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1

The Leisure Reading Habits of Urban Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates that there is a strong relationship between leisure reading and school achievement, but the leisure reading habits of urban adolescents have rarely been studied. From their investigation of the leisure reading habits of 584 urban minority middle school students, the authors identify these key findings: (1) More than two-thirds…

Hughes-Hassell, Sandra; Rodge, Pradnya

2007-01-01

2

ADULT READING HABITS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four aspects of adult reading habits are reviewed and identified: 1. the nature and extent of adult reading habits as a field of inquiry from 1900?1975;2. key findings on adult reading habits are related to amount and motivation in purposes for reading;3. correlation between adult reading habits, education, employment, and socioeconomic status;4. problem and direction theory and research should take

Martin Kling

1982-01-01

3

Encouraging the Lifetime Reading Habit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that teachers must encourage the lifetime reading habit at school in independent reading. Discusses several ways to do so, including cluttering up the classroom with reading materials, providing time for reading, and encouraging the reading habit throughout the year. (SR)

Sanacore, Joseph

1992-01-01

4

Adult Reading Habits and Patterns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the reading habits and patterns of White and Asian American adults. Hypothesizes that when grouped by demographic variables, participants' responses about their reading habits and patterns would not differ. Concludes that gender, race, and education were predictors for participants' reading habits; education and race were predictors for…

Scales, Alice M.; Rhee, Ock

2001-01-01

5

Journal Reading Habits of Internists  

PubMed Central

We assessed the reading habits of internists with and without epidemiological training because such information may help guide medical journals as they make changes in how articles are edited and formatted. In a 1998 national self-administered mailed survey of 143 internists with fellowship training in epidemiology and study design and a random sample of 121 internists from the American Medical Association physician master file, we asked about the number of hours spent reading medical journals per week and the percentage of articles for which only the abstract is read. Respondents also were asked which of nine medical journals they subscribe to and read regularly. Of the 399 eligible participants, 264 returned surveys (response rate 66%). Respondents reported spending 4.4 hours per week reading medical journal articles and reported reading only the abstract for 63% of the articles; these findings were similar for internists with and without epidemiology training. Respondents admitted to a reliance on journal editors to provide rigorous and useful information, given the limited time available for critical reading. We conclude that internists, regardless of training in epidemiology, rely heavily on abstracts and prescreening of articles by editors.

Saint, Sanjay; Christakis, Dimitri A; Saha, Somnath; Elmore, Joann G; Welsh, Deborah E; Baker, Paul; Koepsell, Thomas D

2000-01-01

6

Family Reading Habits and Children's Progress in Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the influences of the home on children's attitudes toward reading, perceptions of reading, reading habits, and reading achievement. Participating in the study were 38 low-income white children (and their parents) from nine first-grade classrooms involved in the Florida Parent Education Follow Through project. Data were obtained…

Lamme, Linda; Olmsted, Pat

7

Improving Recreational Reading Habits of Elementary Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the effectiveness of a program for improving the recreational reading habits of elementary students through the use of cross-age tutoring in critical reading strategies. The targeted population consisted of a kindergarten and a fourth-grade class in the growing upper-middle-class community of Geneva, Illinois, located…

Krug, Marline; Fordonski, Patricia

8

Reading Habits of Senegalese Adults and College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses factors contributing to high level of illiteracy in Senegal. Reports on study of Senegalese reading habits--participants enjoy reading, read newspapers often, would like to read better, and would take reading improvement courses if they were offered. (CMG)

Scales, Alice M.; Burley, JoAnne E.

1984-01-01

9

Longitudinal Effects of Television on Children's Leisure-Time Reading: A Test of Three Explanatory Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a study that investigated the longitudinal effects of television viewing on the frequency with which children read books and comic books at home; and the causal mechanisms that underlie television's effects on leisure-time reading. Suggests that television viewing reduced attitudes toward reading and toward ability to concentrate. (TB)

Koolstra, Cees M.; Van Der Voort, Tom H. A.

1996-01-01

10

Younger Americans' Reading and Library Habits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More than eight in ten Americans between the ages of 16 and 29 read a book in the past year, and six in ten used their local public library. At the youngest end of the spectrum, high schoolers in their late teens (ages 16-17) and college-aged young adults (ages 18-24) are especially likely to have read a book or used the library in the past 12…

Zickuhr, Kathryn; Rainie, Lee; Purcell, Kristen; Madden, Mary; Brenner, Joanna

2012-01-01

11

Does reading keep you thin? Leisure activities, cultural tastes, and body weight in comparative perspective  

PubMed Central

While sedentary leisure-time activities such as reading, going to movies, attending cultural events, attending sporting events, watching TV, listening to music, and socializing with friends would seem to contribute to excess weight, a perspective focusing on SES differences in cultural tastes suggests the opposite, that some sedentary activities are associated with lower rather than higher body weight. This study aims to test theories of cultural distinction by examining relationships between leisure-time activities and body weight. Using 2007 data on 17 nations from the International Social Survey Program, the analysis estimates relationships between the body mass index and varied leisure-time activities while controlling for SES, physical activities, and sociodemographic variables. Net of controls for SES and physical activities, participation time in cultural activities is associated with lower rather than higher body weight, particularly in high-income nations. The results suggest that both cultural activities and body weight reflect forms of distinction that separate SES-based lifestyles.

Pampel, Fred C.

2011-01-01

12

Print exposure, reading habits, and reading achievement among deaf and hearing college students.  

PubMed

This study explored relations of print exposure, academic achievement, and reading habits among 100 deaf and 100 hearing college students. As in earlier studies, recognition tests for book titles and magazine titles were used as measures of print exposure, college entrance test scores were used as measures of academic achievement, and students provided self-reports of reading habits. Deaf students recognized fewer magazine titles and fewer book titles appropriate for reading levels from kindergarten through Grade 12 while reporting more weekly hours of reading. As in previous studies with hearing college students, the title recognition test proved a better predictor of deaf and hearing students' English achievement than how many hours they reported reading. The finding that the recognition tests were relatively more potent predictors of achievement for deaf students than hearing students may reflect the fact that deaf students often obtain less information through incidental learning and classroom presentations. PMID:22025672

Marschark, Marc; Sarchet, Thomastine; Convertino, Carol M; Borgna, Georgianna; Morrison, Carolyn; Remelt, Sarah

2012-01-01

13

Print Exposure, Reading Habits, and Reading Achievement among Deaf and Hearing College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored relations of print exposure, academic achievement, and reading habits among 100 deaf and 100 hearing college students. As in earlier studies, recognition tests for book titles and magazine titles were used as measures of print exposure, college entrance test scores were used as measures of academic achievement, and students…

Marschark, Marc; Sarchet, Thomastine; Convertino, Carol M.; Borgna, Georgianna; Morrison, Carolyn; Remelt, Sarah

2012-01-01

14

Psychosocial Correlates of Physical Activity and Sedentary Leisure Habits in Young Adolescents: The Teens Eating for Energy and Nutrition at School Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Low levels of physical activity (PA) and highly sedentary leisure habits (SLH) in youth may establish behavioral patterns that will predispose youth to increased chronic disease risk in adulthood. The purpose of this paper was to examine associations of demographic and psychosocial factors with self-reported PA and SLH in young adolescents.Methods. A general linear mixed model predicted self-reported PA

Kathryn H. Schmitz; Leslie A. Lytle; Glenn A. Phillips; David M. Murray; Amanda S. Birnbaum; Martha Y. Kubik

2002-01-01

15

Reading Habits, Perceptual Learning, and Recognition of Printed Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present work aims at demonstrating that visual training associated with the act of reading modifies the way we perceive printed words. As reading does not train all parts of the retina in the same way but favors regions on the side in the direction of scanning, visual word recognition should be better at retinal locations that are frequently…

Nazir, Tatjana A.; Ben-Boutayab, Nadia; Decoppet, Nathalie; Deutsch, Avital; Frost, Ram

2004-01-01

16

Pursuit of Leisure Reading and Interest in Watching the Night-Sky: Relationship between Reading for Pleasure and Noctcaelador  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the relationship between reading for pleasure and noctcaelador (strong interest in, and psychological attachment to, the night sky). University students (N = 185) completed measures of reading for pleasure and noctcaelador. Age was significantly correlated with both reading for pleasure and noctcaelador. Reading for pleasure…

Kelly, William E.; Daughtry, Don

2006-01-01

17

Differences between younger and older populations in nutrition label reading habits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify the socio-demographic and health variables of a representative sample of Croatian subjects over 15 years of age associated with reading nutrition labels and, in particular, to examine the association of age characteristics of “label users” with nutrition reading habits. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A total of 1,011 randomly selected subjects over 15

Jasmina Ranilovi?; Irena Coli? Bari?

2011-01-01

18

The Reading Habits and Literacy Attitudes of Inservice and Prospective Teachers: Results of a Questionnaire Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a questionnaire survey of 747 students enrolled in a graduate school of education, who are currently teachers or prospective teachers. The Literacy Habits Questionnaire, developed by Applegate and Applegate, was administered in September 2006. Findings suggest a high prevalence of aliteracy, the ability to read but a…

Nathanson, Steven; Pruslow, John; Levitt, Roberta

2008-01-01

19

No horizontal numerical mapping in a culture with mixed-reading habits.  

PubMed

Reading habits are thought to play an important role in the emergence of cultural differences in visuo-spatial and numerical tasks. Left-to-right readers show a slight visuo-spatial bias to the left side of space, and automatically associate small numbers to the left and larger numbers to the right side of space, respectively. A paradigm that demonstrated an automatic spatial-numerical association involved the generation of random numbers while participants performed lateral head turns. That is, Westerners have been shown to produce more small numbers when the head was turned to the left compared to the right side. We here employed the head turning/random number generation (RNG) paradigm and a line bisection (LB) task with a group of 34 Iranians in their home country. In the participants' native language (Farsi) text is read from right-to-left, but numbers are read from left-to-right. If the reading direction for text determines the layout of spatial-numerical mappings we expected to find more small numbers after right than left head turns. Yet, the generation of small or large numbers was not modulated by lateral head turns and the Iranians showed therefore no association of numbers with space. There was, however, a significant rightward shift in the LB task. Thus, while the current results are congruent with the idea that text reading habits play an important role in the cultural differences observed in visuo-spatial tasks, our data also imply that these habits on their own are not strong enough to induce significant horizontal spatial-numerical associations. In agreement with previous suggestions, we assume that for the emergence of horizontal numerical mappings a congruency between reading habits for words and numbers is required. PMID:24605093

Rashidi-Ranjbar, Neda; Goudarzvand, Mahdi; Jahangiri, Sorour; Brugger, Peter; Loetscher, Tobias

2014-01-01

20

A Leisure Reading Interests Survey of Lake Dallas Junior High School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey questionnaire, based on 88 titles identified elsewhere as popular adolescent reading, was given to 172 students with the intent of determining whether there were observable sex differences in the students' choice of books. Information sought included: (1) whether girls and boys enjoy reading for pleasure; (2) what books are enjoyed by…

Swanson, Barbara Glynn

21

A Leisure Reading Interests Survey of Lake Dallas Junior High School.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey questionnaire, based on 88 titles identified elsewhere as popular adolescent reading, was given to 172 students with the intent of determining whether there were observable sex differences in the students' choice of books. Information sought incl...

B. G. Swanson

1977-01-01

22

The Professional Reading Habits of Senior Housing Officers at ACUHO-I Member Institutions in the Great Lakes Region  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the professional reading habits of Senior Housing Officers (SHOs) at ACUHO-I member institutions in the Great Lakes region, which encompasses the states of Ohio, Michigan, Illinois, and Indiana. The findings were based on data from the survey responses of SHOs at 71 colleges and universities across the Great Lakes region of the…

O'Dell, Kyle

2009-01-01

23

The Non-Fiction Reading Habits of Young Successful Boy Readers: Forming Connections between Masculinity and Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reading experiences of six young successful boy readers were studied over a two-year period. In this article, their non-fiction reading is analysed and ways in which the boys make positive connections between masculinity and reading are identified. The boys' non-fiction reading centres on typical boy interest areas and hobbies (for example,…

Smith, Susannah

2004-01-01

24

The Impact of Internet and Television Use on the Reading Habits and Practices of College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How much time do college students spend reading for recreational and academic purposes? Do Internet and television use displace or interfere with reading time? In this study, we used an innovative time-diary survey method to explore whether the time students spend on the Internet or watching television displaces time that would be spent reading…

Mokhtari, Kouider; Reichard, Carla A.; Gardner, Anne

2009-01-01

25

The New York Times Report on Teenage Reading Tastes and Habits.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to learn whether teenagers are reading books and, if so, which books they choose, "The New York Times" conducted a fact-finding project. Questionnaires were mailed to the school librarians and English chairmen of 7000 secondary and intermediate schools. The wide variety of answers to observable trends necessitated the analysis of a random…

Freiberger, Rema

26

Changing Circumstances, Disrupting Habits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research investigated the mechanisms guiding habitual behavior, specifically, the stimulus cues that trigger habit performance. When usual contexts for performance change, habits cannot be cued by recurring stimuli, and performance should be disrupted. Thus, the exercising, newspaper reading, and TV watching habits of students transferring to a new university were found to survive the transfer only when aspects

Wendy Wood; Leona Tam; Melissa Guerrero Witt

2005-01-01

27

Special Issue: Leisure Counseling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Special issue includes (1) "Introduction" (Burlew); (2) "Leisure Counseling (LC): A Call to Order" (Emerson); (3) "Integrating Leisure into Adult Career Counseling Process" (Pearson); (4) "Developmental Approach to LC Theory" (McDaniels); (5) "LC for the Elderly" (Clark); (6) "LC with AIDS Clients" (Burlew); and (7) "The Leisure Sphere: Context…

Burlew, Larry D., Ed.; And Others

1992-01-01

28

Leisure sciences and leisure studies: Different concept, same crisis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article suggests that although United Kingdom leisure studies and North American leisure sciences are characterized by different epistemological, methodological, and theoretical perspectives, they have both arrived at a similar recognition: their relative failure to develop an understanding of the societal, cultural, and individual meanings associated with leisure. The predominantly sociological leisure studies has adopted a society in leisure approach,

Fred Coalter

1997-01-01

29

Reading Research in Hungary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that most recent reading research conducted in Hungary has focused on the formation of readers' attitudes and value judgments. Discusses studies conducted in the areas of reading psychology, children's reading, reading habits, reading motivation, and readers' responses. (FL)

Kamaras, Istvan; Nagy, Attila

1981-01-01

30

In Defense of Leisure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Leisure is defined as an individual's expression of his unique style and personal psychic rhythm. The author challenges the present pessimistic evaluation of American society's future. He considers puritanism outmoded and harmful and calls for exploration of various means of leisure to overcome alienation and make life meaningful. (SE)

Bernier, Normand R.

1975-01-01

31

Integrated Leisure and Recreation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This "feature issue" focuses on integrated leisure and recreation for developmentally disabled persons and includes descriptions of innovative leisure/recreation programs which allow the realization of the concepts of normalization and least restrictive environment. Brief articles include the following titles and authors: "Challenging the…

Schleien, Stuart, Ed.; Rynders, John, Ed.

1989-01-01

32

Leisure Today--Managing Leisure Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of 12 articles on managing leisure services focuses on the aspects of: (1) cooperative goal structuring; (2) management by objectives; (3) designing organizational charts; (4) labor relations; (5) cost effectiveness analysis; (6) fund accounting; (7) employee selection; (8) developing a marketing strategy; and (9) equitable distribution…

Edginton, Christopher R., Ed.; And Others

1982-01-01

33

Getting Over the Hump--Wednesday Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A method of facilitating leisure reading time in the classroom is described here. It encourages leisure reading as a natural, uninterrupted process at school, so students may see how enjoyable reading is and transfer those positive feelings to reading at home. Each Wednesday, junior high school students in Centerville, Indiana, spend an average of…

Perry, Tim

34

The Reading Habits of Adults: A Select Annotated Bibliography. British National Bibliography Research Fund Report No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 609 entries in this annotated bibliography are intended to help research workers who have an interest in the reading behavior of the general public and to stimulate ideas for further research. The entries are divided into nine sections covering general works; works providing a historical background; works dealing with the development from…

Mann, Margaret

35

Leisure and Ethics: Reflections on the Philosophy of Leisure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication seeks to capture the character and content of thought with respect to the long-standing discussion in academic settings of leisure and philosophy. The book is organized into three sections. The first, "Reflections on the Philosophy of Leisure," includes the following papers: "Introduction: Leisure and the Perfection of…

Fain, Gerald S., Ed.

36

Leisure Today. Leisure Programming: The State of the Art.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nine articles examine current topics in leisure programing, including program design and evaluation, program design through imagery, keys to quality leisure programing, programing with style, total quality program planning, evaluation of leisure programs, programing for older adults, and the intergenerational entrepreneurship demonstration…

Busser, James A.; And Others

1993-01-01

37

Promoting Leisure. Leisure Management Module. Operational Management Programme.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on promoting leisure is intended to give an understanding of the methods that can be used to market leisure products and services and how to plan the marketing of leisure. The material is presented in a self-instructional format in seven sections. At the beginning of each section is a statement of the objectives that will be achieved…

Wright, Anthony; And Others

38

Habitable Climates  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the standard liquid-water definition, the Earth is only\\u000apartially habitable. We reconsider planetary habitability in the framework of\\u000aenergy-balance models, the simplest seasonal models in physical climatology, to\\u000aassess the spatial and temporal habitability of Earth-like planets. We quantify\\u000athe degree of climatic habitability of our models with several metrics of\\u000afractional habitability. Previous evaluations of habitable zones

David S. Spiegel; Kristen Menou; Caleb A. Scharf

2007-01-01

39

Health and Leisure: Inextricably Linked.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What individuals do during leisure time significantly affects illness, disease, and longevity. Leisure studies and services can offer much to the understanding of health and the provision of health services. The article notes that the tendency to separate leisure and health within the physical education and recreation curricula is dysfunctional.…

Wankel, Leonard M.

1994-01-01

40

The Work/Leisure Connection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seven chapters in this special issue include "The Work/Leisure Connection" (McDaniels); "Changing Relations between Work and Leisure" (Godbey); "Wellness in the Leisure-Work Relationship" (McDowell); "Concept of Work: Updating a Point of View" (Hoyt); "A Working Future?" (Watts); "Beyond Career...Avoiding the Postretirement Blues" (Jackson); and…

Kimeldorf, Martin; And Others

1989-01-01

41

Leisure Today: Tourism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eleven articles explore a broad range of issues relating to tourism and the leisure profession, including: (1) need for social science research on tourism; (2) economic and population trends; (3) federal legislation and programs to encourage tourism from abroad; (4) tourism education; (5) marketing aproaches and strategies; and (6) studies of…

Howard, Dennis, Ed.; And Others

1983-01-01

42

Deep Habits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper generalizes the standard habit-formation model to an environment in which agents form habits over individual varieties of goods as opposed to over a composite consumption good. We refer to this preference specification as deep habit formation. Under deep habits, the demand function faced by individual producers depends on past sales. This feature is typically assumed ad hoc in

MORTEN RAVN; STEPHANIE SCHMITT-GROHÉ; Mart ´ in Uribe

2006-01-01

43

Leisure Participation and Enjoyment among the Elderly: Individual Characteristics and Sociability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from a national survey of adults in Taiwan, this study explored how often older adults participate in and how much they enjoy 2 mostly-solitary leisure activities (reading books and watching TV/DVDs/videos) and 2 mostly-social leisure activities (socializing with friends and engaging in physical activities). According to ordinal…

Chen, Su-Yen; Fu, Yang-Chih

2008-01-01

44

Habitable Climates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the standard liquid-water definition, the Earth is only partially habitable. We reconsider planetary habitability in the framework of energy balance models, the simplest seasonal models in physical climatology, to assess the spatial and temporal habitability of Earth-like planets. We quantify the degree of climatic habitability of our models with several metrics of fractional habitability. Previous evaluations of habitable zones may have omitted important climatic conditions by focusing on close solar system analogies. For example, we find that model pseudo-Earths with different rotation rates or different land-ocean fractions have fractional habitabilities that differ significantly from that of the Earth itself. Furthermore, the stability of a planet's climate against albedo-feedback snowball events strongly impacts its habitability. Therefore, issues of climate dynamics may be central in assessing the habitability of discovered terrestrial exoplanets, especially if astronomical forcing conditions are different from the moderate solar system cases.

Spiegel, David S.; Menou, Kristen; Scharf, Caleb A.

2008-07-01

45

Pre-Retirement Rehearsal Project: You and Your Leisure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This fifth in a series of six packages of instructional materials developed by the Pre-Retirement Rehearsal Project contains a student's pre-retirement booklet specifically intended for adults with limited reading ability and teacher's guide, which consider options in planning one's leisure time in retirement, including volunteer opportunities,…

Ellenberg, Donna

46

Shift Work, Leisure, and the Leisure Time Studying of Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the effects that shift work (working between 8 p.m. and 6 a.m. either partly or wholly) has on the amount of leisure time adults have available, their use of this time, and their participation in leisure time studying or adult education activities. (EM)

Pantzar, Eero

1977-01-01

47

Leisure as Marketing: The Nature and Experience of “Business Leisure”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presenting the results of a qualitative investigation, this article introduces the concept of “business leisure” and proposes a framework that illuminates it. Building on the idea that nonbusiness interactions can have significant business effects, and in an effort to reveal the nature of experiences that commingle business goals and leisure pursuits, this framework: identifies the conditions that shape the use

Dawn M. Dobni

2012-01-01

48

Leisure and Recreation Behavior Checklist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Leisure and Recreation Behavior Checklist (LRBC) is an open-ended checklist for recording behaviors of mentally handicapped adults. Its function is to profile individuals' leisure or recreation activities for program, administration, and research purposes. Intended for use by care-givers, the measure stresses recording of observed behaviors…

Haller, Otto; And Others

49

Leisure styles: A hidden core  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factor analysis has been employed in a number of North American and European studies to categorize leisure activities according to participation patterns. The resulting factors have been the basis of proposed labels for leisure styles. Since the results of the factor analyses have been found to vary with the relative heterogeneity of samples and activities studied, comparison of previous findings

John R. Kelly

1983-01-01

50

Leisure, Freedom, and Liberal Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At present liberal education is generally understood and justified as the acquisition of critical thinking skills and individual autonomy. Traditionally, however, the ultimate purpose of liberal education has been leisure. Freedom, it was thought, was not simply the result of critical thinking but also required the cultivation of leisure that…

Gary, Kevin

2006-01-01

51

Pioneers in Leisure and Recreation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book consists of brief biographies of people who have contributed to the field of leisure and recreation. The 26 pioneers chronicled span over two thousand years and cross many cultures. Some are theorists, others are practitioners, but all of them left their imprint on the leisure and recreation field. Arranged sequentially by dates, the…

Ibrahim, Hilmi; And Others

52

Why Should I Read?--A Cross-Cultural Investigation into Adolescents' Reading Socialisation and Reading Attitude  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While reading behaviour of adolescents is a frequent object of research, most studies in this field are restricted to a single country. This study investigates reading as a leisure-time activity across social groups from three regions differing in reading tradition as well as in the facilities available for reading. The authors analyse the reading…

Broeder, Peter; Stokmans, Mia

2013-01-01

53

Work and Leisure in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education is commonly described as offering combinations of work and leisure, but the implied relationship is often limited. Different conceptions of leisure, especially leisure as pleasurable experience, raise new possibilities for seeing academic activity itself as leisure in several important senses. The importance of identifying…

Harris, David

2012-01-01

54

Work, Leisure and Well-Being  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both work and leisure are essential for well-being. Yet the ways in which we conceptualise work, leisure and well-being are in flux, reflecting, in part, the changing societal, economic and community contexts in which work and leisure take place. This paper first discusses the contested nature of work and leisure in relation to well-being, and…

Haworth, John; Lewis, Suzan

2005-01-01

55

Serious Leisure, Social Identity and Sport Tourism  

Microsoft Academic Search

‘Serious leisure’ is a concept used to describe leisure activities that are ‘sufficiently substantial and interesting in nature for the participant to find a career there acquiring and expressing a combination of its special skills, knowledge, and experience’ [1]. Serious leisure participants are often highly identified with the subculture of their chosen activity. Consequently, sport tourism can provide serious leisure

B. Christine Green; Ian Jones

2005-01-01

56

Prediction of Leisure Time Exercise Behavior among a Group of Lower-Limb Disabled Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Predicted leisure time exercise behavior among 62 lower-limb disabled adults using the theory of reasoned action. Results indicated 35 percent of the variance in exercise behavior could be explained with intention being the strongest predictor. In comparison, the ability to predict intentions to exercise showed habit explained only 7 percent of…

Godin, Gaston; And Others

1986-01-01

57

Old Habits Die Hard: Literacy Practices of Pre-Service Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading methodology in pre-service teacher training may not be effective because of the literacy beliefs and practices of the trainees. This paper examines the reading practices of a group of pre-service teachers (n=29) in Singapore. Their personal approach to reading revealed that the majority split reading into two domains: leisure reading and…

Gupta, Renu

2004-01-01

58

Climatic Habitability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is likely that, in the next several years, the Corot and Kepler satellites will find many terrestrial planets around other stars. In order to judge what fraction of these planets are likely to be hospitable to life, it is important to reassess the notion of the habitable zone. Classical considerations of habitability, in the context of extrasolar planets, have often regarded it as a binary property (either a planet is or is not habitable). But according to the standard liquid water definition, the Earth itself is only partially habitable. I will describe a way to use energy balance climate models to assess the spatial and temporal habitability of terrestrial planets that are not too different from the Earth. Initial investigations of model planets' temperature distributions indicate that climate varies with observable features of planets (e.g., how far they are from their star) and unobservable features (e.g., how fast they are spinning, how much surface water they have, what their obliquity is). The habitability of model pseudo-Earths with different rotation rates or land-ocean fractions, for instance, generally differs significantly from that of the Earth itself.

Spiegel, David S.; Menou, K.; Scharf, C. A.

2008-05-01

59

Public Libraries and Literacy: Young People's Reading Habits and Attitudes to Public Libraries, and an Exploration of the Relationship between Public Library Use and School Attainment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents additional information from the 2009 survey of young people's reading and writing. The authors conducted an online survey of 17,089 pupils aged 8 to 16 from 112 schools, conducted in November-December 2009, which consisted of 32 questions exploring young people's background, reading and writing behaviour, perceived ability and…

Clark, Christina; Hawkins, Lucy

2011-01-01

60

Premorbid cognitive leisure independently contributes to cognitive reserve in multiple sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Objective: Consistent with the cognitive reserve hypothesis, higher education and vocabulary help persons with Alzheimer disease (AD) and multiple sclerosis (MS) better withstand neuropathology before developing cognitive impairment. Also, premorbid cognitive leisure (e.g., reading, hobbies) is an independent source of cognitive reserve for elders with AD, but there is no research on the contribution of leisure activity to cognition in MS. We investigated whether premorbid cognitive leisure protects patients with MS from cognitive impairment. Methods: Premorbid cognitive leisure was surveyed in 36 patients with MS. Neurologic disease severity was estimated with brain atrophy, measured as third ventricle width on high-resolution MRI. Cognitive status was measured with a composite score of processing speed and memory. Results: Controlling for brain atrophy, premorbid cognitive leisure was positively associated with current cognitive status (r p = 0.49, p < 0.01), even when controlling for vocabulary (r p = 0.39, p < 0.05) and education (r p = 0.47, p < 0.01). Also, premorbid cognitive leisure was unrelated to brain atrophy (r = 0.03, p > 0.5), but a positive partial correlation between leisure and atrophy emerged when controlling for cognitive status (r p = 0.37, p < 0.05), which remained when also controlling for vocabulary (r p = 0.34, p < 0.05) and education (r p = 0.35, p < 0.05). Conclusions: Premorbid cognitive leisure contributes to cognitive status in patients with MS independently of vocabulary and education. Also, patients with MS who engaged in more cognitive leisure were able to withstand more severe brain atrophy at a given cognitive status. Premorbid cognitive leisure is supported as an independent source of cognitive reserve in patients with MS. GLOSSARY AD = Alzheimer disease; MS = multiple sclerosis; TVW = third ventricle width.

Sumowski, J.F.; Wylie, G.R.; Gonnella, A; Chiaravalloti, N; DeLuca, J

2010-01-01

61

A Social Science Bibliography of Leisure and Recreation Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography provides an accessible source to social science research in leisure, recreation, and sports. Topical areas covered include: (1) bibliographic sources on leisure and recreation; (2) philosophical issues in leisure; (3) theories of leisure and recreation; (4) methods in leisure and recreation research; (5) evaluation of leisure and…

Burdge, Rabel J.; And Others

62

The Leisure-Time Activity of Citizens  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Survey data show that Russians relegate free time and leisure activity to secondary status compared to work, and free time faces the threat of becoming devalued and losing its importance as a life value. At the same time, in the structure of Russians' leisure activities there is an ongoing tendency for leisure to become simpler, for active types…

Sedova, N. N.

2011-01-01

63

Leisure Role of Public Libraries: User Views  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the second of two articles examining the leisure role of public libraries. The first article examined the leisure role of public libraries in the UK from a historical perspective. This examines the value of the public library service in providing leisure opportunities from a user point of view. The results demonstrate that public libraries…

Hayes, Emma; Morris, Anne

2005-01-01

64

Books for Summer Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recommends leisurely reading for teachers: biographies on St. Augustine and Charles Lindbergh; novels by Edwidge Danticat, Kate Chopin, and Velma Allis; Edward Tufte's three volumes on the visual presentation of information; Jean Vanier's "Becoming Human;" the Harry Potter series, and Michael Tolkin's novel "The Player." (MLH)

Phi Delta Kappan, 2000

2000-01-01

65

Energy Crisis: The Leisurely Solution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of their automotive lifestyles, Americans account for the greatest portion of fossil fuel consumption in the world. The desirable leisure lifestyle traits of the past should be incorporated into contemporary American culture. Americans need to wean themselves away from the automobile if the energy crisis is to be solved. (JN)

Mobily, Ken

1980-01-01

66

Spectral Fingerprints of Habitability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emerging field of extrasolar planet search has shown an extraordinary ability to combine research by astrophysics, chemistry, biology and geophysics into a new and exciting interdisciplinary approach to understand our place in the universe. Are there other worlds like ours? How can we characterize those planets and assess if they are habitable? After a decade rich in giant exoplanet detections, observation techniques have now reached the ability to find planets of less than 10 M_Earth (so called Super-Earths) that may potentially be habitable. The detection and characterization of Earth-like planet is approaching rapidly with dedicated space observatories already in operation (Corot) or in development phase (Kepler, James Webb Space Telescope, Extremely Large Telescope (ELT), Darwin/TPF). Space missions like CoRoT (CNES, Rouan et al. 1998) and Kepler (NASA, Borucki et al. 1997) will give us statistics on the number, size, period and orbital distance of planets, extending to terrestrial planets on the lower mass range end as a first step, while missions like Darwin/TPF are designed to characterize their atmospheres. In this chapter we discuss how we can read a planet's spectral fingerprint and characterize if it is potentially habitable. We discuss the first steps to detect a habitable planet and set biomarker detection in context in Section 1. In Section 2 we focus on biomarkers, their signatures at different wavelengths, abiotic sources and cryptic photosynthesis - using Earth as our primary example - the only habitable planet we know of so far. Section 3 concentrates on planets around different stars, and Section 4 summarizes the chapter.

Kaltenegger, L.; Selsis, F.

2010-01-01

67

Television Viewing, Children's Reading, and Related Classroom Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relationship between children's television viewing and their reading ability, reading habits, and school behavior (attentiveness, enthusiasm, and imagination). The influence of children's IQ, parents' educational levels, and parents' television viewing habits are controlled. (JMF)

Zuckerman, Diana M.; And Others

1980-01-01

68

What Reading Does for the Mind.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on research studies into the role that reading volume plays in shaping the mind. It is possible to outline the reciprocal influence of early reading acquisition and reading volume as determinants of later reading comprehension and other cognitive abilities. Early success at reading unlocks a lifetime of reading habits, as research shows.…

Cunningham, Anne E.; Stanovich, Keith E.

1998-01-01

69

Lifestyle Habits  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the lifestyle habits—physical activity (PA), eating habits (EH), and sleep duration (SD)—of Omani adolescents, and to examine gender differences in such variables. Methods: 802 Omani adolescents (442 females and 360 males), aged 15–18 years were randomly recruited. Anthropometric indices, PA level, and EH and SD were evaluated by the Arab Teenage Lifestyle questionnaire. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire for dietary assessment was also administered. Results: The results showed that although the study subjects had a sedentary lifestyle (lack of PA, average of 6.7 hours sleep, and consumption of high calorie foods), they maintained a normal body mass (less than 25 Kg/m2). Males were more than twice as active as females. With respect to EH, there were few gender differences, except in dairy and meat consumption where 62.5% and 55.5% of males consumed more than 3 servings, respectively, compared to 18.78 % and 35.2% of females, respectively. In addition, waist/height ratio, height, reasons for being active, energy drinks, potato consumption, eating sweets, vigorous PA and breakfast EHs were statistically significant independent predictors for BMI, P <0.05 for both males and females. Conclusion: This study revealed a high prevalence of sedentary behaviors and a low level of physical activity, especially among females. Unhealthy dietary habits were also widely found among both genders. There is an urgent need for more research as well as a national policy promoting active living and healthy eating and discouraging sedentary behaviour among Omani adolescents.

Kilani, Hashem; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa; Waly, Mostafa I.; Musaiger, Abdulrahman

2013-01-01

70

Martian Habitability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the reported Mars surface environmental conditions (Klein, 1978) (oxidative stress, high UV radiation levels, etc.) the possibility for life development in the surface of the red planet is very small. The identification of water-ice on the subsurface on Mars by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer onboard of the Mars Odyssey (Kieffer and Titus, 2001) and from the High Energy Neutron Detector (Litvak, et al., 2006) has important astrobiological connotations, because in addition to be a potential source for water, these locations are shielding habitats against the harsh conditions existing on the planet, like UV radiation (Gomez, et al., 2007; Gomez, et al., 2012). Martian habitability potential could change in particular located micro-niches. Salt deliquescence and hard environmental parameters modification could be relevant for life under protected niches. An example could be endolithic niches inside salt deposits used by phototrophs for taking advantage of sheltering particular light wavelengths. Similar acidic salts deposits are located in Río Tinto extreme environment with shelter life forms which are difficult to localize by eye. Techniques for its localization and study during space missions are needed to develop. Extreme environments are good scenarios where to test and train those techniques and where hypothetical Astrobiological space missions could be simulated for increasing possibilities of micro niches identification. Here we will report some experiments of bacteria exposition to Martian surface conditions in Mars Simulation chamber. Bacteria were shelter and exposed included in simulated salty endolithic micro niches. High percentage of bacteria resistance and adaptation to harsh extreme those conditions was reported (Gómez, F. et al., 2010). These results were used to develop and implement a Habitability Index to study Martian habitability during the next MSL mission to Mars landed on August 2012 on the surface of the red planet.

Gómez, F.

2012-09-01

71

Leisure Preferences and Leisure Communication with Peers of Elementary Students with and without Disabilities: Educational Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined and compared the leisure activities and communication about leisure among peers of a large sample of preadolescents without disabilities and their peers with identified disabilities. All responded to a questionnaire about leisure. Findings revealed that these preadolescents participated in a large number and variety of…

Leyser, Yona; Cole, Karen B.

2004-01-01

72

Promoting habit formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habits are automatic behavioural responses to environmental cues, thought to develop through repetition of behaviour in consistent contexts. When habit is strong, deliberate intentions have been shown to have a reduced influence on behaviour. The habit concept may provide a mechanism for establishing new behaviours, and so healthy habit formation is a desired outcome for many interventions. Habits also however

Phillippa Lally; Benjamin Gardner

2011-01-01

73

Work-Leisure and the School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author compares work and leisure and claims the former involves external rewards, is odious, and requires more time while the latter involves intrinsic value and is pursued for joy. Then he discusses leisurely education which would cancel grading, discipline, and age limits and would make schooling fun. (SE)

Besag, Frank P.

1975-01-01

74

Science Learning in a Leisure Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most people visit a science center in order to satisfy specific leisure-related needs; needs which may or may not actually include science learning. Falk proposed that an individual's identity-related motivations provide a useful lens through which to understand adult free-choice science learning in leisure settings. Over a 3-year period the…

Falk, John H.; Storksdieck, Martin

2010-01-01

75

Leisure and the Retired Professor: Occupation Matters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little attention has been given to the leisure activities of retired professors, whose activity patterns in retirement may be different from those of other occupational groups because of their lifetime commitment to work. This interview study uses both quantitative and qualitative data to investigate: (a) the leisure and professional activities of…

Dorfman, Lorraine; Kolarik, Douglas

2005-01-01

76

Job Satisfaction, Leisure Satisfaction, and Psychological Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measures the job satisfaction, leisure satisfaction, and psychological health of 189 full-time employed men. Job satisfaction and leisure satisfaction were significant positive predictors of psychological health. Although job satisfaction was higher for white collar workers than for blue collar workers, the prediction of psychological health was…

Pearson, Quinn M.

1998-01-01

77

Segmenting Leisure Travelers by Risk Reduction Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is an initial attempt in using risk reduction strategies as the basis for segmenting leisure travelers. Results of the study generated insights into the nature of consumer markets and created three segments of travelers who adopted risk reduction strategies in different ways. The three leisure travelers' segments include: socially reliant risk reducers, self-initiated risk reducers, and unconcerned about

Ada S. Lo; Rob Law; Catherine Cheung

2011-01-01

78

The Virtues of Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Danny DeVito's film "Matilda," Harry Wormwood berates his young daughter, the title character, when she insists on reading. He tells her, "There's nothing you can get from a book that you can't get faster from television." Matilda's would-be visionary father, however, is blind to crucial habits of mind fostered by reading books that are not…

Kupfer, Joseph

2002-01-01

79

Leisure education reduces stress among older adults.  

PubMed

Objectives: The objectives of this study were to examine whether a leisure education program could facilitate leisure competence among older adults and whether it could also reduce their stress.Methods: A pre-test-post-test randomized experimental design was conducted. Subjects were randomly assigned to either an experimental group (n = 30) or a control group (n = 30). A leisure education program was used to serve as the intervention. A day before this experiment was carried out, pre-test data were collected using leisure competence and stress scales. Thirty minutes after this experiment ended, post-test data were collected using the same scales. These data were analyzed using an analysis of covariance.Results: The results indicated that the average post-test scores of leisure competence in the experimental group were significantly higher than those in the control group and that the average post-test scores of stress in the experimental group were significantly lower than those in the control group.Conclusion: Healthcare practitioners should adopt the provision of leisure education as a priority to facilitate leisure competence and reduce stress among older adults. PMID:24479853

Chang, Liang-Chih

2014-08-01

80

Leisure Activities and the Risk of Dementia in the Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

background Participation in leisure activities has been associated with a lower risk of dementia. It is unclear whether increased participation in leisure activities lowers the risk of dementia or participation in leisure activities declines during the preclinical phase of dementia. methods We examined the relation between leisure activities and the risk of dementia in a pro- spective cohort of 469

Joe Verghese; Richard B. Lipton; Mindy J. Katz; Charles B. Hall; Carol A. Derby; Gail Kuslansky; Anne F. Ambrose; Martin Sliwinski; Herman Buschke

2003-01-01

81

Volunteers and volunteering in leisure: social science perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leisure has been widely examined within the context of social science theory. This article adopts a broad approach, examining a range of social science disciplines and applying them to specific phenomena located within the leisure field, namely, volunteers and volunteering in leisure settings. In a disciplinary sense, the sociological view focuses upon the conceptualisation of volunteering as leisure, the psychological

Kirsten Holmes; Karen Smith; Tom Baum

2010-01-01

82

Deviant leisure: Uncovering the “goods” in transgressive behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leisure studies has held to a traditional understanding of leisure activities as inherently and unquestionably “good,” a view that leaves little room to consider deviance within the purview of leisure behaviour and its study within the discipline. Stebbins’ theoretical framework of serious leisure provides a context through which conventional understandings of deviant behaviour may be challenged and the limiting doxic

2006-01-01

83

Some Aspects of Adolescent Outdoor Leisure Preferences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of leisure activity preferences of 16-year-old boys and girls supports an interpretation of their needs for testing themselves in competition and adventure, and for aesthetic experiences. (See TM 504 595 for availability). (Author/CTM)

Parker, Jack

1977-01-01

84

A Century of Labor-Leisure Distortions  

Microsoft Academic Search

I construct direct measures of labor-leisure distortions for the American economy during the period 1889-1996, using a new method for empirically evaluating competitive equilibrium models and extending that method to some noncompetitive situations. I then compare measured labor-leisure distortions to proxies for potential restraints of trade: distortionary taxes and subsidies, labor market regulation, monopoly unionism, and search frictions. Distortions have

Casey B. Mulligan

2002-01-01

85

Habitability: Camelot 4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During 1988 to 1989 the NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program sponsored research and design efforts aimed at developing habitability criteria and at defining a habitability concept as a useful tool in understanding and evaluating dwellings for prolonged stays...

W. Alequin A. Barragan M. Carro F. Garcia I. Gonzalez

1990-01-01

86

Ten Minutes a Day for Silent Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sustained silent reading programs have many names, but share similar guidelines. Students read for enjoyment for an uninterrupted time daily, choose their own books and whether to finish them, observe teachers modeling good reading habits, and are not required to take tests or write book reports on their reading. (9 references) (MLH)

Gardiner, Steve

2001-01-01

87

Deciphering Spectral Fingerprints of Habitable Exoplanets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss how to read a planet's spectrum to assess its habitability and search for the signatures of a biosphere. After a decade rich in giant exoplanet detections, observation techniques have advanced to a level where we now have the capability to find planets of less than 10 Earth masses (MEarth) (so-called \\

Lisa Kaltenegger; Frank Selsis; Malcolm Fridlund; Helmut Lammer; Charles Beichman; William Danchi; Carlos Eiroa; Thomas Henning; Tom Herbst; Alain Léger; René Liseau; Jonathan Lunine; Francesco Paresce; Alan Penny; Andreas Quirrenbach; Huub Röttgering; Jean Schneider; Daphne Stam; Giovanna Tinetti; Glenn J. White

2010-01-01

88

Motivation, Satisfaction, and Perceived Freedom: A Tri-Dimensional Model of Leisure among Young Offenders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A sample of 84 male young offenders, admitted for inpatient treatment in a psychiatric hospital, was used to examine the relationship between leisure motivation, leisure satisfaction, and perceived freedom in leisure using the Leisure Motivation Scale (LMS), the Leisure Satisfaction Scale (LSS), and the Perceived Freedom in Leisure Scale-Short…

Munchua, Michelle M.; Lesage, Deanna M.; Reddon, John R.; Badham, Tania D.

2003-01-01

89

Emotional and cognitive health correlates of leisure activities in older Latino and Caucasian women  

PubMed Central

This study examined differences in the frequency of leisure activity participation and relationships to depressive symptom burden and cognition in Latino and Caucasian women. Cross-sectional data were obtained from a demographically matched subsample of Latino and Caucasian (n = 113 each) post-menopausal women (age ?60), interviewed in 2004–06 for a multi-ethnic cohort study of successful aging in San Diego County. Frequencies of engagement in 16 leisure activities and associations between objective cognitive performance and depressive symptom burden by ethnicity were identified using bivariate and linear regression, adjusted for physical functioning and demographic covariates. Compared to Caucasian women, Latinas were significantly more likely to be caregivers and used computers less often. Engaging in organized social activity was associated with fewer depressive symptoms in both groups. Listening to the radio was positively correlated with lower depressive symptom burden for Latinas, and better cognitive functioning in Caucasians. Cognitive functioning was better in Latinas who read and did puzzles. Housework was negatively associated with Latinas’ emotional health and Caucasians’ cognitive functioning. Latino and Caucasian women participate in different patterns of leisure activities. Additionally, ethnicity significantly affects the relationship between leisure activities and both emotional and cognitive health.

Herrera, Angelica P.; Meeks, Thomas W.; Dawes, Sharron E.; Hernandez, Dominique M.; Thompson, Wesley K.; Sommerfeld, David H.; Allison, Matthew A.; Jeste, Dilip V.

2011-01-01

90

Preterm Birth and Leisure Participation: A Synthesis of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Leisure participation has been associated with happiness and well-being in children. Individuals born preterm are at greater risk for motor, cognitive and behavioral difficulties which may contribute to difficulties participating in leisure activities. This systematic review examined the current knowledge on participation in leisure activities in…

Dahan-Oliel, Noemi; Mazer, Barbara; Majnemer, Annette

2012-01-01

91

Leisure Activities and Problem Behaviours among Hungarian Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined leisure behaviours and the relationships between leisure and a variety of problem behaviours in a sample of 1422 Hungarian adolescents (age range: 14-19). Findings from multivariate analyses suggest that some aspects of adolescent leisure, such as family or conventional activities, act as protective factors against problem behaviours,…

Piko, Bettina F.; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.

2004-01-01

92

Intervention for Positive Use of Leisure Time among College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College student excessive alcohol use is a pressing public health concern, and many of the negative events associated with heavy drinking occur during leisure or free time. Positive use of leisure can lead to coping skills, stress reduction, and healthy development. Negative use of leisure, including heavy alcohol use, is associated with physical…

Yarnal, Careen; Qian, Xinyi; Hustad, John; Sims, Damon

2013-01-01

93

Leisure of Opiate Addicts at Posttreatment Follow-Up.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparisons of self-reported leisure showed an overall shift toward more positive, socially accepted leisure activities at follow-up. More free time was spent with family and friends who did not use drugs. Positive leisure at follow-up was related to favorable outcomes on drug use, criminality, and productive activities. (Author)

Simpson, D. Dwayne; And Others

1981-01-01

94

Educating for Leisure-Centered Living. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook examines in depth the problems facing the increasing amount of leisure time available to individuals. It stresses the fact that creative use of leisure time involves more than play, entertainment, or recreation, but rather, it offers an opportunity for continued growth. The leisure philosophy of the authors is set out in the…

Brightbill, Charles K.; Mobley, Tony A.

95

Deviant Leisure: Rethinking “The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly”  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article calls for a more thorough exploration of the concept of deviant leisure. Although deviant leisure often relies on psychiatric discourse as a primary explanation for participation, many forms of deviant leisure cannot be explained convincingly through accounts that focus on psychopathological motivations. Examples discussed herein include consensual sexual sadomasochism, self-identified human vampires, and radical body modification. Such forms

D. J. Williams

2009-01-01

96

Leisure-Activity Patterns and Marital Satisfaction: A Further Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined relationship among four types of leisure-activity patterns and marital satisfaction of 318 married persons, and at five marital career stages and at high and low levels of stress. Results indicated direction and strength of relationship between leisure and marital satisfaction were contingent upon perceived communication during leisure…

Holman, Thomas B.; Jacquart, Mary

1988-01-01

97

The Relationship between Students' Reading Orientations and Their Strategic Activity during a Collaborative Reading Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the connection between middle school students' beliefs about reading and their use of comprehension strategies during a collaborative reading activity. Seventy-one fifth- and sixth-grade students were videotaped while they worked in small groups to read and discuss short texts describing the reading habits and abilities of four…

Davis, Dennis S.; Neitzel, Carin

2010-01-01

98

Quality of Life and Leisure Activities: How do Leisure Activities Contribute to Subjective Well-Being?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of life is determined with objective factors and also with subjective perception of factors which influence human\\u000a life. Leisure activities play a very important role in subjective well-being because they provide opportunities to meet life\\u000a values and needs. Through participation in leisure activities people build social relationships, feel positive emotions, acquire\\u000a additional skills and knowledge, and therefore improve

Andreja Brajša-Žganec; Marina Merkaš; Iva Šverko

2011-01-01

99

Turnout as a Habit  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is conventional to speak of voting as “habitual.” But what does this mean? In psychology, habits are cognitive associations\\u000a between repeated responses and stable features of the performance context. Thus, “turnout habit” is best measured by an index\\u000a of repeated behavior and a consistent performance setting. Once habit associations form, the response can be cued even in\\u000a the absence

John H. Aldrich; Jacob M. Montgomery; Wendy Wood

100

Occupational Characteristics and Marital Leisure Involvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of a study that examined the relationship between husbands' and wives' (n=66) occupational characteristics, their extent of their involvement in different types of leisure activities, and whether they engaged in these activities together revealed no consistent support for any models but indicated that wives' characteristics were important…

Crawford, Duane W.

1999-01-01

101

Corporate image in the leisure services sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to empirically examine the relationship between corporate image and customer satisfaction in the leisure services sector. It also aims to examine the mediating impact of employees and servicescape on this relationship. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data were collected from a sample of 195 individuals who had visited an Australian zoological garden over a specified time period. Confirmatory

Joanna Minkiewicz; Jody Evans; Kerrie Bridson; Felix Mavondo

2011-01-01

102

Rethinking Leisure Services in an Aging Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey examined fear of crime among an elderly population as it related to leisure behavior and the use of public recreation facilities. Response to the survey showed that, although the elderly population was surprisingly mobile, reasons preventing respondents from using parks and senior centers included: lack of interest, fear of crime, health,…

Godbey, Geoffrey; And Others

1982-01-01

103

Leisure Constraints and Acculturation among Korean Immigrants  

Microsoft Academic Search

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: An important challenge facing recreation and park managers is the change in the ethnic and racial profile of constituents. Past research has tended to ignore the fact that ethnic and racial minorities are heterogeneous. It is likely that immigrants from any one country vary markedly in how they experience leisure constraints. Past studies have also not determined the

David Scott; Soojin Lee; Jenny Ji-Yeon Lee; Chulwon Kim

104

Leisure Service Career Programs Model. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report identifies leisure career occupations, determines the occupational outlook, and develops primary core competencies as well as specialized, optional competencies for entry level employment. The main method of inquiry is described as a needs assessment based on an audit at Moraine Valley Community College, two previous studies by the…

Twining, Marilyn

105

Working Vacations: Jobs in Tourism and Leisure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vacation jobs often mix work and play. For some, the job is their ticket to career happiness. The article's first section describes four jobs specific to entertainment and leisure: (1) cruise ship musician; (2) destination marketing manager; (3) resort activities director; and (4) river rafting guide. The second section helps a person decide if a…

Torpey, Elka Maria

2011-01-01

106

Leisure Constraint Theory and Sport Tourism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participation in sport tourism is characterized by constraints. It is constrained by spatial barriers such as travel distance and physical barriers such as fitness, along with a broad range of other factors that have yet to be systematically considered. Leisure constraint theory provides a strong foundation from which to gain insight into this dimension of sport tourism. The merits of

Tom Hinch; Edgar L. Jackson; Simon Hudson; Gordon Walker

2005-01-01

107

Creating a Love of Reading = Susciter le Gout de la Lecture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To develop good reading habits, children must be surrounded with books, stories and reading not only in the classroom but in the home and the community. Children who read and are read to outside of school do better than those who do not read and are not read to outside of school. Parents and other family members should make books and reading aloud…

O'Leary, John Daniel

108

Deciphering spectral fingerprints of habitable exoplanets.  

PubMed

We discuss how to read a planet's spectrum to assess its habitability and search for the signatures of a biosphere. After a decade rich in giant exoplanet detections, observation techniques have advanced to a level where we now have the capability to find planets of less than 10 Earth masses (M(Earth)) (so-called "super Earths"), which may be habitable. How can we characterize those planets and assess whether they are habitable? This new field of exoplanet search has shown an extraordinary capacity to combine research in astrophysics, chemistry, biology, and geophysics into a new and exciting interdisciplinary approach to understanding our place in the Universe. The results of a first-generation mission will most likely generate an amazing scope of diverse planets that will set planet formation, evolution, and our planet into an overall context. PMID:20307185

Kaltenegger, Lisa; Selsis, Frank; Fridlund, Malcolm; Lammer, Helmut; Beichman, Charles; Danchi, William; Eiroa, Carlos; Henning, Thomas; Herbst, Tom; Léger, Alain; Liseau, René; Lunine, Jonathan; Paresce, Francesco; Penny, Alan; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Röttgering, Huub; Schneider, Jean; Stam, Daphne; Tinetti, Giovanna; White, Glenn J

2010-01-01

109

Your Child's Habits  

MedlinePLUS

... who start hair pulling as older kids or teens, the habit is harder to break and may be a ... But if you're concerned about your child's habits, talk with your doctor. Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, MD Date reviewed: August 2011 Back 1 ? 2 ? 3 ? 4 ? 5 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC ...

110

Habitable Zone Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The location of the habitable zone around a star depends upon stellar luminosity and upon the properties of a potentially habitable planet such as its mass and near-surface volatile inventory. Stellar luminosity generally increases as a star ages whilst planetary properties change through time as a consequence of biological and geological evolution. Hence, the location of the habitable zone changes through time as a result of both stellar evolution and planetary evolution. Using the Earth's Phanerozoic temperature history as a constraint, it is shown that changes in our own habitable zone over the last 540 My have been dominated by planetary evolution rather than solar evolution. Furthermore, sparse data from earlier times suggests that planetary evolution may have dominated habitable zone development throughout our biosphere's history. Hence, the existence of a continuously habitable zone depends upon accidents of complex bio-geochemical evolution more than it does upon relatively simple stellar-evolution. Evolution of the inner margin of the habitable zone through time using three different estimates for climate sensitivity. The dashed line shows a typical predicted evolution assuming this was driven simply by a steady increase in solar luminosity. Solar evolution does not account for the observations. Evolution of the outer margin of the habitable zone through time using three different estimates for climate sensitivity. The dashed line shows a typical predicted evolution assuming this was driven simply by a steady increase in solar luminosity. Solar evolution does not account for the observations.

Waltham, D.; Lota, J.

2012-12-01

111

Why should I read? - A cross-cultural investigation into adolescents' reading socialisation and reading attitude  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While reading behaviour of adolescents is a frequent object of research, most studies in this field are restricted to a single country. This study investigates reading as a leisure-time activity across social groups from three regions differing in reading tradition as well as in the facilities available for reading. The authors analyse the reading behaviour of a total of 2,173 adolescents in the Netherlands, in Beijing (China), and in Cape Town (South Africa). Taking Icek Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour as a starting point, the authors adjusted it to model the three most important determinants of reading behaviour, namely (1) reading attitude; (2) subjective norms (implicit and explicit social pressure to read); and (3) perceived behavioural control, which includes reading proficiency and appropriateness of the available books (book supply). While they found the adjusted model to fit the Dutch and Beijing situation quite well, it appeared to be inappropriate for the Cape Town situation. Despite considerable cultural and situational differences between the Netherlands and Beijing, the results show a similar pattern for these two environments. The most important determinants turn out to be: the hedonic reading attitude, the implicit norm of family and friends, the attractiveness of the available choice of books, and the perceived reading proficiency.

Broeder, Peter; Stokmans, Mia

2013-06-01

112

Making leisure and recreation research a scholarly topic: Views of a journal editor, 1972–1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

The founding co?editor of Leisure Sciences provides a critical analysis of the events of 1972–1982 that shaped the topics of leisure and recreation research. Specific topics include: the development of publication outlets for research; leisure in the hierarchy of scholarly activity; the attempt to establish boundaries on leisure research; what are the criteria for acceptable research; and who does leisure

Rabel J. Burdge

1983-01-01

113

Impact of Newspaper Reading on Adolescent Consumers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results from a study of adolescents' newspaper reading habits and consumer attitudes and behaviors indicate that newspapers play an important role in the acquisition of consumer behaviors during adolescence. (RL)

Moore, Roy L.; Moschis, George P.

1981-01-01

114

Habitability: CAMELOT 4  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During 1988 to 1989 the NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program sponsored research and design efforts aimed at developing habitability criteria and at defining a habitability concept as a useful tool in understanding and evaluating dwellings for prolonged stays in extraterrestrial space. The Circulating Auto sufficient Mars-Earth Luxurious Orbital Transport (CAMELOT) was studied as a case in which the students would try to enhance the quality of life of the inhabitants by applying architectural design methodology. The study proposed 14 habitability criteria considered necessary to fulfill the defined habitability concept, which is that state of equilibrium that results from the interaction between components of the Individual Architecture Mission Complex, which allows a person to sustain physiological homeostatis, adequate performance, and acceptable social relationships. Architecture, design development, refinements and revisions to improve the quality of life, new insights on artificial gravity, form and constitution problems, and the final design concept are covered.

Alequin, W.; Barragan, A.; Carro, M.; Garcia, F.; Gonzalez, I.; Mercado, J. A.; Negron, N.; Lopez, D.; Rivera, L. A.; Rivera, M.

1990-01-01

115

Habitability study shuttle orbiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies of the habitability of the space shuttle orbiter are briefly summarized. Selected illustrations and descriptions are presented for: crew compartment, hygiene facilities, food system and galley, and storage systems.

1972-01-01

116

Social Cognitive Correlates of Leisure Time Physical Activity Among Latinos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the well-documented benefits of leisure time physical activity, Latinos are reported to be highest among all ethnic groups in leisure time inactivity. The present study examined the relationship between leisure time physical activity and exercise self-efficacy, exercise barriers self-efficacy, exercise social support, and perceived importance of physical activity. Data were obtained from 153 Latinos (n = 86 female, n

David X. Marquez; Edward McAuley

2006-01-01

117

Self-reported reading as a predictor of vocabulary knowledge.  

PubMed

25 engineering students in India, who were highly motivated to improve their English, filled out a questionnaire about their reading habits in English and took a demanding vocabulary test based on words taken from preparation books for the Graduate Records Examination. The correlation between reading habits and vocabulary was substantial (r = .78). PMID:24611248

Pratheeba, N; Krashen, S

2013-10-01

118

NASA: Habitable Worlds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's Habitable Worlds website encourages visitors to "search the solar system for signs of life," by selecting a "World to Explore." This creatively designed website smartly displays our solar system's colorful planets or worlds amidst the dark background of space. In order to gain in-depth information specific to each planet, users simply click on the world of their choosing. Each planet page provides beautiful images and information about habitability, moons, and more.

119

Social relationships, leisure activity, and health in older adults.  

PubMed

Objective: Although the link between enhanced social relationships and better health has generally been well established, few studies have examined the role of leisure activity in this link. This study examined how leisure influences the link between social relationships and health in older age. Method: Using data from the 2006 and 2010 waves of the nationally representative U.S. Health and Retirement Study and structural equation modeling analyses, we examined data on 2,965 older participants to determine if leisure activities mediated the link between social relationships and health in 2010, controlling for race, education level, and health in 2006. Results: The results demonstrated that leisure activities mediate the link between social relationships and health in these age groups. Perceptions of positive social relationships were associated with greater involvement in leisure activities, and greater involvement in leisure activities was associated with better health in older age. Conclusion: The contribution of leisure to health in these age groups is receiving increasing attention, and the results of this study add to the literature on this topic, by identifying the mediating effect of leisure activity on the link between social relationships and health. Future studies aimed at increasing leisure activity may contribute to improved health outcomes in older adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24884905

Chang, Po-Ju; Wray, Linda; Lin, Yeqiang

2014-06-01

120

Weather impacts on leisure activities in Halifax, Nova Scotia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of daily atmospheric weather conditions on daily leisure activity engagement, with a focus on physically active leisure. The methods capitalize on time diary data that were collected in Halifax, Nova Scotia to calculate objective measures of leisure activity engagement. Daily meteorological data from Environment Canada and daily sunrise and sunset times from the National Research Council of Canada are used to develop objective measures of the natural atmospheric environment. The time diary data were merged with the meteorological data in order to quantify the statistical association between daily weather conditions and the type, participation rate, frequency, and duration of leisure activity engagement. The results indicate that inclement and uncomfortable weather conditions, especially relating to thermal comfort and mechanical comfort, pose barriers to physically active leisure engagement, while promoting sedentary and home-based leisure activities. Overall, daily weather conditions exhibit modest, but significant, effects on leisure activity engagement; the strongest associations being for outdoor active sports and outdoor active leisure time budgets. In conclusion, weather conditions influence the type, participation rate, frequency, and duration of leisure activity engagement, which is an important consideration for health-promotion programming.

Spinney, Jamie E. L.; Millward, Hugh

2011-03-01

121

High on Habits  

PubMed Central

The neural circuits involved in learning and executing goal-directed actions, which are governed by action-outcome contingencies and sensitive to changes in the expected value of the outcome, have been shown to be different from those mediating habits, which are less dependent on action-outcome relations and changes in outcome value. Extended training, different reinforcement schedules, and substances of abuse have been shown to induce a shift from goal-directed performance to habitual performance. This shift can be beneficial in everyday life, but can also lead to loss of voluntary control and compulsive behavior, namely during drug seeking in addiction. Although the brain circuits underlying habit formation are becoming clearer, the molecular mechanisms underlying habit formation are still not understood. Here, we review a recent study where Hilario et al. (2007) established behavioral procedures to investigate habit formation in mice in order to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying habit formation. Using those procedures, and a combination of genetic and pharmacological tools, the authors showed that endocannabinoid signaling is critical for habit formation.

Hilario, Monica R. F.; Costa, Rui M.

2008-01-01

122

Psychometric Evidence for the Leisure Interest Questionnaire and Analyses of the Structure of Leisure Interests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study provides evidence of reliability and validity for the Leisure Interest Questionnaire (LIQ; J. C. Hansen, 1998). Undergraduate students completed the LIQ and Strong Interest Inventory (SII; E. K. Strong Jr., 1927) at Time 1 and the LIQ 5 weeks later. The internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the LIQ scales were calculated.…

Hansen, Jo-Ida C.; Scullard, Mark G.

2002-01-01

123

Leisure Today: Leisure and Special Populations--Satisfaction, Enrichment, and Hope.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of nine articles discusses how to meet the leisure needs of diverse populations, focusing on pluralism and gang prevention, children and AIDS, socialization for the homeless, homosexual youth, the unemployed, recovering alcoholics, adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse, and Vietnam veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. (SM)

Raymond, Lisa Pesavento; And Others

1992-01-01

124

Training for Leisure. Flexible Training Packages for Operatives in Leisure-Related Industries. Part 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project was designed to identify and define training needs at the operative level in the sport, leisure, and recreation industry in the United Kingdom. The industry is attracting increasing attention in further education (FE) as a result of rapid development. The industry, however, is diverse. Provision of FE must be flexible if it is to meet…

Hunt, Merle; Specht, Carolynne

125

The place of leisure facilities in the provision of public leisure services  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recognizing that the primary reason for the public provision of leisure facilities in Great Britain has been the rectification of perceived allocational imperfections in the competitive market, this paper examines the extent to which government responses have ameliorated the effects of these imperfections. Since 1960, the response of successive British Governments has been organized around the Sport For All

Neil Ravenscroft

1991-01-01

126

Leisure Patterns and Health Among Recently Widowed Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine how leisure involvement changes with the transition to widowhood and to determine if change in leisure involvement during this time has an impact on widows' physical and mental health. Adults age 50 and older who had transitioned into widowhood between Waves 1 and 2 or Waves 2 and 3 of the Americans'

Megan C. Janke; Galit Nimrod; Douglas A. Kleiber

2008-01-01

127

Baccalaureate Programs in Recreation, Park Resources, and Leisure Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a listing of baccalaureate programs in recreation, park resources, and leisure services that are accredited by the National Recreation and Park Association/American Association of Leisure and Recreation Council on Accreditation. Listings are alphabetical by state and present contact name, address, telephone, fax, email, website,…

Parks & Recreation, 2001

2001-01-01

128

The Leisure Activities of Mental Patients Prior to Hospitalization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To study the leisure activities, social participation, and organizational participation of mental patients before hospital admission, a three-part research instrument was developed consisting of a structured interview schedule requesting information on the patient's leisure activities, a self-administered questionnaire entitled Survey of Opinions…

Babow, Irving; Simkin, Sol

129

Linking Leisure Interests to the RIASEC World of Work Map  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study presents an interpretive framework for linking leisure interests, measured by the Leisure Interest Questionnaire (LIQ), to J. L. Holland's (1997) circumplex model of the world of work. Published data representing correlations between the LIQ and Holland's RIASEC interest types were obtained from Hansen and Scullard (2002).…

Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Rounds, James

2008-01-01

130

Leisure and Liberal Education: A Plea for Uselessness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One cannot promote liberal education and ignore the fundamental tension that exists between leisure and utility. "To aim at utility everywhere," Aristotle writes, "is utterly unbecoming to high-minded and liberal spirits." Thus, the author's plea for leisure, for "uselessness," is a plea for the revitalization of liberal education. The purpose of…

Jalbert, John E.

2009-01-01

131

Intermountain Leisure Symposium (8th, Ogden, Utah, November 19, 1987).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contained in this conference report are 22 selected papers presented at a symposium of leisure and recreation professionals. Titles and authors are: (1) "Ethics in Recreation and Leisure Services" (S. Harold Smith); (2) "Growing Opportunities: The Aging Population Market" (Nila M. Ipson); (3) "The Myth of Comfort" (Daniel L. Dustin); (4) "Golf as…

Nelson, Dennis A., Ed.

132

A Qualitative Look at Leisure Benefits for Taiwanese Nursing Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine attitudes of first year nursing students toward leisure participation at the Jen-Te Junior College of Medicine Nursing and Management in Miao-Li, Taiwan. The three research questions used for this study were: What types of leisure activities do first year nursing students at Jen-Te Junior College…

Hsieh, Shwu-Ching; Spaulding, Angela; Riney, Mark

2004-01-01

133

Leisure Role of Public Libraries: A Historical Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Leisure has been contested as a valid role of public libraries in the UK since their introduction in 1850 yet it has been a major reason for the public's use of libraries. Where the educational role and information provision function of libraries have been seen as purposeful and worthwhile, the leisure role has been generally valued less with the…

Hayes, Emma; Morris, Anne

2005-01-01

134

Leadership for Recreation, Parks, and Leisure Services. Fourth Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Leadership for Recreation, Parks and Leisure Services" presents new perspectives on the importance of leadership in the profession. Integrating theory with practice, the book provides foundational perspectives in the study of leadership at all levels--direct service, supervisory, managerial and community/civic--in recreation, parks and leisure…

Edginton, Christopher R.; Hudson, Susan D.; Scholl, Kathleen G.; Lauzon, Lara

2011-01-01

135

A Conceptual Framework for Leisure and Subjective Well-Being  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine a conceptual framework for an individual's subjective perception of leisure that contributes to Subjective Well-Being (SWB). More specifically, this study was an attempt to examine causal relationships among social cognitive variables, subjective perception of leisure, and SWB. A survey was administered to…

Kim, Byunggook

2009-01-01

136

Tinnitus induced by occupational and leisure noise.  

PubMed

Noise exposure is the most common cause of tinnitus. Noise induced permanent tinnitus (NIPT) can derive from occupational noise exposure, leisure noise or acoustic trauma. In general NIPT is high - pitched and tonal. The most common observed frequency of tinnitus on pitch matching is the same as the worst frequency for hearing. The sensation level of NIPT is usually low and sometimes negative. There is no correlation of significance between the discomfort caused by NIPT and audiometric findings. In occupational NIPT the interval between the start of noisy work and the appearance of tinnitus is long (many years) but with leisure noise and acoustic trauma the interval between exposure and tinnitus is frequently very short (immediate). It is a problem that the incidence of musically induced tinnitus is increasingly more common. It is also a much greater handicap for a young individual to suffer from tinnitus than from a small high tone hearing loss. Much more attention needs to be given to improve these matters. The treatment of NIPT is not different from tinnitus treatment in general. PMID:12689461

Axelsson, Alf; Prasher, Deepak

2000-01-01

137

Need for closure and youths' leisure time preferences.  

PubMed

The Need for Closure is an individual characteristic which may help explain individual differences in engagement in leisure activities. Both a leisure engagement inventory and a validated Dutch version of the Need for Closure Scale were administered to a convenient sample of 1,035 young adults ages 15 to 24 years of whom 552 were female. Leisure engagement was hypothesized to differ for groups differing in Need for Closure. More specifically, youngsters who score high (versus low) on Need for Closure engaged more in structured, cognitively effortless, and predictable leisure activities like shopping for fun and going to the cinema, while young adults scoring low (versus high) on Need for Closure more often participated in unstructured, unpredictable, cognitively effortful or challenging leisure activities like going to a party, a pub, or a pop concert, idly lazing away, visiting or hosting friends, attending an evening class and playing computer games. PMID:16796103

Vermeir, Iris; Geuens, Maggie

2006-04-01

138

Effects of Type A Personality and Leisure Ethic on Chinese College Students' Leisure Activities and Academic Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an earlier laboratory experiment using university students in the United States, Tang and Baumeister (1984) examined the effects of the Leisure Ethic, Type A personality, and task labels on subjects' task performance. The results showed that the interaction between Leisure Ethic endorsement and task label was significant among Type A…

Tang, Thomas Li-Ping

139

Choosing Heart Healthy Habits  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... player. Choosing Heart Healthy Habits HealthDay July 8, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Coronary Artery Disease Heart Diseases--Prevention Transcript Young adults who improve their lifestyle can enter middle age with a healthier heart new research suggests. In fact those who eat better, slim ...

140

Europa: Processes and Habitability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Europa may be a habitable world. Evidence points strongly to a subsurface ocean beneath an ice shell about 20 km thick. Europa's surface geology as viewed by Galileo imaging suggests a thin brittle lithosphere above a warm ice layer that is at least in part convecting, in turn situated above a liquid water ocean. This configuration is consistent with thermal

R. T. Pappalardo

2006-01-01

141

Habitability Of Europa's Crust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical characterization of Europa's crust shows it to be rich in potentially habitable niches, with several timescales for change that would allow stability for organisms to prosper and still require and drive evolution and adaptation. Studies of tectonics on Europa indicate that tidal stress causes much of the surface cracking, that cracks pen- etrate through to liquid water (so the

R. Greenberg; B. R. Tufts; P. Geissler; G. Hoppa

2002-01-01

142

Television Viewing and Reading. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for administrators and policymakers as well as teachers, this digest explores the relationship between television viewing habits and reading achievement. The digest first examines recent research indicating a negative relationship between television viewing in excess of ten hours and reading performance. The digest next focuses on the…

Lehr, Fran

143

"Aspire!" A Summer Program in Reading Enrichment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a high school summer reading program that was developed to encourage a lifelong habit of reading for pleasure by assembling a booklist of fiction and nonfiction titles, each sponsored by an administrator or teacher who then led a discussion of that book in the fall. (LRW)

Tanis, Robin S.

2003-01-01

144

The Rise of E-Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The growing popularity of e-books and the adoption of specialized e-book reading devices are documented in a series of new nationally representative surveys by the Pew Research Center's Internet & American Life Project that look at the public's general reading habits, their consumption of print books, e-books and audiobooks, and their attitudes…

Rainie, Lee; Zickuhr, Kathryn; Purcell, Kristen; Madden, Mary; Brenner, Joanna

2012-01-01

145

A continuum of leisure studies and professional specialties: what if no connections exist?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invited paper provides thoughts about the relationship between leisure and leisure studies contrasted with professional specialty foci such as tourism, parks and recreation, event management, sport management and other related areas. A continuum is proposed, with leisure studies and professional specialties as the two anchors of the spectrum. The future of fields of leisure studies and professional specialties may

Karla A. Henderson

2011-01-01

146

Predicting Substance Use Behavior among South African Adolescents: The Role of Leisure Experiences across Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using seven waves of data, collected twice a year from the 8th through the 11th grades in a low-resource community in Cape Town, South Africa, we aimed to describe the developmental trends in three specific leisure experiences (leisure boredom, new leisure interests, and healthy leisure) and substance use (cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana)…

Sharp, Erin Hiley; Coffman, Donna L.; Caldwell, Linda L.; Smith, Edward A.; Wegner, Lisa; Vergnani, Tania; Mathews, Catherine

2011-01-01

147

Leisure Skills Instruction for Adolescents with Severe or Profound Developmental Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation (a multiple probe design across behaviors) analyzed the effectiveness of a constant time delay procedure in teaching leisure skills to adolescents with severe or profound developmental disabilities. Data collected on specific dependent variables indicated increases in participants' approaches toward available leisure materials, choices made, appropriate use of leisure materials, and duration of sustained attention to leisure activities as

Maureen E. Wall; David L. Gast; Pamela A. Royston

1999-01-01

148

Benefits of volunteering as campus tour guides: the rewards of serious leisure revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the benefits received by university students who volunteered as campus tour guides in their leisure time. Past leisure research on the benefits of volunteering mainly adopted the serious leisure framework. Although most studies supported the framework, others extended or refined it, indicating the potential for improvement. Volunteering can be a beneficial leisure activity for university students, but

Xinyi Lisa Qian; Careen Yarnal

2010-01-01

149

Decoding, Reading, and Reading Disability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To clarify the role of decoding in reading and reading disability, a model of reading is proposed, which holds that reading equals the product of decoding and comprehension. Three types of reading disability are posited, resulting from an inability to decode (dyslexia), an inability to comprehend (hyperlexia), or both (reading disability).…

Gough, Philip B.; Tunmer, William E.

1986-01-01

150

Predicting substance use behavior among South African adolescents: The role of leisure experiences across time  

PubMed Central

Using seven waves of data, collected twice a year from the 8th through the 11th grades in a low-resource community in Cape Town, South Africa, we aimed to describe the developmental trends in three specific leisure experiences (leisure boredom, new leisure interests, and healthy leisure) and substance use (cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana) behaviors and to investigate the ways in which changes in leisure experiences predict changes in substance use behaviors over time. Results indicated that adolescents’ substance use increased significantly across adolescence, but that leisure experiences remained fairly stable over time. We also found that adolescent leisure experiences predicted baseline substance use and that changes in leisure experiences predicted changes in substance use behaviors over time, with leisure boredom emerging as the most consistent and strongest predictor of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use. Implications for interventions that target time use and leisure experiences are discussed.

Sharp, Erin Hiley; Coffman, Donna L.; Caldwell, Linda L.; Smith, Edward A.; Wegner, Lisa; Vergnani, Tania; Mathews, Catherine

2012-01-01

151

Non-at-Risk Adolescents' Attitudes towards Reading in a Singapore Secondary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we examine the various nuanced dimensions of adolescents' dispositions towards reading in one secondary school in Singapore, where a high-stakes examination culture often threatens to colonise the practices of leisure reading. Our focus is on the better and more avid readers as they were the ones that developed the more negative…

Bokhorst-Heng, Wendy; Pereira, Delfin

2008-01-01

152

The Galactic Habitable Zone  

ScienceCinema

We propose the concept of a "Galactic Habitable Zone" (GHZ). Similar to the circumstellar habitable zone (CHZ), the GHZ is that region in a spiral galaxy where life can exist. The width of the GHZ is controlled by two factors. The inner (closest to the center of the galaxy) limit is set by threats to complex life: nearby transient sources of ionizing radiation and comet impacts. Such threats tend to increase close to the galactic center. The outer limit is imposed by galactic chemical evolution, specifically the abundance of heavier elements. Observation of stars in the Milky Way galaxy suggests that the outer reaches of a spiral galaxy may be too poor in heavy elements to allow terrestrial complex life to exist.

153

Exoplanets, extremophiles and habitability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimates of the average surface temperature and CO2 partial atmospheric pressure of already discovered exoplanets supposed to be in their Habitable Zone of their stars were surveyed from the Exoplanet Encyclopedia database. Moreover, since planetary surface temperature strongly depends on its albedo and geodynamic conditions, we have been feeding exoplanetary data into a comprehensive model of Earth's atmosphere to get better estimations. We also investigated the possible presence of "exomoons" belonging to giant planets capable of harbour dynamic stability and to retain atmospheric layers and keep geodynamic activity for long time spans. Collected information on biological data of micro-organisms classified as "extremophiles" indicate that such kind of microbial species could dwell in many of them. We thus propose an extension of the more astronomically defined "Habitable Zone" concept into the more astrobiologically "Extremophile Zone", taking into account other refined parameters allowing survival of more robust life forms.

Janot Pacheco, E.; Bernardes, L.

2012-09-01

154

Reading Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reading program (K-12) of the Bloomington Public Schools, Bloomington, Minnesota, is defined and described. The program revolves around four major divisions: developmental reading, supplementary reading, library reading, and remedial reading. These major divisions are discussed relative to specific purposes, organization, materials, and…

Bloomington Public Schools, MN.

155

Free Reading Is a Simple Idea, But It Works!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Class time devoted to individual reading is a simple, effective means of improving reading motivation in junior high schools. In order to guide students to books that they will enjoy, the teacher needs to know (1) the students' reading habits, abilities, and interests, and (2) the library facilities available. A good paperback library can be…

Fleitz, Jeanette; Harman, Ronald

1969-01-01

156

Leisurely Lesbians in a Small City in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past two decades, particularly in post-industrial societies, the geographies of gay men’s and, to a lesser extent,\\u000a gay women’s lives have received considerable research attention. A central research interest has been the mapping of gay geographies\\u000a of leisure. There are, however, fewer studies in the academic record about gay leisure geographies in the developing world\\u000a context, particularly in

Gustav Visser

2010-01-01

157

In Their Own Words: What Elementary Students Have to Say about Motivation to Read.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines elementary students' reading preferences, habits, and behaviors. Reveals four powerful influences on elementary students' motivation to read: prior experiences with books, social interactions about books, book access, and book choice. (SR)

Palmer, Barbara Martin; And Others

1994-01-01

158

Physical activity during leisure and commuting in Tianjin, China.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To investigate physical activity during leisure time and commuting among persons aged 15-69 years in the urban population of Tianjin, China, and to assess its associations with demographic and health-related characteristics. METHODS: In 1996 a cross-sectional survey of 2002 males and 1974 females provided information on physical activity during leisure time and commuting and on demographics and health behaviours. FINDINGS: No leisure-time physical activity was engaged in by 67% of females and 61% of males. However, only 4% of females and 9% of males reported an absence of physical activity during commuting. The mean duration of leisure-time physical activity for the whole population was about 10 min per day. The average commuting time on foot or by bicycle was about 30 min. Leisure-time physical activity was more frequent among highly educated people, people with high incomes, white-collar workers, married people, non-smokers, or people commuting on foot or by bicycle than among other people. Persons with low incomes, male blue-collar workers and married people were more likely than others to engage in 30 min or more per day of physical activity on foot or by bicycle when commuting. CONCLUSION: People in Tianjin engaged in a high level of physical activity when commuting and a low level of leisure-time physical activity.

Hu, Gang; Pekkarinen, Heikki; Hanninen, Osmo; Yu, Zhijie; Tian, Huiguang; Guo, Zeyu; Nissinen, Aulikki

2002-01-01

159

Leisure Activities, Caregiving Demands, and Catecholamine Levels in Dementia Caregivers  

PubMed Central

This study examined whether satisfaction from leisure activities moderates the relationship between caregiving demands (i.e., hours per day spent caring for a spouse with dementia) and resting levels of the catecholamines norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI). Spousal caregivers (N=107; mean age 73.95±8.12 years) were assessed in home for plasma levels of NE and EPI, amount of care provided, and leisure satisfaction. Regression was used to determine whether leisure satisfaction moderated the relationship between hours providing care per day and catecholamine levels. A significant interaction was found between hours caregiving and leisure satisfaction for NE, but not for EPI. Post hoc regressions were conducted for both NE and EPI. At low leisure satisfaction, time spent caring for a spouse was positively associated with plasma NE (? = .41; p = .005) and EPI (? = .44; p = .003). In contrast, at high levels of satisfaction, time caregiving was not significantly associated with plasma NE (? = ?.08; p = .57) or EPI (? = .23; p = .12). These findings suggest that leisure satisfaction may protect caregivers from increases in catecholamines, which have been implicated in cardiovascular risk. Further support for these findings may impact psychological treatments for distressed caregivers.

Chattillion, Elizabeth A.; Mausbach, Brent T.; Roepke, Susan K.; von Kanel, Roland; Mills, Paul J.; Dimsdale, Joel E.; Allison, Matthew; Ziegler, Michael G.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Grant, Igor

2012-01-01

160

Leisure activities, caregiving demands and catecholamine levels in dementia caregivers.  

PubMed

This study examined whether satisfaction from leisure activities moderates the relationship between caregiving demands (i.e., hours per day spent caring for a spouse with dementia) and resting levels of the catecholamines norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI). Spousal caregivers (n?=?107; mean age?=?73.95?±?8.12 years) were assessed in home for plasma levels of NE and EPI, amount of care provided, and leisure satisfaction. Regression was used to determine whether leisure satisfaction moderated the relationship between hours providing care per day and catecholamine levels. A significant interaction was found between hours caregiving and leisure satisfaction for NE, but not for EPI. Post hoc regressions were conducted for both NE and EPI. At low leisure satisfaction, time spent caring for a spouse was positively associated with plasma NE (??=?0.41; p?=?0.005) and EPI (??=?0.44; p?=?0.003). In contrast, at high levels of satisfaction, time caregiving was not significantly associated with plasma NE (??=?-0.08; p?=?0.57) or EPI (??=?0.23; p?=?0.12). These findings suggest that leisure satisfaction may protect caregivers from increases in catecholamines, which have been implicated in cardiovascular risk. Further support for these findings may impact psychological treatments for distressed caregivers. PMID:22149759

Chattillion, Elizabeth A; Mausbach, Brent T; Roepke, Susan K; von Känel, Roland; Mills, Paul J; Dimsdale, Joel E; Allison, Matthew; Ziegler, Michael G; Patterson, Thomas L; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Grant, Igor

2012-01-01

161

Incentives: The Effects on Reading Attitude and Reading Behaviors of Third-Grade Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether third grade literacy students who receive incentive rewards as part of their instruction will exhibit significantly higher reading habits and attitudes toward recreational reading than they did before the incentives were introduced. The study examined 19 third grade students with fairly high…

Stanfield, Gayle M.

2006-01-01

162

Toward Dynamic Assessment of Reading: Applying Metacognitive Awareness Guidance to Reading Assessment Tasks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tests the effect of using written metacognitive awareness guidance (MCAG) as a tool for activating and engaging learners'"Habits of Mind" while processing authentic reading assessment tasks taken from Israeli kits of assessment tasks. Confirms that applying metacognitive awareness guidance to reading assessment tasks makes a difference in the…

Guterman, Eva

2002-01-01

163

Leisure Effects on the Family & Family Effects on Leisure Services. Proceedings of the AALR/AAHPERD Pre-convention Symposium (Anaheim, California, March 29, 1984).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The seven papers in this document were presented at a symposium on the family and leisure: (1) "The Humane Human Experience" (Ron Mendell); (2) "Leisure Education: The Role of the Parent in Family Education" (David J. Staniford); (3) "Leisure and the Family: Toward Some Phenomenological Understanding" (Joseph Levy; Adrianne Gilbert; Christine…

Smith, S. Harold, Ed.; Gray, Howard R., Ed.

164

Computer codes for evaluation of control room habitability (HABIT)  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the Computer Codes for Evaluation of Control Room Habitability (HABIT). HABIT is a package of computer codes designed to be used for the evaluation of control room habitability in the event of an accidental release of toxic chemicals or radioactive materials. Given information about the design of a nuclear power plant, a scenario for the release of toxic chemicals or radionuclides, and information about the air flows and protection systems of the control room, HABIT can be used to estimate the chemical exposure or radiological dose to control room personnel. HABIT is an integrated package of several programs that previously needed to be run separately and required considerable user intervention. This report discusses the theoretical basis and physical assumptions made by each of the modules in HABIT and gives detailed information about the data entry windows. Sample runs are given for each of the modules. A brief section of programming notes is included. A set of computer disks will accompany this report if the report is ordered from the Energy Science and Technology Software Center. The disks contain the files needed to run HABIT on a personal computer running DOS. Source codes for the various HABIT routines are on the disks. Also included are input and output files for three demonstration runs.

Stage, S.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1996-06-01

165

Trojans in habitable zones.  

PubMed

With the aid of numerical experiments we examined the dynamical stability of fictitious terrestrial planets in 1:1 mean motion resonance with Jovian-like planets of extrasolar planetary systems. In our stability study of the so-called "Trojan" planets in the habitable zone, we used the restricted three-body problem with different mass ratios of the primary bodies. The application of the three-body problem showed that even massive Trojan planets can be stable in the 1:1 mean motion resonance. From the 117 extrasolar planetary systems only 11 systems were found with one giant planet in the habitable zone. Out of this sample set we chose four planetary systems--HD17051, HD27442, HD28185, and HD108874--for further investigation. To study the orbital behavior of the stable zone in the different systems, we used direct numerical computations (Lie Integration Method) that allowed us to determine the escape times and the maximum eccentricity of the fictitious "Trojan planets." PMID:16225431

Schwarz, Richard; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Dvorak, Rudolf; Erdi, Balint; Sándor, Zsolt

2005-10-01

166

Are screen-based sedentary behaviors longitudinally associated with dietary behaviors and leisure-time physical activity in the transition into adolescence?  

PubMed Central

Background There is a need for more longitudinal studies investigating the associations between screen-based sedentary behaviors (SB), dietary behaviors and leisure-time physical activity (PA). Methods In the HEIA cohort study, 908 children were followed from age 11 to age 13 (September 2007 – May 2009). The children self-reported their intake of fruits, vegetables, soft drinks with sugar and snacks. TV/DVD use, computer/game use and leisure-time PA were also self-reported. Multilevel generalized linear mixed model analysis was used to assess longitudinal associations between the screen-based SB and each of the two other behaviors. Results Twenty-month changes in TV/DVD use and computer/game use were positively associated with changes in the consumption of soft drinks with sugar and unhealthy snacks in the same period; and inversely associated with change in vegetable consumption. Change in computer/game use was also inversely related to change in fruit consumption. An inverse but non-substantive association was found between change in TV/DVD use and change in leisure-time PA. Change in computer/game use was not significantly associated with change in leisure-time PA. Conclusions Changes in screen-based SB were associated with multiple unfavorable changes in dietary habits, although the associations were weak. These associations need to be further investigated in intervention/experimental studies, to assess whether changing screen-based SB will result in clinically relevant changes in dietary behaviors. However, the findings of this study suggest that screen-based SB and leisure-time PA are largely independent behaviors which should be addressed separately in health promotion activities.

2013-01-01

167

The contribution of active and passive leisure to children's well-being.  

PubMed

The relation between leisure and well-being, including happiness and self-concept, was examined in 375 children aged 8-12 years. Active leisure (e.g. physical activity) was positively correlated with well-being. Passive leisure (e.g. television and video games) was negatively correlated with well-being. Aspects of active leisure (e.g. the importance of sport to the child and how sports made the child feel) as judged by both parents and children accounted for unique variance in children's wellbeing; passive leisure did not. Similar to previous research on adolescents and adults, active leisure activities were related to children's well-being. PMID:19293299

Holder, Mark D; Coleman, Benjamin; Sehn, Zoë L

2009-04-01

168

Reading Rituals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Ogden, Utah schools have used the mandates of the federal Reading First grant program to transform reading instruction and student achievement in low-performing schools. Reading First was approved by Congress in 2001 under the No Child Left Behind Act to bring scientifically based reading methods and materials to struggling schools. The $1…

Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

2007-01-01

169

Reading Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes school-district efforts to improve their reading programs through commitment to staff development, ranging from keeping their basic approach to reading but investing in additional training to starting from scratch with new training session and new approaches to reading. Describes federal government interest in research-based reading…

Harrington-Lueker, Donna

2002-01-01

170

Reading Aloud  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chapter addresses some of the research supporting the importance of reading aloud, tips to make your read-aloud time more valuable, descriptions of Harvey and Goudvis's six key reading strategies (2000), and tools you can use to enhance students' comprehension during read-aloud time.

Morgan, Emily; Ansberry, Karen

2007-01-01

171

Reading Comics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many adults, even librarians who willingly add comics to their collections, often dismiss the importance of comics. Compared to reading "real" books, reading comics appears to be a simple task and compared to reading no books, reading comics might be preferable. After all, comics do have words, but the plentiful pictures seem to carry most of the…

Tilley, Carol L.

2008-01-01

172

One Simple Habit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article recommends that teachers create a Personal Teaching Record as the first step in getting (and staying) organized. The author suggests that teachers create a page that can be duplicated for each week of the school year, listing each of the teaching areas (math, reading, social studies, art, music, etc.) and placing the date at the top.…

Bafumo, Mary Ellen

2004-01-01

173

Preterm birth and leisure participation: a synthesis of the literature.  

PubMed

Leisure participation has been associated with happiness and well-being in children. Individuals born preterm are at greater risk for motor, cognitive and behavioral difficulties which may contribute to difficulties participating in leisure activities. This systematic review examined the current knowledge on participation in leisure activities in individuals born preterm throughout the lifespan as compared to term born controls. An electronic search of eight databases for articles published up to October 2011 was conducted. The quality of each study was assessed using a standardized checklist. Thirteen studies met the selection criteria. In school-age children, no significant differences were found in activity levels between children born prematurely and term born controls. In adolescents, leisure scores in social activities, hobbies and sports were statistically significantly lower compared to controls. In young adults, differences in frequency and intensity of physical activity were reported compared to term controls. Promoting participation in leisure activities should be encouraged at a young age and continued to adulthood by minimizing the gaps between capabilities and the demands of the tasks and the environment. PMID:22502847

Dahan-Oliel, Noémi; Mazer, Barbara; Majnemer, Annette

2012-01-01

174

Analysis on leisure patterns of the pre-elderly adults  

PubMed Central

The purpose of study is to analyze how leisure activities affect the near elders’ preparation for successful and productive aging. To achieve the purpose of the study, this study was conducted in 2012 and the data was collected by using multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling method in the great city area (6 places), metropolitan area (7 places), medium-sized urban area (6 places), and rural area (6 places). Out of the total number of 1,000 copies of questionnaire distributed to pre-elders (Baby-boomers from 55 yr to 64 yr), 978 were collected and used for data analysis. According to the result, the more time, frequency and intensity in leisure and recreational participation, the higher the satisfaction level and the happiness level in their life. It means that leisure and recreational activities play an important role for their life. In other words, for pre-elders, leisure activities can be regarded as the important element for preparation of their old age. Therefore, the leisure and recreation for pre-elderly adults should not be recognized as a tool for improving the economic productivity but for reinforcing the recovery resilience.

Cho, Gun-Sang; Yi, Eun-Surk

2013-01-01

175

Commentary: Can Free Reading Take You All The Way? A Response to Cobb (2007)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cobb (2007) argues that free reading cannot provide L2 readers with sufficient opportunities for acquiring vocabulary in order to reach an adequate level of reading comprehension of English texts. In this paper, the authors argue that (1) Cobb severely underestimates the amount of reading even a very modest reading habit would afford L2 readers,…

McQuillan, Jeff; Krashen, Stephen D.

2008-01-01

176

How Common are Habitable Planets?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth is teeming with life, which, occupies a diverse array of environments; other bodies in our Solar System offer fewer, if any, niches which are habitable by life as we know it. Nonetheless, astronomical studies suggest that a large number of habitable planets-are likely to be present within our Galaxy.

Lissauer, Jack J.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

177

Leisure noise exposure in adolescents and young adults  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many efforts have been made in recent times to combat occupational noise exposure, and noise preventive measures in many industries seem promising. Less positive, however, are noise exposure situations during leisure time activities. New noisy leisure activities are cropping up, and sound levels appear to have increased over the years. There is thus reason for concern over such noisy activities as listening to "walkman" devices, pop/rock concerts and car stereos, and being present at motor sports and shooting activities. Luckily, however, there seem not to be many reported cases of noise-induced hearing loss which can be clearly related to such leisure activities. In addition, recent animal experiments have shown that there is a possibility that the ear can be trained toward increased noise resistance. Nevertheless, general attitudes should be in favor of lowering the sound levels now found in connection with these activities.

Axelsson, A.

1991-12-01

178

The role of leisure within the dementia context.  

PubMed

While our understanding of the subjective experience of dementia is growing, leisure's role within that experience is less clear. This study, guided by hermeneutic phenomenology, aimed to understand the meaning and experience of leisure for persons living with early stage memory loss. Four participants with early stage dementia participated in interviews, participant observation, and photovoice, in which participants are given cameras and asked to take photos of their day to day lives (Wang, 1999). Data revealed that participants experienced daily life with dementia, including leisure, within a paradox of challenge and hope. They struggled with the changes they experienced as a result of dementia, such as muddled thinking, fluctuating abilities, draining energy, frightening awareness, and disquieting emotions. However, they found ways to tackle life with dementia, by reconciling life as it is, battling through by being proactive, living through relationships, being optimistic, and prolonging engagement in meaningful activity to live their lives with hope. PMID:24381038

Genoe, M Rebecca; Dupuis, Sherry L

2014-01-01

179

Reading Aloud  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many resources are available to elementary teachers who wish to support science learning with literature. Unfortunately, somewhere between middle school and high school, the emphasis on using literature to teach science content--particularly the exercise of reading aloud--has all but disappeared. However, the practice of reading aloud is helpful because most students have higher listening comprehension than reading comprehension (Trelease 2006)--low-reading level students, English language learners, and auditory learners in particular, tend to understand what they hear better than what they read. This article provides suggestions for including the practice of reading aloud in the high school science classroom.

Delo, Lynda

2008-07-01

180

Leisure time activities in teenagers in urban and rural areas.  

PubMed

The work aimed to determine the leisure time activities in teenagers on weekdays, weekends, during winter and summer holidays. Vast majority of teenagers spend their leisure time resting in a passive way, i.e. watching TV or playing computer games irrespectively of the season. As a result of this, the number of kids with posture defects increase. On weekdays the country teenagers spend much more time doing outdoor sports and games than town children. They also more often help their parents and less frequently travel away from their homes than children living in towns. PMID:12898947

Borzecki, Andrzej; Nieradko, Barbara; Gnas?, Bogumi?a; Sieklucka-Dziuba, Maria

2002-01-01

181

Relationship between ethnic backgrounds, family socioeconomic status, leisure participation, and psychological well-being.  

PubMed

Relations between ethnic backgrounds, family socioeconomic status, leisure participation, and psychological well-being were explored. Participants returned 827 valid pencil-and-paper surveys. An increase in student-athlete leisure participation was associated with better psychological well-being and sense of accomplishment. Compared with Aboriginal student-athletes, Han student-athletes had higher passive leisure participation; there was no correlation between their families' socioeconomic status and the student-athletes' leisure participation or psychological well-being. PMID:24611242

Hung, Hank; Lee, Chia Wen

2013-10-01

182

Virtual reality as a leisure activity for young adults with physical and intellectual disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participation in leisure activities is a fundamental human right and an important factor of quality of life. Adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) and physical disabilities often experience limited opportunities to participate in leisure activities, virtual reality (VR) technologies may serve to broaden their repertoire of accessible leisure activities. Although the use of VR in rehabilitation has grown over the past

Shira Yalon-Chamovitz

2008-01-01

183

From economic theory to leisure practice via empirics: the case of demand and price  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the relationship of price and demand being central to economic analysis, doubts have been expressed in leisure studies about the ability of economists to contribute meaningfully to price decisions in leisure, or even to an understanding of price-demand relationships in leisure. This article uses a review of relevant theoretical and empirical considerations and a recent empirical investigation to refute

Chris Gratton; Peter Taylor

1995-01-01

184

Patterns and Determinants of Leisure Participation of Youth and Adults with Developmental Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: People with developmental disabilities are at high risk for a limited participation in leisure activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the participation in, preference for and interest in leisure activities of young and adults with developmental disabilities, and to examine the factors associated with leisure activity.…

Badia, M.; Orgaz, M. B.; Verdugo, M. A.; Ullan, A. M.

2013-01-01

185

Expressions of Generativity through Family Leisure: Experiences of Grandparents and Adult Grandchildren  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to understand the expression of generativity among grandparents and their adult grandchildren through their experiences of family leisure. Fourteen dyads of grandparents and adult grandchildren were interviewed about their experience of family leisure. The findings illustrate the important role that family leisure…

Hebblethwaite, Shannon; Norris, Joan

2011-01-01

186

Role Overload, Job Satisfaction, Leisure Satisfaction, and Psychological Health among Employed Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Role overload, job satisfaction, leisure satisfaction, and psychological health were measured for 155 women who were employed full time. Role overload was negatively correlated with psychological health, job satisfaction, and leisure satisfaction. Job satisfaction and leisure satisfaction were positively correlated with psychological health.…

Pearson, Quinn M.

2008-01-01

187

Reading and Love: Encouraging Love of Reading at Home and School: Proceedings of the Annual Symposium on Reading (6th, Mangilao, Guam, January 18, 1986).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Representing the expertise of university education professors and public school teachers, the articles in these proceedings focus on encouraging reading and fostering lifelong reading habits. Titles of the papers and their authors are as follows: (1) "Television and Books: Friends or Foes" (Jeannetta H. Caplan); (2) "Encouraging the Love of…

Cotton, Eileen G., Ed.

188

Reading & Happiness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several large-scale studies confirm that students nationwide are eschewing reading for other pursuits. Less than one third of 13-year-olds read daily; the percentage of 17-year-olds who read nothing for pleasure has ballooned. In a span of 20 years, American students have transformed from being among the most to the least avid readers of…

Baines, Lawrence

2009-01-01

189

Interrupted Reading  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interrupted reading is a close reading technique that consists of dividing a passage of text into short chunks and pausing the reading after each section in order for the student to consider possible responses. This type of reading helps students connect with the text by requiring that they summarize, look for devices, make predictions, etc., as they are reading. This technique helps students to build confidence as they are forced to slow down and notice detail, and it is a tool to help build analysis and commentary skills. Passages from Annie Dillard, The Things They Carried and Cold Mountain are utilized in this lesson.

Edwins, Cathy

2012-09-01

190

Training Leisure Centre Instructors: Client Motivational Profiles Examined  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To investigate the motivations of clients attending leisure centres/clubs. It is noted that training programmes for instructors tend to neglect this, particularly in relation to the gender and age of clients. Design/methodology/approach: In this study 460 recreational athletes including equal numbers of males and females in the two age…

Kniveton, Bromley H.

2005-01-01

191

Developing an Instrument to Evaluate Leisure Programme Satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rossman (1982) has reported that satisfaction with community recreation programmes could be described by using a variety of subscales including satisfaction with feelings of Achievement, Physical Fitness, Social Enjoyment, Family Escape, Environment, Autonomy, Relaxation, and Fun. Hupp (1989), using a revised version of Rossman's form, reported that Achievement, Relaxation, and Environment components could be used to predict leisure programme satisfaction

Sandra L. Hupp

192

Psychographic and Demographic Profiles of Niche Market Leisure Travelers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined leisure travelers'interests in 11 tourism niche offerings and provided psychographic and demographic profiles of individuals interested in the various niches. Telephone interviews were conducted with 417 respondents in 12 U.S. states. The activities that received the highest interests were outdoor recreation, local fairs and festivals, art and cultural attractions, pioneer and frontier history sites, and cowboy and

Cathy H. C. Hsu; Soo K. Kang; Kara Wolfe

2002-01-01

193

The Effects of Leisure-Based Screen Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Use of television, computers, and video games competes with physical activity and may be a health risk factor. Purpose: This study assessed the relationship between leisure-based screen time and physical activity in families to determine whether assignment to a limited screen time group results in more physical activity. Methods:…

Meier, Mary Dawn; Hager, Ronald L.; Vincent, Susan D.; Tucker, Larry A.; Vincent, William J.

2007-01-01

194

Using Technology to Advance Education, Leisure, and Demography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Leisure is best when contributing to the excitement of independent learning and the advancement of individual growth and development. To help youngsters use free time effectively, public recreation providers should join with public education to provide out-of-school access to high technology. Such experiences should not be limited to the affluent.…

Fain, Gerald S.

1989-01-01

195

Toward an explanation of betting as a leisure pursuit  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses an analysis of betting decisions to explore the motivations underlying offcourse horserace betting — a leisure activity which accounted for a turnover of £4.3 billion in the UK in 1989\\/90. Specifically, four possible motivations are considered: financial gain, intellectual challenge, social interaction and excitement. A testable proposition is developed, linking each motivation to a particular time period

A. C. Bruce; J. E. V. Johnson

1992-01-01

196

Stress, health and leisure satisfaction: the case of teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suggests that although stress research has burgeoned in recent years, little attention has been paid to the relationship between leisure satisfaction, work stress and psychological wellbeing. Presents data from secondary school teachers in a major UK city. A validated teacher stress measure comprising role-related, task-based, and environmental stress was used to tap the nature and prevalence of teacher stress. Results

Janice T. S. Ho

1996-01-01

197

Factors Related to Physically Active Leisure among College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to provide additional information about the complex relation of social cognitive constructs, gender, and active leisure among university students. Structural equation modeling techniques were used to test the hypothesized relations in a sample of 874 undergraduate students. Peer and family support had a moderate direct effect on self-efficacy while self-efficacy had a large direct

Sarah Sylvia-Bobiak; Linda L. Caldwell

2006-01-01

198

Leisure in the Natural Environment--Past, Prologue and Promise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This discussion of outdoor leisure includes the following topics: adventure sports; risk taking; program liability for adventure-related injuries; trends in outdoor recreation; outdoor recreation's contribution to environmental attitudes; outdoor/environmental education; the role of cognition, ethics, and direct experience in shaping an…

Ewert, Alan; Priest, Simon

1990-01-01

199

Youth Development in After-School Leisure Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Leisure activities that occur outside of the school hours may facilitate positive youth development.The experiences of youth in three categories of activities (basketball and football, other sports, and nonsports) are examined in this study. Based on prior research, it is hypothesized that students participating in basketball and football will…

Wilson, Denise M.; Gottfredson, Denise C.; Cross, Amanda B.; Rorie, Melissa; Connell, Nadine

2010-01-01

200

Khat chewing as a new Ugandan leisure activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A culture of hedonism that attaches a high value to leisure has prevailed in much of Uganda. Having in the past been associated only with Somali and Yemeni migrants, khat consumption has spread among all ethnic groups and to all parts of Uganda. The locus of consumption has moved from the living room to video halls, alleyways and the “ghettos”

Susan Beckerleg

2009-01-01

201

The Value of Leisure Time: A Contingent Rating Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we apply the contingent rating method to the problem of estimating a value for leisure time. This is an important component of recreation demand models. A tradition in this literature has been to use some fixed percentage of the wage rate as the value of time. However, time values are likely to vary across individuals to a

Begona Alvarez-Farizo; Nick Hanley; Ramon Barberan

2001-01-01

202

Resources for Renewal: Liberal Education for Work and Leisure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A cooperative project of Warren Wilson College, North Carolina, the College for Human Services, New York, and Merrimack Valley Branch/University of New Hampshire on the topic of leisure and liberal education is described. The project is part of "Change in Liberal Education," a network concerned with the renewal of liberal education. The colleges…

Reagin, Ewell J.

203

Leisure Opportunities for Individuals with Disabilities: Legal Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume explores legal issues that serve as foundations for quality active leisure participation by persons with disabilities. In addition to documenting details of the Americans with Disabilities Act (1990), playground and equipment standards and guidelines, and American Camping Assoication standards, it presents specific information on risk…

Grosse, Susan J., Ed.; Thompson, Donna, Ed.

204

A Conceptual Model of Leisure-Time Choice Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Methods of studying the gap between predisposition and actual behavior of consumers of spectator sports is discussed. A model is drawn from the areas of behavioral sciences, consumer behavior, and leisure research. The model is constructed around the premise that choice is primarily a function of personal, product, and environmental factors. (JN)

Bergier, Michel J.

1981-01-01

205

Impacts of weather conditions on destination choice of leisure trips  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to investigate the impacts of weather conditions on the destination choice for the leisure trips within the Netherlands. This empirical analysis will be based on two main data sources. First, the transportation survey which is obtained from Statistics Netherlands for year 2001 to 2005. This survey contains information about the socioeconomic and travel behavior

Muhammad Sabir; Jos van Ommern; Mark J. Koetse; Piet Rietveld

2011-01-01

206

Habitability: from stars to cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine where to search for life in our solar system or in other extrasolar systems, the concept of habitability has\\u000a been developed, based on the only sample we have of a biological planet—the Earth. Habitability can be defined as the set\\u000a of the necessary conditions for an active life to exist, even if it does not exist. In astronomy,

Emmanuelle J. Javaux; Véronique Dehant

2010-01-01

207

Interventions to Break and Create Consumer Habits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interventions to change everyday behaviors often attempt to change people's beliefs and intentions. As the authors explain, these interventions are unlikely to be an effective means to change behaviors that people have repeated into habits. Successful habit change interventions involve disrupting the environmental factors that automatically cue habit performance. The authors propose two potential habit change interventions. \\

Bas Verplanken; Wendy Wood

2006-01-01

208

The logic of habit in International Relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

IR theory is dominated by the logics of consequentialism and appropriateness. But Max Weber offered four logics of choice, not just two. Beyond the instrumental rationality of Zweckrationalität and the normative rationality of Wertrationalität are affect and habit. Drawing on Weber, James, Dewey, and Bourdieu, and habit’s microfoundations in neurocognitive psychology, I explore the logic of habit and its consequences

Ted Hopf

2010-01-01

209

Planetary Habitability of the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habitability is a qualitative concept generally defined as the suitability of an environment to support life. Although there are many works related to planetary habitability, there is no practical quantitative definition of habitability. The search for habitable environments in the Solar System and beyond requires a method to quantify and compare their significance. Therefore, this study presents a quantitative approach

Abel Mendez

2009-01-01

210

Reading Research in Hungary (1960-1977); Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for use by reading researchers and specialists, this collection of abstracts provides details of research studies on reading and library use conducted in Hungary from 1960 to 1977. The 25 studies cover a variety of topics, including the following: readers' interests and library use habits, rural population and the library, changes in…

National Szechenyi Library, Budapest (Hungary).

211

Background Knowledge and the Magazine Reading Students Choose  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Can students read difficult but self-selected texts--and if so, how? In this article we describe what we learned about middle school students' use of background knowledge and specific vocabulary from interviews and surveys in our longitudinal study of magazine reading habits. Then we discuss the implications of these findings for structuring…

Gabriel, Rachael; Allington, Richard; Billen, Monica

2012-01-01

212

Relationship between leisure noise exposure and otoacoustic emissions in a young Asian population.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: This study compared the otoacoustic emissions amplitudes of Asian youths at risk of leisure noise exposure through the use of portable music players with their less exposed counterparts. Design: A listening habit survey was conducted. Subjects were divided into two groups for analysis. A subject was placed within the high risk group if he/she reported listening to music at near maximum volume and had a physical measurement of his/her preferred listening level recorded at > 85 dBA. DPOAE and TEOAE levels were measured and compared between the two groups. Study sample: A total of 1928 students from a tertiary educational institution in Singapore. Results: TEOAE levels were found to be significantly lower in the high risk group at 4 kHz. DPOAE levels were also found to be significantly depressed in the high risk group at 1, 2, 3, and 4 kHz with the largest mean difference at 4 kHz. A four-way ANOVA carried out for OAE amplitudes using gender, ear laterality, risk profile, and years of usage as independent factors also showed that risk profile was a significant factor in determining the OAE amplitude at 4 kHz. Conclusion: We have demonstrated that both DPAOE and TEOAE values are diminished in the Asian subjects at high risk for noise exposure. PMID:24694088

Lee, Gary Jek Chong; Lim, Ming Yann; Kuan, Angeline Yi Wei; Teo, Joshua Han Wei; Tan, Hui Guang; Low, Wong Kein

2014-07-01

213

Leisure-time physical activity and artery lumen diameters: a monozygotic co-twin control study.  

PubMed

Exercise is thought to increase the diameter of the conduit arteries supplying the muscles involved. We studied the effects of a physically active vs inactive lifestyle on artery diameters in monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs discordant over 30 years for leisure-time physical activity habits. In a population-based co-twin control study design, six middle-aged (50-65 years) same-sex MZ twin pairs with long-term discordance for physical activity were comprehensively identified from the Finnish Twin Cohort (TWINACTIVE study). Discordance was initially defined in 1975 and the same co-twin remained significantly more active during the 32-year follow-up. The main outcomes were arterial lumen diameters measured from maximal intensity projections of contrast-enhanced MR angiography images. Paired differences between active and inactive co-twins were studied. Compared with inactive members, active members of MZ twin pairs had larger diameters for the distal aorta and iliac and femoral arteries (P<0.05 for all comparisons). The mean intrapair differences in the diameters of the arteries in these locations were 19% or larger. No significant differences between active and inactive co-twins (P>0.2 for all comparisons) were found in the dimensions of the carotid arteries. Our genetically controlled study confirms that habitual physical activity during adulthood enlarges arteries in a site-specific manner. PMID:21129037

Leskinen, T; Usenius, J-P; Alen, M; Kainulainen, H; Kaprio, J; Kujala, U M

2011-12-01

214

Close Reading Exemplar: Tom Sawyer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of this one day exemplar is to give students the opportunity to use the reading and writing habits theyâve been practicing on a regular basis to discover the rich humor and moral lesson embedded in Twainâs text. By reading and rereading the passage closely, and focusing their reading through a series of questions and discussion about the text, students will explore the problem Tom Sawyer faced and how he “solved” his conundrum. When combined with writing about the passage, students will learn to appreciate how Twainâs humor contains a deeper message and derive satisfaction from the struggle to master complex text. At the end of the lesson, students are provided two writing prompts to constructive a narrative inspired by Twain's text.

Student Achievement Partners for Just Read, Florida!

2012-09-09

215

Archimedes, Reading, and the Sustenance of Academic Research Culture in Library Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the history of academic research, library instruction, and the role of leisure, reflection, and creativity. Suggests that these cultural elements should be introduced to undergraduates and contends that deep reading, rather than information literacy competency, cultivates these elements. Examines productivity and the faculty research…

Cain, Amanda

2002-01-01

216

Archimedes, reading, and the sustenance of academic research culture in library instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leisure, reflection, and creativity have sustained a culture of research and scholarship throughout much of academia’s history. This article argues that these cultural elements should be introduced to the present generation of undergraduates and contends that “deep” reading, rather than information literacy competency, cultivates these elements.

Amanda Cain

2002-01-01

217

A postulate to assess ‘habitability’  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One principal challenge in biology is defining a postulate by which the habitability of other planets can be assessed. Current assessments suffer from two potential weaknesses. With respect to other planets, either assumptions are made about the physical and chemical conditions of environments that err on the side of biological optimism without empirical constraint by spacecraft observations or novel physiologies of microorganisms are invented to fit extraterrestrial environmental conditions with no demonstrated microbiological counterparts on Earth. Attempts to assess the habitability of the early Earth suffer from similar problems. We discuss the following postulate: ‘the proposition that a planet is or was habitable requires that the physiological requirements of microorganisms on Earth known at the time of assessment match the empirically determined combined physical and chemical conditions in the extraterrestrial or early Earth environment being assessed’ as a means of evaluating ‘habitability’. We use as tests for our postulate the early Earth and the cloud deck of Venus (a habitat that has been a source of optimistic debate for forty years). We conclude that, although the early Earth was habitable, Venus is a dead world.

Cockell, Charles S.; Westall, Frances

2004-04-01

218

Close Reading Exemplar: "Because of Winn-Dixie"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of this one day exemplar is to give students the opportunity to use the reading and writing habits theyâve been practicing on a regular basis to absorb deep lessons from Kate DiCamilloâs story. By reading and rereading the passage closely and focusing their reading through a series of questions and discussion about the text, students will identify how and why the three main characters became friends.

Student Achievement Partners for Just Read, Florida!

2012-09-09

219

Measurable benefits on brain activity from the practice of educational leisure.  

PubMed

Even if behavioral studies relate leisure practices to the preservation of memory in old persons, there is unsubstantial evidence of the import of leisure on brain activity. Aim: This study was to compare the brain activity of elderly retired people who engage in different types of leisure activities. Methods: Quasi-experimental study over a sample of 60 elderly, retired subjects distributed into three groups according to the leisure activities they practised: educational leisure (G1), memory games (G2), and card games (G3). Applied measures include the conceptual distinction between free time and leisure, the test of the organization of free time measuring 24 clock divisions, and EEG register during 12 word list memorizing. Results: The results show that the type of leisure activity is associated with significant quantitative differences regarding the use of free time. G1 devotes more time to leisure activities than G2 (p = 0.007) and G3 (p = 0.034). G1 rests more actively than the other two groups (p = 0.001). The electrical localization of brain activity indicated a reverse tendency of activation according to the bands and groups. Discussion: Engaging in educational leisure activities is a useful practice to protect healthy brain compensation strategies. Future longitudinal research may verify the causal relation between practicing educational leisure activities and functional brain aging. PMID:24653699

Requena, Carmen; López, Verónica

2014-01-01

220

Read Arizona.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual, designed to help public libraries in Arizona to plan their summer reading programs for children, celebrates the 25th anniversary of the Arizona Reading Program. The material in the manual is prepared for libraries to adapt for their own uses. Chapters of the manual include: (1) Introductory Materials; (2) Goals, Objectives and…

Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.

221

Reading Remixed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critics claim that digital technologies are killing reading, but these teacher-librarians have observed that teens are as excited about reading as they ever were. Online communities give these readers opportunities to get to know authors, communicate with other fans, and learn more about books of interest. Publishers and authors are responding to…

Valenza, Joyce Kasman; Stephens, Wendy

2012-01-01

222

Reading Aloud  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many resources are available to elementary teachers who wish to support science learning with literature. Unfortunately, somewhere between middle school and high school, the emphasis on using literature to teach science content--particularly the exercise of reading aloud--has all but disappeared. However, the practice of reading aloud is helpful…

Delo, Lynda

2008-01-01

223

Against Readings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Edmundson states that if he could make one wish for the members of his profession, college and university professors of literature, he would wish that for one year, two, three, or five, they would give up readings. By "a reading," he means the application of an analytical vocabulary to describe and (usually) to judge a work of literary art.…

Edmundson, Mark

2009-01-01

224

Repeated Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article reviews research on the use of multiple oral rereading (MOR) with reading disabled students. MOR uses daily practice on a selection of little difficulty. Its effectiveness in increasing fluency (accuracy and speed) is examined, and the role of redundancy in three types of reading models is analyzed. (CL)

Moyer, Sandra B.

1982-01-01

225

Required Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author insists that those seeking public office prove their literary mettle. As an English teacher, he does have a litmus test for all public officials, judges and senators included--a reading litmus test. He would require that all candidates and nominees have read and reflected on a nucleus of works whose ideas and insights…

Janko, Edmund

2002-01-01

226

Bilingual Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report discusses the importance of bilingual reading instruction for limited English speaking ability (LESA) students, and careful testing of their language dominance and reading levels. Bilingual students, and English- and Spanish-dominant students from the Fabens Independent School District, Grades K-13, were tested for the data reported…

Garganta, Soledad; Ramirez, Inez

227

Reading comprehension by people with chronic aphasia: A comparison of three levels of visuographic contextual support  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: People with aphasia often have concomitant reading comprehension deficits that interfere with their full participation in leisure and social activities involving written text comprehension.Aims: The purpose of this investigation was to explore the impact of three levels of visuographic support—(a) high?context photographs, (b) low?context photographs, and (c) no photographs—on the reading comprehension of narratives by people with chronic aphasia.Methods

Aimee Dietz; Karen Hux; Miechelle L. McKelvey; David R. Beukelman; Kristy Weissling

2009-01-01

228

Listening to Their Voices: What and Why Are Rural Teen Males Reading?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary purpose of the study was to examine the reading habits, preferences and motivation for reading from a representative sample of high school males in rural North Carolina. Much research gives voice to what elementary students are reading, but less has been done with adolescents, one of the hardest demographics for librarians and teachers…

Boltz, Robin Henson

2010-01-01

229

Pioneering Concepts of Planetary Habitability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Famous astronomers such as Richard A. Proctor (1837-1888), Jules Janssen (1824-1907), and Camille Flammarion (1842-1925) studied the concept of planetary habitability a century before this concept was updated in the context of the recent discoveries of exoplanets and the development of planetary exploration in the solar system. They independently studied the conditions required for other planets to be inhabited, and these considerations led them to specify the term "habitability." Naturally, the planet Mars was at the heart of the discussion. Our neighboring planet, regarded as a sister planet of Earth, looked like a remarkable abode for life. During the second part of the nineteenth century, the possibility of Martian intelligent life was intensively debated, and hopes were still ardent to identify a kind of vegetation specific to the red planet. In such a context, the question of Mars' habitability seemed to be very valuable, especially when studying hypothetical Martian vegetation. At the dawn of the Space Age, German-born physician and pioneer of space medicine Hubertus Strughold (1898-1987) proposed in the book The Green and Red Planet: A Physiological Study of the Possibility of Life on Mars (1954) to examine the planets of the solar system through a "planetary ecology." This innovative notion, which led to a fresh view of the concept of habitability, was supposed to designate a new field involving biology: "the science of planets as an environment for life" (Strughold 1954). This notion was very close to the concept of habitability earlier designated by our nineteenth-century pioneers. Strughold also coined the term "ecosphere" to name the region surrounding a star where conditions allowed life-bearing planets to exist. We highlight in this chapter the historical aspects of the emergence of the (modern) concept of habitability. We will consider the different formulations proposed by the pioneers, and we will see in what way it can be similar to our contemporary notion of planetary habitability. This study also shows the convergence of the methodological aspects used to examine the concept of habitability, mainly based on analogy.

Raulin Cerceau, Florence

230

7 Habits of Developmental Coaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors describe how coaches can apply principles of athlete growth and development to the learning and performance of motor skills. They present 7 habits that lead to well-rounded athletes who experience increased enjoyment, self-motivation, skill improvement, and ultimately more success on the playing field. (Contains 1…

Darden, Gibson; Shimon, Jane

2004-01-01

231

The Hunt for Habitable Exoplanets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen years after the discovery of planets around other stars, the discovery of rocky, 1 Earth-mass, 1 Earth-radius planets around other stars is imminent. Of particular interest are planets that receive similar amounts of stellar radiation as the Earth, as they could support liquid water, probably the most critical requirement for habitability. Current technology favors the discovery of these planets

Rory Barnes

2010-01-01

232

The Integrative Character of Habits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Having eschewed in various journals the subjectivistic, the introspective, the dualistic, the physiological, and the ultra behavioristic tenets, and still treating of a psychobiological organism, Kantor presents a deductive and rationalistic discussion dealing with habits. Dr. Kantor's method of purifying psychology, by deductive discussion and speculation, has been the greatest deterrent to the fact of an accomplished psychological science. Dr.

J. R. Kantor

1922-01-01

233

[Dietary habits and cardiovascular diseases].  

PubMed

Cardiovascular diseases are a major public health problem worldwide. They are the main cause of death in industrialized countries, while the mortality associated with cardiovascular disease is increasing in less developed countries. The modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease are cigarette smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus and obesity. Obesity has been recorded in 10%-25% of the population, indicating that poor or inappropriate diet is one of the most common causes of cardiovascular disease. Unhealthy dietary habits including place and way of taking meals, number of daily meals and excessive salt intake from processed foods also contribute to body mass gain. In the present study, dietary habits were assessed in cardiovascular patients versus control group by use of Dietary Habits Questionnaire. Study results showed a statistically significantly higher (P < 0.05) prevalence of inappropriate eating habits in cardiovascular patients (lower number of daily meals, more often skipping breakfast and having dinner) than in control group. In conclusion, many lifestyle and individual behavior modifications are needed in most patients with or at a high risk of cardiovascular disease. PMID:20649073

Nola, Iskra Alexandra; Doko Jelini?, Jagoda; Bergovec, Mijo; Ruzi?, Alen; Persi?, Viktor

2010-05-01

234

Diurnal Habitability of Frozen Worlds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we discuss effects allowing local habitability of some extraterrestrial planets of low average surface temperatures. We analyze the problem of diurnal and seasonal changes of temperature and biological productivity at different locations on a hypothetical Earth-like planet. We have found, that under some circumstances the temperature may locally rise well above the average value, allowing periods of

W. von Bloh; K. J. Kossacki; S. Franck; C. Bounama

2010-01-01

235

Habits—A Repeat Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habits are response dispositions that are activated automatically by the context cues that co-occurred with responses during past performance. Experience-sampling diary studies indicate that much of everyday action is characterized by habitual repetition. We consider various mechanisms that could underlie the habitual control of action, and we conclude that direct cuing and motivated contexts best account for the characteristic features

David T. Neal; Wendy Wood; Jeffrey M. Quinn

2006-01-01

236

Comparable Habitable Zones of Stars  

NASA Video Gallery

The habitable zone is the distance from a star where one can have liquid water on the surface of a planet. If a planet is too close to its parent star, it will be too hot and water would have evapo...

237

Sports and Leisure Time Physical Activity During Pregnancy in Nulliparous Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

To describe patterns of leisure time physical activity during pregnancy in relation to pre-pregnancy leisure time physical\\u000a activity, socio-demographic characteristics, fertility history, and lifestyle factors. 4,718 nulliparous with singleton pregnancy\\u000a and intended spontaneous vaginal delivery were included in the study at gestational week 33 from May 2004 to July 2005. Information\\u000a was provided by self-administered questionnaires. Leisure time physical activity

Hanne Kristine Hegaard; Peter Damm; Morten Hedegaard; Tine Brink Henriksen; Bent Ottesen; Anna-Karin Dykes; Hanne Kjaergaard

238

Experiences of habit formation: A qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habit formation is an important goal for behaviour change interventions because habitual behaviours are elicited automatically and are therefore likely to be maintained. This study documented experiences of habit development in 10 participants enrolled on a weight loss intervention explicitly based on habit-formation principles. Thematic analysis revealed three themes: Strategies used to support initial engagement in a novel behaviour; development

Phillippa Lally; Jane Wardle; Benjamin Gardner

2011-01-01

239

Some effects of morphine on habit function  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2 experiments the morphine habit is compared with a food habit under various conditions of deprivation and satiation. In contrast to the food habit, both injection of morphine and the deprivation of morphine would appear to produce drive. Continuing effects of morphine may lead to learning without drive reduction. And, an injection of morphine counteracts the effect of food

H. D. Beach

1957-01-01

240

Health Habits of School-Age Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

While health habits such as eating breakfast, maintaining desirable weight, sleeping regularly, and wearing seat belts are related to the longevity of adults, very little is known about the health habits of disadvantaged school-age children. Using data from the 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey (NMES), this paper examines selected health habits of children between the ages of five and 17

1991-01-01

241

Health Habits of School-Age Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

:While health habits such as eating breakfast, maintaining desirable weight, sleeping regularly, and wearing seat belts are related to the longevity of adults, very little is known about the health habits of disadvantaged school-age children. Using data from the 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey (NMES), this paper examines selected health habits of children between the ages of five and 17

Llewellyn J. Cornelius

1991-01-01

242

HABIT FORMATION, DYNASTIC ALTRUISM, AND POPULATION DYNAMICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the general equilibrium properties of two growth models with overlapping generations, habit formation and endogenous fertility. In the neoclassical model, habits modify the economy's growth rate and generate transitional dynamics in fertility; station- ary income per capita is associated with either increasing or decreasing population and output, depending on the strength of habits. In the AK speci…cation, growing

Andreas Schäfer; Simone Valentey

2010-01-01

243

Dynamical Habitability of Known Extrasolar Planetary Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habitability is usually defined as the requirement for a terrestrial planet's atmosphere to sustain liquid water. This definition can be complemented by the dynamical requirement that other planets in the system do not gravitationally perturb terrestrial planets outside of their habitable zone, the orbital region allowing the existence of liquid water. We quantify the dynamical habitability of 85 known extrasolar

Kristen Menou; Serge Tabachnik

2003-01-01

244

Leisure-Time Physical Activity and All-Cause Mortality  

PubMed Central

Background Physical inactivity is a major public health problem associated with increased mortality risk. It is, however, poorly understood whether vigorous physical activity is more beneficial for reducing mortality risk than activities of lower intensity. The aim of this study was to examine associations of the intensity and volume of leisure-time physical activity with all-cause mortality among middle-aged women and men while considering sociodemographic and health related factors as covariates. Methods Questionnaire survey data collected in 2000-02 among 40–60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki (N?=?8960) were linked with register data on mortality (74% gave permission to the linkage) providing a mean follow-up time of 12-years. The analysis included 6429 respondents (79% women). The participants were classified into three groups according to intensity of physical activity: low moderate, high moderate and vigorous. The volume of physical activity was classified into three groups according to tertiles. Cox regression analysis was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for all-cause mortality. Results During the follow up 205 participants died. Leisure-time physical activity was associated with reduced risk of mortality. After adjusting for covariates the vigorous group (HR?=?0.54, 95% CI 0.34–0.86) showed a reduced risk of mortality compared with the low moderate group whereas for the high moderate group the reductions in mortality risk (HR?=?0.72, 95% CI 0.48–1.08) were less clear. Adjusting for the volume of physical activity did not affect the point estimates. Higher volume of leisure-time physical activity was also associated with reduced mortality risk; however, adjusting for the covariates and the intensity of physical activity explained the differences. Conclusions For healthy middle-aged women and men who engage in some physical activity vigorous exercise may provide further health benefits preventing premature deaths.

Lahti, Jouni; Holstila, Ansku; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi

2014-01-01

245

Late Life Leisure Activities and Risk of Cognitive Decline  

PubMed Central

Background. Studies concerning the effect of different types of leisure activities on various cognitive domains are limited. This study tests the hypothesis that mental, physical, and social activities have a domain-specific protection against cognitive decline. Methods. A cohort of a geographically defined population in China was examined in 2003–2005 and followed for an average of 2.4 years. Leisure activities were assessed in 1,463 adults aged 65 years and older without cognitive or physical impairment at baseline, and their cognitive performances were tested at baseline and follow-up examinations. Results. High level of mental activity was related to less decline in global cognition (? = ?.23, p < .01), language (? = ?.11, p < .05), and executive function (? = ?.13, p < .05) in ANCOVA models adjusting for age, gender, education, history of stroke, body mass index, Apolipoprotein E genotype, and baseline cognition. High level of physical activity was related to less decline in episodic memory (? = ?.08, p < .05) and language (? = ?.15, p < .01). High level of social activity was associated with less decline in global cognition (? = ?.11, p < .05). Further, a dose-response pattern was observed: although participants who did not engage in any of the three activities experienced a significant global cognitive decline, those who engaged in any one of the activities maintained their cognition, and those who engaged in two or three activities improved their cognition. The same pattern was observed in men and in women. Conclusions. Leisure activities in old age may protect against cognitive decline for both women and men, and different types of activities seem to benefit different cognitive domains.

2013-01-01

246

Cluster headache and lifestyle habits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cluster headache (CH) has traditionally been associated with certain anthropometric features, personality traits, and lifestyle\\u000a features. This article focuses on lifestyle features in patients with CH. Especially excessive smoking and alcohol consumption\\u000a have been ascribed to patients with CH. Despite country-specific habits and a time trend, smoking is much more prevalent among\\u000a CH patients compared with the general population. Although

Markus Schürks; Hans-Christoph Diener

2008-01-01

247

Diurnal Habitability of Frozen Worlds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we discuss effects allowing local habitability of some extraterrestrial planets of low average surface temperatures.\\u000a We analyze the problem of diurnal and seasonal changes of temperature and biological productivity at different locations on\\u000a a hypothetical Earth-like planet. We have found, that under some circumstances the temperature may locally rise well above\\u000a the average value, allowing periods of

W. von Bloh; K. J. Kossacki; S. Franck; C. Bounama

2010-01-01

248

What makes a planet habitable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work reviews factors which are important for the evolution of habitable Earth-like planets such as the effects of the\\u000a host star dependent radiation and particle fluxes on the evolution of atmospheres and initial water inventories. We discuss\\u000a the geodynamical and geophysical environments which are necessary for planets where plate tectonics remain active over geological\\u000a time scales and for planets

H. Lammer; J. H. Bredehöft; A. Coustenis; M. L. Khodachenko; L. Kaltenegger; O. Grasset; D. Prieur; F. Raulin; P. Ehrenfreund; M. Yamauchi; J.-E. Wahlund; J.-M. Grießmeier; G. Stangl; C. S. Cockell; Yu. N. Kulikov; J. L. Grenfell; H. Rauer

2009-01-01

249

The compulsive habit of cars.  

PubMed

The car dependence of people living in contemporary cities is a major concern for policy makers, who often find it difficult to persuade people into more sustainable transport modes. By contrast, recent insights from neuroscience have shown that a broad spectrum of behaviors can become habitual and, thus, resistant to change. Here, we outline the potential of collaboration between neuroscience and human geography aiming at a better understanding of habits that determine everyday commuting routines. PMID:24767180

Yalachkov, Yavor; Naumer, Marcus J; Plyushteva, Anna

2014-05-01

250

Tides, Planetary Companions, and Habitability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth-scale planets in the classical habitable zone (HZ) are more likely to be habitable if they possess active geophysics to drive processes that regulate their atmosphere. Without a constant internal energy source, planets cool as they age, eventually terminating tectonic activity. Planets orbiting low-mass stars can be very old, due to the longevity of such stars, so they may be rendered sterile to life in this way. However, the presence of an outer companion could generate enough tidal heat in the HZ planet to prevent such cooling. The range of mass and orbital parameters for the companion that give adequate long-term heating of the inner HZ planet, while avoiding very early total desiccation, is substantial. We locate the ideal location for the outer of a pair of planets, under the assumption that the inner planet has the same incident flux as Earth, orbiting example stars: a generic late M dwarf and the M9V/L0 dwarf DEN1048. We also analyze the extent to which systems with ideal parameters for heating will evolve over time. Thus discoveries of Earth-scale planets in the HZ zone of old small stars should be followed by searches for outer companion planets that might be essential for current habitability.

Van Laerhoven, Christa L.; Barnes, Rory; Greenberg, Richard

2014-05-01

251

Widen the belt of habitability!  

PubMed

Among the key-parameters to characterize habitability are presence or availability of liquid water, an appropriate temperature range, and the time scale of reference. These criteria for habitability are discussed and described from the point of view of water- and ice-physics, and it is shown that liquid water may exist in the sub-surfaces of planetary bodies like Mars, and possibly of inner asteroids and internally heated ice-moons. Water can remain fluid there also at temperatures far below the "canonical" 0 °C. This behaviour is made possible as a consequence of the freezing point depression due to salty solutes in water or "brines", as they can be expected to exist in nature more frequently than pure liquid water. On the other hand, low temperatures cause a slowing down of chemical processes, as can be described by Arrhenius's relation. The resulting smaller reaction rates probably will have the consequence to complicate the detection of low-temperature life processes, if they exist. Furthermore, the adaptation potential of life is to be mentioned in this context as a yet partially unknown process. Resulting recommendations are given to improve the use of criteria to characterize habitable conditions. PMID:22638839

Möhlmann, D

2012-06-01

252

Habitable exoplanets statistics in the Milky Way  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an exoplanet statistical analysis into the Milky Way. We use the Becanson galactic synthetic model to simulate the Milky Way and the galactic and stellar habitable zones to calculate habitable planets. To assess habitability on the Galactic scale, we model supernova rates and planet formation. Our study, models the SNII and SNIa sterilizations by selecting them from within this preexisting stellar population. Furthermore, we consider habitability on tidally locked and non-tidally locked planets separately, and study habitability as a function of height above and below the Galactic mid-plane. The number of total habitable planets makes Milky Way practically empty of habitable planets. Our results, from these simulations, agree very well with Kepler's discoveries. Finally, we apply our results to the PLATO future space mission.

Anagnos, Th.

2013-09-01

253

77 FR 23652 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Leisure Properties LLC/D...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plans; Illinois; Leisure Properties LLC/D/B/A Crownline Boats; Adjusted Standard AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...adjusted standard for Leisure Properties LLC/D/B/A Crownline Boats (Crownline) at its West Frankfort, Illinois facility....

2012-04-20

254

The Pursuit of Leisure: Enriching the Lives of People Who Have a Disability. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The book examines the place of leisure in the lives of disabled people and their families, in 18 articles by parents, counselors, recreation specialists, vocational counselors, researchers, and advocates. Stressed throughout is the potential of leisure when seen as a dimension of and vehicle for community living. Chapters are as follows:…

Gold, Deborah, Ed.; McGill, Judith, Ed.

255

The Quality of Dyadic Relationships, Leisure Activities and Health Among Older Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the combined influence of dyadic relationships and leisure activities on health. We used self-administered survey to collect data at senior centers from French and English older women (N = 257) in Montreal, Quebec. Multiple regression analyses (OLS) were used to examine the maineffects of dyadic quality and leisure activities on physical and mental health. Despite controlling for specific

Tanya R. Fitzpatrick

2009-01-01

256

Relationships between Leisure Participation and Quality of Life of People with Developmental Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Studies of people with developmental disabilities suggest that participation in leisure activities might be a key factor for good quality of life. This study explores the relationships between objective and subjective quality of life and leisure participation of adults with developmental disabilities. Materials and Methods: A…

Badia, Marta; Orgaz, María Begoña; Verdugo, Miguel Á.; Ullán, Ana M.; Martínez, Magdalena

2013-01-01

257

Childhood traumas, mental health and physical health in adulthood: testing physically active leisure as a buffer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey, we examine the potential role of physically active leisure as a moderator of the typically negative health outcomes that follow experiences of childhood trauma. In our analyses, experiences of childhood trauma were associated with lower self-rated mental and physical health. Participation in physically active leisure was associated with higher levels of

Susan M. Arai; Steven E. Mock; Karen A. Gallant

2011-01-01

258

Childhood traumas, mental health and physical health in adulthood: testing physically active leisure as a buffer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey, we examine the potential role of physically active leisure as a moderator of the typically negative health outcomes that follow experiences of childhood trauma. In our analyses, experiences of childhood trauma were associated with lower self-rated mental and physical health. Participation in physically active leisure was associated with higher levels of

Susan M. Arai; Steven E. Mock; Karen A. Gallant

2012-01-01

259

Leisure and the Obligation of Self?Work: An Examination of the Fitness Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the cultural field of fitness as a network of producers, consumers, products and practices that has developed around the care of the body through physical exercise. Drawing on a thematic text analysis of US exercise manuals, the paper focuses on how the commercial fitness field naturalizes associations between physical exercise and leisure, and between leisure and self?work.

Jennifer Smith Maguire

2008-01-01

260

Labour, leisure, poverty and protest: the 1968 Poor People’s Campaign as a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social movements exist in a liminal space between labour and leisure. Movements require an inordinate amount of work – mobilising communities, studying policy issues, raising funds, organising events and participating in direct action – but protesting can also be fun. Demonstrations engender community through singing, shouting, marching and confronting authority figures. Activists often pass up typical leisure activities and take

Amy Nathan Wright

2008-01-01

261

No Fun Anymore: Leisure and Marital Quality across the Transition to Parenthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines changes in leisure patterns across the transition to parenthood for dual-earner, working-class couples, as well as the relationship between leisure and marital quality. To this end, 147 heterosexual couples were interviewed across the transition to parenthood. Findings indicate that during the transition to parenthood, husbands…

Claxton, Amy; Perry-Jenkins, Maureen

2008-01-01

262

Genetic and shared environmental influences on leisure-time interests in male adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study explored genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in adolescent leisure-time interests. One hundred and ninety identical and 100 fraternal male twin pairs, aged 17 and 18 years, all participants in the ongoing Minnesota Twin Family Study, completed 120 items of the Leisure-Time Interests (LTI) inventory. A principal components analysis with varimax rotation of the 120 items

Yoon-Mi Hur; Matt McGue; William G. Iacono

1996-01-01

263

Analyzing Individual Differences in Vocational, Leisure, and Family Interests: A Multitrait-Multimethod Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the latent structure of individual differences in vocational, leisure, and family interests. The participants consisted of 302 French adults who rated their like or dislike for activities based on Holland's RIASEC typology and presented in three life domains: work, family and leisure. The multitrait-multimethod model…

Gaudron, Jean-Philippe; Vautier, Stephane

2007-01-01

264

“I'm just like I always was”: a phenomenological exploration of leisure, identity and dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both negative discourse surrounding dementia and changes that occur from an illness causing dementia can threaten identity. While research shows that identity remains in dementia, little is known about the role leisure plays in identity work in the dementia context. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of leisure in maintaining identity in early-stage dementia. Four participants

M. Rebecca Genoe; Sherry L. Dupuis

2011-01-01

265

A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Canadian and Mainland Chinese University Students' Leisure Motivations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the reliability and explanatory ability of a modified version of Deci and Ryan's self-determination theory as it applied to Canadian (n = 170) and Mainland Chinese (n = 229) university students' leisure motivations and determined whether these leisure motivations differed between the two cultural groups. An on-site questionnaire composed of seven motivational scales was developed. Alpha coefficients,

Gordon J. Walker; Xiye Wang

2008-01-01

266

Leisure Activity Preferences for 6- To 12-Year-Old Children with Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: The objective was to describe leisure activity preferences of children with cerebral palsy (CP) and their relationship to participation. Factors associated with greater interest in leisure activities were identified. Method: Fifty-five school-aged children (36 males, 19 females; mean age 9y 11mo; range 6y 1mo-12y 11mo) with CP (Gross Motor…

Majnemer, Annette; Shikako-Thomas, Keiko; Chokron, Nathalie; Law, Mary; Shevell, Michael; Chilingaryan, Gevorg; Poulin, Chantal; Rosenbaum, Peter

2010-01-01

267

Educational Computer Use in Leisure Contexts: A Phenomenological Study of Adolescents' Experiences at Internet Cafes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer use is a widespread leisure activity for adolescents. Leisure contexts, such as Internet cafes, constitute specific social environments for computer use and may hold significant educational potential. This article reports a phenomenological study of adolescents' experiences of educational computer use at Internet cafes in Turkey. The…

Cilesiz, Sebnem

2009-01-01

268

The Labor-Leisure Relationship in Stuart England and Its American Colonies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the changes in the relationship between labor and leisure in England and the colonies in the early seventeenth century. Addresses Stuart England's preference for leisure and its effect on the trading companies set up in the colonies. Describes the development of the work ethic among Puritans and landowners and merchants in Virginia. (DK)

Struna, Nancy L.

1992-01-01

269

A Survey of Leisure Time Activities of Working Owmen in Jaipur  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of the leisure time activities of 278 working women (teachers, nurses, telephone operators, and clerks) indicated that occupation does not significantly influence the type of leisure activities. Comparisons were made within and between occupational groups and between home and office time activities. (MS)

Dixit, Asha

1976-01-01

270

Time Use Patterns between Maintenance, Subsistence and Leisure Activities: A Case Study in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Chinese government conducted its first time use survey of the activities of Chinese individuals in 2008. Activities were classified into three broad types, maintenance activities, subsistence activities and leisure activities. Time use patterns were defined by an individuals' time spent on maintenance, subsistence and leisure activities each…

Hui-fen, Zhou; Zhen-shan, Li; Dong-qian, Xue; Yang, Lei

2012-01-01

271

Leisure Time in Modern Societies: A New Source of Boredom and Stress?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increase in leisure time over the last century is well documented. We know much less, however, about the quality of the use of leisure time. Quite divergent predictions exist in this regard: Some authors have argued that the new, extensive free time will lead to new forms of time pressure and stress; others have foreseen an expansion of…

Haller, Max; Hadler, Markus; Kaup, Gerd

2013-01-01

272

The Relationship between Leisure Satisfaction and Life Satisfaction of Adolescents Concerning Online Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing evidence indicates adolescents are likely to occupy their leisure time with online games. This study investigates the influences of leisure satisfaction on life satisfaction among adolescent online gamers. The self-completed market survey questionnaire employed is comprised of two sections: the first is Internet usage frequency, while…

Wang, Edward Shih-Tse; Chen, Lily Shui-Lian; Lin, Julia Ying-Chao; Wang, Michael Chih-Hung

2008-01-01

273

Leisure Activities during School Break among Children with Learning Disabilities: Preference vs. Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participation in leisure activities may contribute to the development of social, motor, and language skills, and is therefore especially important for children with learning disabilities. Leisure activities of students in educational settings are performed mostly during breaks. While there have been some studies of the effect of breaks on…

Yalon-Chamovitz, Shira; Mano, Tali; Jarus, Tal; Weinblatt, Nurit

2006-01-01

274

The Sociology of Women's Leisure and Physical Recreation: Constraints and Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study of women's leisure experiences is based on a random survey of 700 Sheffield women, supplemented by interviews with groups of women and their men partners. Both women's and men's access to free time and leisure opportunities are structured by similar factors, such as their work and domestic situation, social class and income level, age and ethnic group. However

Diana Woodward; Eileen Green; Sandra Hebron

1989-01-01

275

Leisure, Stress, and Coping: The Sport Participation of Collegiate Student-Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has indicated that there is a relationship between stress and participation in leisure (Caltabiano, 1995; Chalip, Thomas, & Voyle, 1992; Reich & Zautra, 1981; Strauss-Blasche, Ekmekcioglu, & Marktl, 2002; Warner-Smith & Brown, 2002; Wheeler & Frank, 1988). It has been suggested that leisure buffers or mediates stress, thereby enhancing individual health and well-being, because of the self-determination and social

Aimee Kimball; Valeria J. Freysinger

2003-01-01

276

Leadership Behaviour of College Students in Relation to Their Leisure Time Activities in College Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study investigated the Leadership behaviour of college students in relation to their Leisure time activities in college life. In this study, the researcher wants to see the contribution of leisure time activities in developing the qualities of leadership of college students. The main objective of the study was to find out the relationship…

Sethi, Priyanka

2009-01-01

277

Reciprocal Relationships between Value Orientation and Motivational Interference during Studying and Leisure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Motivational interference is defined as the amount of impairment in a target activity due to the incentives of a non-chosen attractive alternative. The amount to which pupils experience motivational interference while studying or while performing a leisure activity in a school-leisure conflict situation is seen as depending on the…

Hofer, Manfred; Schmid, Sebastian; Fries, Stefan; Kilian, Britta; Kuhnle, Claudia

2010-01-01

278

Value Orientations and Motivational Interference in School-Leisure Conflict: The Case of Vietnam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The experience of motivational interference during studying and leisure in a school-leisure conflict and its relationship to pupils' value orientations were investigated in a self-report study of Vietnamese pupils (N = 346, mean age = 15 years). The results were compared with a combined sample consisting of pupils from nine other countries (N =…

Hofer, Manfred; Fries, Stefan; Helmke, Andreas; Kilian, Britta; Kuhnle, Claudia; Zivkovic, Ilija; Goellner, Richard; Helmke, Tuyet

2010-01-01

279

Exploring the Leisure Behavior Patterns and Experiences of Youth with Endocrinological Disorders: Implications for Therapeutic Recreation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Determined whether therapeutic recreation intervention was necessary in the lives of adolescents with endocrinological disorders, examining their leisure behavior patterns and experiences. Survey data indicated that leisure behaviors and experiences of adolescents with endocrinological disorders were similar to those of comparison group…

Caldwell, Linda L.; Finkelstein, Jordan W.; Demers, Beth

2001-01-01

280

"Sobriety's Kind of Like Freedom": Integrating Ideals of Leisure into the Ideology of Alcoholics Anonymous.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the integration of "leisure" into the ideology of Alcoholics Anonymous. Participant-observation and in-depth interviews found parallels between the concept of sobriety in Alcoholics Anonymous and philosophical ideals of leisure both as conditions of freedom from compelled activity and freedom to engage in meaningful action. (SM)

McCormick, Bryan; Dattilo, John

1995-01-01

281

Using Self-Scheduling to Promote Self-Directed Leisure Activity in Home and Community Settings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three adults with moderate developmental disabilities living in the community learned to independently self-schedule their leisure activity by choosing picture cards and placing them in a sequenced activity book. Self-scheduling was maintained at follow up, and resulted in increases in the weekly frequency and diversity of self-directed leisure…

Bambara, Linda M.; Ager, Christina

1992-01-01

282

An outpatient group training programme for improving leisure lifestyle in high-functioning young adults with ASD: A pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study examined the effectiveness of an outpatient programme on the leisure lifestyle of high-functioning young adults living at home or at an independent setting.\\u000aMethods: A pre-test–post-test control group design was used. Participants (n?=?12) completed self-reports on (a) need for leisure support, (b) leisure engagement and (c) satisfaction with leisure lifestyle. The programme consisted of cognitive-behavioural techniques.\\u000aResults:

A. M. J. W. Palmen; H. C. M. Didden; H. P. L. M. Korzilius

2011-01-01

283

Tides, planetary companions, and habitability: habitability in the habitable zone of low-mass stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth-scale planets in the classical habitable zone (HZ) are more likely to be habitable if they possess active geophysics. Without a constant internal energy source, planets cool as they age, eventually terminating tectonic activity. Planets orbiting low-mass stars can be very old, due to the longevity of such stars, so they may be rendered sterile to life in this way. However, the presence of an outer companion could generate enough tidal heat in the HZ planet to prevent such cooling. The range of mass and orbital parameters for the companion that give adequate long-term heating of the inner HZ planet, while avoiding very early total desiccation, is probably substantial. We locate the ideal location for the outer of a pair of planets, under the assumption that the inner planet has the same incident flux as Earth, orbiting example stars: a generic late M dwarf (Teff = 2670 K) and the M9V/L0 dwarf DEN1048. Thus discoveries of Earth-scale planets in the HZ zone of old small stars should be followed by searches for outer companion planets that might be essential for current habitability.

Van Laerhoven, C.; Barnes, R.; Greenberg, R.

2014-07-01

284

The Child and Leisure Time. 1970 White House Conference on Children, Report of Forum 21. (Working Copy).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Creative leisure activities make a profound contribution to the child's emotional, psychological, physical, aesthetic, and spiritual growth. We, as a nation, have failed to emphasize the importance of leisure experiences upon the individual. The prime obstacles have been two prejudicial attitudes: (1) that leisure is intrinsically less worthy than…

Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC.

285

Physical Leisure Participation and the Well-Being of Adults With Rheumatoid Arthritis: The Role of Sense of Belonging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participation in physical leisure activities was tested as a coping resource among adults with rheumatoid arthritis. Drawing on sociological theory of social integration, sense of belonging was tested as a potential mediator to help explain any significant association found between physical leisure activity and well-being among a population-based sample of adults with rheumatoid arthritis. Greater frequency of physical leisure participation

Steven E. Mock; Cory Fraser; Shannon Knutson; Andrea Prier

2010-01-01

286

An Exploration of the Role of Leisure in Coping with Work Related Stress Using Sequential Tree Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The past three decades have seen an explosion of interest into the nature, causes and consequences of stress in both work and non-work settings. Given that leisure is of growing importance in most people's lives and that the impact of stress influences the way in which leisure is used, then the role that leisure plays as a means of coping with…

Trenberth, Linda; Dewe, Philip

2005-01-01

287

Habitability  

NASA Video Gallery

Students analyze physical processes that occur on Earth and Mars and compare differences on how particular similar physical features occur. Students will use planetary comparisons in understanding ...

288

Tektite 2 habitability research program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multi-level parameters relating to perceived life quality in an isolated research and residence quarters were measured using a variety of tests. The habitat under study, emplaced beneath the sea off the coast of St. John's Island as a part of the Tektite II program, was being used for marine research. The crew for each of the 10 missions consisted of one engineer and 4 scientists. One mission had an all-female crew. Mission length was either 14 or 20 days, and 4 engineers, in covering 6 missions, stayed in the habitat for periods of 30 days each. A personality test was taken before confinement in the habitat. Two attitude tests were filled out by the aquanauts while they were still in the habitat. Daily moods were monitored during all missions. Special observations were made of leisure time use. Standardized private debriefings were administered at the end of each mission to each aquanaut. Other behavioral observations made by another research team were intercorrelated with the other measures described above.

Nowlis, D. P.; Wortz, E. C.; Watters, H.

1972-01-01

289

NASA contributions to the global habitability program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a result of developments occurring over the last two decades, the data acquisition, storage, analysis, and transmission facilities are now available for a concerted long-term interdisciplinary and international study of the global environmental system. Such a study is the essence of the 'Global Habitability' concept introduced in 1982. The aims of Global Habitability research are considered, taking into account an understanding of the vital global processes of the earth's energy balance, the global hydrological cycle, and the biogeochemical cycling of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur. Details of NASA planning for Global Habitability are discussed along with international data exchange arrangements. Attention is given to the possible contributions of satellite data and associated techniques to Global Habitability, examples of specific research conducted by NASA in support of the Global Habitability and the international sharing of data and results for Global Habitability.

Mcconnell, D. G.

1984-01-01

290

Constraints on the Habitability of Extrasolar Moons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detections of massive extrasolar moons are shown feasible with the Kepler space telescope. Kepler's findings of about 50 exoplanets in the stellar habitable zone naturally make us wonder about the habitability of their hypothetical moons. Illumination from the planet, eclipses, tidal heating, and tidal locking distinguish remote characterization of exomoons from that of exoplanets. We show how evaluation of an exomoon's habitability is possible based on the parameters accessible by current and near-future technology.

Heller, René; Barnes, Rory

2014-04-01

291

Human factor design of habitable space facilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current fundamental and applied habitability research conducted as part of the U.S. space program is reviewed with emphasis on methods, findings, and applications of the results to the planning and design of the International Space Station. The discussion covers the following six concurrent directions of habitability research: operational simulation, functional interior decor research, space crew privacy requirements, interior layout and configuration analysis, human spatial habitability model, and analogous environments research.

Clearwater, Yvonne A.

1987-01-01

292

Reading Chess  

Microsoft Academic Search

By applying semantic analysis to images of extended passages of text, several volumes of a chess encyclopedia have been read with high accuracy. Although carefully proofread, the books were poorly printed and posed a severe challenge to conventional page-layout analysis and character-recognition methods. An experimental page-reader system performed strictly top-down layout analysis for identification of columns, lines, words, and characters.

Henry S. Baird; Ken Thompson

1990-01-01

293

Reading Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading the average science textbook, one is struck with a question: Why would people devote their lives to the study of a subject as dry as the Sahara Desert? Students in science classes only need to be let in on the great secret of science. It is fun and full of the stuff in page-turner novels--intrigue, mystery, romance, and sometimes just dumb…

Carlson, Kenneth

2005-01-01

294

Summer Reading  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Summer is a great time to kick back with a good book. Try The Bailey School Kids Series... it\\'s Great! Bailey School Kids Jan Brett is my favorite artist. It takes longer to look at the pictures than it does to read the book. But it\\'s worth it. Jan Brett I love Bunnicula, almost as much as I love Harold. Find out ...

Roner, Mrs.

2005-03-31

295

The habitable zone and extreme planetary orbits.  

PubMed

The habitable zone for a given star describes the range of circumstellar distances from the star within which a planet could have liquid water on its surface, which depends upon the stellar properties. Here we describe the development of the habitable zone concept, its application to our own solar system, and its subsequent application to exoplanetary systems. We further apply this to planets in extreme eccentric orbits and show how they may still retain life-bearing properties depending upon the percentage of the total orbit which is spent within the habitable zone. Key Words: Extrasolar planets-Habitable zone-Astrobiology. PMID:23035897

Kane, Stephen R; Gelino, Dawn M

2012-10-01

296

Habit Breaking Appliance for Multiple Corrections  

PubMed Central

Tongue thrusting and thumb sucking are the most commonly seen oral habits which act as the major etiological factors in the development of dental malocclusion. This case report describes a fixed habit correcting appliance, Hybrid Habit Correcting Appliance (HHCA), designed to eliminate these habits. This hybrid appliance is effective in less compliant patients and if desired can be used along with the fixed orthodontic appliance. Its components can act as mechanical restrainers and muscle retraining devices. It is also effective in cases with mild posterior crossbites.

Abraham, Reji; Kamath, Geetha; Sodhi, Jasmeet Singh; Sodhi, Sonia; Rita, Chandki; Sai Kalyan, S.

2013-01-01

297

TIDAL LIMITS TO PLANETARY HABITABILITY  

SciTech Connect

The habitable zones (HZs) of main-sequence stars have traditionally been defined as the range of orbits that intercept the appropriate amount of stellar flux to permit surface water on a planet. Terrestrial exoplanets discovered to orbit M stars in these zones, which are close-in due to decreased stellar luminosity, may also undergo significant tidal heating. Tidal heating may span a wide range for terrestrial exoplanets and may significantly affect conditions near the surface. For example, if heating rates on an exoplanet are near or greater than that on Io (where tides drive volcanism that resurfaces the planet at least every 1 Myr) and produce similar surface conditions, then the development of life seems unlikely. On the other hand, if the tidal heating rate is less than the minimum to initiate plate tectonics, then CO{sub 2} may not be recycled through subduction, leading to a runaway greenhouse that sterilizes the planet. These two cases represent potential boundaries to habitability and are presented along with the range of the traditional HZ for main-sequence, low-mass stars. We propose a revised HZ that incorporates both stellar insolation and tidal heating. We apply these criteria to GJ 581 d and find that it is in the traditional HZ, but its tidal heating alone may be insufficient for plate tectonics.

Barnes, Rory [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Jackson, Brian; Greenberg, Richard [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Raymond, Sean N. [Virtual Planetary Laboratory (United States)

2009-07-20

298

Dynamical habitability of planetary systems.  

PubMed

The problem of the stability of planetary systems, a question that concerns only multiplanetary systems that host at least two planets, is discussed. The problem of mean motion resonances is addressed prior to discussion of the dynamical structure of the more than 350 known planets. The difference with regard to our own Solar System with eight planets on low eccentricity is evident in that 60% of the known extrasolar planets have orbits with eccentricity e > 0.2. We theoretically highlight the studies concerning possible terrestrial planets in systems with a Jupiter-like planet. We emphasize that an orbit of a particular nature only will keep a planet within the habitable zone around a host star with respect to the semimajor axis and its eccentricity. In addition, some results are given for individual systems (e.g., Gl777A) with regard to the stability of orbits within habitable zones. We also review what is known about the orbits of planets in double-star systems around only one component (e.g., gamma Cephei) and around both stars (e.g., eclipsing binaries). PMID:20307181

Dvorak, Rudolf; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Bois, Eric; Schwarz, Richard; Funk, Barbara; Beichman, Charles; Danchi, William; Eiroa, Carlos; Fridlund, Malcolm; Henning, Thomas; Herbst, Tom; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Lammer, Helmut; Léger, Alain; Liseau, René; Lunine, Jonathan; Paresce, Francesco; Penny, Alan; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Röttgering, Huub; Selsis, Frank; Schneider, Jean; Stam, Daphne; Tinetti, Giovanna; White, Glenn J

2010-01-01

299

Reproductive hormones and interleukin-6 in serious leisure male athletes.  

PubMed

Lifestyles associated with different types and intensities of exercise result in improved health including positive changes in chronic low-grade inflammatory biomarkers. Alternatively, some forms of exercise adversely affect reproductive health of men, including changes in circulating reproductive hormones. To explore the associations between exercise intensity and circulating levels of reproductive hormones, and inflammatory analytes in serious leisure athletes (triathletes and cyclists) and recreational athletes. Male athletes 18-60 years old, 16 triathletes, 46 cyclists and 45 recreational athletes, were recruited to provide plasma for the measurement of total testosterone, estradiol, follicular stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone (LH), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), cortisol, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1? (IL-1?) levels, and calculation of free androgen index (FAI) and the estradiol:SHBG ratio (ESR). Plasma estradiol concentrations were more than two times higher in cyclists than in triathletes and recreational athletes (p < 0.01). Testosterone levels were also higher in cyclists than recreational athletes (p < 0.01), but not significantly different from triathletes. SHBG levels were higher in triathletes and cyclists than in recreational athletes (p < 0.01). LH levels were lower in cyclists than in recreational athletes (p < 0.05). IL-6 and IL-1? levels were each two times lower in triathletes than in cyclists (p < 0.05) and IL-6 levels were lower in cyclists than in recreational athletes (p < 0.01). IL-1? levels were two times lower in triathletes than in cyclists (p < 0.05). Circulating estradiol and testosterone levels were elevated in serious leisure male cyclists. This effect is discussed in light in the absence of a substantial concomitant change in gonadotropin levels and other variables. PMID:22382666

Fitzgerald, Leah Z; Robbins, Wendie A; Kesner, James S; Xun, Lin

2012-11-01

300

The Automatic Component of Habit in Health Behavior: Habit as Cue-Contingent Automaticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Habit might be usefully characterized as a form of automaticity that involves the association of a cue and a response. Three studies examined habitual automaticity in regard to different aspects of the cue-response relationship characteristic of unhealthy and healthy habits. Design, Main Outcome Measures, and Results: In each study, habitual automaticity was assessed by the Self-Report Habit Index (SRHI).

Sheina Orbell; Bas Verplanken

2010-01-01

301

A New Look at Habits and the Habit–Goal Interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present model outlines the mechanisms underlying habitual control of responding and the ways in which habits interface with goals. Habits emerge from the gradual learning of associations between responses and the features of performance contexts that have historically covaried with them (e.g., physical settings, preceding actions). Once a habit is formed, perception of contexts triggers the associated response without

Wendy Wood; David T. Neal

2007-01-01

302

Optimizing Spectral Resolution and Observation Time for Measurements of Habitability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) is a NASA mission concept that will attempt to characterize and search for habitability and life on extrasolar planets. While detection of a planet in the habitable zone increases the probability that the planet is habitable, planetary characterization will be required to confirm habitability and thereby test predictions of the position of the habitable zone.

N. Khalfa; V. S. Meadows; S. D. Domagal-Goldman

2009-01-01

303

An Investigation of Students' Reading of the Harry Potter Series  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is an investigation into the reading habits of students in grades 5-8 from selected communities in two southern states, focusing on the Harry Potter series. Harry Potter, a student at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry, is the main character in a series (four thus far) of books that range in length from 352 to 752 pages. This

Brenda P. Dixey; Andrea M. D'Angelo

304

Evaluation of Reading Attitudes of 8th Grade Students in Primary Education According to Various Variables  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading skill is a cognitive process in which the words are perceived, given a meaning, comprehended and then interpreted. The last year in primary education is a critical period when this skill is changed into a habit. As reading attitudes are important for an individual throughout the life, it is necessary to determine according to which…

Sahbaz, Namik Kemal

2012-01-01

305

Reading Refreshment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teaching allows us to be lifelong learners and the summer months provide the window of opportunity to catch up, reflect, and refresh. Did you realize that one of your best professional development options may just be a beach chair and a good book? This article provides a few books suggested by the NSTA Recommends reviewers and journal editors. Dust off your favorite lounger, grab a hat (and perhaps your reading glasses!), and dive into the best professional development program science can provide. And don't forget your sunscreen!

Texley, Juliana

2005-07-01

306

Possible Habitability of Ocean Worlds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decade, the number of detected exoplanets has increased to over thousand confirmed planets and more as yet unconfirmed planet candidates. The scientific community mainly concentrates on terrestrial planets (up to 10 Earth masses) in the habitable zone, which describes the distance from the host star where liquid water can exist at the surface (Kasting et al., 1993). Another target group of interest are ocean worlds, where a terrestrial-like body (i.e. with an iron core and a silicate mantle) is covered by a thick water-ice layer - similar to the icy moons of our solar system but with several Earth masses (e.g. Grasset et al., 2009). When an exoplanet is detected and confirmed as a planet, typically the radius and the mass of it are known, leading to the mean density of the planet that gives hints to possible interior structures. A planet with a large relative iron core and a thick ocean on top of the silicate mantle for example would have the same average planet density as a planet with a more Earth-like appearance (where the main contributor to the mass is the silicate mantle). In this study we investigate how the radius and mass of a planet depend on the amount of water, silicates and iron present (after Wagner et al., 2011) the occurence of high-pressure-ice in the water-ice layer (note: we only consider surface temperatures at which liquid water exists at the surface) if the ocean layer influences the initiation of plate tectonics We assume that ocean worlds with a liquid ocean layer (and without the occurence of high-pressure ice anywhere in the water layer) and plate tectonics (especially the occurence of subduction zones, hydrothermal vents and continental formation) may be called habitable (Class III/IV habitats after Lammer et al., 2009). References: Kasting, J.F., Whitmire, D.P., and Reynolds, R.T. (1993). Habitable Zones around Main Sequence Stars. Icarus 101, 108-128. Grasset, O., Schneider, J., and Sotin, C. (2009). A study of the accuracy of mass-radius relationships for silicate-rich and ice-rich planets up to 100 Earth masses. The Astrophysical Journal 693, 722-733. Wagner, F.W., Sohl, F., Hussmann, H., Grott, M., and Rauer, H. (2011). Interior structure models of solid exoplanets using material laws in the infinite pressure limit. Icarus 214, 366-376. Lammer, H., Bredehöft, J.H., Coustenis, A., Khodachenko, M.L., Kaltenegger, L., Grasset, O., Prieur, D., Raulin, F., Ehrenfreund, P., Yamauchi, M., Wahlund, J.-E., Grießmeier, J.-M., Stangl, G., Cockell, C.S., Kulikov, Yu.N., Grenfell, J.L., and Rauer, H. (2009). What makes a planet habitable? Astron Astrophys Rev 17, 181-249.

Noack, Lena; Höning, Dennis; Bredehöft, Jan H.; Lammer, Helmut

2014-05-01

307

Student Work Habits: An Educational Imperative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Major problems in the American workforce are absenteeism, tardiness, disorganization, off-task behavior, and limited teamwork. Attacking such problems by promoting effective work habits in schools should be an educational priority, with teachers, counselors, and school psychologists all playing a role in the process. Student work habits that can…

Williams, Robert L.; Oh, Eun Jung

308

Family Perceptions of Television Viewing Habits.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined families' television viewing habits during prime time and family members' perceptions of their viewing habits. Individually interviewed 24 mother-father-child triads to determine viewing patterns over a four-evening period. Both boys and girls were more concordant with fathers than with mothers. Age differences were not significant for…

Hopkins, M. Nancy; Mullis, Ann K.

1985-01-01

309

Genetic Influences on Adolescent Eating Habits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behavioral genetic research shows that variation in eating habits and food consumption is due to genetic and environmental factors. The current study extends this line of research by examining the genetic contribution to adolescent eating habits. Analysis of sibling pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health)…

Beaver, Kevin M.; Flores, Tori; Boutwell, Brian B.; Gibson, Chris L.

2012-01-01

310

Habit Lag: When “Automatization” is Dysfunctional  

Microsoft Academic Search

La Fave's habit lag construct, which specifies conditions under which previously automatized motor responses become disruptive of subsequent performance, was tested. Performance under stress was also examined as a possible factor in the occurrence of habit lag. Following a visual discrimination task, 48 women performed motor responses simultaneously: (a) repeating an invariant lever movement and (b) pushing one of two

Roger C. Mannell; James H. Duthie

1975-01-01

311

Hierarchy of stroking habits at the typewriter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studied the typing stroking habits of 82 high school students, 103 college undergraduates, and 5 faculty members and secretaries at skill levels ranging between 10 and 114 words\\/min (wpm) in order to identify the habits that account for skill and locate the skill levels at which significant changes in stroking occur. Ss typed (using 3-min timings) a series of materials

Leonard J. West; Yitzchak Sabban

1982-01-01

312

Unsuccessful Study Habits in Foreign Language Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study determined which study habits would distinguish successful from unsuccessful foreign language learners. Participants were 219 college students from a variety of disciplinary backgrounds enrolled in either Spanish, French, German, or Japanese classes. The students completed the Study Habits Inventory and the Background Demographic Form.…

Bailey, Phillip D.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

313

Planetary Conditions for Habitability on Enceladus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prolific activity and presence of a plume on Saturn's tiny moon Enceladus offers us a unique opportunity to sample the interior composition of an icy satellite, and to look for interesting chemistry and possible signs of life. Based on studies of the potential habitability of Jupiter's moon Europa, icy satellite oceans can be habitable if they are chemically mixed

Christopher D. Parkinson; Amy C. Barr; Mao-Chang Liang; Y. L. Yung

2007-01-01

314

Habitability of Enceladus: Planetary Conditions for Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prolific activity and presence of a plume on Saturn's tiny moon Enceladus offers us a unique opportunity to sample the interior composition of an icy satellite, and to look for interesting chemistry and possible signs of life. Based on studies of the potential habitability of Jupiter's moon Europa, icy satellite oceans can be habitable if they are chemically mixed

Christopher D. Parkinson; Mao-Chang Liang; Yuk L. Yung; Joseph L. Kirschivnk

2008-01-01

315

The Habitability of the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the vague guesswork of some writers in antiquity, early telescopic astronomy was strongly preoccupied with the ``World in the Moone.'' About the same time, as Kepler's charming ``Dream'' appeared posthumously, Wilkins set out to prove that there was no contradiction ``with reason or faith'' if we assumed the habitability of the Moon. For about two hundred years, this hypothesis remained quite popular (Cyrano, Fontenelle, Huygens) particularly among the wider public. That in spite of the reverberations, for instance, of the Whewell-Brewster controversy over the habitability of planets, now largely forgotten. On this background, the success of the famous ``Moon hoax of 1835'' seems more understandable. It was only in the middle of the 19th century that this idea began to slowly fade as the lack of lunar atmosphere became more and more obvious. The scientific evidence was mainly in connection with the lunar occultations (Bessel, John Herschel, and others), and also with the well-observed total solar eclipse of 1842. Yet, even later, rather fanciful assumptions about the lunar atmosphere collecting on the invisible far side of the Moon kept a modicum of believability alive for some years. Ultimately, however, the ``Selenites'' wandered over into the domain of science fiction -- the best representative being perhaps Wells' utopia in the ``First Men on the Moon'' exploring the inside of the Moon. The scientific studies concentrated more on the rather frustrating topic of lunar surface variations such as the disappearance of the crater Linnae. Nevertheless, as late as the 1960's, a possibly overly cautious NASA was ready to quarantine the returning Apollo astronauts, paying homage, perhaps, to the panspermia hypothesis.

Herczeg, Tibor

316

Rehearsed Oral Reading: Providing Authentic Reading Experiences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A two-part study investigated the prevalence of unrehearsed oral reading and compared reading fluency for rehearsed and unrehearsed reading passages. In the first part of the study, a total of 21 teachers were interviewed and 24 classrooms were observed. Results indicated that by far the most prevalent practice in basal reading programs is the…

Matz, Karl A.

317

Extensive Reading Quizzes and Reading Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Extensive reading (ER) has become a common feature of many English as a second or foreign language (ESL/EFL) programs. There is evidence that reading large amounts of easy, interesting material may improve foreign language skills, most notably in vocabulary, reading rates, and overall proficiency. However, teacher evaluation of extensive reading…

Stoeckel, Tim; Reagan, Nevitt; Hann, Fergus

2012-01-01

318

Planetary Habitability of the Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Habitability is a qualitative concept generally defined as the suitability of an environment to support life. Although there are many works related to planetary habitability, there is no practical quantitative definition of habitability. The search for habitable environments in the Solar System and beyond requires a method to quantify and compare their significance. Therefore, this study presents a quantitative approach to assess the habitability of Earth and other planetary bodies. A Quantitative Habitability Model (QH Model) was develop and used to model the terrestrial habitability as a standard for comparison. The QH Model provides a simple ecophysiology-based framework that can be used to predict the potential distribution, abundance and productivity of life in planetary bodies from local to global scales. The simplest QH Model calculates habitability from the environment temperature and relative humidity in gas phases (i.e. atmospheres), and from temperature and salinity in liquid phases (i.e. oceans). The model was used to explain the latitudinal gradients of primary producers on Earth and was validated with ground and satellites observations of net primary productivity (NPP). The potential global habitability for prokaryotes of the upper-troposphere of Venus, the subsurface of Mars, Europa, Titan, and Enceladus was compared. Results show that Enceladus has the zone with the highest mean habitability in the Solar System although to deep for direct exploration. Results also show that the current global terrestrial environment of land areas is not optimized for primary producers, but it was during some paleoclimates. The QH Model has applications in ecosystem modeling, global climate studies including paleoclimates and global warming, planetary protection, and astrobiology. It can also be used to quantify the potential for life of any terrestrial-size extrasolar planet as compared to Earth. This study was partially supported by UPR Arecibo and NASA Astrobiology Institute.

Mendez, Abel

2009-09-01

319

Leisure Today/Our Environment in Crisis--We Can Change the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six articles discuss how leisure services professionals might respond to the on-going environmental crisis. The articles focus on recycling, ecotourism, environmental education, outdoor experience, and an urban outdoor learning center. (SM)

DeGraaf, Donald G.; And Others

1994-01-01

320

Leisure and Life-Styles of the Elderly: Outline of a Research Programme.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reduction of lifetime working hours in Western industrialized countries is increasing the need for research, particularly qualitative, on the leisure of the elderly. This approach has been taken in planning a new empirical study. (MSE)

Tokarski, Walter

1987-01-01

321

Video Games and Children: Effects on Leisure Activities, Schoolwork, and Peer Involvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measures the indirect effect a home video system has on children's leisure activities, school work, and peer contacts. Concludes that owning a video game does not greatly alter a child's activities. (HOD)

Creasey, Gary L; Myers, Barbara J

1986-01-01

322

Close Reading Exemplar: "The Great Fire"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of this three day exemplar is to give students the opportunity to use the reading and writing habits theyâve been practicing on a regular basis to explore the historic Great Fire of Chicago. By reading and rereading the passage closely combined with classroom discussion about it, students will explore the historical truths related to poverty, city construction, and city services that led to the disaster. In this reading, students learn about historical disasters, but they may not fully comprehend causes or how human actions, nature, or even luck contributed to them, rendering history a flat subject to be memorized rather than explored. When combined with writing about the passage and teacher feedback, students will better understand the dangers inherent in cities and the government role in mitigating that danger.

Student Achievement Partners for Just Read, Florida!

2012-09-08

323

Reading trees.  

PubMed

Are birds dinosaurs? Answers to this question yield various responses, depending on a particular viewpoint. From the perspective of a common understanding of recent theories of the origin of birds and their potential precursor (ancestral) animals, then, yes, birds are a kind of dinosaur, having evolved from one or another non-avian dinosaur (Bostwick 2003). From the perspective of public understanding of science (how to inform the general public of biology's latest findings), then, yes, birds are dinosaurs, at least they are a kind of dinosaur, one that young children can actually hold in their hands (e.g., Maugh 2012). These two perspectives, largely derived from phylogenetic reasoning, contrast with the perspective from classification, which asks different questions: What are birds; what are dinosaurs; and how are they related to one another? Addressing these questions raises the issue of trees in classification (phylogenetic or otherwise) and how to read them. This is not as easy a task as is often suggested in the recent literature on tree-reading and tree-thinking (first noted long ago by O'Hara 1988, see Baum and Smith 2012 for a first book-length treatment).                      The role of tree-thinking in classification is applied after a tree has been constructed and natural groups established. For instance, it would seem premature to infer phylogenies on poorly classified taxa, such as invertebrates, reptiles and so on, as these groupings are artificial. Doing so would only result in erroneous hypotheses that cannot be substantiated. The role of classification, however, is to make sure that the natural groups are justified, and in order to do this it is vital that those groups are understood. Birds represent a monophyletic group, which has series of unique characteristics that it shares with other theropods (i.e., bipedal saurischian dinosaurs). Dinosaurs, as usually conceived, are a group of non-monophyletic organisms that variously share closer characteristics (i.e., relationships) with other taxa rather than uniquely among themselves. In the case of dinosaurs (as Dinosauria) and classification, what is at stake is a taxonomic name, rather than a unique group of character traits. Below we outline and compare two contrasting ways of reading trees, one way, concerned with classification, yielding the view that, no, birds are not dinosaurs. PMID:24943430

Ebach, Malte C; Williams, David M

2014-01-01

324

Exploratory Notes on the Geography of Black Gay Leisure Spaces in Bloemfontein, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gay leisure space development has of late been an important area of investigation in geography. Generally, these investigations\\u000a have primarily concerned white gay men in Western countries. Most of these debates have not been considered in the developing\\u000a world context, particularly in Africa. This investigation explores the leisure geography of black gay men in the city of Bloemfontein.\\u000a It is

Gustav Visser

2008-01-01

325

A multicentre randomized controlled trial of leisure therapy and conventional occupational therapy after stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the effects of leisure therapy and conventional occupational therapy (OT) on the mood, leisure participation and independence in activities of daily living (ADL) of stroke patients 6 and 12 months after hospital discharge.Design: Multicentre randomized controlled trial.Setting and participants: Four hundred and sixty-six stroke patients from five UK centres.Main outcome measures: The General Health Questionnaire (12 item),

C. J. Parker; J. R. F. Gladman; A. E. R. Drummond; M. E. Dewey; N. B. Lincoln; D. Barer; P. A. Logan; K. A. Radford

2001-01-01

326

Value orientations and motivational interference in school-leisure conflict: The case of Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experience of motivational interference during studying and leisure in a school-leisure conflict and its relationship to pupils' value orientations were investigated in a self-report study of Vietnamese pupils (N=346, mean age=15 years). The results were compared with a combined sample consisting of pupils from nine other countries (N=2155). From a cross-cultural perspective, the mean values of the variables show

Manfred Hofer; Stefan Fries; Andreas Helmke; Britta Kilian; Claudia Kuhnle; Ilija Živkovi?; Richard Goellner; Tuyet Helmke

2010-01-01

327

Close Reading Exemplar: "The Making of a Scientist"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of this two to three day exemplar is to give students the opportunity to use the reading and writing habits theyâve been practicing on a regular basis to absorb deep lessons from Richard Feynmanâs recollections of interactions with his father. By reading and rereading the passage closely, and focusing their reading through a series of questions and discussion about the text, students will identify how and why Feynman started to look at the world through the eyes of a scientist. When combined with writing about the passage, students will discover how much they can learn from a memoir.

Student Achievement Partners for Just Read, Florida!

2012-09-09

328

Association between Sleep Disturbances and Leisure Activities in the Elderly: A Comparison between Men and Women.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that physical or social activity is associated with fewer sleep disturbances among elderly people. Women report more sleep disturbances than men, which could indicate a variation in activity patterns between the genders. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between sleep disturbances and leisure activities in men and women (n = 945) aged ?60 years in a Swedish population. Sleep disturbances were measured using eight dichotomous questions and seventeen variables, covering a wide range of leisure activities. Few leisure activities were found to be associated with sleep disturbances and their importance decreased when the models were adjusted for confounders and gender interactions. After clustering the leisure activities and investigating individual activities, sociointellectual activities were shown to be significant for sleep. However, following adjustment for confounders and gender interactions, home maintenance was the only activity significant for sleep. Being a female increased the effect of home maintenance. Besides those leisure activities, poor/fair self-rated health (OR 7.50, CI: 4.27-11.81) and being female (OR 4.86, CI: 2.75-8.61) were found to have the highest association with poor sleep. Leisure activities pursued by elderly people should focus on activities of a sociointellectual nature, especially among women, to promote sleep. PMID:24575303

Hellström, Amanda; Hellström, Patrik; Willman, Ania; Fagerström, Cecilia

2014-01-01

329

Mars habitability: epochs, processes, remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the OMEGA/Mars Express pioneering discovery of hydrated phyllosilicates in a variety of sites spread over the ancient terrains, an impressive set of results, combining refined observations by OMEGA/Mars Express and CRISM/MRO, relevant contextual images by HRSC/Mars Express and HiRiSe/MRO, modeling and simulations, has been acquired. They confirm the initial hypothesis that these minerals record an ancient era during which water might have remained liquid over extended durations, which led to naming this era: phyllosian. It is remarkable that 30 years after the Mariner and Viking images of Mars as a desolated and inhospitable world, a new vision is emerging, for Mars to have possibly hosted environmental conditions favoring the presence of a key ingredient of potential astrobiological relevance. If ever Mars was habitable, it happened during the phyllosian. A variety of coupled information, from compositional, geomorphological and magnetic data, enables to assess the processes that took place, and their chronology. The observations that we will discuss include the specific composition identified, in relation to the stratification observed; the scarcity of phyllosilicates within the cratered terrains where mafics dominate; the large depth of deposits in a variety of sites, in particular within Mawrth Vallis; the distribution of remnant magnetization, with almost none within the large impacts and along the volcanic features. As a consequence, it will be shown that this era is tightly limited in time. It seems to have ended prior to the heavy bombardment to have ceased: the Noachian expanded long after the phyllosian ended. This habitable era could have been enabled by the maintenance of an active dynamo: its drop triggered its end, given the properties of the early Sun, by the lost of suitable atmospheric conditions for surface water to remain stable as a liquid. Up to now, neither with the Moon or any other body, we did not have means to study the complex history of inner planets along their first hundreds of millions years, at a time when the early bombardment took place, while maintaining habitable conditions which, at least on the Earth, led to the emergence of life. Did the impact rate steadily decreased, or did it drop a number of times, up to late events some 3.8/3.9 billion years ago, offering quiet epochs with biologically active standing water reservoirs in place? Mars is unique in offering means to study this era, as its history preserved sites recording this era with potentially biorelics still in place. The occurrence of phyllosilicate-rich sites offers the exciting perspective to address scientifically the question of the emergence of life elsewhere than on the Earth, and to decipher the processes that drove diverging evolutionary pathways for Mars and the Earth.

Bibring, J.; Omega, T.

2008-12-01

330

Habitability from a microbial point of view  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine here the definition of habitability from the point of view of primitive, anaerobic microorganisms noting that the conditions of habitability are different for the appearance of life, for established life, and for life in dormant mode [1]. Habitability in this sense is clearly distinguished from the 'prebiotic world' that precedes the appearance of life. The differences in the conditions of habitability necessary for life to appear, for life to flourish and for dormant life entrain differences in spatial and temporal scales of habitability. For the origin of life, the ingredients carbon molecules, water, nutrients and energy need to be present on time scales applicable for the origin of life (105 to a few 106 y ?), necessitating the spatial scales of a minimum of ~100 km. Established life can take advantage of short-lived habitats (hours, days) to much longer lived ones on spatial scales of 100s ?m to cm-m, whereas dormant life can survive (but not metabolise) in extreme environments for very long periods (perhaps up to millions of years) at microbial spatial scales (100s ?m - mms). Thus, it is not necessary for the whole of a planet of satellite to be habitable. But the degree of continued habitability will have a strong influence on the possibility of organisms to evolve. For a planet such as Mars, for instance, microbial habitability was (perhaps still is) at different times and in different places. Habitable conditions conducive to the appearance of life, established life and possibly even dormant life could co-exist at different locations. Reference: [1] F. Westall, D. Loizeau, F. Foucher, N. Bost, M. Bertrand, J. Vago, & G. Kminek, Astrobiology 13:9, 887-897 (2013).

Westall, Frances; Loizeau, Damien; Foucher, Frédéric; Bost, Nicolas; Bertrand, Marylène; Vago, Jorge; Kminek, Gerhard

2014-05-01

331

Parents Teach Reading, Too.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents and teachers need to be involved in teaching children to read and to enjoy reading. There are three planks in a platform that will help all parents become involved in their children's learning to read. First, parents must set the example. If they want their children to read, parents must read around them and to them. Secondly, they must…

Clary, Linda Mixon

332

On Balanced Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that discussions in the United States of "balanced reading" ignore decades of successful reading instruction in New Zealand based on "Balanced Reading Programmes," that embrace more complex constructions on instructional practice than do current discussions surrounding balanced reading instruction in the United States. Argues that reading…

Reutzel, D. Ray

1999-01-01

333

[Smoking habits in chronic schizophrenics].  

PubMed

The smoking habits of 48 chronic schizophrenics who were inpatients of private psychiatric were examined. Subjects were divided into three groups; non-smokers, moderate smokers and heavy smokers, and tested by Fagerstrom's Tolerance Questionnaire (FTQ) as a tobacco dependence evaluation, and Bender Gestalt Test (BGT) and Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT) as a neuropsychological battery. In addition, we used the Scales for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) to evaluate the degree of schizophrenic negative symptoms, confirming the correlation between SANS score and the amount of nicotine intake or FTQ item. From the results of FTQ scores and their correlation with SANS scores, the amount of nicotine intake was significantly related to the severity of schizophrenic negative symptoms including affective blunting, poverty of thinking and attention impairment. BGT and BVRT showed disturbances in visual-motor gestalt function, and attention and memory, in chronic schizophrenics who smoked, especially in heavy smokers. These results suggest that smoking behavior in chronic schizophrenics might increase the individual vigilance against negative symptoms, from the perspective of self-medication. PMID:8588752

Fukui, K; Kobayashi, T; Hayakawa, S; Koga, E; Okazaki, S; Kawashima, Y; Kawakami, F; Fukui, Y; Tani, N; Kato, A

1995-12-01

334

Determining Habitable Zones in Binary Star Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planets in and around binary star systems are subject to potentially large variations in insolation, especially when the planetary orbits become eccentric (Forgan, 2012; Kane & Hinkel, 2013). Eggl et al. (2012) were able to show that even planets on initially circular orbits experience large insolation variations due to the gravitational interaction between the two stars and the planet. It is, thus, not an easy task to identify Habitable Zones in such systems. We present an analytic framework suited to determine Habitable Zones in and around binary star systems using effective insolation values provided by Kopparapu et al. (2013). Accounting for the complex dynamical interaction between the planet and the binary star, we could define our Habitable Zones in such a way that they still remain independent of time up to stellar evolution timescales. Thus, our method provides a simple means of guiding observations to regions of interest, where terrestrial planets can remain habitable in double star systems.

Eggl, S.; Georgakarakos, N.; Pilat-Lohinger, E.; Funk, B.

2013-09-01

335

Quantitative Modelling of Human Spatial Habitability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A model for the quantitative assessment of human spatial habitability is presented in the space station context. The visual aspect assesses how interior spaces appear to the inhabitants. This aspect concerns criteria such as sensed spaciousness and the af...

J. A. Wise

1985-01-01

336

Circumstellar habitable zones for deep terrestrial biospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The habitable zone (HZ) is conventionally the thin shell of space around a star within which liquid water is thermally stable on the surface of an Earth-like planet (Kasting et al., 1993). However, life on Earth is not restricted to the surface and includes a "deep biosphere" reaching several km in depth. Similarly, subsurface liquid water maintained by internal planetary heat could potentially support life well outside conventional HZs. We introduce a new term,subsurface-habitability zone (SSHZ) to denote the range of distances from a star within which rocky planets are habitable at any depth below their surfaces up to a stipulated maximum, and show how SSHZs can be estimated from a model relating temperature, depth and orbital distance. We present results for Earth-like, Mars-like and selected extrasolar terrestrial planets, and conclude that SSHZs are several times wider and include many more planets than conventional surface-based habitable zones.

McMahon, Sean; O’Malley-James, Jack; Parnell, John

2013-09-01

337

Reading: The Human Touch.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading programs must be reassessed, and fragmented, isolated, and repetitive exercises must be eliminated. The goal of any reading program is to get the child to experience the joys of reading and learning. (Author/WI)

Roswell, Florence G.

1978-01-01

338

Children Can Love Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Reading Is Fundamental Program (RIF), whose reading motivation concept is simple: young people who get the opportunity to freely choose and to own books may begin to experience reading as a pleasurable activity. (Author/LLS)

Zibart, Rosemary

1980-01-01

339

Habitability of Enceladus: Planetary Conditions for Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prolific activity and presence of a plume on Saturn's tiny moon Enceladus offers us a unique opportunity to sample the\\u000a interior composition of an icy satellite, and to look for interesting chemistry and possible signs of life. Based on studies\\u000a of the potential habitability of Jupiter's moon Europa, icy satellite oceans can be habitable if they are chemically mixed

Christopher D. Parkinson; Mao-Chang Liang; Yuk L. Yung; Joseph L. Kirschivnk

2008-01-01

340

The CHOICE Study: A "taste-test" of utilitarian vs. leisure walking among older adults  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Utilitarian walking (e.g., walking for transport) and leisure walking (e.g., walking for health/recreation) are encouraged to promote health, yet few studies have explored specific preferences for these two forms of physical activity or factors that impact such preferences. OBJECTIVE A quasi-experimental crossover design was used to evaluate how training underactive midlife and older adults in each type of walking impacted total steps taken and how it was linked to their subsequent choice of walking types. METHODS Participants (N=16) were midlife and older adults (M age=64±8 yrs) who were mostly women (81%) and white (75%). To control for order effects, participants were randomized to instruction in either utilitarian or leisure walking for 2 weeks and then the other type for 2 weeks. Participants then entered a 2-week “free choice” phase in which they chose any mixture of the walking types. Outcome variables included walking via OMRON pedometer and the ratio of utilitarian vs. leisure walking during the free-choice phase. Participants completed surveys about their neighborhood (NEWS) and daily travel to multiple locations. RESULTS Instruction in leisure -only, utilitarian-only, and a freely chosen mixture of the two each resulted in significant increases in steps taken relative to baseline (ps<0.05). Having to go to multiple locations daily and traveling greater distances to locations were associated with engagement in more utilitarian walking. In contrast, good walking paths, neighborhood aesthetics, easy access to exercise facilities, and perceiving easier access to neighborhood services were associated with more leisure walking. DISCUSSION Results from this pilot study suggest that midlife and older adults may most easily meet guidelines through either leisure only or a mixture of leisure and utilitarian walking, and tailored suggestions based on the person’s neighborhood may be useful.

Hekler, Eric B.; Castro, Cynthia M.; Buman, Matthew P.; King, Abby C.

2011-01-01

341

Promoting Reading Motivation by Reading Together  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present project we tested the hypothesis that tutorial situations with peers would benefit children's reading motivation. Participants were from elementary school--80 fourth-graders and 80 second-graders. We used a questionnaire to assess reading motivation. In the tutorial sessions we developed a Paired Reading Program. The children who…

Monteiro, Vera

2013-01-01

342

Investigating habits: strategies, technologies and models  

PubMed Central

Understanding habits at a biological level requires a combination of behavioral observations and measures of ongoing neural activity. Theoretical frameworks as well as definitions of habitual behaviors emerging from classic behavioral research have been enriched by new approaches taking account of the identification of brain regions and circuits related to habitual behavior. Together, this combination of experimental and theoretical work has provided key insights into how brain circuits underlying action-learning and action-selection are organized, and how a balance between behavioral flexibility and fixity is achieved. New methods to monitor and manipulate neural activity in real time are allowing us to have a first look “under the hood” of a habit as it is formed and expressed. Here we discuss ideas emerging from such approaches. We pay special attention to the unexpected findings that have arisen from our own experiments suggesting that habitual behaviors likely require the simultaneous activity of multiple distinct components, or operators, seen as responsible for the contrasting dynamics of neural activity in both cortico-limbic and sensorimotor circuits recorded concurrently during different stages of habit learning. The neural dynamics identified thus far do not fully meet expectations derived from traditional models of the structure of habits, and the behavioral measures of habits that we have made also are not fully aligned with these models. We explore these new clues as opportunities to refine an understanding of habits.

Smith, Kyle S.; Graybiel, Ann M.

2014-01-01

343

Habitable worlds with no signs of life.  

PubMed

'Most habitable worlds in the cosmos will have no remotely detectable signs of life' is proposed as a biological hypothesis to be tested in the study of exoplanets. Habitable planets could be discovered elsewhere in the Universe, yet there are many hypothetical scenarios whereby the search for life on them could yield negative results. Scenarios for habitable worlds with no remotely detectable signatures of life include: planets that are habitable, but have no biosphere (Uninhabited Habitable Worlds); planets with life, but lacking any detectable surface signatures of that life (laboratory examples are provided); and planets with life, where the concentrations of atmospheric gases produced or removed by biota are impossible to disentangle from abiotic processes because of the lack of detailed knowledge of planetary conditions (the 'problem of exoplanet thermodynamic uncertainty'). A rejection of the hypothesis would require that the origin of life usually occurs on habitable planets, that spectrally detectable pigments and/or metabolisms that produce unequivocal biosignature gases (e.g. oxygenic photosynthesis) usually evolve and that the organisms that harbour them usually achieve a sufficient biomass to produce biosignatures detectable to alien astronomers. PMID:24664917

Cockell, Charles S

2014-04-28

344

Investigating habits: strategies, technologies and models.  

PubMed

Understanding habits at a biological level requires a combination of behavioral observations and measures of ongoing neural activity. Theoretical frameworks as well as definitions of habitual behaviors emerging from classic behavioral research have been enriched by new approaches taking account of the identification of brain regions and circuits related to habitual behavior. Together, this combination of experimental and theoretical work has provided key insights into how brain circuits underlying action-learning and action-selection are organized, and how a balance between behavioral flexibility and fixity is achieved. New methods to monitor and manipulate neural activity in real time are allowing us to have a first look "under the hood" of a habit as it is formed and expressed. Here we discuss ideas emerging from such approaches. We pay special attention to the unexpected findings that have arisen from our own experiments suggesting that habitual behaviors likely require the simultaneous activity of multiple distinct components, or operators, seen as responsible for the contrasting dynamics of neural activity in both cortico-limbic and sensorimotor circuits recorded concurrently during different stages of habit learning. The neural dynamics identified thus far do not fully meet expectations derived from traditional models of the structure of habits, and the behavioral measures of habits that we have made also are not fully aligned with these models. We explore these new clues as opportunities to refine an understanding of habits. PMID:24574988

Smith, Kyle S; Graybiel, Ann M

2014-01-01

345

Habit Interference in the White Rat and in Human Subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature of habit interference in animals is reviewed and the results are summarized, as a background for Hunter's investigation which sought to solve two problems, namely: (1) To plot a curve for habit interference; and (2) to secure data concerning the correlation existing between the ability to form a habit and the ability to break that habit by establishing

W. S. Hunter

1922-01-01

346

The effect of metrazol shock upon habit systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

2. Twenty-one schizophrenics undergoing metrazol therapy were compared with a control group. The techniques involved setting up a simple motor habit and then training in another habit which was similar to, but incompatible with, the first habit, thus necessitating the suppression of the first habit. The experimental group was then subjected to a metrazol shock, and both groups tested for

E. H. Rodnick

1942-01-01

347

Modelling motivation and habit in stable travel mode contexts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The habitual action perspective suggests that where transport users have strong travel choice habits, motivation will have no effect on behaviour. This has commonly been demonstrated in situations where travel habits and intentions conflict, but in stable decision settings intentions and habits will correspond. This paper reports two studies which demonstrate the moderating effect of habit on the intention–behaviour relationship

Benjamin Gardner

2009-01-01

348

An inquiry into the causal relationship among leisure vacation, depression, and absence from work.  

PubMed

Depression is one of the most prevalent psychological health problems in occupational settings. Through literature review and the experience of previous investigations, it is now presumed that depression could mediate the association between workload and absence from work. In order to examine the above relationship, a follow-up investigation was conducted using male white-collar employees. The authors have been examining the association between work-related factors and employee health for some years, and vacation has become recognized as one of the important candidates for alleviating psychological problems in the workplace. In July 1996, the chance of leisure vacations within the past year and the presence of depression were examined by a self-administrated questionnaire. The subjects were followed-up for the rest of the year and absence from work was monitored. By analyzing 357 eligible subjects aged 20-59 years, the causal association between leisure vacation, depression, and absence from work was examined. Through correlation and log-linear analysis, the following findings were explored: The decrease of leisure vacation chances was correlated with the presence of depression, and depression contributed to an increase in the absence from work after adjustment was made for possible confounding factors. Leisure vacation could be independent of other work-related factors such as working hours, and it seemed to be significant to investigate positive effects of leisure vacation on psychological well-being in the workplace. PMID:10629900

Tarumi, K; Hagihara, A

1999-12-01

349

Genetic and Environmental Influences on the Allocation of Adolescent Leisure Time Activities  

PubMed Central

There is a growing recognition of the importance of the out-of-school activities in which adolescents choose to participate. Youth activities vary widely in terms of specific activities and in time devoted to them but can generally be grouped by the type and total duration spent per type. We collected leisure time information using a 17-item leisure time questionnaire in a large sample of same- and opposite-sex adolescent twin pairs (N = 2847). Using both univariate and multivariate genetic models, we sought to determine the type and magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on the allocation of time toward different leisure times. Results indicated that both genetic and shared and nonshared environmental influences were important contributors to individual differences in physical, social, intellectual, family, and passive activities such as watching television. The magnitude of these influences differed between males and females. Environmental influences were the primary factors contributing to the covariation of different leisure time activities. Our results suggest the importance of heritable influences on the allocation of leisure time activity by adolescents and highlight the importance of environmental experiences in these choices.

Haberstick, Brett C.; Zeiger, Joanna S.; Corley, Robin P.

2014-01-01

350

Which habitable zones have the most real estate?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last few years, our concept of a habitable world has become much broader. Besides terrestrial planets in the conventional habitable zone roughly 0.7-1.5 AU from a Sun-like star, we realize that a moon of a Jovian planet in the habitable zone may be habitable, as well as a moon like Europa that is tidally heated. Habitable planets may

R. Belikov; M. Kuchner

2009-01-01

351

How do habits guide behavior? Perceived and actual triggers of habits in daily life  

Microsoft Academic Search

What are the psychological mechanisms that trigger habits in daily life? Two studies reveal that strong habits are influenced by context cues associated with past performance (e.g., locations) but are relatively unaffected by current goals. Specifically, performance contexts – but not goals that were activated outside of awareness – triggered strongly habitual behaviors in memory (Experiment 1) and triggered overt

David T. Neal; Wendy Wood; Jennifer S. Labrecque; Phillippa Lally

352

Habitable Trinity: a new concept of a habitable environment beyond Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Habitable Trinity, which is a newly proposed concept of a habitable environment for searching for life beyond Earth, is the coexistence of an atmosphere (consisting largely of C and N), an ocean (H and O), and a landmass (supplier of nutrients). It is the minimum requirement for the beginning of life as we know it.

Dohm, J.; Maruyama, S.

2013-09-01

353

What Should Students Read?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reading students are required to do for school bears little semblance to the reading they do outside of school. Students today are reading the same texts in school that students read a generation ago, but the varieties of text used outside of school are much different. One result is that many students are unmotivated to become readers.…

Wolk, Steven

2010-01-01

354

Big Read, Big ROI  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2004, the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) released a grim report on the state of literary reading in America. "Reading at Risk" (www.nea.gov/pub/ReadingAtRisk.pdf) detailed a dramatic decline in recreational reading across all segments of the American population--young and old, black, brown, and white. It also included the projected…

Dempsey, Beth

2008-01-01

355

Research in Secondary Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summers' annotated bibliographies of secondary reading (1963, 1964), "Review of Educational Research,""Journal of Reading," ERIC/CRIER, and "Research in Education" are listed as resources for all phases of reading. A shifting of trends in the nature and scope of research topics in secondary reading is noted, with diagnosis and treatment,…

Kling, Martin

356

Reading, Language Arts & Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the following papers on educational technology issues related to reading, language arts, and literacy: (1) "The Infusion of Technology into a Teacher Education Course: Issues and Strategies" (Mary Ann Kolloff); (2) "Project READ: Developing Online Course Materials for a Reading Methods Class" (Judith A. Crowe); (3) "Reading…

Matthew, Kathy, Ed.

357

Designing the Reading Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The design of the reading curriculum presents a vision of what will be stressed in reading instruction. A first ingredient to discuss in developing the reading curriculum emphasizes the degree to which different curriculum areas should be related in teaching and learning. Reading then could be taught as a separate subject matter area from the…

Ediger, Marlow

358

Habitable Climates: The Influence of Obliquity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extrasolar terrestrial planets with the potential to host life might have large obliquities or be subject to strong obliquity variations. We revisit the habitability of oblique planets with an energy balance climate model (EBM) allowing for dynamical transitions to ice-covered snowball states as a result of ice-albedo feedback. Despite the great simplicity of our EBM, it captures reasonably well the seasonal cycle of global energetic fluxes at Earth's surface. It also performs satisfactorily against a full-physics climate model of a highly oblique Earth-like planet, in an unusual regime of circulation dominated by heat transport from the poles to the equator. Climates on oblique terrestrial planets can violate global radiative balance through much of their seasonal cycle, which limits the usefulness of simple radiative equilibrium arguments. High obliquity planets have severe climates, with large amplitude seasonal variations, but they are not necessarily more prone to global snowball transitions than low obliquity planets. We find that terrestrial planets with massive CO2 atmospheres, typically expected in the outer regions of habitable zones, can also be subject to such dynamical snowball transitions. Some of the snowball climates investigated for CO2-rich atmospheres experience partial atmospheric collapse. Since long-term CO2 atmospheric build-up acts as a climatic thermostat for habitable planets, partial CO2 collapse could limit the habitability of such planets. A terrestrial planet's habitability may thus sensitively depend on its short-term climatic stability.

Spiegel, David S.; Menou, Kristen; Scharf, Caleb A.

2009-01-01

359

Using simultaneous prompting to teach independent living and leisure skills to adults with severe intellectual disabilities.  

PubMed

The acquisition of independent living and leisure skills enables adults to experience an enhanced quality of life by increasing competence, self-reliance, and the development of autonomy. This study examined the effectiveness of simultaneous prompting to teach behavior chains (i.e., independent living and leisure skills) to adults with SID individually in their home environments. Participants included two adults with SID receiving services from a not-for-profit agency that provides community-based services and supports to persons with disabilities. The results of this study are the first to indicate the effectiveness of simultaneous prompting to teach independent living and leisure skills to adults with SID using a one-on-one format in their home environment. Both participants learned three different skills within 12-28 sessions and maintained each skill 1, 2, and 4 weeks after mastery. PMID:22093664

Dollar, Chad A; Fredrick, Laura D; Alberto, Paul A; Luke, Jaye K

2012-01-01

360

Determinants of participation in leisure activities among adolescents with cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

Studies have identified restrictions in engagement in leisure activities for adolescents with disabilities. Participation is a complex construct and likely influenced by a variety of factors. These potential determinants have not yet been sufficiently explored in the population of adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). The objective of this study is to estimate the potential influence of adolescent characteristics and environmental factors as determinants of participation in leisure activities for adolescents with CP. A cross-sectional design was used. Participants were adolescents (12-19 years old) with cerebral palsy. Participants were assessed with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale - II, Gross Motor Function Measure, Gross Motor Function Classification System, Manual Ability Classification System and completed the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents, Dimensions of Mastery Questionnaire, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Family Environment Scale, the European Child Environment Questionnaire and the Preferences for Activities of Children. The main outcome measure was the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment. 187 adolescents (age M=15.4; SD=2.2) completed the study. Multivariate models of participation in leisure revealed associations with factors related to the adolescents' functional characteristics and attitudes, the family environment, socioeconomic status, and contextual factors such as school type, and collectively explained from 28% (diversity of skill-based activities) up to 48% (intensity and diversity of self-improvement activities) of the variance in intensity and diversity in five leisure participation domains (diversity: r(2)=.33 recreational; r(2)=.39 active-physical; r(2)=.33 social activities). Adolescent's mastery motivation, self-perception and behavior were individually associated with participation in different activity domains, but did not strongly predict participation within multivariate models, while preferences for activities were strong predictors of participation in all domains, except for skill-based activities. Engagement in different types of leisure activities is important for adolescents' development and well-being. Health care professionals should consider adolescents' and families' characteristics to promote participation in leisure activities. PMID:23751302

Shikako-Thomas, Keiko; Shevell, Michael; Schmitz, Norbert; Lach, Lucyna; Law, Mary; Poulin, Chantal; Majnemer, Annette

2013-09-01

361

Leisure Time Physical Activity and Its Determinants among Adults in Tehran: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess leisure time physical activity and its determinants among adults in Tehran. Methods: This cross-sectional study comprised adults (n = 7285), aged 20 years and older. The subjects were participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study between 2002 and 2004. Information on the number of days spent on different activities during a week and the time devoted to each activity on a typical day was recorded. In addition, each activity, weighted by its relative intensity, was referred to as a metabolic equivalent. Results: The prevalence of inactivity was 69.8% (95% CI: 68.7-70.8) in the whole population and 30.2% (95% CI: 27.2-33.1%) of men and 30.3% (95% CI: 27.7-32.8%) of women were considered as active. Leisure time physical activity less than 30 min/week was scored in 1590 (50.6%) men and 1803 (43.5%) women. The most frequent leisure time physical activity performed by men (96.1%) and women (95.2%) was walking. A negative association was observed in men between leisure time physical activity and increased work hours, older age, more cigarette smoking and higher body mass index (69.8% were overweight and 75.3% were obese; P < 0.05). Leisure time physical activity was more likely to be associated with high educational levels in men. In addition, there was a statistically significant relationship between physical inactivity and occupation in both men and women. Conclusions: The prevalence of physical inactivity among adults in Tehran was high. Leisure time physical inactivity was more likely to be associated with older age, more cigarette smoking, more working hours, and higher body mass index. Public health efforts are needed to improve people's participation in physical activities in Iran.

Momenan, Amir Abbas; Delshad, Maryam; Mirmiran, Parvin; Ghanbarian, Arash; Azizi, Fereidoun

2011-01-01

362

Personal Factors and Perceived Barriers to Participation in Leisure Activities for Young and Adults with Developmental Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participation in leisure activities has been identified as a factor that favors inclusion in the community and it also contributes to a better quality of life. This study analyzed the influence of certain personal characteristics and environmental factors in the participation in leisure activities of youngsters and adults with developmental…

Badia, Marta; Orgaz, Begona M.; Verdugo, Miguel A.; Ullan, Ana M.; Martinez, Magdalena M.

2011-01-01

363

Motivational Interference in School-Leisure Conflict and Learning Outcomes: The Differential Effects of Two Value Conceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It was hypothesized that students' value orientations are connected to their experience of motivational interference in a conflict between a school- and a leisure-related activity as well as to school marks as indicators of learning outcomes. In a self-report study with Italian adolescents (N = 433; M = 14.5 years) using a school-leisure conflict…

Hofer, Manfred; Kuhnle, Claudia; Kilian, Britta; Marta, Elena; Fries, Stefan

2011-01-01

364

Motivated for Leisure in the Future: A Person-Centred Longitudinal Study in the Lowest Level of Secondary Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Long-term future time perspective on leisure has been found to relate negatively to school effort. This was studied further by recognizing types of students based on developments in long-term leisure perspectives and comparing their development in motivation and academic achievement. Around 1200 12-13 year old students attending the lowest level…

Van der Veen, Ineke; Peetsma, Thea

2011-01-01

365

Visually Impaired Older Adults and Home-Based Leisure Activities: The Effects of Person-Environment Congruence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study explored the effect of person-environment congruence on participation in homebased leisure activities by two legally blind older adults who lived independently in the community. The results indicated that visual impairment increased the time spent in home-based leisure activities and that the participants used various…

Stevens-Ratchford, Regina; Krause, Airi

2004-01-01

366

Predictors of work\\/family interference and leisure-time physical activity among teachers: The role of passion towards work  

Microsoft Academic Search

People highly involved in their work are likely to experience negative repercussions on other life domains such as family and leisure activities. The purpose of the present study was to identify the potential contribution of passion towards work on work\\/family interference (WFI) and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). It was hypothesized that obsessive passion towards work would be positively related to

Johan Caudroit; Julie Boiché; Yannick Stephan; Christine Le Scanff; David Trouilloud

2011-01-01

367

Towards a model of cross-sectoral policy development in leisure: the case of sport and tourism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whilst leisure studies has now become an established field of academic analysis, there is still little literature on the dynamics of the leisure policy process, particularly in the area of cross-sectoral liaison. This paper attempts to synthesize previous research relating to general policy dynamics in developing a model of cross-sectoral policy development. In developing this model, particular attention is given

Mike Weed

2001-01-01

368

Environmental Signatures for Habitability: What to Measure and How to Rank the Habitability Potential of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The environmental signatures for habitability are not necessarily biosignatures, even though on Earth, they are definitive proof of habitability. It is the constant overprint of the chemical signatures of life that makes it difficult to recognize the chemical and physical properties of a potentially habitable environment as distinct from an inhabited one. Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) will soon embark on a mission to Mars to assess its past or present habitability, so it is useful to examine how we measure habitability on Earth and prepare for how that approach may differ for Mars. This exercise includes: (a) articulation of fundamental assumptions about habitability, (b) an inventory of factors that affect habitability, (c) development of metrics, measurement approach and implementation, and (d) a new classification scheme for planetary habitability that goes beyond the binary "yes" or "no." There may be dozens of factors that affect habitability and they can be weighted as a function of specific environment. However a robotic, in situ investigation even on Earth has constraints that prevent the measurement of every environmental factor, so metrics must be reduced to the most relevant subset, given available time, cost, technical feasibility and scientific importance. Many of the factors could be measured with a combination of orbital data and the MSL payload. We propose that, at a minimum, a designation of high habitability potential requires the following conditions be met: (a) thermally stable with respect to extremes and frequency of fluctuation, (b) has more than one energy source, (c) sufficient chemical diversity to make compounds with covalent and hydrogen bonding, (d) can moderate ionizing radiation enough to allow a stable or evolving pool of organic molecules, (e) must have water or other high quality polar solvent, (f) must be able to renew chemical resources (e.g., plate tectonics, volcanism or something else we haven't envisioned). A measurement approach we have taken to measure habitability on Earth is : 1. Study remote sensing data, maps, etc. 2. Decide how big an area to measure. 3. Determine the spatial sampling rate. 4. Determine the temporal sampling rate. 5. Determine the order of measurements 6. Decide where to begin measurements 7. Select locations at field site and proceed While science drives each of the steps, there are additional constraints, e.g., technical, time, cost, safety (risk). This approach is also executable on Mars. Measurement of past habitability is more challenging both for Earth and Mars where access to the past means subsurface access and confrontation with unknowns about preservation of the martian past. Some environments preserve evidence of past habitability better than others, and this is where selection of the landing site to maximize the preservation potential of habitability indicators will be key. Mars presents an opportunity to discover transitional states between habitable or not, and we offer a ranking scale for planetary habitability with Mars as the second test subject: CLASS ONE Uninhabitable and likely has never been so CLASS TWO Has a high potential but no confirmed observation of life (as defined above) CLASS THREE Inhabited (we find life) 3-A Globally inhabited 3-B Primitive life; early in its evolution, but not yet globally established 3-C Exists only in refugia -- planet heading toward class four CLASS FOUR Post-habitable (there once was life, but now it's gone) MSL provides an opportunity to carefully investigate the habitability of at least one site on Mars and it will reveal much about the possible states of planetary habitability

Conrad, Pamela G.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Mahaffy, Paul M.; Steele, Andrew

2011-01-01

369

Estimation of leisure time physical activity and sedentary behaviour among school adolescents in Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background Leisure-time physical activity is essential for healthy and physically active life; however, this domain of physical activity is less common in developing countries. Information on leisure time physical activity and sedentary behaviour among Nepalese population is not available. The study was carried out to assess leisure time physical activity and sedentary behaviour among high school adolescents and identify the associated factors in Nepal. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in Banke district, Nepal in 2013 among higher secondary school students using self-administered questionnaire based on International Physical Activity Questionnaire. A sample of 405 students, 178 females and 227 males, of the age–group 15 to 20 years from seven schools were included in the study. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify factors associated with participation in leisure time physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Results Engagement of female in leisure time physical activity was lower but mean time spent on sitting per day was higher. Students who walked to school and have playground/parks near home, younger females (OR?=?3.09, 95% CI: 1.18-8.08), females living in nuclear families (OR: 2.16, 95% CI: 1.01-4.62) and males who cycled to school (OR: 8.09, 95% CI: 2.35-27.80) and have provision of extra-curricular activities (OR: 2.49, 95% CI: 1.04-5.97) were more likely to be engaged in leisure time physical activity. On the other hand, students who did not have playground in school and lived in rural areas were more likely to sit for more than 6 hours a day. Likewise, male students of private school (OR: 6.41, 95% CI: 2.89-14.21), who used vehicle to reach school (OR: 5.90, 95% CI: 1.26-27.75) and have no provision of extra-curricular activities (OR: 2.98, 95% CI: 1.09-8.07) had longer sitting time. Conclusion Difference in leisure time physical activity and sedentary behaviour was found among male and female school adolescents. Interventions are needed not only to promote leisure time physical activity but also to reduce sedentary behaviour among this group.

2014-01-01

370

Geophysical and atmospheric evolution of habitable planets.  

PubMed

The evolution of Earth-like habitable planets is a complex process that depends on the geodynamical and geophysical environments. In particular, it is necessary that plate tectonics remain active over billions of years. These geophysically active environments are strongly coupled to a planet's host star parameters, such as mass, luminosity and activity, orbit location of the habitable zone, and the planet's initial water inventory. Depending on the host star's radiation and particle flux evolution, the composition in the thermosphere, and the availability of an active magnetic dynamo, the atmospheres of Earth-like planets within their habitable zones are differently affected due to thermal and nonthermal escape processes. For some planets, strong atmospheric escape could even effect the stability of the atmosphere. PMID:20307182

Lammer, Helmut; Selsis, Frank; Chassefière, Eric; Breuer, Doris; Griessmeier, Jean-Mathias; Kulikov, Yuri N; Erkaev, Nikolai V; Khodachenko, Maxim L; Biernat, Helfried K; Leblanc, Francois; Kallio, Esa; Lundin, Richard; Westall, Frances; Bauer, Siegfried J; Beichman, Charles; Danchi, William; Eiroa, Carlos; Fridlund, Malcolm; Gröller, Hannes; Hanslmeier, Arnold; Hausleitner, Walter; Henning, Thomas; Herbst, Tom; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Léger, Alain; Leitzinger, Martin; Lichtenegger, Herbert I M; Liseau, René; Lunine, Jonathan; Motschmann, Uwe; Odert, Petra; Paresce, Francesco; Parnell, John; Penny, Alan; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Rauer, Heike; Röttgering, Huub; Schneider, Jean; Spohn, Tilman; Stadelmann, Anja; Stangl, Günter; Stam, Daphne; Tinetti, Giovanna; White, Glenn J

2010-01-01

371

Habitable Climates: The Influence of Eccentricity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the outer regions of the habitable zone, the risk of transitioning into a globally frozen "snowball" state poses a threat to the habitability of planets with the capacity to host water-based life. Here, we use a one-dimensional energy balance climate model (EBM) to examine how obliquity, spin rate, orbital eccentricity, and the fraction of the surface covered by ocean might influence the onset of such a snowball state. For an exoplanet, these parameters may be strikingly different from the values observed for Earth. Since, for a constant semimajor axis, the annual mean stellar irradiation scales with (1 - e 2)-1/2, one might expect the greatest habitable semimajor axis (for fixed atmospheric composition) to scale as (1 - e 2)-1/4. We find that this standard simple ansatz provides a reasonable lower bound on the outer boundary of the habitable zone, but the influence of both obliquity and ocean fraction can be profound in the context of planets on eccentric orbits. For planets with eccentricity 0.5, for instance, our EBM suggests that the greatest habitable semimajor axis can vary by more than 0.8 AU (78%!) depending on obliquity, with higher obliquity worlds generally more stable against snowball transitions. One might also expect that the long winter at an eccentric planet's apoastron would render it more susceptible to global freezing. Our models suggest that this is not a significant risk for Earth-like planets around Sun-like stars, as considered here, since such planets are buffered by the thermal inertia provided by oceans covering at least 10% of their surface. Since planets on eccentric orbits spend much of their year particularly far from the star, such worlds might turnout to be especially good targets for direct observations with missions such as TPF-Darwin. Nevertheless, the extreme temperature variations achieved on highly eccentric exo-Earths raise questions about the adaptability of life to marginally or transiently habitable conditions.

Dressing, Courtney D.; Spiegel, David S.; Scharf, Caleb A.; Menou, Kristen; Raymond, Sean N.

2010-10-01

372

Stellar Activity Masking and Mimicking Habitable Exoplanets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future generations of precise radial velocity (RV) surveys aim to attain a sensitivity sufficient to detect Earth mass planets orbiting in their host star's habitable zones. The RV semi-amplitude of such a planet can be significantly smaller than RV variations caused by stellar "jitter". Some RV variations, in particular those caused by starspots rotating in and out of view and those caused by magnetic activity cycles can be periodic in nature and can mimic planetary RV signals. We calculate and compare the relative timescales and amplitudes of RV variations due to activity and habitable planetary companions as a function of stellar mass, and discuss the ramifications for RV surveys.

Vanderburg, Andrew; Plavchan, Peter; Johnson, John A.

2014-06-01

373

Information systems - Issues in global habitability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present investigation is concerned with fundamental issues, related to information considerations, which arise in an interdisciplinary approach to questions of global habitability. Information system problems and issues are illustrated with the aid of an example involving biochemical cycling and biochemical productivity. The estimation of net primary production (NPP) as an important consideration in the overall global habitability issue is discussed. The NPP model requires three types of data, related to meteorological information, a land surface inventory, and the vegetation structure. Approaches for obtaining and processing these data are discussed. Attention is given to user requirements, information system requirements, workstations, network communications, hardware/software access, and data management.

Norman, S. D.; Brass, J. A.; Jones, H.; Morse, D. R.

1984-01-01

374

Lights, Camera, Read! Arizona Reading Program Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is the manual for the Arizona Reading Program (ARP) 2003 entitled "Lights, Camera, Read!" This theme spotlights books that were made into movies, and allows readers to appreciate favorite novels and stories that have progressed to the movie screen. The manual consists of eight sections. The Introduction includes welcome letters from…

Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.

375

Reading: Putting the Pieces Together.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The papers in this yearbook focus on the strategies, practices, and research related to elementary reading, secondary reading, adult reading, literature, philosophy of reading, psychology of reading, affective issues, administration, supervision, research, teacher training, assessment that affect reading and reading instruction. Papers in the book…

Hayes, Bernard L., Ed.; Camperell, Kay, Ed.

1994-01-01

376

Food Habits: A Selected Annotated Bibliography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a selective annotated bibliography of material on food habits and factors affecting them, published during the period 1928-1972. References are mainly in English, although a few in European languages are included, and represent information primarily from scholarly and professional journals. Entries are organized by subject and author. (LK)

Wilson, Christine S.

1973-01-01

377

The incidence of nervous habits in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of measuring nervous habits has been described which yields a quantitative score of determinable reliability for each individual. The unit of measurement may be defined in general as one or more specified overt reactions per stated unit of time. Successive observations were made to secure a differentiation in terms of amount for each child. The data obtained indicate

W. C. Olson

1930-01-01

378

Publication Habits of Psychologists in Canadian Universities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of publication habits of psychologists was made. Histograms of publication frequency were prepared for biology, chemistry, history, mathematics, political science, psychology, physics and sociology. Psychologists were most like sociologists both in the mean number of publications per individual and in the form the distribution assumes. Other clusters also appear. Assistant, associate and full professors holding staff appointments in

Thomas M. Nelson; Wayne Poley

1971-01-01

379

Habitual Creativity: Revising Habit, Reconceptualizing Creativity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current psychological scholarship is based on a dichotomy between habit, associated with automatic reflex behavior, and creativity, which involves deliberation, purpose and heuristic procedures. However, this account is problematic and contradicts everyday experience where mastery, for instance, is one of the highest levels of creative performance achieved within a habitual practice. This article argues that such a separation misrepresents both

Vlad Petre Gl?veanu

2012-01-01

380

A normative study of family media habits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study documents family media habits in six areas: electronic and print Media Use, parental Monitoring of children's media, parental Consistency regarding rules for children's media use, parents' reports of observable Media Effects on their children, parents' Knowledge about media and media effects, and how much children participate in Alternative Activities to electronic media. A random national sample of

Douglas A. Gentile; David A. Walsh

2002-01-01

381

Characterizing rocky Super Earths - Habitable Other Worlds?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detecting the first potentially Habitable Planet is just within our reach.. We already found dozens of super-Earths: In this talk we will explore how we can detect habitability remotely. We present calculations for the potential habitability over evolutionary timescales, around very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs, accounting for evolutionary changes in radius/luminosity and tidal-locking. We also present visible/infrared spectral fingerprints of Earth-like planets around these HZs, using coupled 1-D photochemical climate calculations that account for the existence and evolution of chromospheric and coronal activity. While many uncertainties remain (as will be discussed), our calculations attest to the potential for the habitability of, and detection of biosignatures from, rocky Super-Earths. Ground as well as space based telescopes to characterization rocky exoplanets, are already in development phase (ELT, TNT, GMT, James Webb Space Telescope, Darwin, TPF, NWO). We will assess the best observation strategy to search for the signatures of a biosphere on Super-Earths.

Kaltenegger, Lisa

2009-09-01

382

Children's Nutrition: Good Habits for Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Good nutrition is essential in promoting a healthy lifestyle and in preventing illnesses. Nutrition affects people of all ages, but it is fundamental to begin proper nutrition habits early in childhood to gain long-term benefits and practices. It is believed that food practices and behaviors are learned within the first few years of life, therefore it is imperative to implement

Lauren M. Oates

2003-01-01

383

Listening Habits of iPod Users  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To estimate real-environment iPod listening levels for listeners in 4 environments to gain insight into whether average listeners receive dosages exceeding occupational noise exposure guidelines as a result of their listening habits. Method: The earbud outputs of iPods were connected directly into the inputs of a digital recorder to make…

Epstein, Michael; Marozeau, Jeremy; Cleveland, Sandra

2010-01-01

384

Twelve Habits of Successful IT Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In all positions, professionals must continue to develop their skills. The higher education IT profession is no exception. However, many of these skills should be developed progressively. If IT professionals can start learning these twelve skills early in their career, they will have a good chance of turning the skills into habits--and of becoming…

Hawkins, Brian L.

2006-01-01

385

Ideodynamic predictions for the evolution of habits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic mathematical model is proposed to explain how information can influence the fraction of the population with a particular habit. The model includes several important factors mentioned by Fishbein and Ajzen, and Bentler and colleagues: (1) intention is central to behavior, (2) volitional deficiency means that only a fraction of those with the intention actually carry out the behavior,

David P. Fan

1985-01-01

386

Dietary Habits of Greek Primary School Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to assess Greek primary (1st to 6th grade) school children's dietary habits and the factors influencing them. Our results show that children know the value of different foods. The socio-economic status of father has no effect on the attitude of children towards choosing their diet, however, mothers' educational status…

Piperakis, S. M.; Papadimitriou, V.; Zafiropoulou, M.; Piperakis, A. S.; Zisis, P.

2007-01-01

387

Quantitative Modelling of Human Spatial Habitability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A theoretical model for evaluating human spatial habitability (HuSH) in the proposed U.S. Space Station is developed. Optimizing the fitness of the space station environment for human occupancy will help reduce environmental stress due to long-term isolat...

J. A. Wise C. Geisendorfer B. Tiedje D. Lantrip B. Johnson

1988-01-01

388

Recommendations for a Habitability Data Base.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A prototype Habitability Data Base was developed for the United States Army Corps of Engineers. From a review of selected Army documents, standards in the form of goals or architectural criteria were identified as significant to man-environment relations (MER). A search of appropriate information systems was conducted to retrieve a minimum of 500…

Illinois Univ., Urbana. Library Research Center.

389

Folding Corners of the Habits of Mind  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reasoning is central to what Cuoco, Goldenberg, and Mark refer to as mathematical "habits of mind" (1996). "Reasoning is an integral part of doing mathematics. Students should enter the middle grades with the view that mathematics involves examining patterns and noting regularities, making conjectures about possible generalizations,…

Wiles, Peter

2013-01-01

390

Trends in Leisure Time Physical Activity among Young People in Finland, 1977-2007  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The decline in physical activity among young people has been discussed in the media during recent decades, although the scientific evidence for this has been scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate trends over 30 years in leisure time physical activity of Finnish boys and girls aged 12, 14, 16 and 18 years from 1977 to 2007. The data were…

Laakso, Lauri; Telama, Risto; Nupponen, Heimo; Rimpela, Arja; Pere, Lasse

2008-01-01

391

Class, Regionality, and Leisure among Urban Black Americans: The Post-Civil Rights Era.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the leisure behavior among Black Americans in the post-civil rights era revealed that the number of full-time employed adults in the household accurately predicts participation across activities, but that social class and regionality are also important variables. (JD)

Woodard, Michael D.

1988-01-01

392

Built environment effects on leisure travel for children: Trip generation and travel mode  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study empirically analyzed the effects of built environment on leisure travel among children. Students of three elementary schools, namely Yangmingshan, Sanyu and Shilin, all located in the Shilin District of Taipei, were chosen to provide sample data. The negative binomial regression model and multinomial logit model were used to analyze trip generation and travel mode, respectively. This study reached

Jen-Jia Lin; Tzu-Pen Yu

2011-01-01

393

Young Adult Outcomes of Children with Hyperactivity: Leisure, financial, and social activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports on the leisure time, financial, gambling, and social activities of a large sample of children with hyperactivity (H group, N = 149) and children who served as a control group (CC group, N = 72) from the Southeastern Wisconsin (Milwaukee) region tracked for 13–15 years to young adulthood (ages 19–25, M = 20 years). Participant interviews were

Mariellen Fischer; Russell Barkley

2006-01-01

394

Virtual Reality Provides Leisure Time Opportunities for Young Adults with Physical and Intellectual Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to limitations in their physical abilities, adults with cerebral palsy (CP) have relatively few opportunities to engage in independent leisure activities. This pervasive lack of oppor- tunity often leads to the development of dependent behavioral patterns and learned help- lessness. The objective of this pilot study was to explore ways in which virtual reality can provide positive and enjoyable

Pnina Bialik; Rachel Kizony

2003-01-01

395

Virtual reality as a leisure activity for young adults with physical and intellectual disabilities.  

PubMed

Participation in leisure activities is a fundamental human right and an important factor of quality of life. Adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) and physical disabilities often experience limited opportunities to participate in leisure activities, virtual reality (VR) technologies may serve to broaden their repertoire of accessible leisure activities. Although the use of VR in rehabilitation has grown over the past decade, few applications have been reported for people with ID. Thirty-three men and women with moderate ID and severe cerebral palsy participated in the study. Each participant in the experimental group (n=17) took part in VR activity two to three times weekly for 12 weeks. Virtual games were provided via GestureTek's Gesture Xtreme video capture VR system. The VR-based activities were perceived by the participants to be enjoyable and successful. Moreover, participants demonstrated clear preferences, initiation and learning. They performed consistently and maintained a high level of interest throughout the intervention period. VR appears to provide varied and motivating opportunities for leisure activities among young adults with intellectual and physical disabilities. Its ease of use and adaptability make it a feasible option for this population. PMID:17590313

Yalon-Chamovitz, Shira; Weiss, Patrice L Tamar

2008-01-01

396

Determinants of Intensity of Participation in Leisure and Recreational Activities by Children with Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: To test a model of child, family, and service determinants of intensity of participation in leisure and recreational activities by children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Participants were 288 children with CP, age range 6 to 12 years (mean 9y 8mo, SD 2y), and their parents from seven children's hospitals. The sample comprised 166 (57.6%)…

Palisano, Robert J.; Chiarello, Lisa A.; Orlin, Margo; Oeffinger, Donna; Polansky, Marcy; Maggs, Jill; Bagley, Anita; Gorton, George

2011-01-01

397

Does volunteer work during leisure time buffer negative effects of job stressors? A diary study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined volunteer work engagement as a buffer in the relationship between two types of job stressors and two job-related outcomes: positive affect and active listening at work. Fifty-one employees from different organizations who were involved in various volunteer work activities during their leisure time completed a daily survey over a period of one working week with two daily

Eva J. Mojza; Sabine Sonnentag

2010-01-01

398

Multiple Roles, Balance between Work and Leisure, and Satisfaction with Level of Living.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 513 farm women found that self-esteem, locus of control (LOC), and age predicted role involvement; LOC, age, and role involvement predicted discrepancy in the work-leisure balance. Life satisfaction was predicted by the interaction of self-esteem, LOC, role involvement, and discrepancy. (SK)

Danes, Sharon M.

1998-01-01

399

Job Socialization: The Carry-Over Effects of Work on Political and Leisure Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model of job socialization based on the joint effect of decision latitude and psychological demands are developed to predict how behaviors learned on the job would carry over to leisure and political activities out-side of work. The model is tested with a longitudinal national random sample of the Swedish male work force (1:1,000) in 1968 and…

Karasek, Robert A.

2004-01-01

400

Childhood Play and Adolescent Leisure Preferences: Associations with Gender Typing and the Presence of Siblings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Childhood play and adolescent leisure preferences were solicited from 168 predominantly white undergraduates who also completed the Bem Sex Role Inventory and rated the amount of time spent playing with same- and opposite-sex siblings. There was evidence of more stereotyped preferences by those with same-sex siblings. (SLD)

Colley, Ann; And Others

1996-01-01

401

Using Family Leisure Activities to Support Families Living with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Support for families of children with autism spectrum disorders continues to be important, but formal support groups may not ft every need. The authors describe Family Fun Days, a program that paired leisure activities with opportunities for support. There was an increase in the number of participants over traditional support meetings,…

Lock, Robin H.; Hendricks, C. Bret; Bradley, Loretta J.; Layton, Carol A.

2010-01-01

402

Participation and Enjoyment of Leisure Activities in School-Aged Children with Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to characterize participation in leisure activities in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and identify determinants of greater involvement. Ninety-five children of school age (9y 7mo [SD 2y 1mo]) with CP were recruited, and participation was evaluated with the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment in a…

Majnemer, Annette; Shevell, Michael; Law, Mary; Birnbaum, Rena; Chilingaryan, Gevorg; Rosenbaum, Peter; Poulin, Chantal

2008-01-01

403

Digital Leisure-Time Activities, Cognition, Learning Behaviour and Information Literacy: What Are Our Children Learning?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent developments in digital technology have resulted in the unprecedented uptake of digital technology engagement as a leisure-time pursuit across the age span. This has resulted in the speculation that such use of digital technology is responsible for changes in cognition and learning behaviour. This study investigated two groups of…

Grimley, Mick

2012-01-01

404

What Influences Participation in Leisure Activities of Children and Youth with Physical Disabilities? A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2001 the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) defined participation as "someone's involvement in life situations". Participation in leisure activities contributes to the development of children and their quality of life. Children with physical disabilities are known to be at risk for participation in fewer activities. The group of…

Bult, M. K.; Verschuren, O.; Jongmans, M. J.; Lindeman, E.; Ketelaar, M.

2011-01-01

405

"We're Gators...Not Just Gator Fans": Serious Leisure and University of Florida Football.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviewed University of Florida Gator football fans to examine meanings, rituals, and practices associated with being a fan. Emergent themes confirmed Stebbins' (1979; 1992) six characteristics of serious leisure (e.g., perseverance, unique ethos, and identification). Results suggest that being a Gator football fan provides both a source of…

Gibson, Heather; Willming, Cynthia; Holdnak, Andrew

2002-01-01

406

Serious Leisure, Health Perception, Dispositional Optimism, and Life Satisfaction among Senior Games Participants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated factors that explain the life satisfaction of Senior Games participants. One 193 older adults from the 2005 Michigan State Senior Games and the 2005 New York State Senior Games participated in the study. The results of the study show that one of the indicators of serious leisure (affective attachment) was positively…

Heo, Jinmoo; Lee, Youngkhill

2010-01-01

407

Voices from the Margins: Stress, Active Living, and Leisure as a Contributor to Coping with Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress is one byproduct of hectic and busy lives. Therefore, examining active living and leisure in relation to stress and coping offers an important area of study. This paper presents key findings from a multi-year qualitative study of stress and coping. A series of focus groups were conducted with diverse residents of a western Canadian city including: (a) Aboriginal individuals

Yoshitaka Iwasaki; Kelly J. Mackay; Jennifer B. Mactavish; Janice Ristock; Judith Bartlett

2006-01-01

408

Proceedings of the Intermountain Leisure Symposium (7th, Ogden, Utah, November 20, 1986).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains 24 invited papers on leisure, parks and recreation issues. The papers include professional perspectives that range from the hands-on practical issues to innovative research projects and practical program developments that were prepared especially for the symposium. Among the papers included are: (1) "A Professional…

Gray, Howard, Ed.

409

Intellectual Disability and Sexuality: Attitudes of Disability Support Staff and Leisure Industry Employees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The attitudes of support staff and others in the community towards the sexuality of individuals with an intellectual disability (ID) have the potential to influence opportunities for normalised life experiences in the area of sexuality. Method: A sample of 169 disability support staff and 50 employees from leisure and service…

Gilmore, Linda; Chambers, Brooke

2010-01-01

410

Can Gymnastic Teacher Predict Leisure Activity Preference among Children with Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCD)?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aims of the study were to analyze: (1) whether significant differences exist between children with typical development and children with developmental coordination disorders (DCD) in their preference to participate in leisure activities (2) whether the teacher estimation of activity form (TEAF) evaluation predicts participation preference.…

Engel-Yeger, Batya; Hanna-Kassis, Amany; Rosenblum, Sara

2012-01-01

411

Cannabis use, sport practice and other leisure activities at the end of adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To study the relationship between cannabis use, sports practice and other leisure activities during adolescence, as a test for the sociological theory of deviant opportunities. Methods: A sample of 12,512 French adolescents aged 18 responded to an anonymous self-reported questionnaire in March 2001. Three logistic models (for occasional, recent and regular cannabis use) were estimated for girls and boys

Patrick Peretti-Watel; Fabrice Olivier Lorente

2004-01-01

412

Leisure travel in Europe and airline business models: A study of regional airports in Great Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tourism and air transport are explicitly linked especially in the context of leisure traffic. This paper highlights this relationship by focusing on the impact of the three main airline business models (traditional scheduled, charter and low-cost) on regional airports using Britain as a case study. The panel data econometric results show that despite the current perception, low cost carriers are

Andreas Papatheodorou; Zheng Lei

2006-01-01

413

Assessing Adult Leisure Activities: An Extension of a Self-Report Activity Questionnaire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Everyday leisure activities in adulthood and old age have been investigated with respect to constructs such as successful aging, an engaged lifestyle, and prevention of age-related cognitive decline. They also relate to mental health and have clinical value, as they can inform diagnosis and interventions. In the present study, the authors enhanced…

Jopp, Daniela S.; Hertzog, Christopher

2010-01-01

414

Leisure, School, and Work Activity Preferences and Their Role in Vocational Identity Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined elements of an expanded construct of adolescent vocational identity. Analysis of 660 secondary school students found that vocational interests, occupational self-efficacy, and occupational prestige were closely associated with each other, with school and leisure interests, and with engagement in corresponding activities. Adolescents made…

Vondracek, Fred W.; Skorikov, Vladimir B.

1997-01-01

415

The Journal of Recreation and Leisure. Spring 1990 Volume 10 Number 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume contains the following articles under the headings "Philosophical Ideas" (Articles 1-5), "Research Studies" (Articles 6-15), and "Practical Techniques" (Articles 16-22): (1) "Coming Home to a Change of Lifestyle" (Connie O'Connor); (2) "The New Age and Leisure" (Karla Henderson, Angela Whorton); (3) "A Backcountry Dichotomy" (Gary…

Kelsey, Craig, Ed.; Busser, James, Ed.

1990-01-01

416

Intermountain Leisure Symposium Proceedings (12th, Provo, Utah, November 21, 1991).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report includes papers submitted by 23 presenters at a conference on recreation and leisure programs, facilities, and management. Titles of the papers are as follows: (1) "Trends in Parks and Recreation Masterplan Development" (C. W. Kelsey); (2) "Play Therapy: Implications to Recreation" (G. Bader); (3) "Wilderness Therapy" (J. T. Banks and…

Nelson, Doug, Ed.; Smith, S. Harold, Ed.

417

Men's leisure and women's lives: the impact of pornography on women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issue of pornography as a form of leisure practice has received little attention from researchers. In this study, the impact of pornography consumption on women's lives was examined. A diverse group of thirty-two women was interviewed, with discussion focusing on their individual experiences, meanings, and perceptions of pornography. The women's reactions to pornography, especially to violent pornography, were consistently

Susan M. Shaw

1999-01-01

418

The Impact of Leisure-Time Television on School Learning: A Research Synthesis (Preliminary Version).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of 23 studies, including doctoral dissertations, statewide assessments, national surveys, journal articles, technical reports, books, and unpublished papers, sought to integrate empirical findings concerning the impact of leisure time television viewing on student achievement in grades K through 12. For each study, the reviewers coded the…

Williams, Patricia A.; And Others

419

The Impact of Ancient Chinese Philosophy on Contemporary Leisure in China.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little has been written on the impact of Far East civilization's thought and influence on leisure in China today. A discussion of Chinese history, outlined in three stages, clarifies the development of Chinese philosophy over the past 5,000 years. Chinese civilization and culture rest upon a philosophical basis shaped primarily by the principles…

Chang, Yi-Shih; Card, Jaclyn A.

420

The Division of Labor and Leisure in Modern Society: A New Form of Solidarity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper suggests that new values created by modern forms of leisure have intersected with critical changes in the work structure to form a new social pattern. The new pattern emerges from a crisis in industrial societies. Factors which have created this crisis include the rupture of the time frames of society (how work and non-work are…

Bosserman, Phillip

421

The Effects of Leisure Farm Website Design Quality on Consumers' Purchasing Intention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Wide Web's popularity means consumers are using information on a company website as a more important part of their decision making. This study considers the information provided on a website by leisure farms and explores the influence of the good or bad site navigation on the consumers' purchase intention. Other factors considered are high or low brand awareness,

Liang-Chin Chen; Chun-Shou Chen; Alan Chou

422

Positive Youth Development within a Family Leisure Context: Youth Perspectives of Family Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family leisure involvement may provide the first and most essential context for positive youth development in today's society. Similar to the broader ecological perspective used in the youth development literature, family systems theory suggests that each individual in the family influences the whole, while the whole family also influences each…

Ward, Peter J.; Zabriskie, Ramon B.

2011-01-01

423

Parental Work Demands and Parent-Child, Family, and Couple Leisure in Dutch Families: What Gives?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study uses data on 898 Dutch couples with minor children to examine whether parental work demands are related differently to one-on-one parent-child, family, and couple leisure activities. The authors presume that the impact of working hours and work arrangements is smaller on activities that are prioritized highly and that are easier and…

Roeters, Anne; Treas, Judith K.

2011-01-01

424

Assessment of Leisure Preferences for Students with Severe Developmental Disabilities and Communication Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to develop and to evaluate the Preferences for Leisure Attributes (PLA) Assessment, a forced-choice computer software program for students with severe disabilities and communication difficulties. In order to determine content validity of the PLA Assessment, four experts in related fields assigned critical attributes…

Kreiner, Janice; Flexer, Robert

2009-01-01

425

Pre- and Postnatal Women's Leisure Time Physical Activity Patterns: A Multilevel Longitudinal Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine women's leisure time physical activity (LTPA) before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and through the first 7 months postnatal. Pre- and postnatal women (n = 309) completed the 12-month Modifiable Activity Questionnaire and demographic information. Multilevel modeling was used to estimate a growth curve…

Cramp, Anita G.; Bray, Steven R.

2009-01-01

426

Leisure Experiences and Depressive Symptoms among Chinese Older People: A National Survey in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We aimed to explore older people's subjective leisure experiences and to further examine associations of such experiences with their depressive symptoms in Taiwan. Known correlates of depression, such as demographics, physical health, and social support, were taken into account. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to collect data using…

Lu, Luo

2011-01-01

427

Young Adult Outcomes of Children with Hyperactivity: Leisure, Financial, and Social Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reports on the leisure time, financial, gambling, and social activities of a large sample of children with hyperactivity (H group, N = 149) and children who served as a control group (CC group, N = 72) from the Southeastern Wisconsin (Milwaukee) region tracked for 13-15 years to young adulthood (ages 19--25, M = 20 years). Participant…

Fischer, Mariellen; Barkley, Russell

2006-01-01

428

Leisure as a Resource for Successful Aging by Older Adults with Chronic Health Conditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on the model of Selective Optimization with Compensation (SOC) (Baltes & Baltes, 1990), the purpose of this article is to examine leisure-related goals of older adults with chronic conditions and the strategies they use to not only successfully manage their chronic health conditions but live well with them. Semi-structured in-person…

Hutchinson, Susan L.; Nimrod, Galit

2012-01-01

429

Virtual Learning Environments in Hospitality, Leisure, Tourism and Sport: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the qualitative results of a LTS N Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism pedagogic research project, which has reviewed the existing and potential exploitation of Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) within hospitality, le isure, sport and tourism. The concepts of e- learning and VLEs as they are reflected in the gene ric pedagogic literature are reviewed. Extrinsic contextual factors

Claire Haven

2003-01-01

430

Embedding Science Facts in Leisure Skill Instruction Conducted by Peer Tutors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This investigation evaluated the effectiveness of using peer tutors to teach a chained leisure skill (i.e., UNO card game) to three middle school students with disabilities using a simultaneous prompting procedure within a multiple probe design. The investigation also assessed whether the students with disabilities would acquire four unrelated…

Fetko, Erin E.; Collins, Belva C.; Hager, Karen D.; Spriggs, Amy D.

2013-01-01

431

Adolescents' leisure activities, parental monitoring and cigarette smoking - a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Adolescent participation in leisure activities is developmentally beneficial, but certain activities may increase health compromising behaviours, such as tobacco smoking. A limited range of leisure activities has been studied, with little research on out-of-school settings where parental supervision is a potential protective factor. Tobacco smoking is an important, potentially modifiable health determinant, so understanding associations between adolescent leisure activities, parental monitoring, demographic factors and daily smoking may inform preventive strategies. These associations are reported for a New Zealand adolescent sample. Methods Randomly selected schools (n = 145) participated in the 2006 Youth In-depth Survey, a national, biennial study of Year 10 students (predominantly 14-15 years). School classes were randomly selected and students completed a self-report questionnaire in class time. Adjustment for clustering at the school level was included in all analyses. Since parental monitoring and demographic variables potentially confound relations between adolescent leisure activities and smoking, variables were screened before multivariable modelling. Given prior indications of demographic differences, gender and ethnic specific regression models were built. Results and Discussion Overall, 8.5% of the 3,161 students were daily smokers, including more females (10.5%) than males (6.5%). In gender and ethnic specific multivariate analysis of associations with daily smoking (adjusted for age, school socioeconomic decile rating, leisure activities and ethnicity or gender, respectively), parental monitoring exhibited a consistently protective, dose response effect, although less strongly among M?ori. Attending a place of worship and going to the movies were protective for non-M?ori, as was watching sports, whereas playing team sport was protective for all, except males. Attending a skate park was a risk factor for females and M?ori which demonstrated a strong dose response effect. Conclusions There were significant differences in the risk of daily smoking across leisure activities by gender and ethnicity. This reinforces the need to be alert for, and respond to, gender and ethnic differences in the pattern of risk and protective factors. However, given the consistently protective, dose response effect of parental monitoring, our findings confirm that assisting oversight of adolescent leisure activities may be a key component in public health policy and prevention programmes.

2011-01-01

432

Habitable zone limits for dry planets.  

PubMed

Most discussion of habitable planets has focused on Earth-like planets with globally abundant liquid water. For an "aqua planet" like Earth, the surface freezes if far from its sun, and the water vapor greenhouse effect runs away if too close. Here we show that "land planets" (desert worlds with limited surface water) have wider habitable zones than aqua planets. For planets at the inner edge of the habitable zone, a land planet has two advantages over an aqua planet: (i) the tropics can emit longwave radiation at rates above the traditional runaway limit because the air is unsaturated and (ii) the dry air creates a dry stratosphere that limits hydrogen escape. At the outer limits of the habitable zone, the land planet better resists global freezing because there is less water for clouds, snow, and ice. Here we describe a series of numerical experiments using a simple three-dimensional global climate model for Earth-sized planets. Other things (CO(2), rotation rate, surface pressure) unchanged, we found that liquid water remains stable at the poles of a low-obliquity land planet until net insolation exceeds 415 W/m(2) (170% that of modern Earth), compared to 330 W/m(2) (135%) for the aqua planet. At the outer limits, we found that a low-obliquity land planet freezes at 77%, while the aqua planet freezes at 90%. High-obliquity land and aqua planets freeze at 58% and 72%, respectively, with the poles offering the last refuge. We show that it is possible that, as the Sun brightens, an aqua planet like Earth can lose most of its hydrogen and become a land planet without first passing through a sterilizing runaway greenhouse. It is possible that Venus was a habitable land planet as recently as 1 billion years ago. PMID:21707386

Abe, Yutaka; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Sleep, Norman H; Zahnle, Kevin J

2011-06-01

433

Can't control yourself? Monitor those bad habits.  

PubMed

What strategies can people use to control unwanted habits? Past work has focused on controlling other kinds of automatic impulses, especially temptations. The nature of habit cuing calls for certain self-control strategies. Because the slow-to-change memory trace of habits is not amenable to change or reinterpretation, successful habit control involves inhibiting the unwanted response when activated in memory. In support, two episode-sampling diary studies demonstrated that bad habits, unlike responses to temptations, were controlled most effectively through spontaneous use of vigilant monitoring (thinking "don't do it," watching carefully for slipups). No other strategy was useful in controlling strong habits, despite that stimulus control was effective at inhibiting responses to temptations. A subsequent experiment showed that vigilant monitoring aids habit control, not by changing the strength of the habit memory trace but by heightening inhibitory, cognitive control processes. The implications of these findings for behavior change interventions are discussed. PMID:20363904

Quinn, Jeffrey M; Pascoe, Anthony; Wood, Wendy; Neal, David T

2010-04-01

434

Reading Strategies and Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Word identification, multisensory, and comprehension instructional strategies are described for teaching students with reading difficulties. These include the analytic method, synthetic word families, syllabaries, Goodman's Reading Strategy Lessons, Fernald Technique, Cooper Method, Modality Blocking Procedure, Gillingham-Stillman Method,…

Tierney, Robert J.; And Others

1987-01-01

435

Improving Science Reading Comprehension  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lend your struggling readers a helping hand with strategies that will enhance their comprehension of science reading materials. This article offers a few easy-to-implement strategies that teachers can use before, during, and after reading.

Johnson, Jill C.; Martin-Hansen, Lisa

2005-03-01

436

Toddler Reading Time  

MedlinePLUS

... Kids make big leaps in vocabulary during this time, and learn about letters, shapes, colors, weather, animals, ... possible, striving for at least one scheduled reading time each day. Choosing regular times to read (especially ...

437

Read and Indirect Revenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stephen Read provides a solution to the liar and a theory of truth, by putting forward a novel definition of truth. Read’s\\u000a theory attempts to capture certain facts about truth and is, in turn, supported by its attempt to resolve paradoxes that challenge\\u000a it. Why adopt Read’s favoured theory of truth (which theory I will discuss below)? Are the extant

Bradley Armour-Garb

438

National Reading Panel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On April 13, 2000, the National Reading Panel (NRP) released the results of "the largest, most comprehensive evidenced-based review ever conducted of research on how children learn reading." Established in response to a 1997 congressional directive, the NRP is composed of "leading scientists in reading research, representatives of colleges of education, reading teachers, educational administrators, and parents." The NRP Homepage offers background information, additional documents, and related links.

439

Mental Habits: Metacognitive Reflection on Negative Self-Thinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 8 studies, the authors investigated negative self-thinking as a mental habit. Mental content (negative self-thoughts) was distinguished from mental process (negative self-thinking habit). The negative self-thinking habit was assessed with a metacognitive instrument (Habit Index of Negative Thinking; HINT) measuring whether negative self-thoughts occur often, are unintended, are initiated without awareness, are difficult to control, and are self-descriptive. Controlling

Bas Verplanken; Oddgeir Friborg; Catharina E. Wang; David Trafimow; Kristin Woolf

2007-01-01

440

Changes in leisure-time physical activity after transition to retirement: a follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Background Retirement is a major life change that is likely to affect lifestyles. The aim of this study was to examine changes in leisure-time physical activity of moderate and vigorous intensity among ageing employees facing transition to retirement over a follow-up of 5-7 years. Methods The baseline data were collected by questionnaire surveys in 2000-2002 among 40-60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki. A follow-up survey was conducted among the baseline respondents in 2007 (n = 7332, response rate 83%). Those who were on disability retirement at the follow-up were distinguished from old-age retirees. Leisure-time physical activity was measured using similar questions in both surveys. Results Old-age retirees increased significantly their time spent in moderate-intensity physical activity: women 31 minutes per week and men 42 minutes per week on average. Such changes were not found among disability retirees or those remaining employed. There were no changes in vigorous activity. Leisure-time physical inactivity at follow-up was lower among old-age retirees compared with employees of nearly the same age. Adjustments made for potential baseline covariates had no effects on these findings. Conclusions Transition to old-age retirement was associated with an increase in moderate-intensity leisure-time physical activity and a decrease in the proportion of inactive. Encouraging people to leisure-time physical activity after retirement is worthwhile as the increase in free time brings new possibilities for it.

2011-01-01

441

Incidence of School Failure According to Baseline Leisure-Time Physical Activity Practice: Prospective Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the prospective association between leisure-time physical activity practice at 11 years of age and incidence of school failure from 11 to 15 years of age. Methods The sample comprised >4,300 adolescents followed up from birth to 15 years of age participating in a birth cohort study in Pelotas, Brazil. The incidence of school failure from age 11 to 15 years was calculated by first excluding from the analyses all subjects who experienced a school failure before 11 years of age, and then categorizing as “positive” all those who reported repeating a grade at school from 11 to 15 years of age. Leisure-time physical activity was measured using a validated questionnaire. Results The incidence of school failure was 47.9% among boys and 38.2% among girls. Adolescents in the top quartile of leisure-time physical activity practice at 11 years of age had a higher likelihood of school failure (OR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.75) compared with the least active adolescents. In adjusted analyses stratified by sex, boys in the top quartile of leisure-time physical activity practice at 11 years of age were also more likely to have failed at school from age 11 to 15 years (OR: 1.60; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.33). Conclusions Adolescents allocating >1,000 min/wk to leisure-time physical activity were more likely to experience a school failure from 11 to 15 years of age. Although this finding does not advocate against physical activity promotion, it indicates that excess time allocated to physical activity may jeopardize school performance among adolescents.

Rombaldi, Airton J.; Clark, Valerie L.; Reichert, Felipe F.; Araujo, Cora L.P.; Assuncao, Maria C.; Menezes, Ana M.B.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Hallal, Pedro C.

2012-01-01

442

Factors Impacting Habitable Volume Requirements: Results from the 2011 Habitable Volume Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents the results of the Habitable Volume Workshop held April 18-21, 2011 in Houston, TX at the Center for Advanced Space Studies-Universities Space Research Association. The workshop was convened by NASA to examine the factors that feed into understanding minimum habitable volume requirements for long duration space missions. While there have been confinement studies and analogs that have provided the basis for the guidance found in current habitability standards, determining the adequacy of the volume for future long duration exploration missions is a more complicated endeavor. It was determined that an improved understanding of the relationship between behavioral and psychosocial stressors, available habitable and net habitable volume, and interior layouts was needed to judge the adequacy of long duration habitat designs. The workshop brought together a multi-disciplinary group of experts from the medical and behavioral sciences, spaceflight, human habitability disciplines and design professionals. These subject matter experts identified the most salient design-related stressors anticipated for a long duration exploration mission. The selected stressors were based on scientific evidence, as well as personal experiences from spaceflight and analogs. They were organized into eight major categories: allocation of space; workspace; general and individual control of environment; sensory deprivation; social monotony; crew composition; physical and medical issues; and contingency readiness. Mitigation strategies for the identified stressors and their subsequent impact to habitat design were identified. Recommendations for future research to address the stressors and mitigating design impacts are presented.

Simon, M.; Whitmire, A.; Otto, C.; Neubek, D. (Editor)

2011-01-01

443

Reading for Profit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading First is a $900-million-a-year project that offers states grants to improve reading instruction for children in kindergarten through third grade. However, Reading First is now awash in allegations of mismanagement and conflicts of interest. The Education Department's inspector general issued a report that declared that the program's…

Glenn, David

2007-01-01

444

Family Reading Night  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book offers clear and practical guidelines to help engage families in student success. It shows families how to conduct a successful Family Reading Night at their school. Family Night themes include Scary Stories, Books We Love, Reading Olympics, Dr. Seuss, and other themes. Family reading nights invite parents to come to school with their…

Hutchins, Darcy; Greenfeld, Marsha; Epstein, Joyce

2007-01-01

445

Summer Library Reading Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Virtually all public libraries in the United States provide some type of summer library reading program during the traditional summer vacation period. Summer library reading programs provide opportunities for students of many ages and abilities to practice their reading skills and maintain skills that are developed during the school year. Fiore…

Fiore, Carole D.

2007-01-01

446

ELLs' Perceptions of Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research investigated reading support and book preferences of fourth grade English language learners (ELLs) who were struggling readers. This qualitative research focused on three case studies. Interviews were conducted to explore ELLs' perceptions on reading motivation, reading programs, and types of support they received. Descriptions of…

Howard, Rachael M.

2012-01-01

447

Prose reading in neglect.  

PubMed

Prose reading has been shown to be a very sensitive measure of Unilateral Spatial Neglect. However, little is known about the relationship between prose reading and other measures of neglect and its severity, or between prose reading and single word reading. Thirty participants with a first stroke in the right hemisphere and clear symptoms of spatial neglect in everyday life were assessed with tests of prose reading (text in one column book-like, and in two columns magazine-like), single words reading, and a battery of 13 tests investigating neglect. Seventy percent of these participants omitted words at the beginning of the text (left end), showing Prose Reading Neglect (PRN). The participants showing PRN differed from those not showing PRN only for the overall severity of neglect, and had a lesion centred on the insula, putamen and superior temporal gyrus. Double dissociations emerged between PRN and single word reading neglect, suggesting different cognitive requirements between the two tests: parallel processing in single word reading vs. serial analysis in text reading. Notably, the pattern of neglected text varied dramatically across participants presenting with PRN, including dissociations between reading performance of one and two columns text. Prose reading proved a complex and unique task which should be directly investigated to predict the effects of unilateral neglect. The outcome of this study should also inform clinical assessment and advises given to patients and care-givers. PMID:24321197

Beschin, Nicoletta; Cisari, Carlo; Cubelli, Roberto; Della Sala, Sergio

2014-02-01

448

Reading, Memory, and Metacognition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to explore relations among reading skills, metareading, memory, and metamemory. Interactions among these skills were investigated as related to reading ability, operativity, and grade level. The effects of experience, operativity, and metacognition on reading and memory skills were discussed. (Author/DWH)

Byrd, Diana M.; Gholson, Barry

1985-01-01

449

Reading Without a Fovea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A visual mask moving in synchrony with the eye obliterated foveal vision during reading under certain conditions. When foveal vision was masked, reading became difficult. In another condition, a window of readable text moved in synchrony with the eye, and parafoveal vision was masked on each fixation. The results point out the importance of foveal and parafoveal vision in reading.

Keith Rayner; James H. Bertera

1979-01-01

450

Piaget's Legacy to Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contends that Jean Piaget's theories may be helpful in three areas of reading instruction: (1) when reading instruction should begin and how it should proceed, (2) the effect of the mature reader's cognitive development on comprehension, and (3) how the theories can help to refine reading theory. (FL)

Cleland, Craig J.

1981-01-01

451

Current Issues in Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Articles in this journal issue focus on reading acquisition and instruction. The titles and authors are as follows: (1) "10 Good Ways to Involve Parents in the Reading Program," by Nickolas Criscuolo; (2) "A Parent Guide for Helping the Child with A Reading Disability," by Frederick Duffelmeyer and Dale Baum; (3) "Promoting a Good Attitude toward…

French, Michael P., Ed.

1985-01-01

452

Orientation to Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is concerned with tracing the history and logic of the psycholinguistic orientation toward reading, and is directed at reading teachers and teachers of language skills and communication processes in general. Its underlying theme is that reading is essentially a communicative process that can be fairly autonomously acquired when text…

Carton, Aaron S.

453

Reading and Writing Connections.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers, from a conference on reading and writing connections held at the University of Illinois in October 1986, reflects the value of demonstrating connections between reading instruction and writing. The book shows practitioners how writing can be blended with reading instruction and how writing activities can be used not just…

Mason, Jana M., Ed.

454

The Future of Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The future of reading is very much in doubt. In this century, reading could soar to new heights or crash and burn. Some educators and librarians fear that sustained reading for learning, for work, and for pleasure may be slowly dying out as a widespread social practice. Several social and technological developments of the 20th century, such as…

Peters, Tom

2009-01-01

455

Free Reading Is UTOPIA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In high school students get tied up in extracurricular activities and have little time for pleasure reading. It is true that with rigorous academic schedules they have little time for pleasure reading. Thus began a conversation with a sophomore English teacher at the author's high school. As they were discussing the plight of free reading he was…

LeCrone, Nancy

2010-01-01

456

Bedtime Reading = Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project called "Show-Me Bedtime Reading" explored the effects of regular one-to-one evening reading and signing sessions on the development of expressive and receptive language skills of students with deafness. Test scores indicated the positive influence of individualized reading on the development of English competence. Learning strategies…

Rogers, Deborah

1993-01-01

457

Levels of Reading Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As students progress through the different grade levels, reading across the curriculum needs to be emphasized because it provides opportunities for students to practice reading in each academic discipline. Becoming a good reader is a curriculum "must." On the kindergarten level, experience charts may be used as an early means of teaching reading

Ediger, Marlow

458

Philosophies of Reading Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are selected philosophies of reading instruction which are relevant in providing for individual differences among learners. These need to be studied in-depth by reading teachers in order to best provide for each pupil in the classroom. Pupils differ from each other in reading achievement, interests, and purposes, and it is a challenge to…

Ediger, Marlow

2013-01-01

459

Environmental influences on children's physical activity and eating habits in a rural Oregon County.  

PubMed

PURPOSE. To identify environmental barriers and facilitators of children's physical activity and healthy eating in a rural county. DESIGN. Community-based participatory research using mixed methods, primarily qualitative. SETTING. A rural Oregon county. SUBJECTS. Ninety-five adults, 6 high school students, and 41 fifth-grade students. MEASURES. In-depth interviews, focus groups, Photovoice, and structured observations using the Physical Activity Resource Assessment, System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity, Community Food Security Assessment Toolkit, and School Food and Beverage Marketing Assessment Tool. ANALYSIS. Qualitative data were coded by investigators; observational data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The findings were triangulated to produce a composite of environmental barriers and assets. RESULTS. Limited recreational resources, street-related hazards, fear of strangers, inadequate physical education, and denial of recess hindered physical activity, whereas popularity of youth sports and proximity to natural areas promoted physical activity. Limited availability and high cost of healthy food, busy lifestyles, convenience stores near schools, few healthy meal choices at school, children's being permitted to bring snacks to school, candy used as incentives, and teachers' modeling unhealthy eating habits hindered healthy eating, whereas the agricultural setting and popularity of gardening promoted healthy eating. CONCLUSIONS. This study provides data on a neglected area of research, namely environmental determinants of rural childhood obesity, and points to the need for multifaceted and multilevel environmental change interventions. PMID:22040399

Findholt, Nancy E; Michael, Yvonne L; Jerofke, Linda J; Brogoitti, Victoria W

2011-01-01

460

Habitability of Terrestrial Planets in the Early Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Protoearth, Mars, Venus, and the Moon-forming impactor were potentially habitable in the early solar system. The interiors of larger asteroids had habitable circulating water. To see when the inner solar system became continuously habitable, one needs to consider the most dangerous events and the safest refugia from them. Early geochemical and accretionary processes set the subsequent silicate planet reservoirs

N. H. SLEEP

2001-01-01

461

Habits as Knowledge Structures: Automaticity in Goal-Directed Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested the idea of habits as a form of goal-directed automatic behavior. Expanding on the idea that habits are mentally represented as associations between goals and actions, it was proposed that goals are capable of activating the habitual action. More specific, when habits are established (e.g., frequent cycling to the university), the very activation of the goal to

Henk Aarts; Ap Dijksterhuis

2000-01-01

462

Accounting for the role of habit in regular saving  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study combines insights from social psychology and economics by examining the role of savings habits in regular saving. As frequently practiced, automatic, and goal-facilitated behaviors, savings habits play a critical role in everyday financial decisions. Using the Self-Report Habit Index developed by Verplanken and Orbell (2003), we collected and analyzed survey data to (1) validate the role of

Cäzilia Loibl; David S. Kraybill; Sara Wackler DeMay

2011-01-01

463

Can't Control Yourself? Monitor Those Bad Habits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Little is known about how people go aboutsuccessfully controlling their unwanted habits. Because most past research focused on the strategies used to control responses to affective temptations, we began by comparing the control of habits with temptations. We conducted two episode-samplingdiary studies to identify the self-control strategies that people use in their daily lives. Bad habits, unlike responses to

Jeffrey M. Quinn; Anthony Pascoe; W. Wood; D. T. Neal

2010-01-01

464

The Erasure of Habit: Tracing the Pedagogic Body  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While education involves much more than a set of habits, their formation is integral to learning. Within many Western countries, however, habit formation is no longer considered a pedagogic goal. Students may still acquire certain habits of learning as a function of schooling, but the process whereby teachers utilize a form of instruction designed…

Watkins, Megan

2005-01-01

465

Expanding and Improving the Search for Habitable Worlds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review focuses on recent results in advancing our understanding of the location and distribution of habitable exo-Earth environments. We first review the qualities that define a habitable planet\\/moon environment. We extend these concepts to potentially habitable environments in our own Solar System and the current and future searches for biomarkers there, focusing on the primary targets for future exploratory

A. M. Mandell

2008-01-01

466

The Habitability of Our Earth and Other Earths: Astrophysical, Geochemical, Geophysical, and Biological Limits on Planet Habitability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For life-forms like us, the most important feature of Earth is its habitability. Understanding habitability and using that knowledge to locate the nearest habitable planet may be crucial for our survival as a species. During the past decade, expectations that the universe could be filled with habitable planets have been bolstered by the increasingly large overlap between terrestrial environments known to harbor life and the variety of environments on newly detected rocky exoplanets. The inhabited and uninhabited regions on Earth tell us that temperature and the presence of water are the main constraints that can be used in a habitability classification scheme for rocky planets. Our compilation and review of recent exoplanet detections suggests that the fraction of stars with planets is ˜100%, and that the fraction with rocky planets may be comparably large. We review extensions to the circumstellar habitable zone (HZ), including an abiogenesis habitable zone and the galactic habitable zone.

Lineweaver, Charles H.; Chopra, Aditya

2012-05-01

467

HABITABLE CLIMATES: THE INFLUENCE OF ECCENTRICITY  

SciTech Connect

In the outer regions of the habitable zone, the risk of transitioning into a globally frozen 'snowball' state poses a threat to the habitability of planets with the capacity to host water-based life. Here, we use a one-dimensional energy balance climate model (EBM) to examine how obliquity, spin rate, orbital eccentricity, and the fraction of the surface covered by ocean might influence the onset of such a snowball state. For an exoplanet, these parameters may be strikingly different from the values observed for Earth. Since, for a constant semimajor axis, the annual mean stellar irradiation scales with (1 - e {sup 2}){sup -1/2}, one might expect the greatest habitable semimajor axis (for fixed atmospheric composition) to scale as (1 - e {sup 2}){sup -1/4}. We find that this standard simple ansatz provides a reasonable lower bound on the outer boundary of the habitable zone, but the influence of both obliquity and ocean fraction can be profound in the context of planets on eccentric orbits. For planets with eccentricity 0.5, for instance, our EBM suggests that the greatest habitable semimajor axis can vary by more than 0.8 AU (78%) depending on obliquity, with higher obliquity worlds generally more stable against snowball transitions. One might also expect that the long winter at an eccentric planet's apoastron would render it more susceptible to global freezing. Our models suggest that this is not a significant risk for Earth-like planets around Sun-like stars, as considered here, since such planets are buffered by the thermal inertia provided by oceans covering at least 10% of their surface. Since planets on eccentric orbits spend much of their year particularly far from the star, such worlds might turnout to be especially good targets for direct observations with missions such as TPF-Darwin. Nevertheless, the extreme temperature variations achieved on highly eccentric exo-Earths raise questions about the adaptability of life to marginally or transiently habitable conditions.

Dressing, Courtney D.; Spiegel, David S. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Scharf, Caleb A. [Columbia Astrobiology Center, Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Menou, Kristen [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, UCSB, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-4030 (United States); Raymond, Sean N., E-mail: courtney@astro.princeton.ed, E-mail: dsp@astro.princeton.ed, E-mail: kristen@astro.columbia.ed, E-mail: caleb@astro.columbia.ed, E-mail: raymond@obs.u-bordeaux1.f [Universite Bordeaux, Observatoire Aquitain des Sciences de l'Univers, 2 rue de l'Observatoire, BP 89, F-33271 Floirac Cedex (France)

2010-10-01

468

Reading Logs: Integrating Extensive Reading with Writing Tasks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Extensive reading motivates learners to read a large number of texts on a wide range of topics because the students themselves select the reading material based upon its relevance to their interests, knowledge, and experience. Students read texts that match their language level, and they choose the time and place to read. Extensive reading "is…

Lyutaya, Tatiana

2011-01-01

469

Reading Style: Diagnosis, Evaluation, Prescription.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for the evaluation of the reading ability of handicapped students, the reading style checklist (RSC) is presented along with lists of abilities a student would need in order to learn to read using different reading methods. (PHR)

Carbo, Marie L.

1980-01-01

470

Habit, Attitude, and Planned Behaviour: Is Habit an Empty Construct or an Interesting Case of Goal-directed Automaticity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habit is often treated as a construct of marginal interest in the literature on attitude–behaviour relations. We argue that this is undeserved, particularly given the current interest in principles of automaticity in social psychology. Basic features of habits, such as goal-directed automaticity, their dependency on situational constancy, and functionality, as well as the measurement of habit strength, are discussed. Research

Bas Verplanken; Henk Aarts

1999-01-01

471

STS mission duration enhancement study: (orbiter habitability)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Habitability improvements for early flights that could be implemented with minimum impact were investigated. These included: (1) launching the water dispenser in the on-orbit position instead of in a locker; (2) the sleep pallet concept; and (3) suction cup foot restraints. Past studies that used volumetric terms and requirements for crew size versus mission duration were reviewed and common definitions of key habitability terms were established. An accurately dimensioned drawing of the orbiter mid-deck, locating all of the known major elements was developed. Finally, it was established that orbiter duration and crew size can be increased with minimum modification and impact to the crew module. Preliminary concepts of the aft med-deck, external versions of expanded tunnel adapters (ETA), and interior concepts of ETA-3 were developed and comparison charts showing the various factors of volume, weight, duration, size, impact to orbiter, and number of sleep stations were generated.

Carlson, A. D.

1979-01-01

472

Potential photosynthetic systems in extraterrestrial habitable zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of photosynthetic systems have evolved on Earth to harvest various portions of the available spectrum from its G2 star. Currently, the number of confirmed extrasolar planets approaches 300, although many are in orbits well outside their habitable zone. This largely results from an observational bias that tends to more easily spot these "hot Jupiters," but increasingly more Earth-like extrasolar planets are detected. The spectral classes of the stars supporting these planets are generally well-identified, permitting some basic assumptions on the inner and outer habitable zone radii. We can also make some assumptions on the spectrum of photon energy available for potential photosynthesis on these planets, allowing for local atmospheric effects. The absorption spectra of terrestrial photosynthetic systems, both naturally evolved, and artificially created, are matched to the anticipated spectra on extrasolar planets. Further consideration is given to the cooler M class stars, whose large number and long life enhance the likelihood of photosynthesis evolving.

Konesky, Gregory

2008-08-01

473

UV habitable zones around M stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decade there was a change in paradigm, which led to consider that terrestrial-type planets within liquid-water habitable zones (LW-HZ) around M stars can also be suitable places for the emergence and evolution of life. Since many dMe stars emit large amount of UV radiation during flares, in this work we analyze the UV constrains for living systems

Andrea P. Buccino; Guillermo A. Lemarchand; Pablo J. D. Mauas

2007-01-01

474

Habits of Mind for the Science Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Laboratory experience should be an integral part of any high school science program, especially laboratory activities designed so that students gather data, explore concepts, and answer questions through inquiry. So, how can science teachers avoid negligence and minimize the risk of accidents when preparing for, instructing, and supervising students before, during, and after lab? Cultivating the following "habits of mind" at each stage of laboratory work is the first big step toward achieving safety in the laboratory setting.

Eick, Charles; Hayes, Lisa; Smith, Margaret

2005-09-01

475

Cellular Automation of Galactic Habitable Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a preliminary results of our Galactic Habitable Zone (GHZ) 2D probabilistic cellular automata models. The relevant time-scales (emergence of life, it's diversification and evolution influenced with the global risk function) are modeled as the probability matrix elements and are chosen in accordance with the Copernican principle to be well-represented by the data inferred from the Earth's fossil record. With Fermi's paradox as a main boundary condition the resulting histories of astrobiological landscape are discussed.

Vukotic, B.; Cirkovic, M. M.

2010-09-01

476

Cellular Automation of Galactic Habitable Zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a preliminary results of our Galactic Habitable Zone (GHZ) 2D probabilistic cellular automata models. The relevant time-scales (emergence of life, it's diversification and evolution influenced with the global risk function) are modeled as the probability matrix elements and are chosen in accordance with the Copernican principle to be well-represented by the data inferred from the Earth's fossil record.

Branislav Vukotic; Milan M. Cirkovic

2010-01-01

477

Nutrition-related habits of Greek adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate nutrition-related habits of Greek school-aged adolescents.Design: Epidemiological survey.Setting and subjects: The study was part of the Health Behavior in School Aged Children (HBSC) survey. A representative sample of school-aged adolescents aged 11.5, 13.5, and 15.5 y was obtained. The final sample consisted of 4211 students (51.6% girls and 48.4% boys). They were asked to complete a translated

M Yannakoulia; D Karayiannis; M Terzidou; A Kokkevi; L S Sidossis

2004-01-01

478

Early Life Crises of Habitable Planets  

SciTech Connect

There are a number of crises that a potentially habitable planet must avoid or surmount if its potential is to be realized. These include the runaway greenhouse, loss of atmosphere by chemical or physical processes, and long-lasting global glaciation. In this lecture I will present research on the climate dynamics governing such processes, with particular emphasis on the lessons to be learned from the cases of Early Mars and the Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth.

Pierrehumbert, Raymond (University of Chicago) [University of Chicago

2006-02-08

479

Methodological Variables in Choral Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This preliminary study explored changes in prosodic variability during choral reading and investigated whether these changes are affected by the method of eliciting choral reading. Ten typical adult talkers recorded three reading materials (poetry, fiction and textbook) in three reading conditions: solo (reading aloud alone), track (reading aloud…

Poore, Meredith A.; Ferguson, Sarah Hargus

2008-01-01

480

Habit reversal after electroshock convulsions as a function of the difficulty of the tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

When rats are trained to the same criterion in two simple habits learned sequentially, 12 days of electroshock convulsions fail to produce significant habit reversal in the experimental group. When animals are trained first in a simple habit and then in a complex habit, electroshock produced significant habit reversal. If the order was reversed, so that the complex habit was

Harry W. Braun; R. A. Patton

1950-01-01

481

Relationships of Reading, Personality, and Study Orientation to Student Success in Three Teaching-Learning Modes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A sample of 132 college students was randomly assigned to lecture, lecture-discussion, independent-study, or control conditions in an investigation of the relationship of reading efficiency, personality factors, and study habits to instructional conditions. Analysis of results revealed that there were no significant differences in success rates of…

Demicell, Jeanette Ann

482

Research on Learners' Preferences for Reading from a Printed Text or from a Computer Screen  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, 254 Royal Roads University School of Business learners (graduates and undergraduates) were surveyed on their online course-related reading habits and choices. Based on their responses and anecdotal comments and the data from follow-up interviews with six of the participants, learners preferred print copies of text materials for…

Spencer, Carrie

2006-01-01

483

The quantitative modelling of human spatial habitability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theoretical model for evaluating human spatial habitability (HuSH) in the proposed U.S. Space Station is developed. Optimizing the fitness of the space station environment for human occupancy will help reduce environmental stress due to long-term isolation and confinement in its small habitable volume. The development of tools that operationalize the behavioral bases of spatial volume for visual kinesthetic, and social logic considerations is suggested. This report further calls for systematic scientific investigations of how much real and how much perceived volume people need in order to function normally and with minimal stress in space-based settings. The theoretical model presented in this report can be applied to any size or shape interior, at any scale of consideration, for the Space Station as a whole to an individual enclosure or work station. Using as a point of departure the Isovist model developed by Dr. Michael Benedikt of the U. of Texas, the report suggests that spatial habitability can become as amenable to careful assessment as engineering and life support concerns.

Wise, James A.

1988-01-01

484

Radiative habitable zones in martian polar environments.  

PubMed

The biologically damaging solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation (quantified by the DNA-weighted dose) reaches the martian surface in extremely high levels. Searching for potentially habitable UV-protected environments on Mars, we considered the polar ice caps that consist of a seasonally varying CO2 ice cover and a permanent H2O ice layer. It was found that, though the CO2 ice is insufficient by itself to screen the UV radiation, at approximately 1 m depth within the perennial H2O ice the DNA-weighted dose is reduced to terrestrial levels. This depth depends strongly on the optical properties of the H2O ice layers (for instance snow-like layers). The Earth-like DNA-weighted dose and Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) requirements were used to define the upper and lower limits of the northern and southern polar Radiative Habitable Zone (RHZ) for which a temporal and spatial mapping was performed. Based on these studies we conclude that photosynthetic life might be possible within the ice layers of the polar regions. The thickness varies along each martian polar spring and summer between approximately 1.5 and 2.4 m for H2O ice-like layers, and a few centimeters for snow-like covers. These martian Earth-like radiative habitable environments may be primary targets for future martian astrobiological missions. Special attention should be paid to planetary protection, since the polar RHZ may also be subject to terrestrial contamination by probes. PMID:16044598

Córdoba-Jabonero, Carmen; Zorzano, María-Paz; Selsis, Franck; Patel, Manish R; Cockell, Charles S

2005-06-01

485

SETI and SEH (Statistical Equation for Habitables)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The statistics of habitable planets may be based on a set of ten (and possibly more) astrobiological requirements first pointed out by Stephen H. Dole in his book "Habitable planets for man" (1964). In this paper, we first provide the statistical generalization of the original and by now too simplistic Dole equation. In other words, a product of ten positive numbers is now turned into the product of ten positive random variables. This we call the SEH, an acronym standing for "Statistical Equation for Habitables". The mathematical structure of the SEH is then derived. The proof is based on the central limit theorem (CLT) of Statistics. In loose terms, the CLT states that the sum of any number of independent random variables, each of which may be arbitrarily distributed, approaches a Gaussian (i.e. normal) random variable. This is called the Lyapunov form of the CLT, or the Lindeberg form of the CLT, depending on the mathematical constraints assumed on the third moments of the various probability distributions. In conclusion, we show that The new random variable NHab, yielding the number of habitables (i.e. habitable planets) in the Galaxy, follows the lognormal distribution. By construction, the mean value of this lognormal distribution is the total number of habitable planets as given by the statistical Dole equation. But now we also derive the standard deviation, the mode, the median and all the moments of this new lognormal NHab random variable. The ten (or more) astrobiological factors are now positive random variables. The probability distribution of each random variable may be arbitrary. The CLT in the so-called Lyapunov or Lindeberg forms (that both do not assume the factors to be identically distributed) allows for that. In other words, the CLT "translates" into our SEH by allowing an arbitrary probability distribution for each factor. This is both astrobiologically realistic and useful for any further investigations. An application of our SEH then follows. The (average) distancebetween any two nearby habitable planets in the Galaxy may be shown to be inversely proportional to the cubic root of NHab. Then, in our approach, this distance becomes a new random variable. We derive the relevant probability density function, apparently previously unknown and dubbed "Maccone distribution" by Paul Davies in 2008. Data Enrichment Principle. It should be noticed that ANY positive number of random variables in the SEH is compatible with the CLT. So, our generalization allows for many more factors to be added in the future as long as more refined scientific knowledge about each factor will be known to the scientists. This capability to make room for more future factors in the SEH we call the "Data Enrichment Principle", and we regard it as the key to more profound future results in the fields of Astrobiology and SETI. A practical example is then given of how our SEH works numerically. We work out in detail the case where each of the ten random variables is uniformly distributed around its own mean value as given by Dole back in 1964 and has an assumed standard deviation of 10%. The conclusion is that the average number of habitable planets in the Galaxy should be around 100 million±200 million, and the average distance in between any couple of nearby habitable planets should be about 88 light years±40 light years. Finally, we match our SEH results against the results of the Statistical Drake Equation that we introduced in our 2008 IAC presentation. As expected, the number of currently communicating ET civilizations in the Galaxy turns out to be much smaller than the number of habitable planets (about 10,000 against 100 million, i.e. one ET civilization out of 10,000 habitable planets). And the average distance between any two nearby habitable planets turns out to be much smaller than the average distance between any two neighboring ET civilizations: 88 light years vs. 2000 light years, respectively. This means an ET average distance about 20 times higher than the average dis

Maccone, Claudio

2011-01-01

486

Detection of Exomoons Inside the Habitable Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the discovery of the first exoplanets, those most adequate for life to begin and evolve have been sought. Due to observational bias, however, most of the discovered planets so far are gas giants, precluding their habitability. However, if these hot Jupiters are located in the habitable zones of their host stars, and if rocky moons orbit them, then these moons may be habitable. In this work, we present a model for planetary transit simulation considering the presence of moons around a planet. The moon orbit is considered to be circular and coplanar with the planetary orbit. The other physical and orbital parameters of the star, planet, and moon, can be adjusted in each simulation. It is possible to simulate as many successive transits as desired. Since the presence of spots on the surface of the star may produce a signal similar to that of the presence of a moon, our model also allows for the inclusion of starspots. The goal is to determine the criteria for detectability of moons using photometry with the CoRoT and Kepler telescopes taking into account the stellar activity.

Tusnski, Luis Ricardo M.; Valio, Adriana

2014-04-01

487

Habits, action sequences, and reinforcement learning  

PubMed Central

It is now widely accepted that instrumental actions can be either goal-directed or habitual; whereas the former are rapidly acquire and regulated by their outcome, the latter are reflexive, elicited by antecedent stimuli rather than their consequences. Model-based reinforcement learning (RL) provides an elegant description of goal-directed action. Through exposure to states, actions and rewards, the agent rapidly constructs a model of the world and can choose an appropriate action based on quite abstract changes in environmental and evaluative demands. This model is powerful but has a problem explaining the development of habitual actions. To account for habits, theorists have argued that another action controller is required, called model-free RL, that does not form a model of the world but rather caches action values within states allowing a state to select an action based on its reward history rather than its consequences. Nevertheless, there are persistent problems with important predictions from the model; most notably the failure of model-free RL correctly to predict the insensitivity of habitual actions to changes in the action-reward contingency. Here, we suggest that introducing model-free RL in instrumental conditioning is unnecessary and demonstrate that reconceptualizing habits as action sequences allows model-based RL to be applied to both goal-directed and habitual actions in a manner consistent with what real animals do. This approach has significant implications for the way habits are currently investigated and generates new experimental predictions.

Dezfouli, Amir; Balleine, Bernard W.

2012-01-01

488

Habits, action sequences and reinforcement learning.  

PubMed

It is now widely accepted that instrumental actions can be either goal-directed or habitual; whereas the former are rapidly acquired and regulated by their outcome, the latter are reflexive, elicited by antecedent stimuli rather than their consequences. Model-based reinforcement learning (RL) provides an elegant description of goal-directed action. Through exposure to states, actions and rewards, the agent rapidly constructs a model of the world and can choose an appropriate action based on quite abstract changes in environmental and evaluative demands. This model is powerful but has a problem explaining the development of habitual actions. To account for habits, theorists have argued that another action controller is required, called model-free RL, that does not form a model of the world but rather caches action values within states allowing a state to select an action based on its reward history rather than its consequences. Nevertheless, there are persistent problems with important predictions from the model; most notably the failure of model-free RL correctly to predict the insensitivity of habitual actions to changes in the action-reward contingency. Here, we suggest that introducing model-free RL in instrumental conditioning is unnecessary, and demonstrate that reconceptualizing habits as action sequences allows model-based RL to be applied to both goal-directed and habitual actions in a manner consistent with what real animals do. This approach has significant implications for the way habits are currently investigated and generates new experimental predictions. PMID:22487034

Dezfouli, Amir; Balleine, Bernard W

2012-04-01

489

Using Drained Spacecraft Propellant Tanks for Habitation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A document proposes that future spacecraft for planetary and space exploration be designed to enable reuse of drained propellant tanks for occupancy by humans. This proposal would enable utilization of volume and mass that would otherwise be unavailable and, in some cases, discarded. Such utilization could enable reductions in cost, initial launch mass, and number of launches needed to build up a habitable outpost in orbit about, or on the surface of, a planet or moon. According to the proposal, the large propellant tanks of a spacecraft would be configured to enable crews to gain access to their interiors. The spacecraft would incorporate hatchways, between a tank and the crew volume, that would remain sealed while the tank contained propellant and could be opened after the tank was purged by venting to outer space and then refilled with air. The interior of the tank would be pre-fitted with some habitation fixtures that were compatible with the propellant environment. Electrical feed-throughs, used originally for gauging propellants, could be reused to supply electric power to equipment installed in the newly occupied space. After a small amount of work, the tank would be ready for long-term use as a habitation module.

Thomas, Andrew S. W.

2009-01-01

490

Dual rover human habitation field study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the last 3 years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been testing a pressurized rover prototype in the deserts of Arizona to obtain human-in-the-loop performance data. This year's field trial consisted of operating two rovers simultaneously while embarking on two 7-day flight-like exploration missions. During the 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) at Black Point Lava Flow and SP Mountain in Arizona, NASA human factors investigators, in cooperation with other engineers and scientists, collected data on both the daily living and working within and around the Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV). Both objective and subjective data were collected using standard human factors metrics. Over 305 h of crew habitability data were recorded during the field trial with 65 elements of habitation examined. Acceptability of the vehicles over the course of the missions was considered satisfactory by the majority of the crews. As with previous testing, habitation was considered acceptable by the crews, but some issues concerning stowage, Waste Containment System (WCS) volume, and sleep curtains need to be considered for redesign for the next generation vehicle.

Litaker, Harry L.; Thompson, Shelby G.; Szabo, Richard; Twyford, Evan S.; Conlee, Carl S.; Howard, Robert L.

2013-10-01

491

Habitability Concept Models for Living in Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As growing trends show, living in "space" has acquired new meanings, especially considering the utilization of the International Space Station (ISS) with regard to group interaction as well as individual needs in terms of time, space and crew accommodations. In fact, for the crew, the Spaced Station is a combined Laboratory-Office/Home and embodies ethical, social, and cultural aspects as additional parameters to be assessed to achieve a user centered architectural design of crew workspace. Habitability Concept Models can improve the methods and techniques used to support the interior design and layout of space architectures and at the same time guarantee a human focused approach. This paper discusses and illustrates some of the results obtained for the interior design of a Habitation Module for the ISS. In this work, two different but complementary approaches are followed. The first is "object oriented" and based on Video Data (American and Russian) supported by Proxemic methods (Edward T. Hall, 1963 and Francesca Pregnolato, 1998). This approach offers flexible and adaptive design solutions. The second is "subject oriented" and based on a Virtual Reality environment. With this approach human perception and cognitive aspects related to a specific crew task are considered. Data obtained from these two approaches are used to verify requirements and advance the design of the Habitation Module for aspects related to man machine interfaces (MMI), ergonomics, work and free-time. It is expected that the results achieved can be applied to future space related projects.

Ferrino, M.

2002-01-01

492

Habitability Assessment at Gale Crater: Implications from Initial Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mars Science Laboratory has made measurements that contribute to our assessment of habitability potential at Gale Crater. Campaign organization into a consistent set of measurable parameters allows us to rank the relative habitability potential of sites we study, ultimately laying a foundation for a global context inclusive of past and future Mars mission observations. Chemical, physical, geological and geographic attributes shape environments. Isolated measurements of these factors may be insufficient to deem an environment habitable, but the sum of measurements can help predict locations with greater or lesser habitability potential. Metrics for habitability assessment based on field work at sites sharing features analogous to Mars have previously been suggested. Grouping these metrics helps us to develop an index for their application to habitability assessment. The index is comprised of the weighted values for four groups of parameters, the habitability threshold for each is to be determined.

Conrad, Pamela G.; Archer, D.; Atreya, S.; Blake, D.; Coll, P.; delaTorre, M.; Edgett, K.; Eigenbrode, J.; Fisk, M.; Freissent, C.; Franz, H.; Glavin, D. P.; Gomez, F.; Haberle, R.; Hamilton, V.; Jones, J.; Kah, L.; Leshin, L.; Mchaffy, P. M.; McAdam, A.; McKay, C.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Steele, A.; Stern, J.; Treiman, A.

2013-01-01

493

Understanding On-Screen Reading Behaviors in Academic Contexts: A Case Study of Five Graduate English-as-a-Second-Language Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Undoubtedly, new areas of functionality for electronic texts will come to the fore and create new reading habits and expectations for dealing and interacting with text as electronic texts become dominant in the academic world. These new forms of reading will gradually become as natural as the different activities readers now take for granted, such…

Chou, I-Chia

2012-01-01

494

Does Leisure Time as a Stress Coping Resource Increase Affective Complexity? Applying the Dynamic Model of Affect (DMA)  

PubMed Central

Affective complexity, a manifestation of psychological well-being, refers to the relative independence between positive and negative affect (PA, NA). According to the Dynamic Model of Affect (DMA), stressful situations lead to highly inverse PA-NA relationship, reducing affective complexity. Meanwhile, positive events can sustain affective complexity by restoring PA-NA independence. Leisure, a type of positive events, has been identified as a coping resource. This study used the DMA to assess whether leisure time helps restore affective complexity on stressful days. We found that on days with more leisure time than usual, an individual experienced less negative PA-NA relationship after daily stressful events. The finding demonstrates the value of leisure time as a coping resource and the DMA’s contribution to coping research.

Qian, Xinyi (Lisa); Yarnal, Careen M.; Almeida, David M.

2013-01-01

495

Assessing Habitability: Lessons from the Phoenix Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Phoenix mission's key objective was to search for a habitable zone. The Phoenix lander carried a robotic arm with digging scoop to collect soil and icy material for analysis with an instrument payload that included volatile mineral and organic analysis(3) and soil ionic chemistry analysis (4). Results from Phoenix along with theoretical modeling and other previous mission results were used to evaluate the habitability of the landing site by considering four factors that characterize the environments ability to support life as we know it: the presence of liquid water, the presence of an energy source to support metabolism, the presence of nutrients containing the fundamental building blocks of life, and the absence of environmental conditions that are toxic to or preclude life. Phoenix observational evidence for the presence of liquid water (past or present) includes clean segregated ice, chemical etching of soil grains, calcite minerals in the soil and variable concentrations of soluble salts5. The maximum surface temperature measured was 260K so unfrozen water can form only in adsorbed films or saline brines but warmer climates occur cyclically on geologically short time scales due to variations in orbital parameters. During high obliquity periods, temperatures allowing metabolism extend nearly a meter into the subsurface. Phoenix discovered 1%w/w perchlorate salt in the soil, a chemical energy source utilized by a wide range of microbes. Nutrient sources including C, H, N, O, P and S compounds are supplied by known atmospheric sources or global dust. Environmental conditions are within growth tolerance for terrestrial microbes. Summer daytime temperatures are sufficient for metabolic activity, the pH is 7.8 and is well buffered and the projected water activity of a wet soil will allow growth. In summary, martian permafrost in the north polar region is a viable location for modern life. Stoker et al. presented a formalism for comparing the habitability of various regions visited to date on Mars that involved computing a habitability probability, defined as the product of probabilities for the presence of liquid water (P(sub lw)), energy (P(sub e)), nutrients (P(sub ch)), and a benign environment (P(sub b)). Using this formalism, they argued that the Phoenix site was the most habitable of any site visited to date by landed missions and warranted a follow up mission to search for modern evidence of life. This paper will review that conclusion in view of more recent information from the Mars Exploration Rovers and Mars Science Lander missions.

Stoker, Carol R.

2013-01-01

496

Reading about Reading: Using Children's Literature To Reflect on Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addressing teacher educators, this paper describes the importance of story as a reflective teaching tool, and provides brief annotations of 11 children's picture books (published between 1989 and 1998) which have reading as a critical story element. The children's picture books listed in this paper can be used to assist teachers in analyzing their…

Holm, Daniel T.

497

The role of leisure pursuits in adaptation processes among Afghan refugees who have immigrated to Winnipeg, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a gap in understanding the adaptation processes of minor, less established, immigrants, including the potential contribution of leisure pursuits to these processes. This study explored the role of leisure among Afghan refugees who have recently immigrated to a western Canadian city in adapting to their immigration processes. Using semi?structured one?on?one interviews with 11 Afghan immigrant women and men

Julie A. C. Stack; Yoshitaka Iwasaki

2009-01-01

498

NIH study finds leisure-time physical activity extends life expectancy as much as 4.5 years  

Cancer.gov

Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI. The study, which found that people who engaged in leisure-time physical activity had life expectancy gains of as much as 4.5 years, appeared Nov. 6, 2012, in PLoS Medicine.

499

Motivational interference in school-leisure conflict and learning outcomes: The differential effects of two value conceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was hypothesized that students' value orientations are connected to their experience of motivational interference in a conflict between a school- and a leisure-related activity as well as to school marks as indicators of learning outcomes. In a self-report study with Italian adolescents (N=433; M=14.5 years) using a school-leisure conflict scenario, first, the relations between the 10 values introduced by

Manfred Hofer; Claudia Kuhnle; Britta Kilian; Elena Marta; Stefan Fries

2011-01-01

500

Habitable zones around main sequence stars.  

PubMed

A one-dimensional climate model is used to estimate the width of the habitable zone (HZ) around our Sun and around other main sequence stars. Our basic premise is that we are dealing with Earth-like planets with CO2/H2O/N2 atmospheres and that habitability requires the presence of liquid water on the planet's surface. The inner edge of the HZ is determined in our model by loss of water via photolysis and hydrogen escape. The outer edge of the HZ is determined by the formation of CO2 clouds, which cool a planet's surface by increasing its albedo and by lowering the convective lapse rate. Conservative estimates for these distances in our own Solar System are 0.95 and 1.37 AU, respectively; the actual width of the present HZ could be much greater. Between these two limits, climate stability is ensured by a feedback mechanism in which atmospheric CO2 concentrations vary inversely with planetary surface temperature. The width of the HZ is slightly greater for planets that are larger than Earth and for planets which have higher N2 partial pressures. The HZ evolves outward in time because the Sun increases in luminosity as it ages. A conservative estimate for the width of the 4.6-Gyr continuously habitable zone (CHZ) is 0.95 to 1.15 AU. Stars later than F0 have main sequence lifetimes exceeding 2 Gyr and, so, are also potential candidates for harboring habitable planets. The HZ around an F star is larger and occurs farther out than for our Sun; the HZ around K and M stars is smaller and occurs farther in. Nevertheless, the widths of all of these HZs are approximately the same if distance is expressed on a logarithmic scale. A log distance scale is probably the appropriate scale for this problem because the planets in our own Solar System are spaced logarithmically and because the distance at which another star would be expected to form planets should be related to the star's mass. The width of the CHZ around other stars depends on the time that a planet is required to remain habitable and on whether a planet that is initially frozen can be thawed by modest increases in stellar luminosity. For a specified period of habitability, CHZs around K and M stars are wider (in log distance) than for our Sun because these stars evolve more slowly. Planets orbiting late K stars and M stars may not be habitable, however, b ecause they can become trapped in synchronous rotation as a consequence of tidal damping. F stars have narrower (log distance) CHZ's than our Sun because they evolve more rapidly. Our results suggest that mid-to-early K stars should be considered along with G stars as optimal candidates in the search for extraterrestrial life. PMID:11536936

Kasting, J F; Whitmire, D P; Reynolds, R T

1993-01-01