Science.gov

Sample records for leishmaniose visceral pelo

  1. Visceral manifestations of hypochondrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, Helen; Beighton, Peter

    2008-08-01

    Autopsy of a stillborn neonate with hypochondrogenesis revealed severe cardiac abnormalities and extensive diverticulosis of the proximal region of the small intestine. Visceral ramifications are unusual in hypochondrogenesis; they may reflect heterogeneity of the intramolecular defect in the COL2A1 gene that codes for the achondrogenesis type II-hypochondrogenesis spectrum of disorders. PMID:18642028

  2. Visceral adiposity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Heno F; Corrêa-Giannella, Maria Lúcia; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda M; Egan, Brent M

    2016-01-01

    The association of anthropometric (waist circumference) and hemodynamic (blood pressure) changes with abnormalities in glucose and lipid metabolism has been motivation for a lot of discussions in the last 30 years. Nowadays, blood pressure, body mass index/abdominal circumference, glycemia, triglyceridemia, and HDL-cholesterol concentrations are considered in the definition of Metabolic syndrome, referred as Visceral adiposity syndrome (VAS) in the present review. However, more than 250 years ago an association between visceral and mediastinal obesity with hypertension, gout, and obstructive apnea had already been recognized. Expansion of visceral adipose tissue secondary to chronic over-consumption of calories stimulates the recruitment of macrophages, which assume an inflammatory phenotype and produce cytokines that directly interfere with insulin signaling, resulting in insulin resistance. In turn, insulin resistance (IR) manifests itself in various tissues, contributing to the overall phenotype of VAS. For example, in white adipose tissue, IR results in lipolysis, increased free fatty acids release and worsening of inflammation, since fatty acids can bind to Toll-like receptors. In the liver, IR results in increased hepatic glucose production, contributing to hyperglycemia; in the vascular endothelium and kidney, IR results in vasoconstriction, sodium retention and, consequently, arterial hypertension. Other players have been recognized in the development of VAS, such as genetic predisposition, epigenetic factors associated with exposure to an unfavourable intrauterine environment and the gut microbiota. More recently, experimental and clinical studies have shown the autonomic nervous system participates in modulating visceral adipose tissue. The sympathetic nervous system is related to adipose tissue function and differentiation through beta1, beta2, beta3, alpha1, and alpha2 adrenergic receptors. The relation is bidirectional: sympathetic denervation of

  3. The Pharmacology of Visceral Pain.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Anthony C; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    Visceral pain describes pain emanating from the internal thoracic, pelvic, or abdominal organs. Unlike somatic pain, visceral pain is generally vague, poorly localized, and characterized by hypersensitivity to a stimulus such as organ distension. While current therapeutics provides some relief from somatic pain, drugs used for treatment of chronic visceral pain are typically less efficacious and limited by multiple adverse side effects. Thus, the treatment of visceral pain represents a major unmet medical need. Further, more basic research into the physiology and pathophysiology of visceral pain is needed to provide novel targets for future drug development. In concert with chronic visceral pain, there is a high comorbidity with stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression. The mechanisms linking visceral pain with these overlapping comorbidities remain to be elucidated. However, persistent stress facilitates pain perception and sensitizes pain pathways, leading to a feed-forward cycle promoting chronic visceral pain disorders. We will focus on stress-induced exacerbation of chronic visceral pain and provide supporting evidence that centrally acting drugs targeting the pain and stress-responsive brain regions may represent a valid target for the development of novel and effective therapeutics. PMID:26920016

  4. Hepatic visceral larva migrans

    PubMed Central

    Rohilla, Seema; Jain, Nitin; Yadav, Rohtas; Dhaulakhandi, Dhara Ballabh

    2013-01-01

    Visceral larva migrans (VLM) is a systemic manifestation of migration of second stage larvae of nematodes through the tissue of human viscera. It is not uncommon but is underdiagnosed in developing countries. The liver is the most common organ to be involved due to its portal venous blood supply. The imaging findings are subtle and differentiation from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), metastases, cystic mesenchymal hamartoma and granulomatous diseases is difficult. This case report highlights the imaging features of hepatic lesions of VLM along with clinical and laboratory data which help in clinching the diagnosis. PMID:23853189

  5. Visceral Pain and Gastrointestinal Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Chichlowski, Maciej; Rudolph, Colin

    2015-01-01

    A complex set of interactions between the microbiome, gut and brain modulate responses to visceral pain. These interactions occur at the level of the gastrointestinal mucosa, and via local neural, endocrine or immune activity; as well as by the production of factors transported through the circulatory system, like bacterial metabolites or hormones. Various psychological, infectious and other stressors can disrupt this harmonious relationship and alter both the microbiome and visceral pain responses. There are critical sensitive periods that can impact visceral pain responses in adulthood. In this review we provide a brief background of the intestinal microbiome and emerging concepts of the bidirectional interactions between the microbiome, gut and brain. We also discuss recent work in animal models, and human clinical trials using prebiotics and probiotics that alter the microbiome with resultant alterations in visceral pain responses. PMID:25829337

  6. La leishmaniose viscérale chez l'adulte à propos de douze cas

    PubMed Central

    Benbella, Imane; Aich, Fatima; Elkhiyat, Majdouline; Khalki, Hanane; Khermach, Assya; Bergui, Imane; Tlemçani, Imane; Hassani, Moncef Amrani

    2016-01-01

    La leishmaniose viscérale est une maladie à transmission vectorielle liée essentiellement, au niveau de pourtour méditerranéen, à l'infection par leishmania infantum. Habituellement rare chez l'adulte, sa prévalence a récemment connu une augmentation y compris chez les sujets immunocompétents. Le but de notre étude est de présenter le profil épidémiologique de la leishmaniose viscérale chez l'adulte ainsi que l'importance du diagnostique biologique dans l'identification de cette maladie. Notre étude s'est étendue sur six ans de Janvier 2009 à Janvier 2014, et a colligé douze patients hospitalisés au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Hassan II de Fès. L'altération de l’état général et la splénomégalie ont dominé le tableau clinique. Sur le plan biologique, l'anémie a été quasi constante. La confirmation diagnostique a consisté en la mise en évidence du parasite au niveau de la moelle. L’évolution sous traitement a été favorable pour tous nos patients. Ainsi, la recrudescence que connait la leishmaniose viscérale chez l'adulte et son tableau clinique peu spécifique doit la faire évoquer devant toute splénomégalie fébrile, afin de permettre un diagnostic et une prise en charge thérapeutique précoces. PMID:27347283

  7. Epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Ready, Paul D

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania species are the causative agents of leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease. These parasitic protozoans are usually transmitted between vertebrate hosts by the bite of blood sucking female phlebotomine sand flies. This review focuses on the two parasites causing most human visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which leads to substantial health problems or death for up to 400,000 people per year. Except for travel cases, Leishmania donovani infections are restricted to the (sub-)tropics of Asia and Africa, where transmission is mostly anthroponotic, while Leishmania infantum occurs in the drier parts of Latin America as well as in the Mediterranean climate regions of the Old World, with the domestic dog serving as the main reservoir host. The prevalence of VL caused by L. infantum has been declining where living standards have improved. In contrast, infections of L. donovani continue to cause VL epidemics in rural areas on the Indian subcontinent and in East Africa. The current review compares and contrasts these continental differences and suggests priorities for basic and applied research that might improve VL control. Transmission cycles, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis, prevention (including vector control), surveillance, transmission modeling, and international control efforts are all reviewed. Most case detection is passive, and so routine surveillance does not usually permit accurate assessments of any changes in the incidence of VL. Also, it is not usually possible to estimate the human inoculation rate of parasites by the sand fly vectors because of the limitations of survey methods. Consequently, transmission modeling rarely passes beyond the proof of principle stage, and yet it is required to help develop risk factor analysis for control programs. Anthroponotic VL should be susceptible to elimination by rapid case detection and treatment combined with local vector control, and one of the most important interventions may well be

  8. Epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Ready, Paul D

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania species are the causative agents of leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease. These parasitic protozoans are usually transmitted between vertebrate hosts by the bite of blood sucking female phlebotomine sand flies. This review focuses on the two parasites causing most human visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which leads to substantial health problems or death for up to 400,000 people per year. Except for travel cases, Leishmania donovani infections are restricted to the (sub-)tropics of Asia and Africa, where transmission is mostly anthroponotic, while Leishmania infantum occurs in the drier parts of Latin America as well as in the Mediterranean climate regions of the Old World, with the domestic dog serving as the main reservoir host. The prevalence of VL caused by L. infantum has been declining where living standards have improved. In contrast, infections of L. donovani continue to cause VL epidemics in rural areas on the Indian subcontinent and in East Africa. The current review compares and contrasts these continental differences and suggests priorities for basic and applied research that might improve VL control. Transmission cycles, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis, prevention (including vector control), surveillance, transmission modeling, and international control efforts are all reviewed. Most case detection is passive, and so routine surveillance does not usually permit accurate assessments of any changes in the incidence of VL. Also, it is not usually possible to estimate the human inoculation rate of parasites by the sand fly vectors because of the limitations of survey methods. Consequently, transmission modeling rarely passes beyond the proof of principle stage, and yet it is required to help develop risk factor analysis for control programs. Anthroponotic VL should be susceptible to elimination by rapid case detection and treatment combined with local vector control, and one of the most important interventions may well be

  9. Visceral Pain: The Neurophysiological Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Jyoti N.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism of visceral pain is still less understood compared with that of somatic pain. This is primarily due to the diverse nature of visceral pain compounded by multiple factors such as sexual dimorphism, psychological stress, genetic trait, and the nature of predisposed disease. Due to multiple contributing factors there is an enormous challenge to develop animal models that ideally mimic the exact disease condition. In spite of that, it is well recognized that visceral hypersensitivity can occur due to (1) sensitization of primary sensory afferents innervating the viscera, (2) hyperexcitability of spinal ascending neurons (central sensitization) receiving synaptic input from the viscera, and (3) dysregulation of descending pathways that modulate spinal nociceptive transmission. Depending on the type of stimulus condition, different neural pathways are involved in chronic pain. In early-life psychological stress such as maternal separation, chronic pain occurs later in life due to dysregulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and significant increase in corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) secretion. In contrast, in early-life inflammatory conditions such as colitis and cystitis, there is dysregulation of the descending opioidergic system that results excessive pain perception (i.e., visceral hyperalgesia). Functional bowel disorders and chronic pelvic pain represent unexplained pain that is not associated with identifiable organic diseases. Often pain overlaps between two organs and approximately 35% of patients with chronic pelvic pain showed significant improvement when treated for functional bowel disorders. Animal studies have documented that two main components such as (1) dichotomy of primary afferent fibers innervating two pelvic organs and (2) common convergence of two afferent fibers onto a spinal dorsal horn are contributing factors for organ-to-organ pain overlap. With reports emerging about the varieties of peptide molecules

  10. Drug-induced visceral angioedema

    PubMed Central

    Thalanayar, Prashanth M.; Ghobrial, Ibrahim; Lubin, Fritz; Karnik, Reena; Bhasin, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Angioedema associated with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) is due to the accumulation of bradykinin and its metabolites. Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) produce anti-hypertensive effects by blocking the angiotensin II AT1 receptor action; hence bradykinin-related side effects are not expected. However, we notice the occurrence of ARB-induced angioedema as not a very rare side effect. Visceral drug-induced angioedema has been reported with ACEIs, not with ARBs. This underlying review will help educate readers on the pathophysiology and recent guidelines pertaining to ACEI- and ARB-induced visceral angioedema. PMID:25317271

  11. Visceral Infarction Following Aortic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Willard C.; Nabseth, Donald C.

    1974-01-01

    An experience with aortic surgery is reported which reveals that visceral ischemia is more frequent than expected and significantly contributes to operative mortality. Two of five deaths among 84 patients who had aorto-iliac occlusive disease and four of 40 deaths among 103 aneurysmectomies (both ruptured and elective) were related to visceral ischemia. A review of the literature reveals 99 cases of colonic ischemia in more than 6,100 cases of aortic surgery, an incidence of 1.5%. Only 10 cases of small bowel ischemia were recorded. The present experience with 9 cases of colon ischemia and one of small bowel ischemia is presented particularly with reference to pathophysiology and prevention. It is concluded that patients should be identified by appropriate angiography if considered a risk for visceral infarction, and, if present, visceral arterial reconstruction should be performed in addition to aortic reconstructive surgery. Colon infarction following aortic aneurysmal surgery is directly related to ligation of a patent IMA. Thus re-implantation of the patent IMA should be considered. ImagesFig. 1a. PMID:4277757

  12. Diagnosis of human visceral pentastomiasis.

    PubMed

    Tappe, Dennis; Büttner, Dietrich W

    2009-01-01

    Visceral pentastomiasis in humans is caused by the larval stages (nymphs) of the arthropod-related tongue worms Linguatula serrata, Armillifer armillatus, A. moniliformis, A. grandis, and Porocephalus crotali. The majority of cases has been reported from Africa, Malaysia, and the Middle East, where visceral pentastomiasis may be an incidental finding in autopsies, and less often from China and Latin America. In Europe and North America, the disease is only rarely encountered in immigrants and long-term travelers, and the parasitic lesions may be confused with malignancies, leading to a delay in the correct diagnosis. Since clinical symptoms are variable and serological tests are not readily available, the diagnosis often relies on histopathological examinations. This laboratory symposium focuses on the diagnosis of this unusual parasitic disease and presents its risk factors and epidemiology. PMID:19238218

  13. Treatment of Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed Central

    Gradoni, L.; Bryceson, A.; Desjeux, P.

    1995-01-01

    Up-to-date information is given on the epidemiological situation of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) in nine Mediterranean countries, and on drug regimens adopted in the management of ZVL patients in each country. Results of experimental and clinical trials on the efficacy and tolerability of liposomal amphotericin B in laboratory animals and in patients with ZVL are presented, as well as conclusions and recommendations on drug regimens to be used in the treatment of ZVL. PMID:7743590

  14. Un cas de leishmaniose féline disséminée dans le sud de la France

    PubMed Central

    Pocholle, E.; Reyes-Gomez, E.; Giacomo, A.; Delaunay, P.; Hasseine, L.; Marty, P.

    2012-01-01

    Cet article rapporte un cas de leishmaniose féline disséminée chez un chat (Felis catus) de 14 ans, séropositif pour le FIV et vivant dans les Alpes-Maritimes (sud de la France). Le chat présente des papules érythémateuses ulcérées sur la face et l’encolure, et une lésion proliférative ulcérée sur l’oreille gauche. C’est l’examen histopathologique des lésions cutanées qui permet le diagnostic d’une leishmaniose disséminée, associée à un carcinome épidermoïde de l’oreille. 100 mg d’allopurinol administrés une fois par jour per os pendant quatre mois ont permis la rémission totale des lésions cutanées. Des prélèvements post mortem ont révélé la persistance du parasite dans l’organisme après six mois de traitement. Cet article discute de la sensibilité du chat à la leishmaniose et de son rôle potentiel de réservoir. PMID:22314243

  15. Visceral leishmaniasis with Roth spots

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Jagdish; Juneja, Monica; Mishra, Devendra; Vats, Pallavi; Pawaria, Arti

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani and transmitted by the bite of infected sandfly Phlebotomus argentipes. The protozoa is obliged intracellularly and causes a wide spectrum of clinical syndromes: VL (‘kala azar’), cutaneous leishmaniasis and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (espundia). Kala azar is the most aggressive form and if untreated causes high mortality. Here, we describe a case of VL that presented to us with high-grade fever and found to have Roth spots that were resolved after 15 days of therapy. PMID:25988048

  16. [Visceral and cutaneous larva migrans].

    PubMed

    Petithory, Jean-Claude

    2007-11-30

    The syndrome of visceral larva migrans was described for the first time in 1952 by Beaver. He demonstrated that the presence of nematodes larvae, particularly in the liver, were those of Toxocara canis and T. cati. Baylisascaris procyonis, the common racoon ascarid in the U.S.A. can also cause serious diseases in human. Digestive and respiratory clinical symptoms are usually moderate, however severe disease resulting from invasion of the myocardium or the brain has been reported. A blood hypereosinophilia is usually present the first few years after infection. Diagnosis uses serological methods, among them the ELISA test. Ocular larva is also possible with in that case, immunological modifications of the aqueous. Cutaneous larva migrans characterized by a linear, progressing, serpigenous eruption and intense itching is easy to diagnose. Larva migrans is due to dogs, cats and horses helminths. Dogs and cats (referred here as pets) now receive antihelmintitic treatments and parasites are now in decrease. PMID:18326429

  17. Leishmaniose cutanée érysipéloide: à propos d'une observation clinique

    PubMed Central

    El kartouti, Abdeslam; Elbenaye, Jalal; Miloudi, Mouhcine

    2015-01-01

    Les auteurs rapportent les caractéristiques épidémiologiques et cliniques de la forme érysipéloïde de leishmaniose cutanée ainsi que ses difficultés diagnostiques et thérapeutiques. Chez une patiente âgée de 44 ans, sans antécédents, a consulté pour une tuméfaction nasale inflammatoire évoluant depuis 4 mois. L'examen clinique a révélé un placard érythémateux, infiltré centrofaciale. Une antibiothérapie avec des soins locaux quotidiens n'ont pas entraîné une amélioration, voire l'extension de lésions sous anti-inflammatoire non stéroïdiens. Le diagnostic de leishmaniose cutanée a été confirmé par le frottis cutané. Un traitement par l'antimoniate de méglumine par voie intramusculaire a été instauré à la dose de 20 mg/kg par jour avec évolution favorable. La forme érysipéloïde de leishmaniose cutanée constitue une entité rare et inhabituelle entraînant souvent un retard diagnostique. Le diagnostic repose sur l'examen parasitologique direct, la recherche de l'ADN des leishmanies par PCR et sur l'examen histologique. Et il existe plusieurs options thérapeutiques. L’évolution est généralement favorable. PMID:26405490

  18. Visceral leishmaniasis: a forgotten epidemic.

    PubMed

    Zijlstra, Eduard E

    2016-06-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL or kala-azar) is most endemic in Asia and Africa and commonly affects young children. It is usually caused by Leishmania donovani or Leishmania infantum that are transmitted by Phlebotomine sand flies. Transmission may be anthroponotic or zoonotic or both, depending on the endemic area. Clinical features include fever, hepatosplenomegaly, weight loss and pancytopenia. Younger age, malnutrition and immunosuppression (HIV infection, use of immunosuppressive drugs) are risk factors. Many infections remain asymptomatic. Diagnosis is made by demonstration of the Leishmania parasite in aspirates of lymph node, bone marrow or spleen. Serological tests such as rK39 strip test are widely used but the sensitivity varies. qPCR is useful to detect low numbers of parasites and to monitor treatment. Treatment is with AmBisome monotherapy in most areas but with drug combinations elsewhere. HIV co-infected patients are most difficult to treat and often relapse. Control efforts focus on case finding, availability of diagnostic tools, reservoir control and protection from sand flies (insecticides, bed nets). There is no human vaccine. PMID:26895806

  19. Etude séro-épidémiologique de la leishmaniose canine au centre du Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Fellah, Hajiba; Doughmi, Oursula; Maniar, Saâd; Lalami, Abdelhakim El Ouali

    2014-01-01

    Dans le monde, la leishmaniose viscérale humaine est connue pour avoir comme principale source d'infection les Canidés domestiques et sauvages. Au centre du Maroc, les données épidémiologiques, cliniques et parasitologiques sur la leishmaniose canine, sont quasiment inexistantes. Ce travail traite une étude prospective au cours de laquelle 61 sérums canins ont été analysés par un test rapide et par l'immunofluorescence indirecte. La sensibilité du test rapide par rapport à celle de l'immunofluorescence indirecte (IFI) est de 33,33%. La fréquence de la maladie chez les chiens s’élève à 9,83% (Test Rapide) et 24,59% (IFI). 73,33% des cas canins positifs à la sérologie sont asymptomatiques. Ce sont les jeunes chiens de moins de 5 ans qui sont les plus fréquemment atteints avec une sensibilité de la race Berger Allmand à l'infection. Cette étude a permis de mettre en évidence la présence de chiens leishmaniens (15 chiens séropositifs parmi 61) et de prouver l'existence du réservoir canin. Une stratégie de prévention active doit être mise en place. PMID:25852791

  20. Novel nervous system mechanisms in visceral pain.

    PubMed

    De Winter, B Y; Deiteren, A; De Man, J G

    2016-03-01

    Visceral hypersensitivity is an important factor underlying abdominal pain in functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and can result from aberrant signaling from the gut to the brain or vice versa. Over the last two decades, research has identified several selective, intertwining pathways that underlie IBS-related visceral nociception, including specific receptors on afferent and efferent nerve fibers such as transient receptor potential channels (TRP) channels, opioid, and cannabinoid receptors. In this issue of Neurogastroenterology and Motility Gil et al. demonstrate that in an animal model with reduced descending inhibitory control, the sympathetic nervous system outflow is enhanced, contributing to visceral and somatic hypersensitivity. They also provide evidence that interfering with the activation of adrenergic receptors on sensory nerves can be an interesting new strategy to treat visceral pain in IBS. This mini-review places these findings in a broader perspective by providing an overview of promising novel mechanisms to alter the nervous control of visceral pain interfering with afferent or efferent neuronal signaling. PMID:26891060

  1. Vaccines for visceral leishmaniasis: A review.

    PubMed

    Jain, Keerti; Jain, N K

    2015-07-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis, which is also known as Kala-Azar, is one of the most severely neglected tropical diseases recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO). The threat of this debilitating disease continues due to unavailability of promising drug therapy or human vaccine. An extensive research is undergoing to develop a promising vaccine to prevent this devastating disease. In this review we compiled the findings of recent research with a view to facilitate knowledge on experimental vaccinology for visceral leishmaniasis. Various killed or attenuated parasite based first generation vaccines, second generation vaccines based on antigenic protein or recombinant protein, and third generation vaccines derived from antigen-encoding DNA plasmids including heterologous prime-boost Leishmania vaccine have been examined for control and prevention of visceral leishmaniasis. Vaccines based on recombinant protein and antigen-encoding DNA plasmids have given promising results and few vaccines including Leishmune®, Leishtec, and CaniLeish® have been licensed for canine visceral leishmaniasis. A systematic investigation of these vaccine candidates can lead to development of promising vaccine for human visceral leishmaniasis, most probably in the near future. PMID:25858230

  2. Centrally acting agents and visceral sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Fioramonti, J; Bueno, L

    2002-07-01

    The evidence relating to the site and mechanism of action of "centrally acting" agents which may affect visceral sensitivity is reviewed. Antidepressant drugs such as amitriptyline as well as the newer selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are thought to act at the level of the CNS. Opiates, including morphine as well as compounds such as trimebutine or fedotozine designed for therapeutic use in irritable bowel syndrome, are effective in reducing visceral nociception. Cytokines in the CNS are known to be involved in the modulation of pain and there is also evidence to suggest that centrally acting cytokines may play a role in the production of visceral hypersensitivity. Consequently, they may provide an interesting target for future research. PMID:12077076

  3. Canine visceral leishmaniasis in Sicily.

    PubMed

    Orndorff, G R; Cooper, B A; Smith, W; Ryan, J R

    2000-01-01

    The Sicilian province of Catania is an active foci for human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Mediterranean area. Approximately 10 to 15 cases of VL are diagnosed via hospital admissions each year in this community. Recently, an increase in VL case reporting by Sicilian physicians was noted, with 38 and 37 VL cases in 1996 and 1997, respectively. Before 1995, there were no reported VL cases among U.S. military personnel or their family members living in Sicily. However, since 1996, there have been four cases referred to Walter Reed Army Medical Center for diagnosis and treatment, all involving the children of personnel assigned to Naval Air Station Sigonella. Exposure histories for all infected individuals excluded exposure to Leishmania parasites outside of Sicily. All patients lived in areas where vectoring sandflies are present. All had dogs as family pets. To evaluate the level of infection among dogs owned by Navy personnel and their families, U.S. Navy Environmental and Preventive Medicine Unit 7, in a collaborative study with the U.S. Army Veterinary Clinic, Naval Air Station Sigonella, and the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, performed clinical evaluation and serological testing of 50 dogs residing with U.S. personnel assigned to Naval Air Station Sigonella. The data indicate a high exposure rate to Leishmania (60% of the animals tested had elevated immunoglobulin M antibody levels) in the study population, suggesting that they were infected with Leishmania infantum. Distribution of seropositive dogs by sex was equal. Most of the dogs studied appeared to be in good health. However, inapparent infection of dogs, seen by Italian veterinarians, has been observed throughout all areas of Catania. Sandflies responsible for vectoring L. infantum were trapped in the same locations as the dogs sampled in this study. The level of subclinical infection was 75% among seropositive dogs. The overall level of canine infection observed was higher than expected

  4. Imaging Brain Mechanisms in Chronic Visceral Pain

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Emeran A.; Gupta, Arpana; Kilpatrick, Lisa A.; Hong, Jui-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Chronic visceral pain syndromes are important clinical problems with largely unmet medical needs. Based on the common overlap with other chronic disorders of visceral or somatic pain, mood and affect, and their responsiveness to centrally targeted treatments, an important role of central nervous system in their pathophysiology is likely. A growing number of brain imaging studies in irritable bowel syndrome, functional dyspepsia and bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis has identified abnormalities in evoked brain responses, resting state activity and connectivity, as well as in grey and white matter properties. Structural and functional alterations in brain regions of the salience, emotional arousal, and sensorimotor networks, as well as in prefrontal regions, are the most consistently reported findings. Some of these changes show moderate correlations with behavioral and clinical measures. Most recently, data driven machine-learning approaches to larger data sets have been able to classify visceral pain syndromes from healthy control subjects. Future studies need to identify the mechanisms underlying the altered brain signatures of chronic visceral pain and identify targets for therapeutic interventions. PMID:25789437

  5. Imaging brain mechanisms in chronic visceral pain.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Emeran A; Gupta, Arpana; Kilpatrick, Lisa A; Hong, Jui-Yang

    2015-04-01

    Chronic visceral pain syndromes are important clinical problems with largely unmet medical needs. Based on the common overlap with other chronic disorders of visceral or somatic pain, mood and affect, and their responsiveness to centrally targeted treatments, an important role of central nervous system in their pathophysiology is likely. A growing number of brain imaging studies in irritable bowel syndrome, functional dyspepsia, and bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis has identified abnormalities in evoked brain responses, resting state activity, and connectivity, as well as in gray and white matter properties. Structural and functional alterations in brain regions of the salience, emotional arousal, and sensorimotor networks, as well as in prefrontal regions, are the most consistently reported findings. Some of these changes show moderate correlations with behavioral and clinical measures. Most recently, data-driven machine-learning approaches to larger data sets have been able to classify visceral pain syndromes from healthy control subjects. Future studies need to identify the mechanisms underlying the altered brain signatures of chronic visceral pain and identify targets for therapeutic interventions. PMID:25789437

  6. Visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) and pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Figueiró-Filho, Ernesto Antonio; Duarte, Geraldo; El-Beitune, Patrícia; Quintana, Silvana Maria; Maia, Tamara Lemos

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present review was to close the gap in the approach to pregnant women with visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) by providing up-to-date information to obstetricians about physiopathology, epidemiology, vertical transmission, drugs and treatment during pregnancy. BACKGROUND: Infection with Leishmania chagasi during pregnancy is rare and deserves special attention since little information is available regarding the occurrence of visceral leishmaniasis during gestational period and the real possibility of vertical transmission of this disease. Because specific areas in the world are endemic for the disease and considering the continuous growth of the population, cases of pregnant women with visceral leishmaniasis are becoming more frequent. Unfortunately, textbooks on infectious diseases do not include this specific group of patients, and studies in the literature on aspects related to pregnancy and visceral leishmaniasis are scarce. CONCLUSIONS: Vertical transmission of leishmaniasis is possible and the institution of treatment is imperative in cases of pregnant women with kala-azar. Amphotericin B is strongly recommended as the first choice drug due to its fewer maternal-fetal adverse effects. PMID:15460194

  7. Pathophysiology of human visceral obesity: an update.

    PubMed

    Tchernof, André; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Excess intra-abdominal adipose tissue accumulation, often termed visceral obesity, is part of a phenotype including dysfunctional subcutaneous adipose tissue expansion and ectopic triglyceride storage closely related to clustering cardiometabolic risk factors. Hypertriglyceridemia; increased free fatty acid availability; adipose tissue release of proinflammatory cytokines; liver insulin resistance and inflammation; increased liver VLDL synthesis and secretion; reduced clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; presence of small, dense LDL particles; and reduced HDL cholesterol levels are among the many metabolic alterations closely related to this condition. Age, gender, genetics, and ethnicity are broad etiological factors contributing to variation in visceral adipose tissue accumulation. Specific mechanisms responsible for proportionally increased visceral fat storage when facing positive energy balance and weight gain may involve sex hormones, local cortisol production in abdominal adipose tissues, endocannabinoids, growth hormone, and dietary fructose. Physiological characteristics of abdominal adipose tissues such as adipocyte size and number, lipolytic responsiveness, lipid storage capacity, and inflammatory cytokine production are significant correlates and even possible determinants of the increased cardiometabolic risk associated with visceral obesity. Thiazolidinediones, estrogen replacement in postmenopausal women, and testosterone replacement in androgen-deficient men have been shown to favorably modulate body fat distribution and cardiometabolic risk to various degrees. However, some of these therapies must now be considered in the context of their serious side effects. Lifestyle interventions leading to weight loss generally induce preferential mobilization of visceral fat. In clinical practice, measuring waist circumference in addition to the body mass index could be helpful for the identification and management of a subgroup of overweight or obese

  8. Breastfeeding and Subsequent Maternal Visceral Adiposity

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Candace K.; Schwarz, Eleanor B.; Conroy, Molly B.; Tepper, Ping G.; Janssen, Imke; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim C.

    2013-01-01

    Women gain visceral fat during pregnancy. Studies examining the impact of breastfeeding on maternal body composition are inconclusive. We examined the extent to which breastfeeding was associated with visceral adiposity in a sample of US women. This was a cross-sectional analysis of 351 women aged 45–58 years, who were free of clinical cardiovascular disease and had not used oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy in the 3 months prior to enrollment in the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN)-Heart Study (2001–2003). History of breastfeeding was self-reported. Computed tomography was used to assess abdominal adiposity. Among premenopausal/early-peri-menopausal mothers, those who never breastfed had 28% greater visceral adiposity (95% confidence interval (CI): 11–49, P = 0.001), 4.7% greater waist-hip ratio (95% CI: 1.9–7.4, P < 0.001), and 6.49 cm greater waist circumference (95% CI: 3.71–9.26, P < 0.001) than mothers who breastfed all of their children for ≥3 months in models adjusting for study site; age; parity; years since last birth; socioeconomic, lifestyle, and family history variables; early adult BMI; and current BMI. In comparison to women who were nulliparous, mothers who breastfed all of their children for ≥3 months had similar amounts of visceral fat (P > 0.05). In contrast, premenopausal/early-peri-menopausal mothers who had never breastfed had significantly greater visceral adiposity (42% (95% CI: 17–70), P < 0.001), waist circumference (6.15 cm (95% CI: 2.75–9.56), P < 0.001), and waist-hip ratio (3.7% (95% CI: 0.69–6.8), P = 0.02) than nulliparous women. No significant relationships were observed among late peri-menopausal/postmenopausal women. In conclusion, until menopause, mothers who did not breastfeed all of their children for ≥3 months exhibit significantly greater amounts of metabolically active visceral fat than mothers who had breastfed all of their children for ≥3 months. PMID:21720436

  9. American Visceral Leishmaniasis in Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Pastor-Santiago, Jorge A.; Chávez-López, Susana; Guzmán-Bracho, Carmen; Flisser, Ana; Olivo-Díaz, Angélica

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of a study conducted during 1990–2006 with 89 cases of American visceral leishmaniasis in Chiapas State in southeastern Mexico and a seroprevalence study performed with 726 persons and 224 dogs that lived near cases of American visceral leishmaniasis. Clinical aspects, epidemiologic profiles, and risk factors are described. Most cases were in children ≤ 5 years of age, the prevalence of seropositive persons was 77%. The main risk factors associated with this disease were having 1–3 rooms in a house compared with ≥ 4 rooms, having a roof that was not made of cement, and having domestic animals. In contrast, only 19% of dogs were seropositive, suggesting that this species is not important in the transmission cycle of Leishmania. These data indicate that active transmission is taking place in the central valley of Chiapas State, Mexico, in communities located < 1,000 meters above sea level near the Grijalva River. PMID:22232459

  10. [Isolated spontaneous dissection of visceral arteries].

    PubMed

    Corral, M A; Encinas, J; Fernández-Pérez, G C

    2014-01-01

    We present the cases of two men with isolated spontaneous dissection of visceral arteries diagnosed by multidetector CT. In the first patient, dissection of the celiac trunk was associated with periarterial changes. In the second patient, dissection of the superior mesenteric artery was associated with stenosis at the root of the celiac trunk. Both patients presented with acute pain, which was more intense and longer lasting in the first patient. Aortic dissection was suspected clinically in both patients. Both dissections were short and had patent saccular false lumens and reduced caliber of the true lumens. This morphological type is one of the most uncommon within this rare entity. However, in recent years, the number of cases published is rising. This suggests that this entity may have been underdiagnosed before the widespread use of multidetector CT. We discuss the two morphological classifications of dissection of the visceral arteries and the need to adapt therapeutic management to the particular circumstances of each case. PMID:21724211

  11. Development of Vaccines against Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Krystal J.; Kedzierski, Lukasz

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected disease resulting in a global morbidity of 2,090 thousand Disability-Adjusted Life Years and a mortality rate of approximately 60,000 per year. Among the three clinical forms of leishmaniasis (cutaneous, mucosal, and visceral), visceral leishmaniasis (VL) accounts for the majority of mortality, as if left untreated VL is almost always fatal. Caused by infection with Leishmania donovani or L. infantum, VL represents a serious public health problem in endemic regions and is rapidly emerging as an opportunistic infection in HIV patients. To date, no vaccine exists for VL or any other form of leishmaniasis. In endemic areas, the majority of those infected do not develop clinical symptoms and past infection leads to robust immunity against reinfection. Thus the development of vaccine for Leishmania is a realistic public health goal, and this paper summarizes advances in vaccination strategies against VL. PMID:21912561

  12. American Visceral Leishmaniasis (Kala-azar)

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Maria de Fatima Facanha Elias; de Alencar, Joaquim Eduardo; Naidu, Talapala G.; de Jesus, Jose Alfredo Lacerda; McAuliffe, Jay F.; Pearson, Richard D.; Evans, Thomas

    1985-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in widely scattered areas of the world. To better characterize the South American form of the disease, the clinical and laboratory manifestations of 29 patients admitted to hospital (18 male and 11 female patients, mean age 4.9 years), were assessed in an endemic area in northeastern Brazil. Fever, weight loss, pronounced splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, anemia, thrombocytopenia, relative neutropenia, hypoalbuminemia and hypergammaglobulinemia were found in the majority of patients. Symptoms were often present for two or more months before diagnosis. Secondary infections complicated many cases; there were ten cases of pneumonia and half of the patients had one or more intestinal parasites. The average length of hospital stay was 27 days; all patients were treated with meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime). The mortality rate was 3%. American visceral leishmaniasis remains an important disease among children living in endemic areas. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:4024631

  13. Aetiology of visceral leishmaniasis in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Monroy-Ostria, A; Hernandez-Montes, O; Barker, D C

    2000-03-25

    Two children with visceral leishmaniasis (VL), were studied by DNA analysis. DNA from liver biopsy samples from both patients, was amplified by PCR with broad primers specific for the Leishmania subgenus. DNA from the patient from Chiapas was also amplified with primers specific for the Leismania donovani complex and hybridised with a probe specific for L. donovani complex. The second patient, who is the first reported case of visceral leishmaniasis in the Mexican state of Tabasco, where localised cutaneous leishmaniasis and DCL predominate, had a co-infection with Toxoplasma gondii. The DNA from this patient was not amplified with primers specific for the L. donovani complex, did not hybridise with a probe specific for the L. donovani complex, but did hybridise with kDNA from a Mexican Leishmania mexicana strain used as a probe. We therefore, suggest that members of the L. donovani or L. mexicana complexes cause VL in Mexico. PMID:10708655

  14. American visceral leishmaniasis in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pastor-Santiago, Jorge A; Chávez-López, Susana; Guzmán-Bracho, Carmen; Flisser, Ana; Olivo-Díaz, Angélica

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of a study conducted during 1990-2006 with 89 cases of American visceral leishmaniasis in Chiapas State in southeastern Mexico and a seroprevalence study performed with 726 persons and 224 dogs that lived near cases of American visceral leishmaniasis. Clinical aspects, epidemiologic profiles, and risk factors are described. Most cases were in children ≤ 5 years of age, the prevalence of seropositive persons was 77%. The main risk factors associated with this disease were having 1-3 rooms in a house compared with ≥ 4 rooms, having a roof that was not made of cement, and having domestic animals. In contrast, only 19% of dogs were seropositive, suggesting that this species is not important in the transmission cycle of Leishmania. These data indicate that active transmission is taking place in the central valley of Chiapas State, Mexico, in communities located < 1,000 meters above sea level near the Grijalva River. PMID:22232459

  15. Visceral larva migrans (toxocariasis) in Toronto.

    PubMed Central

    Fanning, M; Hill, A; Langer, H M; Keystone, J S

    1981-01-01

    A 7-year-old child was admitted to Toronto's Hospital for Sick Children in 1976 with symptoms and laboratory findings compatible with visceral larva migrans, a disease usually caused by Toxocara canis. This prompted a search for other cases seen at the hospital during the period 1952 through 1978. Only 18 cases were discovered that met at least three of six criteria and thus were considered possible or probably cases of the disease. Three possible cases of ocular toxocariasis during the same period were also uncovered. Fever was the commonest presenting symptom. Eosinophilia, leukocytosis and hyperglobulinemia were the most frequent laboratory findings. In view of the small number of cases found in 27 years at this large pediatric hospital with a broad referral base, it is concluded that visceral larva migrans poses little risk to the health of children in the Toronto area. PMID:7459767

  16. Regulation of immunity during visceral Leishmania infection.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Vasco; Cordeiro-da-Silva, Anabela; Laforge, Mireille; Silvestre, Ricardo; Estaquier, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Unicellular eukaryotes of the genus Leishmania are collectively responsible for a heterogeneous group of diseases known as leishmaniasis. The visceral form of leishmaniasis, caused by L. donovani or L. infantum, is a devastating condition, claiming 20,000 to 40,000 lives annually, with particular incidence in some of the poorest regions of the world. Immunity to Leishmania depends on the development of protective type I immune responses capable of activating infected phagocytes to kill intracellular amastigotes. However, despite the induction of protective responses, disease progresses due to a multitude of factors that impede an optimal response. These include the action of suppressive cytokines, exhaustion of specific T cells, loss of lymphoid tissue architecture and a defective humoral response. We will review how these responses are orchestrated during the course of infection, including both early and chronic stages, focusing on the spleen and the liver, which are the main target organs of visceral Leishmania in the host. A comprehensive understanding of the immune events that occur during visceral Leishmania infection is crucial for the implementation of immunotherapeutic approaches that complement the current anti-Leishmania chemotherapy and the development of effective vaccines to prevent disease. PMID:26932389

  17. Drug Management of Visceral Pain: Concepts from Basic Research

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Mellar P.

    2012-01-01

    Visceral pain is experienced by 40% of the population, and 28% of cancer patients suffer from pain arising from intra- abdominal metastasis or from treatment. Neuroanatomy of visceral nociception and neurotransmitters, receptors, and ion channels that modulate visceral pain are qualitatively or quantitatively different from those that modulate somatic and neuropathic pain. Visceral pain should be recognized as distinct pain phenotype. TRPV1, Na 1.8, and ASIC3 ion channels and peripheral kappa opioid receptors are important mediators of visceral pain. Mu agonists, gabapentinoids, and GABAB agonists reduce pain by binding to central receptors and channels. Combinations of analgesics and adjuvants in animal models have supra-additive antinociception and should be considered in clinical trials. This paper will discuss the neuroanatomy, receptors, ion channels, and neurotransmitters important to visceral pain and provide a basic science rationale for analgesic trials and management. PMID:22619712

  18. Visceral fit: While in a visceral state, associated states of the world seem more likely.

    PubMed

    Risen, Jane L; Critcher, Clayton R

    2011-05-01

    We propose that visceral states can influence beliefs through "visceral fit": People will judge states of the world associated with their current visceral experience as more likely. We found that warmth influenced belief in global warming (Studies 1-3) and that thirst impacted forecasts of drought and desertification (Study 5). These effects emerged in a naturalistic setting (Study 1) and in experimental lab settings (Studies 2, 3, and 5). Studies 2-6 distinguished between 3 mechanistic accounts: temperature as information (Studies 2 and 3), conceptual accessibility (Studies 4 and 5), and fluency of simulation (Studies 6a and 6b). Studies 2 and 3 ruled out the temperature as information account. Feeling warm enhanced belief in global warming even when temperature was manipulated in an uninformative indoor setting, when participants' attention was first directed to the indoor temperature, and when participants' belief about the current outdoor temperature was statistically controlled. Studies 4 and 5 ruled out conceptual accessibility as the key mediator: Priming the corresponding concepts did not produce analogous effects on judgment. Studies 6a and 6b used a causal chain design and found support for a "simulational fluency" account. Participants experiencing the visceral state of warmth constructed more fluent mental representations of hot (vs. cold) outdoor images, and those who were led to construe the same hot outdoor images more fluently believed more in global warming. Together, the results suggest that visceral states can influence one's beliefs by making matching states of the world easier to simulate and therefore seem more likely. PMID:21244180

  19. Genetically Modified Organisms and Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Chhajer, Rudra; Ali, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Since the eradication of small pox in 1976, many other potentially life compromising if not threatening diseases have been dealt with subsequently. This event was a major leap not only in the scientific world already burdened with many diseases but also in the mindset of the common man who became more receptive to novel treatment options. Among the many protozoan diseases, the leishmaniases have emerged as one of the largest parasite killers of the world, second only to malaria. There are three types of leishmaniasis namely cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (ML), and visceral (VL), caused by a group of more than 20 species of Leishmania parasites. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar is the most severe form and almost fatal if untreated. Since the first attempts at leishmanization, we have killed parasite vaccines, subunit protein, or DNA vaccines, and now we have live recombinant carrier vaccines and live attenuated parasite vaccines under various stages of development. Although some research has shown promising results, many more potential genes need to be evaluated as live attenuated vaccine candidates. This mini-review attempts to summarize the success and failures of genetically modified organisms used in vaccination against some of major parasitic diseases for their application in leishmaniasis. PMID:24860575

  20. Animal reservoirs of visceral leishmaniasis in India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Niti; Mishra, Jyotsna; Singh, Ram; Singh, Sarman

    2013-02-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a disease that has both zoonotic and anthroponotic etiologies. In India, VL is endemic, considered to be anthroponotic, and caused by Leishmania donovani . Anthroponotic diseases are maintained by transmission from human to human and to a lesser extent from human to animals. Serum samples from 1,220 animals from 7 human VL endemic districts of Bihar, India, were tested for antibodies to a recombinant kinetoplast antigen (rK39 antigen) present in amastigotes of visceralizing Leishmania species, i.e., L. donovani complex. Additionally, PCR was used to examine samples positive by rK39 antigen serology. Antibodies to rK39 indicative of VL were detected in 33 of 1,220 animals. Thirty-one of 867 goats (Capra hircus), 1 of 161 cattle (Bos indicus), and 1 of 54 wild rats (Rattus sp.) were positive by rK39 serology. None of 106 chickens (Gallus domesticus), 26 sheep (Ovis aries), 3 water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalus), or 3 dogs (Canis familiaris) was positive by rK39 serology. Leishmania donovani DNA was detected by PCR in 20 rK39 positive blood samples from goats and 1 sample from a cow. The present study indicates that goats are potential animal reservoirs of human VL in India. PMID:22765517

  1. Endemic transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in Bhutan.

    PubMed

    Yangzom, Thinley; Cruz, Israel; Bern, Caryn; Argaw, Daniel; den Boer, Margriet; Vélez, Iván Dario; Bhattacharya, Sujit K; Molina, Ricardo; Alvar, Jorge

    2012-12-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis was first reported in Bhutan in 2006. We conducted studies of the parasite, possible vectors and reservoirs, and leishmanin skin test and risk factor surveys in three villages. Nineteen cases were reported from seven districts. Parasite typing yielded two novel microsatellite sequences, both related to Indian L. donovani. In one case village, 40 (18.5%) of 216 participants had positive leishmanin skin test results, compared with 3 (4.2%) of 72 in the other case village and 0 of 108 in the control village. Positive results were strongly associated with the village and increasing age. None of the tested dogs were infected. Eighteen sand flies were collected, 13 Phlebotomus species and 5 Sergentomyia species; polymerase chain reaction for leishmanial DNA was negative. This assessment suggests that endemic visceral leishmaniasis transmission has occurred in diverse locations in Bhutan. Surveillance, case investigations, and further parasite, vector, and reservoir studies are needed. The potential protective impact of bed nets should be evaluated. PMID:23091191

  2. Visceral leishmaniasis in Ethiopia: an evolving disease.

    PubMed

    Leta, Samson; Dao, Thi Ha Thanh; Mesele, Frehiwot; Alemayehu, Gezahegn

    2014-09-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (also known as kala-azar) is classified as one of the most neglected tropical diseases. It is becoming a growing health problem in Ethiopia, with endemic areas that are continually spreading. The annual burden of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Ethiopia is estimated to be between 4,500 and 5,000 cases, and the population at risk is more than 3.2 million. There has been a change in the epidemiology of VL in Ethiopia. Over the last decades, almost all cases and outbreaks of VL were reported from arid and semi-arid parts of the country; however, recent reports indicated the introduction of this disease into the highlands. Migration of labourers to and from endemic areas, climatic and environmental changes, and impaired immunity due to HIV/AIDS and malnutrition resulted in the change of VL epidemiology. HIV spurs the spread of VL by increasing the risk of progression from asymptomatic infection towards full VL. Conversely, VL accelerates the onset of AIDS. In Ethiopia, VL epidemiology remains complex because of the diversity of risk factors involved, and its control is becoming an increasing challenge. This paper reviews the changes in epidemiology of VL in Ethiopia and discusses some of the possible explanations for these changes. The prospects for novel approaches to VL control are discussed, as are the current and future challenges facing Ethiopia's public health development program. PMID:25188253

  3. Genetically modified organisms and visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Chhajer, Rudra; Ali, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Since the eradication of small pox in 1976, many other potentially life compromising if not threatening diseases have been dealt with subsequently. This event was a major leap not only in the scientific world already burdened with many diseases but also in the mindset of the common man who became more receptive to novel treatment options. Among the many protozoan diseases, the leishmaniases have emerged as one of the largest parasite killers of the world, second only to malaria. There are three types of leishmaniasis namely cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (ML), and visceral (VL), caused by a group of more than 20 species of Leishmania parasites. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar is the most severe form and almost fatal if untreated. Since the first attempts at leishmanization, we have killed parasite vaccines, subunit protein, or DNA vaccines, and now we have live recombinant carrier vaccines and live attenuated parasite vaccines under various stages of development. Although some research has shown promising results, many more potential genes need to be evaluated as live attenuated vaccine candidates. This mini-review attempts to summarize the success and failures of genetically modified organisms used in vaccination against some of major parasitic diseases for their application in leishmaniasis. PMID:24860575

  4. Stress and visceral pain: from animal models to clinical therapies

    PubMed Central

    Larauche, Muriel; Mulak, Agata; Taché, Yvette

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have implicated stress (psychosocial and physical) as a trigger of first onset or exacerbation of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms of which visceral pain is an integrant landmark. A number of experimental acute or chronic exteroceptive or interoceptive stressors induce visceral hyperalgesia in rodents although recent evidence also points to stress-related visceral analgesia as established in the somatic pain field. Underlying mechanisms of stress-related visceral hypersensitivity may involve a combination of sensitization of primary afferents, central sensitization in response to input from the viscera and dysregulation of descending pathways that modulate spinal nociceptive transmission or analgesic response. Biochemical coding of stress involves the recruitment of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) signaling pathways. Experimental studies established that activation of brain and peripheral CRF receptor subtype 1 plays a primary role in the development of stress-related delayed visceral hyperalgesia while subtype 2 activation induces analgesic response. In line with stress pathways playing a role in IBS, non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment modalities aimed at reducing stress perception using a broad range of evidence-based mind-body interventions and centrally-targeted medications to reduce anxiety impact on brain patterns activated by visceral stimuli and dampen visceral pain. PMID:21575632

  5. Disseminated visceral coccidiosis in sandhill cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, J.W.; Novilla, M.N.; Fayer, R.; Iverson, G.C.

    1984-01-01

    Disseminated visceral coccidiosis (DVC) caused by Eimeria spp was first recognized as a disease entity in captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) and whooping cranes (G americana) at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Because cranes produced at the Center are reintroduced to the wild to augment wild populations, studies involving both experimentally induced and natural infections were initiated to determine the potential or actual occurrence of DVC in wild Gruidae. Nine sandhill cranes dosed orally with eimerian oocysts of wild origin developed lesions characteristic of DVC. Extraintestinal granulomas associated with developing schizonts were found in 6 birds. Similar lesions were observed in wild sandhill cranes throughout parts of midwestern United States, Alaska, and Saskatchewan. These studies revealed the wide geographic distribution and the high frequency of occurrence of DVC in wild cranes.

  6. Liver transplant recipient with concomitant cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Deren; Seçkin, Deniz; Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Weina, Peter J; Aydin, Hakan; Ozçay, Figen; Haberal, Mehmet

    2007-03-01

    Diagnosis of leishmaniasis in immunosuppressed patients may be a serious challenge for physicians because of the major clinical and laboratory differences with immunocompetent patients. In immunosuppressed patients, the disease is characterized usually by disseminated visceral involvement, atypical cutaneous lesions and persistent negativity of diagnostic tests. Here, we report an eight-yr-old liver transplant recipient with concomitant cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis in whom the cutaneous lesion led to the diagnosis of systemic involvement. PMID:17300508

  7. Estrogen-dependent visceral hypersensitivity following stress in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Catherine S; Karpowicz, Jane M; Furman, Andrew J; da Silva, Joyce Teixeira; Traub, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    We used functional MRI and a longitudinal design to investigate the brain mechanisms in a previously reported estrogen-dependent visceral hypersensitivity model. We hypothesized that noxious visceral stimulation would be associated with activation of the insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and amygdala, and that estrogen-dependent, stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity would both enhance activation of these regions and recruit activation of other brain areas mediating affect and reward processing. Ovariectomized rats were treated with estrogen (17 β-estradiol, E2) or vehicle (n = 5 per group) and scanned in a 7T MRI at three different time points: pre-stress (baseline), 2 days post-stress, and 18 days post-stress. Stress was induced via a forced-swim paradigm. In a separate group of ovariectomized rats, E2 treatment induced visceral hypersensitivity at the 2 days post-stress time point, and this hypersensitivity returned to baseline at the 18 days post-stress time point. Vehicle-treated rats show no hypersensitivity following stress. During the MRI scans, rats were exposed to noxious colorectal distention. Across groups and time points, noxious visceral stimulation led to activations in the insula, anterior cingulate, and left amygdala, parabrachial nuclei, and cerebellum. A group-by-time interaction was seen in the right amygdala, ventral striatum-pallidum, cerebellum, hippocampus, mediodorsal thalamus, and pontine nuclei. Closer inspection of the data revealed that vehicle-treated rats showed consistent activations and deactivations across time, whereas estrogen-treated animals showed minimal deactivation with noxious visceral stimulation. This unexpected finding suggests that E2 may dramatically alter visceral nociceptive processing in the brain following an acute stressor. This study is the first to examine estrogen-stress dependent interactions in response to noxious visceral stimulation using functional MRI. Future studies that include other control

  8. Bone Marrow Negative Visceral Leishmaniasis in an Adolescent Male

    PubMed Central

    Jetley, S; Rana, S; Khan, S; Zeeba, JS; Hassan, MJ; Kapoor, P

    2013-01-01

    Visceral Leishmaniasis or Kala Azar is endemic in certain regions of India. In endemic areas, the constellation of fever, progressive weight loss, weakness, pronounced splenomegaly, anemia, leukopenia, and hypergammaglobulinemia is highly suggestive of visceral leishmaniasis. Demonstration of the parasite in liver, splenic or bone marrow aspirates is confirmatory. We present a case in which Leishmania donovani (LD) bodies were demonstrated on splenic aspirate. We were unable to demonstrate LD bodies on bone marrow aspiration. PMID:23682278

  9. Visceral urate deposition in a little bittern (Ixobrychus minutus)

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Morad; Minoosh, Zahra; Haghighi, Siavosh

    2015-01-01

    Visceral urate deposition (visceral gout) is a common finding during post-mortem examination of poultry. Rare cases of visceral gout may occur in wild birds. A rare case of visceral urate deposition in a little bittern (Ixobrychus minutus) is reported here. In May 2013, carcass of a little bittern was submitted for necropsy to the Clinic of Poultry Diseases (Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Razi University) by local authorities of Iran Department of Environment. At necropsy, white chalky deposits were observed on the heart and thoracic air sacs of the bird. To confirm the presence of urates, chalky deposits were collected from pericardium and tested by muerxide test. Heart and kidneys were sampled, preserved in 10% neutral-buffered formalin solution and submitted to laboratory for histopathology. Murexide test was positive for presence of uric acid in chalky deposits collected from pericardium. Light microscopy of affected organs confirmed the condition as visceral urate deposition. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the occurrence of visceral urate deposition in a little bittern. PMID:26261716

  10. Obesity Takes Its Toll on Visceral Pain: High-Fat Diet Induces Toll-Like Receptor 4-Dependent Visceral Hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Dinan, Timothy G.; Cryan, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to high-fat diet induces both, peripheral and central alterations in TLR4 expression. Moreover, functional TLR4 is required for the development of high-fat diet-induced obesity. Recently, central alterations in TLR4 expression have been associated with the modulation of visceral pain. However, it remains unknown whether there is a functional interaction between the role of TLR4 in diet-induced obesity and in visceral pain. In the present study we investigated the impact of long-term exposure to high-fat diet on visceral pain perception and on the levels of TLR4 and Cd11b (a microglial cell marker) protein expression in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus. Peripheral alterations in TLR4 were assessed following the stimulation of spleenocytes with the TLR4-agonist LPS. Finally, we evaluated the effect of blocking TLR4 on visceral nociception, by administering TAK-242, a selective TLR4-antagonist. Our results demonstrated that exposure to high-fat diet induced visceral hypersensitivity. In parallel, enhanced TLR4 expression and microglia activation were found in brain areas related to visceral pain, the PFC and the hippocampus. Likewise, peripheral TLR4 activity was increased following long-term exposure to high-fat diet, resulting in an increased level of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Finally, TLR4 blockage counteracted the hyperalgesic phenotype present in mice fed on high-fat diet. Our data reveal a role for TLR4 in visceral pain modulation in a model of diet-induced obesity, and point to TLR4 as a potential therapeutic target for the development of drugs to treat visceral hypersensitivity present in pathologies associated to fat diet consumption. PMID:27159520

  11. Visceral adipose tissue modulates mammalian longevity.

    PubMed

    Muzumdar, Radhika; Allison, David B; Huffman, Derek M; Ma, Xiaohui; Atzmon, Gil; Einstein, Francine H; Fishman, Sigal; Poduval, Aruna D; McVei, Theresa; Keith, Scott W; Barzilai, Nir

    2008-06-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) can delay many age-related diseases and extend lifespan, while an increase in adiposity is associated with enhanced disease risk and accelerated aging. Among the various fat depots, the accrual of visceral fat (VF) is a common feature of aging, and has been shown to be the most detrimental on metabolic syndrome of aging in humans. We have previously demonstrated that surgical removal of VF in rats improves insulin action; thus, we set out to determine if VF removal affects longevity. We prospectively studied lifespan in three groups of rats: ad libitum-fed (AL-fed), CR (Fed 60% of AL) and a group of AL-fed rats with selective removal of VF at 5 months of age (VF-removed rats). We demonstrate that compared to AL-fed rats, VF-removed rats had a significant increase in mean (p < 0.001) and maximum lifespan (p < 0.04) and significant reduction in the incidence of severe renal disease (p < 0.01). CR rats demonstrated the greatest mean and maximum lifespan (p < 0.001) and the lowest rate of death as compared to AL-fed rats (0.13). Taken together, these observations provide the most direct evidence to date that a reduction in fat mass, specifically VF, may be one of the possible underlying mechanisms of the anti-aging effect of CR. PMID:18363902

  12. Human visceral leishmaniasis: a picture from Italy.

    PubMed

    Abdalmaula, Giuma Harun; Barbadoro, Pamela; Marigliano, Anna; Illuminati, Diego; Di Stanislao, Francesco; D'Errico, Marcello Mario; Prospero, Emilia

    2013-12-01

    The aim of our study was to describe the distribution of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in Italy, focusing on HIV-infected patients, to estimate the burden of the disease and the public health actions that should be undertaken. A review of official notifications and hospitalization data has been performed. From 2006 to 2008, a total of 289 cases of VL were notified; the overall notification rate was 1.63/1,000,000 (95% CI 1.45-1.83). In total, 1192 VL-associated hospitalizations were detected, with a hospitalization rate of 6.71/1,000,000 (95% CI 6.34-7.10). For the age group "≤ 24 years", a statistically significant increase was detected (p<0.05). A total of 68.9% (n = 821) of hospitalizations were detected in HIV-positive patients. The geographic distribution of rates revealed a significant increase in the north-eastern area of the country. Our study confirms that the epidemiological pattern of VL is changing and that, in Italy, control measures and preventive strategies should be based on not only the official notification system but also hospital data. This would lead to the identification of areas of parasite spread and to the creation of awareness campaigns geared toward general practitioners in the affected areas. Easy case detection would allow for timely public health actions and strategies for the implementation of more effective interventions for reservoir control. PMID:23999330

  13. Nanomedicines for Therapy of Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Want, Muzamil Yaqub; Yadav, Priya; Afrin, Farhat

    2016-03-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or kala-azar is a vector borne infectious disease caused by the protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. VL is endemic in more than 85 countries with an estimated 0.2-0.5 million people at risk, causing high morbidity and mortality across the globe. In the absence of effective vaccines, treatment solely relies on chemotherapy and can be 100% fatal within two years, if left untreated. However, the present chemotherapeutics is limited by toxicity, non-compliance, location of parasites within the lysosomal vacuoles of macrophages, impairing the accession of many potential antileishmanial drugs, prolonged and cumbersome regimen that is unaffordable by rural population with alarming increase in unresponsiveness, complications of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) and HIV co-infections. Nanotechnology offers promising approach in the treatment of VL as it reduces toxicity, improves the therapeutic index of drugs, and can selectively deliver the antileishmanial cargos to the intracellular pathogens. In addition, nanoparticles can interact with the host immune system, modulating the immune response in a way that may favor the elimination of the Leishmania parasites. In this review, we give an overview of the strategies and delivery systems employed for the antileishmanial drugs towards the riddance of deadly VL. PMID:27455613

  14. Visceral leishmaniasis: experimental models for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Suman

    2011-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or kala-azar is a chronic protozoan infection in humans associated with significant global morbidity and mortality. The causative agent is a haemoflagellate protozoan Leishmania donovani, an obligate intracellular parasite that resides and multiplies within macrophages of the reticulo-endothelial system. Most of the existing anti-leishmanial drugs have serious side effects that limit their clinical application. As an alternate strategy, vaccination is also under experimental and clinical trials. The in vitro evaluation designed to facilitate rapid testing of a large number of drugs has been focussed on the promastigotes milt little attention on the clinically relevant parasite stage, amastigotes. Screening designed to closely reflect the situation in vivo is currently time consuming, laborious, and expensive, since it requires intracellular amastigotes and animal model. The ability to select transgenic Leishmania expressing reporter proteins, such as the green fluorescent proteins (GFP) or the luciferase opened up new possibilities for the development of drug screening models. Many experimental animal models like rodents, dogs and monkeys have been developed, each with specific features, but none accurately reproduces what happens in humans. Available in vitro and in vivo methodologies for antileishmanial drug screening and their respective advantages and disadvantages are reviewed. PMID:21321417

  15. [Visceral leishmaniasis in Central Asia and Kazakhstan].

    PubMed

    Dergacheva, T I; Darchenkova, N N

    1990-01-01

    At present sporadic foci of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are encountered mainly in the natural foci. The natural foci of VL are situated mainly in valleys and foothills. In southern areas of the Turkmen SSR the majority of cases were registered in small settlements situated near wells in interbarkhan lowerings. The reservoir of pathogen here may be Vulpes vulpes and dogs and the most likely vector is Phlebotomus turanicus. In Kazakhstan cases of VL are encountered in the thickets of the Syr-Darya floodlands in Kzyl-Orda Province, where the natural reservoir of the pathogen are Canis aureus L. and Vulpes corsac, and the vector is P. smirnovi. Synanthropic foci in Dzhambul and Chimkent, where dogs were most likely the source of the infection and P. longiductus was the vector, are at present inactive. The maps have been plotted where landscape dissemination of mosquitoes (VL vectors) is compared to places of habitation of Canis aureus L. and VL incidence in humans at peaks of the disease endemia. Medical personnel should be on the look-out for VL on the whole territory with VL natural foci. PMID:2146471

  16. Giant prosthetic reinforcement of the visceral sac.

    PubMed

    Wantz, G E

    1989-11-01

    One hundred and seventy-nine patients with 237 hernias of the groin who were at high risk for recurrence after classic hernioplasty were operated upon; the procedure of giant prosthetic reinforcement of the visceral sac (GPRVS) was used. The patients in this series had predominantly recurrent and re-recurrent hernias. However, a few were obese with bilateral primary direct hernias and some had associated connective tissue disorders, such as Marfan and Ehlers-Danlos syndromes. GPRVS eliminates hernias of the groin by rendering the peritoneum inextensible by placing, in the preperitoneal space, a large prosthesis that extends far beyond the borders of the myopectineal orifice. The myopectineal orifice is the weak spot at which all hernias of the groin begin and is bounded by the rectus, oblique abdominal and iliopsoas muscles and the pectin of the pubis. In bilateral GPRVS, the peritoneum of both groins is reinforced with a single prosthesis inserted in the preperitoneal space through the midline. In unilateral GPRVS, the mesh envelops the peritoneum of a single groin. This simplifies the operation and makes it suitable for surgical centers that perform outpatient operations. The prosthesis with the best physical characteristics for GPRVS is Mersilene (polyester fiber). Unsutured prostheses of polypropylene and Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene) may not adhere at the far edges, leading to a failure and recurrence. The over-all recurrence rate in this series of problem hernias was 3.7 per cent, which is extremely good. However, the rate becomes outstanding if recurrences resulting from meshes unsuitable for GPRVS are excluded. PMID:2814751

  17. Laboratory diagnosis of human visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Sakkas, Hercules; Gartzonika, Constantina; Levidiotou, Stamatina

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused by the Leishmania donovani complex, is a vector-borne systemic disease, with a worldwide distribution causing high morbidity and mortality in the developing world. VL patients may be asymptomatic or they may present symptoms and findings of a systemic infection. The positive predictive value of clinical diagnosis in patients with typical symptoms is usually high, but more often, the signs and symptoms are inconclusive and mistaken with other co-endemic diseases. The fact that HIV co-infections often produce atypical presentations and the heterogeneity of Leishmania species, which is common in many endemic regions, also complicate the diagnosis. Despite that, some of the parasitological methods are still considered to be the reference standard for VL diagnosis due to their specificity. The development of serological and molecular tests has further enhanced the diagnostic approach of VL. Recombinant antigens have improved the performance of serodiagnostic tests, with DAT and the rK39 antigen based immunochromatographic test being the most appropriate methods for the serological diagnosis of VL. Molecular techniques, despite the fact that their implementation is often difficult and infeasible, have become increasingly relevant due to remarkable sensitivity and specificity, and to the variability of tested samples. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) has been shown to be superior than conventional PCR for the differentiation between active VL and asymptomatic infections, such as for the detection of VL-HIV coinfection. This review summarizes the available methods with their applications in the diagnosis of VL, and focuses on the recent developments in VL diagnostics. PMID:27004573

  18. Surgical removal of visceral adipose tissue: effects on insulin action.

    PubMed

    Gabriely, Ilan; Barzilai, Nir

    2003-06-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that excess of visceral fat has deleterious effects on insulin action. Mainly, it has been shown to be associated with a decrease in hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity, which results in a clinical condition also known as insulin resistance. This report describes a novel experimental method that we employed in order to analyze the particular effects of visceral fat on insulin activity. By extracting visceral fat we were able to distinguish the specific role that it plays in insulin action, and to analyze its effects on the gene expression of a variety of fat-derived peptides, which may be considered to be (at least partially) mediators in the development of the metabolic syndrome and possibly diabetes mellitus. PMID:12762966

  19. [Visceral larva migrans. A rare cause of eosinophilia in adults].

    PubMed

    Lund-Tønnesen, S

    1996-09-20

    Toxocariasis is a cosmopolitan infection of dogs and cats with a roundworm resembling Ascaris. Man becomes infected by ingesting eggs from the environment. The infection occurs mainly in children. There are two distinct syndromes: visceral larva migrans and ocular toxocariasis. The author describes the case of a 70 year old Norwegian female with visceral larva migrans. One month after a visit to Spain she developed fever, hepatomegaly and marked eosinophilia. Liver biopsy revealed subacute hepatitis with eosinophilic leucocyte infiltration. Toxocara ELISA was strongly positive. Treatment with albendazol 400 mg b.i.d. and prednisone 10 mg daily for three weeks was successful. A clinical relapse after three months was treated in the same way for one month. Prolonged treatment is recommended. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of visceral larva migrans in an adult Norwegian. Epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment are discussed. PMID:8928142

  20. Visceral organ cross-sensitization – an integrated perspective

    PubMed Central

    Brumovsky, P.R.; Gebhart, G.F.

    2009-01-01

    Viscero-somatic referral and sensitization has been well documented clinically and widely investigated, whereas viscero-visceral referral and sensitization (termed cross-organ sensitization) has only recently received attention as important to visceral disease states. Because second order neurons in the CNS have been extensively shown to receive convergent input from different visceral organs, it has been assumed that cross-organ sensitization arises by the same convergence-projection mechanism as advanced for viscero-somatic referral and sensitization. However, increasing evidence also suggests participation of peripheral mechanisms to explain referral and sensitization. We briefly summarize behavioral, morphological and physiological support of and focus on potential mechanisms underlying cross-organ sensitization. PMID:19679518

  1. Novel therapeutic strategies for treatment of visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Jain, Keerti; Jain, Narendra K

    2013-12-01

    Leishmaniasis reveals itself in two forms, cutaneous and visceral, but the later exerts serious complications and may lead to death, if untreated. The availability of limited number of antileishmanial chemotherapeutic agents, the high cost of treatment, growing incidences of resistance to first line drugs as well as severe toxicities associated with the drugs complicate the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. To overcome these problems, critical investigation of new therapeutic strategies with potential antileishmanial activity and good tolerability are essential. In this review we explore the different facets of novel therapeutic strategies for treatment of visceral leishmaniasis with a purpose to summarize all the possible treatment tactics, which will help scientists working in this arena to implement their research in a systematic manner. PMID:23973338

  2. Measures to Control Phlebotomus argentipes and Visceral Leishmaniasis in India

    PubMed Central

    Bublitz, DeAnna C.; Poché, Richard M.; Garlapati, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a deadly parasitic disease that is transmitted via the bite of a female sand fly, Phlebotomus argentipes. The highest burden of this disease is in northern India. In 2005, India embarked on an initiative with Nepal, Bangladesh, and the World Health Organization to eliminate visceral leishmaniasis by 2015. With the goal of 1 case in 10,000 people still unmet, it is prudent to evaluate the tools that have been used thus far to reduce vector numbers and cases of the disease. Herein, we present a review of studies conducted on vector-control strategies in India to combat visceral leishmaniasis including indoor residual spraying, insecticide-treated bed nets, environmental modification, and feed-through insecticides. This review suggests that the quality of indoor residual spraying may enhance control measures while a combination of spraying, nets, and feed-through insecticides would best confront the diverse habitats of P. argentipes. PMID:27308270

  3. Glucagon-Induced Vasospasm of Hepatic Artery Branches During Visceral Angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Dziedzic, T. Scott; Smith, Tony P.

    2008-07-15

    Glucagon is often used in radiology to decrease bowel motility for enhanced imaging, including visceral digital subtraction angiography. We present a case in which branch hepatic artery vasospasm followed the intravenous administration of glucagon during visceral angiography.

  4. Epidemiology of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Babuadze, Giorgi; Alvar, Jorge; Argaw, Daniel; de Koning, Harry P.; Iosava, Merab; Kekelidze, Merab; Tsertsvadze, Nikoloz; Tsereteli, David; Chakhunashvili, Giorgi; Mamatsashvili, Tamar; Beria, Nino; Kalandadze, Irine; Ejov, Mikhail; Imnadze, Paata

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the transmission and prevalence of Leishmania parasite infection of humans in two foci of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in Georgia, the well known focus in Tbilisi in the East, and in Kutaisi, a new focus in the West of the country. The seroprevalence of canine leishmaniasis was investigated in order to understand the zoonotic transmission. Blood samples of 1575 dogs (stray and pet) and 77 wild canids were tested for VL by Kalazar Detect rK39 rapid diagnostic tests. Three districts were investigated in Tbilisi and one in Kutaisi. The highest proportions of seropositive pet dogs were present in District #2 (28.1%, 82/292) and District #1 (26.9%, 24/89) in Tbilisi, compared to 17.3% (26/150) of pet dogs in Kutaisi. The percentage of seropositive stray dogs was also twice as high in Tbilisi (16.1%, n = 670) than in Kutaisi (8%, n = 50); only 2/58 wild animals screened were seropositive (2. 6%). A total of 873 Phlebotomine sand flies were collected, with 5 different species identified in Tbilisi and 3 species in Kutaisi; 2.3% of the females were positive for Leishmania parasites. The Leishmanin Skin Test (LST) was performed on 981 human subjects in VL foci in urban areas in Tbilisi and Kutaisi. A particularly high prevalence of LST positives was observed in Tbilisi District #1 (22.2%, 37.5% and 19.5% for ages 5–9, 15–24 and 25–59, respectively); lower prevalence was observed in Kutaisi (0%, 3.2% and 5.2%, respectively; P<0.05). This study shows that Tbilisi is an active focus for leishmaniasis and that the infection prevalence is very high in dogs and in humans. Although exposure is as yet not as high in Kutaisi, this is a new VL focus. The overall situation in the country is alarming and new control measures are urgently needed. PMID:24603768

  5. [Visceral leishmaniasis in children in the province of Florence].

    PubMed

    Calabri, G B; Casini, T; Cristiano, R; Pasquini, E; La Cauza, F; Lippi, A; Grifi, G; Cocchi, P; Calabri, G

    1997-01-01

    Three cases of visceral leishmaniasis are presented: two children who got the disease in Florence and the imported case of a girl coming from Albania with her disease in act. The diagnosis was made showing Leishmania in bone marrow specimen. Therapy with melglumine antimonate was effective and well borne, leading the three children to a complete healing. In the province of Florence visceral leishmaniasis is very rare, but such protozoa and the sand flies are present as shown by the high number of dog with leishmaniasis. PMID:9595582

  6. The pathology associated with visceral toxicosis of catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Visceral toxicosis of catfish (VTC) syndrome was recognized in the late 1990s and recently has been associated with exposure to Clostridium botulinum type E neurotoxin. Tentative diagnosis is based on clinical presentation and ross findings, and is confirmed by bioassay. In April 2009, channel cat...

  7. Assessment of visceral pain associated with metritis in dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metritis is a common disease in dairy cattle but to our knowledge no work has assessed pain associated with this disease. Tissue palpation is commonly used to assess pain in human and veterinary medicine. The objective of this study was to evaluate visceral pain responses during rectal and uterine p...

  8. Antimony to Cure Visceral Leishmaniasis Unresponsive to Liposomal Amphotericin B.

    PubMed

    Morizot, Gloria; Jouffroy, Romain; Faye, Albert; Chabert, Paul; Belhouari, Katia; Calin, Ruxandra; Charlier, Caroline; Miailhes, Patrick; Siriez, Jean-Yves; Mouri, Oussama; Yera, Hélène; Gilquin, Jacques; Tubiana, Roland; Lanternier, Fanny; Mamzer, Marie-France; Legendre, Christophe; Peyramond, Dominique; Caumes, Eric; Lortholary, Olivier; Buffet, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    We report on 4 patients (1 immunocompetent, 3 immunosuppressed) in whom visceral leishmaniasis had become unresponsive to (or had relapsed after) treatment with appropriate doses of liposomal amphotericin B. Under close follow-up, full courses of pentavalent antimony were administered without life-threatening adverse events and resulted in rapid and sustained clinical and parasitological cure. PMID:26735920

  9. Obesity reduces methionine sulfoxide reductase activity in visceral adipose tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Visceral obesity is linked to the development of comorbidities including insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. Elevated levels of oxidative stress are observed in obese individuals and in animal models of obesity, pointing to a mechanistic role of oxidative stress. A recent genetic study in...

  10. Sonographic evaluation of visceral and subcutaneous fat in obese children*

    PubMed Central

    Sakuno, Telma; Tomita, Letícia Mary; Tomita, Carolina Mywa; Giuliano, Isabela de Carlos Back; Ibagy, Amanda; Perin, Nilza Maria Medeiros; Poeta, Lisiane Schilling

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate sonographic measurements of visceral and subcutaneous fat in children, and to investigate the usefulness of preperitoneal fat (PF) and the abdominal wall fat index (AFI) as parameters to determine visceral fat and presence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in obese children. Materials and Methods A case-control study of a sample including 44 children (22 cases and 22 controls) matched by sex and age. The Student t test and the Fisher exact test were utilized in the descriptive and bivariate analysis. Results The sonographic parameters evaluated - subcutaneous cell tissue, PF and intraperitoneal fat, and NAFLD - presented high statistical association with body mass index. NAFLD was observed in eight obese patients (36.36%), and PF and AFI were the variables with highest statistical significance, with p < 0.0001. Conclusion Ultrasonography is useful tool in the differentiation and quantification of visceral and subcutaneous fat in children. The measures of PF and AFI are useful in the assessment of visceral fat and NAFLD in obese children. PMID:25741071

  11. Antimony to Cure Visceral Leishmaniasis Unresponsive to Liposomal Amphotericin B

    PubMed Central

    Morizot, Gloria; Jouffroy, Romain; Faye, Albert; Chabert, Paul; Belhouari, Katia; Calin, Ruxandra; Charlier, Caroline; Miailhes, Patrick; Siriez, Jean-Yves; Mouri, Oussama; Yera, Hélène; Gilquin, Jacques; Tubiana, Roland; Lanternier, Fanny; Mamzer, Marie-France; Legendre, Christophe; Peyramond, Dominique; Caumes, Eric; Lortholary, Olivier; Buffet, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    We report on 4 patients (1 immunocompetent, 3 immunosuppressed) in whom visceral leishmaniasis had become unresponsive to (or had relapsed after) treatment with appropriate doses of liposomal amphotericin B. Under close follow-up, full courses of pentavalent antimony were administered without life-threatening adverse events and resulted in rapid and sustained clinical and parasitological cure. PMID:26735920

  12. Visceral obesity: A new risk factor for stone disease

    PubMed Central

    Akarken, Ilker; Tarhan, Hüseyin; Ekin, Rahmi Gökhan; Çakmak, Özgür; Koç, Gökan; İlbey, Yusuf Özlem; Zorlu, Ferruh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We examined the relationship between stone disease and the amount of visceral adipose tissue measured with unenhanced computed tomography (CT). Methods: We included 149 patients with complaints of flank pain and kidney stones detected by CT, from August 2012 to April 2013. In addition, as the control group we included 139 healthy individuals, with flank pain within the same time period, with no previous history of urological disease and no current kidney stones identified by CT. Patients were analyzed for age, gender, body mass index, amount of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, and serum level of low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride. Results: There were no differences between groups in terms of gender and age (p = 0.27 and 0.06, respectively). Respective measurements for the stone and control groups for body mass index were 29.1 and 27.6 kg/m2; for visceral fat measurement 186.0 and 120.2 cm2; and for subcutaneous fat measurements 275.9 and 261.9 cm2 (p = 0.01; 0.01 and 0.36, respectively). Using multivariate analysis, the following factors were identified as increasing the risk of kidney stone formation: hyperlipidemia (p = 0.003), hypertension (p = 0.001), and ratio of visceral fat tissue to subcutaneous fat tissue (p = 0.01). Our study has its limitations, including its retrospective nature, its small sample size, possible selection bias, and missing data. The lack of stone composition data is another major limitation of our study. Conclusion: The ratio of visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue, in addition to obesity, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension, was identified as an emerging factor in the formation of kidney stones. PMID:26600887

  13. Mechanism of acupuncture regulating visceral sensation and mobility.

    PubMed

    Rong, Peijing; Zhu, Bing; Li, Yuqing; Gao, Xinyan; Ben, Hui; Li, Yanhua; Li, Liang; He, Wei; Liu, Rupeng; Yu, Lingling

    2011-06-01

    Chinese ancient medical scientists have long focused on the internal and external contacts between acupoints on the surface of the body and the viscera. The Miraculous Pivot (it is one of the earliest medical classics in China) stated, "Twelve regular channels belong to the zang-fu organs internally, and connect to the extremities and joints externally." Traditional Chinese medicine considers acupoints as defined areas where the Qi of viscera and meridians are transfused. These include the reaction points of visceral diseases on the body surface as well as the acupuncture trigger points that promote the flow of Qi and blood, and regulate visceral function. Chinese ancient medical scientists classified the specificity of the main acupoints in the body based on the meridian doctrine, which has been instructing clinical application for about 2000 years. Laws on the domino effect of acupoints have mainly focused on conclusions to clinical experiences. Indications of some acupoints exceed the practical paradigm since the excessive extension occurred during theory derivation. The current research direction on acupuncture focuses on three aspects: the effectiveness of acupuncture and moxibustion; the relevances and associations between meridians and viscera; and the physical and chemical properties and relevant physical basis of acupoints. The relevance between meridians and viscera is the central theory in the meridian doctrine, and acupoints are regarded as an important link in the relationship between meridians and viscera. Specific relationships between acupoints and target organs exist. Stimulating different acupoints on the body surface can help deal with different diseases, especially visceral diseases. In addition, acupoints have a dual function of reflecting and treating visceral diseases. There is no systemic research available on acupoint specificity, despite current knowledge and clinical experiences, which results in a weak foundation for acupuncture theory

  14. Uteroplacental Insufficiency Increases Visceral Adiposity and Visceral Adipose PPARγ2 Expression in Male Rat Offspring Prior to the Onset of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Joss-Moore, Lisa A; Wang, Yan; Campbell, Michael S; Moore, Barry; Yu, Xing; Callaway, Christopher W; McKnight, Robert A; Desai, Mina; Moyer-Mileur, Laurie J; Lane, Robert H

    2010-01-01

    Uteroplacental insufficiency (UPI) induced intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) predisposes individuals to adult onset metabolic morbidities, including insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. An underlying component of the development of these morbidities is adipose dysfunction; specifically a disproportionately abundant visceral adipose tissue. We hypothesize that IUGR will increase rats visceral adiposity and visceral expression of PPARγ, a key regulator of adipogenesis. To test this hypothesis we employed a well described UPI induced IUGR rat model. Subcutaneous and visceral adipose levels were measured in adolescent control and IUGR rats using MRI. Expression of PPARγ mRNA and protein, as well as PPARγ target genes, was measured in neonatal, adolescent and adult rats. UPI induced IUGR increases the relative amount of visceral adipose tissue in male, but not female, adolescent rats in conjunction with an increase in PPARγ2mRNA and protein in male visceral adipose. Importantly, these effects are seen prior to the onset of overt obesity. We conclude that increased PPARγ2 expression in VAT of IUGR males is associated with increased visceral adiposity. We speculate that the increase in visceral adiposity may contribute to the metabolic morbidities experienced by this population. PMID:20227202

  15. Visceral Leishmaniasis with Endobronchial Involvement in an Immunocompetent Adult

    PubMed Central

    Kotsifas, Konstantinos; Metaxas, Eugenios; Koutsouvelis, Ioannis; Skoutelis, Athanassios; Kara, Panayiota; Tatsis, George

    2011-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is characterized by fever, cachexia, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, and hypergammaglobulinemia. Cough may be a presenting symptom as well. However, pulmonary involvement is considered rare and mainly described in immunocompromised patients. We describe a case of an immunocompetent adult whose clinical presentation was dominated by cough and hemoptysis. Bronchoscopy revealed a discreet polypoid mucosal endobronchial lesion whose biopsy yielded Leishmania amastigotes within histiocytes. Transbronchial needle biopsy of a right paratracheal lymph node was also positive. Leishmania amastigotes were also found on bone marrow and liver biopsies. Treatment with IV Amphotericin B was successful. In conclusion, cough should not be overlooked as a presenting symptom of visceral leishmaniasis and may be a sign of pulmonary involvement. PMID:21577261

  16. Visceral leishmaniasis with endobronchial involvement in an immunocompetent adult.

    PubMed

    Kotsifas, Konstantinos; Metaxas, Eugenios; Koutsouvelis, Ioannis; Skoutelis, Athanassios; Kara, Panayiota; Tatsis, George

    2011-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is characterized by fever, cachexia, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, and hypergammaglobulinemia. Cough may be a presenting symptom as well. However, pulmonary involvement is considered rare and mainly described in immunocompromised patients. We describe a case of an immunocompetent adult whose clinical presentation was dominated by cough and hemoptysis. Bronchoscopy revealed a discreet polypoid mucosal endobronchial lesion whose biopsy yielded Leishmania amastigotes within histiocytes. Transbronchial needle biopsy of a right paratracheal lymph node was also positive. Leishmania amastigotes were also found on bone marrow and liver biopsies. Treatment with IV Amphotericin B was successful. In conclusion, cough should not be overlooked as a presenting symptom of visceral leishmaniasis and may be a sign of pulmonary involvement. PMID:21577261

  17. Transovarian passage, visceral distribution, and pathogenicity of salmonella in snakes.

    PubMed Central

    Chiodini, R J

    1982-01-01

    Transovarian passage of salmonella was evaluated in snakes by cesarean delivery and subsequent bacteriological examination of fetuses. In all cases, the same Salmonella serotype was isolated from the feces of gravid females and their fetuses. The visceral distribution of salmonella in normal snakes was found to involve almost all visceral organs. Of nonenteric organs examined, salmonella was recovered most often from the livers and ureters. Experimental infections with Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella arizonae were established by oral, intracardial, and intracoelomic routes. Animals infected orally shed the organism in feces, but did not develop humoral antibodies or any detectable adverse effect. Animals injected by the intracardiac and intracoelomic routes developed antibody titers of 1:256 to the respective salmonella serotypes, but remained normal throughout the experiment. On the basis of results, salmonella was regarded as an opportunistic organism in reptiles. PMID:7044975

  18. Host resistance to visceral leishmaniasis: prevalence and prevention.

    PubMed

    Maran, Naiara; Gomes, Pollyanna Stephanie; Freire-de-Lima, Leonardo; Freitas, Elisangela Oliveira; Freire-de-Lima, Célio Geraldo; Morrot, Alexandre

    2016-04-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a chronic parasitic disease caused by the vector-borne Leishmania donovani and Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi parasites. The disease affects about 12 million humans in more than 90 countries worldwide. If not treated, the visceral form of Leishmania infection is potentially fatal, yielding about 50000 deaths per year. In the vertebrate host, the Leishmania species causing VL spread systematically to propagate in macrophage reservoirs distributed in the tissues of internal organs, primarily the liver, spleen, bone marrow and the lymph nodes. The infection is associated with evolved mechanisms from the parasite to subvert the host immune system in order to establish a persistent infection. Currently, efforts are being deployed to develop new anti-leishmanial therapies in VL combining immunomodulatory treatment regimens that burst the host immune responses together with leishmanicidal drugs that target the parasite growth. Discoveries in this field are discussed in this article. PMID:26934623

  19. Differential gene expression between visceral and subcutaneous fat depots.

    PubMed

    Atzmon, G; Yang, X M; Muzumdar, R; Ma, X H; Gabriely, I; Barzilai, N

    2002-01-01

    Abdominal obesity has been linked to the development of insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). By surgical removal of visceral fat (VF) in a variety of rodent models, we prevented insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, establishing a cause-effect relationship between VF and the metabolic syndrome. To characterize the biological differences between visceral and peripheral fat depots, we obtained perirenal visceral (VF) and subcutaneous (SC) fat from 5 young rats. We extracted mRNA from the fat tissue and performed gene array hybridization using Affymetrix technology with a platform containing 9 000 genes. Out of the 1 660 genes that were expressed in fat tissue, 297 (17.9 %) genes show a two-fold or higher difference in their expression between the two tissues. We present the 20 genes whose expression is higher in VF fat (by 3 - 7 fold) and the 20 genes whose expression is higher in SC fat (by 3 - 150 fold), many of which are predominantly involved in glucose homeostasis, insulin action, and lipid metabolism. We confirmed the findings of gene array expression and quantified the changes in expression in VF of genes involved in insulin resistance (PPARgamma leptin) and its syndrome (angiotensinogen and plasminogen activating inhibitor-1, PAI-1) by real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) technology. Finally, we demonstrated increased expression of resistin in VF by around 12-fold and adiponectin by around 4-fold, peptides that were not part of the gene expression platform. These results indicate that visceral fat and subcutaneous fat are biologically distinct. PMID:12660871

  20. First case of visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania martiniquensis.

    PubMed

    Liautaud, Bernard; Vignier, Nicolas; Miossec, Charline; Plumelle, Yves; Kone, Moumini; Delta, Delphine; Ravel, Christophe; Cabié, André; Desbois, Nicole

    2015-02-01

    We report the first case of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania martiniquensis in the Caribbean, which until now, was known only to cause cutaneous leishmaniasis. The disease presented with fatigue, anemia, and hepatosplenomegaly in a 61-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who was receiving antiretroviral therapy. Diagnosis was made by bone marrow biopsy. VL is life-threatening, and its emergence in the Caribbean is of concern. PMID:25404076

  1. First Case of Visceral Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania martiniquensis

    PubMed Central

    Liautaud, Bernard; Vignier, Nicolas; Miossec, Charline; Plumelle, Yves; Kone, Moumini; Delta, Delphine; Ravel, Christophe; Cabié, André; Desbois, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    We report the first case of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania martiniquensis in the Caribbean, which until now, was known only to cause cutaneous leishmaniasis. The disease presented with fatigue, anemia, and hepatosplenomegaly in a 61-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who was receiving antiretroviral therapy. Diagnosis was made by bone marrow biopsy. VL is life-threatening, and its emergence in the Caribbean is of concern. PMID:25404076

  2. TRPV1 sensitization mediates postinflammatory visceral pain following acute colitis.

    PubMed

    Lapointe, Tamia K; Basso, Lilian; Iftinca, Mircea C; Flynn, Robyn; Chapman, Kevin; Dietrich, Gilles; Vergnolle, Nathalie; Altier, Christophe

    2015-07-15

    Quiescent phases of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are often accompanied by chronic abdominal pain. Although the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ion channel has been postulated as an important mediator of visceral hypersensitivity, its functional role in postinflammatory pain remains elusive. This study aimed at establishing the role of TRPV1 in the peripheral sensitization underlying chronic visceral pain in the context of colitis. Wild-type and TRPV1-deficient mice were separated into three groups (control, acute colitis, and recovery), and experimental colitis was induced by oral administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Recovery mice showed increased chemically and mechanically evoked visceral hypersensitivity 5 wk post-DSS discontinuation, at which point inflammation had completely resolved. Significant changes in nonevoked pain-related behaviors could also be observed in these animals, indicative of persistent discomfort. These behavioral changes correlated with elevated colonic levels of substance P (SP) and TRPV1 in recovery mice, thus leading to the hypothesis that SP could sensitize TRPV1 function. In vitro experiments revealed that prolonged exposure to SP could indeed sensitize capsaicin-evoked currents in both cultured neurons and TRPV1-transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells, a mechanism that involved TRPV1 ubiquitination and subsequent accumulation at the plasma membrane. Importantly, although TRPV1-deficient animals experienced similar disease severity and pain as wild-type mice in the acute phase of colitis, TRPV1 deletion prevented the development of postinflammatory visceral hypersensitivity and pain-associated behaviors. Collectively, our results suggest that chronic exposure of colon-innervating primary afferents to SP could sensitize TRPV1 and thus participate in the establishment of persistent abdominal pain following acute inflammation. PMID:26021808

  3. Association of resistin with visceral fat and muscle insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Borst, Stephen E; Conover, Christine F; Bagby, Gregory J

    2005-10-01

    Maturing Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats develop obesity and skeletal muscle insulin resistance. To investigate the relationship between fat mass and insulin responses, we performed surgical removal of the epididymal and retroperitoneal depots of visceral adipose tissue (VF) or sham surgery (SHAM) in male rats aged 4 months. At sacrifice, 30 days later, the mass of visceral fat was 48% lower (p<0.05) in VF- compared to SHAM, while subcutaneous fat was essentially unchanged. VF- animals displayed increased insulin responses in isolated strips of skeletal muscle. Insulin-stimulated glucose transport was increased 28% in soleus muscle (p<0.05), with a trend toward a 31% increase in extensor digitorum longus muscle (p=0.058). Glucose tolerance was not significantly affected by surgical fat removal. In VF- animals, serum resistin was reduced 26% (p<0.05) and serum adiponectin was reduced 30% (p<0.05), with trends for reductions in IL-4 (58% reduction, p=0.084) and IL-6 (56% reduction, p=0.123). TNF-alpha, leptin and free fatty acids (NEFAs) were unchanged. We conclude that in maturing S-D rats, increased visceral adiposity leads to an increase in systemic release in resistin and possibly interleukins. Elevation of circulating cytokines may play a role in the development of muscle insulin resistance. PMID:16154759

  4. Antiactin and antitubulin antibodies in canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed Central

    Pateraki, E; Portocala, R; Labrousse, H; Guesdon, J L

    1983-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis, a chronic and often fatal disease, is caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani. Both specific and nonspecific antibodies are produced in the course of the disease, and autoantibodies may be involved in pathogenesis. Tubulin and actin have been found to be associated with L. donovani. To learn whether antiactin and antitubulin antibodies are present in visceral leishmaniasis, we tested sera from 263 infected dogs by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies to the antigens L. donovani, actin, and tubulin. All samples reacted positively with L. donovani, and a high percentage reacted positively with all three antigens. Sera from 202 uninfected dogs were also tested, none reacted with L. donovani antigen, although positive reactions were observed for 8 of the samples with actin or tubulin. It was found that the antibody-antigen reaction occurred at the Fab portion of the immunoglobulin molecule. Competitive enzyme immunoassays showed that the reaction was inhibited if the positive serum was first incubated with L. donovani antigen, actin, or tubulin and then tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. These results suggest that antiactin and antitubulin antibodies are present in the sera of dogs infected with visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:6642639

  5. Liver morphology and function in visceral leishmaniasis (Kala-azar).

    PubMed Central

    el Hag, I A; Hashim, F A; el Toum, I A; Homeida, M; el Kalifa, M; el Hassan, A M

    1994-01-01

    AIM--To study the morphology and function of the liver in visceral leishmaniasis (Kala-azar). METHODS--Percutaneous liver biopsy specimens from 18 patients with confirmed visceral leishmaniasis were examined under light and electron microscopy before and after treatment with pentovalent antimony. The tissue was also examined for hepatitis B surface and core antigens using immunoperoxidase staining. Liver function was investigated in nine patients before and after treatment. RESULTS--Specimens before treatment showed Kupffer cells and macrophages colonised by leishmania parasites in 40% of cases. A chronic mononuclear cell infiltrate had affected the portal tracts and lobules. Ballooning degeneration of the hepatocytes, fibrosis of the terminal hepatic venules, and pericellular fibrosis were common findings. The fibrosis was related to Ito cells transforming to fibroblast-like cells. None of the patients had hepatitis B infection. All patients had biochemical evidence of liver dysfunction before treatment. Liver function improved after treatment. CONCLUSION--Visceral leishmaniasis causes morphological and functional disturbance in the liver. Focal fibrosis rather than cirrhosis occurs. The exact aetiology of hepatic damage is unclear but may have an immunological basis. Images PMID:8063939

  6. Blood-brain barrier disruption during spontaneous canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Melo, G D; Grano, F G; Silva, J E S; Kremer, B E; Lima, V M F; Machado, G F

    2015-12-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a complex disease caused by Leishmania infantum, and in dogs, besides the classical symptoms, there are descriptions of inflammatory alterations in the brain. Brain inflammation is a strictly controlled process, and as the brain counts on the efficiency of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), we aimed to assess BBB integrity in dogs with spontaneous visceral leishmaniasis. Therefore, we evaluated markers in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and in brain tissue related to BBB disruption and brain inflammation. Elevated albumin quota revealed BBB breakdown, corroborated by increased concentrations of anti-Leishmania antibodies in the CSF. In the brain, albumin and IgG staining formed halos around blood vessels, a classical indicator of BBB leakage. Soluble IgG was also detected in the choroid plexus and ependyma, and in these structures, IgG stained random resident cells. IgG(+) cells and Fcγ-RI(+) cells were identified in the choroid plexus, ependyma and perivascular in the brain parenchyma. The data support the occurrence of BBB disruption in dogs with spontaneous visceral leishmaniasis, and IgG as a key molecule that is capable of initiating and/or maintaining the inflammatory stimuli in the nervous milieu and the CSF as an important disseminator of inflammatory stimuli within the CNS. PMID:26434684

  7. [From unexplained fever to visceral leishmaniasis--a case report].

    PubMed

    Marković, Ivan; Gudelj-Gracanin, Ana; Culo, Melanie-Ivana; Stoos-Veić, Tajana; Vicković, Ninoslava; Desnica, Bosko; Morović-Vergles, Jadranka

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis or kala-azar is a systemic infectious vector-borne disease caused by protozoa Leishmania donovani and Leishmania infantum that are transmitted to mammalian hosts by sand flies. It occurrs sporadically in endemic areas, including Mediterranean basin. Southern coastal territories of Croatia have been recognized as the foci of the disease. Dogs are the main reservoir of human infection. Clinical features include prolonged fever, malaise, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia and inversion of albumin-globulin ratio. If left untreated, the disease causes death in majority of cases. We report a 47-year-old Croatian patient who was admitted to hospital with 2-month history of fever of unknown origin. Based on bone marrow aspirate findings and positive serological tests, the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis was established. We also considered secondary hemophagocytic lymphohystiocytosis in the differential diagnosis. After a 4-week treatment with sodium-stibogluconate clinical remission was achieved as well as complete recovery of hematopoesis. The aim of our case-report is to stress the importance of considering visceral leishmaniasis in patients with longstanding fever in endemic areas. PMID:24720151

  8. Novel Approaches to Targeting Visceral and Hepatic Adiposities in HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Tien, Phyllis C

    2015-12-01

    Visceral and hepatic adiposities have been associated with both cardiovascular and liver disease and are of concern in HIV-infected persons in the modern era of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). The development of therapeutic targets to reduce visceral and hepatic adiposities in HIV-infected persons has been slow, because of early reports that attributed the excess adiposity to specific antiretroviral drugs. Visceral adiposity was initially thought to occur as part of a protease inhibitor-induced "HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome." Subsequent studies show that visceral adiposity is likely a result of effective ART, recovery of health, and the normal aging process. Visceral adiposity is an established risk factor for hepatic adiposity. Identifying drug targets for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is under active investigation. The present review summarizes the recent literature on the pathogenesis of visceral and hepatic adiposities in HIV-infected persons, current therapeutic strategies, and novel interventions in HIV-infected and uninfected persons. PMID:26493063

  9. Visceral and subcutaneous fat have different origins and evidence supports a mesothelial source

    PubMed Central

    Chau, You-Ying; Bandiera, Roberto; Serrels, Alan; Martínez-Estrada, Ofelia M; Qing, Wei; Lee, Martin; Slight, Joan; Thornburn, Anna; Berry, Rachel; McHaffie, Sophie; Stimson, Roland H; Walker, Brian R; Chapuli, Ramon Muñoz; Schedl, Andreas; Hastie, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Fuelled by the obesity epidemic, there is considerable interest in the developmental origins of white adipose tissue (WAT) and the stem/progenitor cells from which it arises. While increased visceral fat mass is associated with metabolic dysfunction, increased subcutaneous WAT is protective. There are 6 visceral fat depots: perirenal, gonadal, epicardial, retroperitoneal, omental and mesenteric and it is a subject of much debate whether these have common developmental origins and whether this differs from subcutaneous WAT. Here we show that all 6 visceral WAT depots receive a significant contribution from cells expressing Wt1 late in gestation. Conversely, no subcutaneous WAT or brown adipose tissue (BAT) arises from Wt1 expressing cells. Postnatally, a subset of visceral WAT continues to arise from Wt1 expressing cells, consistent with the finding that Wt1 marks a proportion of cell populations enriched in WAT progenitors. We show all visceral fat depots have a mesothelial layer like the visceral organs with which they are associated and provide several lines of evidence that Wt1 expressing mesothelium can produce adipocytes. These results: reveal a major ontogenetic difference between visceral and subcutaneous WAT; pinpoint the lateral plate mesoderm as a major source of visceral WAT; support the notion that visceral WAT progenitors are heterogeneous; and suggest that mesothelium is a source of adipocytes. PMID:24609269

  10. Long-term testosterone administration increases visceral fat in female to male transsexuals.

    PubMed

    Elbers, J M; Asscheman, H; Seidell, J C; Megens, J A; Gooren, L J

    1997-07-01

    The amount of intraabdominal (visceral) fat is an important determinant of disturbances in lipid and glucose metabolism. Cross-sectional studies in women have found associations between high androgen levels and visceral fat accumulation. The causal relation between these phenomena is unknown. We, therefore, studied prospectively the effect of testosterone administration on body fat distribution in 10 young, nonobese, female to male transsexuals undergoing sex reassignment. Before, after 1 yr, and after 3 yr of testosterone administration, magnetic resonance images were obtained at the level of the abdomen, hip, and thigh to quantify both sc and visceral fat depots. After 1 yr of testosterone administration, sc fat depots at all levels showed significant reductions compared to baseline measurements. The mean visceral fat area did not change significantly, but subjects who gained weight in the first year after testosterone administration showed an increase in visceral fat. After 3 yr of testosterone administration, sc fat depots were no longer significantly lower compared to pretreatment measurements, but the mean visceral fat depot had increased significantly by 13 cm2 (95% confidence interval, 4-22 cm2), a relative increase of 47% (95% confidence interval, 8-91%) from baseline. The increase in visceral fat was most pronounced in those subjects who had gained weight. We conclude that long term testosterone administration in young, nonobese, female subjects increases the amount of visceral fat. In addition, an increase in weight in this hyperandrogenic state leads to a preferential storage of fat in the visceral depot. PMID:9215270

  11. [Pseudotumoral-like recurrence of visceral leishmaniasis in a seven-year-old girl].

    PubMed

    Jeziorski, E; Blanchet, C; Ludwig, C; Lalande, M; Coste, V; Dereure, J; Rodière, M

    2009-10-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is endemic around Mediterranean and is considered by certain authors as an opportunist disease. We report on the case of a 7-year-old girl treated by anti-TNF for an idiopathic juvenile arthritis which has presented a visceral leishmaniasis. Four years later, she presented a pseudotumoral-like recurrence located in a nasal mucous membrane. Leishmania infantum is classically responsible for visceral leishmaniasis but pure mucocutaneous leishmaniasis has been described. It is, for our knowledge, the first observation of a recurrence of visceral leishmaniasis in a mucocutaneous location. Atypical leishmaniasis in the endemic zones can appear in immunodepressed patients and must be evoked when in doubt. PMID:19836676

  12. Cortical processing of visceral and somatic stimulation: differentiating pain intensity from unpleasantness.

    PubMed

    Dunckley, P; Wise, R G; Aziz, Q; Painter, D; Brooks, J; Tracey, I; Chang, L

    2005-01-01

    Visceral and somatic pain perception differs in several aspects: poor localization of visceral pain and the ability of visceral pain to be referred to somatic structures. The perception of pain intensity and affect in visceral and somatic pain syndromes is often different, with visceral pain reported as more unpleasant. To determine whether these behavioral differences are due to differences in the central processing of visceral and somatic pain, non-invasive imaging tools are required to examine the neural correlates of visceral and somatic events when the behavior has been isolated and matched for either unpleasantness or pain intensity. In this study we matched the unpleasantness of somatic and visceral sensations and imaged the neural representation of this perception using functional magnetic resonance imaging in 10 healthy right-handed subjects. Each subject received noxious thermal stimuli to the left foot and midline lower back and balloon distension of the rectum while being scanned. Stimuli were matched to the same unpleasantness rating, producing mild-moderate pain intensity for somatic stimuli but an intensity below the pain threshold for the visceral stimuli. Visceral stimuli induced deactivation of the perigenual cingulate bilaterally with a relatively greater activation of the right anterior insula-i.e. regions encoding affect. Somatic pain induced left dorso-lateral pre-frontal cortex and bilateral inferior parietal cortex activation i.e. regions encoding spatial orientation and assessing perceptual valence of the stimulus. We believe that the observed patterns of activation represent the differences in cortical process of interoceptive (visceral) and exteroceptive (somatic) stimuli when matched for unpleasantness. PMID:15896917

  13. Dialysis-related amyloidosis: visceral involvement and protein constituents.

    PubMed

    Campistol, J M; Argilés, A

    1996-01-01

    beta 2-M amyloidosis mainly concerns dialysis patients and typically presents with osteoarticular symptoms. In order to precise the incidence and gravity of visceral involvement, subcutaneous abdominal fat aspirates, skin and rectal biopsies, as well as echocardiograms were performed in 26 patients with severe beta 2-M amyloidosis. Visceral amyloidosis was confirmed in 58% and the numbers were even higher when including heart abnormalities suggestive of amyloidosis (81%). Clinical manifestations of visceral involvement were usually not severe and include odynophagia, gastrointestinal haemorrhage, intestinal obstruction, kidney stones, myocardial dysfunction and subcutaneous tumours. The removal and synthesis rates of beta 2-M were assessed during dialysis. Serum 131I-beta 2-M levels decreased by 5-10% with cuprophane and by 40-45% with polysulfone and polyacrylonitrile membranes. These reduction rates were higher than those found with unlabelled beta 2-M suggesting an increased synthesis or release during dialysis. The protein constituents of amyloid deposits were studied. Two different preparative methods to extract the proteins from amyloid deposits were used. TCA precipitation showed the presence of several proteins which were not observed with PBS homogenizing and resuspending in guanidine. The protein constituents of amyloid fibrils were studied by both, two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-gel) as well as protein sequencing after gel filtration. Similarly, the technical approach used for protein analysis greatly influenced the results. It was observed that 2D-gel displayed the presence of proteins which were missed by the gel filtration technique. Some of the proteins contained in amyloid deposits in addition to beta 2-M, were identified as globin chains, kappa and lambda light chains of immunoglobulins, and alpha 2 macroglobulin. A putative participation of these other protein constituents on the pathogenesis of beta 2-microglobulin amyloidosis is

  14. Aneurysm-osteoarthritis syndrome with visceral and iliac artery aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    van der Linde, Denise; Verhagen, Hence J. M.; Moelker, Adriaan; van de Laar, Ingrid M. B. H.; Van Herzeele, Isabelle; De Backer, Julie; Dietz, Harry C.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Aneurysms-osteoarthritis syndrome (AOS), caused by SMAD3 mutations, is a recently described autosomal-dominant syndrome characterized by arterial aneurysms, tortuosity, and aortic dissections in combination with osteoarthritis. Our objective was to evaluate the AOS-related vascular consequences in the visceral and iliac arteries and raise awareness for this aggressive syndrome among vascular specialists. Methods All AOS patients were monitored regularly according to our clinical AOS protocol. The study included those with one or more visceral aneurysms or tortuosity, or both. Clinical and surgical data were obtained from record abstraction. Results The study included 17 AOS patients (47% men) aged 47 ± 13 years. A total of 73 aneurysms were encountered, of which 46 were located in the abdomen. The common iliac artery was most commonly affected (37%), followed by the superior mesenteric artery (15%), celiac trunk (11%), and splenic artery (9%). Rapid aneurysm growth ≤1 year was found in three arteries (gastric, hepatic, and vertebral artery). Furthermore, arterial tortuosity was noted in 94% of patients. Four patients underwent six elective (endo) vascular interventions for aneurysms in the iliac, hepatic, gastric, or splenic artery, without major perioperative or postoperative complications. Conclusions AOS predisposes patients to widespread visceral and iliac artery aneurysms and extreme arterial tortuosity. Early elective aneurysm repair should be considered because the risk of aneurysm rupture is estimated to be very high and elective (endo) vascular interventions were not complicated by fragility of arterial tissue. Given the aggressive behavior of AOS, it is of utmost importance that vascular specialists are aware of this new syndrome. PMID:22975338

  15. Hémophagocytose et coagulation intravasculaire disséminée au cours de la leishmaniose viscérale de l'adulte: trois nouveaux cas

    PubMed Central

    Boukhris, Imène; Azzabi, Samira; Chérif, Eya; Kéchaou, Ines; Mahjoub, Sonia; Kooli, Chékib; Aoun, Karim; Khalfallah, Narjes

    2015-01-01

    Les atteintes cliniques et biologiques communes au syndrome d'activation macrophagique (SAM) et à la leishmaniose viscérale (LV) rendent le diagnostic étiologique du SAM très difficile. Cette association est rare et grave. Nous rapportons trois nouvelles observations de SAM secondaire à une LV, compliquées de coagulation intravasculaire disséminée (CIVD). Il s'agissait de trois hommes, âgés respectivement de 31, 20 et 60 ans. Le tableau était fait de fièvre et de splénomégalie associés à une pancytopénie et une CIVD. Le diagnostic de LV était fait par le myélogramme, les sérologies et la polymerase chain reaction. Chez l'un de nos patients, une deuxième sérologie était nécessaire. Tous nos patients étaient traités par Glucantime® avec une bonne évolution. Un cas de pancréatite aigue était noté. En en zones d'endémie, devant un SAM compliqué de CIVD, une LV doit être recherchée, en répétant si nécessaire certaines explorations initialement négatives. Le pronostic dépend de la rapidité du traitement spécifique. PMID:26848343

  16. IMMUNOLOGICAL GOINGS-ON IN VISCERAL ADIPOSE TISSUE

    PubMed Central

    Mathis, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Chronic, low-grade inflammation of visceral adipose tissue, and systemically, is a critical link between recent strikingly parallel rises in the incidence of obesity and type-2 diabetes. Macrophages have been recognized for some time to be critical participants in obesity-induced inflammation of adipose-tissue. Of late, a score of other cell-types of the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system have been suggested to play a positive or negative role in adipose-tissue infiltrates. This piece reviews the existing data on these new participants; discusses experimental uncertainties, inconsistencies and complexities; and puts forward a minimalist synthetic scheme. PMID:23747244

  17. Antissaliva Antibodies of Lutzomyia Longipalpis in area of Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Thiago Leite; Fernandes, Magda Freitas; Pontes, Elenir Rose Jardim Cury; Levay, Ana Paula Silva; Almeida da Cunha, Elenice Brandão; França, Adriana de Oliveira; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the presence of antissaliva antibodies of Lutzomyia longipalpis in human hosts living in area of visceral leishmaniasis, located in the Center-West region of Brazil. The presence of antissaliva antibodies of L. longipalpis exhibited a strong correlation with the protection and development of antibodies against Leishmania sp. Of the 492 children studied, elevated antissaliva antibodies of L. longipalpis were detected in 38.4% of the participants. There was a higher percentage of positivity (64.7%) among children who exhibited anti-Leishmania sp. antibodies and among those who were positive in the delayed hypersensitivity test (34.8%). PMID:27093167

  18. Visceral leishmaniasis with pleural effusion in an immunocompetent patient

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Senjuti; Saha, Moutushi; Chakrabarti, Sudipta; Chakraborty, Jayati

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is usually characterized by splenomegaly, pallor and fever. Pleural effusion is an uncommon feature of this disease, which is encountered in immunocompromised patients. Here, we report a case of VL with pleural effusion in an immunocompetent patient. Pulmonary symptoms in VL are usually related to bacterial lung infection, vagal nerve compression by splenomegaly, and hypoalbuminaemia with mild pulmonary edema. Our patient presented with cough and chest pain. The clinical features of this case were baffling since they mimicked that of pulmonary tuberculosis. This case report emphasizes the need to recognize the diverse nature of presentation of this curable yet fatal infectious disease. PMID:24669085

  19. Stress-Induced Visceral Pain: Toward Animal Models of Irritable-Bowel Syndrome and Associated Comorbidities

    PubMed Central

    Moloney, Rachel D.; O’Mahony, Siobhain M.; Dinan, Timothy G.; Cryan, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Visceral pain is a global term used to describe pain originating from the internal organs, which is distinct from somatic pain. It is a hallmark of functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable-bowel syndrome (IBS). Currently, the treatment strategies targeting visceral pain are unsatisfactory, with development of novel therapeutics hindered by a lack of detailed knowledge of the underlying mechanisms. Stress has long been implicated in the pathophysiology of visceral pain in both preclinical and clinical studies. Here, we discuss the complex etiology of visceral pain reviewing our current understanding in the context of the role of stress, gender, gut microbiota alterations, and immune functioning. Furthermore, we review the role of glutamate, GABA, and epigenetic mechanisms as possible therapeutic strategies for the treatment of visceral pain for which there is an unmet medical need. Moreover, we discuss the most widely described rodent models used to model visceral pain in the preclinical setting. The theory behind, and application of, animal models is key for both the understanding of underlying mechanisms and design of future therapeutic interventions. Taken together, it is apparent that stress-induced visceral pain and its psychiatric comorbidities, as typified by IBS, has a multifaceted etiology. Moreover, treatment strategies still lag far behind when compared to other pain modalities. The development of novel, effective, and specific therapeutics for the treatment of visceral pain has never been more pertinent. PMID:25762939

  20. Visceral leishmaniasis with cutaneous symptoms in a patient treated with infliximab followed by fatal consequences.

    PubMed

    Juzlova, Katerina; Votrubova, Jana; Kacerovska, Denisa; Lukas, Milan; Bortlik, Martin; Rohacova, Hana; Nohynkova, Eva; Vojackova, Nadezda; Fialova, Jorga; Hercogova, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by parasitic flagellates of the genus Leishmania. The authors present a case of 44-year-old man with Crohn's disease treated successfully with infliximab. This case report shows rare visceral leishmaniasis with cutaneous symptoms in an immunocompromised patient. Skin manifestations may occur before or after the visceral infection and they are often diverse. PMID:24903470

  1. [Acute pericarditis and tamponade: An unusual revelation of a visceral tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Thabouillot, O; Bouvier, F; Lupu, J; Charbonnel, A; Dumitrescu, N; Stefuriac, M; Godreuil, C; Ficko, C; Andriamanantena, D; Flateau, C; Rapp, C; Roche, N C

    2015-11-01

    Tuberculosis is a common pulmonary disease, which is still endemic in disadvantaged communities. Pericarditis is a rare but very lethal visceral localization. The authors report the case of a 58-year-old man, without neither medical history nor social risk, who presented a cardiac tamponade as the first and atypic manifestation of a visceral tuberculosis. PMID:26602745

  2. Autotomy of the Visceral mass in the feather star Himerometra robustipinna (Crinoidea, Comatulida).

    PubMed

    Bobrovskaya, Nadezhda V; Dolmatov, Igor Yu

    2014-04-01

    The microanatomy of the attachment sites of the visceral mass to the calyx before and after visceral mass autotomy in the feather star Himerometra robustipinna was investigated. At the aboral site, the visceral mass is linked to the calyx by septa of the aboral coelom and is attached to the tegmen at the peripheral site. The connective tissue of the septa and tegmen contains cells resembling typical juxtaligamental cells of echinoderms, nerve cells, and bundles of axons. Visceral mass autotomy in H. robustipinna can be provoked by mechanical action and occurs relatively rapidly. Immediately after the visceral mass is gripped with forceps, the proximal pinnules are lowered and form a dense cluster covering the calyx. If the visceral mass is held for 20-30 s, the proximal pinnules are raised. At this time, the visceral mass has separated from the calyx and can be easily removed. During autotomy, the aboral coelomic septa are broken under the aboral wall of the subintestinal coelom, and the tegmen is ruptured at the interradii along the periphery of the calyx and at the base of the arms. The juxtaligamental cells probably participate in the alteration of the connective tissue and the breakage of the septa and tegmen. The granules of juxtaligamental cells swell, develop an electron-transparent halo, and are released into the extracellular matrix. In general, our results suggest that separation of the visceral mass in H. robustipinna is characterized by all the features of autotomy. PMID:24797090

  3. Reducing effect of feeding powdered nacre of Pinctada maxima on the visceral fat of rats.

    PubMed

    Shono, Masayuki; Shimizu, Ichiro; Aoyagi, Eriko; Taniguchi, Tatsuya; Takenaka, Hidetaka; Ishikawa, Momoko; Urata, Mari; Sannomiya, Katsutaka; Tamaki, Katsuyoshi; Harada, Nagakatsu; Nakaya, Yutaka; Takayama, Tetsuji

    2008-10-01

    An abdominal fat accumulation complicated by high blood triglycerides is regarded as a risk factor of metabolic syndrome. Feeding powdered nacre, mother of pearl, from Pinctada maxima, resulted in reduced body weight, visceral fat amount, and blood triglyceride level without influencing the food intake, body length, or amount of muscular tissue, suggesting that nacre powder specifically could decrease visceral fat. PMID:18838791

  4. Seroprevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis in southeast of Iran.

    PubMed

    Mahshid, Mostafavi; Baharak, Akhtardanesh; Iraj, Sharifi; Sina, Kakooei; Javad, Khedri; Mehdi, Bamorovat

    2014-06-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is an endemic disease in many parts of Iran and infected dogs constitute the main domestic reservoirs that play a key role in transmission to humans. The objective of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in southeast of Iran. This survey was carried out from 2009 to 2011 in Kerman, Bam and Baft districts in Kerman province and Zabol in Sistan-Baluchestan province. Blood samples were taken from 201 dogs after complete clinical examination. Following hematological evaluation; collected sera were tested by indirect ELISA method for the presence of anti Leishmania infantum antibodies. Overall seroprevalence was 15.4 %, including 6.4, 3.5, 3 and 2.4 % in Bam, Zabol, Baft and Kerman, respectively. However, seroprevalence of disease was not significantly related to age, gender, presence of clinical signs and hematological disorders. Based to the results of the present study, CVL is endemic in southeastern Iran. Delayed diagnosis and euthanasia of potentially infectious animals may occur with an increased transmission risk to sand flies and subsequently to humans. Implementation of potent screening tests with high validity is essential for rapid detection and successful dog elimination programs in endemic parts of Iran. PMID:24808656

  5. Effects of xylitol on metabolic parameters and visceral fat accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Amo, Kikuko; Arai, Hidekazu; Uebanso, Takashi; Fukaya, Makiko; Koganei, Megumi; Sasaki, Hajime; Yamamoto, Hironori; Taketani, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji

    2011-01-01

    Xylitol is widely used as a sweetener in foods and medications. Xylitol ingestion causes a small blood glucose rise, and it is commonly used as an alternative to high-energy supplements in diabetics. In previous studies, a xylitol metabolite, xylulose-5-phosphate, was shown to activate carbohydrate response element binding protein, and to promote lipogenic enzyme gene transcription in vitro; however, the effects of xylitol in vivo are not understood. Here we investigated the effects of dietary xylitol on lipid metabolism and visceral fat accumulation in rats fed a high-fat diet. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet containing 0 g (control), 1.0 g/100 kcal (X1) or 2.0 g/100 kcal (X2) of xylitol. After the 8-week feeding period, visceral fat mass and plasma insulin and lipid concentrations were significantly lower in xylitol-fed rats than those in high-fat diet rats. Gene expression levels of ChREBP and lipogenic enzymes were higher, whereas the expression of sterol regulatory-element binding protein 1c was lower and fatty acid oxidation-related genes were significantly higher in the liver of xylitol-fed rats as compared with high-fat diet rats. In conclusion, intake of xylitol may be beneficial in preventing the development of obesity and metabolic abnormalities in rats with diet-induced obesity. PMID:21765599

  6. Regulation of PKC Mediated Signaling by Calcium during Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Nivedita; Chakraborty, Supriya; Paul Chowdhury, Bidisha; Banerjee, Sayantan; Halder, Kuntal; Majumder, Saikat; Majumdar, Subrata; Sen, Parimal C.

    2014-01-01

    Calcium is an ubiquitous cellular signaling molecule that controls a variety of cellular processes and is strictly maintained in the cellular compartments by the coordination of various Ca2+ pumps and channels. Two such fundamental calcium pumps are plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) and Sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) which play a pivotal role in maintaining intracellular calcium homeostasis. This intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis is often disturbed by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani, the causative organism of visceral leishmaniasis. In the present study we have dileneated the involvement of PMCA4 and SERCA3 during leishmaniasis. We have observed that during leishmaniasis, intracellular Ca2+ concentration was up-regulated and was further controlled by both PMCA4 and SERCA3. Inhibition of these two Ca2+-ATPases resulted in decreased parasite burden within the host macrophages due to enhanced intracellular Ca2+. Contrastingly, on the other hand, activation of PMCA4 was found to enhance the parasite burden. Our findings also highlighted the importance of Ca2+ in the modulation of cytokine balance during leishmaniasis. These results thus cumulatively suggests that these two Ca2+-ATPases play prominent roles during visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:25329062

  7. Regulation of PKC mediated signaling by calcium during visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Roy, Nivedita; Chakraborty, Supriya; Paul Chowdhury, Bidisha; Banerjee, Sayantan; Halder, Kuntal; Majumder, Saikat; Majumdar, Subrata; Sen, Parimal C

    2014-01-01

    Calcium is an ubiquitous cellular signaling molecule that controls a variety of cellular processes and is strictly maintained in the cellular compartments by the coordination of various Ca2+ pumps and channels. Two such fundamental calcium pumps are plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) and Sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) which play a pivotal role in maintaining intracellular calcium homeostasis. This intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis is often disturbed by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani, the causative organism of visceral leishmaniasis. In the present study we have dileneated the involvement of PMCA4 and SERCA3 during leishmaniasis. We have observed that during leishmaniasis, intracellular Ca2+ concentration was up-regulated and was further controlled by both PMCA4 and SERCA3. Inhibition of these two Ca2+-ATPases resulted in decreased parasite burden within the host macrophages due to enhanced intracellular Ca2+. Contrastingly, on the other hand, activation of PMCA4 was found to enhance the parasite burden. Our findings also highlighted the importance of Ca2+ in the modulation of cytokine balance during leishmaniasis. These results thus cumulatively suggests that these two Ca2+-ATPases play prominent roles during visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:25329062

  8. Canine visceral leishmaniasis as a systemic fibrotic disease

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Lucelia C; Castro, Rodrigo S; Figueiredo, Maria M; Michalick, Marilene S M; Tafuri, Washington L; Tafuri, Wagner L

    2013-01-01

    We propose that canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a systemic fibrotic disease, as evidenced by the wide distribution of fibrosis that we have found in the dogs suffering from chronic condition. The inflammatory cells apparently direct fibrosis formation. Twenty-four cases (symptomatic dogs) were identified from a total of one hundred and five cases that had been naturally infected with Leishmania chagasi and had been documented during an epidemiological survey of CVL carried out by the metropolitan area of the municipality of Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. The histological criterion was intralobular liver fibrosis, as has been described previously in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis. In addition to the findings in the liver, here we describe and quantify conspicuous and systemic deposition of collagen in other organs, including spleen, cervical lymph nodes, lung and kidney of all the infected symptomatic dogs. Thus we report that there is a systematic fibrotic picture in these animals, where inflammatory cells appear to direct fibrosis in all organs that have been studied. Therefore we propose that CVL is a systemic fibrotic disease. PMID:23419132

  9. VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN PETROLINA, STATE OFPERNAMBUCO, BRAZIL, 2007-2013.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Andreina de Carvalho; Gonçalves, Nara Nagle Vieira Matos; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Ferreira, Fernando; Horta, Mauricio Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a life-threatening disease of great public health relevance in Brazil. The municipality of Petrolina is an endemic area in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. This study was designed to assess the recent expansion of VL in the municipality of Petrolina, Pernambuco. Patients data were obtained from the Brazilian National Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN). A total of 111 records from 2007 to 2013 were investigated, of which 69 were residents in Petrolina. The disease has predominantly affected 1-4 year old children (34.8%). Most of the patients were males (59.4%). Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus occurred in 14.5% of the cases. The criterion most frequently used was the clinical and epidemiological confirmation (59.4%), with clinical cure in 78.3% of cases and one fatal outcome. Visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in Petrolina with transmission levels varying from moderate to high. The present study has shown the precariousness of the use of diagnostic tests in primary healthcare units, and this misuse has interfered with the diagnosis and treatment of cases. PMID:27074323

  10. Transient receptor potential cation channels in visceral sensory pathways

    PubMed Central

    Blackshaw, L Ashley

    2014-01-01

    The extensive literature on this subject is in direct contrast to the limited range of clinical uses for ligands of the transient receptor potential cation channels (TRPs) in diseases of the viscera. TRPV1 is the most spectacular example of this imbalance, as it is in other systems, but it is nonetheless the only TRP target that is currently targeted clinically in bladder sensory dysfunction. It is not clear why this discrepancy exists, but a likely answer is in the promiscuity of TRPs as sensors and transducers for environmental mechanical and chemical stimuli. This review first describes the different sensory pathways from the viscera, and on which nociceptive and non-nociceptive neurones within these pathways TRPs are expressed. They not only fulfil roles as both mechano-and chemo-sensors on visceral afferents, but also form an effector mechanism for cell activation after activation of GPCR and cytokine receptors. Their role may be markedly changed in diseased states, including chronic pain and inflammation. Pain presents the most obvious potential for further development of therapeutic interventions targeted at TRPs, but forms of inflammation are emerging as likely to benefit also. However, despite much basic research, we are still at the beginning of exploring such potential in visceral sensory pathways. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on the pharmacology of TRP channels. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-10 PMID:24641218

  11. Epidemiology of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Algeria: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Adel, Amel; Boughoufalah, Amel; Saegerman, Claude; De Deken, Redgi; Bouchene, Zahida; Soukehal, Abdelkrim; Berkvens, Dirk; Boelaert, Marleen

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania infantum, is endemic in Algeria. This report describes a retrospective epidemiological study conducted on human VL to document the epidemiological profile at national level. All human VL cases notified by the National Institute of Public Health between 1998 and 2008 were investigated. In parallel all VL cases admitted to the university hospitals of Algiers were surveyed to estimate the underreporting ratio. Fifteen hundred and sixty-two human VL cases were reported in Algeria between 1998–2008 with an average annual reported incidence rate of 0.45 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, of which 81.42% were in the age range of 0–4 years. Cases were detected year-round, with a peak notification in May and June. One hundred and seventy patients were admitted to the university hospitals in Algiers in the same period, of which less than one in ten had been officially notified. Splenomegaly, fever, pallor and pancytopenia were the main clinical and laboratory features. Meglumine antimoniate was the first-line therapy for paediatric VL whereas the conventional amphotericin B was used for adult patients. Visceral leishmaniasis in Algeria shows the epidemiological profile of a paediatric disease with a decrease of the annual reported incidence rate. However, vigilance is required because of huge underreporting and an apparent propagation towards the south. PMID:24949958

  12. Impact of Obstructive Sleep Apnea on Liver Fat Accumulation According to Sex and Visceral Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Toyama, Yoshiro; Tanizawa, Kiminobu; Kubo, Takeshi; Chihara, Yuichi; Harada, Yuka; Murase, Kimihiko; Azuma, Masanori; Hamada, Satoshi; Hitomi, Takefumi; Handa, Tomohiro; Oga, Toru; Chiba, Tsutomu; Mishima, Michiaki; Chin, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Associations between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and liver fat accumulation have been frequently investigated because both morbidities are common. Visceral fat was reported to be closely related to OSA and liver fat accumulation. Recently, sex differences in the association between OSA and mortality have gained much attention. Objectives To investigate the associations among OSA, liver fat accumulation as determined by computed tomography, and visceral fat area and their sex differences. Methods Studied were 188 males and 62 females who consecutively underwent polysomnography and computed tomography. Results Although the apnea-hypopnea index was positively correlated with liver fat accumulation in the total males, none of the OSA-related factors was independently associated with liver fat accumulation in either the total male or female participants in the multivariate analyses. When performing subanalyses using a specific definition for Japanese of obesity or visceral obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2 or visceral fat area ≥100 cm2), in only males without visceral obesity, percent sleep time with oxygen saturation <90%, in addition to BMI, insulin resistance, and serum triglyceride values, was independently correlated with liver fat accumulation (R2 = 15.1%, P<0.001). In males, percent sleep time of oxygen saturation <90% was also a determining factor for alanine aminotransferase values regardless of visceral fat area. In contrast, OSA was not associated with liver fat accumulation or alanine aminotransferase values in females whether or not visceral obesity was absent. Conclusions Sex differences in the visceral fat-dependent impact of OSA on liver fat accumulation existed. Although the mechanisms are not known and ethnic differences may exist in addition to the specific criteria of visceral obesity in Japan, the treatment of male patients with OSA might be favorable from the viewpoint of preventing liver fat accumulation and liver

  13. Roles of prefrontal cortex and paraventricular thalamus in affective and mechanical components of visceral nociception.

    PubMed

    Jurik, Angela; Auffenberg, Eva; Klein, Sabine; Deussing, Jan M; Schmid, Roland M; Wotjak, Carsten T; Thoeringer, Christoph K

    2015-12-01

    Visceral pain represents a major clinical challenge in the management of many gastrointestinal disorders, eg, pancreatitis. However, cerebral neurobiological mechanisms underlying visceral nociception are poorly understood. As a representative model of visceral nociception, we applied cerulein hyperstimulation in C57BL6 mice to induce acute pancreatitis and performed a behavioral test battery and c-Fos staining of brains. We observed a specific pain phenotype and a significant increase in c-Fos immunoreactivity in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT), the periaqueductal gray, and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Using neuronal tracing, we observed projections of the PVT to cortical layers of the mPFC with contacts to inhibitory GABAergic neurons. These inhibitory neurons showed more activation after cerulein treatment suggesting thalamocortical "feedforward inhibition" in visceral nociception. The activity of neurons in pancreatitis-related pain centers was pharmacogenetically modulated by designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs, selectively and cell type specifically expressed in target neurons using adeno-associated virus-mediated gene transfer. Pharmacogenetic inhibition of PVT but not periaqueductal gray neurons attenuated visceral pain and induced an activation of the descending inhibitory pain pathway. Activation of glutamatergic principle neurons in the mPFC, but not inhibitory neurons, also reversed visceral nociception. These data reveal novel insights into central pain processing that underlies visceral nociception and may trigger the development of novel, potent centrally acting analgesic drugs. PMID:26262826

  14. Automated segmentation of cardiac visceral fat in low-dose non-contrast chest CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yiting; Liang, Mingzhu; Yankelevitz, David F.; Henschke, Claudia I.; Reeves, Anthony P.

    2015-03-01

    Cardiac visceral fat was segmented from low-dose non-contrast chest CT images using a fully automated method. Cardiac visceral fat is defined as the fatty tissues surrounding the heart region, enclosed by the lungs and posterior to the sternum. It is measured by constraining the heart region with an Anatomy Label Map that contains robust segmentations of the lungs and other major organs and estimating the fatty tissue within this region. The algorithm was evaluated on 124 low-dose and 223 standard-dose non-contrast chest CT scans from two public datasets. Based on visual inspection, 343 cases had good cardiac visceral fat segmentation. For quantitative evaluation, manual markings of cardiac visceral fat regions were made in 3 image slices for 45 low-dose scans and the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) was computed. The automated algorithm achieved an average DSC of 0.93. Cardiac visceral fat volume (CVFV), heart region volume (HRV) and their ratio were computed for each case. The correlation between cardiac visceral fat measurement and coronary artery and aortic calcification was also evaluated. Results indicated the automated algorithm for measuring cardiac visceral fat volume may be an alternative method to the traditional manual assessment of thoracic region fat content in the assessment of cardiovascular disease risk.

  15. Visceral leishmaniasis in large Brazilian cities: challenges for control.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Claudia Di Lorenzo; Morais, Maria Helena Franco; Machado-Coelho, George Luiz Lins

    2008-12-01

    The objectives of this article were to discuss the rapid spread of visceral leishmaniasis in urban areas of Brazil and to raise practical questions and perspectives related to control of the disease. Among the proposed methods, the elimination of seropositive dogs is the most controversial and least accepted by society. Its impact on incidence rates varies among studies (positive in some and relatively unimportant in others). Treatment of infected dogs, although widespread in veterinary practice, is based on studies with weak scientific evidence. Insecticide spraying of areas is more acceptable to the population, but is costly and operationally difficult. Intra and inter-urban factors have scarcely been studied and may affect control of the disease. Finally, the article discusses the use of deltamethrin-impregnated dog collars and vaccines, with high expectations for impact on disease transmission, although no product currently available on the market has been fully evaluated, so that further studies are required. PMID:19082288

  16. Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis Associated with Visceral Leishmaniasis: Varied Presentation.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Piyush; Kumar, Vivek; Ganguly, Shuvadeep; Sukumar, M; Sharma, Sanchit; Singh, Neha; Vikram, Naval K; Pati, Hara Prasad; Sood, Rita

    2016-06-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic in many parts of India. Rarely, it may be complicated by hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) that has varied presentation and course. We describe two cases of VL complicated by HLH that were markedly different in clinical presentation, course and management. First case presented with Fever of unknown origin whereas second case had fever with severe bleeding manifestations. VL was diagnosed by bone marrow aspiration and serum rk39 immunodiagnostic test respectively in these cases. HLH was diagnosed by HLH 2004 diagnostic criteria. VL was treated by intravenous amphotericin B in both cases. HLH was managed by treating primary disease in the first case whereas steroid was given for management in the second case. High index of suspicion is crucial for early diagnosis of HLH to reduce morbidity and mortality. PMID:27408434

  17. The unwelcome trio: HIV plus cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Guarneri, C; Tchernev, G; Bevelacqua, V; Lotti, T; Nunnari, G

    2016-03-01

    Leishmania/Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) coinfection has emerged as an extremely serious and increasingly frequent health problem in the last decades. Considering the insidious and not typical clinical picture in presence of immunosuppressive conditions, the increasing number of people travelling in endemic zones, the ability to survive, within both human and vector bodies, of the parasite, clinicians and dermatologists as the first line should be aware of these kind of "pathologic alliances," to avoid delayed diagnosis and treatment. In this setting, the occurrence of cutaneous lesions can, paradoxically, aid the physician in recognition and approaching the correct staging and management of the two (or three) diseases. Treatment of these unwelcome synergies is a challenge: apart from the recommended anti-retroviral protocols, different anti-leishmanial drugs have been widely used, according with the standard guidelines for visceral leishmaniasis (VL), with no successful treatment regimen still been established. PMID:26555699

  18. Visceral and presumptive neural baylisascariasis in an orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus).

    PubMed

    Hanley, Christopher S; Simmons, Heather A; Wallace, Roberta S; Clyde, Victoria L

    2006-12-01

    A 32.5-year-old female hybrid orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) developed hind-limb stiffness that progressed to tetraparesis over 2 wk. Repeated diagnostic evaluations, including serial magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system, revealed nonspecific lesions involving both the deep white and gray matter with an intact blood-brain barrier. Multiple empirical treatments failed to produce improvement and the animal was humanely euthanized. Histology of a granuloma in the ileum contained a nematode parasite, most consistent with Baylisascaris procyonis. Additionally, neuropil vacuolization, rarefaction, astrocytic scarring, and an eosinophilic granuloma and lymphoeosinophilic perivascular cuffing in the brain were suggestive of nematode migration. These findings confirm the presence of visceral larval migrans and support the presence of neural larval migrans. This case report of Baylisascaris procyonis confirms the presentation for the first time in an ape and documents the difficulty in antemortem diagnosis of neural larval migrans. PMID:17315445

  19. Visceral basidiobolomycosis: An overlooked infection in immunocompetent children

    PubMed Central

    Mandhan, Parkash; Hassan, Kamal Osman; Samaan, Sandra Moustafa; Ali, Mansour J

    2015-01-01

    Visceral basidiobolomycosis is an unusual fungal infection of viscera caused by saprophyte Basidiobolus ranarum. It is very rare in healthy children and poses a diagnostic challenge due to the non-specific clinical presentation and the absence of predisposing factors. We report a case of gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis in a 4-year-old healthy girl who presented with a short history of abdominal pain, bleeding per rectum, fever, and weight loss. The diagnosis was based on high eosinophilic count, classical histopathology findings of fungal hyphae (the Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon), and positive fungal culture from a tissue biopsy. Fungal infection was successfully eradicated with a combined approach of surgical resection of the infected tissue and a well-monitored course of antifungal therapy. The atypical clinical presentation, diagnostic techniques, and the role of surgery in the management of a rare and lethal fungal disease in an immunocompetent child are discussed. PMID:26612126

  20. Evaluation of leishmanin skin test in Indian visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Gidwani, Kamlesh; Rai, Madhukar; Chakravarty, Jaya; Boelaert, Marleen; Sundar, Shyam

    2009-04-01

    We evaluated the performance of the leishmanin skin test (LST) in 50 patients with visceral leishmaniasis (VL), 124 cured VL patients at different time intervals, 125 healthy controls from an endemic region (HEC), and 14 healthy controls from a non-endemic region (NEHC). The leishmanin antigen used was based on Leishmania major and was obtained from the Pasteur Institute (Iran). A positive LST was found in 14.0% of patients with active VL, 40.3% of cured patients, 21.6% of HECs, and 0% in NEHCs. The 14% positivity in patients with active VL conflicts with the widely held opinion that such patients should be negative because of anergy. Also, a lack of sensitivity of the LST was observed in cured VL patients. An LST antigen produced from L. donovani strains from India should be explored. PMID:19346376

  1. Canine visceral leishmaniasis on Margarita Island (Nueva Esparta, Venezuela).

    PubMed

    Zerpa, O; Ulrich, M; Negrón, E; Rodríguez, N; Centeno, M; Rodríguez, V; Barrios, R M; Belizario, D; Reed, S; Convit, J

    2000-01-01

    The frequency of American visceral leishmaniasis affecting humans on Margarita Island, Venezuela, has increased in recent years, and infected dogs appear to constitute the principal source of infection. ELISA tests with Leishmania donovani promastigotes and rK39 antigen from L. chagasi in serum from 541 dogs were positive in 33.1% and 21.6% of the samples, respectively. A second blood sample taken from 50 animals after 8-10 months revealed an increase from 24% to 40% of ELISA positivity to both antigens, suggesting high susceptibility and transmission in the canine population. Among 42 serologically positive dogs, 33% of which showed clinical signs of disease, 79% were positive in polymerase chain reactions using primers specific for the L. donovani complex. Control measures including epidemiological hypersurveillance, the humane sacrifice of infected dogs, and rapid diagnosis and treatment of human cases have been initiated. PMID:11132371

  2. Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV Coinfection in the Mediterranean Region

    PubMed Central

    Monge-Maillo, Begoña; Norman, Francesca F.; Cruz, Israel; Alvar, Jorge; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is hypoendemic in Mediterranean countries, where it is caused by the flagellate protozoan Leishmania infantum. VL cases in this area account for 5%–6% of the global burden. Cases of Leishmania/HIV coinfection have been reported in the Mediterranean region, mainly in France, Italy, Portugal, and Spain. Since highly active antiretroviral therapy was introduced in 1997, a marked decrease in the number of coinfected cases in this region has been reported. The development of new diagnostic methods to accurately identify level of parasitemia and the risk of relapse is one of the main challenges in improving the treatment of coinfected patients. Clinical trials in the Mediterranean region are needed to determine the most adequate therapeutic options for Leishmania/HIV patients as well as the indications and regimes for secondary prophylaxis. This article reviews the epidemiological, diagnostic, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of Leishmania/HIV coinfection in the Mediterranean region. PMID:25144380

  3. In vivo efficacy of calceolarioside A against experimental visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Poddar, Avijit; Banerjee, Anindita; Ghanta, Srijani; Chattopadhyay, Sharmila

    2008-04-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation has led to the successful isolation of calceolarioside A ( 1) from the methanolic extract of night jasmine leaves. The in vitro antileishmanial activity of compound 1 was determined (IC (50) = 20 microg/mL). Its IN VIVO efficacy was noted at 20 mg/kg body weight when it reduced the hepatic and splenic parasite burden by 79 and 84 %, respectively, in an established model of L. donovani Ag83 infected golden hamster. Furthermore, synergistic potentiations of compound 1 at 20 mg/kg body weight and SAG at 5 mg/kg body weight showed a significant reduction of hepatic and splenic parasite burden. No cytotoxicity was observed against the U937 cell line. This is the first report describing the isolation of compound 1 from N. arbor-tristis L. and the first demonstration of its potent activity against visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:18543147

  4. Epidemiology and diagnostics of visceral leishmaniasis in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Dakic, Z D; Pelemis, M R; Stevanovic, G D; Poluga, J L; Lavadinovic, L S; Milosevic, I S; Indjic, N K; Ofori-Belic, I V; Pavlovic, M D

    2009-12-01

    A retrospective epidemiological and diagnostic study of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was carried out during the period 2001-2007 and included patients suspected of VL who had been diagnosed at the Parasitological Laboratory at the Institute for Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Belgrade. Diagnosis of VL was confirmed by microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained bone marrow (BM) smears. BM smears from 134 patients were examined; 22 cases of VL were diagnosed, the majority of which involved individuals who had been on holiday at the Montenegrian sea coast. The sensitivity of the initial BM smears was inadequate; this required the application of a serological test, adapted for routine use, for the diagnosis of VL. PMID:19392902

  5. Eosinophilic abscesses: a new facet of hepatic visceral larva migrans.

    PubMed

    Mukund, Amar; Arora, Ankur; Patidar, Yashwant; Mangla, Vivek; Bihari, Chhagan; Rastogi, Archana; Sarin, Shiv K

    2013-08-01

    Hepatic visceral larva migrans (VLM) refers to a condition characterized by granulomatous liver lesions containing eosinophils and inflammatory cells associated with migration of second-stage larvae of certain nematodes such as toxocara canis. The typical imaging findings described in the literature include small, ill-defined, oval or elongated, low-attenuating nodules with fuzzy margins, non-spherical shape, and absent or insignificant rim enhancement on contrast-enhanced CT scan. The present series in contrast depicts a new imaging manifestation of hepatic VLM presenting as confluent and clustered complex cystic liver lesions. Pre-treatment imaging studies including contrast-enhanced CT/MRI of three patients are presented. One of the patients underwent liver resection while post-treatment follow-up scan at 6 months in the remaining two displayed regression of the lesions with antihelminthic treatment. PMID:22801750

  6. Surgical removal of visceral fat reverses hepatic insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Barzilai, N; She, L; Liu, B Q; Vuguin, P; Cohen, P; Wang, J; Rossetti, L

    1999-01-01

    We directly examined whether visceral fat (VF) modulates hepatic insulin action by randomizing moderately obese (body wt approximately 400 g) Sprague-Dawley rats to either surgical removal of epididymal and perinephric fat pads (VF-; n = 9) or a sham operation (VF+; n = 11). Three weeks later, total VF was fourfold increased (8.5 +/- 1.2 vs. 2.1 +/- 0.3 g, P < 0.001) in the VF+ compared with the VF- group, but whole-body fat mass (determined using 3H2O) was not significantly different. The rates of insulin infusion required to maintain plasma glucose levels and basal hepatic glucose production in the presence of hepatic-pancreatic clamp were markedly decreased in VF- compared with VF+ rats (0.57 +/- 0.02 vs. 1.22 +/- 0.19 mU x kg(-1) x min(-1), P < 0.001). Similarly, plasma insulin levels were more than twofold higher in the VF+ group (P < 0.001). The heightened hepatic insulin sensitivity is supported by the decrease in gene expression of both glucose-6-phosphatase and PEPCK and by physiological hyperinsulinemia in VF- but not VF+ rats. The improvement in hepatic insulin sensitivity in VF- rats was also supported by a approximately 70% decrease in the plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1, a marker of insulin's transcription regulation in the liver. The removal of VF pads also resulted in marked decreases in the gene expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (by 72%) and leptin (by 60%) in subcutaneous fat. We conclude that visceral fat is a potent modulator of insulin action on hepatic glucose production and gene expression. PMID:9892227

  7. Interventional Radiology in the Management of Visceral Artery Pseudoaneurysms: A Review of Techniques and Embolic Materials

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, Hosur Ananthashayana; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Garg, Pramod; Srivastava, Deep Narayan

    2016-01-01

    Visceral artery pseudoaneurysms occur mostly as a result of inflammation and trauma. Owing to high risk of rupture, they require early treatment to prevent lethal complications. Knowledge of the various approaches of embolization of pseudoaneurysms and different embolic materials used in the management of visceral artery pseudoaneurysms is essential for successful and safe embolization. We review and illustrate the endovascular, percutaneous and endoscopic ultrasound techniques used in the treatment of visceral artery pseudoaneurysm and briefly discuss the embolic materials and their benefits and risks. PMID:27134524

  8. Removal of intra-abdominal visceral adipose tissue improves glucose tolerance in rats: role of hepatic triglyceride storage.

    PubMed

    Foster, Michelle T; Shi, Haifei; Seeley, Randy J; Woods, Stephen C

    2011-10-24

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a strong link between increased visceral fat and metabolic syndrome. In rodents, removal of intra-abdominal but non-visceral fat improves insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis, though previous studies make an imprecise comparison to human physiology because actual visceral fat was not removed. We hypothesize that nutrient release from visceral adipose tissue may have greater consequences on metabolic regulation than nutrient release from non-visceral adipose depots since the latter drains into systemic but not portal circulation. To assess this we surgically decreased visceral white adipose tissue (~0.5 g VWATx) and compared the effects to removal of non-visceral epididymal fat (~4 g; EWATx), combination removal of visceral and non-visceral fat (~4.5 g; EWATx/VWATx) and sham-operated controls, in chow-fed rats. At 8 weeks after surgery, only the groups with visceral fat removed had a significantly improved glucose tolerance, although 8 times more fat was removed in EWATx compared with VWATx. This suggests that mechanisms controlling glucose metabolism are relatively more sensitive to reductions in visceral adipose tissue mass. Groups with visceral fat removed also had significantly decreased hepatic lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and triglyceride content compared with controls, while carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT-1A) was decreased in all fat-removal groups. In a preliminary experiment, we assessed the opposite hypothesis; i.e., we transplanted excess visceral fat from a donor rat to the visceral cavity (omentum and mesentery), which drains into the hepatic portal vein, of a recipient rat but observed no major metabolic effect. Overall, our results indicate surgical removal of intra-abdominal fat improves glucose tolerance through mechanism that may be mediated by reductions in liver triglyceride. PMID:21683727

  9. Visceral adipose tissue inflammation is associated with age-related brain changes and ischemic brain damage in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jin A; Jeong, Sae Im; Kim, Minsuk; Yoon, Joo Chun; Kim, Hee-Sun; Park, Eun-Mi

    2015-11-01

    Visceral adipose tissue is accumulated with aging. An increase in visceral fat accompanied by low-grade inflammation is associated with several adult-onset diseases. However, the effects of visceral adipose tissue inflammation on the normal and ischemic brains of aged are not clearly defined. To examine the role of visceral adipose tissue inflammation, we evaluated inflammatory cytokines in the serum, visceral adipose tissue, and brain as well as blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in aged male mice (20 months) underwent sham or visceral fat removal surgery compared with the young mice (2.5 months). Additionally, ischemic brain injury was compared in young and aged mice with sham and visceral fat removal surgery. Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels in examined organs were increased in aged mice compared with the young mice, and these levels were reduced in the mice with visceral fat removal. Increased BBB permeability with reduced expression of tight junction proteins in aged sham mice were also decreased in mice with visceral fat removal. After focal ischemic injury, aged mice with visceral fat removal showed a reduction in infarct volumes, BBB permeability, and levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the ischemic brain compared with sham mice, although the neurological outcomes were not significantly improved. In addition, further upregulated visceral adipose tissue inflammation in response to ischemic brain injury was attenuated in mice with visceral fat removal. These results suggest that visceral adipose tissue inflammation is associated with age-related changes in the brain and contributes to the ischemic brain damage in the aged mice. We suggest that visceral adiposity should be considered as a factor affecting brain health and ischemic brain damage in the aged population. PMID:26184082

  10. Electroacupuncture at He-Mu points reduces P2X4 receptor expression in visceral hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xinxin; Chen, Jifei; Lu, Yuan; Wu, Luyi; Weng, Zhijun; Yang, Ling; Xin, Yuhu; Lin, Xianming; Liang, Yi; Fang, Jianqiao

    2013-01-01

    Electroacupuncture at Shangjuxu (ST37) and Tianshu (ST25) was reported to improve visceral hypersensitivity in rats. Colorectal distension was utilized to generate a rat model of chronic visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome. Results showed that abdominal withdrawal reflex scores noticeably increased after model establishment. Simultaneously, P2X4 receptor immureactivity significantly increased in the colon and spinal cord. Electroacupuncture and pinaverium bromide therapy both markedly decreased abdominal withdrawal reflex scores in rats with visceral hypersensitivity, and significantly decreased P2X4 receptor immunoreactivity in the colon and spinal cord. These data suggest that electroacupuncture treatment can improve visceral hypersensitivity in rats with irritable bowel syndrome by diminishing P2X4 receptor immunoreactivity in the colon and spinal cord. PMID:25206515

  11. Electroacupuncture at He-Mu points reduces P2X4 receptor expression in visceral hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xinxin; Chen, Jifei; Lu, Yuan; Wu, Luyi; Weng, Zhijun; Yang, Ling; Xin, Yuhu; Lin, Xianming; Liang, Yi; Fang, Jianqiao

    2013-08-01

    Electroacupuncture at Shangjuxu (ST37) and Tianshu (ST25) was reported to improve visceral hypersensitivity in rats. Colorectal distension was utilized to generate a rat model of chronic visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome. Results showed that abdominal withdrawal reflex scores noticeably increased after model establishment. Simultaneously, P2X4 receptor immureactivity significantly increased in the colon and spinal cord. Electroacupuncture and pinaverium bromide therapy both markedly decreased abdominal withdrawal reflex scores in rats with visceral hypersensitivity, and significantly decreased P2X4 receptor immunoreactivity in the colon and spinal cord. These data suggest that electroacupuncture treatment can improve visceral hypersensitivity in rats with irritable bowel syndrome by diminishing P2X4 receptor immunoreactivity in the colon and spinal cord. PMID:25206515

  12. Ethical and epidemiological dilemmas in the treatment of dogs for visceral leishmaniasis in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Travi, Bruno L

    2014-01-01

    In the Americas there are between 4,500 and 6,800 annual cases of severe visceral leishmaniasis, and mortality is estimated to range between 7 and 10%. However, underreporting and subclinical infections mask the real epidemiological importance of visceral leishmaniasis. Control efforts, which have typically focused on insecticide spraying of sand fly vectors and dog culling, have yielded disparate results. Nevertheless, thousands of dogs are sacrificed each year in countries endemic for visceral leishmaniasis. Additionally, current guidelines of leishmaniasis control programs have banned dog treatment with drugs of human use while therapy with other drugs resulted in high rates of relapses. Society requires that control programs take a more humanitarian approach aimed at limiting dog culling. There is an urgent need to promote responsible dog-ownership and support research on: a) novel veterinary therapies, b) low-cost molecular diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis, and c) determination of dog infectivity threshold for proper reservoir management. PMID:24967853

  13. Distinct genetic programs guide Drosophila circular and longitudinal visceral myoblast fusion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The visceral musculature of Drosophila larvae comprises circular visceral muscles tightly interwoven with longitudinal visceral muscles. During myogenesis, the circular muscles arise by one-to-one fusion of a circular visceral founder cell (FC) with a visceral fusion-competent myoblast (FCM) from the trunk visceral mesoderm, and longitudinal muscles arise from FCs of the caudal visceral mesoderm. Longitudinal FCs migrate anteriorly under guidance of fibroblast growth factors during embryogenesis; it is proposed that they fuse with FCMs from the trunk visceral mesoderm to give rise to syncytia containing up to six nuclei. Results Using fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunochemical analyses, we investigated whether these fusion events during migration use the same molecular repertoire and cellular components as fusion-restricted myogenic adhesive structure (FuRMAS), the adhesive signaling center that mediates myoblast fusion in the somatic mesoderm. Longitudinal muscles were formed by the fusion of one FC with Sns-positive FCMs, and defects in FCM specification led to defects in longitudinal muscle formation. At the fusion sites, Duf/Kirre and the adaptor protein Rols7 accumulated in longitudinal FCs, and Blow and F-actin accumulated in FCMs. The accumulation of these four proteins at the fusion sites argues for FuRMAS-like adhesion and signaling centers. Longitudinal fusion was disturbed in rols and blow single, and scar wip double mutants. Mutants of wasp or its interaction partner wip had no defects in longitudinal fusion. Conclusions Our results indicated that all embryonic fusion events depend on the same cell-adhesion molecules, but that the need for Rols7 and regulators of F-actin distinctly differs. Rols7 was required for longitudinal visceral and somatic myoblast fusion but not for circular visceral fusion. Importantly, longitudinal fusion depended on Kette and SCAR/Wave but was independent of WASp-dependent Arp2/3 activation. Thus, the

  14. Serum Chemerin Levels Are Associated with Abdominal Visceral Fat in Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Han, Juyoung; Kim, So Hun; Suh, Young Ju; Lim, Hyun Ae; Shin, Heekyoung; Cho, Soon Gu; Kim, Chei Won; Lee, Seung Youn; Lee, Dae Hyung; Hong, Seongbin; Kim, Yong Seong; Nam, Moon-Suk

    2016-06-01

    Chemerin is a recently identified adipokine suggested to play a role in obesity and its metabolic complications. The relationship between visceral obesity and serum chemerin levels in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is unknown and may differ from that of subjects without diabetes. Therefore, we evaluated whether serum chemerin was associated with visceral abdominal obesity in patients with T2DM. A total of 218 Korean patients with T2DM were enrolled and metabolic parameters, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat areas, and serum chemerin levels were measured. Serum chemerin level showed positive correlation with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, serum triglyceride, serum creatinine, urine albumin/creatinine ratio, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen, abdominal visceral fat area, visceral to subcutaneous fat area ratio, and negatively correlation with high density lipoprotein cholesterol and creatinine clearance (CCr) after adjusting for age, gender and body mass index. Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis showed that abdominal visceral fat area (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), serum triglyceride (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), CCr (β = -0.003, P = 0.001), hsCRP (β = 0.157, P = 0.001), fibrinogen (β = 0.001, P < 0.001) and BMI (β = 0.02, P = 0.008) independently affected log transformed serum chemerin levels. Higher serum chemerin level was associated with higher level of abdominal visceral fat area, serum triglyceride, hsCRP and fibrinogen and lower level of CCr in patients with T2DM. Serum chemerin may be used as a biomarker of visceral adiposity and chemerin may play a role in inflammation, decreased renal function, and increased cardiovascular risk in T2DM. PMID:27247502

  15. Establishment of a concept of visceral fat syndrome and discovery of adiponectin

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzawa, Yuji

    2010-01-01

    Although obesity is a major background of life style-related diseases such as diabetes mellitus, lipid disorder, hypertension and cardiovascular disease, the extent of whole body fat accumulation does not necessarily the determinant for the occurrence of these diseases. We developed the method for body fat analysis using CT scan and established the concept of visceral fat obesity, in other word metabolic syndrome in which intra-abdominal visceral fat accumulation has an important role in the development of diabetes, lipid disorder, hypertension and atherosclerosis. In order to clarify the mechanism that visceral fat accumulation causes metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, we have analyzed gene expression profile in subcutaneous adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue. From the analysis, we found that adipose tissue, especially visceral adipose tissue expressed abundantly the genes encoding bioactive substances such as cytokines, growth factors and complements. In addition to known bioactive substances, we found a novel collagen-like protein which we named adiponectin. Adiponectin is present in plasma at a very high concentration and is inversely associated with visceral fat accumulation. Adiponectin has anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive and anti-atherogenic properties and recent studies revealed that this protein has an anti-inflammatory and anti-oncogenic function. Therefore hypoadiponectinemia induced by visceral fat accumulation should become a strong risk factor for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and also some kinds of cancers. In this review article, I would like to discuss the mechanism of life style-related diseases by focusing on the dysregulation of adiponectin related to obesity, especially visceral obesity. PMID:20154470

  16. The first record of American visceral leishmaniasis in domestic cats from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Alba Valéria Machado; de Souza Cândido, Claudia Dias; de Pita Pereira, Daniela; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Carreira, João Carlos Araujo

    2008-01-01

    This paper is the first to report visceral leishmaniasis in domestic cats (Felis catus domesticus) from an endemic area in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. A relatively high seroprevalence of 25% was observed although none of them have presented any symptom. Our results support the observation of previous authors, suggesting that cats may be considered as alternative domestic hosts of visceral leishmaniasis and should be included in serological investigations performed in endemic areas. PMID:17953938

  17. Estrogen-dependent visceral hypersensitivity following stress in rats: An fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Catherine S; Karpowicz, Jane M; Furman, Andrew J; da Silva, Joyce Teixeira; Seminowicz, David A; Traub, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    We used functional MRI and a longitudinal design to investigate the brain mechanisms in a previously reported estrogen-dependent visceral hypersensitivity model. We hypothesized that noxious visceral stimulation would be associated with activation of the insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and amygdala, and that estrogen-dependent, stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity would both enhance activation of these regions and recruit activation of other brain areas mediating affect and reward processing. Ovariectomized rats were treated with estrogen (17 β-estradiol, E2) or vehicle (n = 5 per group) and scanned in a 7T MRI at three different time points: pre-stress (baseline), 2 days post-stress, and 18 days post-stress. Stress was induced via a forced-swim paradigm. In a separate group of ovariectomized rats, E2 treatment induced visceral hypersensitivity at the 2 days post-stress time point, and this hypersensitivity returned to baseline at the 18 days post-stress time point. Vehicle-treated rats show no hypersensitivity following stress. During the MRI scans, rats were exposed to noxious colorectal distention. Across groups and time points, noxious visceral stimulation led to activations in the insula, anterior cingulate, and left amygdala, parabrachial nuclei, and cerebellum. A group-by-time interaction was seen in the right amygdala, ventral striatum-pallidum, cerebellum, hippocampus, mediodorsal thalamus, and pontine nuclei. Closer inspection of the data revealed that vehicle-treated rats showed consistent activations and deactivations across time, whereas estrogen-treated animals showed minimal deactivation with noxious visceral stimulation. This unexpected finding suggests that E2 may dramatically alter visceral nociceptive processing in the brain following an acute stressor. This study is the first to examine estrogen-stress dependent interactions in response to noxious visceral stimulation using functional MRI. Future studies that include other control groups

  18. Serum Chemerin Levels Are Associated with Abdominal Visceral Fat in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chei Won

    2016-01-01

    Chemerin is a recently identified adipokine suggested to play a role in obesity and its metabolic complications. The relationship between visceral obesity and serum chemerin levels in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is unknown and may differ from that of subjects without diabetes. Therefore, we evaluated whether serum chemerin was associated with visceral abdominal obesity in patients with T2DM. A total of 218 Korean patients with T2DM were enrolled and metabolic parameters, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat areas, and serum chemerin levels were measured. Serum chemerin level showed positive correlation with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, serum triglyceride, serum creatinine, urine albumin/creatinine ratio, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen, abdominal visceral fat area, visceral to subcutaneous fat area ratio, and negatively correlation with high density lipoprotein cholesterol and creatinine clearance (CCr) after adjusting for age, gender and body mass index. Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis showed that abdominal visceral fat area (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), serum triglyceride (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), CCr (β = -0.003, P = 0.001), hsCRP (β = 0.157, P = 0.001), fibrinogen (β = 0.001, P < 0.001) and BMI (β = 0.02, P = 0.008) independently affected log transformed serum chemerin levels. Higher serum chemerin level was associated with higher level of abdominal visceral fat area, serum triglyceride, hsCRP and fibrinogen and lower level of CCr in patients with T2DM. Serum chemerin may be used as a biomarker of visceral adiposity and chemerin may play a role in inflammation, decreased renal function, and increased cardiovascular risk in T2DM. PMID:27247502

  19. Arginase Activity in the Blood of Patients with Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Weldegebreal, Teklu; Hailu, Asrat; Hailu, Workagegnehu; Hurissa, Zewdu; Ali, Jemal; Diro, Ermiyas; Sisay, Yifru; Cloke, Tom; Modolell, Manuel; Munder, Markus; Tacchini-Cottier, Fabienne; Müller, Ingrid; Kropf, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease associated with high mortality. The most important foci of visceral leishmaniasis in Ethiopia are in the Northwest and are predominantly associated with high rates of HIV co-infection. Co-infection of visceral leishmaniasis patients with HIV results in higher mortality, treatment failure and relapse. We have previously shown that arginase, an enzyme associated with immunosuppression, was increased in patients with visceral leishmaniasis and in HIV seropositive patients; further our results showed that high arginase activity is a marker of disease severity. Here, we tested the hypothesis that increased arginase activities associated with visceral leishmaniasis and HIV infections synergize in patients co-infected with both pathogens. Methodology/Principal Findings We recruited a cohort of patients with visceral leishmaniasis and a cohort of patients with visceral leishmaniasis and HIV infection from Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia, and recorded and compared their clinical data. Further, we measured the levels of arginase activity in the blood of these patients and identified the phenotype of arginase-expressing cells. Our results show that CD4+ T cell counts were significantly lower and the parasite load in the spleen was significantly higher in co-infected patients. Moreover, our results demonstrate that arginase activity was significantly higher in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and plasma of co-infected patients. Finally, we identified the cells-expressing arginase in the PBMCs as low-density granulocytes. Conclusion Our results suggest that increased arginase might contribute to the poor disease outcome characteristic of patients with visceral leishmaniasis and HIV co-infection. PMID:23349999

  20. The importance of visceral fat mass in obese pregnant women and relation with pregnancy outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Balani, Jyoti; Johnson, Antoinette; Shehata, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal obesity is a well established risk factor for gestational diabetes but it is not known if the pattern of maternal fat distribution predicts adverse pregnancy outcomes. Methods Body composition was assessed by bioimpedance using Inbody 720® in 302 consecutive obese pregnant women attending a weight management clinic. The relation of visceral fat mass and total percentage body fat with the development of gestational diabetes and perinatal outcomes was evaluated. Results Women developing gestational diabetes (Group 1; n = 72) were older, had higher body mass indices and greater central obesity (waist:hip ratio, visceral fat mass) compared with those remaining normoglycaemic. Visceral fat mass, but not percentage body fat, correlated with fasting glucose in all patients (r = 0.2, p < 0.001) and particularly those in Group 1 (r = 0.35, p = 0.002). Visceral fat mass, but not percentage body fat, also correlated strongly with glycaemia, particularly in Group 1 (r = 0.47, p < 0.0001). Visceral fat mass also showed a weak but significant correlation with baby weight (r = 0.17, p = 0.01). Discussion Central obesity, as assessed by early pregnancy waist:hip ratio and particularly by visceral fat mass, is a predictor of gestational diabetes in addition to classical risk factors and may help identify those obese patients at increased risk of complications.

  1. Visceral adiposity as a target for the management of the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Ken; Funahashi, Tohru; Matsuzawa, Yuji; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2012-05-01

    Atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD), develops due not only to a single cardiovascular risk factor but to a variety of complex factors. The concept of the multiple cardiometabolic risk factor clustering syndrome has been proposed as a highly atherogenic state, independent of hypercholesterolemia and smoking. Body fat distribution, especially visceral fat accumulation, is a major correlate of a cluster of diabetogenic, atherogenic, prothrombotic, and proinflammatory metabolic abnormalities referred to as the metabolic syndrome, with dysfunctional adipocytes and dysregulated production of adipocytokines (hypoadiponectinemia). Medical research has focused on visceral adiposity as an important component of the syndrome in Japanese subjects with a mild degree of adiposity compared with Western subjects. For the prevention of ACVD at least in Japan, it might be practical to stratify subjects with multiple risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease based on visceral fat accumulation. Visceral fat reduction through health promotion programs using risk factor-oriented approaches may be effective in reducing ACVD events, as well as producing improvement in risks and hypoadiponectinemia. This review article discusses visceral adiposity as a key player in the syndrome. Visceral fat reduction with life-style modification is a potentially useful strategy in the prevention of ACVD in patients with the metabolic syndrome. PMID:21612331

  2. Association between Macronutrients Intake, Visceral Obesity and Blood Pressure in a Sample of Obese Egyptian Women

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Nayera E.; El Shebini, Salwa M.; Ahmed, Nihad H.; Selim Mostafa, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Study the association between the total caloric intake, protein, lipid, and some classes of fatty acids of the diet, and their effects on blood pressure in a sample of Egyptian obese women with and without visceral obesity. METHODS: Five hundred forty-nine obese women were included in the study with mean age of 38.1 ± 11.56 years and mean Body mass index [BMI] of 36.17 ± 7.23. They enrolled in a program for losing weight. Visceral fat was determined using ultrasound. Blood pressure was measured 3 times and the mean was recorded. Twenty four hours dietary recall was reported. RESULTS: Thirty point four percentages of samples has visceral obesity ≥ 7cm; they were the older, showed higher values of BMI, visceral obesity and blood pressure. Significant difference was found between groups regarding mean value of BMI, visceral obesity, both systolic blood pressure SBP and diastolic blood pressure DBP and most of the daily macronutrients intake. In groups (2&3) positive significant correlation was recorded between (SBP) & (DBP) and total daily intake of total calories, carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, and negative significant correlation with total daily intake of total protein, animal and vegetable protein, linolenic and linoleic fatty acids, while oleic fatty acid showed negative correlation with SBP&DBP in all groups. CONCLUSION: This study emphasizes the hypothesis that the macronutrients composition of diet influences blood pressure in different ways, in obese patients with visceral obesity. PMID:27275219

  3. Rifaximin Alters Intestinal Bacteria and Prevents Stress-Induced Gut Inflammation and Visceral Hyperalgesia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dabo; Gao, Jun; Gillilland, Merritt; Wu, Xiaoyin; Song, Il; Kao, John Y.; Owyang, Chung

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Rifaximin is used to treat patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders, but little is known about its therapeutic mechanism. We propose that rifaximin modulates the ileal bacterial community, reduces subclinical inflammation of the intestinal mucosa, and improves gut barrier function to reduce visceral hypersensitivity. Methods We induced visceral hyperalgesia in rats, via chronic water avoidance or repeat restraint stressors, and investigated whether rifaximin altered the gut microbiota, prevented intestinal inflammation, and improved gut barrier function. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and 454 pyrosequencing were used to analyze bacterial 16S rRNA in ileal contents from the rats. Reverse transcription, immunoblot, and histologic analyses were used to evaluate levels of cytokines, the tight junction protein occludin, and mucosal inflammation, respectively. Intestinal permeability and rectal sensitivity were measured. Results Water avoidance and repeat restraint stress each led to visceral hyperalgesia, accompanied by mucosal inflammation and impaired mucosal barrier function. Oral rifaximin altered the composition of bacterial communities in the ileum (Lactobacillus species became the most abundant) and prevented mucosal inflammation, impairment to intestinal barrier function, and visceral hyperalgesia in response to chronic stress. Neomycin also changed the composition of the ileal bacterial community (Proteobacteria became the most abundant species). Neomycin did not prevent intestinal inflammation or induction of visceral hyperalgesia induced by water avoidance stress. Conclusions Rifaximin alters the bacterial population in the ileum of rats, leading to a relative abundance of Lactobacillus. These changes prevent intestinal abnormalities and visceral hyperalgesia in response to chronic psychological stress. PMID:24161699

  4. Main ion channels and receptors associated with visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho Rocha, Heraldo Arcela; Dantas, Bruna Priscilla Vasconcelos; Rolim, Thaísa Leite; Costa, Bagnólia Araújo; de Medeiros, Arnaldo Correia

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a very frequent functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort and alteration of bowel habits. The IBS physiopathology is extremely complex. Visceral hypersensitivity plays an important role in the pathogenesis of abdominal pain in both in vitro and in vivo models of this functional disorder. In order to obtain a general view of the participation of the main ion channels and receptors regarding the visceral hypersensitivity in the IBS and to describe their chemical structure, a literature review was carried out. A bibliographical research in the following electronic databases: Pubmed and Virtual Library in Health (BVS) was fulfilled by using the search terms “ion channels” “or” “receptors” “and” “visceral hypersensitivity” “or” “visceral nociception” “and” “irritable bowel syndrome”. Original and review articles were considered for data acquisition. The activation of the ATP ion-gated channels, voltage-gated sodium (Nav) and calcium (Cav) channels, as well as the activation of protease-activated receptors (PAR2), transient receptor potential vanilloide-1, serotonin, cannabinoids and cholecystokinin are involved in the genesis of visceral hypersensitivity in IBS. The involvement of ion channels and receptors concerning visceral hypersensitivity is noteworthy in IBS models. PMID:24976114

  5. Screening Leishmania donovani complex-specific genes required for visceral disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Wei; Matlashewski, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania protozoan parasites are the causing agent of leishmaniasis. Depending on the infecting species, Leishmania infection can causes a wide variety of diseases such as self-healing cutaneous lesions by L. major and fatal visceral leishmaniasis by L. donovani and L. infantum. Comparison of the visceral disease causing L. infantum genome with cutaneous disease causing L. major and L. braziliensis genomes has identified 25 L. infantum (L. donovani complex) species-specific genes that are absent or pseudogenes in L. major and L. braziliensis. To investigate whether these L. donovani complex species-specific genes are involved in visceral infection, we cloned these genes from L. donovani and introduced them into L. major and then determined whether the transgenic L. major had an increased ability to survive in liver and spleen of BALB/c mice. Several of these L. donovani complex specific genes were found to significantly increase L. major survival in visceral organs in BALB/c mice including the A2 and Ld2834 genes, while down regulation of these genes in L. donovani by either antisense RNA or gene knockout dramatically reduced L. donovani virulence in BALB/c mice. This demonstrated that L. donovani complex species-specific genes play important roles in visceral infection. In this chapter, we describe procedures to screen L. donovani complex specific genes required for visceral infection by cross species transgenic expression, gene deletion targeting and measuring infection levels in mice. PMID:25388124

  6. Retinoic Acid Mediates Visceral-Specific Adipogenic Defects of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kosuke; Sriram, Sandhya; Chan, Xin Hui Derryn; Ong, Wee Kiat; Yeo, Chia Rou; Tan, Betty; Lee, Seung-Ah; Kong, Kien Voon; Hoon, Shawn; Jiang, Hongfeng; Yuen, Jason J; Perumal, Jayakumar; Agrawal, Madhur; Vaz, Candida; So, Jimmy; Shabbir, Asim; Blaner, William S; Olivo, Malini; Han, Weiping; Tanavde, Vivek; Toh, Sue-Anne; Sugii, Shigeki

    2016-05-01

    Increased visceral fat, rather than subcutaneous fat, during the onset of obesity is associated with a higher risk of developing metabolic diseases. The inherent adipogenic properties of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) from visceral depots are compromised compared with those of ASCs from subcutaneous depots, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Using ontological analysis of global gene expression studies, we demonstrate that many genes involved in retinoic acid (RA) synthesis or regulated by RA are differentially expressed in human tissues and ASCs from subcutaneous and visceral fat. The endogenous level of RA is higher in visceral ASCs; this is associated with upregulation of the RA synthesis gene through the visceral-specific developmental factor WT1. Excessive RA-mediated activity impedes the adipogenic capability of ASCs at early but not late stages of adipogenesis, which can be reversed by antagonism of RA receptors or knockdown of WT1. Our results reveal the developmental origin of adipocytic properties and the pathophysiological contributions of visceral fat depots. PMID:26936961

  7. Coelomic epithelium-derived cells in visceral morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ariza, Laura; Carmona, Rita; Cañete, Ana; Cano, Elena; Muñoz-Chápuli, Ramón

    2016-03-01

    Coelomic cavities of vertebrates are lined by a mesothelium which develops from the lateral plate mesoderm. During development, the coelomic epithelium is a highly active cell layer, which locally is able to supply mesenchymal cells that contribute to the mesodermal elements of many organs and provide signals which are necessary for their development. The relevance of this process of mesenchymal cell supply to the developing organs is becoming clearer because genetic lineage tracing techniques have been developed in recent years. Body wall, heart, liver, lungs, gonads, and gastrointestinal tract are populated by cells derived from the coelomic epithelium which contribute to their connective and vascular tissues, and sometimes to specialized cell types such as the stellate cells of the liver, the Cajal interstitial cells of the gut or the Sertoli cells of the testicle. In this review we collect information about the contribution of coelomic epithelium derived cells to visceral development, their developmental fates and signaling functions. The common features displayed by all these processes suggest that the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of the embryonic coelomic epithelium is an underestimated but key event of vertebrate development, and probably it is shared by all the coelomate metazoans. PMID:26638186

  8. Live Vaccination Tactics: Possible Approaches for Controlling Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Saljoughian, Noushin; Taheri, Tahareh; Rafati, Sima

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination with durable immunity is the main goal and fundamental to control leishmaniasis. To stimulate the immune response, small numbers of parasites are necessary to be presented in the mammalian host. Similar to natural course of infection, strategy using live vaccine is more attractive when compared to other approaches. Live vaccines present the whole spectrum of antigens to the host immune system in the absence of any adjuvant. Leishmanization was the first effort for live vaccination and currently used in a few countries against cutaneous leishmaniasis, in spite of their obstacle and safety. Then, live attenuated vaccines developed with similar promotion of creating long-term immunity in the host with lower side effect. Different examples of attenuated strains are generated through long-term in vitro culturing, culturing under drug pressure, temperature sensitivity, and chemical mutagenesis, but none is safe enough and their revision to virulent form is possible. Attenuation through genetic manipulation and disruption of virulence factors or essential enzymes for intracellular survival are among other approaches that are intensively under study. Other designs to develop live vaccines for visceral form of leishmaniasis are utilization of live avirulent microorganisms such as Lactococcus lactis, Salmonella enterica, and Leishmania tarentolae called as vectored vaccine. Apparently, these vaccines are intrinsically safer and can harbor the candidate antigens in their genome through different genetic manipulation and create more potential to control Leishmania parasite as an intracellular pathogen. PMID:24744757

  9. Knowing by heart: Visceral feedback shapes recognition memory judgments.

    PubMed

    Fiacconi, Chris M; Peter, Erika L; Owais, Sawayra; Köhler, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    Although theories of emotion have long noted the importance of afferent feedback from the autonomic nervous system in generating feelings, there is a growing appreciation that this feedback may also play a role in shaping cognitive experiences. At present, little is known about its functional role in memory judgments. In the current study, we examined whether afferent cardiovascular feedback shapes recognition-memory decisions and experiences when previously encountered faces are being discriminated from novel ones. To investigate this possibility, we capitalized on the natural variation in baroreceptor mediated cardiovascular feedback that is associated with the cardiac cycle, synchronizing the brief presentation of memory probes during retrieval with individual heartbeats. In Experiments 1 and 2, we found that faces presented during cardiac systole (i.e., when visceral feedback is maximal) were more likely endorsed as "old" than those presented during cardiac diastole (i.e., when afferent feedback is minimal). This pattern was present for targets and lures, and held for faces with fearful or neutral expressions. Combining this manipulation with a remember/know procedure, Experiment 3 showed that the influence of afferent cardiovascular feedback is specific to trials on which participants report a feeling of familiarity without successful recollection of pertinent contextual detail. By revealing an influence of baroreceptor mediated cardiovascular feedback on familiarity, the current findings identify the functional role of a specific autonomic channel, previously implicated in emotion, in feeling states that pertain to memory experience. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27019022

  10. Visceral leishmaniasis in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Santos Silva, André Filipe; Figueiredo Dias, João Paulo Branco Calheiros; Nuak, João Miguel Neves Gonçalves Santos; Rocha Aguiar, Francisca; Araújo Pinto, José António; Sarmento, António Carlos Eugénio Megre

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is an infection with an insidious and disabling course caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania. In Europe, it is mostly associated with HIV infection. Systemic lupus erythematosus and its treatment are associated with increased risk of infection, neoplastic and concomitant autoimmune disorders. The association of these diseases may go unnoticed. A 60 year-old Caucasian woman with lupus presented with a one-year history of fever, malaise, weakness and weight loss. The highlights on physical examination were pallor, palpable hepatosplenomegaly and low-grade fever. Blood tests showed pancytopenia, hyperproteinemia with hypoalbuminemia and hypergammaglobulinemia; electrophoresis showed a polyclonal gamma curve. Full-body CT scan revealed massive hepatosplenomegaly. Microbiology investigation was negative for the most common pathogens, including tuberculosis. There were no signs of hematologic malignancy in the bone marrow smear. PCR for Leishmania infantum was positive both in blood and bone marrow. The patient was treated with liposomal amphotericin B, and immunosuppression was adjusted. She showed rapid clinical improvement and 6 months later had no signs of disease. The differential diagnosis in a patient with lupus presenting with fever and multisystemic manifestations includes infectious or neoplastic disorders. The patient lived in an endemic area of Leishmania, and typical clinical and analytical changes were all present, making this case highly educational. The case highlights the importance of a patient's epidemiological background and how it can lead to the diagnosis and timely treatment of a rare disease. PMID:26793472

  11. Interactions between visceral afferent signaling and stimulus processing

    PubMed Central

    Critchley, Hugo D.; Garfinkel, Sarah N.

    2015-01-01

    Visceral afferent signals to the brain influence thoughts, feelings and behavior. Here we highlight the findings of a set of empirical investigations in humans concerning body-mind interaction that focus on how feedback from states of autonomic arousal shapes cognition and emotion. There is a longstanding debate regarding the contribution of the body to mental processes. Recent theoretical models broadly acknowledge the role of (autonomically-mediated) physiological arousal to emotional, social and motivational behaviors, yet the underlying mechanisms are only partially characterized. Neuroimaging is overcoming this shortfall; first, by demonstrating correlations between autonomic change and discrete patterns of evoked, and task-independent, neural activity; second, by mapping the central consequences of clinical perturbations in autonomic response and; third, by probing how dynamic fluctuations in peripheral autonomic state are integrated with perceptual, cognitive and emotional processes. Building on the notion that an important source of the brain's representation of physiological arousal is derived from afferent information from arterial baroreceptors, we have exploited the phasic nature of these signals to show their differential contribution to the processing of emotionally-salient stimuli. This recent work highlights the facilitation at neural and behavioral levels of fear and threat processing that contrasts with the more established observations of the inhibition of central pain processing during baroreceptors activation. The implications of this body-brain-mind axis are discussed. PMID:26379481

  12. Evolutionary genomics of epidemic visceral leishmaniasis in the Indian subcontinent.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Hideo; Downing, Tim; Van den Broeck, Frederik; Sanders, Mandy J; Rijal, Suman; Sundar, Shyam; Mannaert, An; Vanaerschot, Manu; Berg, Maya; De Muylder, Géraldine; Dumetz, Franck; Cuypers, Bart; Maes, Ilse; Domagalska, Malgorzata; Decuypere, Saskia; Rai, Keshav; Uranw, Surendra; Bhattarai, Narayan Raj; Khanal, Basudha; Prajapati, Vijay Kumar; Sharma, Smriti; Stark, Olivia; Schönian, Gabriele; De Koning, Harry P; Settimo, Luca; Vanhollebeke, Benoit; Roy, Syamal; Ostyn, Bart; Boelaert, Marleen; Maes, Louis; Berriman, Matthew; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Cotton, James A

    2016-01-01

    Leishmania donovani causes visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the second most deadly vector-borne parasitic disease. A recent epidemic in the Indian subcontinent (ISC) caused up to 80% of global VL and over 30,000 deaths per year. Resistance against antimonial drugs has probably been a contributing factor in the persistence of this epidemic. Here we use whole genome sequences from 204 clinical isolates to track the evolution and epidemiology of L. donovani from the ISC. We identify independent radiations that have emerged since a bottleneck coincident with 1960s DDT spraying campaigns. A genetically distinct population frequently resistant to antimonials has a two base-pair insertion in the aquaglyceroporin gene LdAQP1 that prevents the transport of trivalent antimonials. We find evidence of genetic exchange between ISC populations, and show that the mutation in LdAQP1 has spread by recombination. Our results reveal the complexity of L. donovani evolution in the ISC in response to drug treatment. PMID:27003289

  13. Evolutionary genomics of epidemic visceral leishmaniasis in the Indian subcontinent

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Hideo; Downing, Tim; Van den Broeck, Frederik; Sanders, Mandy J; Rijal, Suman; Sundar, Shyam; Mannaert, An; Vanaerschot, Manu; Berg, Maya; De Muylder, Géraldine; Dumetz, Franck; Cuypers, Bart; Maes, Ilse; Domagalska, Malgorzata; Decuypere, Saskia; Rai, Keshav; Uranw, Surendra; Bhattarai, Narayan Raj; Khanal, Basudha; Prajapati, Vijay Kumar; Sharma, Smriti; Stark, Olivia; Schönian, Gabriele; De Koning, Harry P; Settimo, Luca; Vanhollebeke, Benoit; Roy, Syamal; Ostyn, Bart; Boelaert, Marleen; Maes, Louis; Berriman, Matthew; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Cotton, James A

    2016-01-01

    Leishmania donovani causes visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the second most deadly vector-borne parasitic disease. A recent epidemic in the Indian subcontinent (ISC) caused up to 80% of global VL and over 30,000 deaths per year. Resistance against antimonial drugs has probably been a contributing factor in the persistence of this epidemic. Here we use whole genome sequences from 204 clinical isolates to track the evolution and epidemiology of L. donovani from the ISC. We identify independent radiations that have emerged since a bottleneck coincident with 1960s DDT spraying campaigns. A genetically distinct population frequently resistant to antimonials has a two base-pair insertion in the aquaglyceroporin gene LdAQP1 that prevents the transport of trivalent antimonials. We find evidence of genetic exchange between ISC populations, and show that the mutation in LdAQP1 has spread by recombination. Our results reveal the complexity of L. donovani evolution in the ISC in response to drug treatment. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12613.001 PMID:27003289

  14. Visceral adipose tissue differences in black and white women.

    PubMed

    Conway, J M; Yanovski, S Z; Avila, N A; Hubbard, V S

    1995-04-01

    Fat distribution and metabolic variables were studied in 8 black and 10 white age- and weight-matched obese women undergoing a 6-mo weight-reducing regimen. Fat patterning was determined by using anthropometry and computed tomography to quantitate total, subcutaneous, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) areas at the L2-L3 and L4-L5 levels of the lumbar spine, before, during, and after a modified fast. Black women had smaller depots of VAT than white women at both the L2-L3 (P = 0.004) and L4-L5 (P = 0.054) sites. Differences persisted after an average 17.2-kg weight loss. Although waist-hip ratio was similar in both groups, black women had 23% less VAT than white women (P = 0.007). Black women had significantly lower plasma glucose (P = 0.031) and triglycerides (P = 0.006) with significantly higher plasma high-density-lipoprotein concentrations (P < 0.001). Data from this study suggest that racial differences exist in VAT and metabolic risk factors for obesity-related illness. PMID:7702017

  15. Protective effect of glucan against visceral leishmaniasis in hamsters.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, J A; Holbrook, T W; Dougherty, W J

    1982-01-01

    The effect of pre- or posttreatment with glucan, a reticuloendothelial stimulant, on the course of Leishmania donovani infection was assessed in highly susceptible hamsters. Intravenous administration of glucan before or after L. donovani infection significantly suppressed proliferation of amastigote-stage parasites in liver and spleen. Glucan-activated peritoneal macrophages in vitro also significantly reduced multiplication of the intracellular parasite. Ultrastructural studies revealed a well-defined hepatic granulomatous response to glucan, with hypertrophic Kupffer cells and reduced numbers of intracellular parasites compared to the control group. In additional studies, groups of hamsters were immunized by intravenous injections of glucan with Formalin-killed promastigote-stage L. donovani cells and challenged 60 days after the last immunizing injection. This treatment regimen significantly prolonged the mean survival time of those hamsters which died after infection, relative to untreated control groups. Hamsters stimulated with the glucan-killed promastigote preparation also exhibited significant reductions in splenic amastigotes on days 10 and 21 postinfection compared with all other control groups, but on day 35, splenic amastigotes did not differ significantly from those of control animals. Our composite observations provide evidence for glucan-enhanced nonspecific resistance of hamsters to visceral leishmaniasis. Images PMID:7129637

  16. Hexadecylphosphocholine: oral treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Kuhlencord, A; Maniera, T; Eibl, H; Unger, C

    1992-01-01

    Hexadecylphosphocholine (He-PC), a novel phospholipid derivative, was tested against Leishmania donovani and Leishmania infantum, the causative agents of visceral leishmaniasis. In vitro, promastigotes were highly susceptible to He-PC; the 50% inhibitory concentrations were between 0.89 and 2.25 micrograms/ml for the different leishmanial strains. In vivo, a marked antileishmanial activity in infected BALB/c mice could be demonstrated after oral administration of He-PC. Whereas parasite suppression and killing in the liver were comparable after 5 days of treatment with He-PC (10 or 20 mg/kg of body weight per day administered orally) and sodium stibogluconate (120 mg of pentavalent antimonal agent per kg/day administered subcutaneously), a superior reduction in the parasite load in the spleen and bone marrow was observed after oral treatment with He-PC. After a 4-week treatment period, parasite suppression in the spleen was better than that observed with standard sodium stibogluconate therapy by a factor of more than 600. PMID:1329624

  17. Hemophagocytosis in Experimental Visceral Leishmaniasis by Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Ayako; Omachi, Satoko; Osada, Yasutaka; Chambers, James K; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Sanjoba, Chizu; Matsumoto, Yoshitsugu; Goto, Yasuyuki

    2016-03-01

    Hemophagocytosis is a phenomenon in which macrophages phagocytose blood cells. There are reports on up-regulated hemophagocytosis in patients with infectious diseases including typhoid fever, tuberculosis, influenza and visceral leishmaniasis (VL). However, mechanisms of infection-associated hemophagocytosis remained elusive due to a lack of appropriate animal models. Here, we have established a mouse model of VL with hemophagocytosis. At 24 weeks after infection with 1 x 107 Leishmania donovani promastigotes, BALB/cA mice exhibited splenomegaly with an average tissue weight per body weight of 2.96%. In the tissues, 28.6% of macrophages contained phagocytosed erythrocytes. All of the hemophagocytosing macrophages were parasitized by L. donovani, and higher levels of hemophagocytosis was observed in heavily infected cells. Furthermore, more than half of these hemophagocytes had two or more macrophage-derived nuclei, whereas only 15.0% of splenic macrophages were bi- or multi-nuclear. These results suggest that direct infection by L. donovani causes hyper-activation of host macrophages to engulf blood cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report on hemophagocytosis in experimental Leishmania infections and may be useful for further understanding of the pathogenesis. PMID:26942577

  18. Domestic animals and epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, Narayan Raj; Van der Auwera, Gert; Rijal, Suman; Picado, Albert; Speybroeck, Niko; Khanal, Basudha; De Doncker, Simonne; Das, Murari Lal; Ostyn, Bart; Davies, Clive; Coosemans, Marc; Berkvens, Dirk; Boelaert, Marleen; Dujardin, Jean Claude

    2010-02-01

    On the Indian subcontinent, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is considered an anthroponosis. To determine possible reasons for its persistence during interepidemic periods, we mapped Leishmania infections among healthy persons and animals in an area of active VL transmission in Nepal. During 4 months (September 2007-February 2008), blood was collected from persons, goats, cows, and buffaloes in 1 village. Leishmania infections were determined by using PCR. We found infections among persons (6.1%), cows (5%), buffaloes (4%), and goats (16%). Data were georeferenced and entered into a geographic information system. The bivariate K-function results indicated spatial clustering of Leishmania spp.-positive persons and domestic animals. Classification tree analysis determined that among several possible risk factors for Leishmania infection among persons, proximity of Leishmania spp.-positive goats ranked first. Although our data do not necessarily mean that goats constitute a reservoir host of L. donovani, these observations indicate the need for further investigation of goats' possible role in VL transmission. PMID:20113552

  19. 14-3-3ζ coordinates adipogenesis of visceral fat

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Gareth E.; Albrecht, Tobias; Piske, Micah; Sarai, Karnjit; Lee, Jason T. C; Ramshaw, Hayley S.; Sinha, Sunita; Guthridge, Mark A.; Acker-Palmer, Amparo; Lopez, Angel F.; Clee, Susanne M.; Nislow, Corey; Johnson, James D.

    2015-01-01

    The proteins that coordinate complex adipogenic transcriptional networks are poorly understood. 14-3-3ζ is a molecular adaptor protein that regulates insulin signalling and transcription factor networks. Here we report that 14-3-3ζ-knockout mice are strikingly lean from birth with specific reductions in visceral fat depots. Conversely, transgenic 14-3-3ζ overexpression potentiates obesity, without exacerbating metabolic complications. Only the 14-3-3ζ isoform is essential for adipogenesis based on isoform-specific RNAi. Mechanistic studies show that 14-3-3ζ depletion promotes autophagy-dependent degradation of C/EBP-δ, preventing induction of the master adipogenic factors, Pparγ and C/EBP-α. Transcriptomic data indicate that 14-3-3ζ acts upstream of hedgehog signalling-dependent upregulation of Cdkn1b/p27Kip1. Indeed, concomitant knockdown of p27Kip1 or Gli3 rescues the early block in adipogenesis induced by 14-3-3ζ knockdown in vitro. Adipocyte precursors in 14-3-3ζKO embryos also appear to have greater Gli3 and p27Kip1 abundance. Together, our in vivo and in vitro findings demonstrate that 14-3-3ζ is a critical upstream driver of adipogenesis. PMID:26220403

  20. Epidemiology of paediatric visceral leishmaniasis in Hebron district, Palestine.

    PubMed

    Amro, Ahmad; Azmi, Kifaya; Schönian, Gabriele; Nasereddin, Abedelmajeed; Alsharabati, Mohamed Barakat; Sawalha, Samer; Hamarsheh, Omar; Ereqat, Suhair; Abdeen, Ziad

    2009-07-01

    Seventy-six cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) were reported from the Hebron district of the West Bank, Palestine between 1993 and 2007. All cases were in children less than 9 years old (median age 2 years). The average number of cases was 5.06/year and the average annual incidence was 3.02/100000 children. Ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) PCR-RFLP was performed using DNA extracted from two cultures and 36 archived Giemsa-stained slides from VL patients. Leishmania infantum was revealed as the causative agent of VL in the focus. Isoenzyme analysis identified two isolates as zymodeme MON-1. A serological survey of 455 children screened for serum anti-Leishmania antibodies revealed 8.4% seropositivity. Seropositivity was highest for children in households of previous VL cases [odds ratio (OR) 7.5; 95% CI 3.17-17.61; P<0.001] and among people who had domestic dogs and/or other animals (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.19-4.68; P=0.017). No difference was seen between males and females (P=0.073). A preliminary survey of sand fly distribution showed the abundance of two putative vector species: Phlebotomus syriacus (45%) and Ph. tobbi (10%). The focus of VL in Hebron district was shown to follow the epidemiological pattern of paediatric disease characteristic of the Mediterranean region. PMID:19022464

  1. Perceptions of the population and health professionals regarding visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Carmo, Rose Ferraz; da Luz, Zélia Maria Profeta; Bevilacqua, Paula Dias

    2016-02-01

    Based on theoretical qualitative research reference methodology, this study sought to investigate the perception of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) by social actors directly involved in the prevention and control of the disease. Thirty-eight semi-structured interviews were conducted with residents, focus groups were staged with 18 health workers in an endemic VL area and depositions were collected, which after being processed by content analysis revealed shortcomings and challenges. The population associated VL with dogs, acknowledged their co-responsibility in tackling the disease and demanded information. Health workers identified environmental sanitation as an essential factor for VL prevention. Among the shortcomings, the lack of information about the disease and culpability of the individual because of non-adherence to prevention measures were observed, especially environmental management. Probably, approaches emphasizing the role of the environment as a health promotion agent and the timely definition of specific environmental measures against VL, constitute a prospect for overcoming these shortcomings. The consensus is that the main challenge for enhancing the prevention and control might be the participatory and dialogical construction of these approaches between health professionals and the population. PMID:26910169

  2. Developments in Diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis in the Elimination Era

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Om Prakash; Sundar, Shyam

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is the most devastating parasitic infection worldwide causing high morbidity and mortality. Clinical presentation of VL ranges from asymptomatic or subclinical infection to severe and complicated symptomatic disease. A major challenge in the clinical management of VL is the weakness of health systems in disease endemic regions. People affected by VL mostly present to primary health care centers (PHCs), often late in their therapeutic itinerary. PHC physicians face a major challenge: they do not deal with a single disease issue but with patients presenting with complaints pointing to several diagnostic possibilities. Risk exists when some patients having less clinical manifestations are misdiagnosed. Therefore, field based accurate, sensitive, and cost effective rapid diagnostic tools that can detect disease in its mildest form are essential for effective control and reaching the goal of VL elimination. In this review, we discuss the current status and challenges of various diagnostic tools for the diagnosis of VL and assess their application in resource poor settings. PMID:26843964

  3. Visceral Adiposity Index: An Indicator of Adipose Tissue Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI) has recently proven to be an indicator of adipose distribution and function that indirectly expresses cardiometabolic risk. In addition, VAI has been proposed as a useful tool for early detection of a condition of cardiometabolic risk before it develops into an overt metabolic syndrome. The application of the VAI in particular populations of patients (women with polycystic ovary syndrome, patients with acromegaly, patients with NAFLD/NASH, patients with HCV hepatitis, patients with type 2 diabetes, and general population) has produced interesting results, which have led to the hypothesis that the VAI could be considered a marker of adipose tissue dysfunction. Unfortunately, in some cases, on the same patient population, there is conflicting evidence. We think that this could be mainly due to a lack of knowledge of the application limits of the index, on the part of various authors, and to having applied the VAI in non-Caucasian populations. Future prospective studies could certainly better define the possible usefulness of the VAI as a predictor of cardiometabolic risk. PMID:24829577

  4. Diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis: developments over the last decade.

    PubMed

    Srividya, Gurumurthy; Kulshrestha, Arpita; Singh, Ruchi; Salotra, Poonam

    2012-03-01

    Diagnostic parameters for visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a potentially fatal parasitic disease caused by Leishmania donovani, have been redefined in the last decade with the development of serological and molecular tests, though a definitive diagnosis still banks on the century-old parasitological methods in many areas. Recombinant antigens have improved performance of serodiagnostic methods. Serology-based tests, rk39 antigen dipstick, and direct agglutination test commonly employed in the field are highly sensitive methods, however, fail to distinguish past infections. Molecular approaches have become increasingly relevant due to remarkable sensitivity, specificity, and flexibility in choice of samples. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction is a highly sensitive and specific tool used in referral labs for detection/assessment of parasite load in VL patients and subsequently in monitoring treatment response to antileishmanial agents. The method displays potential to provide threshold for distinguishing asymptomatics in endemic areas. Currently, improvement in VL diagnostics is required for successful decentralized (point-of-care) testing in field conditions and to detect VL-HIV co-infection. Techniques such as loop-mediated isothermal amplification offer a reliable molecular diagnostic method for field application. The diagnosis based on bioanalytics/biosensors promise frontiers for point-of-care VL detection after adequate standardization. This review summarizes the recent developments in VL diagnostics, drawing attention towards the need for standardization of the diagnostics across the affected regions. PMID:22065060

  5. Hemophagocytosis in Experimental Visceral Leishmaniasis by Leishmania donovani

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Ayako; Omachi, Satoko; Osada, Yasutaka; Chambers, James K.; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Sanjoba, Chizu; Matsumoto, Yoshitsugu; Goto, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Hemophagocytosis is a phenomenon in which macrophages phagocytose blood cells. There are reports on up-regulated hemophagocytosis in patients with infectious diseases including typhoid fever, tuberculosis, influenza and visceral leishmaniasis (VL). However, mechanisms of infection-associated hemophagocytosis remained elusive due to a lack of appropriate animal models. Here, we have established a mouse model of VL with hemophagocytosis. At 24 weeks after infection with 1 x 107 Leishmania donovani promastigotes, BALB/cA mice exhibited splenomegaly with an average tissue weight per body weight of 2.96%. In the tissues, 28.6% of macrophages contained phagocytosed erythrocytes. All of the hemophagocytosing macrophages were parasitized by L. donovani, and higher levels of hemophagocytosis was observed in heavily infected cells. Furthermore, more than half of these hemophagocytes had two or more macrophage-derived nuclei, whereas only 15.0% of splenic macrophages were bi- or multi-nuclear. These results suggest that direct infection by L. donovani causes hyper-activation of host macrophages to engulf blood cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report on hemophagocytosis in experimental Leishmania infections and may be useful for further understanding of the pathogenesis. PMID:26942577

  6. Complete regression of visceral Kaposi's sarcoma after conversion to sirolimus.

    PubMed

    Mohsin, N; Budruddin, M; Pakkyara, A; Darweesh, A; Nayyer, M; Amitabh, J; Daar, A S

    2005-12-01

    The prevalence of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is much greater in organ transplant recipients than it is in the general population. Its etiology appears to be related to geographic, genetic, and viral factors. Treatment of transplant-related KS has, until now, consisted mainly of reduction of, or withholding of, immunosuppression, often with deleterious effects on both graft and patient survival. In recent years, the immunosuppressive drug, sirolimus, has been demonstrated as possessing anti-neoplastic properties in both in vitro and animal models. In view of these properties and some preliminary clinical experience, we postulated that sirolimus would be beneficial in our patients who developed transplant-related KS. Here, we report the first case of a patient with both cutaneous and visceral KS who was successfully treated in the Middle East by conversion from a cyclosporine-based to a sirolimus-based immunosuppression regimen. The KS regressed completely within a few months after the conversion. The chronologic events and the extensive documentation, which included repeat computed tomography scans, are very suggestive of a selective anti-neoplastic effect of sirolimus. PMID:16417445

  7. Sensory receptors in the visceral pleura: neurochemical coding and live staining in whole mounts.

    PubMed

    Pintelon, Isabel; Brouns, Inge; De Proost, Ian; Van Meir, Frans; Timmermans, Jean-Pierre; Adriaensen, Dirk

    2007-05-01

    Today, diagnosis and treatment of chest pain related to pathologic changes in the visceral pleura are often difficult. Data in the literature on the sensory innervation of the visceral pleura are sparse. The present study aimed at identifying sensory end-organs in the visceral pleura, and at obtaining more information about neurochemical coding. The immunocytochemcial data are mainly based on whole mounts of the visceral pleura of control and vagally denervated rats. It was shown that innervation of the rat visceral pleura is characterized by nerve bundles that enter in the hilus region and gradually split into slender bundles with a few nerve fibers. Separate nerve fibers regularly give rise to characteristic laminar terminals. Because of their unique association with the elastic fibers of the visceral pleura, we decided to refer to them as "visceral pleura receptors" (VPRs). Cryostat sections of rat lungs confirmed a predominant location on mediastinal and interlobar lung surfaces. VPRs can specifically be visualized by protein gene product 9.5 immunostaining, and were shown to express vesicular glutamate transporters, calbindin D28K, Na+/K+-ATPase, and P2X3 ATP-receptors. The sensory nerve fibers giving rise to VPRs appeared to be myelinated and to have a spinal origin. Because several of the investigated proteins have been reported as markers for sensory terminals in other organs, the present study revealed that VPRs display the neurochemical characteristics of mechanosensory and/or nociceptive terminals. The development of a live staining method, using AM1-43, showed that VPRs can be visualized in living tissue, offering an interesting model for future physiologic studies. PMID:17170382

  8. Mitochondrial respiration in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue from patients with morbid obesity.

    PubMed

    Kraunsøe, Regitze; Boushel, Robert; Hansen, Christina Neigaard; Schjerling, Peter; Qvortrup, Klaus; Støckel, Mikael; Mikines, Kári J; Dela, Flemming

    2010-06-15

    Adipose tissue exerts important endocrine and metabolic functions in health and disease. Yet the bioenergetics of this tissue is not characterized in humans and possible regional differences are not elucidated. Using high resolution respirometry, mitochondrial respiration was quantified in human abdominal subcutaneous and intra-abdominal visceral (omentum majus) adipose tissue from biopsies obtained in 20 obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and genomic DNA (gDNA) were determined by the PCR technique for estimation of mitochondrial density. Adipose tissue samples were permeabilized and respirometric measurements were performed in duplicate at 37 degrees C. Substrates (glutamate (G) + malate (M) + octanoyl carnitine (O) + succinate (S)) were added sequentially to provide electrons to complex I + II. ADP ((D)) for state 3 respiration was added after GM. Uncoupled respiration was measured after addition of FCCP. Visceral fat contained more mitochondria per milligram of tissue than subcutaneous fat, but the cells were smaller. Robust, stable oxygen fluxes were found in both tissues, and coupled state 3 (GMOS(D)) and uncoupled respiration were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in visceral (0.95 +/- 0.05 and 1.15 +/- 0.06 pmol O(2) s(1) mg(1), respectively) compared with subcutaneous (0.76 +/- 0.04 and 0.98 +/- 0.05 pmol O(2) s(1) mg(1), respectively) adipose tissue. Expressed per mtDNA, visceral adipose tissue had significantly (P < 0.05) lower mitochondrial respiration. Substrate control ratios were higher and uncoupling control ratio lower (P < 0.05) in visceral compared with subcutaneous adipose tissue. We conclude that visceral fat is bioenergetically more active and more sensitive to mitochondrial substrate supply than subcutaneous fat. Oxidative phosphorylation has a higher relative activity in visceral compared with subcutaneous adipose tissue. PMID:20421291

  9. [Visceral leishmaniasis as a threat for non-endemic countries].

    PubMed

    Górski, Stanisław; Wiercińska-Drapało, Alicja

    2009-01-01

    Global warming, globalisation, and constantly increasing number of people involved in long-distance tourism and travel to exotic destinations are likely to increase the number of cases of exotic diseases "imported" to nonendemic countries. One of the often forgotten and neglected diseases has been visceral leishmaniasis (VL or kala-azar). The disease is endemic to 62 countries, with India and Sudan accounting for the majority of the cases. It is typically fatal if left untreated. Each year about 500 000 new cases are reported worldwide, and 50 000 die as a result of the disease. Kala-azar is present in the Mediterranean Europe and 70% of cases are imported to non-endemic countries of European Union from that area. Immunocompromised status of patients, like HIV carriers are the principal prospective target for kala-azar. HIV/VL-coinfected patients have significantly higher relapse rates and decreased life expectancy. There is no formal system of reporting imported cases in Europe, except from Germany. In non-endemic countries, including Poland, there is usually the substantial delay between the onset of symptoms and the final diagnosis, with an average exceeding 3 months. This fact suggests that physicians are not familiar with leishmania infections. Despite progress in vaccine development, the only way to prevent the infection is avoiding sandfly bites. Mosquito nets, wearing appropriate clothes and repellents containing DEET (diethyl toluamide) can reduce number of bites and protect also from the other vector-borne diseases like malaria or dengue. Education concerning kala-azar risk and ways of the disease prevention is a needed for tourists and the other travelers. PMID:19856834

  10. Visceral periadventitial adipose tissue regulates arterial tone of mesenteric arteries.

    PubMed

    Verlohren, Stefan; Dubrovska, Galyna; Tsang, Suk-Ying; Essin, Kirill; Luft, Friedrich C; Huang, Yu; Gollasch, Maik

    2004-09-01

    Periadventitial adipose tissue produces vasoactive substances that influence vascular contraction. Earlier studies addressed this issue in aorta, a vessel that does not contribute to peripheral vascular resistance. We tested the hypothesis that periadventitial adipose tissue modulates contraction of smaller arteries more relevant to blood pressure regulation. We studied mesenteric artery rings surrounded by periadventitial adipose tissue from adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. The contractile response to serotonin, phenylephrine, and endothelin I was markedly reduced in intact vessels compared with vessels without periadventitial fat. The contractile response to U46619 or depolarizing high K+-containing solutions (60 mmol/L) was similar in vessels with and without periadventitial fat. The K+ channel opener cromakalim induced relaxation of vessels precontracted by serotonin but not by U46619 or high K+-containing solutions (60 mmol/L), suggesting that K+ channels are involved. The intracellular membrane potential of smooth muscle cells was more hyperpolarized in intact vessels than in vessels without periadventitial fat. Both the anticontractile effect and membrane hyperpolarization of periadventitial fat were abolished by inhibition of delayed-rectifier K+ (K(v)) channels with 4-aminopyridine (2 mmol/L) or 3,4-diaminopyridine (1 mmol/L). Blocking other K+ channels with glibenclamide (3 micromol/L), apamin (1 micromol/L), iberiotoxin (100 nmol/L), tetraethylammonium ions (1 mmol/L), tetrapentylammonium ions (10 micromol/L), or Ba2+ (3 micromol/L) had no effect. Longitudinal removal of half the perivascular tissue reduced the anticontractile effect of fat by almost 50%, whereas removal of the endothelium had no effect. We suggest that visceral periadventitial adipose tissue controls mesenteric arterial tone by inducing vasorelaxation via K(v) channel activation in vascular smooth muscle cells. PMID:15302842

  11. Cost of Pediatric Visceral Leishmaniasis Care in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Sergi; Sicuri, Elisa; Laamrani El Idrissi, Abderahmane; Nejjari, Chakib; Picado, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected parasitic disease that is fatal if left untreated. VL is endemic in Morocco and other countries in North Africa were it mainly affects children from rural areas. In Morocco, the direct observation of Leishmania parasites in bone marrow aspirates and serological tests are used to diagnose VL. Glucantime is the first line of treatment. The objective of this study was to report the costs associated to standard clinical management of pediatric VL from the provider perspective in Morocco. As a secondary objective we described the current clinical practices and the epidemiological characteristics of pediatric VL patients. Methods From March to June 2014 we conducted a survey in eight hospitals treating pediatric VL patients in Morocco. A pro-forma was used to collect demographic, clinical and management data from medical records. We specifically collected data on VL diagnosis and treatment. We also estimated the days of hospitalization and the time to start VL treatment. Costs were estimated by multiplying the use of resources in terms of number of days in hospital, tests performed and drugs provided by the official prices. For patients receiving part of their treatment at Primary Health Centers (PHC) we estimated the cost of administering the Glucantime as outpatient. We calculated the median cost per VL patient. We also estimated the cost of managing a VL case when different treatment strategies were applied: inpatient and outpatient. Results We obtained data from 127 VL patients. The median total cost per pediatric VL case in Morocco is 520 US$. The cost in hospitals applying an outpatient strategy is significantly lower (307 US$) than hospitals keeping the patients for the whole treatment (636 US$). However the outpatient strategy is not yet recommended as VL treatment for children in the Moroccan guidelines. VL diagnosis and treatment regimens should be standardized following the current guidelines in Morocco

  12. [The neuronal organization of the amygdala-visceral reflex arch].

    PubMed

    Baklavadzhian, O G; Avetisian, E A; Bagdasarian, K G; Eganova, V S; Nersesian, L B

    1996-01-01

    The paper summarizes the histomorphic, histochemical, autoradiographic, immune-histochemical and electrophysiological data on the structural-functional organization of the amygdalar complexes. While discussing the problem of neuron organization of the afferent and efferent groups in the amygdala-visceral arch the authors present their data of microelectrophysiological studies of the specific amygdala neuron reactions in response to stimulation of the vagus, ventric, and sciatic nerves, and of the second somatic sensor cortex zone. It was observed that interoceptive impulsation reaching the polysensor neurons of the central, corticomedial, and basolateral groups of the amygdala complex nuclei have no significant qualitative differences. A series of experiments demonstrated that the polysensor convergent amygdala neurons are also polyeffectoral. Comparative studies of the sympathetic discharges in the white connecting branches produced by stimulation of the above nuclear amygdala groups, confirmed absence of a clear topographic localization of the sympatho-activating structures within an amygdala. Comparative exploration of the parasympathetic discharges in the pelvis nerve discovered a discharge of complex configuration in response to simulation of the pelvis nerve nuclei. There was no notable topographic localization of the amygdala parasympathoactivating structures. The system's arterial pressure was studied in response to stimulation of various amygdala structures. Low-frequency stimulation (5 Hertz) of all amygdala structures produces depressor reactions, high-frequency stimulation (100 Hertz) produces pressor reactions. Microelectrophysiological data are provided on the specific reactions of the inspiration and expiration neurons of the bulbar respiratory centre under frequency stimulation of various amygdala structures. The authors have concluded that the bulbar-spinal mechanisms regulating the vegetative functions are implemented by polysensoral

  13. Combined Immune Therapy for the Treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Faleiro, Rebecca J; Kumar, Rajiv; Bunn, Patrick T; Singh, Neetu; Chauhan, Shashi Bhushan; Sheel, Meru; Amante, Fiona H; Montes de Oca, Marcela; Edwards, Chelsea L; Ng, Susanna S; Best, Shannon E; Haque, Ashraful; Beattie, Lynette; Hafner, Louise M; Sacks, David; Nylen, Susanne; Sundar, Shyam; Engwerda, Christian R

    2016-02-01

    Chronic disease caused by infections, cancer or autoimmunity can result in profound immune suppression. Immunoregulatory networks are established to prevent tissue damage caused by inflammation. Although these immune checkpoints preserve tissue function, they allow pathogens and tumors to persist, and even expand. Immune checkpoint blockade has recently been successfully employed to treat cancer. This strategy modulates immunoregulatory mechanisms to allow host immune cells to kill or control tumors. However, the utility of this approach for controlling established infections has not been extensively investigated. Here, we examined the potential of modulating glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor-related protein (GITR) on T cells to improve anti-parasitic immunity in blood and spleen tissue from visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients infected with Leishmania donovani. We found little effect on parasite growth or parasite-specific IFNγ production. However, this treatment reversed the improved anti-parasitic immunity achieved by IL-10 signaling blockade. Further investigations using an experimental VL model caused by infection of C57BL/6 mice with L. donovani revealed that this negative effect was prominent in the liver, dependent on parasite burden and associated with an accumulation of Th1 cells expressing high levels of KLRG-1. Nevertheless, combined anti-IL-10 and anti-GITR mAb treatment could improve anti-parasitic immunity when used with sub-optimal doses of anti-parasitic drug. However, additional studies with VL patient samples indicated that targeting GITR had no overall benefit over IL-10 signaling blockade alone at improving anti-parasitic immune responses, even with drug treatment cover. These findings identify several important factors that influence the effectiveness of immune modulation, including parasite burden, target tissue and the use of anti-parasitic drug. Critically, these results also highlight potential negative effects of combining different

  14. Antineoplastic drug, carboplatin, protects mice against visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Tejinder; Makkar, Prerna; Randhawa, Kulbir; Kaur, Sukhbir

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the leishmanicidal effect of two doses (5 and 10 mg/kg body weight) of the carboplatin was studied in Leishmania donovani-infected BALB/c mice. Mice were infected intracardially with promastigotes of L. donovani, and a month after infection, they were treated intraperitoneally with the two doses of the drug (5 and 10 mg/kg body weight) for five continuous days. Animals were sacrificed on 1 and 15 posttreatment days. Hepatic parasite load was assessed on Geimsa-stained imprints. Immune responses were studied by measuring delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses, serum IgG isotype levels (IgG1 and IgG2a) and cytokine levels [γ-interferon (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-2] in spleen cell cultures by ELISA. To study the drug-induced side effects, various haematological (haemoglobin and total leukocyte count), biochemical (liver and kidney function tests) and histological investigations (kidney, liver and spleen) were carried out. The antileishmanial potential of the drug was revealed by significant reduction in the parasite burden. The infected and treated animals were also found to exhibit increased DTH responses, higher IgG2a levels, lower IgG1 levels and greater cytokine (IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-2) concentrations pointing towards the generation of mixed Th1/Th2 response. Liver and kidney function tests and histological studies of kidney, liver and spleen of treated mice revealed no side effects. Carboplatin cures mice of visceral leishmaniasis without causing any serious side effects, and the drug was found be more effective at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight as compared to 5 mg/kg body weight. PMID:22961311

  15. Polarized M2 macrophages in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Pamela Rodrigues Reina; Fernando, Filipe Santos; Montassier, Hélio José; André, Marcos Rogério; de Oliveira Vasconcelos, Rosemeri

    2016-08-15

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the skin (nasal surface and ear regions), lymph nodes (popliteal and pre-scapular), spleen and liver of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis (VL), in order to investigate the relationship between the parasite load measured as DNA copy number of Alpha gene of DNA polymerase of Leishmania infantum by quantitative PCR and the number of M2 macrophages by immunohistochemistry. A set of 29 naturally infected dogs from an endemic area for VL were sampled and another set of six dogs negative for VL and from a non-endemic area were analyzed as the control group (C). The spleen presented the highest number of Leishmania DNA copies, with significant differences between the groups G1 and G2 (with and without skin lesions, respectively). The M2 phenotype immunostaining predominated among the macrophages in granulomas and inflammatory infiltrates of samples from the skin, lymph nodes and spleens examined. The presence of M2 macrophages in dogs from infected group differed significantly from the control group, in all organs analyzed, excepted liver. The highest proportion of M2 macrophages coincided with the highest parasitism loads found in more susceptible organs of VL dogs, even in the skin, considered a more resistant organ, while the liver showed low parasitism load and low immunostaining for M2 macrophages with no significant differences between infected and negative groups. It was concluded that the predominance of M2 phenotype in VL dogs favored the multiplication of Leishmania infantum in organs of dogs that are more susceptible to Leishmania infection, as skin, lymph nodes and spleen. PMID:27514887

  16. Eco-epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gadisa, Endalamaw; Tsegaw, Teshome; Abera, Adugna; Elnaiem, Dia-Eldin; den Boer, Margriet; Aseffa, Abraham; Jorge, Alvar

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, Kala-azar) is one of the growing public health challenges in Ethiopia with over 3.2 million people at risk and estimated up to 4000 new cases per year. Historically, VL was known as the diseases of the lowlanders; in the lower and upper Kola agro-ecological zones of Ethiopia. The 2005-07 out breaks in highlands of Libo Kemkem and Fogera, in the Woina Degas, that affected thousands and claimed the life of hundreds misdiagnosed as drug resistance malaria marked that VL is no more the problem of the lowlanders. The Kola (lower and upper) and the Woina Dega are the most productive agroecological zones, supporting both the ongoing and planned expansions of large or small scale agriculture and/or agriculture based industries. Thus, the (re)emergence of VL is not only a public health and social problem but also have a direct implication on the country's economy and further development. Thus is high time for its control and/or elimination. Yet, the available data seem incomplete to plan for a cost-effective and efficient VL control strategy: there is a need to update data on vector behaviour in specific ecosystems and the roles of domestic animals need to be ascertained. The effectiveness and social acceptability of available vector control tools need be evaluated. There is a need for identifying animal reservoir(s), or establish the absence of zoonosis in Ethiopia. The planning of prevention of (re)emergence and spread of VL to areas adjacent to endemic foci need be supported with information from spatio-temporal mapping. In affected communities, available data showed that their knowledge about VL is generally very low. Thus, well designed studies to identify risk factors, as well as better tools for social mobilization with the understanding of their knowledge, aptitude and practice towards VL are necessary. PMID:26187584

  17. Visceral Leishmaniasis in China: an Endemic Disease under Control.

    PubMed

    Lun, Zhao-Rong; Wu, Ming-Shui; Chen, Yun-Fu; Wang, Jun-Yun; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Liao, Li-Fu; Chen, Jian-Ping; Chow, Larry M C; Chang, Kwang Poo

    2015-10-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania spp. is an important vector-borne and largely zoonotic disease. In China, three epidemiological types of VL have been described: anthroponotic VL (AVL), mountain-type zoonotic VL (MT-ZVL), and desert-type ZVL (DT-ZVL). These are transmitted by four different sand fly species: Phlebotomus chinensis, P. longiductus, P. wui, and P. alexandri. In 1951, a detailed survey of VL showed that it was rampant in the vast rural areas west, northwest, and north of the Yangtze River. Control programs were designed and implemented stringently by the government at all administrative levels, resulting in elimination of the disease from most areas of endemicity, except the western and northwestern regions. The control programs consisted of (i) diagnosis and chemotherapy of patients, (ii) identification, isolation, and disposal of infected dogs, and (iii) residual insecticide indoor spraying for vector control. The success of the control programs is attributable to massive and effective mobilization of the general public and health workers to the cause. Nationally, the annual incidence is now very low, i.e., only 0.03/100,000 according to the available 2011 official record. The overwhelming majority of cases are reported from sites of endemicity in the western and northwestern regions. Here, we describe in some depth and breadth the current status of epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of the disease, with particular reference to the control programs. Pertinent information has been assembled from scattered literature of the past decades in different languages that are not readily accessible to the scientific community. The information provided constitutes an integral part of our knowledge on leishmaniasis in the global context and will be of special value to those interested in control programs. PMID:26354822

  18. Combined Immune Therapy for the Treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Bunn, Patrick T.; Singh, Neetu; Chauhan, Shashi Bhushan; Sheel, Meru; Amante, Fiona H.; Montes de Oca, Marcela; Edwards, Chelsea L.; Ng, Susanna S.; Best, Shannon E.; Haque, Ashraful; Beattie, Lynette; Hafner, Louise M.; Sacks, David; Nylen, Susanne; Sundar, Shyam; Engwerda, Christian R.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic disease caused by infections, cancer or autoimmunity can result in profound immune suppression. Immunoregulatory networks are established to prevent tissue damage caused by inflammation. Although these immune checkpoints preserve tissue function, they allow pathogens and tumors to persist, and even expand. Immune checkpoint blockade has recently been successfully employed to treat cancer. This strategy modulates immunoregulatory mechanisms to allow host immune cells to kill or control tumors. However, the utility of this approach for controlling established infections has not been extensively investigated. Here, we examined the potential of modulating glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor-related protein (GITR) on T cells to improve anti-parasitic immunity in blood and spleen tissue from visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients infected with Leishmania donovani. We found little effect on parasite growth or parasite-specific IFNγ production. However, this treatment reversed the improved anti-parasitic immunity achieved by IL-10 signaling blockade. Further investigations using an experimental VL model caused by infection of C57BL/6 mice with L. donovani revealed that this negative effect was prominent in the liver, dependent on parasite burden and associated with an accumulation of Th1 cells expressing high levels of KLRG-1. Nevertheless, combined anti-IL-10 and anti-GITR mAb treatment could improve anti-parasitic immunity when used with sub-optimal doses of anti-parasitic drug. However, additional studies with VL patient samples indicated that targeting GITR had no overall benefit over IL-10 signaling blockade alone at improving anti-parasitic immune responses, even with drug treatment cover. These findings identify several important factors that influence the effectiveness of immune modulation, including parasite burden, target tissue and the use of anti-parasitic drug. Critically, these results also highlight potential negative effects of combining different

  19. Visceral Leishmaniasis as a Possible Reason for Pancytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Koster, Kira-Lee; Laws, Hans-Jürgen; Troeger, Anja; Meisel, Roland; Borkhardt, Arndt; Oommen, Prasad Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is caused by different species of the protozoa, Leishmania, and frequently found in South-Western Asia, Eastern Africa, Brazil, and Mediterranean countries. Leishmania are transmitted to humans by the bite of sandflies. After weeks to months, unspecific symptoms may occur, accompanied by more specific findings like pancytopenia and organomegaly. We report two children with pancytopenia and hepato-/splenomegaly: a 1-year-old boy was first diagnosed with an Adenovirus-infection, accompanied by fever, pancytopenia, and hepatosplenomegaly who had spent his summer vacation in Spain and a 3-year-old boy of Macedonian origin who was first diagnosed with a Parvovirus B19-infection again accompanied by splenomegaly and pancytopenia. In both children, leukemia was excluded by an initial bone marrow puncture. As fever was still persistent weeks after the children’s first hospital stay, both children received antibiotics empirically without sustainable effect. While different autoantibodies were present in both children, an immunosuppressive therapy was initiated in the younger boy without therapeutic success. A second bone marrow puncture was performed and Leishmania were finally detected morphologically and proven serologically. After weight-adjusted treatment with liposomal Amphotericin B for 10 days, both children recovered completely without relapse. Aim of this report is to broaden the spectrum of differential diagnoses in children with pancytopenia, splenomegaly, and fever to visceral leishmaniasis particularly when travel history is positive for the Mediterranean area. The infection may mimic more common diseases, such as leukemia, viral infections, or autoimmune diseases, because polyclonal B cell activation and other mechanisms may lead to multiple positive serologic tests. Both cases illustrate typical pitfalls and shall encourage taking Leishmaniasis into diagnostic consideration. PMID:26176005

  20. Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Boyer Ahmad District, Kohgiluyeh & Boyer Ahmad Province, Southwest of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Moshfe, A; Mohebali, M; Afshoun, E; Mousavizadeh, A; Zarei, Z; Abidi, H; Akhoundi, B; Barati, V; Joukar, S

    2012-01-01

    Background Mediterranean type of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is present in different parts of Iran. Several studies have identified dogs as the main reservoirs of the VL caused by Leishmania infantum in Iran and other Mediterranean regions. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis as animal reservoir host for human visceral leishmaniasis in Boyer Ahmad district in southwest of Iran. Methods A seroepidemiological study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) among ownership dogs by using direct agglutination test (DAT) in 23 of 182 villages of Boyer Ahmad district, during August 2009 to August 2010. One hundred and seventy serum samples from ownership dogs were selected by multi-stage cluster sampling in villages of Boyer Ahmad district. All samples were tested by DAT and anti-Leishmania antibodies titers at ≥ 1:320 was considered as positive. Results Of the 170 serum samples, 10% were positive by DAT at titers of 1:320 and higher. No statistical significant difference was found between male (10.7%) and female (8.3%) seroprevalence. The highest seroprevalence rate (15.1%) was observed among the ownership dogs of four to seven years age. Altogether, seventeen (25.4%) of the seropositive dogs had clinical signs and symptoms. Conclusion It seems that Boyer Ahmad district is an endemic area for canine visceral leishmaniasis in Iran. PMID:23323094

  1. Role of histaminergic neurons in hypnotic modulation of brain processing of visceral perception.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, S; Hattori, T; Kanazawa, M; Kano, M; Fukudo, S

    2007-10-01

    Modulating visceral sensation of the body is important to the understanding of emotion formation. Molecules that act during hypnosis and modify visceral pain perception are not known. We tested our hypothesis that hypnotic suggestion changes electrophysiological processing of visceroafferent signals in the human brain and that these conditions are in part dependent on histaminergic neurons. Twelve healthy male subjects were studied on two separate days: a day of treatment with histamine H1 receptor antagonist (d-chlorpheniramine 100 microg kg(-1), intravenously) and another day of that with placebo (saline, the same amount) in a randomized order. We recorded cortical evoked potentials to 100 rectal electrical stimuli after neutral, hyperalgesic or analgesic hypnotic suggestions as given to modulate the visceral perception. Analgesic suggestion reduced the amplitude of the deepest positive peak of viscerosensory evoked potential. Administration of histamine H1 antagonist diminished the attenuation of viscerosensory evoked potential by analgesic suggestion. Our results suggest that central pain modulatory system in the brain is activated by hypnotic suggestion and that brain histamine is a mediator in the hypnotic modulation of visceral sensory pathway as well as in the control of consciousness level. These findings lead us to possible new treatment for control of visceral perception. PMID:17883434

  2. Rectal Visceral Sensitivity in Women with Irritable Bowel Syndrome without Psychiatric Comorbidity Compared with Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Spetalen, Signe; Sandvik, Leiv; Blomhoff, Svein; Jacobsen, Morten B.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Psychiatric comorbidity and visceral hypersensitivity are common in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but little is known about visceral sensitivity in IBS patients without psychiatric disorders. Aim. We wanted to examine rectal visceral sensitivity in IBS patients without comorbid psychiatric disorders, IBS patients with phobic anxiety and healthy volunteers. Methods. A total of thirty-eight female, non-constipated IBS patients without psychiatric disorders and eleven female IBS patients with phobic anxiety were compared to nine healthy women using a barostat double random staircase method. The non-psychiatric patients were divided into those with diarrhoea predominant symptoms and those with alternating stool habits. Results. The IBS patients without psychiatric disorders had normal visceral pressure thresholds. However, in the diarrhoea predominant subgroup, the volume discomfort threshold was reduced while it was unchanged in those with alternating stool habits. The phobic IBS patients had similar thresholds to the healthy volunteers. The rectal tone was increased in the non-psychiatric IBS patients with diarrhoea predominant symptoms and in the IBS patients with phobic anxiety. Conclusions. Non-constipated IBS patients without psychiatric disorders had increased visceral sensitivity regarding volume thresholds but normal pressure thresholds. Our study suggests that the lowered volume threshold was due to increased rectal tone. PMID:19789637

  3. Development of a Portable Training Tool for Simulating Visceral Angiographic Procedures for Beginners

    SciTech Connect

    Yamagami, Takuji; Osuga, Keigo; Yoshimatsu, Rika; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Miura, Hiroshi; Terayama, Koshi; Anai, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Masahide; Hasebe, Terumitsu; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2009-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a tool that we developed to simulate performance of visceral angiography to train beginners in the field of splanchnic angiography. Seven residents and two fellows who were rotating within the Division of Interventional Radiology at our institution between June and August 2008 participated in the evaluation of this tool. They had no experience in performing visceral angiography as an operator. Time for selection of arterial branches arising from the celiac axis on the model was measured before and after training. After such training, the participants performed actual visceral angiography as an operator with instructors beside them. Success of the trainees in selecting visceral arterial branches was evaluated in these real-life cases. In the first test using the model, seven of nine trainees (77.8%) succeeded in selecting all required arteries, while the remaining two failed to select all required arteries. After training using the model, all trainees succeeded in selecting all required arteries just before the actual angiographic study. In the actual angiography, the catheter was successfully inserted from the femoral artery and advanced to the superior mesenteric, celiac, splenic, common hepatic, gastroduodenal, and right and left hepatic arteries by all trainees with only two exceptions. In conclusion, this tool is helpful for training beginners in visceral angiographic procedures.

  4. Mechanisms Underlying the Analgesic Effect of Moxibustion on Visceral Pain in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Renjia; Zhao, Jimeng; Wu, Luyi; Dou, Chuanzi; Liu, Huirong; Weng, Zhijun; Shi, Yin; Zhou, Cili; Wu, Huangan

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder that causes recurrent abdominal (visceral) pain. Epidemiological data show that the incidence rate of IBS is as high as 25%. Most of the medications may lead to tolerance, addiction and toxic side effects. Moxibustion is an important component of traditional Chinese medicine and has been used to treat IBS-like abdominal pain for several thousand years in China. As a mild treatment, moxibustion has been widely applied in clinical treatment of visceral pain in IBS. In recent years, it has played an irreplaceable role in alternative medicine. Extensive clinical studies have demonstrated that moxibustion for treatment of visceral pain is simple, convenient, and inexpensive, and it is being accepted by an increasing number of patients. There have not been many studies investigating the analgesic mechanisms of moxibustion. Studies exploring the analgesic mechanisms have mainly focused on visceral hypersensitivity, brain-gut axis neuroendocrine system, and immune system. This paper reviews the latest developments in moxibustion use for treatment of visceral pain in IBS from these perspectives. It also evaluates potential problems in relevant studies on the mechanisms of moxibustion therapy to promote the application of moxibustion in the treatment of IBS. PMID:25093032

  5. The potential role of Piezo2 in the mediation of visceral sensation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Zhang, Jianna; Yang, Hongli; Li, Kun; Lei, Xiaofei; Xu, Changqing

    2016-09-01

    Piezo2 is an important mechano-gated ion channel that is involved in light touch sensitivity and inflammatory allodynia. However, current research has focused on the function of Piezo2 in somatic sensation but not in visceral sensation. The present study aimed to investigate the role of Piezo2 in visceral sensation of mechanically innocuous and noxious stimuli under physiological and hyperalgesic conditions using rats as a model organism. Neonatal enema with acetic acid induced visceral hypersensitivity. Intrathecal administration of Piezo2-short hairpin RNA (shRNA) reduced Piezo2 expression in lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia (DRG) at both the mRNA and protein levels. Piezo2 knock-down in DRG attenuated visceral sensation to innocuous stimuli in control rats and to both innocuous and noxious stimuli in rats with neonatal irritation. Compared with control rats, Piezo2 was not up-regulated in irritated rats at the mRNA or protein levels in thoracolumbar or lumbosacral DRGs, while TRPV1 was up-regulated in lumbosacral DRGs. These data suggest a potential role of Piezo2 in the mediation of visceral sensation. PMID:27481627

  6. Estrogen deficiency in ovariectomized rats: can resistance training re-establish angiogenesis in visceral adipose tissue?

    PubMed Central

    do Valle Gomes-Gatto, Camila; Duarte, Fernanda Oliveira; Stotzer, Uliana Sbeguen; Rodrigues, Maria Fernanda Cury; de Andrade Perez, Sérgio Eduardo; Selistre-de-Araujo, Heloisa Sobreiro

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance training on angiogenesis markers of visceral adipose tissue in ovariectomized rats. METHOD: Adult Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into four groups (n=6 per group): sham-sedentary, ovariectomized sedentary, sham-resistance training and ovariectomized resistance training. The rats were allowed to climb a 1.1-m vertical ladder with weights attached to their tails and the weights were progressively increased. Sessions were performed three times per week for 10 weeks. Visceral adipose tissue angiogenesis and morphology were analyzed by histology. VEGF-A mRNA and protein levels were analyzed by real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively. RESULTS: Ovariectomy resulted in higher body mass (p=0.0003), adipocyte hypertrophy (p=0.0003), decreased VEGF-A mRNA (p=0.0004) and protein levels (p=0.0009), and decreased micro-vascular density (p=0.0181) in the visceral adipose tissue of the rats. Resistance training for 10 weeks was not able to attenuate the reduced angiogenesis in the visceral adipose tissue of the ovariectomized rats. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that the resistance training program used in this study could not ameliorate low angiogenesis in the visceral adipose tissue of ovariectomized rats.

  7. Relation between visceral fat and carotid intimal media thickness in Mexican postmenopausal women: a preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Azpilcueta, Yessica Mireya Moreno; Ortiz, Sergio Rosales

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study To investigate the relationship between visceral fat and carotid IMT (intima media thickness) in Mexican postmenopausal women. Material and methods In 71 postmenopausal women divided in two groups: group 1, IMT > 1 mm and group 2, IMT ≤ 1 mm, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), waist hip ratio (WHR), visceral and subcutaneous fats and carotid IMT were analyzed. Descriptive statistics were used and the comparison among those with abnormal and normal IMT was carried out using Mann-Whitney U test; also Spearman's correlation analysis was done. Results When comparing group 1 (n = 9, 12.7%) with group 2 (n = 62, 87.3%), it was found that the subcutaneous fat, visceral fat and systolic blood pressure were significantly greater in group 1 (p < 0.018, p < 0.001 and p < 0.006, respectively), and also in this group there was a correlation between BMI and subcutaneous fat (ρ = 0.686, p < 0.041) and between visceral fat and the systolic blood pressure (ρ = 0.712, p < 0.031). In group 2, there was a correlation between IMT and diastolic blood pressure (ρ = 0.251, p < 0.049). Conclusion Subcutaneous and visceral fat have an unfavorable effect in the carotid IMT and in blood pressure. PMID:27582681

  8. Associations between prenatal nicotine exposure, oxidative stress, and postpartum visceral fat.

    PubMed

    Loy, See-Ling; Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the associations among prenatal nicotine exposure, oxidative stress, and postpartum visceral fat among women exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS). The study was conducted in Kelantan, Malaysia, from April 2010 to December 2012. Blood samples were collected in the second and third trimesters from 135 healthy pregnant women who were followed-up at delivery, 2 months, 6 months and 12 months postpartum. Maternal hair nicotine and oxidative stress markers during pregnancy were measured. Visceral fat was assessed by bioelectrical impedance. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that maternal hair nicotine concentration was associated with increased DNA damage (tail moment: β=0.580, p=0.001) and decreased glutathione peroxidase (β=-12.100; p=0.009) in the second trimester of pregnancy. Increased DNA damage, protein oxidation and total antioxidant capacity in the second trimester were associated with 2, 6, and 12 months postpartum visceral fat. No direct association was found between prenatal hair nicotine level and postpartum visceral fat; however, these results suggest that any relation of SHS to visceral adiposity may be indirect, mediated via enhanced oxidative stress. PMID:24329183

  9. Making an anti-amastigote vaccine for visceral leishmaniasis: rational, update and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Ana Paula; Coelho, Eduardo Antonio Ferraz; Machado-Coelho, George Luiz Lins; Grimaldi, Gabriel; Gazzinelli, Ricardo Tostes

    2012-08-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a major health problem in Latina America, as well as the Mediterranean region of Europe and Asia. We aimed to develop a vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis targeting the intracellular amastigotes, which is the parasite stage that persists throughout infections with Leishmania parasites. With this in mind, we identified an amastigote specific antigen (A2) that contains an immunogenic epitope for CD4+ T helper (Th) cells and multiple repetitive units encoding CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes. Vaccine formulations containing the recombinant A2 associated with saponin, alum and IL-12 or expressed by attenuated adenovirus were shown to be protective in mice, dogs and nonhuman-primates. We are currently identifying novel amastigote specific immunogenic proteins that could be aggregated to A2 to further improve the level of vaccine-induced cell-mediated immunity and protection against visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:22698479

  10. Utilization of meat industry by products: protein hydrolysate from sheep visceral mass.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar, N; Modi, V K; Govindaraju, K; Radha, C; Lalitha, R G

    2007-01-01

    Protein hydrolysate was prepared from pre-treated sheep visceral mass (including stomach, large and small intestines) by enzymatic treatment at 43+/-1 degrees C (at the in situ pH 7.1+/-0.2 of the visceral mass) using fungal protease. The enzyme readily solubilized the proteins of the visceral mass as indicated by the degree of hydrolysis (34%) and nitrogen recovery (>64%). Hydrolysis with an enzyme level of 1% (w/w of total solids) at 43+/-1 degrees C with a pH around 7.0 for 45 min was found to be the optimum condition. The yield of protein hydrolysate was about 6% (w/w). The amino acid composition of the protein hydrolysate that was very hygroscopic, was comparable to that of casein. PMID:16457999

  11. Visceral Leishmaniasis with an Unusual Presentation in an HIV Positive Patient

    PubMed Central

    Jawhar, Nazar M.T.

    2011-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a disease caused by a haemoflagellate protozoan of the genus Leishmania. It has a wide geographical spread. Classic cases are found primarily in children and present with typical features that include fever, anaemia, hepatosplenomegaly, hypergammaglobulinaemia, and pancytopenia. The diagnosis is usually achieved by bone marrow smears, culture and serology; however, it can manifest itself atypically, mostly in patients infected with HIV and geriatric immunocompetent patients. We report an unusual case of visceral leishmaniasis diagnosed in a 27 year-old HIV-infected male who presented with abdominal discomfort and diarrhoea of four weeks duration associated with nausea and vomiting, but with no typical symptoms or signs of visceral leishmaniasis. The diagnosis was established through the identification of the Leishmania organism in duodenal and colonic biopsies and confirmed by subsequent bone marrow smears. PMID:21969901

  12. Visceral Leishmaniasis with an Unusual Presentation in an HIV Positive Patient.

    PubMed

    Jawhar, Nazar M T

    2011-05-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a disease caused by a haemoflagellate protozoan of the genus Leishmania. It has a wide geographical spread. Classic cases are found primarily in children and present with typical features that include fever, anaemia, hepatosplenomegaly, hypergammaglobulinaemia, and pancytopenia. The diagnosis is usually achieved by bone marrow smears, culture and serology; however, it can manifest itself atypically, mostly in patients infected with HIV and geriatric immunocompetent patients. We report an unusual case of visceral leishmaniasis diagnosed in a 27 year-old HIV-infected male who presented with abdominal discomfort and diarrhoea of four weeks duration associated with nausea and vomiting, but with no typical symptoms or signs of visceral leishmaniasis. The diagnosis was established through the identification of the Leishmania organism in duodenal and colonic biopsies and confirmed by subsequent bone marrow smears. PMID:21969901

  13. Neonatal stress from limited bedding elicits visceral hyperalgesia in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yumei; Wang, Zhuo; Mayer, Emeran A; Holschneider, Daniel P

    2015-01-01

    Early life stress is a risk factor for developing functional pain disorders. The 'limited bedding' (LB) model elicits psychological stress in the dam and her pups by providing minimal nesting material following delivery. Little is known about the effects of LB on visceral pain. Rats (female, male) were exposed to LB on postnatal days 2-9. Electromyographic visceromotor responses were recorded at the age of 11-12 weeks during titrated colorectal distension. LB exposure resulted in significant visceral hyperalgesia in both sexes. Sex differences were demonstrated only in nonstressed controls, with females showing a greater visceromotor response. Our results prepare the way for use of the LB model in studying the development of visceral pain in adults with functional gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:25426824

  14. Amelioration of diet-induced diabetes mellitus by removal of visceral fat.

    PubMed

    Pitombo, Cid; Araújo, Eliana P; De Souza, Cláudio T; Pareja, José C; Geloneze, Bruno; Velloso, Lício A

    2006-12-01

    The effect of visceral fat removal upon glucose homeostasis, insulin signal transduction, and serum adipokine levels in an animal model of diet-induced obesity and diabetes mellitus (DIO) was evaluated. Swiss mice were initially divided into two groups fed with regular rodent chow or with chow containing 24 g% saturated fat (DIO). DIO mice became obese and overtly diabetic after 8 weeks. DIO mice were then divided into three groups: control, sham, and visceral (epididymal and perinephric) fat removal. All groups were submitted to evaluation of basal glucose and insulin levels and i.p. insulin tolerance test. Insulin signal transduction in muscle was evaluated by immunoprecipitation and immunoblot, and serum adipokine levels were determined by ELISA. DIO mice became diabetic (228 versus 115 mg/dl), hyperinsulinemic (7.59 versus 3.15 ng/ml) and insulin resistant (K(itt) 2.88 versus 4.97%/min) as compared with control. Visceral fat removal partially reverted all parameters (147 mg/dl glucose; 3.82 ng/ml insulin; and 4.20%/min K(itt)). In addition, visceral fat removal completely reversed the impairment of insulin signal transduction through insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1, IRS-2 and Akt in muscle. Finally, serum levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6 were significantly increased, while adiponectin levels were significantly reduced in DIO mice. After visceral fat removal the levels of adipokines returned to near control levels. The present study shows that removal of visceral fat improves insulin signal transduction and glucose homeostasis in an animal model of diet-induced obesity and diabetes mellitus and these metabolic and molecular outcomes are accompanied by the restoration of adipokine levels. PMID:17170226

  15. Stromal Cells Derived from Visceral and Obese Adipose Tissue Promote Growth of Ovarian Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Nowicka, Aleksandra; Solley, Travis N.; Wei, Caimiao; Parikh, Aaroh; Court, Laurence; Burks, Jared K.; Andreeff, Michael; Woodward, Wendy A.; Dadbin, Ali; Kolonin, Mikhail G.; Lu, Karen H.; Klopp, Ann H.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity, and in particular visceral obesity, has been associated with an increased risk of developing cancers as well as higher rates of mortality following diagnosis. The impact of obesity on adipose-derived stromal cells (ASC), which contribute to the formation of tumor stroma, is unknown. Here we hypothesized that visceral source and diet-induced obesity (DIO) changes the ASC phenotype, contributing to the tumor promoting effects of obesity. We found that ASC isolated from subcutaneous (SC-ASC) and visceral (V-ASC) white adipose tissue(WAT) of lean(Le) and obese(Ob) mice exhibited similar mesenchymal cell surface markers expression, and had comparable effects on ovarian cancer cell proliferation and migration. Obese and visceral derived ASC proliferated slower and exhibited impaired differentiation into adipocytes and osteocytes in vitro as compared to ASC derived from subcutaneous WAT of lean mice. Intraperitoneal co-injection of ovarian cancer cells with obese or visceral derived ASC, but not lean SC-ASC, increased growth of intraperitoneal ID8 tumors as compared to controls. Obese and V-ASC increased stromal infiltration of inflammatory cells, including CD3+ T cells and F4/80+ macrophages. Obese and visceral derived ASC, but not lean SC-ASC, increased expression of chemotactic factors IL-6, MIP-2, and MCP-1 when cultured with tumor cells. Overall, these results demonstrate that obese and V-ASC have a unique phenotype, with more limited proliferation and differentiation capacity but enhanced expression of chemotactic factors in response to malignant cells which support infiltration of inflammatory cells and support tumor growth and dissemination. PMID:26317219

  16. Chromosome localization analysis of genes strongly expressed in human visceral adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi-Sheng; Song, Huai-Dong; Shi, Wen-Jing; Hu, Ren-Ming; Han, Ze-Guang; Chen, Jia-Lun

    2002-06-01

    To understand fully the physiologic functions of visceral adipose tissue and to provide a basis for the identification of novel genes related to obesity and insulin resistance, the gene expression profiling of human visceral adipose tissue was established by using cDNA array. The characterization and chromosome localization of 400 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) strongly expressed in visceral adipose tissue were analyzed by searching PubMed, UniGene, the Human Genome Draft Database, and Location Data Base. Two hundred eighty-nine clones were classified into known genes among the 400 ESTs strongly expressed in the tissue. Among them, <20% have been previously reported to be expressed in adipose tissue. The chromosome localization of 389 ESTs strongly expressed in visceral adipose tissue showed that their relative abundance was significantly increased on chromosomes 1, 16, 19, 20, and 22 compared with the expected distribution of the same number of random genes. The intrachromosome distribution of the genes strongly expressed in visceral adipose tissue was concentrated in certain regions, such as 1p36.2-1p36.3, 6p21.3-6p22.1, 19p13.3 and 19q13.1. Among them, the region of 1p36.2-1p36.3 appeared to be specific for visceral adipose tissue. Interestingly, some genes playing an important role in the pathogenesis of insulin signal transduction and adipocyte differentiation, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and its receptors; CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteina; and phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit, polypeptide 2 (p85beta), were also localized in the concentrated regions, which may provide clues to identifying novel genes closely related to adipocyte function with potential pathophysiologic implications. PMID:12166625

  17. The effects of gabapentin in two animal models of co-morbid anxiety and visceral hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    O' Mahony, Siobhain M; Coelho, Anne-Marie; Fitzgerald, Patrick; Lee, Kevin; Winchester, Wendy; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2011-09-30

    Visceral hypersensitivity and an increased response to stress are two of the main symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Thus efforts to develop animal models of irritable bowel syndrome have centred on both of these parameters. The anticonvulsant gabapentin, which is widely used as an analgesic agent, also reduces anxiety. No data exists to our knowledge of the effects of gabapentin in animal models of co-morbid exaggerated stress response and visceral pain. Our aim was to assess the effect of gabapentin on stress and visceral hypersensitivity in two different animal models of irritable bowel syndrome. The animal models employed were the genetically susceptible Wistar Kyoto rat and the neonatally stressed maternal separation model. These animals were subjected to the open field paradigm to assess stress-induced defecation rates and colorectal distension to assess the level of visceral sensitivity. Gabapentin (30 mg/kg) prevented the stress-induced increase in faecal pellet output in the maternally separated rat, but not the Wistar Kyoto animals. On the other hand gabapentin (30 mg/kg) reduced the number of pain behaviours in response to colorectal distension in both models. These results show that whilst both models have similar responses to gabapentin in terms of visceral pain they differ in terms of their physiological response to stress. This indicates that the origin of anxiety and perhaps then visceral hypersensitivity differs in these models. Overall, these data suggest that gabapentin may be a useful treatment in disorders of co-morbid pain and an overactive stress system such as irritable bowel syndrome. PMID:21645509

  18. EXPRESS: Histone hyperacetylation modulates spinal type II metabotropic glutamate receptor alleviating stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity in female rats.

    PubMed

    Cao, Dong-Yuan; Bai, Guang; Ji, Yaping; Karpowicz, Jane M; Traub, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Stress is often a trigger to exacerbate chronic pain including visceral hypersensitivity associated with irritable bowel syndrome, a female predominant functional bowel disorder. Epigenetic mechanisms that mediate stress responses are a potential target to interfere with visceral pain. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a histone deacetylase inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, on visceral hypersensitivity induced by a subchronic stressor in female rats and to investigate the involvement of spinal glutamate receptors. Three daily sessions of forced swim induced visceral hypersensitivity. Intrathecal suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid prevented or reversed the stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity, increased spinal histone 3 acetylation and increased mGluR2 and mGluR3 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis revealed enrichment of H3K9Ac and H3K18Ac at several promoter Grm2 and Grm3 regions. The mGluR2/3 antagonist LY341495 reversed the inhibitory effect of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid on the stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity. In surprising contrast, stress and/or suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid had no effect on spinal NMDA receptor expression or function. These data reveal histone modification modulates mGluR2/3 expression in the spinal cord to attenuate stressinduced visceral hypersensitivity. HDAC inhibitors may provide a potential approach to relieve visceral hypersensitivity associated with irritable bowel syndrome. PMID:27385724

  19. Identification of a novel peptide ligand targeting visceral adipose tissue via transdermal route by in vivo phage display.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nam Kyung; Kim, Hong Shin; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Kim, Eun-Bae; Cho, Chong Su; Kang, Sang Kee; Choi, Yun Jaie

    2011-11-01

    To find novel peptide ligands targeting visceral adipose tissue (visceral fat) via transdermal route, in vivo phage display screening was conducted by dermal administration of a phage-peptide library to rats and a peptide sequence, CGLHPAFQC (designated as TDA1), was identified as a targeting ligand to visceral adipose tissue through the consecutive transdermal biopannings. Adipocyte-specific affinity and transdermal activity of the TDA1 were validated in vitro and targeting ability of the dermally administered TDA1 to visceral adipose tissue was also confirmed in vivo. TDA1 was effectively translocated into systemic circulation after dermal administration and selectively targeted visceral adipose tissue without any preference to other organs tested. Fluorescent microscopic analysis revealed that the TDA1 could be specifically localized in the hair follicles of the skin, as well as in the visceral adipose tissue. Thus, we inferred that dermally administered TDA1 would first access systemic circulation via hair follicles as its transdermal route and then could target visceral fat effectively. The overall results suggest that the TDA1 peptide could be potentially applied as a homing moiety for delivery of anti-obesity therapeutics to visceral fat through the convenient transdermal pathway. PMID:21999821

  20. Histone hyperacetylation modulates spinal type II metabotropic glutamate receptor alleviating stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Dong-Yuan; Bai, Guang; Ji, Yaping; Karpowicz, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Stress is often a trigger to exacerbate chronic pain including visceral hypersensitivity associated with irritable bowel syndrome, a female predominant functional bowel disorder. Epigenetic mechanisms that mediate stress responses are a potential target to interfere with visceral pain. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a histone deacetylase inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, on visceral hypersensitivity induced by a subchronic stressor in female rats and to investigate the involvement of spinal glutamate receptors. Three daily sessions of forced swim induced visceral hypersensitivity. Intrathecal suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid prevented or reversed the stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity, increased spinal histone 3 acetylation and increased mGluR2 and mGluR3 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis revealed enrichment of H3K9Ac and H3K18Ac at several promoter Grm2 and Grm3 regions. The mGluR2/3 antagonist LY341495 reversed the inhibitory effect of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid on the stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity. In surprising contrast, stress and/or suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid had no effect on spinal NMDA receptor expression or function. These data reveal histone modification modulates mGluR2/3 expression in the spinal cord to attenuate stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity. HDAC inhibitors may provide a potential approach to relieve visceral hypersensitivity associated with irritable bowel syndrome. PMID:27385724

  1. Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV Coinfection in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Lindoso, José Angelo; Cota, Gláucia Fernandes; da Cruz, Alda Maria; Goto, Hiro; Maia-Elkhoury, Ana Nilce Silveira; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra; de Sousa-Gomes, Márcia Leite; Santos-Oliveira, Joanna Reis; Rabello, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an endemic zoonotic disease in Latin America caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, which is transmitted by sand flies from the genus Lutzomyia. VL occurs in 12 countries of Latin America, with 96% of cases reported in Brazil. Recently, an increase in VL, primarily affecting children and young adults, has been observed in urban areas of Latin America. The area in which this spread of VL is occurring overlaps regions with individuals living with HIV, the number of whom is estimated to be 1.4 million people by the World Health Organization. This overlap is suggested to be a leading cause of the increased number of reported VL-HIV coinfections. The clinical progression of HIV and L. infantum infections are both highly dependent on the specific immune response of an individual. Furthermore, the impact on the immune system caused by either pathogen and by VL-HIV coinfection can contribute to an accelerated progression of the diseases. Clinical presentation of VL in HIV positive patients is similar to patients without HIV, with symptoms characterized by fever, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly, but diarrhea appears to be more common in coinfected patients. In addition, VL relapses are higher in coinfected patients, affecting 10% to 56.5% of cases and with a lethality ranging from 8.7% to 23.5% in Latin America, depending on the study. With regards to the diagnosis of VL, parasitological tests of bone marrow aspirates have proven to be the most sensitive test in HIV-infected patients. Serologic tests have demonstrated a variable sensitivity according to the method and antigens used, with the standard tests used for diagnosing VL in Latin America displaying lower sensitivity. For this review, few articles were identified that related to VL-HIV coinfections and originated from Latin America, highlighting the need for improving research within the regions most greatly affected. We strongly support the formation of a Latin American network for

  2. Analysis of Subcutaneous and Visceral Fat After Gastric Balloon Treatment

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Gustavo L.; de Melo, Rayssa A. B.; de Moura, Fernanda M.; Leite, Ana Paula D. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: This project is a continuation of a larger project entitled “Treatment with intragastric balloon (IGB) in patients with overweight and obesity in Recife” developed by Professor Dr. Gustavo Lopes de Carvalho. It is a project studying the effectiveness of treatment with IGB evaluating the loss of weight and body mass index and its impact on blood pressure, blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and fractions. It also assesses the lifestyle of patients studying whether treatment with IGB interferes in smoking, alcohol consumption, eating habits and physical exercises performed by patients. The present study added a larger project, the separate evaluation of the different types of abdominal fat—visceral fat and subcutaneous cell tissue fat — and was conducted to discover which of the 2 types of fat undergoes the greater reduction after IGB treatment. To measure these 2 types of fat, we used the ultrasonography technique, because it has been shown to be accurate and noninvasive. Methods: Twenty-five patients were evaluated before and after 6 months of IGB treatment. Results: The patients' ages ranged from 20 to 61 years, with 60% being 40 years of age or older. The majority (72%) were women. All variables (weight, body mass index [BMI], VF, and SCTF) showed a significant reduction (P < .05) in mean values after treatment. The difference was highest in the SCTF (17.5%) and ranged from an 11.4% to an 11.6% reduction in all other variables. The average loss of SCTF was highest among the patients who had lost up to 10.0% of their initial weight (19.2% for the ≤10.0% group vs 15.9% for the >10.0% group); however, the difference was not significant (P = .66). The average loss of VF was higher in the subgroup of patients who had lost >10.0% of their initial weight (16.2% vs 6.3%; P = .003). The Pearson correlation between the reductions in SCTF vs VF was negative, low, and nonsignificant (−0.17; P = .41). Conclusions: After 6

  3. Glycosylation of Erythrocyte Spectrin and Its Modification in Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, Sajal; Dutta, Devawati; Ghoshal, Angana; Mukhopadhyay, Sumi; Saha, Bibhuti; Sundar, Shyam; Jarmalavicius, Saulius; Forgber, Michael; Mandal, Chhabinath; Walden, Peter; Mandal, Chitra

    2011-01-01

    Using a lectin, Achatinin-H, having preferential specificity for glycoproteins with terminal 9-O-acetyl sialic acid derivatives linked in α2-6 linkages to subterminal N-acetylgalactosamine, eight distinct disease-associated 9-O-acetylated sialoglycoproteins was purified from erythrocytes of visceral leishmaniaisis (VL) patients (RBCVL). Analyses of tryptic fragments by mass spectrometry led to the identification of two high-molecular weight 9-O-acetylated sialoglycoproteins as human erythrocytic α- and β-spectrin. Total spectrin purified from erythrocytes of VL patients (spectrinVL) was reactive with Achatinin-H. Interestingly, along with two high molecular weight bands corresponding to α- and β-spectrin another low molecular weight 60 kDa band was observed. Total spectrin was also purified from normal human erythrocytes (spectrinN) and insignificant binding with Achatinin-H was demonstrated. Additionally, this 60 kDa fragment was totally absent in spectrinN. Although the presence of both N- and O-glycosylations was found both in spectrinN and spectrinVL, enhanced sialylation was predominantly induced in spectrinVL. Sialic acids accounted for approximately 1.25 kDa mass of the 60 kDa polypeptide. The demonstration of a few identified sialylated tryptic fragments of α- and β-spectrinVL confirmed the presence of terminal sialic acids. Molecular modelling studies of spectrin suggest that a sugar moiety can fit into the potential glycosylation sites. Interestingly, highly sialylated spectrinVL showed decreased binding with spectrin-depleted inside-out membrane vesicles of normal erythrocytes compared to spectrinN suggesting functional abnormality. Taken together this is the first report of glycosylated eythrocytic spectrin in normal erythrocytes and its enhanced sialylation in RBCVL. The enhanced sialylation of this cytoskeleton protein is possibly related to the fragmentation of spectrinVL as evidenced by the presence of an additional 60 kDa fragment, absent in

  4. Assessment of visceral pain associated with metritis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Stojkov, J; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Marchant-Forde, J N; Weary, D M

    2015-08-01

    Metritis is a common disease in dairy cattle, but to our knowledge, no work has assessed pain associated with this disease. Tissue palpation is commonly used to assess pain in human and veterinary medicine. The objective of this study was to evaluate visceral pain responses during rectal palpation, with and without uterine palpation, in healthy cows and in cows diagnosed with metritis. A total of 49 Holstein dairy cows (mean ± standard deviation parity of 2.8±1.8) were subjected to systematic health checks every 3 d after parturition for 21 d, scoring for vaginal discharge (0 to 4); 13 cows showed a discharge score ≥2 during at least 1 health check and were classified as metritic, whereas 29 cows were classified as healthy and showed no sign of this or any other disease (including mastitis and lameness). Back arch and heart rate variability before examination and during palpation were recorded using video and heart rate monitors. Back arch (cm(2)) on the day of diagnosis was greater in metritic versus healthy cows (1,034±72 vs. 612±48cm(2)), and greater during rectal palpation with uterine palpation versus rectal palpation without uterine palpation (869±45 vs. 777±45cm(2)). Heart rate frequency domain analysis showed that the low-frequency portion was higher in cows with metritis versus healthy cows (16.5±1.2 vs. 12.9±1.0). Time domain analysis showed that the standard deviation between normal to normal interbeat intervals and the root mean square of successive differences both decreased during rectal palpation with uterine palpation versus rectal palpation without uterine palpation (1.9±0.1 vs. 2.5±0.1 and 1.3±0.1 vs. 1.7±0.1, respectively). Together, these results indicate that the inflammation associated with metritis is painful, and that the pain response can be detected during rectal palpation with and without uterine palpation. Rectal palpation with uterine palpation appears to be more aversive than rectal palpation without uterine palpation

  5. Pathology and pathogenesis of disseminated visceral coccidiosis in cranes.

    PubMed

    Novilla, Meliton N; Carpenter, James W

    2004-06-01

    Disseminated visceral coccidiosis (DVC) caused by Eimeria spp. was recognized as a disease entity in captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) and whooping cranes (Grus americana) in the late 1970s. While most avian species of Eimeria inhabit the intestinal tract of its host, the crane eimerians, Eimeria reichenowi and Eimeria gruis, invade and multiply systemically and complete their development in both digestive and respiratory tracts. In DVC, cranes, especially chicks, may succumb to acute infections resulting in hepatitis, bronchopneumonia, myocarditis, splenitis, and enteritis. Cranes may also develop chronic, subclinical infections characterized by granulomatous nodules in various organs and tissues. This paper reviews the pathology and pathogenicity of natural and experimental DVC in sandhill and whooping cranes. Naturally infected birds appeared clinically normal, but progressive weakness, emaciation, greenish diarrhea, and recumbency before death were observed in birds administered doses > or = 10 x 10(3) sporulated oocysts per os. At necropsy, naturally infected birds had nodules in the mucosa of the oral cavity and the esophagus, and in thoracic and abdominal viscera. Experimentally infected birds necropsied less than 7 days after infection (a.i.) had no gross lesions. Birds examined later had hepatosplenomegaly, liver mottling, lung congestion and consolidation with frothy fluid in airways, and turgid intestinal tracts with hyperemic mucosa. From 28 days a.i., grossly visible granulomatous nodules were seen in the esophagus, heart, liver, cloaca, and eyelids. By light microscopy, the basic host response was a granulomatous inflammation with non-suppurative vasculitis affecting many organs and tissues. With time, multifocal aggregates of mononuclear cells, many laden with asexual coccidial stages, increased in size and number. Widespread merogony resulted in morbidity and death, particularly in birds administered 20 x 10(3) sporulated oocysts

  6. Neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius mediate the acupuncture analgesia in visceral pain rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kun; Gao, Xin-Yan; Li, Liang; Ben, Hui; Qin, Qing-Guang; Zhao, Yu-Xue; Zhu, Bing

    2014-12-01

    The study investigated the role of nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) neurons in electroacupuncture (EA) analgesia in colorectal distension (CRD) rats. NTS neurons responding to both CRD test and EA conditioning stimulations were considered somato-visceral convergent neurons. The neuronal activities evoked by graded CRD showed multiple firing patterns indicating multisynaptic connections. Some of the CRD excitatory neurons were inhibited by EA and vice versa. There was no discrepancy among different acupoints in inducing the changes of unit discharges. Conclusively, EA could regulate CRD related neurons in the NTS through polysynaptic cross-talk mechanism, which mediates EA analgesia on visceral pain in anesthetized rats. PMID:25204607

  7. Desvenlafaxine succinate ameliorates visceral hypersensitivity but delays solid gastric emptying in rats.

    PubMed

    Dai, Fei; Lei, Yong; Li, Shiying; Song, Gengqing; Chen, Jiande D Z

    2013-08-15

    Desvenlafaxine succinate (DVS) is a novel serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of DVS on visceral hypersensitivity and solid gastric emptying in a rodent model of gastric hyperalgesia. Twenty-eight gastric hyperalgesia rats and 20 control rats were used. Visceral sensitivity during gastric distention (GD) was assessed by recording of electromyogram (EMG) at pressures of 20, 40, 60, and 80 mmHg. DVS with doses of 1, 10, and 30 mg/kg were administrated by gavage, 5-HT1A antagonist (WAY-100635, 0.3 mg/kg) was given subcutaneously, and 5-HT2A antagonist (ketanserin, 1 mg/kg) was given intraperitoneally. The level of norepinephrine in plasma was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found that 1) visceral hypersensitivity induced by acetic acid was validated. 2) DVS dose-dependently reduced visceral hypersensitivity in the gastric hypersensitivity rats. The EMG (% of baseline value without GD) during GD at 60 and 80 mmHg with DVS at a dose of 30 mg/kg were 119.4 ± 2.3% (vs. saline 150.9 ± 2.7%, P < 0.001) and 128.2 ± 3.2% (vs. saline 171.1 ± 2.4%, P < 0.001). Similar findings were observed at a dose of 10 mg/kg. DVS at a dose of 1 mg/kg reduced visceral hypersensitivity only during GD at 60 mmHg. 3) Neither WAY-100635 nor ketanserin blocked the effect of DVS on visceral sensitivity. 4) DVS at 30 mg/kg significantly increased plasma NE level (P = 0.012 vs. saline). 5) DVS at 30 mg/kg significantly delayed solid gastric emptying (P < 0.05 vs. saline). We conclude that DVS reduces visceral sensitivity in a rodent model of visceral hypersensitivity and delays solid gastric emptying. Caution should be made when DVS is used for treating patients. PMID:23764892

  8. Familial visceral myopathy diagnosed by exome sequencing of a patient with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction.

    PubMed

    Holla, Oystein L; Bock, Gunter; Busk, Oyvind L; Isfoss, Björn Logi

    2014-06-01

    A 55-year-old woman with a history of bowel dysmotility presented with abdominal distension and peritonitis. Family history included premature deaths with intestinal symptomatology, suggesting autosomal dominant inheritance. Computed tomography showed a distended small bowel. Symptoms were alleviated by enterocutaneous stomas. Initial ileal biopsy suggested neuropathy; however, exome sequencing revealed an Arg148Ser mutation in the enteric smooth muscle actin gamma 2 (ACTG2) gene. Histological reassessment showed abnormal muscularis propria and smooth muscle actin, with the same findings in sibling, confirming familial visceral myopathy. Thus, noninvasive genomic analysis can provide early and specific diagnosis of familial visceral myopathy, which may help to avoid inappropriate surgery. PMID:24777424

  9. Constitutive adipocyte mTORC1 activation enhances mitochondrial activity and reduces visceral adiposity in mice.

    PubMed

    Magdalon, Juliana; Chimin, Patricia; Belchior, Thiago; Neves, Rodrigo X; Vieira-Lara, Marcel A; Andrade, Maynara L; Farias, Talita S; Bolsoni-Lopes, Andressa; Paschoal, Vivian A; Yamashita, Alex S; Kowaltowski, Alicia J; Festuccia, William T

    2016-05-01

    Mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) loss of function reduces adiposity whereas partial mTORC1 inhibition enhances fat deposition. Herein we evaluated how constitutive mTORC1 activation in adipocytes modulates adiposity in vivo. Mice with constitutive mTORC1 activation in adipocytes induced by tuberous sclerosis complex (Tsc)1 deletion and littermate controls were evaluated for body mass, energy expenditure, glucose and fatty acid metabolism, mitochondrial function, mRNA and protein contents. Adipocyte-specific Tsc1 deletion reduced visceral, but not subcutaneous, fat mass, as well as adipocyte number and diameter, phenotypes that were associated with increased lipolysis, UCP-1 content (browning) and mRNA levels of pro-browning transcriptional factors C/EBPβ and ERRα. Adipocyte Tsc1 deletion enhanced mitochondrial oxidative activity, fatty acid oxidation and the expression of PGC-1α and PPARα in both visceral and subcutaneous fat. In brown adipocytes, however, Tsc1 deletion did not affect UCP-1 content and basal respiration. Adipocyte Tsc1 deletion also reduced visceral adiposity and enhanced glucose tolerance, liver and muscle insulin signaling and adiponectin secretion in mice fed with purified low- or high-fat diet. In conclusion, adipocyte-specific Tsc1 deletion enhances mitochondrial activity, induces browning and reduces visceral adiposity in mice. PMID:26923434

  10. Childhood physical abuse predicts stressor-evoked activity within central visceral control regions.

    PubMed

    Banihashemi, Layla; Sheu, Lei K; Midei, Aimee J; Gianaros, Peter J

    2015-04-01

    Early life experience differentially shapes later stress reactivity, as evidenced by both animal and human studies. However, early experience-related changes in the function of central visceral neural circuits that control stress responses have not been well characterized, particularly in humans. The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), amygdala (Amyg) and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) form a core visceral stress-responsive circuit. The goal of this study is to examine how childhood emotional and physical abuse relates to adulthood stressor-evoked activity within these visceral brain regions. To evoke acute states of mental stress, participants (n = 155) performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-adapted versions of the multi-source interference task (MSIT) and the Stroop task with simultaneous monitoring of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate. Regression analyses revealed that childhood physical abuse correlated positively with stressor-evoked changes in MAP, and negatively with unbiased, a priori extractions of fMRI blood-oxygen level-dependent signal change values within the sgACC, BNST, PVN and Amyg (n = 138). Abuse-related changes in the function of visceral neural circuits may reflect neurobiological vulnerability to adverse health outcomes conferred by early adversity. PMID:24847113

  11. Alaska pollack protein prevents the accumulation of visceral fat in rats fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Yoshie; Dohmoto, Nobuhiko

    2009-04-01

    In the first study (Study 1), 4-wk-old Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were fed high fat diets containing casein, Alaska pollack, yellowfin tuna, or chicken as the protein source for 28 d. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of Alaska pollack protein with other animal proteins (casein, yellowfin tuna, and chicken) on the prevention of visceral fat accumulation. We found that Alaska pollack protein was a more potent inhibitor of visceral fat accumulation than the other proteins (p<0.05). In the second study (Study 2), we determined the quantity of Alaska pollack protein needed to have an effect. To test this, 4-wk-old SD rats were fed diets containing different percentages of Alaska pollack proteins (0, 3, 10, 30 or 100%) to replace casein as the protein source for 28 d. The diets with 30 or 100% Alaska pollack protein as the protein source prevented visceral fat accumulation and elevated plasma adiponectin levels. Based on these findings, an inhibitory effect on the accumulation of visceral fats can be achieved by consuming a diet in which 30% or more of the total protein content comes from Alaska pollack. PMID:19436142

  12. Childhood physical abuse predicts stressor-evoked activity within central visceral control regions

    PubMed Central

    Sheu, Lei K.; Midei, Aimee J.; Gianaros, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Early life experience differentially shapes later stress reactivity, as evidenced by both animal and human studies. However, early experience-related changes in the function of central visceral neural circuits that control stress responses have not been well characterized, particularly in humans. The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), amygdala (Amyg) and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) form a core visceral stress-responsive circuit. The goal of this study is to examine how childhood emotional and physical abuse relates to adulthood stressor-evoked activity within these visceral brain regions. To evoke acute states of mental stress, participants (n = 155) performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-adapted versions of the multi-source interference task (MSIT) and the Stroop task with simultaneous monitoring of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate. Regression analyses revealed that childhood physical abuse correlated positively with stressor-evoked changes in MAP, and negatively with unbiased, a priori extractions of fMRI blood-oxygen level-dependent signal change values within the sgACC, BNST, PVN and Amyg (n = 138). Abuse-related changes in the function of visceral neural circuits may reflect neurobiological vulnerability to adverse health outcomes conferred by early adversity. PMID:24847113

  13. Post-kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis Developing in Miltefosine-Treated Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Koley, Sankha; Mandal, Rajesh Kumar; Choudhary, Sanjiv; Bandyopadhyay, Arghya

    2013-01-01

    Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is an unusual dermatosis occurring following an attack of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). There are only few reports of PKDL after successful treatment with miltefosine. We report two cases of PKDL that developed after successful treatment of VL with miltefosine. PMID:23723490

  14. Plasmid-based gene transfer ameliorates visceral storage in a mouse model of Sandhoff disease.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Akira; Katsuyama, Kayoko; Suzuki, Kyoko; Kosaka, Kenji; Aoki, Ichiro; Yamanaka, Shoji

    2003-03-01

    Sandhoff disease is a severe neurodegenerative disorder with visceral involvement caused by mutations in the HEXB gene coding for the beta subunit of the lysosomal hexosaminidases A and B. HEXB mutations result in the accumulation of undegraded substrates such as GM2 and GA2 in lysosomes. We evaluated the efficacy of cationic liposome-mediated plasmid gene therapy using the Sandhoff disease mouse, an animal model of a human lysosomal storage disease. The mice received a single intravenous injection of two plasmids, encoding the human alpha and beta subunits of hexosaminidase cDNAs. As a result, 10-35% of normal levels of hexosaminidase expression, theoretically therapeutic levels, were achieved in most visceral organs, but not in the brain, 3 days after injection with decreased levels by day 7. Histochemical staining confirmed widespread enzyme activity in visceral organs. Both GA2 and GM2 were reduced by almost 10% and 50%, respectively, on day 3, and by 60% and 70% on day 7 compared with untreated age-matched Sandhoff disease mice. Consistent with the biochemical results, a reduction in GM2 was observed in liver cells histologically as well. These initial findings support further development of the plasmid gene therapy against lysosomal diseases with visceral pathology. PMID:12682727

  15. Visceral fat estimation method by bioelectrical impedance analysis and causal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Hiroshi; Tasaki, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Naoki; Hamaguchi, Takehiro; Shiga, Toshikazu

    2011-06-01

    It has been clarified that abdominal visceral fat accumulation is closely associated to the lifestyle disease and metabolic syndrome. The gold standard in medical fields is visceral fat area measured by an X-ray computer tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging. However, their measurements are high invasive and high cost; especially a CT scan causes X-ray exposure. They are the reasons why medical fields need an instrument for viscera fat measurement with low invasive, ease of use, and low cost. The article proposes a simple and practical method of visceral fat estimation by employing bioelectrical impedance analysis and causal analysis. In the method, abdominal shape and dual impedances of abdominal surface and body total are measured to estimate a visceral fat area based on the cause-effect structure. The structure is designed according to the nature of abdominal body composition to be fine-tuned by statistical analysis. The experiments were conducted to investigate the proposed model. 180 subjects were hired to be measured by both a CT scan and the proposed method. The acquired model explained the measurement principle well and the correlation coefficient is 0.88 with the CT scan measurements.

  16. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PORCINE VISCERAL ENDODERM CELL LINES DERIVED FROM IN VIVO 11-DAY BLASTOCYSTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two porcine cell lines of yolk-sac visceral endoderm, designated PE-1 and PE-2, were derived from in vivo 11-day porcine blastocysts that were either ovoid (PE-1) or at the early tubular stage of elongation (PE-2). Primary and secondary culture of cell lines was done on STO feeder cells. The PE-1 ...

  17. Visceral and subcutaneous adiposity measurements in adults: Influence of measurement site

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excess abdominal adiposity is a known risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Computed tomography can be used to examine the visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) components of abdominal adiposity, but it is unresolved whether single-slice or multi-slice protocols are needed. Nine computed tomograp...

  18. Pregnancy Complicated by Obesity Induces Global Transcript Expression Alterations in Visceral and Subcutaneous Fat

    PubMed Central

    Bashiri, Asher; Heo, Hye J.; Ben-Avraham, Danny; Mazor, Moshe; Budagov, Temuri; Einstein, Francine H.; Atzmon, Gil

    2014-01-01

    Maternal obesity is a significant risk factor for development of both maternal and fetal metabolic complications. Increase in visceral fat and insulin resistance is a metabolic hallmark of pregnancy, yet little is known how obesity alters adipose cellular function and how this may contribute to pregnancy morbidities. We sought to identify alterations in genome-wide transcription expression in both visceral (omental) and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits in pregnancy complicated by obesity. Visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits were collected from normal weight and obese pregnant women (n=4/group) at time of scheduled uncomplicated cesarean section. A genome-wide expression array (Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 st platform), validated by quantitative real-time PCR, was utilized to establish the gene transcript expression profile in both visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat in normal weight and obese pregnant women. Global alteration in gene expression was identified in pregnancy complicated by obesity. These regions of variations lead to identification of indolethylamine N-methyltransferase (INMT), tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2), and ephrin type-B receptor 6 (EPHB6), not previously associated with fat metabolism during pregnancy. In addition, subcutaneous fat of obese pregnant women demonstrated increased coding protein transcripts associated with apoptosis compared to lean counterparts. Global alteration of gene expression in adipose tissue may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with obesity. PMID:24696292

  19. Survey of feline visceral leishmaniasis in Azarshahr area, north west of Iran, 2013.

    PubMed

    Fatollahzadeh, Mohammad; Khanmohammadi, Majid; Bazmani, Ahad; Mirsamadi, Nasrin; Jafari, Rasool; Mohebali, Mehdi; Nemati, Taher; Fallah, Esmail

    2016-09-01

    Leishmania infantum is a causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis or kala-azar, which is endemic in some part of Iran. Azarshahr city located in East Azerbaijan province, North West of Iran, which is endemic for visceral leishmaniasis. This study aimed to investigate the possible reservoir role of cats for visceral leishmaniasis in the Azarshahr area. Totally 65 cats have been trapped alive from villages of Azarshahr county and their serum samples subjected to direct agglutination test (DAT) for L. infantum antibodies. Giemsa stained impression smears have been prepared for parasitological examination of spleen and liver tissue. Also liver and spleen samples of the cats have been cultured in Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle (NNN) medium and also used for PCR. None from 65 samples was positive in NNN culture, PCR and microscopic examination. Fifteen (23.07 %) out of 65 serum samples showed Leishmania specific antibody agglutination at 1:320 dilution or above, but all considered as negative because none of them confirmed by Giemsa stained smears, PCR and NNN culture. According to the findings of the present study, cats are not a reservoir for visceral leishmaniasis in the Azarshahr area. PMID:27605767

  20. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) bioassay for visceral toxicosis of catfish and botulinum neurotoxin serotype E

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Visceral toxicosis of catfish (VTC), a sporadic disease of cultured channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) often with high mortality, is caused by botulinum neurotoxin serotype E (BoNT/E). Presumptive diagnosis of VTC is based on characteristic clinical signs and lesions, and the production of these ...

  1. Leishmania infection in a population of dogs: an epidemiological investigation relating to visceral leishmaniasis control.

    PubMed

    Penaforte, Klauber Menezes; Belo, Vinícius Silva; Teixeira-Neto, Rafael Gonçalves; Ribeiro, Renata Aparecida Nascimento; de Oliveira, Robson Bruniera; Schettini, Dante Alighieri; da Silva, Eduardo Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Identification of factors associated with Leishmania infection in dogs is essential for targeting visceral leishmaniasis control actions. Thus, the present study analyzed some of these factors in a population of dogs in a Brazilian municipality, along with the limitations of control strategies implemented there. The association between the exposure variables and occurrences of infection was analyzed through logistic regression models. The disease control interventions were treated qualitatively. Out of the 755 animals examined, 13.6% (103/755) were seropositive. Of these, 23.3% (24/103) were asymptomatic and 76.7% (79/103) presented at least one clinical sign possibly associated with visceral leishmaniasis. With weak associations, purebred, shorthaired, over 5 years of age, male and large dogs were more prone to infection. The latter two variables formed the final regression model and the association with dog size was statistically significant. The control strategies developed presented limitations and a great number of seronegative dogs was culled. The data presented contribute towards better understanding of the dynamics of infection in canine visceral leishmaniasis and indicate that actions aimed towards adequate implementation of Visceral Leishmaniasis control program in Brazilian endemic areas should be prioritized. PMID:24473887

  2. Effect of preemptive ketamine administration on postoperative visceral pain after gynecological laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hong-Qi; Jia, Dong-Lin

    2016-08-01

    The pain following gynecological laparoscopic surgery is less intense than that following open surgery; however, patients often experience visceral pain after the former surgery. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of preemptive ketamine on visceral pain in patients undergoing gynecological laparoscopic surgery. Ninety patients undergoing gynecological laparoscopic surgery were randomly assigned to one of three groups. Group 1 received placebo. Group 2 was intravenously injected with preincisional saline and local infiltration with 20 mL ropivacaine (4 mg/mL) at the end of surgery. Group 3 was intravenously injected with preincisional ketamine (0.3 mg/kg) and local infiltration with 20 mL ropivacaine (4 mg/mL) at the end of surgery. A standard anesthetic was used for all patients, and meperidine was used for postoperative analgesia. The visual analogue scale (VAS) scores for incisional and visceral pain at 2, 6, 12, and 24 h, cumulative analgesic consumption and time until first analgesic medication request, and adverse effects were recorded postoperatively. The VAS scores of visceral pain in group 3 were significantly lower than those in group 2 and group 1 at 2 h and 6 h postoperatively (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). At 2 h and 6 h, the VAS scores of incisional pain did not differ significantly between groups 2 and 3, but they were significantly lower than those in group 1 (P<0.01). Groups 1 and 2 did not show any differences in visceral pain scores at 2 h and 6 h postoperatively. Moreover, the three groups showed no statistically significant differences in visceral and incisional pain scores at 12 h and 24 h postoperatively. The consumption of analgesics was significantly greater in group 1 than in groups 2 and 3, and the time to first request for analgesics was significantly longer in groups 2 and 3 than in group 1, with no statistically significant difference between groups 2 and 3. However, the three groups showed no significant difference

  3. Interleukin-1β sensitizes abdominal visceral afferents of cats to ischaemia and histamine

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Liang-Wu; Longhurst, John C

    1999-01-01

    Activation of abdominal splanchnic visceral afferents during mesenteric ischaemia induces visceral pain and evokes excitatory cardiovascular responses. Previous studies have shown that interleukin-1β (IL-1β) concentration is increased locally in tissues during ischaemia and reperfusion. Local administration of IL-1β sensitizes somatic afferents to mechanical, thermal and chemical stimulation. Therefore, we hypothesized that IL-1β stimulates or sensitizes splanchnic visceral afferents to ischaemia and to the action of chemical stimuli such as histamine. The concentration of IL-1β in mesenteric lymph and portal venous plasma in anaesthetized cats was measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay before, during and after 10 min of abdominal ischaemia. The level of IL-1β was significantly increased during ischaemia in lymph, but not in plasma. Discharge activity of single-unit abdominal visceral C fibre afferents was measured from the right thoracic sympathetic chain. Ischaemically sensitive C fibre afferents were identified according to their response to 5–10 min of abdominal ischaemia. Intra-arterial (i.a.) injection of a high dose of IL-1β (500 ng kg−1), but not of a lower dose (i.e. 15, 50 or 150 ng kg−1), stimulated most (six of seven) abdominal visceral afferents. IL-1β (15 ng kg−1, i.a.) significantly enhanced the increased activity of 11 of 13 C fibre afferents during 10 min of ischaemia. Conversely, an IL-1 type I receptor antagonist (IL-1ra, 1·5 μg kg−1, i.a.) significantly attenuated the increased activity in six of seven other C fibre afferents during ischaemia. IL-1β (15 ng kg−1, i.a.) significantly augmented the responses of 13 of 16 ischaemically sensitive abdominal afferents to histamine (5–10 μg kg−1, i.a.). Conversely, IL-1ra (1·5 μg kg−1, i.a.) significantly attenuated the responses of five of six other C fibre afferents to histamine. These data strongly suggest that stimulation of IL-1 type I receptors by IL-1

  4. Analgesic effect of minocycline in rat model of inflammation-induced visceral pain.

    PubMed

    Kannampalli, Pradeep; Pochiraju, Soumya; Bruckert, Mitchell; Shaker, Reza; Banerjee, Banani; Sengupta, Jyoti N

    2014-03-15

    The present study investigates the analgesic effect of minocycline, a semi-synthetic tetracycline antibiotic, in a rat model of inflammation-induced visceral pain. Inflammation was induced in male rats by intracolonic administration of tri-nitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS). Visceral hyperalgesia was assessed by comparing the viscero-motor response (VMR) to graded colorectal distension (CRD) prior and post 7 days after TNBS treatment. Electrophysiology recordings from CRD-sensitive pelvic nerve afferents (PNA) and lumbo-sacral (LS) spinal neurons were performed in naïve and inflamed rats. Colonic inflammation produced visceral hyperalgesia characterized by increase in the VMRs to CRD accompanied with simultaneous activation of microglia in the spinal cord and satellite glial cells (SGCs) in the dorsal root ganglions (DRGs). Selectively inhibiting the glial activation following inflammation by araC (Arabinofuranosyl Cytidine) prevented the development of visceral hyperalgesia. Intrathecal minocycline significantly attenuated the VMR to CRD in inflamed rats, whereas systemic minocycline produced a delayed effect. In electrophysiology experiments, minocycline significantly attenuated the mechanotransduction of CRD-sensitive PNAs and the responses of CRD-sensitive LS spinal neurons in TNBS-treated rats. While the spinal effect of minocycline was observed within 5min of administration, systemic injection of the drug produced a delayed effect (60min) in inflamed rats. Interestingly, minocycline did not exhibit analgesic effect in naïve, non-inflamed rats. The results demonstrate that intrathecal injection of minocycline can effectively attenuate inflammation-induced visceral hyperalgesia. Minocycline might as well act on neuronal targets in the spinal cord of inflamed rats, in addition to the widely reported glial inhibitory action to produce analgesia. PMID:24485889

  5. Are visceral proteins valid markers for nutritional status in the burn intensive care unit?

    PubMed

    Shields, Beth A; Pidcoke, Heather F; Chung, Kevin K; Wade, Charles E; Martini, Wenjun Z; Renz, Evan M; Wolf, Steven E

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether visceral protein levels increase under positive nitrogen balance during times of decrease in acute-phase reactant levels in patients with burn injury. This was a post hoc analysis of a prospective, interventional study approved by the local institutional review board. A total of 10 subjects between the ages of 18 and 72 with ≥ 20% total body surface area burn were enrolled over a 14-month period. Data were collected for five subjects (average age of 28 ± 8 years and total body surface area burn of 69 ± 15%) who met the inclusion criteria. Changes in visceral protein levels were examined along with nitrogen balance and acute-phase reactants when the subjects were on enteral nutrition, and the proteins were not examined during times of acute kidney injury. Descriptive statistics were performed, and linear regression was used to analyze the association of visceral proteins and nitrogen balance during times that acute-phase reactant levels were decreasing. The subjects received an average of 3044 ± 1613 kcal/day (39 ± 20 kcal/kg), meeting 72% of caloric goals and achieving positive nitrogen balance during 68% of the 40 weekly measurements, with 174 ± 85 g of protein intake per day (2.2 ± 1.1 g/kg). There was a weak relationship between nitrogen balance and changes in visceral protein levels during times that the acute-phase reactant levels were decreasing (P > .05). Visceral proteins were found to be poor markers of nutritional status. This study is unique because the subjects were able to achieve positive nitrogen balance despite severe burns. PMID:25055006

  6. Evaluation of the Accuracy of Anthropometric Clinical Indicators of Visceral Fat in Adults and Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Roriz, Anna Karla Carneiro; Passos, Luiz Carlos Santana; de Oliveira, Carolina Cunha; Eickemberg, Michaela; Moreira, Pricilla de Almeida; Sampaio, Lílian Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Background Visceral obesity is associated with higher occurrence of cardiovascular events. There are few studies about the accuracy of anthropometric clinical indicators, using Computed Tomography (CT) as the gold standard. We aimed to determine the accuracy of anthropometric clinical indicators for discrimination of visceral obesity. Methods Cross-sectional study with 191 adults and elderly of both sexes. Variables: area of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) identified by CT, Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR), Conicity index (C index), Lipid Accumulation Product (LAP) and Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI). ROC analyzes. Results There were a strong correlation between adiposity indicators and VAT area. Higher accuracy of C index and WHtR (AUC≥0.81) than the LAP and the VAI was observed. The higher AUC of LAP and VAI were observed among elderly with areas of 0.88 (CI: 0.766–0.944) and 0.83 (CI: 0.705–0.955) in men and 0.80 (CI: 0.672–0.930) and 0.71 (CI: 0.566–0.856) in women, respectively. The cutoffs of C index were 1.30 in elderly, in both sexes, with sensitivity ≥92%, the LAP ranged from 26.4 to 37.4 in men and from 40.6 to 44.0 in women and the VAI was 1.24 to 1.45 (sens≥76.9%) in men and 1.46 to 1.84 in women. Conclusion Both the anthropometric indicators, C Index and WHtR, as well as LAP and VAI had high accuracy in visceral obesity discrimination. So, they are effective in cardiovascular risk assessment and in the follow-up for individual and collective clinical practice. PMID:25078454

  7. Analgesic effect of Minocycline in rat model of inflammation-induced visceral pain

    PubMed Central

    Kannampalli, Pradeep; Pochiraju, Soumya; Bruckert, Mitchell; Shaker, Reza; Banerjee, Banani; Sengupta, Jyoti N.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the analgesic effect of minocycline, a semi-synthetic tetracycline antibiotic, in a rat model of inflammation-induced visceral pain. Inflammation was induced in male rats by intracolonic administration of tri-nitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS). Visceral hyperalgesia was assessed by comparing the viscero-motor response (VMR) to graded colorectal distension (CRD) prior and post 7 days after TNBS treatment. Electrophysiology recordings from CRD-sensitive pelvic nerve afferents (PNA) and lumbo-sacral (LS) spinal neurons were performed in naïve and inflamed rats. Colonic inflammation produced visceral hyperalgesia characterized by increase in the VMRs to CRD accompanied with simultaneous activation of microglia in the spinal cord and satellite glial cells (SGCs) in the dorsal root ganglions (DRGs). Selectively inhibiting the glial activation following inflammation by araC (Arabinofuranosyl Cytidine) prevented the development of visceral hyperalgesia. Intrathecal minocycline significantly attenuated the VMR to CRD in inflamed rats, whereas systemic minocycline produced a delayed effect. In electrophysiology experiments, minocycline significantly attenuated the mechanotransduction of CRD-sensitive PNAs and the responses of CRD-sensitive LS spinal neurons in TNBS-treated rats. While the spinal effect of minocycline was observed within 5 min of administration, systemic injection of the drug produced a delayed effect (60 min) in inflamed rats. Interestingly, minocycline did not exhibit analgesic effect in naïve, non-inflamed rats. The results demonstrate that intrathecal injection of minocycline can effectively attenuate inflammation-induced visceral hyperalgesia. Minocycline might as well act on neuronal targets in the spinal cord of inflamed rats, in addition to the widely reported glial inhibitory action to produce analgesia. PMID:24485889

  8. Hypoxia Promotes the Inflammatory Response and Stemness Features in Visceral Fat Stem Cells From Obese Subjects.

    PubMed

    Petrangeli, Elisa; Coroniti, Giuseppe; Brini, Anna T; de Girolamo, Laura; Stanco, Deborah; Niada, Stefania; Silecchia, Gianfranco; Morgante, Emanuela; Lubrano, Carla; Russo, Matteo A; Salvatori, Luisa

    2016-03-01

    Low-grade chronic inflammation is a salient feature of obesity and many associated disorders. This condition frequently occurs in central obesity and is connected to alterations of the visceral adipose tissue (AT) microenvironment. Understanding how obesity is related to inflammation may allow the development of therapeutics aimed at improving metabolic parameters in obese patients. To achieve this aim, we compared the features of two subpopulations of adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) isolated from both subcutaneous and visceral AT of obese patients with the features of two subpopulations of ASC from the same isolation sites of non-obese individuals. In particular, the behavior of ASC of obese versus non-obese subjects during hypoxia, which occurs in obese AT and is an inducer of the inflammatory response, was evaluated. Obesity deeply influenced ASC from visceral AT (obV-ASC); these cells appeared to exhibit clearly distinguishable morphology and ultrastructure as well as reduced proliferation, clonogenicity and expression of stemness, differentiation and inflammation-related genes. These cells also exhibited a deregulated response to hypoxia, which induced strong tissue-specific NF-kB activation and an NF-kB-mediated increase in inflammatory and fibrogenic responses. Moreover, obV-ASC, which showed a less stem-like phenotype, recovered stemness features after hypoxia. Our findings demonstrated the peculiar behavior of obV-ASC, their influence on the obese visceral AT microenvironment and the therapeutic potential of NF-kB inhibitors. These novel findings suggest that the deregulated hyper-responsiveness to hypoxic stimulus of ASC from visceral AT of obese subjects may contribute via paracrine mechanisms to low-grade chronic inflammation, which has been implicated in obesity-related morbidity. PMID:26224080

  9. Development of automated quantification of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes from abdominal CT scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mensink, Sanne D.; Spliethoff, Jarich W.; Belder, Ruben; Klaase, Joost M.; Bezooijen, Roland; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2011-03-01

    This contribution describes a novel algorithm for the automated quantification of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes from abdominal CT scans of patients referred for colorectal resection. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes can accurately be measured with errors of 1.2 and 0.5%, respectively. Also the reproducibility of CT measurements is good; a disadvantage is the amount of radiation. In this study the diagnostic CT scans in the work - up of (colorectal) cancer were used. This implied no extra radiation. For the purpose of segmentation alone, a low dose protocol can be applied. Obesity is a well known risk factor for complications in and after surgery. Body Mass Index (BMI) is a widely accepted indicator of obesity, but it is not specific for risk assessment of colorectal surgery. We report on an automated method to quantify visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes as a basic step in a clinical research project concerning preoperative risk assessment. The outcomes are to be correlated with the surgery results. The hypothesis is that the balance between visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue together with the presence of calcifications in the major bloodvessels, is a predictive indicator for post - operatieve complications such as anastomotic leak. We start with four different computer simulated humanoid abdominal volumes with tissue values in the appropriate Hounsfield range at different dose levels. With satisfactory numerical results for this test, we have applied the algorithm on over a 100 patient scans and have compared results with manual segmentations by an expert for a smaller pilot group. The results are within a 5% difference. Compared to other studies reported in the literature, reliable values are obtained for visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue areas.

  10. Clinical significance of visceral adiposity assessed by computed tomography: A Japanese perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ryo, Miwa; Kishida, Ken; Nakamura, Tadashi; Yoshizumi, Tohru; Funahashi, Tohru; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal obesity, rather than total amount of fat, is linked to obesity-related disorders. Visceral adiposity is an important component of obesity-related disorders in Japanese individuals with a mild degree of adiposity compared with Western subjects. In 1983, our group reported techniques for body fat analysis using computed tomography (CT) and established the concept of visceral fat obesity in which intra-abdominal fat accumulation is an important factor in the development of obesity-related complications, such as diabetes, lipid disorders, hypertension and atherosclerosis. Our group also established ideal imaging conditions for determining abdominal fat area at the umbilical level CT scan. Visceral fat area (VFA) measured in a single slice at L4 level correlated significantly with the total abdominal visceral fat volume measured on multislice CT scan. In a large-scale study of a Japanese population, the mean number of obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterolemia and/or hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperglycemia) was greater than 1.0 at 100 cm2 of VFA, irrespective of gender, age and body mass index. Our group also demonstrated that reduction of visceral fat accumulation subsequent to voluntary lifestyle modification, “Hokenshido”, correlated with a decrease in the number of obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors. It is important to select the most appropriate subjects from the general population (e.g., non-obese subjects with a cluster of risk factors for the metabolic syndrome) that are most suitable for body weight reduction, with the goal of preventing atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25071881

  11. Regional Differences in the Cellular Immune Response to Experimental Cutaneous or Visceral Infection with Leishmania donovani

    PubMed Central

    Melby, Peter C.; Yang, Yan-Zhu; Cheng, Jun; Zhao, Weiguo

    1998-01-01

    Infection with the protozoan Leishmania donovani can cause serious visceral disease or subclinical infection in humans. To better understand the pathogenesis of this dichotomy, we have investigated the host cellular immune response to cutaneous or visceral infection in a murine model. Mice infected in the skin developed no detectable visceral parasitism, whereas intravenous inoculation resulted in hepatosplenomegaly and an increasing visceral parasite burden. Spleen cells from mice with locally controlled cutaneous infection showed strong parasite-specific proliferative and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) responses, but spleen cells from systemically infected mice were unresponsive to parasite antigens. The in situ expression of IFN-γ, interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-10, IL-12, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNAs was determined in the spleen, draining lymph node (LN), and cutaneous site of inoculation. There was considerably greater expression of IFN-γ and IL-12 p40 mRNAs in the LN draining a locally controlled cutaneous infection than in the spleen following systemic infection. Similarly, there was a high level of IFN-γ production by LN cells following subcutaneous infection but no IFN-γ production by spleen cells following systemic infection. Splenic IL-4 expression was transiently increased early after systemic infection, but splenic IL-10 transcripts increased throughout the course of visceral infection. IL-4 and IL-10 mRNAs were also increased in the LN following cutaneous infection. iNOS mRNA was detected earlier in the LN draining a cutaneous site of infection compared to the spleen following systemic challenge. Thus, locally controlled cutaneous infection was associated with antigen-specific spleen cell responsiveness and markedly increased levels of IFN-γ, IL-12, and iNOS mRNA in the draining LN. Progressive splenic parasitism was associated with an early IL-4 response, markedly increased IL-10 but minimal IL-12 expression, and delayed expression of i

  12. Strain-dependent variations in visceral sensitivity: relationship to stress, anxiety and spinal glutamate transporter expression.

    PubMed

    Moloney, R D; Dinan, T G; Cryan, J F

    2015-04-01

    Responses to painful stimuli differ between populations, ethnic groups, sexes and even among individuals of a family. However, data regarding visceral pain are still lacking. Thus, we investigated differences in visceral nociception across inbred and outbred mouse strains using colorectal distension. Anxiety and depression-like behaviour were assessed using the open field and forced swim test as well as the corticosterone stress response. Possible mechanistic targets [excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT-1), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and 5HT1A receptor] were also assessed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Adult, male, inbred and outbred mouse strains were used in all assays (inbred strains; CBA/J Hsd, C3H/HeNHsd, BALB/c OlaHsd, C57 BL/6JOlaHsd, DBA/2J RccHsd, CAST/EiJ, SM/J, A/J OlaHsd, 129P2/OlaHsd, FVB/NHan Hsd and outbred strains: Swiss Webster, CD-1). mRNA expression levels of EAAT-1, BDNF and 5HT1A receptor (HTR1A) were quantified in the lumbosacral spinal cord, amygdala and hippocampus. A significant effect of strain was found in visceral sensitivity, anxiety and depressive-like behaviours. Strain differences were also seen in both baseline and stress-induced corticosterone levels. CBA/J mice consistently exhibited heightened visceral sensitivity, anxiety behaviour and depression-like behaviour which were associated with decreased spinal EAAT-1 and hippocampal BDNF and HTR1A. Our results show the CBA/J mouse strain as a novel mouse model to unravel the complex mechanisms of brain-gut axis disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome, in particular the underlying mechanisms of visceral hypersensitivity, for which there is great need. Furthermore, this study highlights the importance of genotype and the consequences for future development of transgenic strains in pain research. PMID:25851919

  13. Dietary Stearic Acid Leads to a Reduction of Visceral Adipose Tissue in Athymic Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Siegal, Gene P.; Desmond, Renee; Hardy, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Stearic acid (C18:0) is a long chain dietary saturated fatty acid that has been shown to reduce metastatic tumor burden. Based on preliminary observations and the growing evidence that visceral fat is related to metastasis and decreased survival, we hypothesized that dietary stearic acid may reduce visceral fat. Athymic nude mice, which are used in models of human breast cancer metastasis, were fed a stearic acid, linoleic acid (safflower oil), or oleic acid (corn oil) enriched diet or a low fat diet ad libitum. Total body weight did not differ significantly between dietary groups over the course of the experiment. However visceral fat was reduced by ∼70% in the stearic acid fed group compared to other diets. In contrast total body fat was only slightly reduced in the stearic acid diet fed mice when measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and quantitative magnetic resonance. Lean body mass was increased in the stearic acid fed group compared to all other groups by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary stearic acid significantly reduced serum glucose compared to all other diets and increased monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) compared to the low fat control. The low fat control diet had increased serum leptin compared to all other diets. To investigate possible mechanisms whereby stearic acid reduced visceral fat we used 3T3L1 fibroblasts/preadipocytes. Stearic acid had no direct effects on the process of differentiation or on the viability of mature adipocytes. However, unlike oleic acid and linoleic acid, stearic acid caused increased apoptosis (programmed cell death) and cytotoxicity in preadipocytes. The apoptosis was, at least in part, due to increased caspase-3 activity and was associated with decreased cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2 (cIAP2) and increased Bax gene expression. In conclusion, dietary stearic acid leads to dramatically reduced visceral fat likely by causing the apoptosis of preadipocytes. PMID:25222131

  14. Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) analysis of sera from visceral leishmaniasis patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Visceral leishmaniasis is a parasitic infection caused by Lesihmania donovani complex and transmitted by the bite of the phlebotomine sand fly. It is an endemic disease in many developing countries with more than 90% of the cases occurring in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Sudan, Ethiopia and Brazil. The disease is fatal if untreated. The disease is conventionally diagnosed by demonstrating the intracellular parasite in bone marrow or splenic aspirates. This study was carried out to discover differentially expressed proteins which could be potential biomarkers. Methods Sera from six visceral leishmaniasis patients and six healthy controls were depleted of high abundant proteins by immunodepletion. The depleted sera were compared by 2-D Difference in gel electrophoresis (DIGE). Differentially expressed proteins were identified the by tandem mass spectrometry. Three of the identified proteins were further validated by western blotting. Results This is the first report of serum proteomics study using quantitative Difference in gel electrophoresis (DIGE) in visceral leishmaniasis. We identified alpha-1-acidglycoprotein and C1 inhibitor as up regulated and transthyretin, retinol binding protein and apolipoprotein A-I as down regulated proteins in visceral leishmaniasis sera in comparison with healthy controls. Western blot validation of C1 inhibitor, transthyretin and apolipoprotein A-I in a larger cohort (n = 29) confirmed significant difference in the expression levels (p < 0.05). Conclusions In conclusion, DIGE based proteomic analysis showed that several proteins are differentially expressed in the sera of visceral leishmaniasis. The five proteins identified here have potential, either independently or in combination, as prognostic biomarkers. PMID:21906353

  15. Visceral hypersensitive rats share common dysbiosis features with irritable bowel syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiao-Yan; Li, Ming; Li, Xia; Long, Xin; Zuo, Xiu-Li; Hou, Xiao-Hua; Cong, Ying-Zi; Li, Yan-Qing

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate gut microbial dysbiosis in two visceral hypersensitive models in comparison with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients and to explore the extent to which these models capture the dysbiosis of IBS patients. METHODS: Visceral hypersensitivity was developed using the maternal separation (MS) rat model and post-inflammatory rat model. The visceral sensitivity of the model groups and control group was evaluated using the abdominal withdraw reflex score and electromyography in response to graded colorectal distention. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene from fecal samples was pyrosequenced and analyzed. The correlation between dysbiosis in the microbiota and visceral hypersensitivity was calculated. Positive findings were compared to sequencing data from a published human IBS cohort. RESULTS: Dysbiosis triggered by neonatal maternal separation was lasting but not static. Both MS and post-inflammatory rat fecal microbiota deviated from that of the control rats to an extent that was larger than the co-housing effect. Two short chain fatty acid producing genera, Fusobacterium and Clostridium XI, were shared by the human IBS cohort and by the maternal separation rats and post-inflammatory rats, respectively, to different extents. Fusobacterium was significantly increased in the MS group, and its abundance positively correlated with the degree of visceral hypersensitivity. Porphyromonadaceae was a protective biomarker for both the rat control group and healthy human controls. CONCLUSION: The dysbiosis MS rat model and the post-inflammatory rat model captured some of the dysbiosis features of IBS patients. Fusobacterium, Clostridium XI and Porphyromonadaceae were identified as targets for future mechanistic research. PMID:27298564

  16. Dietary stearic acid leads to a reduction of visceral adipose tissue in athymic nude mice.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ming-Che; Zhao, Xiangmin; Siegal, Gene P; Desmond, Renee; Hardy, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    Stearic acid (C18:0) is a long chain dietary saturated fatty acid that has been shown to reduce metastatic tumor burden. Based on preliminary observations and the growing evidence that visceral fat is related to metastasis and decreased survival, we hypothesized that dietary stearic acid may reduce visceral fat. Athymic nude mice, which are used in models of human breast cancer metastasis, were fed a stearic acid, linoleic acid (safflower oil), or oleic acid (corn oil) enriched diet or a low fat diet ad libitum. Total body weight did not differ significantly between dietary groups over the course of the experiment. However visceral fat was reduced by ∼70% in the stearic acid fed group compared to other diets. In contrast total body fat was only slightly reduced in the stearic acid diet fed mice when measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and quantitative magnetic resonance. Lean body mass was increased in the stearic acid fed group compared to all other groups by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary stearic acid significantly reduced serum glucose compared to all other diets and increased monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) compared to the low fat control. The low fat control diet had increased serum leptin compared to all other diets. To investigate possible mechanisms whereby stearic acid reduced visceral fat we used 3T3L1 fibroblasts/preadipocytes. Stearic acid had no direct effects on the process of differentiation or on the viability of mature adipocytes. However, unlike oleic acid and linoleic acid, stearic acid caused increased apoptosis (programmed cell death) and cytotoxicity in preadipocytes. The apoptosis was, at least in part, due to increased caspase-3 activity and was associated with decreased cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2 (cIAP2) and increased Bax gene expression. In conclusion, dietary stearic acid leads to dramatically reduced visceral fat likely by causing the apoptosis of preadipocytes. PMID:25222131

  17. Visceral adipose tissue area as an independent risk factor for elevated liver enzyme in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Chung, Goh Eun; Kim, Donghee; Kwark, Min Sun; Kim, Won; Yim, Jeong Yoon; Kim, Yoon Jun; Yoon, Jung-Hwan

    2015-03-01

    Chronic elevations in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels are associated with body composition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between elevated liver enzyme levels and the visceral tissue area in subjects with and without nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).An observational cohort study was conducted with subjects undergoing general health examinations. To evaluate the visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue area, a computed tomography scan was performed. NAFLD was diagnosed if a person demonstrated fatty liver on ultrasonography without a history of significant alcohol consumption or chronic liver disease. Abnormal liver enzyme levels were based on ALT elevations according to the updated Asian definition.Of the 5100 subjects, 3712 (72.8%) met the inclusion criteria, and NAFLD was found in 1185 subjects. Elevated ALT values were positively correlated with body mass index, waist circumference, and subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue area. These relationships were attenuated, although they remained significant in a dose-dependent manner, after adjusting for multiple liver injury risk factors. In addition, when body mass index and subcutaneous and visceral tissue areas were finally considered in combination, only visceral adipose tissue remained independently associated with elevated ALT levels in the ultrasonographically diagnosed NAFLD group (P for trend <0.001 for men and women).Elevated ALT levels were independently and dose-dependently associated with visceral fat accumulation in the healthy general population, especially in ultrasonographically diagnosed NAFLD patients. These results reemphasize the importance of visceral fat in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. PMID:25738475

  18. Impact of Non-Pulmonary Visceral Metastases in the Prognosis and Practice of Metastatic Testicular Germ Cell Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Lorena; Martignano, Filippo; Gallà, Valentina; Maugeri, Antonio; Schepisi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Non-pulmonary visceral metastases, in bones, brain and liver, represent nearly the 10% of metastatic sites of advanced germ cell tumors and are associated with poor prognosis. This review article summarizes major evidences on the impact of different visceral sites on the prognosis, treatment and clinical outcome of patients with germ cell tumors. The clinic-biological mechanisms by which these metastatic sites are associated with poor clinical outcome remain unclear. The multimodality treatment showed a potential better survival, in particular in patients with relapsed disease. Patients with advanced germ cell tumors with visceral metastases should be referred to centers with high expertise in the clinical management of such disease. PMID:27471579

  19. Impact of Non-Pulmonary Visceral Metastases in the Prognosis and Practice of Metastatic Testicular Germ Cell Tumors.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Lorena; Martignano, Filippo; Gallà, Valentina; Maugeri, Antonio; Schepisi, Giuseppe

    2016-04-15

    Non-pulmonary visceral metastases, in bones, brain and liver, represent nearly the 10% of metastatic sites of advanced germ cell tumors and are associated with poor prognosis. This review article summarizes major evidences on the impact of different visceral sites on the prognosis, treatment and clinical outcome of patients with germ cell tumors. The clinic-biological mechanisms by which these metastatic sites are associated with poor clinical outcome remain unclear. The multimodality treatment showed a potential better survival, in particular in patients with relapsed disease. Patients with advanced germ cell tumors with visceral metastases should be referred to centers with high expertise in the clinical management of such disease. PMID:27471579

  20. High performance liquid chromatography: Tandem mass spectrometric determination of cisplatin levels in different visceral pleura layers of rats

    PubMed Central

    XIA, HUI; ZHANG, WEN; LI, YINGJIE; YU, CHANGHAI

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the concentration of cisplatin in different layers of the visceral pleura in rats, following drug administration. In this study, a sensitive and specific liquid chromatography method coupled with electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry was established to investigate the disposition of cisplatin in different layers of the visceral pleura in rats. Methodological data, including specificity, linearity, accuracy, recovery, precision and lower limits of quantification, confirmed that this novel method may be used to efficiently quantify the cisplatin concentrations in visceral pleura of rats following administration of the drug. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that the desired drug concentration was not achieved in the outer or inner elastic layers of the visceral pleura following injection with cisplatin through various administration methods. PMID:26137076

  1. Decreased miR-199 augments visceral pain in patients with IBS through translational upregulation of TRPV1

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, QiQi; Yang, Liuqing; Larson, Scott; Basra, Sapreet; Merwat, Shehzad; Tan, Alai; Croce, Carlo; Verne, G Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Objective Many patients with irritable bowel syndrome IBS not only have abdominal pain but also may suffer from visceral hypersensitivity and heighted visceral nociception. Moreover, IBS has few effective therapeutic agents and mechanisms of disease are unclear. Our goals were to (i) identify microRNA (miRNA) expression, signalling and targets in human colon (controls; patients with IBS); (ii) verify in vitro, IBS-associated changes in miRNAs, especially miR-199, which is complementary to the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) gene; and (iii) determine whether modulating the expression of miRNAs in vivo, especially miR-199, reverses associated changes and pathological hallmarks of visceral hypersensitivity via TRPV1 signalling. Design We evaluated 45 patients with diarrhoea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) and 40 controls with (1) visceral pain severity score and (2) colonoscopy with biopsies. miRNA expression was evaluated in human colon following miRNA array analysis. Luciferase assays were done to confirm relationships between miR-199 and TRPV1 expression. A rat model of visceral hypersensitivity was used to study miR-199 and its target gene (TRPV1) expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and colon in vivo. Results Gut miR-199a/b expression in IBS-D was significantly decreased, which correlated directly with both increased visceral pain scores and TRPV1 expression. In vivo upregulation of miR-199a by intraperitoneal injection of lenti-miR-199a precursors decreased visceral hypersensitivity via diminished TRPV1 signalling. Conclusions Decreased colonic miR-199a/b correlates with visceral pain in patients with IBS-D. Similarly, reduced miR-199a expression in rat DRG and colon tissue is associated with heightened visceral hypersensitivity. In vivo upregulation of miR-199a decreases visceral pain via inhibition of TRPV1 signalling. Thus, miR-199 precursors may be promising therapeutic candidates for the treatment in patients with visceral pain. PMID

  2. The effect of chemically induced colitis, psychological stress and their combination on visceral pain in female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Deiteren, Annemie; Vermeulen, Wim; Moreels, Tom G; Pelckmans, Paul A; De Man, Joris G; De Winter, Benedicte Y

    2014-09-01

    Visceral sensitivity is of pathophysiological importance in abdominal pain disorders and can be modulated by inflammation and stress. However, it is unclear whether inflammation and stress alter visceral perception independently of each other or in conjunction through neuroendocrine interactions. Therefore, we compared the short- and long-term effects of experimental colitis and water avoidance stress (WAS), alone or in combination, on visceral sensitivity in female Wistar rats. Colitis was induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) and colonoscopically confirmed. During WAS, rats were placed on a platform surrounded by water for 1 h. Visceral sensitivity was assessed by quantifying the visceromotor responses (VMRs) to colorectal distension. Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis was determined by measuring serum corticosterone in a separate protocol. TNBS instillation resulted in overt colitis, associated with significant visceral hypersensitivity during the acute inflammatory phase (3 days post-TNBS; n = 8/group); after colitis had subsided (28 days post-TNBS), hypersensitivity was resolved (n = 4-8/group). Single WAS was associated with increased VMRs of a magnitude comparable to acute TNBS-induced hypersensitivity (n = 8/group). However, after repetitive WAS no significant hypersensitivity was present (n = 8/group). No additive effect of colitis and stress was seen on visceral pain perception (n = 6-8/group). Corticosterone levels were only increased in acute TNBS-colitis, acute WAS and their combination. To conclude, both colitis and stress successfully induced short-term visceral hypersensitivity and activated the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, but long-term effects were absent. In addition, our current findings do not support an additive effect of colitis and stress on visceral sensitivity in female Wistar rats. PMID:25089934

  3. Visceral leishmaniasis-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in a traveler returning from a pilgrimage to the Camino de Santiago.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Emily R; Shamasunder, Sriram; Cascino, Thomas; White, Kristie L; Katrak, Shereen; Bern, Caryn; Schwartz, Brian S

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 73-year-old American traveler who presented with 3 weeks of fatigue, fevers, chills, and pancytopenia. Clinical and laboratory findings were consistent with hemophagocytic lymphohystiocytosis (HLH) and bone marrow biopsy revealed amastigotes consistent with visceral leishmaniasis. The range of endemic visceral leishmaniasis transmission now extends into northern Spain and travelers to this region should use personal protective measures against sand fly exposure. PMID:25145768

  4. Using a 3D Culture System to Differentiate Visceral Adipocytes In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Emont, Margo P; Yu, Hui; Jun, Heejin; Hong, Xiaowei; Maganti, Nenita; Stegemann, Jan P; Wu, Jun

    2015-12-01

    It has long been recognized that body fat distribution and regional adiposity play a major role in the control of metabolic homeostasis. However, the ability to study and compare the cell autonomous regulation and response of adipocytes from different fat depots has been hampered by the difficulty of inducing preadipocytes isolated from the visceral depot to differentiate into mature adipocytes in culture. Here, we present an easily created 3-dimensional (3D) culture system that can be used to differentiate preadipocytes from the visceral depot as robustly as those from the sc depot. The cells differentiated in these 3D collagen gels are mature adipocytes that retain depot-specific characteristics, as determined by imaging, gene expression, and functional assays. This 3D culture system therefore allows for study of the development and function of adipocytes from both depots in vitro and may ultimately lead to a greater understanding of site-specific functional differences of adipose tissues to metabolic dysregulation. PMID:26425808

  5. Telehealth: a perspective approach for visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) control in India

    PubMed Central

    Bhunia, Gouri Sankar; Kesari, Shreekant; Chatterjee, Nandini; Kumar, Vijay; Das, Pradeep

    2012-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar, is a vector borne disease caused by the protozoan parasite, L. donovani. Poor and neglected populations in Indian sub-continent are particularly affected by this disease. Due to the diversity of epidemiological situations, no single diagnosis, treatment, or control will be suitable for all. Control measures through case findings, treatment, and vector control are seldom used, even where they could be useful. Modern tools like telehealth, using space technology, have now come in handy to address issues of disease surveillance, control checking, and evaluation. The present study focuses on telehealth as a current vector control strategy, perspectives on diagnosis, treatment, and control of visceral leishmaniasis as these deserve more attention and research. PMID:23265372

  6. Seroepidemiological and leishmanin skin test surveys of visceral leishmaniasis in south and southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Hailu, A; Berhe, N; Sisay, Z; Abraham, I; Medhin, G

    1996-01-01

    Sero-epidemiological and leishmanin skin test surveys of visceral leishmaniasis were carried out in eight localities of South and Southwest Ethiopia between the July 1989 and June 1992. A total number of 4870 subjects comprising semi-pastoral nomads, peasants and farm labourers were included in the study. Areas of high and low leishmanin skin test positivity were identified, with rates varying from 1.0-80.5%. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine prevalence of antileishmanial antibodies. The rates varied from 1.8% to 27.8%. Age and sex related serological and leishmanin skin test profiles are described. Correlation analysis of serological and leishmanin skin test was made for data in each locality. The relationships between seroprevalence, leishmanin skin test rates and prevalence of active visceral leishmaniasis and the implications on degrees of endemicity and patterns of transmission are discussed. PMID:8674496

  7. Telehealth: a perspective approach for visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) control in India.

    PubMed

    Bhunia, Gouri Sankar; Kesari, Shreekant; Chatterjee, Nandini; Kumar, Vijay; Das, Pradeep

    2012-07-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar, is a vector borne disease caused by the protozoan parasite, L. donovani. Poor and neglected populations in Indian sub-continent are particularly affected by this disease. Due to the diversity of epidemiological situations, no single diagnosis, treatment, or control will be suitable for all. Control measures through case findings, treatment, and vector control are seldom used, even where they could be useful. Modern tools like telehealth, using space technology, have now come in handy to address issues of disease surveillance, control checking, and evaluation. The present study focuses on telehealth as a current vector control strategy, perspectives on diagnosis, treatment, and control of visceral leishmaniasis as these deserve more attention and research. PMID:23265372

  8. Endovascular Embolization of Visceral Artery Aneurysms with Ethylene-vinyl Alcohol (Onyx): A Case Series

    SciTech Connect

    Bratby, M.J.; Lehmann, E.D.; Bottomley, J.; Kessel, D.O.; Nicholson, A.A.; McPherson, S.J.; Morgan, R.A.; Belli, A.-M.

    2006-12-15

    We report the application of the liquid embolic agent ethylene-vinyl alcohol (Onyx; MicroTherapeutics, Irvine, CA, USA) in the management of visceral artery aneurysms. The technique and indications for using Onyx are discussed with emphasis on the management of wide-necked aneurysms and maintenance of patency of the parent vessel. None of the cases was considered suitable for stent-grafting or embolization with conventional agents. Two aneurysms of the renal artery bifurcation and one aneurysm of the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery were treated. Following treatment there was complete exclusion of all aneurysms. There was no evidence of end-organ infarction. Follow-up with intervals up to 6 months has shown sustained aneurysm exclusion. Onyx is known to be effective in the management of intracranial aneurysms. Our experience demonstrates the efficacy and applicability of the use of Onyx in the treatment of complex visceral artery aneurysms.

  9. Visceral Pseudoaneurysm Embolisation Using 'Ping-Pong' Technique: Importance of Dual Arterial Catheterisation to Prevent Rupture.

    PubMed

    Burrows, V; Zayyan, K S; Harding, J

    2015-01-01

    Supracolic peri-pancreatic visceral pseudoaneurysms combine the challenges of difficult location for open surgical repair with unpredictable risk of fatal exsanguination. Endovascular embolisation is a well-established method of safely decompressing these lesions using a variety of thrombogenic agents. A single catheter technique is commonly employed to achieve this outcome. However, there is also a risk of iatrogenic rupture during these procedures as a result of occlusion of one vessel allowing pressure to rise through any other vessel(s). Thus a thorough understanding of the flow dynamics prior to and during occlusion is essential for safe decompression. We report the adaptation of dual arterial catheter technique in treating these lesions in an 80-year old man with a large, leaking peripancreatic visceral pseudo-aneurysm. Our technique of alternating between intervention and observation of effect allows greater control of the potentially unpredictable haemodynamic situation. PMID:26158256

  10. Recombinant K28 antigen in ELISA in the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniosis.

    PubMed

    Venturin, G L; Bragato, J P; Silva, K L O; de Lima, V M F

    2015-12-01

    Crude total antigen (CTA) from Leishmania infantum and recombinant antigen K39 (rK39) and recombinant antigen K28 (rK28) were compared using an ELISA for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniosis (CVL). Forty-two blood samples from healthy dogs from a nonendemic area and 80 blood samples from an endemic area for dogs with visceral leishmaniosis (VL), confirmed with positive parasitological tests for Leishmania spp., were used in an ELISA. The parasitological diagnosis was chosen as a gold standard. The ELISA with rK28 antigen showed sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 100%, high agreement with CTA and rK39, indicating that the rK28 antigen is useful for ELISA serological diagnosis of CVL. PMID:26408410