Sample records for leite materno leite

  1. PRINCIPAIS FATORES QUE INFLUENCIAM NO DESEMPENHO DA CADEIA PRODUTIVA DE LEITE – UM ESTUDO COM OS PRODUTORES DE LEITE DO MUNICÍPIO DE LARANJEIRAS DO SUL-PR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giomar Viana; Rubia Nara Rinaldi

    2008-01-01

    A cadeia produtiva do leite é uma das mais relevantes no contexto do agronegócio brasileiro, uma vez que gera emprego e renda aos inúmeros agentes envolvidos no processo. Dessa maneira, o presente artigo tem por objetivo identificar os principais fatores que influenciam no desempenho da cadeia produtiva do leite, bem como a adaptação dos produtores aos novos padrões de competição

  2. ANÁLISE DA EFICIÊNCIA ECONÔMICA DOS PRODUTORES DE LEITE NO ESTADO DE MINAS GERAIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andre Luis Ribeiro Lima; Ricardo Pereira Reis; Luiz Eduardo Gaio; Fabricio Teixeira Andrade; Claudia Salgado Gomes

    2008-01-01

    O aumento da eficiência produtiva e econômica é fator decisivo para a competitividade do setor leiteiro que, produzindo com menor custo, beneficiará toda a cadeia do leite. Dessa maneira, a unidade de produção pode ter, na eficiência produtiva, a condição necessária para a sobrevivência e o crescimento dentro da economia de mercado. Considerado o maior produtor de leite do Brasil,

  3. SALGADOS E DOCES PARA COFFEE BREAK Mini Sanduche Po de Leite com Mussarela, Presunto e Alface

    E-print Network

    Paraná, Universidade Federal do

    : Muffins: Chocolate, Toalha Felpuda, Fubá, Milho , Cenoura, Chocolate, Laranja Kuke (banana, creme com goiabada, farofa) Bolo: Chocolate, Toalha Felpuda, Fubá, Milho , Cenoura, Chocolate, Laranja Mini Sonho: Creme russo, Chocolate, Doce de leite, Goiabada Croiassant: Goiabada, Chocolate Chineque Chocolate

  4. Tracking soccer players using the graph representation Pascual Figueroa & Neucimar Leite

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Issac

    Tracking soccer players using the graph representation Pascual Figueroa & Neucimar Leite Institute. Introduction The movement of the soccer players on the field, as a function of time, is a useful information of the kinematical vari- ables of the soccer player movement, Erdman [5] filmed a soccer game with one stationary TV

  5. ESTRUTURAS DE MERCADO DE FATORES E GOVERNANÇA NA CADEIA PRODUTIVA DO LEITE: UM ESTUDO DE CASO DO MUNICÍPIO DE AJURICABA-RS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raquel Breitenbach; Renato Santos De Souza

    2008-01-01

    A estrutura de mercado de fatores que predominou por muitos anos na cadeia produtiva do leite, nas diferentes regiões do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, foi a de monopsônio, em que apesar de existirem várias empresas processadoras de leite, estas se localizavam de maneira que o agricultor não tinha mais do que uma opção de venda do seu produto.

  6. A ORGANIZAÇÃO DE PEQUENOS PRODUTORES DE LEITE DO NOROESTE DO RIO GRANDE DO SUL: APORTES NA LENTE DA NOVA ECONOMIA INSTITUCIONAL (NEI) E DA GESTÃO DE CADEIAS DE SUPRIMENTOS (GCS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandro Porporatti Arbage; Neimar Damian Peroni; Pedro Urubatan Neto Da Costa

    2008-01-01

    O artigo propõe a admissão das abordagens da Nova Economia Institucional e a Gestão de Cadeia de Suprimentos, até então não trabalhadas pelos extensionistas da “Associação Riograndense de Empreendimentos de Assistência Técnica de Extensão Rural – EMATER\\/RS”, na interface com organizações de pequenos produtores rurais de leite do noroeste do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. O esboço tem como

  7. Tadpole of Leptodactylus oreomantis Carvalho, Leite & Pezzuti 2013 (Anura, Leptodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Mercês, Ednei De Almeida; Magalhães, Felipe De Medeiros; Amado, Talita Ferreira; Juncá, Flora Acuña; Garda, Adrian Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Leptodactylus oreomantis, a member of Leptodactylus fuscus species group (sensu Heyer 1978), is a leptodactylid frog endemic to the montane rocky fields of Chapada Diamantina (the northern portion of the Espinhaço mountain range), Bahia State, Brazil (Carvalho et al. 2013). Although tadpole morphology provides relevant information for anuran taxonomy and systematics (see Langone & de Sá 2005; Miranda et al. 2014), only calls and adult morphology were evaluated in the description of this species. Herein, we describe and illustrate the external morphology and internal oral anatomy of L. oreomantis tadpoles and compare it with tadpoles of related species.  PMID:25661633

  8. Quality-Based Software Reuse Julio Cesar Sampaio do Prado Leite1

    E-print Network

    Leite, Julio Cesar Sampaio do Prado

    for software reuse. For example, in designing for the NASA Mars Spirit spacecraft, one would not adopt these critical requirements accumulated from the design of software for other spacecrafts, or from other domains them hard to classify. Cataloging them in terms of taxonomies [4, 5] is not sufficient support

  9. Efeito de tipos de leite sobre oídio em abóbora plantadas a campo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Ismael; I. Cardoso; Edson Luiz Furtado

    Effect of types of cow milk on the powdery mildew control of pumpkin under field conditions In the present work we evaluated, under field conditions, the efficiency of several types of cow milk on the control of powdery mildew of pumpkin cv. Piramoita, caused by Sphaerotheca fuliginea. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks with six treatments, five replications and

  10. Supporting Scenario Evolution* Karin Koogan Breitman Julio Cesar Sampaio do Prado Leite Daniel M. Berry

    E-print Network

    Berry, Daniel M.

    development lifecycle requires integration of scenarios to other representations used during CBS development development lifecycle creates the necessity to maintain scenarios through the inevitable changes support for full-lifecycle scenario management and have applied it to some non-trivial systems. 1

  11. Citologia do leite de búfalas (Bubalus bubalis) hígidas criadas no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alice Maria Melville Paiva Della Libera; Wanderley Pereira de Araujo; Sandra Satiko Kitamura; Andrea Mello Franco Rosenfeld; Eduardo Harry Birgel

    2004-01-01

    The quantitative and qualitative evaluations of cells present on milk are important for understanding many events, physiologic or not, of the mammary gland. Despite that, citations in the literature are conflicting concerning healthy buffaloes. This study evaluated milk cellularity in 108 samples of healthy buffaloes mammary glands. They were analyzed by somatic cell count, automatic and microscopic, and the cellular

  12. Contagem de células somáticas no leite de vacas suplementadas no pré-parto com selênio e vitamina E

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juliana Jorge Paschoal; Marcus Antonio Zanetti; José Aparecido Cunha

    2006-01-01

    Selenium and vitamin E are important antioxidants for cells and tissues protection acting directly as a support for the udder health. This experiment was aimed at evaluating the influence of prepartum selenium and vitamin E supplementation on milk somatic cell counts of Holstein cows during summer period. Eighty animals were allocated into four treatments: control; supplementation with 2.5mg Se day

  13. Name: Antonio Carlos Gardel Leit~ao Adresse: Friedr. Wilh. v. SteubenStr. 90, App. 1

    E-print Network

    Leitão, Antonio

    S (September 1993) Seit Oktober 1993 Doktorand in der Arbeitsgruppe Informatik der Johann Wolfgang Goethe) Hochschulbildung: M¨arz 1986 ­ Dezember 1989 BSc. in Informatik an der Bundesuniversit¨at von Rio de Ja- neiro (Brasilien) Titel der BSc. Thesis: Die nichtlineare Schr¨odinger Glei- chung und die Ausbreitung von LASER

  14. Percepção dos produtores de leite do município de Passos, MG, sobre o carrapato Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae), 2001

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhãe Rocha; Paulo Roberto de Oliveira; Romário Cerqueira Leite; Denis Lúcio Cardoso; Simone Berger Calic; John Furlong

    2006-01-01

    Twenty five dairy farms were randomly chosen from all farms producing more than 500 liters of milk\\/ day in Passos, MG, Brazil. The owners were interviewed to characterize their perceptions about the biology of B. microplus and their attitudes towards tick control. Most of the producers have a college degree and more than six year-experience in the activity. The biological

  15. TANQUES DE EXPANSÃO E RESFRIAMENTO DE LEITE COMO ALTERNATIVA DE DESENVOLVIMENTO REGIONAL PARA PRODUTORES FAMILIARES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Diogo Silverio Melo; Ricardo Pereira Reis

    2007-01-01

    The deregulation of the sector occurred in the early 1990 and the globalization of markets have presented a series of injunctions to the productive milk chain, particularly in the primary production stage, imposing to the organizations the need of a wide reformulation of their structures and strategies in order to keep such organisms themselves either active and competitive. This study

  16. Prof M. Leite, mleite@umd.edu, 2123 CHE Building, 301-405-0231 Department of Materials Science and Engineering

    E-print Network

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    : The photovoltaic effect Schokley-Queisser limit, Photon in, electrons out Characteristics of a solar cell, figures/down conversion, hot-carrier cells Organic PV Characterization: IV, electrical measurements, optical, lifetime and Engineering University of Maryland, College Park,Maryland ENMA 412: Fundamentals of Solar Cells Course

  17. Procedimentos de coleta de leite cru individual e sua relação com a composição físico- química e a contagem de células somáticas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guilherme Lanna; Reis I Andréa; Amaral Alves; Ângela Maria; Quintão Lana

    2007-01-01

    To increase industrial production, improve quality and meet consumers' demand, dairy industry has become more demanding regarding raw material suppliers. It is assumed that both milking type and raw milk sampling influence the physico-chemical composition and somatic cell count (SCC). To confirm this hypothesis, 180 samples from 30 cows were analysed. A factorial arrangement 2x3 was used, being two sampling

  18. Corticosterone alters materno-fetal glucose partitioning and insulin signalling in pregnant mice.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, O R; Fisher, H M; Dionelis, K N; Jefferies, E C; Higgins, J S; Musial, B; Sferruzzi-Perri, A N; Fowden, A L

    2015-03-01

    Glucocorticoids affect glucose metabolism in adults and fetuses, although their effects on materno-fetal glucose partitioning remain unknown. The present study measured maternal hepatic glucose handling and placental glucose transport together with insulin signalling in these tissues in mice drinking corticosterone either from day (D) 11 to D16 or D14 to D19 of pregnancy (term = D21). On the final day of administration, corticosterone-treated mice were hyperinsulinaemic (P < 0.05) but normoglycaemic compared to untreated controls. In maternal liver, there was no change in glycogen content or glucose 6-phosphatase activity but increased Slc2a2 glucose transporter expression in corticosterone-treated mice, on D16 only (P < 0.05). On D19, but not D16, transplacental (3) H-methyl-d-glucose clearance was reduced by 33% in corticosterone-treated dams (P < 0.05). However, when corticosterone-treated animals were pair-fed to control intake, aiming to prevent the corticosterone-induced increase in food consumption, (3) H-methyl-d-glucose clearance was similar to the controls. Depending upon gestational age, corticosterone treatment increased phosphorylation of the insulin-signalling proteins, protein kinase B (Akt) and glycogen synthase-kinase 3?, in maternal liver (P < 0.05) but not placenta (P > 0.05). Insulin receptor and insulin-like growth factor type I receptor abundance did not differ with treatment in either tissue. Corticosterone upregulated the stress-inducible mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) suppressor, Redd1, in liver (D16 and D19) and placenta (D19), in ad libitum fed animals (P < 0.05). Concomitantly, hepatic protein content and placental weight were reduced on D19 (P < 0.05), in association with altered abundance and/or phosphorylation of signalling proteins downstream of mTOR. Taken together, the data indicate that maternal glucocorticoid excess reduces fetal growth partially by altering placental glucose transport and mTOR signalling. PMID:25625347

  19. ReSeaRch centRe foR aPPlied PSychology (RecaP)

    E-print Network

    Ow..................................................................... 18 mAry clAessen................................................................... 18 melissA dAne ....................................................................... 24 suze leitAO.......................................................................... 25 AmAndA ll

  20. Uma experiência educacional de incentivo ao aleitamento materno e estimulação do bebê, para mães de nível sócio-econômico baixo: estudo preliminar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victoria Garcia-Montrone; Júlio C. de Rose

    1996-01-01

    Resumo Este estudo efetuou uma avaliação preliminar da eficácia de um programa educacio- nal de estímulo ao aleitamento materno, que inclui a introdução simultânea de técnicas de esti- mulação do bebê. O programa, elaborado por Garcia-Montrone (1992), foi aplicado a um grupo de mães de nível sócio-econômico baixo (grupo experimental). Tal programa foi avaliado atra- vés de sessões de observação

  1. Spin-dependent Hall effect in a parabolic well with a quasi-three-dimensional electron gas G. M. Gusev, C. A. Duarte, A. A. Quivy, T. E. Lamas, and J. R. Leite*

    E-print Network

    Gusev, Guennady

    of the spin polarization of electrons, which is the key factor in spintronics. A promising system providing. The effective g factor in such materials depends on the Al composition and changes the sign along the well width. Manipulation with the elec- tron g factor, in particular its sign, is an effective method to vary the direction

  2. MENSURAÇÃO E ANÃLISE DE CUSTOS DE TRANSAÇÃO ARCADOS POR PRODUTORES DE LEITE NOS MERCADOS FORMAL E INFORMAL DA REGIÃO DE SÃO CARLOS, SP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ferenc Istvan Bankuti; Hildo Meirelles de Souza Filho; Sandra Mara Schiavi Bankuti

    2008-01-01

    The analysis and measurement of production and transaction costs is an important tool in guiding decisions and in comprehending the behavior of the agents in a particular institutional environment. Although production costs have been widely studied in the literature, transaction costs have not been so extensively analyzed, especially empirically. Based on 125 questionnaires and on theoretical review, this work presents

  3. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) expression in invasive extravillous trophoblast supports role of the enzyme for materno-fetal tolerance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnd Hönig; Lorenz Rieger; Michaela Kapp; Marc Sütterlin; Johannes Dietl; Ulrike Kämmerer

    2004-01-01

    It is still not understood how the fetus escapes from being attacked by the maternal immune system. Recent reports based on mouse and in vitro models have suggested that the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is important for materno-fetal tolerance. IDO activity in the human placenta is known to be high and might lead to inhibition of T-cell proliferation, thus preventing

  4. Clinical-epidemiological profile of children with schistosomal myeloradiculopathy attended at the Instituto Materno-Infantil de Pernambuco.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Karina Conceição G M; Rosa e Silva, Cristiana da; Barbosa, Constança Simões; Ferrari, Teresa C A

    2006-09-01

    The most critical phase of exposure to schistosomal infection is the infancy, because of the more frequent contact with contaminated water and the immaturity of the immune system. One of the most severe presentations of this parasitosis is the involvement of the spinal cord, which prognosis is largely dependent on early diagnosis and treatment. Reports on this clinical form of schistosomiasis in children are rare in the literature. We present here the clinical-epidemiological profile of schistosomal myeloradiculopathy (SMR) from ten children who were admitted at the Instituto Materno-Infantil de Pernambuco over a five-year period. They were evaluated according to an investigation protocol. Most of these patients presented an acute neurological picture which included as the main clinical manifestations: sphincteral disorders, low back and lower limbs pain, paresthesia, lower limbs muscle weakness and absence of deep tendon reflex, and impairment of the gait. The diagnosis was presumptive in the majority of the cases. This study emphasizes the importance of considering the diagnosis of SMR in pediatric patients coming from endemic areas who present a low cord syndrome, in order to start the appropriate therapy and avoid future complications. PMID:17308763

  5. Transferencia de genes plasmídicos de resistencia a antibióticos mediante conjugación entre cepas de Escherichia coli provenientes de procesos diarréicos de niños menores a 3 años de edad. Hospital Materno Infantil de la ciudad de La Paz

    Microsoft Academic Search

    IRIARTE L. A ndrea Jimena

    2005-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the major etiological agent causing enterobacterial of diarrhea in children population. We study the transfer by conjugation of plasmidics genes of resistance to antibiotics in E. coli coming from the feces of children less than 3 years with diarrhea that they was attended at clinical laboratory of the Hospital Materno Infantil from April to December of the

  6. Ein Iterationsverfahren fur elliptische Cauchy{Probleme und die Verknupfung mit der

    E-print Network

    Leitão, Antonio

    Mathematik der Johann Wolfgang Goethe{Universitat in Frankfurt am Main von Antonio C. G. Leit~ao aus Niteroi, Brasilien Frankfurt am Main 1996 #12;von Fachbereich Mathematik der Johann Wolfgang Goethe{Universitat als

  7. 1H-NMR-Based Metabolic Profiling of Maternal and Umbilical Cord Blood Indicates Altered Materno-Foetal Nutrient Exchange in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Küster, Alice; Guignard, Nadia; Alexandre–Gouabau, Marie-Cécile; Darmaun, Dominique; Robins, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Adequate foetal growth is primarily determined by nutrient availability, which is dependent on placental nutrient transport and foetal metabolism. We have used 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to probe the metabolic adaptations associated with premature birth. Methodology The metabolic profile in 1H NMR spectra of plasma taken immediately after birth from umbilical vein, umbilical artery and maternal blood were recorded for mothers delivering very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) or normo-ponderal full-term (FT) neonates. Principal Findings Clear distinctions between maternal and cord plasma of all samples were observed by principal component analysis (PCA). Levels of amino acids, glucose, and albumin-lysyl in cord plasma exceeded those in maternal plasma, whereas lipoproteins (notably low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and lipid levels were lower in cord plasma from both VLBW and FT neonates. The metabolic signature of mothers delivering VLBW infants included decreased levels of acetate and increased levels of lipids, pyruvate, glutamine, valine and threonine. Decreased levels of lipoproteins glucose, pyruvate and albumin-lysyl and increased levels of glutamine were characteristic of cord blood (both arterial and venous) from VLBW infants, along with a decrease in levels of several amino acids in arterial cord blood. Conclusion These results show that, because of its characteristics and simple non-invasive mode of collection, cord plasma is particularly suited for metabolomic analysis even in VLBW infants and provides new insights into the materno-foetal nutrient exchange in preterm infants. PMID:22291897

  8. ANÁLISE DA CADEIA PRODUTIVA DO LEITE DO MUNICÍPIO DE CARMO DO RIO VERDE SOB A ÓTICA DA ECONOMIA DOS CUSTOS DE TRANSAÇÃO marceloadm.ms@gmail.com Apresentação Oral-Estrutura, Evolução e Dinâmica do s Sistemas Agroalimentares e Cadeias Agroindustriais

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARCELO BATISTA DE OLIVEIRA; DEGSON FERREIRA; MARCOS DE MORAES; MARCO ANTÔNIO PEREIRA DE ABREU; MARCÍLIO STEFFANI; RODRIGUES PINTO

    This study aims to examine and describe the charact eristics of the dairy production chain of Carmo do Rio Verde under view the Economic Costs of Transaction (ECT). To that end, a systematic theoretical framework about ECT is arran ged, specifically some concepts of its assumptions, and the attributes of transactions (sp ecificity of assets, frequency of recurrence and uncertainty

  9. TRANSLATION AND ADAPTATION: DIFFERENCES, INTERCROSSINGS AND CONFLICTS IN ANA MARIA MACHADO'S TRANSLATION OF ALICE IN WONDERLAND BY LEWIS CARROLL 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lauro Maia Amorim

    This paper discusses the relationships between the concepts of translation and adaptation by analysing their differences, crisscrossings and conflicts particularly apparent in Ana Maria Machado's translation of Alice in Wonderland, by Lewis Carroll, into Brazilian Portuguese. Her translation is also briefly compared to Sebastião Uchoa Leite's translation and Nicolau Sevcenko's adaptation. It is argued that the images built upon the

  10. November 2012 ROBERT T. WALKER

    E-print Network

    Walker, Robert T.

    of American Geographers 101(4): 929-938. Leite, F. L., Caldas, M. M., Simmons, C., Perz, S. G., Aldrich, S Refereed Journal Articles Walker, R., Arima, E., Messina, J., Soares-Filho, B., Perz, S., Sales, M, P., Myers, R. J., Swinton, S. M., and Walker. R. 2012. Exchange rates, soybean supply response

  11. Plasma boundaries in the inner magnetosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Horwitz; S. Menteer; J. Turnley; J. L. Burch; J. D. Winningham; C. R. Chappell; J. D. Craven; L. A. Frank; D. W. Slater

    1986-01-01

    Plasma boundaries in the inner magnetosphere are investigated with measurements chiefly by the DE 1 and 2 spacecraft. The boundaries studied here are: (1) the low-energy (or thermal) ion transition (LEIT) frequently observed at or near the conventional plamapause density gradient, defined here as the outer boundary of observable, cold, isotropic light ions and transition to warm field-aligned ions; (2)

  12. VII SEMINRIO TCNICO CIENTFICO DE ANLISE DOS DADOS DO DESMATAMENTO

    E-print Network

    ferramentas para apoiar entendimento de processos sociais subjacentes ao desmatamento. "Modelos computacionais uso da terra Desenvolvimento de modelos computacionais Construção e análise de cenários Dois conceitos: Pecuária de corte T1: Pecuária de leite T5: Cultura permanente T2: Sistemas Agroflorestais T6: Silvicultura

  13. Advances in the chemistry of metalorganic frameworks{ Nathaniel L. Rosi,a

    E-print Network

    Yaghi, Omar M.

    in synthetic parameters have been the basis for the preparation of what seems to be a flood of new MOF two basic networks, namely, cubic and hexagonal diamond (lonsda- leite).1,2 The simplest, in practice most structures obtained from simple tetrahedral building blocks are based on the cubic diamond

  14. This Provisional PDF corresponds to the article as it appeared upon acceptance. Copyedited and fully formatted PDF and full text (HTML) versions will be made available soon.

    E-print Network

    Downie, Stephen R.

    (rming@life.uiuc.edu) Robert VanBuren (bob.vanburen@gmail.com) Yanling Liu (liuyanling@wbgcas.cn) Mei Yang (yangmei815815@gmail.com) Yuepeng Han (yphan@wbgcas.cn) Lei-Ting Li (lileiting@gmail.com) Qiong Zhang (qiongzhang2009@gmail.com) Min-Jeong Kim (mjkim93@gmail.com) Michael C Schatz (michael.schatz@gmail

  15. DEPARTAMENTO DE DIREITO PROGRAMA DE PS-GRADUAO

    E-print Network

    DEPARTAMENTO DE DIREITO PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO CURSO DE DOUTORADO EM DIREITO - PPGDireito Coordenação do Programa de Pós em Direito Professora Gisele Cittadino Professor Fábio Carvalho Leite-Graduação - Departamento de Direito Rua Marquês de São Vicente, 225, 7ºandar, Ala Frings ­ Gávea 22451-900 Rio de Janeiro

  16. Patricia Birman, Jrme Souty (dir.), Htrotopies urbaines , Brsil(s). Sciences humaines et sociales,

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    sociales de l'espace. Selon Michel Foucault, les préoccupations modernes sont plus centrées sur l Pereira Leite montre qu'ils sont 1 Foucault Michel, « Des espaces autres », Empan, 2004/2, n°54, p. 14. 2 urbaines », les auteurs font référence à un type particulier d'hétérotopie défini par Foucault: il s

  17. Iterative Regularization Methods for a Discrete Inverse Problem in MRI

    E-print Network

    Zubelli, Jorge Passamani

    Iterative Regularization Methods for a Discrete Inverse Problem in MRI A. Leit~ao and J.P. Zubelli related to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Our goal is to extend the recent convergence results for an inverse problem in MRI. Keywords: Magnetic Resonance Imaging, MRI, Tomography, Medical Imaging, Inverse

  18. Hydromorphological implications of local tributary widening for river rehabilitation

    E-print Network

    Thévenaz, Jacques

    Hydromorphological implications of local tributary widening for river rehabilitation M. Leite rehabilitation, Water Resour. Res., 48, W10528, doi:10.1029/2011WR011296. 1. Introduction [2] Many rivers have become a common practice in river rehabilitation [Formann et al., 2007; Hunziger, 1999; Nakamura et al

  19. Conservation economics. Comment on "Using ecological thresholds to evaluate the costs and benefits of set-asides in a biodiversity hotspot".

    PubMed

    Finney, Christopher

    2015-02-13

    Banks-Leite et al. (Reports, 29 August 2014, p. 1041) conclude that a large-scale program to restore the Brazilian Atlantic Forest using payments for environmental services (PES) is economically feasible. They do not analyze transaction costs, which are quantified infrequently and incompletely in the literature. Transaction costs can exceed 20% of total project costs and should be included in future research. PMID:25678654

  20. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 40734109, 2013 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/13/4073/2013/

    E-print Network

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    . Razinger1, A. Richter10, M. G. Schultz11, A. J. Simmons1, M. Suttie1, O. Stein11, J.-N. Th´epaut1, V. Coheur14, R. J. Engelen1, Q. Errera4, J. Flemming1, M. George3, C. Granier3,6,7, J. Hadji-Lazaro3, V. Huijnen8, D. Hurtmans14, L. Jones1, J. W. Kaiser1,5,9, J. Kapsomenakis12, K. Lefever4, J. Leit~ao10, M

  1. Materno-infantilism, feminism and maternal health policy in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Simone

    2012-06-01

    In the last days of 2011, President of Brazil Dilma Rousseff issued a provisional measure (or draft law) entitled "National Surveillance and Monitoring Registration System for the Prevention of Maternal Mortality" (MP 557), as part of a new maternal health programme. It was supposed to address the pressing issue of maternal morbidity and mortality in Brazil, but instead it caused an explosive controversy because it used terms such as nascituro (unborn child) and proposed the compulsory registration of every pregnancy. After intense protests by feminist and human rights groups that this law was unconstitutional, violated women's right to privacy and threatened our already limited reproductive rights, the measure was revised in January 2012, omitting "the unborn child" but not the mandatory registration of pregnancy. Unfortunately, neither version of the draft law addresses the two main problems with maternal health in Brazil: the over-medicalisation of childbirth and its adverse effects, and the need for safe, legal abortion. The content of this measure itself reflects the conflictive nature of public policies on reproductive health in Brazil and how they are shaped by close links between different levels of government and political parties, and religious and professional sectors. PMID:22789090

  2. Plasma boundaries in the inner magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, J.L.; Menteer, S.; Turnley, J.; Burch, J.L.; Winningham, J.D.; Chappell, C.R.; Craven, J.D.; Frank, L.A.; Slater, D.W.

    1986-08-01

    Plasma boundaries in the inner magnetosphere are investigated with measurements chiefly by the DE 1 and 2 spacecraft. The boundaries studied here are: (1) the low-energy (or thermal) ion transition (LEIT) frequently observed at or near the conventional plamapause density gradient, defined here as the outer boundary of observable, cold, isotropic light ions and transition to warm field-aligned ions; (2) the earthward or inner edges of the plasma sheet electrons having pitch angles near 90/sup 0/ and the three energies 100 eV, 1 keV, and 10 keV; and (3) the equatorward boundaries of precipitating auroral oval electrons at those same energies.

  3. Kappa-symmetry for coincident D-branes

    E-print Network

    P. S. Howe; U. Lindstrom; L. Wulff

    2007-07-26

    A kappa-symmetric action for coincident D-branes is presented. It is valid in the approximation that the additional fermionic variables, used to incorporate the non-abelian degrees of freedom, are treated classically. The action is written as a Bernstein-Leites integral on the supermanifold obtained from the bosonic worldvolume by adjoining the extra fermions. The integrand is a very simple extension of the usual Green-Schwarz action for a single brane; all symmetries, except for kappa, are manifest, and the proof of kappa-symmetry is very similar to the abelian case.

  4. Transfert materno-fœtal et captation des acides gras essentiels chez le rat

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . PHAN J. L. RENARD Physiologie métabolique et Nutrition, Université P. et M. Curie, 75230 Paris Cedex 05 the placenta and uptake of14C linoleic and arachidonic acids by the fetus were investigated in the 20-day old plasma and the placenta led to the following conclusions : 1) the transfer of free fatty acids was fast

  5. Detección de ácidos nucleicos fetales en plasma materno: hacia un diagnóstico prenatal no invasivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Ayala-Ramírez; R. García-Robles; J. Bernal; M. Bermúdez

    The discovery of circulating free fetal nucleic acids in maternal plasma has sparked wide interest in their origin, characteristics and possible medical uses. This review provides a comprehensive and concise summary of the results of studies of free fetal DNA and RNA in maternal plasma and discusses future possibilities for their use, mainly aimed at non-invasive prenatal diagnosis, an area

  6. N Apellido Paterno Apellido Materno Nombre(s) 1 ALVAREZ FONTECILLA CRISTIAN ENRIQUE 6,0

    E-print Network

    Rudnick, Hugh

    GONZALEZ IGNACIO ALEJANDRO 1,0 8 CARRIQUIRY BERNER BENJAMIN 3,8 9 CATALDO SEVERINO MARIO ALEJANDRO 5,8 10 GAITAN HERMOSILLA IGNACIO GUILLERMO 5,5 18 GALLARDO MATAMALA PATRICIO ANDRES 4,5 19 GONZALEZ GUTIERREZ SPINIAK IRARRAZAVAL IGNACIO 5,1 45 TALADRIZ BENGOA JOSE ANTONIO 5,0 46 TORRES SOTELO JUAN PABLO 1,0 47

  7. Assistência médica materno-infantil em duas coortes de base populacional no Sul do Brasil: tendências e diferenciais

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juvenal S. Dias da Costa; Cesar G. Victora; Fernando C. Barros; Ricardo Halpern; Bernardo L. Horta; Patricia Manzolli

    1996-01-01

    Two cohort studies of mothers and children (1982 and 1993) were used to document changes in health care utilization patterns. The cohorts included all hospital deliveries in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil, for the two years. Some 20% of the mothers and children were visited at home at a median interval of one year later. However, there was a

  8. Materno-fetal coordination of stress-induced fos expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus during pregnancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Fujioka; A Fujioka; H Endoh; Y Sakata; S Furukawa; S Nakamura

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates whether maternal stress during pregnancy induces maternal and fetal hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) neuronal activation and the effects of maternal stress on fetal hypothalamic and PVN brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. Pregnant rats were exposed to three types of maternal stress with varying severity (restraint, forced walking and immobilization) for 30 min on gestational day 21. Severity

  9. N Apellido Paterno Apellido Materno Nombre(s) NOTA 1 ALVAREZ FONTECILLA CRISTIAN ENRIQUE 6,0

    E-print Network

    Rudnick, Hugh

    ,6 6 CALDERON BESSI HECTOR ANDRES 5,6 7 CANETE GONZALEZ IGNACIO ALEJANDRO 8 CARRIQUIRY IGNACIO GUILLERMO 6,2 18 GALLARDO MATAMALA PATRICIO ANDRES 4,2 19 GONZALEZ,2 45 TALADRIZ BENGOA JOSE ANTONIO 5,0 46 TORRES SOTELO JUAN PABLO 47 ULLOA BALDASSARE

  10. Autophagy and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: The multiple roles of lithium.

    PubMed

    Fornai, Francesco; Longone, Patrizia; Ferrucci, Michela; Lenzi, Paola; Isidoro, Ciro; Ruggieri, Stefano; Paparelli, Antonio

    2008-05-01

    In a pilot clinical study that we recently published we found that lithium administration slows the progression of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) in human patients. This clinical study was published in addition with basic (in vitro) and pre-clinical (in vivo) data demonstrating a defect of autophagy as a final common pathway in the genesis of ALS. In fact, lithium was used as an autophagy inducer. In detailing the protective effects of lithium we found for the first time that this drug stimulates the biogenesis of mitochondria in the central nervous system and, uniquely in the spinal cord, it induces neuronogenesis and neuronal differentiation. In particular, the effects induced by lithium can be summarized as follows: (i) the removal of altered mitochondria and protein aggregates; (ii) the biogenesis of well-structured mitochondria; (iii) the suppression of glial proliferation; (iv) the differentiation of newly formed neurons in the spinal cord towards a specific phenotype. In this addendum we focus on defective autophagy as a "leit motif" in ALS and the old and novel features of lithium which bridge autophagy activation to concomitant effects that may be useful for the treatment of a variety of neurodegenerative disorders. In particular, the biogenesis of mitochondria and the increase of calbindin D 28K-positive neurons, which are likely to support powerful neuroprotection towards autophagy failure, mitochondriopathy and neuronal loss in the spinal cord. PMID:18367867

  11. The extrachromosomal replication of Dictyostelium plasmid Ddp2 requires a cis-acting element and a plasmid-encoded trans-acting factor.

    PubMed Central

    Leiting, B; Lindner, I J; Noegel, A A

    1990-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum plasmid Ddp2 from the wild strain WS380B is a 5.8-kilobase (kb) supercoiled circle with a copy number of 300 per haploid genome. We previously described the construction of an extrachromosomally replicating transformation vector pnDeI carrying 4.7 kb of Ddp2 sequences (B. Leiting, and A. Noegel, Plasmid 20:241-248, 1988). In order to reduce the sequences required for extrachromosomal maintenance in D. discoideum, we characterized Ddp2 by sequence analysis, by deletion experiments, by transcription mapping, by electrophoretic mobility shift assays, and by expression of its single open reading frame in Escherichia coli. Two elements were involved in replication of Ddp2: a cis-acting sequence located on a 592-base-pair (bp) fragment that consisted of 220 bp of essential and 372 bp of auxiliary sequences, and a 2.7-kb open reading frame which most likely encodes a trans-acting factor. The cis- and trans-acting elements did not overlap and were shown to act independently from the location of the sequences encoding the trans-acting factor. Images PMID:2192261

  12. A Mathematical Physicist's Approach to Virology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twarock, Reidun

    2012-02-01

    The following talk has been given in a special session dedicated to Professor Heinz-Dietrich Doebner at QTS in Prague in August 2011 on the occasion of his 80th birthday. It documents my journey from being a PhD student in Mathematical Physics at the Arnold Sommerfeld Institute in Clausthal under his supervision, to becoming a Professor of Mathematical Biology at the University of York in the UK. I am currently heading an interdisciplinary research group of eight PDRAs and PhDs, focussed on investigating the structures of viruses from a symmetry perspective and unravelling the implications of virus structure on how viruses form and infect their hosts. A central element in my research is my fascination with the development and application of symmetry techniques, which stems from my time in Clausthal when working with Professor Doebner and colleagues. I would like to thank Professor Doebner for these important formative years in Clausthal. Der folgende Vortrag war mein Beitrag zu einer Festsitzung fuer Herrn Professor Heinz-Dietrich Doebner auf der Tagung QTS im August 2011 anläßlich seines achzigsten Geburtstags. Dieser Beitrag dokumentiert, wie sich meine Forschungen aus der Zeit als Doktorandin von Herrn Professor Doebner in Mathematischer Physik am Arnold Sommerfeld Institut in Clausthal weiterentwickelt haben, und zu meiner Professur in Mathematischer Biologie an der Universität York geführt haben. Ich leite dort zur Zeit eine interdisziplinäre Forschungsgruppe von acht Postdocs und Doktoranden, die sich mit der Entwicklung und Anwendung von Symmetrie-Techniken in der Virologie beschäftigt, und insbesondere untersucht, wie sich die Symmetrie-Eigenschaften von Viren auf deren Entstehung und Funktionsweise auswirken. Eine wichtige Vorraussetzung für dieses Forschungsprogramm ist meine Faszination für die Modellierung von Symmetrie-Eigenschaften, die ich während meiner Zusammenarbeit mit Herrn Professor Doebner und Kollegen in Clausthal entwickelt habe. Ich möchte Herrn Professor Doebner für diese wichtigen formativen Jahre besonderen Dank aussprechen.

  13. The management of turn transition in signed interaction through the lens of overlaps

    PubMed Central

    Girard-Groeber, Simone

    2015-01-01

    There have been relatively few studies on sign language interaction carried out within the framework of conversation analysis (CA). Therefore, questions remain open about how the basic building blocks of social interaction such as turn, turn construction unit (TCU) and turn transition relevance place (TRP) can be understood and analyzed in sign language interaction. Recent studies have shown that signers regularly fine-tune their turn-beginnings to potential completion points of turns (Groeber, 2014; Groeber and Pochon-Berger, 2014; De Vos et al., 2015). Moreover, signers deploy practices for overlap resolution as in spoken interaction (McCleary and Leite, 2013). While these studies have highlighted the signers' orientation to the “one-at-a-time” principle described by Sacks et al. (1974), the present article adds to this line of research by investigating in more detail those sequential environments where overlaps occur. The contribution provides an overview of different types of overlap with a focus of the overlap's onset with regard to a current signer's turn. On the basis of a 33-min video-recording of a multi-party interaction between 4 female signers in Swiss German Sign Language (DSGS), the paper provides evidence for the orderliness of overlapping signing. Furthermore, the contribution demonstrates how participants collaborate in the situated construction of turns as a dynamic and emergent gestalt and how they interactionally achieve turn transition. Thereby the study adds to recent research in spoken and in signed interaction that proposes to rethink turn boundaries and turn transition as flexible and interactionally achieved.

  14. Exercise increases pancreatic ?-cell viability in a model of type 1 diabetes through IL-6 signaling.

    PubMed

    Paula, Flavia M M; Leite, Nayara C; Vanzela, Emerielle C; Kurauti, Mirian A; Freitas-Dias, Ricardo; Carneiro, Everardo M; Boschero, Antonio C; Zoppi, Claudio C

    2015-05-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is provoked by an autoimmune assault against pancreatic ? cells. Exercise training enhances ?-cell mass in T1D. Here, we investigated how exercise signals ? cells in T1D condition. For this, we used several approaches. Wild-type and IL-6 knockout (KO) C57BL/6 mice were exercised. Afterward, islets from control and trained mice were exposed to inflammatory cytokines (IL-1? plus IFN-?). Islets from control mice and ?-cell lines (INS-1E and MIN6) were incubated with serum from control or trained mice or medium obtained from 5-aminoimidazole-4 carboxamide1-?-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR)-treated C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. Subsequently, islets and ? cells were exposed to IL-1? plus IFN-?. Proteins were assessed by immunoblotting, apoptosis was determined by DNA-binding dye propidium iodide fluorescence, and NO(•) was estimated by nitrite. Exercise reduced 25, 75, and 50% of the IL-1? plus IFN-?-induced iNOS, nitrite, and cleaved caspase-3 content, respectively, in pancreatic islets. Serum from trained mice and medium from AICAR-treated C2C12 cells reduced ?-cell death, induced by IL-1? plus IFN-? treatment, in 15 and 38%, respectively. This effect was lost in samples treated with IL-6 inhibitor or with serum from exercised IL-6 KO mice. In conclusion, muscle contraction signals ?-cell survival in T1D through IL-6.-Paula, F. M. M., Leite, N. C., Vanzela, E. C., Kurauti, M. A., Freitas-Dias, R., Carneiro, E. M., Boschero, A. C., Zoppi, C. C. Exercise increases pancreatic ?-cell viability in a model of type 1 diabetes through IL-6 signaling. PMID:25609426

  15. Deforestation in Brazil: motivations, journeys and tendencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leite, J. C.; Ferreira, A. J. D.; Esteves, T. C. J.; Bento, C. P. M.

    2012-04-01

    José Carlos Leite1; António José Dinis Ferreira2; Tanya Cristina de Jesus Esteves2; Célia Patrícia Martins Bento2 1Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Brazil; 2IPC - Escola Superior Agrária de Coimbra, Portugal Over the last three decades, deforestation in Brazil occurred systematically in the area known as the "arc of deforestation", an extensive geographical area located in the interface of the Cerrado and the Amazon biomes. This work encompasses the reasons, causes and/or motivations of that recent deforestation, focusing on the Central-West and Northern regions. A number of reasons will be presented, seeking to build an approach able to identify the deepest roots of deforestation of those regions. Our actions over the environment are framed by our cultural matrix that stream from a western philosophic attitude. This way, to understand the framework where the deforestation actions are justified requires a multidisciplinary approach to understand the deforestation of the Cerrado and Amazon biomes, since the motivations for forest destruction in Brazil are complex and not entirely understood within the domains of a single disciplinary area. To search for an isolated cause to understand the recent deforestation can only be plausible if we ignore information on what actually happens. The methodology used in this work is based on a bibliographical revision, analysis of georeferrenced information, participative processes implementation and observation of stakeholder behavior, and field research. It departs from a general vision on deforestation that initially occurred at the littoral region, by the Atlantic Rainforest, right after the arrival of the Europeans, and throughout the centuries penetrates towards the interior, hitting the Cerrado and Amazon biomes. In this last case, we focused on the Vale do Alto Guaporé region, near Bolivia, where the intensity of the deforestation was verified from 1970 to 1990. Ultimately, the final result is a mosaic of reasons for deforestation - that has been done by both large and small land owners - that incorporates other views that have been absent in the explanations given by so-called specialized literature of Brazil's deforestation.

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions in the Brazilian semiarid region: environmental, climate and social constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa-Neto, Eráclito; Ometto, Jean

    2014-05-01

    The process of removing a forest to open new agricultural lands, which has been very intensive in developing countries like Brazil during the last decades (Lapola et al, 2014), contributes to about 12% of the global anthropogenic emissions (Le Quéré et al., 2009). Forest cover removal releases carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases (GEE) like methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), as a result of burning trees, followed by gradual decomposition of the forest biomass left on the ground while pasture or crop plantations are being established (Ramankutty et al., 2007). In Brazil, the 2nd Brazilian National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), presents the mean annual net CO2 emissions caused by changes in land use in each Brazilian biome and the first place in the ranking is occupied by the Amazon Rainforest Biome (860,874 Gg), followed by Savannah (302,715 Gg), Atlantic Forest (79,109 Gg), Caatinga (37,628 Gg), Pantanal (16,172 Gg) and Pampa (-102 Gg) (MCT 2010). Despite these results, the estimates of CO2 emissions caused by land use changes in the Brazilian semiarid region (Caatinga) are very limited and scarce, and associated to uncertainties which are directly related to the estimated biomass in different types of vegetation which are spatially distributed within the biome, as well as the correct representation of the dynamics of the deforestation process itself, and the more accurate mapping use and land cover. Based on such facts, this project is estimating the emissions of the main greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O and CH4) caused by land use changes in an area of Caatinga biome in Pernambuco State through the model INPE-EM. So far, it is known that from decades of 1940 up to 1995, Caatinga biome has contributed with about 3.2 % to total land use change emissions in the country (Leite et al, 2012), and recently (1990-2005), the contributions of Caatinga are even higher (over 30%), according to the 2nd Brazilian National Communication (2010). By means means of the model INPE-EM (data still being acquired), we are trying to diminish the uncertainties and identify specific and integrated emissions of GHG, as well as the stocks and flows of C and N, in order to contribute to the current information about GEE dynamic in the Brazilian Northeast and also to enhance the Brazilian GHG inventory. Besides, the model will incorporate the temporal dynamics related to the deforestation process, and accounts for the biophysical and socioeconomic heterogeneity of the region in study.

  17. 2-D preplanetary accretion disks. I. Hydrodynamics, chemistry, and mixing processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tscharnuter, W. M.; Gail, H.-P.

    2007-02-01

    Aims:We outline a numerical method to calculate spatially two-dimensional (2-D) reactive flows and mixing processes in preplanetary accretion disks and present first results. The numerical efficiency and robustness is demonstrated by following the hydrodynamical and chemical evolution of the disk from a highly non-stationary dynamical “switch-on” phase asymptotically into the quasi-stationary, viscous accretion regime. One major question we address is the C-, H-, O-chemistry. The leit-motif of our investigation is the attempt to preserve as much consistency as possible when modelling the hydrodynamical, chemical, transport/mixing processes and their mutual interactions in preplanetary disks. Methods: We use an explicit scheme for solving the Navier-Stokes equations combined with an implicit solver for the energy equation. The viscosity coefficient is modelled according to the so-called ?-prescription of “turbulent” viscosity. In contrast to the well-known ?-viscosity, the ?-parameterization of the viscosity warrants physical consistency if self-gravitation of the disk material is to be taken into account. However, up to now we have neglected self-gravitation. For the radiative energy transport we have adopted the (grey) Eddington approximation. The opacity is assumed to be caused by microscopic dust particles. Diffusive mixing of the various chemical species is modelled by taking the diffusion coefficient, D, proportional to the (turbulent) viscosity, ?_turb. For comparison purposes, we have considered two extreme choices of the Schmidt number, S=?_turb/D, that is, S=1 (D = ?_turb) and S=? (D=0, i.e., no diffusive mixing at all), respectively. We have not yet included coagulation processes and grain growth. Results: The main outcome of the 2-D simulations so far carried out is a characteristic circulation pattern of the quasi-stationary accretion flow: Near the disk's equatorial plane which is assumed to be a plane of symmetry the material moves in the outward direction, whereas the accretion flow proper develops in higher altitudes of the disk. Species that are produced or undergo chemical reactions in the warm inner zones of the disk are advectively transported into the cool outer regions. At the same time, they either diffusively mix up with the surrounding material or freeze out on the dust grains to form “ice”-coated particles. By virtue of the large-scale circulation, which is driven by viscous angular momentum transfer, advective transport dominates diffusive mixing in the outer part of the disk.

  18. PREFACE: Introduction to the proceedings of Dynamics Days South America 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macau, Elbert E. N.; Pereira, Tiago; Prado, Antonio F. B. A.; Turci, Luiz F. R.; Winter, Othon C.

    2011-03-01

    This proceedings presents selected contributions from the participants of South America Dynamics Days 2011, which was hosted by the National Institute for Space Research (INPE), Brazil, in July 2010. Dynamics Days was founded in 1980 and is the longest standing and most respected international series of meetings devoted to the field of dynamics and nonlinearity. Traditionally it has brought together researchers from a wide range of backgrounds - including physics, biology, engineering, chemistry and mathematics - for interdisciplinary research into nonlinear science. Dynamics Days South America 2010 marked the beginning of the South American branch of Dynamics Days. It brought together, for the first time in South America, researchers from a wide range of backgrounds who share a common interest in the theory and applications of nonlinear dynamics. Thus, South American researchers had a forum to promote regional as well as international scientific and technological exchange and collaboration especially, but not exclusively, on problems that are particularly relevant for the development of science and technology in the South American region. Furthermore, the conference also brought together prominent scientists from around the world to review recent developments in nonlinear science. This conference comprised plenary invited talks, minisymposia, contributed talks and poster sessions. The articles that are compiled here were chosen from among the works that were presented as contributed talks and posters. They represent a good selection which allows one to put issues that were discussed during the conference into perspective. It is possible to evaluate the success of an initiative by using several indices. In relation to attendees, the conference had 311 participants from 22 countries, who presented 341 works. About 86% of the participants came from South American countries. These figures allow one to classify this Dynamics Days conference as that with the greatest number of attendees ever. Finally, we would like to express our gratitude to all the participants for their presentations, discussions, and remarkable interactions with one another. The tireless work undertaken by all the members of the International Advisory Committee and the Organizing Committee must also be recognized. We also wish to express our deep appreciation for the Scientific Societies and Research Support Agencies which supported the conference and provided all the resources which were necessary to make this idea of a South American Dynamics Days come true. Elbert E N Macau, Tiago Pereira, Antonio F B A Prado, Luiz F R Turci, and Othon C WinterEditors Conference photograph Conference photograph Conference photograph Conference photograph International Advisory Committee Adilson E MotterNorthwestern UniversityEvanston - IL - USA Alfredo OzorioCentro Brasileiro de Pesquisas FísicasRio de Janeiro - RJ - Brazil Celso Grebogi (Chair)University of AberdeenAberdeen - UK Ed OttUniversity of MarylandCollege Park - MD - USA Epaminondas Rosa JrIllinois State UniversityNormal - IL - USA Hans Ingo WeberPontifícia Universidade CatólicaRio de Janeiro - RJ - Brazil Holger KantzMax Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex SystemsDresden - Germany Jason Gallas (Co-chair)Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do SulPorto Alegre - RS - Brazil José Roberto Rios LeiteUniv. Federal de PernanbucoRecife - PE - Brazil Jürgen KurthsPotsdam Institute for climate Impact ResearchHumboldt University, Berlin - Germany Kenneth ShowalterWest Virginia UniversityMorgantown - WV - USA Lou PecoraNaval Research LabWashington - DC - USA Luis Antonio AguirreUniversidade Federal de Minas GeraisBelo Horizonte - MG - Brazil Marcelo VianaIMPA - Instituto Nacional de Matemática Pura e AplicadaRio de Janeiro - RJ - Brazil Miguel A F SanjuánUniversidad Rey Juan CarlosMadrid - Spain Paulo Roberto de Souza MendesPontifícia Universidade CatólicaRio de Janeiro - RJ - Brazil Roland KorbeleUniversidade de São PauloSão Carlos - SP - Brazil Rubens SampaioPontifícia Universidade CatólicaRio de Ja

  19. Assessing fire risk in Portugal during the summer fire season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacamara, C. C.; Pereira, M. G.; Trigo, R. M.

    2009-04-01

    Since 1998, Instituto de Meteorologia, the Portuguese Weather Service has relied on the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI) System (van Wagner, 1987) to produce daily forecasts of fire risk. The FWI System consists of six components that account for the effects of fuel moisture and wind on fire behavior. The first three components, i.e. the Fine Fuel Moisture Code (FFMC), the Duff Moisture Code (DMC) and the Drought Code (DC) respectively rate the average moisture content of surface litter, decomposing litter, and organic (humus) layers of the soil. Wind effects are then added to FFMC leading to the Initial Spread Index (ISI) that rates fire spread. The remaining two fuel moisture codes (DMC and DC) are in turn combined to produce the Buildup Index (BUI) that is a rating of the total amount of fuel available for combustion. BUI is finally combined with ISI to produce the Fire Weather Index (FWI) that represents the rate of fire intensity. Classes of fire danger and levels of preparedness are commonly defined on an empirical way for a given region by calibrating the FWI System against wildfire activity as defined by the recorded number of events and by the observed burned area over a given period of time (Bovio and Camia, 1998). It is also a well established fact that distributions of burned areas are heavily skewed to the right and tend to follow distributions of the exponential-type (Cumming, 2001). Based on the described context, a new procedure is presented for calibrating the FWI System during the summer fire season in Portugal. Two datasets were used covering a 28-year period (1980-2007); i) the official Portuguese wildfire database which contains detailed information on fire events occurred in the 18 districts of Continental Portugal and ii) daily values of the six components of the FWI System as derived from reanalyses (Uppala et al., 2005) of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). Calibration of the FWI System is then performed in two steps; 1) a truncated Weibull distribution is fitted to the sample of burned areas and 2) the quality of the fitted statistical model is improved by incorporating components of the FWI System as covariates. Obtained model allows estimating on a daily basis the probability of occurrence of fires larger than a given threshold as well as producing maps of fire risk. Results as obtained from a prototype currently being developed will be presented and discussed. In particular, it will be shown that results provide additional evidence of the known fact that the extent of burned area in Portugal is controlled by two main atmospheric factors (Pereira et al. 2005): i) a long-term control related to the regime of temperature and precipitation in spring and ii) a short-term control exerted by the occurrence of very intense dry spells in days of extreme synoptic situations. Bovio, G., and A. Camia. 1998. An analysis of large forest fire danger conditions in Europe. In Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. on Forest Fire Research & 14th Conf. on Fire and Forest Meteorology, Viegas, D.X. (Ed.), Luso, 16-20 Nov., ADAI, 975-994. Cumming, S.G., 2001. Parametric models of the fire size distribution. Can J. For. Res., 31, 1297-1303. Pereira, M.G., Trigo, R.M., DaCamara, C.C., Pereira, J.M.C. and Leite, S.M., 2005. Synoptic patterns associated with large summer forest fires in Portugal. Agr. and For. Meteorol., 129 (1-2), 11-25. Uppala, S.M. et al., 2005: The ERA-40 re-analysis. Quart. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 131, 2961-3012. Van Wagner, C.E., 1987. Development and structure of the Canadian forest fire weather index system. Canadian Forestry Service, Forest Technical Report 35, Ottawa, 37 pp.

  20. Position and Velocity Tracking in Cellular Networks Using the Kalman Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL; Djouadi, Seddik M [ORNL; Kuruganti, Phani Teja [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Access to the right information anytime, anywhere is becoming the new driving force for the information technology revolution. The 'right' information's relevance is based on the user's profile and his/her current geographical position and/or time. Location Based Service (LBS) is an innovative technology that provides information or makes information available based on the geographical location of the mobile user. Analysts predict that LBSs will lead to new applications, generating billions of US dollars worldwide (Leite, 2001; Searle, 2001). The need for an efficient and accurate mobile station (MS) positioning system is growing day by day. The ability to pinpoint the location of an individual has an obvious and vital value in the context of emergency services (Chan, 2003; Olama et al., 2008). Pinpointing the location of people and other valuable assets also opens the door to a new world of previously unimagined information services and m-commerce probabilities. For example, availability of services like 'Where is the nearest ATM?', 'Check traffic conditions on the highway on my route', 'Find a parking lot nearby', as well as answers to 'Where is my advisor?', and 'Where is my car?' will be an everyday rule in our lives (Charalambous & Panayiotou, 2004). A technology independent LBS architecture can be considered as comprised by three main parts (Girodon, 2002): A user requesting information, a mobile network operator and its partners, and several content providers (e.g. data, maps). The subscriber requests a personalized service dependant on his geographic location. The system will ask the Location Services Manager (which is in charge of handling requests, i.e., send/receive to the Location Calculator and the Content Providers) to pinpoint the location of the mobile. The Location Services Manager (LSM), using the Location Calculator, will ask the Content Provider (CP) to supply qualified information according to the mobile's geographical position. The LSM will eventually receive the answer from the CP and send it to the mobile, performing the essential data translations. Fig. 1 outlines the precedent concept. For effective provision of LBS, one has to provide an accurate location, as well as suitable information for users required by the corresponding service, with minimal expenditure. Thus, there are three main technology issues that have to be resolved for LBS: positioning technology, application technology, and location services (Dru & Saada, 2001). A very important technology is of course the positioning technology, the way to find out the location of a mobile device accurately. Due to the unique characteristics of the cellular environment, it is a great challenge to locate the user precisely. However, in many cases, application technology and location services are important consideration of LBS. Application technology manages the geographic information and delivers the customer requests to the appropriate service provider, thus it constitutes the communication system involved. LBS uses the geographic information to provide geographically sensitive information and services. Location-based applications and services are not sensitive to the type of location technology that is used - they merely rely on reasonably accurate geographic coordinates (Chan, 2003). This chapter is structured as follows: In Section 2, we describe the use and applications of LBSs. The current location determination technologies and standards are presented in Section 3. In Section 4 we describe the mathematical models used for the location and velocity estimation algorithms. An initial attempt for MS location estimation via received signal level using the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) approach and triangulation is presented in Sections 5. Since the former approach lacks acceptable accuracy for demanding services as numerical results reveal, the extended Kalman filter (EKF) approach, which is the main topic in this chapter, is introduced in Sections 6. In Section 7 we present numerical results. Section 8 provides concluding remarks.

  1. between clinical signs and hemoglobin color scale as screening methods in the diagnosis of anemia in children Comparação da acurácia do diagnóstico dos sinais clínicos e da escala de cores de hemoglobina como métodos de triagem no diagnóstico da anemia em crianças

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luciana Pedrosa Leal; Mônica M. Osório

    Objectives: to compar e the validity and repro- ducibility of clinical signs with the World Health Organization hemoglobin color scale. Methods: Two hundr ed six children in the age range of 6-23 months, at the Instituto Materno Infantil Prof. Fernando Figueira, IMIP, were assessed. Two examiners evaluated the clinical signs and the hemoglobin color scale of each child at the

  2. UNIVERSIT DE LILLE 2 DROIT ET SANT COLE DOCTORALE "BIOLOGIE SANT"

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    naissance, résultant en partie d'une sous- nutrition materno-foetale, est associé à une augmentation de la plusieurs molécules et systèmes physiologiques distincts. De nombreuses études suggèrent que le placenta. En raison de la proportion croissante de femmes présentant des troubles de la nutrition durant la

  3. The Role of the Placenta in Fetal Programming—A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith M. Godfrey

    2002-01-01

    The fetal origins hypothesis proposes that adult cardiovascular and metabolic disease originate through developmental plasticity and fetal adaptations arising from failure of the materno-placental supply of nutrients to match fetal requirements. The hypothesis is supported by experimental data in animals indicating that maternal nutrition can programme long term effects on the offspring without necessarily affecting size at birth. There is

  4. [Gestational diabetes: diagnosis, short and long term management].

    PubMed

    Vambergue, Anne

    2013-05-01

    Universal consensus on the diagnosis methods and thresholds has long been lacking. The recently published Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) study has been used to confirm the link between hyperglycemia and materno-fetal complications. Consequently, in France, the Société francophone du diabète (SFD) and the Collège national des gynécologues et obstétriciens français (CNGOF) proposed an expert consensus on gestational diabetes mellitus for clinical practice. Fasting blood glucose should be measured at the first visit during early pregnancy for women with risk factors to identify the women with pregestational diabetes. It is proposed a selective screening on risk factors rather than universal screening. Specific treatment of gestational diabetes reduced materno-fetal complications compared to the absence of therapy. Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus are characterized by a high risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:23588192

  5. Lack of MHC-G4 and soluble (G5, G6) isoforms in the higher primates, Pongidae 1 1 The nucleotide sequence data reported in this study have been submitted to the GeneBank nucleotide sequence database and have been assigned the following accession numbers: U76720 (G1 Patr-G?01), U76721 (G2 Patr G?01), U76722 (G3 Patr-G?01), L76564 (G1 Gogo-G?01), U76719 (G2 Gogo-G?01), L76563 (Gogo-G?2short), U88243 (G3 Gogo-G?01), U88245 (G1 Popy-G?01), U88246 (G2 Popy-G?01), and U88247 (G3 Popy-G?01)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J Castro; P Morales; J Martinez-Laso; L Allende; R Rojo-Amigo; M Gonzalez-Hevilla; P Varela; J Moscoso; M Garcia-Berciano; A Arnaiz-Villena

    2000-01-01

    HLA-G is a class Ib (nonclassical) major histocompatibility complex (MHC) protein expressed at the materno-fetal interface that may inhibit natural killer (NK) cell-mediated lysis in an allotype-independent manner. The human MHC-G transcript is differentially spliced, giving rise to at least six different forms. In order to study the evolutionary importance of this phenomenon, the presence of alternative splicing in MHC-G

  6. Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatales: Morbimortalidad en Recién Nacidos Prematuros

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Paloma; Méndez Silva; María Guadalupe Martínez León; Juan Martín Bermúdez

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To analyze morbidity and mortality of premature newborns in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of the Hospital Materno Infantil from 01\\/01\\/05 to 01\\/01\\/06. Methods: Retrospective, cross sectional cases review. By descriptive statistical methods we eva- luated: gestational age, birth weight, admission diagnosis, ventilatory treatment, hospitalization length, complications, discharge diagnosis and death causes. Results: In the referred period 428

  7. Towards the Rational Design of a Candidate Vaccine against Pregnancy Associated Malaria: Conserved Sequences of the DBL6? Domain of VAR2CSA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cyril Badaut; Gwladys Bertin; Tatiana Rustico; Nadine Fievet; Achille Massougbodji; Alioune Gaye; Philippe Deloron; James G. Beeson

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundPlacental malaria is a disease linked to the sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum infected red blood cells (IRBC) in the placenta, leading to reduced materno-fetal exchanges and to local inflammation. One of the virulence factors of P. falciparum involved in cytoadherence to chondroitin sulfate A, its placental receptor, is the adhesive protein VAR2CSA. Its localisation on the surface of IRBC makes

  8. INFEZIONI VIRALI CONGENITE, PERINATALI E NEONATALI VIRAL INFECTIONS OF THE FETUS AND NEWBORN INFANT

    PubMed Central

    Tremolada, Sara; Delbue, Serena; Ferrante, Pasquale

    2009-01-01

    Riassunto Alcuni virus possono essere trasmessi verticalmente da madre a figlio in seguito allo sviluppo, da parte della madre, di un’infezione primaria, ricorrente o cronica. La trasmissione materno-fetale dei virus, che può avvenire in utero (infezione congenita), durante il travaglio del parto (infezione perinatale), oppure attraverso l’allattamento (infezione postnatale), può causare aborto spontaneo, morte fetale, ritardo di crescita intrauterino, anomalie congenite e patologie neonatali o postnatali di diversa entità. Alcuni fattori di rischio sembrano influenzare l’incidenza di trasmissione materno-fetale dei virus, come ad esempio la presenza di altre infezioni virali, la carica virale materna, il tipo di infezione (primaria o ricorrente), la durata della rottura delle membrane, la modalità con cui avviene il parto, le condizioni socio-economiche e l’allattamento. Oggi è possibile prevenire la trasmissione materno-fetale di molti virus grazie all’utilizzo di vaccini, immunizzazione passiva e farmaci antivirali. Il rischio di trasmissione delle infezioni perinatali e postnatali, inoltre, può essere diminuito evitando l’allattamento o ricorrendo ad un parto cesareo. PMID:19216201

  9. [Maternal fetal choriocarcinoma after normal delivery].

    PubMed

    Malbranche-Aupècle, M H; Chaboche, C; Théodore, C

    1993-01-01

    Materno-fetal choriocarcinoma discovered after a normal delivery is very rare. The risks for choriocarcinoma after a pregnancy at term is estimated at 1 in 100,000. All the same the ease with which the diagnosis is made by levels of plasma beta-hCG makes it possible to think of this possibility after delivery when there is maternal pathology which cannot be diagnosed or a fetal tumour that cannot be labelled. The transmission of this illness from mother to fetus evokes discussion about the tolerance of an allograft. PMID:8308208

  10. A Comparison of the Histological Structure of the Placenta in Experimental Animals

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Satoshi; Kuroda, Yusuke; Sugiyama, Akihiko

    2014-01-01

    The primary function of the placenta is to act as an interface between the dam and fetus. The anatomic structure of the chorioallantoic placenta in eutherian mammals varies between different animal species. The placental types in eutherian mammals are classified from various standpoints based on the gross shape, the histological structure of the materno-fetal interface, the type of materno-fetal interdigitation, etc. Particularly, the histological structure is generally considered one of the most useful and instructive classifications for functionally describing placental type. In this system, three main types are recognized according to the cell layers comprising the interhemal area: (1) epitheliochorial type (horses, pigs and ruminants), (2) endotheliochorial type (carnivores) and (3) hemochorial type (primates, rodents and rabbits). The number of cell layers in the interhemal area is considered to modify the transfer of nutrients between maternal and fetal blood and is one of the important factors with respect to the difference in placental permeability between animal species. Therefore, in reproductive and developmental toxicity studies, careful attention should be paid to the histological structure of the interhemal area when extrapolating information concerning placental transfer characteristics to different animal species. PMID:24791062

  11. Immunologically silent cancer clone transmission from mother to offspring

    PubMed Central

    Isoda, Takeshi; Ford, Anthony M.; Tomizawa, Daisuke; van Delft, Frederik W.; De Castro, David Gonzalez; Mitsuiki, Norkio; Score, Joannah; Taki, Tomohiko; Morio, Tomohiro; Takagi, Masatoshi; Saji, Hiroh; Greaves, Mel; Mizutani, Shuki

    2009-01-01

    Rare cases of possible materno-fetal transmission of cancer have been recorded over the past 100 years but evidence for a shared cancer clone has been very limited. We provide genetic evidence for mother to offspring transmission, in utero, of a leukemic cell clone. Maternal and infant cancer clones shared the same unique BCR-ABL1 genomic fusion sequence, indicating a shared, single-cell origin. Microsatellite markers in the infant cancer were all of maternal origin. Additionally, the infant, maternally-derived cancer cells had a major deletion on one copy of chromosome 6p that included deletion of HLA alleles that were not inherited by the infant (i.e., foreign to the infant), suggesting a possible mechanism for immune evasion. PMID:19822752

  12. HELLP syndrome: understanding and management of a pregnancy-specific disease.

    PubMed

    Aloizos, S; Seretis, C; Liakos, N; Aravosita, P; Mystakelli, C; Kanna, E; Gourgiotis, S

    2013-05-01

    HELLP, a syndrome characterised by haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets, a variant of pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, is a multisystemic disorder with an incidence of up to 0.9% in all pregnancies and occurs in about one-quarter of pre-eclamptic patients. Most obstetricians presume that HELLP derives from an autoimmune reaction, leading to a materno- fetal imbalance, with accompanying aggregation of platelets, endothelial malfunction along with inborn errors of fatty acid oxidative metabolism. HELLP is characterised by high mortality and morbidity rates, leading to possibly life-threatening complications regarding both the mother and the fetus. Delivery is indicated if HELLP syndrome occurs after 34 gestational weeks or the fetal and/or maternal conditions deteriorate. Vaginal delivery is preferable. Standard corticosteroid treatment is of uncertain clinical value in maternal HELLP syndrome. Future observations and research results may shed more light on improving our understanding of the aspects of HELLP syndrome. PMID:23654309

  13. The placental pursuit for an adequate oxidant balance between the mother and the fetus.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Emilio A; Krause, Bernardo; Ebensperger, German; Reyes, Roberto V; Casanello, Paola; Parra-Cordero, Mauro; Llanos, Anibal J

    2014-01-01

    The placenta is the exchange organ that regulates metabolic processes between the mother and her developing fetus. The adequate function of this organ is clearly vital for a physiologic gestational process and a healthy baby as final outcome. The umbilico-placental vasculature has the capacity to respond to variations in the materno-fetal milieu. Depending on the intensity and the extensity of the insult, these responses may be immediate-, mediate-, and long-lasting, deriving in potential morphostructural and functional changes later in life. These adjustments usually compensate the initial insults, but occasionally may switch to long-lasting remodeling and dysfunctional processes, arising maladaptation. One of the most challenging conditions in modern perinatology is hypoxia and oxidative stress during development, both disorders occurring in high-altitude and in low-altitude placental insufficiency. Hypoxia and oxidative stress may induce endothelial dysfunction and thus, reduction in the perfusion of the placenta and restriction in the fetal growth and development. This Review will focus on placental responses to hypoxic conditions, usually related with high-altitude and placental insufficiency, deriving in oxidative stress and vascular disorders, altering fetal and maternal health. Although day-to-day clinical practice, basic and clinical research are clearly providing evidence of the severe impact of oxygen deficiency and oxidative stress establishment during pregnancy, further research on umbilical and placental vascular function under these conditions is badly needed to clarify the myriad of questions still unsettled. PMID:25009498

  14. Severe invasive listeriosis--case report.

    PubMed

    Teodor, Andra; Teodor, D; Miftode, Egidia; Pris?caru, D; Leca, Daniela; Petrovici, Cristina; Dorneanu, Olivia; Dorob?t, Carmen-Mihaela

    2012-01-01

    Listeriosis is a rare food borne infection which, in the invasive form, presents as bloodstream infection, central nervous system infection, materno-fetal infection, or focal infection. Certain immunosuppressive conditions have been identified as risk factors for severe invasive disease. The invasive forms of listeriosis are associated with a high case fatality rate. We present the case of a 62-year-old male with an unremarkable medical history admitted to the Iasi Infectious Diseases Hospital for fever. headache, ataxia, and diplopia. Physical examination revealed high temperature, confusion, relative bradycardia, and signs of meningeal irritation. Laboratory test showed leukocyt osis with neutrophilia. pathological CSF findings (high WBC count with predominance of neutrophils, low glucose and high protein levels), increased liver enzymes (ALAT, ASAT, AP, gammaGT), and important renal impairment (normal levels at presentation). No abnormalities at chest x-ray, cranial CT and abdominal ultrasound. CSF and blood cultures were positive for Listeria monocytogenes. Under antibiotics (ampicillin and ciprofloxacin), the course was marked by respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation, coma, hypotension, tachycardia. and death 12 days after admission. The particularity of this case consists in the association of the two classical forms of invasive listeriosis, meningitis and bacteriemia, with a focal infection. acute hepatitis, and a course marked by multiple organ dysfunction syndromes and exitus in a previously apparently healthy individual. PMID:23272533

  15. Milk is not just food but most likely a genetic transfection system activating mTORC1 signaling for postnatal growth.

    PubMed

    Melnik, Bodo C; John, Swen Malte; Schmitz, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    Milk has been recognized to represent a functionally active nutrient system promoting neonatal growth of mammals. Cell growth is regulated by the nutrient-sensitive kinase mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). There is still a lack of information on the mechanisms of mTORC1 up-regulation by milk consumption. This review presents milk as a materno-neonatal relay system functioning by transfer of preferential amino acids, which increase plasma levels of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), insulin, growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) for mTORC1 activation. Importantly, milk exosomes, which regularly contain microRNA-21, most likely represent a genetic transfection system enhancing mTORC1-driven metabolic processes. Whereas human breast milk is the ideal food for infants allowing appropriate postnatal growth and species-specific metabolic programming, persistent high milk signaling during adolescence and adulthood by continued cow´s milk consumption may promote mTORC1-driven diseases of civilization. PMID:23883112

  16. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis in an HIV-serodiscordant couple carrier for sickle cell disease: lessons from a case report.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Merino, E; Zengbe, V; Vannin, A S; Place, I; Bostan, A; Emiliani, S; Liesnard, C; Goffard, J C; Abramowicz, M; Englert, Y

    2009-03-01

    Since 1999, the Erasme Hospital Fertility Clinic has carried a special programme for patients with HIV seropositivity. The philosophy of the programme is to give access to these patients in a secure environment to the same technological facilities available to any other patients. Many of these patients being native from sub-Saharan countries, they are often sickle cell disease (SCD) carriers, a common autosomal recessive disorder in these regions, and a severe affection in homozygotes. We hereby report, for the first time, the birth of a healthy sickle haemoglobin (HbS) heterozygous baby after preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for SCD in an HIV-serodiscordant couple of HbS mutation carriers with longstanding infertility. The prospective mother was 35 years old and HIV positive with an undetectable viral load under highly active antiretroviral therapy. One carrier embryo was transferred and resulted in the birth of a healthy HbS carrier baby girl. Despite stimulation difficulties, sometimes described in HIV patients, PGD represents an interesting additional technology, especially in populations where the coexistence of both diseases is frequent. PGD could even be preferred to prenatal diagnosis for couples of HbS carriers if the woman is HIV positive, as invasive prenatal samplings carry a risk of materno-foetal viral transmission. PMID:19054017

  17. Uterine Vasculature Remodeling in Human Pregnancy Involves Functional Macrochimerism by Endothelial Colony Forming Cells of Fetal Origin

    PubMed Central

    Sipos, Peter I; Rens, Willem; Schlecht, HÉlène; Fan, Xiaohu; Wareing, Mark; Hayward, Christina; Hubel, Carl A; Bourque, Stephane; Baker, Philip N; Davidge, Sandra T; Sibley, Colin P; Crocker, Ian P

    2013-01-01

    The potency of adult-derived circulating progenitor endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) is drastically surpassed by their fetal counterparts. Human pregnancy is associated with robust intensification of blood flow and vascular expansion in the uterus, crucial for placental perfusion and fetal supply. Here, we investigate whether fetal ECFCs transmigrate to maternal bloodstream and home to locations of maternal vasculogenesis, primarily the pregnant uterus. In the first instance, endothelial-like cells, originating from mouse fetuses expressing paternal eGFP, were identified within uterine endothelia. Subsequently, LacZ or enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP)-labeled human fetal ECFCs, transplanted into immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) fetuses on D15.5 pregnancy, showed similar integration into the mouse uterus by term. Mature endothelial controls (human umbilical vein endothelial cells), similarly introduced, were unequivocally absent. In humans, SRY was detected in 6 of 12 myometrial microvessels obtained from women delivering male babies. The copy number was calculated at 175 [IQR 149–471] fetal cells per millimeter square endothelium, constituting 12.5% of maternal vessel lumina. Cross-sections of similar human vessels, hybridized for Y-chromosome, positively identified endothelial-associated fetal cells. It appears that through ECFC donation, fetuses assist maternal uterine vascular expansion in pregnancy, potentiating placental perfusion and consequently their own fetal supply. In addition to fetal growth, this cellular mechanism holds implications for materno-fetal immune interactions and long-term maternal vascular health. PMID:23554274

  18. Uterine vasculature remodeling in human pregnancy involves functional macrochimerism by endothelial colony forming cells of fetal origin.

    PubMed

    Sipos, Peter I; Rens, Willem; Schlecht, Hélène; Fan, Xiaohu; Wareing, Mark; Hayward, Christina; Hubel, Carl A; Bourque, Stephane; Baker, Philip N; Davidge, Sandra T; Sibley, Colin P; Crocker, Ian P

    2013-07-01

    The potency of adult-derived circulating progenitor endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) is drastically surpassed by their fetal counterparts. Human pregnancy is associated with robust intensification of blood flow and vascular expansion in the uterus, crucial for placental perfusion and fetal supply. Here, we investigate whether fetal ECFCs transmigrate to maternal bloodstream and home to locations of maternal vasculogenesis, primarily the pregnant uterus. In the first instance, endothelial-like cells, originating from mouse fetuses expressing paternal eGFP, were identified within uterine endothelia. Subsequently, LacZ or enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP)-labeled human fetal ECFCs, transplanted into immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) fetuses on D15.5 pregnancy, showed similar integration into the mouse uterus by term. Mature endothelial controls (human umbilical vein endothelial cells), similarly introduced, were unequivocally absent. In humans, SRY was detected in 6 of 12 myometrial microvessels obtained from women delivering male babies. The copy number was calculated at 175 [IQR 149-471] fetal cells per millimeter square endothelium, constituting 12.5% of maternal vessel lumina. Cross-sections of similar human vessels, hybridized for Y-chromosome, positively identified endothelial-associated fetal cells. It appears that through ECFC donation, fetuses assist maternal uterine vascular expansion in pregnancy, potentiating placental perfusion and consequently their own fetal supply. In addition to fetal growth, this cellular mechanism holds implications for materno-fetal immune interactions and long-term maternal vascular health. PMID:23554274

  19. Microchimerism in Endocrine Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Rust, Daniel W.

    2015-01-01

    Chimerism in an individual refers to the coexistence of cells arising from two distinct organisms. It can arise iatrogenically via transplant or blood transfusion, and physiologically via twin to twin transfer, or from trafficking between mother and fetus during pregnancy. Many of the diseases associated with microchimerism affect the endocrine system (e.g., autoimmune thyroid disease and diabetes mellitus type 1). Microchimerism is relevant to endocrine pathology because (a) it is associated with pregnancy, a condition of complex endocrine physiology; (b) maternofetal and feto-maternal cellular migration must involve the placenta, itself an endocrine organ; and (c) in some species, chimerism results in states of intersexuality, a condition intimately involved with endocrine physiology. Studies of feto-maternal microchimerism in the thyroid have documented the presence of fetal cells in association with Hashimoto thyroiditis, Graves’ disease, thyroid adenoma, and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Studies of materno-fetal microchimerism have documented the presence of maternal cells in juvenile diabetes and other pediatric conditions. Microchimerism plays a potential role in the repair of diseased thyroid and pancreatic tissues. PMID:19214801

  20. Steroid receptor coactivator 2 is required for female fertility and mammary morphogenesis: insights from the mouse, relevance to the human

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Atish; Amato, Paula; Allred, D. Craig; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Lydon, John P.

    2007-01-01

    Although the importance of the progesterone receptor (PR) to female reproductive and mammary gland biology is firmly established, the coregulators selectively co-opted by PR in these systems have not been clearly delineated. A selective gene-knockout approach applied to the mouse, which abrogates gene function only in cell types that express PR, recently disclosed steroid receptor coactivator 2 (SRC-2, also known as TIF-2 or GRIP-1) to be an indispensable coregulator for uterine and mammary gland responses that require progesterone. Uterine cells positive for PR (but devoid of SRC-2) were found to be incapable of facilitating embryo implantation, a necessary first step toward the establishment of the materno-fetal interface. Importantly, such an implantation defect is not exhibited by knockouts for SRC-1 or SRC-3, underscoring the unique coregulator importance of SRC-2 in peri-implantation biology. Moreover, despite normal levels of PR, SRC-1 and SRC-3, progesterone-dependent branching morphogenesis and alveologenesis fails to occur in the murine mammary gland in the absence of SRC-2, thereby establishing a critical coregulator role for SRC-2 in signaling cascades that mediate progesterone-induced mammary epithelial proliferation. Finally, the recent detection of SRC-2 in the human endometrium and breast suggests that this coregulator may represent a new clinical target for the future management of female reproductive health and/or breast cancer. PMID:18174919

  1. [Methods of screening of gestational diabetes between 24 and 28 weeks' gestation].

    PubMed

    Virally, M; Laloi-Michelin, M

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this review is to answer the question "how to detect the gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation?". Two approaches are well established: one-step approach (75 g-OGTT) and two-steps approach (50 g followed 100g-OGTT). The analysis of the literature shows that each of these methods has a good reproducibility close to 80 %, without requiring preliminary dietetics. The HAPO study provides consistent data about the 75 g-OGTT materno-fetal morbidity related. Furthermore, the one-step approach, relationship two-steps approach, has several advantages: reduction of time of diagnosis and primary care, better tolerance, simpler memorization. We recommend for the screening and the diagnosis of GDM an 75 g-OGTT with three measures: FPG, 1-h and 2-h. The various alternative methods are discussed. The measure of the fasting blood glucose isolated between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation is not a relevant approach. None of the other alternative methods (HbA1c, fructosamine, glycosuria, random and postprandial plasma glucose) cannot be recommended. Indeed, these methods have been addressed in little numerous studies, among heterogeneous populations, using variable criteria, and variable sensitivity values. Only the HbA1c might be useful to detect a pre-pregnancy diabetes mellitus. PMID:21185473

  2. [Hearing impairment and language delay in infants: diagnostic and genetic].

    PubMed

    Lang-Roth, R

    2014-03-01

    This article gives an overview on important aspects of hearing and language development of infants and toddlers. Newborn hearing screening is implemented in Germany for all infants since January 2009. The realization of early postnatal hearing screening is regulated by a publication of the "Gemeinsamer Bundesausschuss". It regulates the measurement method (TEOAE or AABR screening) and differs between healthy and sick newborns. It also rules the timetable of rescreening and if it still fails of paedaudiological follow up. The second part refers to objective and subjective assessment of hearing loss and different important issues of permanent childhood hearing impairment are discussed. Especially CMV infection by materno-fetal transmission and hereditary hearing loss is addressed in comparison to otitis media with effusion. Speech and language development in the first three years of live and the corresponding nomenclature is introduced in the last part. Different parent questionnaires are well established in evaluation of early language acquisition. An early diagnosis of language delay is possible and therapeutic measures can be established to prevent further social and psychological problems. PMID:24710780

  3. Frequency of Maternal and Newborn Birth Outcomes, Lima, Peru, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Wynn, Adriane; Cabeza, Jeanne; Adachi, Kristina; Needleman, Jack; Garcia, Patricia J.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study describes the pregnancy and birth outcomes at two hospitals in Lima, Peru. The data collection and analysis is intended to inform patients, providers, and policy makers on Peru’s progress toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals and to help set priorities for action and further research. Methods Data were collected retrospectively from a sample of 237 women who delivered between December 2012 and September 2013 at the Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal or the Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza. The outcomes were recorded by a trained mid-wife through telephone interviews with patients and by review of hospital records. Associations between participant demographic characteristics and pregnancy outcomes were tested with Chi-squared, Fisher’s exact, or Student’s t-test. Results Over 37% of women experienced at least one maternal or perinatal complication, and the most frequent were hypertension/preeclampsia and macrosomia. The women in our sample had a cesarean section rate of 50.2%. Conclusion Maternal and perinatal complications are not uncommon among women in the lower socioeconomic strata of Lima. Also, the high cesarean rate underpins the need for a more comprehensive understanding of the indications for cesarean section deliveries, which could help reduce the number of unnecessary procedures and preventable complications. PMID:25806522

  4. Analyse sérologique de la toxoplasmose pergravidique: évaluation des risques et perspectives du dépistage prénatal au centre hospitalier universitaire de Bobo Dioulasso au Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Bamba, Sanata; Some, Der Adolphe; Chemla, Cathy; Geers, Régine; Guiguemde, Tinga Robert; Villena, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Introduction La présente étude rapporte les données sérologiques de 306 sérums collectés chez des parturientes au CHU de Bobo Dioulasso et analysés rétrospectivement au CHU de Reims en 2011. Le but était de déterminer le statut sérologique de ces parturientes et d'en déduire la conduite à tenir. Méthodes La recherche des IgG et des IgM anti toxoplasmiques était systématique. Les techniques d'agglutination haute sensibilisée et celle d'Immunocapture M ont servi à la recherche respective des anticorps spécifiques IgG et des IgM. Résultats Sur 306 sérums analysés, 95 (31%) avaient des IgG positifs et aucun n'avait des IgM. Deux cent onze (211) sérums (69%) des sérums n'avaient ni IgG, ni IgM. Conclusion Nos résultats montrent que 31% des femmes en dehors d'une immunodépression sous jacente, possèdent une immunité résiduelle vis à vis de Toxoplasma gondii et n'ont pas la nécessité d'avoir une surveillance sérologique pendant la grossesse. Cependant, 69% (211) des parturientes sont à risque d'une séroconversion, et devraient bénéficier de conseils hygiéno diététiques, associés à une surveillance sérologique durant la grossesse. Ces résultats montrent l'intérêt de mettre en place des mesures de prévention contre la toxoplasmose congénitale, étant l'une des affections materno - foetales les plus fréquentes par la mise en place d'un diagnostic prénatal de la toxoplasmose en routine dans notre hôpital. PMID:22937183

  5. Hypoxia-induced changes in the bioactivity of cytotrophoblast-derived exosomes.

    PubMed

    Salomon, Carlos; Kobayashi, Miharu; Ashman, Keith; Sobrevia, Luis; Mitchell, Murray D; Rice, Gregory E

    2013-01-01

    Migration of extravillous trophoblasts (EVT) into decidua and myometrium is a critical process in the conversion of maternal spiral arterioles and establishing placenta perfusion. EVT migration is affected by cell-to-cell communication and oxygen tension. While the release of exosomes from placental cells has been identified as a significant pathway in materno-fetal communication, the role of placental-derived exosomes in placentation has yet to be established. The aim of this study was to establish the effect of oxygen tension on the release and bioactivity of cytotrophoblast (CT)-derived exosomes on EVT invasion and proliferation. CT were isolated from first trimester fetal tissue (n?=?12) using a trypsin-deoxyribonuclease-dispase/Percoll method. CT were cultured under 8%, 3% or 1% O2 for 48 h. Exosomes from CT-conditioned media were isolated by differential and buoyant density centrifugation. The effect of oxygen tension on exosome release (µg exosomal protein/10(6)cells/48 h) and bioactivity were established. HTR-8/SVneo (EVT) were used as target cells to establish the effect (bioactivity) of exosomes on invasion and proliferation as assessed by real-time, live-cell imaging (Incucyte™). The release and bioactivity of CT-derived exosomes were inversely correlated with oxygen tension (p<0.001). Under low oxygen tensions (i.e. 1% O2), CT-derived exosomes promoted EVT invasion and proliferation. Proteomic analysis of exosomes identified oxygen-dependent changes in protein content. We propose that in response to changes in oxygen tension, CTs modify the bioactivity of exosomes, thereby, regulating EVT phenotype. Exosomal induction of EVT migration may represent a normal process of placentation and/or an adaptive response to placental hypoxia. PMID:24244532

  6. A gestational profile of placental exosomes in maternal plasma and their effects on endothelial cell migration.

    PubMed

    Salomon, Carlos; Torres, Maria Jose; Kobayashi, Miharu; Scholz-Romero, Katherin; Sobrevia, Luis; Dobierzewska, Aneta; Illanes, Sebastian E; Mitchell, Murray D; Rice, Gregory E

    2014-01-01

    Studies completed to date provide persuasive evidence that placental cell-derived exosomes play a significant role in intercellular communication pathways that potentially contribute to placentation and development of materno-fetal vascular circulation. The aim of this study was to establish the gestational-age release profile and bioactivity of placental cell-derived exosome in maternal plasma. Plasma samples (n?=?20 per pregnant group) were obtained from non-pregnant and pregnant women in the first (FT, 6-12 weeks), second (ST, 22-24 weeks) and third (TT, 32-38 weeks) trimester. The number of exosomes and placental exosome contribution were determined by quantifying immunoreactive exosomal CD63 and placenta-specific marker (PLAP), respectively. The effect of exosomes isolated from FT, ST and TT on endothelial cell migration were established using a real-time, live-cell imaging system (Incucyte). Exosome plasma concentration was more than 50-fold greater in pregnant women than in non-pregnant women (p<0.001). During normal healthy pregnancy, the number of exosomes present in maternal plasma increased significantly with gestational age by more that two-fold (p<0.001). Exosomes isolated from FT, ST and TT increased endothelial cell migration by 1.9±0.1, 1.6±0.2 and 1.3±0.1-fold, respectively compared to the control. Pregnancy is associated with a dramatic increase in the number of exosomes present in plasma and maternal plasma exosomes are bioactive. While the role of placental cell-derived exosome in regulating maternal and/or fetal vascular responses remains to be elucidated, changes in exosome profile may be of clinical utility in the diagnosis of placental dysfunction. PMID:24905832

  7. A Gestational Profile of Placental Exosomes in Maternal Plasma and Their Effects on Endothelial Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Salomon, Carlos; Torres, Maria Jose; Kobayashi, Miharu; Scholz-Romero, Katherin; Sobrevia, Luis; Dobierzewska, Aneta; Illanes, Sebastian E.; Mitchell, Murray D.; Rice, Gregory E.

    2014-01-01

    Studies completed to date provide persuasive evidence that placental cell-derived exosomes play a significant role in intercellular communication pathways that potentially contribute to placentation and development of materno-fetal vascular circulation. The aim of this study was to establish the gestational-age release profile and bioactivity of placental cell-derived exosome in maternal plasma. Plasma samples (n?=?20 per pregnant group) were obtained from non-pregnant and pregnant women in the first (FT, 6–12 weeks), second (ST, 22–24 weeks) and third (TT, 32–38 weeks) trimester. The number of exosomes and placental exosome contribution were determined by quantifying immunoreactive exosomal CD63 and placenta-specific marker (PLAP), respectively. The effect of exosomes isolated from FT, ST and TT on endothelial cell migration were established using a real-time, live-cell imaging system (Incucyte). Exosome plasma concentration was more than 50-fold greater in pregnant women than in non-pregnant women (p<0.001). During normal healthy pregnancy, the number of exosomes present in maternal plasma increased significantly with gestational age by more that two-fold (p<0.001). Exosomes isolated from FT, ST and TT increased endothelial cell migration by 1.9±0.1, 1.6±0.2 and 1.3±0.1-fold, respectively compared to the control. Pregnancy is associated with a dramatic increase in the number of exosomes present in plasma and maternal plasma exosomes are bioactive. While the role of placental cell-derived exosome in regulating maternal and/or fetal vascular responses remains to be elucidated, changes in exosome profile may be of clinical utility in the diagnosis of placental dysfunction. PMID:24905832

  8. Meeting health and family planning needs in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    1995-06-01

    The operations research and technical assistance (OR/TA) project in The Population Council has concentrated on fertility and infant mortality issues in Latin American and the Caribbean for more than a decade through INOPAL. INOPAL is an acronym for Investigacion Operacional en Planificacion Familiar y Atencion Materno-Infantil para America Latina y el Caribe (Operations Research in Family Planning and Maternal-Child Health in Latin America and the Caribbean). In March 1995, the project entered its third phase, INOPAL III, with the renewal of its contract from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). To facilitate communication between INOPAL, collaborating agencies, and USAID, INOPAL Director James Foreit moved from Peru to a Council office in Washington, D.C. INOPAL has six objectives: 1) to test the integration of family planning and reproductive health services; 2) to increase access to family planning; 3) to develop strategies to reach special populations; 4) to improve the sustainability of family planning programs; 5) to improve service quality; and 6) to institutionalize operations research capability in the region. INOPAL II conducted 61 subprojects in 12 countries in collaboration with 24 USAID cooperating agencies and other international organizations. The project established new services for postpartum women, adolescents, and rural women; improved program quality and financial sustainability; increased vasectomy promotion and the range of available contraceptives; and developed new modes of service delivery. A key finding of INOPAL II operations research was the importance of increasing cost-effectiveness to ensure program sustainability. INOPAL III will work toward all six objectives, with an emphasis on integrating reproductive health and family planning services. Operations research and technical assistance (OR/TA) subprojects will focus on the prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, perinatal and postpartum care, and postabortion care. PMID:12319543

  9. Molecular basis of reduced birth weight in smoking pregnant women: mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Garrabou, Glòria; Hernàndez, Ana-Sandra; Catalán García, Marc; Morén, Constanza; Tobías, Ester; Córdoba, Sarai; López, Marta; Figueras, Francesc; Grau, Josep M; Cardellach, Francesc

    2014-09-01

    In utero exposure of fetuses to tobacco is associated with reduced birth weight. We hypothesized that this may be due to the toxic effect of carbon monoxide (CO) from tobacco, which has previously been described to damage mitochondria in non-pregnant adult smokers. Maternal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), newborn cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs) and placenta were collected from 30 smoking pregnant women and their newborns and classified as moderate and severe smoking groups, and compared to a cohort of 21 non-smoking controls. A biomarker for tobacco consumption (cotinine) was assessed by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The following parameters were measured in all tissues: mitochondrial chain complex IV [cytochrome c oxidase (COX)] activity by spectrophotometry, mitochondrial DNA levels by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, oxidative stress by spectrophotometric lipid peroxide quantification, mitochondrial mass through citrate synthase spectrophotometric activity and apoptosis by Western blot parallelly confirmed by TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling) assay in placenta. Newborns from smoking pregnant women presented reduced birth weight by 10.75 percent. Materno-fetal mitochondrial and apoptotic PBMC and CBMC parameters showed altered and correlated values regarding COX activity, mitochondrial DNA, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Placenta partially compensated this dysfunction by increasing mitochondrial number; even so ratios of oxidative stress and apoptosis were increased. A CO-induced mitotoxic and apoptotic fingerprint is present in smoking pregnant women and their newborn, with a lack of filtering effect from the placenta. Tobacco consumption correlated with a reduction in birth weight and mitochondrial and apoptotic impairment, suggesting that both could be the cause of the reduced birth weight in smoking pregnant women. PMID:25186090

  10. Clinical trials in nutrition.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, M L; Hsu-Hage, B H; Lukito, W

    1999-09-01

    Trials of nutritional intervention in a wide range of health and disease states, preventive and therapeutic, are required. Not only has the emergence of chronic non-communicable disease (CNCD) with acknowledged nutritional pathogenesis created this imperative need, but so also have other conditions which, previously, had not been regarded as nutritionally based. Among the latter are health problems associated with ageing: the menopause, a decline in immune function, and a decline in cognitive function. At the same time, there is a new set of materno-foetal and infant nutrition issues for investigation which relate to new food exposures and the long-term effects of nutritionally mediated gene expression. The emergence of the new food science of phytochemicals with human biological importance also sets the scene for their evaluation in traditional diets and novel foods. Such trials are more complex than comparable pharmacotherapeutic studies because of the complexity of food chemistry, as well as the food behavioural changes which may accompany a nutritional intervention, and the general problem of there not being a 'gold standard' for food intake methodology. Choice of study population is also a key issue in relation to the extrapolation of findings from a particular trial, with population representativeness being an advantage. In order to obtain useful information on manageable sample sizes, either intermediate end-points (short of morbidity and mortality) need to be studied or high-risk groups (such as the aged) need to be recruited. There are some unique ethical issues which must inform clinical nutrition trials. These include certain preventive imperatives like the right to be fed, the risks in disruption of food cultures and the need for food security and sustainability. Rapid changes in the food supply do, however, make such trials more important, while the value of food-health knowledge that cannot be obtained by trial must still be appreciated. PMID:24394168

  11. DUCHAS VAGINALES Y OTROS RIESGOS DE VAGINOSIS BACTERIANA

    PubMed Central

    Chávez, Natividad; Molina, Helfer; Sánchez, Jorge; Gelaye, Bizu; Sánchez, Sixto E.

    2010-01-01

    Vaginosis bacteriana (VB) es una infección caracterizada por el cambio en la microflora de la vagina, asociándose a resultados adversos del embarazo y a la adquisición de infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS), incluyendo el VIH. En este estudio se buscó la asociación entre el uso de duchas vaginales y otros factores de riesgos con VB. Se usó un diseño observacional descriptivo transversal prospectivo, en 1,252 mujeres que asistieron al servicio de planificación familiar de tres hospitales nacionales (Dos de Mayo, Arzobispo Loayza, San Bartolomé) y el Instituto Materno Perinatal, durante el año 1997. Se utilizó un cuestionario estructurado donde se registraron variables socio demográficas y características del estilo de vida de las participantes. VB fue diagnosticada mediante el puntaje de Nugent. Se empleó análisis de regresión logística para calcular odds ratio (OR) e intervalos de confianza al 95%. La edad promedio de las participantes fue 25.1 ± 4,7 años, el 23.4% tenían más de 11 años de educación. La prevalencía de VB fue 20,1%. Las mujeres que practicaban duchas vaginales tuvieron 2.28 veces (OR = 2.28, IC 95% [1.0–5.0]) mayor probabilidad de tener VB comparado con aquellas que no lo practicaban. Tener dos o más parejas sexuales estuvo asociado con 2.0 veces (OR =2.0, IC 95% [1.2–3.5]) mayor probabilidad de adquirir VB comparado con aquellas que habían tenido solo una pareja sexual. Las participantes que iniciaron una relación sexual a una edad temprana tuvieron 1.4 veces (OR=1.4, IC 95% [1.0 –1.9]) mayor probabilidad de adquirir VB. El uso de duchas vaginales es un factor de riesgo de VB. Los programas destinados a la salud de la mujer deben abordar las repercusiones perjudiciales para la salud asociados con las duchas vaginales. PMID:21132048

  12. Placental-related diseases of pregnancy: involvement of oxidative stress and implications in human evolution

    PubMed Central

    Jauniaux, Eric; Poston, Lucilla; Burton, Graham J.

    2007-01-01

    Miscarriage and pre-eclampsia are the most common disorders of human pregnancy. Both are placental-related and exceptional in other mammalian species. Ultrasound imaging has enabled events during early pregnancy to be visualized in vivo for the first time. As a result, a new understanding of the early materno–fetal relationship has emerged and, with it, new insight into the pathogenesis of these disorders. Unifying the two is the concept of placental oxidative stress, with associated necrosis and apoptosis of the trophoblastic epithelium of the placental villous tree. In normal pregnancies, the earliest stages of development take place in a low oxygen (O2) environment. This physiological hypoxia of the early gestational sac protects the developing fetus against the deleterious and teratogenic effects of O2 free radicals (OFRs). In miscarriage, development of the placento–decidual interface is severely impaired leading to early and widespread onset of maternal blood flow and major oxidative degeneration. This mechanism is common to all miscarriages, with the time at which it occurs in the first trimester depending on the aetiology. In contrast, in pre-eclampsia the trophoblastic invasion is sufficient to allow early pregnancy phases of placentation but too shallow for complete transformation of the arterial utero–placental circulation, predisposing to a repetitive ischaemia–reperfusion (I/R) phenomenon. We suggest that pre-eclampsia is a three-stage disorder with the primary pathology being an excessive or atypical maternal immune response. This would impair the placentation process leading to chronic oxidative stress in the placenta and finally to diffuse maternal endothelial cell dysfunction. PMID:16682385

  13. Single umbilical artery and associated malformations in over 5500 autopsies: relevance for perinatal management.

    PubMed

    Rittler, Monica; Mazzitelli, Nancy; Fuksman, Rosa; de Rosa, Laura García; Grandi, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    With a birth prevalence rate of about 1%, single umbilical artery (SUA) is the most frequent of all congenital anomalies. It is recognizably associated with a variety of birth defects, but disagreement exists as to whether a SUA can predict an adverse perinatal outcome; disagreement also exists related to if, when present, other birth defects should be ruled out. The aims of the study were to estimate the association between SUA and other birth defects in a series of perinatal autopsies, to establish if preferential associations between SUA and certain birth defects exist, and to quantify the risks for other birth defects when a SUA is diagnosed. In a series of 5539 perinatal autopsies conducted at the Hospital Materno Infantil Ramón Sardá and the Private Laboratory of Perinatal Pathology, Buenos Aires, Argentina, the rate of each malformation (grouped by organ/system) associated with SUA and the risks of associated malformations were estimated. In this series of autopsies, the rate of SUA showed a 10-fold increase when other malformations were present. The risk for other malformations increased significantly, by a 3-fold to 9-fold measure, when a SUA was present. Urinary and gut anomalies showed a preferential association with SUA. The absence of other birth defects lowered the risk of chromosome anomalies associated with SUA in 56% (odds ratio ?=? 0.44). These results, obtained from a series of perinatal autopsies, are in agreement with most observations found in the literature, namely, high association rates between SUA and urinary and cardiovascular anomalies as well as a low risk for chromosome anomalies in SUA cases without other malformations. PMID:20482333

  14. [Morphological variability and placental function].

    PubMed

    Malassiné, A

    2001-01-01

    In mammals, the blastocyst defines with the maternal organism, a structure which allows embryonic development during gestation: the placenta. The structure of this organ varies remarkably across species. In this review the different type of placentation have been described in a comparative manner using terms of classification such as: placental materno-fetal interdigitation, matemofetal blood flow interrelationships, layers of the placental interhemal barrier, trophoblast invasiveness and decidual cell reaction, formation of syncytiotrophoblast. The human hemomonochorial placenta is characterized by a strong decidualization of the uterus and a major invasiveness of the extravillous trophoblast. Furthermore, there is a spectrum of placental endocrine activities across species. In some mammals (e.g., mouse and rat) the placenta eclipses the pituitary in the maintenance of ovarian function. In the human and in the sheep, horse, cat and guinea pig, the placenta acquires the ability to substitute for the ovaries in the maintenance of gestation at various time during pregnancy. The human placenta is characterized by a high rate of steroïdogenesis (progesterone and estrogens) and by the production of a primate specific trophoblastic hormone: human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Recently, it was demonstrated that mutation of many genes in mice results in embryonic mortality or fetal growth restriction, due to defects in placental development. Furthermore, distinct molecular pathways regulate the differentiation of various trophoblast cell subtype of the mouse placenta. An important question is whether or not placental differentiation in other mammals is regulated by the same molecular mechanisms. Due to the striking diversity in placental structure, endocrine function and gene expression, caution must be exercised in extrapolating findings regarding placental function and development from one species to another. PMID:11575143

  15. Methods for the screening and diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Virally, M; Laloi-Michelin, M

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this review is to provide answers to the question “How does one screen for and diagnose gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) between 24 and 28 weeks gestation?” Two methods are currently widely used: a one-step approach (the 75g-Oral Glucose Tolerance Test, OGTT) and a two-step approach (the 50g Glucose Challenge Test, GCT, followed by 100g-OGTT). A review of the literature showed that both methods had good reproducibility (around 80%), whilst neither required preliminary diet changes. The data of the Hyperglycaemia Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes (HAPO) study on materno-foetal morbidity provided consistent support in favour of the 75g-OGTT. In addition, this one-step method presents several advantages over the two-step method, i.e. it provides a faster diagnosis time, better tolerance and it is easier to remember. We thus recommend a 75g-OGTT including three measures of the glycaemia at times 0, 1 and 2 hours for the diagnosis of GDM between 24-28 weeks of pregnancy. A discussion of alternative methods revealed that measuring Fasting Glycaemia (FG) between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy was unsuitable, and that measuring HbA1c, fructosamine, glycosuria, or random and postprandial plasma glucose was not advisable. This is based on the fact that too few studies have evaluated these methods, and that the studies usually involved heterogeneous populations in varying numbers, using differing criteria and sensitivity values. However, HbA1c measurements may prove useful in detecting pre-pregnancy diabetes mellitus. PMID:21163420

  16. Umbilical cord PUFA are determined by maternal and child fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genetic variants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC).

    PubMed

    Lattka, Eva; Koletzko, Berthold; Zeilinger, Sonja; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Klopp, Norman; Ring, Susan M; Steer, Colin D

    2013-04-14

    Fetal supply with long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) during pregnancy is important for brain growth and visual and cognitive development and is provided by materno-fetal placental transfer. We recently showed that maternal fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genotypes modulate the amounts of LC-PUFA in maternal blood. Whether FADS genotypes influence the amounts of umbilical cord fatty acids has not been investigated until now. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of maternal and child FADS genotypes on the amounts of LC-PUFA in umbilical cord venous plasma as an indicator of fetal fatty acid supply during pregnancy. A total of eleven cord plasma n-6 and n-3 fatty acids were analysed for association with seventeen FADS gene cluster SNP in over 2000 mothers and children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. In a multivariable analysis, the maternal genotype effect was adjusted for the child genotype and vice versa to estimate which of the two has the stronger influence on cord plasma fatty acids. Both maternal and child FADS genotypes and haplotypes influenced amounts of cord plasma LC-PUFA and fatty acid ratios. Specifically, most analysed maternal SNP were associated with cord plasma levels of the precursor n-6 PUFA, whereas the child genotypes were mainly associated with more highly desaturated n-6 LC-PUFA. This first study on FADS genotypes and cord fatty acids suggests that fetal LC-PUFA status is determined to some extent by fetal fatty acid conversion. Associations of particular haplotypes suggest specific effects of SNP rs498793 and rs968567 on fatty acid metabolism. PMID:22877655

  17. Urinary podocalyxin as a marker of preeclampsia in a Hispanic population

    PubMed Central

    Palacios de Franco, Ylbe; Velazquez, Karina; Segovia, Natalia; Acosta, Carolina; Yanosky, Deborah; Franco Palacios, Ylbe V; Ramos, Amanda; Franco Palacios, Carlos R

    2014-01-01

    Background: Preeclampsia is associated with significant materno-fetal morbidity and mortality. Podocyturia due to podocyte damage seems to be associated with the disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of urinary podocalyxin as a marker of preeclampsia in a Hispanic population. Methods: 63 patients were studied. 25 patients had preeclampsia/eclampsia (PE-E). 38 patients had normal pregnancies and served as control group. 24 hour proteinuria, urine protein/creatinine (UPC), urinary podocalyxin and perinatal outcomes were measured. A Podocalyxin ELISA test was used to detect podocyturia. Results: Mean age (years), mean±SD was 30.5±5.4 in normal patients vs 30.6±5.8 in PE-E, p=0.98. Median gestational age (weeks) was, 38 (range 21-42) for normal pregnancies and 36 (range 24-40) for patients with PE-E, <0.001. Urine podocalyxin/creatinine on admission (ng/mg), median [IQR] in normal patients was 55.9 [29.4, 74.9] vs 109.7 [63.8, 234.1] in PE-E, p=0.001. After adjusting for admission proteinuria, urinary podocalyxin remained independently associated with preeclampsia: OR=1.0040 (95% CI 1.0003-1.0078), p=0.03. There was low to moderate correlation between UPC and urinary podocalyxin, Spearman’s =0.31, p=0.01. In PE-E, post-partum urine podocalyxin was lower, median [IQR]: 69.7 [32.7, 184.8] p=0.19 vs admission. There was a trend towards more podocyturia and proteinuria in patients with eclampsia, comparing to those with preeclampsia. There was no association observed between podocyturia and neonatal mortality, IUGR or Apgar scores. Conclusions: Significantly higher levels of urinary podocalyxin are seen in preeclampsia/eclampsia. They tend to normalize after delivery. PMID:25057338

  18. Characterisation of tone oscillations in placental and myometrial arteries from normal pregnancies and those complicated by pre-eclampsia and growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, M; Wareing, M; Mills, T A; Baker, P N; Taggart, M J

    2008-04-01

    Agonist-induced tone oscillations (rhythmic contractions and relaxations) occur in vascular beds to allow acute regulation of volume flow and thus the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the tissue. Mechanisms responsible for the control of human placental vasomotor tone and blood flow are poorly characterized. This study aimed to characterise thromboxane-induced tone oscillations in human placental and myometrial arteries. Chorionic plate and myometrial arteries obtained from biopsies at term were mounted for isometric tension measurement. Tone oscillations were observed in chorionic arteries only when exposed to sub-maximal (<1 microM) concentrations of U46619. Slow (mean+/-SEM) frequency (2.6+/-0.5 per hour), large amplitude (39+/-7% of peak contraction) tone oscillations were elicited by 0.03 microM U46619 (n=18). In the presence of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor l-NNA (100 microM) the amplitude was significantly reduced (40+/-13% to 18+/-8%, P<0.05, n=6), frequency was unaltered and the bradykinin-dependent vasodilator response was reduced (68+/-13% to 40+/-19%, P<0.05, n=6). Myometrial arteries exposed to 1 microM U46619 developed tone oscillations within 10 min, which increased in amplitude over 30min occurring at relatively constant frequency. The mean amplitude of oscillations at 30 min (31+/-7%, n=16) was similar to that in chorionic arteries but the occurrence more frequent (42.8+/-9.7 per hour, P<0.001). Inhibition of NOS did not alter tone oscillations in myometrial arteries. Tone oscillations in chorionic arteries from pre-eclamptic and growth restricted (FGR) pregnancies were reduced in amplitude whereas those in myometrial arteries had increased frequency. Inhibition of NOS further reduced oscillation amplitude in chorionic arteries from FGR pregnancies. The alterations may contribute to the vasculopathology of these conditions, or, may represent compensatory mechanisms to maintain a matching of materno-placental blood flow. PMID:18336903

  19. Aspects épidémiologiques, pronostiques et thérapeutiques de l'hématome retro placentaire (HRP) dans une maternité de référence en zone rurale

    PubMed Central

    Thiam, Ousmane; Mbaye, Magatte; Diouf, Abdou Aziz; Touré, Fode Baba; Gueye, Mamour; Niang, Mansour; Cissé, Mamadou Lamine; Dièye, Sidy; Moreau, Jean Charles

    2014-01-01

    Introduction IL s'agira ici d’ identifier les particularités diagnostiques et la prise en charge de l'HRP au Centre Hospitalier de Ndioum au Sénégal. Méthodes Etude rétrospective descriptive menée à l'hôpital régional de Ndioum, durant la période allant du 1er Janvier 2009 au 31 Décembre 2011. Toutes les patientes qui avaient présenté un HRP étaient incluses. Pour chaque patiente, nous avions étudié les paramètres socio-démographiques et cliniques, les données thérapeutiques et le pronostic materno-foetal. Résultats La fréquence était de 6,05%. L’âge moyen de nos patientes était compris entre 29 et 84 ans et la parité moyenne de 4,92. Aucune consultation prénatale n’était effectuée chez 16% des patientes. Les évacuations représentaient 66% de cas. L’âge gestationnel moyen était de 36 semaines d'aménorrhées et la majorité des patientes (86%) était en travail. La gravite du tableau clinique était appréciée selon la classification de Sher avec 63% (114 cas) au grade 3. Une coagulopathie était observée chez 27,2% des patientes. Nous avions retrouvé une relation statistiquement significative entre la gravite du tableau clinique et le pronostic maternel (p = 0,026) et foetal (p = 0,0000). Une direction du travail était effectuée chez 109 patientes (60% des cas). L'expulsion foetale était obtenue par voie basse dans 49% des cas et une césarienne était effectuée dans 51% des cas. La morbidité maternelle était dominée par l'anémie secondaire à une hémorragie aigue dans 17,8% des cas et à l'insuffisance rénale aigue dans 6,1% des cas. Les éléments de mauvais pronostic étaient représentés par la gravité du tableau clinique (p = 0,03) et le mode d'admission dominé par les évacuations (p = 0,01), la relation était statistiquement significative. La voie d'accouchement n’était pas retrouvée comme élément de mauvais pronostic (p = 0,09). Nous avions noté douze cas de décès maternels soit 6,6% des patientes. Conclusion La prévention de la mortalité maternelle et foetale liée à cette affection passe par une amélioration du suivi prénatal, une meilleure organisation du plan d'accouchement et une amélioration des conditions d’évacuation. La mise en place d'une banque de sang fonctionnel, d'une unité réanimation médicale ainsi qu'un service de prise en charge néonatale devient une nécessité pour améliorer le pronostic maternel et néonatal. PMID:24932322

  20. Placental Pathology in Pregnancies with Maternally Perceived Decreased Fetal Movement - A Population-Based Nested Case-Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Winje, Brita Askeland; Roald, Borghild; Kristensen, Nina Petrov; Frøen, J. Frederik

    2012-01-01

    Background Decreased fetal movements (DFM) are associated with fetal growth restriction and stillbirth, presumably linked through an underlying placental dysfunction. Yet, the role of placental pathology has received limited attention in DFM studies. Our main objective was to explore whether maternal perceptions of DFM were associated with placental pathology in pregnancies recruited from a low-risk total population. Methods/Principal Findings Placentas from 129 DFM and 191 non-DFM pregnancies were examined according to standardized macro- and microscopic protocols. DFM was defined as any maternal complaint of DFM leading to a hospital examination. Morphological findings were timed and graded according to their estimated onset and clinical importance, and classified in line with a newly constructed Norwegian classification system for reporting placental pathology. With our population-based approach we were unable to link DFM to an overall measure of all forms of placental pathology (OR 1.3, 95% CI 0.8–2.2, p?=?0.249). However, placental pathology leading to imminent delivery could be a competing risk for DFM, making separate subgroup analyses more appropriate. Our study suggests a link between DFM and macroscopic placental pathology related to maternal, uteroplacental vessels, i.e. infarctions, placental lesions (intraplacental hematomas) and abruptions. Although not statistically significant separately, a compound measure showed a significant association with DFM (OR 2.4, 95%CI 1.1–5.0, p?=?0.023). This association was strengthened when we accounted for relevant temporal aspects. More subtle microscopic materno-placental ischemic changes outside the areas of localized pathology showed no association with DFM (OR 0.5, 95%CI 0.2–1.4, p?=?0.203). There was a strong association between placental pathology and neonatal complications (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.6–5.1, p<0.001). Conclusions In our population-based study we were generally unable to link maternally perceived DFM to placental pathology. Some associations were seen for subgroups. PMID:22723978

  1. [How Italian midwives contribute to breastfeeding promotion: a national experience of "cascade" training].

    PubMed

    Giusti, Angela; Conti, Stefania; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppina; Donati, Serena; Perra, Alberto; Grandolfo, Michele

    2006-01-01

    Social changes of the last century have increasingly transformed maternity and newborn care into a medical act and have greatly reduced the number of breastfeeding women. In Italy, the explicit aim of the Ministry of Health concerning mother and child health (Progetto-Obiettivo Materno-Infantile) is to bring this process back to a more natural activity. The prevalence of women who breastfed after the third month of life has been set as an indicator of the effectiveness of mother and child health services. However, the percentage of fully breastfeeding women at the fourth month of the newborn varies greatly among Italian regions, from 18 to 56%. As in many other Countries in the European Union, in Italy the initial education of the mother and child caregivers often lacks a specific formal training on breastfeeding promotion, as do academic midwife-training courses. In 2004 the Italian Federation of the Colleges of Midwives implemented a cascade training project in collaboration with the Istituto Superiore di Sanita, to train trainer-midwives who in turn would train midwives, either already working (Continuing Medical Education) or during their formal academic education. Contents, techniques and methods have been the same as those adopted for the World Health Organization's 40+40 hours course "Breastfeeding: counselling: a training course" for trainers. A total of 39 training coordinators and teachers of academic midwifery courses have participated, in two separate groups. In their turn, the trainers have trained 74 working midwives, from almost every Italian region. Throughout the training program, the trainers were supervised by two tutors who assessed their learning-teaching performance and provided a final certificate. The program allowed the trainers and the other participants to reach a standard level of knowledge on the issue, regardless of their initial knowledge. Moreover, it helped to build and share a common language and attitude on the protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding. In the original course the final certification was not included; it was introduced in the present course to ensure high qualitative levels of teaching and to let the training groups better integrate with already existing training groups within the Local Health Authorities. To translate the training experience into an effective improvement of health objectives, as much as possible caregivers should be exposed to this kind of courses, from the beginning of their training. The WHO/UNICEF model proved to be a good basic model even for academic education, maybe with some additional elements aimed at the specific professionals. At present about half of the courses for midwives throughout Italy employ at least one teacher who is also in charge of the WHO/UNICEF course. PMID:17206168

  2. Tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas

    PubMed Central

    Tornero, O. Berbel; García, J.A. Ortega; Tortajada, J. Ferrís i; Castell, J. García; Colomer, J. Donat i; Soldin, O.P.; Soler, J.L. Fuster

    2013-01-01

    Introducción La asociación entre tumores y malformaciones congénitas está bien establecida, pero no existen datos exclusivos en el período neonatal y se desconocen los mecanismos subyacentes que generan dicha relación. Objetivos Este trabajo tiene dos objetivos: primero, analizar la frecuencia de los tumores neonatales asociados a malformaciones congénitas, y segundo, comentar las posibles hipótesis etiopatogénicas de la relación entre ambas entidades. Materiales y método Estudio retrospectivo de las historias clínicas de los tumores neonatales, en el Hospital Universitario Materno- Infantil La Fe de Valencia, desde enero de 1990 hasta diciembre de 1999. Selección y descripción de las variedades histológicas asociadas a malformaciones congénitas. Éstas se han agrupado siguiendo los criterios de la Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades CIE-9, códigos 740.0–759.9. Revisión sistemática bibliográfica de los últimos 25 años, obtenida del Medline, Cancerlit, Index Citation Science y Embase. El perfil de búsqueda utilizado fue la combinación de “neonatal/congenital-tumors/cancer/neoplasms” y “congenital malformations/birth defects”. Resultados Se identificaron 72 tumores neonatales (2,8 % del total de tumores pediátricos diagnosticados en dichos años) y 15 de ellos (20,8 %) asociados a malformaciones congénitas, enfermedades o síndromes congénitos. Las asociaciones entre tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas fueron las siguientes: a) angioma en 3 pacientes: con dos cardiopatías congénitas y una atresia de coanas-laringomalacia; b) neuroblastoma en 2 pacientes: uno con riñón en herradura y anomalías vertebrales, y otro con cardiopatía congénita; c) teratoma en 2 pacientes: uno con fisura palatina y anomalías vertebrales, y otro con metatarso varo; d) tumor del sistema nervioso central en un paciente con hernia de Bochdaleck; e) tumor cardíaco en 4 pacientes con esclerosis tuberosa; f) leucemia aguda en un paciente con síndrome de Down y cardiopatía congénita; g) tumor renal en un caso con hidrocefalia triventricular, y h) tumor adrenal en un caso con hemihipertrofia. En la bibliografía específica, las publicaciones engloban tumores de diferentes épocas pediátricas y sin unanimidad de criterios para clasificar las malformaciones congénitas. Apenas existen datos en el período neonatal y la asociación entre ambas entidades se obtiene de registros de instituciones médicas. La prevalencia oscila entre el 15 y el 31,6 %. Las hipótesis etiopatogénicas que explican la asociación entre tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas están basadas en las exposiciones prenatales (preconcepcionales y transplacentarias) a factores de riesgo potencialmente mutagénicos y carcinogénicos. Conclusiones Probablemente, los tumores neonatales se asocian con mayor frecuencia a malformaciones congénitas que los tumores diagnosticados en épocas posteriores de la vida. Para conocer la prevalencia real de la asociación entre tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas, es necesario unificar los criterios de inclusión y definición de ambas entidades. La obtención de una minuciosa historia medioambiental en todos los tumores neonatales asociados a malformaciones congénitas, donde se detallen y registren todos los factores de riesgo constitucionales y ambientales, es fundamental para mejorar nuestros escasos conocimientos de los mecanismos prenatales subyacentes y avanzar en su prevención. PMID:18559198