Leite, Julio Cesar Sampaio do Prado
(Cooperative Requirements Engineering with Scenarios), a European Esprit project on scenarios [5, 6], conducted and several reports confirm its usefulness. J. C. S. P. Leite (&) Pontifi´cia Universidade Cato´ lica do Rio
Teive, Hélio A G; Lima, Plínio M; Germiniani, Francisco M B; Boguszewski, César L
The authors describe the extraordinary contribution to science made by José Dantas de Souza Leite, who graduated from the Bahia School of Medicine and trained in Prof. Charcot's Neurology Service under the supervision of Charcot's most able pupil, Dr. Pierre Marie. Souza Leite presented his doctoral thesis on acromegaly, in Paris in 1890, and in the following year both him and Pierre Marie published a book on the subject, "Essays on Acromegaly". This exceptional work established Souza Leite internationally as an important researcher, and the first Brazilian physician to contribute to the development of neuroendocrinology in an innovative way. PMID:26200060
O. D. Rossi Júnior; A. M. C. Vidal-Martins; B. M. Salotti; K. P. Bürger; M. V. Cardozo; A. L. L. Cortez
e 10 2 UFC\\/mL no pasteurizado e para inferior a 1,0, 10,0 e 1,0 UFC\\/mL no leite UAT. O mesmo foi verificado com a população de microrganismos termófilos, que no leite pasteurizado era da ordem de 10 3 UFC\\/mL e no UAT inferior a 1,0 UFC\\/mL. Os resultados permitem concluir que o processamento térmico aplicado à matéria-prima para a produção
LE'ITING THE CAT OUT OF THE BAG: GENERATION FOR SHAKE-AND-BAKE MT CHRIS BREW Sharp Laboratories an implementation of the sentence generation component of a Shake-and- Bake Machine Translation system.. Since by investigating its worst-case behaviour, and conclude by describing new algorithms for Shake-and-Bake generation
Tracking soccer players using the graph representation Pascual Figueroa & Neucimar Leite Institute. Introduction The movement of the soccer players on the field, as a function of time, is a useful information of the kinematical vari- ables of the soccer player movement, Erdman  filmed a soccer game with one stationary TV
Mercês, Ednei De Almeida; Magalhães, Felipe De Medeiros; Amado, Talita Ferreira; Juncá, Flora Acuña; Garda, Adrian Antonio
Leptodactylus oreomantis, a member of Leptodactylus fuscus species group (sensu Heyer 1978), is a leptodactylid frog endemic to the montane rocky fields of Chapada Diamantina (the northern portion of the Espinhaço mountain range), Bahia State, Brazil (Carvalho et al. 2013). Although tadpole morphology provides relevant information for anuran taxonomy and systematics (see Langone & de Sá 2005; Miranda et al. 2014), only calls and adult morphology were evaluated in the description of this species. Herein, we describe and illustrate the external morphology and internal oral anatomy of L. oreomantis tadpoles and compare it with tadpoles of related species. PMID:25661633
Bertho, M P; Estima, S de L; Fujimori, E; de Oliveira, I M
As a part of one survey about health conditions in institutionalized children, the nutritional status were evaluated. Data were obtained through antropometric assessment in a sample of 111 pre-school children matriculated in a small official day-care center in Perus-SP. According to Gomez, 50.0% of all that children were classified as malnourished, 23.4% of them in the I degree; 22.4% in II degree and only 4.3% in III degree. Taking into account the Waterlow's classification there was a highest frequency of cronic-actual malnutrition (30.8%) concentrated in children between 12-48 months of age. Additionally, these children presented highest incidence of infective-respiratory and intestinal diseases. These evidences lead on to the improvement of the follow-up of children growth and food consumption, specially that under 24 meses, to attempt for an early identification of malnutrition, thus increasing the chance of nutritional recuperation. PMID:8715588
. Is this sleep walking I feel? How can it be I'm still in bed. I must be, otherwise the dread I sense behind me, and splits the ground. My surroundings freeze and a sinkhole opens up with an animal in the center, its issues in the middle east* The salt from the dead sea burns my eyes, and clouds of dust obscure the hills
Leite, Julio Cesar Sampaio do Prado
for a class of problems. This is the premise of the Draco paradigm, a reuse based strategy for software and believe that this knowledge can be encapsulated in a language. This is the central idea of the Draco at a high level of abstraction . Software, in the Draco paradigm, is specified in the language of its domain
- ticles composite Fermions at zero-average magnetic field.9 Random electrostatic potential dueSingle-particle relaxation time in a spatially fluctuating magnetic field G. M. Gusev and J. R is spatially modulated, when uniform external magnetic field is applied. We find that the amplitude of the Sd
Mother-to-child transmission of human immune deficiency virus (HIV) is a multifactorial event highly associated with advanced maternal HIV disease and obstetric incidents taking place during parturition. Thus, various approaches to prevention may be beneficial. Although the time and the route of materno-fetal HIV transmission are still not sufficiently clear, much speaks in favor of a late HIV transmission, most probably taking place during parturition or the phase before the delivery. The fetus is remarkably protected by the placenta and the intact fetal membranes against many viral infections during gestation. These conditions change at parturition and the chance for a transition of HIV-infected carrier cells or virus into the fetal compartment increases. Proinflammatory cytokines secreted at the materno-fetal interface accumulate in amniotic fluid and may chemoattract and stimulate potentially HIV-infected immunocytes. After rupture of membranes, maternal cells of the decidua are directly exposed to the amniotic fluid. Aside from the contamination of the fetal skin at vaginal delivery as a debatable route of infection, blood-to-blood contacts and the fetal swallowing of contaminated amniotic fluid may be the major path of fetal HIV infection. For the fetal prophylaxis of an intrauterine infection, the application of zidovudine is recommended. However, cesarian section before the onset of labor leads also to a diminution of the transmission rate. As the transmission seems to have both systemic and local causes, it makes sense to combine different intervention strategies. Whether a combination of zidovudine and elective cesarean section can lower the transmission risk further has to be evaluated. PMID:18476163
Hall effect in a spatially fluctuating magnetic field with zero mean A. A. Bykov,* G. M. Gusev de France, Paris, France Received 15 September 1999 We study the Hall effect of a nonplanar stripe, which is proportional to Bext . A zero Hall resistance is observed at low Bext , as expected for B 0
9 October 2002; published 17 March 2003 A three-dimensional electron billiard system is obtained-dimensional billiard systems have been recently published.3,4 The three-dimensional electron gas 3DEG 5 is another of cylindrical voids in a PQW sample approaches a three- dimensional electron billiard system and can be regarded
Spin-dependent Hall effect in a parabolic well with a quasi-three-dimensional electron gas G. M; published 15 April 2005 We study the Hall effect in wide AlcGac-1As parabolic wells in the presence effective control and ma- nipulation with the electron spin is a remotely doped Ga1-cAlc As parabolic
Daniela Carvalho Neves; Aline Maria de Araújo
RESUMO O estudo teve como objetivo investigar o conhecimento de gestantes adolescentes sobre a Fonoaudiologia na Saúde Materno-infantil. Realizou-se uma análise qualitativa com base na investigação temática do conteúdo. Dez gestantes adolescentes, com idade cronológica compreendida entre 10 e 19 anos, participaram da pesquisa. As mesmas encontravam-se entre o quinto e o nono mês de idade gestacional, sendo atendidas no
The leit motif of this thesis is that binding of visual features is a process that begins with input of stimulation and ends with the emergence of an object in working memory so that it can be further manipulated for ...
Leite c , Jean-Robert Kienast d , Reinhardt A. Fuck e , Eron Pires Macedo a a CPGG-Centro de Geologia e. Leite), firstname.lastname@example.org (J.-R. Kienast), email@example.com (R.A. Fuck), firstname.lastname@example.org (E.P. Macedo), Madagascar (e.g. Nicollet, 1990), Algeria (e.g. Ouzegane and Boumaza, 1996), and Brazil (Moraes and Fuck
BACTÉRIAS ÁCIDO LÁTICAS ISOLADAS DE LEITE CRU COM ATIVIDADE ANTAGONISTA A Listeria monocytogenes E Escherichia coli BACTERIAS ÁCIDO LÁCTICAS, AISLADAS DE LA LECHE CRUDA, CON ACTIVIDAD ANTAGONISTA A Listeria monocytogenes Y Escherichia coli LACTIC ACID BACTERIA ISOLATE OF RAW MILK WHIT ANTAGONIC TO Listeria monocytogenes AND Escherichia coli
Livia Corrêa da Silva; Henrique Lopes ANGELA; Ana Paula Pavão; Alexandre Amorim; Luis Augusto NERO
Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) are microorganisms naturally found in several foods that have an import ant role in controlling pathogenic microorganisms in food since they are able to produce numerous substances with antimicrobial antagonic potential, that affect microorganisms such a Listeria monocytogenes. Aiming to verify the presence of L. monocytogenes, enumerate LAB, and verify the antagonic activity of isolated LAB
Â¨Ubungsaufgaben Lineare Algebra - 1. Serie 1. Durch Aufstellen von Wahrheitswertetafeln beweise man q) (q p) (c) Aus (a) leite man das Distributivgesetz der Mengenlehre ab: A (B C) = (A B) (A C) 2. Man beweise, dass fÂ¨ur beliebige Mengen A und B (enthalten in einer Grundmenge M) die folgenden
Zubelli, Jorge Passamani
Inverse Problems for Semiconductors: Models and Methods A. Leit~ao1 , P.A. Markowich2 , and J doping profiles in semiconductor devices from data obtained by different models connected to the voltage fifty years ago [vRo50], is the most widely used to describe semiconductor devices. For the current
Morandini, Andre C.
#12;Revista da Biologia www.ib.usp.br/revista ISSN 1984-5154 Sumário Evolutivos e Raridade dos Estágios Intermediários Renata Brandt Nunes #12;Revista da Biologia www.ib.usp.br/revista Olidan Pocius Pedro Leite Ribeiro Vivian Lavander Mendonça #12;REVISTA DA BIOLOGIA www.ib.usp.br/revista
Paraná, Universidade Federal do
, chocolate, tradicional, cenoura, baunilha, banana, nega maluca). Lua de mel (coco) Bebidas (mín. 100 ml de) Bolo ou cuque sabor a escolher (laranja, fubá, coco, chocolate, tradicional, cenoura, baunilha, banana, nega maluca) Mini sonho sabor a escolher (doce de leite, chocolate, creme, goiabada). Bebidas (cada
Díaz, Lorenzo J.
DEPARTAMENTO DE DIREITO PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO CURSO DE DOUTORADO EM DIREITO - PPGDireito Coordenação do Programa de Pós em Direito Professora Gisele Cittadino Professor Fábio Carvalho Leite Secretaria do Programa de Pós-Graduação: Anderson Torres Carmen Barreto Programa de Pós
Solid State Communications, Vol. 10. pp. 79--80, 1972. Pergamon Press. Printed in Great Britain TWO-emission due to optical system was used. Each obtained measur- Auger-recombination as reported in a previous from Ge at 100 K. REFERENCES BETZLER K. and WELLER T., Phys. Rev. Leit. 26, 640 (1971). 2. BETZLER K
Barbosa, Marcia C. B.
, TECNOLOGIA E INOVAÇÃO DECRETO DE 11 DE OUTUBRO DE 2011 A PRESIDENTA DA REPÚBLICA, no uso da atribuição que membros para compor o Conselho Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia - CCT, com mandato de três anos: I - representantes de produtores e usuários de ciência e tecnologia: ROGÉRIO CEZAR DE CERQUEIRA LEITE, titular
Carvalho, João Luiz
- dividuals with congestive heart failure. The HRV computational tools mentioned above do not imple- mentMATLAB SOFTWARE FOR DETRENDED FLUCTUATION ANALYSIS OF HEART RATE VARIABILITY Fernanda S. Leite1, Heart rate variability, HRV. Abstract: The analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) is an important tool
The Raman, Ultraviolet, and Infrared Spectra and the JSidC NMR Coupling Constant of the Stable Leites*, Scientifical and Technical Center on Raman Spectroscopy, Institute of Organoelement Compounds; In Final Form: February 20, 2002 The UV, preresonance Raman, and IR spectra of the stable silene t-BuMe2Si
Irene Cetin; Manuela Cardellicchio
ResumenEn los últimos años los datos han demostrado de qué manera el bienestar vitalicio depende considerablemente del crecimiento y el desarrollo intrauterinos durante la vida dentro del útero. El crecimiento fetal puede alcanzar únicamente su potencial íntegro mediante una interacción adecuada y armonizada entre la madre, la placenta y el feto. Este delicado equilibrio puede ser alterado por varios factores
Carvalho, JoÃ£o Luiz
INGENIERÃA Â· Vol. 17 Â· No. 2 Â· ISSN 0121-750X Â· UNIVERSIDAD DISTRITAL FRANCISCO JOSÃ? DE CALDAS 35, No. 2, pag. 35 - 45. Davi Marco Lyra-Leite University of BrasÃlia BrasÃlia-DF, Brazil University of research and work. The acquired data corresponds to the Fourier transform of the image, A(kx ,ky ), also
24/06/2014 1 H2020 Â Toulouse Â 20/6/14 NÂ° 1 Atelier TIC FrÃ©dÃ©ric LAURENT H2020 Â Toulouse Â 20/6/14 NÂ° 2 Sommaire Rappel H2020 (rapide) Contexte H2020/TIC Rappel du contexte national Le programme LEIT/TIC Les TIC dans les autres parties de H2020 (y compris FET/HPC et SecuritÃ©/Cyber) Comment
Banks-Leite et al. (Reports, 29 August 2014, p. 1041) conclude that a large-scale program to restore the Brazilian Atlantic Forest using payments for environmental services (PES) is economically feasible. They do not analyze transaction costs, which are quantified infrequently and incompletely in the literature. Transaction costs can exceed 20% of total project costs and should be included in future research. PMID:25678654
In the last days of 2011, President of Brazil Dilma Rousseff issued a provisional measure (or draft law) entitled "National Surveillance and Monitoring Registration System for the Prevention of Maternal Mortality" (MP 557), as part of a new maternal health programme. It was supposed to address the pressing issue of maternal morbidity and mortality in Brazil, but instead it caused an explosive controversy because it used terms such as nascituro (unborn child) and proposed the compulsory registration of every pregnancy. After intense protests by feminist and human rights groups that this law was unconstitutional, violated women's right to privacy and threatened our already limited reproductive rights, the measure was revised in January 2012, omitting "the unborn child" but not the mandatory registration of pregnancy. Unfortunately, neither version of the draft law addresses the two main problems with maternal health in Brazil: the over-medicalisation of childbirth and its adverse effects, and the need for safe, legal abortion. The content of this measure itself reflects the conflictive nature of public policies on reproductive health in Brazil and how they are shaped by close links between different levels of government and political parties, and religious and professional sectors. PMID:22789090
?res, 1903) figs. 1-H life cycle in Boophilus microplus Babesia argentina Saal, J.R., 19?? a, 573-582 giemsa stain diagnosis Babesia argentina Saal, J.R., 1964 b, 582-535 giemsa stain diagnosis Babesia argentina da Silva Leit?o, J. L., Bos taurus...], AppendixXV Malawi Babesia bigemina Saal, J.R., I964. b, 582-585 giemsa stain diagnosis Babesia bigemina da Silva Leitao, J. L., Bos taurus (hematias) [19?? a] Portugal Babesia bigemina tick vector bovins Boophilus microplus Babesia bigemina...
Sanchez, Natalia; Acosta, Ana Maria; Stienen, Arno H A; Dewald, Julius P A
Characterization of the joint torque coupling strategies used in the lower extremity to generate maximal and submaximal levels of torque at either the hip, knee, or ankle is lacking. Currently, there are no available isometric devices that quantify all concurrent joint torques in the hip, knee, and ankle of a single leg during maximum voluntary torque generation. Thus, joint-torque coupling strategies in the hip, knee, and concurrent torques at ankle and/or coupling patterns at the hip and knee driven by the ankle have yet to be quantified. This manuscript describes the design, implementation, and validation of a multiple degree of freedom, lower extremity isometric device (the MultiLEIT) that accurately quantifies simultaneous torques at the hip, knee, and ankle. The system was mechanically validated and then implemented with two healthy control individuals and two post-stroke individuals to test usability and patient acceptance. Data indicated different joint torque coupling strategies used by both healthy individuals. In contrast, data showed the same torque coupling patterns in both post-stroke individuals, comparable to those described in the clinic. Successful implementation of the MultiLEIT can contribute to the understanding of the underlying mechanisms responsible for abnormal movement patterns and aid in the design of therapeutic interventions. PMID:25163064
Vaughan, O. R.; Fisher, H. M.; Dionelis, K. N.; Jefferies, E. C.; Higgins, J. S.; Musial, B.; Sferruzzi-Perri, A. N.; Fowden, A. L.
libitum fed, corticosterone-treated 302 dams at both D16 and D19 but was not different from controls in corticosterone treated, pair-303 fed animals at D19 (Fig. 2). 304 Signalling protein abundance and phosphorylation 305 Corticosterone treatment did... , Beharry KD, Valencia AM, Cho S, Guajardo L, Nageotte MP & Modanlou HD. 520 (2006). Influence of a single course of antenatal betamethasone on the maternal-fetal 521 insulin-IGF-GH axis in singleton pregnancies. Growth Horm IGF Res 16, 267-275. 522 523...
Culina, Slobodan; Gupta, Nimesh; Boisgard, Raphael; Afonso, Georgia; Gagnerault, Marie-Claude; Dimitrov, Jordan; Østerbye, Thomas; Justesen, Sune; Luce, Sandrine; Attias, Mikhaël; Kyewski, Bruno; Buus, Søren; Wong, F Susan; Lacroix-Desmazes, Sebastien; Mallone, Roberto
The first signs of autoimmune activation leading to ?-cell destruction in type 1 diabetes (T1D) appear during the first months of life. Thus, the perinatal period offers a suitable time window for disease prevention. Moreover, thymic selection of autoreactive T cells is most active during this period, providing a therapeutic opportunity not exploited to date. We therefore devised a strategy by which the T1D-triggering antigen preproinsulin fused with the immunoglobulin (Ig)G Fc fragment (PPI-Fc) is delivered to fetuses through the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) pathway, which physiologically transfers maternal IgGs through the placenta. PPI-Fc administered to pregnant PPIB15-23 T-cell receptor-transgenic mice efficiently accumulated in fetuses through the placental FcRn and protected them from subsequent diabetes development. Protection relied on ferrying of PPI-Fc to the thymus by migratory dendritic cells and resulted in a rise in thymic-derived CD4(+) regulatory T cells expressing transforming growth factor-? and in increased effector CD8(+) T cells displaying impaired cytotoxicity. Moreover, polyclonal splenocytes from nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice transplacentally treated with PPI-Fc were less diabetogenic upon transfer into NOD.scid recipients. Transplacental antigen vaccination provides a novel strategy for early T1D prevention and, further, is applicable to other immune-mediated conditions. PMID:25918233
Solcires Beltre Morillo; Yoselín Cueto Santana; Belkis Rosario Garda; Leonardo Fernández Durán; Sujey Milagros; Vargas Santana; Rita González
RESUMEN Se realizó un estudio prospectivo de corte transver- sal, considerando para el mismo una alta incidencia de anemia de células falciformes ingresado en este período, los cuales fueron 24 pacientes en sala de pediatría. Para este estudio consideramos como variables la incidencia, la edad, el sexo, la raza, tipo de crisis, antecedentes no patológicos, antecedentes, personales, patológicos, an- tecedentes
I establish the relation of the non-commutative BV-formalism with super-invariant matrix integration. In particular, the non-commutative BV-equation, defining the quantum A ?-algebras, introduced in Barannikov (Modular operads and non-commutative Batalin-Vilkovisky geometry. IMRN, vol. 2007, rnm075. Max Planck Institute for Mathematics 2006-48, 2007), is represented via de Rham differential acting on the supermatrix spaces related with Bernstein-Leites simple associative algebras with odd trace q( N), and gl( N| N). I also show that the matrix Lagrangians from Barannikov (Noncommutative Batalin-Vilkovisky geometry and matrix integrals. Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge University, 2006) are represented by equivariantly closed differential forms.
Kishon, Ronit; Abraham, Karen; Alschuler, Daniel M; Keilp, John G; Stewart, Jonathan W; McGrath, Patrick J; Bruder, Gerard E
A prior study (Bruder, G.E., Stewart, J.W., Mercier, M.A., Agosti, V., Leite, P., Donovan, S., Quitkin, F.M., 1997. Outcome of cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression: relation of hemispheric dominance for verbal processing. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 106, 138-144.) found left hemisphere advantage for verbal dichotic listening was predictive of clinical response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression. This study aimed to confirm this finding and to examine the value of neuropsychological tests, which have shown promise for predicting antidepressant response. Twenty depressed patients who subsequently completed 14 weeks of CBT and 74 healthy adults were tested on a Dichotic Fused Words Test (DFWT). Patients were also tested on the National Adult Reading Test to estimate IQ, and word fluency, choice RT, and Stroop neuropsychological tests. Left hemisphere advantage on the DFWT was more than twice as large in CBT responders as in non-responders, and was associated with improvement in depression following treatment. There was no difference between responders and non-responders on neuropsychological tests. The results support the hypothesis that the ability of individuals with strong left hemisphere dominance to recruit frontal and temporal cortical regions involved in verbal dichotic listening predicts CBT response. The large effect size, sensitivity and specificity of DFWT predictions suggest the potential value of this brief and inexpensive test as an indicator of whether a patient will benefit from CBT for depression. PMID:26162656
Maignien, C; Marcellin, L; Anselem, O; Silvera, S; Dousset, B; Grangé, G; Goffinet, F
Rupture of a uterine artery pseudo-aneurysm during pregnancy is a rare condition with potential life-threatening complications, and management should take into account the fetal impact of the therapeutic choice. We report the case of a 2cm left uterine artery pseudo-aneurysm revealed by pelvic pain, in a 30-year-old pregnant woman at 26(+0)weeks of gestation (WG). Diagnosis was suspected at ultrasound scan, and confirmed with Magnetic Resonance angiography that showed signs of pre-rupture. An emergency selective embolization attempted in utero allowed the complete exclusion of the aneurysmal sac. The patient gave birth one month later to a girl at 31(+1)WG, initially managed by neonatologists, who is currently in good health. PMID:25201019
Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle but the reasons why some animals abort and not others remain unclear. The immunological control of the parasite in the placenta or by the foetus could be the key to determining the mechanism of abortion and/or transplacental transmission to the...
Costa, R.; Pereira, M. G.; Caramelo, L.; Vega Orozco, C.; Kanevski, M.
Several studies have shown that wildfires in Portugal presenthigh temporal as well as high spatial variability (Pereira et al., 2005, 2011). The identification and characterization of spatio-temporal clusters contributes to a comprehensivecharacterization of the fire regime and to improve the efficiency of fire prevention and combat activities. The main goalsin this studyare: (i) to detect the spatio-temporal clusters of burned area; and, (ii) to characterize these clusters along with the role of human and environmental factors. The data were supplied by the National Forest Authority(AFN, 2011) and comprises: (a)the Portuguese Rural Fire Database, PRFD, (Pereira et al., 2011) for the 1980-2007period; and, (b) the national mapping burned areas between 1990 and 2009. In this work, in order to complement the more common cluster analysis algorithms, an alternative approach based onscan statistics and on the permutation modelwas used. This statistical methodallows the detection of local excess events and to test if such an excess can reasonably have occurred by chance.Results obtained for different simulations performed for different spatial and temporal windows are presented, compared and interpreted.The influence of several fire factors such as (climate, vegetation type, etc.) is also assessed. Pereira, M.G., Trigo, R.M., DaCamara, C.C., Pereira, J.M.C., Leite, S.M., 2005:"Synoptic patterns associated with large summer forest fires in Portugal".Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 129, 11-25. Pereira, M. G., Malamud, B. D., Trigo, R. M., and Alves, P. I.: The history and characteristics of the 1980-2005 Portuguese rural fire database, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 3343-3358, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-3343-2011, 2011 AFN, 2011: AutoridadeFlorestalNacional (National Forest Authority). Available at http://www.afn.min-agricultura.pt/portal.
Gozli, Davood; Aslam, Hira; Pratt, Jay
We examined the prioritization of a salient feature immediately after an observer performs an action. Previous work suggests that sensory salience is reduced for a feature that results from the observer's own action (i.e., self-caused) compared to a feature that is independent of the observer's action (i.e., externally caused). Similar to how difficult it is to tickle oneself (Blakemore et al., 1998) or to discriminate a self-caused sensory signal from noise (Cardoso-Leite et al., 2010), we expected reduced salience for self-caused visual features. In an initial acquisition phase, participants learned the perceptual outcome of two actions. One key always generated the color red, and the other generated green. By acquiring action-outcome associations, the appearance of red is coded as a self-caused event after performing the corresponding key, whereas it would be coded as an externally caused event after performing the non-corresponding key. In a following test phase, the two colors were presented as salient singletons in otherwise-white search displays. We compared the attentional impact of self-caused and externally-caused singletons, which could be either relevant (the singleton was the target) or irrelevant (the singleton was a distractor). Contrary to previous work, we found that participants were more efficient at both selecting and ignoring a self-caused singleton compared to an externally caused singleton. Specifically, the effective salience of a self-caused singleton can increase when it is relevant (larger cueing effect for the target) or decrease when it is irrelevant (smaller interference effect for a distractor), whereas no such relevance-based modulation was found with externally-caused singletons. These findings demonstrate how performing an actions prepares visual attention for the most optimal strategy toward the predicted action-outcome, discriminating between self-caused and externally caused events, in a task-appropriate manner. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326611
There have been relatively few studies on sign language interaction carried out within the framework of conversation analysis (CA). Therefore, questions remain open about how the basic building blocks of social interaction such as turn, turn construction unit (TCU) and turn transition relevance place (TRP) can be understood and analyzed in sign language interaction. Recent studies have shown that signers regularly fine-tune their turn-beginnings to potential completion points of turns (Groeber, 2014; Groeber and Pochon-Berger, 2014; De Vos et al., 2015). Moreover, signers deploy practices for overlap resolution as in spoken interaction (McCleary and Leite, 2013). While these studies have highlighted the signers' orientation to the "one-at-a-time" principle described by Sacks et al. (1974), the present article adds to this line of research by investigating in more detail those sequential environments where overlaps occur. The contribution provides an overview of different types of overlap with a focus of the overlap's onset with regard to a current signer's turn. On the basis of a 33-min video-recording of a multi-party interaction between 4 female signers in Swiss German Sign Language (DSGS), the paper provides evidence for the orderliness of overlapping signing. Furthermore, the contribution demonstrates how participants collaborate in the situated construction of turns as a dynamic and emergent gestalt and how they interactionally achieve turn transition. Thereby the study adds to recent research in spoken and in signed interaction that proposes to rethink turn boundaries and turn transition as flexible and interactionally achieved. PMID:26150792
The following talk has been given in a special session dedicated to Professor Heinz-Dietrich Doebner at QTS in Prague in August 2011 on the occasion of his 80th birthday. It documents my journey from being a PhD student in Mathematical Physics at the Arnold Sommerfeld Institute in Clausthal under his supervision, to becoming a Professor of Mathematical Biology at the University of York in the UK. I am currently heading an interdisciplinary research group of eight PDRAs and PhDs, focussed on investigating the structures of viruses from a symmetry perspective and unravelling the implications of virus structure on how viruses form and infect their hosts. A central element in my research is my fascination with the development and application of symmetry techniques, which stems from my time in Clausthal when working with Professor Doebner and colleagues. I would like to thank Professor Doebner for these important formative years in Clausthal. Der folgende Vortrag war mein Beitrag zu einer Festsitzung fuer Herrn Professor Heinz-Dietrich Doebner auf der Tagung QTS im August 2011 anläßlich seines achzigsten Geburtstags. Dieser Beitrag dokumentiert, wie sich meine Forschungen aus der Zeit als Doktorandin von Herrn Professor Doebner in Mathematischer Physik am Arnold Sommerfeld Institut in Clausthal weiterentwickelt haben, und zu meiner Professur in Mathematischer Biologie an der Universität York geführt haben. Ich leite dort zur Zeit eine interdisziplinäre Forschungsgruppe von acht Postdocs und Doktoranden, die sich mit der Entwicklung und Anwendung von Symmetrie-Techniken in der Virologie beschäftigt, und insbesondere untersucht, wie sich die Symmetrie-Eigenschaften von Viren auf deren Entstehung und Funktionsweise auswirken. Eine wichtige Vorraussetzung für dieses Forschungsprogramm ist meine Faszination für die Modellierung von Symmetrie-Eigenschaften, die ich während meiner Zusammenarbeit mit Herrn Professor Doebner und Kollegen in Clausthal entwickelt habe. Ich möchte Herrn Professor Doebner für diese wichtigen formativen Jahre besonderen Dank aussprechen.
There have been relatively few studies on sign language interaction carried out within the framework of conversation analysis (CA). Therefore, questions remain open about how the basic building blocks of social interaction such as turn, turn construction unit (TCU) and turn transition relevance place (TRP) can be understood and analyzed in sign language interaction. Recent studies have shown that signers regularly fine-tune their turn-beginnings to potential completion points of turns (Groeber, 2014; Groeber and Pochon-Berger, 2014; De Vos et al., 2015). Moreover, signers deploy practices for overlap resolution as in spoken interaction (McCleary and Leite, 2013). While these studies have highlighted the signers' orientation to the one-at-a-time principle described by Sacks et al. (1974), the present article adds to this line of research by investigating in more detail those sequential environments where overlaps occur. The contribution provides an overview of different types of overlap with a focus of the overlap's onset with regard to a current signer's turn. On the basis of a 33-min video-recording of a multi-party interaction between 4 female signers in Swiss German Sign Language (DSGS), the paper provides evidence for the orderliness of overlapping signing. Furthermore, the contribution demonstrates how participants collaborate in the situated construction of turns as a dynamic and emergent gestalt and how they interactionally achieve turn transition. Thereby the study adds to recent research in spoken and in signed interaction that proposes to rethink turn boundaries and turn transition as flexible and interactionally achieved. PMID:26150792
Miele, Adriana Erica; Bellelli, Andrea; Brunori, Maurizio
Proteins are dynamic molecular machines whose structure and function are modulated by environmental perturbations and natural selection. Allosteric regulation, discovered in 1963 as a novel molecular mechanism of enzymatic adaptation [Monod, Changeux & Jacob (1963). J. Mol. Biol.6, 306-329], seems to be the leit motiv of enzymes and metabolic pathways, enabling fine and quick responses toward external perturbations. Hemoglobin (Hb), the oxygen transporter of all vertebrates, has been for decades the paradigmatic system to test the validity of the conformational selection mechanism, the conceptual innovation introduced by Monod, Wyman and Changeux. We present hereby the results of a comparative analysis of structure, function and thermodynamics of two extensively investigated hemoglobins: human HbA and trout HbI. They represent a unique and challenging comparison to test the general validity of the stereochemical model proposed by Perutz. Indeed both proteins are ideal for the purpose being very similar yet very different. In fact, T-HbI is a low-ligand-affinity cooperative tetrameric Hb, insensitive to all allosteric effectors. This remarkable feature, besides being physiologically sound, supports the stereochemical model, given that the six residues identified in HbA as responsible for the Bohr and the 2,3-di-phosphoglycerate effects are all mutated. Comparison of the three-dimensional structures of HbA and T-HbI allows unveiling the molecular mechanism whereby the latter has a lower O2 affinity. Moreover, the energetic balance sheet shows that the salt bridges breaking upon allosteric quaternary transition are important yet insufficient to account for the free energy of heme-heme interactions in both hemoglobins. PMID:23274140
Utilisation de l'echographie doppler couleur dans la localisation de l'insertion du cordon ombilical et le devenir materno-foetal à la maternité de l'hôpital central de Yaoundé : une étude descriptive et analytique
Fouedjio, Jeanne Hortence; Fouelifack, Florent Ymele; Deutcho, Maximilien; Njotang, Philip Nana; Enow, Robinson Mbu; Leke, Robert John Ivo
Introduction L'échographie doppler couleur permet d'étudier l'insertion du cordon ombilical sur le placenta. Les études américaines et asiatiques montrent que les insertions anormales telles les insertions vélamenteuses et marginales sont associées à une élévation de la morbidité et de la mortalité périnatales. En Afrique et plus particulièrement au Cameroun, aucune étude n'a été publiée sur le sujet. D'où notre motivation à mener ce travail. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude descriptive et analytique qui s'est déroulée sur une période deux ans (2011-2012) à la maternité principale de l'Hôpital Central de Yaoundé. Cette étude a inclus 66 patientes qui ont subi chacune une échographie doppler couleur entre la 18ième et 30ième semaine de gestation, précisant le type d'insertion du cordon ombilical sur le placenta. A l'accouchement, un examen macroscopique du placenta a été réalisé afin de comparer le type d'insertion et réaliser les tests statistiques. Résultats Des 66 grossesses étudiées, nous avons eu un pourcentage de visualisation du type d'insertion de 100%. Toutes les insertions étaient normales à l'échographie soit 20 centrales et 46 latérales. A l'examen macroscopique du placenta, nous avons obtenu 19 (28,8%) insertions centrales, 47(71,2%) insertions latérales ; aucune insertion anormale n'ayant été objectivée. Les tests statistiques nous permettent d'avoir une sensibilité de 95%, une spécificité de 97,8%, une exactitude de 98%, une valeur prédictive positive de 95% et une valeur prédictive négative de 97,8%. Pour ces insertions, nous n'avons pas retrouvé d'association entre le mode d'accouchement, le poids de naissance, et le Score d'apgar avec le type d'insertion du cordon ombilical. Conclusion Nous avons conclu que l'échographie doppler couleur a une haute sensibilité et spécificité dans la détermination de l'insertion du cordon ombilical sur le placenta. Il n'y a pas d'association entre le type d'insertion et le devenir maternofoetal. PMID:25018816
Sousa-Neto, Eráclito; Ometto, Jean
The process of removing a forest to open new agricultural lands, which has been very intensive in developing countries like Brazil during the last decades (Lapola et al, 2014), contributes to about 12% of the global anthropogenic emissions (Le Quéré et al., 2009). Forest cover removal releases carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases (GEE) like methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), as a result of burning trees, followed by gradual decomposition of the forest biomass left on the ground while pasture or crop plantations are being established (Ramankutty et al., 2007). In Brazil, the 2nd Brazilian National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), presents the mean annual net CO2 emissions caused by changes in land use in each Brazilian biome and the first place in the ranking is occupied by the Amazon Rainforest Biome (860,874 Gg), followed by Savannah (302,715 Gg), Atlantic Forest (79,109 Gg), Caatinga (37,628 Gg), Pantanal (16,172 Gg) and Pampa (-102 Gg) (MCT 2010). Despite these results, the estimates of CO2 emissions caused by land use changes in the Brazilian semiarid region (Caatinga) are very limited and scarce, and associated to uncertainties which are directly related to the estimated biomass in different types of vegetation which are spatially distributed within the biome, as well as the correct representation of the dynamics of the deforestation process itself, and the more accurate mapping use and land cover. Based on such facts, this project is estimating the emissions of the main greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O and CH4) caused by land use changes in an area of Caatinga biome in Pernambuco State through the model INPE-EM. So far, it is known that from decades of 1940 up to 1995, Caatinga biome has contributed with about 3.2 % to total land use change emissions in the country (Leite et al, 2012), and recently (1990-2005), the contributions of Caatinga are even higher (over 30%), according to the 2nd Brazilian National Communication (2010). By means means of the model INPE-EM (data still being acquired), we are trying to diminish the uncertainties and identify specific and integrated emissions of GHG, as well as the stocks and flows of C and N, in order to contribute to the current information about GEE dynamic in the Brazilian Northeast and also to enhance the Brazilian GHG inventory. Besides, the model will incorporate the temporal dynamics related to the deforestation process, and accounts for the biophysical and socioeconomic heterogeneity of the region in study.
: Apellido materno: Sexo: M F Fecha de nac. : dd/mm/aa Nacionalidad: Lugar de nac. : Edo. Civil: RFC: CURP fotografías tamaño infantil Dos Copias de Constancias o Certificados de otros estudios cursados y/o otras
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Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL; Djouadi, Seddik M [ORNL; Kuruganti, Phani Teja [ORNL
Access to the right information anytime, anywhere is becoming the new driving force for the information technology revolution. The 'right' information's relevance is based on the user's profile and his/her current geographical position and/or time. Location Based Service (LBS) is an innovative technology that provides information or makes information available based on the geographical location of the mobile user. Analysts predict that LBSs will lead to new applications, generating billions of US dollars worldwide (Leite, 2001; Searle, 2001). The need for an efficient and accurate mobile station (MS) positioning system is growing day by day. The ability to pinpoint the location of an individual has an obvious and vital value in the context of emergency services (Chan, 2003; Olama et al., 2008). Pinpointing the location of people and other valuable assets also opens the door to a new world of previously unimagined information services and m-commerce probabilities. For example, availability of services like 'Where is the nearest ATM?', 'Check traffic conditions on the highway on my route', 'Find a parking lot nearby', as well as answers to 'Where is my advisor?', and 'Where is my car?' will be an everyday rule in our lives (Charalambous & Panayiotou, 2004). A technology independent LBS architecture can be considered as comprised by three main parts (Girodon, 2002): A user requesting information, a mobile network operator and its partners, and several content providers (e.g. data, maps). The subscriber requests a personalized service dependant on his geographic location. The system will ask the Location Services Manager (which is in charge of handling requests, i.e., send/receive to the Location Calculator and the Content Providers) to pinpoint the location of the mobile. The Location Services Manager (LSM), using the Location Calculator, will ask the Content Provider (CP) to supply qualified information according to the mobile's geographical position. The LSM will eventually receive the answer from the CP and send it to the mobile, performing the essential data translations. Fig. 1 outlines the precedent concept. For effective provision of LBS, one has to provide an accurate location, as well as suitable information for users required by the corresponding service, with minimal expenditure. Thus, there are three main technology issues that have to be resolved for LBS: positioning technology, application technology, and location services (Dru & Saada, 2001). A very important technology is of course the positioning technology, the way to find out the location of a mobile device accurately. Due to the unique characteristics of the cellular environment, it is a great challenge to locate the user precisely. However, in many cases, application technology and location services are important consideration of LBS. Application technology manages the geographic information and delivers the customer requests to the appropriate service provider, thus it constitutes the communication system involved. LBS uses the geographic information to provide geographically sensitive information and services. Location-based applications and services are not sensitive to the type of location technology that is used - they merely rely on reasonably accurate geographic coordinates (Chan, 2003). This chapter is structured as follows: In Section 2, we describe the use and applications of LBSs. The current location determination technologies and standards are presented in Section 3. In Section 4 we describe the mathematical models used for the location and velocity estimation algorithms. An initial attempt for MS location estimation via received signal level using the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) approach and triangulation is presented in Sections 5. Since the former approach lacks acceptable accuracy for demanding services as numerical results reveal, the extended Kalman filter (EKF) approach, which is the main topic in this chapter, is introduced in Sections 6. In Section 7 we present numerical results. Section 8 provides concluding remarks.
The biennial International Conferences on Photoacoustic and Photothermal Phenomena (ICPPP) are widely recognized as the major venue for the dissemination of recent and significant research results in the traditional areas, as well as in new and exciting outgrowths of this interdisciplinary field. The ICPPP is concerned with the science, applications and technologies involving the optical, electron-beam or otherwise production, propagation and detection of acoustic, thermal and general diffusion-wave fields.In the 2004 edition the conference was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and involved 14 topics covered in the scientific programme. These are Spectroscopy, Analytical Chemistry and Photochemistry, PA and PT Imaging and Microscopy, Thermophysical Properties and Characterization of Materials, Laser Ultrasonics, Ultrafast PA and PT Phenomena, Electronic and Optical Materials, Thin Films and Devices, Non Linear Phenomena and Inverse Problem, Nanoscale Phenomena, Non Destructive Evaluation, Diffusion Waves and Applications, Industrial Applications, New Instruments and Methodology, Biological,Medical and Dental Applications, Agriculture, Food and Environmental Applications . More than 300 short abstracts contributions were received and refereed for acceptation, from 690 authors of 28 different countries. This volume contains the proceedings of the 13ICPPP including the 207 full papers accepted after a very careful peer review process. Their contents are very deep and modern and show the peculiar interdisciplinary nature of the area. It is provided a collection of papers which includes the traditional subjects of the area as well as new developments of th the fields. The characterization of materials is occupying a great interest in the papers and many studies involving nanoscale phenomena were developed exploring the photothermal methodology. As in the previous conferences thermal wave microscopy and non-linear photothermal phenomena keep a high interest. The application of the methodology to any diffusive wave, other than the thermal one, showed significant growth. In the applications field many expressive papers are analyzing environmental, dental and medical concerns besides those involving other industrial purposes. The Conference received financial support from various Brazilian institutions and agencies, specially the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development - CNPq and Research and Projects Financing - Brazilian innovation Agency - FINEP, and from United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization - UNESCO, to whom the conference organizers are very grateful. We would like to thank greatly the colleagues that helped much with the refereeing tasks and for the stimulating discussions and suggestions during the conference organization and proceedings preparation. Besides we wish to thank the authors for the high quality of their contributions. In special it should be acknowledge the essential help of the people from State University of the North of Rio de Janeiro (Fluminense)- UENF, State University of Campinas - UNICAMP and National Institute for Space Research - INPE, and colleagues that chaired previous conferences. Finally, we are all grateful evious for the precious work of the conference secretary Nelia F. Leite. Helion Vargas Chairman of the 13th International Conference on Photoacoustic and Photothermal Phenomena
Sousa, P. M.; Trigo, R.; Pereira, M. G.; Rasilla, D.; Gouveia, C.
This work focuses on the spatial and temporal variability of burnt area (BA) for the entire Iberian Peninsula (IP) and on the construction of statistical models to reproduce the inter-annual variability, based on Weather Types Classification (WTC). A common BA dataset was assembled for the first time for the entire Iberian Peninsula, by merging BA records for the 66 administrative regions of Portugal and Spain. A normalization procedure was then applied to the various size regions before performing a k-means cluster analysis to identify large areas characterized by similar fire regimes. The most compelling results were obtained for 4 clusters (Northwestern, Northern, Southwestern and Eastern) whose spatial patterns and seasonal fire regimes are shown to be related with constraining factors such as topography, vegetation cover and climate conditions. The response of fire burnt surface at monthly time scales to both long-term climatic pre-conditions and short-term synoptic forcing was assessed through correlation and regression analysis using: (i) temperature and precipitation from 2 to 7 months in advance to fire peak season; (ii) synoptic weather patterns derived from 11 distinct classifications derived under the COSTaction-733. Different responses were obtained for each of the considered regions: (i) a relevant link between BA and short-term synoptic forcing (represented by monthly frequencies of WTC) was identified for all clusters; (ii) long-term climatic preconditioning was relevant for all but one cluster (Northern). Taking into account these links, we developed stepwise regression models with the aim of reproducing the observed BA series (i.e. in hindcast mode). These models were based on the best climatic and synoptic circulation predictors identified previously. All models were cross-validated and their performance varies between clusters, though models exclusively based on WTCs tend to better reproduce annual BA time series than those only based on pre-conditioning climatic information. Nevertheless, the best results are attained when both synoptic and climatic predictors are used simultaneously as predictors, in particular for the two western clusters, where correlation coefficient values are higher than 0.7. Finally, we have used WTC composite maps to characterize the typical synoptic configurations that favor high values of BA. These patterns correspond to dry and warm fluxes, associated with anticyclonic regimes, which foster fire ignition (Pereira et al., 2005). Pereira, M.G., Trigo, R.M., DaCamara, C.C., Pereira, J.M.C., Leite, S.M., 2005: "Synoptic patterns associated with large summer forest fires in Portugal". Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 129, 11-25. COST733, 2011: "COST 733 Wiki - Harmonisation and Applications of Weather Type Classifications for European regions or COST733 spatial domains for Europe". Available at http://geo21.geo.uni-augsburg.de/cost733wiki/Cost733_Wiki_Main [accessed 1 September 2011].
Doridot, Ludivine; Miralles, Francisco; Barbaux, Sandrine; Vaiman, Daniel
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently become essential actors in various fields of physiology and medicine, especially as easily accessible circulating biomarkers, or as modulators of cell differentiation. To this respect, terminal differentiation of trophoblasts (the characteristic cells of the placenta in Therian mammals) into syncytiotrophoblast, villous trophoblast, or extravillous trophoblast constitutes a good example of such a choice, where miRNAs have recently been shown to play an important role. The aim of this review is to provide a snapshot of what is known today in placentation mechanisms that are mediated by miRNA, under the angles of maternofetal immune dialog regulation, trophoblast differentiation, and angiogenesis at the maternofetal interface. Also, two aspects of regulation of these issues will be highlighted: the part played by oxygen concentration and the specific function of imprinted genes in the developing placenta. PMID:24312123
Menéndez, Clara; Sánchez-Tapias, José-María; Alonso, Pedro-Luis; Giménez-Barcons, Mireia; Kahigwa, Elizeus; Aponte, John-Jairo; Mshinda, Hassan; Navia, Margarita-María; Jiménez de Anta, María-Teresa; Rodés, Juan; Saiz, Juan-Carlos
Hepatitis G virus (HGV) RNA was detected in 18 of 133 pregnant women from Tanzania without known risk factors for HGV infection and in 7 of 18 children born to HGV RNA-positive mothers. Molecular evidence of mother-to-infant transmission was obtained only for three of seven children. HGV RNA was also detected in 4 of 42 children born to non-HGV-infected women. Thus, mechanisms other than materno-filial may play an important role in HGV transmission during early childhood. PMID:10364608
Vaughan, O. R.; Phillips, H. M.; Everden, A. J.; Sferruzzi-Perri, A. N.; Fowden, A. L.
causes a reduction in the proportion of the 77 labyrinthine zone (Lz) responsible for materno-fetal exchange, along with changes in the size 78 and density of Lz blood vessels (Hewitt et al. 2006; O'Connell et al. 2011; Vaughan et al. 79 2013). Amino... separated by centrifugation for liquid scintillation counting and corticosterone measurement. 142 The gravid uterus was removed and individual fetuses and placentae dissected and weighed. 143 Fetuses were lysed (5ml Biosol, National Diagnostics, UK at 55°C...
Corbel, T; Gayrard, V; Puel, S; Lacroix, M Z; Berrebi, A; Gil, S; Viguié, C; Toutain, P-L; Picard-Hagen, N
The widespread human exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor interfering with developmental processes, raises the question of the risk for human health of BPA fetal exposure. In humans, highly variable BPA concentrations have been reported in the feto-placental compartment. However the human fetal exposure to BPA still remains unclear. The aim of the study was to characterize placental exchanges of BPA and its main metabolite, Bisphenol A-Glucuronide (BPA-G) using the non-recirculating dual human placental perfusion. This high placental bidirectional permeability to the lipid soluble BPA strongly suggests a transport by passive diffusion in both materno-to-fetal and feto-to-maternal direction, leading to a calculated ratio between fetal and maternal free BPA concentrations of about 1. In contrast, BPA-G has limited placental permeability, particularly in the materno-to-fetal direction. Thus the fetal exposure to BPA conjugates could be explained mainly by its limited capacity to extrude BPA-G. PMID:24933518
Prescott, S L; Breckler, L A; Witt, C S; Smith, L; Dunstan, J A; Christiansen, F T
Low-level alloreactivity between mother and fetus may provide stimulation for fetal T helper type 1 (Th1) cell immune maturation. This study explored the effects of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) mismatch on maternofetal interactions detected as cytokine responses and lymphoproliferation in mixed lymphocyte reactions, and whether this was altered in allergic women (n = 62) who have a Th2 propensity compared with non-allergic women (n = 65). HLA-DR?1 mismatch was associated with significantly increased Th1 interferon (IFN)-?, Th2 interleukin (IL)-13 and lymphoproliferative responses by both mothers and fetuses. Allergic women showed significantly lower IFN-? Th1 production in response to HLA-DR?1 mismatch. The infants of these women also showed significantly lower IL-10 and lower IFN-? production relative to IL-13. Both HLA-DR?1 mismatch and maternal allergy had significant independent effects on maternal IFN-? Th1 responses. Maternal allergy modifies HLA-mediated alloreactivity between the mother and the fetus, reducing Th1 activation. This may affect the cytokine milieu at the maternofetal interface and could be implicated in the attenuated Th1 responses observed commonly in infants of atopic mothers. PMID:19860744
Khlebtsov, Nikolai; Bogatyrev, Vladimir; Dykman, Lev; Khlebtsov, Boris; Staroverov, Sergey; Shirokov, Alexander; Matora, Larisa; Khanadeev, Vitaly; Pylaev, Timofey; Tsyganova, Natalia; Terentyuk, Georgy
Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and GNP-based multifunctional nanocomposites are the subject of intensive studies and biomedical applications. This minireview summarizes our recent efforts in analytical and theranostic applications of engineered GNPs and nanocomposites by using plasmonic properties of GNPs and various optical techniques. Specifically, we consider analytical biosensing; visualization and bioimaging of bacterial, mammalian, and plant cells; photodynamic treatment of pathogenic bacteria; and photothermal therapy of xenografted tumors. In addition to recently published reports, we discuss new data on dot immunoassay diagnostics of mycobacteria, multiplexed immunoelectron microscopy analysis of Azospirillum brasilense, materno-embryonic transfer of GNPs in pregnant rats, and combined photodynamic and photothermal treatment of rat xenografted tumors with gold nanorods covered by a mesoporous silica shell doped with hematoporphyrin. PMID:23471188
Riteau, B; Menier, C; Khalil-Daher, I; Sedlik, C; Dausset, J; Rouas-Freiss, N; Carosella, E D
HLA-G is a non-classical MHC class I molecule expressed at the feto/maternal interface where it plays a role in materno-fetal tolerance by inhibiting NK cells. Expression of killing inhibitory receptors capable of interacting with HLA-G on T lymphocytes led us to hypothesize that HLA-G molecules could also modulate T cell responses, analyzed here in the context of the allogeneic proliferative response. Using LCL-HLA-G transfectants as stimulators of T cells present among peripheral mononuclear cells and K562-HLA-G1 transfectants as inhibitors in a classical mixed lymphocyte reaction, we showed that HLA-G is able to inhibit T cell allo-proliferation. These findings provide new insight into the role of HLA-G in preventing allograft rejection. PMID:10479056
Rouas-Freiss, N; Khalil-Daher, I; Riteau, B; Menier, C; Paul, P; Dausset, J; Carosella, E D
HLA-G is a non-classical MHC class I molecule involved in immune tolerance. We present our results concerning the effects of HLA-G on the cellular immune response, where it impairs both NK and T cell functions. We describe the NK inhibitory properties of HLA-G ex vivo, demonstrating its role in materno-fetal tolerance, which is supported by our in vitro studies using membrane-bound HLA-G1- and HLA-G2-transfected cells and a full-length soluble HLA-G molecule. We also report how HLA-G interacts at the T cell level, here exemplified by its inhibitory effect on both T cell allogeneic proliferative and Ag-specific CTL responses. PMID:10092545
Solecki, Roland; Rauch, Martina; Gall, Andrea; Buschmann, Jochen; Clark, Ruth; Fuchs, Antje; Kan, Haidong; Heinrich, Verena; Kellner, Rupert; Knudsen, Thomas B; Li, Weihua; Makris, Susan L; Ooshima, Yojiro; Paumgartten, Francisco; Piersma, Aldert H; Schönfelder, Gilbert; Oelgeschläger, Michael; Schaefer, Christof; Shiota, Kohei; Ulbrich, Beate; Ding, Xuncheng; Chahoud, Ibrahim
This article is a report of the 8th Berlin Workshop on Developmental Toxicity held in May 2014. The main aim of the workshop was the continuing harmonization of terminology and innovations for methodologies used in the assessment of embryo- and fetotoxic findings. The following main topics were discussed: harmonized categorization of external, skeletal, visceral and materno-fetal findings into malformations, variations and grey zone anomalies, aspects of developmental anomalies in humans and laboratory animals, and innovations for new methodologies in developmental toxicology. The application of Version 2 terminology in the DevTox database was considered as a useful improvement in the categorization of developmental anomalies. Participants concluded that initiation of a project for comparative assessments of developmental anomalies in humans and laboratory animals could support regulatory risk assessment and university-based training. Improvement of new methodological approaches for alternatives to animal testing should be triggered for a better understanding of developmental outcomes. PMID:26073002
Aloizos, S; Seretis, C; Liakos, N; Aravosita, P; Mystakelli, C; Kanna, E; Gourgiotis, S
HELLP, a syndrome characterised by haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets, a variant of pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, is a multisystemic disorder with an incidence of up to 0.9% in all pregnancies and occurs in about one-quarter of pre-eclamptic patients. Most obstetricians presume that HELLP derives from an autoimmune reaction, leading to a materno- fetal imbalance, with accompanying aggregation of platelets, endothelial malfunction along with inborn errors of fatty acid oxidative metabolism. HELLP is characterised by high mortality and morbidity rates, leading to possibly life-threatening complications regarding both the mother and the fetus. Delivery is indicated if HELLP syndrome occurs after 34 gestational weeks or the fetal and/or maternal conditions deteriorate. Vaginal delivery is preferable. Standard corticosteroid treatment is of uncertain clinical value in maternal HELLP syndrome. Future observations and research results may shed more light on improving our understanding of the aspects of HELLP syndrome. PMID:23654309
Shinka, S; Komatsu, T; Dohi, Y; Amano, T
The cellular basis of the mechanism of immunological tolerance to human gamma-globulin (H gamma G) induced in foetal and neonatal mice by materno-foetal or materno-neonatal transfer after a single injection of tolerogen (deaggregated H gamma G) into the mothers was investigated using a cell transfer system and assays of passive haemagglutinating antibodies and plaque-forming cells to H gamma G. The results demonstrated that B cells are mainly involved in the tolerance induced on the fourteenth day of gestation, whereas inactivation of T cells may account for the tolerance induced on the eighteenth day of gestation and in the neonatal stage. Treatment of the mothers with tolerogen and then anti-H gamma G serum reduced the tolerance induced on the fourteenth day of gestation, but did not affect that induced on the eighteenth day of gestation and in the neonatal stage. Cell transfer experiments showed that B-cell tolerance induced on the fourteenth day of gestation was prevented by passive antibody, while T-cell tolerance induced on the eighteenth day of gestation and in the neonatal stage was not affected by passive antibody. Assay of the anti-DNP antibody response after immunization with DNP10-H gamma G showed that treatment of mice with the tolerogen on the eighteenth day of gestation, but not the fourteenth day of gestation, inactivated H gamma G-reactive helper cells. The significance of these results is discussed in relation to the results of the cell transfer experiments described as above. PMID:89080
Santos, Tatiana Carlesso; Oliveira, Moacir Franco; Dantzer, Vibeke; Miglino, Maria Angélica
The microvascularization of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) placenta was studied by vascular casts and immunolocalization of ?-smooth muscle actin and vimentin, to identify the three dimensional organization and vascular flow interrelation in the microvasculature between the maternal and fetal compartments of the placentae. The immunolocalization of vimentin in the vascular endothelium and in the smooth muscle cells of blood vessels showed indented capillaries along the uterine epithelium and the trophoblast at the sides of complementary maternal and fetal microfolds, or rugae. This confers the three-dimensional structure observed in vascular casts. On the maternal side, casts demonstrated uterine folds coated by with primary and secondary ridges, and by areolae dispersed between these ridges. The arteriole runs through the center/middle of ridges, branching at the top into a microvascular network wall in a basket-like fashion. At the base of these baskets venules were formed. On the fetal side, arterioles branched centrally in the fetal rugae into a capillary network in a bulbous form, complementary to the opposite maternal depressions forming the baskets. At the base of the bulbous protrusions, the fetal venules arise. The blood vessel orientation in the materno-fetal interface of the placentae of collared peccaries suggests a blood flow pattern of the type countercurrent to cross current. The same pattern has been reported in domestic swine demonstrating that, even after 38 million years, the Tayassuidae and Suidae families exhibit similar placental morphology, which is here characterized at the microvascular level. PMID:22775252
Cornelis, Guillaume; Vernochet, Cécile; Malicorne, Sébastien; Souquere, Sylvie; Tzika, Athanasia C; Goodman, Steven M; Catzeflis, François; Robinson, Terence J; Milinkovitch, Michel C; Pierron, Gérard; Heidmann, Odile; Dupressoir, Anne; Heidmann, Thierry
Syncytins are fusogenic envelope (env) genes of retroviral origin that have been captured for a function in placentation. Syncytins have been identified in Euarchontoglires (primates, rodents, Leporidae) and Laurasiatheria (Carnivora, ruminants) placental mammals. Here, we searched for similar genes in species that retained characteristic features of primitive mammals, namely the Malagasy and mainland African Tenrecidae. They belong to the superorder Afrotheria, an early lineage that diverged from Euarchotonglires and Laurasiatheria 100 Mya, during the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. An in silico search for env genes with full coding capacity within a Tenrecidae genome identified several candidates, with one displaying placenta-specific expression as revealed by RT-PCR analysis of a large panel of Setifer setosus tissues. Cloning of this endogenous retroviral env gene demonstrated fusogenicity in an ex vivo cell-cell fusion assay on a panel of mammalian cells. Refined analysis of placental architecture and ultrastructure combined with in situ hybridization demonstrated specific expression of the gene in multinucleate cellular masses and layers at the materno-fetal interface, consistent with a role in syncytium formation. This gene, which we named "syncytin-Ten1," is conserved among Tenrecidae, with evidence of purifying selection and conservation of fusogenic activity. To our knowledge, it is the first syncytin identified to date within the ancestrally diverged Afrotheria superorder. PMID:25267646
Balseiro, S C; Correia, H R
Given the reports made about dogs detecting cancer on the basis of odour, our hypothesis is that the volatile organic compounds produced by tumours, and detected by dogs, are products of MHC genes. Two lines of evidences support this hypothesis: (1) human body odour is genetically determined by MHC. These antigen molecules (HLA in humans) have soluble and detectable isoforms that are present in body fluids such as blood, urine and sweat; (2) there is a strong association between changes in HLA expression and cancer. Tumour transformation is frequently associated with low classical HLA class I molecules expression, namely HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C. In addition, cancer is associated with high nonclassical HLA class I molecules expression, such as HLA-G and HLA-E. These evidences suggest that these HLA-associated olfactory cues of human cancer could be easily analysed, for example, by the "electronic nose", making possible a very precocious and reliable diagnostic of cancer. Because cancer immunescape mechanism is similar to that observed in the materno-fetal immune tolerance, we propose also that immunomodulatory abortifacients could be a good strategy in cancer treatment. PMID:16199130
Bamba, Sanata; Some, Der Adolphe; Chemla, Cathy; Geers, Régine; Guiguemde, Tinga Robert; Villena, Isabelle
Introduction La présente étude rapporte les données sérologiques de 306 sérums collectés chez des parturientes au CHU de Bobo Dioulasso et analysés rétrospectivement au CHU de Reims en 2011. Le but était de déterminer le statut sérologique de ces parturientes et d'en déduire la conduite à tenir. Méthodes La recherche des IgG et des IgM anti toxoplasmiques était systématique. Les techniques d'agglutination haute sensibilisée et celle d'Immunocapture M ont servi à la recherche respective des anticorps spécifiques IgG et des IgM. Résultats Sur 306 sérums analysés, 95 (31%) avaient des IgG positifs et aucun n'avait des IgM. Deux cent onze (211) sérums (69%) des sérums n'avaient ni IgG, ni IgM. Conclusion Nos résultats montrent que 31% des femmes en dehors d'une immunodépression sous jacente, possèdent une immunité résiduelle vis à vis de Toxoplasma gondii et n'ont pas la nécessité d'avoir une surveillance sérologique pendant la grossesse. Cependant, 69% (211) des parturientes sont à risque d'une séroconversion, et devraient bénéficier de conseils hygiéno diététiques, associés à une surveillance sérologique durant la grossesse. Ces résultats montrent l'intérêt de mettre en place des mesures de prévention contre la toxoplasmose congénitale, étant l'une des affections materno - foetales les plus fréquentes par la mise en place d'un diagnostic prénatal de la toxoplasmose en routine dans notre hôpital. PMID:22937183
Polanco, Nina; Manzi, Lorna
Diarrheal diseases with diarrhea are the most frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in children; however the causative agent cannot be identified always, which suggests the presence of unknown enteropathogens inducing diarrhea. The isolation of Acinetobacter sp. from feces of children with acute diarrhea, unrelated to known enteropathogens motivated this investigation to detect a possible enterotoxigenic effect on HT-29 cells. The study population comprised 150 children with an age range from 0 to 5 years old; 120 were assisted in the "Hospital Materno Infantil del Este'' with gastrointestinal syndrome and 30 healthy controls who went to the center for routine analysis. In 25% of symptomatic patients were diagnosed parasites and bacteria, identified routinely. From four symptomatic patients were isolated three Acinetobacter baumannii strains and two A. calcoaceticus strains. The strains were cultured in brain-heart infusion for 24 and 48 hrs, at 35 degrees C, and the supernatants were obtained by centrifugation and filtration and their activity tested on HT-29 cell monolayers. The supernatants of the three strains of A. baumannii induced alterations of the cell monolayer, showed by detachments of cell monolayers, cell segregation, cell rounding and swelling. These effects were more intense with the 48 h culture exoproducts of the 016 strain, which were higher than the positive control. This toxigenic effect of A. baumannii, could represent a pathogenic mechanism whose definition requires more studies to determine the possible role in the pathogenicity of this bacillus. PMID:18524332
Herrera, Emilio A.; Krause, Bernardo; Ebensperger, German; Reyes, Roberto V.; Casanello, Paola; Parra-Cordero, Mauro; Llanos, Anibal J.
The placenta is the exchange organ that regulates metabolic processes between the mother and her developing fetus. The adequate function of this organ is clearly vital for a physiologic gestational process and a healthy baby as final outcome. The umbilico-placental vasculature has the capacity to respond to variations in the materno-fetal milieu. Depending on the intensity and the extensity of the insult, these responses may be immediate-, mediate-, and long-lasting, deriving in potential morphostructural and functional changes later in life. These adjustments usually compensate the initial insults, but occasionally may switch to long-lasting remodeling and dysfunctional processes, arising maladaptation. One of the most challenging conditions in modern perinatology is hypoxia and oxidative stress during development, both disorders occurring in high-altitude and in low-altitude placental insufficiency. Hypoxia and oxidative stress may induce endothelial dysfunction and thus, reduction in the perfusion of the placenta and restriction in the fetal growth and development. This Review will focus on placental responses to hypoxic conditions, usually related with high-altitude and placental insufficiency, deriving in oxidative stress and vascular disorders, altering fetal and maternal health. Although day-to-day clinical practice, basic and clinical research are clearly providing evidence of the severe impact of oxygen deficiency and oxidative stress establishment during pregnancy, further research on umbilical and placental vascular function under these conditions is badly needed to clarify the myriad of questions still unsettled. PMID:25009498
Doumiri, Mouhssine; Elombila, Marie; Oudghiri, Nezha; Saoud, Anas Tazi
L'hématome sous-capsulaire du foie est une complication rare de la grossesse, survenant le plus souvent dans le cadre d'une pré éclampsie ou d'un HELLP syndrome (Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes, and Low Platelets Syndrome). Rare sont les cas décris au cours d'une stéatose hépatique aiguë gravidique. Nous rapportons le cas d'une parturiente de 33 ans, multipare, sans antécédents, admise aux urgences au terme d'une grossesse à 37 semaines d'aménorrhées, pour pré éclampsie compliquée d'une stéatose hépatique aiguë gravidique. Léchographie hépatique réalisée à l'admission était sans anomalie. Une césarienne a été réalisée en urgence devant une souffrance ftale aiguë, au cours de laquelle a été mise en évidence une rupture de l'hématome sous capsulaire du foie s'accompagnant d'un état de choc hémorragique. La prise en charge a consisté à une polytransfusion et packing perihépatique. Le retrait du packing n'a été réalisé qu'au quatrième jour, après stabilisation clinicobiologique et régression de l'encéphalopathie hépatique. Lévolution en réanimation a été favorable avec sortie de la patiente au vingtième jour. La rupture de l'hématome sous-capsulaire du foie est extrêmement dangereuse et à haut risque materno-ftal. L'association à la stéatose hépatique aggrave le pronostic. PMID:25667700
Rust, Daniel W.
Chimerism in an individual refers to the coexistence of cells arising from two distinct organisms. It can arise iatrogenically via transplant or blood transfusion, and physiologically via twin to twin transfer, or from trafficking between mother and fetus during pregnancy. Many of the diseases associated with microchimerism affect the endocrine system (e.g., autoimmune thyroid disease and diabetes mellitus type 1). Microchimerism is relevant to endocrine pathology because (a) it is associated with pregnancy, a condition of complex endocrine physiology; (b) maternofetal and feto-maternal cellular migration must involve the placenta, itself an endocrine organ; and (c) in some species, chimerism results in states of intersexuality, a condition intimately involved with endocrine physiology. Studies of feto-maternal microchimerism in the thyroid have documented the presence of fetal cells in association with Hashimoto thyroiditis, Graves disease, thyroid adenoma, and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Studies of materno-fetal microchimerism have documented the presence of maternal cells in juvenile diabetes and other pediatric conditions. Microchimerism plays a potential role in the repair of diseased thyroid and pancreatic tissues. PMID:19214801
This article gives an overview on important aspects of hearing and language development of infants and toddlers. Newborn hearing screening is implemented in Germany for all infants since January 2009. The realization of early postnatal hearing screening is regulated by a publication of the "Gemeinsamer Bundesausschuss". It regulates the measurement method (TEOAE or AABR screening) and differs between healthy and sick newborns. It also rules the timetable of rescreening and if it still fails of paedaudiological follow up. The second part refers to objective and subjective assessment of hearing loss and different important issues of permanent childhood hearing impairment are discussed. Especially CMV infection by materno-fetal transmission and hereditary hearing loss is addressed in comparison to otitis media with effusion. Speech and language development in the first three years of live and the corresponding nomenclature is introduced in the last part. Different parent questionnaires are well established in evaluation of early language acquisition. An early diagnosis of language delay is possible and therapeutic measures can be established to prevent further social and psychological problems. PMID:24710780
Sipos, Peter I; Rens, Willem; Schlecht, HÉlène; Fan, Xiaohu; Wareing, Mark; Hayward, Christina; Hubel, Carl A; Bourque, Stephane; Baker, Philip N; Davidge, Sandra T; Sibley, Colin P; Crocker, Ian P
The potency of adult-derived circulating progenitor endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) is drastically surpassed by their fetal counterparts. Human pregnancy is associated with robust intensification of blood flow and vascular expansion in the uterus, crucial for placental perfusion and fetal supply. Here, we investigate whether fetal ECFCs transmigrate to maternal bloodstream and home to locations of maternal vasculogenesis, primarily the pregnant uterus. In the first instance, endothelial-like cells, originating from mouse fetuses expressing paternal eGFP, were identified within uterine endothelia. Subsequently, LacZ or enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP)-labeled human fetal ECFCs, transplanted into immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) fetuses on D15.5 pregnancy, showed similar integration into the mouse uterus by term. Mature endothelial controls (human umbilical vein endothelial cells), similarly introduced, were unequivocally absent. In humans, SRY was detected in 6 of 12 myometrial microvessels obtained from women delivering male babies. The copy number was calculated at 175 [IQR 149471] fetal cells per millimeter square endothelium, constituting 12.5% of maternal vessel lumina. Cross-sections of similar human vessels, hybridized for Y-chromosome, positively identified endothelial-associated fetal cells. It appears that through ECFC donation, fetuses assist maternal uterine vascular expansion in pregnancy, potentiating placental perfusion and consequently their own fetal supply. In addition to fetal growth, this cellular mechanism holds implications for materno-fetal immune interactions and long-term maternal vascular health. PMID:23554274
Teodor, Andra; Teodor, D; Miftode, Egidia; Pris?caru, D; Leca, Daniela; Petrovici, Cristina; Dorneanu, Olivia; Dorob?t, Carmen-Mihaela
Listeriosis is a rare food borne infection which, in the invasive form, presents as bloodstream infection, central nervous system infection, materno-fetal infection, or focal infection. Certain immunosuppressive conditions have been identified as risk factors for severe invasive disease. The invasive forms of listeriosis are associated with a high case fatality rate. We present the case of a 62-year-old male with an unremarkable medical history admitted to the Iasi Infectious Diseases Hospital for fever. headache, ataxia, and diplopia. Physical examination revealed high temperature, confusion, relative bradycardia, and signs of meningeal irritation. Laboratory test showed leukocyt osis with neutrophilia. pathological CSF findings (high WBC count with predominance of neutrophils, low glucose and high protein levels), increased liver enzymes (ALAT, ASAT, AP, gammaGT), and important renal impairment (normal levels at presentation). No abnormalities at chest x-ray, cranial CT and abdominal ultrasound. CSF and blood cultures were positive for Listeria monocytogenes. Under antibiotics (ampicillin and ciprofloxacin), the course was marked by respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation, coma, hypotension, tachycardia. and death 12 days after admission. The particularity of this case consists in the association of the two classical forms of invasive listeriosis, meningitis and bacteriemia, with a focal infection. acute hepatitis, and a course marked by multiple organ dysfunction syndromes and exitus in a previously apparently healthy individual. PMID:23272533
Langley-Evans, Simon C
Nutritional programming is the process through which variation in the quality or quantity of nutrients consumed during pregnancy exerts permanent effects upon the developing fetus. Programming of fetal development is considered to be an important risk factor for non-communicable diseases of adulthood, including coronary heart disease and other disorders related to insulin resistance. The study of programming in relation to disease processes has been advanced by development of animal models, which have utilized restriction or over-feeding of specific nutrients in either rodents or sheep. These consistently demonstrate the biological plausibility of the nutritional programming hypothesis and, importantly, provide tools with which to examine the mechanisms through which programming may occur. Studies of animals subject to undernutrition in utero generally exhibit changes in the structure of key organs such as the kidney, heart and brain. These appear consistent with remodelling of development, associated with disruption of cellular proliferation and differentiation. Whilst the causal pathways which extend from this tissue remodelling to disease can be easily understood, the processes which lead to this disordered organ development are poorly defined. Even minor variation in maternal nutritional status is capable of producing important shifts in the fetal environment. It is suggested that these environmental changes are associated with altered expression of key genes, which are responsible for driving the tissue remodelling response and future disease risk. Nutrition-related factors may drive these processes by disturbing placental function, including control of materno-fetal endocrine exchanges, or the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. PMID:19175805
Milk has been recognized to represent a functionally active nutrient system promoting neonatal growth of mammals. Cell growth is regulated by the nutrient-sensitive kinase mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). There is still a lack of information on the mechanisms of mTORC1 up-regulation by milk consumption. This review presents milk as a materno-neonatal relay system functioning by transfer of preferential amino acids, which increase plasma levels of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), insulin, growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) for mTORC1 activation. Importantly, milk exosomes, which regularly contain microRNA-21, most likely represent a genetic transfection system enhancing mTORC1-driven metabolic processes. Whereas human breast milk is the ideal food for infants allowing appropriate postnatal growth and species-specific metabolic programming, persistent high milk signaling during adolescence and adulthood by continued cow´s milk consumption may promote mTORC1-driven diseases of civilization. PMID:23883112
Cariou, Ronan; Veyrand, Bruno; Yamada, Ami; Berrebi, Alain; Zalko, Daniel; Durand, Sophie; Pollono, Charles; Marchand, Philippe; Leblanc, Jean-Charles; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno
One major concern regarding perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) is their potential role in onset of health troubles consecutive to early exposure during the perinatal period. In the present work, the internal exposure levels of 18 targeted PFAAs were determined in ca. 100 mother-newborn pairs recruited in France between 2010 and 2013. In serum, the cumulated concentrations of the 7 most frequently detected compounds were 5.70ng/mL and 2.83ng/mL (median values) in maternal and cord serum, respectively. Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexylesulfonic acid (PFHxS) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) contributed to around 90% of the total PFAAs contamination, with concentration levels and contamination profiles in accordance with other published work in Europe. Levels measured in breast milk were far lower (20 to 150 fold) than those determined in serum. Associations between the different monitored substances as well as between levels determined in the different investigated biological matrices mostly do not appear statistically significant. The estimated materno-foetal transfer would be thus substance-dependant, mainly driven by the physico-chemical properties of the different PFAAs (nature of polar group and length of alkylated side chain). We conclude that trans-placental passage and breastfeeding are both significant routes of human exposure to PFAAs. PMID:26232143
Cornelis, Guillaume; Vernochet, Cécile; Malicorne, Sébastien; Souquere, Sylvie; Tzika, Athanasia C.; Goodman, Steven M.; Catzeflis, François; Robinson, Terence J.; Milinkovitch, Michel C.; Pierron, Gérard; Heidmann, Odile; Dupressoir, Anne; Heidmann, Thierry
Syncytins are fusogenic envelope (env) genes of retroviral origin that have been captured for a function in placentation. Syncytins have been identified in Euarchontoglires (primates, rodents, Leporidae) and Laurasiatheria (Carnivora, ruminants) placental mammals. Here, we searched for similar genes in species that retained characteristic features of primitive mammals, namely the Malagasy and mainland African Tenrecidae. They belong to the superorder Afrotheria, an early lineage that diverged from Euarchotonglires and Laurasiatheria 100 Mya, during the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. An in silico search for env genes with full coding capacity within a Tenrecidae genome identified several candidates, with one displaying placenta-specific expression as revealed by RT-PCR analysis of a large panel of Setifer setosus tissues. Cloning of this endogenous retroviral env gene demonstrated fusogenicity in an ex vivo cellcell fusion assay on a panel of mammalian cells. Refined analysis of placental architecture and ultrastructure combined with in situ hybridization demonstrated specific expression of the gene in multinucleate cellular masses and layers at the maternofetal interface, consistent with a role in syncytium formation. This gene, which we named syncytin-Ten1, is conserved among Tenrecidae, with evidence of purifying selection and conservation of fusogenic activity. To our knowledge, it is the first syncytin identified to date within the ancestrally diverged Afrotheria superorder. PMID:25267646
Williams, D J L; Trees, A J
Neospora caninum is an apicomplexan protozoan parasite that is a significant infectious abortifacient agent in cattle. Despite the fact that it is a member of a well described taxonomic group, it is a relatively newly discovered parasite and its biology is not yet fully understood. Cattle become infected either congenitally via transplacental transmission or post-natally by ingesting oocysts derived from the definitive host; dogs and coyotes are the only definitive hosts that have been described to date. It is not known which of these two forms of transmission occurs most frequently and which is the most likely to result in abortion; there are no drugs available to treat infected cattle, so current control strategies rely on prevention of infection by management methods and strict hygiene; an effective vaccine would be a great advantage in its control. Neospora caninum is an economically important veterinary pathogen, but we can also draw analogies between its foetopathic effects and those of human pathogens such as Toxoplasma gondii, Chlamydophila abortus and Plasmodium falciparum. Understanding the immune response and the materno-foetal relationship in N. caninum-infected cattle may help us to design vaccination strategies, not only for neosporosis but also for other foetopathic agents. PMID:16441503
Vanderpuye, O A; Labarrere, C A; McIntyre, J A
The heterodimeric vitronectin receptor (VNR) and platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GPIIb/IIIa) are two members of the integrin family of cell adhesion receptors that share the same beta subunit (GPIIIa). These proteins are involved in binding to vitronectin, fibrinogen and fibronectin and in cytoskeleton-membrane interactions. The present study shows that the human placental syncytiotrophoblast brush border membrane contains a heterodimer of subunit Mr values of 140,000 and 90,000 (non-reduced) or 125,000 and 100,000 (reduced). This protein was recognized by a monoclonal antibody to GPIIIa, rabbit antisera to the VNR and a human alloantiserum to GPIIIa. Brush border VNR-related protein bound to an immobilized peptide containing the Arg-Gly-Asp sequence and, less avidly, to immobilized fibrinogen. Only a small fraction of brush border VNR was associated with a cytoskeleton fraction. Membrane-bound brush border GPIIIa was distinct from that of platelets in its resistance to digestion by trypsin and Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease, and had a slightly lower mobility on SDS/PAGE. In addition, lectin-binding studies indicate glycosylation differences between microvillar and platelet GPIIIa heterodimers. Thus, although placental syncytiotrophoblast expresses a beta 3 integrin in its apical brush border, differences in protease sensitivity and carbohydrate content suggest that it may lack or mask certain antigenic determinants. This may be beneficial in avoiding harmful maternal alloantibody responses during pregnancy. Immunohistology showed that the VNR was present in syncytiotrophoblast apical but not basal plasma membranes, and was absent from other forms of trophoblast. The brush border VNR could function in localizing Arg-Gly-Asp-sequence-containing plasma proteins to the materno-trophoblastic interface. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. PMID:1720617
Gras-Le Guen, C; Jarry, A; Vallette, G; Toquet, C; Colombeix, C; Laboisse, C L; Potel, G; Roze, J-C; Bugnon, D; Debillon, T
The correlation of clinical and epidemiological data suggests that intrauterine infection/inflammation can promote foetal lung injury. The aim of this study was: 1) to characterise the early inflammatory response elicited in infected foetal lungs, in terms of nitric oxide-derived oxidative stress and programmed cell death; and 2) to investigate the effects of antibiotic therapy on these parameters. A previously described rabbit experimental model of materno-foetal infection was used. Animals were divided into three groups: controls; Escherichia coli infected (12 h); and E. Coli infected (12 h) and treated (24 h gentamicin+ceftriaxone). Foetal lungs were examined in terms of histology, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, immunohistochemical detection of 3-nitrotyrosine, and detection of apoptotic cells by the TUNEL assay and Hoechst staining. In the infected group, a moderate inflammatory response was observed, associated with a significant increase in inducible NOS activity, the formation of 3-nitrotyrosine residues in epithelial and immune cells, the down-regulation of constitutive NOS activity and clusters of apoptotic cells, as compared with the control group. Early antibiotic therapy, initiated at 12 h post-inoculation, elicited a significant decrease in the infection-induced nitrosative stress. Levels of 3-nitrotyrosine and of apoptotic cells were decreased in the infected-and-treated group compared with the infected group, mainly by the re-expression of constitutive NOS and of the basal level of inducible NOS. Altogether, these findings indicate that early antibiotic therapy can curb the inflammatory reaction and help avert antenatal lung injury, which is known to be involved in the onset of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. PMID:15640328
Taylor, Tory M.; Hembling, John; Bertrand, Jane T.
Objectives. To describe levels of risky sexual behaviour, HIV testing and HIV knowledge among men and women in Guatemala by ethnic group and to identify adjusted associations between ethnicity and these outcomes. Design. Data on 16,205 women aged 1549 and 6822 men aged 1559 from the 20082009 Encuesta Nacional de Salud Materno Infantil were used to describe ethnic group differences in sexual behaviour, HIV knowledge and testing. We then controlled for age, education, wealth and other socio-demographic factors in a multivariate logistic regression model to examine the effects of ethnicity on outcomes related to age at sexual debut, number of lifetime sex partners, comprehensive HIV knowledge, HIV testing and lifetime sex worker patronage (men only). Results. The data show low levels of risky sexual behaviour and low levels of HIV knowledge among indigenous women and men, compared to other respondents. Controlling for demographic factors, indigenous women were more likely than other women never to have been tested for HIV and to lack comprehensive HIV knowledge. They were less likely to report early sexual debut and three or more lifetime sexual partners. Indigenous men were more likely than other men to lack comprehensive HIV knowledge and demonstrated lower odds of early sexual debut, 10 or more lifetime sexual partners and sex worker patronage. Conclusions. The Mayan indigenous population in Guatemala, while broadly socially vulnerable, does not appear to be at elevated risk for HIV based on this analysis of selected risk factors. Nonetheless, low rates of HIV knowledge and testing may be cause for concern. Programmes working in indigenous communities should focus on HIV education and reducing barriers to testing. Further research into the factors that underlie ethnic self-identity and perceived ethnicity could help clarify the relative significance of these measures for HIV risk and other health outcomes. PMID:24834462
Amourak, Sarah; Jayi, Sofia; Alaoui, Fatimazahra Fdili; Bouguern, Hakima; Chaara, Hikmat; Melhouf, Moulay Abdelilah
L'association pancréatite aigue et grossesse est rare mais non exceptionnelle, le diagnostic de la pancréatite au cours de la grossesse est difficile, vu la non spécificité de la symptomatologie et vu que très souvent les douleurs et les vomissements peuvent être rattachés à la grossesse elle-même pouvant ainsi être responsable du retard diagnostic Léchographie abdominale, qui est certes anodine pour le ftus, ne permet pas de poser le diagnostic, par contre la TDM a une sensibilité, et une spécificité voisine de 100%, mais elle est irradiante elle n'est utilisable qu'au delà de 36SA et en post partum, et par conséquent l'IRM abdominale trouve tout son intérêt au 1er et au 2ème trimestre. Cependant la biologie reste plus spécifique et c'est essentiellement lélévation de la lipasémie à partir de 3fois la normale, qui peut redresser le diagnostic. Le traitement consiste au 1er trimestre a une abstention thérapeutique et cholécystectomie au 2èmetrimestre, au 2ème trimestre: Cholécystectomie par clioscopie, au 3ème trimestre: Sphinctérotomie, et en post partum, la cholécystectomie s'impose. A travers nos 6 cas et une revue de la littérature nous soulignons les caractéristiques diagnostiques, thérapeutiques et pronostiques de cette affection et nous invitons les praticiens à penser à la pancréatite chez toute femme enceinte avec douleur abdominales ce qui permettrait déviter les retards du diagnostic et d'améliorer le pronostic materno ftal. PMID:26430482
Gibson, K J; Lumbers, E R
1. In nine chronically catheterized fetuses in which all lung liquid was drained continuously from the time of surgery, the effects of continuous drainage of fetal urine for 1 week on fetal renal function, lung liquid production and salt and water balance were studied. Fetal wellbeing, as judged by fetal growth, urinary osmolality, blood gas status, arterial pressure and heart rate, was not adversely affected by urine drainage. The ewes, however, drank more water when fetal urine was drained. Thus. fetal plasma and urinary osmolalities declined (P < 0.25 and P < 0.05). 2. Fetal glomerular filtration rate fell from 75 +/- 4 ml kg-1 h-1 (+/- S.E.M., n = 9) before drainage to 54 +/- 7 ml kg-1 h-1 after drainage (n = 7; P < 0.005), and fetal renal sodium excretion also declined (P < 0.05). However, the excretion of sodium in lung liquid did not decrease and the fetal renin-angiotensin system was not activated. Fetal extracellular volume (561 +/- 44 ml kg-1, n = 7) and the calculated net sodium transfer (0.76 mmol kg-1 h-1, n = 6) and fluid transfer (15 +/- 2 ml kg-1 h-1, n = 8) to the fetus did not change. 3. It is concluded that overall fetal salt and water balance were maintained when all fetal urine and lung liquid were drained from fetal sheep in late gestation. Since drainage of urine and lung liquid considerably reduced the amniotic and allantoic fluids, transfer across the placenta and extraplacental membranes was able to compensate for the absence of these fluids. In response to the loss of sodium during drainage, fetal renal sodium conservation was about 11% of the total sodium conservation by the materno-fetal unit. PMID:8842003
Feng, Zichun; Minard, Charles; Raghavan, Rajeev
Maternal and fetal outcomes of pregnant women with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD stage 4 and 5) are not well chronicled. Since 1980, we could locate only five published case series'studying this population. This study examines nine pregnant women with severe CKD (defined as estimated GFR < 30 mL/min) and compares their materno-fetal outcomes with a cohort of women with an eGFR 45 - 100 mL/min and pre-pregnancy proteinuria (mild CKD). This is a retrospective, single-center study nd statistical analyses include Fisher' exact test, nonparametric Wilcoxon rank sum, and exact logistic regression. Compared to women with mild CKD, women with severe CKD have higher rates of pre-term delivery (89% vs. 41%, p = 0.02) and a higher average eGFR reduction during pregnancy (26.1% vs. 0%, p = 0.04). Both groups had similar rate of caesarean section, pre-eclampsia, and adverse fetal outcomes including perinatal death, oligohydramnios, and intrauterine growth retardation. Compared to published outcomes of pregnant women receiving hemodialysis, our cohort of women with severe CKD and not on dialysis had a higher incidence of pre-eclampsia and premature birth. In conclusion, the incidence of preterm delivery, small for gestational age, and decline of maternal renal function increased with a reduction in eGFR. Women with severe CKD (eGFR < 30 mL/min) may experience a reduced rate of pre-eclampsia and longer gestation with earlier initiation of dialysis. PMID:25899576
Cateni, Chiara; Paulesu, Luana; Bigliardi, Elisa; Hamlett, William C
Cartilaginous fish are the oldest extant jawed vertebrates and the oldest line to have placentae. Their pivotal evolutionary position makes them attractive models to investigate the mechanisms involved in the maternal-fetal interaction. This study describes the tissue expression of the cytokine interlukin-1 (IL-1) ?, IL-1 ? and its specific membrane receptor, IL-1 receptor type I (IL-1R tI) in a placental cartilaginous fish, the smoothhound shark, Mustelus canis. The presence of this cytokine has been reported in many mammalian placentae, as well as in the placenta of a squamate reptile and this study extends these observations to the cartilaginous fishes. The uteroplacental complex in M. canis consists of a yolk sac modified into a functional yolk sac placenta and complimentary uterine attachment sites. Immunohistochemistry for IL-1 ?, IL-1 ? and the receptor reveals leucocytes of both the mother and fetus to be positive, as well as the apical aspect of paraplacental cells and the apical vesicles in the umbilical cord epithelium. Yolk sac endoderm is also positive with all the stains while the ectoderm is positive only for IL-1 ?. Immunoreactivity in the uterine epithelium was obtained for IL-1 ? and the receptor. The egg envelope is always negative. In light of the recent finding of IL-1 ? gene in a cartilaginous fish and of the high level of conservation of proteins implicated in IL-1 action, our data suggest that IL-1 system is a key mediator of the materno-fetal interaction since the oldest extant placental vertebrates. PMID:12646051
Cateni, Chiara; Paulesu, Luana; Bigliardi, Elisa; Hamlett, William C
Cartilaginous fish are the oldest extant jawed vertebrates and the oldest line to have placentae. Their pivotal evolutionary position makes them attractive models to investigate the mechanisms involved in the maternal-fetal interaction. This study describes the tissue expression of the cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) alpha, IL-1 beta and its specific membrane receptor, IL-1 receptor type I (IL-1R tI) in a placental cartilaginous fish, the smoothhound shark, Mustelus canis. The presence of this cytokine has been reported in many mammalian placentae, as well as in the placenta of a squamate reptile and this study extends these observations to the cartilaginous fishes. The uteroplacental complex in M. canis consists of a yolk sac modified into a functional yolk sac placenta and complimentary uterine attachment sites. Immunohistochemistry for IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta and the receptor reveals leucocytes of both the mother and fetus to be positive, as well as the apical aspect of paraplacental cells and the apical vesicles in the umbilical cord epithelium. Yolk sac endoderm is also positive with all the stains while the ectoderm is positive only for IL-1 alpha. Immunoreactivity in the uterine epithelium was obtained for IL-1 alpha and the receptor. The egg envelope is always negative. In light of the recent finding of IL-1 beta gene in a cartilaginous fish and of the high level of conservation of proteins implicated in IL-1 action, our data suggest that IL-1 system is a key mediator of the materno-fetal interaction since the oldest extant placental vertebrates. PMID:12646051
Stolp, Helen; Neuhaus, Ain; Sundramoorthi, Rohan; Molnár, Zoltán
Cortical development is a complex amalgamation of proliferation, migration, differentiation, and circuit formation. These processes follow defined timescales and are controlled by a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. It is currently unclear how robust and flexible these processes are and whether the developing brain has the capacity to recover from disruptions. What is clear is that there are a number of cognitive disorders or conditions that are elicited as a result of disrupted cortical development, although it may take a long time for the full pathophysiology of the conditions to be realized clinically. The critical window for the manifestation of a neurodevelopmental disorder is prolonged, and there is the potential for a complex interplay between genes and environment. While there have been extended investigations into the genetic basis of a number of neurological and mental disorders, limited definitive associations have been discovered. Many environmental factors, including inflammation and stress, have been linked to neurodevelopmental disorders, and it may be that a better understanding of the interplay between genes and environment will speed progress in this field. In particular, the development of the brain needs to be considered in the context of the whole materno-fetal unit as the degree of the metabolic, endocrine, or inflammatory responses, for example, will greatly influence the environment in which the brain develops. This review will emphasize the importance of extending neurodevelopmental studies to the contribution of the placenta, vasculature, cerebrospinal fluid, and to maternal and fetal immune response. These combined investigations are more likely to reveal genetic and environmental factors that influence the different stages of neuronal development and potentially lead to the better understanding of the etiology of neurological and mental disorders such as autism, epilepsy, cerebral palsy, and schizophrenia. PMID:22701439
Almería, S; Araujo, R; Tuo, W; López-Gatius, F; Dubey, J P; Gasbarre, L C
Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle, but the reasons why some animals abort and not others remain unclear. Most of the N. caninum experimental primary infections in cattle late in gestation, after 120 days of pregnancy, result in birth of full-term congenitally infected fetuses. In the present study, the distribution of parasites and pathogenesis of infection in both dams and fetuses after inoculation with 10(7) culture derived tachyzoites of N. caninum NC-Illinois cattle strain at 110 days of gestation were analyzed at 3 weeks, 6 weeks and 9 weeks after infection (WAI) in eight Angus heifers. One dam from the group euthanized at 6 WAI had a dead fetus at necropsy. Extensive lesions were observed in the placenta and tachyzoites were detected in both the placenta and the fetus. The fetus was seropositive and had high IFN-gamma g production in fetal fluids. Another fetus, still alive when euthanized at 3 WAI, had severe lesions and high IFN-gamma production and a similar fate could have been expected if the experimental period would have been longer. Lesions in the placenta of the remaining six dams that had live fetuses at necropsy were mild. In those dams, the fetal and maternal placentas had not separated and contained focal areas of placentitis at the materno-fetal junction. Transplacental infection took place on all fetuses based on detection of parasitic DNA in fetal tissues. The present study shows that experimental N. caninum infection of naïve dams after 110 days of pregnancy can lead to fetal death. The results suggest that the severity of placental lesions and the strong IFN-gamma response in some fetuses, possibly as part of the immune response trying to control the high parasitemia, might, in fact, be the cause of their death. PMID:20089361
Khemiri, Khaled; Jenayah, Amel Achour; Boudaya, Fethia; Hamdi, Asma; Meskhi, Souad; Sfar, Ezzeddine; Chelli, Dalenda
Nous rapportons dans ce travail, le profil épidémiologique des femmes enceintes porteuses d'une cardiopathie ayant accouché dans le service «A» du centre de maternité de Tunis. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective descriptive sur 3 ans, de janvier 2010 à décembre 2012, portant sur les dossiers des parturientes cardiaques suivies et ayant accouché dans notre service, à l'exclusion des cardiopathies hypertensives. Les paramètres analysés étaient la gestité et parité des parturientes, le type de la cardiopathie, le mode d'accouchement et le pronostic foetal. Cinquante six cas sur 19655 accouchements avaient été recrutés, soit une incidence de 1 pour 351 accouchements (0,285%). Lâge moyen de nos parturientes était de 30,89±5,3 ans avec des extrêmes allant de 21 à 42 ans. 23 (41,07%) avaient une cardiopathie congénitale, 35 (62,5%) une valvulopathie, 6 (10,71%) un trouble du rythme, 3 (5,35%) un trouble de la conduction à type de bloc auriculo-ventriculaire et 3 (5,35%) une cardiopathie ischémique. Cinquante deux parturientes (92,85%) avaient accouché à un terme dépassant les 37 semaines d'aménorrhée (SA). L'accouchement s'est déroulé par les voies naturelles chez 22 (39,28%) patientes et par césarienne chez 34 (60,71%). Le poids moyen des nouveaux nés à la naissance était de 3341,25 grammes. 3 transferts néonataux en unité de réanimation étaient réalisés avec un seul cas de décès néonatal. La grossesse et l'accouchement chez la femme cardiaque constituent un haut risque materno-foetal dépendant du type, mais surtout du stade de la cardiopathie, nécessitant une prise en charge précoce et multidisciplinaire de la parturiente.
Palacios de Franco, Ylbe; Velazquez, Karina; Segovia, Natalia; Acosta, Carolina; Yanosky, Deborah; Franco Palacios, Ylbe V; Ramos, Amanda; Franco Palacios, Carlos R
Background: Preeclampsia is associated with significant materno-fetal morbidity and mortality. Podocyturia due to podocyte damage seems to be associated with the disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of urinary podocalyxin as a marker of preeclampsia in a Hispanic population. Methods: 63 patients were studied. 25 patients had preeclampsia/eclampsia (PE-E). 38 patients had normal pregnancies and served as control group. 24 hour proteinuria, urine protein/creatinine (UPC), urinary podocalyxin and perinatal outcomes were measured. A Podocalyxin ELISA test was used to detect podocyturia. Results: Mean age (years), mean±SD was 30.5±5.4 in normal patients vs 30.6±5.8 in PE-E, p=0.98. Median gestational age (weeks) was, 38 (range 21-42) for normal pregnancies and 36 (range 24-40) for patients with PE-E, <0.001. Urine podocalyxin/creatinine on admission (ng/mg), median [IQR] in normal patients was 55.9 [29.4, 74.9] vs 109.7 [63.8, 234.1] in PE-E, p=0.001. After adjusting for admission proteinuria, urinary podocalyxin remained independently associated with preeclampsia: OR=1.0040 (95% CI 1.0003-1.0078), p=0.03. There was low to moderate correlation between UPC and urinary podocalyxin, Spearmans =0.31, p=0.01. In PE-E, post-partum urine podocalyxin was lower, median [IQR]: 69.7 [32.7, 184.8] p=0.19 vs admission. There was a trend towards more podocyturia and proteinuria in patients with eclampsia, comparing to those with preeclampsia. There was no association observed between podocyturia and neonatal mortality, IUGR or Apgar scores. Conclusions: Significantly higher levels of urinary podocalyxin are seen in preeclampsia/eclampsia. They tend to normalize after delivery. PMID:25057338
Winder, Nicola R.; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V.; Veena, Sargoor R.; Hill, Jacqueline C.; Karat, Chitra L.S.; Thornburg, Kent L.; Fall, Caroline H.D.; Barker, David J.P.
Background Studies have shown that the shape and size of the placenta at birth predict blood pressure in later life. The influences that determine placental morphology are largely unknown. We have examined the role of mothers body size. Methods We studied 522 neonates who were born in a maternity hospital in Mysore, South India. The weight of the placenta and the length and breadth of its surface, were measured after delivery. Results Higher maternal fat mass predicted a larger placental surface (p=0.02), while larger maternal head circumference predicted a more oval placental surface (p=0.03). Higher maternal fat mass and larger maternal head circumference were associated with greater placental efficiency, indicated by lower ratios of the length (p=0.0003 and p=0.0001 respectively) and breadth (p=0.0002 and p<0.0001) of the surface to birthweight. In a sub-sample of 51 mothers whose own birthweight was available, higher maternal birthweight was related to lower ratios of the length and breadth of the surface to birthweight (p=0.01 and 0.002). Maternal height was unrelated to placental size or shape. Conclusions Higher maternal fat mass, reflecting the mothers current nutritional state, and larger maternal head circumference, reflecting the mothers fetal/infant growth, are associated with changes in the shape and size of the placental surface and greater placental efficiency. We suggest that these associations reflect effects of the mothers nutrition at different stages of her lifecourse on the development of the placenta and on materno-placento-fetal transfer of nutrients. PMID:21924491
Cot, M; Deloron, P
The impact of malaria during pregnancy varies greatly according to the intensity of transmission. Severe acute complications including cerebral malaria or materno-fetal death seem to be confined to areas of unstable transmission where malaria is uncommon except during epidemics. In areas of stable endemicity, the main consequences are maternal anemia and intra-uterine growth retardation resulting in low birthweight (LBW) particularly after first pregnancies. Recent studies have demonstrated that frequency and severity of placental malaria are greater in pregnant women with concurrent HIV infection. Since 1964 several controlled trials have been conducted to evaluate chemoprophylaxis in pregnant women mainly in tropical Africa where malaria transmission is stable. Findings have usually demonstrated an increase in mean birthweight after prophylaxis especially among primigravidae. Prophylaxis also had beneficial effects on anemia. Another finding of these trials was that prevention is less effective for women with HIV co-infection and that higher doses may therefore be required in such cases. In our opinion prophylaxis should be actively promoted as a routine public health measure for pregnant women in endemic areas. Current recommendations call for the use of a sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine twice or three times during pregnancy in antenatal clinics. This combination is more effective as a result of strong resistance of parasites to chloroquine. High cost and possible adverse effects in pregnant women prohibit routine use of mefloquine in developing countries. Integration of malaria prophylaxis into antenatal care services with nutrition and immunization measures should enhance the overall efficacy of prevention in outlying clinical facilities. Recent identification of molecular receptors involved in the cytoadherence of parasitized red blood cells to the placenta may lead to the development of new therapeutic or vaccinal approaches for pregnant women. PMID:14763291
Chávez, Natividad; Molina, Helfer; Sánchez, Jorge; Gelaye, Bizu; Sánchez, Sixto E.
Vaginosis bacteriana (VB) es una infección caracterizada por el cambio en la microflora de la vagina, asociándose a resultados adversos del embarazo y a la adquisición de infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS), incluyendo el VIH. En este estudio se buscó la asociación entre el uso de duchas vaginales y otros factores de riesgos con VB. Se usó un diseño observacional descriptivo transversal prospectivo, en 1,252 mujeres que asistieron al servicio de planificación familiar de tres hospitales nacionales (Dos de Mayo, Arzobispo Loayza, San Bartolomé) y el Instituto Materno Perinatal, durante el año 1997. Se utilizó un cuestionario estructurado donde se registraron variables socio demográficas y características del estilo de vida de las participantes. VB fue diagnosticada mediante el puntaje de Nugent. Se empleó análisis de regresión logística para calcular odds ratio (OR) e intervalos de confianza al 95%. La edad promedio de las participantes fue 25.1 ± 4,7 años, el 23.4% tenían más de 11 años de educación. La prevalencía de VB fue 20,1%. Las mujeres que practicaban duchas vaginales tuvieron 2.28 veces (OR = 2.28, IC 95% [1.05.0]) mayor probabilidad de tener VB comparado con aquellas que no lo practicaban. Tener dos o más parejas sexuales estuvo asociado con 2.0 veces (OR =2.0, IC 95% [1.23.5]) mayor probabilidad de adquirir VB comparado con aquellas que habían tenido solo una pareja sexual. Las participantes que iniciaron una relación sexual a una edad temprana tuvieron 1.4 veces (OR=1.4, IC 95% [1.0 1.9]) mayor probabilidad de adquirir VB. El uso de duchas vaginales es un factor de riesgo de VB. Los programas destinados a la salud de la mujer deben abordar las repercusiones perjudiciales para la salud asociados con las duchas vaginales. PMID:21132048
Salomon, Carlos; Kobayashi, Miharu; Ashman, Keith; Sobrevia, Luis; Mitchell, Murray D.; Rice, Gregory E.
Migration of extravillous trophoblasts (EVT) into decidua and myometrium is a critical process in the conversion of maternal spiral arterioles and establishing placenta perfusion. EVT migration is affected by cell-to-cell communication and oxygen tension. While the release of exosomes from placental cells has been identified as a significant pathway in materno-fetal communication, the role of placental-derived exosomes in placentation has yet to be established. The aim of this study was to establish the effect of oxygen tension on the release and bioactivity of cytotrophoblast (CT)-derived exosomes on EVT invasion and proliferation. CT were isolated from first trimester fetal tissue (n?=?12) using a trypsin-deoxyribonuclease-dispase/Percoll method. CT were cultured under 8%, 3% or 1% O2 for 48 h. Exosomes from CT-conditioned media were isolated by differential and buoyant density centrifugation. The effect of oxygen tension on exosome release (µg exosomal protein/106cells/48 h) and bioactivity were established. HTR-8/SVneo (EVT) were used as target cells to establish the effect (bioactivity) of exosomes on invasion and proliferation as assessed by real-time, live-cell imaging (Incucyte). The release and bioactivity of CT-derived exosomes were inversely correlated with oxygen tension (p<0.001). Under low oxygen tensions (i.e. 1% O2), CT-derived exosomes promoted EVT invasion and proliferation. Proteomic analysis of exosomes identified oxygen-dependent changes in protein content. We propose that in response to changes in oxygen tension, CTs modify the bioactivity of exosomes, thereby, regulating EVT phenotype. Exosomal induction of EVT migration may represent a normal process of placentation and/or an adaptive response to placental hypoxia. PMID:24244532
Salomon, Carlos; Torres, Maria Jose; Kobayashi, Miharu; Scholz-Romero, Katherin; Sobrevia, Luis; Dobierzewska, Aneta; Illanes, Sebastian E.; Mitchell, Murray D.; Rice, Gregory E.
Studies completed to date provide persuasive evidence that placental cell-derived exosomes play a significant role in intercellular communication pathways that potentially contribute to placentation and development of materno-fetal vascular circulation. The aim of this study was to establish the gestational-age release profile and bioactivity of placental cell-derived exosome in maternal plasma. Plasma samples (n?=?20 per pregnant group) were obtained from non-pregnant and pregnant women in the first (FT, 612 weeks), second (ST, 2224 weeks) and third (TT, 3238 weeks) trimester. The number of exosomes and placental exosome contribution were determined by quantifying immunoreactive exosomal CD63 and placenta-specific marker (PLAP), respectively. The effect of exosomes isolated from FT, ST and TT on endothelial cell migration were established using a real-time, live-cell imaging system (Incucyte). Exosome plasma concentration was more than 50-fold greater in pregnant women than in non-pregnant women (p<0.001). During normal healthy pregnancy, the number of exosomes present in maternal plasma increased significantly with gestational age by more that two-fold (p<0.001). Exosomes isolated from FT, ST and TT increased endothelial cell migration by 1.9±0.1, 1.6±0.2 and 1.3±0.1-fold, respectively compared to the control. Pregnancy is associated with a dramatic increase in the number of exosomes present in plasma and maternal plasma exosomes are bioactive. While the role of placental cell-derived exosome in regulating maternal and/or fetal vascular responses remains to be elucidated, changes in exosome profile may be of clinical utility in the diagnosis of placental dysfunction. PMID:24905832
Berbero?lu, Merih; Atasay, Begüm; ??klar, Zeynep; Bilir, Pelin; Arsan, Saadet; Söylemez, Feride; Öcal, Gönül
Objective: Materno-fetal vitamin D deficiency (VDD) may occur in the early neonatal period. We aimed to evaluate the vitamin D (vitD) status and risk factors for VDD in healthy newborns and their mothers, and also in fertile women. Methods: Serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were measured in 70 mothers (study group) and their newborns, and in umbilical cord samples. 104 nonpregnant fertile women comprised the control group. Demographic factors such as education and clothing habits of the mother, number of pregnancies and month of delivery were recorded. A serum 25(OH)D level below 11 ng/ml was accepted as severe, 11-25 ng/ml as moderate VDD, and a value over 25ng/ml as normal. Results: Severe VDD was found in 27% of the mothers, and moderate deficiency in 54.3%. Severe VDD was detected in 64.3% of the neonates, and moderate deficiency in 32.9%. Only 18.6% of the mothers and 2.9 % of the neonates had normal vitD levels. In thecontrol group, severe VDD was observed in 26.9%, and moderatedeficiency in 45.2 %. Only 27.8 % of the controls had normal vitD levels. In the control group, the 25(OH)D levels of the women dressed in modern clothes were significantly higher than those of the women wearing traditional clothes. This difference was not observed in the study group because 75% of these 70 mothers wore modern clothes. Mothers giving birth during the summer months and their neonates had significantly higher serum 25(OH)D levels than those of the mothers giving birth during the winter months and their neonates. Conclusion: The study has shown that in Turkey VDD is an important problem in women of reproductive age, in mothers and their neonates. The 25(OH)D levels obtained from the cord may serve as a guide in the determination of the high risk groups. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:21274307
In 2003, OzFoodNet conducted enhanced surveillance of foodborne diseases across Australia, which covered all states and territories. During 2003, there were 23,250 notifications of eight potentially foodborne diseases, of which 67 per cent and 30 per cent were due to Campylobacter and Salmonella infections respectively. The most common Salmonella serotype was Typhimurium, as in previous years. Most S. Enteritidis were acquired overseas, except for Queensland where 52 per cent of infections were acquired locally. Locally acquired S. Enteritidis infections in Australia were predominantly due to phage type 26. The most common serotype of Shiga toxin producing E. coli was O157, although for 49 per cent of notified infections serotype was unknown due to the use of polymerase chain reaction based screening tests. There were 12 materno-foetal listeriosis infections in 2003, which was an increase compared to recent years. During 2003, there were 444 outbreaks of gastroenteritis and foodborne disease recorded. Ninety-nine of these were of foodborne origin affecting 1,686 persons, hospitalising 105 and causing six deaths. A wide range of agents and foods caused these outbreaks, with Salmonella Typhimurium being the most common pathogen. Outbreaks associated with fish and seafood dishes, poultry meat, and Asian style and imported foods were common. Four outbreaks with international implications were reported: an outbreak of Salmonella in Montevideo involving contaminated tahini from the Middle East and three outbreaks of norovirus infection associated with imported Japanese oysters. Outbreak data indicated a need to monitor food safety in aged care settings, restaurants and catering. Eighty-nine investigations into clusters of gastrointestinal illness where a source could not be identified were conducted, including multi-state outbreaks of salmonellosis. One multistate investigation of antibiotic resistant Salmonella Paratyphi b Java identified 18 cases who had recent exposure to tropical fish aquariums. Ninety-seven per cent of Salmonella notifications on state and territory surveillance databases have complete information on serotype and phage type. In 2003, OzFoodNet demonstrated the benefits of national collaboration to control food borne disease. PMID:15574061
Maley, S W; Buxton, D; Macaldowie, C N; Anderson, I E; Wright, S E; Bartley, P M; Esteban-Redondo, I; Hamilton, C M; Storset, A K; Innes, E A
A serial examination of three groups of cattle infected intravenously (iv) (Group 1, n=8) or subcutaneously (sc) (Group 2, n=8) with live Neospora caninum tachyzoites or with VERO cells (Group 3, n=8) at 70 days' gestation was carried out and the nature of the inflammatory responses in the placenta and the presence of parasite antigen were analysed. Immune cells expressing CD3, CD4, CD8, gamma delta (gammadelta) T-cell receptors (TCR), CD79alpha cytoplasmic (cy) (B cells) and NKp46 [natural killer (NK) cells] antigens were identified immunohistochemically and cells expressing mRNA for interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) were labelled by in-situ hybridization. Intravenous inoculation caused mortality in all fetuses from 28 days post-inoculation (dpi) onwards. Subcutaneous inoculation caused mortality in 50% of the animals by 28dpi. Pathological changes in the placenta consisted of necrosis of fetal placental villi, necrosis and inflammation in adjacent areas of the maternal septum and inflammation at the base of the maternal caruncle. The inflammatory infiltrate consisted mainly of CD3(+) lymphocytes, dominated by CD4(+) and gammadelta TCR(+) cells, with CD8(+) cells present to a lesser extent. The results from the control group indicated fewer NK cells than those occurring in the placenta of human beings or mice. Infiltration of CD4(+) cells and NKp46(+) cells was observed in the caruncular base and septa 14 days after infection, whereas infiltration of gammadelta TCR(+) cells was observed from 28 dpi onwards. To our knowledge this is the first report on the presence and distribution of NK cells in the bovine placenta. Maternal inflammatory cells expressing mRNA for IFN-gamma were identified in animals inoculated with parasites iv or sc at 14 and 28 dpi, respectively. In the sc-inoculated dams with live fetuses at 28, 42 and 56dpi, there was no evidence of parasite antigen, infiltration of immune cells or production of IFN-gamma, suggesting that the parasite had not reached the placenta. The exact cause of fetal death was not established. Tissue destruction by the parasite may have occurred; in addition, there may have been a T helper 1 (Th-1) immune response to the neospora infection at the materno-fetal interface, resulting in infiltrations of CD4T cells, gammadelta T cells and NK cells and the subsequent production of IFN-gamma. It is possible that a pro-inflammatory Th-1 response early in gestation protects the dam by eliminating the parasite; however, it may lead to destruction of the placental tissues themselves and thus be incompatible with fetal survival. PMID:16997005
Tornero, O. Berbel; García, J.A. Ortega; Tortajada, J. Ferrís i; Castell, J. García; Colomer, J. Donat i; Soldin, O.P.; Soler, J.L. Fuster
Introducción La asociación entre tumores y malformaciones congénitas está bien establecida, pero no existen datos exclusivos en el período neonatal y se desconocen los mecanismos subyacentes que generan dicha relación. Objetivos Este trabajo tiene dos objetivos: primero, analizar la frecuencia de los tumores neonatales asociados a malformaciones congénitas, y segundo, comentar las posibles hipótesis etiopatogénicas de la relación entre ambas entidades. Materiales y método Estudio retrospectivo de las historias clínicas de los tumores neonatales, en el Hospital Universitario Materno- Infantil La Fe de Valencia, desde enero de 1990 hasta diciembre de 1999. Selección y descripción de las variedades histológicas asociadas a malformaciones congénitas. Éstas se han agrupado siguiendo los criterios de la Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades CIE-9, códigos 740.0759.9. Revisión sistemática bibliográfica de los últimos 25 años, obtenida del Medline, Cancerlit, Index Citation Science y Embase. El perfil de búsqueda utilizado fue la combinación de neonatal/congenital-tumors/cancer/neoplasms y congenital malformations/birth defects. Resultados Se identificaron 72 tumores neonatales (2,8 % del total de tumores pediátricos diagnosticados en dichos años) y 15 de ellos (20,8 %) asociados a malformaciones congénitas, enfermedades o síndromes congénitos. Las asociaciones entre tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas fueron las siguientes: a) angioma en 3 pacientes: con dos cardiopatías congénitas y una atresia de coanas-laringomalacia; b) neuroblastoma en 2 pacientes: uno con riñón en herradura y anomalías vertebrales, y otro con cardiopatía congénita; c) teratoma en 2 pacientes: uno con fisura palatina y anomalías vertebrales, y otro con metatarso varo; d) tumor del sistema nervioso central en un paciente con hernia de Bochdaleck; e) tumor cardíaco en 4 pacientes con esclerosis tuberosa; f) leucemia aguda en un paciente con síndrome de Down y cardiopatía congénita; g) tumor renal en un caso con hidrocefalia triventricular, y h) tumor adrenal en un caso con hemihipertrofia. En la bibliografía específica, las publicaciones engloban tumores de diferentes épocas pediátricas y sin unanimidad de criterios para clasificar las malformaciones congénitas. Apenas existen datos en el período neonatal y la asociación entre ambas entidades se obtiene de registros de instituciones médicas. La prevalencia oscila entre el 15 y el 31,6 %. Las hipótesis etiopatogénicas que explican la asociación entre tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas están basadas en las exposiciones prenatales (preconcepcionales y transplacentarias) a factores de riesgo potencialmente mutagénicos y carcinogénicos. Conclusiones Probablemente, los tumores neonatales se asocian con mayor frecuencia a malformaciones congénitas que los tumores diagnosticados en épocas posteriores de la vida. Para conocer la prevalencia real de la asociación entre tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas, es necesario unificar los criterios de inclusión y definición de ambas entidades. La obtención de una minuciosa historia medioambiental en todos los tumores neonatales asociados a malformaciones congénitas, donde se detallen y registren todos los factores de riesgo constitucionales y ambientales, es fundamental para mejorar nuestros escasos conocimientos de los mecanismos prenatales subyacentes y avanzar en su prevención. PMID:18559198
Vasquez, S.; Cabezas, C.; Garcia, B.; Torres, R.; Larrabure, G.; Suarez, M.; Lucen, A.; Pernaz, G.; Gonzales, L.; Miranda, G.; Davalos, E.; Galarza, C.; Camasca, N.; Jara, R.
The present study was performed to estimate the prevalence of HBV in pregnant women (mean age among groups 25,0 6,9) who live in areas of different endemicity, and located in the Departments of Lima, Junin, Apurimac, and Ayacucho in Peru. All studies were carried out using radioimmunological techniques. In the Instituto Materno Perinatal in Lima, located in a low endemical area, 2086 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 14 and 44 years were evaluated (for laboratory tests) at their first prenatal examination. A prevalence of 9,38% (HbsAG+), 0,38% (Ratio), and 3,18% (HBsAg+, anti-HBsAg+) was found, corresponding to 107 HBsAg+ pregnant women whose treated newborn wouId prevent the HBV chronic infection of approximate 21 newborn each year. 63% HBsAg+ pregnant women were born in Departments other than Lima. In the Hospital de Apoyo La Merced, located in Chanchamayo, Junin, which is a medium endemic area, 217 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 14 and 48 years were evaluated. The prevalence found in this Hospital was of 1,38% (HBsAg+), 1,2% (Ratio), and 17,8% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+). All positive HBsAg were negative for HBeAg. The projection of results corresponded to a total of 9 HbsAg+ pregnant women and 2 newborn preventive of chronic disease per year. In the Guillermo D az de la Vega Hospital in Abancay, Apurimac, located in a medium to high endemic area, 221 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 15 and 46 years were evaluated. A prevalence of 1,36% (HBsAg+), 1,0% (Ratio), and 36,16% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+) was found. All positive HBsAg were negative for HBeAg. Projected results corresponded to a total of 37 HBsAg+ pregnant carriers and 7 newborn preventive of chronic disease per year. The Hospital General de Huanta, in Ayacucho, located in a high endemicity area, presented a prevalence of 3,2% (HBsAg+), 1,9% (Ratio), and 76,2% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+) from 126 pregnant women evaluated with ages between 15 and 48 years old. These results gave a total projection per year of 39 HBsAg+ pregnant women and 8 newborn preventive of chronic hepatic disease. Among a total of 4 positive HBsAg cases, 3 positive pregnant women were studied for HBeAg. All 3 were negative. These results establish the prevalence of HbsAg and antiHBs in pregnant women from different endemical areas with significant prevalence in the Departments of Ayacucho (Huanta), and Apurimac (Abancay). They also contribute towards the costbenefit analysis for the prevention of HBV chronic infection. PMID:12196812