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Introspective duration estimation of reactive and proactive motor responses Andrei Gorea *, Pascal Mamassian, Pedro Cardoso-Leite  

E-print Network

2010 PsycINFO classification: 2300 2320 2323 2330 2340 2380 Keywords: Time perception Metajudgment). Starting with Donders (1868) the measure of such simple Reaction Times (RTs) has been a major means Mamassian, Pedro Cardoso-Leite Laboratoire Psychologie de la Perception, Paris Descartes University and CNRS

Mamassian, Pascal



E-print Network

ADAPTIVE DISCONTINUITY LOCATION IN IMAGE RESTORATION Mcirio A. T. Figueiredo and Jose' M. N. Leit Superior TCcnico, Lisboa, PORTUGAL ABSTRACT Discontinuity-preserving Bayesian image restora- tion, based, and an edge (discontinuity) fleld. The usual strategy is to perform joint maximum a posteriori (MAP

Figueiredo, Mário A. T.


EIT ICT Labs gagne la prestigieuse comptition lance par l'EIT pour l'innovation en Europe  

E-print Network

EIT ICT Labs gagne la prestigieuse compétition lancée par l'EIT pour l'innovation en Europe Paris, le 17 décembre 2009 ­ Au terme d'une compétition intense, le projet « EIT ICT Labs » a été partenaires du projet EIT ICT Labs souhaitent redynamiser le processus d'innovation et relever ainsi les

Rennes, Université de


Tadpole of Leptodactylus oreomantis Carvalho, Leite & Pezzuti 2013 (Anura, Leptodactylidae).  


Leptodactylus oreomantis, a member of Leptodactylus fuscus species group (sensu Heyer 1978), is a leptodactylid frog endemic to the montane rocky fields of Chapada Diamantina (the northern portion of the Espinhao mountain range), Bahia State, Brazil (Carvalho et al. 2013). Although tadpole morphology provides relevant information for anuran taxonomy and systematics (see Langone & de S 2005; Miranda et al. 2014), only calls and adult morphology were evaluated in the description of this species. Herein, we describe and illustrate the external morphology and internal oral anatomy of L. oreomantis tadpoles and compare it with tadpoles of related species. PMID:25661633

Mercs, Ednei De Almeida; Magalhes, Felipe De Medeiros; Amado, Talita Ferreira; Junc, Flora Acua; Garda, Adrian Antonio




E-print Network

, it is arguments that utilize certain hypotheses ­ that one is dreaming, deceived by an evil demon, or a brain's a piece of paper before me. Objection: But here's a possible scenario: I am the victim of an all

Fitelson, Branden


CV for Maria Leite Department of Mathematics Phone: +1-405-325-5596  

E-print Network

(ADITEC), Portugal An unity of interface between ISEP and Industry Oct 1991-Dec 1992: Teacher High School Chemistry and Mathematics, Portugal Oct 1990-Jun 1991: Teacher Middle School Mathematics, Portugal RESEARCH- ical Biology, July, 27­30, 2009, Vancouver, Canada 8. NimBioS - National Institute for Mathematical

Leite, Maria


Name: Antonio Carlos Gardel Leit~ao Adresse: Friedr. Wilh. v. SteubenStr. 90, App. 1  

E-print Network

S (September 1993) Seit Oktober 1993 Doktorand in der Arbeitsgruppe Informatik der Johann Wolfgang Goethe) Hochschulbildung: M¨arz 1986 ­ Dezember 1989 BSc. in Informatik an der Bundesuniversit¨at von Rio de Ja- neiro (Brasilien) Titel der BSc. Thesis: Die nichtlineare Schr¨odinger Glei- chung und die Ausbreitung von LASER

Leitão, Antonio


J. Leite and P. Torroni (Eds.): CLIMA V, LNAI 3487, pp. 178 195, 2005. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005  

E-print Network

, Bernard Moulin1, John-Jules Ch. Meyer2, and Brahim Chaib-draa1 1 Laval University, Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering, Canada {bernard.moulin, brahim.chaib

Bentahar, Jamal


Chaotic electron dynamics in antidot lattice subjected to strong in-plane magnetic field N. M. Sotomayor Choque, G. M. Gusev, and J. R. Leite  

E-print Network

´ surface of the section, and magnetoresistance with such distorted Fermi contour and obtain good agreement. INTRODUCTION During the past decade the antidots arrays in semiconduc- tor heterostructures, which contain sea. Regular electron orbits lead to anomalous peaks in the magnetoresistance, which are the so

Gusev, Guennady


Estimao de parmetros genticos para produo de leite no dia do controle e produo acumulada at 305 dias, para as primeiras lactaes de vacas da raa Caracu  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic parameters for first lactation test-day milk yields and 305 day milk yield (M305) for Caracu cows were estimated. The test-day animal model included additive genetic effect as random and contemporary group and age of cow (quadratic regression) as fixed effects. Two contemporary groups were defined to explain variation, composed by year, week of test and paddock (gc1) or year,

Lenira El Faro; Lucia Galvo de Albuquerque



2007 Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher Monza/Italy J.-Y. Bziau, A. Costa-Leite (eds.), Perspectives on Universal Logic, 279-295  

E-print Network

within modern formal methods as Sch¨utte-Ackermann language such as - . At face value the , - gives pullback. The security of artificial agents in Java software is an example requiring this full with `common sense' aspects [10], consciousness [48] and cognitive dissonance 2 [12]. Pattern recognition

Cheng, Eugenia


Materno-fetal transmission of pregnancy malaria: an immunoparasitological study on 202 parturients in Maputo.  


A total of 202 delivering mothers and their newborns were studied with the intention to follow the materno-fetal transmission of malaria. Malaria infection was encountered in 35 cases (17.3%) in which Plasmodium falciparum predominated in peripheral blood while P. malariae predominated on the placental surface. In cord blood P. falciparum was encountered in 1.5% of the cases. There was slightly more maternal infection in rural (23%) than in suburban areas (19%). Less malaria infection was encountered in primiparas than in multiparas and there was similar antibody response in both mothers and their newborns. Anaemia was encountered in 70% of the mothers and in 93% of the newborns. There was no significant correlation between low birthweight of the newborn and malaria parasitaemia in the mother. PMID:8449440

Bergstrm, S; Fernandes, A; Schwalbach, J; Perez, O; Miyar, R



[Materno-fetal platelet allo-immunization revealed by in utero intracerebral fetal hemorrhage: proposed management for the next pregnancy].  


Materno-fetal platelet allo-immunization causes fetal or neonatal thrombocytopenia and sometimes severe intracerebral bleeding. The HPA-1s antigen is most generally implicated. This accident can occur during the first pregnancy with a major risk of severe recurrence during the next pregnancy. These women require specific care in a specialized center although no consensus has been reached on management of second pregnancies. Proposed treatments include immunoglobulins and/or corticosteroids, fetal blood puncture and unique or iterative platelet transfusions. PMID:10675836

Vauthier-Brouzes, D; Lefebvre, G; Saada, P; Darbois, Y; Kaplan, C



Alunos convocados para o Enade 2012* ADRIANA MARIA TRINDADE BAYAN  

E-print Network



Ein Iterationsverfahren fur elliptische Cauchy{Probleme und die Verknupfung mit der  

E-print Network

Mathematik der Johann Wolfgang Goethe{Universitat in Frankfurt am Main von Antonio C. G. Leit~ao aus Niteroi, Brasilien Frankfurt am Main 1996 #12;von Fachbereich Mathematik der Johann Wolfgang Goethe{Universitat als

Leitão, Antonio


1H-NMR-Based Metabolic Profiling of Maternal and Umbilical Cord Blood Indicates Altered Materno-Foetal Nutrient Exchange in Preterm Infants  

PubMed Central

Background Adequate foetal growth is primarily determined by nutrient availability, which is dependent on placental nutrient transport and foetal metabolism. We have used 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to probe the metabolic adaptations associated with premature birth. Methodology The metabolic profile in 1H NMR spectra of plasma taken immediately after birth from umbilical vein, umbilical artery and maternal blood were recorded for mothers delivering very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) or normo-ponderal full-term (FT) neonates. Principal Findings Clear distinctions between maternal and cord plasma of all samples were observed by principal component analysis (PCA). Levels of amino acids, glucose, and albumin-lysyl in cord plasma exceeded those in maternal plasma, whereas lipoproteins (notably low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and lipid levels were lower in cord plasma from both VLBW and FT neonates. The metabolic signature of mothers delivering VLBW infants included decreased levels of acetate and increased levels of lipids, pyruvate, glutamine, valine and threonine. Decreased levels of lipoproteins glucose, pyruvate and albumin-lysyl and increased levels of glutamine were characteristic of cord blood (both arterial and venous) from VLBW infants, along with a decrease in levels of several amino acids in arterial cord blood. Conclusion These results show that, because of its characteristics and simple non-invasive mode of collection, cord plasma is particularly suited for metabolomic analysis even in VLBW infants and provides new insights into the materno-foetal nutrient exchange in preterm infants. PMID:22291897

Kster, Alice; Guignard, Nadia; AlexandreGouabau, Marie-Ccile; Darmaun, Dominique; Robins, Richard J.



Hercynitequartz-bearing granulites from Brejes Dome area, Jequi Block, Bahia, Brazil: Influence of charnockite intrusion on  

E-print Network

Leite c , Jean-Robert Kienast d , Reinhardt A. Fuck e , Eron Pires Macedo a a CPGG-Centro de Geologia e. Leite), (J.-R. Kienast), (R.A. Fuck), (E.P. Macedo), Madagascar (e.g. Nicollet, 1990), Algeria (e.g. Ouzegane and Boumaza, 1996), and Brazil (Moraes and Fuck

Nicollet, Christian


MAC 0316/5754 --Conceitos de Linguagens de Programac~ao Primeiro Semestre de 2010  

E-print Network

'jornal) > 2 (um jornal custa 2 reais) (preco 'duzia-de-bananas) > 4 (uma d´uzia de bananas custa 4 reais) Considere uma lista de compras com o seguinte formato: '([jornal 1] [duzia-de-bananas 3] [litro-de-leite 2 comprar um jornal, tr^es d´uzias de bananas, dois litros de leite, etc. (a) Escreva uma fun¸c~ao total

Reverbel, Francisco


Iterative Regularization Methods for a Discrete Inverse Problem in MRI  

E-print Network

Iterative Regularization Methods for a Discrete Inverse Problem in MRI A. Leit~ao and J.P. Zubelli related to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Our goal is to extend the recent convergence results for an inverse problem in MRI. Keywords: Magnetic Resonance Imaging, MRI, Tomography, Medical Imaging, Inverse

Zubelli, Jorge Passamani


Michael Randall Koss Indiana University  

E-print Network

Introduction to Philosophy (Spring 2009, K. Toh) 201 Ancient Greek Philosophy (Fall 2009, D.C. McCarty) 100's Leviathan Supervisor: Edwin M. Curley Awards and Recognitions Indiana University College of Arts) Ancient Natural Philosophy (C. Pearson) *Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations (A. Leite) *Anselm

Indiana University


Inverse Problems for Semiconductors: Models and Methods  

E-print Network

Inverse Problems for Semiconductors: Models and Methods A. Leit~ao1 , P.A. Markowich2 , and J doping profiles in semiconductor devices from data obtained by different models connected to the voltage fifty years ago [vRo50], is the most widely used to describe semiconductor devices. For the current

Zubelli, Jorge Passamani


Biol. Rev. (2014), 89, pp. 215231. 215 doi: 10.1111/brv.12049  

E-print Network

-Freiría1 , Juan M. Pleguezuelos3 , Hugo Rebelo1,4 , Xavier Santos1 , C^andida G. Vale1,2 , Guillermo Velo,2 , Teresa L. Silva1,2 , Pedro Tarroso1 , Jo~ao C. Campos1,2 , Jo~ao V. Leite1 , Joana Nogueira1

Carranza, Salvador


A Framework for The Semiotic Engineering of User Interface Languages  

E-print Network

A Framework for The Semiotic Engineering of User Interface Languages Jair C. Leite1,2 1 ­ Dept­900 Brazil +55 21 529 9462 clarisse@inf.puc­ PUC­RioInf.MCC10/97 ABSTRACT Semiotic Engineering and the interaction model. In this paper, we describe a framework founded in semiotic theory to this design process

Endler, Markus



Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the relationships between the concepts of translation and adaptation by analysing their differences, crisscrossings and conflicts particularly apparent in Ana Maria Machado's translation of Alice in Wonderland, by Lewis Carroll, into Brazilian Portuguese. Her translation is also briefly compared to Sebastio Uchoa Leite's translation and Nicolau Sevcenko's adaptation. It is argued that the images built upon the

Lauro Maia Amorim


International Conference on Urban Drainage, Porto Alegre/Brazil, 11-16 September 2001 Silva et al. 1  

E-print Network

al. 1 An integrated approach for urban water modelling, linking a watershed hydrological model and a cyanobacteria dynamics model in urban lakes Talita Silva1,3* , Brigitte Vinçon-Leite1 , Bruno J. Lemaire1 of watershed changes on cyanobacteria dynamics in urban lakes, a modelling approach, in which an ecological

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Materiais Didticos REORIENTAO  

E-print Network

Bocaiuva Claudia Oliveira da Silva C.E. Jardim Meriti Cleiton Harduim Franco E.E.Casimiro de Abreu Elga.E. Servulo Mello Simone Ferraz Correa E.E. Parque Amorim Simone Leite Ferreira C.E. Profº Dyrceu Rodrigues da

Liu, I-Shih



E-print Network


Paraná, Universidade Federal do


Simple error estimators for the Galerkin BEM for some hypersingular integral equation in 2D  

Microsoft Academic Search

A posteriori error estimation is an important tool for reliable and efficient Galerkin boundary element computations. For hypersingular integral equations in 2D with a positive-order Sobolev space, we analyse the mathematical relation between the (h???h\\/2)-error estimator from [S. Ferraz-Leite and D. Praetorius, Simple a posteriori error estimators for the h-version of the boundary element method, Computing 83 (2008), pp. 135162],

C. Erath; S. Funken; P. Goldenits; D. Praetorius



Conservation economics. Comment on "Using ecological thresholds to evaluate the costs and benefits of set-asides in a biodiversity hotspot".  


Banks-Leite et al. (Reports, 29 August 2014, p. 1041) conclude that a large-scale program to restore the Brazilian Atlantic Forest using payments for environmental services (PES) is economically feasible. They do not analyze transaction costs, which are quantified infrequently and incompletely in the literature. Transaction costs can exceed 20% of total project costs and should be included in future research. PMID:25678654

Finney, Christopher



Evaluation of the kinetics of Cr-51 methylene diphosphonate: a potential therapeutic radiopharmaceutical for osteogenic sarcoma  

E-print Network

methylene diphosphonate (MDP) was tagged with Chromium-51 (Cr-51), which has a high yield of Auger electrons. Two mongrel dogs (dogs A and B) were injected with Cr-51 MDP. Dog A received a bolus dose of 100 mCi while dog B received 7 daily injections... into the right and lei't mid-distal i'emurs of a mongrel dog. The cannulated right femoral artery was injected with Tc-99m HDP just proximal to the created lesion. Analysis at 3 hours post-injection shows that there was significantly more uptake oi...

Poteet, Brian Allen



Constant time algorithms for some geometric intersection problems on processor arrays with reconfigurable bus systems  

E-print Network

, . . . , v? i) and (v, , v, +i) is an edge, for i=0, 1, . . . , n-l, v?= vo, the interior of the polygon is defined as that lies to the lei't of an edge, as all edges are traversed in sequence ]13]. It is assumed that polygon P is bounded. The first... or starting vertex of an edge (v, , vt si) is v, and the second or the end vertex is v;+, . 15 ~ Simplicity Test: Determine whether a polygon is simple. A polygon is simple if there is no pair of nonconsecutive edges sharing a point, that is, no two...

Pathikonda, Chakrapani



[Materno-fetal conflicts and the perinatal Medea syndrome: a cognitive analysis].  


The definition of "maternal-fetal conflict" requires the attribution of a well-defined subjectivity at the product of conception, and thus, from the medical point of view, we need to consider the fetus as a patient. A tangible example of conflict in our society is the "Medea syndrome", a framework in which the female parent kills her fetus or child to take revenge on the partner. We have produced a questionnaire that was administered to 150 women admitted to the Department of "Obstetrics and Gynecology" of the "Santa Maria della Misericordia" Hospital, in Perugia. The results show the importance of the maternal-fetal conflict in our reality through the opinion that women have given in assessing particular situations that we have proposed in the questionnaire. PMID:22036755

Baldelli, S; Di Renzo, G C



A representation formula for maps on supermanifolds  

SciTech Connect

We analyze the notion of morphisms of rings of superfunctions which is the basic concept underlying the definition of supermanifolds as ringed spaces (i.e., following Berezin, Leites, Manin, etc.). We establish a representation formula for all (pull-back) morphisms from the algebra of functions on an ordinary manifolds to the superalgebra of functions on an open subset of a superspace. We then derive two consequences of this result. The first one is that we can integrate the data associated with a morphism in order to get a (nonunique) map defined on an ordinary space (and uniqueness can be achieved by restriction to a scheme). The second one is a simple and intuitive recipe to compute pull-back images of a function on a manifold M by a map from a superspace to M.

Helein, Frederic [Institut de Mathematiques de Jussieu, UMR 7586, Universite Denis Diderot-Paris 7, Case 7012, 2 place Jussieu, 75251 Paris Cedex 5 (France)



Effects of gestational age and surface modification on materno-fetal transfer of nanoparticles in murine pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Nanoparticle exposure in pregnancy may result in placental damage and fetotoxicity; however, the factors that determine fetal nanoparticle exposure are unclear. Here we have assessed the effect of gestational age and nanoparticle composition on fetal accumulation of maternally-administered nanomaterials in mice. We determined the placental and fetal uptake of 13?nm gold nanoparticles with different surface modifications (ferritin, PEG and citrate) following intravenous administration at E5.5-15.5. We showed that prior to E11.5, all tested nanoparticles could be visualized and detected in fetal tissues in significant amounts; however, fetal gold levels declined dramatically post-E11.5. In contrast, Au-nanoparticle accumulation in the extraembryonic tissues (EET) increased 615 fold with gestational age. Fetal and EET accumulation of ferritin- and PEG-modified nanoparticles was considerably greater than citrate-capped nanoparticles. No signs of toxicity were observed. Fetal exposure to nanoparticles in murine pregnancy is, therefore, influenced by both stage of embryonic/placental maturation and nanoparticle surface composition. PMID:23150793

Yang, Hui; Sun, Cuiji; Fan, Zhenlin; Tian, Xin; Yan, Liang; Du, Libo; Liu, Yang; Chen, Chunying; Liang, Xing-jie; Anderson, Gregory J.; Keelan, Jeffrey A.; Zhao, Yuliang; Nie, Guangjun



Smooth landscape solvent dynamics in electron transfer reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solvent effects play a major role in controlling electron-transfer reactions. The solvent dynamics happens on a very high-dimensional surface, and this complex landscape is populated by a large number of minima. A critical problem is to understand the conditions under which the solvent dynamics can be represented by a single collective reaction coordinate. When this unidimensional representation is valid, one recovers the successful Marcus theory. In this study the approach used in a previous work [V. B. P. Leite and J. N. Onuchic; J. Phys. Chem. 100, 7680 (1996)] is extended to treat a more realistic solvent model, which includes energy correlation. The dynamics takes place in a smooth and well behaved landscape. The single shell of solvent molecules around a cavity is described by a two-dimensional system with periodic boundary conditions with nearest neighbor interaction. It is shown how the polarization-dependent effects can be inferred. The existence of phase transitions depends on a factor ? proportional to the contribution from the two parameters of the model. For the present model, ? suggests the existence of "weak kinetic phase transitions," which are used in the analysis of solvent effects in charge-transfer reactions.

Leite, Vitor B. P.



Cytokine gene expression at the materno-foetal interface after experimental Neospora caninum infection of heifers at 110 days of gestation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle but the reasons why some animals abort and not others remain unclear. The immunological control of the parasite in the placenta or by the foetus could be the key to determining the mechanism of abortion and/or transplacental transmission to the...


Hemoglobin allostery: new views on old players.  


Proteins are dynamic molecular machines whose structure and function are modulated by environmental perturbations and natural selection. Allosteric regulation, discovered in 1963 as a novel molecular mechanism of enzymatic adaptation [Monod, Changeux & Jacob (1963). J. Mol. Biol.6, 306-329], seems to be the leit motiv of enzymes and metabolic pathways, enabling fine and quick responses toward external perturbations. Hemoglobin (Hb), the oxygen transporter of all vertebrates, has been for decades the paradigmatic system to test the validity of the conformational selection mechanism, the conceptual innovation introduced by Monod, Wyman and Changeux. We present hereby the results of a comparative analysis of structure, function and thermodynamics of two extensively investigated hemoglobins: human HbA and trout HbI. They represent a unique and challenging comparison to test the general validity of the stereochemical model proposed by Perutz. Indeed both proteins are ideal for the purpose being very similar yet very different. In fact, T-HbI is a low-ligand-affinity cooperative tetrameric Hb, insensitive to all allosteric effectors. This remarkable feature, besides being physiologically sound, supports the stereochemical model, given that the six residues identified in HbA as responsible for the Bohr and the 2,3-di-phosphoglycerate effects are all mutated. Comparison of the three-dimensional structures of HbA and T-HbI allows unveiling the molecular mechanism whereby the latter has a lower O2 affinity. Moreover, the energetic balance sheet shows that the salt bridges breaking upon allosteric quaternary transition are important yet insufficient to account for the free energy of heme-heme interactions in both hemoglobins. PMID:23274140

Miele, Adriana Erica; Bellelli, Andrea; Brunori, Maurizio



Mtodo Me Canguru: aplicao no Brasil, evidncias cientficas e impacto sobre o aleitamento materno Kangaroo Mother Care: scientific evidences and impact on breastfeeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe the history of the Kangaroo Mother Care and present scientific evidence about benefits of this practice on morbidity and mortality, psychological and neurological development and breastfeeding of low birth weight infants. Sources of data: Papers about Kangaroo Mother Care published from 1983 to 2004 were consulted, selected in Medline and Lilacs, as well as books, thesis and

Sonia Isoyama Venancio; Honorina de Almeida


Utilisation de l'echographie doppler couleur dans la localisation de l'insertion du cordon ombilical et le devenir materno-foetal la maternit de l'hpital central de Yaound : une tude descriptive et analytique  

PubMed Central

Introduction L'chographie doppler couleur permet d'tudier l'insertion du cordon ombilical sur le placenta. Les tudes amricaines et asiatiques montrent que les insertions anormales telles les insertions vlamenteuses et marginales sont associes une lvation de la morbidit et de la mortalit prinatales. En Afrique et plus particulirement au Cameroun, aucune tude n'a t publie sur le sujet. D'o notre motivation mener ce travail. Mthodes Il s'agissait d'une tude descriptive et analytique qui s'est droule sur une priode deux ans (2011-2012) la maternit principale de l'Hpital Central de Yaound. Cette tude a inclus 66 patientes qui ont subi chacune une chographie doppler couleur entre la 18ime et 30ime semaine de gestation, prcisant le type d'insertion du cordon ombilical sur le placenta. A l'accouchement, un examen macroscopique du placenta a t ralis afin de comparer le type d'insertion et raliser les tests statistiques. Rsultats Des 66 grossesses tudies, nous avons eu un pourcentage de visualisation du type d'insertion de 100%. Toutes les insertions taient normales l'chographie soit 20 centrales et 46 latrales. A l'examen macroscopique du placenta, nous avons obtenu 19 (28,8%) insertions centrales, 47(71,2%) insertions latrales ; aucune insertion anormale n'ayant t objective. Les tests statistiques nous permettent d'avoir une sensibilit de 95%, une spcificit de 97,8%, une exactitude de 98%, une valeur prdictive positive de 95% et une valeur prdictive ngative de 97,8%. Pour ces insertions, nous n'avons pas retrouv d'association entre le mode d'accouchement, le poids de naissance, et le Score d'apgar avec le type d'insertion du cordon ombilical. Conclusion Nous avons conclu que l'chographie doppler couleur a une haute sensibilit et spcificit dans la dtermination de l'insertion du cordon ombilical sur le placenta. Il n'y a pas d'association entre le type d'insertion et le devenir maternofoetal. PMID:25018816

Fouedjio, Jeanne Hortence; Fouelifack, Florent Ymele; Deutcho, Maximilien; Njotang, Philip Nana; Enow, Robinson Mbu; Leke, Robert John Ivo



Developpement d'un modele d'interpretation de l'essai d'enfoncement du poincon tronconique effile (E.P.T.E.) dans un milieu soumis a une sollicitation anisotrope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis, a review of the phenomena influencing the mechanical behaviour of rocksalt as well as in situ tests already performed to determine creep law parameters for rocksalt are presented. The test called S.C.P.T. by Leite (1989) for Sharp Cone Penetration Test presents a promising in situ test like an index test for determination of creep parameters. The aim of this thesis is to generalise the interpretation of the S.C.P.T. test to media subjected to an anisotropic preliminary stress field. Indeed, the interpretation of this test has been already done assuming an isotropic preliminary stress field for the ice and the frozen soils, and generalise thereafter for rocksalt. The most original contribution of my work, as presented in my thesis, is that I have proposed a determination method of the shear modulus G using the S.C.P.T. test in infinite and finite media with a linear elastic behaviour subjected to an anisotropic preliminary stress field. This method gives results comparable with those of the conventional methods such as the unconfined compression test. Thereafter, we have proved that for an infinite or finite medium with non-linear behaviour subjected to an anisotropic preliminary stress field, and with a simple creep law in its hardening formulation, the interpretation of the S.C.P.T. test is exactly the same that the one subjected to an isotropic preliminary stress field. Finally, in order to verify the accuracy of the suggested interpretation method, a breadboard construction allowing to carry out laboratory S.C.P.T. test on samples subjected to an anisotropic preliminary stress field in the perpendicular plan to the sharp cone aids has been done. Its reliability was tested by comparing the shear moduli G obtained by S.C.P.T. tests and by conventional uniaxial compression test. Once the reliability of the assembly tested, laboratory creep S.C.P.T. tests with various anisotropic degrees of the preliminary stress field in the plane perpendicular to the sharp cone axis have been performed on artificial rocksalt. Some conventional uniaxial creep tests have been also performed. The comparison of the results obtained using these two kinds of tests, as well as the results of uniaxial, triaxial creep tests and creep S.C.P.T. tests published in the literature allows us to conclude that with the proposed interpretation method, the creep S.C.P.T. test can give creep parameters comparable with those of the conventional tests such as uniaxial or triaxial creep tests. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Masengo, Edouard


Greenhouse gas emissions in the Brazilian semiarid region: environmental, climate and social constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process of removing a forest to open new agricultural lands, which has been very intensive in developing countries like Brazil during the last decades (Lapola et al, 2014), contributes to about 12% of the global anthropogenic emissions (Le Qur et al., 2009). Forest cover removal releases carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases (GEE) like methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), as a result of burning trees, followed by gradual decomposition of the forest biomass left on the ground while pasture or crop plantations are being established (Ramankutty et al., 2007). In Brazil, the 2nd Brazilian National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), presents the mean annual net CO2 emissions caused by changes in land use in each Brazilian biome and the first place in the ranking is occupied by the Amazon Rainforest Biome (860,874 Gg), followed by Savannah (302,715 Gg), Atlantic Forest (79,109 Gg), Caatinga (37,628 Gg), Pantanal (16,172 Gg) and Pampa (-102 Gg) (MCT 2010). Despite these results, the estimates of CO2 emissions caused by land use changes in the Brazilian semiarid region (Caatinga) are very limited and scarce, and associated to uncertainties which are directly related to the estimated biomass in different types of vegetation which are spatially distributed within the biome, as well as the correct representation of the dynamics of the deforestation process itself, and the more accurate mapping use and land cover. Based on such facts, this project is estimating the emissions of the main greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O and CH4) caused by land use changes in an area of Caatinga biome in Pernambuco State through the model INPE-EM. So far, it is known that from decades of 1940 up to 1995, Caatinga biome has contributed with about 3.2 % to total land use change emissions in the country (Leite et al, 2012), and recently (1990-2005), the contributions of Caatinga are even higher (over 30%), according to the 2nd Brazilian National Communication (2010). By means means of the model INPE-EM (data still being acquired), we are trying to diminish the uncertainties and identify specific and integrated emissions of GHG, as well as the stocks and flows of C and N, in order to contribute to the current information about GEE dynamic in the Brazilian Northeast and also to enhance the Brazilian GHG inventory. Besides, the model will incorporate the temporal dynamics related to the deforestation process, and accounts for the biophysical and socioeconomic heterogeneity of the region in study.

Sousa-Neto, Erclito; Ometto, Jean



ALEITAMENTO MATERNO EM RECM-NASCIDOS DE BAIXO PESO SUBMETIDOS AO MTODO CANGURU POR OCASIO DA ALTA DE UNIDADE NEONATAL DE RISCO Breastfeeding among low birth weight neonates in Kangaroo mother care at the time of discharge from a special care neonatal unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this observational study of 776 ne onates in Kangaroo mother care was to determine the frequency of breastfeeding in low birth weight infa nts at the time of discharge from the neonatal unit and to study the association between exclusive breastfe eding and neonatal and maternal variables. The stud y was carried out in an institution that

Cntia Luiza Oliva; Fabola Mller de Oliveira


PREFACE: Introduction to the proceedings of Dynamics Days South America 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This proceedings presents selected contributions from the participants of South America Dynamics Days 2011, which was hosted by the National Institute for Space Research (INPE), Brazil, in July 2010. Dynamics Days was founded in 1980 and is the longest standing and most respected international series of meetings devoted to the field of dynamics and nonlinearity. Traditionally it has brought together researchers from a wide range of backgrounds - including physics, biology, engineering, chemistry and mathematics - for interdisciplinary research into nonlinear science. Dynamics Days South America 2010 marked the beginning of the South American branch of Dynamics Days. It brought together, for the first time in South America, researchers from a wide range of backgrounds who share a common interest in the theory and applications of nonlinear dynamics. Thus, South American researchers had a forum to promote regional as well as international scientific and technological exchange and collaboration especially, but not exclusively, on problems that are particularly relevant for the development of science and technology in the South American region. Furthermore, the conference also brought together prominent scientists from around the world to review recent developments in nonlinear science. This conference comprised plenary invited talks, minisymposia, contributed talks and poster sessions. The articles that are compiled here were chosen from among the works that were presented as contributed talks and posters. They represent a good selection which allows one to put issues that were discussed during the conference into perspective. It is possible to evaluate the success of an initiative by using several indices. In relation to attendees, the conference had 311 participants from 22 countries, who presented 341 works. About 86% of the participants came from South American countries. These figures allow one to classify this Dynamics Days conference as that with the greatest number of attendees ever. Finally, we would like to express our gratitude to all the participants for their presentations, discussions, and remarkable interactions with one another. The tireless work undertaken by all the members of the International Advisory Committee and the Organizing Committee must also be recognized. We also wish to express our deep appreciation for the Scientific Societies and Research Support Agencies which supported the conference and provided all the resources which were necessary to make this idea of a South American Dynamics Days come true. Elbert E N Macau, Tiago Pereira, Antonio F B A Prado, Luiz F R Turci, and Othon C WinterEditors Conference photograph Conference photograph Conference photograph Conference photograph International Advisory Committee Adilson E MotterNorthwestern UniversityEvanston - IL - USA Alfredo OzorioCentro Brasileiro de Pesquisas FsicasRio de Janeiro - RJ - Brazil Celso Grebogi (Chair)University of AberdeenAberdeen - UK Ed OttUniversity of MarylandCollege Park - MD - USA Epaminondas Rosa JrIllinois State UniversityNormal - IL - USA Hans Ingo WeberPontifcia Universidade CatlicaRio de Janeiro - RJ - Brazil Holger KantzMax Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex SystemsDresden - Germany Jason Gallas (Co-chair)Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do SulPorto Alegre - RS - Brazil Jos Roberto Rios LeiteUniv. Federal de PernanbucoRecife - PE - Brazil Jrgen KurthsPotsdam Institute for climate Impact ResearchHumboldt University, Berlin - Germany Kenneth ShowalterWest Virginia UniversityMorgantown - WV - USA Lou PecoraNaval Research LabWashington - DC - USA Luis Antonio AguirreUniversidade Federal de Minas GeraisBelo Horizonte - MG - Brazil Marcelo VianaIMPA - Instituto Nacional de Matemtica Pura e AplicadaRio de Janeiro - RJ - Brazil Miguel A F SanjunUniversidad Rey Juan CarlosMadrid - Spain Paulo Roberto de Souza MendesPontifcia Universidade CatlicaRio de Janeiro - RJ - Brazil Roland KorbeleUniversidade de So PauloSo Carlos - SP - Brazil Rubens SampaioPontifcia Universidade CatlicaRio de Ja

Macau, Elbert E. N.; Pereira, Tiago; Prado, Antonio F. B. A.; Turci, Luiz F. R.; Winter, Othon C.



Position and Velocity Tracking in Cellular Networks Using the Kalman Filter  

SciTech Connect

Access to the right information anytime, anywhere is becoming the new driving force for the information technology revolution. The 'right' information's relevance is based on the user's profile and his/her current geographical position and/or time. Location Based Service (LBS) is an innovative technology that provides information or makes information available based on the geographical location of the mobile user. Analysts predict that LBSs will lead to new applications, generating billions of US dollars worldwide (Leite, 2001; Searle, 2001). The need for an efficient and accurate mobile station (MS) positioning system is growing day by day. The ability to pinpoint the location of an individual has an obvious and vital value in the context of emergency services (Chan, 2003; Olama et al., 2008). Pinpointing the location of people and other valuable assets also opens the door to a new world of previously unimagined information services and m-commerce probabilities. For example, availability of services like 'Where is the nearest ATM?', 'Check traffic conditions on the highway on my route', 'Find a parking lot nearby', as well as answers to 'Where is my advisor?', and 'Where is my car?' will be an everyday rule in our lives (Charalambous & Panayiotou, 2004). A technology independent LBS architecture can be considered as comprised by three main parts (Girodon, 2002): A user requesting information, a mobile network operator and its partners, and several content providers (e.g. data, maps). The subscriber requests a personalized service dependant on his geographic location. The system will ask the Location Services Manager (which is in charge of handling requests, i.e., send/receive to the Location Calculator and the Content Providers) to pinpoint the location of the mobile. The Location Services Manager (LSM), using the Location Calculator, will ask the Content Provider (CP) to supply qualified information according to the mobile's geographical position. The LSM will eventually receive the answer from the CP and send it to the mobile, performing the essential data translations. Fig. 1 outlines the precedent concept. For effective provision of LBS, one has to provide an accurate location, as well as suitable information for users required by the corresponding service, with minimal expenditure. Thus, there are three main technology issues that have to be resolved for LBS: positioning technology, application technology, and location services (Dru & Saada, 2001). A very important technology is of course the positioning technology, the way to find out the location of a mobile device accurately. Due to the unique characteristics of the cellular environment, it is a great challenge to locate the user precisely. However, in many cases, application technology and location services are important consideration of LBS. Application technology manages the geographic information and delivers the customer requests to the appropriate service provider, thus it constitutes the communication system involved. LBS uses the geographic information to provide geographically sensitive information and services. Location-based applications and services are not sensitive to the type of location technology that is used - they merely rely on reasonably accurate geographic coordinates (Chan, 2003). This chapter is structured as follows: In Section 2, we describe the use and applications of LBSs. The current location determination technologies and standards are presented in Section 3. In Section 4 we describe the mathematical models used for the location and velocity estimation algorithms. An initial attempt for MS location estimation via received signal level using the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) approach and triangulation is presented in Sections 5. Since the former approach lacks acceptable accuracy for demanding services as numerical results reveal, the extended Kalman filter (EKF) approach, which is the main topic in this chapter, is introduced in Sections 6. In Section 7 we present numerical results. Section 8 provides concluding remarks.

Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL; Djouadi, Seddik M [ORNL; Kuruganti, Phani Teja [ORNL



Maternal-Fetal Interaction in the ABO System: A Comparative Analysis of Healthy Mothers and Couples with Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion Suggests a Protective Effect of B Incompatibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 Abstract We investigated the possible differential effects of A and B blood group materno-fetal incompatibility on human fertility through a com- parative analysis of couples with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) and healthy mothers. ABO phenotype was determined in 5180 healthy mothers and their newborn babies from the population of Sassari (Sardinia) and in 1359 healthy puerperae (women who have

Nunzio Bottini; Gian Franco Meloni; Andrea Finocchi; Giuseppina Ruggiu; Ada Amante; Tullio Meloni; Egidio Bottini



Maternal-Fetal Interaction in the ABO System: A Comparative Analysis of Healthy Mothers and Couples with Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion Suggests a Protective Effect of B Incompatibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the possible differential effects of A and B blood group materno-fetal incompatibility on human fertility through a comparative analysis of couples with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) and healthy mothers. ABO phenotype was determined in 5180 healthy mothers and their newborn babies from the population of Sassari (Sardinia) and in 1359 healthy puerperae (women who have just given birth)

Nunzio Bottini; Gian Franco Meloni; Andrea Finocchi; Giuseppina Ruggiu; Ada Amante; Tullio Meloni; Egidio Bottini



HLA-DR-positive cells in the human amniochorion.  


Human amniochorion has been studied by indirect immunofluorescence using a monoclonal antibody to a monomorphic determinant of HLA-DR antigens. Positive staining was noted only on significant numbers of large cells with irregular cytoplasmic processes in the mesenchymal connective tissue layer of the membranes. These cells resemble the dendritic-type, strongly HLA-DR-positive cells described by Steinman [3] and may be particularly relevant in immunobiological events at this important materno-foetal interface. PMID:6343235

Jenkins, D M; O'Neill, M; Johnson, P M



Leyendas y mitos americanos en el teatro argentino  

E-print Network

incluye elementos que no constan en los poemas ni en el mito. La necesidad de darle teatralidad hace que el autor cree un conflicto amoroso, introduciendo y modificando psicologas que perjudican la concepcin del mito. Contrariamente a lo establecido... organizacin social de los indgenas de las islas Tobriand, en Melanesia, se caracteriza por la filiacin matrilineal, relaciones libres y fa miliares entre padre e hijo y un antagonismo marcado entre to materno y sobrino." En los "Casos" del zorro, el to...

Blanco Amores de Pagella, Angela



Examination of the functional activity of P-glycoprotein in the rat placental barrier using rhodamine 123.  


Rhodamine 123 (Rho123), a model substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), was used to evaluate the functional activity of P-gp efflux transporter in the rat placental barrier. The dually perfused rat-term placenta method was used. In our experiments, the materno-fetal transplacental passage of Rho123 did not meet the criteria of the first-order pharmacokinetics, suggesting an involvement of transporter-mediated process. Inhibitors of P-gp, such as [3'-keto-Bmt1]-[Val2]-cyclosporine (PSC833), cyclosporine (CsA), quinidine, and chlorpromazine, increased significantly the materno-fetal transplacental passage of Rho123 in the experiments under steady-state conditions. On the other hand, PSC833, CsA, and quinidine decreased the feto-maternal passage of Rho123. Similarly, in the experiments carried out under nonsteady-state conditions, CsA accelerated the passage of Rho123 in the materno-fetal direction and decreased its passage in the opposite direction. Feto-maternal transplacental clearances of Rho123 were found to be considerably higher than those in the materno-fetal course. Potent P-gp inhibitors, such as PSC833 or CsA, partially canceled the asymmetry. Negligible metabolism of Rho123 into its major demethylated metabolite rhodamine 110 was observed in the rat placenta. Expression of P-gp genes was detected using immunohistochemical, Western blotting, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction methods preferentially in the second rat syncytiotrophoblast layer. In conclusion, these data suggest that P-gp limits the entry of Rho123 into fetuses and at the same time it accelerates the feto-maternal elimination of the model compound. Therefore, it seems plausible that pharmacokinetics of xenobiotics in the rat placental barrier could be controlled by P-gp in both directions. PMID:12626638

Pavek, Petr; Staud, Frantisek; Fendrich, Zdenek; Sklenarova, Hana; Libra, Antonin; Novotna, Martina; Kopecky, Martin; Nobilis, Milan; Semecky, Vladimir



Placental-related diseases of pregnancy: involvement of oxidative stress and implications in human evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Miscarriage and pre-eclampsia are the most common disorders of human pregnancy. Both are placental-related and exceptional in other mammalian species. Ultrasound imaging has enabled events during early pregnancy to be visual- ized in vivo for the first time. As a result, a new understanding of the early materno-fetal relationship has emerged and, with it, new insight into the pathogenesis of

Eric Jauniaux; Lucilla Poston; Graham J. Burton



[Fetal nutrition: physiopathology and therapeutic possibilities].  


The paper focuses on problems relating to fetal nutrition and its relation to maternal dietary habits. Following a rapid review of the role played by vitamins and oligoelements, the therapeutic value of integrating the diet with vitamin-mineral substances is assessed. The positive action of these substances is counterbalanced by the fact that materno-fetal nutritional phenomena pass through a pool of biochemical activities which depend on the anatomico-functional integrity of the placenta as the necessary condition for therapeutic efficacy. PMID:2290602

Borruto, F; Padovani, E M; Lauria, G C



Amores de Abat-jour: A cena teatral brasileira e a escrita de mulheres nos anos vinte  

E-print Network

Semana (RJ) sob o pseudnimo de BF (Baby-Flirt), tendo publicado seu primeiro livro em 1918.4 Mulher ativa, colaborou em diversos jornais e revistas da poca, tendo fundado a primeira coluna social do Brasil, "Coquetel." Foi membro de diversas... nesse perodo que, ao reivindicarem mais direitos para mulher (como o direito ao voto e a uma melhor educao), atrelavam essas reivindicaes ao melhor desempenho de seu papel de me. Na pea, o amor materno percebido como o elemento que transmuda...

Costa Bezerra, Ká tia da



Bidirectional placental transfer of Bisphenol A and its main metabolite, Bisphenol A-Glucuronide, in the isolated perfused human placenta.  


The widespread human exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor interfering with developmental processes, raises the question of the risk for human health of BPA fetal exposure. In humans, highly variable BPA concentrations have been reported in the feto-placental compartment. However the human fetal exposure to BPA still remains unclear. The aim of the study was to characterize placental exchanges of BPA and its main metabolite, Bisphenol A-Glucuronide (BPA-G) using the non-recirculating dual human placental perfusion. This high placental bidirectional permeability to the lipid soluble BPA strongly suggests a transport by passive diffusion in both materno-to-fetal and feto-to-maternal direction, leading to a calculated ratio between fetal and maternal free BPA concentrations of about 1. In contrast, BPA-G has limited placental permeability, particularly in the materno-to-fetal direction. Thus the fetal exposure to BPA conjugates could be explained mainly by its limited capacity to extrude BPA-G. PMID:24933518

Corbel, T; Gayrard, V; Puel, S; Lacroix, M Z; Berrebi, A; Gil, S; Vigui, C; Toutain, P-L; Picard-Hagen, N



A Comparison of the Histological Structure of the Placenta in Experimental Animals  

PubMed Central

The primary function of the placenta is to act as an interface between the dam and fetus. The anatomic structure of the chorioallantoic placenta in eutherian mammals varies between different animal species. The placental types in eutherian mammals are classified from various standpoints based on the gross shape, the histological structure of the materno-fetal interface, the type of materno-fetal interdigitation, etc. Particularly, the histological structure is generally considered one of the most useful and instructive classifications for functionally describing placental type. In this system, three main types are recognized according to the cell layers comprising the interhemal area: (1) epitheliochorial type (horses, pigs and ruminants), (2) endotheliochorial type (carnivores) and (3) hemochorial type (primates, rodents and rabbits). The number of cell layers in the interhemal area is considered to modify the transfer of nutrients between maternal and fetal blood and is one of the important factors with respect to the difference in placental permeability between animal species. Therefore, in reproductive and developmental toxicity studies, careful attention should be paid to the histological structure of the interhemal area when extrapolating information concerning placental transfer characteristics to different animal species. PMID:24791062

Furukawa, Satoshi; Kuroda, Yusuke; Sugiyama, Akihiko



Analytical and Theranostic Applications of Gold Nanoparticles and Multifunctional Nanocomposites  

PubMed Central

Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and GNP-based multifunctional nanocomposites are the subject of intensive studies and biomedical applications. This minireview summarizes our recent efforts in analytical and theranostic applications of engineered GNPs and nanocomposites by using plasmonic properties of GNPs and various optical techniques. Specifically, we consider analytical biosensing; visualization and bioimaging of bacterial, mammalian, and plant cells; photodynamic treatment of pathogenic bacteria; and photothermal therapy of xenografted tumors. In addition to recently published reports, we discuss new data on dot immunoassay diagnostics of mycobacteria, multiplexed immunoelectron microscopy analysis of Azospirillum brasilense, materno-embryonic transfer of GNPs in pregnant rats, and combined photodynamic and photothermal treatment of rat xenografted tumors with gold nanorods covered by a mesoporous silica shell doped with hematoporphyrin. PMID:23471188

Khlebtsov, Nikolai; Bogatyrev, Vladimir; Dykman, Lev; Khlebtsov, Boris; Staroverov, Sergey; Shirokov, Alexander; Matora, Larisa; Khanadeev, Vitaly; Pylaev, Timofey; Tsyganova, Natalia; Terentyuk, Georgy



Analytical and theranostic applications of gold nanoparticles and multifunctional nanocomposites.  


Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and GNP-based multifunctional nanocomposites are the subject of intensive studies and biomedical applications. This minireview summarizes our recent efforts in analytical and theranostic applications of engineered GNPs and nanocomposites by using plasmonic properties of GNPs and various optical techniques. Specifically, we consider analytical biosensing; visualization and bioimaging of bacterial, mammalian, and plant cells; photodynamic treatment of pathogenic bacteria; and photothermal therapy of xenografted tumors. In addition to recently published reports, we discuss new data on dot immunoassay diagnostics of mycobacteria, multiplexed immunoelectron microscopy analysis of Azospirillum brasilense, materno-embryonic transfer of GNPs in pregnant rats, and combined photodynamic and photothermal treatment of rat xenografted tumors with gold nanorods covered by a mesoporous silica shell doped with hematoporphyrin. PMID:23471188

Khlebtsov, Nikolai; Bogatyrev, Vladimir; Dykman, Lev; Khlebtsov, Boris; Staroverov, Sergey; Shirokov, Alexander; Matora, Larisa; Khanadeev, Vitaly; Pylaev, Timofey; Tsyganova, Natalia; Terentyuk, Georgy



Embolie de liquide amniotique: propos de deux cas  

PubMed Central

Lembolie de liquide amniotique (ELA) est une complication imprvisible de laccouchement, souvent fatale, associant un collapsus cardiovasculaire svre, un syndrome de dtresse respiratoire aigu et une hmorragie avec coagulation intra vasculaire dissmine (CIVD). Ds lvocation du diagnostic, la prise en charge doit tre multidisciplinaire et intensive. ELA est responsable dune mortalit maternelle et nonatale importante, son incidence est extrmement variable selon les tudes et le taux de mortalit maternelle varie entre 26 et 86 % selon les tudes. Ces dix dernires annes, le pronostic materno-ftal semble en amlioration grce aux progrs de prise en charge standardise multidisciplinaire sur les lieux daccouchement. Nous rapportons deux cas dembolie de liquide amniotique. Le premier cas sest manifest au cours du travail et le deuxime cas est survenu dans les suites immdiates de laccouchement. PMID:22655108

Elbahraoui, Houda; Bouziane, Hanane; Elghanmi, Adil; Lakhdar, Amina; Elhanchi, Zaki; Ferhati, Driss



Retroviral envelope syncytin capture in an ancestrally diverged mammalian clade for placentation in the primitive Afrotherian tenrecs.  


Syncytins are fusogenic envelope (env) genes of retroviral origin that have been captured for a function in placentation. Syncytins have been identified in Euarchontoglires (primates, rodents, Leporidae) and Laurasiatheria (Carnivora, ruminants) placental mammals. Here, we searched for similar genes in species that retained characteristic features of primitive mammals, namely the Malagasy and mainland African Tenrecidae. They belong to the superorder Afrotheria, an early lineage that diverged from Euarchotonglires and Laurasiatheria 100 Mya, during the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. An in silico search for env genes with full coding capacity within a Tenrecidae genome identified several candidates, with one displaying placenta-specific expression as revealed by RT-PCR analysis of a large panel of Setifer setosus tissues. Cloning of this endogenous retroviral env gene demonstrated fusogenicity in an ex vivo cell-cell fusion assay on a panel of mammalian cells. Refined analysis of placental architecture and ultrastructure combined with in situ hybridization demonstrated specific expression of the gene in multinucleate cellular masses and layers at the materno-fetal interface, consistent with a role in syncytium formation. This gene, which we named "syncytin-Ten1," is conserved among Tenrecidae, with evidence of purifying selection and conservation of fusogenic activity. To our knowledge, it is the first syncytin identified to date within the ancestrally diverged Afrotheria superorder. PMID:25267646

Cornelis, Guillaume; Vernochet, Ccile; Malicorne, Sbastien; Souquere, Sylvie; Tzika, Athanasia C; Goodman, Steven M; Catzeflis, Franois; Robinson, Terence J; Milinkovitch, Michel C; Pierron, Grard; Heidmann, Odile; Dupressoir, Anne; Heidmann, Thierry



Milk is not just food but most likely a genetic transfection system activating mTORC1 signaling for postnatal growth  

PubMed Central

Milk has been recognized to represent a functionally active nutrient system promoting neonatal growth of mammals. Cell growth is regulated by the nutrient-sensitive kinase mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). There is still a lack of information on the mechanisms of mTORC1 up-regulation by milk consumption. This review presents milk as a materno-neonatal relay system functioning by transfer of preferential amino acids, which increase plasma levels of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), insulin, growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) for mTORC1 activation. Importantly, milk exosomes, which regularly contain microRNA-21, most likely represent a genetic transfection system enhancing mTORC1-driven metabolic processes. Whereas human breast milk is the ideal food for infants allowing appropriate postnatal growth and species-specific metabolic programming, persistent high milk signaling during adolescence and adulthood by continued cows milk consumption may promote mTORC1-driven diseases of civilization. PMID:23883112



Variation in macrophage-migration-inhibitory-factor immunoreactivity during porcine gestation.  


The localization and activity of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was investigated in the interhemal region of the noninvasive, diffuse, folded epitheliochorial placenta and in the nonpregnant uterus of the pig. MIF, a proinflammatory cytokine with many actions on macrophages and monocytes, may play an important role in materno-fetal immuno-tolerance during placental establishment, modulation, and growth. Immunohistochemical staining with anti-human MIF polyclonal antibodies was carried out on placental sections from 11 stages of gestation (16-95 days postcoitus) and on nonpregnant uterus at 13 days postestrus. Western blot analysis confirmed the specificity of the anti-human MIF polyclonal antibodies on pig tissues. MIF staining was intense in both the trophoblast and maternal epithelium in the early stages; in the later stages, it decreased dramatically in the maternal epithelium but remained high in the trophoblast. The uterine glands showed immunoreactivity at all stages, and the maternal and fetal epithelial linings of the areolar cavity showed high reactivity at Day 25. The vasculature also showed staining for MIF, and an intense to moderate staining was shown in the nonpregnant uterus, mostly in the surface and glandular epithelium. The high activity of MIF in the maternal and fetal tissues throughout placentation and its expression in the nonpregnant uterus indicate a regulatory role for MIF during embryo receptivity and epitheliochorial placentation. PMID:15564603

Paulesu, Luana; Cateni, Chiara; Romagnoli, Roberta; Ietta, Francesca; Dantzer, Vibeke



Levels of brain derived neurotrophic factors across gestation in women with preeclampsia.  


Preeclampsia (PE) is a major pregnancy complication of placental origin which leads to adverse pregnancy outcome. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is suggested to promote trophoblast growth and regulate placental and fetal development. This study for the first time examines the levels of maternal plasma BDNF at various time points during gestation, cord plasma and placental BDNF levels and their association with birth outcome in women with PE. Normotensive control (NC) women (n=89) and women with PE (n=61) were followed at three different time points [16-20 weeks (T1), 26-30 weeks (T2) and at delivery (T3)]. Maternal blood at all time points and cord blood was collected. Results indicate that maternal BDNF levels at T1 (p=0.050) and T3 (p=0.025) were lower in women with PE than in NC women. Cord BDNF levels at delivery in women with PE were lower (p=0.032) than those in NC women. Placental BDNF gene expression was also lower (p=0.0082) in women with PE than in NC women. Our data suggests that BDNF plays an important role in the development of the materno-fetal-placental unit during pregnancy. Alteration in the levels of BDNF during pregnancy may be associated with an abnormal development of the placenta resulting in PE. PMID:24955870

D'Souza, Vandita; Patil, Vidya; Pisal, Hemlata; Randhir, Karuna; Joshi, Asmita; Mehendale, Savita; Wagh, Girija; Gupte, Sanjay; Joshi, Sadhana



[Active management of labor].  


Eighty three primigravidae patients at the end of latency labor, erased cervix, 3 cm dilation, vertex presentation and adequate pelvis, were studied. Two groups were formed: 53 patients in the study group, who received active management of labor, and 30 patients in the control group, treated in the traditional way. In all the patients a graphic recording of labor, was carried out; it included all the events, and as labor advanced, a signoidal curve of cervical dilatation, was registered, as well as the hyperbolic one for presentation descent. The study group received the method in a systematized manner, as follows: 1. Peridular block. 2. Amniotomy. 3. IV oxytocin one hour after amniotomy. 4. FCR monitoring. 5. Detection of dystocia origin. Materno-fetal morbidity was registered in both groups, as well as cesarean section rate, instrumental delivery and its indications, labor duration, and time of stay in labor room. Diminution of above intems and opportune detection of dystocia, were determined. It was concluded that a constructive action plan, starting at hospital admission in most healthy women, allows a normal delivery of brief duration. PMID:2066009

Ruiz Ortiz, E; Villalobos Romn, M; Flores Murrieta, G; Sotomayor Alvarado, L



Maternal-fetal interaction in the ABO system: a comparative analysis of healthy mothers and couples with recurrent spontaneous abortion suggests a protective effect of B incompatibility.  


We investigated the possible differential effects of A and B blood group materno-fetal incompatibility on human fertility through a comparative analysis of couples with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) and healthy mothers. ABO phenotype was determined in 5180 healthy mothers and their newborn babies from the population of Sassari (Sardinia) and in 1359 healthy puerperae (women who have just given birth) from the population of Rome. Mother-newborn joint ABO distribution in healthy mothers was compared with wife-husband joint ABO distribution in RSA couples. Distortions from expected distribution were evaluated by symmetry analysis. In both RSA couples and healthy mothers significant deviation from expected symmetry patterns were observed. Deviations in RSA are in the opposite direction to those observed in healthy puerperae. The most important difference observed concerned the symmetric joint phenotypes mother (women) A/infant (husband) B (B incompatible) and mother (women) B/infant (husband) A (A incompatible). A low number of B incompatible in RSA couples and a high number of B incompatible in healthy mothers was observed. The phenomenon is much more evident in women aged 24-28 years, a period of maximum fecundity. It is possible that the presence of anti-B immunoglobulin in the mother might have a protective effect against fetal loss in some cases of mother-infant ABO incompatibility. PMID:11446422

Bottini, N; Meloni, G F; Finocchi, A; Ruggiu, G; Amante, A; Meloni, T; Bottini, E



Application of Customized Birth Weight Curves in the Assessment of Perinatal Outcomes in Infants of Diabetic Mothers.  


Objective: To determine whether the use of customized curves (CC) allows better detection of large- (LGA) or small-for-gestational age (SGA) infants at risk of adverse perinatal morbidity than non-CC in women with diabetes mellitus (DM). Material and Methods: A model of CC was applied to all infants of diabetic mothers (IDM) who attended the Hospital Universitario Materno Infantil de Canarias between 2008 and 2011. We compared perinatal outcomes of IDM classified as LGA or SGA by non-CC versus CC. Results: One of 4 LGA was appropriate for gestational age (AGA) by CC (false-positive rate: 25%) and 30% of SGA by CC were not identified by non-CC (false-negative rate). False-positive LGA and SGA showed similar perinatal outcomes to AGA infants. The rates of cesarean section, cephalopelvic disproportion, total fetal distress and shoulder dystocia were significantly higher in false-negative LGA than in AGA by CC (p < 0.004, p < 0.02, p < 0.04 and p < 0.04, respectively). Fetal distress was higher in false-negative SGA than in AGA by CC (p < 0.03). Discussion: In pregnancies complicated by DM, the use of CC allowed more accurate identification of LGA and SGA infants at high risk of perinatal morbidity than non-CC. 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25170557

Gonzlez-Gonzlez, Nieves L; Gonzlez-Dvila, Enrique; Cabrera, Francisco; Vega, Begoa; Padron, Erika; Bartha, Jos Luis; Armas-Gonzalez, Marina; Garca-Hernndez, Jos A




PubMed Central

Vaginosis bacteriana (VB) es una infeccin caracterizada por el cambio en la microflora de la vagina, asocindose a resultados adversos del embarazo y a la adquisicin de infecciones de transmisin sexual (ITS), incluyendo el VIH. En este estudio se busc la asociacin entre el uso de duchas vaginales y otros factores de riesgos con VB. Se us un diseo observacional descriptivo transversal prospectivo, en 1,252 mujeres que asistieron al servicio de planificacin familiar de tres hospitales nacionales (Dos de Mayo, Arzobispo Loayza, San Bartolom) y el Instituto Materno Perinatal, durante el ao 1997. Se utiliz un cuestionario estructurado donde se registraron variables socio demogrficas y caractersticas del estilo de vida de las participantes. VB fue diagnosticada mediante el puntaje de Nugent. Se emple anlisis de regresin logstica para calcular odds ratio (OR) e intervalos de confianza al 95%. La edad promedio de las participantes fue 25.1 4,7 aos, el 23.4% tenan ms de 11 aos de educacin. La prevalenca de VB fue 20,1%. Las mujeres que practicaban duchas vaginales tuvieron 2.28 veces (OR = 2.28, IC 95% [1.05.0]) mayor probabilidad de tener VB comparado con aquellas que no lo practicaban. Tener dos o ms parejas sexuales estuvo asociado con 2.0 veces (OR =2.0, IC 95% [1.23.5]) mayor probabilidad de adquirir VB comparado con aquellas que haban tenido solo una pareja sexual. Las participantes que iniciaron una relacin sexual a una edad temprana tuvieron 1.4 veces (OR=1.4, IC 95% [1.0 1.9]) mayor probabilidad de adquirir VB. El uso de duchas vaginales es un factor de riesgo de VB. Los programas destinados a la salud de la mujer deben abordar las repercusiones perjudiciales para la salud asociados con las duchas vaginales. PMID:21132048

Chvez, Natividad; Molina, Helfer; Snchez, Jorge; Gelaye, Bizu; Snchez, Sixto E.



Role of Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in the Placental Pathology of Plasmodium berghei Infected Mice  

PubMed Central

Placental malaria is a common clinical complication during pregnancy and is associated with abortion, premature delivery, intrauterine growth retardation and low birth weight. The present study was designed to delineate the underlying mechanism of placental pathology during malarial infection with special reference to oxidative stress and apoptosis. Experimentally, pregnant BALB/c mice were infected with Plasmodium berghei infected red blood cells on gestation day 10. The presence of malarial infection in placenta was confirmed by histopathological studies. It was observation that infected placenta had plugged placental sinusoids with parasitized red blood cells and malarial pigments. Interestingly, we found significant increase in the level of malondialdehyde, the index of oxidative stress and decreased activity of catalase, the antioxidant in infected placenta. Furthermore, in infected placenta the oxidative stress mediated apoptosis was determined by DNA fragmentation assay, ethidium bromide/acridine orange staining and caspase activity. It was observed that oxidative stress begin after second day of malarial infection. Interestingly, it was observed that there was down regulation of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and up regulation of pro-apoptotic protein Bax in infected placenta, suggesting the involvement of mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis which was further confirmed by activation of caspase 9. However, no change in the expression of Fas gene and caspase 8 activity, indicated the absence of death receptor pathway. Thus, it can be concluded that the placental pathology during malarial infection is mediated by mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis occurring due to augmented lipid peroxidation which may in turn jeopardise the materno-fetal relationship. PMID:22396790

Sharma, Lalita; Kaur, Jagdeep; Shukla, Geeta



Treating common problems of the nose and throat in pregnancy: what is safe?  


Although all kinds of medications should be avoided during pregnancy, the majority of pregnant women receive at least one drug and 6% of them during the high-risk period of the first trimester. The aim of the present paper is to discuss the appropriate management of rhinologic and laryngeal conditions that may be encountered during pregnancy. A literature review from Medline and database sources was carried out. Related books and written guidelines were also included. Controlled clinical trials, prospective and retrospective studies, case-control studies, laboratory studies, clinical and systematic reviews, metanalyses, and case reports were analysed. The following drugs are considered relatively safe: beta-lactam antibiotics (with dose adjustment), macrolides (although the use of erythromycin and clarithromycin carries a certain risk), clindamycin, metronidazole (better avoided in the first trimester), amphotericin-B (especially in immunocompromised situations during the second and third trimester) and acyclovir. First-line antituberculous agents isoniazid, ethambutol, pyrazinamide, and ciprofloxacine in drug-resistant tuberculosis can be also used. Non-selective NSAIDs (until the 32nd week), nasal decongestants (with caution and up to 7 days), intranasal corticosteroids, with budesonide as the treatment of choice, second generation antihistamines (cetirizine in the third trimester, or loratadine in the second and third trimester), H2 receptor antagonists (except nizatidine) and proton pump inhibitors (except omeprazole) can be used to relieve patients from the related symptoms. In cases of emergencies, epinephrine, prednisone, prednisolone, methylprednisolone, dimetindene and nebulised b(2) agonists can be used with extreme caution. By contrast, selective COX-2 inhibitors and BCG vaccination are contraindicated in pregnancy. When prescribing to a pregnant woman, the safety of the materno-foetal unit is considered paramount. Although medications are potentially hazardous, misconceptions and suboptimal treatment of the mother might be more harmful to the unborn child. Knowledge update is necessary to avoid unjustified hesitations and provide appropriate counselling and treatment for pregnant women. PMID:18265995

Vlastarakos, Petros V; Manolopoulos, Leonidas; Ferekidis, Eleftherios; Antsaklis, Aris; Nikolopoulos, Thomas P



Ethnicity and HIV risk behaviour, testing and knowledge in Guatemala.  


Objectives. To describe levels of risky sexual behaviour, HIV testing and HIV knowledge among men and women in Guatemala by ethnic group and to identify adjusted associations between ethnicity and these outcomes. Design. Data on 16,205 women aged 15-49 and 6822 men aged 15-59 from the 2008-2009 Encuesta Nacional de Salud Materno Infantil were used to describe ethnic group differences in sexual behaviour, HIV knowledge and testing. We then controlled for age, education, wealth and other socio-demographic factors in a multivariate logistic regression model to examine the effects of ethnicity on outcomes related to age at sexual debut, number of lifetime sex partners, comprehensive HIV knowledge, HIV testing and lifetime sex worker patronage (men only). Results. The data show low levels of risky sexual behaviour and low levels of HIV knowledge among indigenous women and men, compared to other respondents. Controlling for demographic factors, indigenous women were more likely than other women never to have been tested for HIV and to lack comprehensive HIV knowledge. They were less likely to report early sexual debut and three or more lifetime sexual partners. Indigenous men were more likely than other men to lack comprehensive HIV knowledge and demonstrated lower odds of early sexual debut, 10 or more lifetime sexual partners and sex worker patronage. Conclusions. The Mayan indigenous population in Guatemala, while broadly socially vulnerable, does not appear to be at elevated risk for HIV based on this analysis of selected risk factors. Nonetheless, low rates of HIV knowledge and testing may be cause for concern. Programmes working in indigenous communities should focus on HIV education and reducing barriers to testing. Further research into the factors that underlie ethnic self-identity and perceived ethnicity could help clarify the relative significance of these measures for HIV risk and other health outcomes. PMID:24834462

Taylor, Tory M; Hembling, John; Bertrand, Jane T



Adaptations of placental and cord blood ABCA1DNA methylation profile to maternal metabolic status  

PubMed Central

In utero environmental perturbations have been associated with epigenetic changes in the offspring and a lifelong susceptibility to cardiovascular diseases (CVD). DNA methylation at the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) gene was previously associated with CVD, but whether these epigenetic marks respond to changes in the maternal environment is unknown. This study was undertaken to assess the associations between the maternal metabolic profile and ABCA1 DNA methylation levels in placenta and cord blood. Placenta and cord blood samples were obtained at delivery from 100 women including 26 with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) diagnosed following a 75 g-oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) between week 24 and 28 of gestation. ABCA1 DNA methylation and mRNA levels were measured using bisulfite pyrosequencing and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. We report that ABCA1 DNA methylation levels on the maternal side of the placenta are correlated with maternal high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels (r < 0.21; P < 0.04) and glucose levels 2 h post-OGTT (r = 0.25; P = 0.02). On the fetal side of the placenta, ABCA1 DNA methylation levels are associated with cord blood triglyceride levels (r = 0.28; P = 0.01). ABCA1 DNA methylation variability on both sides of the placenta are also associated with ABCA1 mRNA levels (r < 0.35; P = 0.05). As opposed to placenta, cord blood DNA methylation levels are negatively correlated with maternal glucose 2 h post-OGTT (r = 0.26; P = 0.02). In conclusion, the epivariations observed in placenta and cord blood likely contribute to an optimal maternofetal cholesterol transfer. These in utero epigenetics adaptations may also potentially trigger the long-term susceptibility of the newborn to dyslipidemia and CVD. PMID:24113149

Houde, Andre-Anne; Guay, Simon-Pierre; Desgagn, Vronique; Hivert, Marie-France; Baillargeon, Jean-Patrice; St-Pierre, Julie; Perron, Patrice; Gaudet, Daniel; Brisson, Diane; Bouchard, Luigi



[Morphological variability and placental function].  


In mammals, the blastocyst defines with the maternal organism, a structure which allows embryonic development during gestation: the placenta. The structure of this organ varies remarkably across species. In this review the different type of placentation have been described in a comparative manner using terms of classification such as: placental materno-fetal interdigitation, matemofetal blood flow interrelationships, layers of the placental interhemal barrier, trophoblast invasiveness and decidual cell reaction, formation of syncytiotrophoblast. The human hemomonochorial placenta is characterized by a strong decidualization of the uterus and a major invasiveness of the extravillous trophoblast. Furthermore, there is a spectrum of placental endocrine activities across species. In some mammals (e.g., mouse and rat) the placenta eclipses the pituitary in the maintenance of ovarian function. In the human and in the sheep, horse, cat and guinea pig, the placenta acquires the ability to substitute for the ovaries in the maintenance of gestation at various time during pregnancy. The human placenta is characterized by a high rate of sterodogenesis (progesterone and estrogens) and by the production of a primate specific trophoblastic hormone: human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Recently, it was demonstrated that mutation of many genes in mice results in embryonic mortality or fetal growth restriction, due to defects in placental development. Furthermore, distinct molecular pathways regulate the differentiation of various trophoblast cell subtype of the mouse placenta. An important question is whether or not placental differentiation in other mammals is regulated by the same molecular mechanisms. Due to the striking diversity in placental structure, endocrine function and gene expression, caution must be exercised in extrapolating findings regarding placental function and development from one species to another. PMID:11575143

Malassin, A



From ancestral infectious retroviruses to bona fide cellular genes: role of the captured syncytins in placentation.  


During their replication, infectious retroviruses insert a reverse-transcribed cDNA copy of their genome, a "provirus", into the genome of their host. If the infected cell belongs to the germline, the integrated provirus can become "fixed" within the host genome as an endogenous retrovirus and be transmitted vertically to the progeny in a Mendelian fashion. Based on the numerous proviral sequences that are recovered within the genomic DNA of vertebrates--up to ten percent in the case of mammals--such events must have occurred repeatedly during the course of millions of years of evolution. Although most of the ancient proviral sequences have been disrupted, a few "endogenized" retroviral genes are conserved and still encode functional proteins. In this review, we focus on the recent discovery of genes derived from the envelope glycoprotein-encoding (env) genes of endogenous retroviruses that have been domesticated by mammals to carry out an essential function in placental development. They were called syncytins based on the membrane fusogenic capacity that they have kept from their parental env gene and which contributes to the formation of the placental fused cell layer called the syncytiotrophoblast, at the materno-fetal interface. Remarkably, the capture of syncytin or syncytin-like genes, sometimes as pairs, was found to have occurred independently from different endogenous retroviruses in diverse mammalian lineages such as primates--including humans--, muroids, leporids, carnivores, caviids, and ovis, between around 10 and 85 million years ago. Knocking out one or both mouse syncytin-A and -B genes provided evidence that they indeed play a critical role in placentation. We discuss the possibility that the immunosuppressive domain embedded within retroviral envelope glycoproteins and conserved in syncytin proteins, may be involved in the tolerance of the fetus by the maternal immune system. Finally, we speculate that the capture of a founding syncytin-like gene could have been instrumental in the dramatic transition from egg-laying to placental mammals. PMID:22695103

Dupressoir, A; Lavialle, C; Heidmann, T



Urinary podocalyxin as a marker of preeclampsia in a Hispanic population  

PubMed Central

Background: Preeclampsia is associated with significant materno-fetal morbidity and mortality. Podocyturia due to podocyte damage seems to be associated with the disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of urinary podocalyxin as a marker of preeclampsia in a Hispanic population. Methods: 63 patients were studied. 25 patients had preeclampsia/eclampsia (PE-E). 38 patients had normal pregnancies and served as control group. 24 hour proteinuria, urine protein/creatinine (UPC), urinary podocalyxin and perinatal outcomes were measured. A Podocalyxin ELISA test was used to detect podocyturia. Results: Mean age (years), meanSD was 30.55.4 in normal patients vs 30.65.8 in PE-E, p=0.98. Median gestational age (weeks) was, 38 (range 21-42) for normal pregnancies and 36 (range 24-40) for patients with PE-E, <0.001. Urine podocalyxin/creatinine on admission (ng/mg), median [IQR] in normal patients was 55.9 [29.4, 74.9] vs 109.7 [63.8, 234.1] in PE-E, p=0.001. After adjusting for admission proteinuria, urinary podocalyxin remained independently associated with preeclampsia: OR=1.0040 (95% CI 1.0003-1.0078), p=0.03. There was low to moderate correlation between UPC and urinary podocalyxin, Spearmans =0.31, p=0.01. In PE-E, post-partum urine podocalyxin was lower, median [IQR]: 69.7 [32.7, 184.8] p=0.19 vs admission. There was a trend towards more podocyturia and proteinuria in patients with eclampsia, comparing to those with preeclampsia. There was no association observed between podocyturia and neonatal mortality, IUGR or Apgar scores. Conclusions: Significantly higher levels of urinary podocalyxin are seen in preeclampsia/eclampsia. They tend to normalize after delivery. PMID:25057338

Palacios de Franco, Ylbe; Velazquez, Karina; Segovia, Natalia; Acosta, Carolina; Yanosky, Deborah; Franco Palacios, Ylbe V; Ramos, Amanda; Franco Palacios, Carlos R



Expression of ABC Efflux Transporters in Placenta from Women with Insulin-Managed Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Drug efflux transporters in the placenta can significantly influence the materno-fetal transfer of a diverse array of drugs and other xenobiotics. To determine if clinically important drug efflux transporter expression is altered in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM-I) or type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM-I), we compared the expression of multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1), multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) and the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) via western blotting and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in samples obtained from insulin-managed diabetic pregnancies to healthy term-matched controls. At the level of mRNA, we found significantly increased expression of MDR1 in the GDM-I group compared to both the T1DM-I (p<0.01) and control groups (p<0.05). Significant changes in the placental protein expression of MDR1, MRP2, and BCRP were not detected (p>0.05). Interestingly, there was a significant, positive correlation observed between plasma hemoglobin A1c levels (a retrospective marker of glycemic control) and both BCRP protein expression (r?=?0.45, p<0.05) and BCRP mRNA expression (r?=?0.58, p<0.01) in the insulin-managed DM groups. Collectively, the data suggest that the expression of placental efflux transporters is not altered in pregnancies complicated by diabetes when hyperglycemia is managed; however, given the relationship between BCRP expression and plasma hemoglobin A1c levels it is plausible that their expression could change in poorly managed diabetes. PMID:22558111

Piquette-Miller, Micheline



Adaptations in placental phenotype support fetal growth during undernutrition of pregnant mice.  


Undernutrition during pregnancy reduces birth weight and programmes adult phenotype with consequences for life expectancy, but its effects on the phenotype of the placenta, responsible for supplying nutrients for fetal growth, remain largely unknown. Using molecular, morphological and functional analyses, placental phenotype was examined in mice during restriction of dietary intake to 80% of control from day 3 of pregnancy. At day 16, undernutrition reduced placental, but not fetal, weight in association with decreased junctional zone volume and placental expression of glucose transporter Slc2a1. At day 19, both placental and fetal weights were reduced in undernourished mice (91% and 87% of control, respectively, P < 0.01), as were the volume and surface area of the labyrinthine zone responsible for placental nutrient transfer (85% and 86%, respectively, P < 0.03). However, unidirectional materno-fetal clearance of tracer glucose was maintained and methyl-aminoisobutyric acid increased 166% (P < 0.005) per gram of undernourished placenta, relative to controls. This was associated with an 18% and 27% increased placental expression of glucose and system A amino acid transporters Slc2a1 and Slc38a2, respectively, at day 19 (P < 0.04). At both ages, undernutrition decreased expression of the placental specific transcript of the Igf2 gene by 35% (P < 0.01), although methylation of its promoter was unaffected. The placenta, therefore, adapts to help maintain fetal growth when its own growth is compromised by maternal undernutrition. Consequently, placental phenotype is responsive to environmental conditions and may help predict the risk of adult disease programmed in utero. PMID:19948659

Coan, P M; Vaughan, O R; Sekita, Y; Finn, S L; Burton, G J; Constancia, M; Fowden, A L



Hypoxia-Induced Changes in the Bioactivity of Cytotrophoblast-Derived Exosomes  

PubMed Central

Migration of extravillous trophoblasts (EVT) into decidua and myometrium is a critical process in the conversion of maternal spiral arterioles and establishing placenta perfusion. EVT migration is affected by cell-to-cell communication and oxygen tension. While the release of exosomes from placental cells has been identified as a significant pathway in materno-fetal communication, the role of placental-derived exosomes in placentation has yet to be established. The aim of this study was to establish the effect of oxygen tension on the release and bioactivity of cytotrophoblast (CT)-derived exosomes on EVT invasion and proliferation. CT were isolated from first trimester fetal tissue (n?=?12) using a trypsin-deoxyribonuclease-dispase/Percoll method. CT were cultured under 8%, 3% or 1% O2 for 48 h. Exosomes from CT-conditioned media were isolated by differential and buoyant density centrifugation. The effect of oxygen tension on exosome release (g exosomal protein/106cells/48 h) and bioactivity were established. HTR-8/SVneo (EVT) were used as target cells to establish the effect (bioactivity) of exosomes on invasion and proliferation as assessed by real-time, live-cell imaging (Incucyte). The release and bioactivity of CT-derived exosomes were inversely correlated with oxygen tension (p<0.001). Under low oxygen tensions (i.e. 1% O2), CT-derived exosomes promoted EVT invasion and proliferation. Proteomic analysis of exosomes identified oxygen-dependent changes in protein content. We propose that in response to changes in oxygen tension, CTs modify the bioactivity of exosomes, thereby, regulating EVT phenotype. Exosomal induction of EVT migration may represent a normal process of placentation and/or an adaptive response to placental hypoxia. PMID:24244532

Salomon, Carlos; Kobayashi, Miharu; Ashman, Keith; Sobrevia, Luis; Mitchell, Murray D.; Rice, Gregory E.



Characterization of trophoblast cell populations by lectin histochemistry in canine placenta during development.  


The aim of this study was to identify and characterize populations of trophoblast cells in canine placenta during different stages of fetal development using lectin histochemistry. Dogs have endotheliochorial placentation and trophoblast cell invasion continues after chorioallantois villous penetration early in pregnancy, leading to formation of a labyrinth. Specialized subpopulations of cells differentiate, such as syncytial trophoblast that invades the maternal epithelium early in placentation and surrounds and forms intimate cuffs around maternal blood vessels. Marginal haematomata, which are lined by specialized phagocytic cytotrophoblast cells, form by mid-gestation. Invasive 'extravillous' cells advance into and remodel maternal endometrial tissues further. Placentas and attached uterine tissues were collected and sampled from six bitches at mid-gestation (days 31-33 of gestation) and 12 females in late gestation (day 42-term) for characterization of these tissues and identification of other populations of trophoblast cells. Uterine tissues from nonpregnant bitches were also collected at oestrus (n = 2) and during the luteal phase (n = 1). In histochemical studies, two of six biotinylated lectins that were tested stained cytotrophoblast and syncytial trophoblast cell populations differentially. Arachis hypogaea agglutinin (PNA) was specific for cytotrophoblasts in placental tissue lining villi and cytotrophoblastic cells with phagocytic or absorptive phenotypes in the necrotic zone at mid-gestation. In late gestation, cytotrophoblast cells with an absorptive phenotype at the interface between the labyrinth and lacunar glandular chambers were stained with PNA. Staining of other cells was minimal, with the exception of deep endometrial glands. Lectin binding using Maclura pomifera agglutinin (MPL) specifically stained the same cells as PNA and the population of invasive syncytial trophoblast cells remodelling maternal blood vessels and small maternal vessels at the materno-fetal interface, as well as trophoblast cells within necrotic zones at mid-gestation. Both lectins were positive for phagocytic cytotrophoblast cells lining the haematophagus organs. The results of this study demonstrate that lectin histochemistry is a useful tool for staining subpopulations of cytotrophoblast and syncytial trophoblast cells. PMID:11787150

Sandoval, C; Fisher, P J; Schlafer, D H



The Long and the Short of it: Gene and Environment Interactions During Early Cortical Development and Consequences for Long-Term Neurological Disease  

PubMed Central

Cortical development is a complex amalgamation of proliferation, migration, differentiation, and circuit formation. These processes follow defined timescales and are controlled by a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. It is currently unclear how robust and flexible these processes are and whether the developing brain has the capacity to recover from disruptions. What is clear is that there are a number of cognitive disorders or conditions that are elicited as a result of disrupted cortical development, although it may take a long time for the full pathophysiology of the conditions to be realized clinically. The critical window for the manifestation of a neurodevelopmental disorder is prolonged, and there is the potential for a complex interplay between genes and environment. While there have been extended investigations into the genetic basis of a number of neurological and mental disorders, limited definitive associations have been discovered. Many environmental factors, including inflammation and stress, have been linked to neurodevelopmental disorders, and it may be that a better understanding of the interplay between genes and environment will speed progress in this field. In particular, the development of the brain needs to be considered in the context of the whole materno-fetal unit as the degree of the metabolic, endocrine, or inflammatory responses, for example, will greatly influence the environment in which the brain develops. This review will emphasize the importance of extending neurodevelopmental studies to the contribution of the placenta, vasculature, cerebrospinal fluid, and to maternal and fetal immune response. These combined investigations are more likely to reveal genetic and environmental factors that influence the different stages of neuronal development and potentially lead to the better understanding of the etiology of neurological and mental disorders such as autism, epilepsy, cerebral palsy, and schizophrenia. PMID:22701439

Stolp, Helen; Neuhaus, Ain; Sundramoorthi, Rohan; Molnr, Zoltn



Ethnicity and HIV risk behaviour, testing and knowledge in Guatemala  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To describe levels of risky sexual behaviour, HIV testing and HIV knowledge among men and women in Guatemala by ethnic group and to identify adjusted associations between ethnicity and these outcomes. Design. Data on 16,205 women aged 1549 and 6822 men aged 1559 from the 20082009 Encuesta Nacional de Salud Materno Infantil were used to describe ethnic group differences in sexual behaviour, HIV knowledge and testing. We then controlled for age, education, wealth and other socio-demographic factors in a multivariate logistic regression model to examine the effects of ethnicity on outcomes related to age at sexual debut, number of lifetime sex partners, comprehensive HIV knowledge, HIV testing and lifetime sex worker patronage (men only). Results. The data show low levels of risky sexual behaviour and low levels of HIV knowledge among indigenous women and men, compared to other respondents. Controlling for demographic factors, indigenous women were more likely than other women never to have been tested for HIV and to lack comprehensive HIV knowledge. They were less likely to report early sexual debut and three or more lifetime sexual partners. Indigenous men were more likely than other men to lack comprehensive HIV knowledge and demonstrated lower odds of early sexual debut, 10 or more lifetime sexual partners and sex worker patronage. Conclusions. The Mayan indigenous population in Guatemala, while broadly socially vulnerable, does not appear to be at elevated risk for HIV based on this analysis of selected risk factors. Nonetheless, low rates of HIV knowledge and testing may be cause for concern. Programmes working in indigenous communities should focus on HIV education and reducing barriers to testing. Further research into the factors that underlie ethnic self-identity and perceived ethnicity could help clarify the relative significance of these measures for HIV risk and other health outcomes. PMID:24834462

Taylor, Tory M.; Hembling, John; Bertrand, Jane T.



Placental Pathology in Pregnancies with Maternally Perceived Decreased Fetal Movement - A Population-Based Nested Case-Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Decreased fetal movements (DFM) are associated with fetal growth restriction and stillbirth, presumably linked through an underlying placental dysfunction. Yet, the role of placental pathology has received limited attention in DFM studies. Our main objective was to explore whether maternal perceptions of DFM were associated with placental pathology in pregnancies recruited from a low-risk total population. Methods/Principal Findings Placentas from 129 DFM and 191 non-DFM pregnancies were examined according to standardized macro- and microscopic protocols. DFM was defined as any maternal complaint of DFM leading to a hospital examination. Morphological findings were timed and graded according to their estimated onset and clinical importance, and classified in line with a newly constructed Norwegian classification system for reporting placental pathology. With our population-based approach we were unable to link DFM to an overall measure of all forms of placental pathology (OR 1.3, 95% CI 0.82.2, p?=?0.249). However, placental pathology leading to imminent delivery could be a competing risk for DFM, making separate subgroup analyses more appropriate. Our study suggests a link between DFM and macroscopic placental pathology related to maternal, uteroplacental vessels, i.e. infarctions, placental lesions (intraplacental hematomas) and abruptions. Although not statistically significant separately, a compound measure showed a significant association with DFM (OR 2.4, 95%CI 1.15.0, p?=?0.023). This association was strengthened when we accounted for relevant temporal aspects. More subtle microscopic materno-placental ischemic changes outside the areas of localized pathology showed no association with DFM (OR 0.5, 95%CI 0.21.4, p?=?0.203). There was a strong association between placental pathology and neonatal complications (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.65.1, p<0.001). Conclusions In our population-based study we were generally unable to link maternally perceived DFM to placental pathology. Some associations were seen for subgroups. PMID:22723978

Winje, Brita Askeland; Roald, Borghild; Kristensen, Nina Petrov; Fren, J. Frederik



Aspects pidmiologiques, pronostiques et thrapeutiques de l'hmatome retro placentaire (HRP) dans une maternit de rfrence en zone rurale  

PubMed Central

Introduction IL s'agira ici d identifier les particularits diagnostiques et la prise en charge de l'HRP au Centre Hospitalier de Ndioum au Sngal. Mthodes Etude rtrospective descriptive mene l'hpital rgional de Ndioum, durant la priode allant du 1er Janvier 2009 au 31 Dcembre 2011. Toutes les patientes qui avaient prsent un HRP taient incluses. Pour chaque patiente, nous avions tudi les paramtres socio-dmographiques et cliniques, les donnes thrapeutiques et le pronostic materno-foetal. Rsultats La frquence tait de 6,05%. Lge moyen de nos patientes tait compris entre 29 et 84 ans et la parit moyenne de 4,92. Aucune consultation prnatale ntait effectue chez 16% des patientes. Les vacuations reprsentaient 66% de cas. Lge gestationnel moyen tait de 36 semaines d'amnorrhes et la majorit des patientes (86%) tait en travail. La gravite du tableau clinique tait apprcie selon la classification de Sher avec 63% (114 cas) au grade 3. Une coagulopathie tait observe chez 27,2% des patientes. Nous avions retrouv une relation statistiquement significative entre la gravite du tableau clinique et le pronostic maternel (p = 0,026) et foetal (p = 0,0000). Une direction du travail tait effectue chez 109 patientes (60% des cas). L'expulsion foetale tait obtenue par voie basse dans 49% des cas et une csarienne tait effectue dans 51% des cas. La morbidit maternelle tait domine par l'anmie secondaire une hmorragie aigue dans 17,8% des cas et l'insuffisance rnale aigue dans 6,1% des cas. Les lments de mauvais pronostic taient reprsents par la gravit du tableau clinique (p = 0,03) et le mode d'admission domin par les vacuations (p = 0,01), la relation tait statistiquement significative. La voie d'accouchement ntait pas retrouve comme lment de mauvais pronostic (p = 0,09). Nous avions not douze cas de dcs maternels soit 6,6% des patientes. Conclusion La prvention de la mortalit maternelle et foetale lie cette affection passe par une amlioration du suivi prnatal, une meilleure organisation du plan d'accouchement et une amlioration des conditions dvacuation. La mise en place d'une banque de sang fonctionnel, d'une unit ranimation mdicale ainsi qu'un service de prise en charge nonatale devient une ncessit pour amliorer le pronostic maternel et nonatal. PMID:24932322

Thiam, Ousmane; Mbaye, Magatte; Diouf, Abdou Aziz; Tour, Fode Baba; Gueye, Mamour; Niang, Mansour; Ciss, Mamadou Lamine; Diye, Sidy; Moreau, Jean Charles



Tumores neonatales y malformaciones congnitas  

PubMed Central

Introduccin La asociacin entre tumores y malformaciones congnitas est bien establecida, pero no existen datos exclusivos en el perodo neonatal y se desconocen los mecanismos subyacentes que generan dicha relacin. Objetivos Este trabajo tiene dos objetivos: primero, analizar la frecuencia de los tumores neonatales asociados a malformaciones congnitas, y segundo, comentar las posibles hiptesis etiopatognicas de la relacin entre ambas entidades. Materiales y mtodo Estudio retrospectivo de las historias clnicas de los tumores neonatales, en el Hospital Universitario Materno- Infantil La Fe de Valencia, desde enero de 1990 hasta diciembre de 1999. Seleccin y descripcin de las variedades histolgicas asociadas a malformaciones congnitas. stas se han agrupado siguiendo los criterios de la Clasificacin Internacional de Enfermedades CIE-9, cdigos 740.0759.9. Revisin sistemtica bibliogrfica de los ltimos 25 aos, obtenida del Medline, Cancerlit, Index Citation Science y Embase. El perfil de bsqueda utilizado fue la combinacin de neonatal/congenital-tumors/cancer/neoplasms y congenital malformations/birth defects. Resultados Se identificaron 72 tumores neonatales (2,8 % del total de tumores peditricos diagnosticados en dichos aos) y 15 de ellos (20,8 %) asociados a malformaciones congnitas, enfermedades o sndromes congnitos. Las asociaciones entre tumores neonatales y malformaciones congnitas fueron las siguientes: a) angioma en 3 pacientes: con dos cardiopatas congnitas y una atresia de coanas-laringomalacia; b) neuroblastoma en 2 pacientes: uno con rin en herradura y anomalas vertebrales, y otro con cardiopata congnita; c) teratoma en 2 pacientes: uno con fisura palatina y anomalas vertebrales, y otro con metatarso varo; d) tumor del sistema nervioso central en un paciente con hernia de Bochdaleck; e) tumor cardaco en 4 pacientes con esclerosis tuberosa; f) leucemia aguda en un paciente con sndrome de Down y cardiopata congnita; g) tumor renal en un caso con hidrocefalia triventricular, y h) tumor adrenal en un caso con hemihipertrofia. En la bibliografa especfica, las publicaciones engloban tumores de diferentes pocas peditricas y sin unanimidad de criterios para clasificar las malformaciones congnitas. Apenas existen datos en el perodo neonatal y la asociacin entre ambas entidades se obtiene de registros de instituciones mdicas. La prevalencia oscila entre el 15 y el 31,6 %. Las hiptesis etiopatognicas que explican la asociacin entre tumores neonatales y malformaciones congnitas estn basadas en las exposiciones prenatales (preconcepcionales y transplacentarias) a factores de riesgo potencialmente mutagnicos y carcinognicos. Conclusiones Probablemente, los tumores neonatales se asocian con mayor frecuencia a malformaciones congnitas que los tumores diagnosticados en pocas posteriores de la vida. Para conocer la prevalencia real de la asociacin entre tumores neonatales y malformaciones congnitas, es necesario unificar los criterios de inclusin y definicin de ambas entidades. La obtencin de una minuciosa historia medioambiental en todos los tumores neonatales asociados a malformaciones congnitas, donde se detallen y registren todos los factores de riesgo constitucionales y ambientales, es fundamental para mejorar nuestros escasos conocimientos de los mecanismos prenatales subyacentes y avanzar en su prevencin. PMID:18559198

Tornero, O. Berbel; Garca, J.A. Ortega; Tortajada, J. Ferrs i; Castell, J. Garca; Colomer, J. Donat i; Soldin, O.P.; Soler, J.L. Fuster