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Unstructured Jo~ao Leit~ao  

E-print Network

for Unstructured Overlay Networks Doctoral School Day in Cloud Computing Jo~ao Leit~ao INESC-ID / IST - Lisbon, Bittorrent. VOIP: Skype. IPTV: PPLive. Internet Anonymity: TOR. #12;Topology Management for Unstructured, Gnutella, Bittorrent. VOIP: Skype. IPTV: PPLive. Internet Anonymity: TOR. #12;Topology Management

Bonaventure, Olivier



E-print Network

and multijunction solar cells. For instance, thin film GaAs single junction solar cell can achieve efficiencies over efficiency multijunction solar cell is to match the current between the different subcells in orderInAlAs EPITAXIAL GROWTH FOR WIDE BAND GAP SOLAR CELLS Marina S. Leite 1 , Robyn L. Woo 2 , William

Atwater, Harry


SALGADOS E DOCES PARA COFFEE BREAK Mini Sanduche Po de Leite com Mussarela, Presunto e Alface  

E-print Network

: Muffins: Chocolate, Toalha Felpuda, Fubá, Milho , Cenoura, Chocolate, Laranja Kuke (banana, creme com goiabada, farofa) Bolo: Chocolate, Toalha Felpuda, Fubá, Milho , Cenoura, Chocolate, Laranja Mini Sonho: Creme russo, Chocolate, Doce de leite, Goiabada Croiassant: Goiabada, Chocolate Chineque Chocolate

Paraná, Universidade Federal do


Flow and sediment dynamics in channel confluences M. Leite Ribeiro,1  

E-print Network

Flow and sediment dynamics in channel confluences M. Leite Ribeiro,1 K. Blanckaert,1,2 A. G. Roy,3; published 27 March 2012. [1] Confluences with relatively low discharge and momentum flux ratios where a small steep tributary with a high supply of poorly sorted sediment joins a large, low-gradient main

Thévenaz, Jacques


Supporting Scenario Evolution* Karin Koogan Breitman Julio Cesar Sampaio do Prado Leite Daniel M. Berry  

E-print Network

. Berry§ Departamento de Informa´tica §Computer Science Department Pontif´icia Universidade Cato´lica University of Waterloo Rio de Janeiro, RJ 22453, Brazil Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada karin instances or scenario outcomes. Copyright © 2004 Karin K. Breitman, Julio C.S.P. Leite, Daniel M. Berry

Berry, Daniel M.


Agricultural extension in agroforestry and... Cardoso-Leite, E.; Pin-Rodrigues, F.C.M.; Costa Jr, E.A. ; Gonalves, P.K. ; Podadera,  

E-print Network

Agricultural extension in agroforestry and... Cardoso-Leite, E.; Pinã-Rodrigues, F.C.M.; Costa Jr AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION IN AGROFORESTRY ANDEMPOWERMENT OF RURAL COMMUNITIES, INSOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL. Eliana : France (2010)" #12;Agricultural extension in agroforestry and... Cardoso-Leite, E.; Pinã-Rodrigues, F

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Wide-band-gap InAlAs solar cell for an alternative multijunction approach Marina S. Leite,1,a  

E-print Network

Wide-band-gap InAlAs solar cell for an alternative multijunction approach Marina S. Leite,1,a Robyn recently attracted considerable interest in multijunction solar cells based on III-V semiconductors.1 both in terrestrial and spacial appli- cations. Usually, multijunction solar cell designs are based

Atwater, Harry


Validação de método para determinação de resíduos dos antibióticos oxitetraciclina, tetraciclina, clortetraciclina e doxiciclina, em leite, por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência  

Microsoft Academic Search

As tetraciclinas são compostos antibacterianos utilizados no gado leiteiro para tratamento de doenças infecciosas, como a mastite e também como aditivos em ração animal para melhorar a conversão alimentar. O uso das tetraciclinas pode acarretar a presença de resíduos destes fármacos no leite, principalmente se não forem utilizados de acordo com as indicações e se não for respeitado o período

Michela Denobile; Elizabeth de Souza Nascimento


Building a Strategic Oriented Corporate Memory Nstor Adolfo Mamani Macedo*, Julio Cesar Sampaio do Prado Leite*, T. Diana L. v. A. de  

E-print Network

Prado Leite*, T. Diana L. v. A. de Macedo-Soares** * Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro of the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro/ Business Administration Department, www on a general architecture. It has three layers: sources, middleware and repositories. First, we create

Endler, Markus


Viewpoints on Viewpoints Julio Cesar Sampaio do Prado Leite*  

E-print Network

held in 1993 (RE93) at the Coronado Hotel in San Diego is a clear sign that the softer side the possibility of model verification. Third, the use of viewpoints as services is a structuring strategy provided that the copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage, the copy- right

Leite, Julio Cesar Sampaio do Prado


[Nutritional and disease diagnosis in institutionalized children. Day care center Elisio Teixeira Leite, Perus, SP 1993].  


As a part of one survey about health conditions in institutionalized children, the nutritional status were evaluated. Data were obtained through antropometric assessment in a sample of 111 pre-school children matriculated in a small official day-care center in Perus-SP. According to Gomez, 50.0% of all that children were classified as malnourished, 23.4% of them in the I degree; 22.4% in II degree and only 4.3% in III degree. Taking into account the Waterlow's classification there was a highest frequency of cronic-actual malnutrition (30.8%) concentrated in children between 12-48 months of age. Additionally, these children presented highest incidence of infective-respiratory and intestinal diseases. These evidences lead on to the improvement of the follow-up of children growth and food consumption, specially that under 24 meses, to attempt for an early identification of malnutrition, thus increasing the chance of nutritional recuperation. PMID:8715588

Bertho, M P; Estima, S de L; Fujimori, E; de Oliveira, I M



Avaliação da qualidade microbiológica e dos parâmetros enzimáticos da pasteurização de leite tipo \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality and pasteurization enzymatic parameters in 80 samples of pasteurized milk produced in the north of Paraná state - Brazil from January , 2004 to December, 2005. The obtained results were compared with legislation established in the Regulation of Industry and Sanitary Federal Inspection of Food of Animal Origin. The

Ronaldo Tamanini; Livia Cavaletti; Alexandre Amorim Monteiro


Name: Antonio Carlos Gardel Leit~ao Adresse: Friedr. Wilh. v. SteubenStr. 90, App. 1  

E-print Network

S (September 1993) Seit Oktober 1993 Doktorand in der Arbeitsgruppe Informatik der Johann Wolfgang Goethe) Hochschulbildung: M¨arz 1986 ­ Dezember 1989 BSc. in Informatik an der Bundesuniversit¨at von Rio de Ja- neiro (Brasilien) Titel der BSc. Thesis: Die nichtlineare Schr¨odinger Glei- chung und die Ausbreitung von LASER

Leitão, Antonio


Reusing Domains for the Construction of Reverse Engineering Tools Felipe Gouveia de Freitas and Julio Cesar Sampaio do Prado Leite  

E-print Network

languages and artificial intelligence in order to deal with complex integration of components. We, at PUC. Our work proposes a singular approach to the construction of reverse engineering tools. Using

Leite, Julio Cesar Sampaio do Prado


Chromium diffusion in lithium niobate for active optical waveguides Jo& M. Almeida,a) Gerard Boyle,b) and Ant6nio P. Leite  

E-print Network

Chromium diffusion in lithium niobate for active optical waveguides Jo& M. Almeida,a) Gerard Boyle (Received 14 February 1995; accepted for publication 26 April 1995) A method to fabricate chromium is reported. Chromium concentration depth profiles have been obtained by secondary-ion-mass spectrometry



Microsoft Academic Search

Amongst the greatest milk producers all over the world, Brazil stands out due to the low participation of dairy cooperatives in milk handling and commercialization. Several factors may be identified to explain cross-country differences regarding to dairy cooperative market share. This paper discusses aspects related to the organizational structure and strategic behavior of dairy cooperatives in response to the globalization

Fabio Ribas Chaddad



Quantificação de coliformes, Staphylococcus aureus e mesófilos presentes em diferentes etapas da produção de queijo frescal de leite de cabra em laticínios  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY ENUMERATION OF COLIFORMS, Staphylococcus aureus AND AEROBIC MESOFILIC BACTERIA THROUGHOUT THE MANUFACTURE PROCESS OF A GOAT UNRIPENED CHEESE PRODUCED IN A DAIRY PLANT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hygienic conditions throughout the manufacture process of a goat unripened cheese, using the enumeration of coliforms, S. aureus and aerobic mesofilic bacteria as indicators. The production of

Simone Ulrich Picoli; Marjo Cado Bessa; Sandra Maria Ferraz Castagna; Carina Philomena Tebich Gottardi; Verônica Schmidt; Marisa Cardoso



Uma experiência educacional de incentivo ao aleitamento materno e estimulação do bebê, para mães de nível sócio-econômico baixo: estudo preliminar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Este estudo efetuou uma avaliação preliminar da eficácia de um programa educacio- nal de estímulo ao aleitamento materno, que inclui a introdução simultânea de técnicas de esti- mulação do bebê. O programa, elaborado por Garcia-Montrone (1992), foi aplicado a um grupo de mães de nível sócio-econômico baixo (grupo experimental). Tal programa foi avaliado atra- vés de sessões de observação

Victoria Garcia-Montrone; Júlio C. de Rose



ORIGINAL PAPER Gill chemoreceptors and cardio-respiratory reflexes  

E-print Network

, Piaractus mesopotamicus C. A. C. Leite � L. H. Florindo � A. L. Kalinin � W. K. Milsom � F. T. Rantin consists of an increase in breathing frequency and/or amplitude C. A. C. Leite Á A. L. Kalinin Á F. T

Milsom, William


Max-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik  

E-print Network

on corresponding to the Laplacian in 3D, i.e. (V)(x) := 1 4 (y) |x- y| dy, x . (1) Samuel Ferraz-Leite MaxMax-Planck-Institut f¨ur Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften Leipzig Stabilization Ferraz-Leite Abstract We consider the reduced model for thin-film devices in stationary micro- magnetics


[Severe malnutrition: epidemiological and clinical characteristics of children hospitalized in the Instituto Materno Infantil de Pernambuco (IMIP), Brazil].  


Ninety-nine children admitted to the Instituto Materno Infantil de Pernambuco with severe malnutrition from May 1999 to May 2000 were investigated in a cross-sectional study focusing on key epidemiological and clinical variables. The majority of the children (88.9%) were less than 6 months of age, 42.4% had a history of low birth weight, and 36.4% were premature. Some 19.2% had never been breastfed, and 49.5% had been breastfed for less than 2 months. Some 15.2% of the mothers were illiterate. Most of the families (86.1%) had incomes less than twice the minimum wage (approximately US$150/month), and 51.5% had migrated from rural areas. Only 26.3% of the homes had running water, and 40.4% lacked sewage disposal facilities. Diarrhea was the reason for hospital admission in 55.6% of the cases. Hospital mortality was 34.3% in this group. PMID:12244381

Falbo, Ana Rodrigues; Alves, João Guilherme Bezerra



Binding of visual features in human perception and memory   

E-print Network

The leit motif of this thesis is that binding of visual features is a process that begins with input of stimulation and ends with the emergence of an object in working memory so that it can be further manipulated for ...

Jaswal, Snehlata



Ein Iterationsverfahren fur elliptische Cauchy{Probleme und die Verknupfung mit der  

E-print Network

Mathematik der Johann Wolfgang Goethe{Universitat in Frankfurt am Main von Antonio C. G. Leit~ao aus Niteroi, Brasilien Frankfurt am Main 1996 #12;von Fachbereich Mathematik der Johann Wolfgang Goethe{Universitat als

Leitão, Antonio


ADVOCACIA-GERAL DA UNIO Concurso pblico para provimento de cargos vagos de Advogado da Unio de 2 Categoria  

E-print Network

Domingues de Carvalho / 10005498, Aloyzio Alves da Costa Neto / 10005223, Alvaro Goncalves Duarte / 10000817 Estima de Souza Leite / 10015656, Andre Luiz Agostinho da Silveira Reis / 10007168, Andre Luiz Cavalcanti

Maier, Rudolf Richard


Couplings Between Changes in the Climate System and Biogeochemistry  

E-print Network

(Switzerland), Srikanthan Ramachandran (India), Pedro Leite da Silva Dias (Brazil), Steven C. Wofsy (USA (USA), J.A. Berry (USA), R. Betts (UK), G. Bonan (USA), P. Bousquet (France), J. Canadell (Australia

Lotko, William


Prevention of materno-foetal transmission of hepatitis B in sub-Saharan Africa: the evidence, current practice and future challenges.  


Hepatitis B (HBV) infection is highly endemic in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where more than 8% of the population remain chronic HBV carriers. SSA has one of the highest HBV-related liver cancer rates in the world (CA Cancer J Clin, 55, 2005, 74) and HBV-related liver cancer is the most common cause of premature death in West Africa (Lancet Oncol, 9, 2008, 683; Hepatology, 39, 2004, 211). As such, HBV represents a significant global threat to health in the African continent. Most SSA countries have elected to vaccinate all children against HBV through the WHO-sponsored Expanded Program of Immunization and the current recommendation from WHO-AFRO is for birth-dose HBV vaccination to prevent maternal/child transmission (MFT) and early horizontal transmission of HBV. However, in Africa, HBV vaccine coverage remains low and HBV birth-dose vaccination has not been implemented. HBV transmission from mother to child in the early perinatal period therefore remains a significant contributor to the burden of HBV-related disease in SSA. This review explores the evidence for materno-foetal transmission of HBV in SSA, outlining current practice for HBV MFT prevention and identifying the significant challenges to implementation of HBV prevention in SSA. PMID:24827901

Howell, J; Lemoine, M; Thursz, M



MELLO, M. P.; PETERNELLI, L. A.; LEITE, M. S. O. Anlise com e sem uso de funes polinomiais no ajuste espacial de dados nas etapas iniciais de programas de seleo comparao via simulao. In: Reunio Anual da Regio Brasileira da Sociedade  

E-print Network

ou não o uso de funções polinomiais para ajuste da variabilidade espacial em experimentos de campo necessário para a realização do experimento (DUARTE, 2000; MATSUOKA et al., 1999). Nesse contexto, é repetição de cada novo genótipo em experimentos segundo o Delineamento Aumentado (FEDERER, 1956

Hammerton, James


Avidity of IgG for rubella: an evaluation of the need for implementation at the Materno-Infantil Presidente Vargas Hospital in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.  


Rubella serum assays performed in the laboratory of the Materno-Infantil Presidente Vargas Hospital (HMIPV) from 1998 to 2002 were reviewed to determine if IgG avidity assays should be implemented. IgG was determined using the Enzyme Linked Fluorescent Assay, ELFA, VIDAS system, bioMerieux or the Microparticle Enzyme Immunoassay, MEIA, Axsym system, Abbott, and IgM was determined using the ELFA, VIDAS system, bioMerieux, a capture format assay. Specific IgG was assayed in 2,863 samples, with positive results for 84% of the patients, for the most part with high levels of antibodies. IgM was assayed in 2,851 samples, being positive in 14 (0.49%) and inconclusive in 25 (0.88%). Serology for toxoplasmosis was also positive or inconclusive in 5 patients. After a cost-effectiveness analysis, it was decided not to implement avidity assays, considering that the HMIPV is a public institution, with limited funding. Difficulties concerning the integration of the Clinical Pathology Service with the Clinical Staff of the institution were also considered. PMID:15476057

Reis, M M; Tessaro, M M; Cruz e Silva, J; Giordano, S A; d'Azevedo, P A



More ground work needed to prepare  

E-print Network

a general and worrisome side effect of this trend in the three universities on two continents where I have, and the demoralization of graduates who will never go on to become scientists. CristinaBanks-LeiteDepartamento de Murakami's work deserves further comment. The title echoes that of one of the most important short

Cai, Long



E-print Network

- dividuals with congestive heart failure. The HRV computational tools mentioned above do not imple- mentMATLAB SOFTWARE FOR DETRENDED FLUCTUATION ANALYSIS OF HEART RATE VARIABILITY Fernanda S. Leite1, Heart rate variability, HRV. Abstract: The analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) is an important tool

Carvalho, João Luiz


fur Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften  

E-print Network

, for the irreducible complex crystallographic Coxeter group W, the following conditions are equivalent: a) W. Statement. For any irreducible complex crystallographic group W, the following condi- tions are equivalent for the complex crystallographic groups (revised version: August 2006) by Joseph Bernstein, Dimitry A. Leites


Coordenao: Edviges Ioris  

E-print Network

destacar sua importância na moderna antropologia brasileira, João Pacheco é um inovador da antropologia fóruns de representação da categoria, como a Associação Brasileira de Antropologia, da qual já foi ­ Mesa-redonda: Antropologia, Ética e a Regulamentação da Pesquisa Participação: Ilka Boaventura Leite

Floeter, Sergio Ricardo


Introduction The neotropical fish tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, is  

E-print Network

to adapt to widely fluctuating oxygen concentrations in its habitat (Rantin and Kalinin, 1996 of the swollen lip takes 3·h or more (Rantin and Kalinin, 1996). Several studies have examined the cardio): progressive responses to prolonged hypoxia Luiz H. Florindo1 , Cléo A. C. Leite2 , Ana L. Kalinin2 , Stephen G

Milsom, William


Gateway vectors for the production of combinatorially-tagged His6-MBP fusion proteins in  

E-print Network

). However, MBP fusion proteins do not always bind efficiently to amylose resin (Pryor and Leiting 1997; Routzahn and Waugh 2002); and even when they do, amylose affinity chromatography typi- cally does the limitations of amylose affinity chromatography, Routzahn and Waugh incor- porated auxiliary affinity tags


Section 20: Dynamics and control 1 Section 20: Dynamics and control  

E-print Network

based stabilization of mechanical systems with dissipation in unactuated degrees of freedom Abstract 17 Trajectory Tracking of Serial Flexible Manipulators Abstract 17:20 ­ 17:40: Alexandre Carvalho Leite, Bernd-Agent Motion Control of Autonomous Vehicles in Three-Dimensional Fluid Flow Fields Abstract 14:30 ­ 14

Kohlenbach, Ulrich


ADVOCACIA-GERAL DA UNIO Concurso pblico para provimento de cargos vagos de Advogado da Unio de 2 Categoria  

E-print Network

.57, 190.90 / 10005498, Aloyzio Alves da Costa Neto, 78.43, 66.61, 56.71, 201.75 / 10005223, Alvaro.81 / 10025996, Andre Estima de Souza Leite, 94.35, 61.20, 64.70, 220.25 / 10015656, Andre Luiz Agostinho da

Maier, Rudolf Richard


R. Fioresi, F. Gavarini "Chevalley Supergroups"  

E-print Network

the Russian by J. Niederle and R. Koteck´y, translation edited by Dimitri Leites, Dordrecht (Holland), 1987 and Supervarieties, Pacific J. Math. 234 (2008), 295­310. 1 #12;2 [13] L. Frappat, P. Sorba, A. Sciarrino, Dictionary

Gavarini, Fabio


ISSN 1677-7050 N 197, quinta-feira, 13 de outubro de 2011 pgina 2 MINISTRIO DA CINCIA, TECNOLOGIA E INOVAO  

E-print Network

, TECNOLOGIA E INOVAÇÃO DECRETO DE 11 DE OUTUBRO DE 2011 A PRESIDENTA DA REPÚBLICA, no uso da atribuição que membros para compor o Conselho Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia - CCT, com mandato de três anos: I - representantes de produtores e usuários de ciência e tecnologia: ROGÉRIO CEZAR DE CERQUEIRA LEITE, titular

Barbosa, Marcia C. B.



Microsoft Academic Search

O propósito desta pesquisa é avaliar a estrutura do agribusiness do leite no Brasil, identificando as principais limitações logísticas para exportação. Especificamente pretende identificar as principais empresas exportadoras de produtos lácteos, os produtos mais exportados e os países de destino; relatar as maneiras mais freqüentes de inserção dos produtos no mercado externo; e mencionar as estruturas físicas utilizadas pelas empresas

Adriano Abreu Rezende; Antonio Carlos dos Santos



Hydromorphological implications of local tributary widening for river rehabilitation  

E-print Network

to the ecological connectivity, flood safety and water quality. In natural conditions, these locations are typically, provide favorable conditions for the improvement and reestablishment of ecological river functions, without having adverse impact on flood safety. Citation: Leite Ribeiro, M., K. Blanckaert, A. G. Roy

Thévenaz, Jacques


Fisiología del embarazo: Interacción materno-infantil  

Microsoft Academic Search

ResumenEn los últimos años los datos han demostrado de qué manera el bienestar vitalicio depende considerablemente del crecimiento y el desarrollo intrauterinos durante la vida dentro del útero. El crecimiento fetal puede alcanzar únicamente su potencial íntegro mediante una interacción adecuada y armonizada entre la madre, la placenta y el feto. Este delicado equilibrio puede ser alterado por varios factores

Irene Cetin; Manuela Cardellicchio



%HermesFileInfo:A-30:20121023: A30 Vida TERA-FEIRA, 23 DE OUTUBRO DE 2012 O ESTADO DE S. PAULO  

E-print Network

mais profundas, que permitiram a descoberta de 40 novas espécies de crustáceos e moluscos nos últimos três anos. A nova fase é resultado de um trabalho de avaliação de impac- tonasáreasdeexploraçãodepe,estamosdes- cobrindo novas espécies que só existem nesta localidade", afir- maapesquisadoraSigridLeitão, que coordena o

Barbosa, Marcia C. B.


Materno-infantilism, feminism and maternal health policy in Brazil.  


In the last days of 2011, President of Brazil Dilma Rousseff issued a provisional measure (or draft law) entitled "National Surveillance and Monitoring Registration System for the Prevention of Maternal Mortality" (MP 557), as part of a new maternal health programme. It was supposed to address the pressing issue of maternal morbidity and mortality in Brazil, but instead it caused an explosive controversy because it used terms such as nascituro (unborn child) and proposed the compulsory registration of every pregnancy. After intense protests by feminist and human rights groups that this law was unconstitutional, violated women's right to privacy and threatened our already limited reproductive rights, the measure was revised in January 2012, omitting "the unborn child" but not the mandatory registration of pregnancy. Unfortunately, neither version of the draft law addresses the two main problems with maternal health in Brazil: the over-medicalisation of childbirth and its adverse effects, and the need for safe, legal abortion. The content of this measure itself reflects the conflictive nature of public policies on reproductive health in Brazil and how they are shaped by close links between different levels of government and political parties, and religious and professional sectors. PMID:22789090

Diniz, Simone



A biological, clinical and chemical study of a flour prepared from cottonseed  

E-print Network

meal). The usual orecaution as to distribution of litter mates was observed. During the experiment the ani- mals were confined in individual wire-mesh cages. The cages were cleaned each day and steam-sterilized once each week. Food intake records... 139 170 182 199 209 218 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 Letters to Lei't of Numbers refer to Litters: Letters to Bight of Numbers refer to Sex. OR E AVEOAOE OROVVTH GI/OVEO Eo OOO/IR5 I-E Ei 3A F/6 / 6AIH ItV OOAOIO ~l tt Ctt ~ 0 ~ t D~ Al...

McMath, Charles Wallis



A Multiple Degree of Freedom Lower Extremity Isometric Device to Simultaneously Quantify Hip, Knee and Ankle Torques.  


Characterization of the joint torque coupling strategies used in the lower extremity to generate maximal and submaximal levels of torque at either the hip, knee or ankle is lacking. Currently, there are no available isometric devices that quantify all concurrent joint torques in the hip, knee and ankle of a single leg during maximum voluntary torque generation. Thus, joint-torque coupling strategies in the hip, knee and concurrent torques at ankle and/or coupling patterns at the hip and knee driven by the ankle have yet to be quantified. This manuscript describes the design, implementation and validation of a multiple degree of freedom, lower extremity isometric device (the MultiLEIT) that accurately quantifies simultaneous torques at the hip, knee and ankle. The system was mechanically validated and then implemented with two healthy control individuals and two post-stroke individuals to test usability and patient acceptance. Data indicated different joint torque coupling strategies used by both healthy individuals. In contrast, data showed the same torque coupling patterns in both post-stroke individuals, comparable to those described in the clinic. Successful implementation of the MultiLEIT can contribute to the understanding of the underlying mechanisms responsible for abnormal movement patterns and aid in the design of therapeutic interventions. PMID:25163064

Sanchez, Natalia; Acosta, Ana; Stienen, Arno; Dewald, Julius



Transfert materno-fœtal et captation des acides gras essentiels chez le rat  

E-print Network

and direct ; 2) the triglycerides and cholesterol esters were lipolyzed when crossing the placenta ; 3 to the fetus as compared to triglycerides and cholesterol esters ; 4) fetal arachido- nic acid originated

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Corticosterone alters materno-fetal glucose partitioningand insulin signalling in pregnant mice  

E-print Network

=5-9 per group, one placenta per 230 litter). Protein extracts were resolved by electrophoresis and transferred to a nitrocellulose 231 membrane for interrogation. Equal protein loading was verified by Ponceau staining 232 (Romero-Calvo et al... closest in weight to the mean of each litter (n=6 per treatment, per age). 242 Expression of Slc2a1 (Taqman gene expression assay Mm00441473_m1). Slc2a2 243 (Mm00446229_m1), Slc2a3 (Mm00441483_m1), Nr3c1 (Mm00433832_m1), Hsd1 244 (Mm00476182_m1), Hsd2...

Vaughan, O.R.; Fisher, H.M.; Dionelis, K.N.; Jefferies, E.C.; Higgins, J.S.; Musial, B.; Sferruzzi-Perri, A.N.; Fowden, A.L.



Matrix De Rham Complex and Quantum A-infinity algebras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I establish the relation of the non-commutative BV-formalism with super-invariant matrix integration. In particular, the non-commutative BV-equation, defining the quantum A ?-algebras, introduced in Barannikov (Modular operads and non-commutative Batalin-Vilkovisky geometry. IMRN, vol. 2007, rnm075. Max Planck Institute for Mathematics 2006-48, 2007), is represented via de Rham differential acting on the supermatrix spaces related with Bernstein-Leites simple associative algebras with odd trace q( N), and gl( N| N). I also show that the matrix Lagrangians from Barannikov (Noncommutative Batalin-Vilkovisky geometry and matrix integrals. Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge University, 2006) are represented by equivariantly closed differential forms.

Barannikov, S.



Effects of gestational age and surface modification on materno-fetal transfer of nanoparticles in murine pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Nanoparticle exposure in pregnancy may result in placental damage and fetotoxicity; however, the factors that determine fetal nanoparticle exposure are unclear. Here we have assessed the effect of gestational age and nanoparticle composition on fetal accumulation of maternally-administered nanomaterials in mice. We determined the placental and fetal uptake of 13?nm gold nanoparticles with different surface modifications (ferritin, PEG and citrate) following intravenous administration at E5.5-15.5. We showed that prior to E11.5, all tested nanoparticles could be visualized and detected in fetal tissues in significant amounts; however, fetal gold levels declined dramatically post-E11.5. In contrast, Au-nanoparticle accumulation in the extraembryonic tissues (EET) increased 6–15 fold with gestational age. Fetal and EET accumulation of ferritin- and PEG-modified nanoparticles was considerably greater than citrate-capped nanoparticles. No signs of toxicity were observed. Fetal exposure to nanoparticles in murine pregnancy is, therefore, influenced by both stage of embryonic/placental maturation and nanoparticle surface composition. PMID:23150793

Yang, Hui; Sun, Cuiji; Fan, Zhenlin; Tian, Xin; Yan, Liang; Du, Libo; Liu, Yang; Chen, Chunying; Liang, Xing-jie; Anderson, Gregory J.; Keelan, Jeffrey A.; Zhao, Yuliang; Nie, Guangjun



Constraints imposed by the lower extremity extensor synergy in chronic hemiparetic stroke: Preliminary findings.  


In the present manuscript we implemented the MultiLEIT, a lower extremity isometric torque measurement device to quantify spontaneous joint torque coupling during maximal torque generation in the paretic leg of in chronic hemiparetic stroke. We quantified extension/adduction coupling (coincident with the clinical extension synergy) during the generation of hip extension and ankle plantarflexion maximum voluntary torques. Subjects were then instructed to generate torques outside the synergy by combining hip extension+ hip abduction or ankle plantarflexion + hip abduction. During the hip dual task, the paretic hip torques were significantly different from those measured in the non-paretic and control leg (F = 22.9719, p = 0) and resulted in the inability to generate torques outside the extensor synergy patters. During the dual ankle/ hip task, the paretic extremity generated significantly smaller hip abduction torques compared to controls and to the non-paretic extremity (F = 15.861, p = 0). During this task the paretic extremity was capable of neutralizing the spontaneous adduction torque and generate a net albeit small abduction torque. Results may indicate an increased descending drive from brain stem pathways, particularly during hip extension, responsible for constraints in generating hip abduction torques after stroke. PMID:25571315

Sanchez, Natalia; Dewald, Julius P A



Thermodynamic potentials in closed and open nanocrystalline systems: Si-Ge islands on Si(001).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The driving forces for alloying in Si-Ge epitaxial nanocrystalline islands were quantified experimentally. Closed and open systems were emulated by controlling surface diffusion kinetics [1]. Grazing Incidence X-Ray Diffraction (GIXRD) experiments were performed to map the composition and the strain distribution within the Si-Ge:Si(001) islands, permitting the evaluation of the relevant thermodynamic potentials for alloying. For the closed system the elastic strain energy increased, which was more than compensated by the increase in the local mixing entropy [2]. In contrast, for the open system, the elastic energy decreased and the mixing entropy increased, driven by the intermixing originated from the inflow of Si from the reservoir. For both systems, the evolution of the composition leads to a lowering of the Gibbs free energy. The results were in full agreement with a theoretical prediction of the optimum concentration for epitaxial islands. [1] M. S. Leite et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 165901 (2007). [2] G. Medeiros-Ribeiro et al, Nano Lett. 7, 223 (2007).

Leite, Marina S.; Malachias, Angelo; Kycia, Stefan W.; Kamins, Ted I.; Williams, R. Stanley; Medeiros-Ribeiro, Gilberto



Cytokine gene expression at the materno-foetal interface after experimental Neospora caninum infection of heifers at 110 days of gestation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle but the reasons why some animals abort and not others remain unclear. The immunological control of the parasite in the placenta or by the foetus could be the key to determining the mechanism of abortion and/or transplacental transmission to the...


Universit degli Studi di Roma "La Sapienza" Via di Grottarossa, 1035 00189 ROMA  

E-print Network

Interna Pedagogia Generale Antropologia Sociale Psicologia Generale ********** MED/09 M-PED/01 M-DEA/01 Infermieristica nelle disabilità MED/45 II-II Infermieristica Materno-Infantile Pediatria Infermieristica Materno-Infantile

Guidoni, Leonardo


Spatio-temporal clustering of wildfires in Portugal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several studies have shown that wildfires in Portugal presenthigh temporal as well as high spatial variability (Pereira et al., 2005, 2011). The identification and characterization of spatio-temporal clusters contributes to a comprehensivecharacterization of the fire regime and to improve the efficiency of fire prevention and combat activities. The main goalsin this studyare: (i) to detect the spatio-temporal clusters of burned area; and, (ii) to characterize these clusters along with the role of human and environmental factors. The data were supplied by the National Forest Authority(AFN, 2011) and comprises: (a)the Portuguese Rural Fire Database, PRFD, (Pereira et al., 2011) for the 1980-2007period; and, (b) the national mapping burned areas between 1990 and 2009. In this work, in order to complement the more common cluster analysis algorithms, an alternative approach based onscan statistics and on the permutation modelwas used. This statistical methodallows the detection of local excess events and to test if such an excess can reasonably have occurred by chance.Results obtained for different simulations performed for different spatial and temporal windows are presented, compared and interpreted.The influence of several fire factors such as (climate, vegetation type, etc.) is also assessed. Pereira, M.G., Trigo, R.M., DaCamara, C.C., Pereira, J.M.C., Leite, S.M., 2005:"Synoptic patterns associated with large summer forest fires in Portugal".Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 129, 11-25. Pereira, M. G., Malamud, B. D., Trigo, R. M., and Alves, P. I.: The history and characteristics of the 1980-2005 Portuguese rural fire database, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 3343-3358, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-3343-2011, 2011 AFN, 2011: AutoridadeFlorestalNacional (National Forest Authority). Available at

Costa, R.; Pereira, M. G.; Caramelo, L.; Vega Orozco, C.; Kanevski, M.



Multivariate statistical analysis of wildfires in Portugal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several studies demonstrate that wildfires in Portugal present high temporal and spatial variability as well as cluster behavior (Pereira et al., 2005, 2011). This study aims to contribute to the characterization of the fire regime in Portugal with the multivariate statistical analysis of the time series of number of fires and area burned in Portugal during the 1980 - 2009 period. The data used in the analysis is an extended version of the Rural Fire Portuguese Database (PRFD) (Pereira et al, 2011), provided by the National Forest Authority (Autoridade Florestal Nacional, AFN), the Portuguese Forest Service, which includes information for more than 500,000 ?re records. There are many multiple advanced techniques for examining the relationships among multiple time series at the same time (e.g., canonical correlation analysis, principal components analysis, factor analysis, path analysis, multiple analyses of variance, clustering systems). This study compares and discusses the results obtained with these different techniques. Pereira, M.G., Trigo, R.M., DaCamara, C.C., Pereira, J.M.C., Leite, S.M., 2005: "Synoptic patterns associated with large summer forest fires in Portugal". Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 129, 11-25. Pereira, M. G., Malamud, B. D., Trigo, R. M., and Alves, P. I.: The history and characteristics of the 1980-2005 Portuguese rural fire database, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 3343-3358, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-3343-2011, 2011 This work is supported by European Union Funds (FEDER/COMPETE - Operational Competitiveness Programme) and by national funds (FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) under the project FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-022692, the project FLAIR (PTDC/AAC-AMB/104702/2008) and the EU 7th Framework Program through FUME (contract number 243888).

Costa, Ricardo; Caramelo, Liliana; Pereira, Mário



A Mathematical Physicist's Approach to Virology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The following talk has been given in a special session dedicated to Professor Heinz-Dietrich Doebner at QTS in Prague in August 2011 on the occasion of his 80th birthday. It documents my journey from being a PhD student in Mathematical Physics at the Arnold Sommerfeld Institute in Clausthal under his supervision, to becoming a Professor of Mathematical Biology at the University of York in the UK. I am currently heading an interdisciplinary research group of eight PDRAs and PhDs, focussed on investigating the structures of viruses from a symmetry perspective and unravelling the implications of virus structure on how viruses form and infect their hosts. A central element in my research is my fascination with the development and application of symmetry techniques, which stems from my time in Clausthal when working with Professor Doebner and colleagues. I would like to thank Professor Doebner for these important formative years in Clausthal. Der folgende Vortrag war mein Beitrag zu einer Festsitzung fuer Herrn Professor Heinz-Dietrich Doebner auf der Tagung QTS im August 2011 anläßlich seines achzigsten Geburtstags. Dieser Beitrag dokumentiert, wie sich meine Forschungen aus der Zeit als Doktorandin von Herrn Professor Doebner in Mathematischer Physik am Arnold Sommerfeld Institut in Clausthal weiterentwickelt haben, und zu meiner Professur in Mathematischer Biologie an der Universität York geführt haben. Ich leite dort zur Zeit eine interdisziplinäre Forschungsgruppe von acht Postdocs und Doktoranden, die sich mit der Entwicklung und Anwendung von Symmetrie-Techniken in der Virologie beschäftigt, und insbesondere untersucht, wie sich die Symmetrie-Eigenschaften von Viren auf deren Entstehung und Funktionsweise auswirken. Eine wichtige Vorraussetzung für dieses Forschungsprogramm ist meine Faszination für die Modellierung von Symmetrie-Eigenschaften, die ich während meiner Zusammenarbeit mit Herrn Professor Doebner und Kollegen in Clausthal entwickelt habe. Ich möchte Herrn Professor Doebner für diese wichtigen formativen Jahre besonderen Dank aussprechen.

Twarock, Reidun



Utilisation de l'echographie doppler couleur dans la localisation de l'insertion du cordon ombilical et le devenir materno-foetal à la maternité de l'hôpital central de Yaoundé : une étude descriptive et analytique  

PubMed Central

Introduction L'échographie doppler couleur permet d'étudier l'insertion du cordon ombilical sur le placenta. Les études américaines et asiatiques montrent que les insertions anormales telles les insertions vélamenteuses et marginales sont associées à une élévation de la morbidité et de la mortalité périnatales. En Afrique et plus particulièrement au Cameroun, aucune étude n'a été publiée sur le sujet. D'où notre motivation à mener ce travail. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude descriptive et analytique qui s'est déroulée sur une période deux ans (2011-2012) à la maternité principale de l'Hôpital Central de Yaoundé. Cette étude a inclus 66 patientes qui ont subi chacune une échographie doppler couleur entre la 18ième et 30ième semaine de gestation, précisant le type d'insertion du cordon ombilical sur le placenta. A l'accouchement, un examen macroscopique du placenta a été réalisé afin de comparer le type d'insertion et réaliser les tests statistiques. Résultats Des 66 grossesses étudiées, nous avons eu un pourcentage de visualisation du type d'insertion de 100%. Toutes les insertions étaient normales à l'échographie soit 20 centrales et 46 latérales. A l'examen macroscopique du placenta, nous avons obtenu 19 (28,8%) insertions centrales, 47(71,2%) insertions latérales ; aucune insertion anormale n'ayant été objectivée. Les tests statistiques nous permettent d'avoir une sensibilité de 95%, une spécificité de 97,8%, une exactitude de 98%, une valeur prédictive positive de 95% et une valeur prédictive négative de 97,8%. Pour ces insertions, nous n'avons pas retrouvé d'association entre le mode d'accouchement, le poids de naissance, et le Score d'apgar avec le type d'insertion du cordon ombilical. Conclusion Nous avons conclu que l'échographie doppler couleur a une haute sensibilité et spécificité dans la détermination de l'insertion du cordon ombilical sur le placenta. Il n'y a pas d'association entre le type d'insertion et le devenir maternofoetal. PMID:25018816

Fouedjio, Jeanne Hortence; Fouelifack, Florent Ymele; Deutcho, Maximilien; Njotang, Philip Nana; Enow, Robinson Mbu; Leke, Robert John Ivo



Greenhouse gas emissions in the Brazilian semiarid region: environmental, climate and social constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process of removing a forest to open new agricultural lands, which has been very intensive in developing countries like Brazil during the last decades (Lapola et al, 2014), contributes to about 12% of the global anthropogenic emissions (Le Quéré et al., 2009). Forest cover removal releases carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases (GEE) like methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), as a result of burning trees, followed by gradual decomposition of the forest biomass left on the ground while pasture or crop plantations are being established (Ramankutty et al., 2007). In Brazil, the 2nd Brazilian National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), presents the mean annual net CO2 emissions caused by changes in land use in each Brazilian biome and the first place in the ranking is occupied by the Amazon Rainforest Biome (860,874 Gg), followed by Savannah (302,715 Gg), Atlantic Forest (79,109 Gg), Caatinga (37,628 Gg), Pantanal (16,172 Gg) and Pampa (-102 Gg) (MCT 2010). Despite these results, the estimates of CO2 emissions caused by land use changes in the Brazilian semiarid region (Caatinga) are very limited and scarce, and associated to uncertainties which are directly related to the estimated biomass in different types of vegetation which are spatially distributed within the biome, as well as the correct representation of the dynamics of the deforestation process itself, and the more accurate mapping use and land cover. Based on such facts, this project is estimating the emissions of the main greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O and CH4) caused by land use changes in an area of Caatinga biome in Pernambuco State through the model INPE-EM. So far, it is known that from decades of 1940 up to 1995, Caatinga biome has contributed with about 3.2 % to total land use change emissions in the country (Leite et al, 2012), and recently (1990-2005), the contributions of Caatinga are even higher (over 30%), according to the 2nd Brazilian National Communication (2010). By means means of the model INPE-EM (data still being acquired), we are trying to diminish the uncertainties and identify specific and integrated emissions of GHG, as well as the stocks and flows of C and N, in order to contribute to the current information about GEE dynamic in the Brazilian Northeast and also to enhance the Brazilian GHG inventory. Besides, the model will incorporate the temporal dynamics related to the deforestation process, and accounts for the biophysical and socioeconomic heterogeneity of the region in study.

Sousa-Neto, Eráclito; Ometto, Jean



Deforestation in Brazil: motivations, journeys and tendencies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

José Carlos Leite1; António José Dinis Ferreira2; Tanya Cristina de Jesus Esteves2; Célia Patrícia Martins Bento2 1Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Brazil; 2IPC - Escola Superior Agrária de Coimbra, Portugal Over the last three decades, deforestation in Brazil occurred systematically in the area known as the "arc of deforestation", an extensive geographical area located in the interface of the Cerrado and the Amazon biomes. This work encompasses the reasons, causes and/or motivations of that recent deforestation, focusing on the Central-West and Northern regions. A number of reasons will be presented, seeking to build an approach able to identify the deepest roots of deforestation of those regions. Our actions over the environment are framed by our cultural matrix that stream from a western philosophic attitude. This way, to understand the framework where the deforestation actions are justified requires a multidisciplinary approach to understand the deforestation of the Cerrado and Amazon biomes, since the motivations for forest destruction in Brazil are complex and not entirely understood within the domains of a single disciplinary area. To search for an isolated cause to understand the recent deforestation can only be plausible if we ignore information on what actually happens. The methodology used in this work is based on a bibliographical revision, analysis of georeferrenced information, participative processes implementation and observation of stakeholder behavior, and field research. It departs from a general vision on deforestation that initially occurred at the littoral region, by the Atlantic Rainforest, right after the arrival of the Europeans, and throughout the centuries penetrates towards the interior, hitting the Cerrado and Amazon biomes. In this last case, we focused on the Vale do Alto Guaporé region, near Bolivia, where the intensity of the deforestation was verified from 1970 to 1990. Ultimately, the final result is a mosaic of reasons for deforestation - that has been done by both large and small land owners - that incorporates other views that have been absent in the explanations given by so-called specialized literature of Brazil's deforestation.

Leite, J. C.; Ferreira, A. J. D.; Esteves, T. C. J.; Bento, C. P. M.



Corso di Laurea delle Professioni Sanitarie in "Infermieristica" Roma S. Andrea-INRCA  

E-print Network


Guidoni, Leonardo


Position and Velocity Tracking in Cellular Networks Using the Kalman Filter  

SciTech Connect

Access to the right information anytime, anywhere is becoming the new driving force for the information technology revolution. The 'right' information's relevance is based on the user's profile and his/her current geographical position and/or time. Location Based Service (LBS) is an innovative technology that provides information or makes information available based on the geographical location of the mobile user. Analysts predict that LBSs will lead to new applications, generating billions of US dollars worldwide (Leite, 2001; Searle, 2001). The need for an efficient and accurate mobile station (MS) positioning system is growing day by day. The ability to pinpoint the location of an individual has an obvious and vital value in the context of emergency services (Chan, 2003; Olama et al., 2008). Pinpointing the location of people and other valuable assets also opens the door to a new world of previously unimagined information services and m-commerce probabilities. For example, availability of services like 'Where is the nearest ATM?', 'Check traffic conditions on the highway on my route', 'Find a parking lot nearby', as well as answers to 'Where is my advisor?', and 'Where is my car?' will be an everyday rule in our lives (Charalambous & Panayiotou, 2004). A technology independent LBS architecture can be considered as comprised by three main parts (Girodon, 2002): A user requesting information, a mobile network operator and its partners, and several content providers (e.g. data, maps). The subscriber requests a personalized service dependant on his geographic location. The system will ask the Location Services Manager (which is in charge of handling requests, i.e., send/receive to the Location Calculator and the Content Providers) to pinpoint the location of the mobile. The Location Services Manager (LSM), using the Location Calculator, will ask the Content Provider (CP) to supply qualified information according to the mobile's geographical position. The LSM will eventually receive the answer from the CP and send it to the mobile, performing the essential data translations. Fig. 1 outlines the precedent concept. For effective provision of LBS, one has to provide an accurate location, as well as suitable information for users required by the corresponding service, with minimal expenditure. Thus, there are three main technology issues that have to be resolved for LBS: positioning technology, application technology, and location services (Dru & Saada, 2001). A very important technology is of course the positioning technology, the way to find out the location of a mobile device accurately. Due to the unique characteristics of the cellular environment, it is a great challenge to locate the user precisely. However, in many cases, application technology and location services are important consideration of LBS. Application technology manages the geographic information and delivers the customer requests to the appropriate service provider, thus it constitutes the communication system involved. LBS uses the geographic information to provide geographically sensitive information and services. Location-based applications and services are not sensitive to the type of location technology that is used - they merely rely on reasonably accurate geographic coordinates (Chan, 2003). This chapter is structured as follows: In Section 2, we describe the use and applications of LBSs. The current location determination technologies and standards are presented in Section 3. In Section 4 we describe the mathematical models used for the location and velocity estimation algorithms. An initial attempt for MS location estimation via received signal level using the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) approach and triangulation is presented in Sections 5. Since the former approach lacks acceptable accuracy for demanding services as numerical results reveal, the extended Kalman filter (EKF) approach, which is the main topic in this chapter, is introduced in Sections 6. In Section 7 we present numerical results. Section 8 provides concluding remarks.

Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL; Djouadi, Seddik M [ORNL; Kuruganti, Phani Teja [ORNL



Modelling wildfire activity in Iberia with different Atmospheric Circulation WTs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work focuses on the spatial and temporal variability of burnt area (BA) for the entire Iberian Peninsula (IP) and on the construction of statistical models to reproduce the inter-annual variability, based on Weather Types Classification (WTC). A common BA dataset was assembled for the first time for the entire Iberian Peninsula, by merging BA records for the 66 administrative regions of Portugal and Spain. A normalization procedure was then applied to the various size regions before performing a k-means cluster analysis to identify large areas characterized by similar fire regimes. The most compelling results were obtained for 4 clusters (Northwestern, Northern, Southwestern and Eastern) whose spatial patterns and seasonal fire regimes are shown to be related with constraining factors such as topography, vegetation cover and climate conditions. The response of fire burnt surface at monthly time scales to both long-term climatic pre-conditions and short-term synoptic forcing was assessed through correlation and regression analysis using: (i) temperature and precipitation from 2 to 7 months in advance to fire peak season; (ii) synoptic weather patterns derived from 11 distinct classifications derived under the COSTaction-733. Different responses were obtained for each of the considered regions: (i) a relevant link between BA and short-term synoptic forcing (represented by monthly frequencies of WTC) was identified for all clusters; (ii) long-term climatic preconditioning was relevant for all but one cluster (Northern). Taking into account these links, we developed stepwise regression models with the aim of reproducing the observed BA series (i.e. in hindcast mode). These models were based on the best climatic and synoptic circulation predictors identified previously. All models were cross-validated and their performance varies between clusters, though models exclusively based on WTCs tend to better reproduce annual BA time series than those only based on pre-conditioning climatic information. Nevertheless, the best results are attained when both synoptic and climatic predictors are used simultaneously as predictors, in particular for the two western clusters, where correlation coefficient values are higher than 0.7. Finally, we have used WTC composite maps to characterize the typical synoptic configurations that favor high values of BA. These patterns correspond to dry and warm fluxes, associated with anticyclonic regimes, which foster fire ignition (Pereira et al., 2005). Pereira, M.G., Trigo, R.M., DaCamara, C.C., Pereira, J.M.C., Leite, S.M., 2005: "Synoptic patterns associated with large summer forest fires in Portugal". Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 129, 11-25. COST733, 2011: "COST 733 Wiki - Harmonisation and Applications of Weather Type Classifications for European regions or COST733 spatial domains for Europe". Available at [accessed 1 September 2011].

Sousa, P. M.; Trigo, R.; Pereira, M. G.; Rasilla, D.; Gouveia, C.



PREFACE: Introduction to the proceedings of Dynamics Days South America 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This proceedings presents selected contributions from the participants of South America Dynamics Days 2011, which was hosted by the National Institute for Space Research (INPE), Brazil, in July 2010. Dynamics Days was founded in 1980 and is the longest standing and most respected international series of meetings devoted to the field of dynamics and nonlinearity. Traditionally it has brought together researchers from a wide range of backgrounds - including physics, biology, engineering, chemistry and mathematics - for interdisciplinary research into nonlinear science. Dynamics Days South America 2010 marked the beginning of the South American branch of Dynamics Days. It brought together, for the first time in South America, researchers from a wide range of backgrounds who share a common interest in the theory and applications of nonlinear dynamics. Thus, South American researchers had a forum to promote regional as well as international scientific and technological exchange and collaboration especially, but not exclusively, on problems that are particularly relevant for the development of science and technology in the South American region. Furthermore, the conference also brought together prominent scientists from around the world to review recent developments in nonlinear science. This conference comprised plenary invited talks, minisymposia, contributed talks and poster sessions. The articles that are compiled here were chosen from among the works that were presented as contributed talks and posters. They represent a good selection which allows one to put issues that were discussed during the conference into perspective. It is possible to evaluate the success of an initiative by using several indices. In relation to attendees, the conference had 311 participants from 22 countries, who presented 341 works. About 86% of the participants came from South American countries. These figures allow one to classify this Dynamics Days conference as that with the greatest number of attendees ever. Finally, we would like to express our gratitude to all the participants for their presentations, discussions, and remarkable interactions with one another. The tireless work undertaken by all the members of the International Advisory Committee and the Organizing Committee must also be recognized. We also wish to express our deep appreciation for the Scientific Societies and Research Support Agencies which supported the conference and provided all the resources which were necessary to make this idea of a South American Dynamics Days come true. Elbert E N Macau, Tiago Pereira, Antonio F B A Prado, Luiz F R Turci, and Othon C WinterEditors Conference photograph Conference photograph Conference photograph Conference photograph International Advisory Committee Adilson E MotterNorthwestern UniversityEvanston - IL - USA Alfredo OzorioCentro Brasileiro de Pesquisas FísicasRio de Janeiro - RJ - Brazil Celso Grebogi (Chair)University of AberdeenAberdeen - UK Ed OttUniversity of MarylandCollege Park - MD - USA Epaminondas Rosa JrIllinois State UniversityNormal - IL - USA Hans Ingo WeberPontifícia Universidade CatólicaRio de Janeiro - RJ - Brazil Holger KantzMax Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex SystemsDresden - Germany Jason Gallas (Co-chair)Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do SulPorto Alegre - RS - Brazil José Roberto Rios LeiteUniv. Federal de PernanbucoRecife - PE - Brazil Jürgen KurthsPotsdam Institute for climate Impact ResearchHumboldt University, Berlin - Germany Kenneth ShowalterWest Virginia UniversityMorgantown - WV - USA Lou PecoraNaval Research LabWashington - DC - USA Luis Antonio AguirreUniversidade Federal de Minas GeraisBelo Horizonte - MG - Brazil Marcelo VianaIMPA - Instituto Nacional de Matemática Pura e AplicadaRio de Janeiro - RJ - Brazil Miguel A F SanjuánUniversidad Rey Juan CarlosMadrid - Spain Paulo Roberto de Souza MendesPontifícia Universidade CatólicaRio de Janeiro - RJ - Brazil Roland KorbeleUniversidade de São PauloSão Carlos - SP - Brazil Rubens SampaioPontifícia Universidade CatólicaRio de Ja

Macau, Elbert E. N.; Pereira, Tiago; Prado, Antonio F. B. A.; Turci, Luiz F. R.; Winter, Othon C.




NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biennial International Conferences on Photoacoustic and Photothermal Phenomena (ICPPP) are widely recognized as the major venue for the dissemination of recent and significant research results in the traditional areas, as well as in new and exciting outgrowths of this interdisciplinary field. The ICPPP is concerned with the science, applications and technologies involving the optical, electron-beam or otherwise production, propagation and detection of acoustic, thermal and general diffusion-wave fields.

In the 2004 edition the conference was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and involved 14 topics covered in the scientific programme. These are Spectroscopy, Analytical Chemistry and Photochemistry, PA and PT Imaging and Microscopy, Thermophysical Properties and Characterization of Materials, Laser Ultrasonics, Ultrafast PA and PT Phenomena, Electronic and Optical Materials, Thin Films and Devices, Non Linear Phenomena and Inverse Problem, Nanoscale Phenomena, Non Destructive Evaluation, Diffusion Waves and Applications, Industrial Applications, New Instruments and Methodology, Biological,Medical and Dental Applications, Agriculture, Food and Environmental Applications . More than 300 short abstracts contributions were received and refereed for acceptation, from 690 authors of 28 different countries.

This volume contains the proceedings of the 13ICPPP including the 207 full papers accepted after a very careful peer review process. Their contents are very deep and modern and show the peculiar interdisciplinary nature of the area. It is provided a collection of papers which includes the traditional subjects of the area as well as new developments of th the fields. The characterization of materials is occupying a great interest in the papers and many studies involving nanoscale phenomena were developed exploring the photothermal methodology. As in the previous conferences thermal wave microscopy and non-linear photothermal phenomena keep a high interest. The application of the methodology to any diffusive wave, other than the thermal one, showed significant growth. In the applications field many expressive papers are analyzing environmental, dental and medical concerns besides those involving other industrial purposes.

The Conference received financial support from various Brazilian institutions and agencies, specially the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development - CNPq and Research and Projects Financing - Brazilian innovation Agency - FINEP, and from United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization - UNESCO, to whom the conference organizers are very grateful.

We would like to thank greatly the colleagues that helped much with the refereeing tasks and for the stimulating discussions and suggestions during the conference organization and proceedings preparation. Besides we wish to thank the authors for the high quality of their contributions. In special it should be acknowledge the essential help of the people from State University of the North of Rio de Janeiro (Fluminense)- UENF, State University of Campinas - UNICAMP and National Institute for Space Research - INPE, and colleagues that chaired previous conferences. Finally, we are all grateful evious for the precious work of the conference secretary Nelia F. Leite.

Helion Vargas Chairman of the 13th International Conference on Photoacoustic and Photothermal Phenomena

Vargas, Helion



Una revisión de los beneficios del aporte complementario de nutrientes durante el embarazo: desde hierro y ácido fólico hasta probióticos pasando por ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de cadena larga  

Microsoft Academic Search

ResumenEn esta revisión se resume el conocimiento actual sobre la eficacia de los aportes complementarios prenatales de nutrientes, desde hierro y ácido fólico (HAF), que representan el patrón asistencial en muchas partes del mundo, hasta los más novedosos como ácidos grasos ?–3 y probióticos, en la mejora de los desenlaces del estado de salud materno-infantil. En ensayos aleatorios controlados se

Usha Ramakrishnan



Massa PT, ter Meulen V, Fontana A (1987) Hy-perinducibility of la antigen on astrocytes cor-  

E-print Network

majeure de transmis- sion materno-foetale de Toxoplasma gond/7. Il a été démontré que certains types cellu Toxoplasma gondii. IH Dimier,IH Dimier, JP Woodman DT Bout (Unité de re- cherche université-INRA d immunologie, 37380 Nouzilly, France) Toxoplasma gond/7 est un parasite protozoaire intracellulaire obligatoire

Paris-Sud XI, Université de



Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare peer education versus that imparted by health professionals for improving knowledge, risk perception and risky sexual behavior among teenagers attending to family planning clinics of two hospitals in Lima. Material and Methods: Experimental single-blind study carried out at the family planning clinics of Hospital Dos de Mayo and Instituto Materno Perinatal during the year 2000. After signing

Sixto Sánchez C; Guillermo Atencio L; Naguye Duy; Mirtha Grande B; Maria Flores O; Marina Chiappe G; Raúl Nalvarte T; Jorge Sánchez F; King K Holmes



Pd. Kardiologie & Intensivmedizin Head of Department : Prof. Dr. A. Wessel  

E-print Network

Intensive Care Unit, Hospital Materno-Infantil Vall d'Hebron, UAB Universitat Autonòma de Barcelona IN RESUSCITATION & practical informations: - Highly advanced simulation (45min) ­ Gerson Conrad ­ David Stewart: Trauma / Circulatory failure (alternatively NLS for NLS- IP) 1 3 4 2 #12;Station 5: Dysrhythmias

Manstein, Dietmar J.


Hemoglobin Genotype and Fertility in a Malarial Environment: Limon, Costa Rica  

E-print Network

; Reinhardt, 1978; Sankar et ad., 1985; van 16 Zon, 1980; Watkinson and Rushton, 1983) and placental parasitemia (Bray and Anderson, 1979; Cannon, 1958; Librack, 1979). McGregor (1983, 1984) reports that primigravids suffer greater anemia possibly as a... supply to the fetus may also be a consequence of maternal anemia (Strang et al., 1984; Taufa, 1978). Watkinson et al., (1985) note that the abnormal accumulation of cells in the placenta may prevent materno- fetal steroid exchange and thus cause fetal...

Madrigal-Diaz, Lorena



Toxoplasma gondii regulates ICAM-1 mediated monocyte adhesion to trophoblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Materno-foetal transmission causes one of the most serious forms of infection with the intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. In the placenta, trophoblast cells constitute the barrier between maternal circulation and foetal tissue. We looked at the factors that determine the extent of cell adhesion to human BeWo trophoblast cells during T. gondii infection. BeWo monolayers stimulated with the supernatant of

Alexander W Pfaff; Sophie Georges; Ahmed Abou-Bacar; Valerie Letscher-Bru; Jean-Paul Klein; Marc Mousli; Ermanno Candolfi



Human T Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Infection and Early Neurologic Development: A Pilot Study of 48 Children  

PubMed Central

To determine whether human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is associated with delayed neurological development, we examined 48 Peruvian children with exposure to HTLV-1 who were identified at the Instituto Materno-Perinatal. Compared with 38 HTLV-1–seronegative children, the 10 seropositive children did not have higher rates of neurodevelopmental delay. Long-term follow-up is planned. PMID:15472866

Montano, S. M.; Zunt, J. R.; Rodriguez, L.; Quispe, I.; Rodriguez, C.; Altamirano, J.; Bautista, C. T.; Alarcón, J. O. V.; Longstreth, W. T.; Holmes, K. K.



Syncytin-A and syncytin-B, two fusogenic placenta-specific murine envelope genes of retroviral origin conserved in Muridae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, we and others have identified two human endogenous retroviruses that entered the primate lineage 25-40 million years ago and that encode highly fusogenic retroviral envelope proteins (syncytin-1 and -2), possibly involved in the formation of the placenta syncytiotrophoblast layer generated by trophoblast cell fusion at the materno-fetal interface. A systematic in silico search throughout mouse genome databases presently identifies

Anne Dupressoir; Geoffroy Marceau; Cécile Vernochet; Laurence Bénit; Colette Kanellopoulos; Vincent Sapin; Thierry Heidmann



[Comparison of morbidity and therapeutic load in premature twins and single births].  


A prospective study was performed in order to compare birth weights, gestational ages at birth, perinatal and neonatal morbidity and mortality rates and therapeutic burdens given to 157 premature twins and 389 premature singletons. This study did not show real differences between premature twins and singletons, as if multiple pregnancies do not lead to other significant pathology than prematurity. The only observed differences were higher rates of breech presentation, wet lung disease, and lower rates of materno-foetal infection and pulmonary hypertension syndrome for premature twins. PMID:1580742

Burguet, A; Menget, A; Mercier, M; Schaal, J P; Fromentin, C; Destuynder, R



Allergic women show reduced T helper type 1 alloresponses to fetal human leucocyte antigen mismatch during pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Low-level alloreactivity between mother and fetus may provide stimulation for fetal T helper type 1 (Th1) cell immune maturation. This study explored the effects of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) mismatch on materno–fetal interactions detected as cytokine responses and lymphoproliferation in mixed lymphocyte reactions, and whether this was altered in allergic women (n = 62) who have a Th2 propensity compared with non-allergic women (n = 65). HLA-DR?1 mismatch was associated with significantly increased Th1 interferon (IFN)-?, Th2 interleukin (IL)-13 and lymphoproliferative responses by both mothers and fetuses. Allergic women showed significantly lower IFN-? Th1 production in response to HLA-DR?1 mismatch. The infants of these women also showed significantly lower IL-10 and lower IFN-? production relative to IL-13. Both HLA-DR?1 mismatch and maternal allergy had significant independent effects on maternal IFN-? Th1 responses. Maternal allergy modifies HLA-mediated alloreactivity between the mother and the fetus, reducing Th1 activation. This may affect the cytokine milieu at the materno–fetal interface and could be implicated in the attenuated Th1 responses observed commonly in infants of atopic mothers. PMID:19860744

Prescott, S L; Breckler, L A; Witt, C S; Smith, L; Dunstan, J A; Christiansen, F T



Analytical and Theranostic Applications of Gold Nanoparticles and Multifunctional Nanocomposites  

PubMed Central

Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and GNP-based multifunctional nanocomposites are the subject of intensive studies and biomedical applications. This minireview summarizes our recent efforts in analytical and theranostic applications of engineered GNPs and nanocomposites by using plasmonic properties of GNPs and various optical techniques. Specifically, we consider analytical biosensing; visualization and bioimaging of bacterial, mammalian, and plant cells; photodynamic treatment of pathogenic bacteria; and photothermal therapy of xenografted tumors. In addition to recently published reports, we discuss new data on dot immunoassay diagnostics of mycobacteria, multiplexed immunoelectron microscopy analysis of Azospirillum brasilense, materno-embryonic transfer of GNPs in pregnant rats, and combined photodynamic and photothermal treatment of rat xenografted tumors with gold nanorods covered by a mesoporous silica shell doped with hematoporphyrin. PMID:23471188

Khlebtsov, Nikolai; Bogatyrev, Vladimir; Dykman, Lev; Khlebtsov, Boris; Staroverov, Sergey; Shirokov, Alexander; Matora, Larisa; Khanadeev, Vitaly; Pylaev, Timofey; Tsyganova, Natalia; Terentyuk, Georgy



Implications of the placental structure compatibility for interspecies embryo transfer.  


Comparative histological features of the chorionic villi in placental cotyledons of the common eland (Taurotragus oryx ) and bongo (Boocercus euryceros ) antelopes and okapi (Okapia johnstoni ) and giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis ) were examined. The chorionic villi in both antelope species showed only moderate branching and/or surface corrugation and their cross-sections were polygonal to oval. The close similarity in the structure of cotyledons has been apparently a contributing factor for success in mutual interspecies embryo transfer. The chorionic villi in okapi and giraffe had very different structures. In okapi the villi on cross-section were round and filled with thin connective tissue. They showed minimal branching and surface corrugation. In giraffe the villi showed extensive surface corrugation, had multiple fine branches, and were filled with a more dense connective tissue. Prospect for materno-fetal compatibility in mutual embryo transfer between these species is guarded. PMID:16726356

Hradecký, P; Benirschke, K; Stott, G G



Immunologically silent cancer clone transmission from mother to offspring  

PubMed Central

Rare cases of possible materno-fetal transmission of cancer have been recorded over the past 100 years but evidence for a shared cancer clone has been very limited. We provide genetic evidence for mother to offspring transmission, in utero, of a leukemic cell clone. Maternal and infant cancer clones shared the same unique BCR-ABL1 genomic fusion sequence, indicating a shared, single-cell origin. Microsatellite markers in the infant cancer were all of maternal origin. Additionally, the infant, maternally-derived cancer cells had a major deletion on one copy of chromosome 6p that included deletion of HLA alleles that were not inherited by the infant (i.e., foreign to the infant), suggesting a possible mechanism for immune evasion. PMID:19822752

Isoda, Takeshi; Ford, Anthony M.; Tomizawa, Daisuke; van Delft, Frederik W.; De Castro, David Gonzalez; Mitsuiki, Norkio; Score, Joannah; Taki, Tomohiko; Morio, Tomohiro; Takagi, Masatoshi; Saji, Hiroh; Greaves, Mel; Mizutani, Shuki



Review: Trophoblast-vascular cell interactions in early pregnancy: how to remodel a vessel.  


During the first twenty weeks of human pregnancy, extravillous trophoblasts (EVT) colonise the decidua and remodel the uterine spiral arteries as far as the first third of the myometrium. This process leads to an irreversible vasodilatation, ensuring that maximal blood flow is delivered to the materno-fetal interface at an optimal velocity for nutrient exchange. There is accumulating evidence that subtle changes in vascular structure precede EVT colonisation; however, full physiological transformation is only achieved in the presence of trophoblast. This review discusses the mechanisms employed to facilitate arterial dilatation, including recent data regarding the contribution of vascular cell apoptosis, the importance of elastin catabolism and the source of candidate elastases. It also examines how the complex interplay between EVT, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and decidual leukocytes (macrophages and uterine natural killer cells) leads to enhanced receptivity to invasion, vascular cell loss and extracellular matrix remodelling. PMID:20060584

Harris, L K



Analytical and theranostic applications of gold nanoparticles and multifunctional nanocomposites.  


Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and GNP-based multifunctional nanocomposites are the subject of intensive studies and biomedical applications. This minireview summarizes our recent efforts in analytical and theranostic applications of engineered GNPs and nanocomposites by using plasmonic properties of GNPs and various optical techniques. Specifically, we consider analytical biosensing; visualization and bioimaging of bacterial, mammalian, and plant cells; photodynamic treatment of pathogenic bacteria; and photothermal therapy of xenografted tumors. In addition to recently published reports, we discuss new data on dot immunoassay diagnostics of mycobacteria, multiplexed immunoelectron microscopy analysis of Azospirillum brasilense, materno-embryonic transfer of GNPs in pregnant rats, and combined photodynamic and photothermal treatment of rat xenografted tumors with gold nanorods covered by a mesoporous silica shell doped with hematoporphyrin. PMID:23471188

Khlebtsov, Nikolai; Bogatyrev, Vladimir; Dykman, Lev; Khlebtsov, Boris; Staroverov, Sergey; Shirokov, Alexander; Matora, Larisa; Khanadeev, Vitaly; Pylaev, Timofey; Tsyganova, Natalia; Terentyuk, Georgy



Light and scanning electron microscopic study on the blood vascular system of the donkey placenta.  


The donkey placenta is diffuse and epitheliochorial with numerous microplacentomes consisting of a fetal microcotyledonary and a maternal microcaruncular part. The microplacentomal vasculature during the last third of pregnancy has been investigated by light microscopy in comparison to scanning electron microscopy of the materno-fetal contact surface and corrosion casts of blood vessels after plastic instillation from either the microcotyledonary or the microcaruncular side, and, for the first time in a perissodactyle, from both sides. Morphological data were semiquantitatively evaluated. The supplying parts of both, the microcotyledonary and the microcaruncular vascular system are strictly proximo-distally oriented, thus reaching the capillary systems or working parts in the shortest way possible. The straight course of the vasculature, particularly on the fetal side, suggests the occurrence of venulo-arteriolar back diffusion. The fetal capillary system consists of convolutes confronting the maternal septal capillary complexes in a countercurrent way. This materno-fetal blood flow interrelationship is highly efficient in terms of placental exchange, which is further supported (1) by dilations and increasing coiling of the fetal venular capillary limbs in particular and (2) by a decrease in the interhaemal distance from 12.5 to 7.2 microm between the two capillary systems. Besides the countercurrent blood flow interrelationship, some maternal branch arterioles reach the septal capillary system from the maternally oriented pole of the microplacentome or microcaruncle, respectively, resulting in the less efficient crosscurrent blood flow. Hence, in the donkey placenta fetal and maternal blood vessels meet in a mix of countercurrent and crosscurrent flow patterns. PMID:18067487

Saber, A; Abd-Elnaeim, M; Hembes, T; Pfarrer, C; Salim, A; Leiser, R



Involvement of molecules related to angiogenesis, proteolysis and apoptosis in implantation in rhesus monkey and mouse.  


We have established the well-defined cycling, pseudo-pregnant and pregnant rhesus monkey models, and used these to analyze expression of the common molecules specifically related to angiogenesis, apoptosis or proteolysis, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors KDR, flt-1, flt-4 and flk-1, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and its receptors Flg, transforming growth factor-alpha and beta1 (TGF-a/beta1), and TGF-beta1 receptor type I (TbetaR-I) and type II (TbetaR-II), as well as steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), tissue type plasminogen activator/urokinase plasminogen activator/plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (tPA/uPA/PAI-1) and matrix matalloproteinase type 1, -3/tissue inhibitor matalloproteinase type 1, -2, -3 (MMP-1, -3/TIMP-1, -2, -3), Fas/FasL, BcL-2/Bax, in the corpus luteum (CL), in the functional layer of the endometrium and in the materno-fetal boundary of the implantation site. We have demonstrated that: expression of these molecules in the monkey CL, endometrium and materno-fetal boundary of the implantation site is correlated well with CL functional and vascular development and with the processes involved in the establishment of the implantation window as well as with the early stages of placentation. A coordinated increase in tPA and its inhibitor PAI-1 expression in the monkey and rat CL may be instrumental in initiating luteal regression in both species, and correlated well with the timing of the closure of the implantation window, whereas high uPA activity in the CL is important for the early formation of the CL and for maintaining its function which is closely correlated to the period of establishment of the implantation window. Apoptosis, proteolysis and angiogenesis occur in the CL and in the endometrium during the time of establishment of the implantation window, as well as in the materno-fetal boundary of the implantation site at the early stages of placentation. It seems that these processes occur in these tissues in a coordinated and time- and cell-dependent manner, and are reliant on each other. Based on these observations, we have designed experiments to test the actions of some related available compounds on mouse implantation, used alone or in combination. The preliminary data showed that the compounds which could effectively affect apoptosis, angiogenesis or proteolysis in the implantation site were capable of effectively inhibiting implantation by acting on the endometrium and/or on the CL. Furthermore, the combined use of these compounds produced an obvious additive effect on inhibiting implantation. This finding suggested this may be a good approach for developing an anti-implantation agent. PMID:15792644

Liu, Yi-Xun; Gao, Fei; Wei, Peng; Chen, Xin-Lei; Gao, Hong-Juan; Zou, Ru-Jin; Siao, Li-Juan; Xu, Fu-Hua; Feng, Qing; Liu, Kui; Hu, Zhao-Yuan



Chemically induced alterations in maternal homeostasis and histology of conceptus: their etiologic significance in rat fetal anomalies.  


Possible relationships between maternal acid-base-electrolyte imbalance, histological changes in the maternal/extraembryonic tissues (decidua, placenta, membranes enclosing cavities), and fetal anomalies induced by maternotoxic doses of ethylene glycol, sodium salicylate, and cadmium chloride in rats were investigated. Acid-base-electrolyte, histologic and, teratologic studies were conducted concurrently with, as far as feasible, a similar protocol. Ethylene glycol caused 1) maternal homeostatic changes including metabolic acidosis and hyperosmolality, 2) extraembryonic lesions with degeneration of allantois and reduced villigenesis being more prevalent, and 3) materno-fetal effects such as decreases in fetal and maternal body weights, decreased maternal food intake, and fetal abnormalities (vertebral, rib, and sternebral defects). Few of these changes occurred when NaHCO3, an endogenous agent known to correct metabolic acidosis, was coadministered with ethylene glycol. Ethylene glycol-induced maternal metabolic acidosis, concurrent with hyperosmolality, was suspected to contribute toward reduction in villigenesis and fetal anomalies, including body weight reductions. Sodium salicylate induced the following: 1) mild maternal acidosis, hypokalemia, and hypophosphatemia with no significant change in pH; 2) maternal hemorrhage in extraembryonic cavities, papillary proliferation of the visceral yolk sac endoderm, and failure to form the chorioallantoic labyrinth; and 3) resorptions, hydrocephaly, rib defects, and fetal body weight reduction. Upon simultaneous treatment with sodium salicylate, NaHCO3 significantly reduced, and NH4Cl enhanced the incidence of the above histologic and teratologic effects, without significantly altering acid-base values. An etiologic association between the above salicylate-induced maternal and extraembryonic lesions and teratogenicity was likely. Cadmium chloride, whether administered by the intraperitoneal (ip) or intravenous (iv) route, caused 1) hydrocephaly, anophthalmia, vertebral and rib defects, reduction in fetal body weight, resorptions and maternal toxicity (acute peritonitis by the ip route only), and 2) extensive necrosis and hemorrhage in the decidua basalis, hemorrhage in the ectoplacental cone and around Reichert's membrane, and absence of chorioallantoic labyrinth. An etiologic relationship between these teratologic and histologic effects seemed probable, since both were dose-related. From the above studies, it was hypothesized that maternal factors--metabolic acidosis, hyperosmolality, hemorrhages in the ectoplacental cone, extraembryonic cavities, and around Reichert's membrane, and necrosis of decidua basalis--may have, directly or indirectly, reduced fetal nutrition and materno-embryonic gaseous exchange, which ultimately altered fetal development. PMID:1948764

Khera, K S



The placental pursuit for an adequate oxidant balance between the mother and the fetus  

PubMed Central

The placenta is the exchange organ that regulates metabolic processes between the mother and her developing fetus. The adequate function of this organ is clearly vital for a physiologic gestational process and a healthy baby as final outcome. The umbilico-placental vasculature has the capacity to respond to variations in the materno-fetal milieu. Depending on the intensity and the extensity of the insult, these responses may be immediate-, mediate-, and long-lasting, deriving in potential morphostructural and functional changes later in life. These adjustments usually compensate the initial insults, but occasionally may switch to long-lasting remodeling and dysfunctional processes, arising maladaptation. One of the most challenging conditions in modern perinatology is hypoxia and oxidative stress during development, both disorders occurring in high-altitude and in low-altitude placental insufficiency. Hypoxia and oxidative stress may induce endothelial dysfunction and thus, reduction in the perfusion of the placenta and restriction in the fetal growth and development. This Review will focus on placental responses to hypoxic conditions, usually related with high-altitude and placental insufficiency, deriving in oxidative stress and vascular disorders, altering fetal and maternal health. Although day-to-day clinical practice, basic and clinical research are clearly providing evidence of the severe impact of oxygen deficiency and oxidative stress establishment during pregnancy, further research on umbilical and placental vascular function under these conditions is badly needed to clarify the myriad of questions still unsettled. PMID:25009498

Herrera, Emilio A.; Krause, Bernardo; Ebensperger, German; Reyes, Roberto V.; Casanello, Paola; Parra-Cordero, Mauro; Llanos, Anibal J.



Placentation in cloned cattle: structure and microvascular architecture.  


To elucidate the morphological differences between placentas from normal and cloned cattle pregnancies reaching term, the umbilical cord, placentomes and interplacentomal region of the fetal membranes were examined macroscopically as well as by light and scanning electron microscopy. In pregnancies established by somatic nucleus transfer (NT), the umbilical cord and fetal membranes were edematous. Placentomal fusion was common, resulting in increased size and a decreased number of placentomes. Extensive areas of the chorioallantoic membrane were devoid of placentomes. An increased number of functional or accessory microcotyledons (<1 cm) were present at the maternally oriented surface of fetal membranes. Extensive areas of extravasated maternal blood were present within the placentomes and in the interplacentomal region. The crypts on the caruncular surface were dilated and accommodated complexes of more than one primary villus, as opposed to a single villus in non-cloned placentae. Scanning electron microscopy of blood vessel casts revealed that there was also more than one stem artery per villous tree and that the ramification of the vessels failed to form dense complexes of capillary loops and sinusoidal dilations as in normal pregnancies. At the materno-fetal interface, however, the trophoblast and uterine epithelium had normal histology. In conclusion, the NT placentas had a range of pathomorphological changes; this was likely associated with the poor clinical outcome of NT pregnancies. PMID:17568663

Miglino, M A; Pereira, F T V; Visintin, J A; Garcia, J M; Meirelles, F V; Rumpf, R; Ambrósio, C E; Papa, P C; Santos, T C; Carvalho, A F; Leiser, R; Carter, A M



CA125 in Ovarian Cancer  

PubMed Central

Summary Twenty five years after its discovery, circulating CA125 antigen is recommended for clinical use in the US for ovarian cancer (OC) screening of high risk women with ovaries despite its limited sensitivity and specificity. Recent findings suggest that CA125 might also serve as a predictive marker for pre-invasive OC. Methods to quantify circulating CA125 evolved towards sensitive and reliable double determinant ELISA assays. The CA125 gene, MUC16, was cloned 20 years after the protein discovery and revealed a very complex and unusual glycoprotein structure suggesting an immunological role. Recent evidence points toward CA125 function in the induction of materno-fetal tolerance through the alteration of NK phenotype. Two receptors for CA125 have been described: mesothelin and galectin-1. The specific location and functional proprieties of CA125 make it a therapeutic target of choice; clinical trials have demonstrated that anti-CA125 injections are well tolerated and suggest a potential survival benefit. PMID:20477371

Urban, Nicole



Syncytin-A and syncytin-B, two fusogenic placenta-specific murine envelope genes of retroviral origin conserved in Muridae  

PubMed Central

Recently, we and others have identified two human endogenous retroviruses that entered the primate lineage 25–40 million years ago and that encode highly fusogenic retroviral envelope proteins (syncytin-1 and -2), possibly involved in the formation of the placenta syncytiotrophoblast layer generated by trophoblast cell fusion at the materno–fetal interface. A systematic in silico search throughout mouse genome databases presently identifies two fully coding envelope genes, present as unique copies and unrelated to any known murine endogenous retrovirus, that we named syncytin-A and -B. Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrates placenta-specific expression for both genes, with increasing transcript levels in this organ from 9.5 to 14.5 days postcoitum. In situ hybridization of placenta cryosections further localizes these transcripts in the syncytiotrophoblast-containing labyrinthine zona. Consistently, we show that both genes can trigger cell–cell fusion in ex vivo transfection assays, with distinct cell type specificities suggesting different receptor usage. Genes orthologous to syncytin-A and -B and disclosing a striking conservation of their coding status are found in all Muridae tested (mouse, rat, gerbil, vole, and hamster), dating their entry into the rodent lineage ?20 million years ago. Together, these data strongly argue for a critical role of syncytin-A and -B in murine syncytiotrophoblast formation, thus unraveling a rather unique situation where two pairs of endogenous retroviruses, independently acquired by the primate and rodent lineages, would have been positively selected for a convergent physiological role. PMID:15644441

Dupressoir, Anne; Marceau, Geoffroy; Vernochet, Cécile; Bénit, Laurence; Kanellopoulos, Colette; Sapin, Vincent; Heidmann, Thierry



[Hearing impairment and language delay in infants: diagnostic and genetic].  


This article gives an overview on important aspects of hearing and language development of infants and toddlers. Newborn hearing screening is implemented in Germany for all infants since January 2009. The realization of early postnatal hearing screening is regulated by a publication of the "Gemeinsamer Bundesausschuss". It regulates the measurement method (TEOAE or AABR screening) and differs between healthy and sick newborns. It also rules the timetable of rescreening and if it still fails of paedaudiological follow up. The second part refers to objective and subjective assessment of hearing loss and different important issues of permanent childhood hearing impairment are discussed. Especially CMV infection by materno-fetal transmission and hereditary hearing loss is addressed in comparison to otitis media with effusion. Speech and language development in the first three years of live and the corresponding nomenclature is introduced in the last part. Different parent questionnaires are well established in evaluation of early language acquisition. An early diagnosis of language delay is possible and therapeutic measures can be established to prevent further social and psychological problems. PMID:24710780

Lang-Roth, R



Uterine Vasculature Remodeling in Human Pregnancy Involves Functional Macrochimerism by Endothelial Colony Forming Cells of Fetal Origin  

PubMed Central

The potency of adult-derived circulating progenitor endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) is drastically surpassed by their fetal counterparts. Human pregnancy is associated with robust intensification of blood flow and vascular expansion in the uterus, crucial for placental perfusion and fetal supply. Here, we investigate whether fetal ECFCs transmigrate to maternal bloodstream and home to locations of maternal vasculogenesis, primarily the pregnant uterus. In the first instance, endothelial-like cells, originating from mouse fetuses expressing paternal eGFP, were identified within uterine endothelia. Subsequently, LacZ or enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP)-labeled human fetal ECFCs, transplanted into immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) fetuses on D15.5 pregnancy, showed similar integration into the mouse uterus by term. Mature endothelial controls (human umbilical vein endothelial cells), similarly introduced, were unequivocally absent. In humans, SRY was detected in 6 of 12 myometrial microvessels obtained from women delivering male babies. The copy number was calculated at 175 [IQR 149–471] fetal cells per millimeter square endothelium, constituting 12.5% of maternal vessel lumina. Cross-sections of similar human vessels, hybridized for Y-chromosome, positively identified endothelial-associated fetal cells. It appears that through ECFC donation, fetuses assist maternal uterine vascular expansion in pregnancy, potentiating placental perfusion and consequently their own fetal supply. In addition to fetal growth, this cellular mechanism holds implications for materno-fetal immune interactions and long-term maternal vascular health. PMID:23554274

Sipos, Peter I; Rens, Willem; Schlecht, HÉlène; Fan, Xiaohu; Wareing, Mark; Hayward, Christina; Hubel, Carl A; Bourque, Stephane; Baker, Philip N; Davidge, Sandra T; Sibley, Colin P; Crocker, Ian P



Frequency of Maternal and Newborn Birth Outcomes, Lima, Peru, 2013  

PubMed Central

Objective This study describes the pregnancy and birth outcomes at two hospitals in Lima, Peru. The data collection and analysis is intended to inform patients, providers, and policy makers on Peru’s progress toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals and to help set priorities for action and further research. Methods Data were collected retrospectively from a sample of 237 women who delivered between December 2012 and September 2013 at the Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal or the Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza. The outcomes were recorded by a trained mid-wife through telephone interviews with patients and by review of hospital records. Associations between participant demographic characteristics and pregnancy outcomes were tested with Chi-squared, Fisher’s exact, or Student’s t-test. Results Over 37% of women experienced at least one maternal or perinatal complication, and the most frequent were hypertension/preeclampsia and macrosomia. The women in our sample had a cesarean section rate of 50.2%. Conclusion Maternal and perinatal complications are not uncommon among women in the lower socioeconomic strata of Lima. Also, the high cesarean rate underpins the need for a more comprehensive understanding of the indications for cesarean section deliveries, which could help reduce the number of unnecessary procedures and preventable complications. PMID:25806522

Wynn, Adriane; Cabeza, Jeanne; Adachi, Kristina; Needleman, Jack; Garcia, Patricia J.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.



Retroviral envelope syncytin capture in an ancestrally diverged mammalian clade for placentation in the primitive Afrotherian tenrecs  

PubMed Central

Syncytins are fusogenic envelope (env) genes of retroviral origin that have been captured for a function in placentation. Syncytins have been identified in Euarchontoglires (primates, rodents, Leporidae) and Laurasiatheria (Carnivora, ruminants) placental mammals. Here, we searched for similar genes in species that retained characteristic features of primitive mammals, namely the Malagasy and mainland African Tenrecidae. They belong to the superorder Afrotheria, an early lineage that diverged from Euarchotonglires and Laurasiatheria 100 Mya, during the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. An in silico search for env genes with full coding capacity within a Tenrecidae genome identified several candidates, with one displaying placenta-specific expression as revealed by RT-PCR analysis of a large panel of Setifer setosus tissues. Cloning of this endogenous retroviral env gene demonstrated fusogenicity in an ex vivo cell–cell fusion assay on a panel of mammalian cells. Refined analysis of placental architecture and ultrastructure combined with in situ hybridization demonstrated specific expression of the gene in multinucleate cellular masses and layers at the materno–fetal interface, consistent with a role in syncytium formation. This gene, which we named “syncytin-Ten1,” is conserved among Tenrecidae, with evidence of purifying selection and conservation of fusogenic activity. To our knowledge, it is the first syncytin identified to date within the ancestrally diverged Afrotheria superorder. PMID:25267646

Cornelis, Guillaume; Vernochet, Cécile; Malicorne, Sébastien; Souquere, Sylvie; Tzika, Athanasia C.; Goodman, Steven M.; Catzeflis, François; Robinson, Terence J.; Milinkovitch, Michel C.; Pierron, Gérard; Heidmann, Odile; Dupressoir, Anne; Heidmann, Thierry



Adaptations in placental phenotype support fetal growth during undernutrition of pregnant mice  

PubMed Central

Undernutrition during pregnancy reduces birth weight and programmes adult phenotype with consequences for life expectancy, but its effects on the phenotype of the placenta, responsible for supplying nutrients for fetal growth, remain largely unknown. Using molecular, morphological and functional analyses, placental phenotype was examined in mice during restriction of dietary intake to 80% of control from day 3 of pregnancy. At day 16, undernutrition reduced placental, but not fetal, weight in association with decreased junctional zone volume and placental expression of glucose transporter Slc2a1. At day 19, both placental and fetal weights were reduced in undernourished mice (91% and 87% of control, respectively, P < 0.01), as were the volume and surface area of the labyrinthine zone responsible for placental nutrient transfer (85% and 86%, respectively, P < 0.03). However, unidirectional materno-fetal clearance of tracer glucose was maintained and methyl-aminoisobutyric acid increased 166% (P < 0.005) per gram of undernourished placenta, relative to controls. This was associated with an 18% and 27% increased placental expression of glucose and system A amino acid transporters Slc2a1 and Slc38a2, respectively, at day 19 (P < 0.04). At both ages, undernutrition decreased expression of the placental specific transcript of the Igf2 gene by 35% (P < 0.01), although methylation of its promoter was unaffected. The placenta, therefore, adapts to help maintain fetal growth when its own growth is compromised by maternal undernutrition. Consequently, placental phenotype is responsive to environmental conditions and may help predict the risk of adult disease programmed in utero. PMID:19948659

Coan, P M; Vaughan, O R; Sekita, Y; Finn, S L; Burton, G J; Constancia, M; Fowden, A L



Induction of HLA-G-restricted human cytomegalovirus pp65 (UL83)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in HLA-G transgenic mice.  


The non-classical major histocompatibility complex class I molecule HLA-G is expressed mainly by extravillous trophoblasts at the materno-foetal interface. HLA-G has been found to bind endogenously processed nonameric peptides but its function as a restriction element for a cytotoxic T cell response to viruses with tropism for trophoblastic cells has never been demonstrated. In this study, candidate viral peptides derived from human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) pp65 (UL83), which stabilized the HLA-G molecule on HLA-G-transfected T2 cells, were identified. The specific anti-pp65 cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response restricted by HLA-G in triple transgenic mice (HLA-G, human beta2m, human CD8alpha) was then investigated by injection of dendritic cells loaded with synthetic pp65-derived peptides or by infection with canarypox virus expressing pp65. Results showed that CTLs from HLA-G mice have the capacity to kill target cells either infected with recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing pp65 or loaded with specific pp65-derived peptides using HLA-G as an antigen-presenting molecule. It was also demonstrated that these HLA-G-restricted pp65-specific T cells are able to kill the human astrocytoma cell line U373, which was transfected with HLA-G and infected with HCMV. Moreover, using HLA-G tetramers refolded with a synthetic pp65-derived peptide, peptide-specific CD8(+) cells restricted by HLA-G have been detected in vivo. These findings provide the first evidence that HLA-G can select anti-HCMV-restricted CTLs in vivo, although the potency of this cytolytic response is limited (20-25 %). The weak HLA-G-restricted anti-HCMV response is probably due to HLA-G-mediated inhibitory signals on the development of an antiviral CTL response. PMID:12560562

Lenfant, Françoise; Pizzato, Nathalie; Liang, Siyuan; Davrinche, Christian; Le Bouteiller, Philippe; Horuzsko, Anatolij



Urinary podocalyxin as a marker of preeclampsia in a Hispanic population  

PubMed Central

Background: Preeclampsia is associated with significant materno-fetal morbidity and mortality. Podocyturia due to podocyte damage seems to be associated with the disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of urinary podocalyxin as a marker of preeclampsia in a Hispanic population. Methods: 63 patients were studied. 25 patients had preeclampsia/eclampsia (PE-E). 38 patients had normal pregnancies and served as control group. 24 hour proteinuria, urine protein/creatinine (UPC), urinary podocalyxin and perinatal outcomes were measured. A Podocalyxin ELISA test was used to detect podocyturia. Results: Mean age (years), mean±SD was 30.5±5.4 in normal patients vs 30.6±5.8 in PE-E, p=0.98. Median gestational age (weeks) was, 38 (range 21-42) for normal pregnancies and 36 (range 24-40) for patients with PE-E, <0.001. Urine podocalyxin/creatinine on admission (ng/mg), median [IQR] in normal patients was 55.9 [29.4, 74.9] vs 109.7 [63.8, 234.1] in PE-E, p=0.001. After adjusting for admission proteinuria, urinary podocalyxin remained independently associated with preeclampsia: OR=1.0040 (95% CI 1.0003-1.0078), p=0.03. There was low to moderate correlation between UPC and urinary podocalyxin, Spearman’s =0.31, p=0.01. In PE-E, post-partum urine podocalyxin was lower, median [IQR]: 69.7 [32.7, 184.8] p=0.19 vs admission. There was a trend towards more podocyturia and proteinuria in patients with eclampsia, comparing to those with preeclampsia. There was no association observed between podocyturia and neonatal mortality, IUGR or Apgar scores. Conclusions: Significantly higher levels of urinary podocalyxin are seen in preeclampsia/eclampsia. They tend to normalize after delivery. PMID:25057338

Palacios de Franco, Ylbe; Velazquez, Karina; Segovia, Natalia; Acosta, Carolina; Yanosky, Deborah; Franco Palacios, Ylbe V; Ramos, Amanda; Franco Palacios, Carlos R



Differential Evolutionary Fate of an Ancestral Primate Endogenous Retrovirus Envelope Gene, the EnvV Syncytin, Captured for a Function in Placentation  

PubMed Central

Syncytins are envelope genes of retroviral origin that have been co-opted for a role in placentation. They promote cell–cell fusion and are involved in the formation of a syncytium layer—the syncytiotrophoblast—at the materno-fetal interface. They were captured independently in eutherian mammals, and knockout mice demonstrated that they are absolutely required for placenta formation and embryo survival. Here we provide evidence that these “necessary” genes acquired “by chance” have a definite lifetime with diverse fates depending on the animal lineage, being both gained and lost in the course of evolution. Analysis of a retroviral envelope gene, the envV gene, present in primate genomes and belonging to the endogenous retrovirus type V (ERV-V) provirus, shows that this captured gene, which entered the primate lineage >45 million years ago, behaves as a syncytin in Old World monkeys, but lost its canonical fusogenic activity in other primate lineages, including humans. In the Old World monkeys, we show—by in situ analyses and ex vivo assays—that envV is both specifically expressed at the level of the placental syncytiotrophoblast and fusogenic, and that it further displays signs of purifying selection based on analysis of non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rates. We further show that purifying selection still operates in the primate lineages where the gene is no longer fusogenic, indicating that degeneracy of this ancestral syncytin is a slow, lineage-dependent, and multi-step process, in which the fusogenic activity would be the first canonical property of this retroviral envelope gene to be lost. PMID:23555306

Esnault, Cécile; Cornelis, Guillaume; Heidmann, Odile; Heidmann, Thierry



Treating common problems of the nose and throat in pregnancy: what is safe?  


Although all kinds of medications should be avoided during pregnancy, the majority of pregnant women receive at least one drug and 6% of them during the high-risk period of the first trimester. The aim of the present paper is to discuss the appropriate management of rhinologic and laryngeal conditions that may be encountered during pregnancy. A literature review from Medline and database sources was carried out. Related books and written guidelines were also included. Controlled clinical trials, prospective and retrospective studies, case-control studies, laboratory studies, clinical and systematic reviews, metanalyses, and case reports were analysed. The following drugs are considered relatively safe: beta-lactam antibiotics (with dose adjustment), macrolides (although the use of erythromycin and clarithromycin carries a certain risk), clindamycin, metronidazole (better avoided in the first trimester), amphotericin-B (especially in immunocompromised situations during the second and third trimester) and acyclovir. First-line antituberculous agents isoniazid, ethambutol, pyrazinamide, and ciprofloxacine in drug-resistant tuberculosis can be also used. Non-selective NSAIDs (until the 32nd week), nasal decongestants (with caution and up to 7 days), intranasal corticosteroids, with budesonide as the treatment of choice, second generation antihistamines (cetirizine in the third trimester, or loratadine in the second and third trimester), H2 receptor antagonists (except nizatidine) and proton pump inhibitors (except omeprazole) can be used to relieve patients from the related symptoms. In cases of emergencies, epinephrine, prednisone, prednisolone, methylprednisolone, dimetindene and nebulised b(2) agonists can be used with extreme caution. By contrast, selective COX-2 inhibitors and BCG vaccination are contraindicated in pregnancy. When prescribing to a pregnant woman, the safety of the materno-foetal unit is considered paramount. Although medications are potentially hazardous, misconceptions and suboptimal treatment of the mother might be more harmful to the unborn child. Knowledge update is necessary to avoid unjustified hesitations and provide appropriate counselling and treatment for pregnant women. PMID:18265995

Vlastarakos, Petros V; Manolopoulos, Leonidas; Ferekidis, Eleftherios; Antsaklis, Aris; Nikolopoulos, Thomas P



The Long and the Short of it: Gene and Environment Interactions During Early Cortical Development and Consequences for Long-Term Neurological Disease  

PubMed Central

Cortical development is a complex amalgamation of proliferation, migration, differentiation, and circuit formation. These processes follow defined timescales and are controlled by a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. It is currently unclear how robust and flexible these processes are and whether the developing brain has the capacity to recover from disruptions. What is clear is that there are a number of cognitive disorders or conditions that are elicited as a result of disrupted cortical development, although it may take a long time for the full pathophysiology of the conditions to be realized clinically. The critical window for the manifestation of a neurodevelopmental disorder is prolonged, and there is the potential for a complex interplay between genes and environment. While there have been extended investigations into the genetic basis of a number of neurological and mental disorders, limited definitive associations have been discovered. Many environmental factors, including inflammation and stress, have been linked to neurodevelopmental disorders, and it may be that a better understanding of the interplay between genes and environment will speed progress in this field. In particular, the development of the brain needs to be considered in the context of the whole materno-fetal unit as the degree of the metabolic, endocrine, or inflammatory responses, for example, will greatly influence the environment in which the brain develops. This review will emphasize the importance of extending neurodevelopmental studies to the contribution of the placenta, vasculature, cerebrospinal fluid, and to maternal and fetal immune response. These combined investigations are more likely to reveal genetic and environmental factors that influence the different stages of neuronal development and potentially lead to the better understanding of the etiology of neurological and mental disorders such as autism, epilepsy, cerebral palsy, and schizophrenia. PMID:22701439

Stolp, Helen; Neuhaus, Ain; Sundramoorthi, Rohan; Molnár, Zoltán



[Morphological variability and placental function].  


In mammals, the blastocyst defines with the maternal organism, a structure which allows embryonic development during gestation: the placenta. The structure of this organ varies remarkably across species. In this review the different type of placentation have been described in a comparative manner using terms of classification such as: placental materno-fetal interdigitation, matemofetal blood flow interrelationships, layers of the placental interhemal barrier, trophoblast invasiveness and decidual cell reaction, formation of syncytiotrophoblast. The human hemomonochorial placenta is characterized by a strong decidualization of the uterus and a major invasiveness of the extravillous trophoblast. Furthermore, there is a spectrum of placental endocrine activities across species. In some mammals (e.g., mouse and rat) the placenta eclipses the pituitary in the maintenance of ovarian function. In the human and in the sheep, horse, cat and guinea pig, the placenta acquires the ability to substitute for the ovaries in the maintenance of gestation at various time during pregnancy. The human placenta is characterized by a high rate of steroïdogenesis (progesterone and estrogens) and by the production of a primate specific trophoblastic hormone: human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Recently, it was demonstrated that mutation of many genes in mice results in embryonic mortality or fetal growth restriction, due to defects in placental development. Furthermore, distinct molecular pathways regulate the differentiation of various trophoblast cell subtype of the mouse placenta. An important question is whether or not placental differentiation in other mammals is regulated by the same molecular mechanisms. Due to the striking diversity in placental structure, endocrine function and gene expression, caution must be exercised in extrapolating findings regarding placental function and development from one species to another. PMID:11575143

Malassiné, A




PubMed Central

Background Studies have shown that the shape and size of the placenta at birth predict blood pressure in later life. The influences that determine placental morphology are largely unknown. We have examined the role of mother’s body size. Methods We studied 522 neonates who were born in a maternity hospital in Mysore, South India. The weight of the placenta and the length and breadth of its surface, were measured after delivery. Results Higher maternal fat mass predicted a larger placental surface (p=0.02), while larger maternal head circumference predicted a more oval placental surface (p=0.03). Higher maternal fat mass and larger maternal head circumference were associated with greater placental efficiency, indicated by lower ratios of the length (p=0.0003 and p=0.0001 respectively) and breadth (p=0.0002 and p<0.0001) of the surface to birthweight. In a sub-sample of 51 mothers whose own birthweight was available, higher maternal birthweight was related to lower ratios of the length and breadth of the surface to birthweight (p=0.01 and 0.002). Maternal height was unrelated to placental size or shape. Conclusions Higher maternal fat mass, reflecting the mother’s current nutritional state, and larger maternal head circumference, reflecting the mother’s fetal/infant growth, are associated with changes in the shape and size of the placental surface and greater placental efficiency. We suggest that these associations reflect effects of the mother’s nutrition at different stages of her lifecourse on the development of the placenta and on materno-placento-fetal transfer of nutrients. PMID:21924491

Winder, Nicola R.; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V.; Veena, Sargoor R.; Hill, Jacqueline C.; Karat, Chitra L.S.; Thornburg, Kent L.; Fall, Caroline H.D.; Barker, David J.P.



The tissue bank at the national nuclear research institute in Mexico.  


The Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ, The National Nuclear Research Institute) received during 1997-1998 strong support of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), to establish the first and only one tissue bank (BTR ININ tissue bank) in Mexico that uses ionising radiation as sterilising agent. In that time, the BTR staff was trained in different tissue banks in several countries. Basic equipment for tissue processing donated by the IAEA was received in 1998. In July, 1999 the Mexican Health Secretariat gave the Sanitary License No. 1062000001 to the BTR to operate as an official organ and tissue bank. In August, 2001 the ININ and the Hospital Materno Infantil (HMI-ISSEMYM) signed an agreement to collaborate in amnion processing. The hospital is responsible for donor selection, serology tests, tissue procurement and washing, since this hospital is the BTR amnion supplier. The tissues are collected by ININ weekly with complete documentation. The BTR is responsible for processing: cleaning, air drying, packaging, labelling, microbiological control and sterilisation by gamma irradiation. The sterilised tissue is kept under quarantine for 6 months to obtain the results of the donor second serology test. From March to June, 2002 the BTR has processed 347.86 units (50 cm(2) each), is say, 17,393 cm(2). In addition, the pig skin xenograft process has been implemented and a protocol for clinical applications of it is running at the Hospital Central Sur de Alta Especialidad (PEMEX). Also the ININ tissue bank present status and perspectives are described. PMID:15256855

Esther Martínez-Pardo, María; Lourdes Reyes-Frías, Ma



The interleukin 1 (IL-1) system in the uteroplacental complex of a cartilaginous fish, the smoothhound shark, Mustelus canis  

PubMed Central

Cartilaginous fish are the oldest extant jawed vertebrates and the oldest line to have placentae. Their pivotal evolutionary position makes them attractive models to investigate the mechanisms involved in the maternal-fetal interaction. This study describes the tissue expression of the cytokine interlukin-1 (IL-1) ?, IL-1 ? and its specific membrane receptor, IL-1 receptor type I (IL-1R tI) in a placental cartilaginous fish, the smoothhound shark, Mustelus canis. The presence of this cytokine has been reported in many mammalian placentae, as well as in the placenta of a squamate reptile and this study extends these observations to the cartilaginous fishes. The uteroplacental complex in M. canis consists of a yolk sac modified into a functional yolk sac placenta and complimentary uterine attachment sites. Immunohistochemistry for IL-1 ?, IL-1 ? and the receptor reveals leucocytes of both the mother and fetus to be positive, as well as the apical aspect of paraplacental cells and the apical vesicles in the umbilical cord epithelium. Yolk sac endoderm is also positive with all the stains while the ectoderm is positive only for IL-1 ?. Immunoreactivity in the uterine epithelium was obtained for IL-1 ? and the receptor. The egg envelope is always negative. In light of the recent finding of IL-1 ? gene in a cartilaginous fish and of the high level of conservation of proteins implicated in IL-1 action, our data suggest that IL-1 system is a key mediator of the materno-fetal interaction since the oldest extant placental vertebrates. PMID:12646051

Cateni, Chiara; Paulesu, Luana; Bigliardi, Elisa; Hamlett, William C



IFPA Gabor Than Award lecture: Transformation of the spiral arteries in human pregnancy: key events in the remodelling timeline.  


During human pregnancy, the uterine spiral arteries are progressively remodelled to form dilated conduits lacking maternal vasomotor control. This phenomenon ensures that a constant supply of blood is delivered to the materno-fetal interface at an optimal velocity for nutrient exchange. Conversion of a tonic maternal arteriole composed of multiple layers of vascular smooth muscle, elastin and numerous other extracellular matrix components, into a highly dilated yet durable vessel, requires tight regulatory control and the coordinated actions of multiple cell types. Initial disruption of the vascular wall, characterised by foci of endothelial cell loss, and separation and misalignment of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), is coincident with an influx of uterine natural killer (uNK) cells and macrophages. uNK cells are a source of angiogenic growth factors and matrix degrading proteases, thus they possess the capacity to initiate changes in VSMC phenotype and instigate extracellular matrix catabolism. However, complete vascular cell loss, mediated in part by apoptosis and dedifferentiation, is only achieved following colonisation of the arteries by extravillous trophoblast (EVT). EVT produce a variety of chemokines, cytokines and matrix degrading proteases, enabling them to influence the fate of other cells within the placental bed and complete the remodelling process. The complex interplay of cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions required for effective vascular transformation will be examined, with a particular focus on the role of (i) uNK cells and (ii) the enzyme matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12). Parallels with remodelling events occurring in other vascular beds will also be drawn. PMID:21167598

Harris, L K



Transplacental exchange of moxidectin after maternal or fetal intravenous administration in sheep.  


The transplacental exchange of moxidectin after maternal or fetal intravenous (i.v.) administration was studied using the chronically catheterized fetal sheep model. Nine pregnant Suffolk Down sheep of 65.7 +/- 5.9 kg body weight (bw) were surgically prepared to insert polyvinyl catheters in the fetal femoral artery and vein and amniotic sac. The ewes were randomly assigned to two experimental groups. In group 1 (maternal injection) five ewes were treated with an i.v. bolus of 0.2 mg of moxidectin/kg bw. In group 2, (fetal injection) an i.v. bolus of 1 mg of moxidectin was administered to the four fetuses by femoral vein catheters. Maternal and fetal blood and amniotic fluid samples were taken before and after moxidectin administration for a 144 h post-treatment period. Samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography. A noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed and statistical differences were determined by mean of parametric and nonparametric statistical tests. Pharmacokinetic differences observed in maternal variables were shorter elimination half-life and mean residence time compared with values previously reported for ivermectin. Drug diffusion from maternal to fetal circulation (AUC(0-t) = 232.6 +/- 72.5 ng.h/mL) was statistically not different (P = 0.09) compared with fetal to maternal diffusion (AUC(0-t) = 158.0 +/- 21.6 ng.h/mL). Fetuses showed significantly (P = 0.008) lower drug body clearance values compared with those observed in the maternal side. Considering the observed transplacental passages between materno-fetal or feto-maternal circulations, we conclude that the placental barrier is not effective in preventing the moxidectin diffusion between mother and fetus. PMID:20444015

Pérez, R; Palma, C; Núñez, M J; Navas, M; Olmos, G; Cox, J



A Gestational Profile of Placental Exosomes in Maternal Plasma and Their Effects on Endothelial Cell Migration  

PubMed Central

Studies completed to date provide persuasive evidence that placental cell-derived exosomes play a significant role in intercellular communication pathways that potentially contribute to placentation and development of materno-fetal vascular circulation. The aim of this study was to establish the gestational-age release profile and bioactivity of placental cell-derived exosome in maternal plasma. Plasma samples (n?=?20 per pregnant group) were obtained from non-pregnant and pregnant women in the first (FT, 6–12 weeks), second (ST, 22–24 weeks) and third (TT, 32–38 weeks) trimester. The number of exosomes and placental exosome contribution were determined by quantifying immunoreactive exosomal CD63 and placenta-specific marker (PLAP), respectively. The effect of exosomes isolated from FT, ST and TT on endothelial cell migration were established using a real-time, live-cell imaging system (Incucyte). Exosome plasma concentration was more than 50-fold greater in pregnant women than in non-pregnant women (p<0.001). During normal healthy pregnancy, the number of exosomes present in maternal plasma increased significantly with gestational age by more that two-fold (p<0.001). Exosomes isolated from FT, ST and TT increased endothelial cell migration by 1.9±0.1, 1.6±0.2 and 1.3±0.1-fold, respectively compared to the control. Pregnancy is associated with a dramatic increase in the number of exosomes present in plasma and maternal plasma exosomes are bioactive. While the role of placental cell-derived exosome in regulating maternal and/or fetal vascular responses remains to be elucidated, changes in exosome profile may be of clinical utility in the diagnosis of placental dysfunction. PMID:24905832

Salomon, Carlos; Torres, Maria Jose; Kobayashi, Miharu; Scholz-Romero, Katherin; Sobrevia, Luis; Dobierzewska, Aneta; Illanes, Sebastian E.; Mitchell, Murray D.; Rice, Gregory E.



Hypoxia-Induced Changes in the Bioactivity of Cytotrophoblast-Derived Exosomes  

PubMed Central

Migration of extravillous trophoblasts (EVT) into decidua and myometrium is a critical process in the conversion of maternal spiral arterioles and establishing placenta perfusion. EVT migration is affected by cell-to-cell communication and oxygen tension. While the release of exosomes from placental cells has been identified as a significant pathway in materno-fetal communication, the role of placental-derived exosomes in placentation has yet to be established. The aim of this study was to establish the effect of oxygen tension on the release and bioactivity of cytotrophoblast (CT)-derived exosomes on EVT invasion and proliferation. CT were isolated from first trimester fetal tissue (n?=?12) using a trypsin-deoxyribonuclease-dispase/Percoll method. CT were cultured under 8%, 3% or 1% O2 for 48 h. Exosomes from CT-conditioned media were isolated by differential and buoyant density centrifugation. The effect of oxygen tension on exosome release (µg exosomal protein/106cells/48 h) and bioactivity were established. HTR-8/SVneo (EVT) were used as target cells to establish the effect (bioactivity) of exosomes on invasion and proliferation as assessed by real-time, live-cell imaging (Incucyte™). The release and bioactivity of CT-derived exosomes were inversely correlated with oxygen tension (p<0.001). Under low oxygen tensions (i.e. 1% O2), CT-derived exosomes promoted EVT invasion and proliferation. Proteomic analysis of exosomes identified oxygen-dependent changes in protein content. We propose that in response to changes in oxygen tension, CTs modify the bioactivity of exosomes, thereby, regulating EVT phenotype. Exosomal induction of EVT migration may represent a normal process of placentation and/or an adaptive response to placental hypoxia. PMID:24244532

Salomon, Carlos; Kobayashi, Miharu; Ashman, Keith; Sobrevia, Luis; Mitchell, Murray D.; Rice, Gregory E.



The effect of feeding a low iron diet prior to and during gestation on fetal and maternal iron homeostasis in two strains of rat  

PubMed Central

Background Iron deficiency anaemia during pregnancy is a global problem, with short and long term consequences for maternal and child health. Animal models have demonstrated that the developing fetus is vulnerable to maternal iron restriction, impacting on postnatal metabolic and blood pressure regulation. Whilst long-term outcomes are similar across different models, the commonality in mechanistic events across models is unknown. This study examined the impact of iron deficiency on maternal and fetal iron homeostasis in two strains of rat. Methods Wistar (n=20) and Rowett Hooded Lister (RHL, n=19) rats were fed a control or low iron diet for 4 weeks prior to and during pregnancy. Tissues were collected at day 21 of gestation for analysis of iron content and mRNA/protein expression of regulatory proteins and transporters. Results A reduction in maternal liver iron content in response to the low iron diet was associated with upregulation of transferrin receptor expression and a reduction in hepcidin expression in the liver of both strains, which would be expected to promote increased iron absorption across the gut and increased turnover of iron in the liver. Placental expression of transferrin and DMT1+IRE were also upregulated, indicating adaptive responses to ensure availability of iron to the fetus. There were considerable differences in hepatic maternal and fetal iron content between strains. The higher quantity of iron present in livers from Wistar rats was not explained by differences in expression of intestinal iron transporters, and may instead reflect greater materno-fetal transfer in RHL rats as indicated by increased expression of placental iron transporters in this strain. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate substantial differences in iron homeostasis between two strains of rat during pregnancy, with variable impact of iron deficiency on the fetus. Whilst common developmental processes and pathways have been observed across different models of nutrient restriction during pregnancy, this study demonstrates differences in maternal adaptation which may impact on the trajectory of the programmed response. PMID:23635304




PubMed Central

Vaginosis bacteriana (VB) es una infección caracterizada por el cambio en la microflora de la vagina, asociándose a resultados adversos del embarazo y a la adquisición de infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS), incluyendo el VIH. En este estudio se buscó la asociación entre el uso de duchas vaginales y otros factores de riesgos con VB. Se usó un diseño observacional descriptivo transversal prospectivo, en 1,252 mujeres que asistieron al servicio de planificación familiar de tres hospitales nacionales (Dos de Mayo, Arzobispo Loayza, San Bartolomé) y el Instituto Materno Perinatal, durante el año 1997. Se utilizó un cuestionario estructurado donde se registraron variables socio demográficas y características del estilo de vida de las participantes. VB fue diagnosticada mediante el puntaje de Nugent. Se empleó análisis de regresión logística para calcular odds ratio (OR) e intervalos de confianza al 95%. La edad promedio de las participantes fue 25.1 ± 4,7 años, el 23.4% tenían más de 11 años de educación. La prevalencía de VB fue 20,1%. Las mujeres que practicaban duchas vaginales tuvieron 2.28 veces (OR = 2.28, IC 95% [1.0–5.0]) mayor probabilidad de tener VB comparado con aquellas que no lo practicaban. Tener dos o más parejas sexuales estuvo asociado con 2.0 veces (OR =2.0, IC 95% [1.2–3.5]) mayor probabilidad de adquirir VB comparado con aquellas que habían tenido solo una pareja sexual. Las participantes que iniciaron una relación sexual a una edad temprana tuvieron 1.4 veces (OR=1.4, IC 95% [1.0 –1.9]) mayor probabilidad de adquirir VB. El uso de duchas vaginales es un factor de riesgo de VB. Los programas destinados a la salud de la mujer deben abordar las repercusiones perjudiciales para la salud asociados con las duchas vaginales. PMID:21132048

Chávez, Natividad; Molina, Helfer; Sánchez, Jorge; Gelaye, Bizu; Sánchez, Sixto E.



ART management in children perinatally infected with HIV from mothers who experience behavioural changes in Romania  

PubMed Central

Introduction During the recent years the rate of HIV perinatally exposed children in Romania has increased as a consequence of the expanding number of HIV-infected women. These women belong to Romania's long-terms survivors, aged between 20 and 24 years and to the group of new HIV infection cases (20–24 years), acquired through unsafe sexual contact and use of new psychoactive substance (IV). Materials and Methods We focused on 396 HIV perinatally exposed children born between 2008 and 2013, under surveillance in National Institute for Infectious Diseases “Prof. Dr. Matei Bals,” Bucharest. Of them, 43 acquired HIV through materno-foetal transmission. Our aim was to observe the characteristics in their evolution under antiretroviral treatment and to emphasize the causes of treatment failure. Children with perinatally acquired HIV infection were followed in a retrospective case series. We assessed maternal characteristics, HIV vertical transmission prophylaxis, timing of diagnosis, immunological and virologic status and features of the evolution under combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Results The rate of mother-to-child HIV transmission was 10.8% versus the national rate registered in 2013, namely <5%. 16% of mothers belonged to the Romanian 1990s cohort and 84% were recently infected with HIV, through unprotected sexual contact (70%) or use of new psychoactive substances (14%). 51% of mothers were diagnosed postnatally as a consequence of their reluctance to access specific health services and in 57% CD4 value was <350 cell/mm. 41% of the monitored children were diagnosed with HIV infection at birth. Their median entry CD4 value was 23% and 49% had a CD4 >25%; median entry viral load was 7 log. 16 patients (37%) had undetectable viral load after six months of treatment. In 87.5% of them the virologic suppression was achieved and maintained with one single regimen (2 NRTIs+1 NNRTI or 2 NRTIs+1 PI/r). 15 children (35%) did not achieve suppression of viral load. 19 children (44%) faced special issues related to adherence to antiretroviral treatment, due to mothers’ poor adherence to a basic set of cares destined for their children. Conclusions Prevention programmes in Romania must be designed on the basis of the new economic context and emerging psychoactive substance use. Hence, women who use drugs should benefit from a wider access to medical and social services. PMID:25397448

Märdärescu, Mariana; Cibea, Alina; Petre, Cristina; Neagu-Drãghicenoiu, Ruxandra; Ungurianu, Rodica; Petrea, Sorin; Maria Tudor, Ana; Vlad, Delia; Matei, Carina; Alexandra, Mãrdãrescu



Tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas  

PubMed Central

Introducción La asociación entre tumores y malformaciones congénitas está bien establecida, pero no existen datos exclusivos en el período neonatal y se desconocen los mecanismos subyacentes que generan dicha relación. Objetivos Este trabajo tiene dos objetivos: primero, analizar la frecuencia de los tumores neonatales asociados a malformaciones congénitas, y segundo, comentar las posibles hipótesis etiopatogénicas de la relación entre ambas entidades. Materiales y método Estudio retrospectivo de las historias clínicas de los tumores neonatales, en el Hospital Universitario Materno- Infantil La Fe de Valencia, desde enero de 1990 hasta diciembre de 1999. Selección y descripción de las variedades histológicas asociadas a malformaciones congénitas. Éstas se han agrupado siguiendo los criterios de la Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades CIE-9, códigos 740.0–759.9. Revisión sistemática bibliográfica de los últimos 25 años, obtenida del Medline, Cancerlit, Index Citation Science y Embase. El perfil de búsqueda utilizado fue la combinación de “neonatal/congenital-tumors/cancer/neoplasms” y “congenital malformations/birth defects”. Resultados Se identificaron 72 tumores neonatales (2,8 % del total de tumores pediátricos diagnosticados en dichos años) y 15 de ellos (20,8 %) asociados a malformaciones congénitas, enfermedades o síndromes congénitos. Las asociaciones entre tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas fueron las siguientes: a) angioma en 3 pacientes: con dos cardiopatías congénitas y una atresia de coanas-laringomalacia; b) neuroblastoma en 2 pacientes: uno con riñón en herradura y anomalías vertebrales, y otro con cardiopatía congénita; c) teratoma en 2 pacientes: uno con fisura palatina y anomalías vertebrales, y otro con metatarso varo; d) tumor del sistema nervioso central en un paciente con hernia de Bochdaleck; e) tumor cardíaco en 4 pacientes con esclerosis tuberosa; f) leucemia aguda en un paciente con síndrome de Down y cardiopatía congénita; g) tumor renal en un caso con hidrocefalia triventricular, y h) tumor adrenal en un caso con hemihipertrofia. En la bibliografía específica, las publicaciones engloban tumores de diferentes épocas pediátricas y sin unanimidad de criterios para clasificar las malformaciones congénitas. Apenas existen datos en el período neonatal y la asociación entre ambas entidades se obtiene de registros de instituciones médicas. La prevalencia oscila entre el 15 y el 31,6 %. Las hipótesis etiopatogénicas que explican la asociación entre tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas están basadas en las exposiciones prenatales (preconcepcionales y transplacentarias) a factores de riesgo potencialmente mutagénicos y carcinogénicos. Conclusiones Probablemente, los tumores neonatales se asocian con mayor frecuencia a malformaciones congénitas que los tumores diagnosticados en épocas posteriores de la vida. Para conocer la prevalencia real de la asociación entre tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas, es necesario unificar los criterios de inclusión y definición de ambas entidades. La obtención de una minuciosa historia medioambiental en todos los tumores neonatales asociados a malformaciones congénitas, donde se detallen y registren todos los factores de riesgo constitucionales y ambientales, es fundamental para mejorar nuestros escasos conocimientos de los mecanismos prenatales subyacentes y avanzar en su prevención. PMID:18559198

Tornero, O. Berbel; García, J.A. Ortega; Tortajada, J. Ferrís i; Castell, J. García; Colomer, J. Donat i; Soldin, O.P.; Soler, J.L. Fuster



Blood rheology at term in normal pregnancy and in patients with adverse outcome events.  


Plasma volume expansion of more than 1.5 l and sustainable activation of the hemostatic system that results in a steady rise of the fibrinogen/fibrin turnover are contemporary physiological events during normal pregnancy. In contrast, adverse outcome of pregnancy i.e. pre-eclampsia commonly coincide with hemo concentration and over activation of blood coagulation both of which alter blood rheology. On the basis of 4,985 consecutively recorded singleton pregnancies values range of blood rheological parameters in women with normal and complicated outcome of pregnancy at the time of their delivery were compared. Plasma viscosity (pv) was determined using KSPV 1 Fresenius and RBC aggregation (stasis: E0 and low shear: E1) using MA1-Aggregometer; Myrenne. Seventy-nine point four percent (n=3,959) had normal pregnancy outcome and 1,026 with adverse outcome of pregnancy had pre-eclampsia (8.4%; n=423), had newborn with a birth-weight < 2,500 g (9.5%; n=473), had early-birth before week 37 (9.3%; n=464), and/or were diagnosed with intra uterine growth retardation (IUGR) (5.0%; n=250). In women with normal pregnancy outcome mean (+/-SD) of pv was 1.31+/-0.09 mPa s, of E0 was 21.6+/-5.3, and of E1 was 38.4+/-7.9 while in women with adverse outcome means for rheological parameters were statistically significantly different i.e. pv: 1.32+/-0.08 mPa s; p=0.006, E0: 22.1+/-5.5; p=0.002 and E1: 39.5+/-8.5; p=0.0006. Subgroup analysis revealed statistical significant lower pv in women who either had pre term delivery or a low birth-weight child (p<0.005) as compared to women who had normal pregnancy outcome while patients with pre-eclampsia had markedly higher low shear and stasis RBC aggregation (p<0.0001). None of the rheological results at term were correlated with either maternal age (r<0.04), BMI (r<0.09), maternal weight gain until delivery (r<0.04), or fetal outcome such as APGAR-score (r<0.09) art. pH in the umbilical cord (-0.05materno-fetal unit that is commonly traceable using vessel duplex ultra sound in pre-eclampsia. PMID:19433886

von Tempelhoff, Georg-Friedrich; Velten, Eva; Yilmaz, Asli; Hommel, Gerhard; Heilmann, Lothar; Koscielny, Jürgen