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1

HÁBITOS DE CONSUMO E ATRIBUTOS VALORIZADOS NA COMPRA DE LEITE PELO PÚBLICO DA TERCEIRA IDADE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Devido às previsões de envelhecimento da população brasileira para os próximos anos e a importância da cadeia produtiva do leite dentro do agronegócio brasileiro, esse trabalho buscou identificar os atributos mais valorizados pelos idosos bem como os seus hábitos de consumo do leite, além de tentar de verificar a demanda por um produto específico para sua faixa etária. Foram entrevistadas

Hechrisson Zanforlin Magdalena; Roberto Fava Scare; Anna Carolina Pirani Casanova

2008-01-01

2

Avaliação da concentração de retinol em leite UHT (\\  

Microsoft Academic Search

EVALUATION OF THE RETINOL CONCENTRATION IN UHT MILK COMMERCIALIZED IN NATAL, RN. Deficiency of micronutrients is a public health problem. Cow milk is a source of retinol. The objective of this study is to evaluate the retinol concentration in milk commercialized in Natal\\/RN. Ten samples were taken of each brand of UHT milk. Vitamin content was determined by HPLC using

Fernanda Barros Soares; Juliana Morais de Sousa; Roberto Dimenstein

2008-01-01

3

Analise radioquimica de fosforo em amostras de leite. (Radiochemical analysis of phosphorus in milk samples).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The determination of phosphorus in milk samples by thermal neutron activation analysis employing radiochemical separation is described. The radiochemical separation consists of the simultaneous irradiation of samples and standards, dissolution of the milk...

R. M. Oliveira I. I. L. Cunha

1991-01-01

4

Excelência em Bancos de Leite Humano: Uma Visão do Futuro—The First International Congress on Human Milk Banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first International Congress of Human Milk Banks—Excellence in Human Milk Banking: A Vision of the Future, held in Brazil in June 2000 and sponsored by the Brazilian Association of Milk Banks, had representation from milk banks in Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, Venezuela, France, the United Kingdom, and North America as well as Brazil. Arecurring theme in the discussion of

Mary Rose Tully

2001-01-01

5

PRODUÇÃO E COMPOSIÇÃO DO LEITE DE VACAS DA RAÇA HOLANDESA ALIMENTADAS COM FENOS DE ALFAFA E DE TIFTON-85 E SILAGEM DE MILHO  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment studied the effects of alfalfa and Tifton-85 hays and of corn silage intake on the production and composition of the milk of multiparous Holstein cows, averaging 460 kg in body weight, in the beginning of their lactation period, in an experiment in triple Latin square, simultaneous, with three lines (for cows) and three columns (for roughage). The cows

CLÓVES CABREIRA JOBIM; GILBERTO ALVES FERREIRA; GEANE DIAS; ULYSSES CECATO; NEWTON POHL RIBAS

6

O ASSOCIATIVISMO ENTRE OS PRODUTORES DE LEITE EM RESPOSTA A INSTRUÇÃO NORMATIVA 51: O CASO DO MUNICÍPIO DE SANTA IZABEL DO OESTE - PR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A atividade leiteira no Sudoeste do Paraná atravessa um processo de transformação. A Instrução Normativa 51, editada pelo Ministério da agricultura no ano de 2002, é uma recente alteração no setor leiteiro, a fim de garantir a qualidade do produto. O caso do município de Santa Izabel do Oeste, localizado no Sudoeste do Paraná, é um retrato desta mudança. As

Valdir Antonio Galante; Eloir Da Costa; Pessoa Fisica

2008-01-01

7

Intrauterine inflammation increases materno-fetal transfer of gold nanoparticles in a size-dependent manner in murine pregnancy.  

PubMed

The materno-fetal transfer of nanoparticles is a critical issue in designing theranoustic nanoparticles for in vivo applications during pregnancy. Recent studies have reported that certain nanoparticles can cross the placental barrier in healthy pregnant animals depending on the size and surface modification of the nanoparticles and the developmental stages of the fetuses. However, materno-fetal transfer under pathological pregnant conditions has not been examined so far. Here, it is shown that intrauterine inflammation can enhance the materno-fetal transfer of nanoparticles in the late gestation stage of murine pregnancy in a size-dependent manner. Three different-sized gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) with diameters of 3 (Au3), 13 (Au13) and 32 (Au32) nm are applied. The accumulation of Au3 and Au13 nanoparticles in the fetuses is significantly increased in intrauterine inflammatory mice compared with healthy control mice: the concentration of Au3 is much higher than Au13 in fetal tissues of intrauterine inflammatory mice. In contrast, Au32 nanoparticles cannot cross the placental barrier either in healthy or in intrauterine inflammatory mice. The possible underlying mechanism of the increased materno-fetal transfer of small-sized nanoparticles on pathological conditions is inferred to be the structural and functional abnormalities of the placenta under intrauterine inflammation. The size of the nanoparticles is one of the critical factors which determines the extent of fetal exposure to nanoparticles in murine pregnancy under inflammatory conditions. PMID:23761193

Tian, Xin; Zhu, Motao; Du, Libo; Wang, Jing; Fan, Zhenlin; Liu, Jun; Zhao, Yuliang; Nie, Guangjun

2013-06-13

8

Materno-fetal transfer of docosahexaenoic acid is impaired by gestational diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Better knowledge on the disturbed mechanisms implicated in materno-fetal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) transfer in pregnancies with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) may have potentially high implications for later on in effective LC-PUFA supplementation. We studied in vivo placental transfer of fatty acids (FA) using stable isotope tracers administrated to 11 control and 9 GDM pregnant women (6 treated with insulin). Subjects received orally [(13)C]palmitic, [(13)C]oleic and [(13)C]linoleic acids, and [(13)C]docosahexaenoic acid ((13)C-DHA) 12 h before elective caesarean section. Maternal blood samples were collected at -12, -3, -2, and -1 h, delivery, and +1 h. Placental tissue and venous cord blood were also collected. FA were quantified by gas chromatography (GC) and (13)C enrichments by GC-isotope ratio mass spectrometry. [(13)C]FA concentration was higher in total lipids of maternal plasma in GDM vs. controls, except for [(13)C]DHA. Moreover, [(13)C]DHA showed lower placenta/maternal plasma ratio in GDM vs. controls and significantly lower cord/maternal plasma ratio. For the other studied FA, ratios were not different between GDM and controls. Disturbed [(13)C]DHA placental uptake occurs in both GDM treated with diet or insulin, whereas the last ones also have lower [(13)C]DHA in venous cord. The tracer study pointed toward impaired placental DHA uptake as critical step, whereas the transfer of the rest of [(13)C]FA was less affected. GDM under insulin treatment could also have higher fetal fat storage, contributing to reduce [(13)C]DHA in venous cord. DHA transfer to the fetus was reduced in GDM pregnancies compared with controls, which might affect the programming of neurodevelopment in their neonates. PMID:23921142

Pagán, Ana; Prieto-Sánchez, María T; Blanco-Carnero, José E; Gil-Sánchez, Alfonso; Parrilla, Juan J; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold; Larqué, Elvira

2013-08-06

9

Evolução clínica e laboratorial de crianças com alergia a leite de vaca e ingestão de bebida à base de soja Clinical and laboratorial follow-up of children with cow's milk allergy (CMA) using a soy based beverage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the use of a soy beverage in infants with cow's milk allergy (CMA), considering all nutritional aspects and the development of soy allergy. Methods: Twelve CMA patients with 1 to 4 years old received soy beverage and were subjected to clinical, labo- ratory and nutritional assessment during 12 months. Soy formula samples were evaluated by ELISA technique

Ana Paula; B. M. Castro; Cristina Miuki; A. Jacob; Gabriela Ackel Corradi; Dulcineia Abdalla; Renata F. F. Gonçalves; Fabia Thais; L. Rocha; Antonio Carlos Pastorino

10

ANÁLISE DE DESEMPENHO ECONÔMICO DA PRODUÇÃO ORGÂNICA DE LEITE: ESTUDO DE CASO NO DISTRITO FEDERAL Assessment of economic performance of organic milk production: case study in the brazilian federal district  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present work is the economical analysis of the organic milk production. For this evaluation, statistics from a farm with organic certificate located in the Brazilian Federal District were appraised, during the period of 2002 and 2003. The Net Operating Revenue (NOR) displayed a positive general average per liter of milk for 2002 and a negative average

Andréa Amaral Alves; Ângela Maria Quintão Lana; Luiz Carlos; Takao Yamaguchi; Luiz Januário; Magalhães Aroeira

11

Comparação entre os métodos de referência e a análise eletrônica na determinação da composição do leite bovino (Comparison between standard methods and electronic analyses for measurement of the bovine milk composition)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate an electronic method for determination of milk composition based on infrared determination, 48 raw milk samples from Holstein cows and five bulk tank samples were analyzed for fat, protein, lactose and total solids contents. Results for fat, protein, lactose, and total solids contents for raw milk samples were, respectively, 3.8%, 3.3%, 4.6% and 12.4% using the

T. M. L. Silveira; L. M. Fonseca; S. V. Cançado; V. Ferraz

12

Milk intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and prostate cancer Ingestão de leite e risco de diabetes melito tipo 2, hipertensão e câncer de próstata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Milk intake is widely recommended for a healthy diet. Recent evidences suggest that milk\\/dairy products are associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes and hypertension. On the other hand, high calcium intake has been associated with a higher risk of prostate cancer. The calcium and vitamin D content in dairy foods could have beneficial effects on glucose metabolism

Ligia Araújo Martini; Richard James Wood

2009-01-01

13

A brief review of recent data on some cytokine expressions at the materno-foetal interface which might challenge the classical Th1\\/Th2 dichotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focussing attention on cytokines at the materno-foetal interface represents one of the major advances made in the field. This owes much to the visionary views of Tom Wegmann, and to the changes brought about in the field by immunotrophism and Th1\\/Th2 paradigms. We review these briefly and also point out some emerging problems.However, a certain number of newly discovered cytokines

Gérard Chaouat; Sandrine Zourbas; Sasa Ostojic; Geneviève Lappree-Delage; Sylvie Dubanchet; Natalie Ledee; Jacques Martal

2002-01-01

14

The phenotype of the human materno-fetal endothelial barrier: molecular occupancy of paracellular junctions dictate permeability and angiogenic plasticity*  

PubMed Central

In vitro models predict that molecular occupancy of endothelial junctions may regulate both barrier function and angiogenesis. Whether this is true in human vascular beds undergoing physiological angiogenesis has not been shown. This review presents data which demonstrate there are two distinct junctional phenotypes, ‘activated’ and ‘stable’, present in the vascular tree of the human placenta taken from two distinct highly angiogenic gestational periods (first and last trimester). Stability is conferred by the presence of occludin in tight junctions and plakoglobin in adherens junctions. Their localization may be influenced by vascular endothelial growth factor and angiopoietins 1 and 2 that have a similar temporal and site-specific differential expression. The junctional phenotypes are reversible, as shown in studies with endothelial cells isolated from placental microvessels and grown in the presence/absence of cAMP-enhancing agents. Reductions in protein levels and loss of junctional localization of adhesion molecules result in increased permeability to macromolecules, whilst up-regulation and re-targeting of these molecules inhibit cell proliferation and increase transendothelial resistance. These studies suggest junctional adhesion molecules can regulate physiological angiogenesis and vascular re-modelling. Moreover, the activated junctional phenotype of placental microvessels allows them to participate in increased growth and proliferation. This junctional immaturity appears to be at the expense of barrier function resulting in sites of maximal materno-fetal solute exchange.

Leach, Lopa

2002-01-01

15

Draft Guidance for Industry: Use of Serological Tests to ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... 8. Vago, AR, LO Andrade, AA Leite, D. d'Avila Reis, AM Macedo, SJ Adad, S. Tostes Jr., MCV Moreira, GB Filho, SDJ Pena (2000). ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation/guidances

16

Correlação entre os métodos infravermelho e ultra-som na determinação da composição química do leite das vacas do concurso leiteiro da Expointer 2007 Correlation between infra-red and ultra-sound methods to evaluate milk composition in milk contest at EXPOINTER 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expointer is one of the most important events of cattle breeding in Latin America, where the main species and production animals are showed. The objective of this research was to evaluate the chemical composition and somatic cells count in dairy cow's milk that were evaluated at milk production contest at Expointer 2007. It intents to correlate two analyti c methods

Andrea Troller Pinto; Maira Balbinotti Zanela; Maria Edi Rocha Ribeiro; Victoria Noel Vázquez; Jabson de Oliveira Santos

17

Organofosforados e carbamatos no leite produzido em quatro regiões leiteiras no Brasil: ocorrência e ação sobre Listeria monocytogenes e Salmonella spp. Organophosphates and carbamates in milk produced in four milk producing regions from Brazil: occurrence and activity against Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical residues may be present in foods due to contamination in early stages of production, posing a potential risk to consumers. Organophosphates and carbamates are used in the control of parasites in animals and may generate residues in foods derived from these animals, like milk. This study aimed to survey the presence of these two pesticides in raw milk samples

Luís Augusto NERO; Marcos Rodrigues de MATTOS; Vanerli BELOTI; Márcia Aguiar; Ferreira BARROS; Daisy PONTES NETTO; Bernadette Dora; Gombossy de Melo

18

Comparação entre duas dietas à base de leite humano em relação ao crescimento e à mineralização óssea de recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso Comparison of two diets with modified human milk regarding growth and bone mineralization of very low birth weight infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare the efficacy and tolerability of two diets based on human milk (HM) added with PreNan® or FM 85® on physical growth, bone mineralization and duration of hospitalization. Methods: Two groups of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants were studied: Group A, 14 infants fed with HM+FM 85® (5g\\/100mL HM) and Group B, 11 infants fed with HM+PreNan®

Ana Beatriz Gonçalves; Salim Moisés Jorge; Arthur Lopes Gonçalves

19

Enhancing a Requirements Baseline with Scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scenarios are well reconized as an important strat-egy towards understanding the interface between theenvironment and the system as well as a means toelicit and specify software behavior. We have a broaderunderstanding of scenarios. For us a scenario is anevolving description of situations in the environment.Our proposal is framed by Leite's work on a client orientedrequirements baseline, which aims to model

Julio Cesar Sampaio Do Prado Leite; Gustavo Rossi; Federico Balaguer; Vanesa Maiorana; Gladys N. Kaplan; Graciela D. S. Hadad; Alejandro Oliveros

1997-01-01

20

Respiratory pattern, thoracoabdominal motion and ventilation in chronic airway obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Respiratory pattern, thoracoabdominal motion and ventilation in chronic airway obstruction. M. Fernandes, A. Cukier, N. Ambrosino, J.J. Leite, M.I. Zanetti Feltrim. Background. Patients with chronic obstructive pul- monary disease (COPD) present abnormal respiratory mechanics, but its relation to ventilation variables at rest is not fully understood. Methods. We evaluated breathing pattern, thoracoab- dominal motion, and ventilation in moderate and severe

M. Fernandes; A. Cukier; N. Ambrosino; J. J. Leite; M. I. Zanetti Feltrim

2007-01-01

21

ASPECTOS DO ALEITAMENTO MATERNO ASPECTS OF BREASTFEEDING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breastfeeding is very important for babies, so it must be unique to the six months of age, since then brings up complementary foods. It's been essential that professionals help the mothers in their questions and make explanations about the potential value of breastfeeding, both for the baby and for their mother, showing them the right stage to introduce complementary foods.

ANDRÉIA ANDRADE OLIVEIRA; SHEILA VIEIRA E CASTRO; NILMA MARIA VARGAS LESSA

22

An Extension of the Governing Principle of Dissipative Processes to Nonlinear Constitutive Equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A generalisation of Onsager's reciprocal relations has been proved by phenomenological methods. It is pointed out that Gyarmati's variational principle is valid in case of nonlinear constitutive equations, too.Translated AbstractEine Ausdehnung des Leit-Prinzips der dissipativen Vorgänge auf nichtlineare Material-GleichungenEine Verallgemeinerung der Onsagerschen Reziprozitätsbeziehungen wurde durch phänomenologische Methoden bestätigt. Es wurde gezeigt, daß das Gyarmatische Variations-prinzip auch für den Fall von nichtlinearen Material-Gleichungen gültig ist.

Verhás, J.

23

Konsistente Verknüpfung von Aktivitäts-, Sequenz- und Zustandsdiagrammen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Der folgende Beitrag stellt eine formale, generische Verhaltensstruktur und Semantik vor, die die Basis für die konsistente Verknüpfung der drei wichtigsten UML Verhaltensdiagramme bildet. Es wird gezeigt, wie sich das grobe und übersichtliche Verhalten in Aktivitätsdiagrammen, das detaillierte Schnittstellenverhalten in Sequenzdiagrammen und detaillierte Verhaltensmodelle in Zustandsdiagrammen mit Hilfe der Semantik konsistent miteinander verknüpfen lassen und die Inhalte der drei genannten Verhaltensdiagramme eindeutig miteinander in Beziehung gebracht werden können. Als Anwendungsbeispiel wird die komplexe, sicherheits- und echtzeitkritische zugseitige Komponente des Europäischen Leit- und Sicherungstechnik Systems (ETCS) verwendet.

Ebrecht, Lars; Lemmer, Karsten

24

Developmental changes at the materno-embryonic interface in early pregnancy of the alpaca, Lamos pacos.  

PubMed

This study analyses the manner in which trophoblast cells adhere to uterine epithelium and the subsequent interactions that contribute to the establishment of epitheliochorial placentation in the alpaca Lama pacos. Specimens at the luteal and follicular phases and at 22, 26, 30 and 45 days of pregnancy (op) were processed for morphological studies. On day 15 op, the blastocysts are completely free within the uterine lumen, with implantation starting around day 20. On days 22 and 26 of gestation, the trophoblast is apposed to the epithelial surface of the uterus, with areas of contact and adhesion by means of complex interdigitation. Implantation sites occur prevalently in the left uterine horn, but an expanded trophoblast also occupies large extensions of the right horn, where the maternofetal interaction shows peculiar areas of apposition. As development continues, attachment areas become more extensive. On days 30 and 45, many secretory granules can be seen in the uterine epithelium, while giant multinucleate cells appear interposed between the remaining trophoblast cells, showing intense alkaline phosphatase activity, deposits containing iron and PAS-positive granules. Placental lactogen hormone is not present within the cytoplasm of the binucleate or multinucleate trophoblast cells. By day 30 of gestation, the trophoblast layer is lined by an extraembryonic connective tissue that by day 45 is well vascularized, thus indicating the starting point of placental formation. Fetal and maternal capillaries indent the epithelium and the trophoblast, narrowing the specialized areas of exchange, which occur along the entire maternofetal interface, characterizing the diffuse nature of this placenta. PMID:14579154

Olivera, L V M; Zago, D A; Jones, C J P; Bevilacqua, E

2003-10-25

25

Ultrastructure of the materno-embryonic interface in the first trimester of pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

During early pregnancy, the absence of fully developed internal organs means that the embryo is dependent on highly differentiated adnexal structures such as the secondary yolk sac and free-floating amniotic membrane as well as the placental trophoblast. In this review, we describe and illustrate the ultrastructural characteristics of these different cellular barriers which separate maternal and embryonic tissues during the

Carolyn J. P Jones; Eric Jauniaux

1995-01-01

26

[Materno-fetal conflicts and the perinatal Medea syndrome: a cognitive analysis].  

PubMed

The definition of "maternal-fetal conflict" requires the attribution of a well-defined subjectivity at the product of conception, and thus, from the medical point of view, we need to consider the fetus as a patient. A tangible example of conflict in our society is the "Medea syndrome", a framework in which the female parent kills her fetus or child to take revenge on the partner. We have produced a questionnaire that was administered to 150 women admitted to the Department of "Obstetrics and Gynecology" of the "Santa Maria della Misericordia" Hospital, in Perugia. The results show the importance of the maternal-fetal conflict in our reality through the opinion that women have given in assessing particular situations that we have proposed in the questionnaire. PMID:22036755

Baldelli, S; Di Renzo, G C

2011-12-01

27

Detección de ácidos nucleicos fetales en plasma materno: hacia un diagnóstico prenatal no invasivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of circulating free fetal nucleic acids in maternal plasma has sparked wide interest in their origin, characteristics and possible medical uses. This review provides a comprehensive and concise summary of the results of studies of free fetal DNA and RNA in maternal plasma and discusses future possibilities for their use, mainly aimed at non-invasive prenatal diagnosis, an area

P. Ayala-Ramírez; R. García-Robles; J. Bernal; M. Bermúdez

28

LOS EFECTOS MATERNOS Y EL SISTEMA INMUNE EN UNA PATOLOGÍA ENDÉMICA: LA ENFERMEDAD DE CHAGAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

MATERNAL EFFECTS AND IMMUNE RESPONSE. STUDIES IN THE ENDEMIC CHAGAS' DISEASE Pregnancy in mammals results from the coexistence during gestation of two organisms that constantly interact through various stimuli, namely, the antigenic ones. The young are submitted to the influences of the maternal environment, notably nutritional and immunological, during gestation and in the first stages of intrauterine life. For this

NORA RAQUEL PUIG; HÉCTOR OSCAR DÁVILA

2007-01-01

29

Estilos educativos materno y paterno: Evaluación y relación con el ajuste adolescente  

Microsoft Academic Search

Title: Maternal and paternal parenting styles: assessment and relationship with adolescent adjustment. Abstract: This study presents the validation of a scale that was elaborated to assess maternal and paternal parenting styles according to the percep- tion of their adolescent children. The scale was applied to a sample com- posed by 848 adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years old, that

Alfredo Oliva Delgado; Águeda Parra Jiménez; Inmaculada Sánchez-Queija; Francisca López Gaviño

2007-01-01

30

A statistical characterization of plasmasphere density structure and boundary locations  

SciTech Connect

A statistical study of plasmaspheric density profiles and their boundaries is performed, using measurements of core (<50 eV) ions by the retarding ion mass spectrometer (RIMS) on Dynamics Explorer 1. The plasmasphere density profiles are classified into essentially six different categories, indicative of density structure out to the outer boundary of observable cold, isotropic plasma. The most common profiles observed are those which are relatively featureless out to this outer boundary and those which exhibit multiple plateaus and plasmapauses. the multiple plateau profiles occur predominantly in the afternoon and evening sectors, while the featureless profiles are most common in the midnight through morning sectors. In the multiple plateau profiles, the average MLT (magnetic local time)-L locus of the inner plasmapause gradients is nearly circular at L = 3-4. Profiles with significant density troughs occur most often in the evening sector, and the troughs are widest in this sector as well. The MLT-L local time shape of the outer boundary of RIMS-observed cold ions (termed here low-energy ion transition, or LEIT) is similar to previously reported average plasmapause shapes, though its bulge region occurs in the afternoon sector. This MLT-L shape also tends to become more circular with increasing geomagnetic activity. Using simultaneous plasma density measurements from the plasma wave instrument, it is found that the LEIT typically is located between densities of 10 and 100 cm{sup {minus}3}, with an average plasma density there of about 60 cm{sup {minus}3}.

Horwitz, J.L.; Comfort, R.H. (Univ. of Alabama, Huntsville (USA)); Chappell, C.R. (Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL (USA))

1990-06-01

31

A RELAÇÃO ENTRE O IDIOMA E A IDENTIDADE. O USO DO IDIOMA MATERNO COMO DIREITO HUMANO DOS MIGRANTES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Os imigrantes estabelecidos num país cuja língua não é a mesma de sua terra de origem enfrentam singulares problemas quando crianças, enquanto gerações posteriores a assimilam e precisam fazer frente às questões de identidade pessoal e cultural. A situação coloca desafios ainda mais complexos, quando a cultura dominante no país anfitrião subestima a língua materna do imigrante. Este artigo analisa

Lourdes C. Rovira

32

Estrés, ansiedad y depressión en gestantes controladas en la Unidad de Ginecología Psicosomática del Hospital Materno-Infantil de Málaga  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo understand perinatal depression, identify risk factors for depression during pregnancy, recognize depression during pregnancy, describe the possible links between depression and pregnancy, discover whether this disease affects the newborn, pregnancy or childbirth, and analyze treatment for depression during pregnancy.

Marta Blasco Alonso; Carolina Monedero Mora; Javier Alcalde Torres; Cristina Criado Santaella; Fermín Criado Enciso; Mair Abehsera Bensabat

2008-01-01

33

Effects of gestational age and surface modification on materno-fetal transfer of nanoparticles in murine pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Nanoparticle exposure in pregnancy may result in placental damage and fetotoxicity; however, the factors that determine fetal nanoparticle exposure are unclear. Here we have assessed the effect of gestational age and nanoparticle composition on fetal accumulation of maternally-administered nanomaterials in mice. We determined the placental and fetal uptake of 13?nm gold nanoparticles with different surface modifications (ferritin, PEG and citrate) following intravenous administration at E5.5-15.5. We showed that prior to E11.5, all tested nanoparticles could be visualized and detected in fetal tissues in significant amounts; however, fetal gold levels declined dramatically post-E11.5. In contrast, Au-nanoparticle accumulation in the extraembryonic tissues (EET) increased 6–15 fold with gestational age. Fetal and EET accumulation of ferritin- and PEG-modified nanoparticles was considerably greater than citrate-capped nanoparticles. No signs of toxicity were observed. Fetal exposure to nanoparticles in murine pregnancy is, therefore, influenced by both stage of embryonic/placental maturation and nanoparticle surface composition.

Yang, Hui; Sun, Cuiji; Fan, Zhenlin; Tian, Xin; Yan, Liang; Du, Libo; Liu, Yang; Chen, Chunying; Liang, Xing-jie; Anderson, Gregory J.; Keelan, Jeffrey A.; Zhao, Yuliang; Nie, Guangjun

2012-01-01

34

Localization of tumour necrosis factor production in cells at the materno/fetal interface in human pregnancy.  

PubMed Central

Biologically active tumour necrosis factor (TNF) was detected in medium conditioned by incubation with explants of human pregnancy decidua or fetal chorionic villous tissue, taken in the first trimester and at term. Addition of endotoxin increased TNF release in most cases. ELISA assays gave similar results for TNF-alpha and also demonstrated low levels of TNF-beta. Using cell populations purified by flow cytometry, secretion of biologically active TNF was shown to be localized to the macrophages. Cytotrophoblast purified from term amniochorion produced no TNF. Both decidual and chorionic villous tissue at term contained mRNA for TNF-alpha and TNF-beta. TNF-alpha mRNA was confined to decidual macrophages in first trimester tissue, and was not present in chorionic cytotrophoblast. TNF-beta mRNA, in contrast, was detected in both macrophage and non-macrophage populations in term decidua. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4

Vince, G; Shorter, S; Starkey, P; Humphreys, J; Clover, L; Wilkins, T; Sargent, I; Redman, C

1992-01-01

35

Thermodynamic potentials in closed and open nanocrystalline systems: Si-Ge islands on Si(001).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The driving forces for alloying in Si-Ge epitaxial nanocrystalline islands were quantified experimentally. Closed and open systems were emulated by controlling surface diffusion kinetics [1]. Grazing Incidence X-Ray Diffraction (GIXRD) experiments were performed to map the composition and the strain distribution within the Si-Ge:Si(001) islands, permitting the evaluation of the relevant thermodynamic potentials for alloying. For the closed system the elastic strain energy increased, which was more than compensated by the increase in the local mixing entropy [2]. In contrast, for the open system, the elastic energy decreased and the mixing entropy increased, driven by the intermixing originated from the inflow of Si from the reservoir. For both systems, the evolution of the composition leads to a lowering of the Gibbs free energy. The results were in full agreement with a theoretical prediction of the optimum concentration for epitaxial islands. [1] M. S. Leite et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 165901 (2007). [2] G. Medeiros-Ribeiro et al, Nano Lett. 7, 223 (2007).

Leite, Marina S.; Malachias, Angelo; Kycia, Stefan W.; Kamins, Ted I.; Williams, R. Stanley; Medeiros-Ribeiro, Gilberto

2008-03-01

36

The extrachromosomal replication of Dictyostelium plasmid Ddp2 requires a cis-acting element and a plasmid-encoded trans-acting factor.  

PubMed Central

Dictyostelium discoideum plasmid Ddp2 from the wild strain WS380B is a 5.8-kilobase (kb) supercoiled circle with a copy number of 300 per haploid genome. We previously described the construction of an extrachromosomally replicating transformation vector pnDeI carrying 4.7 kb of Ddp2 sequences (B. Leiting, and A. Noegel, Plasmid 20:241-248, 1988). In order to reduce the sequences required for extrachromosomal maintenance in D. discoideum, we characterized Ddp2 by sequence analysis, by deletion experiments, by transcription mapping, by electrophoretic mobility shift assays, and by expression of its single open reading frame in Escherichia coli. Two elements were involved in replication of Ddp2: a cis-acting sequence located on a 592-base-pair (bp) fragment that consisted of 220 bp of essential and 372 bp of auxiliary sequences, and a 2.7-kb open reading frame which most likely encodes a trans-acting factor. The cis- and trans-acting elements did not overlap and were shown to act independently from the location of the sequences encoding the trans-acting factor. Images

Leiting, B; Lindner, I J; Noegel, A A

1990-01-01

37

Mapping of focused Laguerre-Gauss beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the detection of propagating optical fields bearing axial symmetry in the situation of an extreme focusing, when the paraxial approximation no longer holds. The results, obtained by general arguments based upon the vectorial nature of electromagnetic fields, show the rapid spatial variations of fields with ``complicated'' spatial structure [1]. Laguerre-Gauss beam, notably beams bearing a l = 2 orbital angular momentum for which a magnetic field and a gradient of the electric field are present on axis have been examined in their behavior upon an atomic size light detector sensitive to quadrupole electric transitions as well as to magnetic dipole transitions. nd apply it to the case of a Laguerre-Gauss beam.We detail how the mapping of such a beam depends on the nature and on the specific orientation of the detector. We also show that the interplay of mixing of polarization and topological charge, respectively associated to spin and orbital momentum when the paraxial polarization holds, modifies the apparent size of the beam in the focal plane.[0pt] [1]. V. Klimov, M. Ducloy, D. Bloch and JR Rios Leite, Phys. Rev. A 85, 053834 (2012).

Rios Leite, Jose R.; Klimov, Vasily; Ducloy, Martial; Bloch, Daniel

2013-03-01

38

Cytokine gene expression at the materno-foetal interface after experimental Neospora caninum infection of heifers at 110 days of gestation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle but the reasons why some animals abort and not others remain unclear. The immunological control of the parasite in the placenta or by the foetus could be the key to determining the mechanism of abortion and/or transplacental transmission to the...

39

Hemoglobin allostery: new views on old players.  

PubMed

Proteins are dynamic molecular machines whose structure and function are modulated by environmental perturbations and natural selection. Allosteric regulation, discovered in 1963 as a novel molecular mechanism of enzymatic adaptation [Monod, Changeux & Jacob (1963). J. Mol. Biol.6, 306-329], seems to be the leit motiv of enzymes and metabolic pathways, enabling fine and quick responses toward external perturbations. Hemoglobin (Hb), the oxygen transporter of all vertebrates, has been for decades the paradigmatic system to test the validity of the conformational selection mechanism, the conceptual innovation introduced by Monod, Wyman and Changeux. We present hereby the results of a comparative analysis of structure, function and thermodynamics of two extensively investigated hemoglobins: human HbA and trout HbI. They represent a unique and challenging comparison to test the general validity of the stereochemical model proposed by Perutz. Indeed both proteins are ideal for the purpose being very similar yet very different. In fact, T-HbI is a low-ligand-affinity cooperative tetrameric Hb, insensitive to all allosteric effectors. This remarkable feature, besides being physiologically sound, supports the stereochemical model, given that the six residues identified in HbA as responsible for the Bohr and the 2,3-di-phosphoglycerate effects are all mutated. Comparison of the three-dimensional structures of HbA and T-HbI allows unveiling the molecular mechanism whereby the latter has a lower O2 affinity. Moreover, the energetic balance sheet shows that the salt bridges breaking upon allosteric quaternary transition are important yet insufficient to account for the free energy of heme-heme interactions in both hemoglobins. PMID:23274140

Miele, Adriana Erica; Bellelli, Andrea; Brunori, Maurizio

2012-12-28

40

Spatio-temporal clustering of wildfires in Portugal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several studies have shown that wildfires in Portugal presenthigh temporal as well as high spatial variability (Pereira et al., 2005, 2011). The identification and characterization of spatio-temporal clusters contributes to a comprehensivecharacterization of the fire regime and to improve the efficiency of fire prevention and combat activities. The main goalsin this studyare: (i) to detect the spatio-temporal clusters of burned area; and, (ii) to characterize these clusters along with the role of human and environmental factors. The data were supplied by the National Forest Authority(AFN, 2011) and comprises: (a)the Portuguese Rural Fire Database, PRFD, (Pereira et al., 2011) for the 1980-2007period; and, (b) the national mapping burned areas between 1990 and 2009. In this work, in order to complement the more common cluster analysis algorithms, an alternative approach based onscan statistics and on the permutation modelwas used. This statistical methodallows the detection of local excess events and to test if such an excess can reasonably have occurred by chance.Results obtained for different simulations performed for different spatial and temporal windows are presented, compared and interpreted.The influence of several fire factors such as (climate, vegetation type, etc.) is also assessed. Pereira, M.G., Trigo, R.M., DaCamara, C.C., Pereira, J.M.C., Leite, S.M., 2005:"Synoptic patterns associated with large summer forest fires in Portugal".Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 129, 11-25. Pereira, M. G., Malamud, B. D., Trigo, R. M., and Alves, P. I.: The history and characteristics of the 1980-2005 Portuguese rural fire database, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 3343-3358, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-3343-2011, 2011 AFN, 2011: AutoridadeFlorestalNacional (National Forest Authority). Available at http://www.afn.min-agricultura.pt/portal.

Costa, R.; Pereira, M. G.; Caramelo, L.; Vega Orozco, C.; Kanevski, M.

2012-04-01

41

Multivariate statistical analysis of wildfires in Portugal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several studies demonstrate that wildfires in Portugal present high temporal and spatial variability as well as cluster behavior (Pereira et al., 2005, 2011). This study aims to contribute to the characterization of the fire regime in Portugal with the multivariate statistical analysis of the time series of number of fires and area burned in Portugal during the 1980 - 2009 period. The data used in the analysis is an extended version of the Rural Fire Portuguese Database (PRFD) (Pereira et al, 2011), provided by the National Forest Authority (Autoridade Florestal Nacional, AFN), the Portuguese Forest Service, which includes information for more than 500,000 ?re records. There are many multiple advanced techniques for examining the relationships among multiple time series at the same time (e.g., canonical correlation analysis, principal components analysis, factor analysis, path analysis, multiple analyses of variance, clustering systems). This study compares and discusses the results obtained with these different techniques. Pereira, M.G., Trigo, R.M., DaCamara, C.C., Pereira, J.M.C., Leite, S.M., 2005: "Synoptic patterns associated with large summer forest fires in Portugal". Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 129, 11-25. Pereira, M. G., Malamud, B. D., Trigo, R. M., and Alves, P. I.: The history and characteristics of the 1980-2005 Portuguese rural fire database, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 3343-3358, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-3343-2011, 2011 This work is supported by European Union Funds (FEDER/COMPETE - Operational Competitiveness Programme) and by national funds (FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) under the project FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-022692, the project FLAIR (PTDC/AAC-AMB/104702/2008) and the EU 7th Framework Program through FUME (contract number 243888).

Costa, Ricardo; Caramelo, Liliana; Pereira, Mário

2013-04-01

42

Efectos genéticos directos y maternos del peso al destete en una población de ganado Cebú de Cuba Direct and maternal genetic effects for weaning weight in a Zebu beef cattle population in Cuba  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic parameters for weaning weight were estimated in a Zebu beef cattle population in Camagüey province, Cuba. Data for 20,151 calves born between 1988 and 2006 were used in six variants of the statistical animal model. Contemporary groups (year- herd-season-sex) were used as a common fixed effect, and a weaning age linear regression and dam age linear and quadratic regressions

Alejandro Palacios-Espinosa; José Luis Espinoza-Villavicencio; Danilo Guerra-Iglesias

2010-01-01

43

Semiconductor thin film transfer by wafer bonding and advanced ion implantation layer splitting technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wafer bonding is an attractive technology for modern semiconductor and microelectronic industry due to its variability in allowing combination of materials. Initially, the bonding of wafers of the same material, such as silicon-silicon wafer bonding has been major interest. In the meantime, research interest has shifted to the bonding of dissimilar materials such as silicon to quartz or to sapphire. Thermal stress coming from the different expansion coefficients usually is a barrier to the success of dissimilar material bonding. Thermal stress may cause debonding, sliding, cracking, thermal misfit dislocations, or film wrinkle to impair the quality of the transferred layer. This dissertation presents several effective approaches to solve the thermal stress problem. These approaches concern bonding processes (low vacuum bonding and storage), thinning (advanced ion implantation layer splitting), and annealing processes (accumulative effect of blister generation) and are combined to design the best heat-treatment cycle. For this propose the concept of hot bonding is used in order to effectively minimize the thermal mismatch of dissimilar material bonding during the bonding and thinning procedures. During the initial bonding and bond strengthening phase, the difference in the temperature between bonding and annealing processes should be decreased as much as possible to avoid excessive thermal stresses. This concept can be realized either by increasing the bonding temperature or by decreasing the annealing temperature. A thinning technique has to employed that can thin the device wafer before debonding occurs due to the thermal stress generated either from the cooling-down process in the first case or by the annealing process itself in the late case. The ion implantation layer splitting method, also known as the Smart-cutsp°ler process, developed by Bruel at LEIT in France is a practical thinning technique which satisfies the above requirement. In the study, an advanced ion implantation layer splitting technique was developed to significantly decrease the splitting (annealing) temperature. It successfully solved the debonding and cracking problems because of thermal stress. Low vacuum bonding and storage process also was investigated in the dissertation because its enhanced bonding effect can render a way to increase sufficient high bonding energy at low annealing (splitting) temperature condition that can notably reduce thermal stress to successfully transfer a thin film onto substrate during splitting process.

Lee, Tien-Hsi

44

Developpement d'un modele d'interpretation de l'essai d'enfoncement du poincon tronconique effile (E.P.T.E.) dans un milieu soumis a une sollicitation anisotrope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis, a review of the phenomena influencing the mechanical behaviour of rocksalt as well as in situ tests already performed to determine creep law parameters for rocksalt are presented. The test called S.C.P.T. by Leite (1989) for Sharp Cone Penetration Test presents a promising in situ test like an index test for determination of creep parameters. The aim of this thesis is to generalise the interpretation of the S.C.P.T. test to media subjected to an anisotropic preliminary stress field. Indeed, the interpretation of this test has been already done assuming an isotropic preliminary stress field for the ice and the frozen soils, and generalise thereafter for rocksalt. The most original contribution of my work, as presented in my thesis, is that I have proposed a determination method of the shear modulus G using the S.C.P.T. test in infinite and finite media with a linear elastic behaviour subjected to an anisotropic preliminary stress field. This method gives results comparable with those of the conventional methods such as the unconfined compression test. Thereafter, we have proved that for an infinite or finite medium with non-linear behaviour subjected to an anisotropic preliminary stress field, and with a simple creep law in its hardening formulation, the interpretation of the S.C.P.T. test is exactly the same that the one subjected to an isotropic preliminary stress field. Finally, in order to verify the accuracy of the suggested interpretation method, a breadboard construction allowing to carry out laboratory S.C.P.T. test on samples subjected to an anisotropic preliminary stress field in the perpendicular plan to the sharp cone aids has been done. Its reliability was tested by comparing the shear moduli G obtained by S.C.P.T. tests and by conventional uniaxial compression test. Once the reliability of the assembly tested, laboratory creep S.C.P.T. tests with various anisotropic degrees of the preliminary stress field in the plane perpendicular to the sharp cone axis have been performed on artificial rocksalt. Some conventional uniaxial creep tests have been also performed. The comparison of the results obtained using these two kinds of tests, as well as the results of uniaxial, triaxial creep tests and creep S.C.P.T. tests published in the literature allows us to conclude that with the proposed interpretation method, the creep S.C.P.T. test can give creep parameters comparable with those of the conventional tests such as uniaxial or triaxial creep tests. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Masengo, Edouard

45

Secondes grossesses chez les femmes VIH-1 séropositives. Étude prospective monocentrique  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo evaluate the influence of successive pregnancies on the materno-fœtal prognosis in a population of HIV-infected women. Clinical, biological data and treatment strategies were compared during iterative pregnancies.

F. Monpoux; J. Delotte; E. Galiba; S. de Smet; J. Durant; P. Boutté; A. Bongain

2008-01-01

46

Preface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biennial International Conferences on Photoacoustic and Photothermal Phenomena (ICPPP) are widely recognized as the major venue for the dissemination of recent and significant research results in the traditional areas, as well as in new and exciting outgrowths of this interdisciplinary field. The ICPPP is concerned with the science, applications and technologies involving the optical, electron-beam or otherwise production, propagation and detection of acoustic, thermal and general diffusion-wave fields.

In the 2004 edition the conference was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and involved 14 topics covered in the scientific programme. These are Spectroscopy, Analytical Chemistry and Photochemistry, PA and PT Imaging and Microscopy, Thermophysical Properties and Characterization of Materials, Laser Ultrasonics, Ultrafast PA and PT Phenomena, Electronic and Optical Materials, Thin Films and Devices, Non Linear Phenomena and Inverse Problem, Nanoscale Phenomena, Non Destructive Evaluation, Diffusion Waves and Applications, Industrial Applications, New Instruments and Methodology, Biological,Medical and Dental Applications, Agriculture, Food and Environmental Applications . More than 300 short abstracts contributions were received and refereed for acceptation, from 690 authors of 28 different countries.

This volume contains the proceedings of the 13ICPPP including the 207 full papers accepted after a very careful peer review process. Their contents are very deep and modern and show the peculiar interdisciplinary nature of the area. It is provided a collection of papers which includes the traditional subjects of the area as well as new developments of th the fields. The characterization of materials is occupying a great interest in the papers and many studies involving nanoscale phenomena were developed exploring the photothermal methodology. As in the previous conferences thermal wave microscopy and non-linear photothermal phenomena keep a high interest. The application of the methodology to any diffusive wave, other than the thermal one, showed significant growth. In the applications field many expressive papers are analyzing environmental, dental and medical concerns besides those involving other industrial purposes.

The Conference received financial support from various Brazilian institutions and agencies, specially the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development - CNPq and Research and Projects Financing - Brazilian innovation Agency - FINEP, and from United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization - UNESCO, to whom the conference organizers are very grateful.

We would like to thank greatly the colleagues that helped much with the refereeing tasks and for the stimulating discussions and suggestions during the conference organization and proceedings preparation. Besides we wish to thank the authors for the high quality of their contributions. In special it should be acknowledge the essential help of the people from State University of the North of Rio de Janeiro (Fluminense)- UENF, State University of Campinas - UNICAMP and National Institute for Space Research - INPE, and colleagues that chaired previous conferences. Finally, we are all grateful evious for the precious work of the conference secretary Nelia F. Leite.

Helion Vargas Chairman of the 13th International Conference on Photoacoustic and Photothermal Phenomena

Vargas, Helion

2005-06-01

47

Modelling wildfire activity in Iberia with different Atmospheric Circulation WTs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work focuses on the spatial and temporal variability of burnt area (BA) for the entire Iberian Peninsula (IP) and on the construction of statistical models to reproduce the inter-annual variability, based on Weather Types Classification (WTC). A common BA dataset was assembled for the first time for the entire Iberian Peninsula, by merging BA records for the 66 administrative regions of Portugal and Spain. A normalization procedure was then applied to the various size regions before performing a k-means cluster analysis to identify large areas characterized by similar fire regimes. The most compelling results were obtained for 4 clusters (Northwestern, Northern, Southwestern and Eastern) whose spatial patterns and seasonal fire regimes are shown to be related with constraining factors such as topography, vegetation cover and climate conditions. The response of fire burnt surface at monthly time scales to both long-term climatic pre-conditions and short-term synoptic forcing was assessed through correlation and regression analysis using: (i) temperature and precipitation from 2 to 7 months in advance to fire peak season; (ii) synoptic weather patterns derived from 11 distinct classifications derived under the COSTaction-733. Different responses were obtained for each of the considered regions: (i) a relevant link between BA and short-term synoptic forcing (represented by monthly frequencies of WTC) was identified for all clusters; (ii) long-term climatic preconditioning was relevant for all but one cluster (Northern). Taking into account these links, we developed stepwise regression models with the aim of reproducing the observed BA series (i.e. in hindcast mode). These models were based on the best climatic and synoptic circulation predictors identified previously. All models were cross-validated and their performance varies between clusters, though models exclusively based on WTCs tend to better reproduce annual BA time series than those only based on pre-conditioning climatic information. Nevertheless, the best results are attained when both synoptic and climatic predictors are used simultaneously as predictors, in particular for the two western clusters, where correlation coefficient values are higher than 0.7. Finally, we have used WTC composite maps to characterize the typical synoptic configurations that favor high values of BA. These patterns correspond to dry and warm fluxes, associated with anticyclonic regimes, which foster fire ignition (Pereira et al., 2005). Pereira, M.G., Trigo, R.M., DaCamara, C.C., Pereira, J.M.C., Leite, S.M., 2005: "Synoptic patterns associated with large summer forest fires in Portugal". Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 129, 11-25. COST733, 2011: "COST 733 Wiki - Harmonisation and Applications of Weather Type Classifications for European regions or COST733 spatial domains for Europe". Available at http://geo21.geo.uni-augsburg.de/cost733wiki/Cost733_Wiki_Main [accessed 1 September 2011].

Sousa, P. M.; Trigo, R.; Pereira, M. G.; Rasilla, D.; Gouveia, C.

2012-04-01

48

PREFACE: Introduction to the proceedings of Dynamics Days South America 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This proceedings presents selected contributions from the participants of South America Dynamics Days 2011, which was hosted by the National Institute for Space Research (INPE), Brazil, in July 2010. Dynamics Days was founded in 1980 and is the longest standing and most respected international series of meetings devoted to the field of dynamics and nonlinearity. Traditionally it has brought together researchers from a wide range of backgrounds - including physics, biology, engineering, chemistry and mathematics - for interdisciplinary research into nonlinear science. Dynamics Days South America 2010 marked the beginning of the South American branch of Dynamics Days. It brought together, for the first time in South America, researchers from a wide range of backgrounds who share a common interest in the theory and applications of nonlinear dynamics. Thus, South American researchers had a forum to promote regional as well as international scientific and technological exchange and collaboration especially, but not exclusively, on problems that are particularly relevant for the development of science and technology in the South American region. Furthermore, the conference also brought together prominent scientists from around the world to review recent developments in nonlinear science. This conference comprised plenary invited talks, minisymposia, contributed talks and poster sessions. The articles that are compiled here were chosen from among the works that were presented as contributed talks and posters. They represent a good selection which allows one to put issues that were discussed during the conference into perspective. It is possible to evaluate the success of an initiative by using several indices. In relation to attendees, the conference had 311 participants from 22 countries, who presented 341 works. About 86% of the participants came from South American countries. These figures allow one to classify this Dynamics Days conference as that with the greatest number of attendees ever. Finally, we would like to express our gratitude to all the participants for their presentations, discussions, and remarkable interactions with one another. The tireless work undertaken by all the members of the International Advisory Committee and the Organizing Committee must also be recognized. We also wish to express our deep appreciation for the Scientific Societies and Research Support Agencies which supported the conference and provided all the resources which were necessary to make this idea of a South American Dynamics Days come true. Elbert E N Macau, Tiago Pereira, Antonio F B A Prado, Luiz F R Turci, and Othon C WinterEditors Conference photograph Conference photograph Conference photograph Conference photograph International Advisory Committee Adilson E MotterNorthwestern UniversityEvanston - IL - USA Alfredo OzorioCentro Brasileiro de Pesquisas FísicasRio de Janeiro - RJ - Brazil Celso Grebogi (Chair)University of AberdeenAberdeen - UK Ed OttUniversity of MarylandCollege Park - MD - USA Epaminondas Rosa JrIllinois State UniversityNormal - IL - USA Hans Ingo WeberPontifícia Universidade CatólicaRio de Janeiro - RJ - Brazil Holger KantzMax Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex SystemsDresden - Germany Jason Gallas (Co-chair)Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do SulPorto Alegre - RS - Brazil José Roberto Rios LeiteUniv. Federal de PernanbucoRecife - PE - Brazil Jürgen KurthsPotsdam Institute for climate Impact ResearchHumboldt University, Berlin - Germany Kenneth ShowalterWest Virginia UniversityMorgantown - WV - USA Lou PecoraNaval Research LabWashington - DC - USA Luis Antonio AguirreUniversidade Federal de Minas GeraisBelo Horizonte - MG - Brazil Marcelo VianaIMPA - Instituto Nacional de Matemática Pura e AplicadaRio de Janeiro - RJ - Brazil Miguel A F SanjuánUniversidad Rey Juan CarlosMadrid - Spain Paulo Roberto de Souza MendesPontifícia Universidade CatólicaRio de Janeiro - RJ - Brazil Roland KorbeleUniversidade de São PauloSão Carlos - SP - Brazil Rubens SampaioPontifícia Universidade CatólicaRio de Ja

Macau, Elbert E. N.; Pereira, Tiago; Prado, Antonio F. B. A.; Turci, Luiz F. R.; Winter, Othon C.

2011-03-01

49

Assessing fire risk in Portugal during the summer fire season  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1998, Instituto de Meteorologia, the Portuguese Weather Service has relied on the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI) System (van Wagner, 1987) to produce daily forecasts of fire risk. The FWI System consists of six components that account for the effects of fuel moisture and wind on fire behavior. The first three components, i.e. the Fine Fuel Moisture Code (FFMC), the Duff Moisture Code (DMC) and the Drought Code (DC) respectively rate the average moisture content of surface litter, decomposing litter, and organic (humus) layers of the soil. Wind effects are then added to FFMC leading to the Initial Spread Index (ISI) that rates fire spread. The remaining two fuel moisture codes (DMC and DC) are in turn combined to produce the Buildup Index (BUI) that is a rating of the total amount of fuel available for combustion. BUI is finally combined with ISI to produce the Fire Weather Index (FWI) that represents the rate of fire intensity. Classes of fire danger and levels of preparedness are commonly defined on an empirical way for a given region by calibrating the FWI System against wildfire activity as defined by the recorded number of events and by the observed burned area over a given period of time (Bovio and Camia, 1998). It is also a well established fact that distributions of burned areas are heavily skewed to the right and tend to follow distributions of the exponential-type (Cumming, 2001). Based on the described context, a new procedure is presented for calibrating the FWI System during the summer fire season in Portugal. Two datasets were used covering a 28-year period (1980-2007); i) the official Portuguese wildfire database which contains detailed information on fire events occurred in the 18 districts of Continental Portugal and ii) daily values of the six components of the FWI System as derived from reanalyses (Uppala et al., 2005) of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). Calibration of the FWI System is then performed in two steps; 1) a truncated Weibull distribution is fitted to the sample of burned areas and 2) the quality of the fitted statistical model is improved by incorporating components of the FWI System as covariates. Obtained model allows estimating on a daily basis the probability of occurrence of fires larger than a given threshold as well as producing maps of fire risk. Results as obtained from a prototype currently being developed will be presented and discussed. In particular, it will be shown that results provide additional evidence of the known fact that the extent of burned area in Portugal is controlled by two main atmospheric factors (Pereira et al. 2005): i) a long-term control related to the regime of temperature and precipitation in spring and ii) a short-term control exerted by the occurrence of very intense dry spells in days of extreme synoptic situations. Bovio, G., and A. Camia. 1998. An analysis of large forest fire danger conditions in Europe. In Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. on Forest Fire Research & 14th Conf. on Fire and Forest Meteorology, Viegas, D.X. (Ed.), Luso, 16-20 Nov., ADAI, 975-994. Cumming, S.G., 2001. Parametric models of the fire size distribution. Can J. For. Res., 31, 1297-1303. Pereira, M.G., Trigo, R.M., DaCamara, C.C., Pereira, J.M.C. and Leite, S.M., 2005. Synoptic patterns associated with large summer forest fires in Portugal. Agr. and For. Meteorol., 129 (1-2), 11-25. Uppala, S.M. et al., 2005: The ERA-40 re-analysis. Quart. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 131, 2961-3012. Van Wagner, C.E., 1987. Development and structure of the Canadian forest fire weather index system. Canadian Forestry Service, Forest Technical Report 35, Ottawa, 37 pp.

Dacamara, C. C.; Pereira, M. G.; Trigo, R. M.

2009-04-01

50

HELLP syndrome - a multisystemic disorder.  

PubMed

HELLP syndrome is a multisystemic disorder with an incidence of 0.17-0.85% of all pregnancies. Its etiopathogenesis is not completely understood. The most widely accepted hypotheses are: a change in the immune feto-maternal balance, platelet aggregation, endothelial dysfunction, arterial hypertension and an inborn error of the fatty acid oxidative metabolism. Hepatic involvement occurs by intravascular fibrin deposition and hypovolemia. Materno-fetal complications cause a 6.7-70% perinatal mortality rate and a 1-24% maternal mortality rate. The recognition of HELLP syndrome and the rapid initiation of therapy are required for the improvement of materno-fetal prognosis. PMID:18193124

Mihu, Dan; Costin, Nicolae; Mihu, Carmen Mihaela; Seicean, Andrada; Ciortea, Razvan

2007-12-01

51

Surface ultrastructure of the human placental villi and sites of contact with maternal red blood cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary With the aid of the scanning electron microscope the possible sites of materno-foetal oxygen transfer were investigated. Fresh small tissue pieces were obtained and processed from at least six regions of central and peripheral parts of the maternal surface of human full-term placentas. The surface ultrastructural features of the syncytiotrophoblast lining the stem and floating villi were surveyed. The

M. E. A. Ibrahim; A. G. H. Al-Zuhair; S. Mughal; H. Hathout

1982-01-01

52

Una revisión de los beneficios del aporte complementario de nutrientes durante el embarazo: desde hierro y ácido fólico hasta probióticos pasando por ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de cadena larga  

Microsoft Academic Search

ResumenEn esta revisión se resume el conocimiento actual sobre la eficacia de los aportes complementarios prenatales de nutrientes, desde hierro y ácido fólico (HAF), que representan el patrón asistencial en muchas partes del mundo, hasta los más novedosos como ácidos grasos ?–3 y probióticos, en la mejora de los desenlaces del estado de salud materno-infantil. En ensayos aleatorios controlados se

Usha Ramakrishnan

2010-01-01

53

[Gestational diabetes: diagnosis, short and long term management].  

PubMed

Universal consensus on the diagnosis methods and thresholds has long been lacking. The recently published Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) study has been used to confirm the link between hyperglycemia and materno-fetal complications. Consequently, in France, the Société francophone du diabète (SFD) and the Collège national des gynécologues et obstétriciens français (CNGOF) proposed an expert consensus on gestational diabetes mellitus for clinical practice. Fasting blood glucose should be measured at the first visit during early pregnancy for women with risk factors to identify the women with pregestational diabetes. It is proposed a selective screening on risk factors rather than universal screening. Specific treatment of gestational diabetes reduced materno-fetal complications compared to the absence of therapy. Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus are characterized by a high risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:23588192

Vambergue, Anne

2013-04-12

54

Expression of ABC Efflux Transporters in Placenta from Women with Insulin-Managed Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug efflux transporters in the placenta can significantly influence the materno-fetal transfer of a diverse array of drugs and other xenobiotics. To determine if clinically important drug efflux transporter expression is altered in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM-I) or type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM-I), we compared the expression of multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1), multidrug resistance-associated protein 2

Gregory J. Anger; Alex M. Cressman; Micheline Piquette-Miller

2012-01-01

55

Portage génital bactérien au dernier trimestre de la grossesse et infection néonatale précoce  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in newborn infants.Objective. – To determine the bacterial ecology and pathological status of the genital organs during the last trimester of pregnancy and the germs of the following early-onset neonatal sepsis, in order to evaluate the risk of materno-foetal infections and to find out a drug prophylaxis.Method. –Vaginal and endocervical

B. Balaka; A. Agbèrè; A. Dagnra; S. Baeta; K. Kessie; K. Assimadi

2005-01-01

56

Human T Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Infection and Early Neurologic Development: A Pilot Study of 48 Children  

PubMed Central

To determine whether human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is associated with delayed neurological development, we examined 48 Peruvian children with exposure to HTLV-1 who were identified at the Instituto Materno-Perinatal. Compared with 38 HTLV-1–seronegative children, the 10 seropositive children did not have higher rates of neurodevelopmental delay. Long-term follow-up is planned.

Montano, S. M.; Zunt, J. R.; Rodriguez, L.; Quispe, I.; Rodriguez, C.; Altamirano, J.; Bautista, C. T.; Alarcon, J. O. V.; Longstreth, W. T.; Holmes, K. K.

2009-01-01

57

Placental-related diseases of pregnancy: involvement of oxidative stress and implications in human evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Miscarriage and pre-eclampsia are the most common disorders of human pregnancy. Both are placental-related and exceptional in other mammalian species. Ultrasound imaging has enabled events during early pregnancy to be visual- ized in vivo for the first time. As a result, a new understanding of the early materno-fetal relationship has emerged and, with it, new insight into the pathogenesis of

Eric Jauniaux; Lucilla Poston; Graham J. Burton

2006-01-01

58

COMUNICAÇÃO NÃO VERBAL ENTRE MÃE E FILHO NA VIGÊNCIA DO HIV\\/AIDS À LUZ DA TACÊSICAa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propôs-se analisar a comunicação não verbal entre mãe e filho na vigência do HIV\\/AIDS à luz da tacêsica (linguagem do toque) durante o desempenho dos cuidados maternos. Estudo exploratório desenvolvido em ambiente experimental em Fortaleza-CE no segundo semestre de 2007 com cinco díades mãe-bebê. Foram utilizados três recursos para a coleta de dados: questionário semiestruturado sobre a história de vida

Galvão MTG; Costa Ê; Lima ICV; Paiva SS; Pagliuca LMF; Ivana Cristina; Vieira de Lima; Simone de Sousa Paiva; Paulo César de Almeida; Lorita Marlena; Freitag Pagliuca

59

Functional Expression of the Human Neonatal Fc-receptor, hFcRn, in Isolated Cultured Human Syncytiotrophoblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Materno-fetal IgG transfer in the mature human placenta involves transport across the syncytiotrophoblast (STB) and fetal endothelial cell layer. The MHC class I-related Fc?-receptor (hFcRn) localized in STB as well as in endothelial cells is involved in overall IgG transfer from the maternal into the fetal circulation. Functional hFcRn is a heterodimer of a transmembrane ?-chain and ?2-microglobulin. To establish

R. Szlauer; I. Ellinger; S. Haider; L. Saleh; B. L. Busch; M. Knöfler; R. Fuchs

2009-01-01

60

Chemokine CXCL12 promotes the cross-talk between trophoblasts and decidual stromal cells in human first-trimester pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The precise mechanisms in the materno-fetal dialogue still remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 in the interaction of trophoblasts and decidual stromal cells (DSCs). METHODS: Expression of CXCL12\\/CXCR4 in trophoblasts and DSCs was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunochemical staining. The secretion of

Wen-Hui Zhou; Mei-Rong Du; Lin Dong; Jing Yu; Da-Jin Li

2008-01-01

61

INFEZIONI VIRALI CONGENITE, PERINATALI E NEONATALI VIRAL INFECTIONS OF THE FETUS AND NEWBORN INFANT  

PubMed Central

Riassunto Alcuni virus possono essere trasmessi verticalmente da madre a figlio in seguito allo sviluppo, da parte della madre, di un’infezione primaria, ricorrente o cronica. La trasmissione materno-fetale dei virus, che può avvenire in utero (infezione congenita), durante il travaglio del parto (infezione perinatale), oppure attraverso l’allattamento (infezione postnatale), può causare aborto spontaneo, morte fetale, ritardo di crescita intrauterino, anomalie congenite e patologie neonatali o postnatali di diversa entità. Alcuni fattori di rischio sembrano influenzare l’incidenza di trasmissione materno-fetale dei virus, come ad esempio la presenza di altre infezioni virali, la carica virale materna, il tipo di infezione (primaria o ricorrente), la durata della rottura delle membrane, la modalità con cui avviene il parto, le condizioni socio-economiche e l’allattamento. Oggi è possibile prevenire la trasmissione materno-fetale di molti virus grazie all’utilizzo di vaccini, immunizzazione passiva e farmaci antivirali. Il rischio di trasmissione delle infezioni perinatali e postnatali, inoltre, può essere diminuito evitando l’allattamento o ricorrendo ad un parto cesareo.

Tremolada, Sara; Delbue, Serena; Ferrante, Pasquale

2009-01-01

62

HELLP syndrome: understanding and management of a pregnancy-specific disease.  

PubMed

HELLP, a syndrome characterised by haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets, a variant of pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, is a multisystemic disorder with an incidence of up to 0.9% in all pregnancies and occurs in about one-quarter of pre-eclamptic patients. Most obstetricians presume that HELLP derives from an autoimmune reaction, leading to a materno- fetal imbalance, with accompanying aggregation of platelets, endothelial malfunction along with inborn errors of fatty acid oxidative metabolism. HELLP is characterised by high mortality and morbidity rates, leading to possibly life-threatening complications regarding both the mother and the fetus. Delivery is indicated if HELLP syndrome occurs after 34 gestational weeks or the fetal and/or maternal conditions deteriorate. Vaginal delivery is preferable. Standard corticosteroid treatment is of uncertain clinical value in maternal HELLP syndrome. Future observations and research results may shed more light on improving our understanding of the aspects of HELLP syndrome. PMID:23654309

Aloizos, S; Seretis, C; Liakos, N; Aravosita, P; Mystakelli, C; Kanna, E; Gourgiotis, S

2013-05-01

63

[An episode of hospital infection due to Klebsiella pneumoniae in a neonatal department].  

PubMed

Enterotoxin-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae was implicated in the induction of intrahospital infections in new-born babies. A total of 46 children and 4 adults (hospital personnel) were involved. Most of the subjects (82.6%) had median and light forms of gastroenterocolitis, and recovered following biological re-equilibration. In 17.39% of the cases the evolution was more severe due to advanced dehydration and secondary dissemination of the infection. Two children (approximately 4%) died. Factors that favored the dissemination of the infection were hygiene deficiencies and ignorance of functioning rules of materno-infantile units, and these included: admission to the hospital of working personnel with acute phenomena of enterocolitis; administration of sweetened solutions that were prepared without control and stored at room temperature; the "critical" point represented by the special room for "the accommodation" of the newborns, a "key-point" where infection was disseminated to other wards following dispersion of "adapted babies". PMID:2701342

Paraschivescu, I; Danciu, I; Mardare, J; Constantinescu, E; Negu?, M

64

Epidemiology and Risk Analysis of Malaria among Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

Malaria remains a complex problem during the pregnancy, which threatens > 35 millions pregnant women every year. Malaria pathogenesis in pregnancy results in accumulation of infected RBCs in the intervillous spaces causing severe alterations leading to the reduced materno-foetal exchanges. In this article we have revisited the current evidences of clinical implications and overall burden of malaria in pregnancy. Many adverse aftermaths including, low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, preterm delivery, stillbirth and anemia were found associated with malaria in pregnant women. Despite of worldwide comprehensive control programmes for malaria in pregnancy, the disease control has been a daunting task everywhere. Socio cultural, economical, lack of awareness and various logistic problems compound the disease in developing countries. Thorough evidence based information and estimates, education and awareness and strengthening of prevention programmes are needed urgently to achieve success in malaria control in pregnancy.

Dhiman, S; Yadav, K; Goswami, D; Das, NG; Baruah, I; Singh, L

2012-01-01

65

Embolie de liquide amniotique: ? propos de deux cas  

PubMed Central

L’embolie de liquide amniotique (ELA) est une complication imprévisible de l’accouchement, souvent fatale, associant un collapsus cardiovasculaire sévère, un syndrome de détresse respiratoire aiguë et une hémorragie avec coagulation intra vasculaire disséminée (CIVD). Dès l’évocation du diagnostic, la prise en charge doit être multidisciplinaire et intensive. ELA est responsable d’une mortalité maternelle et néonatale importante, son incidence est extrêmement variable selon les études et le taux de mortalité maternelle varie entre 26 et 86 % selon les études. Ces dix dernières années, le pronostic materno-fœtal semble en amélioration grâce aux progrès de prise en charge standardisée multidisciplinaire sur les lieux d’accouchement. Nous rapportons deux cas d’embolie de liquide amniotique. Le premier cas s’est manifesté au cours du travail et le deuxième cas est survenu dans les suites immédiates de l’accouchement.

Elbahraoui, Houda; Bouziane, Hanane; Elghanmi, Adil; Lakhdar, Amina; Elhanchi, Zaki; Ferhati, Driss

2012-01-01

66

Implications of the placental structure compatibility for interspecies embryo transfer.  

PubMed

Comparative histological features of the chorionic villi in placental cotyledons of the common eland (Taurotragus oryx ) and bongo (Boocercus euryceros ) antelopes and okapi (Okapia johnstoni ) and giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis ) were examined. The chorionic villi in both antelope species showed only moderate branching and/or surface corrugation and their cross-sections were polygonal to oval. The close similarity in the structure of cotyledons has been apparently a contributing factor for success in mutual interspecies embryo transfer. The chorionic villi in okapi and giraffe had very different structures. In okapi the villi on cross-section were round and filled with thin connective tissue. They showed minimal branching and surface corrugation. In giraffe the villi showed extensive surface corrugation, had multiple fine branches, and were filled with a more dense connective tissue. Prospect for materno-fetal compatibility in mutual embryo transfer between these species is guarded. PMID:16726356

Hradecký, P; Benirschke, K; Stott, G G

1987-11-01

67

"Blind periods" in screening for toxoplasmosis in pregnancy in Austria - a debate  

PubMed Central

Recent studies from Austria, France and Italy have shown that there is a poor adherence to the screening scheme for maternal Toxoplasma infections in pregnancy demonstrated by the fact that many recommended examinations are missed. This leads to undetected infections and limits our knowledge of incidence of the disease. We discuss the negative consequences of this situation on research on treatment effectiveness and the outcomes of congenital toxoplasmosis. The responsible public health institutions should assume responsibility for appropriate surveillance of the screening programme and take measures to improve screening adherence during pregnancy. Screening should start as early as possible in pregnancy and the latest test should be done at delivery. Screening schedule should allow distinguishing infections from the first, second and third trimester of pregnancy, as the risk of materno-foetal transmission and outcomes in case of foetal infections varies by time.

2012-01-01

68

TRPV6 and Calbindin-D9k-expression and localization in the bovine uterus and placenta during pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Background Transient receptor potential channel type 6 (TRPV6) and Calbindin-D9k (CaBP-9k) are involved in the active calcium (Ca2+) transport mechanism in many tissues including placenta and uterus, suggesting a role in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Moreover, TRPV6 and CaBP-9k seem to support the materno-fetal Ca2+ transport that is crucial for fetal Ca2+ homeostasis, bone growth and development. However, it is unknown if these proteins are also involved in the aetiology of pathologies associated with parturition in cows, such as retained fetal membranes (RFM). The aim of the current study was to create an expression profile of uterine and placentomal TRPV6 and CaBP-9k mRNAs and proteins during pregnancy and postpartum in cows with and without fetal membrane release. Methods Uteri and placentomes of 27 cows in different stages of pregnancy and placentomes of cows with and without RFM were collected. Protein and mRNA expression of TRPV6 and CaBP-9k was investigated by real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Results In the uterine endometrium, highest TRPV6 and CaBP-9k expression was found in the last trimester of pregnancy, with a particular increase of protein in the glandular epithelium. In the placentomes, a gradual increase in TRPV6 mRNA was detectable towards parturition, while protein expression did not change significantly. Placentomal CaBP-9k expression did not change significantly throughout pregnancy but immunohistochemistry revealed an increase in staining intensity in the maternal crypt epithelium. Immunohistochemical, stronger placental CaBP-9k signals were seen in animals with RFM compared to animals with an undisturbed fetal membrane release, while protein levels, measured by Western blot analyses did not change significantly. Conclusions The results of the present study demonstrate a dynamic expression of TRPV6 and CaBP-9k during pregnancy in the bovine uterine endometrium and placentomes, suggesting a functional role for these proteins in Ca2+ metabolism during pregnancy. The temporal and spatial expression patterns indicate that TRPV6 and CaBP-9k may be involved in materno-fetal Ca2+ transport, mainly through an interplacentomal transport, and that both proteins may participate in physiological processes that are crucial for fetal and placental development. However, neither TRPV6 nor CaBP-9k seem to be causative in the retention of fetal membranes.

2012-01-01

69

Preeclamptic cord blood hemolysis and the effect of Monascus purpureus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in modulating preeclamptic stress.  

PubMed

 Background: Preeclampsia is associated with impaired antioxidant defense that results in materno- fetal complications. In addition to antioxidant deficiency, hemolytic disorder has also been observed in preeclamptic mother. Methods: This study aims in analyzing the fetal complications using cord blood RBC (red blood cell); further the antihemolytic and antioxidant efficiency of two common probiotic yeasts Monascus purpureus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in preeclamptic and normotensive RBCs were assessed. Results: There was a significant decrease in the antioxidant status (p<0.05) with increased oxidative stress, nitrative stress (p<0.05) and hemolysis (p<0.001) in preeclamptic RBC comparatively. M. purpureus demonstrated a highly significant reactive oxygen radical scavenging activity (p<0.001) whereas S. cerevisiae exhibited a highly significant nitric oxide radical scavenging activity (p<0.001). It was noted that oxidative stress hemolysis was decreased with increased antioxidant level in cord blood RBC from both samples after incubation with both yeasts in a similar manner. The antihemolytic property of M. purpureus and S. cerevisiae suggests that S. cerevisiae functions efficiently with increasing stress. Conclusion: This study demonstrates for the first time that despite their differential scavenging activities, a diet rich in M. purpureus and S. cerevisiae could equally serve as a good natural supplement to alleviate the stress status in the preeclamptic fetus (Tab. 4, Fig. 1, Ref. 39). Keywords: Cord blood RBC, hemolysis, Monascus purpureus, Preeclampsia, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:24020706

Ekambaram, P; Jayachandran, T; Venkatraman, U; Leonard, S

2013-01-01

70

Surface ultrastructure of the human placental villi and sites of contact with maternal red blood cells.  

PubMed

With the aid of the scanning electron microscope the possible sites of materno-foetal oxygen transfer were investigated. Fresh small tissue pieces were obtained and processed from at least six regions of central and peripheral parts of the maternal surface of human full-term placentas. The surface ultrastructural features of the syncytiotrophoblast lining the stem and floating villi were surveyed. The microvilli projecting from the apical portion of the syncytiotrophoblast appeared to be highly pleomorphic and showed regional variation in their distribution. On the other hand, our results confirmed the occurrence of non-microvillous areas on the apices of some floating villi. When present, these areas were always free from contact with maternal red blood cells. Maternal red blood cells, however, were seen in close contact only with areas covered with microvilli. Occasionally, impressions ("footmarks") were apparent on some surfaces and detached microvilli were seen adherent to the surface of other maternal red cells which had separated from the villous surface. Our results indicate, therefore, that the microvillous areas of the chorionic villi are the most likely sites for oxygen transfer and that one of the functions of the microvilli is gas transfer across the placenta. PMID:7165397

Ibrahim, M E; Al-Zuhair, A G; Mughal, S; Hathout, H

1982-01-01

71

Ultrasonic detection and developmental changes in calcification of the placenta during normal pregnancy in mice.  

PubMed

High resolution ultrasound imaging of the mouse placenta during development revealed highly echogenic foci localized near the materno-placental interface in early gestation and, near term, in the placental labyrinth (the exchange region of the placenta). Echogenic foci and calcium deposits identified in histological sections using Alizarin red staining showed similar localization and changes with gestation. Calcium deposits caused the echogenic foci because incubating uteri in a decalcifying solution eliminated both the deposits and echogenic foci. Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray microanalysis, and electron diffraction were used to show that deposits were calcium hydroxyapatite crystals. Calcium deposits were extensive and densely packed at days 7.5-9.5 of gestation at the border between the maternal decidua and the fetal trophoblast giant cells of ectoplacental cone. After the formation of the chorio-allantoic placenta (approximately day 10.5), calcification deposits appeared larger and more rarefied but were still localized at the border between the maternal decidua and the fetal trophoblast giant cells of the placenta. Calcification deposits were not observed in the labyrinthine region of the mouse placenta until > or = day 15.5 (day 18.5 is full term). We conclude that deposits of calcium hydroxyapatite crystals in the mouse placenta are detectable by high resolution ultrasound imaging. These deposits provide an ultrasound detectable marker of the maternal-placental interface that is particularly prominent during the establishment of the chorio-allantoic placenta between days 7.5 and 9.5 of gestation. PMID:15708114

Akirav, C; Lu, Y; Mu, J; Qu, D W; Zhou, Y Q; Slevin, J; Holmyard, D; Foster, F S; Adamson, S L

72

Impact of Placental Plasmodium falciparum Malaria on Pregnancy and Perinatal Outcome in Sub-Saharan Africa  

PubMed Central

Placental malaria is one of the major features of malaria during pregnancy and has been widely used as a standard indicator to characterize malaria infection in epidemiologic investigations. Although pathogenesis of placental malaria is only partially understood, placental sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum results in the accumulation of parasitized erythrocytes in the intervillous space, infiltration by inflammatory cells, and release of pro-inflammatory mediators, which cause pathologic alterations that could impair materno-fetal exchanges, often resulting in adverse pregnancy outcome. In this report, the impact of placental malaria on pregnancy and perinatal outcome is reviewed using data from studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa. Generally, placental malaria was associated with increased risk of maternal anemia, HIV infection, and maternal mortality, with younger women and primigravidae more likely to be affected. A variety of adverse perinatal outcomes, including low birth weight, preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation, reduced fetal anthropometric parameters, fetal anemia, congenital malaria, increased mother-to-child HIV transmission, and perinatal mortality, were associated with placental malaria. There were, however, conflicting reports on whether the risk of these adverse perinatal outcomes associated with placental malaria were statistically significant. There is a clear need to strengthen the malaria prevention and intervention measures for pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa.

Uneke, Chigozie J.

2007-01-01

73

Microvascularization on collared peccary placenta: a microvascular cast study [corrected] in late pregnancy.  

PubMed

The microvascularization of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) placenta was studied by vascular casts and immunolocalization of ?-smooth muscle actin and vimentin, to identify the three dimensional organization and vascular flow interrelation in the microvasculature between the maternal and fetal compartments of the placentae. The immunolocalization of vimentin in the vascular endothelium and in the smooth muscle cells of blood vessels showed indented capillaries along the uterine epithelium and the trophoblast at the sides of complementary maternal and fetal microfolds, or rugae. This confers the three-dimensional structure observed in vascular casts. On the maternal side, casts demonstrated uterine folds coated by with primary and secondary ridges, and by areolae dispersed between these ridges. The arteriole runs through the center/middle of ridges, branching at the top into a microvascular network wall in a basket-like fashion. At the base of these baskets venules were formed. On the fetal side, arterioles branched centrally in the fetal rugae into a capillary network in a bulbous form, complementary to the opposite maternal depressions forming the baskets. At the base of the bulbous protrusions, the fetal venules arise. The blood vessel orientation in the materno-fetal interface of the placentae of collared peccaries suggests a blood flow pattern of the type countercurrent to cross current. The same pattern has been reported in domestic swine demonstrating that, even after 38 million years, the Tayassuidae and Suidae families exhibit similar placental morphology, which is here characterized at the microvascular level. PMID:22775252

Santos, Tatiana Carlesso; Oliveira, Moacir Franco; Dantzer, Vibeke; Miglino, Maria Angélica

2012-07-01

74

Macroscopic and microscopic aspects of collared peccary and white-lipped peccary placenta.  

PubMed

This study examines middle and late gestational placentae from 13 Tayassu tajacu (collared peccary) and 3 Tayassu pecari (white-lipped peccary), which are Artiodactyla belonging to the Family Tayassuidae. The chorionic sac of Tayassu species is diffuse and chorioallantoic. These epitheliochorial placentae show no trophoblast invasion into the uterine epithelium and there is interdigitation between fetal and maternal microvilli. Two distinct regions of the fetomaternal interface can be identified: the interareolar and the areolar regions. The uterine epithelium has eosinophilic cytoplasm with dispersed, basophilic and electron-dense granules. Trophoblast cells are irregularly cuboidal on top of the fetal ridges and columnar on troughs, where cells have cytoplasmic vesicles and large basal vacuoles, surrounded by whorls of smooth membranes. Capillaries indent the trophoblast cells forming a placental barrier 3 microm or less thick. The columnar uterine glandular epithelium has a subpopulation of granules staining with Perl's Prussian blue reaction, suggesting iron secretion. In areolar areas, the trophoblast cells show apical microvilli, a basophilic cytoplasm with electron-dense intracellular vacuoles and cisternae. The placenta can therefore be classified as non-deciduate. The ultrastructural aspects of this study reveal features that have not previously been described and extend our knowledge of functions relating to materno-fetal transport in these species. PMID:16338470

Santos, T C; Dantzer, V; Jones, C J P; Oliveira, M F; Miglino, M A

75

[Experience of the Baby Friendly Hospital initiative].  

PubMed

In the study is analyzed and described the initiative called "Initiative Baby Friendly Hospitals", a program which started in Brazil, 1992. This initiative intends to support, to protect and to promote the breastfeeding as proposed in a meeting in 1990 in Florence, Italy, which was promoted by WHO and UNICEF. The basic goal of this initiative is to mobilize health professionals and hospital or maternity workers for changing their routines and conducts aiming to prevent the early wean. The health establishments are evaluated based on the "ten steps for success of breastfeeding, a group of goals created in the same meeting. In Brazil, the evaluation is coordinated by the Federal Government through the PNIAM (Programa Nacional de Incentivo ao Aleitamento Materno). A baby friendly hospital, if approved, receives from the Minister of Health, a Federal Governmental Agency (SUS) a differential payment for childbirth assistance and prenatal accompaniment, 10% and 40%, more respectively. Until 1998 year there were 103 baby friendly hospitals in Brazil, with the majority of them located in the northeast area (68.1%). However, taking in accounting the number of 5650 hospitals linked to SUS in the country, less than 2.0% are baby friendly hospitals. On the basis of the experience and according with PNIAM data the implementation of the ten steps and the incentive to breastfeeding through baby friendly hospitals have resulted in a significant increase of breastfeeding incidence and duration in Brazil. PMID:9852652

Lamounier, J A

76

[Secreted cytokines in the uterine lumina are predictive of subsequent implantation. Presence of IL18 in the uterine flushing].  

PubMed

The materno-foetal relationship is not simply maternal tolerance of a foreign tissue, but a series of intricate mutual cytokine interactions governing selective immune regulation and also control of the adhesion and vascularisation processes during this dialogue. There is strong evidence that locally secreted cytokines, such as interleukine 18 (IL18) control the implantation process and can cause implantation failure in case of absence or overactivation. Uterine flushing fluids may be analysed to determine the level of several cytokines. At the time of egg retrieval, the flushing procedure does not adversely affect pregnancy rates. We report a strong positive correlation between the presence of IL18 in the uterine flushing and bad implantation rates. The presence of IL18 in the lumina is the traduction of an overactivation of endometrial IL18 that should be diagnosed and treated. Moreover, endometrial biopsy could define which type of cytokinic dysregulation is implicated in repeated implantation failure and define which type of treatment need to be introduced. PMID:14968042

Ledée-Bataille, N

2004-02-01

77

Uterine vasculature remodeling in human pregnancy involves functional macrochimerism by endothelial colony forming cells of fetal origin.  

PubMed

The potency of adult-derived circulating progenitor endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) is drastically surpassed by their fetal counterparts. Human pregnancy is associated with robust intensification of blood flow and vascular expansion in the uterus, crucial for placental perfusion and fetal supply. Here, we investigate whether fetal ECFCs transmigrate to maternal bloodstream and home to locations of maternal vasculogenesis, primarily the pregnant uterus. In the first instance, endothelial-like cells, originating from mouse fetuses expressing paternal eGFP, were identified within uterine endothelia. Subsequently, LacZ or enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP)-labeled human fetal ECFCs, transplanted into immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) fetuses on D15.5 pregnancy, showed similar integration into the mouse uterus by term. Mature endothelial controls (human umbilical vein endothelial cells), similarly introduced, were unequivocally absent. In humans, SRY was detected in 6 of 12 myometrial microvessels obtained from women delivering male babies. The copy number was calculated at 175 [IQR 149-471] fetal cells per millimeter square endothelium, constituting 12.5% of maternal vessel lumina. Cross-sections of similar human vessels, hybridized for Y-chromosome, positively identified endothelial-associated fetal cells. It appears that through ECFC donation, fetuses assist maternal uterine vascular expansion in pregnancy, potentiating placental perfusion and consequently their own fetal supply. In addition to fetal growth, this cellular mechanism holds implications for materno-fetal immune interactions and long-term maternal vascular health. PMID:23554274

Sipos, Peter I; Rens, Willem; Schlecht, Hélène; Fan, Xiaohu; Wareing, Mark; Hayward, Christina; Hubel, Carl A; Bourque, Stephane; Baker, Philip N; Davidge, Sandra T; Sibley, Colin P; Crocker, Ian P

2013-07-01

78

[Characteristics of violence during teenage pregnancy in Lima, Peru].  

PubMed

Objectives. To determine the characteristics of violence seen in pregnant teenagers who were treated at the Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal (INMP) in Lima, Peru. Materials and methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out by INMP between January and March, 2010 using a probabilistic and systematic sampling. The study unit comprises every hospitalized teenager who had just given birth and who lived in Lima. A semi-structured interview was conducted. History of violence was operationalized into: verbal violence (insults, ridicule, and humiliation), physical violence (arm pulling, hair pulling, pushes), direct aggression (slaps, kicking, burns) and sexual violence (sexual intercourse without consent). Results. 292 teenage mothers aged 16,5 ± 1 in average took part in the study. 47.9% lived with their partners and 51.4% were single. In 97.3% of the cases, they got pregnant as a result of a conserted sexual relationship, while 2.7% got pregnant as a result of rape. 90.1% of teenage mothers reported not having planned the pregnancy. Conserning history of violence: 48.1% had had verbal violence, 17.1% physical violence, 8.2% direct aggression and 6.8% sexual violence. Conclusions. Violence during teenage pregnancy is not an isolated event; actually, it is rather common in any of its forms. PMID:24100810

Contreras-Pulache, Hans; Mori-Quispe, Elizabeth; Hinostroza-Camposano, Willy D; Yancachajlla-Apaza, Maribel; Lam-Figueroa, Nelly; Chacón-Torrico, Horacio

2013-09-01

79

Normal human pregnancy is associated with an elevation in the immune suppressive CD25+ CD4+ regulatory T-cell subset  

PubMed Central

CD4+ CD25+ T regulatory cells (TReg), suppress antigen-specific immune responses and are important for allograft tolerance. During pregnancy the mother tolerates an allograft expressing paternal antigens (the fetus) requiring substantial changes in immune regulation over a programmed period of time. We analysed whether immune-suppressive TReg cells were altered during pregnancy and therefore might play a part in this tolerant state. The presence of TReg cells was assessed in the blood of 25 non-pregnant, 63 pregnant and seven postnatal healthy women by flow cytometry. We observed an increase in circulating TReg cells during early pregnancy, peaking during the second trimester and then a decline postpartum. Isolated CD25+ CD4+ cells expressed FoxP3 messenger RNA, a marker of TReg cells, and suppressed proliferative responses of autologous CD4+ CD25? T cells to allogeneic dendritic cells. These data support the concept that normal pregnancy is associated with an elevation in the number of TReg cells which may be important in maintaining materno-fetal tolerance.

Somerset, David A; Zheng, Yong; Kilby, Mark D; Sansom, David M; Drayson, Mark T

2004-01-01

80

Chimerism and tetragametic chimerism in humans: implications in autoimmunity, allorecognition and tolerance.  

PubMed

The presence of cells or tissues from two individuals, chimeras, or the presence of cells and tissues that include the gonads, tetragametic chimerism can be detected by the analysis of cytogenetics and analysis of polymorphic genetic markers, using patterns of pedigree inheritance. These methodologies include determination of sex chromosomes, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) polymorphisms and panels of short tandem repeats (STRs) that include mitochondrial DNA markers. Studies routinely involve cases of temporal chimerism in blood transfusion, or following allotransplantation to measure the outcome of the organ, lymphopoietic tissues or bone marrow grafts. Demonstration of persistent chimerism is usually discovered in cases of inter-sexuality due to fusion of fraternal twins or in cases of fusion of embryos with demonstrable allogeneic monoclonality of blood which, excluded maternity or paternity when blood alone is used as the source of DNA. In single pregnancies it is possible to produce two kinds of microchimerism: feto-maternal and materno-fetal, but in cases of fraternal twin pregnancies it is possible to identify three different kinds which are related to cases of vanishing twins that can be identified during pregnancy by imaging procedures; (1) hematopoietic, (2) gonadal, and (3) freemartins when the twins have different sex and the individual born is a female with either gonadal or both gonadal and hematopoietic tissues. Fraternal twin pregnancies can also produce fusion of embryos. Such cases could be of different sex presenting with inter-sexuality or in same sex twins. One of such cases, the best studied, showed evidence of chimerism and tetragametism. In this regard, the case was studied because of disputed maternity of two of her three children. All tissues studied, except for the blood, demonstrated four genetic components but only two in her blood of four possible showed allogeneic monoclonality consistent with the interpretation that her blood originated from one hematopoietic stem cell. Also, microchimerism, due to traffic of cells via materno-fetal or feto-maternal has been prompted by reports of their potential association with the development of autoimmune disorders including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and systemic sclerosis, and in allotransplantation. In addition, their relevance of chimerism in the positive and negative selection of T cells in the thymus has not been addressed. T lymphocytes play a central role in controlling the acquired immune response and furthermore serve as crucial effector cells through antigen specific cytotoxic activity and the production of soluble mediators. Central tolerance is established by the repertoire selection of immature T lymphocytes in the thymus, avoiding the generation of autoreactive T cells. Expression of chimeric antigens in the thymus could modify the generation of specific T cell clones in chimeric subjects and these mechanisms could be important in the induction of central tolerance against foreign antigens important in allo-transplantation. In this review, we discuss the genetics of chimerism and tetragametism and its potential role in thymic selection and the relevance in allotransplantation and autoimmune disorders. PMID:17917028

Yunis, Edmond J; Zuniga, Joaquin; Romero, Viviana; Yunis, Emilio J

2007-01-01

81

Expression of ABC Efflux transporters in placenta from women with insulin-managed diabetes.  

PubMed

Drug efflux transporters in the placenta can significantly influence the materno-fetal transfer of a diverse array of drugs and other xenobiotics. To determine if clinically important drug efflux transporter expression is altered in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM-I) or type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM-I), we compared the expression of multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1), multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) and the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) via western blotting and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in samples obtained from insulin-managed diabetic pregnancies to healthy term-matched controls. At the level of mRNA, we found significantly increased expression of MDR1 in the GDM-I group compared to both the T1DM-I (p<0.01) and control groups (p<0.05). Significant changes in the placental protein expression of MDR1, MRP2, and BCRP were not detected (p>0.05). Interestingly, there was a significant, positive correlation observed between plasma hemoglobin A1c levels (a retrospective marker of glycemic control) and both BCRP protein expression (r = 0.45, p<0.05) and BCRP mRNA expression (r = 0.58, p<0.01) in the insulin-managed DM groups. Collectively, the data suggest that the expression of placental efflux transporters is not altered in pregnancies complicated by diabetes when hyperglycemia is managed; however, given the relationship between BCRP expression and plasma hemoglobin A1c levels it is plausible that their expression could change in poorly managed diabetes. PMID:22558111

Anger, Gregory J; Cressman, Alex M; Piquette-Miller, Micheline

2012-04-27

82

Scanning electron microscopy of maternal blood cells and their surface relationship with the placenta.  

PubMed

With the aid of the scanning electron microscope the surface of full-term human placenta and the maternal blood cells displayed on that surface were examined. The possible site(s) of materno-fetal transfer of gases were further investigated. Small, fresh pieces of tissue were obtained and processed from at least six regions of central and peripheral parts of the maternal surface. It seemed that there is a firm association between the presence of the maternal red blood cells, the main vehicles for gas transport, and that of the microvilli. Our results clearly confirm the absence of maternal blood cells from the smooth apices of the dome-shaped protrusions that occur on the tips of some floating villi. However, maternal red blood cells were consistently seen in close contact only with areas covered with microvilli. Direct evidence of the close contact was demonstrated by either red cell adherence to the microvilli or by their lying in recesses on the trophoblastic surfaces. Impressions ("foot prints") on some surfaces, and the presence of red blood cells with detached microvilli adhering to their surfaces were interpreted as indirect evidence for the adherence. The lack of such evidence regarding the white blood cells or platelets is remarkable. Different types of white blood cells were identified in various shapes, ranging from rounded to flattened. Some of them possessed surface microvilli, while others demonstrated projections and surface folds. Our findings indicate, therefore, that the red cells have a unique and intimate relationship with the trophoblastic surfaces more so than the other blood corpuscles.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6666563

Al-Zuhair, A G; Ibrahim, M E; Mughal, S; Mohammed, M E

1983-01-01

83

Placental Pathology in Pregnancies with Maternally Perceived Decreased Fetal Movement - A Population-Based Nested Case-Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Decreased fetal movements (DFM) are associated with fetal growth restriction and stillbirth, presumably linked through an underlying placental dysfunction. Yet, the role of placental pathology has received limited attention in DFM studies. Our main objective was to explore whether maternal perceptions of DFM were associated with placental pathology in pregnancies recruited from a low-risk total population. Methods/Principal Findings Placentas from 129 DFM and 191 non-DFM pregnancies were examined according to standardized macro- and microscopic protocols. DFM was defined as any maternal complaint of DFM leading to a hospital examination. Morphological findings were timed and graded according to their estimated onset and clinical importance, and classified in line with a newly constructed Norwegian classification system for reporting placental pathology. With our population-based approach we were unable to link DFM to an overall measure of all forms of placental pathology (OR 1.3, 95% CI 0.8–2.2, p?=?0.249). However, placental pathology leading to imminent delivery could be a competing risk for DFM, making separate subgroup analyses more appropriate. Our study suggests a link between DFM and macroscopic placental pathology related to maternal, uteroplacental vessels, i.e. infarctions, placental lesions (intraplacental hematomas) and abruptions. Although not statistically significant separately, a compound measure showed a significant association with DFM (OR 2.4, 95%CI 1.1–5.0, p?=?0.023). This association was strengthened when we accounted for relevant temporal aspects. More subtle microscopic materno-placental ischemic changes outside the areas of localized pathology showed no association with DFM (OR 0.5, 95%CI 0.2–1.4, p?=?0.203). There was a strong association between placental pathology and neonatal complications (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.6–5.1, p<0.001). Conclusions In our population-based study we were generally unable to link maternally perceived DFM to placental pathology. Some associations were seen for subgroups.

Winje, Brita Askeland; Roald, Borghild; Kristensen, Nina Petrov; Fr?en, J. Frederik

2012-01-01

84

[Ocular changes in preeclampsia].  

PubMed

The pregnancy is associated with modifications involving multiple systems and organs, including the eye. The retinal vascular changes are present in 30-100% of the PE cases. The most frequent ocular modification is the vasoconstriction of the retinal arterioles. The exudative retinal detachment is a rare cause (under 1%) of visual loss in the PE-E syndrome, being produced by the involvement of the choroidal vascularization. Most cases of blindness during pregnancy have been determined by cortical, occipital anomalies, the used terminology in these circumstances being cortical blindness. The pathogenesis of the Purtscher retinopathy is the embolism of the retinal arterioles, by leucocytic aggregation, as a response to the activation of the complement. The evaluation of the ophthalmic arterial flow by eco Doppler might offer new perspectives regarding the understanding of the physiopathology, the diagnosis and the quantification of the PE severity. The decrease of the IP values and the increase of the median velocity in the ophthalmic artery in pregnant women with PE, suggest a hyperperfusion process and the decrease of the vascular resistances at the level of the orbital vessels, but also in the CNS. In the severe forms of PE, the increase of the impedance of the orbital vessels has been noted. The described vascular changes cannot disappear completely 6 weeks after birth; a residual arteriolar constriction might persist, as a permanent stigma of the PE. The evaluation, monitoring, therapeutical approach of the patients with PE must be performed by a complete team: obstetrician, ophthalmologist, neurologist, radiologist, in order to decrease the materno-fetal risks and improve the prognosis of PE. PMID:19065909

Mihu, D; Mihu, Carmen Mihaela; T?lu, Simona; Costin, N; Ciuchin?, S; M?lu?an, A

2008-01-01

85

Differential evolutionary fate of an ancestral primate endogenous retrovirus envelope gene, the EnvV syncytin, captured for a function in placentation.  

PubMed

Syncytins are envelope genes of retroviral origin that have been co-opted for a role in placentation. They promote cell-cell fusion and are involved in the formation of a syncytium layer--the syncytiotrophoblast--at the materno-fetal interface. They were captured independently in eutherian mammals, and knockout mice demonstrated that they are absolutely required for placenta formation and embryo survival. Here we provide evidence that these "necessary" genes acquired "by chance" have a definite lifetime with diverse fates depending on the animal lineage, being both gained and lost in the course of evolution. Analysis of a retroviral envelope gene, the envV gene, present in primate genomes and belonging to the endogenous retrovirus type V (ERV-V) provirus, shows that this captured gene, which entered the primate lineage >45 million years ago, behaves as a syncytin in Old World monkeys, but lost its canonical fusogenic activity in other primate lineages, including humans. In the Old World monkeys, we show--by in situ analyses and ex vivo assays--that envV is both specifically expressed at the level of the placental syncytiotrophoblast and fusogenic, and that it further displays signs of purifying selection based on analysis of non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rates. We further show that purifying selection still operates in the primate lineages where the gene is no longer fusogenic, indicating that degeneracy of this ancestral syncytin is a slow, lineage-dependent, and multi-step process, in which the fusogenic activity would be the first canonical property of this retroviral envelope gene to be lost. PMID:23555306

Esnault, Cécile; Cornelis, Guillaume; Heidmann, Odile; Heidmann, Thierry

2013-03-28

86

From ancestral infectious retroviruses to bona fide cellular genes: role of the captured syncytins in placentation.  

PubMed

During their replication, infectious retroviruses insert a reverse-transcribed cDNA copy of their genome, a "provirus", into the genome of their host. If the infected cell belongs to the germline, the integrated provirus can become "fixed" within the host genome as an endogenous retrovirus and be transmitted vertically to the progeny in a Mendelian fashion. Based on the numerous proviral sequences that are recovered within the genomic DNA of vertebrates--up to ten percent in the case of mammals--such events must have occurred repeatedly during the course of millions of years of evolution. Although most of the ancient proviral sequences have been disrupted, a few "endogenized" retroviral genes are conserved and still encode functional proteins. In this review, we focus on the recent discovery of genes derived from the envelope glycoprotein-encoding (env) genes of endogenous retroviruses that have been domesticated by mammals to carry out an essential function in placental development. They were called syncytins based on the membrane fusogenic capacity that they have kept from their parental env gene and which contributes to the formation of the placental fused cell layer called the syncytiotrophoblast, at the materno-fetal interface. Remarkably, the capture of syncytin or syncytin-like genes, sometimes as pairs, was found to have occurred independently from different endogenous retroviruses in diverse mammalian lineages such as primates--including humans--, muroids, leporids, carnivores, caviids, and ovis, between around 10 and 85 million years ago. Knocking out one or both mouse syncytin-A and -B genes provided evidence that they indeed play a critical role in placentation. We discuss the possibility that the immunosuppressive domain embedded within retroviral envelope glycoproteins and conserved in syncytin proteins, may be involved in the tolerance of the fetus by the maternal immune system. Finally, we speculate that the capture of a founding syncytin-like gene could have been instrumental in the dramatic transition from egg-laying to placental mammals. PMID:22695103

Dupressoir, A; Lavialle, C; Heidmann, T

2012-06-12

87

Umbilical cord PUFA are determined by maternal and child fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genetic variants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC).  

PubMed

Fetal supply with long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) during pregnancy is important for brain growth and visual and cognitive development and is provided by materno-fetal placental transfer. We recently showed that maternal fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genotypes modulate the amounts of LC-PUFA in maternal blood. Whether FADS genotypes influence the amounts of umbilical cord fatty acids has not been investigated until now. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of maternal and child FADS genotypes on the amounts of LC-PUFA in umbilical cord venous plasma as an indicator of fetal fatty acid supply during pregnancy. A total of eleven cord plasma n-6 and n-3 fatty acids were analysed for association with seventeen FADS gene cluster SNP in over 2000 mothers and children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. In a multivariable analysis, the maternal genotype effect was adjusted for the child genotype and vice versa to estimate which of the two has the stronger influence on cord plasma fatty acids. Both maternal and child FADS genotypes and haplotypes influenced amounts of cord plasma LC-PUFA and fatty acid ratios. Specifically, most analysed maternal SNP were associated with cord plasma levels of the precursor n-6 PUFA, whereas the child genotypes were mainly associated with more highly desaturated n-6 LC-PUFA. This first study on FADS genotypes and cord fatty acids suggests that fetal LC-PUFA status is determined to some extent by fetal fatty acid conversion. Associations of particular haplotypes suggest specific effects of SNP rs498793 and rs968567 on fatty acid metabolism. PMID:22877655

Lattka, Eva; Koletzko, Berthold; Zeilinger, Sonja; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Klopp, Norman; Ring, Susan M; Steer, Colin D

2012-08-09

88

Effects of estrogen coadministration on epoxiconazole toxicity in rats.  

PubMed

Epoxiconazole (EPX; CAS-No. 133855-98-8) is a triazole class-active substance of plant protection products. At a dose level of 50 mg/kg bw/day, it causes a significantly increased incidence of late fetal mortality when administered to pregnant rats throughout gestation (gestation day [GD] 7-18 or 21), as reported previously (Taxvig et al., 2007, 2008) and confirmed in these studies. Late fetal resorptions occurred in the presence of significant maternal toxicity such as clear reduction of corrected body weight gain, signs of anemia, and, critically, a marked reduction of maternal estradiol plasma levels. Furthermore, estradiol supplementation at dose levels of 0.5 or 1.0 ?g/animal/day of estradiol cyclopentylpropionate abolished the EPX-mediated late fetal resorptions. No increased incidences of external malformations were found in rats cotreated with 50 mg/kg bw/day EPX and estradiol cyclopentylpropionate, indicating that the occurrence of malformations was not masked by fetal mortality under the study conditions. Overall, the study data indicate that fetal mortality observed in rat studies with EPX is not the result of direct fetal toxicity but occurs indirectly via depletion of maternal estradiol levels. The clarification of the human relevance of the estrogen-related mechanism behind EPX-mediated late fetal resorptions in rats warrants further studies. In particular, this should involve investigation of the placenta (Rey Moreno et al., 2013), since it is the materno-fetal interface and crucial for fetal maintenance. The human relevance is best addressed in a species which is closer to humans with reference to placentation and hormonal regulation of pregnancy, such as the guinea pig (Schneider et al., 2013). PMID:23720304

Stinchcombe, Stefan; Schneider, Steffen; Fegert, Ivana; Rey Moreno, Maria Cecilia; Strauss, Volker; Gröters, Sibylle; Fabian, Eric; Fussell, Karma C; Pigott, Geoffrey H; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

2013-05-29

89

Expression of ABC Efflux Transporters in Placenta from Women with Insulin-Managed Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Drug efflux transporters in the placenta can significantly influence the materno-fetal transfer of a diverse array of drugs and other xenobiotics. To determine if clinically important drug efflux transporter expression is altered in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM-I) or type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM-I), we compared the expression of multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1), multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) and the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) via western blotting and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in samples obtained from insulin-managed diabetic pregnancies to healthy term-matched controls. At the level of mRNA, we found significantly increased expression of MDR1 in the GDM-I group compared to both the T1DM-I (p<0.01) and control groups (p<0.05). Significant changes in the placental protein expression of MDR1, MRP2, and BCRP were not detected (p>0.05). Interestingly, there was a significant, positive correlation observed between plasma hemoglobin A1c levels (a retrospective marker of glycemic control) and both BCRP protein expression (r?=?0.45, p<0.05) and BCRP mRNA expression (r?=?0.58, p<0.01) in the insulin-managed DM groups. Collectively, the data suggest that the expression of placental efflux transporters is not altered in pregnancies complicated by diabetes when hyperglycemia is managed; however, given the relationship between BCRP expression and plasma hemoglobin A1c levels it is plausible that their expression could change in poorly managed diabetes.

Piquette-Miller, Micheline

2012-01-01

90

The Long and the Short of it: Gene and Environment Interactions During Early Cortical Development and Consequences for Long-Term Neurological Disease  

PubMed Central

Cortical development is a complex amalgamation of proliferation, migration, differentiation, and circuit formation. These processes follow defined timescales and are controlled by a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. It is currently unclear how robust and flexible these processes are and whether the developing brain has the capacity to recover from disruptions. What is clear is that there are a number of cognitive disorders or conditions that are elicited as a result of disrupted cortical development, although it may take a long time for the full pathophysiology of the conditions to be realized clinically. The critical window for the manifestation of a neurodevelopmental disorder is prolonged, and there is the potential for a complex interplay between genes and environment. While there have been extended investigations into the genetic basis of a number of neurological and mental disorders, limited definitive associations have been discovered. Many environmental factors, including inflammation and stress, have been linked to neurodevelopmental disorders, and it may be that a better understanding of the interplay between genes and environment will speed progress in this field. In particular, the development of the brain needs to be considered in the context of the whole materno-fetal unit as the degree of the metabolic, endocrine, or inflammatory responses, for example, will greatly influence the environment in which the brain develops. This review will emphasize the importance of extending neurodevelopmental studies to the contribution of the placenta, vasculature, cerebrospinal fluid, and to maternal and fetal immune response. These combined investigations are more likely to reveal genetic and environmental factors that influence the different stages of neuronal development and potentially lead to the better understanding of the etiology of neurological and mental disorders such as autism, epilepsy, cerebral palsy, and schizophrenia.

Stolp, Helen; Neuhaus, Ain; Sundramoorthi, Rohan; Molnar, Zoltan

2012-01-01

91

Umbilical cord PUFA are determined by maternal and child fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genetic variants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)  

PubMed Central

Fetal supply with long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) during pregnancy is important for brain growth and visual and cognitive development and is provided by materno–fetal placental transfer. We recently showed that maternal fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genotypes modulate the amounts of LC-PUFA in maternal blood. Whether FADS genotypes influence the amounts of umbilical cord fatty acids has not been investigated until now. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of maternal and child FADS genotypes on the amounts of LC-PUFA in umbilical cord venous plasma as an indicator of fetal fatty acid supply during pregnancy. A total of eleven cord plasma n-6 and n-3 fatty acids were analysed for association with seventeen FADS gene cluster SNP in over 2000 mothers and children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. In a multivariable analysis, the maternal genotype effect was adjusted for the child genotype and vice versa to estimate which of the two has the stronger influence on cord plasma fatty acids. Both maternal and child FADS genotypes and haplotypes influenced amounts of cord plasma LC-PUFA and fatty acid ratios. Specifically, most analysed maternal SNP were associated with cord plasma levels of the precursor n-6 PUFA, whereas the child genotypes were mainly associated with more highly desaturated n-6 LC-PUFA. This first study on FADS genotypes and cord fatty acids suggests that fetal LC-PUFA status is determined to some extent by fetal fatty acid conversion. Associations of particular haplotypes suggest specific effects of SNP rs498793 and rs968567 on fatty acid metabolism.

Lattka, Eva; Koletzko, Berthold; Zeilinger, Sonja; Hibbeln, Joseph R.; Klopp, Norman; Ring, Susan M.; Steer, Colin D.

2012-01-01

92

The Long and the Short of it: Gene and Environment Interactions During Early Cortical Development and Consequences for Long-Term Neurological Disease.  

PubMed

Cortical development is a complex amalgamation of proliferation, migration, differentiation, and circuit formation. These processes follow defined timescales and are controlled by a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. It is currently unclear how robust and flexible these processes are and whether the developing brain has the capacity to recover from disruptions. What is clear is that there are a number of cognitive disorders or conditions that are elicited as a result of disrupted cortical development, although it may take a long time for the full pathophysiology of the conditions to be realized clinically. The critical window for the manifestation of a neurodevelopmental disorder is prolonged, and there is the potential for a complex interplay between genes and environment. While there have been extended investigations into the genetic basis of a number of neurological and mental disorders, limited definitive associations have been discovered. Many environmental factors, including inflammation and stress, have been linked to neurodevelopmental disorders, and it may be that a better understanding of the interplay between genes and environment will speed progress in this field. In particular, the development of the brain needs to be considered in the context of the whole materno-fetal unit as the degree of the metabolic, endocrine, or inflammatory responses, for example, will greatly influence the environment in which the brain develops. This review will emphasize the importance of extending neurodevelopmental studies to the contribution of the placenta, vasculature, cerebrospinal fluid, and to maternal and fetal immune response. These combined investigations are more likely to reveal genetic and environmental factors that influence the different stages of neuronal development and potentially lead to the better understanding of the etiology of neurological and mental disorders such as autism, epilepsy, cerebral palsy, and schizophrenia. PMID:22701439

Stolp, Helen; Neuhaus, Ain; Sundramoorthi, Rohan; Molnár, Zoltán

2012-06-12

93

A review of the evolution of viviparity in squamate reptiles: the past, present and future role of molecular biology and genomics.  

PubMed

Squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes) offer a unique model system for testing hypotheses about the evolutionary transition from oviparity (egg-laying) to viviparity (live-bearing) in amniote vertebrates. The evolution of squamate viviparity has occurred remarkably frequently (>108 times) and has resulted in major changes in reproductive physiology. Such frequent changes in reproductive strategy pose two questions: (1) what are the molecular mechanisms responsible for the evolution of squamate viviparity? (2) Are these molecular mechanisms the same for separate origins of viviparity? Molecular approaches, such as RT-PCR, in situ hybridisation, Western blotting and immunofluorescence, have been invaluable for identifying genes and proteins that are involved in squamate placental development, materno-foetal immunotolerance, placental transport, placental angiogenesis, hormone synthesis and hormone receptor expression. However, the candidate-gene or -protein approach that has been used until now does not allow for de novo gene/protein discovery; results to date suggest that the reproductive physiologies of mammals and squamate reptiles are very similar, but this conclusion may simply be due to a limited capacity to study the subset of genes and proteins that are unique to reptiles. Progress has also been slowed by the lack of appropriate molecular and genomic resources for squamate reptiles. The advent of next-generation sequencing provides a relatively inexpensive way to conduct rapid high-throughput sequencing of genomes and transcriptomes. We discuss the potential use of next-generation sequencing technologies to analyse differences in gene expression between oviparous and viviparous squamates, provide important sequence information for reptiles, and generate testable hypotheses for the evolution of viviparity. PMID:21573966

Murphy, Bridget F; Thompson, Michael B

2011-05-15

94

Differential Evolutionary Fate of an Ancestral Primate Endogenous Retrovirus Envelope Gene, the EnvV Syncytin, Captured for a Function in Placentation  

PubMed Central

Syncytins are envelope genes of retroviral origin that have been co-opted for a role in placentation. They promote cell–cell fusion and are involved in the formation of a syncytium layer—the syncytiotrophoblast—at the materno-fetal interface. They were captured independently in eutherian mammals, and knockout mice demonstrated that they are absolutely required for placenta formation and embryo survival. Here we provide evidence that these “necessary” genes acquired “by chance” have a definite lifetime with diverse fates depending on the animal lineage, being both gained and lost in the course of evolution. Analysis of a retroviral envelope gene, the envV gene, present in primate genomes and belonging to the endogenous retrovirus type V (ERV-V) provirus, shows that this captured gene, which entered the primate lineage >45 million years ago, behaves as a syncytin in Old World monkeys, but lost its canonical fusogenic activity in other primate lineages, including humans. In the Old World monkeys, we show—by in situ analyses and ex vivo assays—that envV is both specifically expressed at the level of the placental syncytiotrophoblast and fusogenic, and that it further displays signs of purifying selection based on analysis of non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rates. We further show that purifying selection still operates in the primate lineages where the gene is no longer fusogenic, indicating that degeneracy of this ancestral syncytin is a slow, lineage-dependent, and multi-step process, in which the fusogenic activity would be the first canonical property of this retroviral envelope gene to be lost.

Esnault, Cecile; Cornelis, Guillaume; Heidmann, Odile; Heidmann, Thierry

2013-01-01

95

Placental-related diseases of pregnancy: involvement of oxidative stress and implications in human evolution  

PubMed Central

Miscarriage and pre-eclampsia are the most common disorders of human pregnancy. Both are placental-related and exceptional in other mammalian species. Ultrasound imaging has enabled events during early pregnancy to be visualized in vivo for the first time. As a result, a new understanding of the early materno–fetal relationship has emerged and, with it, new insight into the pathogenesis of these disorders. Unifying the two is the concept of placental oxidative stress, with associated necrosis and apoptosis of the trophoblastic epithelium of the placental villous tree. In normal pregnancies, the earliest stages of development take place in a low oxygen (O2) environment. This physiological hypoxia of the early gestational sac protects the developing fetus against the deleterious and teratogenic effects of O2 free radicals (OFRs). In miscarriage, development of the placento–decidual interface is severely impaired leading to early and widespread onset of maternal blood flow and major oxidative degeneration. This mechanism is common to all miscarriages, with the time at which it occurs in the first trimester depending on the aetiology. In contrast, in pre-eclampsia the trophoblastic invasion is sufficient to allow early pregnancy phases of placentation but too shallow for complete transformation of the arterial utero–placental circulation, predisposing to a repetitive ischaemia–reperfusion (I/R) phenomenon. We suggest that pre-eclampsia is a three-stage disorder with the primary pathology being an excessive or atypical maternal immune response. This would impair the placentation process leading to chronic oxidative stress in the placenta and finally to diffuse maternal endothelial cell dysfunction.

Jauniaux, Eric; Poston, Lucilla; Burton, Graham J.

2007-01-01

96

[Morphological variability and placental function].  

PubMed

In mammals, the blastocyst defines with the maternal organism, a structure which allows embryonic development during gestation: the placenta. The structure of this organ varies remarkably across species. In this review the different type of placentation have been described in a comparative manner using terms of classification such as: placental materno-fetal interdigitation, matemofetal blood flow interrelationships, layers of the placental interhemal barrier, trophoblast invasiveness and decidual cell reaction, formation of syncytiotrophoblast. The human hemomonochorial placenta is characterized by a strong decidualization of the uterus and a major invasiveness of the extravillous trophoblast. Furthermore, there is a spectrum of placental endocrine activities across species. In some mammals (e.g., mouse and rat) the placenta eclipses the pituitary in the maintenance of ovarian function. In the human and in the sheep, horse, cat and guinea pig, the placenta acquires the ability to substitute for the ovaries in the maintenance of gestation at various time during pregnancy. The human placenta is characterized by a high rate of steroïdogenesis (progesterone and estrogens) and by the production of a primate specific trophoblastic hormone: human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Recently, it was demonstrated that mutation of many genes in mice results in embryonic mortality or fetal growth restriction, due to defects in placental development. Furthermore, distinct molecular pathways regulate the differentiation of various trophoblast cell subtype of the mouse placenta. An important question is whether or not placental differentiation in other mammals is regulated by the same molecular mechanisms. Due to the striking diversity in placental structure, endocrine function and gene expression, caution must be exercised in extrapolating findings regarding placental function and development from one species to another. PMID:11575143

Malassiné, A

97

Statistical moments for placental transfer of solutes in man.  

PubMed

The placental transfer of red blood cells and solutes in man has been investigated by statistical moment analysis, using the impulse-response technique. Model compounds of different lipophilicity (sucrose, water, antipyrine, propranolol and labetalol) were injected with a vascular reference (labelled red blood cells) as boluses into either the foetal or maternal circulation of a single-pass perfused placental lobule. Maternal and foetal venous outflow fractions were collected at intervals ranging from 1 to 600 s. Perfusion was conducted at maternal flow rates of 4 and 6 mL min(-1) and foetal flow rates of 2 and 3 mL min(-1), respectively, to yield a constant materno-foetal flow ratio of 2. The outflow concentration-time profile curves were analysed by statistical moment analysis. The sum of foetal and maternal recovery was close to 100% for red blood cells, sucrose, water and antipyrine, but lower for propranolol and labetalol. The mean transit time (MTT) values ranged from 20 to 500 s. The normalized variance (CV2) for red blood cells in the foetal and maternal circulation of the placenta were in the ranges 2.31 to 3.86 and 2.00 to 2.03, respectively. The shape of the outflow concentration-time profiles after bolus input is consistent with that of vascular residence time models such as the dispersion model. The heterogeneity in red blood cell transit times, as defined by CV2, is greater than in either the perfused leg or perfused liver. PMID:10678492

Bernus, I; Roberts, M S; Rasiah, R L; Mortimer, R H

1999-12-01

98

Fetal death in cows experimentally infected with Neospora caninum at 110 days of gestation.  

PubMed

Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle, but the reasons why some animals abort and not others remain unclear. Most of the N. caninum experimental primary infections in cattle late in gestation, after 120 days of pregnancy, result in birth of full-term congenitally infected fetuses. In the present study, the distribution of parasites and pathogenesis of infection in both dams and fetuses after inoculation with 10(7) culture derived tachyzoites of N. caninum NC-Illinois cattle strain at 110 days of gestation were analyzed at 3 weeks, 6 weeks and 9 weeks after infection (WAI) in eight Angus heifers. One dam from the group euthanized at 6 WAI had a dead fetus at necropsy. Extensive lesions were observed in the placenta and tachyzoites were detected in both the placenta and the fetus. The fetus was seropositive and had high IFN-gamma g production in fetal fluids. Another fetus, still alive when euthanized at 3 WAI, had severe lesions and high IFN-gamma production and a similar fate could have been expected if the experimental period would have been longer. Lesions in the placenta of the remaining six dams that had live fetuses at necropsy were mild. In those dams, the fetal and maternal placentas had not separated and contained focal areas of placentitis at the materno-fetal junction. Transplacental infection took place on all fetuses based on detection of parasitic DNA in fetal tissues. The present study shows that experimental N. caninum infection of naïve dams after 110 days of pregnancy can lead to fetal death. The results suggest that the severity of placental lesions and the strong IFN-gamma response in some fetuses, possibly as part of the immune response trying to control the high parasitemia, might, in fact, be the cause of their death. PMID:20089361

Almería, S; Araujo, R; Tuo, W; López-Gatius, F; Dubey, J P; Gasbarre, L C

2010-01-07

99

Developmental abnormalities in mouse embryos lacking the HDL receptor SR-BI.  

PubMed

The srbi gene encodes a lipoprotein receptor with high affinity for high density lipoprotein that is mainly expressed in the liver and in steroidogenic tissues. Disruption of this gene in mice and mutations in humans lead to alterations in lipoprotein metabolism and/or fertility. During murine development, scavenger receptor class B member I (SR-BI) is present in the yolk sac and the placenta and is only expressed in the embryo itself late in gestation. In humans, it has been detected in trophoblast cells and placenta. Although the proportion of mice carrying a null mutation in SR-BI obtained from heterozygous intercrosses is lower than the expected by the Mendelian ratio, suggesting the involvement of this receptor in intrauterine development, the cause of this demise has remained unknown. In this work, we show that embryos lacking SR-BI exhibit a high prevalence of exencephaly with a sex bias toward females. Immunolocalization studies confirmed that SR-BI is not expressed in the embryo at early stages of development and allowed a more detailed description of its localization in the cells that mediate maternal-fetal transport of nutrients. SR-BI-null embryos contain less cholesterol than their wild-type littermates, suggesting the involvement of SR-BI in materno-fetal cholesterol transport. Newborn SR-BI-deficient pups exhibit intrauterine growth restriction, suggesting that this receptor is also important for fetal growth. Altogether, the results of our work suggest that the presence of SR-BI in extraembryonic tissues is involved in the maternal-fetal transport of cholesterol and/or other lipids with a role during neural tube closure and fetal growth. PMID:23221804

Santander, Nicolás Guillermo; Contreras-Duarte, Susana; Awad, María Fernanda; Lizama, Carlos; Passalacqua, Isabella; Rigotti, Attilio; Busso, Dolores

2012-12-05

100

Towards the Rational Design of a Candidate Vaccine against Pregnancy Associated Malaria: Conserved Sequences of the DBL6? Domain of VAR2CSA  

PubMed Central

Background Placental malaria is a disease linked to the sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum infected red blood cells (IRBC) in the placenta, leading to reduced materno-fetal exchanges and to local inflammation. One of the virulence factors of P. falciparum involved in cytoadherence to chondroitin sulfate A, its placental receptor, is the adhesive protein VAR2CSA. Its localisation on the surface of IRBC makes it accessible to the immune system. VAR2CSA contains six DBL domains. The DBL6? domain is the most variable. High variability constitutes a means for the parasite to evade the host immune response. The DBL6? domain could constitute a very attractive basis for a vaccine candidate but its reported variability necessitates, for antigenic characterisations, identifying and classifying commonalities across isolates. Methodology/Principal Findings Local alignment analysis of the DBL6? domain had revealed that it is not as variable as previously described. Variability is concentrated in seven regions present on the surface of the DBL6? domain. The main goal of our work is to classify and group variable sequences that will simplify further research to determine dominant epitopes. Firstly, variable sequences were grouped following their average percent pairwise identity (APPI). Groups comprising many variable sequences sharing low variability were found. Secondly, ELISA experiments following the IgG recognition of a recombinant DBL6? domain, and of peptides mimicking its seven variable blocks, allowed to determine an APPI cut-off and to isolate groups represented by a single consensus sequence. Conclusions/Significance A new sequence approach is used to compare variable regions in sequences that have extensive segmental gene relationship. Using this approach, the VAR2CSA DBL6 domain is composed of 7 variable blocks with limited polymorphism. Each variable block is composed of a limited number of consensus types. Based on peptide based ELISA, variable blocks with 85% or greater sequence identity are expected to be recognized equally well by antibody and can be considered the same consensus type. Therefore, the analysis of the antibody response against the classified small number of sequences should be helpful to determine epitopes.

Badaut, Cyril; Bertin, Gwladys; Rustico, Tatiana; Fievet, Nadine; Massougbodji, Achille; Gaye, Alioune; Deloron, Philippe

2010-01-01

101

Measurement, Characterization, and Source of Somatostatin-like Immunoreactivity in Human Amniotic Fluid  

PubMed Central

Somatostatin-like immunoreactivity (SLI) is widely distributed in tissues and biological fluids. To determine whether SLI is also present in amniotic fluid, samples obtained by amniocentesis from 30 normal and 27 abnormal pregnancies were studied by radioimmunoassay. Direct incubation of [125I-Tyr1]tetradecapeptide somatostatin (SRIF) with amniotic fluid resulted in 89% tracer degradation. Damage was reduced to <5% when samples were acidified and boiled before the assay. With this technique, SLI was detectable in all normal amniotic fluid samples; the mean level at 15-20 wk of gestation (320±55 pg/ml, n = 15) being 4.5 times higher than the mean at 32-43 wk (70±12 pg/ml, n = 15) (P < 0.001). In cases of preeclampsia (n = 6), gestational diabetes (n = 5), anencephaly (n = 1), and meningomyelocele (n = 1), SLI values were in the normal range, but in one juvenile diabetic and one patient with chronic renal failure, SLI was undetectable (<10 pg/ml). In a pair of monochorionic diamniotic twins, SLI levels were very different (33 and 197 pg/ml), which suggests that fetal factors are more important than materno-placental ones in determining amniotic fluid SLI. Serial dilutions of amniotic fluid showed parallelism with standard SRIF. When concentrates of pooled amniotic fluid were chromatographed on Sephadex G-25 columns, all SLI eluted in the void volume ahead of SRIF even after treatment with 8 M urea and dithiothreitol. This “big” SLI incubated in amniotic fluid showed 100% stability over 24 h at 37°C, whereas SRIF was rapidly inactivated (t½ ? 7 min). Extracts of placenta and fetal membranes contained no SLI, but small amounts (6-20% of total amniotic fluid SLI) were found in cells from fresh fluid. Radioimmunoassay of SLI in extracts of seven paired cord arterial and venous plasma samples showed no arteriovenous gradient consistent with fetal origin of cord blood SLI. It is concluded that (a) amniotic fluid contains SLI which is of fetal origin and (b) normal levels vary with gestational age. The SLI has a higher molecular weight (?5,000) and is more stable in amniotic fluid than SRIF.

Fitz-Patrick, David; Patel, Yogesh C.

1979-01-01

102

Diagnosis of in utero Parvovirus B19 infection and maternal immune response - the relevance of linear epitopes and advanced serologic testing.  

PubMed

Importance of the field: Parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection in utero causing fetal anemia and non-immune hydrops fetalis (NIHF) is a potentially life-threatening event for the fetus. Postexpositional non-invasive diagnosis is based on maternal IgG/IgM response and detection of viral genome in maternal blood. Serologic testing directs prenatal follow-up. Fetal infection is confirmed by polymerase chain reaction or in situ hybridization in fetal blood and/or amniotic fluid cells. The performance of serologic tests is significant in order to direct pre- and perinatal care at rational use of resources. Timing of diagnostic procedures and knowledge of the time course of infection in pregnant, asymptomatic women are critical. IgM negative testing in the presence of prolonged viremia may complicate individual risk analysis in pregnancy. Recently, advanced IgG avidity assays and epitope-type specific assays (IgG ETS EIA) have been re-evaluated. Areas covered in this review: Epidemiology, clinical relevance and management of B19V infection in pregnancy. A review of the current literature (November 1984 - May 2009) and evaluation of current information on performance and predictive value of molecular and VP1/VP2 antigen-based IgG tests directed at the diagnosis of materno-fetal B19V infection and detection of past immunity. New aspects of B19V-associated fetal disease other than anemia/NIHF are also covered. What the reader will gain: An overview of immunology and clinical relevance of B19V infection in pregnancy, of the potential value of advanced serologic testing and fields of future research. Take home message: In the absence of a commercially available vaccine, serologic tests remain important tools in individual risk analysis of pregnant women exposed to B19V. Sequential application of IgG avidity and IgG ETS EIAs may improve risk stratification and timing of invasive testing in B19V-exposed pregnancies, in particular with IgM-negativity and/or persistent DNAemia. Prospective evaluation of these test systems correlated to fetal outcome in order to reduce fetal morbidity and mortality as well as the overall burden of disease of B19V with regard to fetal malformation may be subject to future research. PMID:23484447

Dembinski, Jörg

2010-03-01

103

Characterization of the immune response in the placenta of cattle experimentally infected with Neospora caninum in early gestation.  

PubMed

A serial examination of three groups of cattle infected intravenously (iv) (Group 1, n=8) or subcutaneously (sc) (Group 2, n=8) with live Neospora caninum tachyzoites or with VERO cells (Group 3, n=8) at 70 days' gestation was carried out and the nature of the inflammatory responses in the placenta and the presence of parasite antigen were analysed. Immune cells expressing CD3, CD4, CD8, gamma delta (gammadelta) T-cell receptors (TCR), CD79alpha cytoplasmic (cy) (B cells) and NKp46 [natural killer (NK) cells] antigens were identified immunohistochemically and cells expressing mRNA for interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) were labelled by in-situ hybridization. Intravenous inoculation caused mortality in all fetuses from 28 days post-inoculation (dpi) onwards. Subcutaneous inoculation caused mortality in 50% of the animals by 28dpi. Pathological changes in the placenta consisted of necrosis of fetal placental villi, necrosis and inflammation in adjacent areas of the maternal septum and inflammation at the base of the maternal caruncle. The inflammatory infiltrate consisted mainly of CD3(+) lymphocytes, dominated by CD4(+) and gammadelta TCR(+) cells, with CD8(+) cells present to a lesser extent. The results from the control group indicated fewer NK cells than those occurring in the placenta of human beings or mice. Infiltration of CD4(+) cells and NKp46(+) cells was observed in the caruncular base and septa 14 days after infection, whereas infiltration of gammadelta TCR(+) cells was observed from 28 dpi onwards. To our knowledge this is the first report on the presence and distribution of NK cells in the bovine placenta. Maternal inflammatory cells expressing mRNA for IFN-gamma were identified in animals inoculated with parasites iv or sc at 14 and 28 dpi, respectively. In the sc-inoculated dams with live fetuses at 28, 42 and 56dpi, there was no evidence of parasite antigen, infiltration of immune cells or production of IFN-gamma, suggesting that the parasite had not reached the placenta. The exact cause of fetal death was not established. Tissue destruction by the parasite may have occurred; in addition, there may have been a T helper 1 (Th-1) immune response to the neospora infection at the materno-fetal interface, resulting in infiltrations of CD4T cells, gammadelta T cells and NK cells and the subsequent production of IFN-gamma. It is possible that a pro-inflammatory Th-1 response early in gestation protects the dam by eliminating the parasite; however, it may lead to destruction of the placental tissues themselves and thus be incompatible with fetal survival. PMID:16997005

Maley, S W; Buxton, D; Macaldowie, C N; Anderson, I E; Wright, S E; Bartley, P M; Esteban-Redondo, I; Hamilton, C M; Storset, A K; Innes, E A

104

Association Between Intimate Partner Violence, Migraine and Probable Migraine  

PubMed Central

Objective Intimate partner violence (IPV) among women is a global public health problem. The association between childhood maltreatment and migraine is well established, but not the association between IPV and migraine. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the relationship between type and severity of IPV and migraine in a large cohort of Peruvian women. Methods Women who delivered singleton infants (N=2,066) at the Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal, Lima, Peru were interviewed during their post-partum hospital stay. Participants were queried about their lifetime experiences with headaches and migraine, and with physical and sexual violence. The International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-2) diagnostic criteria were used to classify participants according to their migraine status. Questions on physical and sexual violence were adapted from the protocol of Demographic Health Survey Questionnaires and Modules: Domestic Violence Module and the World Health Organization (WHO) Multi-Country Study on Violence against Women. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Subset. Logistic regression was used to estimate multivariate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Compared with women without a history of violence, women with experiences of lifetime physical or sexual violence (aOR=1.44, 95% CI 1.19–1.75), physical violence only (aOR=1.36, 95% CI 1.10–1.68), sexual violence only (aOR=1.76, 95% CI 0.97–3.21) and both physical and sexual violence (aOR=1.61, 95% CI 1.12–2.31) had increased odds of any migraine after adjusting for maternal age, parity and access to basic foods. There was no gradient of increased odds of any migraine with severity of physical violence. The relationship between IPV and any migraine was strongest among women with depressive symptoms. The odds of any migraine was increased 2.25-fold (95% CI 1.75–2.28) among abused women who also had depressive symptoms compared with non-abused and non-depressed women. Associations from sensitivity analyses that segregated women according to probable migraine (ICHD-2 category 1.6.1) and migraine (ICHD-2 category 1.1) diagnoses were of similar magnitudes as those reported here for women with any migraine diagnoses. IPV, particularly sexual violence, appears to be a risk factor for migraine. Conclusion Our findings suggest the potential importance of considering a history of violence among migraineurs.

Cripe, Swee May; Sanchez, Sixto E.; Gelaye, Bizu; Sanchez, Elena; Williams, Michelle A.

2013-01-01

105

[PREVALENCE OF HBsAg AND anti-HBs CARRIERS IN PREGNANT WOMEN WHO RESIDE IN DIFFERENT ENDEMIC AREAS LOCATED IN CENTRAL-SOUTHERN DEPARTAMENTS OF PERU  

PubMed

The present study was performed to estimate the prevalence of HBV in pregnant women (mean age among groups 25,0 6,9) who live in areas of different endemicity, and located in the Departments of Lima, Junin, Apurimac, and Ayacucho in Peru. All studies were carried out using radioimmunological techniques. In the Instituto Materno Perinatal in Lima, located in a low endemical area, 2086 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 14 and 44 years were evaluated (for laboratory tests) at their first prenatal examination. A prevalence of 9,38% (HbsAG+), 0,38% (Ratio), and 3,18% (HBsAg+, anti-HBsAg+) was found, corresponding to 107 HBsAg+ pregnant women whose treated newborn wouId prevent the HBV chronic infection of approximate 21 newborn each year. 63% HBsAg+ pregnant women were born in Departments other than Lima. In the Hospital de Apoyo La Merced, located in Chanchamayo, Junin, which is a medium endemic area, 217 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 14 and 48 years were evaluated. The prevalence found in this Hospital was of 1,38% (HBsAg+), 1,2% (Ratio), and 17,8% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+). All positive HBsAg were negative for HBeAg. The projection of results corresponded to a total of 9 HbsAg+ pregnant women and 2 newborn preventive of chronic disease per year. In the Guillermo D az de la Vega Hospital in Abancay, Apurimac, located in a medium to high endemic area, 221 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 15 and 46 years were evaluated. A prevalence of 1,36% (HBsAg+), 1,0% (Ratio), and 36,16% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+) was found. All positive HBsAg were negative for HBeAg. Projected results corresponded to a total of 37 HBsAg+ pregnant carriers and 7 newborn preventive of chronic disease per year. The Hospital General de Huanta, in Ayacucho, located in a high endemicity area, presented a prevalence of 3,2% (HBsAg+), 1,9% (Ratio), and 76,2% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+) from 126 pregnant women evaluated with ages between 15 and 48 years old. These results gave a total projection per year of 39 HBsAg+ pregnant women and 8 newborn preventive of chronic hepatic disease. Among a total of 4 positive HBsAg cases, 3 positive pregnant women were studied for HBeAg. All 3 were negative. These results establish the prevalence of HbsAg and antiHBs in pregnant women from different endemical areas with significant prevalence in the Departments of Ayacucho (Huanta), and Apurimac (Abancay). They also contribute towards the costbenefit analysis for the prevention of HBV chronic infection. PMID:12196812

Vasquez, S.; Cabezas, C.; Garcia, B.; Torres, R.; Larrabure, G.; Suarez, M.; Lucen, A.; Pernaz, G.; Gonzales, L.; Miranda, G.; Davalos, E.; Galarza, C.; Camasca, N.; Jara, R.

106

Blood rheology at term in normal pregnancy and in patients with adverse outcome events.  

PubMed

Plasma volume expansion of more than 1.5 l and sustainable activation of the hemostatic system that results in a steady rise of the fibrinogen/fibrin turnover are contemporary physiological events during normal pregnancy. In contrast, adverse outcome of pregnancy i.e. pre-eclampsia commonly coincide with hemo concentration and over activation of blood coagulation both of which alter blood rheology. On the basis of 4,985 consecutively recorded singleton pregnancies values range of blood rheological parameters in women with normal and complicated outcome of pregnancy at the time of their delivery were compared. Plasma viscosity (pv) was determined using KSPV 1 Fresenius and RBC aggregation (stasis: E0 and low shear: E1) using MA1-Aggregometer; Myrenne. Seventy-nine point four percent (n=3,959) had normal pregnancy outcome and 1,026 with adverse outcome of pregnancy had pre-eclampsia (8.4%; n=423), had newborn with a birth-weight < 2,500 g (9.5%; n=473), had early-birth before week 37 (9.3%; n=464), and/or were diagnosed with intra uterine growth retardation (IUGR) (5.0%; n=250). In women with normal pregnancy outcome mean (+/-SD) of pv was 1.31+/-0.09 mPa s, of E0 was 21.6+/-5.3, and of E1 was 38.4+/-7.9 while in women with adverse outcome means for rheological parameters were statistically significantly different i.e. pv: 1.32+/-0.08 mPa s; p=0.006, E0: 22.1+/-5.5; p=0.002 and E1: 39.5+/-8.5; p=0.0006. Subgroup analysis revealed statistical significant lower pv in women who either had pre term delivery or a low birth-weight child (p<0.005) as compared to women who had normal pregnancy outcome while patients with pre-eclampsia had markedly higher low shear and stasis RBC aggregation (p<0.0001). None of the rheological results at term were correlated with either maternal age (r<0.04), BMI (r<0.09), maternal weight gain until delivery (r<0.04), or fetal outcome such as APGAR-score (r<0.09) art. pH in the umbilical cord (-0.05materno-fetal unit that is commonly traceable using vessel duplex ultra sound in pre-eclampsia. PMID:19433886

von Tempelhoff, Georg-Friedrich; Velten, Eva; Yilmaz, Asli; Hommel, Gerhard; Heilmann, Lothar; Koscielny, Jürgen

2009-01-01