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Sample records for leishmanin skin test

  1. Evaluation of leishmanin skin test in Indian visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Gidwani, Kamlesh; Rai, Madhukar; Chakravarty, Jaya; Boelaert, Marleen; Sundar, Shyam

    2009-04-01

    We evaluated the performance of the leishmanin skin test (LST) in 50 patients with visceral leishmaniasis (VL), 124 cured VL patients at different time intervals, 125 healthy controls from an endemic region (HEC), and 14 healthy controls from a non-endemic region (NEHC). The leishmanin antigen used was based on Leishmania major and was obtained from the Pasteur Institute (Iran). A positive LST was found in 14.0% of patients with active VL, 40.3% of cured patients, 21.6% of HECs, and 0% in NEHCs. The 14% positivity in patients with active VL conflicts with the widely held opinion that such patients should be negative because of anergy. Also, a lack of sensitivity of the LST was observed in cured VL patients. An LST antigen produced from L. donovani strains from India should be explored. PMID:19346376

  2. Seroepidemiological and leishmanin skin test surveys of visceral leishmaniasis in south and southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Hailu, A; Berhe, N; Sisay, Z; Abraham, I; Medhin, G

    1996-01-01

    Sero-epidemiological and leishmanin skin test surveys of visceral leishmaniasis were carried out in eight localities of South and Southwest Ethiopia between the July 1989 and June 1992. A total number of 4870 subjects comprising semi-pastoral nomads, peasants and farm labourers were included in the study. Areas of high and low leishmanin skin test positivity were identified, with rates varying from 1.0-80.5%. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine prevalence of antileishmanial antibodies. The rates varied from 1.8% to 27.8%. Age and sex related serological and leishmanin skin test profiles are described. Correlation analysis of serological and leishmanin skin test was made for data in each locality. The relationships between seroprevalence, leishmanin skin test rates and prevalence of active visceral leishmaniasis and the implications on degrees of endemicity and patterns of transmission are discussed. PMID:8674496

  3. Usefulness of the rK39-Immunochromatographic Test, Direct Agglutination Test, and Leishmanin Skin Test for Detecting Asymptomatic Leishmania Infection in Children in a New Visceral Leishmaniasis Focus in Amhara State, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gadisa, Endalamaw; Custodio, Estefanía; Cañavate, Carmen; Sordo, Luis; Abebe, Zelalem; Nieto, Javier; Chicharro, Carmen; Aseffa, Abraham; Yamuah, Lawrence; Engers, Howard; Moreno, Javier; Cruz, Israel

    2012-01-01

    In areas where visceral leishmaniasis is anthroponotic, asymptomatically infected patients may play a role in transmission. Additionally, the number of asymptomatic patients in a disease-endemic area will also provide information on transmission dynamics. Libo Kemkem and Fogera districts (Amhara State, Ethiopia) are now considered newly established areas to which visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. In selected villages in these districts, we conducted a study to assess the usefulness of different approaches to estimate the asymptomatic infection rate. Of 605 participants, the rK39 immunochromatographic test was able to detect asymptomatic infection in 1.5% (9 of 605), direct agglutination test in 5.3% (32 of 605), and leishmanin skin test in 5.6% (33 of 589); the combined use of serologic methods and leishmanin skin test enabled detecting asymptomatic infection in 10.1% (61 of 605). We conclude that the best option to detect asymptomatic infection in this new visceral leishmaniasis–endemic focus is the combined use of the direct agglutination test and the leishmanin skin test. PMID:22556076

  4. PPD skin test

    MedlinePlus

    Purified protein derivative standard; TB skin test; Tuberculin skin test; Mantoux test ... Berger BJ. Mantoux skin test (PPD test, purified protein derivative test, Tb test, tuberculin skin test, TST, ...

  5. Allergy testing - skin

    MedlinePlus

    Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test ... There are three common methods of allergy skin testing. The skin prick test involves: Placing a small amount of substances that may be causing your symptoms on the skin, ...

  6. CSD skin test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003385.htm CSD skin test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The cat scratch disease (CSD) skin test was once used to help ...

  7. PPD skin test

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a method used to diagnose silent (latent) tuberculosis (TB) infection. PPD stands for purified protein derivative. ... derivative test, Tb test, tuberculin skin test, TST, tuberculosis test) - diagnostic. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. ...

  8. CSD skin test

    MedlinePlus

    The cat scratch disease (CSD) skin test was once used to help diagnose CSD. The test is no longer used today. ... LN, Welch DF, Koehler JE. Bartonella, including cat-scratch disease. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, ...

  9. Tuberculin Skin Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... perpendicular to the long axis). How Are TST Reactions Interpreted? Skin test interpretation depends on two factors: ... among high-risk groups. What Are False-Positive Reactions? Some persons may react to the TST even ...

  10. Aspergillus antigen skin test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The aspergillus antigen skin test determines whether or not a person has been exposed to the mold aspergillus. It is performed by injecting an aspergillus antigen under the skin with a needle. After 48 ...

  11. Allergy testing - skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... if you are allergic to bee venom or penicillin. Or it may be used if the skin ... sore, or swollen after contact with the substance Penicillin allergy Venom allergy Allergies to penicillin and closely ...

  12. Lepromin skin test

    MedlinePlus

    ... the skin up. The lump indicates that the antigen has been injected at the correct depth. The ... When the antigen is injected, there may be a slight stinging or burning. There may also be mild itching at the ...

  13. Histoplasma skin test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Histoplasma capsulatum. The fungus causes an infection called histoplasmosis. How the Test is Performed The health care ... have been exposed to the fungus that causes histoplasmosis . Normal Results No reaction (inflammation) at the site ...

  14. [Positive skin test and age

    PubMed

    Forte, W C; Júnior, F F; Filho, W D; Shibata, E; Henriques, L S; Mastroti, R A; Guedes, M da S

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate positive responses to skin tests for immediate hypersensitivity to allergens in children with asthma and rhinitis at different ages. METHOD: We observed positive skin test reactivity in prick tests using fifteen allergens of same origin (total dust and Dermatophagoides sp.; Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus; Dermatophagoides farinae; Blomia tropicalis; Penicillium sp; Alternaria alternata; Cladosporium herbarium; Aspergillus fumigatus; Bermuda grass; forage grass; dog and cat epithelia; feathers; Blatella germanica and wool). We placed 713 selected patients into different age groups - Group I: 6 to 11 months; Group II: 1 to 3 years and 11 months; Group III: 4 to 8 years and 11 months; and Group IV: 9 to 15 years. We used the chi-square test for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The total significant differences between these groups were: I to II = 5; II to III = 5; II to IV = 5; III to IV = 6; I to III = 10; and I to IV = 10. CONCLUSION: Skin test reactivity is acquired progressively with age, and can be observed as early as at 12 months. Reactivity is significantly more positive from the age of 4 on. PMID:14647601

  15. Skin Prick Test in Patients with Chronic Allergic Skin Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bains, Pooja; Dogra, Alka

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic allergic skin disorders are the inflammatory and proliferative conditions in which both genetic and environmental factors play important roles. Chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) and atopic dermatitis (AD) are among the most common chronic allergic skin disorders. These can be provoked by various food and aeroallergens. Skin prick tests (SPTs) represent the cheapest and most effective method to diagnose type I hypersensitivity. Positive skin tests with a history suggestive of clinical sensitivity strongly incriminate the allergen as a contributor to the disease process. Aims and Objectives: To determine the incidence of positive SPT in patients with chronic allergic skin disorders and to identify the various allergens implicated in positive SPT. Methods: Fifty patients of chronic allergic disorders were recruited in this study. They were evaluated by SPT with both food and aeroallergens. Results: In our study, SPT positivity in patients of CIU was 63.41% and in AD was 77.78%. Out of the 41 patients of CIU, the most common allergen groups showing SPT positivity were dust and pollen, each comprising 26.83% patients. SPT reaction was positive with food items (21.6%), insects (17.07%), fungus (12.20%), and Dermatophagoides farinae, that is, house dust mite (HDM) (7.32%). The allergen which showed maximum positivity was grain dust wheat (19.51%). Among nine patients of AD, maximum SPT positivity was seen with Dermatophagoides farinae, pollen Amaranthus spinosus, grain dust wheat, and cotton mill dust; each comprising 22.22% of patients. Conclusion: Our study showed that a significant number of patients of CIU and AD showed sensitivity to dust, pollen, insects, Dermatophagoides farinae, and fungi on SPT. Thus, it is an important tool in the diagnosis of CIU and AD. PMID:25814704

  16. Quiz: Test Your Skin Cancer IQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... of skin is usually the first step in skin cancer treatment and may have already occurred in the process ... Skin Cancer" Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma Early / NIH Research ...

  17. The skin prick test - European standards.

    PubMed

    Heinzerling, Lucie; Mari, Adriano; Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Bresciani, Megon; Burbach, Guido; Darsow, Ulf; Durham, Stephen; Fokkens, Wytske; Gjomarkaj, Mark; Haahtela, Tari; Bom, Ana Todo; Wöhrl, Stefan; Maibach, Howard; Lockey, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Skin prick testing is an essential test procedure to confirm sensitization in IgE-mediated allergic disease in subjects with rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, urticaria, anapylaxis, atopic eczema and food and drug allergy. This manuscript reviews the available evidence including Medline and Embase searches, abstracts of international allergy meetings and position papers from the world allergy literature. The recommended method of prick testing includes the appropriate use of specific allergen extracts, positive and negative controls, interpretation of the tests after 15 - 20 minutes of application, with a positive result defined as a wheal ≥3 mm diameter. A standard prick test panel for Europe for inhalants is proposed and includes hazel (Corylus avellana), alder (Alnus incana), birch (Betula alba), plane (Platanus vulgaris), cypress (Cupressus sempervirens), grass mix (Poa pratensis, Dactilis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense, Festuca pratensis, Helictotrichon pretense), Olive (Olea europaea), mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris), ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia), Alternaria alternata (tenuis), Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Parietaria, cat, dog, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, and cockroach (Blatella germanica). Standardization of the skin test procedures and standard panels for different geographic locations are encouraged worldwide to permit better comparisons for diagnostic, clinical and research purposes. PMID:23369181

  18. Use of thermography in testing skin creams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anttonen, Hannu; Kauppinen, Timo T.; Lehmuskallio, Eero; Rintamaki, Hannu

    1994-03-01

    The aim of the study was to test the effect of skin creams and their components in windy (3 m/s) and cold (-15 degree(s)C) conditions on face temperature and heat flux. The tests were carried out in a climatic chamber with 18 persons sitting in front of the opening of the wind tunnel, the wind directed against the face. Skin temperatures were measured from 4 points on both sides of the face with thermistors and the heat fluxes were measured using heat flux sensors on both cheeks. Also the ambient temperature and wind were registered. In addition to these measurements an IR thermal scanner was also used to measure the spatial and temporal distribution of temperature variation on the face during the exposure. The results were continuously recorded on VHS-video tape. Using still pictures from recorded material the area temperature of the cheek was measured, which described the mean temperature of the cheek. Test periods were 30 minutes and the same test subjects were not used until 48 h after the previous cold exposure. The test persons were young (20 - 30 years) healthy male persons. The total number of tests was 38.

  19. The skin prick test – European standards

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Skin prick testing is an essential test procedure to confirm sensitization in IgE-mediated allergic disease in subjects with rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, urticaria, anapylaxis, atopic eczema and food and drug allergy. This manuscript reviews the available evidence including Medline and Embase searches, abstracts of international allergy meetings and position papers from the world allergy literature. The recommended method of prick testing includes the appropriate use of specific allergen extracts, positive and negative controls, interpretation of the tests after 15 – 20 minutes of application, with a positive result defined as a wheal ≥3 mm diameter. A standard prick test panel for Europe for inhalants is proposed and includes hazel (Corylus avellana), alder (Alnus incana), birch (Betula alba), plane (Platanus vulgaris), cypress (Cupressus sempervirens), grass mix (Poa pratensis, Dactilis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense, Festuca pratensis, Helictotrichon pretense), Olive (Olea europaea), mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris), ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia), Alternaria alternata (tenuis), Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Parietaria, cat, dog, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, and cockroach (Blatella germanica). Standardization of the skin test procedures and standard panels for different geographic locations are encouraged worldwide to permit better comparisons for diagnostic, clinical and research purposes. PMID:23369181

  20. [Precision and economy of skin prick tests].

    PubMed

    Kupczyk, Maciej; Kupryś, Izabela; Kuna, Piotr

    2002-03-01

    Due to a rise in the number of cases of allergic disease and a need to increase financial resources for the diagnosis of these conditions, the possibility of reducing costs of skin pricks tests (SPT) was very welcome. In an attempt to reduce costs some practitioners use one lancet for several pricks in one patient. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this way of performing SPT influences the results. 52 subjects with (39) and without (13) atopy were tested with histamine, codeine and standard allergen extracts. SPT were applied to the volar surface of a randomly assigned forearm using two methods: one lancet-one prick on one forearm (single test method) and one lancet-multiple pricks ("multiple test" method) on the other. The false positive tests at the placebo site following allergen were recorded only in multiple test method, in 41 out of 72 pricks (p < 0.00001) when all reactions above baseline were considered and in 26 out of 72 (p = 0.00001) when a 3 mm cut-off was considered. The size of the false positive reaction depends on the intensity of the reaction to the preceding allergen (rang Spearman factor R = 0.706, p < 0.000001) and decreases in the second consecutive placebo test. Our data show that one lancet for multiple test method cannot be used to diagnose factors responsible for allergy, particularly in patients qualified for immunotherapy and in scientific studies. For financial reasons multiple test method can be used in screening and epidemiological studies where atopy is studied and there is no need to identify the specific allergen. PMID:12053585

  1. [Introduce a new vitro replacement method of skin irritation test].

    PubMed

    Sun, Likui; Hou, Li; Shi, Yanping

    2011-09-01

    A series of new replacement methods of skin irritation test such as EpiSkin, EpiDermSIT (updated) and SkinEthicRHE have been validated by ECVAM. Due to it, animals are protected to the full extent. These provide more methods for biological evaluation of medical devices. PMID:22242390

  2. In vitro and human testing strategies for skin irritation.

    PubMed

    Robinson, M K; Osborne, R; Perkins, M A

    2000-01-01

    Prior to the manufacture, transport, and marketing of chemicals or products, it is critical to assess their potential for skin toxicity (corrosion or irritation), thereby protecting the worker and consumer from adverse skin effects due to intended or accidental skin exposure. Traditionally, animal testing procedures have provided the data needed to assess the more severe forms of skin toxicity, and current regulations may require animal test data before permission can be obtained to manufacture, transport, or market chemicals or the products that contain them. In recent years, the use of animals to assess skin safety has been opposed by some as inhumane and unnecessary. The conflicting needs of the industrial toxicologist to (1) protect human safety, (2) comply with regulations, and (3) reduce animal testing have led to major efforts to develop alternative, yet predictive, test methods. A variety of in vitro skin corrosion test methods have been developed and several have successfully passed initial international validation. These have included skin or epidermal equivalent assays that have been shown to distinguish corrosive from noncorrosive chemicals. These skin/epidermal equivalent assays have also been modified and used to assess skin irritation potential relative to existing human exposure test data. The data show a good correlation between in vitro assay data and different types of human skin irritation data for both chemicals and consumer products. The effort to eliminate animal tests has also led to the development of a novel human patch test for assessment of acute skin irritation potential. A case study shows the benefits of in vitro and human skin irritation tests compared to the animal tests they seek to replace, and strategies now exist to adequately assess human skin irritation potential without the need to rely on animal test methods. PMID:11083109

  3. Point skin tests in allergology: estimation of point skin tests with histamine solutions of different concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuber, Janusz; Kruszewski, Jerzy; Klosowicz, Stanislaw J.; Zmija, Jozef

    1995-08-01

    The application of liquid crystal contact thermography for point skin tests used in allergology diagnostic has been studied. The effect of a concentration of histamine, adopted as the etalon substance, on observed temperature fields is presented. Obtained results have been confirmed by thermovision measurements. A correlation between studied method and visual estimation used until now is the best for temperature range observed as a blue color.

  4. Development of a forensic skin colour predictive test.

    PubMed

    Maroñas, Olalla; Phillips, Chris; Söchtig, Jens; Gomez-Tato, Antonio; Cruz, Raquel; Alvarez-Dios, José; de Cal, María Casares; Ruiz, Yarimar; Fondevila, Manuel; Carracedo, Ángel; Lareu, María V

    2014-11-01

    There is growing interest in skin colour prediction in the forensic field. However, a lack of consensus approaches for recording skin colour phenotype plus the complicating factors of epistatic effects, environmental influences such as exposure to the sun and unidentified genetic variants, present difficulties for the development of a forensic skin colour predictive test centred on the most strongly associated SNPs. Previous studies have analysed skin colour variation in single unadmixed population groups, including South Asians (Stokowski et al., 2007, Am. J. Hum. Genet, 81: 1119-32) and Europeans (Jacobs et al., 2013, Hum Genet. 132: 147-58). Nevertheless, a major challenge lies in the analysis of skin colour in admixed individuals, where co-ancestry proportions do not necessarily dictate any one person's skin colour. Our study sought to analyse genetic differences between African, European and admixed African-European subjects where direct spectrometric measurements and photographs of skin colour were made in parallel. We identified strong associations to skin colour variation in the subjects studied from a pigmentation SNP discovery panel of 59 markers and developed a forensic online classifier based on naïve Bayes analysis of the SNP profiles made. A skin colour predictive test is described using the ten most strongly associated SNPs in 8 genes linked to skin pigmentation variation. PMID:25082135

  5. Skin Testing for Allergic Rhinitis: A Health Technology Assessment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis is the most common type of allergy worldwide. The accuracy of skin testing for allergic rhinitis is still debated. This health technology assessment had two objectives: to determine the diagnostic accuracy of skin-prick and intradermal testing in patients with suspected allergic rhinitis and to estimate the costs to the Ontario health system of skin testing for allergic rhinitis. Methods We searched All Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, CRD Health Technology Assessment Database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and NHS Economic Evaluation Database for studies that evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of skin-prick and intradermal testing for allergic rhinitis using nasal provocation as the reference standard. For the clinical evidence review, data extraction and quality assessment were performed using the QUADAS-2 tool. We used the bivariate random-effects model for meta-analysis. For the economic evidence review, we assessed studies using a modified checklist developed by the (United Kingdom) National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. We estimated the annual cost of skin testing for allergic rhinitis in Ontario for 2015 to 2017 using provincial data on testing volumes and costs. Results We meta-analyzed seven studies with a total of 430 patients that assessed the accuracy of skin-prick testing. The pooled pair of sensitivity and specificity for skin-prick testing was 85% and 77%, respectively. We did not perform a meta-analysis for the diagnostic accuracy of intradermal testing due to the small number of studies (n = 4). Of these, two evaluated the accuracy of intradermal testing in confirming negative skin-prick testing results, with sensitivity ranging from 27% to 50% and specificity ranging from 60% to 100%. The other two studies evaluated the accuracy of intradermal testing as a stand-alone tool for diagnosing allergic rhinitis, with

  6. An in vitro human skin test for assessing sensitization potential.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S S; Wang, X N; Fielding, M; Kerry, A; Dickinson, I; Munuswamy, R; Kimber, I; Dickinson, A M

    2016-05-01

    Sensitization to chemicals resulting in an allergy is an important health issue. The current gold-standard method for identification and characterization of skin-sensitizing chemicals was the mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA). However, for a number of reasons there has been an increasing imperative to develop alternative approaches to hazard identification that do not require the use of animals. Here we describe a human in-vitro skin explant test for identification of sensitization hazards and the assessment of relative skin sensitizing potency. This method measures histological damage in human skin as a readout of the immune response induced by the test material. Using this approach we have measured responses to 44 chemicals including skin sensitizers, pre/pro-haptens, respiratory sensitizers, non-sensitizing chemicals (including skin-irritants) and previously misclassified compounds. Based on comparisons with the LLNA, the skin explant test gave 95% specificity, 95% sensitivity, 95% concordance with a correlation coefficient of 0.9. The same specificity and sensitivity were achieved for comparison of results with published human sensitization data with a correlation coefficient of 0.91. The test also successfully identified nickel sulphate as a human skin sensitizer, which was misclassified as negative in the LLNA. In addition, sensitizers and non-sensitizers identified as positive or negative by the skin explant test have induced high/low T cell proliferation and IFNγ production, respectively. Collectively, the data suggests the human in-vitro skin explant test could provide the basis for a novel approach for characterization of the sensitizing activity as a first step in the risk assessment process. PMID:26251951

  7. Skin testing for allergic diseases: techniques, indications and interpretations.

    PubMed

    Villacorte, G V

    1978-01-01

    Despite significant strides in serologic methodologies, the skin test, when properly done, has remained the single most sensitive and practical assay for specific dermal-bound reaginic antibody. Its value could further be enhanced if and when characterization and standardization of the allergen extracts become a reality. While the technique is simple, the indications and interpretations of allergy skin tests required the expertise of well-trained allergists. A positive skin reaction is no more than a mere supportive laboratory aid in the diagnosis of allergic disease, which is arrived at through a carefully taken detailed history and a meticulously done physical examination. PMID:748833

  8. Reactivity of allergy skin test in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Supakthanasiri, Phisit; Klaewsongkram, Jettanong; Chantaphakul, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Healthy individuals may be exposed and sensitised to allergens, and have a positive response to a skin prick test despite being asymptomatic. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of atopic sensitisation and identify the reactivity of healthy volunteers to common aeroallergens. METHODS Healthy volunteers with no known allergic symptoms were recruited in this study. All volunteers were scheduled to undergo a skin prick test with 16 common aeroallergens that were previously identified among atopic patients. RESULTS A total of 100 volunteers (mean age 28 years) were enrolled in this study. 42 volunteers had positive skin prick tests for at least one allergen. The median number of sensitised allergen was 2 (range 1–7). Volunteers with positive skin tests (n = 42) were younger than those with negative skin tests (n = 58) (mean age 25.5 vs. 29.2 years; p < 0.05). The group with positive skin tests also had a higher proportion of males (57.1% vs. 31.0%; p < 0.01) and first-degree relatives with a history of atopic diseases (31.0% vs. 10.3%; p < 0.05). The most common sensitised allergens in these healthy asymptomatic volunteers were mite (n = 33), house dust (n = 23) and American cockroach (n = 20). CONCLUSION In this study, up to 42% of healthy volunteers, particularly those with a family history of atopy, were sensitised to allergens. Reactivity of the skin test without allergic symptoms, however, does not indicate allergic disease. Therefore, the skin test should only be indicated in atopic symptomatic individuals. PMID:24452975

  9. Early skin and challenge testing after rocuronium anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Schulberg, E M; Webb, A R; Kolawole, H

    2016-05-01

    We present a case of early skin and challenge testing in a patient following severe anaphylaxis to rocuronium. The patient presented for semi-elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy and developed anaphylaxis with severe cardiovascular collapse after induction of anaesthesia. Surgery was cancelled but was considered necessary before the recommended four to six weeks for formal allergy testing. Limited skin and challenge testing was performed to rocuronium and cisatracurium while the patient was in the intensive care unit to identify a safe neuromuscular blocking drug for subsequent early surgery. The subsequent surgery, 48 hours after the initial reaction, was uneventful. The case highlights the difficulties when anaesthetising patients with recent anaphylaxis who have not yet had formal allergy testing and presents a potential management strategy involving early skin testing. PMID:27246945

  10. Estimating Skin Cancer Risk: Evaluating Mobile Computer-Adaptive Testing

    PubMed Central

    Djaja, Ngadiman; Janda, Monika; Olsen, Catherine M; Whiteman, David C

    2016-01-01

    Background Response burden is a major detriment to questionnaire completion rates. Computer adaptive testing may offer advantages over non-adaptive testing, including reduction of numbers of items required for precise measurement. Objective Our aim was to compare the efficiency of non-adaptive (NAT) and computer adaptive testing (CAT) facilitated by Partial Credit Model (PCM)-derived calibration to estimate skin cancer risk. Methods We used a random sample from a population-based Australian cohort study of skin cancer risk (N=43,794). All 30 items of the skin cancer risk scale were calibrated with the Rasch PCM. A total of 1000 cases generated following a normal distribution (mean [SD] 0 [1]) were simulated using three Rasch models with three fixed-item (dichotomous, rating scale, and partial credit) scenarios, respectively. We calculated the comparative efficiency and precision of CAT and NAT (shortening of questionnaire length and the count difference number ratio less than 5% using independent t tests). Results We found that use of CAT led to smaller person standard error of the estimated measure than NAT, with substantially higher efficiency but no loss of precision, reducing response burden by 48%, 66%, and 66% for dichotomous, Rating Scale Model, and PCM models, respectively. Conclusions CAT-based administrations of the skin cancer risk scale could substantially reduce participant burden without compromising measurement precision. A mobile computer adaptive test was developed to help people efficiently assess their skin cancer risk. PMID:26800642

  11. Artificial microfluidic skin for in vitro perspiration simulation and testing.

    PubMed

    Hou, Linlin; Hagen, Joshua; Wang, Xiao; Papautsky, Ian; Naik, Rajesh; Kelley-Loughnane, Nancy; Heikenfeld, Jason

    2013-05-21

    To expedite development of any skin wearable material, product, or device, an artificial perspiration (sweat) simulator can provide improved ease, cost, control, flexibility, and reproducibility in comparison to human or animal tests. Reported here is a human perspiration mimicking device including microreplicated skin-texture. A bottom 0.2 μm track etched polycarbonate membrane layer provides flow-rate control while a top photo-curable layer provides skin-like features such as sweat pore density, hydrophobicity, and wetting hysteresis. Key capabilities of this sweat simulator include: constant 'sweat' rate density without bubble-point variation even down to ~1 L h(-1) m(-2); replication of the 2 pores mm(-2) pore-density and the ~50 μm texture of human skin; simple gravity-fed flow control; low-cost and disposable construction. PMID:23576120

  12. Reliability of skin testing as a measure of nutritional state

    SciTech Connect

    Forse, R.A.; Christou, N.; Meakins, J.L.; MacLean, L.D.; Shizgal, H.M.

    1981-10-01

    The reliability of skin testing to assess the nutritional state was evaluated in 257 patients who received total parenteral nutrition (TPN). The nutritional state was assessed by determining body composition, by multiple-isotope dilution. Immunocompetence was simultaneously evaluated by skin testing with five recall antigens. These measurements were carried out before and at two-week intervals during TPN. A statistically significant relationship existed between the response to skin testing and the nutritional state. A body composition consistent with malnutrition was present in the anergic patients, while body composition was normal in the patients who reacted normally to skin testing. However, a considerable overlap existed as 43% of the reactive patients were malnourished, and 21% of the anergic patients were normally nourished. Thirty-seven (43%) of the 86 anergic patients converted and became reactive during TPN, and their body composition improved significantly. The remaining 49 anergic patients (57%) did not convert, and their body composition did not change despite similar nutritional support. The principal difference between the two groups of anergic patients was the nature of the therapy administered. In the anergic patients who converted, therapy was aggressive and appropriate, and clinical improvement occurred in 23 (62.2%) of the patients, with a mortality of 5.4%. In the 49 patients who remained anergic, therapy was often inappropriate or unsuccessful, with clinical improvement in only three (6.1%) of the patients and a mortality of 42.8%. The data demonstrated a significant relationship between the response to skin testing and the nutritional state. However, because of the wide overlap, skin testing does not accurately assess a person's nutritional state. The persistence of the anergic state is indicative of a lack of response to therapy.

  13. Improved wheal detection from skin prick test images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulan, Orhan

    2014-03-01

    Skin prick test is a commonly used method for diagnosis of allergic diseases (e.g., pollen allergy, food allergy, etc.) in allergy clinics. The results of this test are erythema and wheal provoked on the skin where the test is applied. The sensitivity of the patient against a specific allergen is determined by the physical size of the wheal, which can be estimated from images captured by digital cameras. Accurate wheal detection from these images is an important step for precise estimation of wheal size. In this paper, we propose a method for improved wheal detection on prick test images captured by digital cameras. Our method operates by first localizing the test region by detecting calibration marks drawn on the skin. The luminance variation across the localized region is eliminated by applying a color transformation from RGB to YCbCr and discarding the luminance channel. We enhance the contrast of the captured images for the purpose of wheal detection by performing principal component analysis on the blue-difference (Cb) and red-difference (Cr) color channels. We finally, perform morphological operations on the contrast enhanced image to detect the wheal on the image plane. Our experiments performed on images acquired from 36 different patients show the efficiency of the proposed method for wheal detection from skin prick test images captured in an uncontrolled environment.

  14. Non-animal test methods for predicting skin sensitization potentials.

    PubMed

    Mehling, Annette; Eriksson, Tove; Eltze, Tobias; Kolle, Susanne; Ramirez, Tzutzuy; Teubner, Wera; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2012-08-01

    Contact allergies are complex diseases, and it is estimated that 15-20 % of the general population suffers from contact allergy, with increasing prevalence. Evaluation of the sensitization potential of a substance is usually carried out in animal models. Nowadays, there is much interest in reducing and ultimately replacing current animal tests. Furthermore, as of 2013, the EU has posed a ban on animal testing of cosmetic ingredients that includes skin sensitization. Therefore, predictive and robust in vitro tests are urgently needed. In order to establish alternatives to animal testing, the in vitro tests must mimic the very complex interactions between the sensitizing chemical and the different parts of the immune system. This review article summarizes recent efforts to develop in vitro tests for predicting skin sensitizers. Cell-based assays, in chemico methods and, to a lesser extent, in silico methods are presented together with a discussion of their current status. With considerable progress having been achieved during the last years, the rationale today is that data from different non-animal test methods will have to be combined in order to obtain reliable hazard and potency information on potential skin sensitizers. PMID:22707154

  15. Functional testing of topical skin formulations using an optimised ex vivo skin organ culture model.

    PubMed

    Sidgwick, G P; McGeorge, D; Bayat, A

    2016-07-01

    A number of equivalent-skin models are available for investigation of the ex vivo effect of topical application of drugs and cosmaceuticals onto skin, however many have their drawbacks. With the March 2013 ban on animal models for cosmetic testing of products or ingredients for sale in the EU, their utility for testing toxicity and effect on skin becomes more relevant. The aim of this study was to demonstrate proof of principle that altered expression of key gene and protein markers could be quantified in an optimised whole tissue biopsy culture model. Topical formulations containing green tea catechins (GTC) were investigated in a skin biopsy culture model (n = 11). Punch biopsies were harvested at 3, 7 and 10 days, and analysed using qRT-PCR, histology and HPLC to determine gene and protein expression, and transdermal delivery of compounds of interest. Reduced gene expression of α-SMA, fibronectin, mast cell tryptase, mast cell chymase, TGF-β1, CTGF and PAI-1 was observed after 7 and 10 days compared with treated controls (p < 0.05). Histological analysis indicated a reduction in mast cell tryptase and chymase positive cell numbers in treated biopsies compared with untreated controls at day 7 and day 10 (p < 0.05). Determination of transdermal uptake indicated that GTCs were detected in the biopsies. This model could be adapted to study a range of different topical formulations in both normal and diseased skin, negating the requirement for animal models in this context, prior to study in a clinical trial environment. PMID:27086034

  16. Pumpless microfluidic platform for drug testing on human skin equivalents.

    PubMed

    Abaci, Hasan Erbil; Gledhill, Karl; Guo, Zongyou; Christiano, Angela M; Shuler, Michael L

    2015-02-01

    Advances in bio-mimetic in vitro human skin models increase the efficiency of drug screening studies. In this study, we designed and developed a microfluidic platform that allows for long-term maintenance of full thickness human skin equivalents (HSE) which are comprised of both the epidermal and dermal compartments. The design is based on the physiologically relevant blood residence times in human skin tissue and allows for the establishment of an air-epidermal interface which is crucial for maturation and terminal differentiation of HSEs. The small scale of the design reduces the amount of culture medium and the number of cells required by 36 fold compared to conventional transwell cultures. Our HSE-on-a-chip platform has the capability to recirculate the medium at desired flow rates without the need for pump or external tube connections. We demonstrate that the platform can be used to maintain HSEs for three weeks with proliferating keratinocytes similar to conventional HSE cultures. Immunohistochemistry analyses show that the differentiation and localization of keratinocytes was successfully achieved, establishing all sub-layers of the epidermis after one week. Basal keratinocytes located at the epidermal-dermal interface remain in a proliferative state for three weeks. We use a transdermal transport model to show that the skin barrier function is maintained for three weeks. We also validate the capability of the HSE-on-a-chip platform to be used for drug testing purposes by examining the toxic effects of doxorubucin on skin cells and structure. Overall, the HSE-on-a-chip is a user-friendly and cost-effective in vitro platform for drug testing of candidate molecules for skin disorders. PMID:25490891

  17. Montenegro skin test and age of skin lesion as predictors of treatment failure in cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Antonio, Liliane de Fátima; Fagundes, Aline; Oliveira, Raquel Vasconcellos Carvalhaes; Pinto, Priscila Garcia; Bedoya-Pacheco, Sandro Javier; Vasconcellos, Erica de Camargo Ferreira e; Valete-Rosalino, Maria Cláudia; Lyra, Marcelo Rosandiski; Passos, Sônia Regina Lambert; Pimentel, Maria Inês Fernandes; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted to examine the association among the Montenegro skin test (MST), age of skin lesion and therapeutic response in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) treated at Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases (INI), Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. For each treatment failure (case), two controls showing skin lesion healing following treatment, paired by sex and age, were randomly selected. All patients were treated with 5 mg Sb(5+)/kg/day of intramuscular meglumine antimoniate (Sb(5+)) for 30 successive days. Patients with CL were approximately five times more likely to fail when lesions were less than two months old at the first appointment. Patients with treatment failure showed less intense MST reactions than patients progressing to clinical cure. For each 10 mm of increase in MST response, there was a 26% reduction in the chance of treatment failure. An early treatment - defined as a treatment applied for skin lesions, which starts when they are less than two months old at the first appointment -, as well as a poor cellular immune response, reflected by lower reactivity in MST, were associated with treatment failure in cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:25229216

  18. MONTENEGRO SKIN TEST AND AGE OF SKIN LESION AS PREDICTORS OF TREATMENT FAILURE IN CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS

    PubMed Central

    Antonio, Liliane de Fátima; Fagundes, Aline; Oliveira, Raquel Vasconcellos Carvalhaes; Pinto, Priscila Garcia; Bedoya-Pacheco, Sandro Javier; Vasconcellos, Érica de Camargo Ferreira e; Valete-Rosalino, Maria Cláudia; Lyra, Marcelo Rosandiski; Passos, Sônia Regina Lambert; Pimentel, Maria Inês Fernandes; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted to examine the association among the Montenegro skin test (MST), age of skin lesion and therapeutic response in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) treated at Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases (INI), Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. For each treatment failure (case), two controls showing skin lesion healing following treatment, paired by sex and age, were randomly selected. All patients were treated with 5 mg Sb5+/kg/day of intramuscular meglumine antimoniate (Sb5+) for 30 successive days. Patients with CL were approximately five times more likely to fail when lesions were less than two months old at the first appointment. Patients with treatment failure showed less intense MST reactions than patients progressing to clinical cure. For each 10 mm of increase in MST response, there was a 26% reduction in the chance of treatment failure. An early treatment - defined as a treatment applied for skin lesions, which starts when they are less than two months old at the first appointment -, as well as a poor cellular immune response, reflected by lower reactivity in MST, were associated with treatment failure in cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:25229216

  19. Validation of artificial skin equivalents as in vitro testing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Robert; Marx, Ulrich; Walles, Heike; Schober, Lena

    2011-03-01

    With the increasing complexity of the chemical composition of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and everyday substances, the awareness of potential health issues and long term damages for humanoid organs is shifting into focus. Artificial in vitro testing systems play an important role in providing reliable test conditions and replacing precarious animal testing. Especially artificial skin equivalents ASEs are used for a broad spectrum of studies like penetration, irritation and corrosion of substances. One major challenge in tissue engineering is the qualification of each individual ASE as in vitro testing system. Due to biological fluctuations, the stratum corneum hornified layer of some ASEs may not fully develop or other defects might occur. For monitoring these effects we developed an fully automated Optical Coherence Tomography device. Here, we present different methods to characterize and evaluate the quality of the ASEs based on image and data processing of OCT B-scans. By analysing the surface structure, defects, like cuts or tears, are detectable. A further indicator for the quality of the ASE is the morphology of the tissue. This allows to determine if the skin model has reached the final growth state. We found, that OCT is a well suited technology for automatically characterizing artificial skin equivalents and validating the application as testing system.

  20. Allergen skin test reactivities among asthmatic Thai children.

    PubMed

    Kongpanichkul, A; Vichyanond, P; Tuchinda, M

    1997-02-01

    Skin prick tests with 14 selected local aeroallergens were performed on 100 asthmatic children aged 0-16 years attending the Pediatric Allergy Clinic, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital. The 14 allergens included Dermatophagoides farinae, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, American cockroach (Periplaneta americana), Johnson grass (Sorghum halopense), Cladosporium clarosporoides, Alternaria tenuis, Penicillium mix, Aspergillus mix, cat dander, dog dander, milk, egg white, soy and shrimp. Positive skin test reactivity was defined as a mean wheal diameter > or = 3 mm at the 20 minute reading. There were 68 males and 32 females. Their ages were between 0-2 years (n = 1), 2-5 years (n = 19), 5-10 years (n = 49) and 10-16 years (n = 31). Of all the subjects, 22 were classified as having mild asthma, 74 with moderate asthma and 4 with severe asthma. At least one skin prick test was positive in 74 subjects (74%) and two positive tests in 66 subjects (66%). The prevalence of sensitization to various allergens was as follows; Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus 67%, Dermatophagoides farinae 62%, American cockroach 44%, shrimp 14%, Johnson grass 14%, cat dander 10%, Alternaria 7%, Cladosporium 7%, dog dander 5%, soy 4%, Penicillium 3%, Aspergillus 2%, milk 2% and egg white 1%. The wheal size to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus did not correlate with age. In this group of asthmatic Thai children, house dust mites are the most important allergen causing sensitization. PMID:9078689

  1. Allergic skin test reactivity to marijuana in the Southwest.

    PubMed

    Freeman, G L

    1983-06-01

    In a general allergy consultation practice in Arizona and western New Mexico, 129 patients were tested for immediate hypersensitivity skin test reactivity to marijuana pollen and tobacco leaf, as well as to a battery of other antigens. In all, 90 patients were diagnosed as allergic (atopic) and, of these, 63 (70 percent) were found to be skin test reactive to marijuana pollen and 18 (20 percent) to tobacco leaf. The incidence of skin test reactivity to marijuana was not significantly different for persons living at low, middle or high elevations throughout the Southwest. Marijuana sensitivity occurred in patients who were, in general, also sensitive to a variety of other airborne plant pollens. There was no close correlation, however, between sensitivity to marijuana pollen and sensitivity to pollens from elm, mulberry, hop and stinging nettle, which are botanically related to marijuana. The data suggest that marijuana pollen may be a relatively common airborne pollen pollutant in the Southwest, allergic persons being sensitized through inhalation. If this is confirmed by further studies, then clinical investigation of marijuana hyposensitization (immunotherapy) may be warranted. This is in contrast to tobacco allergy for which simple avoidance is recommended. PMID:6613109

  2. Allergic Skin Test Reactivity to Marijuana in the Southwest

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Geraldine L.

    1983-01-01

    In a general allergy consultation practice in Arizona and western New Mexico, 129 patients were tested for immediate hypersensitivity skin test reactivity to marijuana pollen and tobacco leaf, as well as to a battery of other antigens. In all, 90 patients were diagnosed as allergic (atopic) and, of these, 63 (70 percent) were found to be skin test reactive to marijuana pollen and 18 (20 percent) to tobacco leaf. The incidence of skin test reactivity to marijuana was not significantly different for persons living at low, middle or high elevations throughout the Southwest. Marijuana sensitivity occurred in patients who were, in general, also sensitive to a variety of other airborne plant pollens. There was no close correlation, however, between sensitivity to marijuana pollen and sensitivity to pollens from elm, mulberry, hop and stinging nettle, which are botanically related to marijuana. The data suggest that marijuana pollen may be a relatively common airborne pollen pollutant in the Southwest, allergic persons being sensitized through inhalation. If this is confirmed by further studies, then clinical investigation of marijuana hyposensitization (immunotherapy) may be warranted. This is in contrast to tobacco allergy for which simple avoidance is recommended. PMID:6613109

  3. Skin prick testing in patients using beta-blockers: a retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Rationale The use of beta-blockers is a relative contraindication in allergen skin testing yet there is a paucity of literature on adverse events in this circumstance. We examined a population of skin tested patients on beta-blockers to look for any adverse effects. Methods Charts from 2004-2008 in a single allergy clinic were reviewed for any patients taking a beta-blocker when skin tested. Data was examined for skin test reactivity, type of skin test, concomitant asthma diagnosis, allergens tested, and adverse events. Results One hundred and ninety-one patients were taking beta-blockers when skin testing occurred. Seventy-two patients had positive skin tests. No tests resulted in an adverse event. Conclusions This data demonstrates the relative safety of administrating of skin prick tests to patients on beta-blocker treatment. Larger prospective studies are needed to substantiate the findings of this study. PMID:20298514

  4. Allergy to aminophylline: lack of predictability by skin testing.

    PubMed

    Kradjan, W A; Lakshminarayan, S

    1981-07-01

    Problems with determining hypersensitivity to aminophylline, ethylenediamine, and theophylline with intradermal skin tests and patch tests are reported in three patients. Three patients were tested with intradermal injections of 0.9% sodium chloride, 1% aminophylline, 1% ethylenediamine, and 0.5% theophylline following apparent allergic reactions to aminophylline. Patch testing using hydrophilic ointment base, 1% aminophylline, 1% ethylenediamine, and 0.5% theophylline was also done. All three patients had no reaction to intradermal sodium chloride or theophylline; all patch tests were negative. The first patient reacted to ethylenediamine strongly and to aminophylline more weakly; punch biopsy of the ethylenediamine reaction site showed a direct toxic effect with no allergic component. Punch biopsy of the aminophylline site showed a typical hypersensitivity reaction. Two concentrations (0.5% and 1.0%) of ethylenediamine injection were used to test the second patient, and he reacted to both concentrations but not to any other injections. His positive reactions contained blisters rather than the typical wheal-and-flare reaction of hypersensitivity. The third patient had similar responses including reactions to 0.5% and 0.1% ethylenediamine (he was not tested with 1% ethylenediamine). Skin testing may be of value in predicting aminophylline or ethylenediamine allergy, but the nonspecific toxic effect of ethylenediamine makes interpretation difficult. PMID:7258203

  5. A diagnostic skin test for Onchocerca volvulus infection.

    PubMed

    Ngu, J L; Ndumbe, P M; Titanji, V; Leke, R

    1981-09-01

    Onchocerca supernatant (OS) was prepared by a technique permitting live microfilariae to migrate from nodule tissue through agar gel into sterile Hanks balanced salt/Penicillin-Streptomycin solution where they metabolized. The OS, after dialysis, was passed through Seitz viral filter and either concentrated or lyophilized. Using rabbit antiserum in immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis tests, microfilariae proteins and also human protein were detected in out OS. No common antigens were found between this and somatic extracts of Loa loa, O. gutturosa, O. volvulus, L. carinii, D. immittis and A. lumbricoides. 125I labelled OS was purified by passage through protein A column and then through immunosorbent column of horse anti-human serum linked to CNB-activated sepharose 4B. Autoradiography, after sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacylamide slab gel eletrophoresis of purified OS, showed 10 protein bands in the molecular range 10,000 to 125,000. Skin prick tests with OS, shown not to be contaminated with Hepatitis B antigens, elicited immediate hypersensitivity reaction. Using our criteria, positive reactions were seen in 81% of proven onchocerca cases and only occasionally in Loasis 4.5%, ascaridiasis 13.5% or healthy controls 2.4%. The poor skin reactivity to OS in loasis was not due to immunosuppression as these patients, when also infested with ascaris, reacted just as well as onchocerca patients with ascaris to skin prick test using somatic extracts of ascaris. PMID:6808726

  6. Diagnostic performance of the "MESACUP anti-Skin profile TEST".

    PubMed

    Horváth, Orsolya N; Varga, Rita; Kaneda, Makoto; Schmidt, Enno; Ruzicka, Thomas; Sárdy, Miklós

    2016-02-01

    The "MESACUP anti-Skin profile TEST" is a new, commercially available ELISA kit to detect circulating IgG autoantibodies against desmoglein 1, desmoglein 3, BP180, BP230, and type VII collagen, both simultaneously and more rapidly than previous assays. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of this kit for the diagnosis of pemphigus foliaceus, pemphigus vulgaris, bullous pemphigoid and epidermolysis bullosa acquisita. Dual-centre retrospective study in which 138 patients with autoimmune blistering diseases were compared to 40 controls Using the MESACUP anti-Skin profile TEST, both sensitivities and specificities for desmoglein 1, desmoglein 3, BP180, BP230, and type VII collagen autoantibodies were similar to those obtained using previous, specific ELISA systems and 88% of the results were concordant without any significant difference. The MESACUP anti-Skin profile TEST had a similar performance to previously produced ELISA systems. The novel kit can be used for rapid diagnosis of most common autoimmune blistering diseases and is especially suitable for identifying overlapping disorders. PMID:26771500

  7. Oral Toxicity Study and Skin Sensitization Test of a Cricket.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hyeon Yeol; Lee, Somin; Ahn, Kyu Sup; Kim, Hye Jin; Lee, Sang Sik; Ko, Hyuk Ju; Lee, Jin Kyu; Cho, Myung-Haing; Ahn, Mi Young; Kim, Eun Mi; Lim, Jeong Ho; Song, Kyung Seuk

    2016-04-01

    Crickets have been attracting considerable interest in the field of nutrition and toxicology due to the global exhaustion of food resulting from a growing population. The cricket is normally eaten in several countries after roasting, similar to the grasshopper; however, safety evaluation data on cricket powder is limited. Here, we performed general toxicity studies of cricket powder including a single, 2-week repeated dose range evaluation test, a 13-week repeated oral dose toxicity test in Sprague-Dawley rats, a single oral dose toxicity test in Beagle dogs, and a skin sensitization test in guinea pigs following the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development test guidelines 406 and 408 in addition to Good Laboratory Practice. To investigate the NOAEL and target organs of cricket powder, Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to 4 groups: vehicle control, 1,250 mg/kg, 2,500 mg/kg, 5,000 mg/kg dose test groups and cricket powder was administered over 13 weeks after single dose and dose range finding studies in rats based on the results of the single oral administration toxicity study in rats and Beagle dogs. The results of the study showed that the NOAEL of cricket powder was over 5,000 mg/kg for both sexes of rats without adverse effects in a 13-week repeated oral toxicity study and there was no skin hypersensitivity reaction. Therefore, our results reveal that crickets can be widely used as a new substitute food or nutrient resource. PMID:27123167

  8. Oral Toxicity Study and Skin Sensitization Test of a Cricket

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Hyeon Yeol; Lee, Somin; Ahn, Kyu Sup; Kim, Hye Jin; Lee, Sang Sik; Ko, Hyuk Ju; Lee, Jin Kyu; Cho, Myung-Haing; Ahn, Mi Young; Kim, Eun Mi; Lim, Jeong Ho; Song, Kyung Seuk

    2016-01-01

    Crickets have been attracting considerable interest in the field of nutrition and toxicology due to the global exhaustion of food resulting from a growing population. The cricket is normally eaten in several countries after roasting, similar to the grasshopper; however, safety evaluation data on cricket powder is limited. Here, we performed general toxicity studies of cricket powder including a single, 2-week repeated dose range evaluation test, a 13-week repeated oral dose toxicity test in Sprague-Dawley rats, a single oral dose toxicity test in Beagle dogs, and a skin sensitization test in guinea pigs following the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development test guidelines 406 and 408 in addition to Good Laboratory Practice. To investigate the NOAEL and target organs of cricket powder, Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to 4 groups: vehicle control, 1,250 mg/kg, 2,500 mg/kg, 5,000 mg/kg dose test groups and cricket powder was administered over 13 weeks after single dose and dose range finding studies in rats based on the results of the single oral administration toxicity study in rats and Beagle dogs. The results of the study showed that the NOAEL of cricket powder was over 5,000 mg/kg for both sexes of rats without adverse effects in a 13-week repeated oral toxicity study and there was no skin hypersensitivity reaction. Therefore, our results reveal that crickets can be widely used as a new substitute food or nutrient resource. PMID:27123167

  9. Apparatus for testing skin samples or the like

    DOEpatents

    Holland, J.M.

    1982-08-31

    An apparatus for testing the permeability of living skin samples has a flat base with a plurality of sample-holding cavities formed in its upper surface, the samples being placed in counterbores in the cavities with the epidermis uppermost. O-rings of Teflon washers are respectively placed on the samples and a flat cover is connected to the base to press the rings against the upper surfaces of the samples. Media to maintain tissue viability and recovery of metabolites is introduced into the lower portion of the sample-holding cavities through passages in the base. Test materials are introduced through holes in the cover plate after assembly of the chamber.

  10. Anaphylaxis to muscle relaxants: rational for skin tests.

    PubMed

    Moneret-Vautrin, D A; Kanny, G

    2002-09-01

    IgE-dependent allergy to muscle relaxants (MR) has an estimated prevalence of 1 out of 6500 General Anesthesias (GA). 62% of anaphylaxis during surgery are due to MR anaphylaxis. All the molecules are divalent, carrying two NH4+ epitopes (quaternary ammonium ions), either structurally or after rapid in vivo protonization (vecuronium). The excellent overall performance of skin test makes them the golden standard for the diagnosis of anaphylactoid reactions. Techniques include intradermal tests and prick-tests. The current localizations are the forearm and the back. Positivity criteria are 3 mm for prick-tests. For IDTs, the criterium is the doubling of the size of the injection papula, when 0.02 to 0.04 ml is injected: 8 mm. The recommended concentrations are not falsely negative. Commercial concentrations can be tested by prick tests, except for mivacurium and atracurium tested of 1:10 dilution. A scale of concentrations is advised for IDT starting with 1:10,000, up to a normally non reactive concentration that is: 100 micrograms/ml (succinylcholine), 200 micrograms/ml (gallamine), 10 micrograms/ml (atracurium), 2 micrograms/ml (mivacurium), 200 micrograms/ml (pancuronium), 400 micrograms/ml (vecuronium), 1,000 micrograms/ml (rocuronium), 200 micrograms/ml (cis atracurium). The specificity and sensitivity of the skin tests to MRs are greater than 95%. The reproducibility over years is 88%. The overall concordance of PT and IDR is 97%. Both types of tests can be used for the diagnosis. IDT have to be carried out for the search of the cross sensitization. 84% of patients do have cross sensitization to MRs but only 16% react to all MRs. The further use of MRs selected by negative IDTs has been proved to be safe. PMID:12389445

  11. Pharmacy-based skin-testing program in a community hospital.

    PubMed

    Clyne, K E; Ternes, R L

    1996-09-01

    The establishment of a pharmacy-based skin-testing program at a community hospital is described. Problems with existing skin testing were brought to the attention of the pharmacy and therapeutics committee, which decided that one group of caregivers within the hospital should be chosen and trained to perform skin testing. A problem-solving team identified specific problems and developed solutions. The top four causes of the skin-testing problems were failure to follow procedure, inaccurate reading of tests, failure to report positive results, and failure to document results. Groups within the hospital who might perform skin testing were assessed according to several criteria; the pharmacy staff was selected because of ease of notification, availability, and ability to conduct follow-through (reading, documenting, and reporting results). Other improvements were step-by-step instructions for all phases of skin testing, a portable skin-test supply kit, and a skin-test record form to be placed in the physician progress notes. Pharmacists were trained by the employee health nurse. Pharmacist skin testing began in March 1995. Pharmacists administered tests to 93 inpatients and about 250 employees during the first 13 months of the program, and no problems were reported. Establishment of a pharmacy-based skin-testing program improved the quality of inpatient skin testing and enabled pharmacists to increase their role in patient care. PMID:8870893

  12. Decreased Serum Epinephrine in Children With Positive Skin Prick Test

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seok-Chan; Suh, Jeffrey D.; Chung, Sochung; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Choi, Ji Ho; Oh, Jeong In; Kim, In-Tae; Kim, Jin Kook

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the association between catecholamine levels and skin prick test results among children. Methods Two hundred eight first grade children from one elementary school were invited to participate in this study. Skin prick test (SPT) for six allergens (2 house dust mites, cat, dog, mugwort, and pollen mixture) was performed, and patient demographic information was recorded. The parents were surveyed using questionnaires about rhinitis-related symptoms. Finally, venous blood sampling was done to measure catecholamine levels (epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine) by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results Out of 208 children, 174 (106 boys and 68 girls) enrolled in this study. Ninety-six of the children (55%) had negative SPT (nonsensitization group), while 78 (45%) had a positive SPT to at least one of six allergens (sensitization group). The diagnosis of chronic rhinitis was more prevalent in the sensitization group (35.9%) than nonsensitization group (26.0%), however the finding was not significant (P=0.186). Epinephrine levels were decreased between the sensitization group compared to the nonsensitization group (P=0.004). There was no difference in norepinephrine and dopamine levels (P>0.05). Conclusion Epinephrine levels are lower in children with positive SPT compared to controls, however, the level of the catecholamine was not associated with the presence or absence of rhinitis symptoms. PMID:26622958

  13. 78 FR 68076 - Request for Information on Alternative Skin Sensitization Test Methods and Testing Strategies and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ...The Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) is developing a U.S. plan for the evaluation of alternative skin sensitization test methods and testing strategies. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM) requests information that ICCVAM might use to develop this plan and......

  14. Freeze-drying as a preserving preparation technique for in vitro testing of human skin.

    PubMed

    Franzen, Lutz; Vidlářová, Lucie; Kostka, Karl-Heinz; Schaefer, Ulrich F; Windbergs, Maike

    2013-01-01

    In vitro testing of drugs with excised human skin is a valuable prerequisite for clinical studies. However, the analysis of excised human skin presents several obstacles. Ongoing drug diffusion, microbial growth and changes in hydration state influence the results of drug penetration studies. In this work, we evaluate freeze-drying as a preserving preparation method for skin samples to overcome these obstacles. We analyse excised human skin before and after freeze-drying and compare these results with human skin in vivo. Based on comprehensive thermal and spectroscopic analysis, we demonstrate comparability to in vivo conditions and exclude significant changes within the skin samples due to freeze-drying. Furthermore, we show that freeze-drying after skin incubation with drugs prevents growth of drug crystals on the skin surface due to drying effects. In conclusion, we introduce freeze-drying as a preserving preparation technique for in vitro testing of human skin. PMID:23278895

  15. An integrated testing strategy for in vitro skin corrosion and irritation assessment using SkinEthic™ Reconstructed Human Epidermis.

    PubMed

    Alépée, Nathalie; Grandidier, Marie-Hélène; Tornier, Carine; Cotovio, José

    2015-10-01

    The SkinEthic™ Reconstructed Human Epidermis (RHE) method has been formally adopted for the regulatory assessment of skin irritation (OECD TG 439) and corrosion (OECD TG 431). Recently, the OECD adopted an Integrated Approach on Testing and Assessment (IATA) for skin corrosion and skin irritation (OECD GD 203), which provides guidance on the integration of existing and new information in a modular approach for classification and labelling. The present study aimed to evaluate the use of the SkinEthic™ RHE model within the proposed OECD IATA. Data on 86 substances were integrated in a bottom-up and top-down testing strategy to assess their capacity for EU CLP and UN GHS classifications. For EU CLP, strategies showed an accuracy of 84.8% to discriminate non-classified from classified substances, 94.4% to discriminate corrosive from non-corrosive substances, and 68.5% to discriminate the four (sub)-categories. For UN GHS, strategies showed an accuracy of 89.5% to discriminate non-classified from classified substances, 93.4% to discriminate corrosive from non-corrosive substances, and 74.2% to discriminate four GHS (sub)-categories (excluding Category 3). In conclusion, the integration of SkinEthic™ RHE irritation and corrosion data in a bottom-up and top-down testing strategy allows the classification of substances according to EU CLP and UN GHS. PMID:26187475

  16. Prospective multicentre study of the U-SENS test method for skin sensitization testing.

    PubMed

    Alépée, N; Piroird, C; Aujoulat, M; Dreyfuss, S; Hoffmann, S; Hohenstein, A; Meloni, M; Nardelli, L; Gerbeix, C; Cotovio, J

    2015-12-25

    The U-SENS™ is a test method based on the human myeloid U937 cell line to assess the skin sensitisation potential of substances. To demonstrate its robustness, a multicentre validation study with four laboratories testing 24 coded substances has been conducted according to internationally agreed principles. The primary objective of the study was to enlarge the U-SENS™'s reproducibility database. Secondary objectives were to provide additional evidence on its transferability and its predictive capability. Reproducibility within laboratories was approximately 92%, while the reproducibility between laboratories was 87.5%. Predictivity for the 24 validation substances was high, with sensitivity, specificity and accuracy being on average at least 93.8%. Similar performances are obtained for 38 substances when combining the study results with those of an earlier multicentre study, as well as with an automated version of the U-SENS™. With reliability and relevance similar to comparable non-animal skin sensitisation test methods, which have achieved regulatory acceptance, it is concluded that the U-SENS™ is a well reproducible and predictive test method. This profiles the U-SENS™ as a valuable addition to the suite of non-animal testing methods for skin sensitisation with the potential to significantly contribute to the development of integrated testing strategies. PMID:26439184

  17. Skin testing and erythrocyte sedimentation rate in women undergoing breast biopsy.

    PubMed

    Lane, R; Ungerer, J; Bernene, J; Askenase, P

    The purpose of this study was to determine the utility of skin testing and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) as measures of immune function in a population undergoing stress. Eight women were tested one week prior to breast biopsy and six were retested at least four weeks later. All biopsies were negative for malignancy. Control subjects were also tested four weeks apart. ESR values were elevated with stress but the magnitude of this effect was small. There were no differences between groups in skin test responses. Skin testing and ESR may have limited usefulness in the study of immune function in populations under stress. PMID:6885263

  18. The usefulness of the validated SkinEthic™ RHE test method to identify skin corrosive UN GHS subcategories.

    PubMed

    Alépée, Nathalie; Robert, Clément; Tornier, Carine; Cotovio, José

    2014-06-01

    The SkinEthic™ Reconstructed Human Epidermis (RHE) test method has been adopted within the context of OECD TG 431 for distinguishing corrosive and non-corrosive chemicals. The EU CLP classification system requires subcategorising of corrosive chemicals into the three UN GHS subcategories 1A, 1B and 1C. Since the SkinEthic™ RHE method was originally validated to discriminate corrosives from non-corrosives, the present study was undertaken to investigate its usefulness to discriminate skin corrosive UN GHS subcategories. In total 84 substances were tested in three independent runs and two prediction models (PM) were assessed, representing a pre-defined validated prediction model (PM-A) and an alternative one defined post-hoc (PM-B). The results obtained with both PM were reproducible, as shown by the ⩾92.9% concordance of classification between runs for discriminating corrosives versus non-corrosives, and the ⩾85% concordance for discriminating the GHS subcategories versus non-corrosives. Moreover results confirmed a high sensitivity of the SkinEthic™ RHE method to predict corrosives (94.9%) and good specificity (⩾73.7%) independent of the PM applied. Regarding the identification of UN GHS corrosive subcategories, PM-A resulted in 86.1% correct classifications of the GHS subcategory 1A. When using the PM-B, the identification of GHS subcategory 1B-and-1C substances improved, with 63.4% correct sub-categorisation. If considering the 30 reference chemicals as recommended in the recently revised OECD TG 431 (2013), PM-A and PM-B achieved 78.9% and 83.3% accuracy respectively for the identification of GHS subcategories and non-corrosives. They correctly predicted 90% of GHS subcategory 1A and 80% of GHS non-corrosive substances independent of the PM used. In conclusion, the SkinEthic™ RHE test method is highly reproducible and sensitive for discriminating corrosive from non-corrosive substances. Furthermore it allows reliable identification of skin

  19. An analysis of skin prick test reactions in 656 asthmatic patients.

    PubMed

    Hendrick, D J; Davies, R J; D'Souza, M F; Pepys, J

    1975-02-01

    Of 656 asthmatic patients referred specifically for allergy assessments, 544 (84 percent) gave positive immediate skin prick tests to at least one of 22 common allergens used routinely. Comparison of these skin test positive patients with the 102 (16 percent) who were skin test negative showed a number of significant differences. The majority of the skin test positive patients (52 percent) were less than 10 years old at the time of onset of the asthma, whereas, of the skin test negative patients, 56 percent were aged over 30 years at the time of onset. Seventy per cent report rhinitis compared with 48 per cent of the skin test negative patients, and 29 per cent reported infantile eczema compared with 9 per cent. Symptoms attributed to house dust, pollens, and animals were noted two to three times more frequently by the skin test positive patients, while corticosteroid drugs had been used more commonly by the skin test negative patients (45 percent compared with 35 percent). No significant differences were observed with the other factors studied, namely, history of urticaria or angio-oedema, family history of "allergic" disease, and awareness of sensitivity to foods, aspirin or penicillin. Prick test reactions in the skin test positive patients were most commonly seen to house dust or the acarine mite, Dermatophagoides farinae (82 percent), followed by pollens (66 percent), animal danders (38 percent), foods (16 percent), Aspergillus fumigatus (16 percent), and other moulds (21 percent). There was a highly significant association of positive history with positive prick test for all allergens studied. PMID:1168378

  20. An analysis of skin prick test reactions in 656 asthmatic patients.

    PubMed Central

    Hendrick, D J; Davies, R J; D'Souza, M F; Pepys, J

    1975-01-01

    Of 656 asthmatic patients referred specifically for allergy assessments, 544 (84 percent) gave positive immediate skin prick tests to at least one of 22 common allergens used routinely. Comparison of these skin test positive patients with the 102 (16 percent) who were skin test negative showed a number of significant differences. The majority of the skin test positive patients (52 percent) were less than 10 years old at the time of onset of the asthma, whereas, of the skin test negative patients, 56 percent were aged over 30 years at the time of onset. Seventy per cent report rhinitis compared with 48 per cent of the skin test negative patients, and 29 per cent reported infantile eczema compared with 9 per cent. Symptoms attributed to house dust, pollens, and animals were noted two to three times more frequently by the skin test positive patients, while corticosteroid drugs had been used more commonly by the skin test negative patients (45 percent compared with 35 percent). No significant differences were observed with the other factors studied, namely, history of urticaria or angio-oedema, family history of "allergic" disease, and awareness of sensitivity to foods, aspirin or penicillin. Prick test reactions in the skin test positive patients were most commonly seen to house dust or the acarine mite, Dermatophagoides farinae (82 percent), followed by pollens (66 percent), animal danders (38 percent), foods (16 percent), Aspergillus fumigatus (16 percent), and other moulds (21 percent). There was a highly significant association of positive history with positive prick test for all allergens studied. Images PMID:1168378

  1. Skin testing and incremental challenge in the evaluation of adverse reactions to local anesthetics.

    PubMed

    Schatz, M

    1984-10-01

    True allergic reactions to local anesthetics (LAs) probably make up no more than 1% of all adverse LA reactions. A diagnosis of true potential allergic reactivity is made difficult because (1) the history of the prior reaction may be vague or equivocal and (2) the lack of identification of the actual specific LA hapten-carrier complex limits the potential usefulness of immunologic tests. Nonetheless, since avoidance of LAs may be associated with substantial increased pain or increased risk and because true allergic reactions are rare, investigators and clinicians have used skin testing, incremental challenge, or both as a means of identifying a safe LA for a patient with a history of a prior adverse reaction. Review of the literature dealing with LA skin testing and incremental challenge suggests the following: (1) Skin testing with LAs may correlate with a history of an adverse reaction but may produce systemic adverse reactions, especially with undiluted drug. (2) Although false positive skin tests have been reported, most skin-tested patients who subsequently tolerate an LA have a negative skin test to that drug, and false negative skin tests have not been clearly documented. (3) Incremental challenge beginning with diluted LA is a safe and effective means of identifying a drug that a patient with a history of a prior adverse reaction can tolerate. (4) Current concepts of non-cross-reacting LA groups may be useful in the choice of a drug for use in skin testing and incremental challenge. (5) Preservatives in LAs may account for some but probably not the majority of adverse reactions to LAs. On the basis of this literature review, a practical protocol including dilutional skin testing and incremental challenge is presented for use in evaluating patients with prior adverse reactions to LAs. PMID:6491108

  2. Development of action levels for MED/MPD skin-testing units in ultraviolet phototherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Una M.; O'Hare, Neil J.

    2003-03-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) Phototherapy is commonly used for treatment of skin diseases such as psoriasis and eczema. Treatment is carried out using UV phototherapy units, exposing all or part of the body for a certain exposure time. Prior to exposure in treatment units, an unaffected area of skin may be tested using UV skin-testing units in order to determine a suitable treatment regime. The exposure time at which barely perceptible erythema has developed is known as the Minimal Erythemal Dose (MED) for UVB therapy and Minimal Phototoxic Dose (MPD) for UVA therapy. This is used to determine the starting dose in the treatment regime. The presence of 'hotspots' and 'coldspots' in UV skin-testing units can result in inaccurate determination of MED/MPD. This could give rise to severe burns during treatment, or in a sub-optimal dose regime being used. Quality assurance protocols for UV phototherapy equipment have recently been developed and these protocols have highlighted the need for action levels for skin-testing units. An action level is a reference value, which is used to determine whether the difference in irradiance output level across a UV unit is acceptable. Current methodologies for skin-testing in Ireland have been characterised and errors introduced during testing have been estimated. Action levels have been developed based on analysis of errors and requirements of skin-testing.

  3. Reconstructed human epidermis for skin absorption testing: results of the German prevalidation study.

    PubMed

    Schäfer-Korting, Monika; Bock, Udo; Gamer, Armin; Haberland, Annekathrin; Haltner-Ukomadu, Eleonore; Kaca, Monika; Kamp, Hennicke; Kietzmann, Manfred; Korting, Hans Christian; Krächter, Hans-Udo; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Liebsch, Manfred; Mehling, Annette; Netzlaff, Frank; Niedorf, Frank; Rübbelke, Maria K; Schäfer, Ulrich; Schmidt, Elisabeth; Schreiber, Sylvia; Schröder, Klaus-Rudolf; Spielmann, Horst; Vuia, Alexander

    2006-06-01

    Exposure to chemicals absorbed by the skin can threaten human health. In order to standardise the predictive testing of percutaneous absorption for regulatory purposes, the OECD adopted guideline 428, which describes methods for assessing absorption by using human and animal skin. In this study, a protocol based on the OECD principles was developed and prevalidated by using reconstructed human epidermis (RHE). The permeation of the OECD standard compounds, caffeine and testosterone, through commercially available RHE models was compared to that of human epidermis and animal skin. In comparison to human epidermis, the permeation of the chemicals was overestimated when using RHE. The following ranking of the permeation coefficients for testosterone was obtained: SkinEthic > EpiDerm, EPISKIN > human epidermis, bovine udder skin, pig skin. The ranking for caffeine was: SkinEthic, EPISKIN > bovine udder skin, EpiDerm, pig skin, human epidermis. The inter-laboratory and intra-laboratory reproducibility was good. Long and variable lag times, which are a matter of concern when using human and pig skin, did not occur with RHE. Due to the successful transfer of the protocol, it is now in the validation process. PMID:16831060

  4. A tuberculin skin test survey among Ghanaian school children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ghana has not conducted a national tuberculin survey or tuberculosis prevalence survey since the establishment of the National Tuberculosis Control Programme. The primary objective of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence of tuberculin skin sensitivity in Ghanaian school children aged 6-10 years in 8 out of 10 regions of Ghana between 2004 and 2006. Methods Tuberculin survey was conducted in 179 primary schools from 21 districts in 8 regions. Schools were purposively selected so as to reflect the proportion of affluent private and free tuition public schools as well as the proportion of small and large schools. Results Of the 24,778 children registered for the survey, 23,600 (95.2%) were tested of which 21,861 (92.6%) were available for reading. The age distribution showed an increase in numbers of children towards older age: 11% of the children were 6 years and 25%, 10 years. Females were 52.5% and males 47.5%. The proportion of girls was higher in all age groups (range 51.4% to 54.0%, p < 0.001). BCG scar was visible in 89.3% of the children. The percentage of children with a BCG scar differed by district and by age. The percentage of children with a BCG scar decreased with increasing age in all districts, reflecting increasing BCG vaccination coverage in Ghana in the last ten years. The risk of tuberculosis infection was low in the northern savannah zones compared to the southern coastal zones. Using a cut-off of 15 mm, the prevalence of infection ranged from 0.0% to 5.4% and the Annual Risks of Tuberculosis Infection 0.0% to 0.6%. There was an increase in the proportion of infected children after the age of 7 years. Children attending low and middle-class schools had a higher risk of infection than children attending upper-class schools. Conclusion Tuberculosis infection is still a public health problem in Ghana and to monitor the trend, the survey needs to be repeated at 5 years interval. PMID:20102620

  5. The use of reconstructed human epidermis for skin absorption testing: Results of the validation study.

    PubMed

    Schäfer-Korting, Monika; Bock, Udo; Diembeck, Walter; Düsing, Hans-Jürgen; Gamer, Armin; Haltner-Ukomadu, Eleonore; Hoffmann, Christine; Kaca, Monika; Kamp, Hennicke; Kersen, Silke; Kietzmann, Manfred; Korting, Hans Christian; Krächter, Hans-Udo; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Liebsch, Manfred; Mehling, Annette; Müller-Goymann, Christel; Netzlaff, Frank; Niedorf, Frank; Rübbelke, Maria K; Schäfer, Ulrich; Schmidt, Elisabeth; Schreiber, Sylvia; Spielmann, Horst; Vuia, Alexander; Weimer, Michaela

    2008-05-01

    A formal validation study was performed, in order to investigate whether the commercially-available reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) models, EPISKIN, EpiDerm and SkinEthic, are suitable for in vitro skin absorption testing. The skin types currently recommended in the OECD Test Guideline 428, namely, ex vivo human epidermis and pig skin, were used as references. Based on the promising outcome of the prevalidation study, the panel of test substances was enlarged to nine substances, covering a wider spectrum of physicochemical properties. The substances were tested under both infinite-dose and finite-dose conditions, in ten laboratories, under strictly controlled conditions. The data were subjected to independent statistical analyses. Intra-laboratory and inter-laboratory variability contributed almost equally to the total variability, which was in the same range as that in preceding studies. In general, permeation of the RHE models exceeded that of human epidermis and pig skin (the SkinEthic RHE was found to be the most permeable), yet the ranking of substance permeation through the three tested RHE models and the pig skin reflected the permeation through human epidermis. In addition, both infinite-dose and finite-dose experiments are feasible with RHE models. The RHE models did not show the expected significantly better reproducibility, as compared to excised skin, despite a tendency toward lower variability of the data. Importantly, however, the permeation data showed a sufficient correlation between all the preparations examined. Thus, the RHE models, EPISKIN, EpiDerm and SkinEthic, are appropriate alternatives to human and pig skin, for the in vitro assessment of the permeation and penetration of substances when applied as aqueous solutions. PMID:18522484

  6. Advanced tests for skin and respiratory sensitization assessment.

    PubMed

    Rovida, Costanza; Martin, Stefan F; Vivier, Manon; Weltzien, Hans Ulrich; Roggen, Erwin

    2013-01-01

    Sens-it-iv is an FP6 Integrated Project that finished in March 2011 after 66 months of activity, thanks to 12 million € of funding. The ultimate goal of the Sens-it-iv project was the development of a set of in vitro methods for the assessment of the skin and respiratory sensitization potential of chemicals and proteins. The level of development was intended to be at the point to enter the pre-validation phase. At the end of the project it can be concluded that the goal has been largely accomplished. Several advanced methods were evaluated extensively, and for some of them a detailed Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) was established. Other, less advanced methods also contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms driving sensitization. The present contribution, which has been prepared with the support of CAAT-Europe, represents a short summary of what was discussed during the 3-day end congress of the Sens-it-iv project in Brussels. It presents a list of methods that are ready for skin sensitization hazard assessment. Potency evaluation and the possibility of distinguishing skin from respiratory sensitizers are also well advanced. PMID:23665811

  7. Skin testing with food, codeine, and histamine in exercise-induced anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Lin, R Y; Barnard, M

    1993-06-01

    A 33-year-old Chinese woman with exercise-induced anaphylaxis after ingesting Chinese seafood noodle soup, was studied for skin test reactivity to food, histamine, and codeine. Prick skin tests were negative for shrimp, wheat, and chicken soup base, but were positive at 5 to 6 mm (wheal diameter) to the whole broth after it had been combined with the other ingredients. No significant (> 3 mm) wheals were observed in eight controls who were simultaneously tested with the broth. To assess the role of exercise, three series of skin tests were performed with histamine, codeine, and whole broth before and after aerobic exercise on two occasions. Codeine elicited consistent increases in wheal size after exercise compared with pre-exercise skin tests. Histamine and whole broth wheal sizes did not increase significantly. Three control subjects also had codeine and histamine skin tests before and after exercise, No exercise-associated increases were noted for codeine. Potential insights into mast cell abnormalities in exercise-induced anaphylaxis may be gained by skin testing patterns with codeine and other mast cell degranulating agents. PMID:8507042

  8. Putting the parts together: combining in vitro methods to test for skin sensitizing potentials.

    PubMed

    Bauch, Caroline; Kolle, Susanne N; Ramirez, Tzutzuy; Eltze, Tobias; Fabian, Eric; Mehling, Annette; Teubner, Wera; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2012-08-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common skin disease and is elicited by repeated skin contact with an allergen. In the regulatory context, currently only data from animal experiments are acceptable to assess the skin sensitizing potential of substances. Animal welfare and EU Cosmetic Directive/Regulation call for the implementation of animal-free alternatives for safety assessments. The mechanisms that trigger skin sensitization are complex and various steps are involved. Therefore, a single in vitro method may not be able to accurately assess this endpoint. Non-animal methods are being developed and validated and can be used for testing strategies that ensure a reliable prediction of skin sensitization potentials. In this study, the predictivities of four in vitro assays, one in chemico and one in silico method addressing three different steps in the development of skin sensitization were assessed using 54 test substances of known sensitizing potential. The predictivity of single tests and combinations of these assays were compared. These data were used to develop an in vitro testing scheme and prediction model for the detection of skin sensitizers based on protein reactivity, activation of the Keap-1/Nrf2 signaling pathway and dendritic cell activation. PMID:22659254

  9. Skin age testing criteria: characterization of human skin structures by 500 MHz MRI multiple contrast and image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Rakesh

    2010-07-01

    Ex vivo magnetic resonance microimaging (MRM) image characteristics are reported in human skin samples in different age groups. Human excised skin samples were imaged using a custom coil placed inside a 500 MHz NMR imager for high-resolution microimaging. Skin MRI images were processed for characterization of different skin structures. Contiguous cross-sectional T1-weighted 3D spin echo MRI, T2-weighted 3D spin echo MRI and proton density images were compared with skin histopathology and NMR peaks. In all skin specimens, epidermis and dermis thickening and hair follicle size were measured using MRM. Optimized parameters TE and TR and multicontrast enhancement generated better MRI visibility of different skin components. Within high MR signal regions near to the custom coil, MRI images with short echo time were comparable with digitized histological sections for skin structures of the epidermis, dermis and hair follicles in 6 (67%) of the nine specimens. Skin % tissue composition, measurement of the epidermis, dermis, sebaceous gland and hair follicle size, and skin NMR peaks were signatures of skin type. The image processing determined the dimensionality of skin tissue components and skin typing. The ex vivo MRI images and histopathology of the skin may be used to measure the skin structure and skin NMR peaks with image processing may be a tool for determining skin typing and skin composition.

  10. Contribution to the Determination of In Vivo Mechanical Characteristics of Human Skin by Indentation Test

    PubMed Central

    Zahouani, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a triphasic model of intact skin in vivo based on a general phenomenological thermohydromechanical and physicochemical (THMPC) approach of heterogeneous media. The skin is seen here as a deforming stratified medium composed of four layers and made out of different fluid-saturated materials which contain also an ionic component. All the layers are treated as linear, isotropic materials described by their own behaviour law. The numerical simulations of in vivo indentation test performed on human skin are given. The numerical results correlate reasonably well with the typical observations of indented human skin. The discussion shows the versatility of this approach to obtain a better understanding on the mechanical behaviour of human skin layers separately. PMID:24324525

  11. Skin2--an in vitro human skin model: the correlation between in vivo and in vitro testing of surfactants.

    PubMed

    Demetrulias, J; Donnelly, T; Morhenn, V; Jessee, B; Hainsworth, S; Casterton, P; Bernhofer, L; Martin, K; Decker, D

    1998-02-01

    The availability of an in vitro test system to replace animal testing of potential irritants is becoming more and more urgent especially in Europe as a consequence of the European Community Cosmetics Directive. To evaluate the ability of Advanced Tissue Sciences' (ATS) ZK1301 skin model to predict the skin irritation potential of surfactants, we performed a pilot validation study utilizing four different laboratories. The in vitro protocol was designed as a quantitative pre-screen for the clinical patch studies. Sixteen substances, representing various surfactant categories and ranges of irritation potential, were tested. The 3-[4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to quantitate viability in vitro. We documented the viability of tissues exposed to unknown substances for specific periods. The in vitro results were calculated as percent distilled water controls (DWC). The time required to reduce the viability of each tissue to 50% of the distilled water controls (T50) was compared to mean erythema and edema scores from the clinical studies by Pearson's correlation. The individual laboratories demonstrated coefficients of 0.72. The results indicated that the 30 min percent untreated control values best predicted the 24 h clinical patch scores. No statistically significant interlab variability was found. Only one false negative was seen when non/mild and moderate/severe irritant categories were assigned according to the in vitro scores. These results demonstrate that the skin2 in vitro test system may serve as a good screening method prior to clinical patch studies. PMID:9517918

  12. Systematic evaluation of non-animal test methods for skin sensitisation safety assessment.

    PubMed

    Reisinger, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Alépée, Nathalie; Ashikaga, Takao; Barroso, Joao; Elcombe, Cliff; Gellatly, Nicola; Galbiati, Valentina; Gibbs, Susan; Groux, Hervé; Hibatallah, Jalila; Keller, Donald; Kern, Petra; Klaric, Martina; Kolle, Susanne; Kuehnl, Jochen; Lambrechts, Nathalie; Lindstedt, Malin; Millet, Marion; Martinozzi-Teissier, Silvia; Natsch, Andreas; Petersohn, Dirk; Pike, Ian; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Schepky, Andreas; Tailhardat, Magalie; Templier, Marie; van Vliet, Erwin; Maxwell, Gavin

    2015-02-01

    The need for non-animal data to assess skin sensitisation properties of substances, especially cosmetics ingredients, has spawned the development of many in vitro methods. As it is widely believed that no single method can provide a solution, the Cosmetics Europe Skin Tolerance Task Force has defined a three-phase framework for the development of a non-animal testing strategy for skin sensitization potency prediction. The results of the first phase – systematic evaluation of 16 test methods – are presented here. This evaluation involved generation of data on a common set of ten substances in all methods and systematic collation of information including the level of standardisation, existing test data,potential for throughput, transferability and accessibility in cooperation with the test method developers.A workshop was held with the test method developers to review the outcome of this evaluation and to discuss the results. The evaluation informed the prioritisation of test methods for the next phase of the non-animal testing strategy development framework. Ultimately, the testing strategy – combined with bioavailability and skin metabolism data and exposure consideration – is envisaged to allow establishment of a data integration approach for skin sensitisation safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients. PMID:25448812

  13. Construction of Tests in the Cognitive and Psychomotor Domains for Skin and Scuba Diving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Jean

    The fundamental purposes of this study were to develop mastery tests in the cognitive and psychomotor domains for skin and scuba diving and to establish validity and reliability for the tests. A table of specifications was developed for each domain, and a pilot study refined the initial test batteries into their final form. In the main study,…

  14. Evaluation of status of tuberculin skin sensitivity test among medical students.

    PubMed

    Chander, J; Gupta, R; Subrahmanyan, S

    1997-02-01

    The status of tuberculin skin sensitivity tests was evaluated in 87 medical students. It was found that Mantoux test has less significant role to play in the vaccinated individuals and in the population at high risk of exposure. Hence this test is to be supplemented with clinical manifestations and other investigations to establish the final diagnosis of tuberculosis. PMID:9355707

  15. Bovine Tuberculosis: Effect of the Tuberculin Skin Test on In vitro Interferon gamma Responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a disease of zoonotic and economic importance. In many countries, control is based on test and slaughter policies and/or abattoir surveillance. For testing, cell mediated immune- (CMI-) based assays (i.e., Tuberculin skin test (TST) supplemented by the interferon gamma (...

  16. Thermographic assessment of skin prick tests in comparison with the routine evaluation methods

    PubMed Central

    Rokita, Eugeniusz; Tatoń, Grzegorz; Guzik, Tomasz; Śliwa, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The skin prick test is still the first and basic procedure in the diagnosis of allergic diseases. The possibility of using a sensitive thermographic method supported by the mathematical model for the assessment of skin test results will be highlighted in the studies. Aim To compare the proposed approach with routine planimetric and thermographic methods. Material and methods A mathematical model of allergic reaction was developed. Simplifying assumptions of the IgE-mediated skin reaction is the essence of the model. Investigations were performed in a group of 40 patients. Results Using the spatio-temporal evolution of temperature distributions, the ratios of the histamine released from mast cells to the control histamine were determined. The obtained values very well correlate with the standard evaluation of skin prick tests (correlation coefficient = 0.98). Conclusions The proposed method of skin test evaluation presents several advantages. The continuous acquisition of data provides the monitoring of time course of the allergic response. The transport of mediator and its concentration were distinctly discriminated, which may be diagnostically useful, especially for abnormal cases. The high sensitivity of the method enables studying patients regardless of age and skin sensitivity. PMID:27512354

  17. The use of ex vivo human skin tissue for genotoxicity testing

    SciTech Connect

    Reus, Astrid A.; Usta, Mustafa; Krul, Cyrille A.M.

    2012-06-01

    As a result of the chemical legislation concerning the registration, evaluation, authorization and restriction of chemicals (REACH), and the Seventh Amendment to the Cosmetics Directive, which prohibits animal testing in Europe for cosmetics, alternative methods for safety evaluation of chemicals are urgently needed. Current in vitro genotoxicity assays are not sufficiently predictive for the in vivo situation, resulting in an unacceptably high number of misleading positives. For many chemicals and ingredients of personal care products the skin is the first site of contact, but there are no in vitro genotoxicity assays available in the skin for additional evaluation of positive or equivocal responses observed in regulatory in vitro genotoxicity assays. In the present study ex vivo human skin tissue obtained from surgery was used for genotoxicity evaluation of chemicals by using the comet assay. Fresh ex vivo human skin tissue was cultured in an air–liquid interface and topically exposed to 20 chemicals, including true positive, misleading positive and true negative genotoxins. Based on the results obtained in the present study, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the ex vivo skin comet assay to predict in vivo genotoxicity were 89%, 90% and 89%, respectively. Donor and experimental variability were mainly reflected in the magnitude of the response and not the difference between the presence and absence of a genotoxic response. The present study indicates that human skin obtained from surgery is a promising and robust model for safety evaluation of chemicals that are in direct contact with the skin. -- Highlights: ► We use human skin obtained from surgery for genotoxicity evaluation of chemicals. ► We use the comet assay as parameter for genotoxicity in ex vivo human skin. ► Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy to predict in vivo genotoxins are determined. ► Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy are 89%, 90% and 90%, respectively. ► The method

  18. In vitro test of nicotine's permeability through human skin. Risk evaluation and safety aspects.

    PubMed

    Zorin, S; Kuylenstierna, F; Thulin, H

    1999-08-01

    Permeability tests with Franz' diffusion cells and an in vitro test model were made to evaluate the importance of dermal absorption of nicotine as a pathway for intoxication. Studies were carried out to ensure that safety procedures, when spilling nicotine on skin, are sufficient to prevent poisoning. Pure nicotine and nicotine in various concentrations in water or ethanol were applied on human skin or gloves in Franz' cells. Washing was simulated by removing nicotine from skin after 3 or 5 min. Permeation rate (flux) and lag time were calculated and estimated for human skin. Different glove materials were tested for their nicotine breakthrough time. Flux depended on concentration in a non-linear way when nicotine-water solutions were tested. Highest flux was found in 50% w/w nicotine dissolved in water. Solutions with low concentration of nicotine (1% w/w) dissolved in water had a similar permeation rate to 100% nicotine. Flux was found to be low when using ethanol as a vehicle; flux was also pH-dependent. The nicotine-water solution containing acetic acid had the lowest flux. The tests where nicotine was washed away revealed that skin served as a possible nicotine depot, because nicotine concentration in the receptor compartment continued to increase after removing the nicotine from the surface. The length of contact time affected the amount of substance passing the skin, resulting in great difference between 3 and 5 min contact time, 5 min giving higher nicotine concentration and 3 min lower. This emphasizes the importance of washing away nicotine spilled on skin rapidly. Two glove types were tested and they were found to be appropriate in their use with nicotine if changed regularly. PMID:10518466

  19. Controlling tuberculosis in a llama (Lama glama) herd using clinical signs, tuberculin skin testing and serology.

    PubMed

    Twomey, D F; Collins, R; Cranwell, M P; Crawshaw, T R; Higgins, R J; Dean, G S; Vordermeier, H M; Hollingdale, A; de la Rua-Domenech, R

    2012-05-01

    An outbreak of tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, was investigated in a small herd of llamas (Lama glama). Based on three ante-mortem diagnostic methods (clinical signs, tuberculin skin test reactions, and 'Rapid Test' serology), 12 llamas were selected for examination post-mortem. Grossly visible lesions suspicious of TB were observed in eight animals, four of which had exhibited clinical signs, one was a skin test 'reactor', and three had been seropositive. M. bovis was isolated from seven of these eight animals. Clinical signs combined with serology were found to be useful in identifying infected animals, but tuberculin skin testing had limited negative predictive value as four llamas that were subsequently confirmed as infected were not detected using this assay. PMID:21704542

  20. Tuberculin skin testing in US Navy and Marine Corps personnel and recruits, 1980-86.

    PubMed Central

    Cross, E R; Hyams, K C

    1990-01-01

    An extensive skin testing program is part of the United States Naval Medical Command's infectious disease control effort. From 1980 to 1986, 2,306,533 skin tests, using five TU PPD, were performed on active-duty Navy and Marine Corps personnel, 0.97 percent of which were positive. A downward trend in positive tests was found with a high of 1.43 percent in 1980 and a low of 0.80 percent in 1983. Since 1984, the percentage of positive tests has remained the same or increased. Shore-based medical facilities around the world reported 1,491,646 skin tests with 1.07 percent positive; Navy ships reported 814,887 skin tests with 0.78 percent positive. PPD-positivity for ships in the Pacific area was higher (0.98 percent) than for ships in the Atlantic (0.62 percent). During this same period, the percentage of positive tests in Navy and Marine Corps recruits ranged from a high of 1.82 percent in 1981 to a low of 1.23 percent in 1986. Since 1984, the percentage of positive tests has remained relatively stable in recruits. The frequency of positive PPD tests found in this study is lower than the percentage positive (1.59 percent) found in active-duty Navy personnel in 1969 and the percentage positive (5.2 percent) found in a study of Navy and Marine Corps recruits between 1958 and 1969. PMID:2316764

  1. The use of ex vivo human skin tissue for genotoxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Reus, Astrid A; Usta, Mustafa; Krul, Cyrille A M

    2012-06-01

    As a result of the chemical legislation concerning the registration, evaluation, authorization and restriction of chemicals (REACH), and the Seventh Amendment to the Cosmetics Directive, which prohibits animal testing in Europe for cosmetics, alternative methods for safety evaluation of chemicals are urgently needed. Current in vitro genotoxicity assays are not sufficiently predictive for the in vivo situation, resulting in an unacceptably high number of misleading positives. For many chemicals and ingredients of personal care products the skin is the first site of contact, but there are no in vitro genotoxicity assays available in the skin for additional evaluation of positive or equivocal responses observed in regulatory in vitro genotoxicity assays. In the present study ex vivo human skin tissue obtained from surgery was used for genotoxicity evaluation of chemicals by using the comet assay. Fresh ex vivo human skin tissue was cultured in an air-liquid interface and topically exposed to 20 chemicals, including true positive, misleading positive and true negative genotoxins. Based on the results obtained in the present study, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the ex vivo skin comet assay to predict in vivo genotoxicity were 89%, 90% and 89%, respectively. Donor and experimental variability were mainly reflected in the magnitude of the response and not the difference between the presence and absence of a genotoxic response. The present study indicates that human skin obtained from surgery is a promising and robust model for safety evaluation of chemicals that are in direct contact with the skin. PMID:22507867

  2. Early skin testing is effective for diagnosis of hypersensitivity reactions occurring during anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Lafuente, A; Javaloyes, G; Berroa, F; Goikoetxea, M J; Moncada, R; Núñez-Córdoba, J M; Cabrera-Freitag, P; D'Amelio, C; Sanz, M L; Gastaminza, G

    2013-06-01

    Allergic skin tests have to be performed 4-6 weeks after an allergic anesthetic reaction. Patients with allergic reactions during anesthesia were prospectively included (n = 44). Skin tests were performed in two stages: (i) Stage 1 (S1), 0-4 days after the reaction; and (ii) Stage 2 (S2), 4-8 weeks after. Five (11.5%) surgical procedures were suspended due to the reaction. Positive skin tests were obtained in 25/44 patients (57%). Allergic diagnosis was carried out at S1 in 15/25 (60%) and at S2 in 10/25 (40%). Three patients resulted positive only in S1. Overall agreement among S1 and S2 skin tests was 70.45%. The kappa statistic was 0.41 (P-value = 0.002). Odds ratio of obtaining a false negative in S1 (compared with S2) was 3.33. Early allergological study is useful, could minimize false negatives, but should be considered as a complement to late skin tests. PMID:23646901

  3. Utility testing of an apple skin color MdMYB1 marker in two progenies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A reported allele-specific dCAP PCR marker associated with apple fruit red skin color was tested in 18 elite breeding parents and two apple cross populations. Among all tested cultivars except one, a consistent relationship was observed between red fruit color and the presence of allele. In both pop...

  4. Skin prick test results to artesunate in children sensitized to Artemisia vulgaris L.

    PubMed

    Mori, F; Pantano, S; Rossi, M E; Montagnani, C; Chiappini, E; Novembre, E; Galli, L; de Martino, M

    2015-09-01

    Artemisia vulgaris L and Artemisia annua L (Chinese: qinghao) are similar plants of the Asterbaceae family. Artesunate, a semi-synthetic derivate of artemisin which is the active principle extract of the plant qinghao, has antimalarial properties. Some cases of severe allergic reactions to artesunate have been described. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between positive skin tests to Artemisia vulgaris L allergen and a preparation of injectable artesunate. A total of 531 children were skin prick tested with inhalants (including Artemisia vulgaris L), foods, and artesunate. Among the 59 patients positive to Artemisia vulgaris L only one child was also positive to artesunate. No child was positive to artesunate in those negative to Artemisia vulgaris L. We conclude that Artemisia vulgaris L sensitization is not associated with sensitization to artesunate; consequently, skin test to artesunate should not be carried out before using the drug considering the rare allergic reactions. PMID:26157064

  5. Pulse testing in the presence of wellbore storage and skin effects

    SciTech Connect

    Ogbe, D.O.; Brigham, W.E.

    1984-08-01

    A pulse test is conducted by creating a series of short-time pressure transients in an active (pulsing) well and recording the observed pressure response at an observation (responding) well. Using the pressure response and flow rate data, the transmissivity and storativity of the tested formation can be determined. Like any other pressure transient data, the pulse-test response is significantly influenced by wellbore storage and skin effects. The purpose of this research is to examine the influence of wellbore storage and skin effects on interference testing in general and on pulse-testing in particular, and to present the type curves and procedures for designing and analyzing pulse-test data when wellbore storage and skin effects are active at either the responding well or the pulsing well. A mathematical model for interference testing was developed by solving the diffusivity equation for radial flow of a single-phase, slightly compressible fluid in an infinitely large, homogeneous reservoir. When wellbore storage and skin effects are present in a pulse test, the observed response amplitude is attenuated and the time lag is inflated. Consequently, neglecting wellbore storage and skin effects in a pulse test causes the calculated storativity to be over-estimated and the transmissivity to be under-estimated. The error can be as high as 30%. New correlations and procedures are developed for correcting the pulse response amplitude and time lag for wellbore storage effects. Using these correlations, it is possible to correct the wellbore storage-dominated response amplitude and time lag to within 3% of their expected values without wellbore storage, and in turn to calculate the corresponding transmissivity and storativity. Worked examples are presented to illustrate how to use the new correction techniques. 45 references.

  6. A skin test survey of valley fever in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Fredrich, B E

    1989-01-01

    Results of a study of the prevalence of valley fever among 1128 residents of Tijuana, Baja California are presented. Children from primary and middle schools (n = 497) and adults from technical institutes and maquiladoras (assembly plants) were tested for reaction to both spherulin and coccidioidin during 1985-1986, and they completed a questionnaire containing 23 variables on their socio-environment. Place of residence was mapped. The population sampled is largely middle class. Discriminant analysis indicates the distribution of positive cases is not clustered, nor can it be correlated with geomorphic factors such as mesa tops, canyons, or valley bottoms. PMID:2588049

  7. The autologous serum skin test: a screening test for autoantibodies in chronic idiopathic urticaria.

    PubMed

    Sabroe, R A; Grattan, C E; Francis, D M; Barr, R M; Kobza Black, A; Greaves, M W

    1999-03-01

    One-third of patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) have circulating functional autoantibodies against the high affinity IgE receptor FcepsilonRI, or IgE. The intradermal injection of autologous serum causes a weal and flare reaction in many patients with CIU, and this reaction forms the basis of the autologous serum skin test (ASST). We have determined the parameters of the ASST which define the optimal sensitivity and specificity for the identification of patients with autoantibodies. Two physicians (R.A. S. and C.E.H.G.) performed ASSTs in a total of 155 patients with CIU, 40 healthy control subjects, 15 patients with dermographism, nine with cholinergic urticaria and 10 with atopic eczema. Patients were classified as having functional autoantibodies by demonstrating in vitro serum-evoked histamine release from the basophils of two healthy donors. There were significant differences (P < 0.001) in the mean weal diameter, weal volume, weal redness and flare area of the intradermal serum-induced cutaneous responses at 30 min between patients with CIU with autoantibodies and either those without autoantibodies or control subjects. The optimum combined sensitivity and specificity of the ASST was obtained if a positive test was defined as a red serum-induced weal with a diameter of >/= 1.5 mm than the saline-induced response at 30 min. For R.A.S. and C.E.H.G., the ASST sensitivity was 65% and 71% and specificity was 81% and 78%, respectively. Using these criteria, the following subjects had positive ASSTs: none of 15 dermographics, none of 10 atopics, one of nine cholinergics and one of 40 controls. PMID:10233264

  8. Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) supplementation associated with reduced skin test lesional area in horses with Culicoides hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Wendy; McKee, Sharyn; Clarke, Andrew F.

    2002-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) supplementation on the skin test response of atopic horses. Six horses that displayed a positive skin test for allergy to extract from Culicoides sp. participated in the 42-day, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over trial. Results showed that supplementation with flaxseed for 42 days in our experimental horses reduced the mean skin test response to Culicoides sp. This observation was concurrent with a significant decrease in the long-chain saturated fatty acids; behenic acid (22:0) and lignoceric acid (24:0), in the hair of horses receiving flaxseed. There was also a significant decrease in aspartate aminotransferase, and increase in serum glucose in the treatment animals at specific sampling points. It was concluded that; in this small pilot study, flaxseed was able to reduce the lesional area of the skin test response of atopic horses, alter the fatty acid profile of the hair, reduce inflammation, and did not elicit any negative side-effects in the experimental horses. PMID:12418783

  9. Anaphylaxis to Spirulina confirmed by skin prick test with ingredients of Spirulina tablets.

    PubMed

    Le, Thuy-My; Knulst, André C; Röckmann, Heike

    2014-12-01

    Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis), blue-green microalgae, has high content in proteins, γ-linoleic acid and vitamins and therefore gained popularity as food supplement. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Spirulina is also an interesting alternative and sustainable protein source with the growing world population. We present a case of a 17-year-old male, who developed anaphylaxis the first time he ingested a Spirulina tablet. Skin prick test with diluted Spirulina tablet was positive. Further skin prick testing with separated ingredients (Spirulina platensis algae, silicon dioxide, inulin and magnesium stearate) was only positive for Spirulina platensis algae and negative in controls, confirming the allergy was caused by Spirulina and not by one of the additives. This case report shows that diagnosis of Spirulina allergy can safely be made by skin prick test with dilutions of the A. platensis or even more simple by skin prick test with the diluted tablet. Since Spirulina has gained popularity as food and nutritional supplement, it is important to realize the potential risk of this dietary supplement. Before Spirulina is produced and consumed on a wider scale, allergenicity risk assessment should be performed, including investigation of potential crossreactivity with well-known inhalant allergens and foods. PMID:25445756

  10. Analysis of skin patch test results and metalloproteinase-2 levels in a patient with contact dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Czajkowski, Rafał; Kowaliszyn, Bogna; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The complex course of skin reactions that contact eczema involves is due in part to abnormalities of the extracellular matrix function. Proteins that degrade extracellular matrix components include metalloproteinases (MMP), which are divided into subcategories depending on the chemical structure and substrate specificity. Aim To analyse patch test results in contact dermatitis patients and to assess MMP-2 levels during skin lesion exacerbation and remission. Material and methods Fifty patients suffering from contact eczema were qualified to the study and 20 healthy volunteers as a control group. The study group patients had epidermal skin tests performed with the “European Standard” set. To assess the MMP-2 level in serum, venous blood was drawn, twice from study group patients – during contact dermatitis exacerbation and remission periods – and once from control group patients. Assessment of MMP-2 in serum was done with ELISA immunoassay. To verify the proposed hypotheses, parametric and nonparametric significance tests were used. Results Hands were the most frequent location of contact dermatitis. Nickel (II) sulphate was the most frequent sensitizing substance. Mean MMP-2 levels were statistically higher in the study group both in contact dermatitis exacerbation and remission periods than in the control group. There was no statistically significant difference between MMP-2 levels and skin patch test results. Conclusions Nickel is one of the most allergenic contact allergens in patients with contact dermatitis. Metalloproteinase-2 is a good marker of contact dermatitis in various stages of the disease. PMID:26161054

  11. Tuberculin skin test reactivity is dependent on host genetic background in Colombian tuberculosis household contacts.

    PubMed

    Cobat, Aurélie; Barrera, Luis F; Henao, Hanna; Arbeláez, Patricia; Abel, Laurent; García, Luis F; Schurr, Erwin; Alcaïs, Alexandre

    2012-04-01

    The tuberculin skin test (TST) measures the intensity of antimycobacterial acquired immunity and is used to diagnose latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We report evidence for a codominant gene explaining ∼65% of the TST variability. Disregarding the host genetic background may lead to misclassifications of TST-based diagnosis of latent M. tuberculosis infection. PMID:22291100

  12. Biaxial tensile tests identify epidermis and hypodermis as the main structural elements of sweet cherry skin

    PubMed Central

    Brüggenwirth, Martin; Fricke, Heiko; Knoche, Moritz

    2014-01-01

    The skin of developing soft and fleshy fruit is subjected to considerable growth stress, and failure of the skin is associated with impaired barrier properties in water transport and pathogen defence. The objectives were to establish a standardized, biaxial tensile test of the skin of soft and fleshy fruit and to use it to characterize and quantify mechanical properties of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) fruit skin as a model. A segment of the exocarp (ES) comprising cuticle, epidermis, hypodermis and adhering flesh was mounted in the elastometer such that the in vivo strain was maintained. The ES was pressurized from the inner surface and the pressure and extent of associated bulging were recorded. Pressure : strain responses were almost linear up to the point of fracture, indicating that the modulus of elasticity was nearly constant. Abrading the cuticle decreased the fracture strain but had no effect on the fracture pressure. When pressure was held constant, bulging of the ES continued to increase. Strain relaxation upon releasing the pressure was complete and depended on time. Strains in longitudinal and latitudinal directions on the bulging ES did not differ significantly. Exocarp segments that released their in vivo strain before the test had higher fracture strains and lower moduli of elasticity. The results demonstrate that the cherry skin is isotropic in the tangential plane and exhibits elastic and viscoelastic behaviour. The epidermis and hypodermis, but not the cuticle, represent the structural ‘backbone’ in a cherry skin. This test is useful in quantifying the mechanical properties of soft and fleshy fruit of a range of species under standardized conditions. PMID:24876301

  13. Biaxial tensile tests identify epidermis and hypodermis as the main structural elements of sweet cherry skin.

    PubMed

    Brüggenwirth, Martin; Fricke, Heiko; Knoche, Moritz

    2014-01-01

    The skin of developing soft and fleshy fruit is subjected to considerable growth stress, and failure of the skin is associated with impaired barrier properties in water transport and pathogen defence. The objectives were to establish a standardized, biaxial tensile test of the skin of soft and fleshy fruit and to use it to characterize and quantify mechanical properties of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) fruit skin as a model. A segment of the exocarp (ES) comprising cuticle, epidermis, hypodermis and adhering flesh was mounted in the elastometer such that the in vivo strain was maintained. The ES was pressurized from the inner surface and the pressure and extent of associated bulging were recorded. Pressure : strain responses were almost linear up to the point of fracture, indicating that the modulus of elasticity was nearly constant. Abrading the cuticle decreased the fracture strain but had no effect on the fracture pressure. When pressure was held constant, bulging of the ES continued to increase. Strain relaxation upon releasing the pressure was complete and depended on time. Strains in longitudinal and latitudinal directions on the bulging ES did not differ significantly. Exocarp segments that released their in vivo strain before the test had higher fracture strains and lower moduli of elasticity. The results demonstrate that the cherry skin is isotropic in the tangential plane and exhibits elastic and viscoelastic behaviour. The epidermis and hypodermis, but not the cuticle, represent the structural 'backbone' in a cherry skin. This test is useful in quantifying the mechanical properties of soft and fleshy fruit of a range of species under standardized conditions. PMID:24876301

  14. The importance of awareness for veterinarians involved in cattle tuberculosis skin testing.

    PubMed

    Humblet, M-F; Moyen, J-L; Bardoux, P; Boschiroli, M L; Saegerman, C

    2011-12-01

    France is currently facing a re-emergence of bovine tuberculosis in several regions. To assess the knowledge of veterinary field practitioners concerning skin testing, a questionnaire-based methodology developed in Belgium was adapted to the context of the French department of Dordogne. The veterinarians involved in herds skin testing were solicited to participate to the survey (n = 94), through an anonymous postal questionnaire including items related to each step of the skin test procedure. Each item of the questionnaire was allotted a compliance score by 5 experts in the field of bovine tuberculosis (0, 1 or 2 a correct, acceptable and unacceptable answer, respectively). These scores were balanced over 30 criteria according to their potential impact on the non-detection of reactors, on the basis of 11 experts' opinion. A global score was calculated for each participating veterinarian. In addition, the Departmental sanitary authorities held meetings in December 2005 and June 2006 to make the veterinarians aware of the importance of correctly performing the skin test. The participants to the study were asked to fill in the questionnaire in duplicate: one related to their practices before the meeting, and the other one focusing on their practices after the meeting. A comparison of both situations was carried out (pre- and post-awareness meeting), as well as a comparison with the Belgian situation, arbitrarily selected as reference for the methodology. The participation was representative and reached a 23.4% rate. A significant difference was noticed between the mean global score reached before and after the meeting. These results show the usefulness of an appropriate awareness campaign of veterinarians in relation to skin testing and the importance of frequently holding awareness meetings in areas remaining confronted with bovine tuberculosis problems. It also highlights the interest of a structured auto-assessment process of veterinary practices. PMID:21569223

  15. 75 FR 47592 - Final Test Guideline; Product Performance of Skin-applied Insect Repellents of Insect and Other...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ..., 2007 (72 FR 32647) (FRL-8135-9), of national experts in which the revisions made in June 2006, were... AGENCY Final Test Guideline; Product Performance of Skin-applied Insect Repellents of Insect and Other... Product Performance of Skin-applied Insect Repellents of Insect and Other Arthropods Test...

  16. Skin Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... drugs that can help clear up this condition. Day-to-Day Skin Care See our tips for daily skin ... Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to Know Your ...

  17. American cutaneous leishmaniasis: use of a skin test as a predictor of relapse after treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Passos, V. M.; Barreto, S. M.; Romanha, A. J.; Krettli, A. U.; Volpini, A. C.; Lima e Costa, M. F.

    2000-01-01

    While relapses following clinical cure of American cutaneous leishmaniasis are frequent, no test has been described until now to predict such relapses. A cohort of 318 American cutaneous leishmaniasis patients was followed up for two years after treatment with meglumine antimoniate, during which time 32 relapses occurred, 30 in the first year and two in the second (accumulated risk: 10.5%). No association was found between these relapses and the parasite-specific antibody response before and after treatment, or between the relapses and stratification by sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. However when Leishmania was used as antigen, patients with a negative skin test at the time of diagnosis presented a 3.4-fold higher risk (hazard risk = 3.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-7.0) of American cutaneous leishmaniasis relapse, compared with patients with a positive response. This result shows that the skin test can be a predictor of American cutaneous leishmaniasis relapse after treatment. PMID:10994280

  18. Testing and Analysis of Composite Skin/Stringer Debonding Under Multi-Axial Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Ronald; Cvitkovich, Michael K.; O'Brien, T. Kevin; Minguet, Pierre J.

    2000-01-01

    A consistent step-wise approach is presented to investigate the damage mechanism in composite bonded skin/stringer constructions under uniaxial and biaxial (in-plane/out-of-plane) loading conditions. The approach uses experiments to detect the failure mechanism, computational stress analysis to determine the location of first matrix cracking and computational fracture mechanics to investigate the potential for delamination growth. In a first step, tests were performed on specimens, which consisted of a tapered composite flange, representing a stringer or frame, bonded onto a composite skin. Tests were performed under monotonic loading conditions in tension, three-point bending, and combined tension/bending to evaluate the debonding mechanisms between the skin and the bonded stringer. For combined tension/bending testing, a unique servohydraulic load frame was used that was capable of applying both in-plane tension and out-of-plane bending loads simultaneously. Specimen edges were examined on the microscope to document the damage occurrence and to identify typical damage patterns. For all three load cases, observed failure initiated in the flange, near the flange tip, causing the flange to almost fully debond from skin. In a second step, a two dimensional plane-strain finite element model was developed to analyze the different test cases using a geometrically nonlinear solution. For all three loading conditions, computed principal stresses exceeded the transverse strength of the material in those areas of the flange where the matrix cracks had developed during the tests. In a third step, delaminations of various lengths were simulated in two locations where delaminations were observed during the tests. The analyses showed that at the loads corresponding to matrix ply crack initiation computed strain energy release rates exceeded the values obtained from a mixed mode failure criterion in one location, Hence. Unstable delamination propagation is likely to occur as

  19. Testing and Analysis of Composite Skin/Stringer Debonding under Multi-Axial Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Ronald; Cvitkovich, Michael; OBrien, Kevin; Minguet, Pierre J.

    2000-01-01

    A consistent step-wise approach is presented to investigate the damage mechanism in composite bonded skin/stringer constructions under uniaxial and biaxial (in-plane/out-of-plane) loading conditions. The approach uses experiments to detect the failure mechanism, computational stress analysis to determine the location of first matrix cracking and computational fracture mechanics to investigate the potential for delamination growth. In a first step, tests were performed on specimens, which consisted of a tapered composite flange, representing a stringer or frame, bonded onto a composite skin. Tests were performed under monotonic loading conditions in tension, three-point bending, and combined tension/bending to evaluate the debonding mechanisms between the skin and the bonded stringer. For combined tension/bending testing, a unique servohydraulic load frame was used that was capable of applying both in-plane tension and out-of-plane bending loads simultaneously. Specimen edges were examined on the microscope to document the damage occurrence and to identify typical damage patterns. For all three load cases, observed failure initiated in the flange, near the flange tip, causing the flange to almost fully debond from the skin. In a second step, a two-dimensional plane-strain finite element model was developed to analyze the different test cases using a geometrically nonlinear solution. For all three loading conditions, computed principal stresses exceeded the transverse strength of the material in those areas of the flange where the matrix cracks had developed during the tests. In a third step, delaminations of various lengths were simulated in two locations where delaminations were observed during the tests. The analyses showed that at the loads corresponding to matrix ply crack initiation computed strain energy release rates exceeded the values obtained from a mixed mode failure criterion in one location. Hence, unstable delamination propagation is likely to occur as

  20. Assuring consumer safety without animal testing: a feasibility case study for skin sensitisation.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Gavin; Aleksic, Maja; Aptula, Aynur; Carmichael, Paul; Fentem, Julia; Gilmour, Nicola; Mackay, Cameron; Pease, Camilla; Pendlington, Ruth; Reynolds, Fiona; Scott, Daniel; Warner, Guy; Westmoreland, Carl

    2008-11-01

    Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD; chemical-induced skin sensitisation) represents a key consumer safety endpoint for the cosmetics industry. At present, animal tests (predominantly the mouse Local Lymph Node Assay) are used to generate skin sensitisation hazard data for use in consumer safety risk assessments. An animal testing ban on chemicals to be used in cosmetics will come into effect in the European Union (EU) from March 2009. This animal testing ban is also linked to an EU marketing ban on products containing any ingredients that have been subsequently tested in animals, from March 2009 or March 2013, depending on the toxicological endpoint of concern. Consequently, the testing of cosmetic ingredients in animals for their potential to induce skin sensitisation will be subject to an EU marketing ban, from March 2013 onwards. Our conceptual framework and strategy to deliver a non-animal approach to consumer safety risk assessment can be summarised as an evaluation of new technologies (e.g. 'omics', informatics), leading to the development of new non-animal (in silico and in vitro) predictive models for the generation and interpretation of new forms of hazard characterisation data, followed by the development of new risk assessment approaches to integrate these new forms of data and information in the context of human exposure. Following the principles of the conceptual framework, we have been investigating existing and developing new technologies, models and approaches, in order to explore the feasibility of delivering consumer safety risk assessment decisions in the absence of new animal data. We present here our progress in implementing this conceptual framework, with the skin sensitisation endpoint used as a case study. PMID:19025323

  1. Test systems for the determination of glucocorticoid receptor ligand induced skin atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Schäcke, Heike; Asadullah, Khusru

    2011-01-01

    Topical glucocorticoids are highly anti-inflammatory effective but limited by their side effect potential, with skin atrophy being the most prominent one. Thus, determining the atrophogenic potential of novel compounds targeting the glucocorticoid receptor is important. Significant progress in the understanding of glucocorticoid receptor mediated molecular action has been made providing the basis for novel glucocorticoid receptor ligands with a potentially superior effect/side effect profile. Such compounds, however, need to be tested. The present gold standard for the reliable prediction of glucocorticoid induced skin atrophy are still in vivo models, however, in vitro models may replace them to some extent in the future. Indeed, advances in technologies to determine the atrophogenic potential of compounds in vitro has been made recently and promising novel test models like the human full thickness skin models are emerging. Their full predictive value, however, needs to be further evaluated. Currently, a screening approach starting with a combination of several in vitro test systems followed by subsequent testing of the most promising compounds in rodent models is recommended prior entering clinical studies with selected development compounds. PMID:22110776

  2. Skin sensitization--a critical review of predictive test methods in animals and man.

    PubMed

    Botham, P A; Basketter, D A; Maurer, T; Mueller, D; Potokar, M; Bontinck, W J

    1991-04-01

    With the exception of the Draize Test, the guinea-pig test methods currently accepted by regulatory authorities worldwide are well able to predict the potential of a material to cause skin sensitization. Nevertheless, (a) some methods are more sensitive than others (e.g. adjuvant tests are generally more sensitive than non-adjuvant tests); (b) methods cannot be sufficiently standardized to give full reproducibility of results between laboratories; and (c) most methods are based on subjective visual grading of skin reactions--difficulties thus arise when testing coloured or irritant materials. Laboratories must be able to show the sensitivity of the method(s) they use by demonstrating that positive reactions occur with mild/moderate contact allergens rather than the strong/extreme sensitizers currently recommended in certain guidelines, specifically in the EEC Test Method. The sensitivity of the adjuvant tests is such that it is possible to halve the minimum number of animals required by present regulatory guidelines without compromising the capacity of the tests to detect weak/mild sensitizers. A similar review has not yet been made for non-adjuvant tests. Alternative test methods, including some recently developed mouse models, offer several advantages, including more objective endpoints. These tests have not been extensively validated and this precludes their use at present for regulatory purposes other than to confirm the sensitization potential of a material. Two new test methods using mice, the Mouse Ear-swelling Test and the Local Lymph Node Assay, appear promising. They should undergo rigorous interlaboratory testing to determine their sensitivity and specificity. In vitro methods do not represent a viable alternative in the foreseeable future. An approach using quantitative structure-activity relationships is the most likely route to a non-animal model, but this will require considerable research, development and validation. Human sensitization tests have

  3. Sensitization to Food Additives in Patients with Allergy: A Study Based on Skin Test and Open Oral Challenge.

    PubMed

    Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Hejrati, Zinatosadat; Dehghani, Zahra; Dehghani, Faranak; Kolahi, Niloofar

    2016-06-01

    There has been a great increase in the consumption of various food additives in recent years. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence of sensitization to food additives by using skin prick test in patients with allergy and to determine the concordance rate between positive skin tests and oral challenge in hypersensitivity to additives. This cross-sectional study included 125 (female 71, male 54) patients aged 2-76 years with allergy and 100 healthy individuals. Skin tests were performed in both patient and control groups with 25 fresh food additives. Among patients with allergy, 22.4% showed positive skin test at least to one of the applied materials. Skin test was negative to all tested food additives in control group. Oral food challenge was done in 28 patients with positive skin test, in whom 9 patients showed reaction to culprit (Concordance rate=32.1%). The present study suggested that about one-third of allergic patients with positive reaction to food additives showed positive oral challenge; it may be considered the potential utility of skin test to identify the role of food additives in patients with allergy. PMID:27424134

  4. Tests of Flammability of Cotton Fabrics and Expected Skin Burns in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavanagh, Jane M.; Torvi, David A.; Gabriel, Kamiel S.; Ruff, Gary A.

    2004-01-01

    During a shuttle launch and other portions of space flight, astronauts wear specialized flame resistant clothing. However during most of their missions on board the Space Shuttle or International Space Station, astronauts wear ordinary clothing, such as cotton shirts and pants. As the behaviour of flames is considerably different in microgravity than under earth's gravity, fabrics are expected to burn in a different fashion in microgravity than when tested on earth. There is interest in determining how this change in burning behaviour may affect times to second and third degree burn of human skin, and how the results of standard fabric flammability tests conducted under earth's gravity correlate with the expected fire behaviour of textiles in microgravity. A new experimental apparatus was developed to fit into the Spacecraft Fire Safety Facility (SFSF), which is used on NASA's KC-135 low gravity aircraft. The new apparatus was designed to be similar to the apparatus used in standard vertical flammability tests of fabrics. However, rather than using a laboratory burner, the apparatus uses a hot wire system to ignite 200 mm high by 80 mm wide fabric specimens. Fabric temperatures are measured using thermocouples and/or an infrared imaging system, while flame spread rates are measured using real time observations or video. Heat flux gauges are placed between 7 and 13 mm away from the fabric specimen, so that heat fluxes from the burning fabric to the skin can be estimated, along with predicted times required to produce skin burns. In November of 2003, this new apparatus was used on the KC-135 aircraft to test cotton and cotton/polyester blend fabric specimens in microgravity. These materials were also been tested using the same apparatus in 1-g, and using a standard vertical flammability test that utilizes a flame. In this presentation, the design of the test apparatus will be briefly described. Examples of results from the KC-135 tests will be provided, including

  5. Regulatory T Cells Modulate Th17 Responses in Tuberculin skin test positive (TST+) individuals

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Subash; Bhat, Sajid Q.; Kumar, N. Pavan; Kumaraswami, V.; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2009-01-01

    Background The factors governing latency in tuberculosis (TB) are not well understood but appear to include pathogen and host factors. We have used Tuberculin skin test positivity as a tool to study cytokine responses in latent TB. Methods To identify host factors important in maintenance of TST positivity, we examined mycobacteria-specific immune responses of tuberculin skin test positive (TST+; latent TB) or negative (TST−; healthy) individuals in South India where skin test positivity can define TB latency. Results While PPD- and Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture filtrate Ag-specific Th1 and Th2 cytokines were not significantly different between the two groups, the Th17 cytokines—IL-17 and IL-23—were significantly decreased in TST+ individuals compared with the TST− individuals. This Th17 cytokine modulation was associated with significantly increased expression of CTLA-4 and Foxp3. Although CTLA-4 blockade failed to restore full production of IL-17 and IL-23 in TST+ individuals, depletion of regulatory T cells significantly increased production of these cytokines. Conclusion TST positivity is characterized by increased activity of regulatory T cells and a coincident downregulation of the Th17 response. PMID:19929695

  6. Testing and Analysis of Composite Skin/Stringer Debonding Under Multi-Axial Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Ronald; Cvitkovich, Michael K.; OBrien, T. Kevin; Minguet, Pierre J.

    1999-01-01

    Damage mechanisms in composite bonded skin/stringer constructions under uniaxial and biaxial (in-plane/out- of-plane) loading conditions were examined. Specimens consisted of a tapered composite flange bonded onto a composite skin. Tests were performed under monotonic loading conditions in tension, three-point bending, and combined tension/bending . For combined tension/bending testing, a unique servohydraulic load frame was used that was capable of applying both in-plane tension and out-of-plane bending loads simultaneously. Specimen edges were examined on the microscope to document the damage occurrence and to identify typical damage patterns. The observations showed that, for all three load cases, failure initiated in the flange, near the flange tip, causing the flange to almost fully debond from the skin. A two-dimensional plane-strain finite element model was developed to analyze the different test cases using a geometrically nonlinear solution. For all three loading conditions, principal stresses exceeded the transverse strength of the material in the flange area. Additionally, delaminations of various lengths were simulated in two locations where delaminations were observed. The analyses showed that unstable delamination propagation is likely to occur in one location at the loads corresponding to matrix ply crack initiation for all three load cases.

  7. Tests of Flammability of Cotton Fabrics and Expected Skin Burns in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavanagh, Jane M.; Torvi, David A.; Gabriel, Kamiel S.; Ruff, Gary A.

    2004-01-01

    During a shuttle launch and other portions of space flight, astronauts wear specialized flame resistant clothing. However during most of their missions on board the Space Shuttle or International Space Station, astronauts wear ordinary clothing, such as cotton shirts and pants. As the behaviour of flames is considerably different in microgravity than under earth s gravity, fabrics are expected to burn in a different fashion in microgravity than when tested on earth. There is interest in determining how this change in burning behaviour may affect times to second and third degree burn of human skin, and how the results of standard fabric flammability tests conducted under earth s gravity correlate with the expected fire behaviour of textiles in microgravity. A new experimental apparatus was developed to fit into the Spacecraft Fire Safety Facility (SFSF), which is used on NASA s KC-135 low gravity aircraft. The new apparatus was designed to be similar to the apparatus used in standard vertical flammability tests of fabrics. However, rather than using a laboratory burner, the apparatus uses a hot wire system to ignite 200 mm high by 80 mm wide fabric specimens. Fabric temperatures are measured using thermocouples and/or an infrared imaging system, while flame spread rates are measured using real time observations or video. Heat flux gauges are placed between 7 and 13 mm away from the fabric specimen, so that heat fluxes from the burning fabric to the skin can be estimated, along with predicted times required to produce skin burns.

  8. Improved procedures for in vitro skin irritation testing of sticky and greasy natural botanicals.

    PubMed

    Molinari, J; Eskes, C; Andres, E; Remoué, N; Sá-Rocha, V M; Hurtado, S P; Barrichello, C

    2013-02-01

    Skin irritation evaluation is an important endpoint for the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients required by various regulatory authorities for notification and/or import of test substances. The present study was undertaken to investigate possible protocol adaptations of the currently validated in vitro skin irritation test methods based on reconstructed human epidermis (RhE) for the testing of plant extracts and natural botanicals. Due to their specific physico-chemical properties, such as lipophilicity, sticky/buttery-like texture, waxy/creamy foam characteristics, normal washing procedures can lead to an incomplete removal of these materials and/or to mechanical damage to the tissues, resulting in an impaired prediction of the true skin irritation potential of the materials. For this reason different refined washing procedures were evaluated for their ability to ensure appropriate removal of greasy and sticky substances while not altering the normal responses of the validated RhE test method. Amongst the different procedures evaluated, the use of a SDS 0.1% PBS solution to remove the sticky and greasy test material prior to the normal washing procedures was found to be the most suitable adaptation to ensure efficient removal of greasy and sticky in-house controls without affecting the results of the negative control. The predictive capacity of the refined SDS 0.1% washing procedure, was investigated by using twelve oily and viscous compounds having known skin irritation effects supported by raw and/or peer reviewed in vivo data. The normal washing procedure resulted in 8 out of 10 correctly predicted compounds as compared to 9 out of 10 with the refined washing procedures, showing an increase in the predictive ability of the assay. The refined washing procedure allowed to correctly identify all in vivo skin irritant materials showing the same sensitivity as the normal washing procedures, and further increased the specificity of the assay from 5 to 6 correct

  9. The Myeloid U937 Skin Sensitization Test (U-SENS) addresses the activation of dendritic cell event in the adverse outcome pathway for skin sensitization.

    PubMed

    Piroird, Cécile; Ovigne, Jean-Marc; Rousset, Françoise; Martinozzi-Teissier, Silvia; Gomes, Charles; Cotovio, José; Alépée, Nathalie

    2015-08-01

    The U-SENS™ assay, formerly known as MUSST (Myeloid U937 Skin Sensitization Test), is an in vitro method to assess skin sensitization. Dendritic cell activation following exposure to sensitizers was modelled in the U937 human myeloid cell line by measuring the induction of the expression of CD86 by flow cytometry. The predictive performance of U-SENS™ was assessed via a comprehensive comparison analysis with the available human and LLNA data of 175 substances. U-SENS™ showed 79% specificity, 90% sensitivity and 88% accuracy. A four laboratory ring study demonstrated the transferability, reliability and reproducibility of U-SENS™, with a reproducibility of 95% within laboratories and 79% between-laboratories, showing that the U-SENS™ assay is a promising tool in a skin sensitization risk assessment testing strategy. PMID:25820135

  10. Cutaneous Surgical Denervation: A Method for Testing the Requirement for Nerves in Mouse Models of Skin Disease.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Shelby C; Brownell, Isaac; Wong, Sunny Y

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous somatosensory nerves function to detect diverse stimuli that act upon the skin. In addition to their established sensory roles, recent studies have suggested that nerves may also modulate skin disorders including atopic dermatitis, psoriasis and cancer. Here, we describe protocols for testing the requirement for nerves in maintaining a cutaneous mechanosensory organ, the touch dome (TD). Specifically, we discuss methods for genetically labeling, harvesting and visualizing TDs by whole-mount staining, and for performing unilateral surgical denervation on mouse dorsal back skin. Together, these approaches can be used to directly compare TD morphology and gene expression in denervated as well as sham-operated skin from the same animal. These methods can also be readily adapted to examine the requirement for nerves in mouse models of skin pathology. Finally, the ability to repeatedly sample the skin provides an opportunity to monitor disease progression at different stages and times after initiation. PMID:27404892

  11. Antibiotic skin testing accompanied by provocative challenges in children is a useful clinical tool

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Diagnostic testing to antibiotics other than to penicillin has not been widely available, making the diagnosis of antibiotic allergy difficult and often erroneous. There is often reluctance in performing challenges to antibiotics when standardized testing is lacking. However, while the immunogenic determinants are not known for most antibiotics, a skin reaction at a non-irritating concentration (NIC) may mean that antibodies to the native form are present in the circulation. While the NIC’s for many non penicillin antibiotics have been determined in adults, the use of these concentrations for skin testing pediatric subjects prior to provocative challenge has not been done. Our objective was to determine if we could successfully uncover the true nature of antibiotic allergy in children using these concentrations for testing. Methods Children were included between 2003–2009 upon being referred to the Drug and Adverse Reaction/Toxicology (DART) clinic of the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Ontario Canada. The referral needed to demonstrate that clinical care was being compromised by the limitation in antibiotic options or there was a significant medical condition for which the label of antibiotic allergy may prove detrimental. Patients were not seen if there was a suggestion of serum like sickness, Stevens Johnson Syndrome or Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis. Patients were excluded from testing if there was objective evidence of anaphylaxis. All other patients were consented to receive testing and/or challenges. A retrospective chart review was then performed of the results. Results We were able to exclude an antibiotic allergy in the majority of our patients who had a negative intradermal test result and were then challenged (>90%). Only one patient was challenged with a positive intradermal test to Cotrimoxazole because of a questionable history and this patient failed the provocative challenge. While we did not challenge more patients with positive

  12. Non-occlusive topical exposure of human skin in vitro as model for cytotoxicity testing of irritant compounds.

    PubMed

    Lönnqvist, Susanna; Briheim, Kristina; Kratz, Gunnar

    2016-02-01

    Testing of irritant compounds has traditionally been performed on animals and human volunteers. Animal testing should always be restricted and for skin irritancy mice and rabbits hold poor predictive value for irritant potential in humans. Irritant testing on human volunteers is restricted by the duration subjects can be exposed, and by the subjectivity of interpreting the visual signs of skin irritation. We propose an irritant testing system using viable human full thickness skin with the loss of cell viability in the exposed skin area as end point measurement. Skin was exposed to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at 20% concentration by non-occluded topical exposure to establish a positive control response and subsequent test compounds were statistically compared with the 20% SDS response. Cell viability and metabolism were measured with 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The model presents correlation between increased concentration of SDS and decreased viability of cells in the exposed skin area (R(2) = 0.76). We propose the model to be used for cytotoxicity testing of irritant compounds. With fully intact barrier function, the model comprises all cells present in the skin with quantifiable end point measurement. PMID:26446981

  13. Derivation and application of mathematical model for well test analysis with variable skin factor in hydrocarbon reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Pengcheng; Li, Wenhui; Xia, Jing; Jiao, Yuwei; Bie, Aifang

    2016-06-01

    Skin factor is often regarded as a constant in most of the mathematical model for well test analysis in oilfields, but this is only a kind of simplified treatment with the actual skin factor changeable. This paper defined the average permeability of a damaged area as a function of time by using the definition of skin factor. Therefore a relationship between a variable skin factor and time was established. The variable skin factor derived was introduced into existing traditional models rather than using a constant skin factor, then, this newly derived mathematical model for well test analysis considering variable skin factor was solved by Laplace transform. The dimensionless wellbore pressure and its derivative changed with dimensionless time were plotted with double logarithm and these plots can be used for type curve fitting. The effects of all the parameters in the expression of variable skin factor were analyzed based on the dimensionless wellbore pressure and its derivative. Finally, actual well testing data were used to fit the type curves developed which validates the applicability of the mathematical model from Sheng-2 Block, Shengli Oilfield, China.

  14. The Results of Autologous Skin Test in Patients with Chronic Urticaria in Hamadan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Safari, Mojgan; Sayemiri, Hooshyar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The etiology of chronic urticaria is unknown in many cases. In this study, we demonstrated the presence of autoimmune antibodies in patients with chronic urticaria by using of the Autologous Serum Skin Test (ASST). Methods We performed a cross-sectional study to detect the presence of autologous antibodies in the serum of 38 patients (25 females and 13 males) with idiopathic chronic urticaria who were referred to the Hamedan Allergy Clinic in 2014. All of the necessary tests for demonstrating chronic urticaria were performed, including complete blood count (CBC), thyroid and liver functionality tests, and the prick test but they did not confirm the cause of chronic urticaria. We conducted the Autologous Serum Skin Test on the patients and analyzed the results. Results In 15 patients (39%), the ASST was positive. Of the 15 patients with positive autoimmune chronic urticaria, five patients (33%) were males, and 10 patients (67%) were females. Conclusion We concluded that many patients with chronic urticaria have autoimmune urticaria. It is the reason for the lack of the response to treatment with common medications for urticaria. New ways of treatment must be considered for them. PMID:27504169

  15. Efficacy of skin barrier creams (II). Ineffectiveness of a popular "skin protector" against various irritants in the repetitive irritation test in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Frosch, P J; Schulze-Dirks, A; Hoffmann, M; Axthelm, I

    1993-08-01

    A popular "skin protector" consisting of an emulsion-like foam of lipophilic and hydrophilic substances (Marly skin) was evaluated in a previously described repetitive irritation guinea pig model. The product failed to inhibit the irritation due to sodium lauryl sulphate and toluene. In striking contrast to the recommended use, the irritant response of sodium hydroxide was aggravated, as demonstrated by significant differences for all test parameters (clinical score for erythema and scaling, transepidermal water loss, blood flow volume). The results show that protection against chemical irritants may be quite specific and that some formulations may actually be harmful. PMID:8365180

  16. Sensitivity Comparison of the Skin Prick Test and Serum and Fecal Radio Allergosorbent Test (RAST) in Diagnosis of Food Allergy in Children

    PubMed Central

    Kianifar, Hamid Reza; Pourreza, Alireza; Jabbari Azad, Farahzad; Yousefzadeh, Hadis; Masomi, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diagnosis of food allergy is difficult in children. Food allergies are diagnosed using several methods that include medical histories, clinical examinations, skin prick and serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) tests, radio-allergosorbent test (RAST), food challenge, and supervised elimination diets. In this study we evaluated allergies to cow's milk, egg, peanut, and fish in children with suspected food allergies with skin prick tests and serum and feces RAST. Methods: Forty-one children with clinical symptoms of food allergies were enrolled in the study. Skin prick tests and serum and fecal RAST were performed and compared with challenge tests. Results: The most common sites of food allergy symptoms were gastrointestinal (82.9%) and skin (48.8%). 100% of the patients responded to the challenge tests with cow’s milk, egg, peanut, and fish. 65% of the patients tested positive with the skin prick test, 12.1% tested positive with serum RAST, and 29.2% tested positive with fecal RAST. Conclusion: The skin prick test was more sensitive than serum or fecal RAST, and fecal RAST was more than twice as sensitive as serum RAST.

  17. Clinical and Demographic Stratification of Test Performance: A Pooled Analysis of Five Laboratory Diagnostic Methods for American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Boggild, Andrea K.; Ramos, Ana P.; Espinosa, Diego; Valencia, Braulio M.; Veland, Nicolas; Miranda-Verastegui, Cesar; Arevalo, Jorge; Low, Donald E.; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated performance characteristics of five diagnostic methods for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Patients who came to the Leishmania Clinic of Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia in Lima, Peru, were enrolled in the study. Lesion smears, culture, microculture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and leishmanin skin test (LST) were performed. A total of 145 patients with 202 lesions were enrolled: 114 patients with 161 lesions fulfilled criteria for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Sensitivity and specificity were 57.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 50.2–65.4%) and 100.0% for culture, 78.3% (95% CI = 71.9–84.7%) and 100.0% for microculture, 71.4% (95% CI = 64.4–78.4%) and 100.0% for smears, 78.2% (95% CI = 70.6–85.8%) and 77.4% (95% CI = 62.7–92.1%) for LST, and 96.9% (95% CI = 94.2–99.6%) and 65.9% (95% CI = 51.4–80.4%) for PCR. PCR was more sensitive than the other assays (P < 0.001). Sensitivities of culture, smears, and LST varied by lesion duration and appearance. PCR offers performance advantages over other assays, irrespective of patient age, sex, lesion duration, or appearance. That clinical factors influence performance of non-molecular assays offers clinicians a patient-focused approach to diagnostic test selection. PMID:20682880

  18. Melanoma Genetic Testing, Counseling, and Adherence to Skin Cancer Prevention and Detection Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Glanz, Karen; Volpicelli, Kathryn; Kanetsky, Peter A.; Ming, Michael E.; Schuchter, Lynn M.; Jepson, Christopher; Domchek, Susan M.; Armstrong, Katrina

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the impact of knowledge of CDKN2A and MC1R genotype on melanoma prevention behaviors like sun avoidance and skin examination in the context of familial melanoma. Methods 73 adults with a family history of melanoma were randomly assigned to be offered individualized CDKN2A and MC1R genotyping results in the context of a genetic counseling session, or the standard practice of not being offered counseling or disclosure of genotyping results. Mixed effects or longitudinal logistic models were used to determine whether the intervention affected change in sun protection habits, skin examinations and perception and beliefs related to melanoma risk, prevention, and genetic counseling. Results All participants in the intervention group who attended genetic counseling sessions chose to receive their test results. From baseline to follow-up, participants in the intervention group reported an increase in the frequency of skin self-examinations compared to a slight decrease in the control group (p=0.002). Participants in the intervention group reported a smaller decrease in frequency of wearing a shirt with long sleeves than did participants in the control group (p =0.047). No effect of the intervention was noted for other outcomes. Conclusions Feedback of CDKN2A and MC1R genotype among families without known pathogenic CDKN2A mutations does not appear to decrease sun protection behaviors. Impact While disclosure of CDKN2A and MC1R genotype did not have negative effects on prevention, the benefits of communicating this information remain unclear. The small number of families who tested positive for CDKN2A mutations in this study is a limitation. PMID:23392000

  19. A dataset on 145 chemicals tested in alternative assays for skin sensitization undergoing prevalidation.

    PubMed

    Natsch, Andreas; Ryan, Cindy A; Foertsch, Leslie; Emter, Roger; Jaworska, Joanna; Gerberick, Frank; Kern, Petra

    2013-11-01

    Skin sensitization is a key endpoint for cosmetic ingredients, with a forthcoming ban for animal testing in Europe. Four alternative tests have so far been submitted to ECVAM prevalidation: (i) MUSST and (ii) h-Clat assess surface markers on dendritic cell lines, (iii) the direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA) measures reactivity with model peptides and (iv) the KeratinoSens(TM) assay which is based on detection of Nrf2-induced luciferase. It is anticipated that only an integrated testing strategy (ITS) based on a battery of tests might give a full replacement providing also a sensitization potency assessment, but this concept should be tested with a data-driven analysis. Here we report a database on 145 chemicals reporting the quantitative endpoints measured in a U937- test, the DPRA and KeratinoSens(TM) . It can serve to develop data-driven ITS approaches as we show in a parallel paper and provides a view as to the current ability to predict with in vitro tests as we are entering 2013. It may also serve as reference database when benchmarking new molecules with in vitro based read-across and find use as a reference database when evaluating new tests. The tests and combinations thereof were evaluated for predictivity, and overall a similar predictivity was found as before on three-fold smaller datasets. Analysis of the dose-response parameters of the individual tests indicates a correlation to sensitization potency. Detailed analysis of chemicals false-negative and false-positive in two tests helped to define limitations in the tests but also in the database derived from animal studies. PMID:23576290

  20. pH profiles in human skin: influence of two in vitro test systems for drug delivery testing.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Heike; Kostka, Karl Heinz; Lehr, Claus Michael; Schaefer, Ulrich F

    2003-01-01

    Investigations to determine pH profiles across human stratum corneum (SC), in vivo as well as in vitro, were carried out using the tape stripping technique and a flat surface pH electrode. This method was extended to the deeper skin layers (=viable epidermis+dermis; DSL) in vitro. Statistically significant changes in the pH values were detected in the SC between in vivo and in vitro investigations and also between male and female skin in vivo. For the DSL, no gender-dependent differences in pH were observed. While the results achieved for the SC are in accordance with data already published in the literature, the values for the DSL were surprising: An alkaline pH, with a steep increase of about two pH units in the first 100 microm of the DSL and a plateau of this level was thereafter detected. Research was also done to examine the influence of different in vitro test systems on the results of pH measurements across the skin. A permeation model (Franz diffusion cell; FD-C) and a penetration model (Saarbruecken penetration model; SB-M) were compared. Experiments were carried out concerning the incubation time as well as the pH of the acceptor solution in the FD-C. Independent of the test system used, no change in the pH profiles could be observed for the SC, but a strong effect of the acceptor medium and its pH on the pH profiles across the DSL could be demonstrated using the FD-C, which showed itself partly after 30 min in statistically significant differences between incubated and formerly frozen skin. The results after the use of buffer solutions with different pH values, the pH across the DSL seemed to come into line with the one of the buffer solution, which was investigated for acidic as well as alkaline pH values. The results obtained with the flat surface pH electrode were confirmed using two different dyes: the pH-dependent fluorescent dye carboxy-SNARF-1 and the pH indicator bromthymolblue. PMID:12551704

  1. Sensitization to Aeroallergens in Patients with Respiratory Allergies Based on Skin-Prick Test Results

    PubMed Central

    Lokaj-Berisha, V; Berisha, N; Lumezi, B; Ahmetaj, L; Bejtullahu, G; Karahoda, N; Pupovci, H

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to identify the most common aeroallergens in patients with asthma and rhinitis. Methods: The study enrolled 102 participants including 64 patients with respiratory allergies (among them 15 were clinically diagnosed as asthma patients, 41 with rhinitis, 8 were both) and 38 healthy controls. All of participants were subject of skin prick tests (SPT) with series of common allergenic extracts. Sera from all participants were tested for total IgE and eosinophil count. To measure airflow limitation and reversibility in asthma patients the pulmonary function testing were carried out. Results: M/F ratio was 1:1.6 in patients and 1:0.7 in control group with mean age 28.88 year (SD 13.16; range 6 – 55 year) and 20.47 respectively (SD 1.16; range 19–23 year). The most common risk factors in these patients were total IgE more than 100 IU/ml, eosinophils above 4% and positive family history of atopy. Skin prick testing results showed prevalence rates for allergen groups in this manner: house dust mites 81.3 %, pollens 57.8 %, animal dandruff 12.5% and moulds 4.9%. Polysensitization was common in 51.6% of all sensitized patients being positive to more than one group of allergens. Conclusion: House dust mites are the main sensitizing allergens among our allergic patients as well as healthy controls. Next in importance, in all participants, are grasses. This pattern of prevalence was expected based on herbal geography, climate and specially lifestyle. It was also compatible with the results from studies carried out in places with the same habitat. PMID:23304660

  2. Laser heat stimulation of tiny skin areas adds valuable information to quantitative sensory testing in postherpetic neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Franz, Marcel; Spohn, Dorothee; Ritter, Alexander; Rolke, Roman; Miltner, Wolfgang H R; Weiss, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    Patients suffering from postherpetic neuralgia often complain about hypo- or hypersensation in the affected dermatome. The loss of thermal sensitivity has been demonstrated by quantitative sensory testing as being associated with small-fiber (Aδ- and C-fiber) deafferentation. We aimed to compare laser stimulation (radiant heat) to thermode stimulation (contact heat) with regard to their sensitivity and specificity to detect thermal sensory deficits related to small-fiber dysfunction in postherpetic neuralgia. We contrasted detection rate of laser stimuli with 5 thermal parameters (thresholds of cold/warm detection, cold/heat pain, and sensory limen) of quantitative sensory testing. Sixteen patients diagnosed with unilateral postherpetic neuralgia and 16 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects were tested. Quantitative sensory testing and laser stimulation of tiny skin areas were performed in the neuralgia-affected skin and in the contralateral homologue of the neuralgia-free body side. Across the 5 thermal parameters of thermode stimulation, only one parameter (warm detection threshold) revealed sensory abnormalities (thermal hypoesthesia to warm stimuli) in the neuralgia-affected skin area of patients but not in the contralateral area, as compared to the control group. In contrast, patients perceived significantly less laser stimuli both in the affected skin and in the contralateral skin compared to controls. Overall, laser stimulation proved more sensitive and specific in detecting thermal sensory abnormalities in the neuralgia-affected skin, as well as in the control skin, than any single thermal parameter of thermode stimulation. Thus, laser stimulation of tiny skin areas might be a useful diagnostic tool for small-fiber dysfunction. PMID:22657400

  3. Current status of pharmacogenomics testing for anti-tumor drug therapies: approaches to non-melanoma skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Grealy, Rebecca; Griffiths, Lyn R

    2009-01-01

    Skin cancer is one of the most commonly occurring cancer types, with substantial social, physical, and financial burdens on both individuals and societies. Although the role of UV light in initiating skin cancer development has been well characterized, genetic studies continue to show that predisposing factors can influence an individual's susceptibility to skin cancer and response to treatment. In the future, it is hoped that genetic profiles, comprising a number of genetic markers collectively involved in skin cancer susceptibility and response to treatment or prognosis, will aid in more accurately informing practitioners' choices of treatment. Individualized treatment based on these profiles has the potential to increase the efficacy of treatments, saving both time and money for the patient by avoiding the need for extensive or repeated treatment. Increased treatment responses may in turn prevent recurrence of skin cancers, reducing the burden of this disease on society. Currently existing pharmacogenomic tests, such as those that assess variation in the metabolism of the anticancer drug fluorouracil, have the potential to reduce the toxic effects of anti-tumor drugs used in the treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) by determining individualized appropriate dosage. If the savings generated by reducing adverse events negate the costs of developing these tests, pharmacogenomic testing may increasingly inform personalized NMSC treatment. PMID:19537842

  4. Quiz: Test Your Skin Cancer IQ | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... most dangerous form of skin cancer is melanoma squamous cell carcinoma basal cell carcinoma 4. The most common type of skin cancer is melanoma squamous cell carcinoma basal cell carcinoma 5. Men tend to develop ...

  5. Characterization of the mechanical properties of skin by inverse analysis combined with the indentation test.

    PubMed

    Delalleau, Alexandre; Josse, Gwendal; Lagarde, Jean-Michel; Zahouani, Hassan; Bergheau, Jean-Michel

    2006-01-01

    This study proposes a new method to determine the mechanical properties of human skin by the use of the indentation test [Pailler-Mattei, 2004. Caractérisation mécanique et tribologique de la peau humaine in vivo, Ph.D. Thesis, ECL-no. 2004-31; Pailler-Mattei, Zahouani, 2004. Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology 18, 1739-1758]. The principle of the measurements consists in applying an in vivo compressive stress [Zhang et al., 1994. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers 208, 217-222; Bosboom et al., 2001. Journal of Biomechanics 34, 1365-1368; Oomens et al., 1984. Selected Proceedings of Meetings of European Society of Biomechanics, pp. 227-232; Oomens et al., 1987. Journal of Biomechanics 20(9), 877-885] on the skin tissue of an individual's forearm. These measurements show an increase in the normal contact force as a function of the indentation depth. The interpretation of such results usually requires a long and tedious phenomenological study. We propose a new method to determine the mechanical parameters which control the response of skin tissue. This method is threefold: experimental, numerical, and comparative. It consists combining experimental results with a numerical finite elements model in order to find out the required parameters. This process uses a scheme of extended Kalman filters (EKF) [Gu et al., 2003. Materials Science and Engineering A345, 223-233; Nakamura et al., 2000. Acta Mater 48, 4293-4306; Leustean and Rosu, 2003. Certifying Kalman filters. RIACS Technical Report 03.02, 27pp. http://gureni.cs.uiuc.edu/~grosu/download/luta + leo.pdf; Welch and Bishop, An introduction to Kalman filter, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 16p. http://www.cs.unc.edu/~welch/kalman/]. The first results presented in this study correspond to a simplified numerical modeling of the global system. The skin is assumed to be a semi-infinite layer with an isotropic linear elastic mechanical behavior [Zhang et al., 1994. Proceedings of

  6. Frequency and temperature dependence of skin bioimpedance during a contralateral cold test.

    PubMed

    Podtaev, S; Nikolaev, D; Samartsev, V; Gavrilov, V; Tsiberkin, K

    2015-03-01

    A study of the α- and β-dispersion of skin bioimpedance dependence on temperature and micro-hemodynamics is presented. The vascular tone changes during the cold test are verified by the wavelet-analysis of skin temperature signals obtained simultaneously with impedance measurements. Thirty three normal healthy subjects of 28  ±  7 years old were entered into the study. The tetra-polar electrode system was used to record the resistance and reactance; measurements were carried out at 67 frequencies, in a frequency range from 2 Hz to 50 kHz. It has been found that the impedance decreases with vasodilation and increases with vasoconstriction. The high values of correlation among thermal oscillation amplitudes and Nyquist diagram parameters prove the impedance dependence on blood flow in three frequency bands corresponding to the myogenic, neurogenic and endothelial vascular tone regulation mechanisms. Using an equivalent RC circuit, we obtained the changes in the Nyquist diagram matching the experimental data. The proposed descriptive α-dispersion model can be used to study mechanisms responsible for intercellular interaction. PMID:25690397

  7. Positive skin prick tests of immediate type in non-allergic children.

    PubMed

    Cserháti, E; Kiss, A G; Mezei, G; Kelemen, J; Puskás, J

    1983-01-01

    Prick tests with twenty different Beneard antigens were performed in 300 children aged 2-16 years, all having a negative individual and familial history for allergic disease. At least one positive result was obtained in 64% of the children and among the 6000 tests a total of 727 were positive. Of the positive tests 93% were + or ++, 7% were +++ or ++++. No relationship was found between age and the incidence of positive skin tests. Mild reactions against more than one antigen in the same individual were quite frequent, pronounced reactions (+++ or ++++) against more than one antigen were exceptional. The incidence of mild reactions was found to be independent of the gender; strong reactions occurred in girls twice as often as in boys. The highest incidence of positive reactions was observed with house-dust mite, pollens, hay and straw dust, and canine and feline hairs. The diagnostic value of mild positivity is slight but pronounced positivity, especially against more than one antigen, must carefully be considered and in any case followed by a bronchial provocation test. PMID:6639791

  8. Development and preliminary testing of a standardized method for quantifying excess water in over-hydrated skin using evaporimetry.

    PubMed

    Fader, M; Clark-O'Neill, S R; Wong, W K R; Runeman, B; Farbrot, A; Cottenden, A M

    2011-03-01

    Although evaporimetry (the measurement of water vapour flux density from the skin) has often been used to study the impact on skin hydration of using products such as baby diapers and incontinence pads, it is difficult to interpret results and to compare data from different studies because of the diversity of unvalidated methodologies used. The aim of this work was to develop a robust methodology for measuring the excess water in over-hydrated skin and test it on volar forearm and hip skin which had been occluded with saline soaked patches. Three repeat measurements were made on the volar forearm and the hip of five young (31-44 years) and six older (67-85 years) women and moderately good within-subject repeatability was found for both skin sites for both subject groups. Measurements taken from the hip were significantly higher (P = 0.001) than those from the arm and had larger coefficients of variation (3.5-22.1%) compared to arms (3.0-14.0%). There were no significant differences between young and older skin, implying that women for future studies could be recruited without regard to age. This is the first time that a robust evaporimetric methodology for quantifying excess water in over-hydrated skin has been described and validated, and it will form a solid basis for future work. PMID:21285481

  9. Assessing skin sensitization hazard in mice and men using non-animal test methods.

    PubMed

    Urbisch, Daniel; Mehling, Annette; Guth, Katharina; Ramirez, Tzutzuy; Honarvar, Naveed; Kolle, Susanne; Landsiedel, Robert; Jaworska, Joanna; Kern, Petra S; Gerberick, Frank; Natsch, Andreas; Emter, Roger; Ashikaga, Takao; Miyazawa, Masaaki; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi

    2015-03-01

    Sensitization, the prerequisite event in the development of allergic contact dermatitis, is a key parameter in both hazard and risk assessments. The pathways involved have recently been formally described in the OECD adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for skin sensitization. One single non-animal test method will not be sufficient to fully address this AOP and in many cases the use of a battery of tests will be necessary. A number of methods are now fully developed and validated. In order to facilitate acceptance of these methods by both the regulatory and scientific communities, results of the single test methods (DPRA, KeratinoSens, LuSens, h-CLAT, (m)MUSST) as well for a the simple '2 out of 3' ITS for 213 substances have been compiled and qualitatively compared to both animal and human data. The dataset was also used to define different mechanistic domains by probable protein-binding mechanisms. In general, the non-animal test methods exhibited good predictivities when compared to local lymph node assay (LLNA) data and even better predictivities when compared to human data. The '2 out of 3' prediction model achieved accuracies of 90% or 79% when compared to human or LLNA data, respectively and thereby even slightly exceeded that of the LLNA. PMID:25541156

  10. Tuberculin Skin Tests versus Interferon-Gamma Release Assays in Tuberculosis Screening among Immigrant Visa Applicants

    PubMed Central

    Chuke, Stella O.; Yen, Nguyen Thi Ngoc; Laserson, Kayla F.; Phuoc, Nguyen Huu; Trinh, Nguyen An; Nhung, Duong Thi Cam; Mai, Vo Thi Chi; Qui, An Dang; Hai, Hoang Hoa; Loan, Le Thien Huong; Jones, Warren G.; Whitworth, William C.; Shah, J. Jina; Painter, John A.; Mazurek, Gerald H.; Maloney, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Use of tuberculin skin tests (TSTs) and interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) as part of tuberculosis (TB) screening among immigrants from high TB-burden countries has not been fully evaluated. Methods. Prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTBI) based on TST, or the QuantiFERON-TB Gold test (QFT-G), was determined among immigrant applicants in Vietnam bound for the United States (US); factors associated with test results and discordance were assessed; predictive values of TST and QFT-G for identifying chest radiographs (CXRs) consistent with TB were calculated. Results. Of 1,246 immigrant visa applicants studied, 57.9% were TST positive, 28.3% were QFT-G positive, and test agreement was 59.4%. Increasing age was associated with positive TST results, positive QFT-G results, TST-positive but QFT-G-negative discordance, and abnormal CXRs consistent with TB. Positive predictive values of TST and QFT-G for an abnormal CXR were 25.9% and 25.6%, respectively. Conclusion. The estimated prevalence of MTBI among US-bound visa applicants in Vietnam based on TST was twice that based on QFT-G, and 14 times higher than a TST-based estimate of MTBI prevalence reported for the general US population in 2000. QFT-G was not better than TST at predicting abnormal CXRs consistent with TB. PMID:24738031

  11. Comparison between sensitivity of autologous skin serum test and autologous plasma skin test in patients with Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria for detection of antibody against IgE or IgE receptor (FcεRIα).

    PubMed

    Sajedi, Vahid; Movahedi, Masoud; Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Aghamohamadi, Asghar; Gharagozlou, Mohammad; Ghareguzlou, Mohammad; Shafiei, Alireza; Soheili, Habib; Sanajian, Nahal

    2011-06-01

    Intradermal injection of autologous serum and plasma elicit a cutaneous reactivity in almost 45-60% of patients with Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria (CIU). This reactivity is associated with the presence of auto antibodies against IgE or IgE receptors. This study was carried out to compare the cutaneous reactivity of autologous serum and plasma skin tests in a series of patients with CIU for diagnosis of auto antibodies against IgE or IgE receptor. Fifty eight patients with CIU were injected intradermally with autologous serum and plasma (anticoagulated by citrate). Histamine was used as positive control and normal saline as negative control. The study group was checked by routine laboratory tests (CBC, U/A etc), allergens with skin prick tests, and serum IgE level, and auto antibodies against thyroid as well. Duration of urticaria was another factor which was assessed.There was no significant difference between positive ASST and positive APST patients for the above mentioned tests. 77.6% of the patients were Positive for APST and 65.5% were ASST positive. Duration of urticaria was longer in patients with positive ASST and APST than ASST and APST negative patients, although the difference was not statistically significant.Autologus serum skin test (ASST) and autologous plasma skin test (APST) could be used for estimation of duration and severity of urticaria and planning for the treatment. PMID:21625019

  12. Constructing Human Skin Equivalents on Porcine Acellular Peritoneum Extracellular Matrix for In Vitro Irritation Testing.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Pei-Chin; Zhang, Zheng; Florek, Charles; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena B

    2016-01-01

    The irritancy of topical products has to be investigated to ensure the safety and compliance. Although several reconstructed human epidermal models have been adopted by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to replace in vivo animal irritation testing, these models are based on a single cell type and lack dermal components, which may be insufficient to reflect all of the components of irritation. In our study, we investigated the use of acellular porcine peritoneum extracellular matrix as a substrate to construct full-thickness human skin equivalents (HSEs) for use as irritation screening tool. The acellular peritoneum matrix (APM) exhibited excellent skin cell attachment (>80%) and proliferation for human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) and immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT). APM-HSEs based on coculture of HDF and HaCaT were prepared. Increased HDF seeding density up to 5 × 10(4)/cm(2) resulted in APM-HSEs with a thicker and more organized epidermis. The epidermis of APM-HSEs expressed keratin 15, a keratinocyte proliferation marker, and involucrin, a differentiation marker, respectively. To assess the use of APM-HSEs for irritation testing, six proficiency chemicals, including three nonirritants (phosphate-buffered saline, polyethylene glycol 400, and isopropanol) and three irritants (1-bromohexane, heptanol, and sodium dodecyl sulfate) were applied. The APM-HSEs were able to discriminate nonirritants from irritants based on the viability. Levels of cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1α, IL-1ra, IL-6, IL-8, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF]) in these treatment groups further assisted the irritancy ranking. In conclusion, we have developed partially differentiated full-thickness APM-HSEs based on acellular porcine peritoneum matrix, and these APM-HSEs demonstrated utility as an in vitro irritation screening tool. PMID:26415037

  13. Rat epidermal keratinocyte organotypic culture (ROC) as a model for chemically induced skin irritation testing

    SciTech Connect

    Pappinen, Sari . E-mail: sari.pappinen@uku.fi; Pasonen-Seppaenen, Sanna; Suhonen, Marjukka; Tammi, Raija; Urtti, Arto

    2005-11-01

    The potential of rat epidermal keratinocyte (REK) organotypic culture (ROC) with proper stratum corneum barrier as a model for screening skin irritants was evaluated. The test chemicals were selected from ECETOC database (1995) and the observed in vitro irritation potential was compared to ECETOC in vivo primary irritation index (PII), to EU risk phrases, and to the harmonized OECD criteria. Chemicals were applied onto the stratum corneum surface of ROC for 30 min and samples were taken from the underlying medium at 4 and 8 h after exposure. Cell membrane integrity (determined by LDH assay) and pro-inflammatory effect (determined by IL-1{alpha} release) were verified at both time points and correlated to PII values. The best correlation (R {sup 2} = 0.831) was seen with LDH leakage test. Based on obtained data, chemicals were classified according to criteria defined by EU and OECD. From 12 chemicals, only two were incorrectly classified according to OECD criteria when using LDH leakage and IL-1{alpha} release as irritation markers. At the end of experiment, chemical-treated ROC cultures were fixed and histological changes were assessed. Typical signs for irritation were lightly stained cytoplasm, condensed nuclei, cellular vacuolization, eosinophilic cytoplasms, and blebbing. These irritation effects of chemicals were graded visually into four classes (A-D). The extent of morphological perturbations of the cultures mostly correlated with PII. The present results indicate the validity of the ROC model in predicting skin irritation potential of chemicals and show that the use of set of irritation markers with different mechanistic responses gives more information on irritation than if only one marker was used.

  14. Assessment of Pre- and Pro-haptens Using Nonanimal Test Methods for Skin Sensitization.

    PubMed

    Urbisch, Daniel; Becker, Matthias; Honarvar, Naveed; Kolle, Susanne Noreen; Mehling, Annette; Teubner, Wera; Wareing, Britta; Landsiedel, Robert

    2016-05-16

    Because of ethical and regulatory reasons, several nonanimal test methods to assess the skin sensitization potential of chemicals have been developed and validated. In contrast to in vivo methods, they lack or provide limited metabolic capacity. For this reason, identification of pro-haptens but also pre-haptens, which require molecular transformations to gain peptide reactivity, is a challenge for these methods. In this study, 27 pre- and pro-haptens were tested using nonanimal test methods. Of these, 18 provided true positive results in the direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA; sensitivity of 67%), although lacking structural alerts for direct peptide reactivity. The reaction mechanisms leading to peptide depletion in the DPRA were therefore elucidated using mass spectrometry. Hapten-peptide adducts were identified for 13 of the 18 chemicals indicating that these pre-haptens were activated and that peptide binding occurred. Positive results for five of the 18 chemicals can be explained by dipeptide formations or the oxidation of the sulfhydryl group of the peptide. Nine of the 27 chemicals were tested negative in the DPRA. Of these, four yielded true positive results in the keratinocyte and dendritic cell based assays. Likewise, 16 of the 18 chemicals tested positive in the DPRA were also positive in either one or both of the cell-based assays. A combination of DPRA, KeratinoSens, and h-CLAT used in a 2 out of 3 weight of evidence (WoE) approach identified 22 of the 27 pre- and pro-haptens correctly (sensitivity of 81%), exhibiting a similar sensitivity as for directly acting haptens. This analysis shows that the combination of in chemico and in vitro test methods is suitable to identify pre-haptens and the majority of pro-haptens. PMID:27070937

  15. Utilization of the QuantiFERON-TB Gold Test in a Two-Step Process with the Tuberculin Skin Test To Evaluate Health Care Workers for Latent Tuberculosis▿

    PubMed Central

    Abdalhamid, Baha; Hinrichs, Steven H.; Garrett, Jodi L.; O'Neill, Jean M.; Hansen-Cain, Kristine M.; Armbrust, Amy A.; Iwen, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    A cost analysis of combining a tuberculin skin test (TST) and the QuantiFERON-TB Gold test (QFT-GT) to detect latent tuberculosis in newly hired health care workers was performed. An approximately 50% reduction in the cost of additional care was realized when workers with positive TST results were subsequently screened using the QFT-GT. PMID:20573876

  16. Autologous serum skin test in chronic idiopathic urticaria: prevalence, correlation and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Kulthanan, Kanokvalai; Jiamton, Sukhum; Gorvanich, Taniya; Pinkaew, Sumruay

    2006-12-01

    Some cases of chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) have histamine-releasing IgG autoantibodies in their blood. This disease subgroup is called "autoimmune urticaria". To date, the autologous serum skin test (ASST) is the best in vivo clinical test for the detection of basophil histamine-releasing activity in vitro. This study aimed to find the prevalence of ASST positive cases in Thai patients with CIU, to identify factors related to the positivity of ASST and to find the clinical implications of ASST in CIU. A retrospective study was performed among 85 CIU patients who attended the Urticaria Clinic at the Department of Dermatology, Siriraj Hospital and were willing to perform ASST, from January 2002 to December 2003. Twenty-one (24.7%) patients had a positive ASST. There was no significant difference between patients with positive ASST and negative ASST as to the severity of the disease (wheal numbers, wheal size, itching scores and the extent of body involvement) as well as the duration of the disease. PMID:17348242

  17. Skin Prick Test Analysis in Allergic Rhinitis Patients: A Preliminary Study in Abuja, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ibekwe, T. S.

    2016-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is prevalent in Nigeria, though little information exists on the allergen. We assessed the clinical features of AR patients in our environment based on the allergic rhinitis impact on asthma (ARIA) classification. Only patients with positive skin prick test (SPT) were recruited. Seventy-four patients participated in the study. AR and asthma comorbidity were observed in 13.5%. The proportion of “sneezers-runners” was higher than “blockers” with significantly more “sneezers-runners” having persistent AR (P = 0.007). No relationship was established between these predominant symptoms and the aeroallergens used in this study. Intermittent mild and moderate/severe AR were evident in 13.5% and 31.1%, while persistent mild and moderate/severe were seen in 20.3% and 35.1%, respectively. House dust mites allergen yielded the highest number of positive responses (22.6%) followed by tree pollen (16.8%). No relationship was observed between the allergens tested and AR severity. Majority of patients were oligosensitive (33.8%) and polysensitive (35.1%) and were not significantly associated with AR severity (P = 0.07). Most AR patients presenting for treatment in Abuja, Nigeria, had moderate-severe persistent AR and showed similar SPT sensitization pattern with countries having similar climatic conditions. Sensitization patterns were not related to ARIA classification or predominant AR symptoms. PMID:27247577

  18. Cytotoxicity testing of silver-containing burn treatments using primary and immortal skin cells.

    PubMed

    Boonkaew, Benjawan; Kempf, Margit; Kimble, Roy; Cuttle, Leila

    2014-12-01

    A novel burn wound hydrogel dressing has been previously developed which is composed of 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid sodium salt with silver nanoparticles (silver AMPS). This study compared the cytotoxicity of this dressing to the commercially available silver products; Acticoat™, PolyMem Silver(®) and Flamazine™ cream. Human keratinocytes (HaCaT and primary HEK) and normal human fibroblasts (NHF) were exposed to dressings incubated on Nunc™ polycarbonate inserts for 24, 48 and 72h. Four different cytotoxicity assays were performed including; Trypan Blue cell count, MTT, Celltiter-Blue™ and Toluidine Blue surface area assays. The results were expressed as relative cell viability compared to an untreated control. The cytotoxic effects of Acticoat™ and Flamazine™ cream were dependent on exposure time and cell type. After 24h exposure, Acticoat™ and Flamazine™ cream were toxic to all tested cell lines. Surprisingly, HaCaTs treated with Acticoat™ and Flamazine™ had an improved ability to survive at 48 and 72h while HEKs and NHFs had no improvement in survival with any treatment. The novel silver hydrogel and PolyMem Silver(®) showed low cytotoxicity to all tested cell lines at every time interval and these results support the possibility of using the novel silver hydrogel as a burn wound dressing. Researchers who rely on HaCaT cells as an accurate keratinocyte model should be aware that they can respond differently to primary skin cells. PMID:24767717

  19. [Which tuberculin skin test hyperreactive child should be treated with -our experience].

    PubMed

    Pavić, Ivan; Hojsak, Iva; Žmak, Ljiljana; Tješić-Drinković, Dorian; Bogović, Jasna Čepin; Katalinić-Janković, Vera

    2015-01-01

    Since persons with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) represent a huge reservoir of potential tuberculosis (TB) disease, accurate diagnosis and treatment of LTBI is essential for TB control and eradication. The aim was to assess the diagnostic value of determination of interferon-gamma release assay in school children with hyperreactive tuberculin skin test (TST) reaction. A total of 120 BCG-vaccinated children were investigated due to a hyperreactive TST results. The QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT-GIT) was performed. Fifteen children (12.5%) had positive QFT-GIT and 105 (87.5%) children had negative QFT-GIT. There was no statistically significant difference in TST reaction (21.5 mm u QFT+ vs. 20.9 mm u QFT-group, p=0.458). The children with positive QFT-GIT had a statistically higher level of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) than children with negative QFT-GIT. There were no statistically significant differences in concentrations of IFN-y either basic or upon stimulation with mitogen phytohemagglutinin. After isoniazid prophylaxis QFT-GIT remained positive in two children (p=0.019). In a difficult procedure for diagnosing LTBI in BCG-vaccinated children determination of IFN-γ could be the key factor in making decision whether to use preventive therapy or not. PMID:26502676

  20. Skin turgor

    MedlinePlus

    Doughy skin; Poor skin turgor; Good skin turgor; Decreased skin turgor ... Call your health care provider if: Poor skin turgor occurs with vomiting, diarrhea, or fever. The skin is very slow to return to normal, or the skin "tents" up ...

  1. EVALUATION OF DIAGNOSTIC ACCURACY OF THE COMPARATIVE TUBERCULIN SKIN TEST IN REHABILITANT BORNEAN ORANGUTANS (PONGO PYGMAEUS).

    PubMed

    Dench, Rosalie; Sulistyo, Fransiska; Fahroni, Agus; Philippa, Joost

    2015-12-01

    The tuberculin skin test (TST) has been the mainstay of tuberculosis (TB) testing in primates for decades, but its interpretation in orangutans (Pongo spp.) is challenging, because many animals react strongly, without evidence of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. One explanation is cross-reactivity with environmental nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). The use of a comparative TST (CTST), comparing reactivity to avian (representing NTM) and bovine (representing tuberculous mycobacteria) tuberculins aids in distinguishing cross-reactivity due to sensitization by NTM from shared antigens. The specificity of the TST can be increased with the use of CTST. We considered three interpretations of the TST in rehabilitant Bornean orangutans ( Pongo pygmaeus ) using avian purified protein derivative (APPD; 25,000 IU/ml) and two concentrations of bovine purified protein derivative (BPPD; 100,000 and 32,500 IU/ml). The tests were evaluated for their ability to identify accurately seven orangutans previously diagnosed with and treated for TB from a group of presumed negative individuals (n = 288 and n = 161 for the two respective BPPD concentrations). BPPD at 32,500 IU/ml had poor diagnostic capacity, whereas BPPD at 100,000 IU/ml performed better. The BPPD-only interpretation had moderate sensitivity (57%) and poor specificity (40%) and accuracy (41%). The comparative interpretation at 72 hr had similar sensitivity (57%) but improved specificity (95%) and accuracy (94%). However, best results were obtained by a comparative interpretation incorporating the 48- and 72-hr scores, which had good sensitivity (86%), specificity (95%) and accuracy (95%). These data reinforce recommendations that a CTST be used in orangutans and support the use of APPD at 25,000 IU/ml and BPPD at 100,000 IU/ml. The highest score at each site from the 48- and 72-hr checks should be considered the result for that tuberculin. If the bovine result is greater than the avian result, the

  2. Reliability of self-assessed reading of skin tests: a possible approach in research and clinical practice?

    PubMed

    Falk, Magnus; Anderson, Chris

    2010-01-01

    In the investigation and management of skin disease, various testing protocols are of importance. The extent to which clinical judgments and decisions on therapy are supported by the performance of such testing can be affected negatively by the lack of time and resources for the performance of tests. In the present study, the possibility of utilizing self-reporting by subjects is investigated. Determination of irritation threshold for sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) and minimal erythema dose for ultraviolet B were chosen as suitable self-reading protocols. Test reading by 26 subjects instructed in "present" or "absent" reporting of test reactions were compared to trained observer reading. Absolute agreement was found in 76.9 percent of the SLS reactions and in 85 percent of the UVB reactions. Weighted Kappa for the agreement between observations showed values of 0.76 for the SLS reactions and 0.83 for UVB reactions. We conclude that use of the protocols here studied, and other test protocols modified to accommodate a binomial assessment outcome ("+" or "-"), could well lead to an increase in the performance of skin testing. This could be a qualitative advantage for diagnosis and management of skin diseases. Additionally, population studies and even prevention initiatives could be facilitated. PMID:20178700

  3. Proposal of a skin tests based approach for the prevention of recurrent hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media.

    PubMed

    Della-Torre, E; Berti, A; Yacoub, M R; Guglielmi, B; Tombetti, E; Sabbadini, M G; Voltolini, S; Colombo, G

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of the present work is to evaluate the efficacy of an approach that combines clinical history, skin tests results, and premedication, in preventing recurrent hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media (ICM). Skin Prick tests, Intradermal tests, and Patch tests were performed in 36 patients with a previous reaction to ICM. All patients underwent a second contrast enhanced radiological procedure with an alternative ICM selected on the basis of the proposed approach. After alternative ICM re-injection, only one patient presented a mild NIR. The proposed algorithm, validated in clinical settings where repeated radiological exams are needed, offers a safe and practical approach for protecting patients from recurrent hypersensitivity reactions to ICM. PMID:25951145

  4. Testing for the presence of magnetite in the upper-beak skin of homing pigeons.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lanxiang; Xiao, Bo; Lin, Wei; Zhang, Shuyi; Zhu, Rixiang; Pan, Yongxin

    2007-04-01

    We carried out magnetic and nonmagnetic experiments on fresh, upper-beak skin tissue samples isolated from six pairs of homing pigeons to test whether the tissue contains magnetite particles. Results of (1) room-temperature isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) acquisition and alternating field (AF) demagnetization, (2) low-temperature demagnetization of saturation IRM acquired at 5 K in a field of 5 tesla (T) (SIRM(5 K)) after zero-field cooled (ZFC) and field cooled (FC) treatments, and (3) cycling of the saturation IRM acquired at 300 K in a field of 5 T (SIRM(300 K)) between 5 and 300 K, indicate the presence of magnetite in the measured samples. A significant loss of SIRM(5 K) below 20 K suggests the dominance of superparamagnetic (SPM) particles. The SIRM acquisition capacity of the female pigeon is stronger than that of the male pigeon in all four measured pairs, suggesting for the first time that the magnetite concentration is probably sex dependent. Light microscopic observation on the histological sections stained with Prussian Blue detected the presence of some tiny, dotted, dark-blue staining Fe3+ aggregates (size 1-4 microm) located directly beneath the subcutis within strands of connective tissue, nearby the rim of the regions full of red nuclei. The results of this study support the idea that homing pigeons may have a magnetite-based receptor, which potentially could be used for sensing the Earth's magnetic field during navigation. PMID:16900396

  5. Sub-categorisation of skin corrosive chemicals by the EpiSkin™ reconstructed human epidermis skin corrosion test method according to UN GHS: revision of OECD Test Guideline 431.

    PubMed

    Alépée, N; Grandidier, M H; Cotovio, J

    2014-03-01

    The EpiSkin™ skin corrosion test method was formally validated and adopted within the context of OECD TG 431 for identifying corrosive and non-corrosive chemicals. The EU Classification, Labelling and Packaging Regulation (EU CLP) system requires the sub-categorisation of corrosive chemicals into the three UN GHS optional subcategories 1A, 1B and 1C. The present study was undertaken to investigate the usefulness of the validated EpiSkin™ test method to identify skin corrosive UN GHS Categories 1A, 1B and 1C using the original and validated prediction model and adapted controls for direct MTT reduction. In total, 85 chemicals selected by the OECD expert group on skin corrosion were tested in three independent runs. The results obtained were highly reproducible both within (>80%) and between (>78%) laboratories when compared with historical data. Moreover the results obtained showed that the EpiSkin™ test method is highly sensitive (99%) and specific (80%) in discriminating corrosive from non-corrosive chemicals and allows reliable and relevant identification of the different skin corrosive UN GHS subcategories, with high accuracies being obtained for both UN GHS Categories 1A (83%) and 1B/1C (76%) chemicals. The overall accuracy of the test method to subcategorise corrosive chemicals into three or two UN GHS subcategories ranged from 75% to 79%. Considering those results, the revised OECD Test Guideline 431 permit the use of EpiSkin™ for subcategorising corrosive chemicals into at least two classes (Category 1A and Category 1B/1C). PMID:24211528

  6. The Lancet Weight Determines Wheal Diameter in Response to Skin Prick Testing with Histamine

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Hjalte H.; Elberling, Jesper; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Background Skin prick test (SPT) is a common test for diagnosing immunoglobulin E-mediated allergies. In clinical routine, technicalities, human errors or patient-related biases, occasionally results in suboptimal diagnosis of sensitization. Objective Although not previously assessed qualitatively, lancet weight is hypothesized to be important when performing SPT to minimize the frequency of false positives, false negatives, and unwanted discomfort. Methods Accurate weight-controlled SPT was performed on the volar forearms and backs of 20 healthy subjects. Four predetermined lancet weights were applied (25 g, 85 g, 135 g and 265 g) using two positive control histamine solutions (1 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL) and one negative control (saline). A total of 400 SPTs were conducted. The outcome parameters were: wheal size, neurogenic inflammation (measured by superficial blood perfusion), frequency of bleeding, and the lancet provoked pain response. Results The mean wheal diameter increased significantly as higher weights were applied to the SPT lancet, e.g. from 3.2 ± 0.28 mm at 25 g to 5.4 ± 1.7 mm at 265 g (p<0.01). Similarly, the frequency of bleeding, the provoked pain, and the neurogenic inflammatory response increased significantly. At 265 g saline evoked two wheal responses (/160 pricks) below 3 mm. Conclusion and clinical relevance The applied weight of the lancet during the SPT-procedure is an important factor. Higher lancet weights precipitate significantly larger wheal reactions with potential diagnostic implications. This warrants additional research of the optimal lancet weight in relation to SPT-guidelines to improve the specificity and sensitivity of the procedure. PMID:27213613

  7. Clinical relevance is associated with allergen-specific wheal size in skin prick testing

    PubMed Central

    Haahtela, T; Burbach, G J; Bachert, C; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Bonini, S; Bousquet, J; Bousquet-Rouanet, L; Bousquet, P J; Bresciani, M; Bruno, A; Canonica, G W; Darsow, U; Demoly, P; Durham, S R; Fokkens, W J; Giavi, S; Gjomarkaj, M; Gramiccioni, C; Kowalski, M L; Losonczy, G; Orosz, M; Papadopoulos, N G; Stingl, G; Todo-Bom, A; von Mutius, E; Köhli, A; Wöhrl, S; Järvenpää, S; Kautiainen, H; Petman, L; Selroos, O; Zuberbier, T; Heinzerling, L M

    2014-01-01

    Background Within a large prospective study, the Global Asthma and Allergy European Network (GA2LEN) has collected skin prick test (SPT) data throughout Europe to make recommendations for SPT in clinical settings. Objective To improve clinical interpretation of SPT results for inhalant allergens by providing quantitative decision points. Methods The GA2LEN SPT study with 3068 valid data sets was used to investigate the relationship between SPT results and patient-reported clinical relevance for each of the 18 inhalant allergens as well as SPT wheal size and physician-diagnosed allergy (rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, food allergy). The effects of age, gender, and geographical area on SPT results were assessed. For each allergen, the wheal size in mm with an 80% positive predictive value (PPV) for being clinically relevant was calculated. Results Depending on the allergen, from 40% (blatella) to 87–89% (grass, mites) of the positive SPT reactions (wheal size ≥ 3 mm) were associated with patient-reported clinical symptoms when exposed to the respective allergen. The risk of allergic symptoms increased significantly with larger wheal sizes for 17 of the 18 allergens tested. Children with positive SPT reactions had a smaller risk of sensitizations being clinically relevant compared with adults. The 80% PPV varied from 3 to 10 mm depending on the allergen. Conclusion These ‘reading keys’ for 18 inhalant allergens can help interpret SPT results with respect to their clinical significance. A SPT form with the standard allergens including mm decision points for each allergen is offered for clinical use. PMID:24283409

  8. Antimicrobial activity of ceftaroline tested against bacterial isolates causing respiratory tract and skin and skin structure infections in US medical centers in 2013.

    PubMed

    Sader, Helio S; Farrell, David J; Mendes, Rodrigo E; Flamm, Robert K; Castanheira, Mariana; Jones, Ronald N

    2015-05-01

    A total of 4533 isolates from community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CARTIs) and 8446 from skin and skin structure infections (SSSIs) were consecutively collected in 149 US medical centers in 2013. Strains were susceptibility tested by broth microdilution method against ceftaroline and numerous comparators. Ceftaroline (MIC(50/90), ≤0.015/0.12 μg/mL) was more potent than ceftriaxone (MIC(50/90), ≤0.06/1 μg/mL) against Streptococcus pneumoniae and highly active against ceftriaxone-nonsusceptible strains (n=201; MIC(90), 0.25 μg/mL). Ceftaroline was also very active against Haemophilus influenzae (MIC(50/90), 0.008/0.015 μg/mL), methicillin-susceptible (MIC(50/90), 0.25/0.25 μg/mL) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MIC(50/90), 1/1 μg/mL), and β-hemolytic streptococci (highest MIC, 0.03 μg/mL). Ceftaroline exhibited good activity against non-extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype isolates of Klebsiella spp. and Escherichia coli (96.7% susceptible and MIC(90) of 0.25 μg/mL for both) but limited activity against ESBL phenotype isolates. In summary, ceftaroline exhibited potent in vitro activity against a large collection of bacterial isolates causing CARTI and SSSI in US medical centers. PMID:25708896

  9. Antimicrobial Activity of the Investigational Pleuromutilin Compound BC-3781 Tested against Gram-Positive Organisms Commonly Associated with Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections

    PubMed Central

    Biedenbach, Douglas J.; Paukner, Susanne; Ivezic-Schoenfeld, Zrinka; Jones, Ronald N.

    2012-01-01

    BC-3781 is a novel semisynthetic pleuromutilin antimicrobial agent developed as an intravenous and oral therapy for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) and respiratory tract infections (RTI). BC-3781 and comparator agents were tested by the broth microdilution method against 1,893 clinical Gram-positive organisms predominantly causing ABSSSI. BC-3781 exhibited potent activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MIC50/90, 0.12/0.25 μg/ml), coagulase-negative staphylococci (MIC50/90, 0.06/0.12 μg/ml), β-hemolytic streptococci (MIC50/90, 0.03/0.06 μg/ml), viridans group streptococci (MIC50/90, 0.12/0.5 μg/ml), and Enterococcus faecium (including vancomycin-nonsusceptible strains) (MIC50/90, 0.12/2 μg/ml). Compared with other antibiotics in use for the treatment of ABSSSI, BC-3781 displayed the lowest MICs and only a minimal potential for cross-resistance with other antimicrobial classes. PMID:22232289

  10. Skin Dictionary

    MedlinePlus

    ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ...

  11. Skin graft

    MedlinePlus

    Skin transplant; Skin autografting; FTSG; STSG; Split thickness skin graft; Full thickness skin graft ... site. Most people who are having a skin graft have a split-thickness skin graft. This takes ...

  12. Correlation among skin prick test, total and specific IgE UniCAP tests in atopic patients from Zagreb, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Milavec-Puretić, Visnja; Lipozencić, Jasna; Zizić, Vesna; Milavec, Dinko

    2004-01-01

    The correlation of pollen allergens, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and animal dender was assessed during a two-year period. Results of skin prick test, total and specific IgE UniCAP tests were compared in atopic patients (AP) with the following diagnoses: atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, allergic bronchitis or asthma, allergic urticaria and angioedema. The study included total and specific IgE (in vitro) tests to allergen mixtures (grass, tree, weed) or to single allergens of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p), cat and dog fur, feather, etc. Comparison of skin prick test with total and specific IgE UniCAP immunoassay was done in 173 patients, i.e. 107 female and 66 male atopic patients aged 9-76 years. Allergies were most commonly recorded in the 25-35 age group. Total IgE ranged from 8.63 kU/l to >4000 kU/l, with specific IgE ranging from class 1 to class 5. Skin prick test showed high correlation with specific IgE for grass and weed pollen in patients with repiratory allergy (50.28%). Good correlation among all three tests was quite frequently observed. The results suggest that the study should be continued using these three tests in further cases of atopic dermatitis. PMID:15588558

  13. Cigarette Smoking and Skin Prick Test in Patients With Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Khazaei, Hossein Ali; Khazaei, Bahman; Dashtizadeh, Gholam Ali; Mohammadi, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Allergic Rhinitis (AR) is the most common allergic disease, affecting 30% of population around the world. The disease is predominantly associated with exposure to some aeroallergens like cigarette smoking. Skin Prick Test (SPT) is a method of detecting immediate allergic reactions and is applied for controlling disease and therapeutic modality. Objectives: This study was designed to investigate the effect of cigarette smoking on SPT results among male and female individuals with AR disease. Patients and Methods: A total of 478 patients with AR admitted to the 2 main hospitals of Zahedan City from 2005 to 2012, were recruited in this analytic-descriptive study. Categories of smokers and never smokers were used based on patient’s statements and their history of smoking. SPT was performed with panel of some allergens and results were recorded and analyzed statistically. Odds ratio and confidence interval method were calculated using univariate logistic regression. Results: The results of this study indicated that 41.4% of patients with allergic rhinitis was smoker with ages ranged from 15 to 70 years. The result of this study also showed that smoking has no effect on SPT results of pollen and weeds aeroallergens conducted on male and female AR patients. However, male were significantly more sensitive than female in terms of sensitivity to the aspergillus, cladosporium, house dust mite, grasses, wheat, cockroach, and feather allergens. Conclusions: Our findings did not support the effect of cigarette smoking on SPT reactivity to pollen and weeds aeroallergens. However, male were significantly more sensitive than female in terms of sensitivity to some allergens. PMID:26495257

  14. Use of Specific IgE and Skin Prick Test to Determine Clinical Reaction Severity.

    PubMed

    Ta, Von; Weldon, Brittany; Yu, Grace; Humblet, Olivier; Neale-May, Susan; Nadeau, Kari

    2011-01-01

    AIMS: To determine whether specific IgE and skin prick test correlate better in predicting reaction severity during a double-blinded placebo controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) for egg, milk, and multiple tree nut allergens. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, August 2009 and ongoing. METHODOLOGY: We examined the reaction severity of twenty-four subjects to nine possible food allergens: milk, egg, almond, cashew, hazelnut, peanut, sesame, pecan and walnut. Specific IgE and SPT were performed before each DBPCFC. DBPCFC results were classified into mild (1), moderate (2), or severe (3) reactions using a modified Bock's criteria. RESULTS: Twenty four subjects underwent a total of 80 DBPCFC. Eighty percent of all DBPCFCs resulted in a positive reaction. A majority, 71%, were classified as mild. No reactions occurred with a SPT of zero mm while three reactions occurred with a negative specific IgE. All reactions were reversible with medication. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that SPT and specific IgE levels are not associated with reaction severity (p<0.64 and 0.27, respectively). We also found that combining specific IgE and SPT improved specificity but did not help to achieve clinically useful sensitivity. For instance, an SPT > 5mm had a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 50%. Combining SPT > 5mm and IgE > 7 resulted in a reduced sensitivity of 64%. Unexpectedly, a history of anaphylaxis 70% (n=17) was not predictive of anaphylaxis on challenge 4% (n=2). PMID:22993721

  15. Application of Concanavalin A during immune responsiveness skin-swelling tests facilitates measurement interpretation in mammalian ecology.

    PubMed

    Bílková, Barbora; Albrecht, Tomáš; Chudíčková, Milada; Holáň, Vladimír; Piálek, Jaroslav; Vinkler, Michal

    2016-07-01

    The skin-swelling test is a simple and widespread method used in field ecological research to estimate cellular immune responsiveness in animals. This immunoecological test is based on measuring the magnitude of tissue swelling response at specific times following subcutaneous application of an experimental pro-inflammatory stimulant. In the vast majority of studies across vertebrate taxa, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) is used as a universal stimulant. Given the complexity of immune response activation pathways of PHA, however, interpretation of test results can be ambiguous. Goal of this study was to improve methodology of the skin-swelling test to decrease this ambiguity. Here, we present an alternative protocol aimed at facilitating interpretation of skin-swelling data for mammals. Based on previous evidence suggesting that mammalian T cells are readily activated by Concanavalin A (ConA) in vitro, we compared cellular immune responses in vivo to PHA and ConA as an alternative pro-inflammatory stimulant in mice. We measured magnitude of tissue swelling and compared it with intensity of blood cell infiltration into tissue over a 72-hour interval. Our results corroborate that PHA and ConA show important differences in both dynamics and response amplitude in rodents. ConA induces stronger swelling with a distinct leukocyte activity pattern and higher pro-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin 6 [IL-6] and interferon gamma[IFN-γ]) expression than PHA during peak response (24-h post-treatment). Furthermore, unlike PHA, magnitude of swelling was positively associated with cellular activity (number of neutrophils infiltrating tissue) following ConA injection. We conclude that ConA is the more suitable stimulant for skin-swelling tests in mammals. This is because of the molecular binding specificity in the two lectins, that is, ConA specifically activates T cells while PHA also triggers erythroagglutination. We propose that ConA be used in all future ecological testing in

  16. Allergic contact dermatitis to plants: an analysis of 68 patients tested at the Skin and Cancer Foundation.

    PubMed

    Cook, D K; Freeman, S

    1997-08-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis to plant allergens is a common problem in Australia. We present the cumulative experience of the Contact Dermatitis Clinic of the Skin and Cancer Foundation (Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia) a tertiary referral clinic. Results from a series of 68 patients with positive patch tests to 88 plant allergens are reported. We found that Grevillea species, Compositae, Rhus, Alstroemeria and various timber sawdusts were the most common plant allergens. PMID:9293658

  17. Testing thick-skinned vs thin-skinned faulting in the Yakima fold and thrust belt, Washington: kinematic modeling based on new geologic mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, B. A.; Crider, J. G.

    2012-12-01

    The greater Cascadia region contains abundant evidence for geologically recent deformation due to movement on upper crustal faults, which pose a seismic hazard independent of great earthquakes on the subduction zone interface. Located in the backarc of Cascadia, the structures of the Yakima fold and thrust belt in central Washington record Miocene to present deformation of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG); however, the geometry of the faults responsible is not well constrained by prior work. Depth of faulting in particular plays a first-order role in determining the maximum credible earthquake for seismic hazard planning. Previous studies assuming thin-skinned tectonics for the Yakima fold and thrust belt imply significantly lower estimates for the maximum credible earthquake. Evidence from geophysical anomalies requires km scale relief on the pre-Tertiary basement underneath the CRBG and Tertiary continental sedimentary rocks. If pre-Tertiary basement relief is due to slip on basement involved reverse faults kinematically coherent with the shallower folds and faults, then the estimates for the maximum credible earthquakes may have to be revisited. These end-member hypotheses of thin-skinned versus basement-involved deformation can be tested with kinematic models of different fault geometries. Kinematic modeling software (Midland Valley's Move) provides a robust method for the construction of balanced (retro-deformable) cross sections constrained by surficial and subsurface geologic data. We present new geologic mapping in the area of the intersection between Umtanum Ridge and the Yakima River Canyon north of Selah, Washington. Umtanum Ridge lies along the Olympic-Wallowa lineament (OWL), which may be the physiographic manifestation of active structures that extend through the Cascade Range and into western Washington. Geologic mapping was facilitated by high resolution DEMs from airborne laser swath mapping (lidar), along with chemo

  18. Performance of skin tests with allergens from B. melitensis B115 and rough B. abortus mutants for diagnosing swine brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Dieste-Pérez, L; Blasco, J M; De Miguel, M J; Marín, C M; Barberán, M; Conde-Álvarez, R; Moriyón, I; Muñoz, P M

    2014-01-10

    Swine brucellosis by Brucella suis biovar 2 is an emerging disease whose control is based on serological testing and culling. However, current serological tests detect antibodies to the O-polysaccharide (O/PS) moiety of Brucella smooth lipopolysaccharide (S-LPS), and thus lack specificity when infections by Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 and other gram-negative bacteria carrying cross-reacting O/PS occur. The skin test with the protein-rich brucellin extract obtained from rough B. melitensis B115 is assumed to be specific for discriminating these false positive serological reactions (FPSR). However, B115 strain, although unable to synthesize S-LPS, accumulates O/PS internally, which could cause diagnostic problems. Since the brucellin skin test has been seldom used in pigs and FPSR are common in these animals, we assessed its performance using cytosoluble protein extracts obtained from B. abortus rough mutants in manBcore or per genes (critical for O/PS biosynthesis) and B. melitensis B115. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were determined in B. suis biovar 2 culture positive and brucellosis free sows, and apparent prevalence in sows of unknown individual bacteriological and serological status belonging to B. suis biovar 2 naturally infected herds. Moreover, the specificity in discriminating brucellosis from FPSR was assessed in brucellosis free boars showing FPSR. The skin test with B. abortus ΔmanBcore and B. melitensis B115 allergens performed similarly, and the former one resulted in 100% specificity when testing animals showing FPSR in indirect ELISA, Rose Bengal and complement fixation serological tests. We conclude that O/PS-free genetically defined mutants represent an appropriate alternative to obtain Brucella protein extracts for diagnosing swine brucellosis. PMID:24331743

  19. Non-invasive methods to establish the diagnosis of terra firma-forme dermatosis: The SMART (Skin Modified by Alcohol Rubbing Test) evaluation and dermoscopy.

    PubMed

    Greywal, Tanya; Cohen, Philip R

    2016-01-01

    Terra firma-forme dermatosis may mimic a variety of hyper pigmented dermatoses.  The diagnosis can be characterized using dermoscopy and confirmed with the SMART (Skin Modified by Alcohol Rubbing Test) evaluation.  When terra firma-forme dermatosis (Duncan's dirty dermatosis) is clinically suspected, clearance of the dermatosis follows rubbing the affected skin with 70% isopropyl alcohol. PMID:27617614

  20. Proposal of abolition of the skin sensitivity test before equine rabies immune globulin application.

    PubMed

    Cupo, P; de Azevedo-Marques, M M; Sarti, W; Hering, S E

    2001-01-01

    An epizootic outbreak of rabies occurred in 1995 in Ribeirão Preto, SP, with 58 cases of animal rabies (54 dogs, 3 cats and 1 bat) confirmed by the Pasteur Institute of São Paulo, and one human death. The need to provide care to a large number of people for the application of equine rabies immune globulin (ERIG) prevented the execution of the skin sensitivity test (SST) and often also the execution of desensitization, procedures routinely used up to that time at the Emergency Unit of the University Hospital of the Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (EU-UHFMRP-USP), a reference hospital for the application of heterologous sera. In view of our positive experience of several years with the abolition of SST and of the use of premedication before the application of antivenom sera, we used a similar schedule for ERIG application. Of the 1489 victims of animal bites, 1054 (71%) received ERIG; no patient was submitted to SST and all received intravenously anti-histamines (anti-H1 + anti-H2) and corticosteroids before the procedure. The patients were kept under observation for 60 to 180 minutes and no adverse reaction was observed. On the basis of these results, since December 1995 ERIG application has been decentralized in Ribeirão Preto and has become the responsibility of the Emergency Unit of the University Hospital and the Central Basic Health Unit, where the same routine is used. Since then, 4216 patients have received ERIG (1818 at the Basic Health Unit and 2398 at the EU-UHFMRP), with no problems. The ideal would be the routine use of human rabies immune globulin (HRIG) in public health programs, but this is problematic, because of their high cost. However, while this does not occur, the use of SST is no longer justified at the time of application of ERIG, in view of the clinical evidence of low predictive value and low sensitivity of SST involving the application of heterologous sera. It is very important to point out that a

  1. Sagging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ...

  2. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... the sun. Photo: PhotoDisc Care for conditions from acne to wrinkles Did you know that your skin ... other skin conditions. Many skin problems, such as acne, also affect your appearance. Your skin can also ...

  3. Skin Irritation to Glass Wool or Continuous Glass Filaments as Observed by a Patch Test among Human Japanese Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    TSUNODA, Masashi; KIDO, Takamasa; MOGI, Sachiyo; SUGIURA, Yumiko; MIYAJIMA, Eriko; KUDO, Yuichiro; KUMAZAWA, Tatenao; AIZAWA, Yoshiharu

    2014-01-01

    Glass wool and continuous glass filaments have been used in industry. We examined the irritability of those among Japanese. A patch test was performed on 43 volunteers for the followings: glass wool for non-residential use with and without a urea-modified phenolic resin binder, that for residential use with and without the binder, and continuous glass filaments with diameters of 4, 7, 9, and 13 µm. Materials were applied to an upper arm of each volunteer for 24 h. The skin was observed at 1 and 24 h after the removal. At 1 h after removal, slight erythema was observed on the skin of a woman after the exposure to glass wool for residential use without the binder. Erythema was observed on the skin of another woman at 1 h after a 24-h exposure to glass wool for non-residential use without the binder. There were no reactions at 24 h after the removal. The low reactions in the patch test suggested that the irritability caused by glass wool, irrespective of a resin component, could be induced mechanically, and that the irritability caused by continuous glass filaments with resin could be slight and either mechanical or chemical. PMID:25070402

  4. Multi-laboratory validation of SkinEthic HCE test method for testing serious eye damage/eye irritation using liquid chemicals.

    PubMed

    Alépée, N; Leblanc, V; Adriaens, E; Grandidier, M H; Lelièvre, D; Meloni, M; Nardelli, L; Roper, C S; Santirocco, E; Toner, F; Van Rompay, A; Vinall, J; Cotovio, J

    2016-03-01

    A prospective multicentric study of the reconstructed human corneal epithelial tissue-based in vitro test method (SkinEthic™ HCE) was conducted to evaluate its usefulness to identify chemicals as either not classified for serious eye damage/eye irritation (No Cat.) or as classified (Cat. 1/Cat. 2) within UN GHS. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the transferability and reproducibility of the SkinEthic™ HCE EITL protocol for liquids and define its predictive capacity. Briefly, 60 chemicals were three times tested (double blinded) in 3 laboratories and 45 additional chemicals were tested three times in one laboratory. Good within laboratory reproducibility was achieved of at least 88.3% (53/60) and 92.4% (97/105) for the extended data set. Furthermore, the overall concordance between the laboratories was 93.3% (56/60). The accuracy of the SkinEthic™ HCE EITL for the extended dataset, based on bootstrap resampling, was 84.4% (95% CI: 81.9% to 87.6%) with a sensitivity of 99.0% (95% CI: 96.4% to 100%) and specificity of 68.5% (95% CI: 64.0% to 74.0%), thereby meeting all acceptance criteria for predictive capacity. This efficient transferable and reproducible assay is a promising tool to be integrated within a battery of assays to perform an eye irritation risk assessment. PMID:26612353

  5. Field Method for Testing Repellency of an Icaridin-Containing Skin Lotion against Vespid Wasps.

    PubMed

    Boevé, Jean-Luc; Eertmans, Frank; Adriaens, Els; Rossel, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Vespid wasps are ecologically beneficial predators of insects but their stings also pose a human health risk. Current control methods based on killing vespids are suboptimal. Here, the repellent effect against Vespula vulgaris of a 20% icaridin skin lotion was evaluated under field conditions. An experimental setup was designed in which six artificial skin pieces (10 × 10 cm) were video-recorded for 1 h, to count each min the numbers of flying and feeding vespids. Prior to monitoring, five pieces were successively smeared with 2 mg of cream per cm², in 30 min intervals, from t = -120 min to 0. The sixth sheet remained untreated to serve as a control. One milliliter of an attractant, fruit jam, was deposited on each of the six surfaces at t = 0. The control surface was free of any flying or feeding vespid during an average period of 25 min, whereas the other five surfaces (treated at t = -120, -90, -60, -30, and 0 min) remained vespid-free for 39, 40, 45, 49, and 51 min, respectively. The skin lotion remained significantly active for at least 2 h. The experimental methodology is adjustable and allows the study of repellents against vespids in semi-natural conditions. PMID:27271672

  6. Field Method for Testing Repellency of an Icaridin-Containing Skin Lotion against Vespid Wasps

    PubMed Central

    Boevé, Jean-Luc; Eertmans, Frank; Adriaens, Els; Rossel, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Vespid wasps are ecologically beneficial predators of insects but their stings also pose a human health risk. Current control methods based on killing vespids are suboptimal. Here, the repellent effect against Vespula vulgaris of a 20% icaridin skin lotion was evaluated under field conditions. An experimental setup was designed in which six artificial skin pieces (10 × 10 cm) were video-recorded for 1 h, to count each min the numbers of flying and feeding vespids. Prior to monitoring, five pieces were successively smeared with 2 mg of cream per cm2, in 30 min intervals, from t = −120 min to 0. The sixth sheet remained untreated to serve as a control. One milliliter of an attractant, fruit jam, was deposited on each of the six surfaces at t = 0. The control surface was free of any flying or feeding vespid during an average period of 25 min, whereas the other five surfaces (treated at t = −120, −90, −60, −30, and 0 min) remained vespid-free for 39, 40, 45, 49, and 51 min, respectively. The skin lotion remained significantly active for at least 2 h. The experimental methodology is adjustable and allows the study of repellents against vespids in semi-natural conditions. PMID:27271672

  7. Sensitivity of C-Tb: a novel RD-1-specific skin test for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Soren T; Peter, Jonathan G; Theron, Grant; Pascoe, Mellissa; Tingskov, Pernille N; Aggerbeck, Henrik; Kolbus, Daniel; Ruhwald, Morten; Andersen, Peter; Dheda, Keertan

    2016-03-01

    C-Tb, a novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 6-kDa early secretory antigenic target/10-kDa culture filtrate protein (ESAT-6/CFP-10)-specific skin test, has high specificity in bacille Calmette-Guerin-vaccinated healthy controls. However, the sensitivity of C-Tb has hitherto not been determined. The objective was to determine the sensitivity of C-Tb in patients with active tuberculosis (TB) in comparison with the tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT).C-Tb and TST were randomly administered in a double-blinded fashion to one or the other forearm in 253 patients with active TB with or without HIV co-infection. QFT-GIT testing was performed prior to skin testing.Using a receiver operating characteristic curve-derived cut-point of 5 mm, C-Tb sensitivity was similar to QFT-GIT (73.9 (95% CI 67.8-79.3) versus 75.1 (95% CI 69.3-80.2)), and similar in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients (76.7 (95% CI 69.0-83.3) versus 69.5 (95% CI 59.2-78.5)). However, sensitivity was significantly diminished in HIV-infected patients with CD4 counts <100 cells·mm(-3). C-Tb and QFT-GIT combined had significantly higher sensitivity than C-Tb alone (p<0.0001). C-Tb was safe with no significant adverse events. The 5 mm cut-point corresponded to that found in the previously published specificity study (TESEC-04).C-Tb has similar sensitivity compared with QFT-GIT for the diagnosis of M. tuberculosis infection. Sensitivity was reduced only in HIV-infected patients with severe immunosuppression. Further studies in different settings are required to validate the proposed 5 mm cut-point. PMID:26677940

  8. The Challenge of Producing Skin Test Antigens with Minimal Resources Suitable for Human Application against a Neglected Tropical Disease; Leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Rivoire, Becky L.; TerLouw, Stephen; Groathouse, Nathan A.; Brennan, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    True incidence of leprosy and its impact on transmission will not be understood until a tool is available to measure pre-symptomatic infection. Diagnosis of leprosy disease is currently based on clinical symptoms, which on average take 3–10 years to manifest. The fact that incidence, as defined by new case detection, equates with prevalence, i.e., registered cases, suggests that the cycle of transmission has not been fully intercepted by implementation of multiple drug therapy. This is supported by a high incidence of childhood leprosy. Epidemiological screening for pre-symptomatic leprosy in large endemic populations is required to facilitate targeted chemoprophylactic interventions. Such a test must be sensitive, specific, simple to administer, cost-effective, and easy to interpret. The intradermal skin test method that measures cell-mediated immunity was explored as the best option. Prior knowledge on skin testing of healthy subjects and leprosy patients with whole or partially fractionated Mycobacterium leprae bacilli, such as Lepromin or the Rees' or Convit' antigens, has established an acceptable safety and potency profile of these antigens. These data, along with immunoreactivity data, laid the foundation for two new leprosy skin test antigens, MLSA-LAM (M. leprae soluble antigen devoid of mycobacterial lipoglycans, primarily lipoarabinomannan) and MLCwA (M. leprae cell wall antigens). In the absence of commercial interest, the challenge was to develop these antigens under current good manufacturing practices in an acceptable local pilot facility and submit an Investigational New Drug to the Food and Drug Administration to allow a first-in-human phase I clinical trial. PMID:24874086

  9. The challenge of producing skin test antigens with minimal resources suitable for human application against a neglected tropical disease; leprosy.

    PubMed

    Rivoire, Becky L; TerLouw, Stephen; Groathouse, Nathan A; Brennan, Patrick J

    2014-01-01

    True incidence of leprosy and its impact on transmission will not be understood until a tool is available to measure pre-symptomatic infection. Diagnosis of leprosy disease is currently based on clinical symptoms, which on average take 3-10 years to manifest. The fact that incidence, as defined by new case detection, equates with prevalence, i.e., registered cases, suggests that the cycle of transmission has not been fully intercepted by implementation of multiple drug therapy. This is supported by a high incidence of childhood leprosy. Epidemiological screening for pre-symptomatic leprosy in large endemic populations is required to facilitate targeted chemoprophylactic interventions. Such a test must be sensitive, specific, simple to administer, cost-effective, and easy to interpret. The intradermal skin test method that measures cell-mediated immunity was explored as the best option. Prior knowledge on skin testing of healthy subjects and leprosy patients with whole or partially fractionated Mycobacterium leprae bacilli, such as Lepromin or the Rees' or Convit' antigens, has established an acceptable safety and potency profile of these antigens. These data, along with immunoreactivity data, laid the foundation for two new leprosy skin test antigens, MLSA-LAM (M. leprae soluble antigen devoid of mycobacterial lipoglycans, primarily lipoarabinomannan) and MLCwA (M. leprae cell wall antigens). In the absence of commercial interest, the challenge was to develop these antigens under current good manufacturing practices in an acceptable local pilot facility and submit an Investigational New Drug to the Food and Drug Administration to allow a first-in-human phase I clinical trial. PMID:24874086

  10. Bayesian integrated testing strategy (ITS) for skin sensitization potency assessment: a decision support system for quantitative weight of evidence and adaptive testing strategy.

    PubMed

    Jaworska, Joanna S; Natsch, Andreas; Ryan, Cindy; Strickland, Judy; Ashikaga, Takao; Miyazawa, Masaaki

    2015-12-01

    The presented Bayesian network Integrated Testing Strategy (ITS-3) for skin sensitization potency assessment is a decision support system for a risk assessor that provides quantitative weight of evidence, leading to a mechanistically interpretable potency hypothesis, and formulates adaptive testing strategy for a chemical. The system was constructed with an aim to improve precision and accuracy for predicting LLNA potency beyond ITS-2 (Jaworska et al., J Appl Toxicol 33(11):1353-1364, 2013) by improving representation of chemistry and biology. Among novel elements are corrections for bioavailability both in vivo and in vitro as well as consideration of the individual assays' applicability domains in the prediction process. In ITS-3 structure, three validated alternative assays, DPRA, KeratinoSens and h-CLAT, represent first three key events of the adverse outcome pathway for skin sensitization. The skin sensitization potency prediction is provided as a probability distribution over four potency classes. The probability distribution is converted to Bayes factors to: 1) remove prediction bias introduced by the training set potency distribution and 2) express uncertainty in a quantitative manner, allowing transparent and consistent criteria to accept a prediction. The novel ITS-3 database includes 207 chemicals with a full set of in vivo and in vitro data. The accuracy for predicting LLNA outcomes on the external test set (n = 60) was as follows: hazard (two classes)-100 %, GHS potency classification (three classes)-96 %, potency (four classes)-89 %. This work demonstrates that skin sensitization potency prediction based on data from three key events, and often less, is possible, reliable over broad chemical classes and ready for practical applications. PMID:26612363

  11. Alkali-treated penicillin G solution is a better option than penicillin G as an alternative source of minor determinants for penicillin skin test.

    PubMed

    Wangrattanasopon, Pongsak; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Chantaphakul, Hiroshi; Buranapraditkun, Supranee; Klaewsongkram, Jettanong

    2012-01-01

    Both benzylpenicilloyl-polylysine (PPL) and minor determinant mixture (MDM) are the recommended standard reagents for penicillin skin testing. However, penicillin G is commonly suggested as an alternative source of minor determinants. This study evaluated the accuracy of penicillin G and alkali-treated penicillin G compared with the standardized MDM for skin testing. Sixty-eight patients with histories of allergies to penicillin or semisynthetic penicillins were skin tested with commercial Kit penicillin allergenic determinants (DAP) (PPL and DAP-MDM; Diater Laboratorios, Madrid, Spain). The in-house MDM (IH-MDM), prepared by alkali-treated aged penicillin, and fresh penicillin G sodium (PGs) were tested alongside DAP-MDM. Positive penicillin skin test results were identified in 22 patients (32.4%) using commercial reagents (PPL+ DAP-MDM) and 19 of them reacted to DAP-MDM alone or together with PPL. The accuracy of IH-MDM and PGs compared with DAP-MDM was 89.7 and 76.5%, respectively. Our study shows that alkali-treated penicillin G is a better option than penicillin G as an alternative source of MDM for skin testing in case the commercialized MDM is not available. Minor determinants play a significant role for penicillin allergy in Thailand and should be included in the penicillin skin test panel to verify suspected cases of penicillin allergy. (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT00789217). PMID:22525392

  12. Multi-laboratory evaluation of SkinEthic HCE test method for testing serious eye damage/eye irritation using solid chemicals and overall performance of the test method with regard to solid and liquid chemicals testing.

    PubMed

    Alépée, N; Adriaens, E; Grandidier, M H; Meloni, M; Nardelli, L; Vinall, C J; Toner, F; Roper, C S; Van Rompay, A R; Leblanc, V; Cotovio, J

    2016-08-01

    A prospective multicentre study of the reconstructed human corneal epithelial tissue-based in vitro test method (SkinEthic™ HCE) was conducted to evaluate its usefulness to identify chemicals as either not classified for serious eye damage/eye irritation (No Cat.) or as classified (Cat. 1/Cat. 2) within UN GHS. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the transferability and reproducibility of the SkinEthic™ HCE EITS protocol for solids and define its predictive capacity. Briefly, 60 chemicals were three times tested (double blinded) in 3 laboratories and 35 additional chemicals were tested three times in one laboratory. Good within laboratory reproducibility was achieved of at least 95% (57/60) and 96.8% (92/95) for the extended data set. Furthermore, the overall concordance between the laboratories was 96.7% (58/60). The accuracy of the SkinEthic™ HCE EITS for the extended dataset, based on bootstrap resampling, was 81.0% (95% CI: 78.9% to 83.2%) with a sensitivity of 90.5% (95% CI: 88.1% to 92.9%) and specificity of 73.6% (95% CI: 71.7% to 75.5%). Overall, 200 chemicals were tested (105 liquids (EITL protocol) and 95 solids (EITS protocol)) resulting in a sensitivity of 95.2%, specificity of 72.1% and accuracy of 83.7%, thereby meeting all acceptance criteria for predictive capacity. PMID:26989001

  13. Effects of repeated administration of intradermal skin test by Mantoux method on delayed-type hypersensitivity responses in healthy young and elderly subjects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multi-test CMI to test immune response is no longer commercially available. DTH response is a highly suitable marker of immune function. Because delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin test can predict morbidity and mortality, it may be clinically meaningful test to evaluate the effect of nutrition...

  14. Skin Prick Test with Self-Saliva in Patients with Oral Aphthoses: A New Diagnostic Pathergy for Behcet’s Disease and Recurrent Aphthosis

    PubMed Central

    Togashi, Ari; Saito, Sanae; Kaneko, Fumio; Nakamura, Koichiro; Oyama, Noritaka

    2011-01-01

    There may be some difficulties to differentiate Behcet’s disease (BD), recurrent aphthosis (RA), and herpetic aphthous ulceration, from other mimicking oral disorders. Despite of unexpected sensitivity and responsiveness, the skin pathergy test regarding a non-specific hypersensitivity has long been thought as one of auxiliary diagnostic benefits for BD. To determine the potential usefulness and disease specificity of the prick reaction with saliva, a skin prick test with neat and filter-sterilized saliva was performed on the forearm skin of 26 individuals; 10 patients with BD (8 incomplete type without uveitis, 1 complete type, and 1 neurological type), 5 with RA, 3 with herpetic oral aphthosis, 2 with erythema nodosum alone, and 6 healthy controls. We assessed the skin reaction at 48 hours after pricking, and the pricked skin lesions were biopsied and analyzed immunohistologically. Nine of 10 BD patients (90 %) exhibited an indurative erythema at the skin site pricked with self-saliva, whereas 3 of 5 RA patients (60%) were relatively weak reaction. Pricking with filter-sterilized saliva failed to recapitulate any of positive skin reactions, albeit a faint erythematous dot appeared in a few BD patients, implicating the involvement of causative microorganism(s) in oral bacterial flora. Culture of saliva from 3 randomly chosen BD patients revealed numerous streptococcal colonies on Mitis-Salivarius agar. Histology of the pricked skin sites showed perivasucular inflammatory infiltrates, composed of CD4+ T cells and CD68+ monocyte/macrophage lineage, a feature consistent with a delayed type hypersensitive reaction. Our results suggested that skin prick test using self-saliva (a new diagnostic pathergy) can be a simple and valuable in vivo diagnostic approach for differentiating BD and RA from other mimicking mucocutaneous diseases. The positive skin prick may be triggered by resident intra-oral microflora, particularly streptococci, and may in part address the

  15. Skin prick test with self-saliva in patients with oral aphthoses: a diagnostic pathergy for Behcet's disease and recurrent aphthosis.

    PubMed

    Togashi, Ari; Saito, Sanae; Kaneko, Fumio; Nakamura, Koichiro; Oyama, Noritaka

    2011-06-01

    There may be some difficulties to differentiate Behcet's disease (BD), recurrent aphthosis (RA), and herpetic aphthous ulceration, from other mimicking oral disorders. Despite of unexpected sensitivity and responsiveness, the skin pathergy test regarding a non specific hypersensitivity has long been thought as one of auxiliary diagnostic benefits for BD. To determine the potential usefulness and disease specificity of the prick reaction with saliva, a skin prick test with neat and filter-sterilized saliva was performed on the forearm skin of 26 individuals; 10 patients with BD (8 incomplete type without uveitis, 1 complete type, and 1 neurological type), 5 with RA, 3 with herpetic oral aphthosis, 2 with erythema nodosum alone, and 6 healthy controls. We assessed the skin reaction at 48 hours after pricking, and the pricked skin lesions were biopsied and analyzed immunohistologically. Nine of 10 BD patients (90 %) exhibited an indurative erythema at the skin site pricked with self-saliva, whereas 3 of 5 RA patients (60%) were relatively weak reaction. Pricking with filter-sterilized saliva failed to recapitulate any of positive skin reactions, albeit a faint erythematous dot appeared in a few BD patients, implicating the involvement of causative microorganism(s) in oral bacterial flora. Culture of saliva from 3 randomly chosen BD patients revealed numerous streptococcal colonies on Mitis-Salivarius agar. Histology of the pricked skin sites showed perivascular inflammatory infiltrates, composed of CD4+ T cells and CD68+ monocyte/macrophage lineage, a feature consistent with a delayed type hypersensitive reaction. Our results suggested that skin prick test using self-saliva (a new diagnostic pathergy) can be a simple and valuable in vivo diagnostic approach for differentiating BD and RA from other mimicking mucocutaneous diseases. The positive skin prick may be triggered by resident intra-oral microflora, particularly streptococci, and may in part address the

  16. Humoral immunity in tuberculin skin test anergy and its role in high-risk persons exposed to active tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Encinales, Liliana; Zuñiga, Joaquin; Granados-Montiel, Julio; Yunis, Maria; Granados, Julio; Almeciga, Ingrid; Clavijo, Olga; Awad, Carlos; Collazos, Vilma; Vargas-Rojas, María Inés; Bañales-Mendez, José Luis; Vazquez-Castañeda, Lilia; Stern, Joel N; Romero, Viviana; Fridkis-Hareli, Masha; Frindkis-Hareli, Masha; Terreros, Daniel; Fernandez-Viña, Marcelo; Yunis, Edmond J

    2010-02-01

    The most common test to identify latent tuberculosis is the tuberculin skin test that detects T cell responses of delayed type hypersensitivity type IV. Since it produces false negative reactions in active tuberculosis or in high-risk persons exposed to tuberculosis patients as shown in this report, we studied antibody profiles to explain the anergy of such responses in high-risk individuals without active infection. Our results showed that humoral immunity against tuberculin, regardless of the result of the tuberculin skin test is important for protection from active tuberculosis and that the presence of high antibody titers is a more reliable indicator of infection latency suggesting that latency can be based on the levels of antibodies together with in vitro proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in the presence of the purified protein derivative. Importantly, anti-tuberculin IgG antibody levels mediate the anergy described herein, which could also prevent reactivation of disease in high-risk individuals with high antibody titers. Such anti-tuberculin IgG antibodies were also found associated with blocking and/or stimulation of in vitro cultures of PBMC with tuberculin. In this regard, future studies need to establish if immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis can generate a broad spectrum of reactions either toward Th1 responses favoring stimulation by cytokines or by antibodies and those toward diminished responses by Th2 cytokines or blocking by antibodies; possibly involving mechanisms of antibody dependent protection from Mtb by different subclasses of IgG. PMID:20004475

  17. Use of a smart phone based thermo camera for skin prick allergy testing: a feasibility study (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barla, Lindi; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Klaessens, John; van der Veen, Albert

    2016-02-01

    Allergy testing is usually performed by exposing the skin to small quantities of potential allergens on the inner forearm and scratching the protective epidermis to increase exposure. After 15 minutes the dermatologist performs a visual check for swelling and erythema which is subjective and difficult for e.g. dark skin types. A small smart phone based thermo camera (FLIR One) was used to obtain quantitative images in a feasibility study of 17 patients Directly after allergen exposure on the forearm, thermal images were captured at 30 seconds interval and processed to a time lapse movie over 15 minutes. Considering the 'subjective' reading of the dermatologist as golden standard, in 11/17 pts (65%) the evaluation of dermatologist was confirmed by the thermo camera including 5 of 6 patients without allergic response. In 7 patients thermo showed additional spots. Of the 342 sites tested, the dermatologist detected 47 allergies of which 28 (60%) were confirmed by thermo imaging while thermo imaging showed 12 additional spots. The method can be improved with user dedicated acquisition software and better registration between normal and thermal images. The lymphatic reaction seems to shift from the original puncture site. The interpretation of the thermal images is still subjective since collecting quantitative data is difficult due to motion patient during 15 minutes. Although not yet conclusive, thermal imaging shows to be promising to improve the sensitivity and selectivity of allergy testing using a smart phone based camera.

  18. Humoral immunity in tuberculin skin test anergy and its role in high-risk persons exposed to active tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Encinales, Liliana; Zuñiga, Joaquin; Yunis, Maria; Granados-Montiel, Julio; Granados, Julio; Almeciga, Ingrid; Clavijo, Olga; Awad, Carlos; Collazos, Vilma; Vargas-Rojas, María Inés; Bañales-Mendez, José Luis; Vazquez-Castañeda, Lilia; Stern, Joel N.; Romero, Viviana; Frindkis-Hareli, Masha; Terreros, Daniel; Fernandez-Viña, Marcelo; Yunis, Edmond J.

    2009-01-01

    The most common test to identify latent tuberculosis is the Tuberculin skin test that detects T cell responses of delayed type hypersensitivity type IV. Since it produces false negative reactions in active tuberculosis or in high-risk persons exposed to tuberculosis patients as shown in this report, we studied antibody profiles to explain the anergy of such responses in high-risk individuals without active infection. Our results showed that humoral immunity against Tuberculin, regardless of the result of the Tuberculin skin test is important for protection from active tuberculosis and that the presence of high antibody titers is a more reliable indicator of infection latency suggesting that latency can be based on the levels of antibodies together with in vitro proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in the presence of the purified protein derivative. Importantly, anti-Tuberculin IgG antibody levels mediate the anergy described herein, which could also prevent reactivation of disease in high-risk individuals with high antibody titers. Such IgG Tuberculin antibodies were also found associated with blocking and/or stimulation of in vitro cultures of PBMC with Tuberculin. In this regard, future studies need to establish if immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis can generate a broad spectrum of reactions either toward Th1 responses favoring stimulation by cytokines or by antibodies and those toward diminished responses by Th2 cytokines or blocking by antibodies; possibly involving mechanisms of antibody dependent protection from Mtb by different subclasses of IgG. PMID:20004475

  19. The Spanish standard patch test series: 2016 update by the Spanish Contact Dermatitis and Skin Allergy Research Group (GEIDAC).

    PubMed

    Hervella-Garcés, M; García-Gavín, J; Silvestre-Salvador, J F

    2016-09-01

    The Spanish standard patch test series, as recommended by the Spanish Contact Dermatitis and Skin Allergy Research Group (GEIDAC), has been updated for 2016. The new series replaces the 2012 version and contains the minimum set of allergens recommended for routine investigation of contact allergy in Spain from 2016 onwards. Four haptens -clioquinol, thimerosal, mercury, and primin- have been eliminated owing to a low frequency of relevant allergic reactions, while 3 new allergens -methylisothiazolinone, diazolidinyl urea, and imidazolidinyl urea- have been added. GEIDAC has also modified the recommended aqueous solution concentrations for the 2 classic, major haptens methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone, which are now to be tested at 200ppm in aqueous solution, and formaldehyde, which is now to be tested in a 2% aqueous solution. Updating the Spanish standard series is one of the functions of GEIDAC, which is responsible for ensuring that the standard series is suited to the country's epidemiological profile and pattern of contact sensitization. PMID:27262363

  20. An in vitro skin irritation test (SIT) using the EpiDerm reconstructed human epidermal (RHE) model.

    PubMed

    Kandárová, Helena; Hayden, Patrick; Klausner, Mitchell; Kubilus, Joseph; Sheasgreen, John

    2009-01-01

    The EpiDerm Skin Irritation test (EpiDerm SIT) was developed and validated for in vitro skin irritation testing of chemicals, including cosmetic and pharmaceutical ingredients. The EpiDerm SIT utilizes the 3D in vitro reconstructed human epidermal (RHE) model EpiDerm. The procedure described in this protocol allows for discrimination between irritants of GHS category 2 and non-irritants. The test is performed over the course of a 4 day time period, consisting of pre-incubation, 60 minute exposure, 42 hour post-incubation and MTT viability assay. After tissue receipt and overnight pre-incubation (Day 0), tissues are topically exposed to the test chemicals (Day 1), which can be liquid, semisolid, solid or waxy. Three tissues are used for each test chemical, as well as for the positive control (5% aq. SDS solution), and a negative control (DPBS). Chemical exposure lasts for 60 minutes, 35 min of which the tissues are kept in an incubator at 37 degrees C. The test substances are then removed from the tissue surface by an extensive washing procedure. The tissue inserts are blotted and transferred to fresh medium. After a 24 hr incubation period (Day 2), the medium is exchanged. The medium can be saved for further analysis of cytokines or other endpoints of interest. After the medium exchange, tissues are incubated for an additional 18 hours. At the end of the entire 42 h post-incubation (day 3), the tissues are transferred into yellow MTT solution and incubated for 3 hours. The resultant purple-blue formazan salt, formed mainly by mitochondrial metabolism, is extracted for 2 hours using isopropanol. The optical density of the extracted formazan is determined using a spectrophotometer. A chemical is classified as an irritant if the tissue viability relative to the negative control treated tissues is reduced below 50%. This procedure can be used as full replacement of the in vivo rabbit skin irritation test for hazard identification and labeling of chemicals in line with

  1. The effects of serial skin testing with purified protein derivative on the level and quality of antibodies to complex and defined antigens in Mycobacterium bovis-infected cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several serologic tests designed to detect antibodies to immunodominant Mycobacterium bovis antigens have recently emerged as ancillary tests for the detection of bovine tuberculosis in cattle, particularly when applied after injection of purified protein derivative (PPD) for skin test that signific...

  2. The genetics of skin, hair, and eye color variation and its relevance to forensic pigmentation predictive tests.

    PubMed

    Maroñas, O; Söchtig, J; Ruiz, Y; Phillips, C; Carracedo, Á; Lareu, M V

    2015-01-01

    This review examines the potential application of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based predictive tests for skin, hair, and eye color to forensic analysis in support of police investigations lacking DNA database matches or eyewitness testimony. Brief descriptions of the biology of melanogenesis and the main genes involved are presented in order to understand the basis of common pigmentation variation in humans. We outline the most recently developed forensically sensitive multiplex tests that can be applied to investigative analyses. The review also describes the biology of the SNPs with the closest associations to, and therefore the best predictors for, common variation in eye, hair, and skin pigmentation. Because pigmentation pathways are complex in their patterns, many of the better-studied human albinism traits provide insight into how pigmentation SNPs interact, control, or modify gene expression and show varying degrees of association with the key genes identified to date. These aspects of SNP action are discussed in an overview of each of the functional groups of pigmentation genes. PMID:26227136

  3. A paired comparison of tuberculin skin test results in health care workers using 5 TU and 10 TU tuberculin

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, R.; Bennett, N.; Forbes, A.; Grayson, M

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Historically, 10 TU has been employed in Australia and the United Kingdom to perform the tuberculin skin test (TST). However, this makes it difficult to compare the rates of TST positivity with other countries such as the USA who use 5 TU. To assess the impact of the dose of tuberculin on the TST a comparison was made of TST responses in health care workers given a TST with both 5 and 10 TU.
METHODS—Two TSTs were performed simultaneously in each health care worker using 5 and 10 TU. Each dose was randomly assigned in a blinded manner to the right or left forearm and read at 48-72 hours by a single nurse who was blinded to the assignment of the 5 and 10 TU doses.
RESULTS—A total of 128 health care workers were enrolled, 119 (93%) of whom had a past history of BCG vaccination. The overall mean difference in paired reaction sizes for the two doses was 1.5 mm with 95% limits of agreement of -3.6 to 6.5 mm.
CONCLUSION—A slightly larger TST reading was seen with 10 TU than with 5 TU. The mean difference of 1.5 mm between the two doses should be considered when comparing rates of TST positivity between countries who use different doses of tuberculin to perform the tuberculin skin test.

 PMID:10899248

  4. Evaluation of distal symmetric polyneuropathy: the role of autonomic testing, nerve biopsy, and skin biopsy (an evidence-based review).

    PubMed

    England, J D; Gronseth, G S; Franklin, G; Carter, G T; Kinsella, L J; Cohen, J A; Asbury, A K; Szigeti, K; Lupski, J R; Latov, N; Lewis, R A; Low, P A; Fisher, M A; Herrmann, D; Howard, J F; Lauria, G; Miller, R G; Polydefkis, M; Sumner, A J

    2009-01-01

    Distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSP) is the most common variety of neuropathy. Since the evaluation of this disorder is not standardized, the available literature was reviewed to provide evidence-based guidelines regarding the role of autonomic testing, nerve biopsy, and skin biopsy for the assessment of polyneuropathy. A literature review using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, and Current Contents was performed to identify the best evidence regarding the evaluation of polyneuropathy published between 1980 and March 2007. Articles were classified according to a four-tiered level of evidence scheme and recommendations were based on the level of evidence. (1) Autonomic testing may be considered in the evaluation of patients with polyneuropathy to document autonomic nervous system dysfunction (Level B). Such testing should be considered especially for the evaluation of suspected autonomic neuropathy (Level B) and distal small fiber sensory polyneuropathy (SFSN) (Level C). A battery of validated tests is recommended to achieve the highest diagnostic accuracy (Level B). (2) Nerve biopsy is generally accepted as useful in the evaluation of certain neuropathies as in patients with suspected amyloid neuropathy, mononeuropathy multiplex due to vasculitis, or with atypical forms of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). However, the literature is insufficient to provide a recommendation regarding when a nerve biopsy may be useful in the evaluation of DSP (Level U). (3) Skin biopsy is a validated technique for determining intraepidermal nerve fiber (IENF) density and may be considered for the diagnosis of DSP, particularly SFSN (Level C). There is a need for additional prospective studies to define more exact guidelines for the evaluation of polyneuropathy. PMID:19086069

  5. Eosinophilic airway disease in a patient with a negative skin prick test, but a positive patch test with platinum salts--implications for medical surveillance.

    PubMed

    Merget, Rolf; Fartasch, Manigé; Sander, Ingrid; Van Kampen, Vera; Raulf, Monika; Brüning, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    We present the case of a 52-year-old woman with a topic dermatitis since adolescence who developed work-related hand eczema, cough and runny nose 12 years after she had started working as a laboratory technician at a precious metals refinery. While skin prick test with sodium hexachloroplatinate (SPTPt ) was negative, patch testing with ammonium tetrachloroplatinate was positive after 24, 48, 72, and 96 hr. Inhalation challenge with sodium hexachloroplatinate yielded cough, mild shortness of breath, and a maximal decrease of FEV1 of 8% from baseline 24 hr after the challenge. Significant increases of bronchial hyperresponsiveness, exhaled nitric monoxide and sputum eosinophils were documented after the challenge. We conclude that eosinophilic airway disease due to platinum salts may occur in SPTPt negative subjects. Both, patch testing and inhalation challenge with platinum salts should be considered in SPT negative subjects with occupational exposure to precious metal salts and work-related allergic symptoms. PMID:26010732

  6. Skin reactivity to metallic cobalt in patients with a positive patch test to cobalt chloride.

    PubMed

    de Fine Olivarius, F; Menné, T

    1992-10-01

    458 consecutive patients were patch tested with a metallic cobalt disc as a supplement to the standard series. 23 patients had a positive reaction to CoCl2 1% pet. Of these, 19 were tested with the cobalt disc. 11 had a positive reaction and 5 a questionable reaction. There were no positive reactions to the cobalt disc in patients with a negative patch test to CoCl2 1% pet. Patch testing with CoCl2 1% pet. diagnoses all patients with allergy to metallic cobalt, but the test method is limited by a high number of irritant and questionable reactions. PMID:1451489

  7. Skin testing of gallic acid-based hair dye in paraphenylenediamine/paratoluenediamine-reactive patients.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yunseok; Lee, Joon Ho; Kwon, Hyok Bu; An, Susun; Lee, Ai-Young

    2016-07-01

    Incidence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to para-phenylenediamine (PPD)/paratoluenediamine (PTD) hair dyes is increasing. Hair dyes utilizing gallic acid (GA) may be a safe alternative. However, pretesting is recommended. We investigated the contact sensitivity to ingredients of a dye product; GA, monoethanolamine thioglycolate (MT), l-cystein and ferrous sulfate, and an appropriate pretest method in 31 patients reactive to PPD and/or PTD. An open test was performed with the test dye following the patch test. Subsequently, a use test was performed twice, with a 4-week interval. One subject showed a positive reaction to ferrous sulfate in the patch test. Another subject reacted to the first compound alone in the open test. Thirteen subjects manifesting cutaneous lesions from previous regular hair dyeing, showed reactions at the first use of the test dye; and six had reactions with reduced severity at the second test. GA and MT are safe for use in ACD patients reactive to PPD and/or PTD. For predicting contact allergy to hair dyes, the open test appeared to be a better pretest method than the patch test. PMID:26663148

  8. Verification Of Residual Strength Properties From Compression After Impact Tests On Thin CFRP Skin, A1 Honeycomb Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalnins, Kaspars; Graham, Adrian J.; Sinnema, Gerben

    2012-07-01

    This article presents a study of CFRP/Al honeycomb panels subjected to a low velocity impact which, as a result, caused strength reduction. The main scope of the current study was to investigate experimental procedures, which are not well standardized and later verify them with numerical simulations. To ensure integrity of typical lightweight structural panels of modern spacecraft, knowledge about the impact energy required to produce clearly visible damage, and the resulting strength degradation is of high importance. For this initial investigation, Readily available ‘heritage’ (1980s) sandwich structure with relatively thin skin was used for this investigation. After initial attempts to produce impact damage, it was decided to create quasistatic indentation instead of low velocity impact, to cause barely visible damage. Forty two edgewise Compressions After Impact (CAI) test specimens have been produced and tested up to failure, while recording the strain distribution by optical means during the tests. Ultrasonic C-scan inspection was used to identify the damage evolution before and after each test. The optical strain measurements acquired during the tests showed sensitivity level capable to track the local buckling of damaged region.

  9. Comparative Study of Positive Versus Negative Autologous Serum Skin Test in Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria and its Treatment Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Yadalla Hari Kishan; Bhaskar, Sapnashree; Shankar, Keerthi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chronic urticaria (CU) is defined as urticaria persisting daily or almost daily for more than 6 weeks and affecting 0.1% of the population. Mast cell degranulation and histamine release are of central importance in the pathogenesis of CU. About 40-50% of the patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) or chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) demonstrates an immediate wheal and flare response to intradermal injected autologous serum. This led to the concept of autoimmune urticaria (AIU). Aims: To determine the occurrence, clinical features, associated clinical conditions, comorbidities of AIU, and to compare this with CSU. This study aimed to find the frequency of autologous serum skin test (ASST)-positive patients among patients with CSU and to identify the clinical and laboratory parameters associated with positive ASST and to compare the treatment outcome. Materials and Methods: A prospective correlation study in 110 patients with CSU was conducted, after screening 200 CU patients attending the outpatient Department of Dermatology during from January 2012 to May 2013. Patients were subjected to ASST, complete blood counts, urine routine examination, liver function tests, renal function tests, thyroid function tests (T3, T4, and TSH), and urine analysis. Results: Out of 200 CU patients screened, 90 patients had excludable causes based on detailed history and skin prick test, and the remaining 110 patients were considered to have CSU. These 110 patients were further subjected to ASST, serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), and peripheral blood eosinophilia. ASST was positive in 48 patients and negative in 62 patients. Frequency of urticarial attacks and associated diseases such as abnormal thyroid function tests in both ASST-positive and ASST-negative patients did not show any statistical significance. Only attacks of angioedema in ASST-positive individuals were higher and were statistically significant. In the ASST-positive group, 31 (81.25%) patients showed

  10. Strategic use of serology for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis after intradermal skin testing.

    PubMed

    Casal, Carmen; Díez-Guerrier, Alberto; Álvarez, Julio; Rodriguez-Campos, Sabrina; Mateos, Ana; Linscott, Richard; Martel, Edmond; Lawrence, John C; Whelan, Clare; Clarke, John; O'Brien, Amanda; Domínguez, Lucas; Aranaz, Alicia

    2014-06-01

    Diagnostic tests based on cell-mediated immunity are used in programmes for eradication of bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis). Serological assays could be applied as ancillary methods to detect infected animals. Our objective was to evaluate two serological techniques: M. bovis Ab Test (IDEXX, USA) and Enferplex™ TB assay (Enfer, Ireland) in animals tested simultaneously with the single and comparative intradermal tests and the interferon-gamma assay. This work was performed at two stages. First, a preliminary panel of samples collected prior to intradermal tests from tuberculosis-free (n=60) and M. bovis-infected herds (n=78) was assayed, obtaining high specificity: 100% (M. bovis Ab Test) and 98.3% (Enferplex TB assay) but low sensitivity (detection of M. bovis infected animals): 23.9% (M. bovis Ab Test) and 32.6% (Enferplex TB assay). Subsequently, the use of serological techniques was further studied in two herds with M. bovis infection (n=77) using samples collected prior to, and 72 h and 15 days after PPD inoculation. The highest level of detection of infected animals for serology was achieved at 15 days post-intradermal tests taking advantage of the anamnestic effect: 70.4% and 85.2% in herd A, and 66.7% and 83.3% in herd B, using M. bovis Ab Test and Enferplex TB assay, respectively. Quantitative results (average values obtained with M. bovis Ab Test ELISA and degree of positivity obtained with Enferplex TB assay) were higher in animals showing lesions compatible with tuberculosis. No significant differences were observed in the number of confirmed infected animals detected with either serological technique. PMID:24679958

  11. [Improvement of skin moisture and skin texture with urea therapy].

    PubMed

    Puschmann, M; Gogoll, K

    1989-01-01

    A significant increase in skin moisture and an improvement in skin smoothness after application of a urea-containing cream was noticed in a large number of volunteers with healthy skin and in neurodermitis patients compared with untreated skin and with vehicle. The effect was shown after one application (short-term test) as well as after repeated application (long-term test). Regular application of preparation containing urea increases the moisture of a the skin and improves the skin's smoothness compared with its previous condition, with untreated skin, and with placebo preparations. PMID:2807927

  12. Skin test and Gamma Interferon enzyme-linked Immunosorbent assay results in Sheep exposed to dead Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis Organisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cell mediated immunity (CMI) diagnostic tests, such as the gamma interferon enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IFN-gamma ELISA) and the johnin skin test, have the potential to detect animals infected with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) early in the course of the disease. While...

  13. Average Skin-Friction Drag Coefficients from Tank Tests of a Parabolic Body of Revolution (NACA RM-10)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mottard, Elmo J; Loposer, J Dan

    1954-01-01

    Average skin-friction drag coefficients were obtained from boundary-layer total-pressure measurements on a parabolic body of revolution (NACA rm-10, basic fineness ratio 15) in water at Reynolds numbers from 4.4 x 10(6) to 70 x 10(6). The tests were made in the Langley tank no. 1 with the body sting-mounted at a depth of two maximum body diameters. The arithmetic mean of three drag measurements taken around the body was in good agreement with flat-plate results, but, apparently because of the slight surface wave caused by the body, the distribution of the boundary layer around the body was not uniform over part of the Reynolds number range.

  14. Association between HLA-DR4 haplotypes and tuberculin skin test response in the Aché population.

    PubMed

    Lindenau, J D; Guimarães, L S P; Hurtado, A M; Hill, K R; Tsuneto, L T; Salzano, F M; Petzl-Erler, M L; Hutz, M H

    2014-11-01

    The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system has a major role in the regulation of the immune response as it is involved in the defense against pathogens. Evidence for association with tuberculosis (TB) is more consistent for class II than for class I HLA genes. TB is important among indigenous peoples in South America, not only because of its historical role in regional depopulation, but also because it is still widespread. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of HLA class II alleles, haplotypes and genotypes and tuberculin skin test response (TST) in 76 individuals of the Aché population. Poisson Regression was employed to assess risk genotypes. DRB1*04, DQA1*03 and DQB1*03:02 were associated with TST response in this population. PMID:25329634

  15. Monitoring changes in the scattering properties of mouse skin with optical coherence tomography during an in vivo glucose tolerance test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinnunen, M.; Tausta, S.; Myllylä, R.; Vainio, S.

    2007-05-01

    A non-invasive glucose monitoring technique would make evaluation of blood glucose values easier and more convenient. This would help diabetic patients to control their blood glucose values more regularly. A few years ago optical coherence tomography (OCT) was proposed as a non-invasive sensor for monitoring changes in blood glucose concentration. The method is based on monitoring glucose-induced changes in the scattering properties of the target. This article describes how OCT was used to monitor changes in the scattering properties of mouse skin during an in vivo glucose tolerance test. The results show that OCT has the potential to register glucose-induced changes in the optical properties of the sample. However, a commercial OCT device with a probe designed for imaging is not very suitable for non-invasive monitoring of glucose-induced changes in scattering. The problems confronted in this study, possibly originating from the small size of the animals, are discussed in the article.

  16. Testing a family intervention hypothesis: the contribution of mother-infant skin-to-skin contact (kangaroo care) to family interaction, proximity, and touch.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Ruth; Weller, Aron; Sirota, Lea; Eidelman, Arthur I

    2003-03-01

    The provision of maternal-infant body contact during a period of maternal separation was examined for its effects on parent-infant and triadic interactions. Participants were 146 three-month-old preterm infants and their parents, half of whom received skin-to-skin contact, or kangaroo care (KC), in the neonatal nursery. Global relational style and micro-patterns of proximity and touch were coded. Following KC, mothers and fathers were more sensitive and less intrusive, infants showed less negative affect, and family style was more cohesive. Among KC families, maternal and paternal affectionate touch of infant and spouse was more frequent, spouses remained in closer proximity, and infant proximity position was conducive to mutual gaze and touch during triadic play. The role of touch as a constituent of the co-regulatory parent-infant and triadic systems and the effects of maternal contact on mothering, co-parenting, and family processes are discussed. PMID:12666466

  17. Two novel prediction models improve predictions of skin corrosive sub-categories by test methods of OECD Test Guideline No. 431.

    PubMed

    Desprez, Bertrand; Barroso, João; Griesinger, Claudius; Kandárová, Helena; Alépée, Nathalie; Fuchs, Horst W

    2015-12-01

    Alternative test methods often use prediction models (PMs) for converting endpoint measurements into predictions. Two PMs are used for the skin corrosion tests (SCTs) of the OECD Test Guideline No. 431 (TG 431). One is specific to EpiSkin™ test method, whereas EpiDerm™, SkinEthic™ RHE and epiCS® share a common PM. These methods are based on reconstructed human epidermis models wherein cell viability values are measured. Their PMs allow translating those values into sub-categories of corrosive chemicals, Category 1A (Cat1A) and a combination of Categories 1B/1C (Cat1BC), and identifying non-corrosive (NC) chemicals. EpiSkin™'s PM already results in sufficiently accurate predictions. The common PM of the three others accurately identifies all corrosive chemicals but, for sub-categorization, an important fraction of Cat1BC chemicals (40-50%) is over-predicted as Cat1A. This paper presents a post-hoc analysis of validation data on a set of n=80 chemicals. It investigates: why this common PM causes these over-predictions and how two novel PMs that we developed (PMvar1 and PMvar2) improve the predictive capacity of these methods. PMvar1 is based on a two-step approach; PMvar2 is based on a single composite indicator of cell viability. Both showed a greater capacity to predict Cat1BC, while Cat1A correct predictions remaining at least at the same level of EpiSkin™. We suggest revising TG 431, to include the novel PMs in view of improving the predictive capacity of its SCTs. PMID:26320836

  18. Catch-up validation study of an in vitro skin irritation test method based on an open source reconstructed epidermis (phase II).

    PubMed

    Groeber, F; Schober, L; Schmid, F F; Traube, A; Kolbus-Hernandez, S; Daton, K; Hoffmann, S; Petersohn, D; Schäfer-Korting, M; Walles, H; Mewes, K R

    2016-10-01

    To replace the Draize skin irritation assay (OECD guideline 404) several test methods based on reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) have been developed and were adopted in the OECD test guideline 439. However, all validated test methods in the guideline are linked to RHE provided by only three companies. Thus, the availability of these test models is dependent on the commercial interest of the producer. To overcome this limitation and thus to increase the accessibility of in vitro skin irritation testing, an open source reconstructed epidermis (OS-REp) was introduced. To demonstrate the capacity of the OS-REp in regulatory risk assessment, a catch-up validation study was performed. The participating laboratories used in-house generated OS-REp to assess the set of 20 reference substances according to the performance standards amending the OECD test guideline 439. Testing was performed under blinded conditions. The within-laboratory reproducibility of 87% and the inter-laboratory reproducibility of 85% prove a high reliability of irritancy testing using the OS-REp protocol. In addition, the prediction capacity was with an accuracy of 80% comparable to previous published RHE based test protocols. Taken together the results indicate that the OS-REp test method can be used as a standalone alternative skin irritation test replacing the OECD test guideline 404. PMID:27435616

  19. Determination of the axial and circumferential mechanical properties of the skin tissue using experimental testing and constitutive modeling.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Haghighatnama, Maedeh; Haghi, Afsaneh Motevalli

    2015-01-01

    The skin, being a multi-layered material, is responsible for protecting the human body from the mechanical, bacterial, and viral insults. The skin tissue may display different mechanical properties according to the anatomical locations of a body. However, these mechanical properties in different anatomical regions and at different loading directions (axial and circumferential) of the mice body to date have not been determined. In this study, the axial and circumferential loads were imposed on the mice skin samples. The elastic modulus and maximum stress of the skin tissues were measured before the failure occurred. The nonlinear mechanical behavior of the skin tissues was also computationally investigated through a suitable constitutive equation. Hyperelastic material model was calibrated using the experimental data. Regardless of the anatomic locations of the mice body, the results revealed significantly different mechanical properties in the axial and circumferential directions and, consequently, the mice skin tissue behaves like a pure anisotropic material. The highest elastic modulus was observed in the back skin under the circumferential direction (6.67 MPa), while the lowest one was seen in the abdomen skin under circumferential loading (0.80 MPa). The Ogden material model was narrowly captured the nonlinear mechanical response of the skin at different loading directions. The results help to understand the isotropic/anisotropic mechanical behavior of the skin tissue at different anatomical locations. They also have implications for a diversity of disciplines, i.e., dermatology, cosmetics industry, clinical decision making, and clinical intervention. PMID:25266627

  20. Bovine Tuberculosis: Effect of the Tuberculin Skin Test on the Interferon Gamma Assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a disease of zoonotic and economic importance. Despite intensive eradication efforts over decades, bTB continues to be a problem with global perspective. The control of bTB is based on a test and slaughter policy and/or abattoir surveillance. Two types of tu...

  1. Effect of skin test on serum antibody responses to Mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, several serologic tests designed to detect immunodominant antibodies to M. bovis antigens (e.g., MPB83, MPB70, ESAT-6, and CFP10) have emerged for potential use with samples from cattle. Of these, a commercial ELISA to MPB83/MPB70 (M. bovis antibody ELISA) has gained approval for use in ca...

  2. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... are specialized skin cells that produce pigment called melanin. The melanin pigment produced by melanocytes gives skin its color. ... absorbing and scattering the energy. People with more melanin have darker skin and better protection from UV ...

  3. Skin Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

  4. Screening Test for Shed Skin Cells by Measuring the Ratio of Human DNA to Staphylococcus epidermidis DNA.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Hiroaki; Ohmori, Takeshi; Hara, Masaaki; Takahashi, Shirushi; Kurosu, Akira; Takada, Aya; Saito, Kazuyuki

    2016-05-01

    A novel screening method for shed skin cells by detecting Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), which is a resident bacterium on skin, was developed. Staphylococcus epidermidis was detected using real-time PCR. Staphylococcus epidermidis was detected in all 20 human skin surface samples. Although not present in blood and urine samples, S. epidermidis was detected in 6 of 20 saliva samples, and 5 of 18 semen samples. The ratio of human DNA to S. epidermidisDNA was significantly smaller in human skin surface samples than in saliva and semen samples in which S. epidermidis was detected. Therefore, although skin cells could not be identified by detecting only S. epidermidis, they could be distinguished by measuring the S. epidermidis to human DNA ratio. This method could be applied to casework touch samples, which suggests that it is useful for screening whether skin cells and human DNA are present on potential evidentiary touch samples. PMID:27122397

  5. Diagnostic efficacy of in vitro methods vs. skin testing in patients with inhalant allergies

    SciTech Connect

    Corey, J.P.; Liudahl, J.J.; Young, S.A.; Rodman, S.M. )

    1991-03-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the diagnostic efficacy of two selected methods of in vitro allergy testing. Specifically, the PRIST/modified RAST I125 isotope systems and the Quantizyme/modified EAST alkaline phosphatase method were compared. The time, expense, convenience, and diagnostic efficacy of the two procedures are discussed. Special attention is given to the practicality of each method for the practicing physician.

  6. Cryotherapy - skin

    MedlinePlus

    Cryosurgery - skin; Warts - freezing; Warts - cryotherapy ... Cryotherapy or cryosurgery may be used to: Remove warts Destroy precancerous skin lesions (actinic keratoses or solar keratoses) In rare cases, ...

  7. Cosmetics Europe multi-laboratory pre-validation of the SkinEthic™ reconstituted human corneal epithelium test method for the prediction of eye irritation.

    PubMed

    Alépée, N; Bessou-Touya, S; Cotovio, J; de Smedt, A; de Wever, B; Faller, C; Jones, P; Le Varlet, B; Marrec-Fairley, M; Pfannenbecker, U; Tailhardat, M; van Goethem, F; McNamee, P

    2013-08-01

    Cosmetics Europe, The Personal Care Association, known as Colipa before 2012, conducted a program of technology transfer and assessment of Within/Between Laboratory (WLV/BLV) reproducibility of the SkinEthic™ Reconstituted Human Corneal Epithelium (HCE) as one of two human reconstructed tissue eye irritation test methods. The SkinEthic™ HCE test method involves two exposure time treatment procedures - one for short time exposure (10 min - SE) and the other for long time exposure (60 min - LE) of tissues to test substance. This paper describes pre-validation studies of the SkinEthic™ HCE test method (SE and LE protocols) as well as the Eye Peptide Reactivity Assay (EPRA). In the SE WLV study, 30 substances were evaluated. A consistent outcome with respect to viability measurement across all runs was observed with all substances showing an SD of less than 18%. In the LE WLV study, 44 out of 45 substances were consistently classified. These data demonstrated a high level of reproducibility within laboratory for both the SE and LE treatment procedures. For the LE BLV, 19 out of 20 substances were consistently classified between the three laboratories, again demonstrating a high level of reproducibility between laboratories. The results for EPRA WLV and BLV studies demonstrated that all substances analysed were categorised similarly and that the method is reproducible. The SkinEthic™ HCE test method entered into the experimental phase of a formal ECVAM validation program in 2010. PMID:23524228

  8. External validity of Concealed Information Test experiment: Comparison of respiration, skin conductance, and heart rate between experimental and field card tests.

    PubMed

    Zaitsu, Wataru

    2016-07-01

    The Concealed Information Test (CIT) is a memory detection method based on an examinee's physiological responses to crime-relevant items (critical items) in comparison with crime-irrelevant items (noncritical items). I examined the external validity of CIT laboratory experiments by comparing respiratory speed (RS), skin conductance response (SCR), and heart rate (HR) between a laboratory experiment (n = 30) and a field test (n = 30) in a card test. A linear mixed models analysis showed that the critical items in both CIT contexts elicited CIT effects: RS repression, SCR increase, and HR deceleration. Additionally, the critical items in the field elicited a larger RS suppression than those in the laboratory; however, SCR and HR on the critical items showed no statistical differences between the laboratory and field CITs. Moreover, the tonic HRs in the field tests were higher than in the CIT experiments, but there were no significant correlations between the tonic HR and each CIT effect in RS, SCR, and HR. These results suggested that CIT detection efficiency was not affected by arousal levels and may imply that the CIT effects observed with RS, SCR, and HR in the CIT laboratory experiments has adequate external validity and can be generalized to the CIT field. PMID:27031043

  9. Randomized Clinical Trial of the Innovative Bilayered Wound Dressing Made of Silk and Gelatin: Safety and Efficacy Tests Using a Split-Thickness Skin Graft Model

    PubMed Central

    Hasatsri, Sukhontha; Angspatt, Apichai; Aramwit, Pornanong

    2015-01-01

    We developed the novel silk fibroin-based bilayered wound dressing for the treatment of partial thickness wounds. And it showed relevant characteristics and accelerated the healing of full-thickness wounds in a rat model. This study is the clinical evaluation of the bilayered wound dressing to confirm its safety and efficacy for the treatment of split-thickness skin donor sites. The safety test was performed using a patch model and no evidence of marked and severe cutaneous reactions was found. The efficacy test of the bilayered wound dressing was conducted on 23 patients with 30 split-thickness skin graft donor sites to evaluate healing time, pain score, skin barrier function, and systemic reaction in comparison to Bactigras. We found that the healing time of donor site wounds treated with the bilayered wound dressing (11 ± 6 days) was significantly faster than those treated with Bactigras (14 ± 6 days) (p = 10−6). The wound sites treated with the bilayered wound dressing showed significantly less pain and more rapid skin functional barrier recovery than those treated with Bactigras (p = 10−5). Therefore, these results confirmed the clinical safety and efficacy of the bilayered wound dressing for the treatment of split-thickness skin graft donor sites. PMID:26221170

  10. Test of carcinogenicity in mouse skin: Methylenedianiline,. gamma. glycidyloxytrimethyloxysilane,. gamma. aminopropyltriethoxysilane and a mixture of m-phenylenediamine, methylenedianiline, and diglycidylether of bisphenol-A

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, J.M.; Smith, L.H.; Frome, E.; Whitaker, M.J.; Gipson, L.C.; Fry, R.J.M.

    1987-06-01

    Application of graded concentrations of four test substances in acetone to the skin of C3H mice five times a week resulted in the following: ..gamma..aminopropyltriethoxysilane at concentration of 100 and 50 wt/vol % was a severe and mild skin irritant in female C3Hf/Bd respectively and in males a mild skin irritant. Methylenedianiline at a concentration of 10 wt/vol % in methanol killed 4/9 females and 1/9 males. When acetone was the solvent 3/10 females and 3/10 males died within 2 weeks. No mortality or skin damage occurred with ..gamma..glycidyloxytrimethyloxysilane or the mixture of m-phenylenediamine, methylenedianiline and diglycidylether of bisphenol A (MDA). A study of the effects of a two-year, three times a week, topical application of the four test materials revealed no significant increase in skin tumors. The incidence of liver tumors appeared to be increased by exposure to methylenedianiline and with the mixture (MDA). Significant and dose-dependent increases in mortality were found in male mice with MDA and increased mortality at the highest dose (10.8 mg/week) in females. In the case of methylenedianiline excess mortality was found in both sexes. The precise cause of excess mortality from dermal absorption of the materials applied over a two-year period was not established. 5 refs., 12 figs., 12 tabs.

  11. Correlation between skin prick test using commercial extract of cow's milk protein and fresh milk and food challenges.

    PubMed

    Calvani, Mauro; Mauro, Calvani; Alessandri, Claudia; Claudia, Alessandri; Frediani, Tullio; Tullio, Frediani; Lucarelli, Sandra; Sandra, Lucarelli; Miceli Sopo, Stefano; Stefano, Miceli Sopo; Panetta, Valentina; Valentina, Panetta; Zappalã, Daniela; Daniela, Zappala'; Zicari, Anna Maria; Maria, Zicari Anna

    2007-11-01

    The skin prick test (SPT) is regarded as an important diagnostic measure in the diagnostic work-up of cow's milk protein allergy. It is not known whether commercial extracts have any advantage over fresh milk. The aims of the study were to (i) compare the diagnostic capacity of SPTs for the three main cow's milk proteins (alpha-lactalbumin, casein and beta-lactoglobulin) with fresh milk and (ii) determine a cut-off that discriminates between allergic and tolerant children in a controlled food challenge. A study was carried out on 104 children consecutively attending two paediatric allergy clinics for suspected cow's milk allergy. A clinical history, SPTs with fresh cow's milk and commercial extracts of its three main proteins and a challenge test were performed on all the children. A study of the validity of the prick test was also performed by taking different cut-off points for fresh milk and its proteins. Twenty-eight of 104 challenge tests (26.9%) were positive. At a cut-off point of 3 mm, fresh milk showed the greatest negative predictive value (98%), whereas casein showed the greatest positive predictive value (PPV, 85%). Calculation of 95% predicted probabilities using logistic regression revealed predictive decision points of 12 mm for lactalbumin, 9 mm for casein, 10 mm for beta-lactoglobulin and 15 mm for fresh cow's milk. We found that the greater the number of positive SPTs for milk proteins, the more likely the positive response to challenge. Having a positive SPT for all three milk proteins had PPV of 92.3% and would seem more clinically useful than any cut-off. Both fresh milk and cow's milk extract of the three main proteins could be useful in the diagnostic work-up of cow's milk allergy. Finding positivity to all three cow's milk proteins seems to be a simpler and more useful way of avoiding oral food challenges. PMID:18001429

  12. A genomic biomarker signature can predict skin sensitizers using a cell-based in vitro alternative to animal tests

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Allergic contact dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease that affects a significant proportion of the population. This disease is caused by an adverse immune response towards chemical haptens, and leads to a substantial economic burden for society. Current test of sensitizing chemicals rely on animal experimentation. New legislations on the registration and use of chemicals within pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries have stimulated significant research efforts to develop alternative, human cell-based assays for the prediction of sensitization. The aim is to replace animal experiments with in vitro tests displaying a higher predictive power. Results We have developed a novel cell-based assay for the prediction of sensitizing chemicals. By analyzing the transcriptome of the human cell line MUTZ-3 after 24 h stimulation, using 20 different sensitizing chemicals, 20 non-sensitizing chemicals and vehicle controls, we have identified a biomarker signature of 200 genes with potent discriminatory ability. Using a Support Vector Machine for supervised classification, the prediction performance of the assay revealed an area under the ROC curve of 0.98. In addition, categorizing the chemicals according to the LLNA assay, this gene signature could also predict sensitizing potency. The identified markers are involved in biological pathways with immunological relevant functions, which can shed light on the process of human sensitization. Conclusions A gene signature predicting sensitization, using a human cell line in vitro, has been identified. This simple and robust cell-based assay has the potential to completely replace or drastically reduce the utilization of test systems based on experimental animals. Being based on human biology, the assay is proposed to be more accurate for predicting sensitization in humans, than the traditional animal-based tests. PMID:21824406

  13. Absorption of ethanol, acetone, benzene and 1,2-dichloroethane through human skin in vitro: a test of diffusion model predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Gajjar, Rachna M.; Kasting, Gerald B.

    2014-11-15

    The overall goal of this research was to further develop and improve an existing skin diffusion model by experimentally confirming the predicted absorption rates of topically-applied volatile organic compounds (VOCs) based on their physicochemical properties, the skin surface temperature, and the wind velocity. In vitro human skin permeation of two hydrophilic solvents (acetone and ethanol) and two lipophilic solvents (benzene and 1,2-dichloroethane) was studied in Franz cells placed in a fume hood. Four doses of each {sup 14}C-radiolabed compound were tested — 5, 10, 20, and 40 μL cm{sup −2}, corresponding to specific doses ranging in mass from 5.0 to 63 mg cm{sup −2}. The maximum percentage of radiolabel absorbed into the receptor solutions for all test conditions was 0.3%. Although the absolute absorption of each solvent increased with dose, percentage absorption decreased. This decrease was consistent with the concept of a stratum corneum deposition region, which traps small amounts of solvent in the upper skin layers, decreasing the evaporation rate. The diffusion model satisfactorily described the cumulative absorption of ethanol; however, values for the other VOCs were underpredicted in a manner related to their ability to disrupt or solubilize skin lipids. In order to more closely describe the permeation data, significant increases in the stratum corneum/water partition coefficients, K{sub sc}, and modest changes to the diffusion coefficients, D{sub sc}, were required. The analysis provided strong evidence for both skin swelling and barrier disruption by VOCs, even by the minute amounts absorbed under these in vitro test conditions. - Highlights: • Human skin absorption of small doses of VOCs was measured in vitro in a fume hood. • The VOCs tested were ethanol, acetone, benzene and 1,2-dichloroethane. • Fraction of dose absorbed for all compounds at all doses tested was less than 0.3%. • The more aggressive VOCs absorbed at higher levels than

  14. 5-HTTLPR Expression Outside the Skin: An Experimental Test of the Emotional Reactivity Hypothesis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Weeland, Joyce; Slagt, Meike; Brummelman, Eddie; Matthys, Walter; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Overbeek, Geertjan

    2015-01-01

    Background There is increasing evidence that variation in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene SLC6A4 (i.e., the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism) moderates the impact of environmental stressors on child psychopathology. Emotional reactivity −the intensity of an individual’s response to other’s emotions− has been put forward as a possible mechanism underlying these gene-by-environment interactions (i.e., G×E). Compared to children homozygous for the L-allele (LL-genotypes), children carrying an S-allele (SS/SL-genotypes), specifically when they have been frequently exposed to negative emotions in the family environment, might be more emotionally reactive and therefore more susceptible to affective environmental stressors. However, the association between 5-HTTLPR and emotional reactivity in children has not yet been empirically tested. Therefore, the goal of this study was to test this association in a large-scale experiment. Methods Children (N = 521, 52.5% boys, Mage = 9.72 years) were genotyped and randomly assigned to happy, angry or neutral dynamic facial expressions and vocalizations. Motor and affective emotional reactivity were assessed through children’s self-reported negative and positive affect (n = 460) and facial electromyography activity (i.e., fEMG: the zygomaticus or “smile” muscle and the corrugator or “frown” muscle, n = 403). Parents reported on their negative and positive parenting behaviors. Results Children mimicked and experienced the emotion they were exposed to. However, neither motor reactivity nor affective reactivity to these emotions depended on children’s 5-HTTLPR genotype: SS/SL-genotypes did not manifest any stronger response to emotional stimuli than LL-genotypes. This finding remained the same when taking the broader family environment into account, controlling for kinship, age, gender and genetic ancestry, and when including a tri-allelic factor. Conclusions We found no evidence for an association

  15. Specificity of the Tuberculin Skin Test and the T-SPOT."TB" Assay among Students in a Low-Tuberculosis Incidence Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Elizabeth A.; Harland, Dawn; Wieland-Alter, Wendy; Burrer, Sherry; Adams, Lisa V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Interferon-[gamma] release assays (IGRAs) are an important tool for detecting latent "Mycobacterium tuberculosis" infection (LTBI). Insufficient data exist about IGRA specificity in college health centers, most of which screen students for LTBI using the tuberculin skin test (TST). Participants: Students at a low-TB incidence college…

  16. IDENTIFICATION OF DIFFERENCES IN THE PROTEIN CONTENT OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSPECIES PARATUBERCULOSIS PURIFIED PROTEIN DERIVATIVE PREPARATIONS WITH DIFFERENT SKIN TEST SPECIFICITIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) strain ATCC 19698 has been used to produce a purified protein derivative (PPD) that can be utilized as a diagnostic reagent. Two Map PPD lots (Johnin 9801 and Johnin 0202) were used to skin test sheep and cattle for exposure to Map. Johnin 980...

  17. Comparison of QuantiFERON-TB gold in tube test versus tuberculin skin test for screening of latent tuberculosis infection in Saudi Arabia: A population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Balkhy, Hanan H.; El Beltagy, Kamel; El-Saed, Aiman; Aljasir, Badr; Althaqafi, Abdulhakeem; Alothman, Adel F.; Alshalaan, Mohammad; Al-Jahdali, Hamdan

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare QuantiFERON-TB gold in tube (QFT-GIT) test with tuberculin skin test (TST) in detecting latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among a general population in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted between July 2010 and March 2013 among individuals randomly selected from the list of those receiving care at primary healthcare centers in three provinces of Saudi Arabia; Central, Western, and Eastern provinces. Those younger than 5 years, immunocompromised, had a current or previous history of active TB, LTBI, or who were receiving anti-TB medications were excluded. Informed consent was obtained before the study questionnaire was completed. Participants were then evaluated for LTBI using QFT-GIT test followed immediately by TST. RESULTS: Of the 1369 subjects included in the final analysis, QFT-GIT was positive in 124 (9.1%) and TST was positive in 127 (9.3%). Positive concordance was observed in 49 (3.6%) subjects while negative concordance was observed in 1167 (85.2%) subjects. The overall agreement between the two tests was 88.8% with a significant kappa (κ) test (κ = 0.332, P < 0.001). Concordance was significantly higher in younger age, female gender, single status, students, primary education, living in middle-sized families, and never smoked. CONCLUSIONS: The overall agreement of TST and QFT-GIT for the detection of LTBI among a Saudi general population was 88.8%. QFT-GIT is probably comparable to TST for detecting LTBI in an intermediate TB burden country with high at birth bacille calmette guerin vaccination coverage. Further prospective studies are needed to compare the ability of both tests to predict TB disease. PMID:27512509

  18. Absorption of ethanol, acetone, benzene and 1,2-dichloroethane through human skin in vitro: a test of diffusion model predictions.

    PubMed

    Gajjar, Rachna M; Kasting, Gerald B

    2014-11-15

    The overall goal of this research was to further develop and improve an existing skin diffusion model by experimentally confirming the predicted absorption rates of topically-applied volatile organic compounds (VOCs) based on their physicochemical properties, the skin surface temperature, and the wind velocity. In vitro human skin permeation of two hydrophilic solvents (acetone and ethanol) and two lipophilic solvents (benzene and 1,2-dichloroethane) was studied in Franz cells placed in a fume hood. Four doses of each (14)C-radiolabed compound were tested - 5, 10, 20, and 40μLcm(-2), corresponding to specific doses ranging in mass from 5.0 to 63mgcm(-2). The maximum percentage of radiolabel absorbed into the receptor solutions for all test conditions was 0.3%. Although the absolute absorption of each solvent increased with dose, percentage absorption decreased. This decrease was consistent with the concept of a stratum corneum deposition region, which traps small amounts of solvent in the upper skin layers, decreasing the evaporation rate. The diffusion model satisfactorily described the cumulative absorption of ethanol; however, values for the other VOCs were underpredicted in a manner related to their ability to disrupt or solubilize skin lipids. In order to more closely describe the permeation data, significant increases in the stratum corneum/water partition coefficients, Ksc, and modest changes to the diffusion coefficients, Dsc, were required. The analysis provided strong evidence for both skin swelling and barrier disruption by VOCs, even by the minute amounts absorbed under these in vitro test conditions. PMID:25283951

  19. Skin Biomes.

    PubMed

    Fyhrquist, N; Salava, A; Auvinen, P; Lauerma, A

    2016-05-01

    The cutaneous microbiome has been investigated broadly in recent years and some traditional perspectives are beginning to change. A diverse microbiome exists on human skin and has a potential to influence pathogenic microbes and modulate the course of skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis. In addition to the known dysfunctions in barrier function of the skin and immunologic disturbances, evidence is rising that frequent skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis, might be connected to a dysbiosis of the microbial community and changes in the skin microbiome. As a future perspective, examining the skin microbiome could be seen as a potential new diagnostic and therapeutic target in inflammatory skin disorders. PMID:27056560

  20. Evaluation of ear skin temperature as a cow-side test to predict postpartum calcium status in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Venjakob, P L; Borchardt, S; Thiele, G; Heuwieser, W

    2016-08-01

    Subclinical hypocalcemia is considered a gateway disease that increases susceptibility to other metabolic and infectious diseases in transition dairy cows. In the absence of a cow-side test, however, it is difficult to identify hypocalcemic cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate ear skin temperature as a diagnostic predictor of serum calcium concentration. We conducted a cross-sectional study on 7 commercial dairy farms, involving 251 cows 0 to 48h after calving. Skin temperature of the ears (STEar) was scored manually by palpating both ears. An infrared thermometer was used to measure ear temperature, skin temperature on the coxal tuber (STCox), and ambient temperature. Rectal temperature was measured using a digital thermometer. A blood sample was drawn to determine serum calcium concentration. Hypocalcemia was defined as serum calcium below 2.0mmol/L, irrespective of clinical symptoms. Serum calcium concentration <2.0mmol/L in connection with clinical symptoms was defined as clinical milk fever; serum calcium concentration <2.0mmol/L without clinical symptoms was defined as subclinical hypocalcemia. Multivariate analysis using the GENLINMIXED procedure and receiver operating characteristic analysis were performed to evaluate whether serum calcium concentration could be predicted using ear temperature and other temperature estimates. The prevalence of hypocalcemia was 3.3, 27.3, 32.8, and 69.6% for cows in first, second, third, and fourth or greater lactation, respectively. None of the cows in first and second lactation had clinical milk fever. The prevalence of clinical milk fever was 6.0 and 20.3% for cows in their third and fourth or greater lactation, respectively. A decrease in ear temperature of 0.39°C [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.25-0.54] was associated with a decrease of 0.1mmol/L in serum calcium concentration. Ambient temperature, however, was a major confounder for ear temperature. With an increase in ambient temperature of 1°C, STEar

  1. QuantiFERON-TB Gold and Tuberculin Skin Test for the Diagnosis of Latent Tuberculosis Infection in Children

    PubMed Central

    Masoumi Asl, Hossein; Alborzi, Abdolvahab; Pourabbas, Bahman; Kalani, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Appropriate diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) play the most important role in the control of tuberculosis. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of LTBI among healthy tuberculosis unexposed children vaccinated with BCG using the tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) and comparing the agreement between the two tests. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out between October 2009 and March 2010 in 24 schools and 11 daycare centers. A total of 967 children were divided into 15 age groups, with a minimum of 64 children per group. Results: The prevalence rates of LTBI with TST were 3.8%, and 2.2% with QFT-GIT. One case was positive in TST and QFT-GIT, 20 cases were QFT-GIT positive, but TST negative and 36 cases were TST positive, but QFT-GIT negative, and finally, 910 cases were negative in both. There was poor agreement between TST and QFT-GIT (1.8%, 95%, CI: 0%-5.3%, k=0.007). The specificity of QFT-GIT in the BCG vaccinated, children aged 1-15 years old, was 97.8% (97.8%, 95% CI: 96.8%-98.8%). After three months, 2/17 (11.8%) of those initially QFT-GIT negative converted, and 10/15 (66%) of those initially QFT-GIT positive reverted. Conclusion: It seems that TST and QFT-GIT are not appropriate tests for the diagnosis of LTBI among healthy tuberculosis unexposed BCG vaccinated children. There was a low reproducibility rate of QFT-GIT. The cause of the the poor agreement requires further studies. PMID:26379347

  2. Biochemical and physiological parameters on the skin surface of healthy test persons: a contribution towards the interpretation of the results obtained by a screening program.

    PubMed

    Gloor, M; Kionke, M; Friederich, H C

    1975-07-18

    Biochemical and physiological examinations were carried out on the skin surface of a total of 115 healthy persons ranging from the age of 7-79 years. In these investigations the following striking findings were made: 1. There is a significant correlation between the results obtained by the ferricyanide, the phenol sulfuric acid and the ninhydrin methods in the so called water solubles. 2. The relationship between the fraction of wax and cholesterol esters and the squalene fraction in the skin surface lipids influences the release of free fatty acids by bacterial lipases. 3. With regards to most parameters tested there are great differences between the 8-12 year age group and the older age groups. 4. There are significant differences in the 8-12 year age group between the male and female test persons. 5. With regards to the parameters tested there are also significant differences between the various test areas. PMID:1164042

  3. Tuberculin Skin-Test Reactions Are Unaffected by the Severity of Hyperendemic Intestinal Helminth Infections and Co-Infections

    PubMed Central

    Zevallos, Karine; Vergara, Katherine C.; Vergara, Antonio; Vidal, Carlos; Garcia, Hector H.; Evans, Carlton A.

    2010-01-01

    The tuberculin skin test (TST) quantifies cell-mediated immunity to tuberculosis antigens. Helminths suppress cell-mediated immunity, so we studied the effect of helminth infection and deworming on the TST in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in an indigenous Amazon community (N = 195). Stool microscopy diagnosed helminths in 98% and co-infection with multiple species in 24% of study subjects. The TST was positive (≥ 10 mm) for 49%, and responses increased with age (P < 0.001), Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccination (P = 0.01), and tuberculosis contact (P = 0.05). TST results had no association with helminth-egg concentrations, species, or co-infections (all P > 0.1). One month after deworming with albendazole (three daily 400-mg doses), helminths were reduced, but 63% remained infected with helminths. Albendazole did not cause a change in TST size (P = 0.8) or positivity (P = 0.9) relative to placebo. Thus, TST reactions were unaffected by albendazole therapy that partially cured intestinal helminth infections, and TST interpretation was unaffected by high-burden helminth infections and co-infection with multiple helminth species. PMID:20682875

  4. IgE Sensitization Patterns to Commonly Consumed Foods Determined by Skin Prick Test in Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Ryeol; Park, Hye Jung; Park, Kyung Hee; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Park, Jung-Won

    2016-08-01

    Offending food allergens can vary with regional preferences in food consumption. In this study, we analysed sensitization rates to commonly consumed foods in Korean adults suspected of having food allergy. One hundred and thirty four subjects underwent a skin prick test (SPT) with 55 food allergens, of which 13 were made by our laboratory and the rest were commercially purchased. Of the 134 patients, 73 (54.5%) were sensitized to one or more food allergens. Sensitization to chrysalis was detected most frequently, at a rate of 25.4%. Sensitization rates to other food allergens were as follows: maize grain (13.4%), shrimp (11.9%), almond (11.1%), wheat flour (8.2%), lobster (8.2%), buckwheat (8.2%), mackerel (5.2%), pollack (5.2%), halibut (4.5%), peanut (4.5%), anchovy (4.4%), squid (3.7%), saury (3.0%), common eel (3.0%), yellow corvina (3.0%), hairtail (2.2%), octopus (2.2%), and others. In addition to well-known food allergens, sensitivity to mackerel, chrysalis, pollack, and halibut, which are popular foods in Korea, was observed at high rates in Korean adults. We suggest that the SPT panel for food allergy in Korea should include these allergens. PMID:27478328

  5. Memory detection with the Concealed Information Test: a meta analysis of skin conductance, respiration, heart rate, and P300 data.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Ewout H; Selle, Nathalie Klein; Elber, Lotem; Ben-Shakhar, Gershon

    2014-09-01

    The Concealed Information Test (CIT) uses psychophysiological measures to determine the presence or absence of crime-related information in a suspect's memory. We conducted a meta-analysis on the validity of the CIT based on four physiological measures-skin conductance response (SCR), respiration line length (RLL), changes in heart rate (HR), and enhanced amplitudes of the P300 component of the event-related potential (P300). This meta-analysis relied on laboratory studies that used either the mock-crime or the personal-item paradigm. Results showed a mean effect size (d*) of 1.55 for SCR, 1.11 for RLL, 0.89 for HR, and 1.89 for P300. However, P300 outperformed SCR only in the personal-item paradigm, but not in the mock-crime paradigm. Motivation level, number of questions, publication year, and the inclusion of innocent participants emerged as significant moderators for the SCR, while only the type of paradigm used moderated the P300 effect. PMID:24916920

  6. IgE Sensitization Patterns to Commonly Consumed Foods Determined by Skin Prick Test in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Offending food allergens can vary with regional preferences in food consumption. In this study, we analysed sensitization rates to commonly consumed foods in Korean adults suspected of having food allergy. One hundred and thirty four subjects underwent a skin prick test (SPT) with 55 food allergens, of which 13 were made by our laboratory and the rest were commercially purchased. Of the 134 patients, 73 (54.5%) were sensitized to one or more food allergens. Sensitization to chrysalis was detected most frequently, at a rate of 25.4%. Sensitization rates to other food allergens were as follows: maize grain (13.4%), shrimp (11.9%), almond (11.1%), wheat flour (8.2%), lobster (8.2%), buckwheat (8.2%), mackerel (5.2%), pollack (5.2%), halibut (4.5%), peanut (4.5%), anchovy (4.4%), squid (3.7%), saury (3.0%), common eel (3.0%), yellow corvina (3.0%), hairtail (2.2%), octopus (2.2%), and others. In addition to well-known food allergens, sensitivity to mackerel, chrysalis, pollack, and halibut, which are popular foods in Korea, was observed at high rates in Korean adults. We suggest that the SPT panel for food allergy in Korea should include these allergens. PMID:27478328

  7. An in vitro method for detecting chemical sensitization using human reconstructed skin models and its applicability to cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and medical device safety testing.

    PubMed

    McKim, James M; Keller, Donald J; Gorski, Joel R

    2012-12-01

    Chemical sensitization is a serious condition caused by small reactive molecules and is characterized by a delayed type hypersensitivity known as allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Contact with these molecules via dermal exposure represent a significant concern for chemical manufacturers. Recent legislation in the EU has created the need to develop non-animal alternative methods for many routine safety studies including sensitization. Although most of the alternative research has focused on pure chemicals that possess reasonable solubility properties, it is important for any successful in vitro method to have the ability to test compounds with low aqueous solubility. This is especially true for the medical device industry where device extracts must be prepared in both polar and non-polar vehicles in order to evaluate chemical sensitization. The aim of this research was to demonstrate the functionality and applicability of the human reconstituted skin models (MatTek Epiderm(®) and SkinEthic RHE) as a test system for the evaluation of chemical sensitization and its potential use for medical device testing. In addition, the development of the human 3D skin model should allow the in vitro sensitization assay to be used for finished product testing in the personal care, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. This approach combines solubility, chemical reactivity, cytotoxicity, and activation of the Nrf2/ARE expression pathway to identify and categorize chemical sensitizers. Known chemical sensitizers representing extreme/strong-, moderate-, weak-, and non-sensitizing potency categories were first evaluated in the skin models at six exposure concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 2500 µM for 24 h. The expression of eight Nrf2/ARE, one AhR/XRE and two Nrf1/MRE controlled gene were measured by qRT-PCR. The fold-induction at each exposure concentration was combined with reactivity and cytotoxicity data to determine the sensitization potential. The results demonstrated that

  8. Tuberculin skin test and ELISPOT/T. SPOT.TB in children and adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are controversies regarding the accuracy of the tuberculin skin test (TST) and methods based on the production of interferon gamma by sensitized T cells for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in pediatrics and immunosuppressed patients. Our objectives are to study TST and ELISPOT/T. SPOT.TB in the diagnosis of LTBI in children and adolescents with JIA undergoing methotrexate, the correlation between both and the sensitivity and specificity of T. SPOT.TB. Methods This is an observational prospective longitudinal study in which children and adolescents with JIA undergoing methotrexate therapy were assessed for clinical and epidemiological data for LTBI, in addition to performing TST and T. SPOT.TB at baseline and after 3 and 12months. Results There were 24 patients. The prevalence of LTBI at inclusion was 20.8%, the incidence after initiation of immunosuppressions 26.3% and the prevalence at the end of the study 41.6%. Epidemiological history positive for TB showed a relative risk of 2.0 for the development of LTBI. Only 2 patients had positive T. SPOT.TB but only in one it was useful for detecting early LTBI. T. SPOT.TB presented a sensitivity of 10%, specificity of 92.8%, and low correlation with TST. No patient developed TB disease at a mean follow-up of 47months. Conclusions We found a high prevalence of ILTB that doubled with immunosuppression and that epidemiological history was an important relative risk. T. SPOT.TB showed low sensitivity and high specificity, and no superiority over TST. There was low agreement and little influence of immunosuppression on the results of both tests. PMID:24904240

  9. The dilemma of the negative skin test reactors with a history of venom anaphylaxis: will this always be the case?

    PubMed

    Bilò, M B; Brianzoni, F; Cinti, B; Napoli, G; Bonifazi, F

    2005-11-01

    The loss of sensitization over time, the involvement of a different pathogenetic mechanism and the poor sensitivity of diagnostic tests have been included among the causes of a non IgE-mediated anaphylaxis triggered by an insect sting. To provide further insight into this topic we describe the case of a patient suffering from urticaria pigmentosa, anaphylactic shock due to a Vespid sting and monosensitive to Polistes dominulus venom, who was previous diagnosed with non-IgE mediated insect sting anaphylaxis in subjects with urticaria pigmentosa. Therefore ultra-rush specific immunotherapy using an acqueous Polistes dominulus venom extract was performed over two mornings until a total dose of 100mcg was reached without any side effects. Presently the patient is undergoing maintenance therapy with a depot Polistes dominulus venom extract at 4-weekly intervals and is free of side effects. In conclusion, despite the high cross-reactivity among the venoms of the various species of Polistes, recent evidence of a selective specificity unique to European Polistes allergens raises the problem of the need to make the American Polistes venom as well as that of Polistes dominulus (a very common insect in Europe) available both for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Besides the fact that the presence of urticaria pigmentosa alone could have explained the anaphylactic reaction to the aspecific stimulation triggered by the venom, this case history also demonstrates that omitting to perform skin tests for Polistes dominulus venom would have led to the same misdiagnosis of non IgE-mediated anaphylaxis and served only to further delay commencing specific immunotherapy. PMID:16453965

  10. Parasitic infection may be associated with discordant responses to QuantiFERON and tuberculin skin test in apparently healthy children and adolescents in a tuberculosis endemic setting, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background M. tuberculosis remains one of the world’s deadliest pathogens in part because of its ability to establish persistent, latent infections, which can later reactivate to cause disease. In regions of the globe where disease is endemic, as much as 50% of the population is thought to be latently infected, complicating diagnosis and tuberculosis control. The tools most commonly used for diagnosis of latent M. tuberculosis infection are the tuberculin skin test and the newer interferon-gamma release assays, both of which rely on an antigen-specific memory response as an indicator of infection. It is clear that the two tests, do not always give concordant results, but the factors leading to this are only partially understood. Methods In this study we examined 245 healthy school children aged from 12 to 20 years from Addis Ababa, a tuberculosis-endemic region, characterised them with regard to response in the tuberculin skin test and QuantIFERON™ test and assessed factors that might contribute to discordant responses. Results Although concordance between the tests was generally fair (90% concordance), there was a subset of children who had a positive QuantIFERON™ result but a negative tuberculin skin test. After analysis of multiple parameters the data suggest that discordance was most strongly associated with the presence of parasites in the stool. Conclusions Parasitic gut infections are frequent in most regions where M. tuberculosis is endemic. This study, while preliminary, suggests that the tuberculin skin test should be interpreted with caution where this may be the case. PMID:23738853

  11. Agreement of skin test with IL-4 production and CD40L expression by T cells upon immunotherapy of subjects with systemic reactions to Hymenoptera stings.

    PubMed

    Urra, José M; Cabrera, Carmen M; Alfaya, Teresa; Feo-Brito, Francisco

    2016-02-01

    Venom immunotherapy is the only curative intervention for subjects with Hymenoptera venom allergy who suffering systemic reactions upon bee or wasp stings. Venom immunotherapy can restore normal immunity against venom allergens, as well as providing to allergic subjects a lifetime tolerance against venoms. Nevertheless, it is necessary using safety assays to monitoring the development of tolerance in the VIT protocols to avoid fatal anaphylactic reactions. The purpose of this study was to assess the modifications in several markers of tolerance induction in subjects with Hymenoptera venom allergy undergoing immunotherapy. The studies were performed at baseline time and after six month of VIT. Intradermal skin tests, basophil activation tests, specific IgE levels; and the T-cell markers (IL-4 and IFN-γ producing cells; and expression of the surface activation markers CD40L and CTLA-4) were assayed. At six month of immunotherapy all parameters studied had significant alterations. All decreased, except the IFN-γ producing cells. In addition, modifications in intradermal skin test showed a significant correlation with both, CD40L expression on CD4 T lymphocytes (p=0.043) and IL-4 producing T lymphocytes (p=0.012). Neither basophil activation test nor serum levels of sIgE demonstrated any correlation with the immunological parameters studied nor among them. These results suggest that both IL-4 production and CD40L expression could be two good indicators of the beneficial effects of venom immunotherapy which translate into skin tests. PMID:26774053

  12. Predictive value of the tuberculin skin test and QuantiFERON-tuberculosis Gold In-Tube test for development of active tuberculosis in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Seyhan, Ekrem Cengiz; Gunluoglu, Gulşah; Gunluoglu, Mehmet Zeki; Tural, Seda; Sökücü, Sinem

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hemodialysis (HD) patients are at increased risk of reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) compared with the general population. QuantiFERON-TB Gold (QFT-G) for LTBI detection is more promising than tuberculin skin test (TST) in HD patients. AIM: In our study, we evaluated the value of the TST and QFT-G In-Tube (QFG-IT) test in the development of active tuberculosis (TB), in the HD patients, and in healthy controls. METHODS: The study enrolled 95 HD patients and ninety age-matched, healthy controls. The TST and QFG-IT were performed. All the subjects were followed up 5 years for active TB disease. RESULTS: Compared to the healthy controls, a high prevalence of LTBI was found in the HD patients by QFG-IT (41% vs. 25%). However, no significant difference was detected by TST (32% vs. 31%). Four HD patients and one healthy control progressed to active TB disease within the 5-year follow-up. For active TB discovered subjects, QFG-IT was positive in all, but TST was positive in two (one patient and one healthy control). In HD patients; sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of QFG-IT, and TST for active TB was 100% and 25%, 62% and 67%, 10%, and 3%, and 100% and 95%, respectively. Receiver operating curve analysis revealed that the results are significantly different (P = 0.04). CONCLUSION: QFG-IT test is a more useful diagnostic method than TST for detecting those who will progress to active TB in HD patients. PMID:27168859

  13. Evaluation of combinations of in vitro sensitization test descriptors for the artificial neural network-based risk assessment model of skin sensitization.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Morihiko; Fukui, Shiho; Okamoto, Kenji; Kurotani, Satoru; Imai, Noriyasu; Fujishiro, Miyuki; Kyotani, Daiki; Kato, Yoshinao; Kasahara, Toshihiko; Fujita, Masaharu; Toyoda, Akemi; Sekiya, Daisuke; Watanabe, Shinichi; Seto, Hirokazu; Takenouchi, Osamu; Ashikaga, Takao; Miyazawa, Masaaki

    2015-11-01

    The skin sensitization potential of chemicals has been determined with the use of the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA). However, in recent years public concern about animal welfare has led to a requirement for non-animal risk assessment systems for the prediction of skin sensitization potential, to replace LLNA. Selection of an appropriate in vitro test or in silico model descriptors is critical to obtain good predictive performance. Here, we investigated the utility of artificial neural network (ANN) prediction models using various combinations of descriptors from several in vitro sensitization tests. The dataset, collected from published data and from experiments carried out in collaboration with the Japan Cosmetic Industry Association (JCIA), consisted of values from the human cell line activation test (h-CLAT), direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA), SH test and antioxidant response element (ARE) assay for chemicals whose LLNA thresholds have been reported. After confirming the relationship between individual in vitro test descriptors and the LLNA threshold (e.g. EC3 value), we used the subsets of chemicals for which the requisite test values were available to evaluate the predictive performance of ANN models using combinations of h-CLAT/DPRA (N = 139 chemicals), the DPRA/ARE assay (N = 69), the SH test/ARE assay (N = 73), the h-CLAT/DPRA/ARE assay (N = 69) and the h-CLAT/SH test/ARE assay (N = 73). The h-CLAT/DPRA, h-CLAT/DPRA/ARE assay and h-CLAT/SH test/ARE assay combinations showed a better predictive performance than the DPRA/ARE assay and the SH test/ARE assay. Our data indicates that the descriptors evaluated in this study were all useful for predicting human skin sensitization potential, although combinations containing h-CLAT (reflecting dendritic cell-activating ability) were most effective for ANN-based prediction. PMID:25824844

  14. Xenobiotic metabolism capacities of human skin in comparison with a 3D-epidermis model and keratinocyte-based cell culture as in vitro alternatives for chemical testing: phase II enzymes.

    PubMed

    Götz, Christine; Pfeiffer, Roland; Tigges, Julia; Ruwiedel, Karsten; Hübenthal, Ulrike; Merk, Hans F; Krutmann, Jean; Edwards, Robert J; Abel, Josef; Pease, Camilla; Goebel, Carsten; Hewitt, Nicola; Fritsche, Ellen

    2012-05-01

    The 7th Amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive prohibits the use of animals in cosmetic testing for certain endpoints, such as genotoxicity. Therefore, skin in vitro models have to replace chemical testing in vivo. However, the metabolic competence neither of human skin nor of alternative in vitro models has so far been fully characterized, although skin is the first-pass organ for accidentally or purposely (cosmetics and pharmaceuticals) applied chemicals. Thus, there is an urgent need to understand the xenobiotic-metabolizing capacities of human skin and to compare these activities to models developed to replace animal testing. We have measured the activity of the phase II enzymes glutathione S-transferase, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase and N-acetyltransferase in ex vivo human skin, the 3D epidermal model EpiDerm 200 (EPI-200), immortalized keratinocyte-based cell lines (HaCaT and NCTC 2544) and primary normal human epidermal keratinocytes. We show that all three phase II enzymes are present and highly active in skin as compared to phase I. Human skin, therefore, represents a more detoxifying than activating organ. This work systematically compares the activities of three important phase II enzymes in four different in vitro models directly to human skin. We conclude from our studies that 3D epidermal models, like the EPI-200 employed here, are superior over monolayer cultures in mimicking human skin xenobiotic metabolism and thus better suited for dermatotoxicity testing. PMID:22509834

  15. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and ...

  16. Skin lumps

    MedlinePlus

    ... and contains fluid or semisolid material Benign skin growths such as seborrheic keratoses or neurofibromas Boils , painful, red bumps usually involving an infected hair follicle Corn or callus, caused by skin thickening in response ...

  17. Skin Pigment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professional Version Pigment Disorders Overview of Skin Pigment Albinism Vitiligo Hyperpigmentation Melasma Melanin is the brown pigment ... dark-skinned people produce the most. People with albinism have little or no melanin and thus their ...

  18. Skin graft

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused a large amount of skin loss Burns Cosmetic reasons or reconstructive surgeries where there has been skin damage or skin ... anesthesia are: Reactions to medicines Problems with breathing Risks for this surgery are: Bleeding Chronic pain (rarely) Infection Loss of ...

  19. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  20. A bioanalytical HPLC method for coumestrol quantification in skin permeation tests followed by UPLC-QTOF/HDMS stability-indicating method for identification of degradation products.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Sara E; Teixeira, Helder F; Kaiser, Samuel; Ortega, George G; Schneider, Paulo Henrique; Bassani, Valquiria L

    2016-05-01

    Coumestrol is present in several species of the Fabaceae family widely distributed in plants. The estrogenic and antioxidant activities of this molecule show its potential as skin anti-aging agent. These characteristics reveal the interest in developing analytical methodology for permeation studies, as well as to know the stability of coumestrol identifying the major degradation products. Thus, the present study was designed, first, to develop and validate a versatile liquid chromatography (HPLC) method to quantify coumestrol in a hydrogel formulation in different porcine skin layers (stratum corneum, epidermis, and dermis) in permeation tests. In the stability-indicating test coumestrol samples were exposed to stress conditions: temperature, UVC light, oxidative, acid and alkaline media. The degradation products, as well as the constituents extracted from the hydrogel, adhesive tape or skin were not eluted in the retention time of the coumestrol. Hence, the HPLC method showed to be versatile, specific, accurate, precise and robust showing excellent performance for quantifying coumestrol in complex matrices involving skin permeation studies. Coumestrol recovery from porcine ear skin was found to be in the range of 97.07-107.28μg/mL; the intra-day precision (repeatability) and intermediate precision (inter-day precision), respectively lower than 4.71% and 2.09%. The analysis using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole time-of-flight high definition mass spectrometry detector (UPLC-QTOF/HDMS) suggest the MS fragmentation patterns and the chemical structure of the main degradation products. These results represent new and relevant findings for the development of coumestrol pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. PMID:27010353

  1. Performance of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test and Tuberculin Skin Test for diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection in BCG vaccinated health care workers

    PubMed Central

    Babayigit, Cenk; Ozer, Burcin; Inandi, Tacettin; Ozer, Cahit; Duran, Nizami; Gocmen, Orhan

    2014-01-01

    Background Tuberculin skin test (TST) has been used for years as an aid in diagnosing latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) but it suffers from a number of well-documented performance and logistic problems. Quantiferon-TB Gold In Tube test (QFT-GIT) has been reported to have better sensitivity and specifity than TST. In this study, it was aimed to compare the performance of a commercial IFN-γ release assay (QFT-GIT) with TST in the diagnosis of HCWs at risk for latent TB infection in BCG vaccinated population. Material/Methods Hundred healthy volunteer health care workers were enrolled. All were subjected to TST and QFT-GIT. Results were compared among Health Care Workers (HCWs) groups in terms of profession, workplace, working duration. Results TST is affected by previous BCG vaccinations and number of cases with QFT-GIT positivity is increased in accordance with the TST induration diameter range. QFT-GIT result was negative in 17 of 32 TST positive (≥15 mm) cases and positive in 4 of 61 cases whose TST diameters are between 6–14 mm, that is attritutable to previous BCG vaccination(s). It was negative in all cases with TST diameters between 0–5 mm. HCWs with positive QFT-GIT results were significantly older than the ones with negative results. Furthermore duration of work was significantly longer in QFT-GIT positive than in negative HCWs. Conclusions There was a moderate concordance between QFT-GIT and TST, when TST result was defined as positive with a ≥15 mm diameter of induration. We suggest that QFT-GIT can be used as an alternative to TST for detection of LTBI, especially in groups with high risk of LTBI and in population with routine BCG vaccination program. PMID:24681806

  2. Validation study of the in vitro skin irritation test with the LabCyte EPI-MODEL24.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Hajime; Ando, Yoko; Idehara, Kenji; Katoh, Masakazu; Kosaka, Tadashi; Miyaoka, Etsuyoshi; Shinoda, Shinsuke; Suzuki, Tamie; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Yoshimura, Isao; Yuasa, Atsuko; Watanabe, Yukihiko; Omori, Takashi

    2012-03-01

    A validation study on an in vitro skin irritation assay was performed with the reconstructed human epidermis (RhE) LabCyte EPI-MODEL24, developed by Japan Tissue Engineering Co. Ltd (Gamagori, Japan). The protocol that was followed in the current study was an optimised version of the EpiSkin protocol (LabCyte assay). According to the United Nations Globally Harmonised System (UN GHS) of classification for assessing the skin irritation potential of a chemical, 12 irritants and 13 non-irritants were validated by a minimum of six laboratories from the Japanese Society for Alternatives to Animal Experiments (JSAAE) skin irritation assay validation study management team (VMT). The 25 chemicals were listed in the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) performance standards. The reconstructed tissues were exposed to the chemicals for 15 minutes and incubated for 42 hours in fresh culture medium. Subsequently, the level of interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 α) present in the conditioned medium was measured, and tissue viability was assessed by using the MTT assay. The results of the MTT assay obtained with the LabCyte EPI-MODEL24 (LabCyte MTT assay) demonstrated high within-laboratory and between-laboratory reproducibility, as well as high accuracy for use as a stand-alone assay to distinguish skin irritants from non-irritants. In addition, the IL-1α release measurements in the LabCyte assay were clearly unnecessary for the success of this model in the classification of chemicals for skin irritation potential. PMID:22558976

  3. Sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Misery, L; Loser, K; Ständer, S

    2016-02-01

    Sensitive skin is a clinical condition defined by the self-reported facial presence of different sensory perceptions, including tightness, stinging, burning, tingling, pain and pruritus. Sensitive skin may occur in individuals with normal skin, with skin barrier disturbance, or as a part of the symptoms associated with facial dermatoses such as rosacea, atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Although experimental studies are still pending, the symptoms of sensitive skin suggest the involvement of cutaneous nerve fibres and neuronal, as well as epidermal, thermochannels. Many individuals with sensitive skin report worsening symptoms due to environmental factors. It is thought that this might be attributed to the thermochannel TRPV1, as it typically responds to exogenous, endogenous, physical and chemical stimuli. Barrier disruptions and immune mechanisms may also be involved. This review summarizes current knowledge on the epidemiology, potential mechanisms, clinics and therapy of sensitive skin. PMID:26805416

  4. Effects of Serial Skin Testing with Purified Protein Derivative on the Level and Quality of Antibodies to Complex and Defined Antigens in Mycobacterium bovis-Infected Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Mitchell V.; Stafne, Molly R.; Bass, Kristin E.; Maggioli, Mayara F.; Thacker, Tyler C.; Linscott, Rick; Lawrence, John C.; Nelson, Jeffrey T.; Esfandiari, Javan; Greenwald, Rena; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P.

    2015-01-01

    Several serological tests designed to detect antibodies to immunodominant Mycobacterium bovis antigens have recently emerged as ancillary tests for the detection of bovine tuberculosis in cattle, particularly when used after the injection of purified protein derivative (PPD) for skin testing, which significantly boosts M. bovis-specific antibody responses. The present findings demonstrate the onset and duration of boosted antibody responses after the injection of M. bovis PPD for the caudal fold test (CFT) and Mycobacterium avium and M. bovis PPDs for the comparative cervical test (CCT), administered in series in cattle experimentally infected with M. bovis. While skin tests boosted the responses to certain antigens (i.e., MPB83 and MPB70), they did not affect the responses to other antigens (e.g., ESAT-6, CFP10, MPB59, and MPB64). Administration of the CCT 105 days after the CFT resulted in an even greater secondary boost in antibody responses to MPB83 and MPB70 and to a proteinase K-digested whole-cell sonicate (WCS-PK) of M. bovis. Both IgM and IgG contributed to the initial boost in the MPB83/MPB70-specific antibody response after the CFT. The secondary boost after the CCT was primarily due to increased IgG levels. Also, the avidity of antibodies to MPB83 and MPB70 increased after the CCT in M. bovis-infected cattle. The avidity of antibodies to the WCS-PK antigens increased in the interval between the CFT and the CCT but did not increase further after the CCT. Together, these findings demonstrate that the administration of PPDs for skin tests results in additive enhancement (i.e., when the CFT and CCT are performed in series), both qualitative and quantitative, of MPB83/MPB70-specific antibody responses. PMID:25855555

  5. A Randomised Test of Printed Educational Materials about Melanoma Detection: Varying Skin Self-Examination Technique and Visual Image Dose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Andy J.; Carcioppolo, Nick; Grossman, Douglas; John, Kevin K.; Jensen, Jakob D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Melanoma incidence and mortality rates continue to rise globally, making it essential for researchers to identify effective approaches to disseminating information to the public that improve key outcomes. This study compared two skin self-examination (SSE) educational strategies: the ABCDE (asymmetry, border irregularity, multiple…

  6. Tuberculin Skin Test Reversion following Isoniazid Preventive Therapy Reflects Diversity of Immune Response to Primary Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Denise F.; Malone, LaShaunda L.; Zalwango, Sarah; Mukisa Oketcho, Joy; Chervenak, Keith A.; Thiel, Bonnie; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Stein, Catherine M.; Boom, W. Henry; Lancioni, Christina L.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Healthy household contacts (HHC) of individuals with Tuberculosis (TB) with Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) conversions are considered to harbor latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), and at risk for TB. The immunologic, clinical, and public health implications of TST reversions that occur following Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) remain controversial. Objectives To measure frequency of TST reversion following IPT, and variation in interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) responses to Mtb, in healthy Ugandan TB HHC with primary Mtb infection evidenced by TST conversion. Methods Prospective cohort study of healthy, HIV-uninfected, TST-negative TB HHC with TST conversions. Repeat TST was performed 12 months following conversion (3 months following completion of 9 month IPT course) to assess for stable conversion vs. reversion. Whole blood IFN-γ responses to Mtb antigen 85B (MtbA85B) and whole Mtb bacilli (wMtb) were measured in a subset (n = 27 and n = 42, respectively) at enrollment and TST conversion, prior to initiation of IPT. Results Of 122 subjects, TST reversion was noted in 25 (20.5%). There were no significant differences in demographic, clinical, or exposure variables between reverters and stable converters. At conversion, reverters had significantly smaller TST compared to stable converters (13.7 mm vs 16.4 mm, respectively; p = 0.003). At enrollment, there were no significant differences in IFN-γ responses to MtbA85B or wMTB between groups. At conversion, stable converters demonstrated significant increases in IFN-γ responses to Ag85B and wMtb compared to enrollment (p = 0.001, p<0.001, respectively), while there were no significant changes among reverters. Conclusions TST reversion following IPT is common following primary Mtb infection and associated with unique patterns of Mtb-induced IFN-γ production. We have demonstrated that immune responses to primary Mtb infection are heterogeneous, and submit that prospective longitudinal studies

  7. Skin aging and dry skin.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Hideo

    2004-08-01

    Skin aging appears to be the result of both scheduled and continuous "wear and tear" processes that damage cellular DNA and proteins. Two types of aging, chronological skin aging and photoaging, have distinct clinical and histological features. Chronological skin aging is a universal and inevitable process characterized primarily by physiologic alterations in skin function. In this case, keratinocytes are unable to properly terminally differentiate to form a functional stratum corneum, and the rate of formation of neutral lipids that contribute to the barrier function slows, causing dry, pale skin with fine wrinkles. In contrast, photoaging results from the UVR of sunlight and the damage thus becomes apparent in sun-exposed skin. Characteristics of this aging type are dry and sallow skin displaying fine wrinkles as well as deep furrows, resulting from the disorganization of epidermal and dermal components associated with elastosis and heliodermatitis. Understanding of the functions of the skin and the basic principles of moisturizer use and application is important for the prevention of skin aging. Successful treatment of dry skin with appropriate skin care products gives the impression of eternal youth. PMID:15492432

  8. In vivo photochemical skin micronucleus test using a sunlight simulator: detection of 8-methoxypsoralen and benzo[a]pyrene in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Hara, Takumi; Nishikawa, Takashi; Sui, Hajime; Kawakami, Kumiko; Matsumoto, Hirotaka; Tanaka, Noriho

    2007-07-10

    Evaluating in vivo photochemical genotoxicity (photogenotoxicity) or photochemical carcinogenicity (photocarcinogenicity) in the skin that is actually exposed to light is important for estimating the risk of human exposure to chemicals under sunlight. With regard to the skin micronucleus test, Nishikawa et al. developed a reliable technique that is simple and in which the negative control has a stable background. In the present study, we applied 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) to the backs of hairless mice and subjected the mice to irradiation by a sunlight simulator in order to investigate whether this test can detect photogenotoxicity of these chemicals. In the treatment with 8-MOP [0.00075% and 0.0015% (w/v)], a significant increase was observed in the frequency of micronucleated cells only under light irradiation using the sunlight simulator. At a high chemical dose, the frequency of micronucleated cells increased from 48h after the treatment, peaked at 96h, and then decreased at 168h. Furthermore, at 96h with the high dose under light irradiation, we frequently observed cells with nuclear buds. In the treatment with B[a]P [first experiment: 0.025% and 0.05% (w/v); second experiment: 0.005%, 0.01%, and 0.02% (w/v)], a significant increase was observed in the frequency of micronucleated cells at skin-irritating doses [0.01%, 0.02%, 0.025%, and 0.05% (w/v)] at 72 or 96h after the treatment only under light irradiation using the sunlight simulator. In conclusion, photogenotoxicity of 8-MOP and B[a]P was detected in the in vivo photochemical skin micronucleus study. PMID:17512241

  9. Xenobiotic metabolism capacities of human skin in comparison with a 3D epidermis model and keratinocyte-based cell culture as in vitro alternatives for chemical testing: activating enzymes (Phase I).

    PubMed

    Götz, Christine; Pfeiffer, Roland; Tigges, Julia; Blatz, Veronika; Jäckh, Christine; Freytag, Eva-Maria; Fabian, Eric; Landsiedel, Robert; Merk, Hans F; Krutmann, Jean; Edwards, Robert J; Pease, Camilla; Goebel, Carsten; Hewitt, Nicola; Fritsche, Ellen

    2012-05-01

    Skin is important for the absorption and metabolism of exposed chemicals such as cosmetics or pharmaceuticals. The Seventh Amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive prohibits the use of animals for cosmetic testing for certain endpoints, such as genotoxicity; therefore, there is an urgent need to understand the xenobiotic metabolizing capacities of human skin and to compare these activities with reconstructed 3D skin models developed to replace animal testing. We have measured Phase I enzyme activities of cytochrome P450 (CYP) and cyclooxygenase (COX) in ex vivo human skin, the 3D skin model EpiDerm™ (EPI-200), immortalized keratinocyte-based cell lines and primary normal human epidermal keratinocytes. Our data demonstrate that basal CYP enzyme activities are very low in whole human skin and EPI-200 as well as keratinocytes. In addition, activities in monolayer cells differed from organotypic tissues after induction. COX activity was similar in skin, EPI-200 and NHEK cells, but was significantly lower in immortalized keratinocytes. Hence, the 3D model EPI-200 might represent a more suitable model for dermatotoxicological studies. Altogether, these data help to better understand skin metabolism and expand the knowledge of in vitro alternatives used for dermatotoxicity testing. PMID:22509833

  10. Skin optics

    SciTech Connect

    van Gemert, M.J.; Jacques, S.L.; Sterenborg, H.J.; Star, W.M.

    1989-12-01

    Quantitative dosimetry in the treatment of skin disorders with (laser) light requires information on propagation of light in the skin related to the optical properties of the individual skin layers. This involves the solution of the integro-differential equation of radiative transfer in a model representing skin geometry, as well as experimental methods to determine the optical properties of each skin layer. These activities are unified under the name skin optics. This paper first reviews the current status of tissue optics, distinguishing between the cases of: dominant absorption, dominant scattering, and scattering about equal to absorption. Then, previously published data as well as some current unpublished data on (human) stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis, have been collected and/or (re)analyzed in terms of absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, and anisotropy factor of scattering. The results are that the individual skin layers show strongly forward scattering (anisotropy factors between 0.7 and 0.9). The absorption and scattering data show that for all wavelengths considered scattering is much more important than absorption. Under such circumstances, solutions to the transport equation for a multilayer skin model and finite beam laser irradiation are currently not yet available. Hence, any quantitative dosimetry for skin treated with (laser) light is currently lacking.

  11. Occupational skin disease.

    PubMed

    Peate, W E

    2002-09-15

    Contact dermatitis, the most common occupational skin disease, is characterized by clearly demarcated areas of rash at sites of exposure. The rash improves on removal of the offending agent. In allergic contact dermatitis, even minute exposures to antigenic substances can lead to a skin rash. Common sensitizing agents include nickel and members of the Rhus genus (e.g., poison ivy, poison oak). Severe skin irritants tend to cause immediate red blisters or burns, whereas weaker irritants produce eczematous skin changes over time. An occupational cause should be suspected when rash occurs in areas that are in contact with oil, grease, or other substances. Direct skin testing (patch or scratch) or radioallergosorbent testing may help to identify a specific trigger. Skin cancer can have an occupational link in workers with prolonged exposure to sunlight and certain chemicals, although it can take decades for lesions to develop. In workers with occupational skin disease, workplace changes and protective measures are important to prevent future exposure. PMID:12358214

  12. Fibre Diffraction Analysis of Skin Offers a Very Early and Extremely Accurate Diagnostic Test for Prostate Cancer

    DOE PAGESBeta

    James, Veronica J.; O’Malley Ford, Judith M.

    2014-01-01

    Double blind analysis of a batch of thirty skin tissue samples from potential prostate cancer sufferers correctly identified all “control” patients, patients with high and low grade prostate cancers, the presence of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), perineural invasions, and the one lymphatic invasion. Identification was by analysis of fibre diffraction patterns interpreted using a schema developed from observations in nine previous studies. The method, schema, and specific experiment results are reported in this paper, with some implications then drawn.

  13. Thermal Skin fabrication technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milam, T. B.

    1972-01-01

    Advanced fabrication techniques applicable to Thermal Skin structures were investigated, including: (1) chemical machining; (2) braze bonding; (3) diffusion bonding; and (4) electron beam welding. Materials investigated were nickel and nickel alloys. Sample Thermal Skin panels were manufactured using the advanced fabrication techniques studied and were structurally tested. Results of the program included: (1) development of improved chemical machining processes for nickel and several nickel alloys; (2) identification of design geometry limits; (3) identification of diffusion bonding requirements; (4) development of a unique diffusion bonding tool; (5) identification of electron beam welding limits; and (6) identification of structural properties of Thermal Skin material.

  14. Routine two-step skin testing for tuberculosis in the staff of a geriatric hospital in Israel: booster and conversion rates.

    PubMed

    Srour-Fihmi, S; Weiler-Ravell, D; Kitzes, R; Chemtob, D

    2000-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of positive skin tests amongst the staff of a 200 bed geriatric hospital in Haifa, Israel. By comparing the findings with those of a study performed five years previously, we hoped to ascertain the number of conversions which had occurred in the period studied. This was undertaken in order to assess a new policy from the Israel Ministry of Health regarding skin testing for health care workers. We also hoped to decide upon the frequency of skin testing required and to compare data from recent immigrants from countries with a high prevalence of TB. In 1997, we performed two-step skin testing (TSST) on 318 health care workers. We ascertained the number of positive reactions on the first and second testing and calculated the number of subjects who showed significant boosting. We also compared the results to those obtained in a study in 1992 and calculated the rate of conversion. We used multivariate analysis to examine the effects of age, gender, country of origin, years in Israel, previous BCG vaccination, previous exposure to contagious TB, work site and area of residence in the city, on the response to TSST. Between 1990 and 1996, 655 000 immigrants from the former USSR arrived; 'recent immigration' was defined from that date onward. The final number of positive reactions out of 282 subjects, who were either positive or negative on step 1 and presented for step 2, was 171 (60%). Booster effect was not significantly associated with any of the variables examined. The size of reaction in TSST was related to country of origin and recent immigration. The 83 recent immigrants from the former USSR had more frequent (61%) and larger reactions (mean (sd): 9.0 (6.46) mm) than the 114 native-born Israelis with 39% positive reactions (6.2 (5.89) P= 0.009). Comparison with 1992 revealed 26 (31%) of previous negatives as positive. Conversion was associated with age. All conversions save one were in individuals younger

  15. Tuberculosis screening of new hospital employees: compliance, clearance to work time, and cost using tuberculin skin test and interferon-gamma release assays.

    PubMed

    Foster-Chang, Sarah A; Manning, Mary L; Chandler, Laura

    2014-11-01

    Selection of the most suitable test(s) for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) infection should be based on purpose, setting, effectiveness, and cost. Two tests are available to screen for latent TB: the tuberculin skin test (TST) and the more recent interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs). Based on the administrative, logistic, and technical ease of use, an IGRA trial was initiated by the occupational health department at an urban Veteran's Administration health care facility for TB screening of new employees. As a result, new employees completing the pre-placement process within the organization's designated 14 days increased from 77% to 97%, new employee clearance to work time decreased from 13.18 to 5.91 days, and new employee TB screening costs were reduced by 40%. The IGRA is an acceptable alternative to the TST and has significant potential to improve the process of pre-placement TB screening. PMID:25207587

  16. Chip-based human liver-intestine and liver-skin co-cultures--A first step toward systemic repeated dose substance testing in vitro.

    PubMed

    Maschmeyer, Ilka; Hasenberg, Tobias; Jaenicke, Annika; Lindner, Marcus; Lorenz, Alexandra Katharina; Zech, Julie; Garbe, Leif-Alexander; Sonntag, Frank; Hayden, Patrick; Ayehunie, Seyoum; Lauster, Roland; Marx, Uwe; Materne, Eva-Maria

    2015-09-01

    Systemic repeated dose safety assessment and systemic efficacy evaluation of substances are currently carried out on laboratory animals and in humans due to the lack of predictive alternatives. Relevant international regulations, such as OECD and ICH guidelines, demand long-term testing and oral, dermal, inhalation, and systemic exposure routes for such evaluations. So-called "human-on-a-chip" concepts are aiming to replace respective animals and humans in substance evaluation with miniaturized functional human organisms. The major technical hurdle toward success in this field is the life-like combination of human barrier organ models, such as intestine, lung or skin, with parenchymal organ equivalents, such as liver, at the smallest biologically acceptable scale. Here, we report on a reproducible homeostatic long-term co-culture of human liver equivalents with either a reconstructed human intestinal barrier model or a human skin biopsy applying a microphysiological system. We used a multi-organ chip (MOC) platform, which provides pulsatile fluid flow within physiological ranges at low media-to-tissue ratios. The MOC supports submerse cultivation of an intact intestinal barrier model and an air-liquid interface for the skin model during their co-culture with the liver equivalents respectively at (1)/100.000 the scale of their human counterparts in vivo. To increase the degree of organismal emulation, microfluidic channels of the liver-skin co-culture could be successfully covered with human endothelial cells, thus mimicking human vasculature, for the first time. Finally, exposure routes emulating oral and systemic administration in humans have been qualified by applying a repeated dose administration of a model substance - troglitazone - to the chip-based co-cultures. PMID:25857839

  17. A catch-up validation study of an in vitro skin irritation test method using reconstructed human epidermis LabCyte EPI-MODEL24.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Hajime; Katoh, Masakazu; Shinoda, Shinsuke; Hagiwara, Saori; Suzuki, Tamie; Izumi, Runa; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Maki; Kasahawa, Toshihiko; Shibai, Aya

    2014-07-01

    Three validation studies were conducted by the Japanese Society for Alternatives to Animal Experiments in order to assess the performance of a skin irritation assay using reconstructed human epidermis (RhE) LabCyte EPI-MODEL24 (LabCyte EPI-MODEL24 SIT) developed by the Japan Tissue Engineering Co., Ltd. (J-TEC), and the results of these studies were submitted to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) for the creation of a Test Guideline (TG). In the summary review report from the OECD, the peer review panel indicated the need to resolve an issue regarding the misclassification of 1-bromohexane. To this end, a rinsing operation intended to remove exposed chemicals was reviewed and the standard operating procedure (SOP) revised by J-TEC. Thereafter, in order to confirm general versatility of the revised SOP, a new validation management team was organized by the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM) to undertake a catch-up validation study that would compare the revised assay with similar in vitro skin irritation assays, per OECD TG No. 439 (2010). The catch-up validation and supplementary studies for LabCyte EPI-MODEL24 SIT using the revised SOPs were conducted at three laboratories. These results showed that the revised SOP of LabCyte EPI-MODEL24 SIT conformed more accurately to the classifications for skin irritation under the United Nations Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (UN GHS), thereby highlighting the importance of an optimized rinsing operation for the removal of exposed chemicals in obtaining consistent results from in vitro skin irritation assays. PMID:24122860

  18. Skin Substitutes

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Nicole; Cohen, George

    2014-01-01

    In a relatively short timespan, a wealth of new skin substitutes made of synthetic and biologically derived materials have arisen for the purpose of wound healing of various etiologies. This review article focuses on providing an overview of skin substitutes including their indications, contraindications, benefits, and limitations. The result of this overview was an appreciation of the vast array of options available for clinicians, many of which did not exist a short time ago. Yet, despite the rapid expansion this field has undergone, no ideal skin substitute is currently available. More research in the field of skin substitutes and wound healing is required not only for the development of new products made of increasingly complex biomolecular material, but also to compare the existing skin substitutes. PMID:25371771

  19. New Skin Test for Detection of Bovine Tuberculosis on the Basis of Antigen-Displaying Polyester Inclusions Produced by Recombinant Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shuxiong; Parlane, Natalie A.; Lee, Jason; Wedlock, D. Neil; Buddle, Bryce M.

    2014-01-01

    The tuberculin skin test for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) in cattle lacks specificity if animals are sensitized to environmental mycobacteria, as some antigens in purified protein derivative (PPD) prepared from Mycobacterium bovis are present in nonpathogenic mycobacteria. Three immunodominant TB antigens, ESAT6, CFP10, and Rv3615c, are present in members of the pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex but absent from the majority of environmental mycobacteria. These TB antigens have the potential to enhance skin test specificity. To increase their immunogenicity, these antigens were displayed on polyester beads by translationally fusing them to a polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase which mediated formation of antigen-displaying inclusions in recombinant Escherichia coli. The most common form of these inclusions is poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) (PHB). The respective fusion proteins displayed on these PHB inclusions (beads) were identified using tryptic peptide fingerprinting analysis in combination with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The surface exposure and accessibility of antigens were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Polyester beads displaying all three TB antigens showed greater reactivity with TB antigen-specific antibody than did beads displaying only one TB antigen. This was neither due to cross-reactivity of antibodies with the other two antigens nor due to differences in protein expression levels between beads displaying single or three TB antigens. The triple-antigen-displaying polyester beads were used for skin testing of cattle and detected all cattle experimentally infected with M. bovis with no false-positive reactions observed in those sensitized to environmental mycobacteria. The results suggested applicability of TB antigen-displaying polyester inclusions as diagnostic reagents for distinguishing TB-infected from noninfected animals. PMID:24532066

  20. [A Case of Rocuronium Anaphylaxis in which Anesthesia was Safely Performed after Selection of an Alternative Drug after a Skin Test].

    PubMed

    Naruse, Satoshi; Iwata, Hiroki; Suzuki, Kota; Uraoka, Masahiro; Katoh, Takasumi; Sato, Shigehito

    2016-06-01

    We report our experience of a patient with a history of anaphylactic shock suspected to be caused by rocuronium who was scheduled to undergo hepatic tumor resection. The patient was a 17-year-old female (height : 166 cm, weight : 46 kg). During general anesthesia at another hospital several years ago, she had an anaphylactic shock, and rocuronium was suspected to be the offending drug. To collect information and search for the cause, skin tests were performed for rocuronium, vecuronium and suxamethonium. She was positive for rocuronium, and negative for other drugs. At anesthesia induction, we administered vecuronium and confirmed no development of anaphylaxis before commencement of surgery. In the perioperative period, she had no symptoms that indicated anaphylaxis. Since there is potential high cross-reactivity among muscle relaxants, it is important to perform a test for alternative drugs when a muscle relaxant may be a cause of anaphylaxis. Selection and administration of an alternative drug should be carefully performed, even when a skin test is negative for the alternative drug. PMID:27483667

  1. Sink or swim: a test of tadpole behavioral responses to predator cues and potential alarm pheromones from skin secretions.

    PubMed

    Maag, Nino; Gehrer, Lukas; Woodhams, Douglas C

    2012-11-01

    Chemical signaling is a vital mode of communication for most organisms, including larval amphibians. However, few studies have determined the identity or source of chemical compounds signaling amphibian defensive behaviors, in particular, whether alarm pheromones can be actively secreted from tadpoles signaling danger to conspecifics. Here we exposed tadpoles of the common toad Bufo bufo and common frog Rana temporaria to known cues signaling predation risk and to potential alarm pheromones. In both species, an immediate reduction in swimming activity extending over an hour was caused by chemical cues from the predator Aeshna cyanea (dragonfly larvae) that had been feeding on conspecific tadpoles. However, B. bufo tadpoles did not detectably alter their behavior upon exposure to potential alarm pheromones, neither to their own skin secretions, nor to the abundant predator-defense peptide bradykinin. Thus, chemicals signaling active predation had a stronger effect than general alarm secretions of other common toad tadpoles. This species may invest in a defensive strategy alternative to communication by alarm pheromones, given that Bufonidae are toxic to some predators and not known to produce defensive skin peptides. Comparative behavioral physiology of amphibian alarm responses may elucidate functional trade-offs in pheromone production and the evolution of chemical communication. PMID:22972229

  2. PMP22 messenger RNA levels in skin biopsies: testing the effectiveness of a Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A biomarker.

    PubMed

    Nobbio, Lucilla; Visigalli, Davide; Radice, Davide; Fiorina, Elisabetta; Solari, Alessandra; Lauria, Giuseppe; Reilly, Mary M; Santoro, Lucio; Schenone, Angelo; Pareyson, Davide

    2014-06-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) is associated with increased gene dosage for PMP22. Therapeutic approaches are currently aiming at correcting PMP22 over-expression. It is unknown whether PMP22 can be used as a biological marker of disease progression and therapy efficacy. We performed quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction on skin biopsies of 45 patients with CMT1A, obtained at study entry and after 24-months of treatment either with ascorbic acid or placebo. Data of a subgroup of patients were also compared with matched healthy subjects. Finally, we analysed PMP22 messenger RNA levels in sural nerve biopsies. We did not find significant differences in the levels of any known PMP22 transcripts in treated or untreated patients with CMT1A, thus confirming that ascorbic acid does not impact on the molecular features of CMT1A. Most importantly, we did not observe any correlation between PMP22 messenger RNA levels and the different clinical and electrophysiological outcome measures, underscoring the weakness of PMP22 to mirror the phenotypic variability of patients with CMT1A. We did not find increased PMP22 messenger RNA levels in skin and sural nerve biopsies of patients with CMT1A compared with relative controls. In conclusion, this study shows that ascorbic acid does not impact on PMP22 transcriptional regulation and PMP22 is not a suitable biomarker for CMT1A. PMID:24812204

  3. Skin Cancer in Skin of Color

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Porcia T.

    2009-01-01

    Skin cancers in skin of color often present atypically or with advanced stage in comparison to Caucasian patients. Health care providers must maintain a high index of suspicion when examining skin lesions in skin of color. PMID:19691228

  4. Ballistic skin simulant.

    PubMed

    Jussila, Jorma; Leppäniemi, Ari; Paronen, Mikael; Kulomäki, Erkki

    2005-05-28

    Hydrogels prepared from water solutions containing 10-20 mass% gelatine are generally accepted muscle tissue simulants in terminal ballistic research. They, however, do not have a surface layer which simulates the effect of human skin. The purpose of this research was to find a suitable skin simulant for enhancing the testing fidelity and the credibility of the results with gelatine-based materials when assessing the injury potential of not only high energy bullets, but also especially that of non-penetrating "less lethal" kinetic impact ammunition and relatively low energy ricochet fragments. A skin simulant also permits the simulation and assessment of exit wounds. The mechanical and ballistic properties of human skin and target simulant were established on the basis of results found in the literature. Some errors in these were found. The corrected values are included in this paper for comparison. The target values of the mechanical properties of the skin simulant were the following: threshold velocity v(th)=94+/-4 m/s, tensile strength 18+/-2 N/mm2 and elongation at break 65+/-5%. A selection of synthetic and natural materials was evaluated as skin simulants by analysing their mechanical and ballistic properties. The results were compared to literature values obtained with human cadavers. The tests showed that the best skin simulant of the ones evaluated was semi-finished chrome tanned upholstery "crust" cowhide of 0.9-1.1 mm nominal thickness. Its threshold velocity was 90.7 m/s, tensile strength 20.89+/-4.11 MPa and elongation at break 61+/-9%. These values are the same as the average values of human skin. Of the synthetic materials evaluated, 1mm thick natural rubber can be used on impact side as a threshold velocity filter with some reservations although its theoretical threshold velocity is only 82.9 m/s. PMID:15837009

  5. Hyperelastic skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... is most often seen in people who have Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. People with this disorder have very elastic skin. ... any member of your family been diagnosed with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome? What other symptoms are present?

  6. Your Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Butterflies? Read This Chloe & Nurb Meet The Brain (Movie) Quiz: Do You Need a Flu Shot? Got ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Movie: Skin Acne Myths Blisters, Calluses, and Corns Fungal ...

  7. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Review. 17 Wu S, Han J, Laden F, Qureshi AA. Long-term ultraviolet flux, other potential risk factors, ... MR, Shive ML, Chren MM, Han J, Qureshi AA, Linos E. Indoor tanning and non-melanoma skin ...

  8. Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... nearby What to Do Teach kids not to pop, pick at, or scratch pimples, pus-filled infections, ... Your Skin Abscess Impetigo Ringworm Cellulitis Should I Pop My Pimple? Tips for Taking Care of Your ...

  9. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... exposure to ultraviolet light, which is found in sunlight and in lights used in tanning salons. What ... the safe-sun guidelines. 1. Avoid the sun. Sunlight damages your skin. The sun is strongest during ...

  10. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... early. If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. Treatments ... and a type of laser light to kill cancer cells. Biologic therapy boosts your body's own ability to ...

  11. Hyperelastic skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... is most often seen in people who have Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. People with this disorder have very elastic skin. ... any member of your family been diagnosed with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome? What other symptoms are present? Alternative Names India ...

  12. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... States. The two most common types are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. They usually form on the head, face, ... If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. Treatments ...

  13. [Prevalence of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and associated factors in community health workers in Brazil based on the tuberculin skin test].

    PubMed

    Rogerio, Wesley Pereira; Prado, Thiago Nascimento do; Souza, Fernanda Mattos de; Pinheiro, Jair dos Santos; Rodrigues, Patrícia Marques; Sant'anna, Amanda Pissinate do Nascimento; Jesus, Kássia Gomes de; Cerutti Junior, Crispim; Lima, Rita de Cássia Duarte; Maciel, Ethel Leonor Noia

    2015-10-01

    This article aimed to determine the prevalence of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and associated factors in community health workers (CHW) in Brazil, using two cutoff points for the tuberculin skin test (5mm and 10mm). This was a cross-sectional study with data on gender, age, BCG scar, working in a primary care unit (PCU), having a household contact with tuberculosis (TB), alcohol consumption, previous tuberculin skin test (TST), smoking, time on the job as CHW, and comorbidities. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and to control for confounding. TST was applied and read after 48-72 hours. Prevalence rates were 57.88% and 37.3%, respectively, for the 5mm and 10mm TST cutoffs. Variables that remained associated with positive TST using the 10mm cutoff were working in a primary care unit that had implemented a Tuberculosis Control Program (TCP) and history of household contact with TB. Variables associated with the 5mm cutoff were working in a primary care unit with a TCP. Necessary actions at the local level include awareness-raising and strengthening of continuing education. PMID:26735386

  14. Senescent Skin

    PubMed Central

    Kushniruk, William

    1974-01-01

    The cutaneous surface is continually influenced by aging and environmental factors. A longer life span is accompanied by an increase in the frequency of problems associated with aging skin. Although most of these changes and lesions are not life threatening, the premalignant lesions must be recognized and treated. The common aging and actinic skin changes are discussed and appropriate management is described. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:20469067

  15. Neuromodulators for Aging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ...

  16. Skin care and incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    Incontinence - skin care ... in a wheelchair, regular chair, or bed TAKING CARE OF THE SKIN Using diapers and other products ... skin. Over time, the skin breaks down. Special care must be taken to keep the skin clean ...

  17. Skin characteristics in newborns

    MedlinePlus

    Newborn skin characteristics; Infant skin characteristics ... the first few weeks of the baby's life. Newborn skin will vary, depending on the length of the pregnancy. Premature infants have thin, transparent skin. The skin of a ...

  18. The relation of autologous serum and plasma skin test results with urticarial activity score, sex and age in patients with chronic urticaria

    PubMed Central

    Aktar, Sirac; Akdeniz, Necmettin; Calka, Omer; Karadag, Ayse Serap

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Some previous studies reported autoimmunity as an etiologic factor in chronic urticaria (CU), but the results of some autoimmunity tests in these studies are conflicting. Aim To concretize whether there was any relation of autologous serum skin test (ASST) and autologous plasma skin test (APST) results with sex, age and urticarial activity score (UAS) in patients with CU. Material and methods Fifty patients with CU and twenty healthy subjects admitted to our dermatology clinic were included in the present study. The ASST and APST were applied to all individuals. Results The positiveness rates of ASST and APST were significantly higher in the patient group than controls (p = 0.027, p = 0.001, respectively). Among patients, the APST positiveness rate (72%) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than ASST (46%). It was seen that 48% of patients with negative ASST results had positive APST. However, no patient with negative APST results had positive ASST. There were significant (p < 0.05) relations of the tests’ positiveness rates with sex and old age but with UAS. The diameter of the erythematous papule was remarkably (p < 0.05) larger in APST than ASST and also significantly (p < 0.05) larger in females compared to males in both tests (p < 0.05). It was positively increased with old age (p < 0.05). Conclusions We can suggest that APST is more sensitive than ASST in the assessment of autoimmunity in CU. A high positiveness rate of APST results may be attributed to high numbers of autoantibodies and coagulation factors present in plasma that might probably play a role in etiopathogenesis of CU. PMID:26161057

  19. Pregnancy and Skin

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Rita V.; Gupta, Rajat; Mehta, Malay J.; Chaudhari, Arvind H.; Pilani, Abhishek P.; Patel, Nidhi

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with complex of endocrinological, immunological, metabolic, and vascular changes that may influence the skin and other organs in various ways. Pregnancy is a period in which more than 90% women have significant and complex skin changes that may have great impact on the woman's life. The dermatoses of pregnancy represent a heterogeneous group of skin diseases related to pregnancy and/or the postpartum period. The dermatoses of pregnancy can be classified into the following three groups: Physiologic skin changes in pregnancy, pre-existing dermatoses affected by pregnancy, and specific dermatoses of pregnancy. Though most of these skin dermatoses are benign and resolve in postpartum period, a few can risk fetal life and require antenatal surveillance. Most of the dermatoses of pregnancy can be treated conservatively but a few require intervention in the form of termination of pregnancy. Correct diagnosis is essential for the treatment of these disorders. This article discusses the current knowledge of various skin changes during pregnancy and the evaluation of the patient with pregnancy dermatoses with special emphasis on clinical features, diagnostic tests, maternal and fetal prognosis, therapy, and management. PMID:25657937

  20. Testing a social cognitive theory-based model of indoor tanning: implications for skin cancer prevention messages.

    PubMed

    Noar, Seth M; Myrick, Jessica Gall; Zeitany, Alexandra; Kelley, Dannielle; Morales-Pico, Brenda; Thomas, Nancy E

    2015-01-01

    The lack of a theory-based understanding of indoor tanning is a major impediment to the development of effective messages to prevent or reduce this behavior. This study applied the Comprehensive Indoor Tanning Expectations (CITE) scale in an analysis of indoor tanning behavior among sorority women (total N = 775). Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that CITE positive and negative expectations were robust, multidimensional factors and that a hierarchical structure fit the data well. Social cognitive theory-based structural equation models demonstrated that appearance-oriented variables were significantly associated with outcome expectations. Outcome expectations were, in turn, significantly associated with temptations to tan, intention to tan indoors, and indoor tanning behavior. The implications of these findings for the development of messages to prevent and reduce indoor tanning behavior are discussed in two domains: (a) messages that attempt to change broader societal perceptions about tan skin, and (b) messages that focus more narrowly on indoor tanning-challenging positive expectations, enhancing negative expectations, and encouraging substitution of sunless tanning products. PMID:25470441

  1. Sensitization to cereals and peanut evidenced by skin prick test and specific IgE in food-tolerant, grass pollen allergic patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The botanical relation between grass and cereal grains may be relevant when diagnosing food allergy to cereals. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic specificity of skin prick test (SPT) and specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) tests to cereals and peanut in grass pollen allergic subjects without history of, and clinically reactions to foods botanically related to grass. Methods 70 subjects (41 females; mean age 32 years) and 20 healthy controls (13 females; mean age 24 years) were tested by open food challenge (OFC) with cereals and peanut. SPT and sIgE both with Immulite® (Siemens) and ImmunoCAP® (Phadia) to grass and birch pollen, cereals, peanut and bromelain were performed. Results Of the 65 OFC-negative subjects 29-46% (SPT, depending on cut-off), 20% (Immulite) and 38% (ImmunoCAP) had positive results to one or more of the foods tested. Controls were negative in all tests. Cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCD) as evidenced by reaction to bromelain could explain only a minority of the measured IgE-sensitizations. Conclusion Grass pollen allergic patients with documented food tolerance to cereals and peanut may express significant sensitization. False-positive cereal or peanut allergy diagnoses may be a quantitatively important problem both in routine clinical work and epidemiological studies. PMID:22409998

  2. An evaluation of factors associated with taking and responding positive to the tuberculin skin test in individuals with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The tuberculin skin test (TST) is still the standard test for detecting latent infection by M tuberculosis (LTBI). Given that the Brazilian Health Ministry recommends that the treatment of latent tuberculosis (LTBI) should be guided by the TST results, the present study sets out to describe the coverage of administering the TST in people living with HIV at two referral health centers in the city of Recife, where TST is offered to all patients. In addition, factors associated with the non-application of the test and with positive TST results were also analyzed. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out with HIV patients, aged 18 years or over, attending outpatient clinics at the Correia Picanço Hospital/SES/PE and the Oswaldo Cruz/UPE University Hospital, who had been recommended to take the TST, in the period between November 2007 and February 2010. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out to establish associations between the dependent variable - taking the TST (yes/no), at a first stage analysis, and the independent variables, followed by a second stage analysis considering a positive TST as the dependent variable. The odds ratio was calculated as the measure of association and the confidence interval (CI) at 95% as the measure of accuracy of the estimate. Results Of the 2,290 patients recruited, 1087 (47.5%) took the TST. Of the 1,087 patients who took the tuberculin skin test, the prevalence of TST ≥ 5 mm was 21.6% among patients with CD4 ≥ 200 and 9.49% among those with CD4 < 200 (p = 0.002). The patients most likely not to take the test were: men, people aged under 39 years, people with low educational levels and crack users. The risk for not taking the TST was statiscally different for health service. Patients who presented better immunity (CD4 ≥ 200) were more than two and a half times more likely to test positive that those with higher levels of immunodeficiency (CD4 < 200). Conclusions Considering

  3. Tuberculin Skin Test Negativity Is Under Tight Genetic Control of Chromosomal Region 11p14-15 in Settings With Different Tuberculosis Endemicities

    PubMed Central

    Cobat, Aurélie; Poirier, Christine; Hoal, Eileen; Boland-Auge, Anne; de La Rocque, France; Corrard, François; Grange, Ghislain; Migaud, Mélanie; Bustamante, Jacinta; Boisson-Dupuis, Stéphanie; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Schurr, Erwin; Alcaïs, Alexandre; Delacourt, Christophe; Abel, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    A substantial proportion of subjects exposed to a contagious tuberculosis case display lack of tuberculin skin test (TST) reactivity. We previously mapped a major locus (TST1) controlling lack of TST reactivity in families from an area in South Africa where tuberculosis is hyperendemic. Here, we conducted a household tuberculosis contact study in a French area where the endemicity of tuberculosis is low. A genome-wide analysis of TST negativity identified a significant linkage signal (P < 3 × 10−5) in close vicinity of TST1. Combined analysis of the 2 samples increased evidence of linkage (P = 2.4 × 10−6), further implicating genetic factors located on 11p14-15. This region overlaps the TNF1 locus controlling mycobacteria-driven tumor necrosis factor α production. PMID:25143445

  4. Sensitivity and specificity of the consumer open skin allergy test as a method of prediction of contact dermatitis to hair dyes.

    PubMed

    Krasteva, Maya; Cottin, Martin; Cristaudo, Antonio; Lainé, Gérard; Nohynek, Gerhard; Orton, David; Toutain, Hervé; Severino, Vincenzo; Wilkinson, John

    2005-01-01

    To prevent contact dermatitis to oxidative hair colouring products, a consumer test (skin allergy test, SAT) consisting of the open application of the colourant base prior to mixing with the developer is recommended 48 hours before hair colouring. We investigated the sensitivity and specificity of the SAT to detect and prevent contact allergy to oxidative hair colouring products that contained a range of concentrations of para-phenylenediamine (PPD) and corresponded to different shades (light, medium and dark). Test colouring products containing increasing concentrations of PPD (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5%) were applied to 34 PPD-positive hair dye-allergic individuals and to 49 non-allergic control subjects. Allergic reactions were elicited in all PPD-positive subjects whereas none occurred in control PPD-negative subjects. For each subject the eliciting concentration of PPD in the SAT was compared with the PPD concentration range of the group of commercial shades reported as causing reactions by the consumer. In all PPD-positive subjects the eliciting concentrations of PPD in the SAT was within or lower than the range of PPD concentrations in the reported eliciting colourant base of commercial products. In conclusion, our results confirm the excellent predictive value of the SAT over the entire range of PPD concentrations used in oxidative hair colouring products and suggest that the test is a suitable tool for the secondary prevention of contact allergic reactions to hair colouring products. PMID:15701588

  5. Skin cancer and photoaging in ethnic skin.

    PubMed

    Halder, Rebat M; Ara, Collette J

    2003-10-01

    Skin cancer prevalence in ethnic skin is low. Squamous cell carcinoma, hypopigmented mycosis fungoides, and acral lentiginous melanoma are the most serious types of skin cancer noted in the darker-skinned population. Photoaging occurs less frequently and is less severe in ethnic skin. PMID:14717413

  6. Discordance of Tuberculin Skin Test and Interferon Gamma Release Assay in Recently Exposed Household Contacts of Pulmonary TB Cases in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro-Rodrigues, Rodrigo; Kim, Soyeon; Coelho da Silva, Flávia Dias; Uzelac, Aleksandra; Collins, Lauren; Palaci, Moíses; Alland, David; Dietze, Reynaldo; Ellner, Jerrold J.; Jones-López, Edward; Salgame, Padmini

    2014-01-01

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release assays (IGRAs) such as the Quantiferon Gold In-tube test are in vitro assays that measure IFN-γ release from T cells in response to M. tuberculosis (Mtb)-specific antigens. Unlike the tuberculin skin test (TST), IGRA is specific and able to distinguish Mtb-infection from BCG vaccination. In this study we evaluated the concordance between TST and IGRA and the efficacy of IGRA in diagnosing new Mtb infection in household contacts (HHC) of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases. A total of 357 HHC of TB cases in Vitória, Brazil were studied. A TST was performed within 2 weeks following enrollment of the HHC and if negative a second TST was performed at 8-12 weeks. HHC were categorized as initially TST positive (TST+), persistently TST negative (TST-), or TST converters (TSTc), the latter representative of new infection. IGRA was performed at 8–12 weeks following enrollment and the test results were positive in 82% of TST+, 48% of TSTc, and 12% of TST-, indicating poor concordance between the two test results among HHC in each category. Evaluating CXCL10 levels in a subset of IGRA supernatants or lowering the IGRA cutoff value to define a positive test increased agreement between TST and IGRA test results. However, ROC curves demonstrated that this resulted in a trade-off between sensitivity and specificity of IGRA with respect to TST. Together, the findings suggest that until the basis for the discordance between TST and IGRA is fully understood, it may be necessary to utilize both tests to diagnose new Mtb infection in recently exposed HHC. Operationally, in IGRA negative HHC, it may be useful to employ a lower cutoff value for IGRA to allow closer monitoring for potential conversion. PMID:24819060

  7. Environment and the skin

    SciTech Connect

    Suskind, R.R. )

    1990-03-01

    The skin is an important organ of defense adaptation and a portal of entry for xenobiotics. It is vulnerable to physical, chemical, and biologic agents and capable of expressing responses to these agents in a variety of pathologic patterns. These patterns are characterized by morphologic and functional features which are elicited by careful examination and test procedures. Cutaneous cancer may result from exposure to nonionizing as well as ionizing radiation, to specific identifiable chemical hazards, and may be enhanced by trauma. Cutaneous hazards of chemical sources are largely found in the workplace and among consumer products, including drugs and toilet goods. Environmental skin diseases and injuries are preventable. Prior to use assessment for safety and for possible risks from exposure to an agent, product, or process is of primary importance in the prevention and control of environmental skin disease and injury.

  8. How to Check Your Skin for Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Cancer Types Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Patient Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer Prevention Skin Cancer Screening Health Professional Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer ...

  9. Comparison of the statistics of salmonella testing of chilled broiler chicken carcasses by whole carcass rinse and neck skin excision

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whether a required Salmonella test series is passed or failed depends not only on the presence of the bacteria, but also on the methods for taking samples, the methods for culturing samples, and the statistics associated with the sampling plan. The pass-fail probabilities of the two-class attribute...

  10. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  11. Serological diagnosis of autoimmune bullous skin diseases: Prospective comparison of the BIOCHIP mosaic-based indirect immunofluorescence technique with the conventional multi-step single test strategy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Various antigen-specific immunoassays are available for the serological diagnosis of autoimmune bullous diseases. However, a spectrum of different tissue-based and monovalent antigen-specific assays is required to establish the diagnosis. BIOCHIP mosaics consisting of different antigen substrates allow polyvalent immunofluorescence (IF) tests and provide antibody profiles in a single incubation. Methods Slides for indirect IF were prepared, containing BIOCHIPS with the following test substrates in each reaction field: monkey esophagus, primate salt-split skin, antigen dots of tetrameric BP180-NC16A as well as desmoglein 1-, desmoglein 3-, and BP230gC-expressing human HEK293 cells. This BIOCHIP mosaic was probed using a large panel of sera from patients with pemphigus vulgaris (PV, n = 65), pemphigus foliaceus (PF, n = 50), bullous pemphigoid (BP, n = 42), and non-inflammatory skin diseases (n = 97) as well as from healthy blood donors (n = 100). Furthermore, to evaluate the usability in routine diagnostics, 454 consecutive sera from patients with suspected immunobullous disorders were prospectively analyzed in parallel using a) the IF BIOCHIP mosaic and b) a panel of single antibody assays as commonly used by specialized centers. Results Using the BIOCHIP mosaic, sensitivities of the desmoglein 1-, desmoglein 3-, and NC16A-specific substrates were 90%, 98.5% and 100%, respectively. BP230 was recognized by 54% of the BP sera. Specificities ranged from 98.2% to 100% for all substrates. In the prospective study, a high agreement was found between the results obtained by the BIOCHIP mosaic and the single test panel for the diagnosis of BP, PV, PF, and sera without serum autoantibodies (Cohen’s κ between 0.88 and 0.97). Conclusions The BIOCHIP mosaic contains sensitive and specific substrates for the indirect IF diagnosis of BP, PF, and PV. Its diagnostic accuracy is comparable with the conventional multi-step approach. The highly

  12. Disposable baby wipes: efficacy and skin mildness.

    PubMed

    Odio, M; Streicher-Scott, J; Hansen, R C

    2001-04-01

    The results of a series of four clinical studies demonstrated that disposable baby wipes were milder to the skin than use of a cotton washcloth and water, recognized as a "gold standard" for skin mildness. Importantly, the baby wipes caused no significant change from the baseline value in any of the skin parameters examined. This observation verified that the test wipes are minimally disruptive to the epidermal barrier and thus suitable for use on intact or compromised, irritated skin. PMID:11917305

  13. Cutaneous skin tag

    MedlinePlus

    Skin tag; Acrochordon; Fibroepithelial polyp ... have diabetes. They are thought to occur from skin rubbing against skin. ... The tag sticks out of the skin and may have a short, narrow stalk connecting it to the surface of the skin. Some skin tags are as long as ...

  14. The Natural History of IgE-Mediated Food Allergy: Can Skin Prick Tests and Serum-Specific IgE Predict the Resolution of Food Allergy?

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Rachel L.; Gurrin, Lyle C.; Dharmage, Shyamali C.; Koplin, Jennifer J.; Allen, Katrina J.

    2013-01-01

    IgE-mediated food allergy is a transient condition for some children, however there are few indices to predict when and in whom food allergy will resolve. Skin prick test (SPT) and serum-specific IgE levels (sIgE) are usually monitored in the management of food allergy and are used to predict the development of tolerance or persistence of food allergy. The aim of this article is to review the published literature that investigated the predictive value of SPT and sIgE in development of tolerance in children with a previous diagnosis of peanut, egg and milk allergy. A systematic search identified twenty-six studies, of which most reported SPT or sIgE thresholds which predicted persistent or resolved allergy. However, results were inconsistent between studies. Previous research was hampered by several limitations including the absence of gold standard test to diagnose food allergy or tolerance, biased samples in retrospective audits and lack of systematic protocols for triggering re-challenges. There is a need for population-based, prospective studies that use the gold standard oral food challenge (OFC) to diagnose food allergy at baseline and follow-up to develop SPT and sIgE thresholds that predict the course of food allergy. PMID:24132133

  15. Evidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex bacteraemia in intradermal skin test positive cattle detected using phage-RPA.

    PubMed

    Swift, Benjamin M C; Convery, Thomas W; Rees, Catherine E D

    2016-10-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis that affects cattle and can cause tuberculosis in a range of wildlife animals. A bacteriophage-based method combined with PCR (phage-PCR) has been recently used to detect and identify viable pathogenic mycobacteria in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of animals suffering from paratuberculosis. To adapt this method for the detection of M. bovis in blood, a new isothermal DNA amplification protocol using Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) was developed and was found to be able to detect M. bovis BCG within 48 h, with a limit of detection of approximately 10 cells per ml of blood for artificially inoculated blood samples. When blood samples (2 ml) from a Single Comparative Cervical Intradermal Tuberculin (SCCIT)- negative beef herd were tested, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) cells were not detected from any (45) of the blood samples. However when blood samples from SCCIT-positive animals were tested, viable MTC bacteria were detected in 66 % (27/41) of samples. Of these 41 animals sampled, 32 % (13) had visible lesions. In the visible lesion (VL) group, 85 % (11/13) had detectable levels of MTC whereas only 57 % (16/28) of animals which had no visible lesions (NVL) were found to have detectable mycobacteraemia. These results indicated that this simple, rapid method can be applied for the study of M. bovis infections. The frequency with which viable mycobacteria were detected in the peripheral blood of SCCIT-positive animals changes the paradigm of this disease. PMID:27197018

  16. Common aeroallergens in patients with asthma and allergic rhinitis living in southwestern part of Iran: based on skin prick test reactivity.

    PubMed

    Farrokhi, Shokrollah; Gheybi, Mohammad Kazzem; Movahed, Ali; Tahmasebi, Rahim; Iranpour, Dariush; Fatemi, Atena; Etemadan, Razieh; Gooya, Mostafa; Zandi, Sahar; Ashourinejad, Hamid; Alavizadeh, Sara; Khoddami, Shaghayegh

    2015-04-01

    Aeroallergens continue to have a key role in the pathogenesis of asthma and allergic diseases and have recently received increased attention in medical research throughout the world. The prevalence of aeroallergens vary in different regions, depending on the type of climate. The aim of the present study was to determine prevalence of the sensitivity to aeroallergens among patients with asthma and allergic rhinitis (AR), based on skin prick test (SPT) reactivity in the province of Bushehr, Iran. In this cross-sectional study, 743 patients were enrolled. The participants had asthma and AR and reacted to at least one allergen with SPT. Skin prick test with standard extracts including house dust mites (HDMs), animal dander, molds and pollens were performed on patients according to the herbal geography of the area. The male to female ratio and mean age of the patients were 1.03 and 27.6± 15.4 year, respectively. Out of 567 patients with AR, the common aeroallergens were HDMs (88.5%), molds (82.9%), animal dander (79.5%), weeds (77.6%), trees (75.5%) and grass pollen (71.5%). Moreover, among 176 patients with asthma, the prevalence of aeroallergens were HDMs (90.5 %), molds (80.7%), animal dander (77.5%), weeds (73.3%), trees (73.3%) and grass pollen (67.9%). The sensitivity to animal dander, Chenopodium album and Russian thistle pollens were significantly associated with the severity of AR. Moreover, sensitivity to animal dander such as cat and feather of birds, cockroach, Bermuda grass and Chenopodium album pollens were significantly associated with the severity of asthma. The results of this study revealed that HDM was the most common sensitizing aeroallergen in patients with asthma and AR. Molds and animal dander as indoor allergens were also common aeroallergens. We suggest that the hot weather and ambient humidity in the region may be the main cause of the change in the pattern of SPT reactivity. PMID:25780879

  17. Contrasting signals of positive selection in genes involved in human skin-color variation from tests based on SNP scans and resequencing

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Numerous genome-wide scans conducted by genotyping previously ascertained single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have provided candidate signatures for positive selection in various regions of the human genome, including in genes involved in pigmentation traits. However, it is unclear how well the signatures discovered by such haplotype-based test statistics can be reproduced in tests based on full resequencing data. Four genes (oculocutaneous albinism II (OCA2), tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1), dopachrome tautomerase (DCT), and KIT ligand (KITLG)) implicated in human skin-color variation, have shown evidence for positive selection in Europeans and East Asians in previous SNP-scan data. In the current study, we resequenced 4.7 to 6.7 kb of DNA from each of these genes in Africans, Europeans, East Asians, and South Asians. Results Applying all commonly used neutrality-test statistics for allele frequency distribution to the newly generated sequence data provided conflicting results regarding evidence for positive selection. Previous haplotype-based findings could not be clearly confirmed. Although some tests were marginally significant for some populations and genes, none of them were significant after multiple-testing correction. Combined P values for each gene-population pair did not improve these results. Application of Approximate Bayesian Computation Markov chain Monte Carlo based to these sequence data using a simple forward simulator revealed broad posterior distributions of the selective parameters for all four genes, providing no support for positive selection. However, when we applied this approach to published sequence data on SLC45A2, another human pigmentation candidate gene, we could readily confirm evidence for positive selection, as previously detected with sequence-based and some haplotype-based tests. Conclusions Overall, our data indicate that even genes that are strong biological candidates for positive selection and show

  18. Protective Skins for Composite Airliners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Vicki S.; Boone, Richard L.; Jones, Shannon; Pendse, Vandana; Hayward, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Traditional composite aircraft structures are designed for load bearing and then overdesigned for impact damage and hot humid environments. Seeking revolutionary improvement in the performance and weight of composite structures, Cessna Aircraft Company, with sponsorship from the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program/Subsonic Fixed Wing Project, has developed and tested a protective skin concept which would allow the primary composite structure to carry only load and would meet the impact, hot and humid, and other requirements through protective skins. A key requirement for the protective skins is to make any impact damage requiring repair visible. Testing from the first generation of skins helped identify the most promising materials which were used in a second generation of test articles. This report summarizes lessons learned from the first generation of protective skins, the design and construction of the second-generation test articles, test results from the second generation for impact, electromagnetic effects, aesthetics and smoothing, thermal, and acoustic (for the first time), and an assessment of the feasibility of the protective skin concept.

  19. Screening for latent tuberculosis in Norwegian health care workers: high frequency of discordant tuberculin skin test positive and interferon-gamma release assay negative results

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) presents globally a significant health problem and health care workers (HCW) are at increased risk of contracting TB infection. There is no diagnostic gold standard for latent TB infection (LTBI), but both blood based interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA) and the tuberculin skin test (TST) are used. According to the national guidelines, HCW who have been exposed for TB should be screened and offered preventive anti-TB chemotherapy, but the role of IGRA in HCW screening is still unclear. Methods A total of 387 HCW working in clinical and laboratory departments in three major hospitals in the Western region of Norway with possible exposure to TB were included in a cross-sectional study. The HCW were asked for risk factors for TB and tested with TST and the QuantiFERON®TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT). A logistic regression model analyzed the associations between risk factors for TB and positive QFT or TST. Results A total of 13 (3.4%) demonstrated a persistent positive QFT, whereas 214 (55.3%) had a positive TST (≥ 6 mm) and 53 (13.7%) a TST ≥ 15 mm. Only ten (4.7%) of the HCW with a positive TST were QFT positive. Origin from a TB-endemic country was the only risk factor associated with a positive QFT (OR 14.13, 95% CI 1.37 - 145.38, p = 0.026), whereas there was no significant association between risk factors for TB and TST ≥ 15 mm. The five HCW with an initial positive QFT that retested negative all had low interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) responses below 0.70 IU/ml when first tested. Conclusions We demonstrate a low prevalence of LTBI in HCW working in hospitals with TB patients in our region. The “IGRA-only” seems like a desirable screening strategy despite its limitations in serial testing, due to the high numbers of discordant TST positive/IGRA negative results in HCW, probably caused by BCG vaccination or boosting due to repetitive TST testing. Thus, guidelines for TB screening in HCW should be updated in order to

  20. Skin Keratins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fengrong; Zieman, Abigail; Coulombe, Pierre A.

    2016-01-01

    Keratins comprise the type I and type II intermediate filament-forming proteins and occur primarily in epithelial cells. They are encoded by 54 evolutionarily conserved genes (28 type I, 26 type II) and regulated in a pairwise and tissue type-, differentiation-, and context-dependent manner. Keratins serve multiple homeostatic and stress-enhanced mechanical and nonmechanical functions in epithelia, including the maintenance of cellular integrity, regulation of cell growth and migration, and protection from apoptosis. These functions are tightly regulated by posttranslational modifications as well as keratin-associated proteins. Genetically determined alterations in keratin-coding sequences underlie highly penetrant and rare disorders whose pathophysiology reflects cell fragility and/or altered tissue homeostasis. Moreover, keratin mutation or misregulation represents risk factors or genetic modifiers for several acute and chronic diseases. This chapter focuses on keratins that are expressed in skin epithelia, and details a number of basic protocols and assays that have proven useful for analyses being carried out in skin. PMID:26795476

  1. Tuberculin skin test and interferon-gamma release assay values are associated with antimicrobial peptides expression in  polymorphonuclear cells during latent tuberculous infection.

    PubMed

    Castañeda-Delgado, Julio E; Cervantes-Villagrana, Alberto; Serrano-Escobedo, Carmen J; Frausto-Lujan, Isabel; Rivas-Santiago, Cesar; Enciso-Moreno, Jose A; Rivas-Santiago, Bruno

    2014-06-01

    It has been reported that patients with progressive tuberculosis (TB) express abundant amounts of the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) cathelicidin (LL-37) and human neutrophil peptide-1 (HNP-1) in circulating cells, whereas latent TB infected donors showed no differences when compared with purified protein derivative (PPD) and QuantiFERON®-TB Gold (QFT)-healthy individuals. The aim of this study was to determine whether LL-37 and HNP-1 production correlates with higher tuberculin skin test (TST) and QFT values in TB household contacts. Twenty-six TB household contact individuals between 26-58 years old TST and QFT positive with at last two years of latent TB infection were recruited. AMPs production by polymorphonuclear cells was determined by flow cytometry and correlation between TST and QFT values was analysed. Our results showed that there is a positive correlation between levels of HNP-1 and LL-37 production with reactivity to TST and/or QFT levels. This preliminary study suggests the potential use of the expression levels of these peptides as biomarkers for progression in latent infected individuals. PMID:24937049

  2. Tuberculin skin test and interferon-gamma release assay values are associated with antimicrobial peptides expression in  polymorphonuclear cells during latent tuberculous infection

    PubMed Central

    Castañeda-Delgado, Julio E; Cervantes-Villagrana, Alberto; Serrano-Escobedo, Carmen J; Frausto-Lujan, Isabel; Rivas-Santiago, Cesar; Enciso-Moreno, Jose A; Rivas-Santiago, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    It has been reported that patients with progressive tuberculosis (TB) express abundant amounts of the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) cathelicidin (LL-37) and human neutrophil peptide-1 (HNP-1) in circulating cells, whereas latent TB infected donors showed no differences when compared with purified protein derivative (PPD) and QuantiFERON®-TB Gold (QFT)-healthy individuals. The aim of this study was to determine whether LL-37 and HNP-1 production correlates with higher tuberculin skin test (TST) and QFT values in TB household contacts. Twenty-six TB household contact individuals between 26-58 years old TST and QFT positive with at last two years of latent TB infection were recruited. AMPs production by polymorphonuclear cells was determined by flow cytometry and correlation between TST and QFT values was analysed. Our results showed that there is a positive correlation between levels of HNP-1 and LL-37 production with reactivity to TST and/or QFT levels. This preliminary study suggests the potential use of the expression levels of these peptides as biomarkers for progression in latent infected individuals. PMID:24937049

  3. Predicting skin sensitisation using a decision tree integrated testing strategy with an in silico model and in chemico/in vitro assays.

    PubMed

    Macmillan, Donna S; Canipa, Steven J; Chilton, Martyn L; Williams, Richard V; Barber, Christopher G

    2016-04-01

    There is a pressing need for non-animal methods to predict skin sensitisation potential and a number of in chemico and in vitro assays have been designed with this in mind. However, some compounds can fall outside the applicability domain of these in chemico/in vitro assays and may not be predicted accurately. Rule-based in silico models such as Derek Nexus are expert-derived from animal and/or human data and the mechanism-based alert domain can take a number of factors into account (e.g. abiotic/biotic activation). Therefore, Derek Nexus may be able to predict for compounds outside the applicability domain of in chemico/in vitro assays. To this end, an integrated testing strategy (ITS) decision tree using Derek Nexus and a maximum of two assays (from DPRA, KeratinoSens, LuSens, h-CLAT and U-SENS) was developed. Generally, the decision tree improved upon other ITS evaluated in this study with positive and negative predictivity calculated as 86% and 81%, respectively. Our results demonstrate that an ITS using an in silico model such as Derek Nexus with a maximum of two in chemico/in vitro assays can predict the sensitising potential of a number of chemicals, including those outside the applicability domain of existing non-animal assays. PMID:26796566

  4. Comparison study of QuantiFERON test with tuberculin skin testing to diagnose latent tuberculosis infection among nurses working in teaching hospitals of Ahvaz, Iran.

    PubMed Central

    Salmanzadeh, Shokrollah; Abbasissifar, Hajar; Alavi, Seyed Mohmmad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prompt diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) are needed to control TB. The aim of the study was to compare the performance of Quanti FERON-TB test (QFT) with conventional TST for the diagnosis of LTBI. Methods: In this analytical - comparison study, we enrolled 87 nurses working in teaching hospitals in Ahvaz. All study subjects were tested by TST. TST results were interpreted as positive if induration was more than 10 mm. If the level of QFT after stimulation was equal or greater than 0.35 IU/ml, test was considered as positive. Data were analyzed with SPSS program. QFT results compared with induration in TST and its relation to all variables were investigated. Results: The rate of LTB diagnosis by TST and QFT was 31% and 35.6%, respectively. There was no significant difference between TST and QFT in LTB diagnosis (P=0.62). Among the 56 subjects who were TST- negative, 14 cases (approximately 25%) were QFT- positive and 42 (75%) were QFT- negative. Among the 31 cases (35.6%) that had TST- positive, 13 (42%) were QFT-positive and 18 (58%) were QFT- negative. The overall percent agreement was 63.2% (k=0.139, P=0.69), discordance %=15.9-20.7, sensitivity= 41.5% and specificity=75.5%. Conclusion: Diagnostic value of QFT is similar to TST, when there is strong clinical and epidemiological evidence of LTB in a nurse with negative TST, adding QFT to diagnostic evaluation is associated with increased rate of LTB diagnosis.

  5. Evaluation of the Immune Response to Interferon Gamma Release Assay and Tuberculin Skin Test Among BCG Vaccinated Children in East of Egypt: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Beshir, Mohamed Refaat; Zidan, Alaa Ebrahim; El-Saadny, Hosam Fathi; Ramadan, Raghdaa Abdelaziz; Karam, Nehad Ahmed; Amin, Ezzat Kamel; Mohamed, Marwa Zakaria; Abdelsamad, Nahla Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine (BCG) vaccination is used routinely in most of countries, especially developing one. The efficacy of the BCG vaccination generally decreases with time. The tuberculin skin test (TST) is a most popular diagnostic test for suspicion of tuberculosis (TB) in children till now, but it has many false positives. The interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) is more specific than TST for detection of childhood TB, as it is more specific to Mycobacterium tuberculosis.Evaluate the interferon gamma response and TST reaction in BCG vaccinated children in east of Egypt.150 children were included in the study aged 1 month to 12 years; the collected data from the children included, full history taking, clinical examination, examination for the presence or absence of BCG scar under direct light. All the children had performed TST, IGRA.TST was done for all studied group reveal 51.3% with size of reaction <5 mm, 39.3% with size of reaction = 5 to 9 mm while 9.3% with size of reaction ≥10 mm. Mean size of reaction was 4.07 mm. Interferon gamma release assay was done for all studied group reveal 5 children (3.3%) with positive test. There was significant difference between the size of TST reaction and age (P < 0.01) with old children were more frequent to show positive reaction. Also, children with age range 1 month to 1 year were frequently have negative IGRA test, while children with age range 4 years to 12 years were frequently have positive test (P < 0.01). There was moderate agreement between IGRA and TST results (Kappa [κ] = 0.475). With high agreement between IGRA and TST results in children with absent BCG scar (κ = 1000).Therefore, Interferon gamma release assays have higher specificity and lower cross-reactions with BCG vaccination and nontuberculous Mycobacteraie than TST. PMID:27124042

  6. Evaluation of the Immune Response to Interferon Gamma Release Assay and Tuberculin Skin Test Among BCG Vaccinated Children in East of Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Beshir, Mohamed Refaat; Zidan, Alaa Ebrahim; El-Saadny, Hosam Fathi; Ramadan, Raghdaa Abdelaziz; Karam, Nehad Ahmed; Amin, Ezzat Kamel; Mohamed, Marwa Zakaria; Abdelsamad, Nahla Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine (BCG) vaccination is used routinely in most of countries, especially developing one. The efficacy of the BCG vaccination generally decreases with time. The tuberculin skin test (TST) is a most popular diagnostic test for suspicion of tuberculosis (TB) in children till now, but it has many false positives. The interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) is more specific than TST for detection of childhood TB, as it is more specific to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Evaluate the interferon gamma response and TST reaction in BCG vaccinated children in east of Egypt. 150 children were included in the study aged 1 month to 12 years; the collected data from the children included, full history taking, clinical examination, examination for the presence or absence of BCG scar under direct light. All the children had performed TST, IGRA. TST was done for all studied group reveal 51.3% with size of reaction <5 mm, 39.3% with size of reaction = 5 to 9 mm while 9.3% with size of reaction ≥10 mm. Mean size of reaction was 4.07 mm. Interferon gamma release assay was done for all studied group reveal 5 children (3.3%) with positive test. There was significant difference between the size of TST reaction and age (P < 0.01) with old children were more frequent to show positive reaction. Also, children with age range 1 month to 1 year were frequently have negative IGRA test, while children with age range 4 years to 12 years were frequently have positive test (P < 0.01). There was moderate agreement between IGRA and TST results (Kappa [κ] = 0.475). With high agreement between IGRA and TST results in children with absent BCG scar (κ = 1000). Therefore, Interferon gamma release assays have higher specificity and lower cross-reactions with BCG vaccination and nontuberculous Mycobacteraie than TST. PMID:27124042

  7. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... suggest over-the-counter (OTC) or prescription drugs. Eczema © 2008 Logical Images, Inc. Eczema —Also known as atopic dermatitis, this is a ... Currently, there is no single test to diagnose eczema, so doctors rely on information about you and ...

  8. Bovine Tuberculosis in Cattle in the Highlands of Cameroon: Seroprevalence Estimates and Rates of Tuberculin Skin Test Reactors at Modified Cut-Offs

    PubMed Central

    Awah-Ndukum, J.; Kudi, A. C.; Bah, G. S.; Bradley, G.; Tebug, S. F.; Dickmu, P. L.; Njakoi, H. N.; Agharih, W. N.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain epidemiological estimates of bovine tuberculosis (TB) prevalence in cattle in the highlands of Cameroon using two population-based tuberculin skin test (TST) surveys in the years 2009 and 2010. However, prior to the TST survey in 2010, blood was collected from already chosen cattle for serological assay. Anti-bovine TB antibodies was detected in 37.17% of tested animals and bovine TB prevalence estimates were 3.59%–7.48%, 8.92%–13.25%, 11.77%–17.26% and 13.14%–18.35% for comparative TST at ≥4 mm, ≥3 mm and ≥2 mm cut-off points and single TST, respectively. The agreement between TST and lateral flow was generally higher in TST positive than in TST negative subjects. The K coefficients were 0.119, 0.234, 0.251 and 0.254 for comparative TST at ≥4 mm, ≥3 mm and ≥2 mm cut-off points and the single TST groups, respectively. Chi square statistics revealed that strong (P < 0.05; χ2 > 48) associations existed between seroprevalence rates and TST reactors. The study suggested that using lateral flow assay and TST at severe interpretations could improve the perception of bovine TB in Cameroon. The importance of defining TST at modified cut-offs and disease status by post-mortem detection and mycobacterial culture of TB lesions in local environments cannot be overemphasised. PMID:22567547

  9. Assessment of immune response in periparturient dairy cows using ex vivo whole blood stimulation assay with lipopolysaccharides and carrageenan skin test.

    PubMed

    Jahan, N; Minuti, A; Trevisi, E

    2015-06-15

    The transition period is known to be the most critical phase in the life of high yielding dairy cow. Changes in the immune functions have been observed during the transition period which may account for the onset of clinical and subclinical (e.g. inflammatory response) problems at calving or at the beginning of lactation however this relationship has not yet been adequately investigated. Thus, to establish the potential of the periparturient dairy cow's immune system to respond to stimuli, two challenges [an ex vivo whole blood stimulation assay (WBA) with lipopolysaccharides and a carrageenan skin test (CST)] were performed in addition to characterizing the metabolic and inflammatory profile. The WBA was performed using 0, 0.01 and 5 μg LPS/mL on whole blood and CST was administered by subcutaneous injection of 0.7 mL solution containing 4.2mg of carrageenan to the shoulder region of the cows. These tests were performed on 10 Holstein-Friesian cows at -45 ± 2, -20 ± 2, -3, 3, 7, 28 ± 2 days from parturition (DFP). Cows were also monitored for health status, body condition score, milk yield. The results demonstrate a higher production of IL-1β and IL-6 from leukocytes after LPS stimulation around calving (from -3 to 3 DFP) compared to -45 DFP (P < 0.05). Moreover, IL-6 (but not IL-1β) was able to reach close to the maximum response at the lower stimulus intensity (0.01 μg LPS/mL), maintaining a higher response over a longer time in early lactation. The release of higher levels of IL-6 in the transition period, with low LPS dose, suggests its crucial role in the regulation of inflammatory response around calving. The response of cows to CST decreased a few days before calving (-3 DFP) compared with response at -45 and 28 DFP (P<0.05), and remained low in the first week of lactation. This result suggests the reduction of the functionality of some vascular factors, which decreases diapedesis. Overall, the WBA and CST tests confirm changes in immunocompetence

  10. Interferon Gamma Release Assay versus Tuberculin Skin Testing among Healthcare Workers of Highly Diverse Origin in a Moderate Tuberculosis Burden Country

    PubMed Central

    Al Hajoj, Sahal; Varghese, Bright; Datijan, Alria; Shoukri, Mohammed; Alzahrani, Ali; Alkhenizan, Abdallah; AlSaif, Abdulaziz; Althawadi, Sahar; Fernandez, Grace; Alrajhi, Abdulrahman

    2016-01-01

    Health care workers (HCW’s) are always at an increased risk of contracting tuberculosis (TB) infection. In Saudi Arabia, Interferon Gamma Release Assay (IGRA) has not been evaluated as a screening tool for latent TB infection (LTBI) among HCW’s considering their high demographic diversity. During February 2012 to January 2015 a cross sectional study has been conducted in a tertiary care center with maximum demographically diverse staff population in the capital city-Riyadh. After a short interview and consenting, all the candidates were subjected to tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON TB gold In-tube test (QFT). A logistic regression analysis was carried out for establishing the associations between putative risk factors and the diagnostic tests. The candidates were classified according to geographical origin and a detailed analysis was conducted on the impact of their origin towards the results of TST and QFT. Of the 1595 candidates enrolled, 90.6% were BCG vaccinated, female (67.9%) and mainly nurses (53.2%). Candidates with high risk of suspected or confirmed TB patient exposure were 56.1% and 76.5% of them had <10 year’s work experience. TST positivity was observed in 503 (31.5%) candidates, while QFT was positive among 399 (25%). Majority of the candidates were non-Saudi (83%) and predominantly (52.4%) from Western Pacific region. Concordant results were obtained in 14.2% of positive cases and 57.7% negative cases. The disagreements between the two tests were relatively high (kappa co-efficient-0.312±0.026, p value- <0.00001) as TST positive/QFT negative discordance was 54.8% while TST negative/QFT positive discordance was 15.7%. Age of the candidates, BCG vaccination, and South East Asian origin were associated with TST positivity while Occupational TB exposure and geographical origin of the candidates were associated with QFT positivity. A regular follow up on recently TST converted candidates showed no progression to active TB. The putative

  11. Interferon Gamma Release Assay versus Tuberculin Skin Testing among Healthcare Workers of Highly Diverse Origin in a Moderate Tuberculosis Burden Country.

    PubMed

    Al Hajoj, Sahal; Varghese, Bright; Datijan, Alria; Shoukri, Mohammed; Alzahrani, Ali; Alkhenizan, Abdallah; AlSaif, Abdulaziz; Althawadi, Sahar; Fernandez, Grace; Alrajhi, Abdulrahman

    2016-01-01

    Health care workers (HCW's) are always at an increased risk of contracting tuberculosis (TB) infection. In Saudi Arabia, Interferon Gamma Release Assay (IGRA) has not been evaluated as a screening tool for latent TB infection (LTBI) among HCW's considering their high demographic diversity. During February 2012 to January 2015 a cross sectional study has been conducted in a tertiary care center with maximum demographically diverse staff population in the capital city-Riyadh. After a short interview and consenting, all the candidates were subjected to tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON TB gold In-tube test (QFT). A logistic regression analysis was carried out for establishing the associations between putative risk factors and the diagnostic tests. The candidates were classified according to geographical origin and a detailed analysis was conducted on the impact of their origin towards the results of TST and QFT. Of the 1595 candidates enrolled, 90.6% were BCG vaccinated, female (67.9%) and mainly nurses (53.2%). Candidates with high risk of suspected or confirmed TB patient exposure were 56.1% and 76.5% of them had <10 year's work experience. TST positivity was observed in 503 (31.5%) candidates, while QFT was positive among 399 (25%). Majority of the candidates were non-Saudi (83%) and predominantly (52.4%) from Western Pacific region. Concordant results were obtained in 14.2% of positive cases and 57.7% negative cases. The disagreements between the two tests were relatively high (kappa co-efficient-0.312±0.026, p value- <0.00001) as TST positive/QFT negative discordance was 54.8% while TST negative/QFT positive discordance was 15.7%. Age of the candidates, BCG vaccination, and South East Asian origin were associated with TST positivity while Occupational TB exposure and geographical origin of the candidates were associated with QFT positivity. A regular follow up on recently TST converted candidates showed no progression to active TB. The putative factors

  12. Skin decontamination of glyphosate from human skin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhai, H; Chan, H P; Hui, X; Maibach, H I

    2008-06-01

    This study compared three model decontaminant solutions (tap water, isotonic saline, and hypertonic saline) for their ability to remove a model herbicide (glyphosate) from an in vitro human skin model. Human cadaver skin was dosed (approximately 375microg) of [14C]-glyphosate on 3cm2 per skin. After each exposure time (1, 3, and 30min post-dosing, respectively), the surface skin was washed three times (4ml per time) with each solution. After washing, the skin was stripped twice with tape discs. Lastly, the wash solutions, strippings, receptor fluid, and remainder of skin were liquid scintillation analyzer counted to determine the amount of glyphosate. There were no statistical differences among these groups at any time points. The total mass balance recovery at three time exposure points was between 94.8% and 102.4%. The wash off rates (glyphosate in wash solutions) at three different exposure times is 79-101.2%. Thus the three tested decontaminants possess similar effectiveness in removing glyphosate from skin. This in vitro model is not only economic and rapid, but also provides quantitative data that may aid screening for optimal decontaminants. PMID:18407393

  13. Do the tuberculin skin test and the QuantiFERON-TB Gold in-tube test agree in detecting latent tuberculosis among high-risk contacts? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ayubi, Erfan; Doosti-Irani, Amin; Mostafavi, Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The QuantiFERON-TB Gold in-tube test (QFT-GIT) and the tuberculin skin test (TST) are used to diagnose latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). However, conclusive evidence regarding the agreement of these two tests among high risk contacts is lacking. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to estimate the agreement between the TST and the QFT-GIT using kappa statistics. METHODS: According to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses guidelines, scientific databases including PubMed, Scopus, and Ovid were searched using a targeted search strategy to identify relevant studies published as of June 2015. Two researchers reviewed the eligibility of studies and extracted data from them. The pooled kappa estimate was determined using a random effect model. Subgroup analysis, Egger’s test and sensitivity analysis were also performed. RESULTS: A total of 6,744 articles were retrieved in the initial search, of which 24 studies had data suitable for meta-analysis. The pooled kappa coefficient and prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted kappa were 0.40 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34 to 0.45) and 0.45 (95% CI, 0.38 to 0.49), respectively. The results of the subgroup analysis found that age group, quality of the study, location, and the TST cutoff point affected heterogeneity for the kappa estimate. No publication bias was found (Begg’s test, p=0.53; Egger’s test, p=0.32). CONCLUSIONS: The agreement between the QFT-GIT and the TST in diagnosing LTBI among high-risk contacts was found to range from fair to moderate. PMID:26493775

  14. Skin (Pressure) Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic Skin dryness Next Topic Sleep problems Skin (pressure) sores A skin or pressure sore develops when the blood supply to an ... is bedridden or always in a wheelchair puts pressure on the same places much of the time. ...

  15. Layers of the Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... produce the skin coloring or pigment known as melanin, which gives skin its tan or brown color ... Sun exposure causes melanocytes to increase production of melanin in order to protect the skin from damaging ...

  16. Learning about Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... have red or blond hair and blue or light-colored eyes - although anyone can get skin cancer. Skin cancer is related to lifetime exposure to UV radiation, therefore most skin cancers appear after age ...

  17. Scalded skin syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Ritter disease; Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSS) ... Scalded skin syndrome (SSS) is caused by infection with certain strains of Staphylococcus bacteria. The bacteria produce a toxin that causes the skin ...

  18. Basal cell skin cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur on skin that is regularly exposed to sunlight or other ultraviolet radiation. This type of skin ... skin cancer is to reduce your exposure to sunlight . Always use sunscreen: Apply sunscreen with sun protection ...

  19. Dry Skin (Xerosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin, which may bleed if severe. Chapped or cracked lips. When dry skin cracks, germs can get ... cause the skin to become dry, raw, and cracked. Swimming : Some pools have high levels of chlorine, ...

  20. Skin Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer ... carcinoma include the following: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  1. Stages of Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer ... carcinoma include the following: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  2. Comparison of Interferon-γ Release Assay to Two Cut-Off Points of Tuberculin Skin Test to Detect Latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in Primary Health Care Workers

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Fernanda Mattos; do Prado, Thiago Nascimento; Pinheiro, Jair dos Santos; Peres, Renata Lyrio; Lacerda, Thamy Carvalho; Loureiro, Rafaela Borge; Carvalho, Jose Américo; Fregona, Geisa; Dias, Elias Santos; Cosme, Lorrayne Beliqui; Rodrigues, Rodrigo Ribeiro; Riley, Lee Wood; Maciel, Ethel Leonor Noia

    2014-01-01

    Background An interferon-γ release assay, QuantiFERON-TB (QFT) test, has been introduced an alternative test for the diagnosis of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Here, we compared the performance of QFT with tuberculin skin test (TST) measured at two different cut-off points among primary health care work (HCW) in Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among HCWs in four Brazilian cities with a known history of high incidence of TB. Results of the QFT were compared to TST results based on both ≥5 mm and ≥10 mm as cut-off points. Results We enrolled 632 HCWs. When the cut-off value of ≥10 mm was used, agreement between QFT and TST was 69% (k = 0.31), and when the cut-off of ≥5 mm was chosen, the agreement was 57% (k = 0.22). We investigated possible factors of discordance of TST vs QFT. Compared to the TST−/QFT− group, risk factors for discordance in the TST+/QFT− group with TST cut-off of ≥5 mm included age between 41–45 years [OR = 2.70; CI 95%: 1.32–5.51] and 46–64 years [OR = 2.04; CI 95%: 1.05–3.93], BCG scar [OR = 2.72; CI 95%: 1.40–5.25], and having worked only in primary health care [OR = 2.30; CI 95%: 1.09–4.86]. On the other hand, for the cut-off of ≥10 mm, BCG scar [OR = 2.26; CI 95%: 1.03–4.91], being a household contact of a TB patient [OR = 1.72; CI 95%: 1.01–2.92] and having had a previous TST [OR = 1.66; CI 95%: 1.05–2.62], were significantly associated with the TST+/QFT− group. No statistically significant associations were found among the TST−/QFT+ discordant group with either TST cut-off value. Conclusions Although we identified BCG vaccination to contribute to the discordance at both TST cut-off measures, the current Brazilian recommendation for the initiation of LTBI treatment, based on information gathered from medical history, TST, chest radiograph and physical examination, should not be changed. PMID:25137040

  3. Predictive value ofMP4 (Milk Prick Four), a panel of skin prick test for the diagnosis of pediatric immediate cow's milk allergy.

    PubMed

    Onesimo, R; Monaco, S; Greco, M; Caffarelli, C; Calvani, M; Tripodi, S; Sopo, S M

    2013-12-01

    Background. Oral food challenge (OFC) is the gold standard for the diagnosis of food allergy (FA), but it is risky, expensive and time-consuming. Many studies aimed to avoid OFC by finding a cut off (CO) of skin prick test (SPT) to predict a positive outcome of OFC. Unfortunately the results of these studies are poorly reproducible for various reasons, including the absence of known protein concentration in the extracts. It has also been documented that some doctors mistakenly attributed some symptom/disease, for example recurrent respiratory infections of the upper airways, to the FA, expecially cow milk allergy (CMA). These doctors often performed SPT in their studies to confirm, if the result was positive, their diagnostic suspicion and prescribe an elimination diet without seeking the advice of allergy specialist (AS) and without making an OFC. Objective. To test the diagnostic performances of SPT with fresh cow's milk and commercial extracts of casein, beta-lactoglobulin, alpha-lactoalbumin at known protein concentrations (Milk Prick Four [MP4] test). To look for 2 clusters of SPT CO with positive predictive value (PPV) > 95%, one for AS, one for general practitioner (GP). Methods. A prospective study was carried out on 191 children referred by their GP to the allergy center for suspected immediate-type CMA (iCMA). Based on the history, the allergist has divided the children into two groups: a) group A, children with suspected (subgroup A1, 55 children) or known (subgroup A2, 27 children) diagnosis of iCMA; b) group B, 109 children with a clinical history incompatible with iCMA suspicion according to the AS (in this case the GP was wrong to send those patients to the allergy center). SPT with MP4 test was performed on all patients, and OFC was performed on all patients of group A. CO with PPV > 95% was calculated separately for the entire population of 191 children (CO for GP) and for the only group A (CO for AS). Results. Fresh cow's milk SPT was the most

  4. Tuberculin Skin Testing Compared with T-Cell Responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Specific and Nonspecific Antigens for Detection of Latent Infection in Persons with Recent Tuberculosis Contact

    PubMed Central

    Arend, Sandra M.; Engelhard, Anrik C. F.; Groot, Gertjan; de Boer, Kirsten; Andersen, Peter; Ottenhoff, Tom H. M.; van Dissel, Jaap T.

    2001-01-01

    The tuberculin skin test (TST) is used for the identification of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) but lacks specificity in Mycobacterium bovis BCG-vaccinated individuals, who constitute an increasing proportion of TB patients and their contacts from regions where TB is endemic. In previous studies, T-cell responses to ESAT-6 and CFP-10, M. tuberculosis-specific antigens that are absent from BCG, were sensitive and specific for detection of active TB. We studied 44 close contacts of a patient with smear-positive pulmonary TB and compared the standard screening procedure for LTBI by TST or chest radiographs with T-cell responses to M. tuberculosis-specific and nonspecific antigens. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cocultured with ESAT-6, CFP-10, TB10.4 (each as recombinant antigen and as a mixture of overlapping synthetic peptides), M. tuberculosis sonicate, purified protein derivative (PPD), and short-term culture filtrate, using gamma interferon production as the response measure. LTBI screening was by TST in 36 participants and by chest radiographs in 8 persons. Nineteen contacts were categorized as TST negative, 12 were categorized as TST positive, and 5 had indeterminate TST results. Recombinant antigens and peptide mixtures gave similar results. Responses to TB10.4 were neither sensitive nor specific for LTBI. T-cell responses to ESAT-6 and CFP-10 were less sensitive for detection of LTBI than those to PPD (67 versus 100%) but considerably more specific (100 versus 72%). The specificity of the TST or in vitro responses to PPD will be even less when the proportion of BCG-vaccinated persons among TB contacts evaluated for LTBI increases. PMID:11687445

  5. Correlation between tuberculin skin test and IGRAs with risk factors for the spread of infection in close contacts with sputum smear positive in pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to assess the correlation between the tuberculin skin test (TST) and in vitro interferon-gamma released assays (IGRAs) with risk factors for the spread of infection in smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) contacts. Methods We recruited prospective contacts with smear positive pulmonary TB cases. We looked at human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and other conditions of immunosuppression, presence of BCG vaccination and the degree of exposure to the index case. Patients underwent the TST, chest radiography, sputum analysis when necessary, and IGRA assays (QFN-G-IT and T-SPOT.TB). Presence of cough, diagnostic delay (days between first symptoms and TB diagnostic), contact conditions: room size (square meters) and index of overcrowding (square meters per person) were investigated in the index case. Results 156 contacts (119 adults, 37 children) of 66 TB patients were enrolled, 2.4 (1-14) contacts per TB case. The positivity of the TST did not correlate with the risk factors studied: presence of cough (p = 0.929); delayed diagnosis (p = 0.244); room size (p = 0.462); overcrowding (p = 0.800). Both QFN-G-IT and T-SPOT.TB, showed significant association with cough (p = 0.001, and p = 0.007) and room size (p = 0.020, and p = 0.023), respectively. Conclusions Both IGRA associated better than TST with certain host-related risk factors involved in the transmission of disease, such as the presence of cough. PMID:24885850

  6. The Prevalence Rate of Tuberculin Skin Test Positive by Contacts Group to Predict the Development of Active Tuberculosis After School Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Jin; Chun, Byung Chul; Kwon, AmyM; Lee, Gyeong-Ho; Ryu, Sungweon; Oh, Soo Yeon; Lee, Jin Beom; Yoo, Se Hwa; Kim, Eui Sook; Kim, Je Hyeong; Shin, Chol

    2015-01-01

    Background The tuberculin skin test (TST) is the standard tool to diagnose latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in mass screening. The aim of this study is to find an optimal cut-off point of the TST+ rate within tuberculosis (TB) contacts to predict the active TB development among adolescents in school TB outbreaks. Methods The Korean National Health Insurance Review and Assessment database was used to identify active TB development in relation to the initial TST (cut-off, 10 mm). The 7,475 contacts in 89 schools were divided into two groups: Incident TB group (43 schools) and no incident TB group (46 schools). LTBI treatment was initiated in 607 of the 1,761 TST+ contacts. The association with active TB progression was examined at different cut-off points of the TST+ rate. Results The mean duration of follow-up was 3.9±0.9 years. Thirty-three contacts developed active TB during the 4,504 person-years among the TST+ contacts without LTBI treatment (n=1,154). The average TST+ rate for the incident TB group (n=43) and no incident TB group (n=46) were 31.0% and 15.5%, respectively. The TST+ rate per group was related with TB progression (odds ratio [OR], 1.025; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.001-1.050; p=0.037). Based on the TST+ rate per group, active TB was best predicted at TST+ ≥ 16% (OR, 3.11; 95% CI, 1.29-7.51; area under curve, 0.64). Conclusion Sixteen percent of the TST+ rate per group within the same grade students can be suggested as an optimal cut-off to predict active TB development in middle and high schools TB outbreaks. PMID:26508922

  7. Depigmented Skin and Phantom Color Measurements for Realistic Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, Paul; Leachman, Sancy; Boucher, Kenneth; Ozçelik, Tunçer Burak

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that regardless of human skin phototype, areas of depigmented skin, as seen in vitiligo, are optically indistinguishable among skin phototypes. The average of the depigmented skin measurements can be used to develop the base color of realistic prostheses. Methods and Materials Data from 20 of 32 recruited vitiligo study participants. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy measurements were made from depigmented skin and adjacent pigmented skin, then compared to 66 pigmented polydimethylsiloxane phantoms to determine pigment concentrations in turbid media for making realistic facial prostheses. Results The Area Under spectral intensity Curve (AUC) was calculated for average spectroscopy measurements of pigmented sites in relation to skin phototype (p=0.0505) and depigmented skin in relation to skin phototype (p=0.59). No significant relationship exists between skin phototypes and depigmented skin spectroscopy measurements. The average of the depigmented skin measurements (AUC 19,129) was the closest match to phantom 6.4 (AUC 19,162) Conclusions Areas of depigmented skin are visibly indistinguishable per skin phototype, yet spectrometry shows that depigmented skin measurements varied and were unrelated to skin phototype. Possible sources of optical variation of depigmented skin include age, body site, blood flow, quantity/quality of collagen, and other chromophores. The average of all depigmented skin measurements can be used to derive the pigment composition and concentration for realistic facial prostheses. PMID:23750920

  8. Skin conditions: common skin rashes in infants.

    PubMed

    Zuniga, Ramiro; Nguyen, Tam

    2013-04-01

    Infants exhibit many skin rashes. Erythema toxicum neonatorum presents as erythematous macules, papules, and pustules on the face, trunk, and extremities; it typically resolves spontaneously within 1 week. Neonatal acne presents as comedones or erythematous papules on the face, scalp, chest, and back. Infantile acne is similar but starts after the neonatal period. Both conditions typically resolve spontaneously; failure to resolve within 1 year warrants evaluation for androgen excess. Neonatal cephalic pustulosis is an acne variant caused by hypersensitivity to Malassezia furfur. It is typically self-limited, but severe cases are managed with topical ketoconazole. Miliaria and milia are caused by sweat retention and present as tiny vesicles or papules; they resolve spontaneously. Contact diaper dermatitis is managed by keeping the diaper area clean and with open air exposure. Diaper dermatitis due to Candida albicans is managed with topical antifungals. Seborrheic dermatitis causes scaling on the scalp. Management involves shampooing and removing scales with a soft brush after applying mineral oil or petrolatum; severe cases are managed with tar or ketoconazole shampoo. Atopic dermatitis is related to food allergy in approximately one-third of children. Food allergy can be confirmed with oral food challenges or skin prick tests. Management includes elimination of irritants and triggers and use of low-potency topical steroids. PMID:23600337

  9. Estimating physiological skin parameters from hyperspectral signatures.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Saurabh; Banerjee, Amit; Burlina, Philippe

    2013-05-01

    We describe an approach for estimating human skin parameters, such as melanosome concentration, collagen concentration, oxygen saturation, and blood volume, using hyperspectral radiometric measurements (signatures) obtained from in vivo skin. We use a computational model based on Kubelka-Munk theory and the Fresnel equations. This model forward maps the skin parameters to a corresponding multiband reflectance spectra. Machine-learning-based regression is used to generate the inverse map, and hence estimate skin parameters from hyperspectral signatures. We test our methods using synthetic and in vivo skin signatures obtained in the visible through the short wave infrared domains from 24 patients of both genders and Caucasian, Asian, and African American ethnicities. Performance validation shows promising results: good agreement with the ground truth and well-established physiological precepts. These methods have potential use in the characterization of skin abnormalities and in minimally-invasive prescreening of malignant skin cancers. PMID:23722495

  10. Multimodal device for assessment of skin malformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekina, A.; Garancis, V.; Rubins, U.; Spigulis, J.; Valeine, L.; Berzina, A.

    2013-11-01

    A variety of multi-spectral imaging devices is commercially available and used for skin diagnostics and monitoring; however, an alternative cost-efficient device can provide an advanced spectral analysis of skin. A compact multimodal device for diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions was developed and tested. A polarized LED light source illuminates the skin surface at four different wavelengths - blue (450 nm), green (545 nm), red (660 nm) and infrared (940 nm). Spectra of reflected light from the 25 mm wide skin spot are imaged by a CMOS sensor. Four spectral images are obtained for mapping of the main skin chromophores. The specific chromophore distribution differences between different skin malformations were analyzed and information of subcutaneous structures was consecutively extracted.

  11. Estimating physiological skin parameters from hyperspectral signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyas, Saurabh; Banerjee, Amit; Burlina, Philippe

    2013-05-01

    We describe an approach for estimating human skin parameters, such as melanosome concentration, collagen concentration, oxygen saturation, and blood volume, using hyperspectral radiometric measurements (signatures) obtained from in vivo skin. We use a computational model based on Kubelka-Munk theory and the Fresnel equations. This model forward maps the skin parameters to a corresponding multiband reflectance spectra. Machine-learning-based regression is used to generate the inverse map, and hence estimate skin parameters from hyperspectral signatures. We test our methods using synthetic and in vivo skin signatures obtained in the visible through the short wave infrared domains from 24 patients of both genders and Caucasian, Asian, and African American ethnicities. Performance validation shows promising results: good agreement with the ground truth and well-established physiological precepts. These methods have potential use in the characterization of skin abnormalities and in minimally-invasive prescreening of malignant skin cancers.

  12. HSP27 as a biomarker for predicting skin irritation in human skin and reconstructed organotypic skin model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongxia; Li, Shuhua; Meng, Tian; Zhang, Lei; Dai, Taoli; Xiang, Qi; Su, Zhijian; Zhang, Qihao; Huang, Yadong

    2014-04-21

    In vitro alternative tests aiming at replacing the traditional animal test for predicting the irritant potential of chemicals have been developed, but the assessing parameters or endpoints are still not sufficient. To discover novel endpoints for skin irritation responses, 2DE-based proteomics was used to analyze the protein expression in human skin exposed to sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) following the test protocol of the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) in the present study. HSP27 was up-regulated most significantly among the eight identified proteins, consistent with our previous reports. Acid and basic chemicals were applied on human skin for further validation and results showed that the up-regulated expression of HSP27 was induced in 24h after the exposure. Skin-equivalent constructed with fibroblasts, basement membrane and keratinocytes was used to investigate the potential of HSP27 as a biomarker or additional endpoint for the hazard assessment of skin irritation. Our skin-equivalent (Reconstructed Organotypic Skin Model, ROSM) had excellent epidermal differentiation and was suitable for the skin irritation test. HSP27 also displayed an up-regulated expression in the ROSM in 24h after the irritants exposure for 15min. All these results suggest that HSP27 may represent a potential marker or additional endpoint for the hazard assessment of skin irritation caused by chemical products. PMID:24503015

  13. Skin chromphore mapping by means of a modified video-microscope for skin malformation diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekina, Amina; Rubins, Uldis; Lihacova, Ilze; Zaharans, Janis; Spigulis, Janis

    2013-09-01

    Many spectral imaging devices are commercially available and used to detect certain skin pathology; however an alternative cost-efficient device can provide an advanced spectral analisys of skin. Multispectral device for diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions was developed and tested. Possibilities to map skin chromophores using a modified low-cost digital video-microscope is discussed. It was adapted for an advanced skin microscopy and used for detailed spectral analysis of skin. The device comprises CMOS digital imaging sensor, four-colour LED illumination system and image acquisition optics. The main goal is to obtain a set of spectral images of the skin area of interest for further conversion into maps of the main skin chromophores.

  14. Alternative Toxicity Testing: Analyses on Skin Sensitization, ToxCast Phases I and II, and Carcinogenicity Provide Indications on How to Model Mechanisms Linked to Adverse Outcome Pathways.

    PubMed

    Benigni, Romualdo; Battistelli, Chiara Laura; Bossa, Cecilia; Giuliani, Alessandro; Tcheremenskaia, Olga

    2015-01-01

    This article studies alternative toxicological approaches, with new (skin sensitization, ToxCast) and previous (carcinogenicity) analyses. Quantitative modeling of rate-limiting steps in skin sensitization and carcinogenicity predicts the majority of toxicants. Similarly, successful (Quantitative) Structure-Activity Relationships models exploit the quantification of only one, or few rate-limiting steps. High-throughput assays within ToxCast point to promising associations with endocrine disruption, whereas markers for pathways intermediate events have limited correlation with most endpoints. Since the pathways may be very different (often not simple linear chains of events), quantitative analysis is necessary to identify the type of mechanism and build the appropriate model. PMID:26398111

  15. Adhesion, friction and wear characterization of skin and skin cream using atomic force microscope.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wei; Bhushan, Bharat

    2010-03-01

    Skin cream is commonly used to improve skin health and create a smooth, soft, and moist perception by altering the surface roughness, friction, and adhesion of skin surface. In this study, a systematic characterization of the friction and adhesion properties of skin and skin cream was carried out, which is essential to develop better skin care products and advance biological, dermatology, and cosmetic science. Since cream rheology is expected to be a function of its thickness as well as the velocity and normal load during its application, friction and adhesion experiments were performed at a range of cream film thickness, velocity, and normal load in order to study their effect on virgin skin and cream treated skin. Since environmental dependence of skin and skin cream is of importance, the effect of relative humidity and temperature on the coefficient of friction and adhesive force was also studied. Durability of the virgin skin and cream treated skin was studied by repeated cycling tests. These experiments were performed by using an atomic force microscope (AFM) and a macroscale friction test apparatus in order to study the scale effects. Friction and wear mechanisms under various operating conditions are discussed. PMID:19879737

  16. Interaction of dermatologically relevant nanoparticles with skin cells and skin

    PubMed Central

    Rancan, Fiorenza; Ahlberg, Sebastian; Nazemi, Berouz; Choe, Chun Sik; Darvin, Maxim E; Hadam, Sabrina; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Loza, Kateryna; Diendorf, Jörg; Epple, Matthias; Graf, Christina; Rühl, Eckart; Meinke, Martina C; Lademann, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Summary The investigation of nanoparticle interactions with tissues is complex. High levels of standardization, ideally testing of different material types in the same biological model, and combinations of sensitive imaging and detection methods are required. Here, we present our studies on nanoparticle interactions with skin, skin cells, and biological media. Silica, titanium dioxide and silver particles were chosen as representative examples for different types of skin exposure to nanomaterials, e.g., unintended environmental exposure (silica) versus intended exposure through application of sunscreen (titanium dioxide) or antiseptics (silver). Because each particle type exhibits specific physicochemical properties, we were able to apply different combinations of methods to examine skin penetration and cellular uptake, including optical microscopy, electron microscopy, X-ray microscopy on cells and tissue sections, flow cytometry of isolated skin cells as well as Raman microscopy on whole tissue blocks. In order to assess the biological relevance of such findings, cell viability and free radical production were monitored on cells and in whole tissue samples. The combination of technologies and the joint discussion of results enabled us to look at nanoparticle–skin interactions and the biological relevance of our findings from different angles. PMID:25551064

  17. Skin lesion biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... This may include deep layers of skin and fat. The area is closed with stitches to place the skin back together. If a large area is biopsied, the surgeon may use a skin graft or flap to replace the skin that was ...

  18. Stiff skin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Geng, S; Lei, X; Toyohara, J P; Zhan, P; Wang, J; Tan, S

    2006-07-01

    Stiff skin syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by pronounced skin induration, mild hypertrichosis and limited joint mobility, predominantly on the buttocks and thighs. Many heterogeneous cases have been reported under the name of stiff skin syndrome. We present a case of stiff skin syndrome from China, the diagnosis based on the patient's typical clinical and histopathological features. PMID:16836505

  19. Heat transfer tests of an 0.006-scale thin-skin space shuttle model (41-OTS) in the Ames 3.5-foot HWT at M equals 5.3 (IH15)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walstad, D. G.; Lockman, W. K.

    1974-01-01

    Data obtained from heat transfer tests of an 0.006-scale space shuttle vehicle in a 3.5-foot hypersonic wind tunnel are presented. The purpose of these tests was to parametrically investigate the ascent heating of the integrated vehicle. Configurations tested were complete for integrated vehicle, orbiter alone, external tank alone, and SRB alone. All configurations were tested with and without transition grit. Testing was conducted at a Mach number of 5.3, and at Reynolds numbers of 2 and 5 million per foot. The angle of attack range varied from 0 to minus 5 degress, execpt for SRB alone, which was tested from minus 5 to 90 degrees. Heat transfer data were obtained from 223 iron-constantan thermocouples attached to thin-skin stainless steel inserts.

  20. The skin sensitization potential of four alkylalkanolamines.

    PubMed

    Leung, H W; Blaszcak, D L

    1998-04-01

    The skin sensitization potential of 4 alkylalkanolamines (N-methylethanolamine, N,N-dimethylethanolamine, N-methyldiethanolamine and N,N-diethylethanolamine), was evaluated in a guinea pig maximation procedure by the method of Magnusson and Kligman. While all 4 alkylalkanolamines tested were irritating to the guinea pig skin, only N-methylethanolamine showed potential to induce allergic contact dermatitis. None of the remaining 3 alkylalkanolamines exhibited clear skin responses suggestive of sensitization. PMID:9554055

  1. Evaluation of the Prognostic Value of IFN-γ Release Assay and Tuberculin Skin Test in Household Contacts of Infectious Tuberculosis Cases in Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Lienhardt, Christian; Fielding, Katherine; Hane, Abdoul A.; Niang, Aliou; Ndao, Cheikh T.; Karam, Farba; Fletcher, Helen; Mbow, Fatou; Gomis, Jules-François; Diadhiou, Roger; Toupane, Maxime; Dieye, Tandakha; Mboup, Souleymane

    2010-01-01

    Background Chemoprophylaxis of contacts of infectious tuberculosis (TB) cases is recommended for TB control, particularly in endemic countries, but is hampered by the difficulty to diagnose latent TB infection (LTBI), classically assessed through response to the Tuberculin Skin Test (TST). Interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA) are proposed new tools to diagnose LTBI, but there are limited data on their ability to predict the development of active TB disease. To address this, we investigated the response to TST and IGRA in household contacts of infectious TB cases in a TB high-burden country and the potential correlation with development of TB. Methodology/Principal Findings Prospective household contacts study conducted in two health centres in Dakar, Senegal. A total of 2679 household contacts of 206 newly detected smear and/or culture positive index TB cases aged 18 years or greater were identified A TST was performed in each contact and an ESAT6/CFP10 ELISPOT assay performed in a random sample of those. Contacts were followed-up for 24 months. TB was diagnosed in 52 contacts, an incidence rate of 9.27/1000 person-years. In univariable analysis, the presence of positive TST (≥10 mm) and ELISPOT (>32 SFC/million PBMC) responses at baseline were associated with active TB during follow-up: Rate Ratio [RR] = 2.32 (95%CI:1.12–4.84) and RR = 2.09 (95%CI:0.83–5.31), respectively. After adjustment for age, sex and proximity to index case, adjusted RRs were 1.51 (95%CI:0.71–3.19) and 1.98 (95%CI:0.77–5.09), respectively. Restricting analysis to the 40 microbiologically confirmed cases, the adjusted RR for positive ELISPOT was 3.61 (95%CI:1.03–12.65). The median ELISPOT response in contacts who developed TB was 5-fold greater than in those who did not develop TB (p = 0.02). Conclusions/Significance TST and IGRAs are markers of a contact of the immune system with tubercle bacilli. In a TB endemic area, a high ELISPOT response may reflect increased

  2. Latent tuberculosis infection, tuberculin skin test and vitamin D status in contacts of tuberculosis patients: a cross-sectional and case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Deficient serum vitamin D levels have been associated with incidence of tuberculosis (TB), and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). However, to our knowledge, no studies on vitamin D status and tuberculin skin test (TST) conversion have been published to date. The aim of this study was to estimate the associations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25[OH]D) status with LTBI prevalence and TST conversion in contacts of active TB in Castellon (Spain). Methods The study was designed in two phases: cross-sectional and case-control. From November 2009 to October 2010, contacts of 42 TB patients (36 pulmonary, and 6 extra-pulmonary) were studied in order to screen for TB. LTBI and TST conversion cases were defined following TST, clinical, analytic and radiographic examinations. Serum 25(OH)D levels were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) on a COBAS® 410 ROCHE® analyzer. Logistic regression models were used in the statistical analysis. Results The study comprised 202 people with a participation rate of 60.1%. Only 20.3% of the participants had a sufficient serum 25(OH)D (≥ 30 ng/ml) level. In the cross-sectional phase, 50 participants had LTBI and no association between LTBI status and serum 25(OH)D was found. After 2 months, 11 out of 93 negative LTBI participants, without primary prophylaxis, presented TST conversion with initial serum 25(OH)D levels: a:19.4% (7/36): < 20 ng/ml, b:12.5% (4/32):20-29 ng/ml, and c:0%(0/25) ≥ 30 ng/ml. A sufficient serum 25(OH)D level was a protector against TST conversion a: Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.00; b: OR = 0.49 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07-2.66); and c: OR = 0.10 (95% CI 0.00-0.76), trends p = 0.019, adjusted for high exposure and sputum acid-fast bacilli positive index cases. The mean of serum level 25(OH)D in TST conversion cases was lower than controls,17.5 ± 5.6 ng/ml versus 25.9 ± 13.7 ng/ml (p = 0.041). Conclusions The results suggest that sufficient serum 25(OH)D levels protect against

  3. Skin cancer in skin of color.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Porcia T

    2009-01-01

    In general, skin cancer is uncommon in people of color when compared to Caucasians. When it does occur, it is often associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Differences in survival rates may be attributed to skin cancers being diagnosed at a more advanced stage, and socioeconomic factors such as lack of adequate insurance coverage and lack of transportation can function as barriers to timely diagnosis and early treatment. In addition to advanced stage at presentation, malignant skin lesions in skin of color often present in an atypical fashion. Because skin cancer prevention and screening practices historically have been lower among Hispanics, Blacks, and Asians, and given the changing demographics in the United States, interventions that are tailored to each of these groups will be needed. Public educational campaigns should be expanded to educate people of all skin types with emphasis on skin cancers occurring in areas not exposed to the sun (Byrd-Miles et al., 2007), since sunlight is not as important an etiologic factor in the pathogenesis of skin cancer in people of color. Dermatologists and primary care physicians should instruct their darker-skinned patients on how to perform routine skin self-examinations. Physicians should also encourage patients to ask their specialists such as their gynecologist, dentist, and ophthalmologist to look for abnormal pigmentation during routine exams. To reduce the burden of skin cancer, several prevention methods for all people have been strongly encouraged, including monthly self-examinations, daily use of SPF 30 or greater sunscreen, sunglasses with UV-absorbing lenses, and avoiding tanning booths (American Cancer Society, 2008) (see Table 7). In addition, recommendations for clinicians to promote the prevention of skin cancer in skin of color have also been made, including closely monitoring changing pigmented lesions on the palms and soles and hyperkeratotic or poorly healing ulcers in immunosuppressed patients

  4. Effect of interstitial low level laser stimulation in skin density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Seulki; Ha, Myungjin; Lee, Sangyeob; Yu, Sungkon; Park, Jihoon; Radfar, Edalat; Hwang, Dong Hyun; Lee, Han A.; Kim, Hansung; Jung, Byungjo

    2016-03-01

    As the interest in skin was increased, number of studies on skin care also have been increased. The reduction of skin density is one of the symptoms of skin aging. It reduces elasticity of skin and becomes the reason of wrinkle formation. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been suggested as one of the effective therapeutic methods for skin aging as in hasten to change skin density. This study presents the effect of a minimally invasive laser needle system (MILNS) (wavelength: 660nm, power: 20mW) in skin density. Rabbits were divided into three groups. Group 1 didn't receive any laser stimulation as a control group. Group 2 and 3 as test groups were exposed to MILNS with energy of 8J and 6J on rabbits' dorsal side once a week, respectively. Skin density of rabbits was measured every 12 hours by using an ultrasound skin scanner.

  5. Setup for investigating gold nanoparticle penetration through reconstructed skin and comparison to published human skin data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labouta, Hagar I.; Thude, Sibylle; Schneider, Marc

    2013-06-01

    Owing to the limited source of human skin (HS) and the ethical restrictions of using animals in experiments, in vitro skin equivalents are a possible alternative for conducting particle penetration experiments. The conditions for conducting penetration experiments with model particles, 15-nm gold nanoparticles (AuNP), through nonsealed skin equivalents are described for the first time. These conditions include experimental setup, sterility conditions, effective applied dose determination, skin sectioning, and skin integrity check. Penetration at different exposure times (two and 24 h) and after tissue fixation (fixed versus unfixed skin) are examined to establish a benchmark in comparison to HS in an attempt to get similar results to HS experiments presented earlier. Multiphoton microscopy is used to detect gold luminescence in skin sections. λex=800 nm is used for excitation of AuNP and skin samples, allowing us to determine a relative index for particle penetration. Despite the observed overpredictability of penetration into skin equivalents, they could serve as a first fast screen for testing the behavior of nanoparticles and extrapolate their penetration behavior into HS. Further investigations are required to test a wide range of particles of different physicochemical properties to validate the skin equivalent-human skin particle penetration relationship.

  6. Setup for investigating gold nanoparticle penetration through reconstructed skin and comparison to published human skin data.

    PubMed

    Labouta, Hagar I; Thude, Sibylle; Schneider, Marc

    2013-06-01

    Owing to the limited source of human skin (HS) and the ethical restrictions of using animals in experiments, in vitro skin equivalents are a possible alternative for conducting particle penetration experiments. The conditions for conducting penetration experiments with model particles, 15-nm gold nanoparticles (AuNP), through nonsealed skin equivalents are described for the first time. These conditions include experimental setup, sterility conditions, effective applied dose determination, skin sectioning, and skin integrity check. Penetration at different exposure times (two and 24 h) and after tissue fixation (fixed versus unfixed skin) are examined to establish a benchmark in comparison to HS in an attempt to get similar results to HS experiments presented earlier. Multiphoton microscopy is used to detect gold luminescence in skin sections. λ(ex)=800 nm is used for excitation of AuNP and skin samples, allowing us to determine a relative index for particle penetration. Despite the observed overpredictability of penetration into skin equivalents, they could serve as a first fast screen for testing the behavior of nanoparticles and extrapolate their penetration behavior into HS. Further investigations are required to test a wide range of particles of different physicochemical properties to validate the skin equivalent-human skin particle penetration relationship. PMID:23203297

  7. Integrated Decision Strategies for Skin Sensitization Hazard

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the top priorities of the Interagency Coordinating Committee for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) is the identification and evaluation of non-animal alternatives for skin sensitization testing. Although skin sensitization is a complex process, the key biologi...

  8. Responsive corneosurfametry following in vivo skin preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Uhoda, E; Goffin, V; Pierard, G E

    2003-12-01

    Skin is subjected to many environmental threats, some of which altering the structure and function of the stratum corneum. Among them, surfactants are recognized factors that may influence irritant contact dermatitis. The present study was conducted to compare the variations in skin capacitance and corneosurfametry (CSM) reactivity before and after skin exposure to repeated subclinical injuries by 2 hand dishwashing liquids. A forearm immersion test was performed on 30 healthy volunteers. 2 daily soak sessions were performed for 5 days. At inclusion and the day following the last soak session, skin capacitance was measured and cyanoacrylate skin-surface strippings were harvested. The latter specimens were used for the ex vivo microwave CSM. Both types of assessments clearly differentiated the 2 hand dishwashing liquids. The forearm immersion test allowed the discriminant sensitivity of CSM to increase. Intact skin capacitance did not predict CSM data. By contrast, a significant correlation was found between the post-test conductance and the corresponding CSM data. In conclusion, a forearm immersion test under realistic conditions can discriminate the irritation potential between surfactant-based products by measuring skin conductance and performing CSM. In vivo skin preconditioning by surfactants increases CSM sensitivity to the same surfactants. PMID:15025702

  9. Viral Skin Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ramdass, Priya; Mullick, Sahil; Farber, Harold F

    2015-12-01

    In the vast world of skin diseases, viral skin disorders account for a significant percentage. Most viral skin diseases present with an exanthem (skin rash) and, oftentimes, an accompanying enanthem (lesions involving the mucosal membrane). In this article, the various viral skin diseases are explored, including viral childhood exanthems (measles, rubella, erythema infectiosum, and roseola), herpes viruses (herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus, viral zoonotic infections [orf, monkeypox, ebola, smallpox]), and several other viral skin diseases, such as human papilloma virus, hand, foot, and mouth disease, molluscum contagiosum, and Gianotti-Crosti syndrome. PMID:26612372

  10. Heat transfer tests of an 0.006-scale thin-skin space shuttle thermocouple model (41-OTS) in the Langley Research Center unitary plan wind tunnel at M equals 3.7 (IH16)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walstad, D. G.

    1975-01-01

    The results are presented of supersonic heat transfer tests performed on the .006 scale space shuttle vehicle model (41-OTS) in the Langley Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. These tests were conducted to parametrically investigate ascent heating of the integrated vehicle and its components. The tests were conducted at a nominal Mach number of 3.7 and Reynolds numbers per foot of 2 and 5 million. The model configurations investigated were the integrated vehicle and each component alone (i.e. orbiter, tank and SRB). All the configurations were run with and without transition strips and through an angle of attack range of 0 deg to minus 5 deg with the exception of the SRB which was tested through an angle of attack range of minus 5 deg to 90 deg. The heat transfer data were obtained from 223 iron constantan thermocouples attached to stainless steel thin-skin areas of the model.

  11. Zebrafish for modeling skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Cline, Abigail; Feldman, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    The experimental advantages of zebrafish make this model system highly amenable to the field of dermatology. Zebrafish skin development is similar to humans and its genome is ~70% orthologous to the human genome. Its external developmental process allows for genetic manipulation and analysis of embryogenesis within a short time frame with all important internal organs and skin compartments formed within 6 days. Zebrafish models of cutaneous human diseases offer insight into pathogenesis and a unique platform for testing of potential therapies. This review details the specific advantages of zebrafish and highlights its use in dermatological research. PMID:27617951

  12. Cleansing, moisturizing, and sun-protection regimens for normal skin, self-perceived sensitive skin, and dermatologist-assessed sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Stacy S; Subramanyan, Kumar; Liu, Daphne; Bryk, Megan

    2004-01-01

    Acquiring or maintaining healthy skin requires a multifunctional approach: mild cleansing, moisturizing, and sun protection. The clinical benefits of a daily, healthy facial skin-care regimen comprising a mild cleanser and moisturizer were evaluated on normal skin, self-perceived sensitive skin, and dermatologist-assessed sensitive skin for a period of up to 4 weeks. Subjects with normal, healthy skin were photographed with a calibrated, high-resolution digital camera, and the average improvement in overall health was calculated using image morphing and facial averaging techniques, following a 2-week period of product application. In a second study that included subjects with self-assessed sensitive facial skin, changes in skin hydration, skin dryness, and skin sensitivity (determined by means of a lactic acid sting test and subject self-assessment) were monitored during a 3-week regimen of mild cleansing and moisturizing with products designed for sensitive skin. The third study involved dermatologist-assessed highly sensitive skin patients (mostly rosacea with an atopic background in some cases). These patients underwent a 4-week skin-care regimen involving mild cleansing and moisturizing. In all three studies, significant improvements in skin health/quality were observed by means of expert assessments, instrumental evaluations, and subjective self-assessment. PMID:14728701

  13. Human Skin Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylase

    PubMed Central

    Bickers, David R.; Kappas, Attallah

    1978-01-01

    Coal tar products, which are widely used in treating dermatologic disease, contain numerous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, including 3,4-benzo[a]pyrene (BP). BP is among the most potent environmental chemical carcinogens and is known to evoke tumors in the skin of experimental animals and perhaps also of man. In this study the effect of cutaneous application of coal tar solution (U. S. Pharmacopeia) on aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity in the skin of patients usually treated with this drug was investigated. AHH, a cytochrome P-450 dependent carcinogen-metabolizing enzyme appears to play an important role in the activation of polycyclic hydrocarbons into reactive moieties that can bind to DNA and that may directly induce cancer. Application of coal tar solution to human skin caused a two to five-fold induction of cutaneous AHH in nine subjects. In further studies, the incubation of human skin with coal tar solution in vitro also caused variable induction of cutaneous AHH. Maximum responses in both systems occurred after 24 h and enzyme activity in vitro was time- and tissue- and substrate-concentration dependent. Studies in experimental animals showed that topical application of coal tar solution caused induction of AHH in skin and, after percutaneous absorption, in liver as well. Assay of several defined constituents of coal tar for AHH induction showed that BP was the most potent inducer of AHH tested. These studies indicate that topical application of coal tar solution in doses ordinarily used in treating dermatologic disease causes induction of AHH in human skin and suggest that such induced enzymatic activity could relate to carcinogenic responses to this agent in skin or, after percutaneous absorption, in other tissues as well. PMID:711851

  14. Scaly Skin (Ichthyosis Vulgaris)

    MedlinePlus

    ... should improve by restoring moisture (hydration) to the skin. Creams and ointments are better moisturizers than lotions, and ... Physician May Prescribe To treat the dry, scaly skin of ichthyosis ... cream or lotion containing the following: Prescription-strength alpha- ...

  15. Squamous cell skin cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cell; NMSC - squamous cell; Squamous cell skin cancer; Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin ... squamous cell cancer is called Bowen disease (or squamous cell carcinoma in situ). This type does not spread to ...

  16. Squamous cell skin cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur on skin that is regularly exposed to sunlight or other ultraviolet radiation. The earliest form of ... skin cancer is to reduce your exposure to sunlight . Always use sunscreen: Apply sunscreen with sun protection ...

  17. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or unhealthy, it affects melanin production. Some pigmentation disorders affect just patches of ...

  18. Fungal Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fungal Skin Infections Overview of Fungal Skin Infections Candidiasis Overview of Dermatophytoses (Ringworm, Tinea) Athlete's Foot Jock ... are caused by yeasts (such as Candida —see Candidiasis ) or dermatophytes, such as Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton ( ...

  19. Skin color - patchy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Injury Exposure to radiation (such as from the sun) Exposure to heavy metals Changes in hormone levels Exposure ... example, lighter-skinned people are more sensitive to sun exposure and damage, which raises the risk of skin ...

  20. Components of skin

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... skin layers from the outside environment and contains cells that make keratin, a substance that waterproofs and strengthens the skin. The epidermis also has cells that contain melanin, the dark pigment that gives ...

  1. Mosquito repellents in frog skin

    PubMed Central

    Williams, C.R; Smith, B.P.C; Best, S.M; Tyler, M.J

    2006-01-01

    The search for novel insect repellents has been driven by health concerns over established synthetic compounds such as diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). Given the diversity of compounds known from frog skin and records of mosquito bite and ectoparasite infestation, the presence of mosquito repellents in frogs seemed plausible. We investigated frog skin secretions to confirm the existence of mosquito repellent properties. Litoria caerulea secretions were assessed for mosquito repellency by topical application on mice. The secretions provided protection against host-seeking Culex annulirostris mosquitoes. Olfactometer tests using aqueous washes of skin secretions from L. caerulea and four other frog species were conducted to determine whether volatile components were responsible for repellency. Volatiles from Litoria rubella and Uperoleia mjobergi secretions were repellent to C. annulirostris, albeit not as repellent as a DEET control. The demonstration of endogenous insect repellents in amphibians is novel, and demonstrates that many aspects of frog chemical ecology remain unexplored. PMID:17148373

  2. Friction induced skin tags.

    PubMed

    Allegue, Francisco; Fachal, Carmen; Pérez-Pérez, Lidia

    2008-01-01

    Skin tags are common benign neoplasm located predominantly in intertriginous skin. Generally of cosmetic concern, they can be easily treated with cryotherapy, electrodessication or snip-excision. Despite their high incidence data about their etiopathogenesis are scarce in the medical literature. We describe a patient who developed multiple skin tags arranged in a linear fashion suggesting an etiopathogenic role for friction. PMID:18627719

  3. Skin self-exam

    MedlinePlus

    Skin cancer - self-exam; Melanoma - self-exam; Basal cell cancer - self-exam; Squamous cell - self-exam; Skin mole - self-exam ... do not agree on whether or not skin self-exams should be performed. So there is no ...

  4. Psychoneuroimmunology and the Skin.

    PubMed

    Honeyman, Juan F

    2016-08-23

    The nervous, immune, endocrine and integumentary systems are closely related and interact in a number of normal and pathological conditions. Nervous system mediators may bring about direct changes to the skin or may induce the release of immunological or hormonal mediators that cause pathological changes to the skin. This article reviews the psychological mechanisms involved in the development of skin diseases. PMID:27282344

  5. Ultrasound skin imaging.

    PubMed

    Alfageme Roldán, F

    2014-12-01

    The interaction of high-frequency ultrasound waves with the skin provides the basis for noninvasive, fast, and accessible diagnostic imaging. This tool is increasingly used in skin cancer and inflammatory conditions as well as in cosmetic dermatology. This article reviews the basic principles of skin ultrasound and its applications in the different areas of dermatology. PMID:24838227

  6. Biology of Skin Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcos, Alain

    1983-01-01

    Information from scientific journals on the biology of skin color is discussed. Major areas addressed include: (1) biology of melanin, melanocytes, and melanosomes; (2) melanosome and human diversity; (3) genetics of skin color; and (4) skin color, geography, and natural selection. (JN)

  7. Skin self-exam

    MedlinePlus

    Skin cancer - self-exam; Melanoma - self-exam; Basal cell cancer - self-exam; Squamous cell - self-exam; Skin mole - self-exam ... Experts do not agree on whether or not skin self-exams should be performed. So there is ...

  8. Molecular histology in skin appendage morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Widelitz, R B; Jiang, T X; Noveen, A; Ting-Berreth, S A; Yin, E; Jung, H S; Chuong, C M

    1997-08-15

    Classical histological studies have demonstrated the cellular organization of skin appendages and helped us appreciate the intricate structures and function of skin appendages. At this juncture, questions can be directed to determine how these cellular organizations are achieved. How do cells rearrange themselves to form the complex cyto-architecture of skin appendages? What are the molecular bases of the morphogenesis and histogenesis of skin appendages? Recently, many new molecules expressed in a spatial and temporal specific manner during the formation of skin appendages were identified by molecular biological approaches. In this review, novel molecular techniques that are useful in skin appendage research are discussed. The distribution of exemplary molecules from different categories including growth factors, intracellular signaling molecules, homeobox genes, adhesion molecules, and extracellular matrix molecules are summarized in a diagram using feather and hair as models. We hope that these results will serve as the ground work for completing the molecular mapping of skin appendages which will refine and re-define our understanding of the developmental process beyond relying on morphological criteria. We also hope that the listed protocols will help those who are interested in this venture. This new molecular histology of skin appendages is the foundation for forming new hypotheses on how molecules are mechanistically involved in skin appendage development and for designing experiments to test them. This may also lead to the modulation of healing and regeneration processes in future treatment modalities. PMID:9297695

  9. Urostomy - stoma and skin care

    MedlinePlus

    ... it well before you attach the pouch. Avoid skin care products that contain alcohol. These can make your ... the pouch to your skin. Use fewer special skin care products. This will make problems with your skin ...

  10. Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    No matter if your skin is light, dark, or somewhere in between, everyone is at risk for skin cancer. Learn what skin cancer looks like, how to find it early, and how to lower the chance of skin cancer.

  11. The Sensitive Skin Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lev-Tov, Hadar; Maibach, Howard I

    2012-01-01

    Sensitive skin syndrome (SSS) is a common and challenging condition, yet little is known about its underlying pathophysiology. Patients with SSS often present with subjective complaints of severe facial irritation, burning, and/or stinging after application of cosmetic products. These complaints are out of proportion to the objective clinical findings. Defined as a self-diagnosed condition lacking any specific objective findings, SSS is by definition difficult to quantify and, therefore, the scientific community has yet to identify an acceptable objective screening test. In this overview we review recent epidemiological studies, present current thinking on the pathophysiology leading to SSS, discuss the challenges SSS presents, and recommend a commonsense approach to management. PMID:23248357

  12. Pursuing prosthetic electronic skin.

    PubMed

    Chortos, Alex; Liu, Jia; Bao, Zhenan

    2016-09-01

    Skin plays an important role in mediating our interactions with the world. Recreating the properties of skin using electronic devices could have profound implications for prosthetics and medicine. The pursuit of artificial skin has inspired innovations in materials to imitate skin's unique characteristics, including mechanical durability and stretchability, biodegradability, and the ability to measure a diversity of complex sensations over large areas. New materials and fabrication strategies are being developed to make mechanically compliant and multifunctional skin-like electronics, and improve brain/machine interfaces that enable transmission of the skin's signals into the body. This Review will cover materials and devices designed for mimicking the skin's ability to sense and generate biomimetic signals. PMID:27376685

  13. Skin Exposure and Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Redlich, Carrie A.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous occupational and environmental exposures that increase asthma risk have been identified. Research and prevention have focused primarily on the respiratory tract. However, recent studies suggest that the skin may also be an important route of exposure and site of sensitization that contributes to asthma development. Factors that impair skin barrier function, such as filaggrin gene mutations or skin trauma, may facilitate allergen entry and promote Th2-like sensitization and subsequent asthma. Animal studies demonstrate that skin exposure to chemical and protein allergens is highly effective at inducing sensitization, with subsequent inhalation challenge eliciting asthmatic responses. A similar role for human skin exposure to certain sensitizing agents, such as isocyanates, is likely. Skin exposure methodologies are being developed to incorporate skin exposure assessment into epidemiology studies investigating asthma risk factors. PMID:20427586

  14. Laboratory evaluation of skin refrigerants used in dermabrasion.

    PubMed

    Hanke, C W; O'Brian, J J; Solow, E B

    1985-01-01

    Six skin refrigerants were evaluated for maximum cooling temperature. The temperatures produced correlated well with the chemical components and also the gelatin freeze-thaw times. Freon 114 and Freon 114-ethyl chloride mixtures are time-tested, safe skin refrigerants. Some of the newer skin refrigerants are pure sources of Freon 12 or mixtures of Freon 12 and Freon 11. These newer, colder products have the potential to damage the skin and represent a hazard to successful dermabrasion. PMID:3965519

  15. A novel flexible clinical multiphoton tomograph for early melanoma detection, skin analysis, testing of anti-age products, and in situ nanoparticle tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinigel, Martin; Breunig, Hans Georg; Gregory, Axel; Fischer, Peter; Kellner-Höfer, Marcel; Bückle, Rainer; König, Karsten

    2010-02-01

    High-resolution 3D microscopy based on multiphoton induced autofluorescence and second harmonic generation have been introduced in 1990. 13 years later, CE-marked clinical multiphoton systems for 3D imaging of human skin with subcellular resolution have first been launched by JenLab company with the tomography DermaInspect®. This year, the second generation of clinical multiphoton tomographs was introduced. The novel multiphoton tomograph MPTflex, equipped with a flexible articulated optical arm, provides an increased flexibility and accessibility especially for clinical and cosmetical examinations. Improved image quality and signal to noise ratio (SNR) are achieved by a very short source-drain spacing, by larger active areas of the detectors and by single photon counting (SPC) technology. Shorter image acquisition time due to improved image quality reduces artifacts and simplifies the operation of the system. The compact folded optical design and the light-weight structure of the optical head eases the handling. Dual channel detectors enable to distinguish between intratissue elastic fibers and collagenous structures simultaneously. Through the use of piezo-driven optics a stack of optical cross-sections (optical sectioning) can be acquired and 3D imaging can be performed. The multiphoton excitation of biomolecules like NAD(P)H, flavins, porphyrins, elastin, and melanin is done by picojoule femtosecond laser pulses from an tunable turn-key femtosescond near infrared laser system. The ability for rapid high-quality image acquisition, the user-friendly operation of the system and the compact and flexible design qualifies this system to be used for melanoma detection, diagnostics of dermatological disorders, cosmetic research and skin aging measurements as well as in situ drug monitoring and animal research.

  16. Elucidation of Xenobiotic Metabolism Pathways in Human Skin and Human Skin Models by Proteomic Profiling

    PubMed Central

    van Eijl, Sven; Zhu, Zheying; Cupitt, John; Gierula, Magdalena; Götz, Christine; Fritsche, Ellen; Edwards, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Human skin has the capacity to metabolise foreign chemicals (xenobiotics), but knowledge of the various enzymes involved is incomplete. A broad-based unbiased proteomics approach was used to describe the profile of xenobiotic metabolising enzymes present in human skin and hence indicate principal routes of metabolism of xenobiotic compounds. Several in vitro models of human skin have been developed for the purpose of safety assessment of chemicals. The suitability of these epidermal models for studies involving biotransformation was assessed by comparing their profiles of xenobiotic metabolising enzymes with those of human skin. Methodology/Principal Findings Label-free proteomic analysis of whole human skin (10 donors) was applied and analysed using custom-built PROTSIFT software. The results showed the presence of enzymes with a capacity for the metabolism of alcohols through dehydrogenation, aldehydes through dehydrogenation and oxidation, amines through oxidation, carbonyls through reduction, epoxides and carboxylesters through hydrolysis and, of many compounds, by conjugation to glutathione. Whereas protein levels of these enzymes in skin were mostly just 4–10 fold lower than those in liver and sufficient to support metabolism, the levels of cytochrome P450 enzymes were at least 300-fold lower indicating they play no significant role. Four epidermal models of human skin had profiles very similar to one another and these overlapped substantially with that of whole skin. Conclusions/Significance The proteomics profiling approach was successful in producing a comprehensive analysis of the biotransformation characteristics of whole human skin and various in vitro skin models. The results show that skin contains a range of defined enzymes capable of metabolising different classes of chemicals. The degree of similarity of the profiles of the in vitro models indicates their suitability for epidermal toxicity testing. Overall, these results provide a

  17. High temperature skin friction measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tcheng, Ping; Holmes, Harlan K.; Supplee, Frank H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Skin friction measurement in the NASA Langley hypersonic propulsion facility is described. The sensor configuration utilized an existing balance, modified to provide thermal isolation and an increased standoff distance. For test run times of about 20 sec and ambient-air cooling of the test section and balance, the modified balance performed satisfactorily, even when it was subjected to acoustic and structural vibration. The balance is an inertially balanced closed-loop servo system where the current to a moving-coil motor needed to restore or null the output from the position sensor is a measure of the force or skin friction tending to displace the moving element. The accuracy of the sensor is directly affected by the position sensor in the feedback loop, in this case a linear-variable differential transformer which has proven to be influenced by temperature gradients.

  18. Impaired Biomechanical Properties of Diabetic Skin

    PubMed Central

    Bermudez, Dustin M.; Herdrich, Benjamin J.; Xu, Junwang; Lind, Robert; Beason, David P.; Mitchell, Marc E.; Soslowsky, Louis J.; Liechty, Kenneth W.

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic skin is known to have deficient wound healing properties, but little is known of its intrinsic biomechanical properties. We hypothesize that diabetic skin possesses inferior biomechanical properties at baseline, rendering it more prone to injury. Skin from diabetic and nondiabetic mice and humans underwent biomechanical testing. Real-time PCR was performed for genes integral to collagen synthesis and degradation. MMP-2 and MMP-9, and TIMP-1 protein levels were assessed by ELISA and zymography. Collagen I and III content was assessed using Western blot analysis. At baseline, both murine and human diabetic skin was biomechanically inferior compared to nondiabetic skin, with decreased maximum stress and decreased modulus (P < 0.001 and < 0.05, respectively). Surprisingly, the expression of genes involved in collagen synthesis were significantly up-regulated, and genes involved in collagen degradation were significantly down-regulated in murine diabetic skin (P < 0.01). In addition, MMP-2 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 protein ratios were significantly lower in murine diabetic skin (P < 0.05). Collagen I levels and I:III ratios were lower in diabetic skin (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that the predisposition of diabetics to wounds may be the result of impaired tissue integrity at baseline, and are due, in part, to a defect in the regulation of collagen protein synthesis at the post-transcriptional level. PMID:21514435

  19. Objective biophysical findings in patients with sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Roussaki-Schulze, A V; Zafiriou, E; Nikoulis, D; Klimi, E; Rallis, E; Zintzaras, E

    2005-01-01

    The term sensitive skin has been used to describe a clinical phenomenon of hyperreactivity of the human skin, which develops exaggerated reactions when exposed to external factors. The aim of this study was to determine objective biophysical findings in patients with sensitive skin compared to those individuals with nonsensitive skin. Thirty-two patients with sensitive skin and 30 healthy volunteers with nonsensitive skin were studied. The testing methods included in vivo and in vitro tests: epicutaneous testing (Patch tests); measurement of sebum and hydration of the skin; alkali resistance test; stinging test with lactic acid; reaction to aqueous solution of methyl nicotinate 0.5%, 1.4% and acetyl-b-methylcholine chloride 1:1000; pH measurement; dermographism; and measurement of total and specific IgE. Significant results were observed in the measurement of sebum (p < 0.01) and hydration (p < 0.05) of the skin, in the alkali resistance test (p < 0.05), in the vascular reaction to methyl nicotinate (p < 0.01) and to acetyl-b-methylcholine chloride (p < 0.01) and in the skin response to allergens of the European standard (p < 0.01) and cosmetic series (p < 0.05). In addition, the subjective findings of stinging test produced significant results (p < 0.001) as was anticipated. Patients with sensitive skin possess very dry skin with low fatness, which leads to a disturbance of the protective skin barrier function. They also present a hyperreaction of the skin blood vessels, increased transcutaneous penetration of water-soluble chemicals, enhanced immune responsiveness, significant decrease of alkali resistance and a heightened neurosensory stimulation. PMID:16444908

  20. Structure and function of the human skin microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Schommer, Nina N.; Gallo, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    An abundant and diverse collection of bacteria, fungi and viruses inhabit the human skin. These microorganisms have been reported to vary between individuals and between different sites on the skin. The factors responsible for the unique variability of the skin microbiome are only partially understood, but results suggest host genetic and environmental influences play a major role. Today, the steady accumulation of data describing the skin microbiome, combined with experiments designed to test the biological functions of surface microbes, have provided new insights into links between human physiology and skin microbiota. This review describes some of the current information regarding the skin microbiome and their impact on human health. Specifically, this review seeks to summarize the present understanding of the function of microbe–host interactions on the skin and highlight some unique features that distinguish skin commensals from pathogenic microbes. PMID:24238601

  1. Practical applications of genomics research for treatment of aging skin.

    PubMed

    Kaczvinsky, Joseph R; Grimes, Pearl E

    2009-07-01

    Skin aging integrates the impact of extrinsic skin insults (e.g., ultraviolet [UV] light, etc.) with chronological, genetically programmed decreases in cellular function. A genomic study of aged skin highlighted the mechanistic importance of skin barrier function, exfoliation, control of reactive oxygen species and maintenance of extracellular matrix to the aging process. A set of topical products designed to address these mechanistic themes was developed and clinically tested. The individual products improved skin barrier function, hydration and skin turnover, as well as the smoothness and depth of periorbital wrinkles. Treatment with a regimen of these products improved the appearance of facial wrinkles after eight weeks. Changes in treated subjects' stratum corneum protein biomarker levels were consistent with the mechanistic pathways identified in the genomic work. Thus, leveraging a genomic understanding of skin aging led to the development of a clinically efficacious, aesthetically pleasing cosmetic regimen that improved the appearance of aged skin. PMID:19623780

  2. Bacterial Skin Infections.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Fadi; Khan, Tariq; Pujalte, George G A

    2015-12-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections account for 0.5% of outpatient visits to primary care. Skin and soft tissue infections can usually be managed in an outpatient setting. However, there are certain circumstances as discussed in this article that require more urgent care or inpatient management. Primary care providers should be able to diagnose, manage, and provide appropriate follow-up care for these frequently seen skin infections. This article provides family physicians with a comprehensive review of the assessment and management of common bacterial skin infections. PMID:26612370

  3. Immunohistochemistry of porcine skin.

    PubMed

    Wollina, U; Berger, U; Mahrle, G

    1991-01-01

    The present paper reports immunohistological findings in porcine skin, which were obtained by use of mono- and polyclonal antihuman antibodies and either alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase (APAAP) or peroxidase (POX) technique. Epidermal staining was observed with antibodies to keratins (K 8.12, RSKE 60), filaggrin, and calmodulin (ACAM). Staining of connective tissue and vessels was achieved using antibodies to vimentin (V9(1)), collagen type IV, and fibronectin. In general, these antibodies gave a staining pattern similar to that of normal human skin. The similarities of immunoreactivity to poly- and monoclonal antihuman antibodies in porcine and human skin render porcine skin a reliable model in biomedical research. PMID:1710864

  4. Skin-Friction Measurements in Incompressible Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Donald W.; Walker, John H.

    1959-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted to measure the local surface-shear stress and the average skin-friction coefficient in Incompressible flow for a turbulent boundary layer on a smooth flat plate having zero pressure gradient. Data were obtained for a range of Reynolds numbers from 1 million to 45 million. The local surface-shear stress was measured by a floating-element skin-friction balance and also by a calibrated total head tube located on the surface of the test wall. The average skin-friction coefficient was obtained from boundary-layer velocity profiles.

  5. Objective determination of Fitzpatrick skin type.

    PubMed

    Ravnbak, Mette Henriksen

    2010-08-01

    -sensitivity with regard to MED- and MMD test. Fitzpatrick skin type in epidemiological context (risk for skin cancer) stands for burns and ability to tan may represent "cumulative" dose. SED to MED is equivalent to burns. PPF may also indirectly represent cumulative dose--the less pigmented the skin the more UVR penetrates the epidermis and will be able to accumulate and induce skin cancer. Our results indicate that Fitzpatrick skin type predominantly is determined by the skin pigmentation and that the second most important objective parameter is SED to MED (and not SED to MMD). This explains why Fitzpatrick skin type, eventhough being an unreliable predictor of UV-sensitivity, still plays an important role in epidemiology with regard to estimation of risk of skin cancer. This study showed that PPF can predict the UV-sensitivity also with regard to the tanning ability (MMD), can be applied to multiple UV-exposures and to a broader pigmentation spectrum. PPF is preferred to predict the individual UV-sensitivity rather than the subjective Fitzpatrick skin type, confirmed for both nates and back, single as well as repetitive UV-exposures. It should therefore be considered to concentrate on skin reflectance measurements. PMID:20682135

  6. Study of smartphone suitability for mapping of skin chromophores.

    PubMed

    Kuzmina, Ilona; Lacis, Matiss; Spigulis, Janis; Berzina, Anna; Valeine, Lauma

    2015-09-01

    RGB (red-green-blue) technique for mapping skin chromophores by smartphones is proposed and studied. Three smartphones of different manufacturers were tested on skin phantoms and in vivo on benign skin lesions using a specially designed light source for illumination. Hemoglobin and melanin indices obtained by these smartphones showed differences in both tests. In vitro tests showed an increment of hemoglobin and melanin indices with the concentration of chromophores in phantoms. In vivo tests indicated higher hemoglobin index in hemangiomas than in nevi and healthy skin, and nevi showed higher melanin index compared to the healthy skin. Smartphones that allow switching off the automatic camera settings provided useful data, while those with “embedded” automatic settings appear to be useless for distant skin chromophore mapping. PMID:26405818

  7. Study of smartphone suitability for mapping of skin chromophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmina, Ilona; Lacis, Matiss; Spigulis, Janis; Berzina, Anna; Valeine, Lauma

    2015-09-01

    RGB (red-green-blue) technique for mapping skin chromophores by smartphones is proposed and studied. Three smartphones of different manufacturers were tested on skin phantoms and in vivo on benign skin lesions using a specially designed light source for illumination. Hemoglobin and melanin indices obtained by these smartphones showed differences in both tests. In vitro tests showed an increment of hemoglobin and melanin indices with the concentration of chromophores in phantoms. In vivo tests indicated higher hemoglobin index in hemangiomas than in nevi and healthy skin, and nevi showed higher melanin index compared to the healthy skin. Smartphones that allow switching off the automatic camera settings provided useful data, while those with "embedded" automatic settings appear to be useless for distant skin chromophore mapping.

  8. About Skin: Your Body's Largest Organ

    MedlinePlus

    ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ...

  9. Bioreactor Yields Extracts for Skin Cream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Johnson Space Flight Center researchers created a unique rotating-wall bioreactor that simulates microgravity conditions, spurring innovations in drug development and medical research. Renuèll Int'l Inc., based in Aventure, Florida, licensed the technology and used it to produce a healing skin care product, RE`JUVEL. In a Food and Drug Administration test, RE`JUVEL substantially increased skin moisture and elasticity while reducing dark blotches and wrinkles.

  10. Shark skin: function in locomotion.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, S A; Vosburgh, F; Hebrank, J H

    1978-11-17

    Hydrostatic pressure under the skin of sharks varies with swimming speed. Stress in the skin varies with the internal pressure, and the skin stress controls skin stiffness. Locomotory muscles attach to the skin which is thus a whole-body exotendon whose mechanical advantage in transmitting muscular contraction is greater than that of the endoskeleton. PMID:17807247

  11. AUTOMATED SKIN SEGMENTATION IN ULTRASONIC EVALUATION OF SKIN TOXICITY IN BREAST CANCER RADIOTHERAPY

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yi; Tannenbaum, Allen; Chen, Hao; Torres, Mylin; Yoshida, Emi; Yang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yuefeng; Curran, Walter; Liu, Tian

    2013-01-01

    Skin toxicity is the most common side effect of breast cancer radiotherapy and impairs the quality of life of many breast cancer survivors. We, along with other researchers, have recently found quantitative ultrasound to be effective as a skin toxicity assessment tool. Although more reliable than standard clinical evaluations (visual observation and palpation), the current procedure for ultrasound-based skin toxicity measurements requires manual delineation of the skin layers (i.e., epidermis-dermis and dermis-hypodermis interfaces) on each ultrasound B-mode image. Manual skin segmentation is time consuming and subjective. Moreover, radiation-induced skin injury may decrease image contrast between the dermis and hypodermis, which increases the difficulty of delineation. Therefore, we have developed an automatic skin segmentation tool (ASST) based on the active contour model with two significant modifications: (i) The proposed algorithm introduces a novel dual-curve scheme for the double skin layer extraction, as opposed to the original single active contour method. (ii) The proposed algorithm is based on a geometric contour framework as opposed to the previous parametric algorithm. This ASST algorithm was tested on a breast cancer image database of 730 ultrasound breast images (73 ultrasound studies of 23 patients). We compared skin segmentation results obtained with the ASST with manual contours performed by two physicians. The average percentage differences in skin thickness between the ASST measurement and that of each physician were less than 5% (4.8 ± 17.8% and −3.8 ± 21.1%, respectively). In summary, we have developed an automatic skin segmentation method that ensures objective assessment of radiation-induced changes in skin thickness. Our ultrasound technology offers a unique opportunity to quantify tissue injury in a more meaningful and reproducible manner than the subjective assessments currently employed in the clinic. PMID:23993172

  12. Skin Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nevi Melanoma Merkel Cell Carcinoma Squamous Cell Carcinoma Skin Cancer Treatment Glossary Facts & Statistics Ask the Experts Early Detection ... About Us | Store The Skin Cancer ... prevention, early detection, and prompt treatment of the world’s most common cancer. Take your ...

  13. Skin Problems in Construction

    MedlinePlus

    ... 3 Keep skin clean Wash with soap and clean water if your skin comes in contact with hazardous ... caustics like wet cement. DO NOT use the water in the bucket used to clean your tools. DO NOT use hand sanitizers. Wash ...

  14. Complications of skin biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Abhishek, Kumar; Khunger, Niti

    2015-01-01

    Skin biopsy is the most commonly performed procedure by the dermatologist. Though it is a safe and easy procedure yet complications may arise. Post operative complications like wound infection and bleeding may occur. It is essential to keep the potential complications of skin biopsy in mind and be meticulous in the technique, for better patient outcomes. PMID:26865792

  15. Bovine Tuberculosis in a Nebraska Herd of Farmed Elk and Fallow Deer: A Failure of the Tuberculin Skin Test and Opportunities for Serodiagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Waters, W. Ray; Stevens, Gary E.; Schoenbaum, Mark A.; Orloski, Kathy A.; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; Harris, N. Beth; Hall, S. Mark; Thomsen, Bruce V.; Wilson, Arach J.; Brannian, Roger E.; Nelson, Jeffrey T.; Schafer, Shawn; Esfandiari, Javan; Dutton, Meghan; Greenwald, Rena; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, Mycobacterium bovis infection was detected in a herd of 60 elk (Cervus elaphus) and 50 fallow deer (Dama dama) in Nebraska, USA. Upon depopulation of the herd, the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (TB) was estimated at ∼71–75%, based upon histopathology and culture results. Particularly with elk, gross lesions were often severe and extensive. One year ago, the majority of the elk had been tested for TB by single cervical test (SCT), and all were negative. After initial detection of a tuberculous elk in this herd, 42 of the 59 elk were tested by SCT. Of the 42 SCT-tested elk, 28 were TB-infected with only 3/28 reacting upon SCT. After SCT, serum samples were collected from the infected elk and fallow deer from this herd at necropsy and tested by three antibody detection methods including multiantigen print immunoassay, cervidTB STAT-PAK, and dual path platform VetTB (DPP). Serologic test sensitivity ranged from 79 to 97% depending on the test format and host species. Together, these findings demonstrate the opportunities for use of serodiagnosis in the rapid detection of TB in elk and fallow deer. PMID:21547234

  16. Skin Diseases: Skin and Sun—Not a good mix

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin and Sun —Not a good mix Past Issues / Fall 2008 ... turn Javascript on. Good skin care begins with sun safety. Whether it is something as simple as ...

  17. Skin Diseases: Skin and Sun—Not a good mix

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin and Sun —Not a good mix Past Issues / ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Good skin care begins with sun safety. Whether it is ...

  18. Male skin care needs.

    PubMed

    Weber, Stephen M; Ford, Kay

    2008-08-01

    Male skin care has undergone significant development over the past decade, with many companies now marketing skin care products directly to the male consumer. Despite the claims of many of these companies, few over-the-counter products have data to support their efficacy at a clinical level. A basic, effective regimen for preventive male skin care should include twice-daily facial cleansing and twice-daily moisturizer application, which should include sunscreen during the day. This article focuses on topical therapies directed at the maintenance and repair of photoaged male skin. The future holds promise for new developments in skin care. However, in the absence of significant scientific breakthroughs, the most cost-effective intervention will continue to be prevention. PMID:18620985

  19. Febrile Illness with Skin Rashes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Skin rashes that appear during febrile illnesses are in fact caused by various infectious diseases. Since infectious exanthematous diseases range from mild infections that disappear naturally to severe infectious diseases, focus on and basic knowledge of these diseases is very important. But, these include non-infectious diseases, so that comprehensive knowledge of these other diseases is required. Usually, early diagnostic testing for a febrile illness with a rash is inefficient. For clinical diagnosis of diseases accompanied by skin rash and fever, a complete history must be taken, including recent travel, contact with animals, medications, and exposure to forests and other natural environments. In addition, time of onset of symptoms and the characteristics of the rash itself (morphology, location, distribution) could be helpful in the clinical diagnosis. It is also critical to understand the patient's history of specific underlying diseases. However, diagnostic basic tests could be helpful in diagnosis if they are repeated and the clinical course is monitored. Generally, skin rashes are nonspecific and self-limited. Therefore, it could be clinically meaningful as a characteristic diagnostic finding in a very small subset of specific diseases. PMID:26483989

  20. Topical delivery of silymarin constituents via the skin route

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chi-feng; Lin, Yin-ku; Zhang, Li-wen; Chang, Ching-hsien; Fang, Jia-you

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Silibinin (SB), silydianin (SD), and silychristin (SC) are components of silymarin. These compounds can be used to protect the skin from oxidative stress induced by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and treat it. To this end, the absorption of silymarin constituents via the skin was examined in the present report. Methods: Transport of SB, SD, and SC under the same thermodynamic activity through and into the skin and the effects of pH were studied in vitro using a Franz diffusion assembly. Results: The lipophilicity increased in the order of SCskin deposition but had a minor effect on permeation across the skin in the less-ionized form (pH 8). It is apparent that compounds in the less-ionized form showed higher skin uptake compared to the more-ionized form. Hyperproliferative skin produced by UVB exposure showed increased permeation of silymarin constituents in the less-ionized form, but it did not affect deposition within the skin. With in vivo topical application for 4 and 8 h, the skin deposition of SB was higher than those of SD and SC by 3.5∼4.0- and 30∼40-fold, respectively. The skin disruption and erythema test demonstrated that the topical application of these compounds for up to 24 h caused no apparent skin irritation. Conclusion: The basic profiles of silymarin permeation via skin route were established. PMID:20023692

  1. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of ...

  2. Blue LED irradiation to hydration of skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, Priscila F. C.; Requena, Michelle B.; Lizarelli, Rosane F., Z.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2015-06-01

    Blue LED system irradiation shows many important properties on skin as: bacterial decontamination, degradation of endogenous skin chromophores and biostimulation. In this clinical study we prove that the blue light improves the skin hydration. In the literature none authors reports this biological property on skin. Then this study aims to discuss the role of blue light in the skin hydration. Twenty patients were selected to this study with age between 25-35 years old and phototype I, II and III. A defined area from forearm was pre determined (A = 4.0 cm2). The study was randomized in two treatment groups using one blue light device (power of 5.3mW and irradiance of 10.8mW/cm2). The first treatment group was irradiated with 3J/cm2 (277seconds) and the second with 6J/cm2 (555 seconds). The skin hydration evaluations were done using a corneometer. The measurements were collected in 7, 14, 21 and 30 days, during the treatment. Statistical test of ANOVA, Tukey and T-Student were applied considering 5% of significance. In conclusion, both doses were able to improve the skin hydration; however, 6J/cm2 has kept this hydration for 30 days.

  3. First-Line Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... always require further testing. Cutaneous porphyrias . Measuring total plasma porphyrins is effective for screening patients with skin ... any patient with skin manifestations due to Porphyria. Plasma porphyrins are seldom increased in other medical conditions. ...

  4. Lyme Borreliosis and Skin

    PubMed Central

    Vasudevan, Biju; Chatterjee, Manas

    2013-01-01

    Lyme disease is a multisystem illness which is caused by the strains of spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and transmitted by the tick, Ixodes. Though very commonly reported from the temperate regions of the world, the incidence has increased worldwide due to increasing travel and changing habitats of the vector. Few cases have been reported from the Indian subcontinent too. Skin manifestations are the earliest to occur, and diagnosing these lesions followed by appropriate treatment, can prevent complications of the disease, which are mainly neurological. The three main dermatological manifestations are erythema chronicum migrans, borrelial lymphocytoma and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. Many other dermatological conditions including morphea, lichen sclerosus and lately B cell lymphoma, have been attributed to the disease. Immunofluorescence and polymerase reaction tests have been developed to overcome the problems for diagnosis. Culture methods are also used for diagnosis. Treatment with Doxycycline is the mainstay of management, though prevention is of utmost importance. Vaccines against the condition are still not very successful. Hence, the importance of recognising the cutaneous manifestations early, to prevent systemic complications which can occur if left untreated, can be understood. This review highlights the cutaneous manifestations of Lyme borreliosis and its management. PMID:23723463

  5. Archaea on human skin.

    PubMed

    Probst, Alexander J; Auerbach, Anna K; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The recent era of exploring the human microbiome has provided valuable information on microbial inhabitants, beneficials and pathogens. Screening efforts based on DNA sequencing identified thousands of bacterial lineages associated with human skin but provided only incomplete and crude information on Archaea. Here, we report for the first time the quantification and visualization of Archaea from human skin. Based on 16 S rRNA gene copies Archaea comprised up to 4.2% of the prokaryotic skin microbiome. Most of the gene signatures analyzed belonged to the Thaumarchaeota, a group of Archaea we also found in hospitals and clean room facilities. The metabolic potential for ammonia oxidation of the skin-associated Archaea was supported by the successful detection of thaumarchaeal amoA genes in human skin samples. However, the activity and possible interaction with human epithelial cells of these associated Archaea remains an open question. Nevertheless, in this study we provide evidence that Archaea are part of the human skin microbiome and discuss their potential for ammonia turnover on human skin. PMID:23776475

  6. Environment and the skin.

    PubMed

    Suskind, R R

    1977-10-01

    The skin is an important interface between man and his environment; it is an important portal of entry for hazardous agents and a vulnerable target tissue as well. It is a uniquely accessible model system for detecting hazards and for studying mechanisms of a wide variety of biologic funcitons. Environmental causes of skin reactions comprise a vast array of physical, chemical and biological agents. To appreciate the role of the skin as an interface with man's environment, it is necessary to understand the multiple adaptive mechanisms, and the defenses of the skin against the environmental stresses. The skin is endowed with a versatile group of defenses against penetration, fluid loss from the body, thermal stress, solar radiation, physical trauma and microbial agents. Patterns of adverse response range in quality and intensity from uncomplicated itching to metastatic neoplasia. Environmental problems comprise a large segment of disabling skin disease. Although critical epidemiologic data is limited, cutaneous illnesses comprise a significant segment of occupational disease. This represents a significant loss in productivity and a major cause of disability. The most serious research needs include the development of surveillance systems for identifying skin hazards and determining frequency of environmental skin disease; the development of new models for studying cutaneous penetration; the elucidation of the mechanisms of nonallergic inflammatory reactions (primary irritation) and of the accommodation phenomenon; the development of more sensitive models for predicting adverse responses to marginal irritants; the utilization of modern skills of immunobiology and immunochemistry to elucidate mechanisms of allergic responses; the launching of epidemiologic studies to determine the long term effects of PCBs and associated compounds such as dioxins; and the expansion of research in the mechanisms of skin cancer in relation to susceptibility, genetic and metabolic

  7. Environment and the skin

    PubMed Central

    Suskind, Raymond R.

    1977-01-01

    The skin is an important interface between man and his environment; it is an important portal of entry for hazardous agents and a vulnerable target tissue as well. It is a uniquely accessible model system for detecting hazards and for studying mechanisms of a wide variety of biologic funcitons. Environmental causes of skin reactions comprise a vast array of physical, chemical and biological agents. To appreciate the role of the skin as an interface with man's environment, it is necessary to understand the multiple adaptive mechanisms, and the defenses of the skin against the environmental stresses. The skin is endowed with a versatile group of defenses against penetration, fluid loss from the body, thermal stress, solar radiation, physical trauma and microbial agents. Patterns of adverse response range in quality and intensity from uncomplicated itching to metastatic neoplasia. Environmental problems comprise a large segment of disabling skin disease. Although critical epidemiologic data is limited, cutaneous illnesses comprise a significant segment of occupational disease. This represents a significant loss in productivity and a major cause of disability. The most serious research needs include the development of surveillance systems for identifying skin hazards and determining frequency of environmental skin disease; the development of new models for studying cutaneous penetration; the elucidation of the mechanisms of nonallergic inflammatory reactions (primary irritation) and of the accommodation phenomenon; the development of more sensitive models for predicting adverse responses to marginal irritants; the utilization of modern skills of immunobiology and immunochemistry to elucidate mechanisms of allergic responses; the launching of epidemiologic studies to determine the long term effects of PCBs and associated compounds such as dioxins; and the expansion of research in the mechanisms of skin cancer in relation to susceptibility, genetic and metabolic

  8. Skin disorders at sea.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Ray; Boniface, Keith; Hite, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the types of skin disorders occurring at sea requiring acute treatment. The case logs of a tele-medicine service for US flagged ships at sea were reviewed from March 1, 2006 until March 1, 2009. Of 1844 total cases, 10% (n = 183) were for skin disorders. Sixty-eight percent (n = 125) were infections, 14% (n = 25) were inflammatory, 7% (n = 13) were environmental, and 11% (n = 20) were non-specific rashes. Cutaneous abscesses and cellulitis (n = 84) were the most common acute skin disorders encountered. In some cases (n = 81), still digital photographs aided in the diagnosis. PMID:20496321

  9. Optical fiber sensing of human skin emanations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.-W.; Wang, T.; Selyanchyn, R.; Korposh, S.; James, S. W.

    2015-07-01

    An evanescent-wave optical fibre sensor modified with tetrakis(4-sulfophenyl)porphine (TSPP) and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) bilayers using an layer-by-layer (LbL) approach was tested to measure the gas emitted from human skin. Optical intensity changes at different wavelengths in the transmission spectrum of the porphyrin-based film were induced by the human skin gas and measured as sensor response. Influence of relative humidity, which can be a major interference to sensor response, was significantly different when compared to the influence of skin emanations. Responses of the current optical sensor system could be considered as composite sensor array, where different optical wavelengths act as channels that have selective response to specific volatile compounds. Data obtained from the sensor system was analyzed through principal component analysis (PCA). This approach enabled to distinguish skin odors of different people and their altered physiological conditions after alcohol consumption.

  10. In vitro permeation of levothyroxine across the skin.

    PubMed

    Padula, Cristina; Pappani, Alice; Santi, Patrizia

    2008-02-12

    The aim of this work was to investigate the in vitro transdermal permeation characteristics of sodium levothyroxine, in view of its topical application. Permeation experiments were performed in vitro, using rabbit ear skin as barrier. At the end of the experiments levothyroxine retained in the skin was extracted and quantified by HPLC. The formulations tested were solutions and a commercial cream. The use of dimethyl beta-cyclodextrin as solubilizing agent increased to a significant extent levothyroxine solubility, but reduced its skin accumulation. Skin stripping before drug application produced a considerable increase in the amount retained and levothyroxine was found also in the receptor compartment. The application of the commercial cream in occlusive conditions increased to a significant extent drug retention in the skin. In conclusion, levothyroxine skin administration is promising in view of a localized effect, because it was retained in the skin. On the contrary, transdermal administration in view of systemic effect does not represent a concrete possibility. PMID:17931806

  11. Sensitive skin and stratum corneum reactivity to household cleaning products.

    PubMed

    Goffin, V; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E

    1996-02-01

    Products intended for individuals with sensitive skin are being increasingly developed by formulators of household cleaning products. However, there is currently no consensus about the definition and recognition of the biological basis of sensitive skin. We sought to determine the relation between the nature of environmental threat perceived as aggressive by panelists, and the stratum corneum reactivity to household cleaning products as measured by the corneosurfametry test. Results indicate substantial differences in irritancy potential between proprietary products. Corneosurfametry data show significant differences in stratum corneum reactivity between, on the one hand, individuals with either non-sensitive skin or skin sensitive to climate/fabrics, and, on the other hand, individuals with detergent-sensitive skin. It is concluded that sensitive skin is not one single condition. Sound information in rating detergent-sensitive skin may be gained by corneosurfametry. PMID:8681562

  12. Electrochemical Skin Conductance Correlates with Skin Nerve Fiber Density

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Electrochemical skin conductance (ESC) using reverse iontophoresis and chronoamperometry has been used to evaluate abnormal function of small fibers. How ESC correlates with loss of small fibers in skin is unclear. Methods: This was a prospective, blinded study. The primary outcome measure was the correlation between ESC at the feet and results of skin biopsies including epidermal nerve fiber density (ENFD) and sweat gland nerve fiber density (SGNFD) at the distal leg. ESC, ENFD, and SGNFD data were normalized by adjusting for weight. The secondary outcome measures were the correlation between ESC and the following variables: quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test (QSART) and symptom scales (neuropathy, pain and autonomic). Results: Eighty-one patients (mean ± sd): age = 53.3 ± 17.3, men/women = 25/56 were enrolled in the study. ESC was reduced in subjects with abnormally low ENFD (ENFD normal/abnormal, ESC = 1.17 ± 0.27/0.87 ± 0.34 μSiemens/kg, p < 0.0008) and abnormally low SGNFD (SGNFD normal/abnormal ESC = 1.09 ± 0.34/0.78 ± 0.3 μSiemens/kg, p < 0.0003). ESC correlated with ENFD (ρ = 0.73, p = 0.0001) and SGNFD (ρ = 0.64, p = 0.0001). ESC did not correlate with symptom scales. Conclusion: ESC is diminished in subjects who have a reduced number of small fibers in the skin and the ESC reduction is proportional to ENFD and SGNFD. ESC can be useful in detecting loss of small nerve fibers. PMID:27605912

  13. Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killoran, James, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    This journal issue addresses the issue of testing in the social studies classroom. The first article, "The Role of Testing" (Bragaw), focuses on the need for tests to reflect the objectives of the study completed. The varying functions of pop quizzes, weekly tests, and unit tests are explored. "Testing Thinking Processes" (Killoran, Zimmer, and…

  14. Radiation therapy - skin care

    MedlinePlus

    ... red, peel, or itch. You should treat your skin with care while receiving radiation therapy. ... When you have radiation treatment, a health care provider draws ... they come off, do not redraw them. Tell your provider instead. ...

  15. Skin or nail culture

    MedlinePlus

    Mucosal culture; Culture - skin; Culture - mucosal; Nail culture; Culture - fingernail; Fingernail culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria, ...

  16. Skin Conditions during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... during pregnancy? • What is pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy (PUPPP)? • What is prurigo of pregnancy? • ... itchy skin. What is pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy (PUPPP)? In this condition, small, red ...

  17. Components of skin

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... with immunity against foreign invaders like germs and bacteria. The very bottom layer of the skin is ... glands also helps to soften hair and kill bacteria that get in the skin’s pores. These oil ...

  18. Skin Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at NCI (Intramural) ... is the body’s largest organ . It protects against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection . Skin also helps control ...

  19. Genetics and skin aging

    PubMed Central

    Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Bekou, Vassiliki; Zouboulis, Christos C.

    2012-01-01

    Skin aging is a complex process and underlies multiple influences with the probable involvement of heritable and various environmental factors. Several theories have been conducted regarding the pathomechanisms of aged skin, however fundamental mechanisms still remain poorly understood. This article addresses the influence of genetics on skin aging and in particular deals with the differences observed in ethnic populations and between both genders. Recent studies indicate that male and female aged skin differs as far as the type, the consistency and the sensitivity to external factors is concerned. The same has been also documented between elderly people of different origin. Consequently, the aging process taking place in both genders and in diverse ethnic groups should be examined separately and products specialized to each population should be developed in order to satisfy the special needs. PMID:23467395

  20. An elastic second skin.

    PubMed

    Yu, Betty; Kang, Soo-Young; Akthakul, Ariya; Ramadurai, Nithin; Pilkenton, Morgan; Patel, Alpesh; Nashat, Amir; Anderson, Daniel G; Sakamoto, Fernanda H; Gilchrest, Barbara A; Anderson, R Rox; Langer, Robert

    2016-08-01

    We report the synthesis and application of an elastic, wearable crosslinked polymer layer (XPL) that mimics the properties of normal, youthful skin. XPL is made of a tunable polysiloxane-based material that can be engineered with specific elasticity, contractility, adhesion, tensile strength and occlusivity. XPL can be topically applied, rapidly curing at the skin interface without the need for heat- or light-mediated activation. In a pilot human study, we examined the performance of a prototype XPL that has a tensile modulus matching normal skin responses at low strain (<40%), and that withstands elongations exceeding 250%, elastically recoiling with minimal strain-energy loss on repeated deformation. The application of XPL to the herniated lower eyelid fat pads of 12 subjects resulted in an average 2-grade decrease in herniation appearance in a 5-point severity scale. The XPL platform may offer advanced solutions to compromised skin barrier function, pharmaceutical delivery and wound dressings. PMID:27159017

  1. Aging changes in skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... hematomas ) may form after even a minor injury. Pressure ulcers can be caused by skin changes, loss of ... up to 4 times slower. This contributes to pressure ulcers and infections. Diabetes , blood vessel changes, lowered immunity, ...

  2. Skin tumors on squirrels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Reilly, J.R.

    1955-01-01

    Skin tumors having the gross appearance of previously reported fibromas are reported on gray squirrels from N. Y., Md., Va., N. C., and W. Va. and from a fox squirrel from W. Va. and a porcupine from Pa.

  3. Dry Skin (Xerosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... by medical conditions, such as atopic dermatitis and malnutrition. Dry skin develops due to a decrease in ... Diabetes Hypothyroidism Down syndrome Liver or kidney disease Malnutrition HIV/AIDS Lymphoma Signs and Symptoms The most ...

  4. Skin Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... the body's largest organ . It protects against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection . Skin also helps control body ... cancer risk factors include: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  5. Healthy Skin Matters

    MedlinePlus

    ... don’t offer a safe alternative to natural sunlight. Exposure to ultraviolet (UV ) (uhl-truh-VYE-uh- ... the exposure comes from tanning beds or natural sunlight. This damage increases the risk of skin cancer ...

  6. Regionalisation of the skin.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Jeanette A; Headon, Denis J

    2014-01-01

    The skin displays marked anatomical variation in thickness, colour and in the appendages that it carries. These regional distinctions arise in the embryo, likely founded on a combinatorial positional code of transcription factor expression. Throughout adult life, the skin's distinct anatomy is maintained through both cell autonomous epigenetic processes and by mesenchymal-epithelial induction. Despite the readily apparent anatomical differences in skin characteristics across the body, several fundamental questions regarding how such regional differences first arise and then persist are unresolved. However, it is clear that the skin's positional code is at the molecular level far more detailed than that discernible at the phenotypic level. This provides a latent reservoir of anatomical complexity ready to surface if perturbed by mutation, hormonal changes, ageing or experiment. PMID:24361971

  7. Skin lesion removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hair Small blood vessels in the skin Tattoos CRYOTHERAPY Cryotherapy is a method of super-freezing tissue in ... warts, actinic keratoses, solar keratoses, and molluscum contagiosum. Cryotherapy is done using a cotton swab that has ...

  8. [Skin-picking disorder].

    PubMed

    Niemeier, V; Peters, E; Gieler, U

    2015-10-01

    The disorder is characterized by compulsive repetitive skin-picking (SP), resulting in skin lesions. The patients must have undertaken several attempts to reduce or stop SP. The disorder must have led to clinically significant limitations in social, professional, or other important areas of life. The symptoms cannot be better explained by another emotional disorder or any other dermatological disease. In the new DSM-V, skin-picking disorder has been included in the diagnostic system as an independent disorder and describes the self-injury of the skin by picking or scratching with an underlying emotional disorder. SP is classified among the impulse-control disorders and is, thus, differentiated from compulsive disorders as such. There are often emotional comorbidities. In cases of pronounced psychosocial limitation, interdisciplinary cooperation with a psychotherapist and/or psychiatrist is indicated. PMID:26391325

  9. An elastic second skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Betty; Kang, Soo-Young; Akthakul, Ariya; Ramadurai, Nithin; Pilkenton, Morgan; Patel, Alpesh; Nashat, Amir; Anderson, Daniel G.; Sakamoto, Fernanda H.; Gilchrest, Barbara A.; Anderson, R. Rox; Langer, Robert

    2016-08-01

    We report the synthesis and application of an elastic, wearable crosslinked polymer layer (XPL) that mimics the properties of normal, youthful skin. XPL is made of a tunable polysiloxane-based material that can be engineered with specific elasticity, contractility, adhesion, tensile strength and occlusivity. XPL can be topically applied, rapidly curing at the skin interface without the need for heat- or light-mediated activation. In a pilot human study, we examined the performance of a prototype XPL that has a tensile modulus matching normal skin responses at low strain (<40%), and that withstands elongations exceeding 250%, elastically recoiling with minimal strain-energy loss on repeated deformation. The application of XPL to the herniated lower eyelid fat pads of 12 subjects resulted in an average 2-grade decrease in herniation appearance in a 5-point severity scale. The XPL platform may offer advanced solutions to compromised skin barrier function, pharmaceutical delivery and wound dressings.

  10. Skin Care and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Age Spots and Skin Tags Click for more information Age spots, once called "liver spots," are flat, brown ... surface. They are a common occurrence as people age, especially for women. They are ... options, specific conditions, and related issues. ...

  11. Bleeding into the skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... under the tissue in larger flat areas (called purpura ), or in a very large bruised area (called ... in the newborn) Aging skin (ecchymosis) Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (petechiae and purpura) Henoch-Schonlein purpura (purpura) Leukemia ( ...

  12. Skin lesion KOH exam

    MedlinePlus

    ... is present. The fungus may be related to ringworm , athlete's foot , jock itch , or another fungal infection. ... foot Candida infection of the skin Jock itch Ringworm Tinea corporis Update Date 4/14/2015 Updated ...

  13. Skin, Hair, and Nails

    MedlinePlus

    ... special types of cells: Melanocytes produce melanin, the pigment that gives skin its color. All people have ... the epidermis). Hair also contains a yellow-red pigment; people who have blonde or red hair have ...

  14. Skin Diseases: Cross-section of human skin

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Cross-section of human skin Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Logical Images, Inc. I n the areas of skin health and skin diseases, the NIH's National Institute ...

  15. Hyperelastic Material Properties of Mouse Skin under Compression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuxiang; Marshall, Kara L; Baba, Yoshichika; Gerling, Gregory J; Lumpkin, Ellen A

    2013-01-01

    The skin is a dynamic organ whose complex material properties are capable of withstanding continuous mechanical stress while accommodating insults and organism growth. Moreover, synchronized hair cycles, comprising waves of hair growth, regression and rest, are accompanied by dramatic fluctuations in skin thickness in mice. Whether such structural changes alter skin mechanics is unknown. Mouse models are extensively used to study skin biology and pathophysiology, including aging, UV-induced skin damage and somatosensory signaling. As the skin serves a pivotal role in the transfer function from sensory stimuli to neuronal signaling, we sought to define the mechanical properties of mouse skin over a range of normal physiological states. Skin thickness, stiffness and modulus were quantitatively surveyed in adult, female mice (Mus musculus). These measures were analyzed under uniaxial compression, which is relevant for touch reception and compression injuries, rather than tension, which is typically used to analyze skin mechanics. Compression tests were performed with 105 full-thickness, freshly isolated specimens from the hairy skin of the hind limb. Physiological variables included body weight, hair-cycle stage, maturity level, skin site and individual animal differences. Skin thickness and stiffness were dominated by hair-cycle stage at young (6-10 weeks) and intermediate (13-19 weeks) adult ages but by body weight in mature mice (26-34 weeks). Interestingly, stiffness varied inversely with thickness so that hyperelastic modulus was consistent across hair-cycle stages and body weights. By contrast, the mechanics of hairy skin differs markedly with anatomical location. In particular, skin containing fascial structures such as nerves and blood vessels showed significantly greater modulus than adjacent sites. Collectively, this systematic survey indicates that, although its structure changes dramatically throughout adult life, mouse skin at a given location maintains a

  16. The hydrodynamic function of shark skin and two biomimetic applications.

    PubMed

    Oeffner, Johannes; Lauder, George V

    2012-03-01

    It has long been suspected that the denticles on shark skin reduce hydrodynamic drag during locomotion, and a number of man-made materials have been produced that purport to use shark-skin-like surface roughness to reduce drag during swimming. But no studies to date have tested these claims of drag reduction under dynamic and controlled conditions in which the swimming speed and hydrodynamics of shark skin and skin-like materials can be quantitatively compared with those of controls lacking surface ornamentation or with surfaces in different orientations. We use a flapping foil robotic device that allows accurate determination of the self-propelled swimming (SPS) speed of both rigid and flexible membrane-like foils made of shark skin and two biomimetic models of shark skin to measure locomotor performance. We studied the SPS speed of real shark skin, a silicone riblet material with evenly spaced ridges and a Speedo® 'shark skin-like' swimsuit fabric attached to rigid flat-plate foils and when made into flexible membrane-like foils. We found no consistent increase in swimming speed with Speedo® fabric, a 7.2% increase with riblet material, whereas shark skin membranes (but not rigid shark skin plates) showed a mean 12.3% increase in swimming speed compared with the same skin foils after removing the denticles. Deformation of the shark skin membrane is thus crucial to the drag-reducing effect of surface denticles. Digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) of the flow field surrounding moving shark skin foils shows that skin denticles promote enhanced leading-edge suction, which might have contributed to the observed increase in swimming speed. Shark skin denticles might thus enhance thrust, as well as reduce drag. PMID:22323201

  17. Hyperelastic Material Properties of Mouse Skin under Compression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuxiang; Marshall, Kara L.; Baba, Yoshichika; Gerling, Gregory J.; Lumpkin, Ellen A.

    2013-01-01

    The skin is a dynamic organ whose complex material properties are capable of withstanding continuous mechanical stress while accommodating insults and organism growth. Moreover, synchronized hair cycles, comprising waves of hair growth, regression and rest, are accompanied by dramatic fluctuations in skin thickness in mice. Whether such structural changes alter skin mechanics is unknown. Mouse models are extensively used to study skin biology and pathophysiology, including aging, UV-induced skin damage and somatosensory signaling. As the skin serves a pivotal role in the transfer function from sensory stimuli to neuronal signaling, we sought to define the mechanical properties of mouse skin over a range of normal physiological states. Skin thickness, stiffness and modulus were quantitatively surveyed in adult, female mice (Mus musculus). These measures were analyzed under uniaxial compression, which is relevant for touch reception and compression injuries, rather than tension, which is typically used to analyze skin mechanics. Compression tests were performed with 105 full-thickness, freshly isolated specimens from the hairy skin of the hind limb. Physiological variables included body weight, hair-cycle stage, maturity level, skin site and individual animal differences. Skin thickness and stiffness were dominated by hair-cycle stage at young (6–10 weeks) and intermediate (13–19 weeks) adult ages but by body weight in mature mice (26–34 weeks). Interestingly, stiffness varied inversely with thickness so that hyperelastic modulus was consistent across hair-cycle stages and body weights. By contrast, the mechanics of hairy skin differs markedly with anatomical location. In particular, skin containing fascial structures such as nerves and blood vessels showed significantly greater modulus than adjacent sites. Collectively, this systematic survey indicates that, although its structure changes dramatically throughout adult life, mouse skin at a given location

  18. Nicotinamide and the skin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L

    2014-08-01

    Nicotinamide, an amide form of vitamin B3, boosts cellular energy and regulates poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase 1, an enzyme with important roles in DNA repair and the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Nicotinamide shows promise for the treatment of a wide range of dermatological conditions, including autoimmune blistering disorders, acne, rosacea, ageing skin and atopic dermatitis. In particular, recent studies have also shown it to be a potential agent for reducing actinic keratoses and preventing skin cancers. PMID:24635573

  19. Skin penetration enhancers.

    PubMed

    Lane, Majella E

    2013-04-15

    The skin has evolved to prevent excessive water loss from the internal organs and to limit the ability of xenobiotics and hazardous substances to enter the body. Notwithstanding this barrier function, a number of strategies have been developed by scientists to deliver drugs to and through the skin. The aim of this review is to consider the various types of chemical penetration enhancers (CPEs) which have been investigated in the scientific literature. Potential pathways for CPEs to exert their action are examined with reference to the physical chemistry of passive skin transport. The emphasis is on those studies which have focussed on human and porcine skin because of the limitations associated with skin permeation data collated from other species. Where known, the mechanisms of action of these compounds are also discussed. Examples of enhancers used in commercial topical and transdermal formulations are provided. It is proposed that overall the effects of CPEs on the skin barrier may best be explained by a Diffusion-Partition-Solubility theory. Finally, some of the limitations of studies in the literature are considered and the importance of monitoring the fate of the penetration enhancer as well as the active is highlighted. PMID:23462366

  20. Ultraflexible organic photonic skin

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Tomoyuki; Zalar, Peter; Kaltenbrunner, Martin; Jinno, Hiroaki; Matsuhisa, Naoji; Kitanosako, Hiroki; Tachibana, Yutaro; Yukita, Wakako; Koizumi, Mari; Someya, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Thin-film electronics intimately laminated onto the skin imperceptibly equip the human body with electronic components for health-monitoring and information technologies. When electronic devices are worn, the mechanical flexibility and/or stretchability of thin-film devices helps to minimize the stress and discomfort associated with wear because of their conformability and softness. For industrial applications, it is important to fabricate wearable devices using processing methods that maximize throughput and minimize cost. We demonstrate ultraflexible and conformable three-color, highly efficient polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) and organic photodetectors (OPDs) to realize optoelectronic skins (oe-skins) that introduce multiple electronic functionalities such as sensing and displays on the surface of human skin. The total thickness of the devices, including the substrate and encapsulation layer, is only 3 μm, which is one order of magnitude thinner than the epidermal layer of human skin. By integrating green and red PLEDs with OPDs, we fabricate an ultraflexible reflective pulse oximeter. The device unobtrusively measures the oxygen concentration of blood when laminated on a finger. On-skin seven-segment digital displays and color indicators can visualize data directly on the body. PMID:27152354

  1. Influence of Age and Nutritional Status on the Performance of the Tuberculin Skin Test and QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube in Young Children Evaluated for Tuberculosis in Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Jenum, Synne; Selvam, Sumithra; Mahelai, Diana; Jesuraj, Nelson; Cárdenas, Vicky; Kenneth, John; Hesseling, Anneke C.; Doherty, Timothy Mark; Vaz, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Background: Reliable identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection or tuberculosis (TB) disease in young children is vital to assure adequate preventive and curative treatment. The tuberculin skin test (TST) and IFNγ-release assays may supplement the diagnosis of pediatric TB as cases are typically bacteriologically unconfirmed. However, it is unclear to what extent the performance of TST and QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT; Cellestis’ IFNγ-release assay test) depends on the demographic, clinical and nutritional characteristics of children in whom they are tested. Methods: During a 2-year prospective observational study of 4382 neonates in Southern India, children with suspected TB were investigated and classified by a standard TB diagnostic algorithm. Results: Clinical TB was diagnosed in 13 of 705 children referred for case verification with suspected TB. TST and QFT had a susceptibility for clinical TB of 31% and 23%, respectively, in this group. Children <2 years were more likely to test QFT indeterminate. A height-for-age Z score within the lowest quartile increased the odds ratio (OR) for a positive or indeterminate QFT result [OR 2.46 (1.19–5.06), OR 3.08 (1.10–8.58)], whereas the OR for a positive TST was reduced with a weight-for-height Z score within the lowest quartile [OR 0.17 (0.06–0.47)]. Conclusion: The sensitivities of the TST and QFT for clinical TB in children <3 years of age were equally poor in this population. Stunted children were more susceptible to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and more prone to indeterminate QFT results. TST was less reliable in children with wasting. PMID:24797993

  2. Rate of tuberculosis infection in children and adolescents with household contact with adults with active pulmonary tuberculosis as assessed by tuberculin skin test and interferon-gamma release assays.

    PubMed

    Ferrarini, M A G; Spina, F G; Weckx, L Y; Lederman, H M; De Moraes-Pinto, M I

    2016-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) infection was evaluated in Brazilian immunocompetent children and adolescents exposed and unexposed (control group) to adults with active pulmonary TB. Both groups were analysed by clinical and radiological assessment, TST, QFT-IT and T-SPOT.TB. The three tests were repeated after 8 weeks in the TB-exposed group if results were initially negative. Individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) were treated and tests were repeated after treatment. Fifty-nine TB-exposed and 42 controls were evaluated. Rate of infection was 69·5% and 9·5% for the exposed and control groups, respectively. The exposed group infection rate was 61% assessed by TST, 57·6% by T-SPOT.TB, and 59·3%, by QFT-IT. No active TB was diagnosed. Agreement between the three tests was 83·1% and 92·8% in the exposed and control groups, respectively. In the exposed group, T-SPOT.TB added four TB diagnoses [16%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·6-30·4] and QFT-IT added three TB diagnoses (12%, 95% CI 0-24·7) in 25 individuals with negative tuberculin skin test (TST). Risk factors associated to TB infection were contact with an adult with active TB [0-60 days: odds ratio (OR) 6·9; >60 days: OR 27·0] and sleeping in the same room as an adult with active TB (OR 5·2). In Brazilian immunocompetent children and adolescents, TST had a similar performance to interferon-gamma release assays and detected a high rate of LTBI. PMID:26234295

  3. Integrated decision strategies for skin sensitization hazard.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Judy; Zang, Qingda; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Paris, Michael; Lehmann, David M; Choksi, Neepa; Matheson, Joanna; Jacobs, Abigail; Lowit, Anna; Allen, David; Casey, Warren

    2016-09-01

    One of the top priorities of the Interagency Coordinating Committee for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) is the identification and evaluation of non-animal alternatives for skin sensitization testing. Although skin sensitization is a complex process, the key biological events of the process have been well characterized in an adverse outcome pathway (AOP) proposed by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Accordingly, ICCVAM is working to develop integrated decision strategies based on the AOP using in vitro, in chemico and in silico information. Data were compiled for 120 substances tested in the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA), direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA), human cell line activation test (h-CLAT) and KeratinoSens assay. Data for six physicochemical properties, which may affect skin penetration, were also collected, and skin sensitization read-across predictions were performed using OECD QSAR Toolbox. All data were combined into a variety of potential integrated decision strategies to predict LLNA outcomes using a training set of 94 substances and an external test set of 26 substances. Fifty-four models were built using multiple combinations of machine learning approaches and predictor variables. The seven models with the highest accuracy (89-96% for the test set and 96-99% for the training set) for predicting LLNA outcomes used a support vector machine (SVM) approach with different combinations of predictor variables. The performance statistics of the SVM models were higher than any of the non-animal tests alone and higher than simple test battery approaches using these methods. These data suggest that computational approaches are promising tools to effectively integrate data sources to identify potential skin sensitizers without animal testing. Published 2016. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:26851134

  4. Chemically induced skin carcinogenesis: Updates in experimental models (Review).

    PubMed

    Neagu, Monica; Caruntu, Constantin; Constantin, Carolina; Boda, Daniel; Zurac, Sabina; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2016-05-01

    Skin cancer is one of the most common malignancies affecting humans worldwide, and its incidence is rapidly increasing. The study of skin carcinogenesis is of major interest for both scientific research and clinical practice and the use of in vivo systems may facilitate the investigation of early alterations in the skin and of the mechanisms involved, and may also lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies for skin cancer. This review outlines several aspects regarding the skin toxicity testing domain in mouse models of chemically induced skin carcinogenesis. There are important strain differences in view of the histological type, development and clinical evolution of the skin tumor, differences reported decades ago and confirmed by our hands‑on experience. Using mouse models in preclinical testing is important due to the fact that, at the molecular level, common mechanisms with human cutaneous tumorigenesis are depicted. These animal models resemble human skin cancer development, in that genetic changes caused by carcinogens and pro‑inflammatory cytokines, and simultaneous inflammation sustained by pro‑inflammatory cytokines and chemokines favor tumor progression. Drugs and environmental conditions can be tested using these animal models. keeping in mind the differences between human and rodent skin physiology. PMID:26986013

  5. Chemically induced skin carcinogenesis: Updates in experimental models (Review)

    PubMed Central

    NEAGU, MONICA; CARUNTU, CONSTANTIN; CONSTANTIN, CAROLINA; BODA, DANIEL; ZURAC, SABINA; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDIS M.

    2016-01-01

    Skin cancer is one of the most common malignancies affecting humans worldwide, and its incidence is rapidly increasing. The study of skin carcinogenesis is of major interest for both scientific research and clinical practice and the use of in vivo systems may facilitate the investigation of early alterations in the skin and of the mechanisms involved, and may also lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies for skin cancer. This review outlines several aspects regarding the skin toxicity testing domain in mouse models of chemically induced skin carcinogenesis. There are important strain differences in view of the histological type, development and clinical evolution of the skin tumor, differences reported decades ago and confirmed by our hands-on experience. Using mouse models in preclinical testing is important due to the fact that, at the molecular level, common mechanisms with human cutaneous tumorigenesis are depicted. These animal models resemble human skin cancer development, in that genetic changes caused by carcinogens and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and simultaneous inflammation sustained by pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines favor tumor progression. Drugs and environmental conditions can be tested using these animal models. keeping in mind the differences between human and rodent skin physiology. PMID:26986013

  6. Genetic Testing (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Genetic Testing KidsHealth > For Parents > Genetic Testing Print A ... blood, skin, bone, or other tissue is needed. Genetic Testing During Pregnancy For genetic testing before birth, ...

  7. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shenefelt, Philip D; Shenefelt, Debrah A

    2014-01-01

    Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, “goose bumps”, redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. PMID:25120377

  8. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Shenefelt, Philip D; Shenefelt, Debrah A

    2014-01-01

    Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, "goose bumps", redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. PMID:25120377

  9. Improving spatial resolution in skin-contact thermography: comparison between a spline based and linear interpolation.

    PubMed

    Giansanti, Daniele

    2008-07-01

    A wearable device for skin-contact thermography [Giansanti D, Maccioni G. Development and testing of a wearable integrated thermometer sensor for skin contact thermography. Med Eng Phys 2006 [ahead of print

  10. Serial QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube assay and tuberculin skin test to diagnose latent tuberculosis in household Mexican contacts: conversion and reversion rates and associated factors using conventional and borderline zone definitions

    PubMed Central

    Monárrez-Espino, Joel; Enciso-Moreno, José Antonio; Laflamme, Lucie; Serrano, Carmen J

    2014-01-01

    A cohort of 123 adult contacts was followed for 18‐24 months (86 completed the follow-up) to compare conversion and reversion rates based on two serial measures of QuantiFERON (QFT) and tuberculin skin test (TST) (PPD from TUBERSOL, Aventis Pasteur, Canada) for diagnosing latent tuberculosis (TB) in household contacts of TB patients using conventional (C) and borderline zone (BZ) definitions. Questionnaires were used to obtain information regarding TB exposure, TB risk factors and socio-demographic data. QFT (IU/mL) conversion was defined as <0.35 to ≥0.35 (C) or <0.35 to >0.70 (BZ) and reversion was defined as ≥0.35 to <0.35 (C) or ≥0.35 to <0.20 (BZ); TST (mm) conversion was defined as <5 to ≥5 (C) or <5 to >10 (BZ) and reversion was defined as ≥5 to <5 (C). The QFT conversion and reversion rates were 10.5% and 7% with C and 8.1% and 4.7% with the BZ definitions, respectively. The TST rates were higher compared with QFT, especially with the C definitions (conversion 23.3%, reversion 9.3%). The QFT conversion and reversion rates were higher for TST ≥5; for TST, both rates were lower for QFT <0.35. No risk factors were associated with the probability of converting or reverting. The inconsistency and apparent randomness of serial testing is confusing and adds to the limitations of these tests and definitions to follow-up close TB contacts. PMID:25410989

  11. Serial QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube assay and tuberculin skin test to diagnose latent tuberculosis in household Mexican contacts: conversion and reversion rates and associated factors using conventional and borderline zone definitions.

    PubMed

    Monárrez-Espino, Joel; Enciso-Moreno, José Antonio; Laflamme, Lucie; Serrano, Carmen J

    2014-11-01

    A cohort of 123 adult contacts was followed for 18-24 months (86 completed the follow-up) to compare conversion and reversion rates based on two serial measures of QuantiFERON (QFT) and tuberculin skin test (TST) (PPD from TUBERSOL, Aventis Pasteur, Canada) for diagnosing latent tuberculosis (TB) in household contacts of TB patients using conventional (C) and borderline zone (BZ) definitions. Questionnaires were used to obtain information regarding TB exposure, TB risk factors and socio-demographic data. QFT (IU/mL) conversion was defined as <0.35 to ≥0.35 (C) or <0.35 to >0.70 (BZ) and reversion was defined as ≥0.35 to <0.35 (C) or ≥0.35 to <0.20 (BZ); TST (mm) conversion was defined as <5 to ≥5 (C) or <5 to >10 (BZ) and reversion was defined as ≥5 to <5 (C). The QFT conversion and reversion rates were 10.5% and 7% with C and 8.1% and 4.7% with the BZ definitions, respectively. The TST rates were higher compared with QFT, especially with the C definitions (conversion 23.3%, reversion 9.3%). The QFT conversion and reversion rates were higher for TST ≥5; for TST, both rates were lower for QFT <0.35. No risk factors were associated with the probability of converting or reverting. The inconsistency and apparent randomness of serial testing is confusing and adds to the limitations of these tests and definitions to follow-up close TB contacts. PMID:25410989

  12. Epidermal skin grafting.

    PubMed

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Hughes, Olivia B; Macquhae, Flor; Rakosi, Adele; Kirsner, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Autologous skin grafts, such as full- and split-thickness, have long been part of the reconstructive ladder as an option to close skin defects. Although they are effective in providing coverage, they require the need for a trained surgeon, use of anaesthesia and operating room and creation of a wound at the donor site. These drawbacks can be overcome with the use of epidermal skin grafts (ESGs), which can be harvested without the use of anaesthesia in an office setting and with minimal to no scarring at the donor site. ESGs consist only of the epidermal layer and have emerged as an appealing alternative to other autologous grafts for the treatment of acute and chronic wounds. In this article, we provide an overview of epidermal grafting and its role in wound management. PMID:27547964

  13. Sprayed skin turbine component

    DOEpatents

    Allen, David B

    2013-06-04

    Fabricating a turbine component (50) by casting a core structure (30), forming an array of pits (24) in an outer surface (32) of the core structure, depositing a transient liquid phase (TLP) material (40) on the outer surface of the core structure, the TLP containing a melting-point depressant, depositing a skin (42) on the outer surface of the core structure over the TLP material, and heating the assembly, thus forming both a diffusion bond and a mechanical interlock between the skin and the core structure. The heating diffuses the melting-point depressant away from the interface. Subsurface cooling channels (35) may be formed by forming grooves (34) in the outer surface of the core structure, filling the grooves with a fugitive filler (36), depositing and bonding the skin (42), then removing the fugitive material.

  14. Skin friction balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ping, Tcheng (Inventor); Supplee, Frank H., Jr. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A skin friction balance uses a parallel linkage mechanism to avoid inaccuracies in skin friction measurement attributable to off-center normal forces. The parallel linkage mechanism includes a stationary plate mounted in a cage, and an upper and lower movable plate which are linked to each other and to the stationary plate throught three vertical links. Flexure pivots are provided for pivotally connecting the links and the plates. A sensing element connected to the upper plate moves in response to skin friction, and the lower plate moves in the opposite direction of the upper plate. A force motor maintains a null position of the sensing element by exerting a restoring force in response to a signal generated by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT).

  15. Allergy Testing.

    PubMed

    Tourlas, Konstantinos; Burman, Deepa

    2016-09-01

    Allergic diseases are common in outpatient primary care. Allergy testing can guide management to determine allergy as a cause of symptoms and target therapeutic interventions. This article provides a review of common methods of allergy testing available so that physicians may counsel and refer patients appropriately. Immediate-type hypersensitivity skin tests can be used for airborne allergens, foods, insect stings, and penicillin. Radioallergosorbent testing can be used to evaluate immediate-type hypersensitivity. Delayed-type hypersensitivity or patch-type skin tests are used in patients with suspected contact dermatitis. PMID:27545728

  16. Boron/aluminum skins for the DC-10 aft pylon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, S. Y.

    1975-01-01

    Boron/aluminum pylon boat tail skins were designed and fabricated and installed on the DC-10 aircraft for a 5-year flight service demonstration test. Inspection and tests of the exposed skins will establish the ability of the boron/aluminum composite to withstand long time flight service conditions, which include exposure to high temperatures, sonic fatigue, and flutter. The results of a preliminary testing program yield room temperature and elevated temperature data on the tension, compression, in-plane shear, interlaminar shear, bolt bearing, and tension fatigue properties of the boron/aluminum laminates. Present technology was used in the fabrication of the skins. Although maximum weight saving was not sought, weight of the constant thickness boron/aluminum skin is 26% less than the chemically milled titanium skin.

  17. Evaluation of Skin Colouring Properties of Curcuma Longa Extract

    PubMed Central

    Arct, J.; Ratz-Łyko, Anna; Mieloch, M.; Witulska, M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the skin colouring properties of curcuma extract in cosmetic formulations. Objective measurements of the skin colour changes were done by Chromameter using the CIE L*a*b* colour space parameters. These measurements were correlated with the results of the sensory analysis. The observations showed permanent, visible and statistically significant changing of b* component after one application of emulsions containing 12% and 25% of turmeric extract. The change of skin color remained also after removing the emulsion. Sensory analysis indicated that the tested emulsions with curcuma extract have a significant impact on skin smoothness, spreadability, cosmetic absorption and pillow effect. PMID:25284937

  18. [Skin and hand disinfection].

    PubMed

    Mathis, U

    1991-04-01

    In modern medicine, hygiene has become an issue of ever increasing importance. Disinfection of hands is crucial, since hands are the main vector of bacteria. Successful disinfection depends not only on the appropriate choice of an active agent, but equally so on proper techniques and skin care. The spectre and the time profile of activity as well as the skin-protecting properties of the chosen disinfectant must be known. Basic knowledge of disinfection is necessary for a rational interpretation of the information given in the glossy printed material of advertisement. PMID:1858061

  19. Neck skin rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Duplechain, J Kevin

    2014-05-01

    The author of this article uses the pulsed ablative CO2 laser for resurfacing of the neck and face, based on the gold standard status of the CO2 laser and a novel post-treatment plan that greatly reduces adverse effects traditionally associated with fully ablative resurfacing. The croton oil peel is an inexpensive and effective modality for rejuvenating neck skin. The use of either technique as an adjunct to neck lift surgery, with or without facelift surgery, permits surgeons to fulfill the expectations of patients who want the skin of their face and neck to be homogeneous and more attractive. PMID:24745383

  20. Skin disorders during menopause.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Gleison V; Trigo, Ana Cm; Paim de Oliveira, Mária de Fátima

    2016-02-01

    Menopause is the cessation of menstrual periods due to the loss of ovarian function. Among the various phases of a woman's life, menopause has the greatest impact on health and has been one of the most neglected areas of research. Hormonal changes caused by menopause can lead to problems in the skin and its annexes, and despite the high frequency of dermatologic signs and symptoms, studies on this topic are limited. In this article, we review the skin disorders that result from the hormonal changes of menopause and other common dermatoses observed during this period and assess possible therapeutic approaches. PMID:26919507

  1. Material Properties of Hagfish Skin, with Insights into Knotting Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Clark, Andrew J; Crawford, Callie H; King, Brooke D; Demas, Andrew M; Uyeno, Theodore A

    2016-06-01

    Hagfishes (Myxinidae) often integrate whole-body knotting movements with jawless biting motions when reducing large marine carcasses to ingestible items. Adaptations for these behaviors include complex arrangements of axial muscles and flexible, elongate bodies without vertebrae. Between the axial muscles and the hagfish skin is a large, blood-filled subcutaneous sinus devoid of the intricate, myoseptal tendon networks characteristic of the taut skins of other fishes. We propose that the loose-fitting skin of the hagfish facilitates the formation and manipulation of body knots, even if it is of little functional significance to steady swimming. Hagfish skin is a relatively thick, anisotropic, multilayered composite material comprising a superficial, thin, and slimy epidermis, a middle dermal layer densely packed with fibrous tissues, and a deep subdermal layer comprised of adipose tissue. Hagfish skin is stiffer when pulled longitudinally than circumferentially. Stress-strain data from uniaxial tensile tests show that hagfish skins are comparable in tensile strength and stiffness to the taut skins of elongate fishes that do not engage in knotting behaviors (e.g., sea lamprey and penpoint gunnel). Sheath-core-constructed ropes, which serve as more accurate models for hagfish bodies, demonstrate that loose skin (extra sheathing) enhances flexibility of the body (rope). Along with a loose-fitting skin, the morphologies of hagfish skin parallel those of moray eels, which are also known for generating and manipulating figure-eight-style body knots when struggling with prey. PMID:27365419

  2. Penetration of quantum dot particles through human skin.

    PubMed

    Gratieri, Taís; Schaefer, Ulrich F; Jing, Lihong; Gao, Mingyuan; Kostka, K-H; Lopez, Renata F V; Schneider, Marc

    2010-10-01

    The skin is a large and accessible area of the body, offering the possibility to be used as an alternative route for drug delivery. In the last few years strong progress has been made on the developing of nanoparticulate systems for specific applications. The interaction of such small particles with human skin and their possible penetration attracted some interest from toxicological as well as from drug delivery perspectives. As size is assumed to play a key role, the aim of the present work was to investigate the penetration profile of very small model particles (approximately 4 nm) into excised human skin under conditions chosen to mimic the in vivo situation. Possible application procedures such as massaging the formulation (5 to 10 minutes) were analyzed by non-invasive multiphoton- and confocal laser scanning microscopy (MPM, CLSM). Furthermore, the application on damaged skin was taken into account by deliberately removing parts of the stratum corneum. Although it was clearly observed that the mechanical actions affected the distribution pattern of the QDs on the skin surface, there was no evidence of penetration into the skin in all cases tested. QDs could be found in deeper layers only after massaging of damaged skin for 10 min. Taking these data into account, obtained on the gold standard human skin, the potential applications of nanoparticulate systems to act as carrier delivering drugs into intact skin might be limited and are only of interest for partly damaged skin. PMID:21329051

  3. Fatigue Life Methodology for Bonded Composite Skin/Stringer Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Ronald; Paris, Isabelle L.; OBrien, T. Kevin

    2000-01-01

    A methodology is presented for determining the fatigue life of bonded composite skin/stringer structures based on delamination fatigue characterization data and geometric nonlinear finite element analyses. Results were compared to fatigue tests on stringer flange/skin specimens to verify the approach.

  4. Beginning Skin and Scuba Diving, Physical Education: 5551.69.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Millie

    This course outline is a guide for teaching the principles and basic fundamentals of beginning skin and scuba diving in grades 7-12. The course format includes lectures, skills practice, films, and tests that focus on mastery of skills and understanding correct usage of skin and scuba equipment. Course content includes the following: (a) history,…

  5. Study of surfactant-skin interactions by skin impedance measurements.

    PubMed

    Lu, Guojin; Moore, David J

    2012-02-01

    The stratum corneum (SC) plays a very critical physiological role as skin barrier in regulating water loss through the skin and protects the body from a wide range of physical and chemical exogenous insults. Surfactant-containing formulations can induce skin damage and irritation owing to surfactant absorption and penetration. It is generally accepted that reduction in skin barrier properties occurs only after surfactants have penetrated/permeated into the skin barrier. To mitigate the harshness of surfactant-based cleansing products, penetration/permeation of surfactants should be reduced. Skin impedance measurements have been taken in vitro on porcine skin using vertical Franz diffusion cells to investigate the impact of surfactants, temperature and pH on skin barrier integrity. These skin impedance results demonstrate excellent correlation with other published methods for assessing skin damage and irritation from different surfactant chemistry, concentration, pH, time of exposure and temperature. This study demonstrates that skin impedance can be utilized as a routine approach to screen surfactant-containing formulations for their propensity to compromise the skin barrier and hence likely lead to skin irritation. PMID:21923733

  6. Surface Imaging Skin Friction Instrument and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, James L. (Inventor); Naughton, Jonathan W. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A surface imaging skin friction instrument allowing 2D resolution of spatial image by a 2D Hilbert transform and 2D inverse thin-oil film solver, providing an innovation over prior art single point approaches. Incoherent, monochromatic light source can be used. The invention provides accurate, easy to use, economical measurement of larger regions of surface shear stress in a single test.

  7. Clinical applications of skin substitutes.

    PubMed

    Nyame, Theodore T; Chiang, H Abraham; Orgill, Dennis P

    2014-08-01

    A unique understanding of the components of mammalian skin has led to the development of numerous skin substitutes. These skin substitutes attempt to compensate for functional and physiologic deficits present in damaged tissue. Skin substitutes, when appropriately applied in optimized settings, offer a promising solution to difficult wound management. The body of literature on skin substitutes increases as the understanding of tissue engineering and molecular biology expands. Given the high cost of these products, future randomized large prospective studies are needed to guide the clinical applications of skin substitutes. PMID:25085091

  8. About Skin-to-Skin Care (Kangaroo Care)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size Email Print Share About Skin-to-Skin Care Page Content Article Body You may be able ... care, also called kangaroo care. What is Kangaroo Care? Kangaroo care was developed in South America as ...

  9. Test battery with the human cell line activation test, direct peptide reactivity assay and DEREK based on a 139 chemical data set for predicting skin sensitizing potential and potency of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Takenouchi, Osamu; Fukui, Shiho; Okamoto, Kenji; Kurotani, Satoru; Imai, Noriyasu; Fujishiro, Miyuki; Kyotani, Daiki; Kato, Yoshinao; Kasahara, Toshihiko; Fujita, Masaharu; Toyoda, Akemi; Sekiya, Daisuke; Watanabe, Shinichi; Seto, Hirokazu; Hirota, Morihiko; Ashikaga, Takao; Miyazawa, Masaaki

    2015-11-01

    To develop a testing strategy incorporating the human cell line activation test (h-CLAT), direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA) and DEREK, we created an expanded data set of 139 chemicals (102 sensitizers and 37 non-sensitizers) by combining the existing data set of 101 chemicals through the collaborative projects of Japan Cosmetic Industry Association. Of the additional 38 chemicals, 15 chemicals with relatively low water solubility (log Kow > 3.5) were selected to clarify the limitation of testing strategies regarding the lipophilic chemicals. Predictivities of the h-CLAT, DPRA and DEREK, and the combinations thereof were evaluated by comparison to results of the local lymph node assay. When evaluating 139 chemicals using combinations of three methods based on integrated testing strategy (ITS) concept (ITS-based test battery) and a sequential testing strategy (STS) weighing the predictive performance of the h-CLAT and DPRA, overall similar predictivities were found as before on the 101 chemical data set. An analysis of false negative chemicals suggested a major limitation of our strategies was the testing of low water-soluble chemicals. When excluded the negative results for chemicals with log Kow > 3.5, the sensitivity and accuracy of ITS improved to 97% (91 of 94 chemicals) and 89% (114 of 128). Likewise, the sensitivity and accuracy of STS to 98% (92 of 94) and 85% (111 of 129). Moreover, the ITS and STS also showed good correlation with local lymph node assay on three potency classifications, yielding accuracies of 74% (ITS) and 73% (STS). Thus, the inclusion of log Kow in analysis could give both strategies a higher predictive performance. PMID:25820183

  10. Skin nitric oxide and its metabolites are increased in nonburned skin after thermal injuries.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Gisele V; Shimoda, Katsumi; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Jodoin, Jeff; Burke, A S; Chinkes, D L; Hawkins, Hal K; Herndon, David N; Traber, Lillian; Traber, Daniel; Murakami, Kazunori

    2004-09-01

    Local and systemic inflammation can lead to progression of burn wounds, converting second- to third-degree wounds or extending the burn to adjacent areas. Previous studies have suggested that the skin is an important site of production of nitric oxide (NO), synthesized by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activation after injury. NO increases in burned wounds, but its formation in noninjured skin has not been investigated. We hypothesized that after severe burns, NO and cytotoxic peroxynitrite would increase in noninjured skin. We also tested the hypothesis that BBS-2, a specific inhibitor of iNOS, would impair NO formation after burn. Thirteen female sheep were randomized into burn injury and smoke inhalation (n = 5, group 1), burn and smoke treated with BBS-2 (n = 3, group 2), and sham (saline treatment, no injury) (n = 5, group 3). All the animals, including the sham-injury group, were mechanically ventilated for 48 h. Samples of nonburned skin and plasma were collected from each animal, and levels of NO and its metabolites were evaluated using a NO chemiluminescent detector. Nitrotyrosine and iNOS expression were determined in the skin by Immunoperoxidase staining, and scoring of masked slides (epidermis, hair follicles, vessels, glands, and stroma) was performed. Skin NO and metabolites significantly increased in the burn and smoke injury group, and this was inhibited by BBS-2. Nitrotyrosine expression also increased significantly in the skin of burned animals. BBS-2 prevented the increase of NOx but not the increase of nitrotyrosine expression in skin. Plasma levels of NO increased in burned animals when compared with sham, but this increase was not significant. The increase of NO and its metabolites after burn in noninjured skin is followed by a significant increase in peroxynitrite, a potent cytotoxic mediator. PMID:15316399

  11. Noninvasive Skin Tightening Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive skin tightening has become one of the most common cosmetic aesthetic procedures being performed today. The use of radiofrequency devices for these procedures has been at the forefront of this trend for the past several years. Newer and more sophisticated radiofrequency devices are being brought to the market and presented here are the Venus Freeze and Venus Legacy. PMID:26155322

  12. Flexible electronics: Sophisticated skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Siegfried

    2013-10-01

    Advances in materials science and layout design have enabled the realization of flexible and multifunctional electronic devices. Two demonstrations of electronic skins, which combine temperature and pressure sensing with integrated thermal actuators and organic displays, unveil the potential of these devices for robotics and clinical applications.

  13. Chemokines and skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Sugaya, Makoto

    2015-04-01

    Chemokines are small molecules that induce chemotaxis and activation of certain subsets of leukocytes. The expression patterns of chemokines and chemokine receptors are specific to certain organs and cells. Therefore, chemokines are important to elucidate the mechanism of organ-specific human diseases. CCL17 expressed by Langerhans cells, blood endothelial cells, and fibroblasts plays a key role in attracting Th2 cells and tumor cells of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and mycosis fungoides/Sézary syndrome into the skin, developing various Th2-type inflammatory skin diseases as well as cutaneous lymphoma. CCL11 and CCL26 expressed by skin-resident cells, such as fibroblasts, blood endothelial cells, and keratinocytes, induce infiltration of CCR3-expressing cells such as Th2 cells and eosinophils. CCL11 may also serve as an autocrine as well as a paracrine in anaplastic large cell lymphoma. CX3CL1 expressed on blood endothelial cells leads to infiltration of CX3CR1(+) immune cells, such as mast cells, neutrophils, and macrophages, playing important roles in wound healing, tumor immunity, and vasculitis. Biologics targeting chemokines and their receptors are promising strategies for various skin diseases that are resistant to the current therapy. PMID:25182982

  14. Optical multichannel sensing of skin blood pulsations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spigulis, Janis; Erts, Renars; Kukulis, Indulis; Ozols, Maris; Prieditis, Karlis

    2004-09-01

    Time resolved detection and analysis of the skin back-scattered optical signals (reflection photoplethysmography or PPG) provide information on skin blood volume pulsations and can serve for cardiovascular assessment. The multi-channel PPG concept has been developed and clinically verified in this study. Portable two- and four-channel PPG monitoring devices have been designed for real-time data acquisition and processing. The multi-channel devices were successfully applied for cardiovascular fitness tests and for early detection of arterial occlusions in extremities. The optically measured heartbeat pulse wave propagation made possible to estimate relative arterial resistances for numerous patients and healthy volunteers.

  15. In vivo friction properties of human skin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, M; Mak, A F

    1999-08-01

    In vivo frictional properties of human skin and five materials, namely aluminium, nylon, silicone, cotton sock, Pelite, were investigated. Normal and untreated skin over six anatomic regions of ten normal subjects were measured under a controlled environment. The average coefficient of friction for all measurements is 0.46+/-0.15 (p<0.05). Among all measured sites, the palm of the hand has the highest coefficient of friction (0.62+/-0.22). For all the materials tested, silicone has the highest coefficient of friction (0.61+/-0.21), while nylon has the lowest friction (0.37+/-0.09). PMID:10493141

  16. Lightpipe luminoscope for monitoring occupational skin contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Vo-Dinh, T.; Gammage, R.B.

    1981-02-01

    A portable luminescence detector has been constructed for monitoring occupational skin contamination. The instrument design is based upon a fiberoptics bifurcated lightguide which transmits the ultraviolet excitation light to the skin area being monitored and conducts the induced fluorescence to the photon-counting detector. The performance of the instrument has been evaluated in the laboratory and field-tested at a coal conversion facility. Preliminary results indicate that coal distillates and recycled solvents from liquefaction processes can be detected at a few ..mu..L/cm/sup 2/ levels.

  17. Heat transfer tests of an 0.006-scale thin-skin space shuttle thermocouple model (141-OT) in the Langley Research Center Freon tunnel at M-6 (IH18). [wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walstad, D. G.

    1976-01-01

    Ascent heating data were obtained at conditions simulating real gas effects at hypersonic Mach numbers. The configurations tested were Orbiter alone, external tank alone, and mated Orbiter and external tank. A boundary layer trip investigation was conducted for all configurations. The test was conducted at Mach 6 and Reynolds number of one half million per foot for 0 deg and -5 deg angle-of-attack. Selected thermocouples were chosen from the Orbiter and external tank to be used for obtaining heat transfer measurements. A maximum of 42 thermocouples could be measured by the facility data acquisition at one time and no attempt was made to record the excess thermocouples located on the model. Photographs of the test configurations are shown.

  18. [The importance of allergic skin test with Johnin, antibody ELISA, cultural fecal test as well as vaccination for the sanitation of three chronically paratuberculosis-infected dairy herds in Rhineland-Palatinate].

    PubMed

    Klawonn, W; Cussler, K; Dräger, K G; Gyra, H; Köhler, H; Zimmer, K; Hess, R G

    2002-12-01

    Three chronically paratuberculosis infected herds were tested for six years twice a year (intradermal Johnin test, antibody ELISA (IDEXX Corp.), microbial culture) according to a sanitary program. Culling of shedding animals and vaccination of calves with NEOPARASEC (Merial Corp.) were part of the program. In course of experiment, 1015 samples of 228 non vaccinated cows and 1502 samples of 293 vaccinated cattle have been tested. 3.8% of the vaccinated animals proved positive in microbial culture. Nearly all vaccinated calves developed granulomas sized from hazelnut to loaf at the injection site. Positive reactions in intradermal test as well as in antibody ELISA were found in very young calves. 24.3%, 33.7%, 25.9%, respectively of the non vaccinated animals were identified as shedders of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) by microbial culture. In the first and in the second herd most shedders of MAP were found in the first herd examination (66.7%, 42.9%, respectively), whereas in the third herd they were detected in the fifth examination (31.0%). At the beginning, 17.9% of non vaccinated animals proved positive in intradermal test, 14.4% in antibody ELISA. Afterwards, the number of positive test results decreased but increased again towards the end of the experiment. 48.5% of the 66 shedders showed positive reactions in intradermal test, 57.6% in antibody ELISA, 77.3% in at least one of these both tests. Antibodies in ELISA were found in rising frequency from two years before the time of shedding. 50.0% of the shedders reacted positive in ELISA at the time of shedding. In selected shedders first positive results were found at the age of about two years. Unfortunately, only incomplete hygienic measures were realized by the farmers. Under field conditions the realisation of attending sanitary programs is difficult. MAP is spread mainly by buying of animals, therefore a certification program for paratuberculosis free herds is urgently necessary as well as an

  19. Evaluation of a Tuberculosis Skin Testing Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    There has been a recent slowdown in the decline of rates of tuberculosis (TB) in the United States. However, there are disparities in TB diagnosis between U.S.-born and foreign-born persons and between Whites and minorities. Measures for achieving TB elimination include identification of high-risk persons, including children and adolescents, at…

  20. Tactile cues significantly modulate the perception of sweat-induced skin wetness independently of the level of physical skin wetness

    PubMed Central

    Fournet, Damien; Hodder, Simon; Havenith, George

    2015-01-01

    Humans sense the wetness of a wet surface through the somatosensory integration of thermal and tactile inputs generated by the interaction between skin and moisture. However, little is known on how wetness is sensed when moisture is produced via sweating. We tested the hypothesis that, in the absence of skin cooling, intermittent tactile cues, as coded by low-threshold skin mechanoreceptors, modulate the perception of sweat-induced skin wetness, independently of the level of physical wetness. Ten males (22 yr old) performed an incremental exercise protocol during two trials designed to induce the same physical skin wetness but to induce lower (TIGHT-FIT) and higher (LOOSE-FIT) wetness perception. In the TIGHT-FIT, a tight-fitting clothing ensemble limited intermittent skin-sweat-clothing tactile interactions. In the LOOSE-FIT, a loose-fitting ensemble allowed free skin-sweat-clothing interactions. Heart rate, core and skin temperature, galvanic skin conductance (GSC), and physical (wbody) and perceived skin wetness were recorded. Exercise-induced sweat production and physical wetness increased significantly [GSC: 3.1 μS, SD 0.3 to 18.8 μS, SD 1.3, P < 0.01; wbody: 0.26 no-dimension units (nd), SD 0.02, to 0.92 nd, SD 0.01, P < 0.01], with no differences between TIGHT-FIT and LOOSE-FIT (P > 0.05). However, the limited intermittent tactile inputs generated by the TIGHT-FIT ensemble reduced significantly whole-body and regional wetness perception (P < 0.01). This reduction was more pronounced when between 40 and 80% of the body was covered in sweat. We conclude that the central integration of intermittent mechanical interactions between skin, sweat, and clothing, as coded by low-threshold skin mechanoreceptors, significantly contributes to the ability to sense sweat-induced skin wetness. PMID:25878153

  1. Sun Safety: Save Your Skin

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... all types of skin damage caused by sunlight water resistance—sunscreen that stays on your skin longer, even if it gets wet. Reapply water-resistant sunscreens as instructed on the label back ...

  2. Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer This page lists cancer ... in skin cancer that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Basal Cell Carcinoma Aldara (Imiquimod) Efudex ( ...

  3. Methodologies in creating skin substitutes.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Mathew N; Jeschke, Marc G; Amini-Nik, Saeid

    2016-09-01

    The creation of skin substitutes has significantly decreased morbidity and mortality of skin wounds. Although there are still a number of disadvantages of currently available skin substitutes, there has been a significant decline in research advances over the past several years in improving these skin substitutes. Clinically most skin substitutes used are acellular and do not use growth factors to assist wound healing, key areas of potential in this field of research. This article discusses the five necessary attributes of an ideal skin substitute. It comprehensively discusses the three major basic components of currently available skin substitutes: scaffold materials, growth factors, and cells, comparing and contrasting what has been used so far. It then examines a variety of techniques in how to incorporate these basic components together to act as a guide for further research in the field to create cellular skin substitutes with better clinical results. PMID:27154041

  4. Skin Cancers of the Feet

    MedlinePlus

    ... common cancers of the feet are: Basal Cell Carcinoma : Basal cell carcinoma frequently is seen on sun-exposed skin surfaces. ... damage but only rarely spreads beyond the skin. Basal cell cancers may appear as pearly white bumps or patches ...

  5. Dry skin - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... or showers frequently Washing your hands often Some soaps and detergents Skin conditions, such as eczema and ... apply your moisturizer. Avoid skin care products and soaps that contain alcohol, fragrances, dyes, or other chemicals. ...

  6. What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... that can become melanoma. They make a brown pigment called melanin , which gives the skin its tan ... to the sun, melanocytes make more of the pigment, causing the skin to tan or darken. Melanoma ...

  7. Skin Texture Recognition using Medical Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munshi, Anindita; Parekh, Ranjan

    2010-10-01

    This paper proposes an automated system for recognizing disease conditions of human skin in context to medical diagnosis. The disease conditions are recognized by analyzing skin texture images using a set of normalized symmetrical Grey Level Co occurrence Matrices (GLCM). GLCM defines the probability of grey level i occurring in the neighborhood of another grey level j at a distance d in directionθ. Directional GLCMs are computed along four directions: horizontal (θ = 0°), vertical (θ = 90°), right diagonal (θ = 45°) and left diagonal (θ = 135°), and a set of features viz. Contrast, Homogeneity and Energy computed from each, are averaged to provide an estimation of the texture class. The system is tested using 225 images pertaining to three dermatological skin conditions viz. dermatitis, eczema, urticaria. An accuracy of 94.81% is obtained using a multilayer perceptron (MLP) as a classifier.

  8. Neonatal tetanus associated with skin infection.

    PubMed

    Maharaj, M; Dungwa, N

    2016-09-01

    A 1-week-old infant was brought to a regional hospital with a history of recurrent seizures following lower abdominal septic skin infection. She was found to have neonatal tetanus, and a spatula test was positive. The tetanus infection was associated with a superficial skin infection, common in neonates. Treatment included sedatives (diazepam, chlorpromazine, phenobarbitone and morphine), muscle relaxants, antibiotics and ventilation in the neonatal intensive care unit. Intrathecal and intramuscular immunoglobulin were given, and the wound was treated. The infant recovered, with no seizures by the 16th day from admission, and was off the ventilator by the 18th day. This was shorter than the usual 3 - 4 weeks for neonates with tetanus at the hospital. The question arises whether tetanus immunisation should be considered in infants with skin infections, which frequently occur in the neonatal period. PMID:27601113

  9. Peach skin powder inhibits oxidation in cooked turkey meat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Han, I; Bridges, W C; Dawson, P L

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the antioxidant activity of peach skin and test the antioxidant effect of peach skin powder on cooked ground turkey meat during 12 d of refrigerated storage. Antioxidant activity of 3 cultivars of peaches grown in South Carolina was first evaluated by 3 antioxidant assays. The peach variety O'Henry showed the greatest antioxidant effect and therefore was used for further study. Two levels of peach skin powder (0.5%, 1%) and 0.01% butylated hydroxylanisole (BHA) were applied to ground turkey meat. Oxidation of cooked turkey meat was measured by detection of hexanal using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results indicated that all levels of peach skin powder used in this study had an antioxidant effect on ground turkey with a greater effect at the higher concentration. O'Henry peach skin powder was as effective as BHA in preventing oxidation at the levels tested. PMID:27252372

  10. The complex problem of sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Marriott, Marie; Holmes, Jo; Peters, Lisa; Cooper, Karen; Rowson, Matthew; Basketter, David A

    2005-08-01

    There exists within the population subsets of individuals who display heightened skin reactivity to materials the majority find tolerable. In a series of investigations, we have examined interrelationships between many of the endpoints associated with the term 'sensitive skin'. In the most recent work, 58 volunteers were treated with 10% lactic acid, 50% ethanol, 0.5% menthol and 1.0% capsaicin on the nasolabial fold, unoccluded, with sensory reactions recorded at 2.5 min, 5 min and 8 min after application. Urticant susceptibility was evaluated with 1 m benzoic acid and 125 mM trans-cinnamic acid applied to the volar forearm for 20 min. A 2 x 23-h patch test was also conducted using 0.1% and 0.3% sodium dodecyl sulfate, 0.3% and 0.6% cocamidopropyl betaine and 0.1% and 0.2% benzalkonium chloride to determine irritant susceptibility. As found in previous studies, increased susceptibility to one endpoint was not predictive of sensitivity to another. In our experience, nasolabial stinging was a poor predictor of general skin sensitivity. Nevertheless, it may be possible to identify in the normal population individuals who, coincidentally, are more generally sensitive to a range of non-immunologic adverse skin reactions. Whether such individuals are those who experience problems with skin care products remains to be addressed. PMID:16033403

  11. Skin and Soft Tissue Infections.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Kalyanakrishnan; Salinas, Robert C; Agudelo Higuita, Nelson Ivan

    2015-09-15

    Skin and soft tissue infections result from microbial invasion of the skin and its supporting structures. Management is determined by the severity and location of the infection and by patient comorbidities. Infections can be classified as simple (uncomplicated) or complicated (necrotizing or nonnecrotizing), or as suppurative or nonsuppurative. Most community-acquired infections are caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and beta-hemolytic streptococcus. Simple infections are usually monomicrobial and present with localized clinical findings. In contrast, complicated infections can be mono- or polymicrobial and may present with systemic inflammatory response syndrome. The diagnosis is based on clinical evaluation. Laboratory testing may be required to confirm an uncertain diagnosis, evaluate for deep infections or sepsis, determine the need for inpatient care, and evaluate and treat comorbidities. Initial antimicrobial choice is empiric, and in simple infections should cover Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species. Patients with complicated infections, including suspected necrotizing fasciitis and gangrene, require empiric polymicrobial antibiotic coverage, inpatient treatment, and surgical consultation for debridement. Superficial and small abscesses respond well to drainage and seldom require antibiotics. Immunocompromised patients require early treatment and antimicrobial coverage for possible atypical organisms. PMID:26371732

  12. [Skin manifestations of monoclonal gammopathies].

    PubMed

    Hello, M; Barbarot, S; Néel, A; Connault, J; Graveleau, J; Durant, C; Decaux, O; Hamidou, M

    2014-01-01

    Whatever their aetiology, monoclonal gammopathies can be associated to several clinical features. Mechanisms are various and sometimes unknown. Skin is frequently involved and may represent a challenging diagnosis. Indeed, skin manifestations are either the presenting features and isolated, or at the background of a systemic syndrome. Our objective was to review the various skin manifestations that have been associated with monoclonal gammopathies. PMID:24070793

  13. Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... doesn't matter whether you consider your skin light, dark, or somewhere in between. You are at risk for skin cancer. Being in the sun can damage your skin. Sunlight causes damage through ultraviolet, or UV rays, (they make up just one part of ...

  14. Skin Pedagogies and Abject Bodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenway, Jane; Bullen, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    How does the beauty industry "narrate the skin"? What does it teach women from different cultural groups about the female body? How does skin function as a site where female subjection and abjection are produced and reproduced? In this paper we examine the skin industry pointing to its extreme commodification of the female body and to the…

  15. Polyamines and nonmelanoma skin cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmour, Susan K.

    2007-11-01

    Elevated levels of polyamines have long been associated with skin tumorigenesis. Tightly regulated metabolism of polyamines is critical for cell survival and normal skin homeostasis, and these controls are dysregulated in skin tumorigenesis. A key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is upregulated in skin tumors compared to normal skin. Use of transgenic mouse models has demonstrated that polyamines play an essential role in the early promotional phase of skin tumorigenesis. The formation of skin tumors in these transgenic mice is dependent upon polyamine biosynthesis, especially putrescine, since treatment with inhibitors of ODC activity blocks the formation of skin tumors and causes the rapid regression of existing tumors. Although the mechanism by which polyamines promote skin tumorigenesis are not well understood, elevated levels of polyamines have been shown to stimulate epidermal proliferation, alter keratinocyte differentiation status, increase neovascularization, and increase synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins in a manner similar to that seen in wound healing. It is becoming increasingly apparent that elevated polyamine levels activate not only epidermal cells but also underlying stromal cells in the skin to promote the development and progression of skin tumors. The inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis has potential to be an effective chemoprevention strategy for nonmelanoma skin cancer.

  16. Reconstructed epidermis versus human and animal skin in skin absorption studies.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, S; Mahmoud, A; Vuia, A; Rübbelke, M K; Schmidt, E; Schaller, M; Kandárová, H; Haberland, A; Schäfer, U F; Bock, U; Korting, H C; Liebsch, M; Schäfer-Korting, M

    2005-09-01

    European chemical policy in general and the REACH initiative in particular will increase the number of chemical substances submitted to toxicological evaluation by several orders of magnitude compared to the current status. To limit animal exposure the resulting enormous increase in testing, however, asks for validated in vitro test systems. While the OECD favours in vitro testing for cutaneous absorption using viable human and animal skin (Guideline 428) the availability of viable human skin is already limited today. We present a comparison of various in vitro techniques suitable for routine skin absorption studies including commercially available reconstructed human epidermis which may be a reliable alternative to excised human and animal skin. In order to develop a protocol for the subsequent transfer to partner laboratories the experimental set-up was analysed stepwise using the OECD reference compounds caffeine and testosterone. Franz cell type, the donor and receptor media for hydrophilic/lipophilic substances, albumin and tensid addition, and storage conditions of the excised skins were systematically varied. A protocol has been developed which now allows to proceed to the pre-validation process. PMID:15913948

  17. A phase I dose-escalation clinical trial of a peptide-based human papillomavirus therapeutic vaccine with Candida skin test reagent as a novel vaccine adjuvant for treating women with biopsy-proven cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2/3

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, William W; Stratton, Shawna L; Myrick, Rebecca S; Vaughn, Rita; Donnalley, Lisa M; Coleman, Hannah N; Mercado, Maria; Moerman-Herzog, Andrea M; Spencer, Horace J; Andrews-Collins, Nancy R; Hitt, Wilbur C; Low, Gordon M; Manning, Nirvana A; McKelvey, Samantha S; Smith, Dora; Smith, Michael V; Phillips, Amy M; Quick, C Matthew; Jeffus, Susanne K; Hutchins, Laura F; Nakagawa, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Non-surgical treatments for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2/3 (CIN2/3) are needed as surgical treatments have been shown to double preterm delivery rate. The goal of this study was to demonstrate safety of a human papillomavirus (HPV) therapeutic vaccine called PepCan, which consists of four current good-manufacturing production-grade peptides covering the HPV type 16 E6 protein and Candida skin test reagent as a novel adjuvant. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study was a single-arm, single-institution, dose-escalation phase I clinical trial, and the patients (n = 24) were women with biopsy-proven CIN2/3. Four injections were administered intradermally every 3 weeks in limbs. Loop electrical excision procedure (LEEP) was performed 12 weeks after the last injection for treatment and histological analysis. Six subjects each were enrolled (50, 100, 250, and 500 μg per peptide). RESULTS: The most common adverse events (AEs) were injection site reactions, and none of the patients experienced dose-limiting toxicities. The best histological response was seen at the 50 μg dose level with a regression rate of 83% (n = 6), and the overall rate was 52% (n = 23). Vaccine-induced immune responses to E6 were detected in 65% of recipients (significantly in 43%). Systemic T-helper type 1 (Th1) cells were significantly increased after four vaccinations (P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that PepCan is safe. A significantly increased systemic level of Th1 cells suggests that Candida, which induces interleukin-12 (IL-12) in vitro, may have a Th1 promoting effect. A phase II clinical trial to assess the full effect of this vaccine is warranted. PMID:26451301

  18. Autofluorescence properties of skin and applications in dermatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Haishan; McLean, David I.; MacAulay, Calum E.; Lui, Harvey

    2000-10-01

    Skin autofluorescence was observed as early as 1908. Its applications in dermatology was first reported in 1925- the use of Wood's lamp for the detection of fungal infection. In the first part of the paper, a historical review was presented on skin autofluorescence properties. In the second part, systematic research done in out laboratory on autofluorescence properties of normal and diseased skin was summarized. We developed three tools for the study: 1) a compact fiber optic spectrometer for in vivo macroscopic fluorescence spectral measurements on volunteers and patients; 2) a CCD camera based fluorescence imaging for in vivo macroscopic imaging of 2D fluorescence intensity distributions over various skin diseases; 3) a fiber optic microspectrophotometer (MSP) system for in vitro microscopic fluorescence spectral measurements and fluorescence imaging of frozen tissue sections. With these tools, we obtained the excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) of in vivo normal skin, the temporal dynamics of skin autofluorescence decay under continuous wave laser exposure, and fluorescence spectra of 1500 lesions from 600 patients spanning 35 disease types. Monte Carlo simulation has been employed to explain the autofluorescence decay dynamics and to reconstruct the in vivo spectra from in vitro microscopic fluorophore distribution and intrinsic fluorescence spectra of various skin structures. Spectral feature based linear discrimination function analysis and principal components decomposition analysis are performed to assess the potential of autofluorescence spectroscopy for skin cancer detection. Clinical test of a fluorescence scope system for skin cancer margin delineation is under way.

  19. In vitro investigation of skin damage due to microscale shearing.

    PubMed

    Jee, Taekwon; Komvopoulos, Kyriakos

    2014-11-01

    Despite several studies dealing with the mechanical and tribological properties of skin, the majority of these investigations have been performed at macroscopic levels. However, because of the multilayer structure of skin, it is necessary to perform studies at microscopic scales to reveal the effect of individual layer constituents on the overall skin response to mechanical stimuli. To bridge the gap in knowledge of the micromechanical behavior of skin, a custom-made mechanical tester, optical microscopy, and cross-sectional histology were used to examine the deformation and tribological behavior of porcine skin subjected to various normal and shear loadings. Representative friction and wear results of skin tested under unidirectional and reciprocating (cyclic) shearing (scratching) conditions are interpreted in terms of the scratching speed, normal load, and number of scratch cycles to illustrate the effects of stratum corneum, cellular epidermis, and dermis on the friction and wear characteristics of skin. Depending on the normal load and scratch time (cycles), different friction mechanisms (i.e., adhesion, plowing, and squeeze-film lubrication) and wear mechanisms (i.e., surface plasticity/plowing, bulk shearing, cohesive failure, tearing, and delamination) were found to control shear-induced skin damage. The results of this study provide insight into microscale friction and wear processes influencing the mechanical response of skin subjected to normal and shear surface tractions. PMID:24323557

  20. Evaluating the consistency of location of the most severe acute skin reaction and highest skin dose measured by thermoluminescent dosimeter during radiotherapy for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Min; Huang, Chih-Jen; Chen, Hsiao-Yun; Chang, Gia-Hsin; Tsao, Min-Jen

    2016-01-01

    We conducted this prospective study to evaluate whether the location of the most severe acute skin reaction matches the highest skin dose measured by thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) during adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for patients with breast cancer after breast conservative surgery. To determine whether TLD measurement can reflect the location of the most severe acute skin reaction, 80 consecutive patients were enrolled in this prospective study. We divided the irradiated field into breast, axillary, inframammary fold, and areola/nipple areas. In 1 treatment session when obvious skin reaction occurred, we placed the TLD chips onto the 4 areas and measured the skin dose. We determined whether the highest measured skin dose area is consistent with the location of the most severe skin reaction. The McNemar test revealed that the clinical skin reaction and TLD measurement are more consistent when the most severe skin reaction occurred at the axillary area, and the p = 0.0108. On the contrary, TLD measurement of skin dose is less likely consistent with clinical observation when the most severe skin reaction occurred at the inframammary fold, breast, and areola/nipple areas (all the p > 0.05). Considering the common site of severe skin reaction over the axillary area, TLD measurement may be an appropriate way to predict skin reaction during RT. PMID:27158022