the 147 samples. Overall, 13/147 (8.84%) cats were positive for Leishmania by RT-PCR (4 L. major and 9 L. tropica). FIV and FeLV antibody and/or antigen was detected in 4 and 5 cats among Leishmania DNA positives, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate and report the presence of L. major and L. tropica infections in a large group of domestic cats in Turkey. The results obtained indicate that species identification of Leishmania is essential for epidemiological understanding and that clinical signs alone are not indicative for leishmaniosis in cats, as it is in dogs. This study suggests that extensive research should be carried out in cat populations in order to fully understand the role of cats in the epidemiology of the disease. PMID:26277567

  11. Herbal extract targets in Leishmania tropica.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Bassim I; Al Shammary, Maani N; Abdul Mageed, Roaa H; Yousif, Nasser Ghaly

    2015-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate the effect of some herbal extract such as phenolic compounds on the viability of Leishmania tropica promastigotes in vitro. Four tested chemical agents (caffeic acid (CA), ferulic acid (FA), syringic acid (SA) and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HBA)) were used in this study. The viability of Leishmania tropica promastigotes was investigated under five different concentrations (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 mg/ml) of each agent after (72 h). CA was the most active agent on the promastigotes viability after 72 h exposure to 30 mg/ml concentration so that the parasiticidal effect reach (53 × 10(4)) promastigote/ml. FA is the second agent in parasiticidal effect that parasiticidal effect reach to (50 × 10(4) promastigote/ml) at a concentration (30 mg/ml), 4-HBA is the third agent in parasiticidal effect that reach to (48 × 10(4) promastigote/ml) at a concentration (30 mg/ml), SA is the weakest agent in parasiticidal activity that reach to (44 × 10(4) promastigote/ml) at a concentration (30 mg/ml). It can be concluded that (CA, FA, SA and 4-HBA) possess acidal effect on the Leishmania tropica promastigotes in vitro. PMID:26688631

  12. First evidence of Leishmania infection in European brown hare (Lepus europaeus) in Greece: GIS analysis and phylogenetic position within the Leishmania spp.

    PubMed

    Tsokana, C N; Sokos, C; Giannakopoulos, A; Mamuris, Z; Birtsas, P; Papaspyropoulos, K; Valiakos, G; Spyrou, V; Lefkaditis, M; Chatzopoulos, D C; Kantere, M; Manolakou, K; Touloudi, A; Burriel, A Rodi; Ferroglio, E; Hadjichristodoulou, C; Billinis, C

    2016-01-01

    Although the existence of a sylvatic transmission cycle of Leishmania spp., independent from the domestic cycle, has been proposed, data are scarce on Leishmania infection in wild mammals in Greece. In this study, we aimed to investigate the presence of Leishmania infection in the European brown hare in Greece, to infer the phylogenetic position of the Leishmania parasites detected in hares in Greece, and to identify any possible correlation between Leishmania infection in hares with environmental parameters, using the geographical information system (GIS). Spleen samples from 166 hares were tested by internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1)-nested PCR for the detection of Leishmania DNA. Phylogenetic analysis was performed on Leishmania sequences from hares in Greece in conjunction with Leishmania sequences from dogs in Greece and 46 Leishmania sequences retrieved from GenBank. The Leishmania DNA prevalence in hares was found to be 23.49 % (95 % confidence interval (CI) 17.27-30.69). The phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the Leishmania sequences from hares in Greece belong in the Leishmania donovani complex. The widespread Leishmania infection in hares should be taken into consideration because under specific circumstances, this species can act as a reservoir host. This study suggests that the role of wild animals, including hares, in the epidemiology of Leishmania spp. in Greece deserves further elucidation. PMID:26386969

  13. An improved purification procedure for Leishmania RNA virus (LRV)

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Marcos Michel; Manzine, Livia Regina; da Silva, Marcos Vinicius G.; Bettini, Jefferson; Portugal, Rodrigo Vilares; Cruz, Angela Kaysel; Arruda, Eurico; Thiemann, Otavio Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania RNA Virus (LRV, Totiviridae) infect Leishmania cells and subvert mice immune response, probably promoting parasite persistence, suggesting significant roles for LRV in host-parasite interaction. Here we describe a new LRV1-4 purification protocol, enabling capsid visualization by negatively stained electron microscopy representing a significant contribution to future LRV investigations. PMID:25242960

  14. An overview on Leishmania vaccines: A narrative review article.

    PubMed

    Rezvan, Hossein; Moafi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is one of the major health problems and categorized as a class I disease (emerging and uncontrolled) by World Health Organization (WHO), causing highly significant morbidity and mortality. Indeed, more than 350 million individuals are at risk of Leishmania infection, and about 1.6 million new cases occur causing more than 50 thousands death annually. Because of the severe toxicity and drug resistance, present chemotherapy regimen against diverse forms of Leishmania infections is not totally worthwhile. However, sound immunity due to natural infection, implies that vigor cellular immunity against Leishmania parasites, via their live, attenuated or killed forms, can be developed in dogs and humans. Moreover, genetically conserved antigens (in most of Leishmania species), and components of sand fly saliva confer potential immunogenic molecules for Leishmania vaccination. Vaccines successes in animal studies and some clinical trials clearly justify more researches and investments illuminating opportunities in suitable vaccine designation. PMID:25992245

  15. An overview on Leishmania vaccines: A narrative review article

    PubMed Central

    Rezvan, Hossein; Moafi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is one of the major health problems and categorized as a class I disease (emerging and uncontrolled) by World Health Organization (WHO), causing highly significant morbidity and mortality. Indeed, more than 350 million individuals are at risk of Leishmania infection, and about 1.6 million new cases occur causing more than 50 thousands death annually. Because of the severe toxicity and drug resistance, present chemotherapy regimen against diverse forms of Leishmania infections is not totally worthwhile. However, sound immunity due to natural infection, implies that vigor cellular immunity against Leishmania parasites, via their live, attenuated or killed forms, can be developed in dogs and humans. Moreover, genetically conserved antigens (in most of Leishmania species), and components of sand fly saliva confer potential immunogenic molecules for Leishmania vaccination. Vaccines successes in animal studies and some clinical trials clearly justify more researches and investments illuminating opportunities in suitable vaccine designation. PMID:25992245

  16. Wild gorillas as a potential reservoir of Leishmania major.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Ibrahim; Forestier, Claire-Lise; Peeters, Martine; Delaporte, Eric; Raoult, Didier; Bittar, Fadi

    2015-01-15

    Vector-borne parasites of the genus Leishmania are responsible for severe human diseases. Cutaneous leishmaniasis, a common form of the disease, is most often caused by the transmission of Leishmania major to humans by female phlebotomine sand flies. Apes are increasingly being seen as a source of zoonotic diseases, including malaria and rickettsiosis. To examine whether gorillas harbor Leishmania species, we screened fecal samples from wild western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in Cameroon for the presence of these pathogens. Of 91 wild gorilla fecal samples, 12 contained Leishmania parasites, and 4 contained phlebotomine sand fly vectors. The molecular identity was determined by running 3 different polymerase chain reaction tests for detection of L. major. Next, fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed to visualize L. major parasites in fecal samples from the gorillas. Both promastigote and amastigote forms of the parasite were found. This work strongly suggests that wild gorillas carry pathogenic Leishmania parasites. PMID:25001460

  17. Nitric oxide production by Peromyscus yucatanicus (Rodentia) infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana

    PubMed Central

    Loría-Cervera, Elsy Nalleli; Sosa-Bibiano, Erika Ivett; Villanueva-Lizama, Liliana Estefanía; Van Wynsberghe, Nicole Raymonde; Canto-Lara, Silvia Beatriz; Batún-Cutz, José Luis; Andrade-Narváez, Fernando José

    2013-01-01

    Peromyscus yucatanicus (Rodentia: Cricetidae) is a primary reservoir of Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae). Nitric oxide (NO) generally plays a crucial role in the containment and elimination of Leishmania. The aim of this study was to determine the amount of NO produced by P. yucatanicus infected with L. (L.) mexicana. Subclinical and clinical infections were established in P. yucatanicus through inoculation with 1 x 102 and 2.5 x 106 promastigotes, respectively. Peritoneal macrophages were cultured alone or co-cultured with lymphocytes with or without soluble Leishmania antigen. The level of NO production was determined using the Griess reaction. The amount of NO produced was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.0001) in co-cultured macrophages and lymphocytes than in macrophages cultured alone. No differences in NO production were found between P. yucatanicus with subclinical L. (L.) mexicana infections and animals with clinical infections. These results support the hypothesis that the immunological mechanisms of NO production in P. yucatanicus are similar to those described in mouse models of leishmaniasis and, despite NO production, P. yucatanicus is unable to clear the parasite infection. PMID:23579796

  18. The genome sequence of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis: functional annotation and extended analysis of gene models.

    PubMed

    Real, Fernando; Vidal, Ramon Oliveira; Carazzolle, Marcelo Falsarella; Mondego, Jorge Maurício Costa; Costa, Gustavo Gilson Lacerda; Herai, Roberto Hirochi; Würtele, Martin; de Carvalho, Lucas Miguel; Carmona e Ferreira, Renata; Mortara, Renato Arruda; Barbiéri, Clara Lucia; Mieczkowski, Piotr; da Silveira, José Franco; Briones, Marcelo Ribeiro da Silva; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães; Bahia, Diana

    2013-12-01

    We present the sequencing and annotation of the Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis genome, an etiological agent of human cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Amazon region of Brazil. L. (L.) amazonensis shares features with Leishmania (L.) mexicana but also exhibits unique characteristics regarding geographical distribution and clinical manifestations of cutaneous lesions (e.g. borderline disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis). Predicted genes were scored for orthologous gene families and conserved domains in comparison with other human pathogenic Leishmania spp. Carboxypeptidase, aminotransferase, and 3'-nucleotidase genes and ATPase, thioredoxin, and chaperone-related domains were represented more abundantly in L. (L.) amazonensis and L. (L.) mexicana species. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these two species share groups of amastin surface proteins unique to the genus that could be related to specific features of disease outcomes and host cell interactions. Additionally, we describe a hypothetical hybrid interactome of potentially secreted L. (L.) amazonensis proteins and host proteins under the assumption that parasite factors mimic their mammalian counterparts. The model predicts an interaction between an L. (L.) amazonensis heat-shock protein and mammalian Toll-like receptor 9, which is implicated in important immune responses such as cytokine and nitric oxide production. The analysis presented here represents valuable information for future studies of leishmaniasis pathogenicity and treatment. PMID:23857904

  19. Detection and characterization of Leishmania (Leishmania) and Leishmania (Viannia) by SYBR green-based real-time PCR and high resolution melt analysis targeting kinetoplast minicircle DNA.

    PubMed

    Ceccarelli, Marcello; Galluzzi, Luca; Migliazzo, Antonella; Magnani, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected disease with a broad clinical spectrum which includes asymptomatic infection. A thorough diagnosis, able to distinguish and quantify Leishmania parasites in a clinical sample, constitutes a key step in choosing an appropriate therapy, making an accurate prognosis and performing epidemiological studies. Several molecular techniques have been shown to be effective in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. In particular, a number of PCR methods have been developed on various target DNA sequences including kinetoplast minicircle constant regions. The first aim of this study was to develop a SYBR green-based qPCR assay for Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum detection and quantification, using kinetoplast minicircle constant region as target. To this end, two assays were compared: the first used previously published primer pairs (qPCR1), whereas the second used a nested primer pairs generating a shorter PCR product (qPCR2). The second aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility to discriminate among subgenera Leishmania (Leishmania) and Leishmania (Viannia) using the qPCR2 assay followed by melting or High Resolution Melt (HRM) analysis. Both assays used in this study showed good sensitivity and specificity, and a good correlation with standard IFAT methods in 62 canine clinical samples. However, the qPCR2 assay allowed to discriminate between Leishmania (Leishmania) and Leishmania (Viannia) subgenera through melting or HRM analysis. In addition to developing assays, we investigated the number and genetic variability of kinetoplast minicircles in the Leishmania (L.) infantum WHO international reference strain (MHOM/TN/80/IPT1), highlighting the presence of minicircle subclasses and sequence heterogeneity. Specifically, the kinetoplast minicircle number per cell was estimated to be 26,566±1,192, while the subclass of minicircles amplifiable by qPCR2 was estimated to be 1,263±115. This heterogeneity, also observed in canine clinical samples

  20. Synthetic fragments of antigenic lipophosphoglycans from Leishmania major and Leishmania mexicana and their use for characterisation of the Leishmania elongating alpha-D-mannopyranosylphosphate transferase.

    PubMed

    Higson, Adrian P; Ross, Andrew J; Tsvetkov, Yury E; Routier, Françoise H; Sizova, Olga V; Ferguson, Michael A J; Nikolaev, Andrei V

    2005-03-18

    The phosphorylated branched heptasaccharides 7 and 8, the octasaccharide 9 and the phosphorylated trisaccharides 5 and 6, which are fragments of the phosphoglycan portion of the surface lipophosphoglycans from Leishmania mexicana (5) or L. major (6-9), were synthesised by using the glycosyl hydrogenphosphonate method for the preparation of phosphodiester bridges. The compounds were tested as acceptor substrates/putative inhibitors for the Leishmania elongating alpha-D-mannosylphosphate transferase. PMID:15685582

  1. Distinct Macrophage Fates after in vitro Infection with Different Species of Leishmania: Induction of Apoptosis by Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, but Not by Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis

    PubMed Central

    DaMata, Jarina Pena; Mendes, Bárbara Pinheiro; Maciel-Lima, Kátia; Menezes, Cristiane Alves Silva; Dutra, Walderez Ornelas; Sousa, Lirlândia Pires; Horta, Maria Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania is an intracellular parasite in vertebrate hosts, including man. During infection, amastigotes replicate inside macrophages and are transmitted to healthy cells, leading to amplification of the infection. Although transfer of amastigotes from infected to healthy cells is a crucial step that may shape the outcome of the infection, it is not fully understood. Here we compare L. amazonensis and L. guyanensis infection in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice and investigate the fate of macrophages when infected with these species of Leishmania in vitro. As previously shown, infection of mice results in distinct outcomes: L. amazonensis causes a chronic infection in both strains of mice (although milder in C57BL/6), whereas L. guyanensis does not cause them disease. In vitro, infection is persistent in L. amazonensis-infected macrophages whereas L. guyanensis growth is controlled by host cells from both strains of mice. We demonstrate that, in vitro, L. amazonensis induces apoptosis of both C57BL/6 and BALB/c macrophages, characterized by PS exposure, DNA cleavage into nucleosomal size fragments, and consequent hypodiploidy. None of these signs were seen in macrophages infected with L. guyanensis, which seem to die through necrosis, as indicated by increased PI-, but not Annexin V-, positive cells. L. amazonensis-induced macrophage apoptosis was associated to activation of caspases-3, -8 and -9 in both strains of mice. Considering these two species of Leishmania and strains of mice, macrophage apoptosis, induced at the initial moments of infection, correlates with chronic infection, regardless of its severity. We present evidence suggestive that macrophages phagocytize L. amazonensis-infected cells, which has not been verified so far. The ingestion of apoptotic infected macrophages by healthy macrophages could be a way of amastigote spreading, leading to the establishment of infection. PMID:26513474

  2. Immunomodulatory Impact of Leishmania-Induced Macrophage Exosomes: A Comparative Proteomic and Functional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hassani, Kasra; Olivier, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Released by many eukaryotic cells, the exosomes are 40–100 nm vesicles shown to operate over the complex processes of cell-cell communication. Among the metazoan cell lineages known to generate exosomes is the mononuclear phagocyte lineage, a lineage that parasites such as Leishmania are known to subvert as host cells. We previously reported that mouse macrophage signaling and functions are modified once co-incubated with exoproteome of Leishmania promastigotes. Using mass spectrometry analysis, we were curious to further compare the content of purified exosomes released by the J774 mouse macrophage cell line exposed or not to either LPS or to stationary phase Leishmania mexicana promastigotes. Collectively, our analyses resulted in detection of 248 proteins, ∼50–80% of which were shared among the three sources studied. Using exponentially modified protein abundance index (emPAI) and network analyses, we found that the macrophage exosomes display unique signatures with respect to composition and abundance of many functional groups of proteins, such as plasma membrane-associated proteins, chaperones and metabolic enzymes. Moreover, for the first time, L. mexicana surface protease GP63 is shown to be present in exosomes released from J774 macrophages exposed to stationary phase promastigotes. We observed that macrophage exosomes are able to induce signaling molecules and transcription factors in naive macrophages. Finally, using qRT-PCR, we monitored modulation of expression of multiple immune-related genes within macrophages exposed to exosomes. We found all three groups of exosomes to induce expression of immune-related genes, the ones collected from macrophages exposed to L. mexicana sharing properties with exosomes collected from macrophage left unexposed to any agonist. Overall, our results allowed depicting that protein sorting into macrophage-derived exosomes depends upon the cell status and how such distinct protein sorting can in turn impact the

  3. Activity of Cuban Plants Extracts against Leishmania amazonensis

    PubMed Central

    García, Marley; Monzote, Lianet; Scull, Ramón; Herrera, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Natural products have long been providing important drug leads for infectious diseases. Leishmaniasis is a major health problem worldwide that affects millions of people especially in the developing nations. There is no immunoprophylaxis (vaccination) available for Leishmania infections, and conventional treatments are unsatisfactory; therefore, antileishmanial drugs are urgently needed. In this work, 48 alcoholic extracts from 46 Cuban plants were evaluated by an in vitro bioassay against Leishmania amazonensis. Furthermore, their toxicity was assayed against murine macrophage. The three most potent extracts against the amastigote stage of Leishmania amazonensis were from Hura crepitans, Bambusa vulgaris, and Simarouba glauca. PMID:22530133

  4. Activity of Cuban Plants Extracts against Leishmania amazonensis.

    PubMed

    García, Marley; Monzote, Lianet; Scull, Ramón; Herrera, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Natural products have long been providing important drug leads for infectious diseases. Leishmaniasis is a major health problem worldwide that affects millions of people especially in the developing nations. There is no immunoprophylaxis (vaccination) available for Leishmania infections, and conventional treatments are unsatisfactory; therefore, antileishmanial drugs are urgently needed. In this work, 48 alcoholic extracts from 46 Cuban plants were evaluated by an in vitro bioassay against Leishmania amazonensis. Furthermore, their toxicity was assayed against murine macrophage. The three most potent extracts against the amastigote stage of Leishmania amazonensis were from Hura crepitans, Bambusa vulgaris, and Simarouba glauca. PMID:22530133

  5. Verbascoside Inhibits Promastigote Growth and Arginase Activity of Leishmania amazonensis.

    PubMed

    Maquiaveli, Claudia C; Lucon-Júnior, João F; Brogi, Simone; Campiani, Giuseppe; Gemma, Sandra; Vieira, Paulo C; Silva, Edson R

    2016-05-27

    Verbascoside (1) is a phenylethanoid glycoside that has antileishmanial activity against Leishmania infantum and Leishmania donovani. In this study, we verified the activity of 1 on Leishmania amazonensis and arginase inhibition. Compound 1 showed an EC50 of 19 μM against L. amazonensis promastigotes and is a competitive arginase inhibitor (Ki = 0.7 μM). Docking studies were performed to assess the interaction of 1 with arginase at the molecular level. Arginase is an enzyme of the polyamine biosynthesis pathway that is important to parasite infectivity, and the results of our study suggest that 1 could be useful to develop new approaches for treating leishmaniasis. PMID:27096224

  6. The Leishmania ARL-1 and Golgi Traffic

    PubMed Central

    Tetaud, Emmanuel; Cuvillier, Armelle; Lartigue, Lydia; Ambit, Audrey; Robinson, Derrick R.; Merlin, Gilles

    2008-01-01

    We present here the characterisation of the Leishmania small G protein ADP-Ribosylation Factor-Like protein 1 (ARL-1). The ARL-1 gene is present in one copy per haploid genome and conserved among trypanosomatids. It encodes a protein of 20 kDa, which is equally expressed in the insect promastigote and mammalian amastigote forms of the parasite. ARL-1 localises to the Trans-Golgi Network (TGN); N-terminal myristoylation is essential for TGN localisation. In vivo expression of the LdARL-1/Q74L and LdARL-1/T51N mutants (GTP- and GDP-bound blocked forms respectively) shows that GDP/GTP cycling occurs entirely within the TGN. This is contrary to previous reports in yeast and mammals, where the mutant empty form devoid of nucleotide has been considered as the GDP-blocked form. The dominant-negative empty form mutant LdARL-1/T34N inhibits endocytosis and intracellular trafficking from the TGN to the Lysosome/Multivesicular Tubule and to the acidocalcisomes; these defects are probably related to a mislocalisation of the GRIP domain-containing vesicle tethering factors which cannot be recruited to the TGN by the cytoplasmic LdARL-1/T34N. Thus, besides the functional characterization of a new mutant and a better understanding of ARL-1 GDP/GTP cycling, this work shows that Leishmania ARL-1 is a key component of an essential pathway worth future study. PMID:18286177

  7. The leishmania ARL-1 and Golgi traffic.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Annelise; Espiau, Benoît; Tetaud, Emmanuel; Cuvillier, Armelle; Lartigue, Lydia; Ambit, Audrey; Robinson, Derrick R; Merlin, Gilles

    2008-01-01

    We present here the characterisation of the Leishmania small G protein ADP-Ribosylation Factor-Like protein 1 (ARL-1). The ARL-1 gene is present in one copy per haploid genome and conserved among trypanosomatids. It encodes a protein of 20 kDa, which is equally expressed in the insect promastigote and mammalian amastigote forms of the parasite. ARL-1 localises to the Trans-Golgi Network (TGN); N-terminal myristoylation is essential for TGN localisation. In vivo expression of the LdARL-1/Q74L and LdARL-1/T51N mutants (GTP- and GDP-bound blocked forms respectively) shows that GDP/GTP cycling occurs entirely within the TGN. This is contrary to previous reports in yeast and mammals, where the mutant empty form devoid of nucleotide has been considered as the GDP-blocked form. The dominant-negative empty form mutant LdARL-1/T34N inhibits endocytosis and intracellular trafficking from the TGN to the Lysosome/Multivesicular Tubule and to the acidocalcisomes; these defects are probably related to a mislocalisation of the GRIP domain-containing vesicle tethering factors which cannot be recruited to the TGN by the cytoplasmic LdARL-1/T34N. Thus, besides the functional characterization of a new mutant and a better understanding of ARL-1 GDP/GTP cycling, this work shows that Leishmania ARL-1 is a key component of an essential pathway worth future study. PMID:18286177

  8. Proteome profiling of Leishmania infantum promastigotes.

    PubMed

    Alcolea, Pedro J; Alonso, Ana; Larraga, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    A proteome analysis of the promastigote stage of the trypanosomatid parasite Leishmania infantum (MON-1 zymodeme) is described here for the first time. Total protein extracts were prepared at early logarithmic and stationary phases of replicate axenic cultures and processed by 2D electrophoresis (pH 3-10). A total of 28 differentially regulated proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem time of flight mass spectrometry. This approach has revealed that the electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) and the eukaryotic elongation factor 1α (eEF1α) subunit have the same differential expression pattern at the protein and mRNA levels, up-regulation in the stationary phase. A low-molecular-weight isoform and an alternatively processed form of the eEF1α subunit have been detected. A 51 kDa subunit of replication factor A is up-regulated in dividing logarithmic promastigotes. None of the proteins described here shows opposite differential regulation values with the corresponding mRNA levels. Taken together with previous approaches to the proteome and the transcriptome, this report contributes to the elucidation of the differential regulation patterns of the ETF, the eEF1α subunit, the 40S ribosomal protein S12, α-tubulin and the T-complex protein 1 subunit γ throughout the life cycle of the parasites from the genus Leishmania. PMID:21569158

  9. Anti-Leishmania Activity of Osthole

    PubMed Central

    Kermani, Elaheh Kordzadeh; Sajjadi, Seyed Ebrahim; Hejazi, Seyed Hossein; Arjmand, Reza; Saberi, Sedigheh; Eskandarian, Abbas Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is occasionally highly resistant to pentavalent antimonials, the gold standard in pharmacotherapy of CL. Since there is no effective vaccine, the discovery of natural antileishmanial products as complementary therapeutic agents could be used to improve the current regimens. Objective: In this study in vitro and in vivo antileishmanial activities of osthole, a natural coumarin known to possess antibacterial and parasiticidal activities are evaluated. Materials and Methods: Leishmania major infected J774.A1 macrophages were treated with increasing concentrations of osthole. CL lesions of BALB/c mice were treated topically with 0.2% osthole. Results: Osthole exhibited dose-dependent leishmanicidal activity against intracellular amastigotes with IC50 value of 14.95 μg/ml. Treatment of CL lesions in BALB/c mice with osthole significantly declined lesion progression compared to untreated mice (P < 0.05), however did not result in recovery. Conclusion: Osthole demonstrated remarkable leishmanicidal activity in vitro. Higher concentrations of osthole may demonstrate the therapeutic property in vivo. SUMMARY In vitro and in vivo antileishmanial activities of osthole, a pernylated coumarin extracted from Prangos asperula Boiss., are studied against Leishmania major. PMID:27114685

  10. Structure of tyrosine aminotransferase from Leishmania infantum

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, M. A.; Abramov, A.; Abendroth, J.; Alonso, A.; Zhang, S.; Alcolea, P. J.; Edwards, T.; Lorimer, D.; Myler, P. J.; Larraga, V.

    2014-01-01

    The trypanosomatid parasite Leishmania infantum is the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which is usually fatal unless treated. VL has an incidence of 0.5 million cases every year and is an important opportunistic co-infection in HIV/AIDS. Tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) has an important role in the metabolism of trypanosomatids, catalyzing the first step in the degradation pathway of aromatic amino acids, which are ultimately converted into their corresponding l-2-oxoacids. Unlike the enzyme in Trypanosoma cruzi and mammals, L. infantum TAT (LiTAT) is not able to transaminate ketoglutarate. Here, the structure of LiTAT at 2.35 Å resolution is reported, and it is confirmed that the presence of two Leishmania-specific residues (Gln55 and Asn58) explains, at least in part, this specific reactivity. The difference in substrate specificity between leishmanial and mammalian TAT and the importance of this enzyme in parasite metabolism suggest that it may be a useful target in the development of new drugs against leishmaniasis. PMID:24817714

  11. Functional complementation of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis AP endonuclease gene (lamap) in Escherichia coli mutant strains challenged with DNA damage agents

    PubMed Central

    Verissimo-Villela, Erika; Kitahara-Oliveira, Milene Yoko; dos Reis, Ana Beatriz de Bragança; Albano, Rodolpho Mattos; Da-Cruz, Alda Maria; Bello, Alexandre Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    During its life cycle Leishmania spp. face several stress conditions that can cause DNA damages. Base Excision Repair plays an important role in DNA maintenance and it is one of the most conserved mechanisms in all living organisms. DNA repair in trypanosomatids has been reported only for Old World Leishmania species. Here the AP endonuclease from Leishmania (L.) amazonensis was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli mutants defective on the DNA repair machinery, that were submitted to different stress conditions, showing ability to survive in comparison to the triple null mutant parental strain BW535. Phylogenetic and multiple sequence analyses also confirmed that LAMAP belongs to the AP endonuclease class of proteins. PMID:27223868

  12. Efficacy of Recombinant Canine Distemper Virus Expressing Leishmania Antigen against Leishmania Challenge in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Miura, Ryuichi; Kooriyama, Takanori; Yoneda, Misako; Takenaka, Akiko; Doki, Miho; Goto, Yasuyuki; Sanjoba, Chizu; Endo, Yasuyuki; Fujiyuki, Tomoko; Sugai, Akihiro; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Matsumoto, Yoshitsugu; Sato, Hiroki; Kai, Chieko

    2015-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccination confers long-term protection against CDV reinfection. To investigate the utility of CDV as a polyvalent vaccine vector for Leishmania, we generated recombinant CDVs, based on an avirulent Yanaka strain, that expressed Leishmania antigens: LACK, TSA, or LmSTI1 (rCDV-LACK, rCDV-TSA, and rCDV-LmSTI1, respectively). Dogs immunized with rCDV-LACK were protected against challenge with lethal doses of virulent CDV, in the same way as the parental Yanaka strain. To evaluate the protective effects of the recombinant CDVs against cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs, dogs were immunized with one recombinant CDV or a cocktail of three recombinant CDVs, before intradermal challenge (in the ears) with infective-stage promastigotes of Leishmania major. Unvaccinated dogs showed increased nodules with ulcer formation after 3 weeks, whereas dogs immunized with rCDV-LACK showed markedly smaller nodules without ulceration. Although the rCDV-TSA- and rCDV-LmSTI1-immunized dogs showed little protection against L. major, the cocktail of three recombinant CDVs more effectively suppressed the progression of nodule formation than immunization with rCDV-LACK alone. These results indicate that recombinant CDV is suitable for use as a polyvalent live attenuated vaccine for protection against both CDV and L. major infections in dogs. PMID:26162094

  13. Efficacy of Recombinant Canine Distemper Virus Expressing Leishmania Antigen against Leishmania Challenge in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Yoneda, Misako; Takenaka, Akiko; Doki, Miho; Goto, Yasuyuki; Sanjoba, Chizu; Endo, Yasuyuki; Fujiyuki, Tomoko; Sugai, Akihiro; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Matsumoto, Yoshitsugu; Sato, Hiroki; Kai, Chieko

    2015-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccination confers long-term protection against CDV reinfection. To investigate the utility of CDV as a polyvalent vaccine vector for Leishmania, we generated recombinant CDVs, based on an avirulent Yanaka strain, that expressed Leishmania antigens: LACK, TSA, or LmSTI1 (rCDV–LACK, rCDV–TSA, and rCDV–LmSTI1, respectively). Dogs immunized with rCDV-LACK were protected against challenge with lethal doses of virulent CDV, in the same way as the parental Yanaka strain. To evaluate the protective effects of the recombinant CDVs against cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs, dogs were immunized with one recombinant CDV or a cocktail of three recombinant CDVs, before intradermal challenge (in the ears) with infective-stage promastigotes of Leishmania major. Unvaccinated dogs showed increased nodules with ulcer formation after 3 weeks, whereas dogs immunized with rCDV–LACK showed markedly smaller nodules without ulceration. Although the rCDV–TSA- and rCDV–LmSTI1-immunized dogs showed little protection against L. major, the cocktail of three recombinant CDVs more effectively suppressed the progression of nodule formation than immunization with rCDV–LACK alone. These results indicate that recombinant CDV is suitable for use as a polyvalent live attenuated vaccine for protection against both CDV and L. major infections in dogs. PMID:26162094

  14. Validation of a Leishmania infantum ELISA rapid test for serological diagnosis of Leishmania chagasi in dogs.

    PubMed

    Marcondes, M; Biondo, A W; Gomes, A A D; Silva, A R S; Vieira, R F C; Camacho, A A; Quinn, John; Chandrashekar, R

    2011-01-10

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is caused by Leishmania donovani complex parasites including L. donovani, Leishmania infantum and Leishmania chagasi. As some studies suggest that L. chagasi and L. infantum may be very similar or even the same species, the aim of the present study was to evaluate a commercial rapid ELISA test, originally designed for L. infantum, in the diagnosis of CVL in dogs naturally infected by L. chagasi. A total of 400 serum canine samples, including 283 positive dogs for CVL from an endemic area, 86 clinically healthy dogs from a non-endemic area and 31 dogs seropositive for confounding infectious agents (Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Babesia canis and Ehrlichia canis) were used for test validation. An overall sensitivity of 94.7% (95% CI=91.41-97.01%) and specificity of 90.6% (95% CI=83.80-95.21%) was found, with a high degree of agreement (k=0.8445) to the indirect ELISA. When confounding infectious diseases were excluded, specificity increased to 100% (95% CI=95.8-100%), with a higher degree of agreement (k=0.8928). In conclusion, the commercial kit designed for L. infantum was a highly sensitive and specific device for detection of L. chagasi infection in dogs, which indicates high immunoreactivity similarities between L. infantum and L. chagasi. PMID:21030153

  15. A comparison of molecular markers to detect Lutzomyia longipalpis naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum

    PubMed Central

    Freitas-Lidani, Kárita Cláudia; de Messias-Reason, Iara J; Ishikawa, Edna Aoba Y

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to detect natural infection by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in Lutzomyia longipalpis captured in Barcarena, state of Pará, Brazil, through the use of three primer sets. With this approach, it is unnecessary to previously dissect the sandfly specimens. DNA of 280 Lu. longipalpis female specimens were extracted from the whole insects. PCR primers for kinetoplast minicircle DNA (kDNA), the mini-exon gene and the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA) gene of Leishmania were used, generating fragments of 400 bp, 780 bp and 603 bp, respectively. Infection by the parasite was found with the kDNA primer in 8.6% of the cases, with the mini-exon gene primer in 7.1% of the cases and with the SSU-rRNA gene primer in 5.3% of the cases. These data show the importance of polymerase chain reaction as a tool for investigating the molecular epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis by estimating the risk of disease transmission in endemic areas, with the kDNA primer representing the most reliable marker for the parasite. PMID:25004147

  16. The structure of Leishmania major amastigote lipophosphoglycan.

    PubMed

    Moody, S F; Handman, E; McConville, M J; Bacic, A

    1993-09-01

    Intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania major produce 6 x 10(4) copies/cell of a lipophosphoglycan (LPG) that is structurally distinct from the LPG produced by the extracellular promastigote form of L. major, Leishmania donovani, and Leishmania mexicana (reviewed by McConville, M. J. (1991) Cell Biol. Int. Rep. 15, 779-798). L. major amastigote LPG is composed of a lysoalkyl phosphatidylinositol lipid anchor that links via a diphosphorylated hexasaccharide core to a phosphoglycan (6-100 kDa). The structures of the anchor, the core, and the phosphoglycan were determined by monosaccharide and linkage analysis, fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry, one-dimensional 1H NMR spectroscopy, and exoglycosidase microsequencing. The lipid anchor contains predominantly 1-O-alkylglycerols with 24:0 and 22:0 alkyl chains. The lipids are linked via a glycerol-myo-inositol-PO4 to a core glycan with the structure -PO4-6)Gal(alpha 1-)Gal(alpha 1-) Galf(beta 1-)[Glc(alpha 1-PO4-)]Man(alpha 1-)Man(alpha 1-)GlcN(alpha 1-). The chromatographic characteristics of the core glycan suggest that the saccharide components are linked similarly in amastigote and promastigote LPG. The phosphoglycan attached to the core consists of -PO4-6)Gal(beta 1-4)Man(alpha 1- repeats units which are either unsubstituted (70%) or substituted (30%) at the 3-position of the Gal residues with oligosaccharide side chains containing primarily Gal and some Glc. Thirteen different types of side chains were identified with the structures [Gal(beta 1-3)]x, where x = 1-11, or Glc(1-3)Glc(1-3), or Glc(1-3)Gal(beta 1-3), where glucose is probably in the beta-configuration. All monosaccharides in the phosphoglycan domain are in the pyranose configuration. The average number of repeat units per molecule is 36. The nonreducing terminus of the phosphoglycan chains probably terminates predominantly in the neutral disaccharide Gal(beta 1-4)Man(alpha 1-. Comparison of the structure of L. major amastigote LPG to L. major

  17. Performance of commercially available serological diagnostic tests to detect Leishmania infantum infection on experimentally infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Cortés, Alhelí; Ojeda, Ana; Todolí, Felicitat; Alberola, Jordi

    2013-01-31

    Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi) is the etiological agent of a widespread serious zoonotic disease that affects both humans and dogs. Prevalence and incidence of the canine infection are important parameters to determine the risk and the ways to control this reemergent zoonosis. Unfortunately, there is not a gold standard test for Leishmania infection. Our aim was to assess the operative validity of commercial tests used to detect antibodies to Leishmania in serum samples from experimental infections. Three ELISA tests (LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test, INGEZIM(®) LEISHMANIA, and INGEZIM(®) LEISHMANIA VET), three immunochromatographic tests (INGEZIM(®) LEISHMACROM, SNAP(®) Leishmania, and WITNESS(®) Leishmania), and one IFAT were evaluated. LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA test achieved the highest sensitivity and accuracy (both 0.98). Specificity was 1 for all tests except for IFAT. All tests but IFAT obtained a positive predictive value of 1, while the maximum negative predictive value was achieved by LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test (0.93). The best positive likelihood ratio was obtained by INGEZIM(®) LEISHMANIA VET (30.26), while the best negative likelihood ratio was obtained by LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test (0.02). The highest diagnostic odds ratio was achieved by LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test (729.00). The largest area under the ROC curve was obtained by LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test (0.981). Quantitative ELISA based tests performmed better than qualitative tests ("Rapid Tests"), and the test best suited to detect Leishmania in infected dogs and to provide clinically useful information was LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test. This and other results point also to the need of revising the status of IFAT as a gold standard for the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. PMID:23021261

  18. Leishmania Metacyclogenesis Is Promoted in the Absence of Purines

    PubMed Central

    Serafim, Tiago Donatelli; Figueiredo, Amanda Braga; Costa, Pedro Augusto Carvalho; Marques-da-Silva, Eduardo Almeida; Gonçalves, Ricardo; de Moura, Sandra Aparecida Lima; Gontijo, Nelder Figueiredo; da Silva, Sydnei Magno; Michalick, Marilene Suzan Marques; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto; de Carvalho, Roberto Paes; Uliana, Silvia Reni Bortolin; Fietto, Juliana Lopes Rangel; Afonso, Luís Carlos Crocco

    2012-01-01

    Leishmania parasites, the causative agent of leishmaniasis, are transmitted through the bite of an infected sand fly. Leishmania parasites present two basic forms known as promastigote and amastigote which, respectively, parasitizes the vector and the mammalian hosts. Infection of the vertebrate host is dependent on the development, in the vector, of metacyclic promastigotes, however, little is known about the factors that trigger metacyclogenesis in Leishmania parasites. It has been generally stated that “stressful conditions” will lead to development of metacyclic forms, and with the exception of a few studies no detailed analysis of the molecular nature of the stress factor has been performed. Here we show that presence/absence of nucleosides, especially adenosine, controls metacyclogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. We found that addition of an adenosine-receptor antagonist to in vitro cultures of Leishmania amazonensis significantly increases metacyclogenesis, an effect that can be reversed by the presence of specific purine nucleosides or nucleobases. Furthermore, our results show that proliferation and metacyclogenesis are independently regulated and that addition of adenosine to culture medium is sufficient to recover proliferative characteristics for purified metacyclic promastigotes. More importantly, we show that metacyclogenesis was inhibited in sand flies infected with Leishmania infantum chagasi that were fed a mixture of sucrose and adenosine. Our results fill a gap in the life cycle of Leishmania parasites by demonstrating how metacyclogenesis, a key point in the propagation of the parasite to the mammalian host, can be controlled by the presence of specific purines. PMID:23050028

  19. Leishmaniosis (Leishmania infantum infection) in dogs.

    PubMed

    Gharbi, M; Mhadhbi, M; Rejeb, A; Jaouadi, K; Rouatbi, M; Darghouth, M A

    2015-08-01

    The authors present an overview of canine leishmaniosis due to Leishmania infantum. This protozoan is transmitted by sandflies and the disease is frequently characterised by chronic evolution. Cutaneous and visceral clinical signs appear as the infection progresses. Lymph node enlargement, emaciation and skin lesions are the main signs observed in the classical forms of the disease. Control is difficult since infected dogs remain carriers for years and may relapse at any time. The mass screening of infected animals and their treatment or euthanasia represent the best way to reduce the prevalence of this disease in endemic regions. Further research is needed to improve the efficiency of the vaccines available to protect dogs against infection. This disease is zoonotic; in humans, clinical cases are reported mainly in elderly people, the young and those whose immune systems have been compromised. PMID:26601461

  20. Identification of geographically distributed sub-populations of Leishmania (Leishmania) major by microsatellite analysis

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Leishmania (Leishmania) major, one of the agents causing cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in humans, is widely distributed in the Old World where different species of wild rodent and phlebotomine sand fly serve as animal reservoir hosts and vectors, respectively. Despite this, strains of L. (L.) major isolated from many different sources over many years have proved to be relatively uniform. To investigate the population structure of the species highly polymorphic microsatellite markers were employed for greater discrimination among it's otherwise closely related strains, an approach applied successfully to other species of Leishmania. Results Multilocus Microsatellite Typing (MLMT) based on 10 different microsatellite markers was applied to 106 strains of L. (L.) major from different regions where it is endemic. On applying a Bayesian model-based approach, three main populations were identified, corresponding to three separate geographical regions: Central Asia (CA); the Middle East (ME); and Africa (AF). This was congruent with phylogenetic reconstructions based on genetic distances. Re-analysis separated each of the populations into two sub-populations. The two African sub-populations did not correlate well with strains' geographical origin. Strains falling into the sub-populations CA and ME did mostly group according to their place of isolation although some anomalies were seen, probably, owing to human migration. Conclusion The model- and distance-based analyses of the microsatellite data exposed three main populations of L. (L.) major, Central Asia, the Middle East and Africa, each of which separated into two sub-populations. This probably correlates with the different species of rodent host. PMID:18577226

  1. COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF HERPETOMONADS AND LEISHMANIAS

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Hideyo; Tilden, Evelyn B.

    1926-01-01

    obtained in culture, all the strains grow well on leptospira medium, as well as on blood slants. Growth takes place both at 26°C. and at 37°. The morphology of the organisms is considerably modified by cultivation. This is especially true of the plant flagellates. In the latex they have ribbon-like bodies, often twisted, and comparatively short flagella; the protoplasm is clear, almost hyaline. The flagellates seen in the gut and feces of insects are usually large, slender organisms, with flagella as long as or even longer than the body, which contains numerous volutin granules in the cytoplasm. In cultures under parallel conditions the flagellates from both these sources become shorter and thicker, the plant forms no longer appear flat and ribbon-like, and in general the organisms approach one another in morphological features. Even in the case of the least modified insect flagellates, i.e. those from flies, there is never exact correspondence between the natural and the cultivated forms. The morphological features of the cultivated flagellates vary according to the medium on which the organisms are grown and the age of the culture. The flagellates grown on the surface of blood slants are pyriform, with truncated anterior portion, and short flagellum; in the condensation water, however, the individuals are elongated and have long active flagella. On the leptospira medium the slender active forms with long flagella predominate. In the presence of fermentable carbohydrate, or in medium containing considerable acid, peculiar bifurcated or multifurcated individuals are seen. Similar forms have been seen under natural conditions. Cultures of Leishmania behave in the same way under the conditions described. There is a striking difference in rapidity of growth between the organisms isolated by us and the leishmanias, H. ctenocephali, and T. rotatorium. While the stock cultures of the group first mentioned multiply rapidly at 37°C., growth becoming visible within 24 hours, the

  2. Cytokine expression in dogs with natural Leishmania infantum infection.

    PubMed

    Panaro, M A; Brandonisio, O; Cianciulli, A; Cavallo, P; Lacasella, V; Paradies, P; Testini, G; De Caprariis, D; Mitolo, V; Otranto, D

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate cytokine expression in 22 Leishmania infantum naturally infected dogs, in order to correlate this parameter with the clinical status of infected animals. After 4 and 8 months from the first diagnosis of Leishmania infection, clinical and laboratory examination of dogs was performed and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated. The cytokine profile was analysed in terms of IFN-gamma, IL-4, IL-10 and TNF-alpha mRNA expression in cultured PBMC by a semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR. Thirteen out of 22 Leishmania-infected dogs remained asymptomatic in the follow-up, while 9 showed clinical signs of leishmaniasis. IL-4, IL-10, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma mRNA levels were not significantly different in asymptomatic compared to symptomatic animals 4 months from the diagnosis of Leishmania infection, but were significantly higher in symptomatic versus asymptomatic dogs after 8 months from diagnosis. In addition, IL-4, IL-10 and TNF-alpha mRNA levels significantly increased only in symptomatic dogs at 8 months, in comparison to the levels found at 4 months. These results show a mixed Th1 and Th2 cytokine response in Leishmania-infected dogs, with higher cytokine expression in dogs with manifest clinical disease, during the second follow-up after 8 months from the first diagnosis of infection. PMID:19490725

  3. Usefulness of PCR method for detection of Leishmania in Poland.

    PubMed

    Myjak, Przemysław; Szulta, Joanna; de Almeida, Marcos E; da Silva, Alexandre J; Steurer, Francis; Lass, Anna; Pietkiewicz, Halina; Nahorski, Wacław L; Goljan, Jolanta; Knap, Józef; Szostakowska, Beata

    2009-01-01

    Leishmania parasites are the etiological agents of leishmaniosis, with severe course and often fatal prognosis, and the global number of cases has increased in recent decades. The gold standards for the diagnosis of leishmaniosis are microscopic examinations and culture in vitro of the different clinical specimens. The sensitivity of these methods is insufficient. Recent development in specific and sensitive molecular methods (PCR) allows for detection as well as identification of the parasite species (subspecies). The aim of the study was to estimate the usefulness of molecular methods (PCR) for detection of Leishmania species and consequently for the implementation of such methods in routine diagnostics of leishmaniosis in Polish patients returning from endemic areas of the disease. In our investigations we used 54 known Leishmania positive DNA templates (from culture and clinical specimens) received from the CDC (Atlanta, GA, USA). Moreover, 25 samples of bone marrow, blood or other tissues obtained from 18 Polish individuals suspected of leishmaniosis were also examined. In PCR we used two pairs of primers specific to the conserved region of Leishmania kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) minicircle (13A/13B and F/R). Using these primers we obtained amplicons in all DNA templates from the CDC and in three Polish patients suspected for Leishmania infection. In one sample from among these cases we also obtained positive results with DNA isolated from a blood specimen which was previously negative in microscopic examinations. PMID:19899614

  4. Structure of the lipophosphoglycan from Leishmania major.

    PubMed

    McConville, M J; Thomas-Oates, J E; Ferguson, M A; Homans, S W

    1990-11-15

    The major cell surface glycoconjugate of the parasitic protozoan Leishmania major is a heterogeneous lipophosphoglycan. It has a tripartite structure, consisting of a phosphoglycan (Mr 5,000-40,000), a variably phosphorylated hexasaccharide glycan core, and a lysoalkylphosphatidylinositol (lysoalkyl-PI) lipid anchor. The structures of the phosphoglycan and the hexasaccharide core were determined by monosaccharide analysis, methylation analysis, fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry, one- and two-dimensional 500-MHz (correlated spectroscopy (COSY), homonuclear Hartmann-Hahn spectroscopy (HOHAHA] 1H NMR spectroscopy, and exoglycosidase digestions. The phosphoglycan consists of eight types of phosphorylated oligosaccharide repeats which have the general structure, [formula: see text] where R = H, Galp(beta 1-3), Galp(beta 1-3)Galp(beta 1-3), Arap(alpha 1-2)Galp(beta 1-3), Glcp(beta 1-3)Galp(beta 1-3), Galp(beta 1-3)Galp(beta 1-3)Galp(beta 1-3), Arap(alpha 1-2)Galp(beta 1-3)Galp(beta 1-3), or Arap(alpha 1-2)Galp(beta 1-3)Galp(beta 1-3)Galp(beta 1-3)Galp(beta 1-3), and where all the monosaccharides, including arabinose, are in the D-configuration. The average number of repeat units/molecule (n) is 27. Data are presented which suggest that the nonreducing terminus of the phosphoglycan is capped exclusively with the neutral disaccharide Manp(alpha 1-2)Manp alpha 1-. The structure of the glycan core was determined to be, [formula: see text] where approximately 60% of the mannose residues distal to the glucosamine are phosphorylated and where the inositol is part of the lysoalkyl-PI lipid moiety containing predominantly 24:0 and 26:0 alkyl chains. The unusual galactofuranose residue is in the beta-configuration, correcting a previous report where this residue was identified as alpha Galf. Although most of the phosphorylated repeat units are attached to the terminal galactose 6-phosphate of the core to form a linear lipophosphoglycan (LPG) molecule, some of the mannose 6

  5. Is lipophosphoglycan a virulence factor? A surprising diversity between Leishmania species.

    PubMed

    Turco, S J; Späth, G F; Beverley, S M

    2001-05-01

    Lipophosphoglycan is a prominent member of the phosphoglycan-containing surface glycoconjugates of Leishmania. Genetic tests enable confirmation of its role in parasite virulence and permit discrimination between the roles of lipophosphoglycan and related glycoconjugates. When two different lipophosphoglycan biosynthetic genes from Leishmania major were knocked out, there was a clear loss of virulence in several steps of the infectious cycle but, with Leishmania mexicana, no effect on virulence was found. This points to an unexpected diversity in the reliance of Leishmania species on virulence factors, a finding underscored by recent studies showing great diversity in the host response to Leishmania species. PMID:11323305

  6. In Vitro and In Vivo Antileishmanial Effects of Pistacia khinjuk against Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major.

    PubMed

    Ezatpour, Behrouz; Saedi Dezaki, Ebrahim; Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Azadpour, Mojgan; Ezzatkhah, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antileishmanial activities of Pistacia khinjuk Stocks (Anacardiaceae) alcoholic extract and to compare its efficacy with a reference drug, meglumine antimoniate (MA, Glucantime), against Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major. This extract (0-100 µg/mL) was evaluated in vitro against promastigote and intracellular amastigote forms of L. tropica (MRHO/IR/75/ER) and then tested on cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in male BALB/c mice with L. major to reproduce the antileishmanial activity topically. In vitro, P. khinjuk extract significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited the growth rate of promastigote (IC50 58.6 ± 3.2 µg/mL) and intramacrophage amastigotes (37.3 ± 2.5 µg/mL) of L. tropica as a dose-dependent response. In the in vivo assay, after 30 days of treatment, 75% recovery was observed in the infected mice treated with 30% extract. After treatment of the subgroups with the concentration of 20 and 30% of P. khinjuk extract, mean diameter of lesions was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced. To conclude, the present investigation demonstrated that P. vera extract had in vitro and in vivo effectiveness against L. major. Obtained findings also provide the scientific evidences that natural plants could be used in the traditional medicine for the prevention and treatment of CL. PMID:25815025

  7. In Vitro and In Vivo Antileishmanial Effects of Pistacia khinjuk against Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major

    PubMed Central

    Saedi Dezaki, Ebrahim; Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Azadpour, Mojgan; Ezzatkhah, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antileishmanial activities of Pistacia khinjuk Stocks (Anacardiaceae) alcoholic extract and to compare its efficacy with a reference drug, meglumine antimoniate (MA, Glucantime), against Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major. This extract (0–100 µg/mL) was evaluated in vitro against promastigote and intracellular amastigote forms of L. tropica (MRHO/IR/75/ER) and then tested on cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in male BALB/c mice with L. major to reproduce the antileishmanial activity topically. In vitro, P. khinjuk extract significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited the growth rate of promastigote (IC50 58.6 ± 3.2 µg/mL) and intramacrophage amastigotes (37.3 ± 2.5 µg/mL) of L. tropica as a dose-dependent response. In the in vivo assay, after 30 days of treatment, 75% recovery was observed in the infected mice treated with 30% extract. After treatment of the subgroups with the concentration of 20 and 30% of P. khinjuk extract, mean diameter of lesions was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced. To conclude, the present investigation demonstrated that P. vera extract had in vitro and in vivo effectiveness against L. major. Obtained findings also provide the scientific evidences that natural plants could be used in the traditional medicine for the prevention and treatment of CL. PMID:25815025

  8. The histopathology of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana in the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Narvaez, Fernando J; Medina-Peralta, Salvador; Vargas-Gonzalez, Alberto; Canto-Lara, Silvia B; Estrada-Parra, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Localized Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (LCL) known as "chiclero's ulcer" in southeast Mexico, was described by SEIDELIN in 1912. Since then the sylvatic region of the Yucatan peninsula has been documented as an endemic focus of LCL. This study of 73 biopsies from parasitological confirmed lesions of LCL cases of Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana infection was undertaken: 1) to examine host response at tissue level; and 2) to relate manifestations of this response to some characteristics of clinical presentation. Based on Magalhães' classification we found that the most common pattern in our LCL cases caused by L. (L.) mexicana was predominantly characterized by the presence of unorganized granuloma without necrosis, (43.8%). Another important finding to be highlighted is the fact that in 50/73 (68.5%) parasite identification was positive. There was direct relation between the size of the lesion and time of evolution (rs = 0.3079, p = 0.03), and inverse correlation between size of the lesion and abundance of amastigotes (rs = -0.2467, p = 0.03). In view of the complexity of clinical and histopathological findings, cell-mediated immune response of the disease related to clinical and histopathological features, as so genetic background should be studied. PMID:16138198

  9. Cytokine mRNA expression in Peromyscus yucatanicus (Rodentia: Cricetidae) infected by Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana.

    PubMed

    Loria-Cervera, Elsy Nalleli; Sosa-Bibiano, Erika Ivett; Van Wynsberghe, Nicole Raymonde; Saldarriaga, Omar Abdul; Melby, Peter C; Andrade-Narvaez, Fernando Jose

    2016-07-01

    Peromyscus yucatanicus, the main reservoir of Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana in the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico, reproduces clinical and histological pictures of LCL in human as well as subclinical infection. Thus, we used this rodent as a novel experimental model. In this work, we analyzed cytokine mRNA expression in P. yucatanicus infected with L. (L.) mexicana. Animals were inoculated with either 2.5×10(6) or 1×10(2) promastigotes and cytokine expressions were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR in skin at 4 and 12weeks post-infection (wpi). Independently of the parasite inoculum none of the infected rodents had clinical signs of LCL at 4wpi and all expressed high IFN-γ mRNA. All P. yucatanicus inoculated with 2.5×10(6) promastigotes developed signs of LCL at 12wpi while the mice inoculated with 1×10(2) remained subclinical. At that time, both IFN-γ and IL-10 were expressed in P. yucatanicus with clinical and subclinical infections. Expressions of TNF-α and IL-4 were significantly higher in clinical animals (2.5×10(6)) compared with subclinical ones (1×10(2)). High TGF-β expression was observed in P. yucatanicus with clinical signs when compared with healthy animals. Results suggested that the clinical course of L. (L.) mexicana infection in P. yucatanicus was associated with a specific local pattern of cytokine production at 12wpi. PMID:27155064

  10. Rattus norvegicus (Rodentia: Muridae) Infected by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum (syn. Le. chagasi) in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lara-Silva, Fabiana de Oliveira; Michalsky, Érika Monteiro; Ferreira, Eduardo de Castro; Lopes, Maria Olímpia Garcia; Pinheiro, Aimara da Costa; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we surveyed the fauna of phlebotomine sand flies and small mammals in peridomestic areas from a Brazilian municipality where the American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is endemic. A total of 608 female phlebotomine sand flies were captured during nine months in 2009 and 2010. Seven different species were represented with 60% of them being Lutzomyia intermedia and Lu. whitmani, both incriminated vectors of ACL. Lu. longipalpis, a proven vector of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was also captured at high proportion (12.8%). Genomic DNA analysis of 136 species-specific pools of female sand flies followed by molecular genotyping showed the presence of Leishmania infantum DNA in two pools of Lu. longipalpis. The same Leishmania species was found in one blood sample from Rattus norvegicus among 119 blood and tissue samples analysed. This is the first report of Le. infantum in R. norvegicus in the Americas and suggests a possible role for this rodent species in the zoonotic cycle of VL. Our study coincided with the reemergence of VL in Governador Valadares. PMID:24707492

  11. Guns, germs and dogs: On the origin of Leishmania chagasi.

    PubMed

    Leblois, Raphaël; Kuhls, Katrin; François, Olivier; Schönian, Gabriele; Wirth, Thierry

    2011-07-01

    The evolutionary history of Leishmania chagasi, the aetiological agent of visceral leishmaniasis in South America has been widely debated. This study addresses the problem of the origin of L. chagasi, its timing and demography with fast evolving genetic markers, a suite of Bayesian clustering algorithms and coalescent modelling. Here, using 14 microsatellite markers, 450 strains from the Leishmania donovani complex, we show that the vast majority of the Central and South American L. chagasi were nested within the Portuguese Leishmania infantum clade. Moreover, L. chagasi allelic richness was half that of their Old World counterparts. The bottleneck signature was estimated to be about 500 years old and the settlement of L. chagasi in the New World, probably via infected dogs, was accompanied by a thousand-fold population decrease. Visceral leishmaniasis, lethal if untreated, is therefore one more disease that the Conquistadores brought to the New World. PMID:21511057

  12. Leishmania carbon metabolism in the macrophage phagolysosome- feast or famine?

    PubMed Central

    McConville, Malcolm J.; Saunders, Eleanor C.; Kloehn, Joachim; Dagley, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    A number of medically important microbial pathogens target and proliferate within macrophages and other phagocytic cells in their mammalian hosts. While the majority of these pathogens replicate within the host cell cytosol or non-hydrolytic vacuolar compartments, a few, including protists belonging to the genus Leishmania, proliferate long-term within mature lysosome compartments.  How these parasites achieve this feat remains poorly defined. In this review, we highlight recent studies that suggest that Leishmania virulence is intimately linked to programmed changes in the growth rate and carbon metabolism of the obligate intra-macrophage stages. We propose that activation of a slow growth and a stringent metabolic response confers resistance to multiple stresses (oxidative, temperature, pH), as well as both nutrient limitation and nutrient excess within this niche. These studies highlight the importance of metabolic processes as key virulence determinants in Leishmania. PMID:26594352

  13. Chronic infection by Leishmania amazonensis mediated through MAPK ERK mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Pedro A.; Petersen, Christine A.

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania amazonensis is an intracellular protozoan parasite responsible for chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). CL is a neglected tropical disease responsible for infecting millions of people worldwide. L. amazonensis promotes alteration of various signaling pathways that are essential for host cell survival. Specifically, through parasite-mediated phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK), L. amazonensis inhibits cell-mediated parasite killing and promotes its own survival by co-opting multiple host cell functions. In this review we highlight Leishmania-host cell signaling alterations focusing on those specific to 1) motor proteins, 2) prevention of NADPH subunit phosphorylation impairing reactive oxygen species production (ROS), and 3) localized endosomal signaling to up-regulate ERK phosphorylation. This review will focus upon mechanisms and possible explanations as to how Leishmania spp. evades the various layers of defense employed by the host immune response. PMID:24838145

  14. Toll-Like Receptors in Leishmania Infections: Guardians or Promoters?

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Marilia S.; Reis, Flavia C. G.; Lima, Ana Paula C. A.

    2012-01-01

    Protozoa of the genus Leishmania cause a wide variety of pathologies ranging from self-healing skin lesions to visceral damage, depending on the parasite species. The outcome of infection depends on the quality of the adaptive immune response, which is determined by parasite factors and the host genetic background. Innate responses, resulting in the generation of mediators with anti-leishmanial activity, contribute to parasite control and help the development of efficient adaptive responses. Among those, the potential contribution of members of the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) family in the control of Leishmania infections started to be investigated about a decade ago. Although most studies appoint a protective role for TLRs, there is growing evidence that in some cases, TLRs facilitate infection. This review highlights recent advances in TLR function during Leishmania infections and discusses their potential role in restraining parasite growth versus yielding disease. PMID:22523644

  15. Leishmania (L.) mexicana Infected Bats in Mexico: Novel Potential Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Berzunza-Cruz, Miriam; Rodríguez-Moreno, Ángel; Gutiérrez-Granados, Gabriel; González-Salazar, Constantino; Stephens, Christopher R.; Hidalgo-Mihart, Mircea; Marina, Carlos F.; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A.; Bailón-Martínez, Dulce; Balcells, Cristina Domingo; Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N.; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; Becker, Ingeborg

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana causes cutaneous leishmaniasis, an endemic zoonosis affecting a growing number of patients in the southeastern states of Mexico. Some foci are found in shade-grown cocoa and coffee plantations, or near perennial forests that provide rich breeding grounds for the sand fly vectors, but also harbor a variety of bat species that live off the abundant fruits provided by these shade-giving trees. The close proximity between sand flies and bats makes their interaction feasible, yet bats infected with Leishmania (L.) mexicana have not been reported. Here we analyzed 420 bats from six states of Mexico that had reported patients with leishmaniasis. Tissues of bats, including skin, heart, liver and/or spleen were screened by PCR for Leishmania (L.) mexicana DNA. We found that 41 bats (9.77%), belonging to 13 species, showed positive PCR results in various tissues. The infected tissues showed no evidence of macroscopic lesions. Of the infected bats, 12 species were frugivorous, insectivorous or nectarivorous, and only one species was sanguivorous (Desmodus rotundus), and most of them belonged to the family Phyllostomidae. The eco-region where most of the infected bats were caught is the Gulf Coastal Plain of Chiapas and Tabasco. Through experimental infections of two Tadarida brasiliensis bats in captivity, we show that this species can harbor viable, infective Leishmania (L.) mexicana parasites that are capable of infecting BALB/c mice. We conclude that various species of bats belonging to the family Phyllostomidae are possible reservoir hosts for Leishmania (L.) mexicana, if it can be shown that such bats are infective for the sand fly vector. Further studies are needed to determine how these bats become infected, how long the parasite remains viable inside these potential hosts and whether they are infective to sand flies to fully evaluate their impact on disease epidemiology. PMID:25629729

  16. Leishmania (L.) mexicana infected bats in Mexico: novel potential reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Berzunza-Cruz, Miriam; Rodríguez-Moreno, Ángel; Gutiérrez-Granados, Gabriel; González-Salazar, Constantino; Stephens, Christopher R; Hidalgo-Mihart, Mircea; Marina, Carlos F; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A; Bailón-Martínez, Dulce; Balcells, Cristina Domingo; Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; Becker, Ingeborg

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana causes cutaneous leishmaniasis, an endemic zoonosis affecting a growing number of patients in the southeastern states of Mexico. Some foci are found in shade-grown cocoa and coffee plantations, or near perennial forests that provide rich breeding grounds for the sand fly vectors, but also harbor a variety of bat species that live off the abundant fruits provided by these shade-giving trees. The close proximity between sand flies and bats makes their interaction feasible, yet bats infected with Leishmania (L.) mexicana have not been reported. Here we analyzed 420 bats from six states of Mexico that had reported patients with leishmaniasis. Tissues of bats, including skin, heart, liver and/or spleen were screened by PCR for Leishmania (L.) mexicana DNA. We found that 41 bats (9.77%), belonging to 13 species, showed positive PCR results in various tissues. The infected tissues showed no evidence of macroscopic lesions. Of the infected bats, 12 species were frugivorous, insectivorous or nectarivorous, and only one species was sanguivorous (Desmodus rotundus), and most of them belonged to the family Phyllostomidae. The eco-region where most of the infected bats were caught is the Gulf Coastal Plain of Chiapas and Tabasco. Through experimental infections of two Tadarida brasiliensis bats in captivity, we show that this species can harbor viable, infective Leishmania (L.) mexicana parasites that are capable of infecting BALB/c mice. We conclude that various species of bats belonging to the family Phyllostomidae are possible reservoir hosts for Leishmania (L.) mexicana, if it can be shown that such bats are infective for the sand fly vector. Further studies are needed to determine how these bats become infected, how long the parasite remains viable inside these potential hosts and whether they are infective to sand flies to fully evaluate their impact on disease epidemiology. PMID:25629729

  17. Leishmania (Leishmania) martiniquensis n. sp. (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), description of the parasite responsible for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Martinique Island (French West Indies)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The parasite responsible for autochthonous cutaneous leishmaniasis in Martinique island (French West Indies) was first isolated in 1995; its taxonomical position was established only in 2002, but it remained unnamed. In the present paper, the authors name this parasite Leishmania (Leishmania) martiniquensis Desbois, Pratlong & Dedet n. sp. and describe the type strain of this taxon, including its biological characteristics, biochemical and molecular identification, and pathogenicity. This parasite, clearly distinct from all other Euleishmania, and placed at the base of the Leishmania phylogenetic tree, is included in the subgenus Leishmania. PMID:24626346

  18. Leishmania (Leishmania) martiniquensis n. sp. (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), description of the parasite responsible for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Martinique Island (French West Indies).

    PubMed

    Desbois, Nicole; Pratlong, Francine; Quist, Danièle; Dedet, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The parasite responsible for autochthonous cutaneous leishmaniasis in Martinique island (French West Indies) was first isolated in 1995; its taxonomical position was established only in 2002, but it remained unnamed. In the present paper, the authors name this parasite Leishmania (Leishmania) martiniquensis Desbois, Pratlong & Dedet n. sp. and describe the type strain of this taxon, including its biological characteristics, biochemical and molecular identification, and pathogenicity. This parasite, clearly distinct from all other Euleishmania, and placed at the base of the Leishmania phylogenetic tree, is included in the subgenus Leishmania. PMID:24626346

  19. The past, present, and future of Leishmania genomics and transcriptomics

    PubMed Central

    Cantacessi, Cinzia; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Nolan, Matthew J.; Otranto, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    It has been nearly 10 years since the completion of the first entire genome sequence of a Leishmania parasite. Genomic and transcriptomic analyses have advanced our understanding of the biology of Leishmania, and shed new light on the complex interactions occurring within the parasite–host–vector triangle. Here, we review these advances and examine potential avenues for translation of these discoveries into treatment and control programs. In addition, we argue for a strong need to explore how disease in dogs relates to that in humans, and how an improved understanding in line with the ‘One Health’ concept may open new avenues for the control of these devastating diseases. PMID:25638444

  20. The past, present, and future of Leishmania genomics and transcriptomics.

    PubMed

    Cantacessi, Cinzia; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Nolan, Matthew J; Otranto, Domenico

    2015-03-01

    It has been nearly 10 years since the completion of the first entire genome sequence of a Leishmania parasite. Genomic and transcriptomic analyses have advanced our understanding of the biology of Leishmania, and shed new light on the complex interactions occurring within the parasite-host-vector triangle. Here, we review these advances and examine potential avenues for translation of these discoveries into treatment and control programs. In addition, we argue for a strong need to explore how disease in dogs relates to that in humans, and how an improved understanding in line with the 'One Health' concept may open new avenues for the control of these devastating diseases. PMID:25638444

  1. Persistence without pathology in phosphoglycan-deficient Leishmania major.

    PubMed

    Späth, Gerald F; Lye, Lon-Fey; Segawa, Hiroaki; Sacks, David L; Turco, Salvatore J; Beverley, Stephen M

    2003-08-29

    Leishmania infections involve an acute phase of replication within macrophages, typically associated with pathology. After recovery parasites persist for long periods, which can lead to severe disease upon reactivation. Unlike the role of host factors, parasite factors affecting persistence are poorly understood. Leishmania major lacking phosphoglycans (lpg2-) were unable to survive in sand flies and macrophages, but retained the ability to persist indefinitely in the mammalian host without inducing disease. The L. major lpg2- thus provides a platform for probing parasite factors implicated in persistence and its role in disease and immunity. PMID:12947201

  2. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in a dog naturally infected by Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi from Rio de Janeiro – Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is an acquired disorder characterized by the activation of intravascular coagulation and excessive fibrin formation. It always occurs in association with other clinical conditions, including parasitic diseases. DIC has been described as a unusual complication in human and canine visceral leishmaniasis. Case presentation DIC was found in a seven-year-old male mongrel dog naturally infected by Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi. Haemostasis parameters demonstrated changes in primary and secondary haemostasis and fibrinolysis. Conclusion DIC is a unusual condition described in canine visceral leishmaniasis and it seems to be associated with several immunological and pathological mechanisms involved in the disease. PMID:23497531

  3. Natural products from Garcinia brasiliensis as Leishmania protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ivan O; Assis, Diego M; Juliano, Maria A; Cunha, Rodrigo L O R; Barbieri, Clara L; do Sacramento, Luis V S; Marques, Marcos J; dos Santos, Marcelo H

    2011-06-01

    The infections by protozoans of the genus Leishmania are a major worldwide health problem, with high endemicity in developing countries. The drugs of choice for the treatment of leishmaniasis are the pentavalent antimonials, which cause renal and cardiac toxicity. As part of a search for new drugs against leishmaniasis, we evaluated the in vitro Leishmania protease inhibition activity of extracts (hexanic, ethyl-acetate, and ethanolic) and fukugetin, a bioflavonoid purified from the ethyl-acetate extract of the pericarp of the fruit of Garcinia brasiliensis, a tree native to Brazilian forests. The isolated compound was characterized by using spectral analyses with nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectroscopy, ultraviolet, and infrared techniques. The ethyl-acetate extract and the compound fukugetin showed significant activity as inhibitors of Leishmania's proteases, with mean (±SD) IC(50) (50% inhibition concentration of protease activity) values of 15.0±1.3 μg/mL and 3.2±0.5 μM/mL, respectively, characterizing a bioguided assay. In addition, this isolated compound showed no activity against promastigote and amastigote forms of L. (L.) amazonensis and mammalian cells. These results suggest that fukugetin is a potent protease inhibitor of L. (L.) amazonensis and does not cause toxicity in mammalian or Leishmania cells in vitro. This study provides new perspectives on the development of novel drugs that have leishmanicidal activity obtained from natural products and that target the parasite's proteases. PMID:21554130

  4. Wild and synanthropic reservoirs of Leishmania species in the Americas

    PubMed Central

    Roque, André Luiz R.; Jansen, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    The definition of a reservoir has changed significantly in the last century, making it necessary to study zoonosis from a broader perspective. One important example is that of Leishmania, zoonotic multi-host parasites maintained by several mammal species in nature. The magnitude of the health problem represented by leishmaniasis combined with the complexity of its epidemiology make it necessary to clarify all of the links in transmission net, including non-human mammalian hosts, to develop effective control strategies. Although some studies have described dozens of species infected with these parasites, only a minority have related their findings to the ecological scenario to indicate a possible role of that host in parasite maintenance and transmission. Currently, it is accepted that a reservoir may be one or a complex of species responsible for maintaining the parasite in nature. A reservoir system should be considered unique on a given spatiotemporal scale. In fact, the transmission of Leishmania species in the wild still represents an complex enzootic “puzzle”, as several links have not been identified. This review presents the mammalian species known to be infected with Leishmania spp. in the Americas, highlighting those that are able to maintain and act as a source of the parasite in nature (and are thus considered potential reservoirs). These host/reservoirs are presented separately in each of seven mammal orders – Marsupialia, Cingulata, Pilosa, Rodentia, Primata, Carnivora, and Chiroptera – responsible for maintaining Leishmania species in the wild. PMID:25426421

  5. Attenuation of Leishmania infantum chagasi Metacyclic Promastigotes by Sterol Depletion

    PubMed Central

    Gaur Dixit, Upasna; Barker, Jason H.; Teesch, Lynn M.; Love-Homan, Laurie; Donelson, John E.; Wilson, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    The infectious metacyclic promastigotes of Leishmania protozoa establish infection in a mammalian host after they are deposited into the dermis by a sand fly vector. Several Leishmania virulence factors promote infection, including the glycosylphosphatidylinositol membrane-anchored major surface protease (MSP). Metacyclic Leishmania infantum chagasi promastigotes were treated with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MβCD), a sterol-chelating reagent, causing a 3-fold reduction in total cellular sterols as well as enhancing MSP release without affecting parasite viability in vitro. MβCD-treated promastigotes were more susceptible to complement-mediated lysis than untreated controls and reduced the parasite load 3-fold when inoculated into BALB/c mice. Paradoxically, MβCD-treated promastigotes caused a higher initial in vitro infection rate in human or murine macrophages than untreated controls, although their intracellular multiplication was hindered upon infection establishment. There was a corresponding larger amount of covalently bound C3b than iC3b on the parasite surfaces of MβCD-treated promastigotes exposed to healthy human serum in vitro, as well as loss of MSP, a protease that enhances C3b cleavage to iC3b. Mass spectrometry showed that MβCD promotes the release of proteins into the extracellular medium, including both MSP and MSP-like protein (MLP), from virulent metacyclic promastigotes. These data support the hypothesis that plasma membrane sterols are important for the virulence of Leishmania protozoa at least in part through retention of membrane virulence proteins. PMID:23630964

  6. Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi: rare enough to be neglected?

    PubMed

    Fagundes-Silva, Giselle Aparecida; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra; Cupolillo, Elisa; Yamashita, Ellen Priscila Gadelha; Gomes-Silva, Adriano; Guerra, Jorge Augusto de Oliveira; Da-Cruz, Alda Maria

    2015-09-01

    In the Brazilian Amazon, American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is endemic and presents a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations due, in part, to the circulation of at least seven Leishmania species. Few reports of Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi infection suggest that its occurrence is uncommon and the reported cases present a benign clinical course and a good response to treatment. This study aimed to strengthen the clinical and epidemiological importance of L. (V.) naiffi in the Amazon Region (Manaus, state of Amazonas) and to report therapeutic failure in patients infected with this species. Thirty Leishmania spp samples isolated from cutaneous lesions were characterised by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. As expected, the most common species was Leishmania (V.) guyanensis (20 cases). However, a relevant number of L. (V.) naiffi patients (8 cases) was observed, thus demonstrating that this species is not uncommon in the region. No patient infected with L. (V.) naiffi evolved to spontaneous cure until the start of treatment, which indicated that this species may not have a self-limiting nature. In addition, two of the patients experienced a poor response to antimonial or pentamidine therapy. Thus, either ATL cases due to L. (V.) naiffi cannot be as uncommon as previously thought or this species is currently expanding in this region. PMID:26517660

  7. Leishmania amazonensis Engages CD36 to Drive Parasitophorous Vacuole Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Okuda, Kendi; Tong, Mei; Dempsey, Brian; Moore, Kathryn J.; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T.; Silverman, Neal

    2016-01-01

    Leishmania amastigotes manipulate the activity of macrophages to favor their own success. However, very little is known about the role of innate recognition and signaling triggered by amastigotes in this host-parasite interaction. In this work we developed a new infection model in adult Drosophila to take advantage of its superior genetic resources to identify novel host factors limiting Leishmania amazonensis infection. The model is based on the capacity of macrophage-like cells, plasmatocytes, to phagocytose and control the proliferation of parasites injected into adult flies. Using this model, we screened a collection of RNAi-expressing flies for anti-Leishmania defense factors. Notably, we found three CD36-like scavenger receptors that were important for defending against Leishmania infection. Mechanistic studies in mouse macrophages showed that CD36 accumulates specifically at sites where the parasite contacts the parasitophorous vacuole membrane. Furthermore, CD36-deficient macrophages were defective in the formation of the large parasitophorous vacuole typical of L. amazonensis infection, a phenotype caused by inefficient fusion with late endosomes and/or lysosomes. These data identify an unprecedented role for CD36 in the biogenesis of the parasitophorous vacuole and further highlight the utility of Drosophila as a model system for dissecting innate immune responses to infection. PMID:27280707

  8. Leishmania development in sand flies: parasite-vector interactions overview

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniases are vector-borne parasitic diseases with 0.9 – 1.4 million new human cases each year worldwide. In the vectorial part of the life-cycle, Leishmania development is confined to the digestive tract. During the first few days after blood feeding, natural barriers to Leishmania development include secreted proteolytic enzymes, the peritrophic matrix surrounding the ingested blood meal and sand fly immune reactions. As the blood digestion proceeds, parasites need to bind to the midgut epithelium to avoid being excreted with the blood remnant. This binding is strictly stage-dependent as it is a property of nectomonad and leptomonad forms only. While the attachment in specific vectors (P. papatasi, P. duboscqi and P. sergenti) involves lipophosphoglycan (LPG), this Leishmania molecule is not required for parasite attachment in other sand fly species experimentally permissive for various Leishmania. During late-stage infections, large numbers of parasites accumulate in the anterior midgut and produce filamentous proteophosphoglycan creating a gel-like plug physically obstructing the gut. The parasites attached to the stomodeal valve cause damage to the chitin lining and epithelial cells of the valve, interfering with its function and facilitating reflux of parasites from the midgut. Transformation to metacyclic stages highly infective for the vertebrate host is the other prerequisite for effective transmission. Here, we review the current state of knowledge of molecular interactions occurring in all these distinct phases of parasite colonization of the sand fly gut, highlighting recent discoveries in the field. PMID:23206339

  9. Vectorborne Transmission of Leishmania infantum from Hounds, United States.

    PubMed

    Schaut, Robert G; Robles-Murguia, Maricela; Juelsgaard, Rachel; Esch, Kevin J; Bartholomay, Lyric C; Ramalho-Ortigao, Marcelo; Petersen, Christine A

    2015-12-01

    Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease caused by predominantly vectorborne Leishmania spp. In the United States, canine visceral leishmaniasis is common among hounds, and L. infantum vertical transmission among hounds has been confirmed. We found that L. infantum from hounds remains infective in sandflies, underscoring the risk for human exposure by vectorborne transmission. PMID:26583260

  10. Leishmania tropica infection in golden jackals and red foxes, Israel.

    PubMed

    Talmi-Frank, Dalit; Kedem-Vaanunu, Noa; King, Roni; Bar-Gal, Gila Kahila; Edery, Nir; Jaffe, Charles L; Baneth, Gad

    2010-12-01

    During a survey of wild canids, internal transcribed spacer 1 real-time PCR and high-resolution melt analysis identified Leishmania tropica in samples from jackals and foxes. Infection was most prevalent in ear and spleen samples. Jackals and foxes may play a role in the spread of zoonotic L. tropica. PMID:21122235

  11. Photoacoustic monitoring of life cycles of Leishmania Mexicana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arguello, C.; Acosta-Avalos, D.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.; Vargas, H.

    1999-03-01

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy is used to monitor in situ, the difference between the two forms of the protozoan Leishmania Mexicana. Differences are the result of changes in the respiratory chain and could be attributed, according to our results, to the presence of cytochrome b in promastigotes and cytochrome c in amastigotes.

  12. Efficient synthesis of the antigenic phosphoglycans of the Leishmania parasite.

    PubMed

    Ruhela, D; Vishwakarma, R A

    2001-10-01

    Antigenic phosphoglycan repeats of the Leishmania parasite can be assembled in a flexible and efficient manner without involving any glycosidation steps, and the chain can be extended either towards the non-reducing (6'-OH) or reducing (1-OH) end suitable for synthesis of lipophosphoglycan, proteophosphoglycan and analogues. PMID:12240271

  13. Vectorborne Transmission of Leishmania infantum from Hounds, United States

    PubMed Central

    Schaut, Robert G.; Robles-Murguia, Maricela; Juelsgaard, Rachel; Esch, Kevin J.; Bartholomay, Lyric C.; Ramalho-Ortigao, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease caused by predominantly vectorborne Leishmania spp. In the United States, canine visceral leishmaniasis is common among hounds, and L. infantum vertical transmission among hounds has been confirmed. We found that L. infantum from hounds remains infective in sandflies, underscoring the risk for human exposure by vectorborne transmission. PMID:26583260

  14. The Genetic Relationship between Leishmania aethiopica and Leishmania tropica Revealed by Comparing Microsatellite Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Krayter, Lena; Schnur, Lionel F.; Schönian, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Background Leishmania (Leishmania) aethiopica and L. (L.) tropica cause cutaneous leishmaniases and appear to be related. L. aethiopica is geographically restricted to Ethiopia and Kenya; L. tropica is widely dispersed from the Eastern Mediterranean, through the Middle East into eastern India and in north, east and south Africa. Their phylogenetic inter-relationship is only partially revealed. Some studies indicate a close relationship. Here, eight strains of L. aethiopica were characterized genetically and compared with 156 strains of L. tropica from most of the latter species' geographical range to discern the closeness. Methodology/Principal Findings Twelve unlinked microsatellite markers previously used to genotype strains of L. tropica were successfully applied to the eight strains of L. aethiopica and their microsatellite profiles were compared to those of 156 strains of L. tropica from various geographical locations that were isolated from human cases of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, hyraxes and sand fly vectors. All the microsatellite profiles were subjected to various analytical algorithms: Bayesian statistics, distance-based and factorial correspondence analysis, revealing: (i) the species L. aethiopica, though geographically restricted, is genetically very heterogeneous; (ii) the strains of L. aethiopica formed a distinct genetic cluster; and (iii) strains of L. aethiopica are closely related to strains of L. tropica and more so to the African ones, although, by factorial correspondence analysis, clearly separate from them. Conclusions/Significance The successful application of the 12 microsatellite markers, originally considered species-specific for the species L. tropica, to strains of L. aethiopica confirmed the close relationship between these two species. The Bayesian and distance-based methods clustered the strains of L. aethiopica among African strains of L. tropica, while the factorial correspondence analysis indicated a clear separation

  15. Vaccination using live attenuated Leishmania donovani centrin deleted parasites induces protection in dogs against Leishmania infantum.

    PubMed

    Fiuza, Jacqueline Araújo; Gannavaram, Sreenivas; Santiago, Helton da Costa; Selvapandiyan, Angamuthu; Souza, Daniel Menezes; Passos, Lívia Silva Araújo; de Mendonça, Ludmila Zanandreis; Lemos-Giunchetti, Denise da Silveira; Ricci, Natasha Delaqua; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Bueno, Lilian Lacerda; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Nakhasi, Hira L; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Live attenuated Leishmania donovani parasites such as LdCen(-/-) have been shown elicit protective immunity against leishmanial infection in mice and hamster models. Previously, we have reported on the induction of strong immunogenicity in dogs upon vaccination with LdCen(-/-) including an increase in immunoglobulin isotypes, higher lymphoproliferative response, higher frequencies of activated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, IFN-γ production by CD8(+) T cells, increased secretion of TNF-α and IL-12/IL-23p40 and, finally, decreased secretion of IL-4. To further explore the potential of LdCen(-/-) parasites as vaccine candidates, we performed a 24-month follow up of LdCen(-/-) immunized dogs after challenge with virulent Leishmania infantum, aiming determination of parasite burden by qPCR, antibody production (ELISA) and cellular responses (T cell activation and cytokine production) by flow cytometry and sandwich ELISA. Our data demonstrated that vaccination with a single dose of LdCen(-/-) (without any adjuvant) resulted in the reduction of up to 87.3% of parasite burden after 18 months of virulent challenge. These results are comparable to those obtained with commercially available vaccine in Brazil (Leishmune(®)). The protection was associated with antibody production and CD4(+) and CD8(+) proliferative responses, as well as T cell activation and significantly higher production of IFN-γ, IL-12/IL-23p40 and TNF-α, which was comparable to responses induced by immunization with Leishmune(®), with significant differences when compared to control animals (Placebo). Moreover, only animals immunized with LdCen(-/-) expressed lower levels of IL-4 when compared to animals vaccinated either with Leishmune(®) or PBS. Our results support further studies aiming to demonstrate the potential of genetically modified live attenuated L. donovani vaccine to control L. infantum transmission in endemic areas for CVL. PMID:25475955

  16. Immunoregulatory pathways in murine leishmaniasis: different regulatory control during Leishmania mexicana mexicana and Leishmania major infections.

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, J; Kaye, P M

    1985-01-01

    The effect of whole body sublethal gamma irradiation on the subsequent growth of Leishmania mexicana mexicana and Leishmania major was studied in CBA/Ca and BALB/c mice. Whereas BALB/c mice are highly susceptible to both parasites developing non healing progressively growing lesions at the site of cutaneous infection, CBA/Ca mice develop small healing cutaneous ulcers following subcutaneous infection with L. major but non healing lesions following subcutaneous infection with L.m. mexicana. Prior whole body sublethal irradiation of CBA/Ca mice, but not BALB/c mice, resulted in strong resistance against infection with L.m. mexicana: no lesions developed at the site of cutaneous infection. Irradiated BALB/c mice did, however, develop small lesions which healed when infected with L. major. The protective effects of irradiation coincided with the development of delayed type hypersensitivity. Both naive and sensitized nylon wool purified lymphocytes could restore susceptibility to L. major in irradiated BALB/c mice but only lymphocytes from long term infected donor mice adoptively transferred a non healing response to irradiated CBA/Ca mice infected with L.m. mexicana. Non-irradiated, L. major infected, CBA/Ca mice, but not similarly treated BALB/c mice, were found to be resistant to subsequent infection with L.m. mexicana. On the other hand, irradiated BALB/c mice infected with L. major were resistant to subsequent infectious challenge with L.m. mexicana. We suggest that the susceptibility of CBA/Ca mice to L.m. mexicana is under the control of an as yet unidentified gene which is not dependent on the generation of T suppressor cells and is bypassed by previous infection with L. major. Therefore, BALB/c mice immunized against L. major by prior sublethal irradiation are also resistant to L.m. mexicana. PMID:3907906

  17. First Isolation of Leishmania from Northern Thailand: Case Report, Identification as Leishmania martiniquensis and Phylogenetic Position within the Leishmania enriettii Complex

    PubMed Central

    Pothirat, Thatawan; Tantiworawit, Adisak; Chaiwarith, Romanee; Jariyapan, Narissara; Wannasan, Anchalee; Siriyasatien, Padet; Supparatpinyo, Khuanchai; Bates, Michelle D.; Kwakye-Nuako, Godwin; Bates, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Since 1996, there have been several case reports of autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis in Thailand. Here we report a case in a 52-year-old Thai male from northern Thailand, who presented with subacute fever, huge splenomegaly and pancytopenia. Bone marrow aspiration revealed numerous amastigotes within macrophages. Isolation of Leishmania LSCM1 into culture and DNA sequence analysis (ribosomal RNA ITS-1 and large subunit of RNA polymerase II) revealed the parasites to be members of the Leishmania enriettii complex, and apparently identical to L. martiniquensis previously reported from the Caribbean island of Martinique. This is the first report of visceral leishmaniasis caused by L. martiniquensis from the region. Moreover, the majority of parasites previously identified as “L. siamensis” also appear to be L. martiniquensis. PMID:25474647

  18. Seroprevalence of Leishmania infection and molecular detection of Leishmania tropica and Leishmania infantum in stray cats of İzmir, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Can, Hüseyin; Döşkaya, Mert; Özdemir, H Gökhan; Şahar, Esra Atalay; Karakavuk, Muhammet; Pektaş, Bayram; Karakuş, Mehmet; Töz, Seray; Caner, Ayşe; Döşkaya, Aysu Değirmenci; İz, Sultan Gülce; Özbel, Yusuf; Gürüz, Yüksel

    2016-08-01

    Leishmaniasis caused by more than 20 species of genus Leishmania is transmitted by the bite of infected phlebotomine sand flies. The studies on Leishmania infection in cats is very few in Turkey and therefore we aimed to screen stray cats living in city of İzmir located in western Turkey using nested PCR targeting kinetoplast DNA and serological techniques (ELISA and IFA). Leishmania DNA positive samples were also studied by ITS1 real time PCR. Whole blood and serum samples were obtained from stray cats (n: 1101) living in different counties of İzmir. In serological assays, a serum sample was considered positive in 1:40 dilution in IFA and for ELISA a serum sample was accepted positive when the absorbance value (AV) exceeded the mean AV + Standard Deviation (SD) of the negative control serum samples. According to the results, the seropositivity rates were 10.8% (119/1101) and 15.2% (167/1101) by in house ELISA and IFA, respectively. Among serology coherent samples, the seropositivity rate was 11.1% (116/1047) as detected by both assays after discordant samples (n: 54) were discarded. Of the 1101 stray cats, six (0.54%) were positive by nested PCR while only one of these six samples was positive by ITS1 real time PCR. During PCR, three controls designated as Leishmania infantum, Leishmania tropica, and Leishmania major were used for species identification. According to nested PCR results, L. tropica was identified in two cats (no.76 and 95). In another cat (no. 269), there were two bands in which one of them was well-matched with L. infantum and the other band had ∼850 bp size which does not match with any controls. Remaining three cats (no. 86, 514, and 622) also had the ∼850 bp atypical band size. ITS1 real time PCR detected L. tropica in only one cat (no. 622) which showed an atypical band size in nested PCR. These results indicated that three cats with only one atypical band (no. 86, 514, and 622) and the cat with mixed infection (no. 269) were

  19. LeishCyc: a biochemical pathways database for Leishmania major

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Maria A; MacRae, James I; De Souza, David P; Saunders, Eleanor C; McConville, Malcolm J; Likić, Vladimir A

    2009-01-01

    Background Leishmania spp. are sandfly transmitted protozoan parasites that cause a spectrum of diseases in more than 12 million people worldwide. Much research is now focusing on how these parasites adapt to the distinct nutrient environments they encounter in the digestive tract of the sandfly vector and the phagolysosome compartment of mammalian macrophages. While data mining and annotation of the genomes of three Leishmania species has provided an initial inventory of predicted metabolic components and associated pathways, resources for integrating this information into metabolic networks and incorporating data from transcript, protein, and metabolite profiling studies is currently lacking. The development of a reliable, expertly curated, and widely available model of Leishmania metabolic networks is required to facilitate systems analysis, as well as discovery and prioritization of new drug targets for this important human pathogen. Description The LeishCyc database was initially built from the genome sequence of Leishmania major (v5.2), based on the annotation published by the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. LeishCyc was manually curated to remove errors, correct automated predictions, and add information from the literature. The ongoing curation is based on public sources, literature searches, and our own experimental and bioinformatics studies. In a number of instances we have improved on the original genome annotation, and, in some ambiguous cases, collected relevant information from the literature in order to help clarify gene or protein annotation in the future. All genes in LeishCyc are linked to the corresponding entry in GeneDB (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute). Conclusion The LeishCyc database describes Leishmania major genes, gene products, metabolites, their relationships and biochemical organization into metabolic pathways. LeishCyc provides a systematic approach to organizing the evolving information about Leishmania biochemical networks and is

  20. Leishmania and human immunodeficiency virus coinfection: the first 10 years.

    PubMed Central

    Alvar, J; Cañavate, C; Gutiérrez-Solar, B; Jiménez, M; Laguna, F; López-Vélez, R; Molina, R; Moreno, J

    1997-01-01

    Over 850 Leishmania-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection cases have been recorded, the majority in Europe, where 7 to 17% of HIV-positive individuals with fever have amastigotes, suggesting that Leishmania-infected individuals without symptoms will express symptoms of leishmaniasis if they become immunosuppressed. However, there are indirect reasons and statistical data demonstrating that intravenous drug addiction plays a specific role in Leishmania infantum transmission: an anthroponotic cycle complementary to the zoonotic one has been suggested. Due to anergy in patients with coinfection, L. infantum dermotropic zymodemes are isolated from patient viscera and a higher L. infantum phenotypic variability is seen. Moreover, insect trypanosomatids that are currently considered nonpathogenic have been isolated from coinfected patients. HIV infection and Leishmania infection each induce important analogous immunological changes whose effects are multiplied if they occur concomitantly, such as a Th1-to-Th2 response switch; however, the consequences of the viral infection predominate. In fact, a large proportion of coinfected patients have no detectable anti-Leishmania antibodies. The microorganisms share target cells, and it has been demonstrated in vitro how L. infantum induces the expression of latent HIV-1. Bone marrow culture is the most useful diagnostic technique, but it is invasive. Blood smears and culture are good alternatives. PCR, xenodiagnosis, and circulating-antigen detection are available only in specialized laboratories. The relationship with low levels of CD4+ cells conditions the clinical presentation and evolution of disease. Most patients have visceral leishmaniasis, but asymptomatic, cutaneous, mucocutaneous, diffuse cutaneous, and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis can be produced by L. infantum. The digestive and respiratory tracts are frequently parasitized. The course of coinfection is marked by a high relapse rate. There is a lack

  1. Easy Identification of Leishmania Species by Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Mouri, Oussama; Morizot, Gloriat; Van der Auwera, Gert; Ravel, Christophe; Passet, Marie; Chartrel, Nathalie; Joly, Isabelle; Thellier, Marc; Jauréguiberry, Stéphane; Caumes, Eric; Mazier, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by several Leishmania species that are associated with variable outcomes before and after therapy. Optimal treatment decision is based on an accurate identification of the infecting species but current methods to type Leishmania isolates are relatively complex and/or slow. Therefore, the initial treatment decision is generally presumptive, the infecting species being suspected on epidemiological and clinical grounds. A simple method to type cultured isolates would facilitate disease management. Methodology We analyzed MALDI-TOF spectra of promastigote pellets from 46 strains cultured in monophasic medium, including 20 short-term cultured isolates from French travelers (19 with CL, 1 with VL). As per routine procedure, clinical isolates were analyzed in parallel with Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) at the National Reference Center for Leishmania. Principal Findings Automatic dendrogram analysis generated a classification of isolates consistent with reference determination of species based on MLST or hsp70 sequencing. A minute analysis of spectra based on a very simple, database-independent analysis of spectra based on the algorithm showed that the mutually exclusive presence of two pairs of peaks discriminated isolates considered by reference methods to belong either to the Viannia or Leishmania subgenus, and that within each subgenus presence or absence of a few peaks allowed discrimination to species complexes level. Conclusions/Significance Analysis of cultured Leishmania isolates using mass spectrometry allows a rapid and simple classification to the species complex level consistent with reference methods, a potentially useful method to guide treatment decision in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:24902030

  2. Dissecting Leishmania infantum Energy Metabolism - A Systems Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Abhishek; Jhawar, Jitesh; Sarkar, Ram Rup

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania infantum, causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis in humans, illustrates a complex lifecycle pertaining to two extreme environments, namely, the gut of the sandfly vector and human macrophages. Leishmania is capable of dynamically adapting and tactically switching between these critically hostile situations. The possible metabolic routes ventured by the parasite to achieve this exceptional adaptation to its varying environments are still poorly understood. In this study, we present an extensively reconstructed energy metabolism network of Leishmania infantum as an attempt to identify certain strategic metabolic routes preferred by the parasite to optimize its survival in such dynamic environments. The reconstructed network consists of 142 genes encoding for enzymes performing 237 reactions distributed across five distinct model compartments. We annotated the subcellular locations of different enzymes and their reactions on the basis of strong literature evidence and sequence-based detection of cellular localization signal within a protein sequence. To explore the diverse features of parasite metabolism the metabolic network was implemented and analyzed as a constraint-based model. Using a systems-based approach, we also put forth an extensive set of lethal reaction knockouts; some of which were validated using published data on Leishmania species. Performing a robustness analysis, the model was rigorously validated and tested for the secretion of overflow metabolites specific to Leishmania under varying extracellular oxygen uptake rate. Further, the fate of important non-essential amino acids in L. infantum metabolism was investigated. Stage-specific scenarios of L. infantum energy metabolism were incorporated in the model and key metabolic differences were outlined. Analysis of the model revealed the essentiality of glucose uptake, succinate fermentation, glutamate biosynthesis and an active TCA cycle as driving forces for parasite energy metabolism

  3. Dissecting Leishmania infantum Energy Metabolism - A Systems Perspective.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Abhishek; Jhawar, Jitesh; Sarkar, Ram Rup

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania infantum, causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis in humans, illustrates a complex lifecycle pertaining to two extreme environments, namely, the gut of the sandfly vector and human macrophages. Leishmania is capable of dynamically adapting and tactically switching between these critically hostile situations. The possible metabolic routes ventured by the parasite to achieve this exceptional adaptation to its varying environments are still poorly understood. In this study, we present an extensively reconstructed energy metabolism network of Leishmania infantum as an attempt to identify certain strategic metabolic routes preferred by the parasite to optimize its survival in such dynamic environments. The reconstructed network consists of 142 genes encoding for enzymes performing 237 reactions distributed across five distinct model compartments. We annotated the subcellular locations of different enzymes and their reactions on the basis of strong literature evidence and sequence-based detection of cellular localization signal within a protein sequence. To explore the diverse features of parasite metabolism the metabolic network was implemented and analyzed as a constraint-based model. Using a systems-based approach, we also put forth an extensive set of lethal reaction knockouts; some of which were validated using published data on Leishmania species. Performing a robustness analysis, the model was rigorously validated and tested for the secretion of overflow metabolites specific to Leishmania under varying extracellular oxygen uptake rate. Further, the fate of important non-essential amino acids in L. infantum metabolism was investigated. Stage-specific scenarios of L. infantum energy metabolism were incorporated in the model and key metabolic differences were outlined. Analysis of the model revealed the essentiality of glucose uptake, succinate fermentation, glutamate biosynthesis and an active TCA cycle as driving forces for parasite energy metabolism

  4. Surveillance for antibodies to Leishmania spp. in dogs from Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Rosypal, A C; Tripp, S; Kinlaw, C; Hailemariam, S; Tidwell, R R; Lindsay, D S; Rajapakse, R P V J; Sreekumar, C; Dubey, J P

    2010-02-01

    The global distribution of leishmaniasis is rapidly expanding into new geographic regions. Dogs are the primary reservoir hosts for human visceral leishmaniasis caused by infection with Leishmania infantum. Natural infections with other Leishmania spp. can occur in dogs, but their role as reservoir hosts for other species of Leishmania is uncertain. Leishmania donovani is traditionally considered a visceralizing anthroponotic species; however, cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. donovani has been reported in Sri Lanka. In the present study, sera from 114 dogs in Sri Lanka were examined for antibodies to visceralizing Leishmania spp. Sera were tested by the canine immunochromatographic strip assays based on recombinant K39 antigen. Anti-Leishmania spp. antibodies were detectable in 1 of 114 (0.9%) dogs from Sri Lanka. Nonetheless, serological evidence suggests that leishmaniasis may be an emerging zoonosis in Sri Lanka. PMID:19803542

  5. Leishmania species: Detection and identification by nested PCR assay from skin samples of rodent reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Akhavan, Amir Ahmad; Mirhendi, Hossein; Khamesipour, Ali; Alimohammadian, Mohammad Hossein; Rassi, Yavar; Bates, Paul; Kamhawi, Shaden; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Arandian, Mohammad Hossein; Abdoli, Hamid; Jalali-zand, Niloufar; Jafari, Reza; Shareghi, Niloufar; Ghanei, Maryam; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza

    2010-01-01

    Many rodent species act as reservoir hosts of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in endemic areas. In the present study a simple and reliable assay based on nested PCR was developed for the detection and identification of Leishmania parasites from rodent skin samples. We designed Leishmania-specific primers that successfully amplified ITS regions of Leishmania major, Leishmania gerbilli and Leishmania turanica using nested PCR. Out of 95 field collected Rhombomys opimus, 21 were positive by microscopic examination and 48 by nested PCR. The percentage of gerbils infected with L. major, L. gerbilli and L. turanica was 3.2%, 1.1% and 27.4%, respectively. In 15.8% of the rodents, we found mixed natural infections by L. major and L. turanica, 1.1% by L. major and L. gerbilli, and 2.1% by the three species. We concluded that this method is simple and reliable for detecting and identifying Leishmania species circulating in rodent populations. PMID:20566364

  6. First detection of Leishmania spp. DNA in Brazilian bats captured strictly in urban areas.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Fernanda Müller; Costa, Luis Henrique Camargo; de Barros, Thainá Landim; Ito, Pier Kenji Rauschkolb Katsuda; Colombo, Fábio Antonio; de Carvalho, Cristiano; Pedro, Wagner André; Queiroz, Luzia Helena; Nunes, Cáris Maroni

    2015-10-01

    Leishmania spp. is a protozoan that maintains its life cycle in domestic and wild animals and it may include bats, a population that has increased in urban environments. This study aimed to investigate the presence of Leishmania spp. in bats captured strictly in urban areas that are endemic for visceral leishmaniasis. The spleen and skin samples of 488 bats from 21 endemic cities in northwestern São Paulo State, Brazil, were tested for the presence of Leishmania kDNA using real-time PCR. Differentiation from Trypanosoma spp. was achieved by amplifying a DNA fragment of the ribosomal RNA gene. The presence of Leishmania spp. kDNA was verified in 23.9% of bats and Trypanosoma spp. DNA was identified in 3.9%. Leishmania species differentiation revealed the presence of Leishmania amazonensis in 78.3% of the bats; L. infantum in 17.4%, and 1 sample (4.3%) showed a mix pattern of L. infantum and L. amazonensis. We also detected, for the first time, L. infantum and L. amazonensis DNA in Desmodus rotundus, the hematophagous bat. The presence of Leishmania spp. DNA in bats strictly from urban areas endemic for visceral leishmaniasis in the State of São Paulo, Brazil indicates that these wild and abundant animals are capable of harboring Leishmania spp. in this new scenario. Due to their longevity, high dispersion capacity and adaptability to synanthropic environments, they may play a role in the maintenance of the life cycle of Leishmania parasites. PMID:26209107

  7. Use of ferritin-labelled antibodies for differentiating Leishmania species and other Trypanosomatidae*

    PubMed Central

    Saf'janova, V. M.; Avakjan, A. A.

    1973-01-01

    A new immunomorphological test for differentiating Leishmania species, based on electron-microscopic revelation of the localization of their specific antigens, is described. The diagnostic value of treating the promastigotes of Leishmania and other Trypanosomatidae with ferritin-labelled antibodies was determined in cross experiments. The immunoferritin test reveals both the serogroup of a given species of Leishmania and specific antigenic differences between different species. However, it fails to differentiate different strains of a given species of Leishmania, which attests to its species-specificity. ImagesFigs. 1-2Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:4542797

  8. Leishmania donovani Nucleoside Hydrolase Terminal Domains in Cross-Protective Immunotherapy Against Leishmania amazonensis Murine Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nico, Dirlei; Gomes, Daniele Crespo; Palatnik-de-Sousa, Iam; Morrot, Alexandre; Palatnik, Marcos; Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Nucleoside hydrolases of the Leishmania genus are vital enzymes for the replication of the DNA and conserved phylogenetic markers of the parasites. Leishmania donovani nucleoside hydrolase (NH36) induced a main CD4+ T cell driven protective response against L. chagasi infection in mice which is directed against its C-terminal domain. In this study, we used the three recombinant domains of NH36: N-terminal domain (F1, amino acids 1–103), central domain (F2 aminoacids 104–198), and C-terminal domain (F3 amino acids 199–314) in combination with saponin and assayed their immunotherapeutic effect on Balb/c mice previously infected with L. amazonensis. We identified that the F1 and F3 peptides determined strong cross-immunotherapeutic effects, reducing the size of footpad lesions to 48 and 64%, and the parasite load in footpads to 82.6 and 81%, respectively. The F3 peptide induced the strongest anti-NH36 antibody response and intradermal response (IDR) against L. amazonenis and a high secretion of IFN-γ and TNF-α with reduced levels of IL-10. The F1 vaccine, induced similar increases of IgG2b antibodies and IFN-γ and TNF-α levels, but no IDR and no reduction of IL-10. The multiparameter flow cytometry analysis was used to assess the immune response after immunotherapy and disclosed that the degree of the immunotherapeutic effect is predicted by the frequencies of the CD4+ and CD8+ T cells producing IL-2 or TNF-α or both. Total frequencies and frequencies of double-cytokine CD4 T cell producers were enhanced by F1 and F3 vaccines. Collectively, our multifunctional analysis disclosed that immunotherapeutic protection improved as the CD4 responses progressed from 1+ to 2+, in the case of the F1 and F3 vaccines, and as the CD8 responses changed qualitatively from 1+ to 3+, mainly in the case of the F1 vaccine, providing new correlates of immunotherapeutic protection against cutaneous leishmaniasis in mice based on T-helper TH1 and CD8+ mediated immune responses

  9. Leishmania infantum: infection of macrophages in vitro with promastigotes.

    PubMed

    Méndez, S; Nell, M; Alunda, J M

    1996-06-01

    Leishmania infantum promastigotes in axenic culture exhibit limited infectivity for mouse peritoneal macrophages (M phi) in vitro using standard culture conditions (37 degrees C; 95% air/5% CO2) compared to Leishmania donovani promastigotes which induce notable infections. The infectivity of logarithmic (log) and stationary (stat) phase promastigotes of L. infantum was enhanced by the addition of fresh homologous serum, but no amastigotes were observed after 4 days. Prolonged infections, including transformation and survival of intracellular amastigotes in BALB/c mouse and hamster resident peritoneal M phi and M phi cell line J774.G8 were obtained by incubating M phi for 48 h at 26 degrees C prior to standard culture. Enhanced infectivity was observed in a number of L. infantum strains subject to this transient thermal change. PMID:8875306

  10. Iron acquisition in Leishmania and its crucial role in infection.

    PubMed

    Niu, Qinwang; Li, Shihong; Chen, Dali; Chen, Qiwei; Chen, Jianping

    2016-09-01

    Iron is an essential cofactor for many basic metabolic pathways in pathogenic microbes and their hosts. It is also dangerous as it can catalyse the production of reactive free radicals. This dual character makes the host can either limit iron availability to invading microbes or exploit iron to induce toxicity to pathogens. Successful pathogens, including Leishmania species, must possess mechanisms to circumvent host's iron limitation and iron-induced toxicity in order to survive. In this review, we discuss the regulation of iron metabolism in the setting of infection and delineate the iron acquisition strategies used by Leishmania parasites and their subversions to host iron metabolism to overcome host's iron-related defences. PMID:27221985

  11. Post-Genomics and Vaccine Improvement for Leishmania

    PubMed Central

    Seyed, Negar; Taheri, Tahereh; Rafati, Sima

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease that primarily affects Asia, Africa, South America, and the Mediterranean basin. Despite extensive efforts to develop an effective prophylactic vaccine, no promising vaccine is available yet. However, recent advancements in computational vaccinology on the one hand and genome sequencing approaches on the other have generated new hopes in vaccine development. Computational genome mining for new vaccine candidates is known as reverse vaccinology and is believed to further extend the current list of Leishmania vaccine candidates. Reverse vaccinology can also reduce the intrinsic risks associated with live attenuated vaccines. Individual epitopes arranged in tandem as polytopes are also a possible outcome of reverse genome mining. Here, we will briefly compare reverse vaccinology with conventional vaccinology in respect to Leishmania vaccine, and we will discuss how it influences the aforementioned topics. We will also introduce new in vivo models that will bridge the gap between human and laboratory animal models in future studies. PMID:27092123

  12. An agent-based model for Leishmania major infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dancik, Garrett M.; Jones, Douglas E.; Dorman, Karin S.

    Leishmania are protozoan parasites transmitted by bites of infected sandflies. Over 20 species of Leishmania, endemic in 88 countries, are capable of causing human disease. Disease is either cutaneous, where skin ulcers occur on exposed surfaces of the body, or visceral, with near certain mortality if untreated. C3HeB/FeJ mice are resistant to L. major, but develop chronic cutaneous lesions when infected with another species L. amazonensis. The well-characterized mechanism of resistance to L. major depends on a CD4+ Thl immune response, macrophage activation, and elimination of the parasite [Sacks 2002]. The factors that account for host susceptibility to L. Amazonensis, however, are not completely understood, despite being generally attributed to a weakened Th1 response [Vanloubbeck 2004].

  13. An agent-based model for Leishmania major infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dancik, Garrett M.; Jones, Douglas E.; Dorman, Karin S.

    Leishmania are protozoan parasites transmitted by bites of infected sandflies. Over 20 species of Leishmania, endemic in 88 countries, are capable of causing human disease. Disease is either cutaneous, where skin ulcers occur on exposed surfaces of the body, or visceral, with near certain mortality if left untreated. C3HeB/FeJ mice are resistant to L. major, but develop chronic cutaneous lesions when infected with another species L. amazonensis. The well-characterized mechanism of resistance to L. major depends on a CD4+ Thl immune response, macrophage activation, and elimination of the parasite [Sacks 2002]. The factors that account for host susceptibility to L. Amazonensis, however, are not completely understood, despite being generally attributed to a weakened Th1 response [Vanloubbeck 2004].

  14. Leishmania promastigotes: building a safe niche within macrophages.

    PubMed

    Moradin, Neda; Descoteaux, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Upon their internalization by macrophages, Leishmania promastigotes inhibit phagolysosome biogenesis. The main factor responsible for this inhibition is the promastigote surface glycolipid lipophosphoglycan (LPG). This glycolipid has a profound impact on the phagosome, causing periphagosomal accumulation of F-actin and disruption of phagosomal lipid microdomains. Functionally, this LPG-mediated inhibition of phagosome maturation is characterized by an impaired assembly of the NADPH oxidase and the exclusion of the vesicular proton-ATPase from phagosomes. In this chapter, we review the current knowledge concerning the nature of the intra-macrophage compartment in which Leishmania donovani promastigotes establish infection. We also describe how LPG enables this parasite to remodel the parasitophorous vacuole. PMID:23050244

  15. Quantitation of Leishmania lipophosphoglycan repeat units by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Barron, Tamara L; Turco, Salvatore J

    2006-04-01

    The glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored lipophosphoglycan (LPG) of Leishmania is the dominant cell surface glycoconjugate of these pathogenic parasites. LPG is structurally characterized by a series of phosphoglycan repeat units. Determining the number of repeat units per LPG molecule has proven difficult using current technologies, such as mass spectrometry. As an alternative method to quantitate the number of repeat units in LPG, a procedure based on capillary electrophoretic analysis of the proportion of mannose to 2,5-anhydromannose (derived from the nonacetylated glucosamine of the GPI anchor of LPG) was developed. The CE-based technique is sensitive and relatively rapid compared to GC-MS-based protocols. Its application was demonstrated in quantitating the number of LPG repeat units from several species of Leishmania as well as from two life-cycle stages of these organisms. PMID:16310310

  16. Leishmania promastigotes: building a safe niche within macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Moradin, Neda; Descoteaux, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Upon their internalization by macrophages, Leishmania promastigotes inhibit phagolysosome biogenesis. The main factor responsible for this inhibition is the promastigote surface glycolipid lipophosphoglycan (LPG). This glycolipid has a profound impact on the phagosome, causing periphagosomal accumulation of F-actin and disruption of phagosomal lipid microdomains. Functionally, this LPG-mediated inhibition of phagosome maturation is characterized by an impaired assembly of the NADPH oxidase and the exclusion of the vesicular proton-ATPase from phagosomes. In this chapter, we review the current knowledge concerning the nature of the intra-macrophage compartment in which Leishmania donovani promastigotes establish infection. We also describe how LPG enables this parasite to remodel the parasitophorous vacuole. PMID:23050244

  17. Leishmania vaccine development: exploiting the host-vector-parasite interface.

    PubMed

    Reed, S G; Coler, R N; Mondal, D; Kamhawi, S; Valenzuela, J G

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a disease transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies, fatal if untreated, and with no available human vaccine. In rodents, cellular immunity to Leishmania parasite proteins as well as salivary proteins of the sand fly is associated with protection, making them worthy targets for further exploration as vaccines. This review discusses the notion that a combination vaccine including Leishmania and vector salivary antigens may improve vaccine efficacy by targeting the parasite at its most vulnerable stage just after transmission. Furthermore, we put forward the notion that better modeling of natural transmission is needed to test efficacy of vaccines. For example, the fact that individuals living in endemic areas are exposed to sand fly bites and will mount an immune response to salivary proteins should be considered in pre-clinical and clinical evaluation of leishmaniasis vaccines. Nevertheless, despite remaining obstacles there is good reason to be optimistic that safe and effective vaccines against leishmaniasis can be developed. PMID:26595093

  18. In Vitro Activities of Hexaazatrinaphthylenes against Leishmania spp.

    PubMed Central

    García-Velázquez, Daniel; Martín-Navarro, Carmen M.; Sifaoui, Ines; Reyes-Batlle, María; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Gutiérrez-Ravelo, Ángel; Piñero, José E.

    2015-01-01

    The in vitro activity of a novel group of compounds, hexaazatrinaphthylene derivatives, against two species of Leishmania is described in this study. These compounds showed a significant dose-dependent inhibition effect on the proliferation of the parasites, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) ranging from 1.23 to 25.05 μM against the promastigote stage and 0.5 to 0.7 μM against intracellular amastigotes. Also, a cytotoxicity assay was carried out to in order to evaluate the possible toxic effects of these compounds. Moreover, different assays were performed to determine the type of cell death induced after incubation with these compounds. The obtained results highlight the potential use of hexaazatrinaphthylene derivatives against Leishmania species, and further studies should be undertaken to establish them as novel leishmanicidal therapeutic agents. PMID:25753635

  19. First Case of Visceral Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania martiniquensis

    PubMed Central

    Liautaud, Bernard; Vignier, Nicolas; Miossec, Charline; Plumelle, Yves; Kone, Moumini; Delta, Delphine; Ravel, Christophe; Cabié, André; Desbois, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    We report the first case of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania martiniquensis in the Caribbean, which until now, was known only to cause cutaneous leishmaniasis. The disease presented with fatigue, anemia, and hepatosplenomegaly in a 61-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who was receiving antiretroviral therapy. Diagnosis was made by bone marrow biopsy. VL is life-threatening, and its emergence in the Caribbean is of concern. PMID:25404076

  20. Aminophthalocyanine-Mediated Photodynamic Inactivation of Leishmania tropica.

    PubMed

    Al-Qahtani, Ahmed; Alkahtani, Saad; Kolli, Bala; Tripathi, Pankaj; Dutta, Sujoy; Al-Kahtane, Abdullah A; Jiang, Xiong-Jie; Ng, Dennis K P; Chang, Kwang Poo

    2016-04-01

    Photodynamic inactivation ofLeishmaniaspp. requires the cellular uptake of photosensitizers, e.g., endocytosis of silicon(IV)-phthalocyanines (PC) axially substituted with bulky ligands. We report here that when substituted with amino-containing ligands, the PCs (PC1 and PC2) were endocytosed and displayed improved potency againstLeishmania tropicapromastigotes and axenic amastigotesin vitro The uptake of these PCs by bothLeishmaniastages followed saturation kinetics, as expected. Sensitive assays were developed for assessing the photodynamic inactivation ofLeishmaniaspp. by rendering them fluorescent in two ways: transfecting promastigotes to express green fluorescent protein (GFP) and loading them with carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE). PC-sensitizedLeishmania tropicastrains were seen microscopically to lose their motility, structural integrity, and GFP/CFSE fluorescence after exposure to red light (wavelength, ∼650 nm) at a fluence of 1 to 2 J cm(-2) Quantitative fluorescence assays based on the loss of GFP/CFSE from liveLeishmania tropicashowed that PC1 and PC2 dose dependently sensitized both stages for photoinactivation, consistent with the results of a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell viability assay.Leishmania tropicastrains are >100 times more sensitive than their host cells or macrophages to PC1- and PC2-mediated photoinactivation, judging from the estimated 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) of these cells. Axial substitution of the PC with amino groups instead of other ligands appears to increase its leishmanial photolytic activity by up to 40-fold. PC1 and PC2 are thus potentially useful for photodynamic therapy of leishmaniasis and for oxidative photoinactivation ofLeishmaniaspp. for use as vaccines or vaccine carriers. PMID:26824938

  1. First case of visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania martiniquensis.

    PubMed

    Liautaud, Bernard; Vignier, Nicolas; Miossec, Charline; Plumelle, Yves; Kone, Moumini; Delta, Delphine; Ravel, Christophe; Cabié, André; Desbois, Nicole

    2015-02-01

    We report the first case of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania martiniquensis in the Caribbean, which until now, was known only to cause cutaneous leishmaniasis. The disease presented with fatigue, anemia, and hepatosplenomegaly in a 61-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who was receiving antiretroviral therapy. Diagnosis was made by bone marrow biopsy. VL is life-threatening, and its emergence in the Caribbean is of concern. PMID:25404076

  2. Glycosome turnover in Leishmania major is mediated by autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Cull, Benjamin; Prado Godinho, Joseane Lima; Fernandes Rodrigues, Juliany Cola; Frank, Benjamin; Schurigt, Uta; Williams, Roderick AM; Coombs, Graham H; Mottram, Jeremy C

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a central process behind the cellular remodeling that occurs during differentiation of Leishmania, yet the cargo of the protozoan parasite's autophagosome is unknown. We have identified glycosomes, peroxisome-like organelles that uniquely compartmentalize glycolytic and other metabolic enzymes in Leishmania and other kinetoplastid parasitic protozoa, as autophagosome cargo. It has been proposed that the number of glycosomes and their content change during the Leishmania life cycle as a key adaptation to the different environments encountered. Quantification of RFP-SQL-labeled glycosomes showed that promastigotes of L. major possess ∼20 glycosomes per cell, whereas amastigotes contain ∼10. Glycosome numbers were significantly greater in promastigotes and amastigotes of autophagy-defective L. major Δatg5 mutants, implicating autophagy in glycosome homeostasis and providing a partial explanation for the previously observed growth and virulence defects of these mutants. Use of GFP-ATG8 to label autophagosomes showed glycosomes to be cargo in ∼15% of them; glycosome-containing autophagosomes were trafficked to the lysosome for degradation. The number of autophagosomes increased 10-fold during differentiation, yet the percentage of glycosome-containing autophagosomes remained constant. This indicates that increased turnover of glycosomes was due to an overall increase in autophagy, rather than an upregulation of autophagosomes containing this cargo. Mitophagy of the single mitochondrion was not observed in L. major during normal growth or differentiation; however, mitochondrial remnants resulting from stress-induced fragmentation colocalized with autophagosomes and lysosomes, indicating that autophagy is used to recycle these damaged organelles. These data show that autophagy in Leishmania has a central role not only in maintaining cellular homeostasis and recycling damaged organelles but crucially in the adaptation to environmental change through the

  3. The role of phosphoglycans in Leishmania-sand fly interactions.

    PubMed

    Sacks, D L; Modi, G; Rowton, E; Späth, G; Epstein, L; Turco, S J; Beverley, S M

    2000-01-01

    Leishmania promastigotes synthesize an abundance of phosphoglycans, either attached to the cell surface through phosphatidylinositol anchors (lipophosphoglycan, LPG) or secreted as protein-containing glycoconjugates. These phosphoglycans are thought to promote the survival of the parasite within both its vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. The relative contributions of different phosphoglycan-containing molecules in Leishmania-sand fly interactions were tested by using mutants specifically deficient in either total phosphoglycans or LPG alone. Leishmania donovani promastigotes deficient in both LPG and protein-linked phosphoglycans because of loss of LPG2 (encoding the Golgi GDP-Man transporter) failed to survive the hydrolytic environment within the early blood-fed midgut. In contrast, L. donovani and Leishmania major mutants deficient solely in LPG expression because of loss of LPG1 (involved in biosynthesis of the core oligosaccharide LPG domain) had only a slight reduction in the survival and growth of promastigotes within the early blood-fed midgut. The ability of the LPG1-deficient promastigotes to persist in the midgut after blood meal excretion was completely lost, and this defect was correlated with their inability to bind to midgut epithelial cells in vitro. For both mutants, when phosphoglycan expression was restored to wild-type levels by reintroduction of LPG1 or LPG2 (as appropriate), then the wild-type phenotype was also restored. We conclude, first, that LPG is not essential for survival in the early blood-fed midgut but, along with other secreted phosphoglycan-containing glycoconjugates, can protect promastigotes from the digestive enzymes in the gut and, second, that LPG is required to mediate midgut attachment and to maintain infection in the fly during excretion of the digested blood meal. PMID:10618431

  4. Degradation of Host Sphingomyelin Is Essential for Leishmania Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ou; Wilson, Mattie C.; Xu, Wei; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Turk, John; Kuhlmann, F. Matthew; Wang, Yingwei; Soong, Lynn; Key, Phillip; Beverley, Stephen M.; Zhang, Kai

    2009-01-01

    In eukaryotes, sphingolipids (SLs) are important membrane components and powerful signaling molecules. In Leishmania, the major group of SLs is inositol phosphorylceramide (IPC), which is common in yeast and Trypanosomatids but absent in mammals. In contrast, sphingomyelin is not synthesized by Leishmania but is abundant in mammals. In the promastigote stage in vitro, Leishmania use SL metabolism as a major pathway to produce ethanolamine (EtN), a metabolite essential for survival and differentiation from non-virulent procyclics to highly virulent metacyclics. To further probe SL metabolism, we identified a gene encoding a putative neutral sphingomyelinase (SMase) and/or IPC hydrolase (IPCase), designated ISCL (Inositol phosphoSphingolipid phospholipase C-Like). Despite the lack of sphingomyelin synthesis, L. major promastigotes exhibited a potent SMase activity which was abolished upon deletion of ISCL, and increased following over-expression by episomal complementation. ISCL-dependent activity with sphingomyelin was about 20 fold greater than that seen with IPC. Null mutants of ISCL (iscl−) showed modest accumulation of IPC, but grew and differentiated normally in vitro. Interestingly, iscl− mutants did not induce lesion pathology in the susceptible BALB/c mice, yet persisted indefinitely at low levels at the site of infection. Notably, the acute virulence of iscl− was completely restored by the expression of ISCL or heterologous mammalian or fungal SMases, but not by fungal proteins exhibiting only IPCase activity. Together, these findings strongly suggest that degradation of host-derived sphingomyelin plays a pivotal role in the proliferation of Leishmania in mammalian hosts and the manifestation of acute disease pathology. PMID:20011126

  5. Leishmania donovani Encodes a Functional Selenocysteinyl-tRNA Synthase.

    PubMed

    Manhas, Reetika; Gowri, Venkatraman Subramanian; Madhubala, Rentala

    2016-01-15

    The synthesis of selenocysteine, the 21st amino acid, occurs on its transfer RNA (tRNA), tRNA(Sec). tRNA(Sec) is initially aminoacylated with serine by seryl-tRNA synthetase and the resulting seryl moiety is converted to phosphoserine by O-phosphoseryl-tRNA kinase (PSTK) in eukaryotes. The selenium donor, selenophosphate is synthesized from selenide and ATP by selenophosphate synthetase. Selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase (SepSecS) then uses the O-phosphoseryl-tRNA(Sec) and selenophosphate to form Sec-tRNA(Sec) in eukaryotes. Here, we report the characterization of selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase from Leishmania donovani. Kinetoplastid SepSecS enzymes are phylogenetically closer to worm SepSecS. LdSepSecS was found to exist as a tetramer. Leishmania SepSecS enzyme was found to be active and able to complement the ΔselA deletion in Escherichia coli JS1 strain only in the presence of archaeal PSTK, indicating the conserved nature of the PSTK-SepSecS pathway. LdSepSecS was found to localize in the cytoplasm of the parasite. Gene deletion studies indicate that Leishmania SepSecS is dispensable for the parasite survival. The parasite was found to encode three selenoproteins, which were only expressed in the presence of SepSecS. Selenoproteins of L. donovani are not required for the growth of the promastigotes. Auranofin, a known inhibitor of selenoprotein synthesis showed the same sensitivity toward the wild-type and null mutants suggesting its effect is not through binding to selenoproteins. The three-dimensional structural comparison indicates that human and Leishmania homologs are structurally highly similar but their association modes leading to tetramerization seem different. PMID:26586914

  6. A Historical Overview of the Classification, Evolution, and Dispersion of Leishmania Parasites and Sandflies

    PubMed Central

    Akhoundi, Mohammad; Kuhls, Katrin; Cannet, Arnaud; Votýpka, Jan; Marty, Pierre; Delaunay, Pascal; Sereno, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to describe the major evolutionary historical events among Leishmania, sandflies, and the associated animal reservoirs in detail, in accordance with the geographical evolution of the Earth, which has not been previously discussed on a large scale. Methodology and Principal Findings Leishmania and sandfly classification has always been a controversial matter, and the increasing number of species currently described further complicates this issue. Despite several hypotheses on the origin, evolution, and distribution of Leishmania and sandflies in the Old and New World, no consistent agreement exists regarding dissemination of the actors that play roles in leishmaniasis. For this purpose, we present here three centuries of research on sandflies and Leishmania descriptions, as well as a complete description of Leishmania and sandfly fossils and the emergence date of each Leishmania and sandfly group during different geographical periods, from 550 million years ago until now. We discuss critically the different approaches that were used for Leishmana and sandfly classification and their synonymies, proposing an updated classification for each species of Leishmania and sandfly. We update information on the current distribution and dispersion of different species of Leishmania (53), sandflies (more than 800 at genus or subgenus level), and animal reservoirs in each of the following geographical ecozones: Palearctic, Nearctic, Neotropic, Afrotropical, Oriental, Malagasy, and Australian. We propose an updated list of the potential and proven sandfly vectors for each Leishmania species in the Old and New World. Finally, we address a classical question about digenetic Leishmania evolution: which was the first host, a vertebrate or an invertebrate? Conclusions and Significance We propose an updated view of events that have played important roles in the geographical dispersion of sandflies, in relation to both the Leishmania species they

  7. The Dynamics of Lateral Gene Transfer in Genus Leishmania - A Route for Adaptation and Species Diversification

    PubMed Central

    Vikeved, Elisabet; Backlund, Anders; Alsmark, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Background The genome of Leishmania major harbours a comparably high proportion of genes of prokaryote origin, acquired by lateral gene transfer (LGT). Some of these are present in closely related trypanosomatids, while some are detected in Leishmania only. We have evaluated the impact and destiny of LGT in genus Leishmania. Methodology/Principal Findings To study the dynamics and fate of LGTs we have performed phylogenetic, as well as nucleotide and amino acid composition analyses within orthologous groups of LGTs detected in Leishmania. A set of universal trypanosomatid LGTs was added as a reference group. Both groups of LGTs have, to some extent, ameliorated to resemble the recipient genomes. However, while virtually all of the universal trypanosomatid LGTs are distributed and conserved in the entire genus Leishmania, the LGTs uniquely present in genus Leishmania are more prone to gene loss and display faster rates of evolution. Furthermore, a PCR based approach has been employed to ascertain the presence of a set of twenty LGTs uniquely present in genus Leishmania, and three universal trypanosomatid LGTs, in ten additional strains of Leishmania. Evolutionary rates and predicted expression levels of these LGTs have also been estimated. Ten of the twenty LGTs are distributed and conserved in all species investigated, while the remainder have been subjected to modifications, or undergone pseudogenization, degradation or loss in one or more species. Conclusions/Significance LGTs unique to the genus Leishmania have been acquired after the divergence of Leishmania from the other trypanosomatids, and are evolving faster than their recipient genomes. This implies that LGT in genus Leishmania is a continuous and dynamic process contributing to species differentiation and speciation. This study also highlights the importance of carefully evaluating these dynamic genes, e.g. as LGTs have been suggested as potential drug targets. PMID:26730948

  8. Evidence incriminating midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) as potential vectors of Leishmania in Australia.

    PubMed

    Dougall, Annette M; Alexander, Bruce; Holt, Deborah C; Harris, Tegan; Sultan, Amal H; Bates, Paul A; Rose, Karrie; Walton, Shelley F

    2011-04-01

    The first autochthonous Leishmania infection in Australia was reported by Rose et al. (2004) and the parasite was characterised as a unique species. The host was the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) but the transmitting vector was unknown. To incriminate the biological vector, insect trapping by a variety of methods was undertaken at two field sites of known Leishmania transmission. Collected sand flies were identified to species level and were screened for Leishmania DNA using a semi-quantitative real-time PCR. Collections revealed four species of sand fly, with a predominance of the reptile biter Sergentomyia queenslandi (Hill). However, no Leishmania-positive flies were detected. Therefore, alternative vectors were investigated for infection, giving startling results. Screening revealed that an undescribed species of day-feeding midge, subgenus Forcipomyia (Lasiohelea) Kieffer, had a prevalence of up to 15% for Leishmania DNA, with high parasitemia in some individuals. Manual gut dissections confirmed the presence of promastigotes and in some midges material similar to promastigote secretory gel, including parasites with metacyclic-like morphology. Parasites were cultured from infected midges and sequence analysis of the Leishmania RNA polymerase subunit II gene confirmed infections were identical to the original isolated Leishmania sp. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the closest known species to be Leishmania enriettii, with this and the Australian species confirmed as members of Leishmania sensu stricto. Collectively the results strongly suggest that the day-feeding midge (F. (Lasiohelea) sp. 1) is a potential biological vector of Leishmania in northern Australia, which is to our knowledge the first evidence of a vector other than a phlebotomine sand fly anywhere in the world. These findings have considerable implications in the understanding of the Leishmania life cycle worldwide. PMID:21251914

  9. Leishmania mexicana mexicana: quantitative analysis of the intracellular cycle.

    PubMed

    Doyle, P S; Engel, J C; Gam, A A; Dvorak, J A

    1989-12-01

    The complete intracellular cycle of the Leishmania mexicana mexicana G. S. strain was quantified in human macrophages and in the mouse IC-21 macrophage line utilizing a culture system that allows the direct observation of individual intracellular parasites. A wide range of pre-replicative lag periods exists, implying that promastigotes may be in any phase of their DNA synthetic cycle when phagocytosed by the macrophage. Amastigotes replicated 2-3 times, after which the host cell died and liberated amastigotes that were taken up by other macrophages and continued to replicate. The mean amastigote population-doubling time in human macrophages (17.5 h) was not statistically different from promastigotes growing in axenic culture (16.4 h), but was nearly 2-fold less than amastigotes growing in mouse-derived IC-21 macrophages (33.7 h). These observations are markedly different from cover-glass culture assays of Leishmania-macrophage interactions and provide an unambiguous description of the intracellular cycle of Leishmania mexicana mexicana. PMID:2608309

  10. Comprehensive Proteomics Analysis of Glycosomes from Leishmania donovani

    PubMed Central

    Jamdhade, Mahendra D.; Pawar, Harsh; Chavan, Sandip; Sathe, Gajanan; Umasankar, P.K.; Mahale, Kiran N.; Dixit, Tanwi; Madugundu, Anil K.; Prasad, T.S. Keshava; Gowda, Harsha

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Leishmania donovani is a kinetoplastid protozoan that causes a severe and fatal disease kala-azar, or visceral leishmaniasis. L. donovani infects human host after the phlebotomine sandfly takes a blood meal and resides within the phagolysosome of infected macrophages. Previous studies on host–parasite interactions have not focused on Leishmania organelles and the role that they play in the survival of this parasite within macrophages. Leishmania possess glycosomes that are unique and specialized subcellular microbody organelles. Glycosomes are known to harbor most peroxisomal enzymes and, in addition, they also possess nine glycolytic enzymes. In the present study, we have carried out proteomic profiling using high resolution mass spectrometry of a sucrose density gradient-enriched glycosomal fraction isolated from L. donovani promastigotes. This study resulted in the identification of 4022 unique peptides, leading to the identification of 1355 unique proteins from a preparation enriched in L. donovani glycosomes. Based on protein annotation, 566 (41.8%) were identified as hypothetical proteins with no known function. A majority of the identified proteins are involved in metabolic processes such as carbohydrate, lipid, and nucleic acid metabolism. Our present proteomic analysis is the most comprehensive study to date to map the proteome of L. donovani glycosomes. PMID:25748437

  11. Passive transfer of leishmania lipopolysaccharide confers parasite survival in macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Handman, E.; Schnur, L.F.; Spithill, T.W.; Mitchell, G.F.

    1986-12-01

    Infection of macrophages by the intracellular protozoan parasite Leishmania involves specific attachment to the host membrane, followed by phagocytosis and intracellular survival and growth. Two parasite molecules have been implicated in the attachment event: Leishmania lipopolysaccharide (L-LPS) and a glycoprotein (gp63). This study was designed to clarify the role of L-LPS in infection and the stage in the process of infection at which it operates. The authors have recently identified a Leishmania major strain (LRC-L119) which lacks the L-LPS molecule and is not infective for hamsters or mice. This parasite was isolated from a gerbil in Kenya and was identified phenotypically as L. major by isoenzyme and fatty acid analysis. In this study they have confirmed at the genotype level that LRC-L119 is L. major by analyzing and comparing the organization of cloned DNA sequences in the genome of different strains of L. major. Here they show that LRC-L119 promastigotes are phagocytosed rapidly by macrophages in vitro, but in contrast to virulent strains of L. major, they are then killed over a period of 18 hr. In addition, they show that transfer of purified L-LPS from a virulent clone of L. major (V121) into LRC-L119 promastigotes confers on them the ability to survive in macrophages in vitro.

  12. Immunopathological Features of Canine Myocarditis Associated with Leishmania infantum Infection

    PubMed Central

    Piegari, Giuseppe; Otrocka-Domagala, Iwona; Ciccarelli, Davide; Iovane, Valentina; Oliva, Gaetano; Russo, Valeria; Rinaldi, Laura; Papparella, Serenella; Paciello, Orlando

    2016-01-01

    Myocarditis associated with infectious diseases may occur in dogs, including those caused by the protozoa Neospora caninum, Trypanosoma cruzi, Babesia canis, and Hepatozoon canis. However, although cardiac disease due to Leishmania infection has also been documented, the immunopathological features of myocarditis have not been reported so far. The aim of this study was to examine the types of cellular infiltrates and expression of MHC classes I and II in myocardial samples obtained at necropsy from 15 dogs with an established intravitam diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. Pathological features of myocardium were characterized by hyaline degeneration of cardiomyocytes, necrosis, and infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells consisting of lymphocytes and macrophages, sometimes with perivascular pattern; fibrosis was also present in various degrees. Immunophenotyping of inflammatory cells was performed by immunohistochemistry on cryostat sections obtained from the heart of the infected dogs. The predominant leukocyte population was CD8+ with a fewer number of CD4+ cells. Many cardiomyocytes expressed MHC classes I and II on the sarcolemma. Leishmania amastigote forms were not detected within macrophages or any other cell of the examined samples. Our study provided evidence that myocarditis in canine visceral leishmaniasis might be related to immunological alterations associated with Leishmania infection. PMID:27413751

  13. An unconventional form of actin in protozoan hemoflagellate, Leishmania.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Prabodh; Sahasrabuddhe, Amogh A; Kumar, Ashutosh; Mitra, Kalyan; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Gupta, Chhitar M

    2008-08-15

    Leishmania actin was cloned, overexpressed in baculovirus-insect cell system, and purified to homogeneity. The purified protein polymerized optimally in the presence of Mg2+ and ATP, but differed from conventional actins in its following properties: (i) it did not polymerize in the presence of Mg2+ alone, (ii) it polymerized in a restricted range of pH 7.0-8.5, (iii) its critical concentration for polymerization was found to be 3-4-fold lower than of muscle actin, (iv) it predominantly formed bundles rather than single filaments at pH 8.0, (v) it displayed considerably higher ATPase activity during polymerization, (vi) it did not inhibit DNase-I activity, and (vii) it did not bind the F-actin-binding toxin phalloidin or the actin polymerization disrupting agent Latrunculin B. Computational and molecular modeling studies revealed that the observed unconventional behavior of Leishmania actin is related to the diverged amino acid stretches in its sequence, which may lead to changes in the overall charge distribution on its solvent-exposed surface, ATP binding cleft, Mg2+ binding sites, and the hydrophobic loop that is involved in monomer-monomer interactions. Phylogenetically, it is related to ciliate actins, but to the best of our knowledge, no other actin with such unconventional properties has been reported to date. It is therefore suggested that actin in Leishmania may serve as a novel target for design of new antileishmanial drugs. PMID:18539603

  14. Fitness and Phenotypic Characterization of Miltefosine-Resistant Leishmania major

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Kimbra G.; Vacchina, Paola; Robles-Murguia, Maricela; Wadsworth, Mariha; McDowell, Mary Ann; Morales, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosomatid parasites of the genus Leishmania are the causative agents of leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease with several clinical manifestations. Leishmania major is the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), which is largely characterized by ulcerative lesions appearing on the skin. Current treatments of leishmaniasis include pentavalent antimonials and amphotericin B, however, the toxic side effects of these drugs and difficulty with distribution makes these options less than ideal. Miltefosine (MIL) is the first oral treatment available for leishmaniasis. Originally developed for cancer chemotherapy, the mechanism of action of MIL in Leishmania spp. is largely unknown. While treatment with MIL has proven effective, higher tolerance to the drug has been observed, and resistance is easily developed in an in vitro environment. Utilizing stepwise selection we generated MIL-resistant cultures of L. major and characterized the fitness of MIL-resistant L. major. Resistant parasites proliferate at a comparable rate to the wild-type (WT) and exhibit similar apoptotic responses. As expected, MIL-resistant parasites demonstrate decreased susceptibility to MIL, which reduces after the drug is withdrawn from culture. Our data demonstrate metacyclogenesis is elevated in MIL-resistant L. major, albeit these parasites display attenuated in vitro and in vivo virulence and standard survival rates in the natural sandfly vector, indicating that development of experimental resistance to miltefosine does not lead to an increased competitive fitness in L. major. PMID:26230675

  15. Lipophosphoglycan blocks attachment of Leishmania major amastigotes to macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kelleher, M; Moody, S F; Mirabile, P; Osborn, A H; Bacic, A; Handman, E

    1995-01-01

    Promastigotes of the intracellular protozoan parasite Leishmania major invade mononuclear phagocytes by a direct interaction between the cell surface lipophosphoglycan found on all Leishmania species and macrophage receptors. This interaction is mediated by phosphoglycan repeats containing oligomers of beta (1-3)Gal residues specific to L. major. We show here that although amastigotes also use lipophosphoglycan to bind to both primary macrophages and a cell line, this interaction is independent of the beta (1-3)Gal residues employed by promastigotes. Binding of amastigotes to macrophages could be blocked by intact lipophosphoglycan from L. major amastigotes as well as by lipophosphoglycan from promastigotes of several other Leishmania species, suggesting involvement of a conserved domain. Binding of amastigotes to macrophages could be blocked significantly by the monoclonal antibody WIC 108.3, directed to the lipophosphoglycan backbone. The glycan core of lipophosphoglycan could also inhibit attachment of amastigotes, but to a considerably lesser extent. The glycan core structure is also present in the type 2 glycoinositolphospholipids which are expressed on the surface of amastigotes at 100-fold-higher levels than lipophosphoglycan. However, their inhibitory effect could not be increased even when they were used at a 300-fold-higher concentration than lipophosphoglycan, indicating that lipophosphoglycan is the major macrophage-binding molecule on amastigotes of L. major. In the presence of complement, the attachment of amastigotes to macrophages was not altered, suggesting that lipophosphoglycan interacts directly with macrophage receptors. PMID:7806383

  16. Regulation of macrophage IL-12 synthesis by Leishmania phosphoglycans.

    PubMed

    Piedrafita, D; Proudfoot, L; Nikolaev, A V; Xu, D; Sands, W; Feng, G J; Thomas, E; Brewer, J; Ferguson, M A; Alexander, J; Liew, F Y

    1999-01-01

    It is now generally accepted that IFN-gamma, secreted by Th1 cells, is the most potent cytokine leading to macrophage activation and host resistance against infection with the intracellular protozoan parasite Leishmania. It is also established that IL-12 is a critical cytokine involved in the differentiation and expansion of Th1 cells. Therefore, the ability of Leishmania parasites to actively suppress IL-12 production by host macrophages may be an important strategy for parasite survival. Here we report that a major parasite cell surface molecule, phosphoglycan (PG), of Leishmania could selectively inhibit the synthesis of IL-12(p40, p70) by activated murine macrophages. Furthermore, synthetic PG (sPG) was able to inhibit IL-12 release in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition was dependent on the galactose(beta1-4)mannose(alpha1)-PO4 repeating units and not the glycophosphoinositol lipid anchor of lipophosphoglycan. At the concentration used, sPG had no effect on the release of TNF-alpha or IL-6 in activated macrophages. The inhibition of IL-12(p40) production was at the transcriptional level, but was not mediated through NF kappaB inhibition. These data demonstrate that PG may be an important molecule for the establishment and survival of the parasite in permissive hosts. PMID:9933105

  17. Deception and Manipulation: The Arms of Leishmania, a Successful Parasite

    PubMed Central

    Cecílio, Pedro; Pérez-Cabezas, Begoña; Santarém, Nuno; Maciel, Joana; Rodrigues, Vasco; Cordeiro da Silva, Anabela

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania spp. are intracellular parasitic protozoa responsible for a group of neglected tropical diseases, endemic in 98 countries around the world, called leishmaniasis. These parasites have a complex digenetic life cycle requiring a susceptible vertebrate host and a permissive insect vector, which allow their transmission. The clinical manifestations associated with leishmaniasis depend on complex interactions between the parasite and the host immune system. Consequently, leishmaniasis can be manifested as a self-healing cutaneous affliction or a visceral pathology, being the last one fatal in 85–90% of untreated cases. As a result of a long host–parasite co-evolutionary process, Leishmania spp. developed different immunomodulatory strategies that are essential for the establishment of infection. Only through deception and manipulation of the immune system, Leishmania spp. can complete its life cycle and survive. The understanding of the mechanisms associated with immune evasion and disease progression is essential for the development of novel therapies and vaccine approaches. Here, we revise how the parasite manipulates cell death and immune responses to survive and thrive in the shadow of the immune system. PMID:25368612

  18. First occurrence of an autochthonous canine case of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi in the municipality of Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Savani, Elisa San Martin Mouriz; Presotto, Douglas; Roberto, Thais; Camargo, Maria Cecília Gibrail de Oliveira; D'auria, Sandra Regina Nicoletti; Sacramento, Débora Veiga

    2011-01-01

    An autochthonous case of visceral leishmaniasis is reported in a dog (Canis familiaris) as an apparently natural infection in a non-endemic area. DNA obtained from spleen and liver samples produced the expected fragment in a Leishmania-specific rDNA-based nested-PCR assay. The PCR product, a 490 bp fragment, was sequenced and the nucleotide sequence was identical to that of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi. These results are surprising since no autochthonous human or canine cases of visceral leishmaniasis have ever been reported in this municipality. This case suggests that natural transmission of this disease is occurring in this area. PMID:21915468

  19. Leishmania (Leishmania) hertigi in a porcupine (Coendou sp.) found in Brasília, Federal District, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Denise Amaro da; Madeira, Maria de Fatima; Barbosa Filho, Carlos José Lima; Schubach, Edvar Yuri Paheco; Barros, Juliana Helena da Silva; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges

    2013-01-01

    Studies report the occurrence of Leishmania (Leishmania) hertigi in northern states of Brazil. In the present investigation, we describe the isolation of L. (L.) hertigi from a porcupine (Coendou sp.) found in Brasília, Federal District, center-west region of Brazil. During a study on canine visceral leishmaniasis conducted in the city of Brasília, Federal District, a porcupine was found dead on a public road. The animal was identified and fragments of intact skin and spleen were collected for isolation of parasite in the culture. This report of the occurrence of L. hertigi in another part of Brazil may help establish the distribution of this parasite in the country. Further studies are needed to better understand the role of L. hertigi in the pathology and pathogenesis of leishmaniasis and its survival in mammals and possible vectors. PMID:23538497

  20. [Infection of skin fibroblasts in animals with different levels of sensitivity to Leishmania infantum and Leishmania mexicana (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae)].

    PubMed

    Minero, Miguel Angel; Chinchilla, Misael; Guerrero, Olga Marta; Castro, Alfredo

    2004-03-01

    Infection and multiplication of Leishmania infantum and L. mexicana inside of skin fibroblasts from hamsters, mice and rats was achieved. This process was demonstrated either by counting parasites inside the stained cells or by electronic microscopy studies. In addition multiplication rate differences in the cells from these rodent species were determined, for L. infantum as well as for L. mexicana. Parasite development in hamsters and mice fibroblasts was evident but there was not multiplication in rat cells showing that apparently they are refractory to Leishmania infection. These results suggest that the parasite affinity for each animal, as well as any intracellular environment resistance, could involve genetic factors in the parasite multiplication. On the other hand, presence of amastigote multiplication inside of parasitophorus vacuole, showed by electronic microscopy images, probes a true parasite transformation. Therefore it is suggested that fibroblasts could work as host cells for parasite survival and permanency in the infected animals. PMID:17357424

  1. Leishmanial Excreted Factor: Protein-Bound and Free Forms from Promastigote Cultures of Leishmania tropica and Leishmania donovani

    PubMed Central

    Slutzky, Gerald M.; El-On, Joseph; Greenblatt, Charles L.

    1979-01-01

    Leishmania spp. growing in culture produce an immunologically active substance called excreted factor (EF), which precipitates antibodies raised against intact cells and has been implicated as the conditioning agent for parasite infection of host macrophages. An improved method for isolation of the material is described, based on Sephadex column chromatography of growth medium which had been boiled at pH 5.0. This procedure allows the detection of differences among the EF molecules of different species, and it overcomes previous shortcomings through the monitoring of immunological activity throughout. Analysis of the products of this procedure revealed that EFs from Leishmania tropica and Leishmania donovani share a common carrier protein, identified as rabbit serum albumin, and are chemically quite similar. Growth medium from L. tropica boiled at acidic pH contains primarily an EF-albumin complex of 75,000 molecular weight. Treated growth medium from L. donovani, on the other hand, contains both the albumin complex and a smaller molecule (less than 27,000 molecular weight) that is not associated with rabbit protein. This material accounts for nearly 20% of the EF of one L. donovani strain, but constitutes only a minute fraction of L. tropica EF. Treatment of the EF-albumin complex with trichloroacetic acid separates the molecule into two major subunits, one having a molecular weight of about 61,000 (without anti-Leishmania activity) and the other having a molecular weight of about 18,000 (with no anti-rabbit activity). The protein-free EF of L. tropica differs from that released by trichloroacetic acid extraction in that it is capable of precipitating antisera of nonhomologous serotypes, whereas the albumin complex and the trichloroacetic acid-treated EF fragment are not. EFs from both species display pH-dependent affinity for certain lectins. Images PMID:118936

  2. Canine Leishmania vaccines: still a long way to go.

    PubMed

    Gradoni, Luigi

    2015-02-28

    Dogs are the main reservoir host for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis, a sand fly-borne disease caused by Leishmania infantum. In endemic areas, "susceptible" dogs suffer from a severe disease characterized by chronic polymorphic viscerocutaneous signs that manifest several months from the exposure, whereas "resistant" dogs can remain subclinically infected for years or lifelong. The protective immune response to Leishmania is cell-mediated; for visceralizing Leishmania species a mixed T helper (Th)1/Th2 response with a dominant Th1 profile is required for protection. The activation of the adaptive immune system in naturally resistant dogs is revealed by parasite-specific lymphoproliferation, delayed-type hypersensitivity, the production of interferon-γ and tumour necrosis factor-α cytokines, and enhanced macrophage leishmanicidal activity via nitric oxide. Hence, an effective canine Leishmania vaccine should induce strong and long-lasting Th1-dominated immunity to control both infection progression and the parasite transmissibility via the vector. Preclinical research in rodent models has evaluated the efficacy of several categories of Leishmania antigens including killed parasites, cell purified fractions, parasite protein components or subunits, single or multiple chimeric recombinant proteins, plasmid DNA and viral particles encoding parasite virulence factors. Promising antigen(s)/adjuvant combinations from each of the above categories have also been tested in dogs; they mostly resulted in limited or no protection in Phase I-II studies (designed to test vaccine safety, immunogenicity and laboratory-induced protection) in which vaccinated dogs were challenged by the artificial intravenous injection of high-load L. infantum promastigotes. The recombinant A2 antigen plus saponin conferred about 40% protection against infection by this challenge system and has been registered in Brazil as a canine vaccine (LeishTec(®)). An increasing number of efficacy studies

  3. In vivo and in vitro phagocytosis of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis promastigotes by B-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Geraldo, M M; Costa, C R; Barbosa, F M C; Vivanco, B C; Gonzaga, W F K M; Novaes E Brito, R R; Popi, A F; Lopes, J D; Xander, P

    2016-06-01

    Leishmaniasis is caused by Leishmania parasites that infect several cell types. The promastigote stage of Leishmania is internalized by phagocytic cells and transformed into the obligate intracellular amastigote form. B-1 cells are a subpopulation of B cells that are able to differentiate in vitro and in vivo into mononuclear phagocyte-like cells with phagocytic properties. B-1 cells use several receptors for phagocytosis, such as the mannose receptor and third complement receptor. Leishmania binds to the same receptors on macrophages. In this study, we demonstrated that phagocytes derived from B-1 cells (B-1 CDP) were able to internalize promastigotes of L. (L.) amazonensis in vitro. The internalized promastigotes differentiated into amastigotes. Our results showed that the phagocytic index was higher in B-1 CDP compared to peritoneal macrophages and bone marrow-derived macrophages. The in vivo phagocytic ability of B-1 cells was also demonstrated. Parasites were detected inside purified B-1 cells after intraperitoneal infection with L. (L.) amazonensis promastigotes. Intraperitoneal stimulation with the parasites led to an increase in both IL-10 and TNF-α. These results highlight the importance of studying B-1 CDP cells as phagocytic cells that can participate and contribute to immunity to parasites. PMID:27084328

  4. Recombinant Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum Ecto-Nucleoside Triphosphate Diphosphohydrolase NTPDase-2 as a new antigen in canine visceral leishmaniasis diagnosis.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Ronny Francisco; Dos Santos, Yaro Luciolo; de Souza Vasconcellos, Raphael; Borges-Pereira, Lucas; Caldas, Ivo Santana; de Almeida, Márcia Rogéria; Bahia, Maria Terezinha; Fietto, Juliana Lopes Rangel

    2013-01-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis is an important public health concern. In the epidemiological context of human visceral leishmaniasis, dogs are considered the main reservoir of Leishmania parasites; therefore, dogs must be epidemiologically monitored constantly in endemic areas. Furthermore, dog to human transmission has been correlated with emerging urbanization and increasing rates of leishmaniasis infection worldwide. Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum (L. chagasi) is the etiologic agent of visceral leishmaniasis in the New World. In this work, a new L. (L.) infantum (L. chagasi) recombinant antigen, named ATP diphosphohydrolase (rLic-NTPDase-2), intended for use in the immunodiagnosis of CVL was produced and validated. The extracellular domain of ATP diphosphohydrolase was cloned and expressed in the pET21b-Escherichia coli expression system. Indirect ELISA assays were used to detect the purified rLic-NTPDase-2 antigen using a standard canine sera library. This library contained CVL-positive samples, leishmaniasis-negative samples and samples from Trypanosoma cruzi-infected dogs. The results show a high sensitivity of 100% (95% CI=92.60-100.0%) and a high specificity of 100% (95% CI=86.77-100.0%), with a high degree of confidence (k=1). These findings demonstrate the potential use of this recombinant protein in immune diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis and open the possibility of its application to other diagnostic approaches, such as immunochromatography fast lateral flow assays and human leishmaniasis diagnosis. PMID:23022017

  5. Deficiency of Leishmania phosphoglycans influences the magnitude but does not affect the quality of secondary (memory) anti-Leishmania immunity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Okwor, Ifeoma; Mou, Zhirong; Beverley, Stephen M; Uzonna, Jude E

    2013-01-01

    Despite inducing very low IFN-γ response and highly attenuated in vivo, infection of mice with phosphoglycan (PG) deficient Leishmania major (lpg2-) induces protection against virulent L. major challenge. Here, we show that mice infected with lpg2- L. major generate Leishmania-specific memory T cells. However, in vitro and in vivo proliferation, IL-10 and IFN-γ production by lpg2- induced memory cells were impaired in comparison to those induced by wild type (WT) parasites. Interestingly, TNF recall response was comparable to WT infected mice. Despite the impaired proliferation and IFN-γ response, lpg2- infected mice were protected against virulent L. major challenge and their T cells mediated efficient infection-induced immunity. In vivo depletion and neutralization studies with mAbs demonstrated that lpg2- L. major-induced resistance was strongly dependent on IFN-γ, but independent of TNF and CD8(+) T cells. Collectively, these data show that the effectiveness of secondary anti-Leishmania immunity depends on the quality (and not the magnitude) of IFN-γ response. These observations provide further support for consideration of lpg2- L. major as a live-attenuated candidate for leishmanization in humans since it protects strongly against virulent challenge, without inducing pathology in infected animals. PMID:23776605

  6. Deficiency of Leishmania Phosphoglycans Influences the Magnitude but Does Not Affect the Quality of Secondary (Memory) Anti-Leishmania Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dong; Okwor, Ifeoma; Mou, Zhirong; Beverley, Stephen M.; Uzonna, Jude E.

    2013-01-01

    Despite inducing very low IFN-γ response and highly attenuated in vivo, infection of mice with phosphoglycan (PG) deficient Leishmania major (lpg2-) induces protection against virulent L. major challenge. Here, we show that mice infected with lpg2- L. major generate Leishmania-specific memory T cells. However, in vitro and in vivo proliferation, IL-10 and IFN-γ production by lpg2- induced memory cells were impaired in comparison to those induced by wild type (WT) parasites. Interestingly, TNF recall response was comparable to WT infected mice. Despite the impaired proliferation and IFN-γ response, lpg2- infected mice were protected against virulent L. major challenge and their T cells mediated efficient infection-induced immunity. In vivo depletion and neutralization studies with mAbs demonstrated that lpg2- L. major-induced resistance was strongly dependent on IFN-γ, but independent of TNF and CD8+ T cells. Collectively, these data show that the effectiveness of secondary anti-Leishmania immunity depends on the quality (and not the magnitude) of IFN-γ response. These observations provide further support for consideration of lpg2- L. major as a live-attenuated candidate for leishmanization in humans since it protects strongly against virulent challenge, without inducing pathology in infected animals. PMID:23776605

  7. Statin-induced chronic cholesterol depletion inhibits Leishmania donovani infection: Relevance of optimum host membrane cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Kumar, G Aditya; Roy, Saptarshi; Jafurulla, Md; Mandal, Chitra; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha

    2016-09-01

    Leishmania are obligate intracellular protozoan parasites that invade and survive within host macrophages leading to leishmaniasis, a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, particularly among economically weaker sections in tropical and subtropical regions. Visceral leishmaniasis is a potent disease caused by Leishmania donovani. The detailed mechanism of internalization of Leishmania is poorly understood. A basic step in the entry of Leishmania involves interaction of the parasite with the host plasma membrane. In this work, we have explored the effect of chronic metabolic cholesterol depletion using lovastatin on the entry and survival of Leishmania donovani in host macrophages. We show here that chronic cholesterol depletion of host macrophages results in reduction in the attachment of Leishmania promastigotes, along with a concomitant reduction in the intracellular amastigote load. These results assume further relevance since chronic cholesterol depletion is believed to mimic physiological cholesterol modulation. Interestingly, the reduction in the ability of Leishmania to enter host macrophages could be reversed upon metabolic replenishment of cholesterol. Importantly, enrichment of host membrane cholesterol resulted in reduction in the entry and survival of Leishmania in host macrophages. As a control, the binding of Escherichia coli to host macrophages remained invariant under these conditions, thereby implying specificity of cholesterol requirement for effective leishmanial infection. To the best of our knowledge, these results constitute the first comprehensive demonstration that an optimum content of host membrane cholesterol is necessary for leishmanial infection. Our results assume relevance in the context of developing novel therapeutic strategies targeting cholesterol-mediated leishmanial infection. PMID:27319380

  8. The roles of complement receptor 3 and Fcγ receptors during Leishmania phagosome maturation

    PubMed Central

    Polando, Rachel; Dixit, Upasna Gaur; Carter, Cristina R.; Jones, Blake; Whitcomb, James P.; Ballhorn, Wibke; Harintho, Melissa; Jerde, Christopher L.; Wilson, Mary E.; McDowell, Mary Ann

    2013-01-01

    Leishmania are intracellular parasites adapted to surviving in macrophages, whose primary function is elimination of invading pathogens. Leishmania entry into host cells is receptor-mediated. These parasites are able to engage multiple host cell-surface receptors, including MR, TLRs, CR3, and FcγRs. Here, we investigated the role of CR3 and FcγR engagement on the maturation of Leishmania-containing phagosomes using CD11b−/− and FcγR−/− macrophages, and assessing EEA1 and lysosome-associated proteins is necessary for the phagosome maturation delay, characteristic of Leishmania infection. Leishmania-containing phagosomes do not fuse with lyosomes until 5 h postinfection in WT mice. Phagolysosome fusion occurs by 1 h in CD11b and FcγR common chain KO macrophages, although receptor deficiency does not influence Leishmania entry or viability. We also investigated the influence of serum components and their effects on phagosome maturation progression. Opsonization with normal mouse serum, complement-deficient serum, or serum from Leishmania-infected mice all influenced phagosome maturation progression. Our results indicate that opsonophagocytosis influences phagosomal trafficking of Leishmania without altering the intracellular fate. PMID:23543768

  9. Surveillance for antibodies to Leishmania spp. in dogs from Sri Lanka and India

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The global distribution of leishmaniasis is rapidly expanding into new geographic regions. Dogs are the primary reservoir hosts for human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by infection with Leishmania infantum. Natural infections with other Leishmania species can occur in dogs, but their role as re...

  10. Survey of antibodies to Leishmania spp. in wild canids from Pennsylvania and Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Rosypal, Alexa C; Alexander, Andrew; Byrd, Darrica; Weaver, Melanie; Stewart, Richard; Gerhold, Richard; Houston, Allan; Van Why, Kyle; Dubey, Jitender P

    2013-12-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonosis with worldwide distribution. Infections with the Leishmania donovani complex, including Leishmania infantum, cause the VL. Domestic dogs are the most important reservoir host for human VL, and wild canids are also susceptible. In the United States, infections with L. infantum are common in the foxhound dog breed. Little information is available regarding L. infantum in wild canids in the Unites States. Sera from 11 foxes and 256 coyotes originating in Pennsylvania and Tennessee (USA) were tested for antibodies to visceralizing Leishmania spp. with rapid immunochromatographic dipstick assays, which utilize recombinant antigen K39. Anti-Leishmania spp. antibodies were found in 5 of 267 (1.9%) of wild canids from Pennsylvania, including four coyotes and one red fox. These results suggest that wild canids are exposed to Leishmania spp. at a low level in the United States. PMID:24450086

  11. Clinical manifestations and genetic variation of Leishmania infantum and Leishmania tropica in Southern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Eroglu, Fadime; Koltas, Ismail S; Alabaz, Derya; Uzun, Soner; Karakas, Mehmet

    2015-07-01

    L. infantum was isolated from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) skin lesions in patients having no signs and symptoms of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Similarly, L. tropica had previously been isolated from patients with VL in the absence of cutaneous lesions. It was not certain how visceralization occurred. Smears (207) and bone marrow samples (135) were taken from CL and VL-suspected patients, respectively. Microscopic examination, ITS1-PCR, RFLP and DNA sequencing for all samples were analyzed. The microscopic examination of smears was found to be 61.3% (127/207) in CL-suspected cases and bone marrow samples were found to be positive 8.8% (12/135) in VL-suspected cases. L. tropica 48.6% (72/148), L. infantum 35.8% (53/148), L. major 15.6% (23/148) in CL, and L. infantum 56.3% (18/32), L. donovani 31.2% (10/32), L. tropica 12.5% (4/32) in VL were found with PCR-RFLP. In addition, the DNA sequencing revealed a genetic variation in L. infantum (variants 1-3) and L. tropica (variants 1-5). We assume that the increased disease occurrence may have resulted from geographical expansion of disease, changing patterns of international travel, population migrations, non-immune people into endemic regions of infected people into non-endemic regions. In this study, L. infantum (variant 3) only in CL-patients and L. tropica (variant 2) only in VL-patients were identified. We hypothesize that genetic variation might play a role in the causation of CL and VL in southern Turkey and the genetic variants may differ according to the geographical location among Leishmania strains. PMID:25913665

  12. Characterization of Leishmania (Leishmania) waltoni n.sp. (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), the Parasite Responsible for Diffuse Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Jeffrey; Pratlong, Francine; Floeter-Winter, Lucile; Ishikawa, Edna; El Baidouri, Fouad; Ravel, Christophe; Dedet, Jean-Pierre

    2015-09-01

    Leishmania parasites isolated, between 1979 and 1988 by the late Bryce Walton, from Dominican Republic (DR) patients with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, were characterized using a panel of 12 isoenzymes, 23 monoclonal antibodies, small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSu rDNA), and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA). The isoenzyme and monoclonal antibody profiles and the MLSA results showed that the Dominican Republic parasites were distinct from other described Leishmania species. This new species belongs to the mexicana complex, which is distributed in central and parts of northern South America. It is suggested that the parasites uniqueness from other members of the mexicana complex is related to it being isolated on an island for millions of years. If Leishmania (Leishmania) waltoni fails to adapt to some imported mammal, such as the house rat, it will be the only Leishmania to be classified as an endangered species. The excessive destruction of habitats on Hispaniola threatens the survival of its vectors and presumed natural reservoirs, such as the rodent hutias and the small insectivorous mammal solenodon. The concept of Leishmania species is discussed in the light of recent evaluations on criteria for defining bacterial species. PMID:26149864

  13. Characterization of Leishmania (Leishmania) waltoni n.sp. (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), the Parasite Responsible for Diffuse Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Jeffrey; Pratlong, Francine; Floeter-Winter, Lucile; Ishikawa, Edna; El Baidouri, Fouad; Ravel, Christophe; Dedet, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania parasites isolated, between 1979 and 1988 by the late Bryce Walton, from Dominican Republic (DR) patients with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, were characterized using a panel of 12 isoenzymes, 23 monoclonal antibodies, small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSu rDNA), and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA). The isoenzyme and monoclonal antibody profiles and the MLSA results showed that the Dominican Republic parasites were distinct from other described Leishmania species. This new species belongs to the mexicana complex, which is distributed in central and parts of northern South America. It is suggested that the parasites uniqueness from other members of the mexicana complex is related to it being isolated on an island for millions of years. If Leishmania (Leishmania) waltoni fails to adapt to some imported mammal, such as the house rat, it will be the only Leishmania to be classified as an endangered species. The excessive destruction of habitats on Hispaniola threatens the survival of its vectors and presumed natural reservoirs, such as the rodent hutias and the small insectivorous mammal solenodon. The concept of Leishmania species is discussed in the light of recent evaluations on criteria for defining bacterial species. PMID:26149864

  14. Attenuated Leishmania induce pro-inflammatory mediators and influence leishmanicidal activity by p38 MAPK dependent phagosome maturation in Leishmania donovani co-infected macrophages.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Somenath; Bose, Dipayan; Chatterjee, Nabanita; Das, Subhadip; Chakraborty, Sreeparna; Das, Tanya; Saha, Krishna Das

    2016-01-01

    Promastigote form of Leishmania, an intracellular pathogen, delays phagosome maturation and resides inside macrophages. But till date limited study has been done to manipulate the phagosomal machinery of macrophages to restrict Leishmania growth. Attenuated Leishmania strain exposed RAW 264.7 cells showed a respiratory burst and enhanced production of pro-inflammatory mediators. The augmentation of pro-inflammatory activity is mostly attributed to p38 MAPK and p44/42 MAPK. In our study, these activated macrophages are found to induce phagosome maturation when infected with pathogenic Leishmania donovani. Increased co-localization of carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester labeled pathogenic L. donovani with Lysosome was found. Moreover, increased co-localization was observed between pathogenic L. donovani and late phagosomal markers viz. Rab7, Lysosomal Associated Membrane Protein 1, Cathepsin D, Rab9, and V-ATPase which indicate phagosome maturation. It was also observed that inhibition of V-type ATPase caused significant hindrance in attenuated Leishmania induced phagosome maturation. Finally, it was confirmed that p38 MAPK is the key player in acidification and maturation of phagosome in attenuated Leishmania strain pre-exposed macrophages. To our knowledge, this study for the first time reported an approach to induce phagosome maturation in L. donovani infected macrophages which could potentiate short-term prophylactic response in future. PMID:26928472

  15. Attenuated Leishmania induce pro-inflammatory mediators and influence leishmanicidal activity by p38 MAPK dependent phagosome maturation in Leishmania donovani co-infected macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Somenath; Bose, Dipayan; Chatterjee, Nabanita; Das, Subhadip; Chakraborty, Sreeparna; Das, Tanya; Saha, Krishna Das

    2016-01-01

    Promastigote form of Leishmania, an intracellular pathogen, delays phagosome maturation and resides inside macrophages. But till date limited study has been done to manipulate the phagosomal machinery of macrophages to restrict Leishmania growth. Attenuated Leishmania strain exposed RAW 264.7 cells showed a respiratory burst and enhanced production of pro-inflammatory mediators. The augmentation of pro-inflammatory activity is mostly attributed to p38 MAPK and p44/42 MAPK. In our study, these activated macrophages are found to induce phagosome maturation when infected with pathogenic Leishmania donovani. Increased co-localization of carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester labeled pathogenic L. donovani with Lysosome was found. Moreover, increased co-localization was observed between pathogenic L. donovani and late phagosomal markers viz. Rab7, Lysosomal Associated Membrane Protein 1, Cathepsin D, Rab9, and V-ATPase which indicate phagosome maturation. It was also observed that inhibition of V-type ATPase caused significant hindrance in attenuated Leishmania induced phagosome maturation. Finally, it was confirmed that p38 MAPK is the key player in acidification and maturation of phagosome in attenuated Leishmania strain pre-exposed macrophages. To our knowledge, this study for the first time reported an approach to induce phagosome maturation in L. donovani infected macrophages which could potentiate short-term prophylactic response in future. PMID:26928472

  16. Differentiation of Leishmania species by FT-IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguiar, Josafá C.; Mittmann, Josane; Ferreira, Isabelle; Ferreira-Strixino, Juliana; Raniero, Leandro

    2015-05-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic infectious disease caused by protozoa that belong to the genus Leishmania. It is transmitted by the bite of an infected female Sand fly. The disease is endemic in 88 countries Desjeux (2001) [1] (16 developed countries and 72 developing countries) on four continents. In Brazil, epidemiological data show the disease is present in all Brazilian regions, with the highest incidences in the North and Northeast. There are several methods used to diagnose leishmaniasis, but these procedures have many limitations, are time consuming, have low sensitivity, and are expensive. In this context, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis has the potential to provide rapid results and may be adapted for a clinical test with high sensitivity and specificity. In this work, FT-IR was used as a tool to investigate the promastigotes of Leishmaniaamazonensis, Leishmaniachagasi, and Leishmaniamajor species. The spectra were analyzed by cluster analysis and deconvolution procedure base on spectra second derivatives. Results: cluster analysis found four specific regions that are able to identify the Leishmania species. The dendrogram representation clearly indicates the heterogeneity among Leishmania species. The band deconvolution done by the curve fitting in these regions quantitatively differentiated the polysaccharides, amide III, phospholipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. L. chagasi and L. major showed a greater biochemistry similarity and have three bands that were not registered in L. amazonensis. The L. amazonensis presented three specific bands that were not recorded in the other two species. It is evident that the FT-IR method is an indispensable tool to discriminate these parasites. The high sensitivity and specificity of this technique opens up the possibilities for further studies about characterization of other microorganisms.

  17. Protein kinase A signaling during bidirectional axenic differentiation in Leishmania.

    PubMed

    Bachmaier, Sabine; Witztum, Ronit; Tsigankov, Polina; Koren, Roni; Boshart, Michael; Zilberstein, Dan

    2016-02-01

    Parasitic protozoa of the genus Leishmania are obligatory intracellular parasites that cycle between the phagolysosome of mammalian macrophages, where they proliferate as intracellular amastigotes, and the midgut of female sand flies, where they proliferate as extracellular promastigotes. Shifting between the two environments induces signaling pathway-mediated developmental processes that enable adaptation to both host and vector. Developmentally regulated expression and phosphorylation of protein kinase A subunits in Leishmania and in Trypanosoma brucei point to an involvement of protein kinase A in parasite development. To assess this hypothesis in Leishmania donovani, we determined proteome-wide changes in phosphorylation of the conserved protein kinase A phosphorylation motifs RXXS and RXXT, using a phospho-specific antibody. Rapid dephosphorylation of these motifs was observed upon initiation of promastigote to amastigote differentiation in culture. No phosphorylated sites were detected in axenic amastigotes. To analyse the kinetics of (re)phosphorylation during axenic reverse differentiation from L. donovani amastigotes to promastigotes, we first established a map of this process with morphological and molecular markers. Upon initiation, the parasites rested for 6-12h before proliferation of an asynchronous population resumed. After early changes in cell shape, the major changes in molecular marker expression and flagella biogenesis occurred between 24 and 33h after initiation. RXXS/T re-phosphorylation and expression of the regulatory subunit PKAR1 correlated with promastigote maturation, indicating a promastigote-specific function of protein kinase A signaling. This is supported by the localization of PKAR1 to the flagellum, an organelle reduced to a remnant in amastigote forms. We conclude that a significant increase in protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation is part of the ordered changes that characterise the amastigote to promastigote differentiation

  18. Serological Evidence of Infection by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum (Synonym: Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi) in Free-Ranging Wild Mammals in a Nonendemic Region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Paiz, Laís Moraes; Fornazari, Felipe; Menozzi, Benedito Donizete; Oliveira, Gabriela Capriogli; Coiro, Carla Janeiro; Teixeira, Carlos Roberto; da Silva, Valdinei Moraes Campanucci; Donalisio, Maria Rita; Langoni, Helio

    2015-11-01

    Concerns about the interface between wildlife, domestic animals, and humans in the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) have been growing due to natural or anthropogenic environmental changes. In this context, investigations of the infection in wild mammals are important to assess their exposure to the vector and the parasite. A study of anti-Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum antibodies was carried out using the direct agglutination test (DAT) on 528 free-ranging wild mammals of 38 species from the region of Botucatu, state of São Paulo, Brazil, a municipality that has no records of the vector or of human or canine autochthony. Antibodies were detected, with a cutoff of 1:320, in 9/528 (1.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.6-2.8%) mammals of the species Callithrix jacchus, Lepus europaeus, Sphiggurus villosus, Nasua nasua, Eira barbara, and Galictis cuja, with high titers (≥1280) for the last three. These three are little-studied species, and previous records of the detection of anti-Leishmania spp. antibodies in Brazil exist only for coatis (N. nasua), whereas worldwide, infection by L. (L.) infantum has been confirmed only in hares (Le. europaeus). On the other hand, opossums and canids, the species most commonly reported to be naturally infected by L. (L.) infantum, were not seropositive. Fifty-eight (58/528; 10.9%) mammals were found to have antibody titers ranging from 20 to 160 and were not included among the seropositive animals due to the adopted cutoff. However, the possibility of infection in these animals should not be discarded, because there is no standard cutoff point for the different wild species. Our findings indicate the need for investigations into the exact role of the seropositive species in the epidemiology of VL and for effective epidemiological surveillance to prevent its expansion, because even in regions where there are no records of canine or human autochthonous cases, there may be parasite circulation among wild mammals. PMID

  19. In vitro activity of an essential oil against Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Monzote, L; García, M; Montalvo, A M; Scull, R; Miranda, M; Abreu, J

    2007-11-01

    The in vitro antileishmanial effect of the essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides against Leishmania donovani was investigated. The product showed significant activity against promastigotes and amastigotes, with a 50% effective concentration of 4.45 and 5.1 microg/mL, respectively. The essential oil caused an irreversible inhibition of the growth of promastigotes after a treatment with 100 or 10 microg/mL for 1 or 24 h, respectively. The phagocytic activity of the macrophages was preserved at a concentration toxic to the parasite. The essential oil from C. ambrosioides may be a potential candidate drug to development a new agent to combat this parasitic disease. PMID:17724767

  20. Analysis of kinetoplast cytochrome b gene of 16 Leishmania isolates from different foci of China: different species of Leishmania in China and their phylogenetic inference

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Leishmania species belong to the family Trypanosomatidae and cause leishmaniasis, a geographically widespread disease that infects humans and other vertebrates. This disease remains endemic in China. Due to the large geographic area and complex ecological environment, the taxonomic position and phylogenetic relationship of Chinese Leishmania isolates remain uncertain. A recent internal transcribed spacer 1 and cytochrome oxidase II phylogeny of Chinese Leishmania isolates has challenged some aspects of their traditional taxonomy as well as cladistics hypotheses of their phylogeny. The current study was designed to provide further disease background and sequence analysis. Methods We systematically analyzed 50 cytochrome b (cyt b) gene sequences of 19 isolates (16 from China, 3 from other countries) sequenced after polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a special primer for cyt b as well as 31 sequences downloaded from GenBank. After alignment, the data were analyzed using the maximum parsimony, Bayesian and netwok methods. Results Sequences of six haplotypes representing 10 Chinese isolates formed a monophyletic group and clustered with Leishmania tarentolae. The isolates GS1, GS7, XJ771 of this study from China clustered with other isolates of Leishmania donovani complex. The isolate JS1 was a sister to Leishmania tropica, which represented an L. tropica complex instead of clustering with L. donovani complex or with the other 10 Chinese isolates. The isolates KXG-2 and GS-GER20 formed a monophyletic group with Leishmania turanica from central Asia. In the different phylogenetic trees, all of the Chinese isolates occurred in at least four groups regardless of geographic distribution. Conclusions The undescribed Leishmania species of China, which are clearly causative agents of canine leishmaniasis and human visceral leishmaniasis and are related to Sauroleishmania, may have evolved from a common ancestral parasite that came from the Americas and may have

  1. First molecular detection of Leishmania tarentolae-like DNA in Sergentomyia minuta in Spain.

    PubMed

    Bravo-Barriga, Daniel; Parreira, Ricardo; Maia, Carla; Blanco-Ciudad, Juan; Afonso, Maria Odete; Frontera, Eva; Campino, Lenea; Pérez-Martín, Juan Enrique; Serrano Aguilera, Francisco Javier; Reina, David

    2016-03-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae) are vectors of multiple Leishmania species, among which Leishmania infantum stands out as a being frequently pathogenic to humans and dogs in Mediterranean countries. In this study, Sergentomyia minuta sand flies were collected using CDC miniature light traps in different 431 biotopes from Southwest Spain. A total of 114 females were tested for the presence of Leishmania DNA by targeting ITS-1 and cyt-B sequences by PCR. Leishmania DNA was detected in one S. minuta. Characterization of the obtained DNA sequences by phylogenetic analyses revealed close relatedness with Leishmania tarentolae Wenyon, 1921 as well as with both human and canine pathogenic strains of Asian origin (China), previously described as Leishmania sp. To our knowledge, this is the first report of phlebotomine sand flies naturally infected with L. tarentolae-like in Spain. The possible infection of sand flies with novel Leishmania species should be taken into consideration in epidemiological studies of vector species in areas where leishmaniosis is endemic. PMID:26691858

  2. Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes induce and are killed by neutrophil extracellular traps

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães-Costa, Anderson B.; Nascimento, Michelle T. C.; Froment, Giselle S.; Soares, Rodrigo P. P.; Morgado, Fernanda N.; Conceição-Silva, Fátima; Saraiva, Elvira M.

    2009-01-01

    Neutrophils are short-lived leukocytes that die by apoptosis, necrosis, and NETosis. Upon death by NETosis, neutrophils release fibrous traps of DNA, histones, and granule proteins named neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which can kill bacteria and fungi. Inoculation of the protozoan Leishmania into the mammalian skin causes local inflammation with neutrophil recruitment. Here, we investigated the release of NETs by human neutrophils upon their interaction with Leishmania parasites and NETs' ability to kill this protozoan. The NET constituents DNA, elastase, and histones were detected in traps associated to promastigotes by immunofluorescence. Electron microscopy revealed that Leishmania was ensnared by NETs released by neutrophils. Moreover, Leishmania and its surface lipophosphoglycan induced NET release by neutrophils in a parasite number- and dose-dependent manner. Disruption of NETs by DNase treatment during Leishmania–neutrophil interaction increased parasite survival, evidencing NETs' leishmanicidal effect. Leishmania killing was also elicited by NET-rich supernatants from phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-activated neutrophils. Immunoneutralization of histone during Leishmania–neutrophil interaction partially reverted Leishmania killing, and purified histone killed the parasites. Meshes composed of DNA and elastase were evidenced in biopsies of human cutaneous leishmaniasis. NET is an innate response that might contribute to diminish parasite burden in the Leishmania inoculation site. PMID:19346483

  3. Phylogenetic position of Leishmania isolates from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nazma Habib; Messenger, Louisa A; Wahid, Sobia; Sutherland, Colin J

    2016-08-01

    Several species of the genus Leishmania are causative agents of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Pakistan. This study aimed to determine phylogenetic placement of Leishmania species causing cutaneous leishmaniasis in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan (34 Leishmania tropica, 3 Leishmania infantum), in-relation to species from other geographical areas using gene sequences encoding cytochrome b (cytb) and internal transcribed spacer 2 (its2). Based on cytochrome b sequence analysis, L. tropica strains from Pakistan and other geographical regions were differentiated into two genotype groups, A and B. Within the province, five distinct L. tropica genotypes were recognized; two in group A, three in group B. Two L. infantum isolates from the province were closely associated with both Afro-Eurasian and American species of the Leishmania donovani complex, including Leishmania chagasi, L. infantum and L. donovani from Sudan and Ethiopia; while a third L. infantum isolate could not be differentiated from visceralizing Kenyan and Indian L. donovani. We observed apposite phylogenetic placement of CL-causing L. tropica and L. infantum from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Affinities ascribed to Leishmania spp. From the region are valuable in tracing potential importation of leishmaniasis. PMID:27233810

  4. Phage-fused epitopes from Leishmania infantum used as immunogenic vaccines confer partial protection against Leishmania amazonensis infection.

    PubMed

    Costa, Lourena Emanuele; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel Angel; Martins, Vivian Tamietti; Duarte, Mariana Costa; Lage, Daniela Pagliara; Lima, Mayara I S; Pereira, Nathália Cristina De Jesus; Soto, Manuel; Tavares, Carlos Alberto Pereira; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo; Coelho, Eduardo Antonio Ferraz

    2015-09-01

    Two mimotopes of Leishmania infantum identified by phage display were evaluated as vaccine candidates in BALB/c mice against Leishmania amazonensis infection. The epitope-based immunogens, namely B10 and C01, presented as phage-fused peptides; were used without association of a Th1 adjuvant, and they were administered isolated or in combination into animals. Both clones showed a specific production of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin-12 (IL-12) and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) after in vitro spleen cells stimulation, and they were able to induce a partial protection against infection. Significant reductions of parasite load in the infected footpads, liver, spleen, bone marrow and paws' draining lymph nodes were observed in the immunized mice, in comparison with the control groups (saline, saponin, wild-type and non-relevant clones). Protection was associated with an IL-12-dependent production of IFN-γ, mediated mainly by CD8(+) T cells, against parasite proteins. Protected mice also presented low levels of IL-4 and IL-10, as well as increased levels of parasite-specific IgG2a antibodies. The association of both clones resulted in an improved protection in relation to their individual use. More importantly, the absence of adjuvant did not diminish the cross-protective efficacy against Leishmania spp. infection. This study describes for the first time two epitope-based immunogens selected by phage display technology against L. infantum infected dogs sera, which induced a partial protection in BALB/c mice infected with L. amazonensis. PMID:26099574

  5. The Multiple Forms of Leishmania major in BALB/C Mice Lung in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Shirbazou, SH; Jafari, M

    2012-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is one of the most important parasitic diseases, which are endemic in different parts of Iran. Leishmania major and L. tropica are the primary causative agents of this disease. The aim of the present study was to detect the multiple forms of L. major in lung. Ppromastigotes of L. major at stationary phase were injected to BALB/c mice. After 60 days, the different forms of Leishmania parasites were checked in lung tissue. Promastigote and amastigote forms of Leishmania parasites were detected. PMID:23109953

  6. Leishmania Infection Inhibits Cycloheximide-Induced Macrophage Apoptosis in a Strain Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Michael J; Maciuba, Britta Z.; Mahan, Caitlin E.; McDowell, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    Activation of apoptosis is one of the most ancient mechanisms to eliminate intracellular infections; the capacity to subvert this programmed cell death provides an adaptive advantage to pathogens that persist in an intracellular environment. Leishmania species are obligate intracellular parasites that primarily reside within host macrophages. We demonstrate here that Leishmania infection protects macrophages from cycloheximide induced apoptosis in a species and strain specific manner. Our data further reveal that Leishmania phosphoglycans and direct contact between parasites and host cells are required for the inhibitory phenotype. PMID:19500578

  7. Identification of Tunisian Leishmania spp. by PCR amplification of cysteine proteinase B (cpb) genes and phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Chaouch, Melek; Fathallah-Mili, Akila; Driss, Mehdi; Lahmadi, Ramzi; Ayari, Chiraz; Guizani, Ikram; Ben Said, Moncef; Benabderrazak, Souha

    2013-03-01

    Discrimination of the Old World Leishmania parasites is important for diagnosis and epidemiological studies of leishmaniasis. We have developed PCR assays that allow the discrimination between Leishmania major, Leishmania tropica and Leishmania infantum Tunisian species. The identification was performed by a simple PCR targeting cysteine protease B (cpb) gene copies. These PCR can be a routine molecular biology tools for discrimination of Leishmania spp. from different geographical origins and different clinical forms. Our assays can be an informative source for cpb gene studying concerning drug, diagnostics and vaccine research. The PCR products of the cpb gene and the N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate transferase (nagt) Leishmania gene were sequenced and aligned. Phylogenetic trees of Leishmania based cpb and nagt sequences are close in topology and present the classic distribution of Leishmania in the Old World. The phylogenetic analysis has enabled the characterization and identification of different strains, using both multicopy (cpb) and single copy (nagt) genes. Indeed, the cpb phylogenetic analysis allowed us to identify the Tunisian Leishmania killicki species, and a group which gathers the least evolved isolates of the Leishmania donovani complex, that was originated from East Africa. This clustering confirms the African origin for the visceralizing species of the L. donovani complex. PMID:23228525

  8. Natural Sesquiterpene Lactones Induce Oxidative Stress in Leishmania mexicana

    PubMed Central

    Barrera, Patricia; Sülsen, Valeria P.; Lozano, Esteban; Rivera, Mónica; Beer, María Florencia; Tonn, Carlos; Martino, Virginia S.; Sosa, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a worldwide parasitic disease, caused by monoflagellate parasites of the genus Leishmania. In the search for more effective agents against these parasites, the identification of molecular targets has been attempted to ensure the efficiency of drugs and to avoid collateral damages on the host's cells. In this work, we have investigated some of the mechanisms of action of a group of natural sesquiterpene lactones that are effective against Leishmania mexicana mexicana promastigotes. We first observed that the antiproliferative effect of mexicanin I (Mxc), dehydroleucodine (DhL), psilostachyin (Psi), and, at lesser extent, psilostachyin C (Psi C) is blocked by 1.5 mM reduced glutathione. The reducing agent was also able to reverse the early effect of the compounds, suggesting that lactones may react with intracellular sulfhydryl groups. Moreover, we have shown that all the sesquiterpene lactones, except Psi C, significantly decreased the endogenous concentration of glutathione within the parasite. Consistent with these findings, the active sesquiterpene lactones increased between 2.7 and 5.4 times the generation of ROS by parasites. These results indicate that the induction of oxidative stress is at least one of the mechanisms of action of DhL, Mxc, and Psi on parasites while Psi C would act by another mechanism. PMID:23861697

  9. Hemophagocytosis in Experimental Visceral Leishmaniasis by Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Ayako; Omachi, Satoko; Osada, Yasutaka; Chambers, James K; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Sanjoba, Chizu; Matsumoto, Yoshitsugu; Goto, Yasuyuki

    2016-03-01

    Hemophagocytosis is a phenomenon in which macrophages phagocytose blood cells. There are reports on up-regulated hemophagocytosis in patients with infectious diseases including typhoid fever, tuberculosis, influenza and visceral leishmaniasis (VL). However, mechanisms of infection-associated hemophagocytosis remained elusive due to a lack of appropriate animal models. Here, we have established a mouse model of VL with hemophagocytosis. At 24 weeks after infection with 1 x 107 Leishmania donovani promastigotes, BALB/cA mice exhibited splenomegaly with an average tissue weight per body weight of 2.96%. In the tissues, 28.6% of macrophages contained phagocytosed erythrocytes. All of the hemophagocytosing macrophages were parasitized by L. donovani, and higher levels of hemophagocytosis was observed in heavily infected cells. Furthermore, more than half of these hemophagocytes had two or more macrophage-derived nuclei, whereas only 15.0% of splenic macrophages were bi- or multi-nuclear. These results suggest that direct infection by L. donovani causes hyper-activation of host macrophages to engulf blood cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report on hemophagocytosis in experimental Leishmania infections and may be useful for further understanding of the pathogenesis. PMID:26942577

  10. Tamoxifen Induces Apoptosis of Leishmania major Promastigotes in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Doroodgar, Masoud; Delavari, Mahdi; Doroodgar, Moein; Abbasi, Ali; Taherian, Ali Akbar; Doroodgar, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Tamoxifen is an antagonist of the estrogen receptor and currently used for the treatment of breast cancer. The current treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis with pentavalent antimony compounds is not satisfactory. Therefore, in this study, due to its antileishmanial activity, effects of tamoxifen on the growth of promastigotes and amastigotes of Leishmania major Iranian strain were evaluated in vitro. Promastigotes and amastigotes were treated with different concentrations (1, 5, 10, 20, and 50 μg/ml) and time periods (24, 48, and 72 hr) of tamoxifen. After tamoxifen treatment, MTT assay (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 biphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay) was used to determine the percentage of live parasites and Graph Pad Prism software to calculate IC50. Flow cytometry was applied to investigate the induction of tamoxifen-induced apoptosis in promastigotes. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of tamoxifen on promastigotes was 2.6 μg/ml after 24 hr treatment. Flow cytometry analysis showed that tamoxifen induced early and late apoptosis in Leishmania promastigotes. While after 48 hr in control group the apoptosis was 2.0%, the 50 µg/L concentration of tamoxifen increased it to 59.7%. Based on the in vitro antileishmanial effect, tamoxifen might be used for leishmaniasis treatment; however, further researches on in vivo effects of tamoxifen in animal models are needed. PMID:26951973

  11. Aurapten, a coumarin with growth inhibition against Leishmania major promastigotes.

    PubMed

    Napolitano, H B; Silva, M; Ellena, J; Rodrigues, B D G; Almeida, A L C; Vieira, P C; Oliva, G; Thiemann, O H

    2004-12-01

    Several natural compounds have been identified for the treatment of leishmaniasis. Among them are some alkaloids, chalcones, lactones, tetralones, and saponins. The new compound reported here, 7-geranyloxycoumarin, called aurapten, belongs to the chemical class of the coumarins and has a molecular weight of 298.37. The compound was extracted from the Rutaceae species Esenbeckia febrifuga and was purified from a hexane extract starting from 407.7 g of dried leaves and followed by four silica gel chromatographic fractionation steps using different solvents as the mobile phase. The resulting compound (47 mg) of shows significant growth inhibition with an LD50 of 30 microM against the tropical parasite Leishmania major, which causes severe clinical manifestations in humans and is endemic in the tropical and subtropical regions. In the present study, we investigated the atomic structure of aurapten in order to determine the existence of common structural motifs that might be related to other coumarins and potentially to other identified inhibitors of Leishmania growth and viability. This compound has a comparable inhibitory activity of other isolated molecules. The aurapten is a planar molecule constituted of an aromatic system with electron delocalization. A hydrophobic side chain consisting of ten carbon atoms with two double bonds and negative density has been identified and may be relevant for further compound synthesis. PMID:15558191

  12. Leishmania is not prone to develop resistance to tamoxifen

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Adriano C.; Trinconi, Cristiana T.; Senra, Luisa; Yokoyama-Yasunaka, Jenicer K.U.; Uliana, Silvia R.B.

    2015-01-01

    Tamoxifen, an antineoplastic agent, is active in vitro and in vivo against the parasitic protozoa Leishmania. As part of our efforts to unravel this drug's mechanisms of action against the parasite and understand how resistance could arise, we tried to select tamoxifen-resistant Leishmania amazonensis. Three different strategies to generate tamoxifen resistant mutants were used: stepwise increase in drug concentration applied to promastigote cultures, chemical mutagenesis followed by drug selection and treatment of infected mice followed by selection of amastigotes. For amastigote selection, we employed a method with direct plating of parasites recovered from lesions into semi-solid media. Tamoxifen resistant parasites were not rescued by any of these methods. Miltefosine was used as a control in selection experiments and both stepwise selection and chemical mutagenesis allowed successful isolation of miltefosine resistant mutants. These findings are consistent with a multi-target mode of action to explain tamoxifen's leishmanicidal properties. Considering that drug resistance is a major concern in anti-parasitic chemotherapy, these findings support the proposition of using tamoxifen as a partner in drug combination schemes for the treatment of leishmaniasis. PMID:26150922

  13. Immune response to infection by Leishmania: A mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Siewe, Nourridine; Yakubu, Abdul-Aziz; Satoskar, Abhay R; Friedman, Avner

    2016-06-01

    Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by the Leishmania parasites. The injection of the parasites into the host occurs when a sand fly, which is the vector, bites the skin of the host. The parasites, which are obligate, take advantage of the immune system response and invade both the classically activated macrophages (M1) and the alternatively activated macrophages (M2). In this paper, we develop a mathematical model to explain the evolution of the disease. Simulations of the model show that, M2 macrophages steadily increase and M1 macrophages steadily decrease, while M1+M2 reach a steady state which is approximately the same as at healthy state of the host. Furthermore, the ratio of Leishmania parasites to macrophages depends homogeneously on their ratio at the time of the initial infection, in agreement with in vitro experimental data. The model is used to simulate treatment by existing or potential new drugs, and to compare the efficacy of different schedules of drug delivery. PMID:26987853

  14. Hemophagocytosis in Experimental Visceral Leishmaniasis by Leishmania donovani

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Ayako; Omachi, Satoko; Osada, Yasutaka; Chambers, James K.; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Sanjoba, Chizu; Matsumoto, Yoshitsugu; Goto, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Hemophagocytosis is a phenomenon in which macrophages phagocytose blood cells. There are reports on up-regulated hemophagocytosis in patients with infectious diseases including typhoid fever, tuberculosis, influenza and visceral leishmaniasis (VL). However, mechanisms of infection-associated hemophagocytosis remained elusive due to a lack of appropriate animal models. Here, we have established a mouse model of VL with hemophagocytosis. At 24 weeks after infection with 1 x 107 Leishmania donovani promastigotes, BALB/cA mice exhibited splenomegaly with an average tissue weight per body weight of 2.96%. In the tissues, 28.6% of macrophages contained phagocytosed erythrocytes. All of the hemophagocytosing macrophages were parasitized by L. donovani, and higher levels of hemophagocytosis was observed in heavily infected cells. Furthermore, more than half of these hemophagocytes had two or more macrophage-derived nuclei, whereas only 15.0% of splenic macrophages were bi- or multi-nuclear. These results suggest that direct infection by L. donovani causes hyper-activation of host macrophages to engulf blood cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report on hemophagocytosis in experimental Leishmania infections and may be useful for further understanding of the pathogenesis. PMID:26942577

  15. Proteomic analysis of antigens from Leishmania infantum promastigotes.

    PubMed

    Dea-Ayuela, María Auxiliadora; Rama-Iñiguez, Sara; Bolás-Fernández, Francisco

    2006-07-01

    Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease caused by the species of the genus Leishmania, flagellated protozoa that multiply inside mammalian macrophages and are transmitted by the bite of the sandfly. The disease is widespread and due to the lack of fully effective treatment and vaccination the search for new drugs and immune targets is needed. Proteomics seems to be a suitable strategy because the annotated sequenced genome of L. major is available. Here, we present a high-resolution proteome for L. infantum promastigotes comprising of around 700 spots. Western blot with rabbit hyperimmune serum raised against L. infantum promastiogote extracts and further analysis by MALDI-TOF and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS allowed the identification of various relevant functional antigenic proteins. Major antigenic proteins were identified as propionil carboxilasa, ATPase beta subunit, transketolase, proteasome subunit, succinyl-diaminopimelate desuccinylase, a probable tubulin alpha chain, the full-size heat shock protein 70, and several proteins of unknown function. In addition, one enzyme from the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway (adrenodoxin reductase) and the structural paraflagellar rod protein 3 (PAR3) were found among non-antigenic proteins. This study corroborates the usefulness of proteomics in identifying new proteins with crucial biological functions in Leishmania parasites. PMID:16791830

  16. Mammalian antimicrobial peptide influences control of cutaneous Leishmania infection

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Manjusha M.; Barbi, Joseph; McMaster, W. Robert; Gallo, Richard L.; Satoskar, Abhay R.; McGwire, Bradford S.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Cathelicidin-type antimicrobial peptides (CAMP) are important mediators of innate immunity against microbial pathogens acting through direct interaction with and disruption of microbial membranes and indirectly through modulation of host cell migration and activation. Using a mouse knock-out model in CAMP we studied the role of this host peptide in control of dissemination of cutaneous infection by the parasitic protozoan Leishmania. The presence of pronounced host inflammatory infiltration in lesions and lymph nodes of infected animals was CAMP-dependent. Lack of CAMP expression was associated with higher levels of IL-10 receptor expression in bone marrow, splenic and lymph node macrophages as well as higher anti-inflammatory IL-10 production by bone marrow macrophages and spleen cells but reduced production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-12 and IFN-γ by lymph nodes. Unlike wild-type mice, local lesions were exacerbated and parasites were found largely disseminated in CAMP knockouts. Infection of CAMP knockouts with parasite mutants lacking the surface metalloprotease virulence determinant resulted in more robust disseminated infection than in control animals suggesting that CAMP activity is negatively regulated by parasite surface proteolytic activity. This correlated with the ability of the pro-tease to degrade CAMP in vitro and co-localization of CAMP with parasites within macrophages. Our results highlight the interplay of antimicrobial peptides and Leishmania that influence the host immune response and the outcome of infection. PMID:21501359

  17. 2-Alkynoic fatty acids inhibit Topoisomerase IB from Leishmania donovani

    PubMed Central

    Carballeira, Néstor M.; Cartagena, Michelle; Sanabria, David; Kaiser, Marcel; Tasdemir, Deniz; Prada, Christopher F.; Reguera, Rosa M.; Balaña-Fouce, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    2-Alkynoic fatty acids display antimycobacterial, antifungal, and pesticidal activities but their antiprotozoal activity has received little attention. In this work we synthesized the 2-octadecynoic acid (2-ODA), 2-hexadecynoic acid (2-HDA), and 2-tetradecynoic acid (2-TDA) and show that 2-ODA is the best inhibitor of the Leishmania donovani DNA topoisomerase IB enzyme (LdTopIB) with an EC50 = 5.3 ± 0.7 μM. The potency of LdTopIB inhibition follows the trend 2-ODA> 2-HDA> 2-TDA, indicating that the effectiveness of inhibition depends on the fatty acid carbon chain length. All of the studied 2-alkynoic fatty acids were less potent inhibitors of the human topoisomerase IB enzyme (hTopIB) as compared to LdTopIB. 2-ODA also displayed in vitro activity against Leishmania donovani (IC50 = 11.0 μM), but it was less effective against other protozoa, Trypanosoma cruzi (IC50 = 48.1 μM) and T. brucei rhodesiense (IC50 = 64.5 μM). The antiprotozoal activity of the 2-alkynoic fatty acids, in general, followed the trend 2-ODA> 2-HDA> 2-TDA. The experimental information gathered so far indicates that 2-ODA is a promising antileishmanial compound. PMID:22932312

  18. Photodynamic therapy for American cutaneous leishmaniasis: the efficacy of methylene blue in hamsters experimentally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis.

    PubMed

    Peloi, Lílian Somenci; Biondo, Carlos Eduardo Guerino; Kimura, Elza; Politi, Mario José; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Aristides, Sandra Mara Alessi; Dorea, Regina Coeli Cunha; Hioka, Noboru; Silveira, Thaís Gomes Verzignassi

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) using Methylene Blue (MB) as the photosensitizing compound and a Light-Emitting Diode (LED) in American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL). Hamsters were experimentally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis. After the development of the lesions in the footpad, the animals were treated with MB three times a week for 3 months. Ten minutes after each application of MB, the lesions were irradiated with LED for 1 h. The lesions were evaluated weekly by the measurement of the hamster footpad thickness. At the end of the treatment the parasitic load was quantified in the regional lymph node of the hamsters. The treatment promoted a decrease in the thickness of infected footpad (P=0.0001) and reduction in the parasitic load in the regional lymph node (P=0.0007) of the animals from group treated with MB+LED. PDT using MB+LED in ACL caused by L. amazonensis shows a strong photodynamic effect. This therapy is very promising, once it is an inexpensive system and the own patient can apply it in their wound and in their house without the need of technical assistance. PMID:21575635

  19. Comparison of Leishmania killicki (syn. L. tropica) and Leishmania tropica Population Structure in Maghreb by Microsatellite Typing

    PubMed Central

    Chaara, Dhekra; Bañuls, Anne- Laure; Haouas, Najoua; Talignani, Loïc; Lami, Patrick; Mezhoud, Habib; Harrat, Zoubir; Dedet, Jean-Pierre; Babba, Hamouda; Pratlong, Francine

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania (L.) killicki (syn. L. tropica), which causes cutaneous leishmaniasis in Maghreb, was recently described in this region and identified as a subpopulation of L. tropica. The present genetic analysis was conducted to explore the spatio-temporal distribution of L. killicki (syn. L. tropica) and its transmission dynamics. To better understand the evolution of this parasite, its population structure was then compared with that of L. tropica populations from Morocco. In total 198 samples including 85 L. killicki (syn. L. tropica) (from Tunisia, Algeria and Libya) and 113 L. tropica specimens (all from Morocco) were tested. Theses samples were composed of 168 Leishmania strains isolated from human skin lesions, 27 DNA samples from human skin lesion biopsies, two DNA samples from Ctenodactylus gundi bone marrow and one DNA sample from a Phlebotomus sergenti female. The sample was analyzed by using MultiLocus Enzyme Electrophoresis (MLEE) and MultiLocus Microsatellite Typing (MLMT) approaches. Analysis of the MLMT data support the hypothesis that L. killicki (syn. L. tropica) belongs to the L. tropica complex, despite its strong genetic differentiation, and that it emerged from this taxon by a founder effect. Moreover, it revealed a strong structuring in L. killicki (syn. L. tropica) between Tunisia and Algeria and within the different Tunisian regions, suggesting low dispersion of L. killicki (syn. L. tropica) in space and time. Comparison of the L. tropica (exclusively from Morocco) and L. killicki (syn. L. tropica) population structures revealed distinct genetic organizations, reflecting different epidemiological cycles. PMID:26645812

  20. The route of Leishmania tropica infection determines disease outcome and protection against Leishmania major in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudzadeh-Niknam, Hamid; Khalili, Ghader; Abrishami, Firoozeh; Najafy, Ali; Khaze, Vahid

    2013-02-01

    Leishmania tropica is one of the causative agents of leishmaniasis in humans. Routes of infection have been reported to be an important variable for some species of Leishmania parasites. The role of this variable is not clear for L. tropica infection. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of route of L. tropica infection on the disease outcome and immunologic parameters in BALB/c mice. Two routes were used; subcutaneous in the footpad and intradermal in the ear. Mice were challenged by Leishmani major, after establishment of the L. tropica infection, to evaluate the level of protective immunity. Immune responses were assayed at week 1 and week 4 after challenge. The subcutaneous route in the footpad in comparison to the intradermal route in the ear induced significantly more protective immunity against L. major challenge, including higher delayed-type hypersensitivity responses, more rapid lesion resolution, lower parasite loads, and lower levels of IL-10. Our data showed that the route of infection in BALB/c model of L. tropica infection is an important variable and should be considered in developing an appropriate experimental model for L. tropica infections. PMID:23467583

  1. The Route of Leishmania tropica Infection Determines Disease Outcome and Protection against Leishmania major in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Khalili, Ghader; Abrishami, Firoozeh; Najafy, Ali; Khaze, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    Leishmania tropica is one of the causative agents of leishmaniasis in humans. Routes of infection have been reported to be an important variable for some species of Leishmania parasites. The role of this variable is not clear for L. tropica infection. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of route of L. tropica infection on the disease outcome and immunologic parameters in BALB/c mice. Two routes were used; subcutaneous in the footpad and intradermal in the ear. Mice were challenged by Leishmani major, after establishment of the L. tropica infection, to evaluate the level of protective immunity. Immune responses were assayed at week 1 and week 4 after challenge. The subcutaneous route in the footpad in comparison to the intradermal route in the ear induced significantly more protective immunity against L. major challenge, including higher delayed-type hypersensitivity responses, more rapid lesion resolution, lower parasite loads, and lower levels of IL-10. Our data showed that the route of infection in BALB/c model of L. tropica infection is an important variable and should be considered in developing an appropriate experimental model for L. tropica infections. PMID:23467583

  2. Antileishmanial activity of licochalcone A in mice infected with Leishmania major and in hamsters infected with Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, M; Christensen, S B; Theander, T G; Kharazmi, A

    1994-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the antileishmanial activity of the oxygenated chalcone licochalcone A in mice and hamsters infected with Leishmania parasites. Intraperitoneal administration of licochalcone A at doses of 2.5 and 5 mg/kg of body weight per day completely prevented lesion development in BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania major. Treatment of hamsters infected with L. donovani with intraperitoneal administration of licochalcone A at a dose of 20 mg/kg of body weight per day for 6 consecutive days resulted in a > 96% reduction of parasite load in the liver and the spleen compared with values for untreated control animals. The [3H]thymidine uptake by the parasites isolated from the treated hamsters was only about 1% of that observed in parasites isolated from the controls. Oral administration of licochalcone A at concentrations of 5 to 150 mg/kg of body weight per day for 6 consecutive days resulted in > 65 and 85% reductions of L. donovani parasite loads in the liver and the spleen, respectively, compared with those of untreated control hamsters. These data clearly demonstrate that licochalcone A is a promising lead for the development of a new drug against leishmaniases. PMID:8092835

  3. Influence of Clinical Status and Parasite Load on Erythropoiesis and Leucopoiesis in Dogs Naturally Infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi

    PubMed Central

    Trópia de Abreu, Raquel; Carvalho, Maria das Graças; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Coura-Vital, Wendel; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa

    2011-01-01

    Background The bone marrow is considered to be an important storage of parasites in Leishmania-infected dogs, although little is known about cellular genesis in this organ during canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Methodology/Principal Findings The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in erythropoiesis and leucopoiesis in bone marrow aspirates from dogs naturally infected with Leishmania chagasi and presenting different clinical statuses and bone marrow parasite densities. The evolution of CVL from asymptomatic to symptomatic status was accompanied by increasing parasite density in the bone marrow. The impact of bone marrow parasite density on cellularity was similar in dogs at different clinical stages, with animals in the high parasite density group. Erythroid and eosinophilic hypoplasia, proliferation of neutrophilic precursor cells and significant increases in lymphocytes and plasma cell numbers were the major alterations observed. Differential bone marrow cell counts revealed increases in the myeloid:erythroid ratio associated to increased numbers of granulopoietic cells in the different clinical groups compared with non-infected dogs. Conclusions Analysis of the data obtained indicated that the assessment of bone marrow constitutes an additional and useful tool by which to elaborate a prognosis for CVL. PMID:21572995

  4. Leishmania Infection Engages Non-Receptor Protein Kinases Differentially to Persist in Infected Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Naixin; Kima, Peter E.

    2016-01-01

    Protein kinases play important roles in the regulation of cellular activities. In cells infected by pathogens, there is an increasing appreciation that dysregulated expression of protein kinases promotes the success of intracellular infections. In Leishmania-infected cells, expression and activation of protein kinases, such as the mitogen-activated protein kinases, kinases in the PI3-kinase signaling pathway, and kinases in the NF-κB-signaling pathway, are modulated in some manner. Several recent reviews have discussed our current understanding of the roles of these kinases in Leishmania infections. Apart from the kinases in the pathways enumerated above, there are other host cell protein kinases that are activated during the Leishmania infection of mammalian cells whose roles also appear to be significant. This review discusses recent observations on the Abl family of protein kinases and the protein kinase regulated by RNA in Leishmania infections. PMID:27148265

  5. Leishmania amazonensis: Anionic currents expressed in oocytes upon microinjection of mRNA from the parasite.

    PubMed

    Lagos M, Luisa F; Moran, Oscar; Camacho, Marcela

    2007-06-01

    Transport mechanisms involved in pH homeostasis are relevant for the survival of Leishmania parasites. The presence of chloride conductive pathways in Leishmania has been anticipated since anion channel inhibitors limit the proton extrusion mediated by the H+ATPase, which is the major regulator of intracellular pH in amastigotes. In this study, we used Xenopus laevis oocytes as a heterologous expression system in which to study the expression of ion channels upon microinjection of polyA mRNA from Leishmania amazonensis. After injection of polyA mRNA into the oocytes, we measured three different types of currents. We discuss the possible origin of each, and propose that Type 3 currents could be the result of the heterologous expression of proteins from Leishmania since they show different pharmacological and biophysical properties as compared to endogenous oocyte currents. PMID:17328895

  6. Bioactivity of flavonoids isolated from Lychnophora markgravii against Leishmania amazonensis amastigotes.

    PubMed

    Salvador, Marcos José; Sartori, Fabiana Terezinha; Sacilotto, Ana Claudia B C; Pral, Elizabeth M F; Alfieri, Silvia Celina; Vichnewski, Walter

    2009-01-01

    The bioactivity of the flavonoids pinostrobin (1), pinocembrin (2), tectochrysin (3), galangin 3-methyl ether (4), and tiliroside (5) isolated from Lychnophora markgravii aerial parts was investigated in vitro against amastigote stages of Leishmania amazonensis. The compounds were isolated by several chromatographic techniques and their chemical structures were established by ESI-MS and NMR spectroscopic data. The flavonoids 1 and 3 were the most active compounds; they markedly reduced the viability of Leishmania amastigotes. PMID:19791501

  7. Cutaneous immune mechanisms in canine leishmaniosis due to Leishmania infantum.

    PubMed

    Papadogiannakis, E I; Koutinas, A F

    2015-02-15

    Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) caused by the parasite Leishmania infantum is a systemic disease with variable clinical signs. The disease is endemic in the Mediterranean countries and dogs are the main domestic reservoir of the parasite. The quite complicated immune response against the parasite is crucial for the evolution of CanL infection with the skin playing a major role in its immunopathogenesis. After the inoculation of Leishmania promastigotes into the dermis by sand fly bites, complement factors, Langerhan's cells, neutrophils, fibroblasts and keratinocytes are involved in the activation of the innate arm of the skin immune system, with the macrophages and dendritic cells to play a major key role. The effective activation of cellular immunity is the cornerstone of dog's resistance against the parasite. Promastigotes reaching the dermis are engulfed, processed and transferred by APCs to draining lymph nodes to stimulate naïve T-cells for proliferation and differentiation into armed effector T-cells. Th1 cells activate the infected macrophages to kill Leishmania, whereas Th2 cells divert the immune response to humoral immunity and down regulation of cellular immunity with Th1 cell anergy. Inhibition of co-stimulatory molecules expression by infected macrophages contributes to T-cell anergy. In canine subclinical infections cutaneous lymphocytic infiltrate and parasites are absent, as opposed to dogs with clinical leishmaniosis. CD8+ cells constitute a significant population of cellular immunity in CanL since they outnumber CD4+ cells in the dermis, producing IFN-γ in sub clinically infected dogs and high levels of IL-4 in dogs with clinical leishmaniosis. Numerous B-lymphocytes have been shown to heavily infiltrate the dermis at least in exfoliative dermatitis in CanL. A mixed Th1/Th2 cytokine profile has been found in the dermis of naturally infected with L. infantum dogs. In the skin of dogs with clinical leishmaniosis, where plasma cells outnumber T

  8. Leishmania infantum AS A CAUSATIVE AGENT OF CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN THE STATE OF MATO GROSSO DO SUL, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    CASTRO, Ludiele Souza; FRANÇA, Adriana de Oliveira; FERREIRA, Eduardo de Castro; HANS, Günther; HIGA, Minoru German; GONTIJO, Célia Maria Ferreira; PEREIRA, Agnes Antônia Sampaio; DORVAL, Maria Elizabeth Moraes C.

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by different species of theLeishmania genus. Leishmania(Leishmania) infantum, causing cutaneous leishmaniasis, has been described in patients living in areas where visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. In this study, it was possible to characterize this species in seven slides from cutaneous tissue imprints from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. PMID:27007566

  9. [Arthropod-borne parasites of dogs, especially Leishmania, in the Kosovo and Albania].

    PubMed

    Lazri, Tune; Duscher, Georg; Edelhofer, Renate; Bytyci, Burim; Gjino, Paskal; Joachim, Anja

    2008-01-01

    Currently no information is available regarding canine arthropod-borne parasites in Albania and the Kosovo, especially the zoonotic protozoan Leishmania infantum. Presumably autochtonous cases of human leishmaniosis have been described for some areas (Kosovo: Ferizaj, Gjakovo, Pec, Malisevo; Albania: Tirana, Durres, Elbasan, Shkodra, Vlore). In order to investigate the infection status of dogs of different origin sera from 272 animals (151 from Albania - Tirana, Kamza and Durres; 121 from the Kosovo - Gjakovo, Ferizaj and Prishtina) were obtained. Corresponding blood samples were available from 36 Albanian stray dogs. Antibody titres were determined by Indirect Immunofluorescence Test against L. infantum and Babesia canis. Antigens of Dirofilaria immitis were determined using the DiroCheck-Test. Blood samples were tested for L. infantum, B. canis, Hepatozoon canis, D. immitis and Dirofilaria repens by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Specific antibodies against Babesia were found in 7.3% of the animals, against Leishmania in 3.3% and 7.0% were positive for D. immitis antigen. DNA of Babesia, Leishmania or D. repens was detected in 11.1%, respectively. H. canis was found in 52.8% of the blood samples. D. immitis DNA was not detected. Since the Babesia- and Leishmania-PCR-positive animals were all serologically negative it can be assumed that infections were acquired only recently. All Leishmania-positive animals were stray dogs. These animals contribute to the maintenance of Leishmania transmission in endemic areas, and a control of the canine stray population should be considered. PMID:19066774

  10. Experimental infection of Phlebotomus perniciosus by bioluminescent Leishmania infantum using murine model and artificial feeder

    PubMed Central

    Cannet, Arnaud; Akhoundi, Mohammad; Michel, Gregory; Marty, Pierre; Delaunay, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease that is transmitted by sandflies and caused by obligate intracellular protozoa of the genus Leishmania. In the present study, we carried out a screening on the experimental infection of Phlebotomus pernioucus by bioluminescent Leishmania infantum using murine model and artificial feeder. We developed a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-based method to determine individually the number of Leishmania promastigotes fed by infected flies. Among 1840 new emerged female sand flies, 428 were fed on the infected mice. After their death, they were analysed individually by RT-PCR. Our results demonstrated just a single Leishmania positive female at sixth day post meal. A total of 1070 female sand flies were exposed in contact with artificial feeder containing the human blood with two different quantities of Leishmania parasites: 2.106/mL and 1.107/mL. A blood meal including 1.107/mL LUC-promastigotes was proposed to 270 females and 75 (28%) flies were engorged. Among them, 44 (59%) were positive by RT-PCR analysis, with a relative average of 50551 Leishmania parasites. In case of blood feeding of females with 2.106/mL promastigotes, 57 out of 800 (7%) females succeed to feed from artificial feeder which 22 (39%) were positive with a relative average of 6487 parasites. PMID:27439032

  11. Multifaceted Population Structure and Reproductive Strategy in Leishmania donovani Complex in One Sudanese Village

    PubMed Central

    Hide, Mallorie; Le Falher, Georges; Bucheton, Bruno; Dereure, Jacques; El-Safi, Sayda H.; Dessein, Alain; Bañuls, Anne-Laure

    2011-01-01

    Leishmania species of the subgenus Leishmania and especially L. donovani are responsible for a large proportion of visceral leishmaniasis cases. The debate on the mode of reproduction and population structure of Leishmania parasites remains opened. It has been suggested that Leishmania parasites could alternate different modes of reproduction, more particularly clonality and frequent recombinations either between related individuals (endogamy) or between unrelated individuals (outcrossing) within strongly isolated subpopulations. To determine whether this assumption is generalized to other species, a population genetics analysis within Leishmania donovani complex strains was conducted within a single village. The results suggest that a mixed-mating reproduction system exists, an important heterogeneity of subsamples and the coexistence of several genetic entities in Sudanese L. donovani. Indeed, results showed significant genetic differentiation between the three taxa (L. donovani, L. infantum and L. archibaldi) and between the human or canine strains of such taxa, suggesting that there may be different imbricated transmission cycles involving either dogs or humans. Results also are in agreement with an almost strict specificity of L. donovani stricto sensu to human hosts. This empirical study demonstrates the complexity of population structure in the genus Leishmania and the need to pursue such kind of analyses at the smallest possible spatio-temporal and ecological scales. PMID:22206035

  12. Intracellular Survival of Leishmania major Depends on Uptake and Degradation of Extracellular Matrix Glycosaminoglycans by Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Eleanor C.; Kloehn, Joachim; Rupasinghe, Thusitha W.; Brown, Tracey J.; McConville, Malcolm J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Leishmania parasites replicate within the phagolysosome compartment of mammalian macrophages. Although Leishmania depend on sugars as a major carbon source during infections, the nutrient composition of the phagolysosome remains poorly described. To determine the origin of the sugar carbon source in macrophage phagolysosomes, we have generated a N-acetylglucosamine acetyltransferase (GNAT) deficient Leishmania major mutant (∆gnat) that is auxotrophic for the amino sugar, N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). This mutant was unable to grow or survive in ex vivo infected macrophages even when macrophages were cultivated in presence of exogenous GlcNAc. In contrast, the L. major ∆gnat mutant induced normal skin lesions in mice, suggesting that these parasites have access to GlcNAc in tissue macrophages. Intracellular growth of the mutant in ex vivo infected macrophages was restored by supplementation of the macrophage medium with hyaluronan, a GlcNAc-rich extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan. Hyaluronan is present and constitutively turned-over in Leishmania-induced skin lesions and is efficiently internalized into Leishmania containing phagolysosomes. These findings suggest that the constitutive internalization and degradation of host glycosaminoglycans by macrophages provides Leishmania with essential carbon sources, creating a uniquely favorable niche for these parasites. PMID:26334531

  13. Flagellar pocket restructuring through the Leishmania life cycle involves a discrete flagellum attachment zone.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Richard J; Sunter, Jack D; Gull, Keith

    2016-02-15

    Leishmania promastigote parasites have a flagellum, which protrudes from the flagellar pocket at the cell anterior, yet, surprisingly, have homologs of many flagellum attachment zone (FAZ) proteins--proteins used in the related Trypanosoma species to laterally attach the flagellum to the cell body from the flagellar pocket to the cell posterior. Here, we use seven Leishmania mexicana cell lines that expressed eYFP fusions of FAZ protein homologs to show that the Leishmania flagellar pocket includes a FAZ structure. Electron tomography revealed a precisely defined 3D organisation for both the flagellar pocket and FAZ, with striking similarities to those of Trypanosoma brucei. Expression of two T. brucei FAZ proteins in L. mexicana showed that T. brucei FAZ proteins can assemble into the Leishmania FAZ structure. Leishmania therefore have a previously unrecognised FAZ structure, which we show undergoes major structural reorganisation in the transition from the promastigote (sandfly vector) to amastigote (in mammalian macrophages). Morphogenesis of the Leishmania flagellar pocket, a structure important for pathogenicity, is therefore intimately associated with a FAZ; a finding with implications for understanding shape changes involving component modules during evolution. PMID:26746239

  14. Flagellar pocket restructuring through the Leishmania life cycle involves a discrete flagellum attachment zone

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Richard J.; Sunter, Jack D.; Gull, Keith

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Leishmania promastigote parasites have a flagellum, which protrudes from the flagellar pocket at the cell anterior, yet, surprisingly, have homologs of many flagellum attachment zone (FAZ) proteins – proteins used in the related Trypanosoma species to laterally attach the flagellum to the cell body from the flagellar pocket to the cell posterior. Here, we use seven Leishmania mexicana cell lines that expressed eYFP fusions of FAZ protein homologs to show that the Leishmania flagellar pocket includes a FAZ structure. Electron tomography revealed a precisely defined 3D organisation for both the flagellar pocket and FAZ, with striking similarities to those of Trypanosoma brucei. Expression of two T. brucei FAZ proteins in L. mexicana showed that T. brucei FAZ proteins can assemble into the Leishmania FAZ structure. Leishmania therefore have a previously unrecognised FAZ structure, which we show undergoes major structural reorganisation in the transition from the promastigote (sandfly vector) to amastigote (in mammalian macrophages). Morphogenesis of the Leishmania flagellar pocket, a structure important for pathogenicity, is therefore intimately associated with a FAZ; a finding with implications for understanding shape changes involving component modules during evolution. PMID:26746239

  15. In vitro anti-Leishmania activity of tetracyclic iridoids from Morinda lucida, benth.

    PubMed

    Amoa-Bosompem, Michael; Ohashi, Mitsuko; Mosore, Mba-Tihssommah; Agyapong, Jeffrey; Tung, Nguyen Huu; Kwofie, Kofi D; Ayertey, Frederick; Owusu, Kofi Baffuor-Awuah; Tuffour, Isaac; Atchoglo, Philip; Djameh, Georgina I; Azerigyik, Faustus A; Botchie, Senyo K; Anyan, William K; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Uto, Takuhiro; Morinaga, Osamu; Appiah, Alfred A; Ayi, Irene; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Boakye, Daniel A; Ohta, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease transmitted by the sand fly. It is caused by over 20 different species of Leishmania and has affected over 14 million people worldwide. One of the main forms of control of leishmaniasis is chemotherapy, but this is limited by the high cost and/or toxicity of available drugs. We previously found three novel compounds with an iridoid tetracyclic skeleton to have activity against trypanosome parasites. In this study, we determined the activity of the three anti-trypanosome compounds against Leishmania using field strain, 010, and the lab strain Leishmania hertigi. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the compounds against 010 was determined by microscopy while the IC50 of compounds against L. hertigi was determined by fluorescence-activated cell sorting with Guava viacount analysis. We found two of the three compounds, molucidin and ML-F52, to have anti-Leishmania activity against both strains. The fluor-microscope observation with DAPI stain revealed that both Molucidin and ML-F52 induced abnormal parasites with two sets of nucleus and kinetoplast in a cell, suggesting that compounds might inhibit cytokinesis in Leishmania parasites. Molucidin and ML-F52 might be good lead compounds for the development of new anti-Leishmania chemotherapy. PMID:27536194

  16. Sphingosine kinase A is a pleiotropic and essential enzyme forLeishmania survival and virulence

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ou; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Xu, Wei; Pawlowic, Mattie; Zhang, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Summary Sphingosine kinase is a key enzyme in sphingolipid metabolism, catalysing the conversion of sphingosine or dihydrosphingosine into sphingosine-1-phosphate or dihydrosphingosine-1-phosphate respectively. In mammals, sphingosine-1-phosphate is a powerful signalling molecule regulating cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis and immunity. Functions of sphingosine kinase or sphingosine-1-phosphate in pathogenic protozoans are virtually unknown. While most organisms possess two closely related sphingosine kinases, only one sphingosine kinase homologue (SKa) can be identified in Leishmania, which are vector-borne protozoan parasites responsible for leishmaniasis. Leishmania SKa is a large, cytoplasmic enzyme capable of phosphorylating both sphingosine and dihydrosphingosine. Remarkably, deletion of SKa leads to catastrophic defects in both the insect stage and mammalian stage of Leishmania parasites. Genetic and biochemical analyses demonstrate that proper expression of SKa is essential for Leishmania parasites to remove toxic metabolites, to survive stressful conditions, and to cause disease in mice. Therefore, SKa is a pleiotropic enzyme with vital roles throughout the life cycle of Leishmania. The essentiality of SKa and its apparent divergence from mammalian counterparts suggests that this enzyme can be selectively targeted to reduce Leishmania infection. PMID:23980754

  17. IDENTIFICATION OF Leishmania infantum IN PUERTO IGUAZÚ, MISIONES, ARGENTINA

    PubMed Central

    ACOSTA, Lucrecia; DÍAZ, Ricardo; TORRES, Pedro; SILVA, Gustavo; RAMOS, Marina; FATTORE, Gladys; DESCHUTTER, Enrique J.; BORNAY-LLINARES, Fernando J.

    2015-01-01

     The emergence of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) in Latin America is a growing public health problem. The urbanization of ZVL has been observed in different countries around the world, and there are a growing number of reports drawing attention to the emergence of this infection in new locations, as well as its increase in previously established areas of endemicity. In the city of Posadas, Misiones province, Northeastern Argentina, the transmission of ZVL associated with canines and Lutzomyia longipalpis was first reported in 2006. In the city of Puerto Iguazú, also in Misiones province, the first human case of ZVL was reported in February 2014. From 209 surveyed dogs, 15 (7.17%) were identified as positive by serological and/or parasitological methods. Amplification was observed in 14 samples and in all cases the species implicated was Leishmania infantum. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first molecular characterization of L. infantum from dogs in this area. PMID:25923899

  18. A biochemical and genetic study of Leishmania donovani pyruvate kinase.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Will; Isea, Raúl; Rodriguez, Evelyn; Ramirez, Jose Luis

    2008-11-15

    Here we present a biochemical and molecular biology study of the enzyme pyruvate kinase (PYK) from the parasitic protozoa Leishmania donovani. The PYK gene was cloned, mutagenised and over expressed and its kinetic parameters determined. Like in other kinetoplastids, L. donovani PYK is allosterically stimulated by the effector fructose 2,6 biphosphate and not by fructose 1,6 biphosphate. When the putative effector binding site of L. donovani PYK was mutagenised, we obtained two mutants with extreme kinetic behavior: Lys453Leu, which retained a sigmoidal kinetics and was little affected by the effector; and His480Gln, which deployed a hyperbolic kinetics that was not changed by the addition of the effector. Molecular Dynamics (MD) studies revealed that the mutations not only altered the effector binding site of L. donovani PYK but also changed the folding of its domain C. PMID:18725273

  19. Activity of (-)alpha-bisabolol against Leishmania infantum promastigotes.

    PubMed

    Morales-Yuste, M; Morillas-Márquez, F; Martín-Sánchez, J; Valero-López, A; Navarro-Moll, M C

    2010-03-01

    Many of the drugs used to treat leishmaniasis are associated with numerous adverse effects. Agents of natural origin have shown activity against different parasites. With this background, an in vitro study was conducted on the activity of (-)alpha-bisabolol, the principal component of Chamomilla recutita essential oil, against Leishmania infantum promastigotes, the main species responsible for human leishmaniasis in Spain. At the two highest concentrations tested (1000 and 500mug/ml), (-)alpha-bisabolol and pentamidine (control agent) achieved 100% inhibition of L. infantum promastigote. These in vitro data can be considered promising in support of the therapeutic use of (-)alpha-bisabolol preparations to treat leishmaniasis caused by L. infantum species. PMID:19577452

  20. [Leishmaniasis in Ecuador. 3. Lutzomyia trapidoi, vector of Leishmania panamensis].

    PubMed

    Le Ponti, F; Leon, R; Guerrini, F; Gantier, J C; Mouchet, J; Echeverria, R; Guderian, R H

    1994-03-01

    Lutzomyia trapidoi, the more abundant anthropophilic species, is a presumed leishmaniasis vector in the Pacific foothills of Ecuador. Three biotopes have been sampled (dwelling, and nearby coffee crop and primary forest) in the focus of Paraiso Escondido, by human bait catches, from August 1991 to October 1992. A large number of sandflies, 6,965 specimens, have been dissected to estimate peri and hypopyloric infections. All the peripyloric infections, characterized by isoenzyme electrophoresis, were Leishmania panamensis. The percentage of these infections was low, around 3%, but they were massive. They occurred only in dry season. Hypopyloric infections were observed in Lu. trapidoi all the year round in the three biotopes. Their percentage was high, reaching 40%. Despite of many trials to cultivate the parasite on NNN medium, no stain could be isolated. It is suggested that the parasite could be L. equatorensis. PMID:8024346

  1. Genetic Dissection of Pyrimidine Biosynthesis and Salvage in Leishmania donovani*

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Zachary N.; Gilroy, Caslin A.; Boitz, Jan M.; Ullman, Buddy; Yates, Phillip A.

    2012-01-01

    Protozoan parasites of the Leishmania genus express the metabolic machinery to synthesize pyrimidine nucleotides via both de novo and salvage pathways. To evaluate the relative contributions of pyrimidine biosynthesis and salvage to pyrimidine homeostasis in both life cycle stages of Leishmania donovani, individual mutant lines deficient in either carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPS), the first enzyme in pyrimidine biosynthesis, uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT), a salvage enzyme, or both CPS and UPRT were constructed. The Δcps lesion conferred pyrimidine auxotrophy and a growth requirement for medium supplementation with one of a plethora of pyrimidine nucleosides or nucleobases, although only dihydroorotate or orotate could circumvent the pyrimidine auxotrophy of the Δcps/Δuprt double knockout. The Δuprt null mutant was prototrophic for pyrimidines but could not salvage uracil or any pyrimidine nucleoside. The capability of the Δcps parasites to infect mice was somewhat diminished but still robust, indicating active pyrimidine salvage by the amastigote form of the parasite, but the Δcps/Δuprt mutant was completely attenuated with no persistent parasites detected after a 4-week infection. Complementation of the Δcps/Δuprt clone with either CPS or UPRT restored infectivity. These data establish that an intact pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway is essential for the growth of the promastigote form of L. donovani in culture, that all uracil and pyrimidine nucleoside salvage in the parasite is mediated by UPRT, and that both the biosynthetic and salvage pathways contribute to a robust infection of the mammalian host by the amastigote. These findings impact potential therapeutic design and vaccine strategies for visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:22367196

  2. Allopurinol Resistance in Leishmania infantum from Dogs with Disease Relapse

    PubMed Central

    Yasur-Landau, Daniel; Jaffe, Charles L.; David, Lior; Baneth, Gad

    2016-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum is a zoonotic, life threatening parasitic disease. Domestic dogs are the main peridomestic reservoir, and allopurinol is the most frequently used drug for the control of infection, alone or in combination with other drugs. Resistance of Leishmania strains from dogs to allopurinol has not been described before in clinical studies. Methodology/Principal Findings Following our observation of clinical disease relapse in dogs under allopurinol treatment, we tested susceptibility to allopurinol of L. infantum isolated from groups of dogs pre-treatment, treated in remission, and with disease relapse during treatment. Promastigote isolates obtained from four treated relapsed dogs (TR group) showed an average half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 996 μg/mL. A significantly lower IC50 (P = 0.01) was found for isolates from ten dogs before treatment (NT group, 200 μg/mL), as well as for five isolates obtained from treated dogs in remission (TA group, 268 μg/mL). Axenic amastigotes produced from isolates of the TR group also showed significantly higher (P = 0.002) IC50 compared to the NT group (1678 and 671 μg/mL, respectively). The lower sensitivity of intracellular amastigotes from the TR group relative to those from the NT group (P = 0.002) was confirmed using an infected macrophage model (6.3% and 20% growth inhibition, respectively at 300 μg/mL allopurinol). Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate allopurinol resistance in L. infantum and to associate it with disease relapse in the canine host. These findings are of concern as allopurinol is the main drug used for long term control of the disease in dogs, and resistant L. infantum strains may enhance uncontrolled transmission to humans and to other dogs. PMID:26735519

  3. Spread of Leishmania infantum in Europe with dog travelling.

    PubMed

    Maia, Carla; Cardoso, Luís

    2015-09-30

    Leishmania infantum is the etiological agent of canine leishmaniosis (CanL) in Europe, where it is endemic in the Mediterranean region, with dogs being considered the major reservoir of the parasite for humans and other mammalian hosts. The main transmission mode of Leishmania is by the bite of infected phlebotomine sand fly insects (genus Phlebotomus), which are the only proven vectors of this zoonotic protozoan. Less common, non-vectorial transmission between dogs include infection through transfused blood products from infected donors, transplacental and venereal transmission. CanL has exhibited an expansion to new locations in Europe, mainly northwards, either by territorial contiguity, often in association with global warming that favours vectorial transmission, or by the long-distance importation of infected dogs. The increasing incidence of CanL in countries where the disease is not endemic is challenging owners, veterinarians and government authorities. Most infected dogs in these new areas have been relocated from or travelled with their owners to endemic regions, but in some cases transmission might have also been autochthonous. In the absence of prophylactic measures, the introduction of infected dogs in areas previously free of endemic CanL but which have competent sand fly vectors can result in a potential persistence of L. infantum. The spread of L. infantum in Europe is reviewed with a focus on transmission, epidemiology and geographic distribution of endemic and non-endemic CanL, infection and disease in humans and animal hosts other than dogs, together with prevention and additional control strategies. PMID:26021526

  4. Combinations of ascaridole, carvacrol, and caryophyllene oxide against Leishmania.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Jacinta; García, Marley; Steinbauer, Silvia; Setzer, William N; Scull, Ramón; Gille, Lars; Monzote, Lianet

    2015-05-01

    To date there are no vaccines against Leishmania and chemotherapy remains the mainstay for the control of leishmaniasis. The drugs currently used for leishmaniasis therapy are significantly toxic, expensive, and result in a growing frequency of refractory infections. In this study, we evaluated the effect of combinations of the main components of essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides (ascaridole, carvacrol, and caryophyllene oxide) against Leishmaniaamazonensis. Anti-leishmanial effects of combinations of pure compounds were evaluated in vitro and the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices were calculated. BALB/c mice infected with L. amazonensis were treated with different concentrations of ascaridole-carvacrol combinations by intralesional doses every 4 days. Disease progression and parasite burden in infected tissues were determined. In vitro experiments showed a synergistic effect of the combination of ascaridole-carvacrol against promastigotes of Leishmania with a FIC index of 0.171, while indifferent activities were observed for ascaridole-caryophyllene oxide (FIC index=3.613) and carvacrol-caryophyllene oxide (FIC index=2.356) combinations. The fixed ratio method showed that a 1:4 ascaridole-carvacrol ratio produced a better anti-protozoal activity on promastigotes, lower cytotoxicity, and synergistic activity on intracellular amastigotes (FIC index=0.416). Significant differences (p<0.05) in lesion size and parasite burden were demonstrated in BALB/c mice experimentally infected and treated with the ascaridole-carvacrol combinations compared with control animals. Carvacrol showed significant higher anti-radical activity in the DPPH assay compared with caryophyllene oxide. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy in combination with spin trapping suggested the presence of carbon-centered radicals after activation of ascaridole by Fe(2+). The intensity of the signals is preferably decreased upon addition of carvacrol. The ascaridole

  5. Screening and characterization of RAPD markers in viscerotropic Leishmania parasites.

    PubMed

    Mkada-Driss, Imen; Lahmadi, Ramzi; Chakroun, Ahmed S; Talbi, Chiraz; Guerbouj, Souheila; Driss, Mehdi; Elamine, Elwaleed M; Cupolillo, Elisa; Mukhtar, Moawia M; Guizani, Ikram

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is mainly due to the Leishmania donovani complex. VL is endemic in many countries worldwide including East Africa and the Mediterranean region where the epidemiology is complex. Taxonomy of these pathogens is under controversy but there is a correlation between their genetic diversity and geographical origin. With steady increase in genome knowledge, RAPD is still a useful approach to identify and characterize novel DNA markers. Our aim was to identify and characterize polymorphic DNA markers in VL Leishmania parasites in diverse geographic regions using RAPD in order to constitute a pool of PCR targets having the potential to differentiate among the VL parasites. 100 different oligonucleotide decamers having arbitrary DNA sequences were screened for reproducible amplification and a selection of 28 was used to amplify DNA from 12 L. donovani, L. archibaldi and L. infantum strains having diverse origins. A total of 155 bands were amplified of which 60.65% appeared polymorphic. 7 out of 28 primers provided monomorphic patterns. Phenetic analysis allowed clustering the parasites according to their geographical origin. Differentially amplified bands were selected, among them 22 RAPD products were successfully cloned and sequenced. Bioinformatic analysis allowed mapping of the markers and sequences and priming sites analysis. This study was complemented with Southern-blot to confirm assignment of markers to the kDNA. The bioinformatic analysis identified 16 nuclear and 3 minicircle markers. Analysis of these markers highlighted polymorphisms at RAPD priming sites with mainly 5' end transversions, and presence of inter- and intra- taxonomic complex sequence and microsatellites variations; a bias in transitions over transversions and indels between the different sequences compared is observed, which is however less marked between L. infantum and L. donovani. The study delivers a pool of well-documented polymorphic DNA markers, to develop

  6. Natural infection of Algerian hedgehog, Atelerix algirus (Lereboullet 1842) with Leishmania parasites in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Chemkhi, Jomaa; Souguir, Hejer; Ali, Insaf Bel Hadj; Driss, Mehdi; Guizani, Ikram; Guerbouj, Souheila

    2015-10-01

    In Tunisia, Leishmania parasites are responsible of visceral leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania infantum species while three cutaneous disease forms are documented: chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania killicki, sporadic cutaneous form (SCL) caused by L. infantum and the predominant zoonotic cutaneous leishmanaisis (ZCL) due to Leishmania major. ZCL reservoirs are rodents of the Psammomys and Meriones genera, while for SCL the dog is supposed to be a reservoir. Ctenodactylus gundii is involved in the transmission of L. killicki. However, other mammals could constitute potential reservoir hosts in Tunisia and other North African countries. In order to explore the role of hedgehogs as potential reservoirs of leishmaniasis, specimens (N=6) were captured during July-November period in 2011-2013 in an SCL endemic area in El Kef region, North-Western Tunisia. Using morphological characteristics, all specimens were described and measured. Biopsies from liver, heart, kidney and spleen of each animal were used to extract genomic DNA, which was further used in PCR assays to assess the presence of Leishmania parasites. Different PCRs targeting kinetoplast minicircles, ITS1, mini-exon genes and a repetitive Leishmania- specific sequence, were applied. To further identify Leishmania species involved, RFLP analysis of amplified fragments was performed with appropriate restriction enzymes. Using morphological characters, animals were identified as North African hedgehogs, also called Algerian hedgehogs, that belong to the Erinaceidae family, genus Atelerix Pomel 1848, and species algirus (Lereboullet, 1842). PCR results showed in total that all specimens were Leishmania infected, with different organs incriminated, mainly liver and spleen. Results were confirmed by direct sequencing of amplified fragments. Species identification showed that all specimens were infected with L. major, three of which were additionally co-infected with L. infantum. The present study

  7. Species delimitation and phylogenetic relationships of Chinese Leishmania isolates reexamined using kinetoplast cytochrome oxidase II gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Cao, De-Ping; Guo, Xian-Guang; Chen, Da-Li; Chen, Jian-Ping

    2011-07-01

    Leishmaniasis is a geographically widespread disease caused by protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Leishmania and transmitted by certain species of sand fly. This disease still remains endemic in China, especially in the west and northwest frontier regions. A recent ITS1 phylogeny of Chinese Leishmania isolates has challenged some aspects for their traditional taxonomy and cladistic hypotheses of their phylogeny. However, disagreement with respect to relationships within Chinese Leishmania isolates highlights the need for additional data and analyses. Here, we test the phylogenetic relationships among Chinese isolates and their relatives by analyzing kinetoplast cytochrome oxidase II (COII) gene sequences, including 14 Chinese isolates and three isolates from other countries plus 17 sequences retrieved from GenBank. The COII gene might have experienced little substitution saturation, and its evolutionary process was likely to have been stationary, reversible, and homogeneous. Both neighbor-joining and Bayesian analyses reveal a moderately supported group comprising ten newly determined isolates, which is closely related to Leishmania tarentolae and Endotrypanum monterogeii. In combination with genetic distance analysis as well as Bayesian hypothesis testing, this further corroborates the occurrence of an undescribed species of Leishmania. Our results also suggest that (1) isolate MHOM/CN/93/GS7 and isolate IPHL/CN/77/XJ771 are Leishmania donovani; (2) isolate MHOM/CN/84/JS1 is Leishmania tropica; (3) the status referring to an isolate MRHO/CN/62/GS-GER20 from a great gerbil in Gansu, China, as Leishmania gerbilli, formerly based on multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, is recognized; and (4) E. monterogeii is nested within the genus Leishmania, resulting in a paraphyletic Leishmania. In addition, the results of this study enrich our understanding of the heterogeneity and relationships of Chinese Leishmania isolates. PMID:21221640

  8. The LABCG2 Transporter from the Protozoan Parasite Leishmania Is Involved in Antimony Resistance.

    PubMed

    Perea, Ana; Manzano, José Ignacio; Castanys, Santiago; Gamarro, Francisco

    2016-06-01

    Treatment for leishmaniasis, which is caused by Leishmania protozoan parasites, currently relies on a reduced arsenal of drugs. However, the significant increase in the incidence of drug therapeutic failure and the growing resistance to first-line drugs like antimonials in some areas of Northern India and Nepal limit the control of this parasitic disease. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of resistance in Leishmania is now a matter of urgency to optimize drugs used and to identify novel drug targets to block or reverse resistant mechanisms. Some members of the family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in Leishmania have been associated with drug resistance. In this study, we have focused our interest to characterize LABCG2's involvement in drug resistance in Leishmania. Leishmania major parasites overexpressing the ABC protein transporter LABCG2 were generated in order to assess how LABCG2 is involved in drug resistance. Assays of susceptibility to different leishmanicidal agents were carried out. Analysis of the drug resistance profile revealed that Leishmania parasites overexpressing LABCG2 were resistant to antimony, as they demonstrated a reduced accumulation of Sb(III) due to an increase in drug efflux. Additionally, LABCG2 was able to transport thiols in the presence of Sb(III) Biotinylation assays using parasites expressing LABCG2 fused with an N-terminal green fluorescent protein tag revealed that LABCG2 is partially localized in the plasma membrane; this supports data from previous studies which suggested that LABCG2 is localized in intracellular vesicles that fuse with the plasma membrane during exocytosis. In conclusion, Leishmania LABCG2 probably confers antimony resistance by sequestering metal-thiol conjugates within vesicles and through further exocytosis by means of the parasite's flagellar pocket. PMID:27021316

  9. RIPK1 and PGAM5 Control Leishmania Replication through Distinct Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Farias Luz, Nivea; Balaji, Sakthi; Okuda, Kendi; Barreto, Aline Silva; Bertin, John; Gough, Peter J; Gazzinelli, Ricardo; Almeida, Roque P; Bozza, Marcelo T; Borges, Valeria M; Chan, Francis Ka-Ming

    2016-06-15

    Leishmaniasis is an important parasitic disease found in the tropics and subtropics. Cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis affect an estimated 1.5 million people worldwide. Despite its human health relevance, relatively little is known about the cell death pathways that control Leishmania replication in the host. Necroptosis is a recently identified form of cell death with potent antiviral effects. Receptor interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) is a critical kinase that mediates necroptosis downstream of death receptors and TLRs. Heme, a product of hemoglobin catabolism during certain intracellular pathogen infections, is also a potent inducer of macrophage necroptosis. We found that human visceral leishmaniasis patients exhibit elevated serum levels of heme. Therefore, we examined the impact of heme and necroptosis on Leishmania replication. Indeed, heme potently inhibited Leishmania replication in bone marrow-derived macrophages. Moreover, we found that inhibition of RIPK1 kinase activity also enhanced parasite replication in the absence of heme. We further found that the mitochondrial phosphatase phosphoglycerate mutase family member 5 (PGAM5), a putative downstream effector of RIPK1, was also required for inhibition of Leishmania replication. In mouse infection, both PGAM5 and RIPK1 kinase activity are required for IL-1β expression in response to Leishmania However, PGAM5, but not RIPK1 kinase activity, was directly responsible for Leishmania-induced IL-1β secretion and NO production in bone marrow-derived macrophages. Collectively, these results revealed that RIPK1 and PGAM5 function independently to exert optimal control of Leishmania replication in the host. PMID:27183605

  10. Leishmania infection modulates beta-1 integrin activation and alters the kinetics of monocyte spreading over fibronectin

    PubMed Central

    Figueira, Cláudio Pereira; Carvalhal, Djalma Gomes Ferrão; Almeida, Rafaela Andrade; Hermida, Micely d’ El-Rei; Touchard, Dominique; Robert, Phillipe; Pierres, Anne; Bongrand, Pierre; dos-Santos, Washington LC

    2015-01-01

    Contact with Leishmania leads to a decreases in mononuclear phagocyte adherence to connective tissue. In this work, we studied the early stages of bond formation between VLA4 and fibronectin, measured the kinetics of membrane alignment and the monocyte cytoplasm spreading area over a fibronectin-coated surface, and studied the expression of high affinity integrin epitope in uninfected and Leishmania-infected human monocytes. Our results show that the initial VLA4-mediated interaction of Leishmania-infected monocyte with a fibronectin-coated surface is preserved, however, the later stage, leukocyte spreading over the substrate is abrogated in Leishmania-infected cells. The median of spreading area was 72 [55–89] μm2 for uninfected and 41 [34–51] μm2 for Leishmania-infected monocyte. This cytoplasm spread was inhibited using an anti-VLA4 blocking antibody. After the initial contact with the fibronectrin-coated surface, uninfected monocyte quickly spread the cytoplasm at a 15 μm2 s−1 ratio whilst Leishmania-infected monocytes only made small contacts at a 5.5 μm2 s−1 ratio. The expression of high affinity epitope by VLA4 (from 39 ± 21% to 14 ± 3%); and LFA1 (from 37 ± 32% to 18 ± 16%) molecules was reduced in Leishmania-infected monocytes. These changes in phagocyte function may be important for parasite dissemination and distribution of lesions in leishmaniasis. PMID:26249106

  11. Genomic Confirmation of Hybridisation and Recent Inbreeding in a Vector-Isolated Leishmania Population

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Barbara A.; Imamura, Hideo; Sanders, Mandy; Svobodova, Milena; Volf, Petr; Berriman, Matthew; Cotton, James A.; Smith, Deborah F.

    2014-01-01

    Although asexual reproduction via clonal propagation has been proposed as the principal reproductive mechanism across parasitic protozoa of the Leishmania genus, sexual recombination has long been suspected, based on hybrid marker profiles detected in field isolates from different geographical locations. The recent experimental demonstration of a sexual cycle in Leishmania within sand flies has confirmed the occurrence of hybridisation, but knowledge of the parasite life cycle in the wild still remains limited. Here, we use whole genome sequencing to investigate the frequency of sexual reproduction in Leishmania, by sequencing the genomes of 11 Leishmania infantum isolates from sand flies and 1 patient isolate in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Çukurova province of southeast Turkey. This is the first genome-wide examination of a vector-isolated population of Leishmania parasites. A genome-wide pattern of patchy heterozygosity and SNP density was observed both within individual strains and across the whole group. Comparisons with other Leishmania donovani complex genome sequences suggest that these isolates are derived from a single cross of two diverse strains with subsequent recombination within the population. This interpretation is supported by a statistical model of the genomic variability for each strain compared to the L. infantum reference genome strain as well as genome-wide scans for recombination within the population. Further analysis of these heterozygous blocks indicates that the two parents were phylogenetically distinct. Patterns of linkage disequilibrium indicate that this population reproduced primarily clonally following the original hybridisation event, but that some recombination also occurred. This observation allowed us to estimate the relative rates of sexual and asexual reproduction within this population, to our knowledge the first quantitative estimate of these events during the Leishmania life cycle. PMID:24453988

  12. Leishmania donovani-specific Ub-related modifier-1: an early endosome-associated ubiquitin-like conjugation in Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vanila; Sharma, Paresh; Selvapandiyan, Angamuthu; Salotra, Poonam

    2016-02-01

    Protein modification by ubiquitin (Ub) and Ub-like molecules (Ubls) is a diverse biological process that regulates the activity of the target proteins. Systematic studies of Ubls in trypanosomatids like Leishmania, the causative organism of potentially fatal visceral leishmaniasis, would yield a better understanding of the disease pathogenesis and identify novel therapeutic targets. The present study is the first to characterize Leishmania donovani-specific Ub-related modifier-1 (LdUrm1) and the associated conjugation pathway. Based on homology modeling, LdUrm1 was found to possess a β-grasp fold and a C-terminal di-glycine motif unique to Ub/Ubls, essential for its conjugation to the target proteins. We identified LdUba4 as the E1 enzyme for LdUrm1 and demonstrated its energy-dependent enzymatic activity. LdUrm1 was immunolocalized anteriorly near the flagellar reservoir, while LdUba4 was cytoplasmic, both in promastigotes and axenic amastigotes. Expression of nonconjugatable LdUrm1 in L. donovani resulted in depleted parasite growth suggesting its role in the pathogenesis. By mass spectrometry, we identified Rab5, a known mediator of early endosome regulated hemoglobin endocytosis in Leishmania, as a target of LdUrm1. Our data suggest that LdUrm1 conjugation pathway may have a role in early endosome-mediated heme uptake in Leishmania that may be explored as a drug target. PMID:26481108

  13. Polymerase chain reaction detection of Leishmania DNA in skin biopsy samples in Sri Lanka where the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis is Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, Shalindra; Wickremasinghe, Renu; Hulangamuwa, Sanjeeva; Sirimanna, Ganga; Opathella, Nandimithra; Maingon, Rhaiza D C; Chandrasekharan, Vishvanath

    2015-12-01

    Leishmania donovani is the known causative agent of both cutaneous (CL) and visceral leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka. CL is considered to be under-reported partly due to relatively poor sensitivity and specificity of microscopic diagnosis. We compared robustness of three previously described polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods to detect Leishmania DNA in 38 punch biopsy samples from patients presented with suspected lesions in 2010. Both, Leishmania genus-specific JW11/JW12 KDNA and LITSR/L5.8S internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1 PCR assays detected 92% (35/38) of the samples whereas a KDNA assay specific forL. donovani (LdF/LdR) detected only 71% (27/38) of samples. All positive samples showed a L. donovani banding pattern upon HaeIII ITS1 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. PCR assay specificity was evaluated in samples containing Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium leprae, and human DNA, and there was no cross-amplification in JW11/JW12 and LITSR/L5.8S PCR assays. The LdF/LdR PCR assay did not amplify M. leprae or human DNA although 500 bp and 700 bp bands were observed in M. tuberculosis samples. In conclusion, it was successfully shown in this study that it is possible to diagnose Sri Lankan CL with high accuracy, to genus and species identification, using Leishmania DNA PCR assays. PMID:26676321

  14. Comparative Analysis of Cellular Immune Responses in Treated Leishmania Patients and Hamsters against Recombinant Th1 Stimulatory Proteins of Leishmania donovani

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Sumit; Yadav, Narendra K.; Rawat, Keerti; Tripathi, Chandra Dev P.; Jaiswal, Anil K.; Khare, Prashant; Tandon, Rati; Baharia, Rajendra K.; Das, Sanchita; Gupta, Reema; Kushawaha, Pramod K.; Sundar, Shyam; Sahasrabuddhe, Amogh A.; Dube, Anuradha

    2016-01-01

    Our prior studies demonstrated that cellular response of T helper 1 (Th1) type was generated by a soluble antigenic fraction (ranging from 89.9 to 97.1 kDa) of Leishmania donovani promastigote, in treated Leishmania patients as well as hamsters and showed significant prophylactic potential against experimental visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Eighteen Th1 stimulatory proteins were identified through proteomic analysis of this subfraction, out of which 15 were developed as recombinant proteins. In the present work, we have evaluated these 15 recombinant proteins simultaneously for their comparative cellular responses in treated Leishmania patients and hamsters. Six proteins viz. elongation factor-2, enolase, aldolase, triose phosphate isomerase, protein disulfide isomerase, and p45 emerged as most immunogenic as they produced a significant lymphoproliferative response, nitric oxide generation and Th1 cytokine response in PBMCs and lymphocytes of treated Leishmania patients and hamsters respectively. The results suggested that these proteins may be exploited for developing a successful poly-protein and/or poly-epitope vaccine against VL. PMID:27047452

  15. Serological survey of Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi in dogs from urban areas of Brazil and Colombia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi are zoonotic parasites that are endemic throughout many parts of Latin America. Infected dogs play an important role in transmission of both parasites to humans. A serological survey of Leishmania and Trypanosoma infection was conducted on 365 dogs from São ...

  16. Gluconeogenesis in Leishmania mexicana: contribution of glycerol kinase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and pyruvate phosphate dikinase.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Contreras, Dayana; Hamilton, Nicklas

    2014-11-21

    Gluconeogenesis is an active pathway in Leishmania amastigotes and is essential for their survival within the mammalian cells. However, our knowledge about this pathway in trypanosomatids is very limited. We investigated the role of glycerol kinase (GK), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), and pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK) in gluconeogenesis by generating the respective Leishmania mexicana Δgk, Δpepck, and Δppdk null mutants. Our results demonstrated that indeed GK, PEPCK, and PPDK are key players in the gluconeogenesis pathway in Leishmania, although stage-specific differences in their contribution to this pathway were found. GK participates in the entry of glycerol in promastigotes and amastigotes; PEPCK participates in the entry of aspartate in promastigotes, and PPDK is involved in the entry of alanine in amastigotes. Furthermore, the majority of alanine enters into the pathway via decarboxylation of pyruvate in promastigotes, whereas pathway redundancy is suggested for the entry of aspartate in amastigotes. Interestingly, we also found that l-lactate, an abundant glucogenic precursor in mammals, was used by Leishmania amastigotes to synthesize mannogen, entering the pathway through PPDK. On the basis of these new results, we propose a revision in the current model of gluconeogenesis in Leishmania, emphasizing the differences between amastigotes and promastigotes. This work underlines the importance of studying the trypanosomatid intracellular life cycle stages to gain a better understanding of the pathologies caused in humans. PMID:25288791

  17. Using Proteomics to Understand How Leishmania Parasites Survive inside the Host and Establish Infection

    PubMed Central

    Veras, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares; Bezerra de Menezes, Juliana Perrone

    2016-01-01

    Leishmania is a protozoan parasite that causes a wide range of different clinical manifestations in mammalian hosts. It is a major public health risk on different continents and represents one of the most important neglected diseases. Due to the high toxicity of the drugs currently used, and in the light of increasing drug resistance, there is a critical need to develop new drugs and vaccines to control Leishmania infection. Over the past few years, proteomics has become an important tool to understand the underlying biology of Leishmania parasites and host interaction. The large-scale study of proteins, both in parasites and within the host in response to infection, can accelerate the discovery of new therapeutic targets. By studying the proteomes of host cells and tissues infected with Leishmania, as well as changes in protein profiles among promastigotes and amastigotes, scientists hope to better understand the biology involved in the parasite survival and the host-parasite interaction. This review demonstrates the feasibility of proteomics as an approach to identify new proteins involved in Leishmania differentiation and intracellular survival. PMID:27548150

  18. Antigenicity of the Leishmania infantum histones H2B and H4 during canine viscerocutaneous leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Soto, M; Requena, J M; Quijada, L; Perez, M J; Nieto, C G; Guzman, F; Patarroyo, M E; Alonso, C

    1999-01-01

    In this study we show that sera from dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum contain antibodies that specifically react against the parasite H2B and H4 histones. The Leishmania H2B and the amino-terminal region of the histone H4, expressed as fusion proteins, when confronted with sera from canine viscerocutaneous leishmaniasis (VCL) dogs, were recognized by 63% and 47%, respectively. No reactivity was detected when sera from dogs naturally infected with pathogens other than Leishmania were used. Using a collection of synthetic peptides covering the complete sequence of both proteins, we have determined that the main linear antigenic determinants are located in the amino-terminal domains of these histones. The humoral response against histones H2B and H4 induced during canine leishmaniasis was found to be specific for Leishmania histones, since no cross-reactivity of the VCL sera with mammal histones was observed. Also, a comparative study of the prevalence of antibodies among VCL sera against the four core histones of L. infantum was performed. Although a large heterogeneity of the humoral responses against these proteins was found, histones H2A and H3 seem to be more prevalent immunogens than histones H2B and H4 during canine natural leishmaniasis. The origin of the anti-histone humoral response and its possible implications in the pathogenesis of Leishmania infection are discussed. PMID:9933463

  19. Detection of Leishmania Infantum in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Central Greece.

    PubMed

    Karayiannis, Stelios; Ntais, Pantelis; Messaritakis, Ippokratis; Tsirigotakis, Nikolaos; Dokianakis, Emmanouil; Antoniou, Maria

    2015-11-01

    This is the first record of Leishmania detection in foxes in Greece. Spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow and blood samples were collected from 47 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) found dead or captured, narcotized and freed after bleeding, from November 2009 to 2011, in Fthiotida prefecture, central Greece. This is an endemic for canine leishmaniasis area with several human visceral leishmaniasis cases. The samples were tested for Leishmania infantum and Leishmania tropica by molecular methods (polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism) and serology (indirect immunofluorescent antibody test; when blood samples were available). Leishmania infantum DNA was detected in 28 animals (59·5%). PCR positivity was related to animal age, sex, weight, characteristics of the area trapped, presence of leishmaniasis symptoms and presence of endo- and ecto-parasites. The results were related to dog seropositivity obtained earlier in the area. The findings support the hypothesis that this wild canid may serve as a reservoir for Leishmania in areas where the sandfly vectors are found. In the prefectures of Larisa and Magnisia, adjacent to Fthiotida, Phlebotomus perfiliewi and Phlebotomus tobbi (known vectors of L. infantum) have been reported. PMID:26399545

  20. Using Proteomics to Understand How Leishmania Parasites Survive inside the Host and Establish Infection.

    PubMed

    Veras, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares; Bezerra de Menezes, Juliana Perrone

    2016-01-01

    Leishmania is a protozoan parasite that causes a wide range of different clinical manifestations in mammalian hosts. It is a major public health risk on different continents and represents one of the most important neglected diseases. Due to the high toxicity of the drugs currently used, and in the light of increasing drug resistance, there is a critical need to develop new drugs and vaccines to control Leishmania infection. Over the past few years, proteomics has become an important tool to understand the underlying biology of Leishmania parasites and host interaction. The large-scale study of proteins, both in parasites and within the host in response to infection, can accelerate the discovery of new therapeutic targets. By studying the proteomes of host cells and tissues infected with Leishmania, as well as changes in protein profiles among promastigotes and amastigotes, scientists hope to better understand the biology involved in the parasite survival and the host-parasite interaction. This review demonstrates the feasibility of proteomics as an approach to identify new proteins involved in Leishmania differentiation and intracellular survival. PMID:27548150

  1. Sand fly-Leishmania interactions: long relationships are not necessarily easy

    PubMed Central

    Ramalho-Ortigao, Marcelo; Saraiva, Elvira M.; Traub-Csekö, Yara M.

    2012-01-01

    Sand fly and Leishmania are one of the best studied vector-parasite models. Much is known about the development of these parasites within the sand fly, and how transmission to a suitable vertebrate host takes place. Various molecules secreted by the vector assist the establishment of the infection in a vertebrate, and changes to the vector are promoted by the parasites in order to facilitate or enhance transmission. Despite a generally accepted view that sand flies and Leishmania are also one of the oldest vector-pathogen pairs known, such long history has not been translated into a harmonic relationship. Leishmania are faced with many barriers to the establishment of a successful infection within the sand fly vector, and specific associations have been developed which are thought to represent aspects of a co-evolution between the parasite and its vectors. In this review, we highlight the journey taken by Leishmania during its development within the vector, and describe the issues associated with the natural barriers encountered by the parasite. Recent data revealed sexual replication of Leishmania within the sand fly, but it is yet unknown if such reproduction affects disease outcome. New approaches targeting sand fly molecules to prevent parasite transmission are being sought, and various techniques related to genetic manipulation of sand flies are being utilized. PMID:24159365

  2. The early interaction of Leishmania with macrophages and dendritic cells and its influence on the host immune response

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dong; Uzonna, Jude E.

    2012-01-01

    The complicated interactions between Leishmania and the host antigen-presenting cells (APCs) have fundamental effects on the final outcome of the disease. Two major APCs, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), play critical roles in mediating resistance and susceptibility during Leishmania infection. Macrophages are the primary resident cell for Leishmania: they phagocytose and permit parasite proliferation. However, these cells are also the major effector cells to eliminate infection. The effective clearance of parasites by macrophages depends on activation of appropriate immune response, which is usually initiated by DCs. Here, we review the early interaction of APCs with Leishmania parasites and how these interactions profoundly impact on the ensuing adaptive immune response. We also discuss how the current knowledge will allow further refinement of our understanding of the interplay between Leishmania and its hosts that leads to resistance or susceptibility. PMID:22919674

  3. An Arginine Deprivation Response Pathway Is Induced in Leishmania during Macrophage Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Rona; Zeituni-Molad, Michal; Bendelak, Keren; Rentsch, Doris; Ephros, Moshe; Wiese, Martin; Jardim, Armando; Myler, Peter J.; Zilberstein, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Amino acid sensing is an intracellular function that supports nutrient homeostasis, largely through controlled release of amino acids from lysosomal pools. The intracellular pathogen Leishmania resides and proliferates within human macrophage phagolysosomes. Here we describe a new pathway in Leishmania that specifically senses the extracellular levels of arginine, an amino acid that is essential for the parasite. During infection, the macrophage arginine pool is depleted due to its use to produce metabolites (NO and polyamines) that constitute part of the host defense response and its suppression, respectively. We found that parasites respond to this shortage of arginine by up-regulating expression and activity of the Leishmania arginine transporter (LdAAP3), as well as several other transporters. Our analysis indicates the parasite monitors arginine levels in the environment rather than the intracellular pools. Phosphoproteomics and genetic analysis indicates that the arginine-deprivation response is mediated through a mitogen-activated protein kinase-2-dependent signaling cascade. PMID:27043018

  4. An Arginine Deprivation Response Pathway Is Induced in Leishmania during Macrophage Invasion.

    PubMed

    Goldman-Pinkovich, Adele; Balno, Caitlin; Strasser, Rona; Zeituni-Molad, Michal; Bendelak, Keren; Rentsch, Doris; Ephros, Moshe; Wiese, Martin; Jardim, Armando; Myler, Peter J; Zilberstein, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Amino acid sensing is an intracellular function that supports nutrient homeostasis, largely through controlled release of amino acids from lysosomal pools. The intracellular pathogen Leishmania resides and proliferates within human macrophage phagolysosomes. Here we describe a new pathway in Leishmania that specifically senses the extracellular levels of arginine, an amino acid that is essential for the parasite. During infection, the macrophage arginine pool is depleted due to its use to produce metabolites (NO and polyamines) that constitute part of the host defense response and its suppression, respectively. We found that parasites respond to this shortage of arginine by up-regulating expression and activity of the Leishmania arginine transporter (LdAAP3), as well as several other transporters. Our analysis indicates the parasite monitors arginine levels in the environment rather than the intracellular pools. Phosphoproteomics and genetic analysis indicates that the arginine-deprivation response is mediated through a mitogen-activated protein kinase-2-dependent signaling cascade. PMID:27043018

  5. Leishmania Promastigotes Lack Phosphatidylserine but Bind Annexin V upon Permeabilization or Miltefosine Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zampieri, Ricardo Andrade; Gonzaga dos Santos, Marcos; Schiller, Jürgen; Pomorski, Thomas Günther

    2012-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Leishmania is an intracellular pathogen infecting and replicating inside vertebrate host macrophages. A recent model suggests that promastigote and amastigote forms of the parasite mimic mammalian apoptotic cells by exposing phosphatidylserine (PS) at the cell surface to trigger their phagocytic uptake into host macrophages. PS presentation at the cell surface is typically analyzed using fluorescence-labeled annexin V. Here we show that Leishmania promastigotes can be stained by fluorescence-labeled annexin V upon permeabilization or miltefosine treatment. However, combined lipid analysis by thin-layer chromatography, mass spectrometry and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy revealed that Leishmania promastigotes lack any detectable amount of PS. Instead, we identified several other phospholipid classes such phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylethanolamine; phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol as candidate lipids enabling annexin V staining. PMID:22870283

  6. Hemoglobin guided nanocarrier for specific delivery of amphotericin B to Leishmania infected macrophage.

    PubMed

    Bose, Partha Pratim; Kumar, Prakash; Dwivedi, Mohit Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Leishmania donovani being an intracellular parasite poses many challenges against the attempted chemotherapy. After the resistance towards the first line of antileishmanial drug, Amphotericin B has been the treatment of choice against visceral leishmaniasis, a fatal tropical disease. However, unfavorable toxicity profile, severe side effects, prolonged parenteral administration procedure limits the use of Amphotericin B. Lack of available specific delivery system also makes this drug unsafe for the prolonged use. In this current study, a chitosan-chondroitin sulfate based nanodelivery vehicle has been introduced. Hemoglobin has been attached on the surface of the delivery system for specifically targeting the leishmania infected macrophage taking the advantage of Leishmania being highly auxotrophic for heme. This cheap and biodegradable delivery vehicle has improved the toxicity profile and lowered LD50 value of the drug significantly compared to traditional way of its direct administration. PMID:26945483

  7. Mutational analysis of the capsid protein of Leishmania RNA virus LRV1-4.

    PubMed Central

    Cadd, T L; MacBeth, K; Furlong, D; Patterson, J L

    1994-01-01

    The virion of Leishmania RNA virus is predicted to be composed of a 742-amino-acid major capsid protein and a small percentage of capsid-polymerase fusion molecules. Recently, the capsid protein alone was expressed and shown to spontaneously assemble into viruslike particles. Since the major structural protein of the virion shell self-assembles into viruslike particles when expressed in the baculovirus expression system, assembly of the virion can be studied by mutational analysis and expression of a single open reading frame. In this study, several deletions and one addition of the capsid protein of Leishmania RNA virus LRV1-4 were generated. These mutants show different degrees of assembly. Assembly domains are being identified such that the capsid protein may be used as a macromolecular packaging and delivery system for Leishmania species. Images PMID:7966563

  8. Leishmania infantum chagasi: A genome-based approach to identification of excreted/secreted proteins

    PubMed Central

    DebRoy, Sruti; Keenan, Alexandra B.; Ueno, Norikiyo; Jeronimo, Selma M. B.; Donelson, John E.; Wilson, Mary E.

    2010-01-01

    The parasitic protozoan, Leishmania, survives in harsh environments within its mammalian and sand fly hosts. Secreted proteins likely play critical roles in the parasite’s interactions with its environment. As a preliminary identification of the spectrum of potential excreted/secreted (ES) proteins of Leishmania infantum chagasi (Lic), a causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis, we used standard algorithms to screen the annotated L. infantum genome for genes whose predicted protein products have an N-terminal signal peptide and lack transmembrane domains and membrane anchors. A suite of 181 candidate ES proteins were identified. These included several that were documented in the literature to be released by other Leishmania spp. Six candidate ES proteins were selected for further validation of their expression and release by different parasite stages. We found both amastigote-specific and promastigote-specific released proteins. The ES proteins of Lic are candidates for future studies of parasite virulence determinants and host protective immunity. PMID:20542033

  9. Computational and Investigative Study of Flavonoids Active Against Typanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Frederico F; Junior, Francisco J B M; da Silva, Marcelo S; Scotti, Marcus Tullius; Scotti, Luciana

    2015-06-01

    Flavonoid compounds active against Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania species were submitted to several methodologies in silico: docking with the enzymes cruzain and trypanothione reductase (from T. cruzi), and N-myristoyltransferase, dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, and trypanothiona reductase (from Leishmania spp). Molecular maps of the complexes and the ligands were calculated. In order to compare and evaluate the antioxidant activity of the flavonoids with their antiprotozoal activity, quantum parameters were calculated. Considering the energies, interactions, and hydrophobic surfaces calculated, the flavonoids chrysin dimethyl ether against T. cruzi, and ladanein against Leishmania sp. presented the best results. The antioxidant activity did not show any correlation with anti-parasitic activity; only chrysin and its dimethyl ether showed favorable anti-parasitic results. This study hopes to contribute to existing research on these natural products against these tropical parasites. PMID:26197515

  10. Geographical Distribution of Leishmania Species of Human Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Fars Province, Southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Akhoundi, M; Hajjaran, H; Baghaei, A; Mohebali, M

    2013-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was to know the identity of Leishmania species responsible of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Fars Province, southern Iran. Methods Five counties of Shiraz, Firouz Abad, Ghir-Karzin, Farashband and Larestan were prospected. Forty-four patients exhibiting cutaneous lesions were selected. Samples collected on skin lesions were examined both microscopically (after Giemsa staining) and molecularly (after PCR-RFLP). Results On the 44 examined patients, 39 exhibit Leishmania sp. by microscopical examination, all confirmed by PCR. For five patients with negative microscopical examination, PCR was positive for three of them. Among these 42 positive samples, 3 (7%) were infected by L. tropica and 39 (93%) by L. major. Conclusions Leishmania major is the most prevalent species in prospected area and L. tropica occurs in Shiraz and Ghir-Karzin counties. PMID:23682265

  11. Leishmania aethiopica: identification and characterization of cathepsin L-like cysteine protease genes.

    PubMed

    Kuru, Teklu; Jirata, Dagim; Genetu, Abebe; Barr, Stephen; Mengistu, Yohannes; Aseffa, Abraham; Gedamu, Lashitew

    2007-03-01

    There is limited information on the biology and pathogenesis of Leishmania aethiopica, causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Ethiopia. In this study we have identified and characterized two cathepsin L-like cysteine protease genes, Laecpa and Laecpb, from L. aethiopica. The predicted amino acid sequence of Laecpa and Laecpb is more than 75% identical with homologous cathepsin L-like cysteine protease genes of other Leishmania species and less than 50% identical with human cathepsin L. Laecpa is expressed predominantly in the stationary, and to a lower level, during the amastigote stage while Laecpb is specifically expressed in the stationary stage of L. aethiopica development. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the two genes are grouped into separate clades which are the result of gene duplication. The isolation of these genes will be useful in developing Leishmania species specific diagnostics for molecular epidemiological studies and serves as a first step to study the role of cysteine proteases in L. aethiopica pathogenesis. PMID:17083936

  12. Trafficking activity of myosin XXI is required in assembly of Leishmania flagellum.

    PubMed

    Katta, Santharam S; Tammana, Trinadh V Satish; Sahasrabuddhe, Amogh A; Bajpai, Virendra K; Gupta, Chhitar M

    2010-06-15

    Actin-based myosin motors have a pivotal role in intracellular trafficking in eukaryotic cells. The parasitic protozoan organism Leishmania expresses a novel class of myosin, myosin XXI (Myo21), which is preferentially localized at the proximal region of the flagellum. However, its function in this organism remains largely unknown. Here, we show that Myo21 interacts with actin, and its expression is dependent of the growth stage. We further reveal that depletion of Myo21 levels results in impairment of the flagellar assembly and intracellular trafficking. These defects are, however, reversed by episomal complementation. Additionally, it is shown that deletion of the Myo21 gene leads to generation of ploidy, suggesting an essential role of Myo21 in survival of Leishmania cells. Together, these results indicate that actin-dependent trafficking activity of Myo21 is essentially required during assembly of the Leishmania flagellum. PMID:20501700

  13. Leishmania amastigotes in the central nervous system of a naturally infected dog.

    PubMed

    Márquez, Merce; Pedregosa, José Raúl; López, Jesús; Marco-Salazar, Paola; Fondevila, Dolors; Pumarola, Martí

    2013-01-01

    A 4-year-old male Labrador Retriever dog was presented with a 10-day history of tetraplegia, depression, and absent postural reflexes. The cerebrospinal fluid was positive for Leishmania spp. DNA. At necropsy, a 2-cm long mass was observed adhered to C(7) and C(8) left spinal nerves. Microscopically, nerve fiber destruction together with mixed inflammatory infiltration was observed in the spinal nerves. Cervical spinal cord sections showed multifocal, diffuse granulomatous inflammation in the white matter. In the brain, perivascular infiltrates were observed in some areas together with subtle pallor of the parenchyma. Immunohistochemistry for Leishmania infantum confirmed the presence of amastigotes in the spinal nerves, spinal cord, brain parenchyma, and choroid plexuses. The current study describes the presence of Leishmania amastigotes in nervous tissue inciting radiculoneuritis, myelitis, and mild meningoencephalitis, suggesting a likely route by which L. infantum amastigotes reach and affect the central nervous system parenchyma. PMID:23166183

  14. LdFlabarin, a New BAR Domain Membrane Protein of Leishmania Flagellum

    PubMed Central

    Thonnus, Magali; Salin, Bénédicte; Boissier, Fanny; Blancard, Corinne; Sauvanet, Cécile; Metzler, Christelle; Espiau, Benoît; Sahin, Annelise; Merlin, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    During the Leishmania life cycle, the flagellum undergoes successive assembly and disassembly of hundreds of proteins. Understanding these processes necessitates the study of individual components. Here, we investigated LdFlabarin, an uncharacterized L. donovani flagellar protein. The gene is conserved within the Leishmania genus and orthologous genes only exist in the Trypanosoma genus. LdFlabarin associates with the flagellar plasma membrane, extending from the base to the tip of the flagellum as a helicoidal structure. Site-directed mutagenesis, deletions and chimera constructs showed that LdFlabarin flagellar addressing necessitates three determinants: an N-terminal potential acylation site and a central BAR domain for membrane targeting and the C-terminal domain for flagellar specificity. In vitro, the protein spontaneously associates with liposomes, triggering tubule formation, which suggests a structural/morphogenetic function. LdFlabarin is the first characterized Leishmania BAR domain protein, and the first flagellum-specific BAR domain protein. PMID:24086735

  15. Use of a Recombinant Cysteine Proteinase from Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi for the Immunotherapy of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Josie Haydée Lima; Silva, Lucilene dos Santos; Longo-Maugéri, Ieda Maria; Katz, Simone; Barbiéri, Clara Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    Background A recombinant cysteine proteinase from Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi (rLdccys1) was previously shown to induce protective immune responses against murine and canine visceral leishmaniasis. These findings encouraged us to use rLdccys1 in the immunotherapy of naturally infected dogs from Teresina, Piauí, a region of high incidence of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings Thirty naturally infected mongrel dogs displaying clinical signs of visceral leishmaniasis were randomly divided in three groups: one group received three doses of rLdccys1 in combination with the adjuvant Propionibacterium acnes at one month interval between each dose; a second group received three doses of P. acnes alone; a third group received saline. The main findings were: 1) dogs that received rLdccys1 with P. acnes did not display increase of the following clinical signs: weight loss, alopecia, onychogryphosis, cachexia, anorexia, apathy, skin lesions, hyperkeratosis, ocular secretion, and enlarged lymph nodes; they also exhibited a significant reduction in the spleen parasite load in comparison to the control dogs; 2) rLdccys1-treated dogs exhibited a significant delayed type cutaneous hypersensitivity elicited by the recombinant antigen, as well as high IgG2 serum titers and low IgG1 serum titers; sera from rLdccys1-treated dogs also contained high IFN-γ and low IL-10 concentrations; 3) control dogs exhibited all of the clinical signs of visceral leishmaniasis and had low serum IgG2 and IFN-γ levels and high concentrations of IgG1 and IL-10; 4) all of the dogs treated with rLdccys1 were alive 12 months after treatment, whereas dogs which received either saline or P. acnes alone died within 3 to 7 months. Conclusions/Significance These findings illustrate the potential use of rLdccys1 as an additional tool for the immunotherapy of canine visceral leishmaniasis and support further studies designed to improve the efficacy of this recombinant

  16. (Post-) Genomic approaches to tackle drug resistance in Leishmania.

    PubMed

    Berg, Maya; Mannaert, An; Vanaerschot, Manu; Van Der Auwera, Gert; Dujardin, Jean-Claude

    2013-10-01

    Leishmaniasis, like other neglected diseases is characterized by a small arsenal of drugs for its control. To safeguard the efficacy of current drugs and guide the development of new ones it is thus of utmost importance to acquire a deep understanding of the phenomenon of drug resistance and its link with treatment outcome. We discuss here how (post-)genomic approaches may contribute to this purpose. We highlight the need for a clear definition of the phenotypes under consideration: innate and acquired resistance versus treatment failure. We provide a recent update of our knowledge on the Leishmania genome structure and dynamics, and compare the contribution of targeted and untargeted methods for the understanding of drug resistance and show their limits. We also present the main assays allowing the experimental validation of the genes putatively involved in drug resistance. The importance of analysing information downstream of the genome is stressed and further illustrated by recent metabolomics findings. Finally, the attention is called onto the challenges for implementing the acquired knowledge to the benefit of the patients and the population at risk. PMID:23480865

  17. Leishmania major and Trypanosoma cruzi present distinct DNA damage responses.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Juliana B F; Rocha, João P Vieira da; Costa-Silva, Héllida M; Alves, Ceres L; Machado, Carlos R; Cruz, Angela K

    2016-05-01

    Leishmania major and Trypanosoma cruzi are medically relevant parasites and interesting model organisms, as they present unique biological processes. Despite increasing data regarding the mechanisms of gene expression regulation, there is little information on how the DNA damage response (DDR) occurs in trypanosomatids. We found that L. major presented a higher radiosensitivity than T. cruzi. L. major showed G1 arrest and displayed high mortality in response to ionizing radiation as a result of the inefficient repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs). Conversely, T. cruzi exhibited arrest in the S/G2 cell cycle phase, was able to efficiently repair DSBs and did not display high rates of cell death after exposure to gamma irradiation. L. major showed higher resistance to alkylating DNA damage, and only L. major was able to promote DNA repair and growth recovery in the presence of MMS. ASF1c overexpression did not interfere with the efficiency of DNA repair in either of the parasites but did accentuate the DNA damage checkpoint response, thereby delaying cell fate after damage. The observed differences in the DNA damage responses of T. cruzi and L. major may originate from the distinct preferred routes of genetic plasticity of the two parasites, i.e., DNA recombination versus amplification. PMID:27188657

  18. Human genetic susceptibility and infection with Leishmania peruviana

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, M.A.; Davis, C.R.; Collins, A.

    1995-11-01

    Racial differences, familial clustering, and murine studies are suggestive of host genetic control of Leishmania infections. Complex segregation analysis has been carried out by use of the programs POINTER and COMDS and data from a total population survey, comprising 636 nuclear families, from an L. perurviana endemic area. The data support genetic components controlling susceptibility to clinical leishmaniasis, influencing severity of disease and resistance to disease among healthy individuals. A multifactorial model is favored over a sporadic model. Two-locus models provided the best fit to the data, the optimal model being a recessive gene (frequency .57) plus a modifier locus. Individuals infected at an early age and with recurrent lesions are genetically more susceptible than those infected with a single episode of disease at a later age. Among people with no lesions, those with a positive skin-test response are genetically less susceptible than those with a negative response. The possibility of the involvement of more than one gene together with environmental effects has implications for the design of future linkage studies. 31 refs., 7 tabs.

  19. Tyrosine aminotransferase from Leishmania infantum: A new drug target candidate.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Miguel Angel; Alonso, Ana; Alcolea, Pedro Jose; Abramov, Ariel; de Lacoba, Mario García; Abendroth, Jan; Zhang, Sunny; Edwards, Thomas; Lorimer, Don; Myler, Peter John; Larraga, Vicente

    2014-12-01

    Leishmania infantum is the etiological agent of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in the Mediterranean basin. The disease is fatal without treatment, which has been based on antimonial pentavalents for more than 60 years. Due to resistances, relapses and toxicity to current treatment, the development of new drugs is required. The structure of the L. infantum tyrosine aminotransferase (LiTAT) has been recently solved showing important differences with the mammalian orthologue. The characterization of LiTAT is reported herein. This enzyme is cytoplasmic and is over-expressed in the more infective stages and nitric oxide resistant parasites. Unlike the mammalian TAT, LiTAT is able to use ketomethiobutyrate as co-substrate. The pharmacophore model of LiTAT with this specific co-substrate is described herein. This may allow the identification of new inhibitors present in the databases. All the data obtained support that LiTAT is a good target candidate for the development of new anti-leishmanial drugs. PMID:25516846

  20. Expression and subcellular localization of ORC1 in Leishmania major

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Diwakar; Mukherji, Agnideep; Saha, Swati

    2008-10-10

    The mechanism of DNA replication is highly conserved in eukaryotes, with the process being preceded by the ordered assembly of pre-replication complexes (pre-RCs). Pre-RC formation is triggered by the association of the origin replication complex (ORC) with chromatin. Leishmania major appears to have only one ORC ortholog, ORC1. ORC1 in other eukaryotes is the largest of the ORC subunits and is believed to play a significant role in modulating replication initiation. Here we report for the first time, the cloning of ORC1 from L. major, and the analysis of its expression in L. major promastigotes. In human cells ORC1 levels have been found to be upregulated in G1 and subsequently degraded, thus playing a role in controlling replication initiation. We examine the subcellular localization of L. major ORC1 in relation to the different stages of the cell cycle. Our results show that, unlike what is widely believed to be the case with ORC1 in human cells, ORC1 in L. major is nuclear at all stages of the cell cycle.

  1. Risk Profiles for Leishmania infantum Infection in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves, Erika Barretto; Costa, Carlos Henrique Nery; de Carvalho, Fernando Aécio Amorim; Pires E Cruz, Maria do Socorro; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize risk profiles for Leishmania infantum infection in a population living in an area endemic for visceral leishmaniasis. A cohort study was conducted between January 2004 and December 2006 with the participation of 430 individuals living in the city of Teresina, northeast Brazil, who were initially negative for the Montenegro test. Data analysis was performed using the classification and regression tree method. The cumulative incidence (CI) of Montenegro's test conversion was 35% at 18-month follow-up. Eight different risk profiles for L. infantum infection were identified. The profile with the highest risk (CI = 75%) comprised individuals with less than 4 years of education who had never lived outside Teresina. The profile with the lowest risk (CI = 5%) included highly educated subjects who had owned a dog for 5 years or more and lived in areas that received some type of intervention. These results show that there is a high degree of complexity involved in the risk for L. infantum infection and point out the need of developing new studies to perform a comprehensive analysis focused on investigating the interrelation between risk factors rather than their isolated roles on the determination of infection levels in urban areas. PMID:27114290

  2. Purification and Characterization of Recombinant Darbepoetin Alfa from Leishmania tarentolae.

    PubMed

    Kianmehr, Anvarsadat; Mahrooz, Abdolkarim; Oladnabi, Morteza; Safdari, Yaghoub; Ansari, Javad; Veisi, Kamal; Evazalipour, Mehdi; Shahbazmohammadi, Hamid; Omidinia, Eskandar

    2016-09-01

    Darbepoetin alfa is a biopharmaceutical glycoprotein that stimulates erythropoiesis and is used to treat anemia, which associated with renal failure and cancer chemotherapy. We herein describe the structural characterization of recombinant darbepoetin alfa produced by Leishmania tarentolae T7-TR host. The DNA expression cassette was integrated into the L. tarentolae genome through homologous recombination. Transformed clones were selected by antibiotic resistance, diagnostic PCRs, and protein expression analysis. The structure of recombinant darbepoetin alfa was analyzed by isoelectric focusing, ultraviolet-visible spectrum, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Expression analysis showed the presence of a protein band at 40 kDa, and its expression level was 51.2 mg/ml of culture medium. Darbepoetin alfa have 5 isoforms with varying degree of sialylation. The UV absorption and CD spectra were analogous to original drug (Aranesp), which confirmed that the produced protein was darbepoetin alfa. Potency test results revealed that the purified protein was biologically active. In brief, the structural and biological characteristics of expressed darbepoetin alfa were very similar to Aranesp which has been normally expressed in CHO. Our data also suggest that produced protein has potential to be developed for clinical use. PMID:27282622

  3. Elimination of Leishmania donovani amastigotes by activated macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Haidaris, C G; Bonventre, P F

    1981-01-01

    Tissue macrophages are the obligatory host cells for Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis. In this study we sought to determine whether activated macrophages, as defined by the functional criterion of tumor cell cytotoxicity, were also able to exert a microbicidal effect on ingested L. donovani amastigotes. We found that mouse peritoneal macrophages activated by a variety of means exerted a cytotoxic effect on tumor cell targets but were not able to kill L. donovani amastigotes unless the infected macrophages were exposed continually to an activating stimulus. Corynebacterium parvum, Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra, and lymphokine-activated peritoneal macrophages from C57BL/6J mice were cytotoxic for EMT6 tumor cell targets. However, L. donovani Sudan strain 1S amastigotes were not killed by these macrophages unless the activated state was maintained by daily addition of lymphokine to the infected monolayers for several days postinfection. The killing of amastigotes was dependent on the time of exposure to lymphokine, as well as on the concentration of lymphokine added to the culture. Images PMID:7287190

  4. Leishmania amazonensis: characterization of an ecto-pyrophosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    Freitas-Mesquita, Anita Leocadio; Fonseca-de-Souza, André Luiz; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2014-02-01

    Several ecto-enzymatic activities have been described in the plasma membrane of the protozoan Leishmania amazonensis, which is the major etiological agent of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis in South America. These enzymes, including ecto-phosphatases, contribute to the survival of the parasite by participating in phosphate metabolism. This work identifies and characterizes the extracellular hydrolysis of inorganic pyrophosphate related to an ecto-pyrophosphatase activity of the promastigote form of L. amazonensis. This ecto-pyrophosphatase activity is insensitive to MnCl2 but is strongly stimulated by MgCl2. This stimulation was not observed during the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate (p-NPP) or β-glycerophosphate, two substrates for different ecto-phosphatases present in the L. amazonensis plasma membrane. Furthermore, extracellular PPi hydrolysis is more efficient at alkaline pHs, while p-NPP hydrolysis occurs mainly at acidic pHs. These results led us to conclude that extracellular PPi is hydrolyzed not by non-specific ecto-phosphatases but rather by a genuine ecto-pyrophosphatase. In the presence of 5mM MgCl2, the ecto-pyrophosphatase activity from L. amazonensis is sensitive to micromolar concentrations of NaF and millimolar concentrations of CaCl2. Moreover, this activity is significantly higher during the first days of L. amazonensis culture, which suggests a possible role for this enzyme in parasite growth. PMID:24316462

  5. Mitochondrial peroxiredoxin functions as crucial chaperone reservoir in Leishmania infantum

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Filipa; Castro, Helena; Cruz, Tânia; Tse, Eric; Koldewey, Philipp; Southworth, Daniel R.; Tomás, Ana M.; Jakob, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Cytosolic eukaryotic 2-Cys-peroxiredoxins have been widely reported to act as dual-function proteins, either detoxifying reactive oxygen species or acting as chaperones to prevent protein aggregation. Several stimuli, including peroxide-mediated sulfinic acid formation at the active site cysteine, have been proposed to trigger the chaperone activity. However, the mechanism underlying this activation and the extent to which the chaperone function is crucial under physiological conditions in vivo remained unknown. Here we demonstrate that in the vector-borne protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum, mitochondrial peroxiredoxin (Prx) exerts intrinsic ATP-independent chaperone activity, protecting a wide variety of different proteins against heat stress-mediated unfolding in vitro and in vivo. Activation of the chaperone function appears to be induced by temperature-mediated restructuring of the reduced decamers, promoting binding of unfolding client proteins in the center of Prx’s ringlike structure. Client proteins are maintained in a folding-competent conformation until restoration of nonstress conditions, upon which they are released and transferred to ATP-dependent chaperones for refolding. Interference with client binding impairs parasite infectivity, providing compelling evidence for the in vivo importance of Prx’s chaperone function. Our results suggest that reduced Prx provides a mitochondrial chaperone reservoir, which allows L. infantum to deal successfully with protein unfolding conditions during the transition from insect to the mammalian hosts and to generate viable parasites capable of perpetuating infection. PMID:25646478

  6. Sensitivity Analysis and Optimal Control of Anthroponotic Cutaneous Leishmania

    PubMed Central

    Zamir, Muhammad; Zaman, Gul; Alshomrani, Ali Saleh

    2016-01-01

    This paper is focused on the transmission dynamics and optimal control of Anthroponotic Cutaneous Leishmania. The threshold condition R0 for initial transmission of infection is obtained by next generation method. Biological sense of the threshold condition is investigated and discussed in detail. The sensitivity analysis of the reproduction number is presented and the most sensitive parameters are high lighted. On the basis of sensitivity analysis, some control strategies are introduced in the model. These strategies positively reduce the effect of the parameters with high sensitivity indices, on the initial transmission. Finally, an optimal control strategy is presented by taking into account the cost associated with control strategies. It is also shown that an optimal control exists for the proposed control problem. The goal of optimal control problem is to minimize, the cost associated with control strategies and the chances of infectious humans, exposed humans and vector population to become infected. Numerical simulations are carried out with the help of Runge-Kutta fourth order procedure. PMID:27505634

  7. Quantitative Proteome Analysis of Leishmania donovani under Spermidine Starvation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shalini; Dubey, Vikash Kumar

    2016-01-01

    We have earlier reported antileishmanial activity of hypericin by spermidine starvation. In the current report, we have used label free proteome quantitation approach to identify differentially modulated proteins after hypericin treatment. A total of 141 proteins were found to be differentially regulated with ANOVA P value less than 0.05 in hypericin treated Leishmania promastigotes. Differentially modulated proteins have been broadly classified under nine major categories. Increase in ribosomal protein S7 protein suggests the repression of translation. Inhibition of proteins related to ubiquitin proteasome system, RNA binding protein and translation initiation factor also suggests altered translation. We have also observed increased expression of Hsp 90, Hsp 83–1 and stress inducible protein 1. Significant decreased level of cyclophilin was observed. These stress related protein could be cellular response of the parasite towards hypericin induced cellular stress. Also, defective metabolism, biosynthesis and replication of nucleic acids, flagellar movement and signalling of the parasite were observed as indicated by altered expression of proteins involved in these pathways. The data was analyzed rigorously to get further insight into hypericin induced parasitic death. PMID:27123864

  8. Systems analysis of metabolism in the pathogenic trypanosomatid Leishmania major.

    PubMed

    Chavali, Arvind K; Whittemore, Jeffrey D; Eddy, James A; Williams, Kyle T; Papin, Jason A

    2008-01-01

    Systems analyses have facilitated the characterization of metabolic networks of several organisms. We have reconstructed the metabolic network of Leishmania major, a poorly characterized organism that causes cutaneous leishmaniasis in mammalian hosts. This network reconstruction accounts for 560 genes, 1112 reactions, 1101 metabolites and 8 unique subcellular localizations. Using a systems-based approach, we hypothesized a comprehensive set of lethal single and double gene deletions, some of which were validated using published data with approximately 70% accuracy. Additionally, we generated hypothetical annotations to dozens of previously uncharacterized genes in the L. major genome and proposed a minimal medium for growth. We further demonstrated the utility of a network reconstruction with two proof-of-concept examples that yielded insight into robustness of the network in the presence of enzymatic inhibitors and delineation of promastigote/amastigote stage-specific metabolism. This reconstruction and the associated network analyses of L. major is the first of its kind for a protozoan. It can serve as a tool for clarifying discrepancies between data sources, generating hypotheses that can be experimentally validated and identifying ideal therapeutic targets. PMID:18364711

  9. Purification and characterization of an extracellular phosphoglycan from Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Greis, K D; Turco, S J; Thomas, J R; McConville, M J; Homans, S W; Ferguson, M A

    1992-03-25

    An extracellular phosphoglycan (exPG), present in the culture medium of the promastigote form of Leishmania donovani, was purified and structurally characterized. The purification scheme included ethanol precipitation of the culture medium, anion exchange chromatography, hydrophobic chromatography on phenyl-Sepharose, and preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Structural analysis by 1H-1H NMR, methylation linkage analysis, and glycosidase digestion revealed that the exPG consisted of the following structure: (CAP)----[PO4-6Galp beta 1-4Manp alpha 1]10-11-PO4-6Galp beta 1-4Man. The cap was found to be one of several small, neutral oligosaccharides, the most abundant of which was the trisaccharide Galp beta 1-4(Manp alpha 1-2)Man. The results indicated structural analogy to the cellular-derived lipophosphoglycan (LPG) from L. donovani. The important exceptions are a lack of the lipid anchor, the entire phosphosaccharide core, and several of the repeating disaccharide units. Although the function of exPG is presently unknown, it may play a protective role for the promastigote in the insect vector or during infection of a mammalian host. PMID:1556103

  10. Tyrosine aminotransferase from Leishmania infantum: A new drug target candidate

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Miguel Angel; Alonso, Ana; Alcolea, Pedro Jose; Abramov, Ariel; de Lacoba, Mario García; Abendroth, Jan; Zhang, Sunny; Edwards, Thomas; Lorimer, Don; Myler, Peter John; Larraga, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania infantum is the etiological agent of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in the Mediterranean basin. The disease is fatal without treatment, which has been based on antimonial pentavalents for more than 60 years. Due to resistances, relapses and toxicity to current treatment, the development of new drugs is required. The structure of the L. infantum tyrosine aminotransferase (LiTAT) has been recently solved showing important differences with the mammalian orthologue. The characterization of LiTAT is reported herein. This enzyme is cytoplasmic and is over-expressed in the more infective stages and nitric oxide resistant parasites. Unlike the mammalian TAT, LiTAT is able to use ketomethiobutyrate as co-substrate. The pharmacophore model of LiTAT with this specific co-substrate is described herein. This may allow the identification of new inhibitors present in the databases. All the data obtained support that LiTAT is a good target candidate for the development of new anti-leishmanial drugs. PMID:25516846

  11. Glycosomal membrane proteins and lipids from Leishmania mexicana.

    PubMed

    Quiñones, Wilfredo; Cáceres, Ana J; Ruiz, Maria Tibisay; Concepción, Juan Luis

    2015-04-01

    Constituents of the glycosomal membrane from Leishmania mexicana should play a critical role in the coordination of metabolic processes occurring in the cytosol and those compartmentalized within glycosomes. We have made an inventory of glycosomal membrane-associated proteins using approaches specific for enriching both integral and peripheral membrane proteins. Surprisingly, 70% of the proteins were recovered in the hydrophobic fraction of membranes solubilized with Triton X-114, while 20% were present in the soluble fraction obtained upon treatment with Na2CO3. 14 major polypeptides, ranging in molecular weight from 65 to 16 kDa, were found to be associated with the membrane, nine of them behaving as integral membrane proteins. Assessment of their topology in the membrane indicated that the polypeptides of 56, 50, 46 and 32 kDa have no domains exposed to the cytosol. The 50 kDa protein is the most abundant one of the glycosomal membrane, where it is peripherically located at the matrix face. The major phospholipids of glycosomal membranes are phosphatidyl-ethanolamine, phosphatidyl-choline and phosphatidyl-serine, with smaller proportions of sphingomyelin and phosphatidyl-inositol. The sterols found were of 5-dehydroepisterol, ergosta-5,7,24(24(1))-trien-3β-ol, and also their precursors, consistent with the notion that these organelles are involved in de novo biosynthesis of sterols in trypanosomatids. PMID:25499533

  12. Exploring biochemical and functional features of Leishmania major phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase.

    PubMed

    Sosa, Máximo Hernán; Giordana, Lucila; Nowicki, Cristina

    2015-10-01

    This work reports the first functional characterization of leishmanial PEPCK. The recombinant Leishmania major enzyme (Lmj_PEPCK) exhibits equivalent kcat values for the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and oxaloacetate (OAA) forming reactions. The apparent Km towards OAA is 10-fold lower than that for PEP, while the Km values for ADP and ATP are equivalent. Mutagenesis studies showed that D241, D242 and H205 of Lmj_PEPCK like the homologous residues of all known PEPCKs are implicated in metal ions binding. In contrast, the replacement of R43 for Q nearly abolishes Lmj_PEPCK activity. Moreover, the Y180F variant exhibits unchanged Km values for PEP, Mn(2+), and [Formula: see text] , being the kcat for PEP- but not that for OAA-forming reaction more notably decreased. Instead, the Y180A mutant displays an increase in the Km value towards Mn(2+). Therefore in Lmj_PEPCK, Y180 seems to exert different functions to those of the analogous residue in ATP- and GTP-dependant enzymes. Besides, the guanidinium group of R43 appears to play an essential but yet unknown role. These findings promote the need for further structural studies to disclose whether Y180 and R43 participate in the catalytic mechanism or/and in the transitions between the open and the catalytically competent (closed) forms of Lmj_PEPCK. PMID:26271440

  13. Leishmania tropica in Stray Dogs in Southeast Iran

    PubMed Central

    BAMOROVAT, Mehdi; SHARIFI, Iraj; DABIRI, Shahriar; MOHAMMADI, Mohammad Ali; FASIHI HARANDI, Majid; MOHEBALI, Mehdi; AFLATOONIAN, Mohammad Reza; KEYHANI, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania tropica is endemic in Kerman, southeastern Iran. While dogs have long been implicated as the main domestic reservoirs of L. infantum, etiological agent of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL), they can also carry L. tropica infection. The objective of the present study was to determine molecular identity and to evaluate histopathological changes due to CL in dogs in a well-known focus of anthroponotic CL (ACL) in Kerman, southeastern Iran. Methods: This study was carried out in three prospective series from 1994 to 2013 on dogs. Tissue samples were taken from 471 stray dogs. Pathological specimens including skin, spleen, liver and lymph nodes were prepared for paraffin blocks, sectioning and staining for further histopathological examination. PCR amplification of kDNA was performed to identify the causative agent and sequencing. Overall, two out of 471 stray dogs were infected with L. tropica. Hyperplasia of red pulp by the proliferation of histiocytes, lymphocytes, plasma cells and cytoplasm of histiocytes collection of amastigotes was noted. Results: Based on the results of PCR products and sequencing analysis, the parasites isolated from the lesions of two dogs were characterized as L. tropica, corresponding to a band of 830 bp Conclusion: This finding revealed infection with L. tropica in stray dogs in the city and suburbs of Kerman. This information is essential for public health concerns and planning effective future control programs. The role of dogs as potentional reservoir in the epidemiology of ACL needs further investigation. PMID:26576349

  14. Genetic Manipulation of Leishmania donovani to Explore the Involvement of Argininosuccinate Synthase in Oxidative Stress Management

    PubMed Central

    Sardar, Abul Hasan; Jardim, Armando; Ghosh, Ayan Kumar; Mandal, Abhishek; Das, Sushmita; Saini, Savita; Abhishek, Kumar; Singh, Ruby; Verma, Sudha; Kumar, Ajay; Das, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) produced by the phagocytic cells are the most common arsenals used to kill the intracellular pathogens. However, Leishmania, an intracellular pathogen, has evolved mechanisms to survive by counterbalancing the toxic oxygen metabolites produced during infection. Polyamines, the major contributor in this anti-oxidant machinery, are largely dependent on the availability of L-arginine in the intracellular milieu. Argininosuccinate synthase (ASS) plays an important role as the rate-limiting step required for converting L-citrulline to argininosuccinate to provide arginine for an assortment of metabolic processes. Leishmania produce an active ASS enzyme, yet it has an incomplete urea cycle as it lacks an argininosuccinate lyase (ASL). There is no evidence for endogenous synthesis of L-arginine in Leishmania, which suggests that these parasites salvage L-arginine from extracellular milieu and makes the biological function of ASS and the production of argininosuccinate in Leishmania unclear. Our previous quantitative proteomic analysis of Leishmania promastigotes treated with sub-lethal doses of ROS, RNS, or a combination of both, led to the identification of several differentially expressed proteins which included ASS. To assess the involvement of ASS in stress management, a mutant cell line with greatly reduced ASS activity was created by a double-targeted gene replacement strategy in L. donovani promastigote. Interestingly, LdASS is encoded by three copies of allele, but Western blot analysis showed the third allele did not appear to express ASS. The free thiol levels in the mutant LdASS-/-/+ cell line were decreased. Furthermore, the cell viability in L-arginine depleted medium was greatly attenuated on exposure to different stress environments and was adversely impacted in its ability to infect mice. These findings suggest that ASS is important for Leishmania donovani to counterbalance the stressed environments

  15. Coxiella burnetii and Leishmania mexicana residing within similar parasitophorous vacuoles elicit disparate host responses

    PubMed Central

    Millar, Jess A.; Valdés, Raquel; Kacharia, Fenil R.; Landfear, Scott M.; Cambronne, Eric D.; Raghavan, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a bacterium that thrives in an acidic parasitophorous vacuole (PV) derived from lysosomes. Leishmania mexicana, a eukaryote, has also independently evolved to live in a morphologically similar PV. As Coxiella and Leishmania are highly divergent organisms that cause different diseases, we reasoned that their respective infections would likely elicit distinct host responses despite producing phenotypically similar parasite-containing vacuoles. The objective of this study was to investigate, at the molecular level, the macrophage response to each pathogen. Infection of THP-1 (human monocyte/macrophage) cells with Coxiella and Leishmania elicited disparate host responses. At 5 days post-infection, when compared to uninfected cells, 1057 genes were differentially expressed (746 genes up-regulated and 311 genes down-regulated) in C. burnetii infected cells, whereas 698 genes (534 genes up-regulated and 164 genes down-regulated) were differentially expressed in L. mexicana infected cells. Interestingly, of the 1755 differentially expressed genes identified in this study, only 126 genes (~7%) are common to both infections. We also discovered that 1090 genes produced mRNA isoforms at significantly different levels under the two infection conditions, suggesting that alternate proteins encoded by the same gene might have important roles in host response to each infection. Additionally, we detected 257 micro RNAs (miRNAs) that were expressed in THP-1 cells, and identified miRNAs that were specifically expressed during Coxiella or Leishmania infections. Collectively, this study identified host mRNAs and miRNAs that were influenced by Coxiella and/or Leishmania infections, and our data indicate that although their PVs are morphologically similar, Coxiella and Leishmania have evolved different strategies that perturb distinct host processes to create and thrive within their respective intracellular niches. PMID:26300862

  16. Genetic Manipulation of Leishmania donovani to Explore the Involvement of Argininosuccinate Synthase in Oxidative Stress Management.

    PubMed

    Sardar, Abul Hasan; Jardim, Armando; Ghosh, Ayan Kumar; Mandal, Abhishek; Das, Sushmita; Saini, Savita; Abhishek, Kumar; Singh, Ruby; Verma, Sudha; Kumar, Ajay; Das, Pradeep

    2016-03-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) produced by the phagocytic cells are the most common arsenals used to kill the intracellular pathogens. However, Leishmania, an intracellular pathogen, has evolved mechanisms to survive by counterbalancing the toxic oxygen metabolites produced during infection. Polyamines, the major contributor in this anti-oxidant machinery, are largely dependent on the availability of L-arginine in the intracellular milieu. Argininosuccinate synthase (ASS) plays an important role as the rate-limiting step required for converting L-citrulline to argininosuccinate to provide arginine for an assortment of metabolic processes. Leishmania produce an active ASS enzyme, yet it has an incomplete urea cycle as it lacks an argininosuccinate lyase (ASL). There is no evidence for endogenous synthesis of L-arginine in Leishmania, which suggests that these parasites salvage L-arginine from extracellular milieu and makes the biological function of ASS and the production of argininosuccinate in Leishmania unclear. Our previous quantitative proteomic analysis of Leishmania promastigotes treated with sub-lethal doses of ROS, RNS, or a combination of both, led to the identification of several differentially expressed proteins which included ASS. To assess the involvement of ASS in stress management, a mutant cell line with greatly reduced ASS activity was created by a double-targeted gene replacement strategy in L. donovani promastigote. Interestingly, LdASS is encoded by three copies of allele, but Western blot analysis showed the third allele did not appear to express ASS. The free thiol levels in the mutant LdASS-/-/+ cell line were decreased. Furthermore, the cell viability in L-arginine depleted medium was greatly attenuated on exposure to different stress environments and was adversely impacted in its ability to infect mice. These findings suggest that ASS is important for Leishmania donovani to counterbalance the stressed environments

  17. Phylogenic analysis of the genus Leishmania by cytochrome b gene sequencing.

    PubMed

    Asato, Yutaka; Oshiro, Minoru; Myint, Chomar Kaung; Yamamoto, Yu-ichi; Kato, Hirotomo; Marco, Jorge Diego; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Gomez, Eduardo A L; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Uezato, Hiroshi

    2009-04-01

    In a previous report (Luyo-Acero et al., 2004), we demonstrated that cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene analysis is an effective method for classifying several isolates of the genus Leishmania; hence, we have further applied this method to other Leishmania species in an effort to enhance the accuracy of the procedure and to construct a new phylogenic tree. In this study, a total of 30 Leishmania and Endotrypanum WHO reference strains, clinical isolates from our patients assigned to 28 strains (human and non-human pathogenic species) and two species of the genus Endotrypanum were analyzed. The Cyt b gene in each sample was amplified by PCR, and was then sequenced by several primers, as reported previously. The phylogenic tree was constructed based on the results obtained by the computer software MEGA v3.1 and PAUP* v4.0 Beta. The present phylogenic tree was almost identical to the traditional method of classification proposed by Lainson and Shaw (1987). However, it produces the following suggestions: (1) exclusion of L. (Leishmania) major from the L. (L.) tropica complex; (2) placement of L.tarentolae in the genus Sauroleishmania; (3) L. (L.) hertigi complex and L. (V.) equatorensis close to the genus Endotrypanum; (4) L. (L.) enrietti, defined as L. (L.) mexicana complex, placed in another position; and (5) L. (L.) turanica and L. (L.) arabica are located in an area far from human pathogenic Leishmania strains. Cyt b gene analysis is thus applicable to the analyzing phylogeny of the genus Leishmania and may be useful for separating non-human pathogenic species from human pathogenic species. PMID:19159626

  18. Canine Antibody Response to Phlebotomus perniciosus Bites Negatively Correlates with the Risk of Leishmania infantum Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Vlkova, Michaela; Rohousova, Iva; Drahota, Jan; Stanneck, Dorothee; Kruedewagen, Eva Maria; Mencke, Norbert; Otranto, Domenico; Volf, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Background Phlebotomine sand flies are blood-sucking insects that can transmit Leishmania parasites. Hosts bitten by sand flies develop an immune response against sand fly salivary antigens. Specific anti-saliva IgG indicate the exposure to the vector and may also help to estimate the risk of Leishmania spp. transmission. In this study, we examined the canine antibody response against the saliva of Phlebotomus perniciosus, the main vector of Leishmania infantum in the Mediterranean Basin, and characterized salivary antigens of this sand fly species. Methodology/Principal Findings Sera of dogs bitten by P. perniciosus under experimental conditions and dogs naturally exposed to sand flies in a L. infantum focus were tested by ELISA for the presence of anti-P. perniciosus antibodies. Antibody levels positively correlated with the number of blood-fed P. perniciosus females. In naturally exposed dogs the increase of specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 was observed during sand fly season. Importantly, Leishmania-positive dogs revealed significantly lower anti-P. perniciosus IgG2 compared to Leishmania-negative ones. Major P. perniciosus antigens were identified by western blot and mass spectrometry as yellow proteins, apyrases and antigen 5-related proteins. Conclusions Results suggest that monitoring canine antibody response to sand fly saliva in endemic foci could estimate the risk of L. infantum transmission. It may also help to control canine leishmaniasis by evaluating the effectiveness of anti-vector campaigns. Data from the field study where dogs from the Italian focus of L. infantum were naturally exposed to P. perniciosus bites indicates that the levels of anti-P. perniciosus saliva IgG2 negatively correlate with the risk of Leishmania transmission. Thus, specific IgG2 response is suggested as a risk marker of L. infantum transmission for dogs. PMID:22022626

  19. Innate Immune Activation and Subversion of Mammalian Functions by Leishmania Lipophosphoglycan

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Luis H.; Beverley, Stephen M.; Zamboni, Dario S.

    2012-01-01

    Leishmania promastigotes express several prominent glycoconjugates, either secreted or anchored to the parasite surface. Of these lipophosphoglycan (LPG) is the most abundant, and along with other phosphoglycan-bearing molecules, plays important roles in parasite infectivity and pathogenesis in both the sand fly and the mammalian host. Besides its contribution for parasite survival in the sand fly vector, LPG is important for modulation the host immune responses to favor the establishment of mammalian infection. This review will summarize the current knowledge regarding the role of LPG in Leishmania infectivity, focusing on the interaction of LPG and innate immune cells and in the subversion of mammalian functions by this molecule. PMID:22523640

  20. Innate immune activation and subversion of Mammalian functions by leishmania lipophosphoglycan.

    PubMed

    Franco, Luis H; Beverley, Stephen M; Zamboni, Dario S

    2012-01-01

    Leishmania promastigotes express several prominent glycoconjugates, either secreted or anchored to the parasite surface. Of these lipophosphoglycan (LPG) is the most abundant, and along with other phosphoglycan-bearing molecules, plays important roles in parasite infectivity and pathogenesis in both the sand fly and the mammalian host. Besides its contribution for parasite survival in the sand fly vector, LPG is important for modulation the host immune responses to favor the establishment of mammalian infection. This review will summarize the current knowledge regarding the role of LPG in Leishmania infectivity, focusing on the interaction of LPG and innate immune cells and in the subversion of mammalian functions by this molecule. PMID:22523640

  1. Differences in Lsh gene control over systemic Leishmania major and Leishmania donovani or Leishmania mexicana mexicana infections are caused by differential targeting to infiltrating and resident liver macrophage populations.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, E V; Singleton, A M; Blackwell, J M

    1988-01-01

    Earlier studies had shown that the viscerotropic NIH 173 strain of cutaneous Leishmania major fails to come under Lsh gene control. Visceral Leishmania donovani LV9 and another viscerotropic cutaneous strain, Leishmania mexicana mexicana LV4, are controlled by Lsh. The results of double-infection experiments presented here show that expression of Lsh resistance against L. mexicana mexicana was enhanced in the presence of L. donovani, whereas L. major still failed to come under Lsh gene control, even in the presence of L. donovani. Prior irradiation (850 rads) of mice showed that in the absence of infiltrating monocytes, Lsh did exert some influence over L. major. The presence of a higher infiltrate of fresh monocytes after L. major infection was confirmed in liver macrophage populations isolated from mice after infection in vivo and in liver cryosections immunostained with monoclonal antibody M1/70 directed against the type 3 complement receptor CR3. The results support the hypothesis that Lsh is expressed maximally in the resident tissue macrophages and poorly in the immature macrophages preferentially infected by L. major amastigotes. Images PMID:3356462

  2. Histopathological and parasitological investigations of ear healthy skin of dogs naturally and experimentally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Maria Marta; Moura, Eliane Perlatto; Costa, Miriam Maria; Ribeiro, Vitor Marcio; Michalick, Marilene Suzan; Tafuri, Washington Luiz; Tafuri, Wagner Luiz

    2010-07-01

    Although 90% of clinical cases of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) occur in the northeastern region of Brazil, the incidence of cases in recent years has increased in southeastern states such as Minas Gerais (MG), where the disease has been reported in several cities, including Belo Horizonte, the state capital. Some studies have shown a strong correlation between the incidence of AVL and canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Belo Horizonte. A study of 108 dogs with parasite Leishmania chagasi detected by immuno-histochemistry in healthy ear skin was obtained from two distinct geographical areas: 55 from a metropolitan area of the municipality (Santa Luzia, MG) and 53 dogs from a central area of Belo Horizonte. In parallel, a group of 10 beagles were experimentally infected with L. chagasi. Considering the clinical aspects of all naturally infected dogs, symptomatic dogs were more frequent than asymptomatic ones, especially animals from the metropolitan area compared with the central area (79.6% and 20.3%, respectively). A chronic exudate was observed in the ear of 51 out of 55 dogs naturally infected from the metropolitan area (92.7%) and 45 out of 53 dogs naturally infected from the central area (84.9%). Importantly, asymptomatic dogs from the central area harbor more parasites in the skin than the asymptomatic ones from the metropolitan area. In addition, a profound difference was noted in the intensity of the inflammatory reaction and parasite load in the skin of experimental infected dogs. PMID:20503176

  3. Optimization of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for the detection of Leishmania DNA in human blood samples.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Ibrahim; Kirstein, Oscar D; Hailu, Asrat; Warburg, Alon

    2016-10-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), one of the most important neglected tropical diseases, is caused by Leishmania donovani eukaryotic protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania, the disease is prevalent mainly in the Indian sub-continent, East Africa and Brazil. VL can be diagnosed by PCR amplifying ITS1 and/or kDNA genes. The current study involved the optimization of Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for the detection of Leishmania DNA in human blood or tissue samples. Three LAMP systems were developed; in two of those the primers were designed based on shared regions of the ITS1 gene among different Leishmania species, while the primers for the third LAMP system were derived from a newly identified repeated region in the Leishmania genome. The LAMP tests were shown to be sufficiently sensitive to detect 0.1pg of DNA from most Leishmania species. The green nucleic acid stain SYTO16, was used here for the first time to allow real-time monitoring of LAMP amplification. The advantage of real time-LAMP using SYTO 16 over end-point LAMP product detection is discussed. The efficacy of the real time-LAMP tests for detecting Leishmania DNA in dried blood samples from volunteers living in endemic areas, was compared with that of qRT-kDNA PCR. PMID:27288706

  4. An exosome-based secretion pathway is responsible for protein export from Leishmania and communication with macrophages.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Judith Maxwell; Clos, Joachim; de'Oliveira, Carolina Camargo; Shirvani, Omid; Fang, Yuan; Wang, Christine; Foster, Leonard J; Reiner, Neil E

    2010-03-15

    Specialized secretion systems are used by numerous bacterial pathogens to export virulence factors into host target cells. Leishmania and other eukaryotic intracellular pathogens also deliver effector proteins into host cells; however, the mechanisms involved have remained elusive. In this report, we identify exosome-based secretion as a general mechanism for protein secretion by Leishmania, and show that exosomes are involved in the delivery of proteins into host target cells. Comparative quantitative proteomics unambiguously identified 329 proteins in Leishmania exosomes, accounting for >52% of global protein secretion from these organisms. Our findings demonstrate that infection-like stressors (37 degrees C +/- pH 5.5) upregulated exosome release more than twofold and also modified exosome protein composition. Leishmania exosomes and exosomal proteins were detected in the cytosolic compartment of infected macrophages and incubation of macrophages with exosomes selectively induced secretion of IL-8, but not TNF-alpha. We thus provide evidence for an apparently broad-based mechanism of protein export by Leishmania. Moreover, we describe a mechanism for the direct delivery of Leishmania molecules into macrophages. These findings suggest that, like mammalian exosomes, Leishmania exosomes function in long-range communication and immune modulation. PMID:20159964

  5. Species discrimination and phylogenetic inference of 17 Chinese Leishmania isolates based on internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin-Bin; Guo, Xian-Guang; Hu, Xiao-Su; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Liao, Lin; Chen, Da-Li; Chen, Jian-Ping

    2010-10-01

    Leishmaniasis is a geographically widespread disease, caused by protozoan flagellates of the genus Leishmania. This disease still remains endemic in China, especially in the west and northwest frontier regions. To date, the phylogenetic relationships among Chinese Leishmania isolates are still unclear, and the possible taxonomic diversity remains to be established. In this study, the ITS1-5.8S fragments of ten isolates collected from different foci in China were determined. To infer the phylogenetic relationships among them, seven sequences of Chinese Leishmania isolates retrieved from GenBank were also included. Both parsimony and Bayesian analyses reveal an unexpected but strongly supported clade comprising eight newly determined isolates, which is sister to other members of subgenus Leishmania. In combination with genetic distance analysis, this provides evidence of the occurrence of an undescribed species of Leishmania. Our results also suggest that (1) the isolate IPHL/CN/77/XJ771 from Bachu County, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region is not Leishmania infantum but Leishmania donovani; (2) the status referring to an isolate MRHO/CN/88/KXG-2 from a great gerbil in Karamay as Leishmania turanica, formerly based on multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, is recognized; (3) an earlier finding demonstrating the L. donovani identity of isolate MHOM/CN/80/801 from Kashi city is corroborated; (4) the three isolates from eastern Jiashi County, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, causing desert type of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (see Wang et al., Parasitol Int (in press), 2010), belong to L. donovani instead of L. infantum. In addition, the results of this study make an important contribution to understanding the heterogeneity and relationships of Chinese Leishmania isolates, further indicating that the isolates from China may have had a more complex evolutionary history than expected. PMID:20617444

  6. PKC/ROS-Mediated NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation Is Attenuated by Leishmania Zinc-Metalloprotease during Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jee Yong; Chang, Kwang-Poo; Olivier, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Parasites of the Leishmania genus infect and survive within macrophages by inhibiting several microbicidal molecules, such as nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines. In this context, various species of Leishmania have been reported to inhibit or reduce the production of IL-1β both in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanism whereby Leishmania parasites are able to affect IL-1β production and secretion by macrophages is still not fully understood. Dependent on the stimulus at hand, the maturation of IL-1β is facilitated by different inflammasome complexes. The NLRP3 inflammasome has been shown to be of pivotal importance in the detection of danger molecules such as inorganic crystals like asbestos, silica and malarial hemozoin, (HZ) as well as infectious agents. In the present work, we investigated whether Leishmania parasites modulate NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Using PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells, we demonstrate that Leishmania infection effectively inhibits macrophage IL-1β production upon stimulation. In this context, the expression and activity of the metalloprotease GP63 - a critical virulence factor expressed by all infectious Leishmania species - is a prerequisite for a Leishmania-mediated reduction of IL-1β secretion. Accordingly, L. mexicana, purified GP63 and GP63-containing exosomes, caused the inhibition of macrophage IL-1β production. Leishmania-dependent suppression of IL-1β secretion is accompanied by an inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production that has previously been shown to be associated with NLRP3 inflammasome activation. The observed loss of ROS production was due to an impaired PKC-mediated protein phosphorylation. Furthermore, ROS-independent inflammasome activation was inhibited, possibly due to an observed GP63-dependent cleavage of inflammasome and inflammasome-related proteins. Collectively for the first time, we herein provide evidence that the protozoan parasite Leishmania, through its surface

  7. Cloning, overexpression and characterization of Leishmania donovani squalene synthase.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Prachi; Kumar, Kishore; Chaudhaery, Shailendra S; Saxena, Anil K; Roy, Uma

    2010-10-01

    Squalene synthase (SSN, EC 2.5.1.21), a major enzyme in the sterol biosynthetic pathway, catalyses an unusual head-to-head reductive dimerization of two molecules of farnesyl-pyrophosphate (FPP) in a two-step reaction to form squalene. FPP serves as a metabolic intermediate in the formation of sterols, dolichols, ubiquinones and farnesylated proteins. Here, we report cloning, expression and purification of a catalytically active recombinant squalene synthase of Leishmania donovani (LdSSN). The pH and temperature optima of LdSSN were 7.4 and 37°C, respectively. Biochemical studies revealed that the K(m) and V(max) for the substrate FPP were 3.8 μM and 0.59 nM min(-1) mg(-1) and for NADPH were 43.23 μM and 0.56 nM min(-1) mg(-1). LdSSN was found to be sensitive towards denaturants as manifested by a loss of enzyme activity at the concentration of 1 M urea or 0.25 M guanidine hydrochloride. Zaragozic acid A, a potent inhibitor of mammalian SSN, was also a competitive inhibitor of recombinant LdSSN, with a K(i) of 74 nM. This is the first report on the purification and characterization of full-length recombinant SSN from L. donovani. Studies on recombinant LdSSN will help in evaluating this enzyme as a potential drug target for visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:20722739

  8. The activity of ozonated olive oil against Leishmania major promastigotes

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi, Omid; Sazgarnia, Ameneh; Abbasi, Fatemeh; Layegh, Pouran

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is a common and endemic disease in Khorasan province in North-East of Iran. The pentavalant antimony (Sb V) is the mainstay of treatment that has many side effects and resistance to the drug has been reported. The microbicidal effect of ozone was proven in different microorganisms. Since there is no study in this respect and to achieve a low cost and effective treatment, we decided to evaluate the efficacy of ozone against promastigotes of Leishmania major, in vitro. Materials and Methods: Ozonated olive oil was prepared after production of ozone by bubbling ozone-oxygen gas produced by ozone generator through olive oil until it solidified. Promastigotes of L. major were cultivated in two phasic media. After calculation of the number of promastigotes, they were incubated with ozonated olive oil (0, 0.626, 0.938, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10 mcg/ml) at 28 °c for 24 hr. Parasites survival percentage was evaluated using MTS and microscopic assay, and then compared with Glucantime and non-ozonated olive oil. Results: According to the results, there were significant differences in parasites survival percentage between ozonated olive oil and non-ozonated olive oil, at similar concentrations (P<0.001). Ozonated olive oil was more effective than Glucantime. According to MTS results, Glucantime and ozonated olive oil gel concentrations that are required to inhibit the growth of L. major promastigotes by 50% (IC50), were 165 and 0.002 mg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: Ozonated olive oil has in vitro activity against the promastigotes of L. major and this effect is dose dependent. PMID:26523224

  9. Pharmacological activities of cilantro's aliphatic aldehydes against Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Donega, Mateus A; Mello, Simone C; Moraes, Rita M; Jain, Surendra K; Tekwani, Babu L; Cantrell, Charles L

    2014-12-01

    Leishmaniasis is a chronic infectious disease caused by different Leishmania species. Global occurrences of this disease are primarily limited to tropical and subtropical regions. Treatments are available; however, patients complain of side effects. Different species of plants have been screened as a potential source of new drugs against leishmaniasis. In this study, we investigated the antileishmanial activity of cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) essential oil and its main components: (E)-2-undecenal, (E)-2-decenal, (E)-2-dodecenal, decanal, dodecanal, and tetradecanal. The essential oil of C. sativum leaves inhibits growth of Leishmani donovani promastigotes in culture with an IC50 of 26.58 ± 6.11 µg/mL. The aliphatic aldehydes (E)-2-decenal (7.85 ± 0.28 µg/mL), (E)-2-undecenal (2.81 ± 0.21 µg/mL), and (E)-2-dodecenal (4.35 ± 0.15 µg/mL), all isolated from C. sativum essential oil, are effective inhibitors of in vitro cultures of L. donovani promastigotes. Aldehydes (E)-2-decenal, (E)-2-undecenal, and (E)-2-dodecenal were also evaluated against axenic amastigotes and IC50 values were determined to be 2.47 ± 0.25 µg/mL, 1.25 ± 0.11 µg/mL, and 4.78 ± 1.12 µg/mL, respectively. (E)-2-Undecenal and (E)-2-dodecenal demonstrated IC50 values of 5.65 ± 0.19 µg/mL and 9.60 ± 0.89 µg/mL, respectively, against macrophage amastigotes. These cilantro compounds showed no cytotoxicity against THP-1 macrophages. PMID:25340465

  10. CRISPR-Cas9-Mediated Genome Editing in Leishmania donovani

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen-Wei

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The prokaryotic CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)-Cas9, an RNA-guided endonuclease, has been shown to mediate efficient genome editing in a wide variety of organisms. In the present study, the CRISPR-Cas9 system has been adapted to Leishmania donovani, a protozoan parasite that causes fatal human visceral leishmaniasis. We introduced the Cas9 nuclease into L. donovani and generated guide RNA (gRNA) expression vectors by using the L. donovani rRNA promoter and the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) ribozyme. It is demonstrated within that L. donovani mainly used homology-directed repair (HDR) and microhomology-mediated end joining (MMEJ) to repair the Cas9 nuclease-created double-strand DNA break (DSB). The nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway appears to be absent in L. donovani. With this CRISPR-Cas9 system, it was possible to generate knockouts without selection by insertion of an oligonucleotide donor with stop codons and 25-nucleotide homology arms into the Cas9 cleavage site. Likewise, we disrupted and precisely tagged endogenous genes by inserting a bleomycin drug selection marker and GFP gene into the Cas9 cleavage site. With the use of Hammerhead and HDV ribozymes, a double-gRNA expression vector that further improved gene-targeting efficiency was developed, and it was used to make precise deletion of the 3-kb miltefosine transporter gene (LdMT). In addition, this study identified a novel single point mutation caused by CRISPR-Cas9 in LdMT (M381T) that led to miltefosine resistance, a concern for the only available oral antileishmanial drug. Together, these results demonstrate that the CRISPR-Cas9 system represents an effective genome engineering tool for L. donovani. PMID:26199327

  11. Genetic characterization of glucose transporter function in Leishmania mexicana

    PubMed Central

    Burchmore, Richard J. S.; Rodriguez-Contreras, Dayana; McBride, Kathleen; Barrett, Michael P.; Modi, Govind; Sacks, David; Landfear, Scott M.

    2003-01-01

    Both insect and mammalian life cycle stages of Leishmania mexicana take up glucose and express all three isoforms encoded by the LmGT glucose transporter gene family. To evaluate glucose transporter function in intact parasites, a null mutant line has been created by targeted disruption of the LmGT locus that encompasses the LmGT1, LmGT2, and LmGT3 genes. This Δlmgt null mutant exhibited no detectable glucose transport activity. The growth rate of the Δlmgt knockout in the promastigote stage was reduced to a rate comparable with that of WT cells grown in the absence of glucose. Δlmgt cells also exhibited dramatically reduced infectivity to macrophages, demonstrating that expression of LmGT isoforms is essential for viability of amastigotes. Furthermore, WT L. mexicana were not able to grow as axenic culture form amastigotes if glucose was withdrawn from the medium, implying that glucose is an essential nutrient in this life cycle stage. Expression of either LmGT2 or LmGT3, but not of LmGT1, in Δlmgt null mutants significantly restored growth as promastigotes, but only LmGT3 expression substantially rescued amastigote growth in macrophages. Subcellular localization of the three isoforms was investigated in Δlmgt cells expressing individual LmGT isoforms. Using anti-LmGT antiserum and GFP-tagged LmGT fusion proteins, LmGT2 and LmGT3 were localized to the cell body, whereas LmGT1 was localized specifically to the flagellum. These results establish that each glucose transporter isoform has distinct biological functions in the parasite. PMID:12651954

  12. Functional characterization of nucleoside transporter gene replacements in Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Boitz, Jan M; Galazka, Jon; Arendt, Cassandra S; Carter, Nicola S; Ullman, Buddy

    2006-12-01

    Leishmania donovani express two nucleoside transporters of non-overlapping ligand selectivity. To evaluate the physiological role of nucleoside transporters in L. donovani, homozygous null mutants of the genes encoding the LdNT1 adenosine-pyrimidine nucleoside transporter and the LdNT2 inosine-guanosine transporter were created singly and in combination by single targeted gene replacement followed by selection for loss-of-heterozygosity. The mutant alleles were verified by Southern blotting, and the effects of gene replacement on transport phenotype were evaluated by rapid sampling transport measurements and by drug resistance profiles. The Deltaldnt1, Deltaldnt2, and Deltaldnt1/Deltaldnt2 mutants were all capable of proliferation in defined culture medium supplemented with any of a spectrum of purine nucleobases or nucleosides, except that a Deltaldnt2 lesion conferred an inability to efficiently salvage exogenous xanthosine, a newly discovered ligand of LdNT2. Each of the three knockout strains was viable as promastigotes and axenic amastigotes and capable of maintaining an infection in J774 and bone marrow-derived murine macrophages. These genetic studies demonstrate: (1) that L. donovani promastigotes, axenic amastigotes, and tissue amastigotes are viable in the absence of nucleoside transport; (2) that nucleoside transporters are not essential for sustaining an infection in mammalian host cells; (3) that the phagolysosome of macrophages is likely to contain purines that are not LdNT1 or LdNT2 ligands, i.e., nucleobases. Furthermore, the Deltaldnt1, Deltaldnt2, and Deltaldnt1/Deltaldnt2 knockouts offer a unique genetically defined null background for the biochemical and genetic characterization of nucleoside transporter genes and cDNAs from phylogenetically diverse species and of genetically manipulated LdNT1 and LdNT2 constructs. PMID:17050001

  13. Characterization of phosphoglycan-containing secretory products of Leishmania.

    PubMed

    Ilg, T; Stierhof, Y D; Wiese, M; McConville, M J; Overath, P

    1994-01-01

    This article presents an overview on phosphoglycan-containing components secreted by the insect and mammalian stages of several species of Leishmania, the causative agents of leishmaniasis in the Old and New World. Firstly, promastigotes of all three species considered, L. mexicana, L. donovani and L. major, shed lipophosphoglycan (LPG) into the culture medium possibly by release of micelles from the cell surface. Like the cell-associated LPG, culture supernatant LPG is amphiphilic and composed of a lysoalkylphosphatidylinositol-phosphosaccharide core connected to species-specific phosphosaccharide repeats and oligosaccharide caps. Secondly, all three species release hydrophilic phosphoglycan. Thirdly, all three species appear to secrete proteins covalently modified by phosphosaccharide repeats and oligosaccharide caps. In the case of promastigotes of L. mexicana, these components are organized as two filamentous polymers released from the flagellar pocket: the secreted acid phosphatase (sAP) composed of a 100 kDa phosphoglycoprotein and a protein-containing high-molecular-weight-phosphoglycan (proteo-HMWPG) and fibrous networks likewise composed of phosphoglycan possibly linked to protein. Structural analyses and gene cloning suggest that the parasites can covalently modify protein regions rich in serine and threonine residues by the attachment of phosphosaccharide repeats capped by oligosaccharides. We propose that the networks formed in vitro correspond to fibrous material previously demonstrated in the digestive tract of infected sandflies. In the case of L. donovani, the sAP is also modified by phosphoglycans but contains neither proteo-HMWPG nor does it aggregate to filaments. Finally, L. mexicana amastigotes release proteo-HMWPG via the flagellar pocket into the parasitophorous vacuole of infected macrophages.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8084657

  14. Structural and Kinetic Characterization of Thymidine Kinase from Leishmania major

    PubMed Central

    Recio, Eliseo; Nettleship, Joanne E.; Rada, Heather; González-Pacanowska, Dolores; Wilson, Keith S.

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania spp. is a protozoan parasite and the causative agent of leishmaniasis. Thymidine kinase (TK) catalyses the transfer of the γ-phosphate of ATP to 2’-deoxythymidine (dThd) forming thymidine monophosphate (dTMP). L. major Type II TK (LmTK) has been previously shown to be important for infectivity of the parasite and therefore has potential as a drug target for anti-leishmanial therapy. In this study, we determined the enzymatic properties and the 3D structures of holo forms of the enzyme. LmTK efficiently phosphorylates dThd and dUrd and has high structural homology to TKs from other species. However, it significantly differs in its kinetic properties from Trypanosoma brucei TK since purines are not substrates of the enzyme and dNTPs such as dUTP inhibit LmTK. The enzyme had Km and kcat values for dThd of 1.1 μM and 2.62 s-1 and exhibits cooperative binding for ATP. Additionally, we show that the anti-retroviral prodrug zidovudine (3-azido-3-deoxythymidine, AZT) and 5’-modified dUrd can be readily phosphorylated by LmTK. The production of recombinant enzyme at a level suitable for structural studies was achieved by the construction of C-terminal truncated versions of the enzyme and the use of a baculoviral expression system. The structures of the catalytic core of LmTK in complex with dThd, the negative feedback regulator dTTP and the bi-substrate analogue AP5dT, were determined to 2.74, 3.00 and 2.40 Å, respectively, and provide the structural basis for exclusion of purines and dNTP inhibition. The results will aid the process of rational drug design with LmTK as a potential target for anti-leishmanial drugs. PMID:25978379

  15. [Spread of Leishmania major to the north of Algeria].

    PubMed

    Boudrissa, A; Cherif, K; Kherrachi, I; Benbetka, S; Bouiba, L; Boubidi, S C; Benikhlef, R; Arrar, L; Hamrioui, B; Harrat, Z

    2012-02-01

    Since a long time, Leishmania major and L. infantum foci in Algeria were geographically separated by the mountains of the Tell Atlas which represent a natural barrier. Recently, a new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) has emerged in the village of El M'hir, located on the north side of the chain of the Tell Atlas, in the basin of the Soummam. During the period 2004-2010, 152 CL cases have been registered and 12 isolates were obtained from patients who declared never having been outside the village the last years. The identification of the parasites showed that all strains belonged to L major MON-25. Investigations on the reservoir hosts showed the presence of the sand rat (Psammomys obesus), for the first time, in this locality. Five strains isolated from this rodent belonged to L. major MON-25. The sand rat, which is usually observed around the chotts in the Saharan and steppe areas, acts as the main reservoir of L. major in Algeria. Its presence in the new focus of El M'hir is reported for the first time. Entomological surveys carried out in 2009 showed the predominance of two sandfly species: Phlebotomus papatasi and P. perniciosus. The first one is known as a vector of L major in the Algerian Sahara. This study highlights the spread of L. major from the arid zones towards the semi arid areas, particularly in the Soummam valley. Climate changes and desertification observed in the steppe area northern Sahara could play a role in the extension of the disease. PMID:22170408

  16. Amplified DNAs in laboratory stocks of Leishmania tarentolae: extrachromosomal circles structurally and functionally similar to the inverted-H-region amplification of methotrexate-resistant Leishmania major

    SciTech Connect

    Petrillo-Peixoto, M.L.; Beverley, S.M. )

    1988-12-01

    We describe the structure of amplified DNA that was discovered in two laboratory stocks of the protozoan parasite Leishmania tarentolae. Restriction mapping and molecular cloning revealed that a region of 42 kilobases was amplified 8- to 30-fold in these lines. Southern blot analyses of digested DNAs or chromosomes separated by pulsed-field electrophoresis showed that the amplified DNA corresponded to the H region, a locus defined originally by its amplification in methotrexate-resistant Leishmania major. Similarities between the amplified DNA of the two species included (i) extensive cross-hybridization; (ii) approximate conservation of sequence order; (iii) extrachromosomal localization; (iv) an overall inverted, head-to-head configuration as a circular 140-kilobase tetrameric molecule; (v) two regions of DNA sequence rearrangement, each of which was closely associated with the two centers of the inverted repeats; (vi) association with methotrexate resistance; and (vii) phenotypically conservative amplification, in which the wild-type chromosomal arrangement was retained without apparent modification. Our data showed that amplified DNA mediating drug resistance arose in unselected L. tarentolae, although the pressures leading to apparently spontaneous amplification and maintenance of the H region are not known. The simple structure and limited extent of DNA amplified in these and other Leishmania lines suggests that the study of gene amplification in Leishmania spp. offers an attractive model system for the study of amplification in cultured mammalian cells and tumors. We also introduced a method for measuring the size of large circular DNAs, using gamma-irradiation to introduce limited double-strand breaks followed by sizing of the linear DNAs by pulsed-field electrophoresis.

  17. Eugenia uniflora L. Essential Oil as a Potential Anti-Leishmania Agent: Effects on Leishmania amazonensis and Possible Mechanisms of Action

    PubMed Central

    Amorim, Layane Valéria; de Oliveira, Jamylla Mirck Guerra; Dias, Clarice Noleto; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Maia, Jose Guilherme Soares; Carneiro, Sabrina Maria Portela; Carvalho, Fernando Aécio de Amorim

    2013-01-01

    Eugenia uniflora L. is a member of the Myrtaceae family and is commonly known as Brazilian cherry tree. In this study, we evaluated the chemical composition of Eugenia uniflora L. essential oil (EuEO) by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and assessed its anti-Leishmania activity. We also explored the potential mechanisms of action and cytotoxicity of EuEO. Thirty-two compounds were identified, which constituted 92.65% of the total oil composition. The most abundant components were sesquiterpenes (91.92%), with curzerene (47.3%), γ-elemene (14.25%), and trans-β-elemenone (10.4%) being the major constituents. The bioactivity shown by EuEO against promastigotes (IC50, 3.04 μg·mL−1) and amastigotes (IC50, 1.92 μg·mL−1) suggested significant anti-Leishmania activity. In the cytotoxicity determination, EuEO was 20 times more toxic to amastigotes than to macrophages. Hemolytic activity was 63.22% at the highest concentration tested (400 μg·mL−1); however, there appeared to be no toxicity at 50 μg·mL−1. While the data show that EuEO activity is not mediated by nitric oxide production, they do suggest that macrophage activation may be involved in EuEO anti-Leishmania activity, as evidenced by increases in both the phagocytic capacity and the lysosomal activity. More studies are needed to determine in vivo activity as well as additional mechanisms of the anti-Leishmania activity. PMID:23533469

  18. CD8+ T cells Are Preferentially Activated during Primary Low Dose Leishmania major Infection but Are Completely Dispensable during Secondary Anti-Leishmania Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Okwor, Ifeoma B.; Jia, Ping; Mou, Zhirong; Onyilagha, Chukwunonso; Uzonna, Jude E.

    2014-01-01

    We previously showed that CD8+ T cells are required for optimal primary immunity to low dose Leishmania major infection. However, it is not known whether immunity induced by low dose infection is durable and whether CD8+ T cells contribute to secondary immunity following recovery from low dose infection. Here, we compared primary and secondary immunity to low and high dose L. major infections and assessed the influence of infectious dose on the quality and magnitude of secondary anti-Leishmania immunity. In addition, we investigated the contribution of CD8+ T cells in secondary anti-Leishmania immunity following recovery from low and high dose infections. We found that the early immune response to low and high dose infections were strikingly different: while low dose infection preferentially induced proliferation and effector cytokine production by CD8+ T cells, high dose infection predominantly induced proliferation and cytokine production by CD4+ T cells. This differential activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells by high and low dose infections respectively, was imprinted during in vitro and in vivo recall responses in healed mice. Both low and high dose-infected mice displayed strong infection-induced immunity and were protected against secondary L. major challenge. While depletion of CD4+ cells in mice that healed low and high dose infections abolished resistance to secondary challenge, depletion of CD8+ cells had no effect. Collectively, our results show that although CD8+ T cells are preferentially activated and may contribute to optimal primary anti-Leishmania immunity following low dose infection, they are completely dispensable during secondary immunity. PMID:25412267

  19. Eugenia uniflora L. Essential Oil as a Potential Anti-Leishmania Agent: Effects on Leishmania amazonensis and Possible Mechanisms of Action.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; Amorim, Layane Valéria; de Oliveira, Jamylla Mirck Guerra; Dias, Clarice Noleto; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Maia, Jose Guilherme Soares; Carneiro, Sabrina Maria Portela; Carvalho, Fernando Aécio de Amorim

    2013-01-01

    Eugenia uniflora L. is a member of the Myrtaceae family and is commonly known as Brazilian cherry tree. In this study, we evaluated the chemical composition of Eugenia uniflora L. essential oil (EuEO) by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and assessed its anti-Leishmania activity. We also explored the potential mechanisms of action and cytotoxicity of EuEO. Thirty-two compounds were identified, which constituted 92.65% of the total oil composition. The most abundant components were sesquiterpenes (91.92%), with curzerene (47.3%), γ -elemene (14.25%), and trans- β -elemenone (10.4%) being the major constituents. The bioactivity shown by EuEO against promastigotes (IC50, 3.04  μ g·mL(-1)) and amastigotes (IC50, 1.92  μ g·mL(-1)) suggested significant anti-Leishmania activity. In the cytotoxicity determination, EuEO was 20 times more toxic to amastigotes than to macrophages. Hemolytic activity was 63.22% at the highest concentration tested (400  μ g·mL(-1)); however, there appeared to be no toxicity at 50  μ g·mL(-1). While the data show that EuEO activity is not mediated by nitric oxide production, they do suggest that macrophage activation may be involved in EuEO anti-Leishmania activity, as evidenced by increases in both the phagocytic capacity and the lysosomal activity. More studies are needed to determine in vivo activity as well as additional mechanisms of the anti-Leishmania activity. PMID:23533469

  20. Characterization of Leishmania Species Isolated from Cutaneous Human Samples from Central Region of Syria by RFLP Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Nahhas, Samar Anis; Kaldas, Rania Magdy

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an endemic disease and a public health problem in Hama governorate located in the central region of Syria. The aim of this study was to characterize Leishmania species isolated from human skin samples. A polymerase chain reaction, restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay, was performed on skin lesion material samples from 32 patients with confirmed CL by direct microscopic examination in order to prove its usefulness and efficiency for identification of Leishmania species. Leishmania tropica (L. tropica) is confirmed as an etiologic agent of CL in this area. PMID:27335852

  1. Genome-wide gene expression profiling analysis of Leishmania major and Leishmania infantum developmental stages reveals substantial differences between the two species

    PubMed Central

    Rochette, Annie; Raymond, Frédéric; Ubeda, Jean-Michel; Smith, Martin; Messier, Nadine; Boisvert, Sébastien; Rigault, Philippe; Corbeil, Jacques; Ouellette, Marc; Papadopoulou, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Background Leishmania parasites cause a diverse spectrum of diseases in humans ranging from spontaneously healing skin lesions (e.g., L. major) to life-threatening visceral diseases (e.g., L. infantum). The high conservation in gene content and genome organization between Leishmania major and Leishmania infantum contrasts their distinct pathophysiologies, suggesting that highly regulated hierarchical and temporal changes in gene expression may be involved. Results We used a multispecies DNA oligonucleotide microarray to compare whole-genome expression patterns of promastigote (sandfly vector) and amastigote (mammalian macrophages) developmental stages between L. major and L. infantum. Seven per cent of the total L. infantum genome and 9.3% of the L. major genome were differentially expressed at the RNA level throughout development. The main variations were found in genes involved in metabolism, cellular organization and biogenesis, transport and genes encoding unknown function. Remarkably, this comparative global interspecies analysis demonstrated that only 10–12% of the differentially expressed genes were common to L. major and L. infantum. Differentially expressed genes are randomly distributed across chromosomes further supporting a posttranscriptional control, which is likely to involve a variety of 3'UTR elements. Conclusion This study highlighted substantial differences in gene expression patterns between L. major and L. infantum. These important species-specific differences in stage-regulated gene expression may contribute to the disease tropism that distinguishes L. major from L. infantum. PMID:18510761

  2. Leishmania tarentolae secreting the sand fly salivary antigen PpSP15 confers protection against Leishmania major infection in a susceptible BALB/c mice model.

    PubMed

    Katebi, A; Gholami, E; Taheri, T; Zahedifard, F; Habibzadeh, S; Taslimi, Y; Shokri, F; Papadopoulou, B; Kamhawi, S; Valenzuela, J G; Rafati, S

    2015-10-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a zoonotic, vector-borne disease causing a major health problem in several countries. No vaccine is available and there are limitations associated with the current therapeutic regimens. Immune responses to sand fly saliva have been shown to protect against Leishmania infection. A cellular immune response to PpSP15, a protein from the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi, was sufficient to control Leishmania major infection in mice. This work presents data supporting the vaccine potency of recombinant live non-pathogenic Leishmania (L.) tarentolae secreting PpSP15 in mice and its potential as a new vaccine strategy against L. major. We generated a recombinant L. tarentolae-PpSP15 strain delivered in the presence of CpG ODN and evaluated its immunogenicity and protective immunity against L. major infection in BALB/c mice. In parallel, different vaccination modalities using PpSP15 as the target antigen were compared. Humoral and cellular immune responses were evaluated before and at three and eight weeks after challenge. Footpad swelling and parasite load were assessed at eight and eleven weeks post-challenge. Our results show that vaccination with L. tarentolae-PpSP15 in combination with CpG as a prime-boost modality confers strong protection against L. major infection that was superior to other vaccination modalities used in this study. This approach represents a novel and promising vaccination strategy against Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:26298575

  3. Polymerase chain reaction detection of Leishmania DNA in skin biopsy samples in Sri Lanka where the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis is Leishmania donovani

    PubMed Central

    Ranasinghe, Shalindra; Wickremasinghe, Renu; Hulangamuwa, Sanjeeva; Sirimanna, Ganga; Opathella, Nandimithra; Maingon, Rhaiza DC; Chandrasekharan, Vishvanath

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania donovani is the known causative agent of both cutaneous (CL) and visceral leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka. CL is considered to be under-reported partly due to relatively poor sensitivity and specificity of microscopic diagnosis. We compared robustness of three previously described polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods to detectLeishmania DNA in 38 punch biopsy samples from patients presented with suspected lesions in 2010. Both, Leishmaniagenus-specific JW11/JW12 KDNA and LITSR/L5.8S internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1 PCR assays detected 92% (35/38) of the samples whereas a KDNA assay specific forL. donovani (LdF/LdR) detected only 71% (27/38) of samples. All positive samples showed a L. donovani banding pattern upon HaeIII ITS1 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. PCR assay specificity was evaluated in samples containing Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium leprae, and human DNA, and there was no cross-amplification in JW11/JW12 and LITSR/L5.8S PCR assays. The LdF/LdR PCR assay did not amplify M. leprae or human DNA although 500 bp and 700 bp bands were observed in M. tuberculosis samples. In conclusion, it was successfully shown in this study that it is possible to diagnose Sri Lankan CL with high accuracy, to genus and species identification, using Leishmania DNA PCR assays. PMID:26676321

  4. Leishmania replication protein A-1 binds in vivo single-stranded telomeric DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Neto, J.L. Siqueira; Lira, C.B.B.; Giardini, M.A.; Khater, L.; Perez, A.M.; Peroni, L.A.; Reis, J.R.R. dos; Freitas-Junior, L.H.; Ramos, C.H.I.; Cano, M.I.N. . E-mail: micano@ibb.unesp.br

    2007-06-29

    Replication protein A (RPA) is a highly conserved heterotrimeric single-stranded DNA-binding protein involved in different events of DNA metabolism. In yeast, subunits 1 (RPA-1) and 2 (RPA-2) work also as telomerase recruiters and, in humans, the complex unfolds G-quartet structures formed by the 3' G-rich telomeric strand. In most eukaryotes, RPA-1 and RPA-2 bind DNA using multiple OB fold domains. In trypanosomatids, including Leishmania, RPA-1 has a canonical OB fold and a truncated RFA-1 structural domain. In Leishmania amazonensis, RPA-1 alone can form a complex in vitro with the telomeric G-rich strand. In this work, we show that LaRPA-1 is a nuclear protein that associates in vivo with Leishmania telomeres. We mapped the boundaries of the OB fold DNA-binding domain using deletion mutants. Since Leishmania and other trypanosomatids lack homologues of known telomere end binding proteins, our results raise questions about the function of RPA-1 in parasite telomeres.

  5. A first case of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia) lainsoni in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Martinez, E; Le Pont, F; Mollinedo, S; Cupolillo, E

    2001-01-01

    We present the first known case of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia) lainsoni detected in Bolivia. The parasite was isolated from a young girl living in the subtropical region of Carrasco (900-1000 m above sea level, Caranavi Province, Department of La Paz, Bolivia). The parasite identification was confirmed by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. PMID:11579876

  6. Phlebotomus perfiliewi transcaucasicus is circulating both Leishmania donovani and L. infantum in northwest Iran.

    PubMed

    Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Ravasan, Naseh Maleki; Hide, Mallorie; Javadian, Ezat-Aldin; Rassi, Yavar; Sadraei, Javid; Mohebali, Mehdi; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Hajjaran, Homa; Zarei, Zabiholah; Mohtarami, Fatemeh

    2009-11-01

    Leishmania infantum is the causative agent of infantile visceral leishmaniasis (IVL) in the Mediterranean Basin and, based on isoenzyme typing of the parasite isolated from dogs; this parasite was considered to predominate in the all foci of IVL in Iran. However, based on PCR detection and sequencing of parasite Cysteine Protease B (CPB), only one out of seven sandfly infections in Phlebotomus perfiliewi transcaucasicus was found to be L. infantum in the current investigation. The six other infections were haplotypes of Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of anthroponotic visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) in West Africa and India. The deduced amino acid of the L. donovani haplotype was found to be novel and the shortest CPB protein reported within the Leishmania spp. Circulation of both L. donovani and L. infantum by P. perfiliewi transcaucasicus, in addition to previous data indicating its ability to circulate L. tropica, suggests that this species, like other vectors of VL, is a permissive vector. Finding L. donovani infecting P. perfiliewi transcaucasicus in the area demands extensive and intensive typing of natural Leishmania infections in epidemiological investigations in Iran and the Mediterranean Basin in general. PMID:19631209

  7. Molecular Diagnosis and Identification of Leishmania Species in Jordan from Saved Dry Samples

    PubMed Central

    Hijjawi, Nawal; Kanani, Kalil A.; Rasheed, Malak; Atoum, Manar; Abdel-Dayem, Mona; Irhimeh, Mohammad R.

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of the endemic cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Jordan relies on patient clinical presentation and microscopic identification. Studies toward improved identification of the causative Leishmania species, especially in regions where multiple species exist, and the introduction of these techniques into medical diagnosis is paramount. This study looked at the current epidemiology of CL in Jordan. Clinically diagnosed 41 patients with CL were tested for the presence of Leishmania parasite using both Giemsa staining from skin scraps on glass slides and ITS1-PCR from samples blotted onto storage cards (NucleoCards®). Microscopically, 28 out of the 41 (68.3%) collected samples were positive for amastigotes, whereas the molecular ITS1-PCR amplification successfully identified 30 of the 41 samples (73.2%). Furthermore, PCR-RFLP analysis allowed species identification which is impossible microscopically. Of the 30 PCR positive samples, 28 were Leishmania major positive and the other two samples were Leishmania tropica. This indicates that L. major is the most prevalent species in Jordan and the two L. tropica cases originated from Syria indicating possible future L. tropica outbreaks. Diagnosis of CL based on clinical presentation only may falsely increase its prevalence. Although PCR is more sensitive, it is still not available in our medical laboratories in Jordan. PMID:27403435

  8. Attenuation and Production of the Amphotericin B-Resistant Leishmania tropica Strain

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Imran; Khan, Momin; Umar, Muhammad Naveed; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Background Infections caused by Leishmania are becoming major public health problems on a global scale. Many species of Leishmania around the world are obtaining resistance levels of up to 15 folds, as estimated by the World Health Organization. Leishmania showing resistance is relatively difficult to observe and maintain in laboratory settings. Objectives The current study deals with the generation of Leishmania tropica strains that are resistant to amphotericin B (amp B). Materials and Methods The L. tropica strain was attenuated using continuous passaging 20 times. The infectivity of L. tropica was confirmed in BALB/c mice. The L. tropica resistant strain was produced in vitro using a continuous increase in drug pressure. The cross resistance of L. tropica to other drugs was also investigated. Results After 20 continuous passages, the BALB/c mice tested negative in the development of leishmaniasis. At a concentration of 0.1 µg/mL, L. tropica showed resistance to amp B. The newly developed promastigotes were 16 times more resistant compared to the resistance of the wild type promastigotes. The resistant L. tropica strain showed cross resistance to itraconazole and had a resistance index that was greater than five. The resistant strain displayed maximum stability for more than three months in the drug-free medium. Conclusions The resistant strain of L. tropica can be produced in laboratories using continuous drug pressure. The attenuated resistant strain has significant implications (both medically and academically) in the ability to overcome resistance.

  9. Leishmania tropica: the effect of darkness and light on biological activities in vitro.

    PubMed

    Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Koc, Rabia Cakir; Ates, Sezen Canim; Bagirova, Malahat; Elcicek, Serhat; Oztel, Olga Nehir

    2011-08-01

    Leishmania parasites can be exposed to effects of light in their vectors and hosts, at various periods. However, there is no information about the effects of light on Leishmania parasites. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of light on various cell parameters of Leishmania tropica, in vitro. All experiments were conducted on L. tropica promastigotes and amastigote-macrophage cultures, using flow cytometric analysis, MTT and phenol-sulfuric acid assay, DAPI and Giemsa. The results showed that the morphology of parasites has changed; the cell cycle has been affected and this caused parasites to remain at G0/G1 phase. Furthermore the proliferation, infectivity, glucose consumption and mitochondrial dehydrogenase activities of parasites were decreased. Thus, for the first time, in this study, the effects of light on biological activities of Leishmania parasites were shown. These new information about parasites' biology, would be very important to investigate the effects of light on the parasites in infected vectors and hosts. PMID:21510933

  10. Bioactivity guided fractionation of Moringa oleifera Lam. flower targeting Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manoj Kumar; Paul, Joydeep; De, Tripti; Chakraborti, Tapati

    2015-11-01

    Leishmaniases is a group of diseases caused by the protozoan parasite belonging to the genus Leishmania. At least 20 species of Leishmania are known to infect humans transmitted by female sandflies, Phlebotomus spp. Leishmania donovani causes visceral leishmaniasis, considered most lethal among the common three forms of leishmaniasis. Lack of appropriate vaccines, emergence of drug resistance and side effects of currently used drugs stress the need for better alternative drugs, particularly from natural sources. Here, we conducted in vitro and in vivo experiments to study the efficacy of different parts of Moringa oleifera Lam. against Leishmania donovani promastigotes. The flower extract of M. oliefera (MoF) was found to be the most potent antileishmanial agent when compared to other parts of the plant like leaf, root, bark and stem. It imparted significant reduction in parasite number in infected macrophages. The bioactivity guided fractionation of MoF showed ethyl acetate fraction (MoE) as the most active and gave significant parasite reduction in the infected macrophages. Further, growth kinetics studies revealed loss of L. donovani promastigotes viability in the presence of MoE in both time and dose dependent manner. In vivo experiment in Balb/c mouse model of leishmaniasis supported the in vitro findings with a remarkable reduction of the parasite burden in both liver and spleen. PMID:26669018

  11. Rab5-mediated endosome-endosome fusion regulates hemoglobin endocytosis in Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sudha B; Tandon, Ruchi; Krishnamurthy, Ganga; Vikram, Rajagopal; Sharma, Nimisha; Basu, Sandip K; Mukhopadhyay, Amitabha

    2003-11-01

    To understand the trafficking of endocytosed hemoglobin (Hb) in Leishmania, we investigated the characteristics of in vitro fusion between endosomes containing biotinylated Hb (BHb) and avidin-horseradish peroxidase (AHRP). We showed that early endosome fusion in Leishmania is temperature and cytosol dependent and is inhibited by ATP depletion, ATPgammaS, GTPgammaS and N-ethylmaleimide treatment. The Rab5 homolog from Leishmania donovani, LdRab5, was cloned and expressed. Our results showed that homotypic fusion between the early endosomes in Leishmania is Rab5 dependent. Early endosomes containing BHb fused efficiently with late endosomes in a process regulated by Rab7, whereas no fusion between early and late endosomes was detected using fluid phase markers. Pre-treatment of early endosomes containing BHb with monoclonal antibody specific for the C-terminus of the Hb receptor (HbR) or the addition of the C-terminal cytoplasmic fragment of the HbR specifically inhibited the fusion with late endosomes, suggesting that signal(s) mediated through the HbR cytoplasmic tail promotes the fusion of early endosomes containing Hb with late endosomes. PMID:14592970

  12. Impairment of the oxidative metabolism of mouse peritoneal macrophages by intracellular Leishmania spp.

    PubMed Central

    Buchmüller-Rouiller, Y; Mauël, J

    1987-01-01

    When stimulated in vitro with macrophage-activating factor or lipopolysaccharide, mouse peritoneal macrophages acquire the capacity to develop a strong respiratory burst when they are triggered by membrane-active agents. The presence of intracellular parasites of the genus Leishmania (L. enriettii, L. major) significantly inhibited such activity, as measured by chemiluminescence, reduction of cytochrome c and Nitro Blue Tetrazolium, and hexose monophosphate shunt levels. On the contrary, inert intracellular particles such as latex beads strongly increased the macrophage respiratory burst, suggesting that the Leishmania-linked inhibition resulted from a specific parasite effect. Impairment of macrophage oxidative metabolism by intracellular Leishmania spp. was a function of the number of infecting microorganisms and was more pronounced in macrophages infected with living than with dead parasites. Moreover, the metabolic inhibition was less apparent in L. enriettii-infected macrophages that were exposed to both macrophage-activating factor and lipopolysaccharide, i.e., conditions leading to complete parasite destruction. The mechanisms of respiratory burst inhibition by intracellular Leishmania spp. are unclear, but these observations suggest that such effects may contribute significantly to intracellular survival of the microorganisms. PMID:3546131

  13. Kennel dogs as sentinels of Leishmania infantum, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in Majorca Island, Spain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kennel dogs can serve as sentinels and/or reservoirs of diseases of veterinary and zoonotic interest because they have often roamed free and lived outdoors, being exposed to pathogens. We tested for evidence of infection with three protozoans, Leishmania infantum, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora cani...

  14. Immune responses in DNA vaccine formulated with PMMA following immunization and after challenge with Leishmania major.

    PubMed

    Zarrati, Somayeh; Mahdavi, Mehdi; Tabatabaie, Fatemeh

    2016-06-01

    Leishmaniasis is a major infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Despite of many efforts toward vaccine against Leishmania no effective vaccine has been approved yet. DNA vaccines can generate more powerful and broad immune responses than conventional vaccines. In order to increase immunity, the DNA vaccine has been supplemented with adjuvant. In this study a new nano-vaccine containing TSA recombinant plasmid and poly(methylmethacrylate) nanoparticles (act as adjuvant) was designed and its immunogenicity tested on BALB/c mouse. After three intramuscular injection of nano-vaccine (100 μg), the recombinant TSA protein (20 μg) was injected subcutaneously. Finally as a challenge animals were infected by Leishmania major. After the last injection of nano-vaccine, after protein booster injection, and also after challenge, cellular immune and antibody responses were evaluated by ELISA method. The findings of this study showed the new nano-vaccine was capable of induction both cytokines secretion and specific antibody responses, but predominant Th1 immune response characterized by IFN-γ production compared to control groups. Moreover, results revealed that nano-vaccine was effective in reducing parasite burden in the spleen of Leishmania major-infected BALB/c mice. Base on results, current candidate vaccine has potency for further studies. PMID:27413316

  15. A role for adenine nucleotides in the sensing mechanism to purine starvation in Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jessica L; Yates, Phillip A; Boitz, Jan M; Koop, Dennis R; Fulwiler, Audrey L; Cassera, Maria Belen; Ullman, Buddy; Carter, Nicola S

    2016-07-01

    Purine salvage by Leishmania is an obligatory nutritional process that impacts both cell viability and growth. Previously, we have demonstrated that the removal of purines in culture provokes significant metabolic changes that enable Leishmania to survive prolonged periods of pur