With a website that professes to provide helpful recipes and other such cooking advice, it helps to have an expert at the helm. Well, at the helm of the Leite's Culinaria site is one such expert, David Leite. Leite attended the Institute of Culinary Education and the La Technique program at The French Culinary Institute. He's also written extensively about food in general, and has had pieces published in The Washington Post and Bon Appetit, among other places. Fortunately for the Web-browsing public, he has also created this fine clearinghouse of some of his writings on food, complemented with a number of fine recipes. Some of the recipes included here include those for a Welsh broth, a shrimp risotto, and a cheddar-crust apple pie. Finally, visitors can sign up to receive an electronic newsletter.
RESUMO - Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de dois níveis de lipídios (3 e 7%) na dieta de vacas em lactação e, dentro do nível de 7% avaliar duas fontes de lipídios (grão de soja moído e óleo de soja), sobre a produção e composição do leite, os parâmetros ruminais, a atividade de produção de amônia pela microbiota ruminal e o
Luiz Henrique Vargas; Rogério de Paula Lana; Gulab Newamdram Jham; Ferlando Lima Santos; Augusto César de Queiroz; Antônio Bento Mancio
EFFECT OF THE GOAT MILK IN SENSORY QUALITY AND PROCESSING TIME OF DOCE DE LEITE EFECTO DE LA LECHE DE CABRA EN LA CALIDAD SENSORIAL Y TIEMPO DE PROCESADO DEL DULCE DE LECHE EFECTO DO LEITE DE CABRA NA CALIDADE SENSORIAL E TEMPO DE PROCESADO DO DOCE DE LEITE
Researches that contribute to a better technological use of the goat milk are still necessary. In this context, the present work had as objective the sensory evaluation of three formulations of Doce de Leite as well the influence of these formulations in processing time. The employed formulations contained cow milk (A), cow milk and goat milk in same proportions (B)
M. A. Wanderley; P. M. Lima; L. S. Soares; A. M. G. Costa; R. C. F. Bonomo; J. C. S. Carneiro; C. S. Leal; C. M. Veloso; P. Bonomo; R. C. I. Fontan
The Chernobyl nuclear accident contamined the milk exported to Brazil. A lot of analysis in this powder milk were realized in this powder milk were realized to identify the cesium 137 and 134 contamination. The results of the milk samples are discussed. (...
E. A. Fernandes Nadai L. C. R. Pessenda V. F. Nascimento Filho E. S. B. Ferraz
A survey on the somatic cell count (SCC), fat, protein, lactose and total solids percentages on bulk tank milk samples, from December 1996to July 1998, was used to characterize the milk composition as determined by SCC. Data of 4785 from the database were classified according to the SCC, in four groups (Group 1, SCC < 500 thousand cells\\/ mL; Group
Paulo Fernando Machado; Alfredo Ribeiro Pereira; Gabriel Adrian Sarríes
The determination of phosphorus in milk samples by thermal neutron activation analysis employing radiochemical separation is described. The radiochemical separation consists of the simultaneous irradiation of samples and standards, dissolution of the milk...
R. M. Oliveira I. I. L. Cunha
The production of calves from dairy herds reared on whole milk is not economically viable. Different milk substitutes with animal or vegetal protein have been tested, but always showed allergic or practical management problems. The texturized soybean protein is obtained from whole soybean extruded, which takes a better digestibility and an inactivation of allergic principles. The objective of this trial
VERA LÚCIA BANYS; PAULO CÉSAR DE; AGUIAR PAIVA; ROBERTO MACIEL CARDOSO; LUIZ RONALDO DE ABREU; JUAN RAMÓN OLALQUIAGA PÉREZ; AIRDEM GONÇALVEZ DE ASSIS
The present work had as its main objective to identify and characterize milk production systems through methods of multivaried statistical analysis. Factorial analysis, cluster, discriminant and canonical correlation were utilized. The production gradation and defrayal were the main classification criterium among the productors. Combining the results obtained with the cluster analysis and the canonical correlation analysis, the second classification analysis
Armando Chinelatto Neto; Gilmar Pinheiro Cunha Castro; João Eustáquio de Lima
OCORRÊNCIA DO LEITE INSTÁVEL AO ÁLCOOL 76% E NÃO ÁCIDO (LINA) E EFEITO SOBRE OS ASPECTOS FÍSICO-QUÍMICOS DO LEITE OCCURRENCE OF UNSTABLE TO ALCOHOL 76% AND NON-ACID MILK (LINA) AND INFLUENCE ON PHYSICO- CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF MILK
The Unstable to alcohol 76% Non-Acid Milk (LINA) is characterized by loss of protein stability, which precipitates in alcohol 76% test without being acid (< 18 °D). This situation is characterized by alterations in the physic-chemical properties of the milk with changes of nutritional quality. Results of this test will determine milk acceptance at dairy industry and milk producer may
Lúcia Treptow Marques; Maira Balbinotti Zanela; Maria Edi Ribeiro Ribeiro; Vivian Fischer
The materno-fetal transfer of nanoparticles is a critical issue in designing theranoustic nanoparticles for in vivo applications during pregnancy. Recent studies have reported that certain nanoparticles can cross the placental barrier in healthy pregnant animals depending on the size and surface modification of the nanoparticles and the developmental stages of the fetuses. However, materno-fetal transfer under pathological pregnant conditions has not been examined so far. Here, it is shown that intrauterine inflammation can enhance the materno-fetal transfer of nanoparticles in the late gestation stage of murine pregnancy in a size-dependent manner. Three different-sized gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) with diameters of 3 (Au3), 13 (Au13) and 32 (Au32) nm are applied. The accumulation of Au3 and Au13 nanoparticles in the fetuses is significantly increased in intrauterine inflammatory mice compared with healthy control mice: the concentration of Au3 is much higher than Au13 in fetal tissues of intrauterine inflammatory mice. In contrast, Au32 nanoparticles cannot cross the placental barrier either in healthy or in intrauterine inflammatory mice. The possible underlying mechanism of the increased materno-fetal transfer of small-sized nanoparticles on pathological conditions is inferred to be the structural and functional abnormalities of the placenta under intrauterine inflammation. The size of the nanoparticles is one of the critical factors which determines the extent of fetal exposure to nanoparticles in murine pregnancy under inflammatory conditions. PMID:23761193
Tian, Xin; Zhu, Motao; Du, Libo; Wang, Jing; Fan, Zhenlin; Liu, Jun; Zhao, Yuliang; Nie, Guangjun
Ballantyne's syndrome also known as Mirror syndrome is the association of fetal hydrops and maternal hydric retention. The maternal condition is often misdiagnosed as preeclampsia. We report two cases of Ballantyne syndrome associated with materno-fetal Parvovirus B19 infection. In the first case, the syndrome occurred at 26GW in a context of premature rupture of membranes. Parents and medical staff opted for termination of pregnancy because of the poor fetal prognosis. Maternal symptoms regressed after delivery. In the second case, the patient presented a Ballantyne's syndrome at 25GW. Intrauterine transfusions reversed symptomatology. Fetal hydrops of any etiology can be associated with this syndrome. Specific treatment of the fetus can avoid maternal complication allowing continuation of the pregnancy. PMID:21273007
Desvignes, F; Bourdel, N; Laurichesse-Delmas, H; Savary, D; Gallot, D
Hypoplasia of cardiovascular structures is a common finding in fetuses with cardiac malformations. Materno-fetal hyperoxygenation (HO) during late gestation promotes venous return to the fetal heart. This analysis in human fetuses sought to define whether this "loading" effect might improve hypoplastic cardiovascular dimensions. Fifteen late-gestation fetuses presented with varying degrees of hypoplastic cardiovascular structures. In these cases, chronic intermittent materno-fetal HO was administered during periods ranging from 8 to 33 days. Cardiac measurements were taken before and at the end of treatment and translated into Z-scores as well as plotted on normal growth charts. During the treatment period, chronic intermittent materno-fetal HO was associated with improved dimensions of >or=1 hypoplastic cardiovascular structures in most fetuses. However, in some cases, the effect of HO was neutralized or impaired by the presence of ventricular septal defects as well as obstructions to ventricular filling or emptying. Chronic intermittent materno-fetal HO near term may be associated with improvements of hypoplastic cardiovascular dimensions in fetuses with a spectrum of cardiac malformations. This effect may facilitate postnatal treatment and improve prognosis in suitable cases. PMID:20024652
In vitro models predict that molecular occupancy of endothelial junctions may regulate both barrier function and angiogenesis. Whether this is true in human vascular beds undergoing physiological angiogenesis has not been shown. This review presents data which demonstrate there are two distinct junctional phenotypes, ‘activated’ and ‘stable’, present in the vascular tree of the human placenta taken from two distinct highly angiogenic gestational periods (first and last trimester). Stability is conferred by the presence of occludin in tight junctions and plakoglobin in adherens junctions. Their localization may be influenced by vascular endothelial growth factor and angiopoietins 1 and 2 that have a similar temporal and site-specific differential expression. The junctional phenotypes are reversible, as shown in studies with endothelial cells isolated from placental microvessels and grown in the presence/absence of cAMP-enhancing agents. Reductions in protein levels and loss of junctional localization of adhesion molecules result in increased permeability to macromolecules, whilst up-regulation and re-targeting of these molecules inhibit cell proliferation and increase transendothelial resistance. These studies suggest junctional adhesion molecules can regulate physiological angiogenesis and vascular re-modelling. Moreover, the activated junctional phenotype of placental microvessels allows them to participate in increased growth and proliferation. This junctional immaturity appears to be at the expense of barrier function resulting in sites of maximal materno-fetal solute exchange.
Background Adequate foetal growth is primarily determined by nutrient availability, which is dependent on placental nutrient transport and foetal metabolism. We have used 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to probe the metabolic adaptations associated with premature birth. Methodology The metabolic profile in 1H NMR spectra of plasma taken immediately after birth from umbilical vein, umbilical artery and maternal blood were recorded for mothers delivering very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) or normo-ponderal full-term (FT) neonates. Principal Findings Clear distinctions between maternal and cord plasma of all samples were observed by principal component analysis (PCA). Levels of amino acids, glucose, and albumin-lysyl in cord plasma exceeded those in maternal plasma, whereas lipoproteins (notably low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and lipid levels were lower in cord plasma from both VLBW and FT neonates. The metabolic signature of mothers delivering VLBW infants included decreased levels of acetate and increased levels of lipids, pyruvate, glutamine, valine and threonine. Decreased levels of lipoproteins glucose, pyruvate and albumin-lysyl and increased levels of glutamine were characteristic of cord blood (both arterial and venous) from VLBW infants, along with a decrease in levels of several amino acids in arterial cord blood. Conclusion These results show that, because of its characteristics and simple non-invasive mode of collection, cord plasma is particularly suited for metabolomic analysis even in VLBW infants and provides new insights into the materno-foetal nutrient exchange in preterm infants.
Kuster, Alice; Guignard, Nadia; Alexandre-Gouabau, Marie-Cecile; Darmaun, Dominique; Robins, Richard J.
Hepatitis B (HBV) infection is highly endemic in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where more than 8% of the population remain chronic HBV carriers. SSA has one of the highest HBV-related liver cancer rates in the world (CA Cancer J Clin, 55, 2005, 74) and HBV-related liver cancer is the most common cause of premature death in West Africa (Lancet Oncol, 9, 2008, 683; Hepatology, 39, 2004, 211). As such, HBV represents a significant global threat to health in the African continent. Most SSA countries have elected to vaccinate all children against HBV through the WHO-sponsored Expanded Program of Immunization and the current recommendation from WHO-AFRO is for birth-dose HBV vaccination to prevent maternal/child transmission (MFT) and early horizontal transmission of HBV. However, in Africa, HBV vaccine coverage remains low and HBV birth-dose vaccination has not been implemented. HBV transmission from mother to child in the early perinatal period therefore remains a significant contributor to the burden of HBV-related disease in SSA. This review explores the evidence for materno-foetal transmission of HBV in SSA, outlining current practice for HBV MFT prevention and identifying the significant challenges to implementation of HBV prevention in SSA. PMID:24827901
Howell, J; Lemoine, M; Thursz, M
ANÁLISE DA CADEIA PRODUTIVA DO LEITE DO MUNICÍPIO DE CARMO DO RIO VERDE SOB A ÓTICA DA ECONOMIA DOS CUSTOS DE TRANSAÇÃO firstname.lastname@example.org Apresentação Oral-Estrutura, Evolução e Dinâmica do s Sistemas Agroalimentares e Cadeias Agroindustriais
This study aims to examine and describe the charact eristics of the dairy production chain of Carmo do Rio Verde under view the Economic Costs of Transaction (ECT). To that end, a systematic theoretical framework about ECT is arran ged, specifically some concepts of its assumptions, and the attributes of transactions (sp ecificity of assets, frequency of recurrence and uncertainty
MARCELO BATISTA DE OLIVEIRA; DEGSON FERREIRA; MARCOS DE MORAES; MARCO ANTÔNIO PEREIRA DE ABREU; MARCÍLIO STEFFANI; RODRIGUES PINTO
In April 1979 the Brazilian government announced it was lifting all censorship of the theatre. This reflects the new regime's more pragmatic approach to the question of censorship. After all, theatre is a rather special form, as José Leite Otati (a former head of the Public Entertainments Censorship Service in Rio de Janeiro) pointed out: Its audience is already restricted
5 Bolsista de Pós-doutorado da Fapemig, UFV, Viçosa - MG. Resumo: Leite em pó integral de vaca, reconstituído, e sucedâneo comercial à base de mistura de proteínas vegetais isoladas foram comparados para avaliar custo de produção no aleitamento artificial em caprinos. Os animais foram separados das mães logo após o nascimento recebendo colostro tratado nas primeiras 6 horas de vida.
Ana Gabriela Pombo; Márcia Maria Cândido da Silva
ResumenEn los últimos años los datos han demostrado de qué manera el bienestar vitalicio depende considerablemente del crecimiento y el desarrollo intrauterinos durante la vida dentro del útero. El crecimiento fetal puede alcanzar únicamente su potencial íntegro mediante una interacción adecuada y armonizada entre la madre, la placenta y el feto. Este delicado equilibrio puede ser alterado por varios factores
Irene Cetin; Manuela Cardellicchio
The recent transfers of Christiano Ronaldo from Manchester United, and of Ricardo Izecson dos Santos Leite (Kaká) from Associazione Calcio Milan to Real Madrid—as well as the increasing financial problems of many of the top teams in the big five European leagues—have again increased the public’s attention for the global football players’ labor market. Therefore, the paper addresses two important,
In the last days of 2011, President of Brazil Dilma Rousseff issued a provisional measure (or draft law) entitled "National Surveillance and Monitoring Registration System for the Prevention of Maternal Mortality" (MP 557), as part of a new maternal health programme. It was supposed to address the pressing issue of maternal morbidity and mortality in Brazil, but instead it caused an explosive controversy because it used terms such as nascituro (unborn child) and proposed the compulsory registration of every pregnancy. After intense protests by feminist and human rights groups that this law was unconstitutional, violated women's right to privacy and threatened our already limited reproductive rights, the measure was revised in January 2012, omitting "the unborn child" but not the mandatory registration of pregnancy. Unfortunately, neither version of the draft law addresses the two main problems with maternal health in Brazil: the over-medicalisation of childbirth and its adverse effects, and the need for safe, legal abortion. The content of this measure itself reflects the conflictive nature of public policies on reproductive health in Brazil and how they are shaped by close links between different levels of government and political parties, and religious and professional sectors. PMID:22789090
Der folgende Beitrag stellt eine formale, generische Verhaltensstruktur und Semantik vor, die die Basis für die konsistente Verknüpfung der drei wichtigsten UML Verhaltensdiagramme bildet. Es wird gezeigt, wie sich das grobe und übersichtliche Verhalten in Aktivitätsdiagrammen, das detaillierte Schnittstellenverhalten in Sequenzdiagrammen und detaillierte Verhaltensmodelle in Zustandsdiagrammen mit Hilfe der Semantik konsistent miteinander verknüpfen lassen und die Inhalte der drei genannten Verhaltensdiagramme eindeutig miteinander in Beziehung gebracht werden können. Als Anwendungsbeispiel wird die komplexe, sicherheits- und echtzeitkritische zugseitige Komponente des Europäischen Leit- und Sicherungstechnik Systems (ETCS) verwendet.
Ebrecht, Lars; Lemmer, Karsten
This study analyses the manner in which trophoblast cells adhere to uterine epithelium and the subsequent interactions that contribute to the establishment of epitheliochorial placentation in the alpaca Lama pacos. Specimens at the luteal and follicular phases and at 22, 26, 30 and 45 days of pregnancy (op) were processed for morphological studies. On day 15 op, the blastocysts are completely free within the uterine lumen, with implantation starting around day 20. On days 22 and 26 of gestation, the trophoblast is apposed to the epithelial surface of the uterus, with areas of contact and adhesion by means of complex interdigitation. Implantation sites occur prevalently in the left uterine horn, but an expanded trophoblast also occupies large extensions of the right horn, where the maternofetal interaction shows peculiar areas of apposition. As development continues, attachment areas become more extensive. On days 30 and 45, many secretory granules can be seen in the uterine epithelium, while giant multinucleate cells appear interposed between the remaining trophoblast cells, showing intense alkaline phosphatase activity, deposits containing iron and PAS-positive granules. Placental lactogen hormone is not present within the cytoplasm of the binucleate or multinucleate trophoblast cells. By day 30 of gestation, the trophoblast layer is lined by an extraembryonic connective tissue that by day 45 is well vascularized, thus indicating the starting point of placental formation. Fetal and maternal capillaries indent the epithelium and the trophoblast, narrowing the specialized areas of exchange, which occur along the entire maternofetal interface, characterizing the diffuse nature of this placenta. PMID:14579154
Olivera, L V M; Zago, D A; Jones, C J P; Bevilacqua, E
RESUMEN Se realizó un estudio prospectivo de corte transver- sal, considerando para el mismo una alta incidencia de anemia de células falciformes ingresado en este período, los cuales fueron 24 pacientes en sala de pediatría. Para este estudio consideramos como variables la incidencia, la edad, el sexo, la raza, tipo de crisis, antecedentes no patológicos, antecedentes, personales, patológicos, an- tecedentes
Solcires Beltre Morillo; Yoselín Cueto Santana; Belkis Rosario Garda; Leonardo Fernández Durán; Sujey Milagros; Vargas Santana; Rita González
de hidratación. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo por medio de una encuesta. Se aplicó un instrumento de investigaciones operativas de AIEPI, a 204 cuidadores elegidos consecutivamente que asistieron por primera vez a la consulta de crecimiento y desarrollo de un hospital de nivel I en Popayán, Colombia. Se midieron variables: edad materna, sexo, edad del niño, área (rural-urbana), estrato socioeconómico, vínculo al
MARIO FRANCISCO DELGADO; CARLOS HERNÁN S IERRA; JOSÉ ANDRÉS CALVACHE; ÁNGELA MARÍA RÍOS; CATALINA MOSQUERA; INGRID SALAS; FRANCISCO AGREDO; RUBIEL MENESES
The definition of "maternal-fetal conflict" requires the attribution of a well-defined subjectivity at the product of conception, and thus, from the medical point of view, we need to consider the fetus as a patient. A tangible example of conflict in our society is the "Medea syndrome", a framework in which the female parent kills her fetus or child to take revenge on the partner. We have produced a questionnaire that was administered to 150 women admitted to the Department of "Obstetrics and Gynecology" of the "Santa Maria della Misericordia" Hospital, in Perugia. The results show the importance of the maternal-fetal conflict in our reality through the opinion that women have given in assessing particular situations that we have proposed in the questionnaire. PMID:22036755
Baldelli, S; Di Renzo, G C
We analyze the notion of morphisms of rings of superfunctions which is the basic concept underlying the definition of supermanifolds as ringed spaces (i.e., following Berezin, Leites, Manin, etc.). We establish a representation formula for all (pull-back) morphisms from the algebra of functions on an ordinary manifolds to the superalgebra of functions on an open subset of a superspace. We then derive two consequences of this result. The first one is that we can integrate the data associated with a morphism in order to get a (nonunique) map defined on an ordinary space (and uniqueness can be achieved by restriction to a scheme). The second one is a simple and intuitive recipe to compute pull-back images of a function on a manifold M by a map from a superspace to M.
Helein, Frederic [Institut de Mathematiques de Jussieu, UMR 7586, Universite Denis Diderot-Paris 7, Case 7012, 2 place Jussieu, 75251 Paris Cedex 5 (France)
I establish the relation of the non-commutative BV-formalism with super-invariant matrix integration. In particular, the non-commutative BV-equation, defining the quantum A ?-algebras, introduced in Barannikov (Modular operads and non-commutative Batalin-Vilkovisky geometry. IMRN, vol. 2007, rnm075. Max Planck Institute for Mathematics 2006-48, 2007), is represented via de Rham differential acting on the supermatrix spaces related with Bernstein-Leites simple associative algebras with odd trace q( N), and gl( N| N). I also show that the matrix Lagrangians from Barannikov (Noncommutative Batalin-Vilkovisky geometry and matrix integrals. Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge University, 2006) are represented by equivariantly closed differential forms.
A two-loop renormalization group analysis of the critical behaviour at an isotropic Lifshitz point is presented. Using dimensional regularization and minimal subtraction of poles, we obtain the expansions of the critical exponents ? and ?, the crossover exponent ?, as well as the (related) wave vector exponent ?q and the correction-to-scaling exponent ? to second order in ?8 = 8 - d. They are compared with the authors' recent ?-expansion results (2000 Phys. Rev. B 62 12338, 2001 Nucl. Phys. B 612 340) for the general case of an m-axial Lifshitz point. It is shown that the expansions obtained here by a direct calculation for the isotropic (m = d) Lifshitz point all follow from the latter upon setting m = 8 - ?8. This is so despite recent claims to the contrary by de Albuquerque and Leite (2002 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 35 1807).
Diehl, H. W.; Shpot, M.
Inadequate dietary protein during pregnancy causes intrauterine growth retardation. Whether this is related to altered maternal and fetal glucose metabolism was examined in pregnant sows comparing a high-protein:low-carbohydrate diet (HP-LC; 30% protein, 39% carbohydrates) with a moderately low-protein:high-carbohydrate diet (LP-HC; 6.5% protein, 68% carbohydrates) and the isoenergetic standard diet (ST; 12.1% protein, 60% carbohydrates). During late pregnancy, maternal and umbilical glucose metabolism and fetal hepatic mRNA expression of gluconeogenic enzymes were examined. During an i.v. glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), the LP-HC-fed sows had lower insulin concentrations and area under the curve (AUC), and higher glucose:insulin ratios than the ST- and the HP-LC-fed sows (P < 0.05). Insulin sensitivity and glucose clearance were higher in the LP-HC sows compared with ST sows (P < 0.05). Glucagon concentrations during postabsorptive conditions and IVGTT, and glucose AUC during IVGTT, were higher in the HP-LC group compared with the other groups (P < 0.001). (13)C glucose oxidation was lower in the HP-LC sows than in the ST and LP-HC sows (P < 0.05). The HP-LC fetuses were lighter and had a higher brain:liver ratio than the ST group (P < 0.05). The umbilical arterial inositol concentration was greater in the HP-LC group (P < 0.05) and overall small fetuses (230-572 g) had higher values than medium and heavy fetuses (?573 g) (P < 0.05). Placental lactate release was lower in the LP-HC group than in the ST group (P < 0.05). Fetal glucose extraction tended to be lower in the LP-HC group than in the ST group (P = 0.07). In the HP-LC and LP-HC fetuses, hepatic mRNA expression of cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6PC) was higher than in the ST fetuses (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the HP-LC and LP-HC sows adapted by reducing glucose turnover and oxidation and having higher glucose utilization, respectively. The HP-LC and LP-HC fetuses adapted via prematurely expressed hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes. PMID:24353346
Metges, Cornelia C; Görs, Solvig; Lang, Iris S; Hammon, Harald M; Brüssow, Klaus-Peter; Weitzel, Joachim M; Nürnberg, Gerd; Rehfeldt, Charlotte; Otten, Winfried
Objective: To analyze the epidemiologic profi le of me- ningitis in children admitted to the Maternal and Child Hospital of Marília, São Paulo, Brazil, after the introduction of Haemophilus infl uenzae type b vaccine. Methods: This analytical, descriptive and retrospective study enrolled patients from one month to 15 years old, admitted to the hospital with meningitis between Janu- ary\\/2000 to
Fausto Flor Carvalho; André Carvalho Kreuz; Danilo Gomes de Carvalho; Marcelo José Pádua
Tetranitromethane (TNM), a small aqueous reagent that specifically modifies solvent-accessible tyrosine residues to o-nitrotyrosine, was used to probe the topology of the GlyR. Homomers of human alpha1 GlyR were recombinantly expressed via a baculovirus system, affinity-purified, and reconstituted in lipid vesicles of defined composition. The native-like reconstituted receptors were then reacted with TNM, and GlyR reaction products were isolated by SDS-PAGE. After proteolytic digestion, TNM-labeled residues were identified using mass spectrometry by observing the mass shift corresponding to the nitrate moiety. In this manner, we have identified TNM modifications of tyrosine residues at positions 24, 75, 78, 161, 223, and 228 in the receptor. Of significance, nitrations at Tyr 223 and Tyr 228 occur within the first putative transmembrane helix (M1) of the receptor, and their labeling suggests a non-helical secondary structure for M1 for the glycine receptor. In a previously published report [Leite et al. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 13683], we also identified proteolytic cleavage sites within M1. Taken together, these studies support a topological model where the "historical" M1 segment cannot be entirely alpha-helical and may contain an extramembranous surface loop. Furthermore, we have also identified a tyrosine modification (Tyr 161) within a region of the N-terminal domain critical in agonist and antagonist binding. PMID:11994009
Leite, John F; Cascio, Michael
We present an X-ray study of the Tycho supernova remnant utilizing archival data from the high-resolution imagers (HRIs) on Einstein and ROSAT, the low-energy imaging telescopes (LEITs) on EXOSAT, and spectral data from the Broad Band X-ray Telescope (BBXRT). We have made use of the differing HRI bandpasses to construct images of Tycho in two spectral bands, o.7-1.8 keV and 1.8-4.5 keV. We find that the two images differ, with the harder image showing enhanced emission along much of the south, west, and north periphery. There appears to be enhanced soft emission in the interior and in one particular knot of emission in the southeast. Besides continuum (which we model here as thermal bremsstrahlung emission), we believe the hard image shows primarily the distribution of high-ionization Si and S K-shell lines which lie in the 1.8-2.6 keV band, while the softer image has contributions from Si as well as Fe XVII to Fe XXIV L-shell lines in the 0.7-1.4 keV band. Guided by the results of nonequilibrium ionization modeling of the BBXRT spectral data, we interpret the observed contrast in hard and soft X-ray emission in terms of variations in abundance, ionization timescale, and temperature. The most likely explanation for the spectral differences are spatial variations of the relative abundances of Si, S, and Fe.
Vancura, O.; Gorenstein, P.; Hughes, John P.
The objective of this work is to compare results of the use of videofeedback and video modeling procedures in parent training of preschool children about the agility to produce changes in behaviors related to the use of the diferencial reinforcement (to increase the positive attention to appropriate behaviors and to decrease the negative attention and punishment to inadequate behaviors). Two
Cynthia Borges de Moura; Edwiges Ferreira de Mattos; Fernanda Marques Jacovozzi; Kamila Alves da Silva; Ligia Tristão Casanova
Several studies demonstrate that wildfires in Portugal present high temporal and spatial variability as well as cluster behavior (Pereira et al., 2005, 2011). This study aims to contribute to the characterization of the fire regime in Portugal with the multivariate statistical analysis of the time series of number of fires and area burned in Portugal during the 1980 - 2009 period. The data used in the analysis is an extended version of the Rural Fire Portuguese Database (PRFD) (Pereira et al, 2011), provided by the National Forest Authority (Autoridade Florestal Nacional, AFN), the Portuguese Forest Service, which includes information for more than 500,000 ?re records. There are many multiple advanced techniques for examining the relationships among multiple time series at the same time (e.g., canonical correlation analysis, principal components analysis, factor analysis, path analysis, multiple analyses of variance, clustering systems). This study compares and discusses the results obtained with these different techniques. Pereira, M.G., Trigo, R.M., DaCamara, C.C., Pereira, J.M.C., Leite, S.M., 2005: "Synoptic patterns associated with large summer forest fires in Portugal". Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 129, 11-25. Pereira, M. G., Malamud, B. D., Trigo, R. M., and Alves, P. I.: The history and characteristics of the 1980-2005 Portuguese rural fire database, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 3343-3358, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-3343-2011, 2011 This work is supported by European Union Funds (FEDER/COMPETE - Operational Competitiveness Programme) and by national funds (FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) under the project FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-022692, the project FLAIR (PTDC/AAC-AMB/104702/2008) and the EU 7th Framework Program through FUME (contract number 243888).
Costa, Ricardo; Caramelo, Liliana; Pereira, Mário
Several studies have shown that wildfires in Portugal presenthigh temporal as well as high spatial variability (Pereira et al., 2005, 2011). The identification and characterization of spatio-temporal clusters contributes to a comprehensivecharacterization of the fire regime and to improve the efficiency of fire prevention and combat activities. The main goalsin this studyare: (i) to detect the spatio-temporal clusters of burned area; and, (ii) to characterize these clusters along with the role of human and environmental factors. The data were supplied by the National Forest Authority(AFN, 2011) and comprises: (a)the Portuguese Rural Fire Database, PRFD, (Pereira et al., 2011) for the 1980-2007period; and, (b) the national mapping burned areas between 1990 and 2009. In this work, in order to complement the more common cluster analysis algorithms, an alternative approach based onscan statistics and on the permutation modelwas used. This statistical methodallows the detection of local excess events and to test if such an excess can reasonably have occurred by chance.Results obtained for different simulations performed for different spatial and temporal windows are presented, compared and interpreted.The influence of several fire factors such as (climate, vegetation type, etc.) is also assessed. Pereira, M.G., Trigo, R.M., DaCamara, C.C., Pereira, J.M.C., Leite, S.M., 2005:"Synoptic patterns associated with large summer forest fires in Portugal".Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 129, 11-25. Pereira, M. G., Malamud, B. D., Trigo, R. M., and Alves, P. I.: The history and characteristics of the 1980-2005 Portuguese rural fire database, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 3343-3358, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-3343-2011, 2011 AFN, 2011: AutoridadeFlorestalNacional (National Forest Authority). Available at http://www.afn.min-agricultura.pt/portal.
Costa, R.; Pereira, M. G.; Caramelo, L.; Vega Orozco, C.; Kanevski, M.
Cellular signaling circuitry in eukaryotes can be studied by analyzing the regulation of protein phosphorylation and its impact on downstream mechanisms leading to a phenotype. A primary role of phosphorylation is to act as a switch to turn "on" or "off" a protein activity or a cellular pathway. Specifically, protein phosphorylation is a major leit motif for transducing molecular signals inside the cell. Errors in transferring cellular information can alter the normal function and may lead to diseases such as cancer; an accurate reconstruction of the "true" signaling network is essential for understanding the molecular machinery involved in normal and pathological function. In this study, we have developed a novel framework for time-dependent reconstruction of signaling networks involved in the activation of macrophage cells leading to an inflammatory response. Several signaling pathways have been identified in macrophage cells, but the time-varying causal relationship that can produce a dynamic directed graph of these molecules has not been explored in detail. Here, we use the notion of Granger causality, and apply a vector autoregressive model to phosphoprotein time-course data in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Through the reconstruction of the phosphoprotein network, we were able to estimate the directionality and the dynamics of information flow. Significant interactions were selected through statistical hypothesis testing ( t-test) of the coefficients of a linear model and were used to reconstruct the phosphoprotein signaling network. Our approach results in a three-stage phosphoprotein network that represents the evolution of the causal interactions in the intracellular signaling pathways. PMID:24681921
Masnadi-Shirazi, Maryam; Maurya, Mano Ram; Subramaniam, Shankar
Maternal glucocorticoid treatment modulates placental leptin and leptin receptor expression and materno-fetal leptin physiology during late pregnancy, and elicits hypertension associated with hyperleptinaemia in the early-growth-retarded adult offspring
Background: Leptin concentrations are increased during late pregnancy, and leptin receptors are expressed in placental and fetal tissues, suggesting a role for leptin in placental and\\/or fetal growth, or both. In humans, leptin concentrations in adulthood are inversely related to body weight at birth, independent of adult adiposity, and correlate with fasting insulin. Glucocorticoids and insulin regulate leptin secretion. Excessive
Mary C Sugden; Maria L Langdown; Melinda J Munns; Mark J Holness
Objective: To describe the history of the Kangaroo Mother Care and present scientific evidence about benefits of this practice on morbidity and mortality, psychological and neurological development and breastfeeding of low birth weight infants. Sources of data: Papers about Kangaroo Mother Care published from 1983 to 2004 were consulted, selected in Medline and Lilacs, as well as books, thesis and
Sonia Isoyama Venancio; Honorina de Almeida
Utilisation de l'echographie doppler couleur dans la localisation de l'insertion du cordon ombilical et le devenir materno-foetal ? la maternit? de l'h?pital central de Yaound? : une ?tude descriptive et analytique
Introduction L'échographie doppler couleur permet d'étudier l'insertion du cordon ombilical sur le placenta. Les études américaines et asiatiques montrent que les insertions anormales telles les insertions vélamenteuses et marginales sont associées à une élévation de la morbidité et de la mortalité périnatales. En Afrique et plus particulièrement au Cameroun, aucune étude n'a été publiée sur le sujet. D'où notre motivation à mener ce travail. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude descriptive et analytique qui s'est déroulée sur une période deux ans (2011-2012) à la maternité principale de l'Hôpital Central de Yaoundé. Cette étude a inclus 66 patientes qui ont subi chacune une échographie doppler couleur entre la 18ième et 30ième semaine de gestation, précisant le type d'insertion du cordon ombilical sur le placenta. A l'accouchement, un examen macroscopique du placenta a été réalisé afin de comparer le type d'insertion et réaliser les tests statistiques. Résultats Des 66 grossesses étudiées, nous avons eu un pourcentage de visualisation du type d'insertion de 100%. Toutes les insertions étaient normales à l'échographie soit 20 centrales et 46 latérales. A l'examen macroscopique du placenta, nous avons obtenu 19 (28,8%) insertions centrales, 47(71,2%) insertions latérales ; aucune insertion anormale n'ayant été objectivée. Les tests statistiques nous permettent d'avoir une sensibilité de 95%, une spécificité de 97,8%, une exactitude de 98%, une valeur prédictive positive de 95% et une valeur prédictive négative de 97,8%. Pour ces insertions, nous n'avons pas retrouvé d'association entre le mode d'accouchement, le poids de naissance, et le Score d'apgar avec le type d'insertion du cordon ombilical. Conclusion Nous avons conclu que l'échographie doppler couleur a une haute sensibilité et spécificité dans la détermination de l'insertion du cordon ombilical sur le placenta. Il n'y a pas d'association entre le type d'insertion et le devenir maternofoetal.
Fouedjio, Jeanne Hortence; Fouelifack, Florent Ymele; Deutcho, Maximilien; Njotang, Philip Nana; Enow, Robinson Mbu; Leke, Robert John Ivo
José Carlos Leite1; António José Dinis Ferreira2; Tanya Cristina de Jesus Esteves2; Célia Patrícia Martins Bento2 1Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Brazil; 2IPC - Escola Superior Agrária de Coimbra, Portugal Over the last three decades, deforestation in Brazil occurred systematically in the area known as the "arc of deforestation", an extensive geographical area located in the interface of the Cerrado and the Amazon biomes. This work encompasses the reasons, causes and/or motivations of that recent deforestation, focusing on the Central-West and Northern regions. A number of reasons will be presented, seeking to build an approach able to identify the deepest roots of deforestation of those regions. Our actions over the environment are framed by our cultural matrix that stream from a western philosophic attitude. This way, to understand the framework where the deforestation actions are justified requires a multidisciplinary approach to understand the deforestation of the Cerrado and Amazon biomes, since the motivations for forest destruction in Brazil are complex and not entirely understood within the domains of a single disciplinary area. To search for an isolated cause to understand the recent deforestation can only be plausible if we ignore information on what actually happens. The methodology used in this work is based on a bibliographical revision, analysis of georeferrenced information, participative processes implementation and observation of stakeholder behavior, and field research. It departs from a general vision on deforestation that initially occurred at the littoral region, by the Atlantic Rainforest, right after the arrival of the Europeans, and throughout the centuries penetrates towards the interior, hitting the Cerrado and Amazon biomes. In this last case, we focused on the Vale do Alto Guaporé region, near Bolivia, where the intensity of the deforestation was verified from 1970 to 1990. Ultimately, the final result is a mosaic of reasons for deforestation - that has been done by both large and small land owners - that incorporates other views that have been absent in the explanations given by so-called specialized literature of Brazil's deforestation.
Leite, J. C.; Ferreira, A. J. D.; Esteves, T. C. J.; Bento, C. P. M.
The process of removing a forest to open new agricultural lands, which has been very intensive in developing countries like Brazil during the last decades (Lapola et al, 2014), contributes to about 12% of the global anthropogenic emissions (Le Quéré et al., 2009). Forest cover removal releases carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases (GEE) like methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), as a result of burning trees, followed by gradual decomposition of the forest biomass left on the ground while pasture or crop plantations are being established (Ramankutty et al., 2007). In Brazil, the 2nd Brazilian National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), presents the mean annual net CO2 emissions caused by changes in land use in each Brazilian biome and the first place in the ranking is occupied by the Amazon Rainforest Biome (860,874 Gg), followed by Savannah (302,715 Gg), Atlantic Forest (79,109 Gg), Caatinga (37,628 Gg), Pantanal (16,172 Gg) and Pampa (-102 Gg) (MCT 2010). Despite these results, the estimates of CO2 emissions caused by land use changes in the Brazilian semiarid region (Caatinga) are very limited and scarce, and associated to uncertainties which are directly related to the estimated biomass in different types of vegetation which are spatially distributed within the biome, as well as the correct representation of the dynamics of the deforestation process itself, and the more accurate mapping use and land cover. Based on such facts, this project is estimating the emissions of the main greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O and CH4) caused by land use changes in an area of Caatinga biome in Pernambuco State through the model INPE-EM. So far, it is known that from decades of 1940 up to 1995, Caatinga biome has contributed with about 3.2 % to total land use change emissions in the country (Leite et al, 2012), and recently (1990-2005), the contributions of Caatinga are even higher (over 30%), according to the 2nd Brazilian National Communication (2010). By means means of the model INPE-EM (data still being acquired), we are trying to diminish the uncertainties and identify specific and integrated emissions of GHG, as well as the stocks and flows of C and N, in order to contribute to the current information about GEE dynamic in the Brazilian Northeast and also to enhance the Brazilian GHG inventory. Besides, the model will incorporate the temporal dynamics related to the deforestation process, and accounts for the biophysical and socioeconomic heterogeneity of the region in study.
Sousa-Neto, Eráclito; Ometto, Jean
Environmental risk factors and male fertility and reproduction ? ? This study was supported by the research project “Prevenzione dei fattori di rischio della salute materno-infantile” and “Human exposure to xenobiotics with potential endocrine activity” (Art. 12 Decreto Legislativo 502\\/92 Istituto Superiore di Sanità)
Several environmental substances and pesticides exert a direct, cytotoxic effect on male germ cells. However, an increasing concern has been raised by compounds that may act through more subtle mechanisms, for example, specific pesticides that are potentially capable of modulating or disrupting the endocrine system. Overall, exposure to pesticides with endocrine-disrupting potential raise a particular concern for male fertility because
Grazia Petrelli; Alberto Mantovani
We report a female patient diagnosed of Gitelman disease who suffered from severe hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia during pregnancy. We discuss the therapeutic approach and materno-fetal outcome. PMID:19241082
de Arriba, Gabriel; Sánchez-Heras, Marta; Basterrechea, Maria Angeles
This work focuses on the spatial and temporal variability of burnt area (BA) for the entire Iberian Peninsula (IP) and on the construction of statistical models to reproduce the inter-annual variability, based on Weather Types Classification (WTC). A common BA dataset was assembled for the first time for the entire Iberian Peninsula, by merging BA records for the 66 administrative regions of Portugal and Spain. A normalization procedure was then applied to the various size regions before performing a k-means cluster analysis to identify large areas characterized by similar fire regimes. The most compelling results were obtained for 4 clusters (Northwestern, Northern, Southwestern and Eastern) whose spatial patterns and seasonal fire regimes are shown to be related with constraining factors such as topography, vegetation cover and climate conditions. The response of fire burnt surface at monthly time scales to both long-term climatic pre-conditions and short-term synoptic forcing was assessed through correlation and regression analysis using: (i) temperature and precipitation from 2 to 7 months in advance to fire peak season; (ii) synoptic weather patterns derived from 11 distinct classifications derived under the COSTaction-733. Different responses were obtained for each of the considered regions: (i) a relevant link between BA and short-term synoptic forcing (represented by monthly frequencies of WTC) was identified for all clusters; (ii) long-term climatic preconditioning was relevant for all but one cluster (Northern). Taking into account these links, we developed stepwise regression models with the aim of reproducing the observed BA series (i.e. in hindcast mode). These models were based on the best climatic and synoptic circulation predictors identified previously. All models were cross-validated and their performance varies between clusters, though models exclusively based on WTCs tend to better reproduce annual BA time series than those only based on pre-conditioning climatic information. Nevertheless, the best results are attained when both synoptic and climatic predictors are used simultaneously as predictors, in particular for the two western clusters, where correlation coefficient values are higher than 0.7. Finally, we have used WTC composite maps to characterize the typical synoptic configurations that favor high values of BA. These patterns correspond to dry and warm fluxes, associated with anticyclonic regimes, which foster fire ignition (Pereira et al., 2005). Pereira, M.G., Trigo, R.M., DaCamara, C.C., Pereira, J.M.C., Leite, S.M., 2005: "Synoptic patterns associated with large summer forest fires in Portugal". Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 129, 11-25. COST733, 2011: "COST 733 Wiki - Harmonisation and Applications of Weather Type Classifications for European regions or COST733 spatial domains for Europe". Available at http://geo21.geo.uni-augsburg.de/cost733wiki/Cost733_Wiki_Main [accessed 1 September 2011].
Sousa, P. M.; Trigo, R.; Pereira, M. G.; Rasilla, D.; Gouveia, C.
Access to the right information anytime, anywhere is becoming the new driving force for the information technology revolution. The 'right' information's relevance is based on the user's profile and his/her current geographical position and/or time. Location Based Service (LBS) is an innovative technology that provides information or makes information available based on the geographical location of the mobile user. Analysts predict that LBSs will lead to new applications, generating billions of US dollars worldwide (Leite, 2001; Searle, 2001). The need for an efficient and accurate mobile station (MS) positioning system is growing day by day. The ability to pinpoint the location of an individual has an obvious and vital value in the context of emergency services (Chan, 2003; Olama et al., 2008). Pinpointing the location of people and other valuable assets also opens the door to a new world of previously unimagined information services and m-commerce probabilities. For example, availability of services like 'Where is the nearest ATM?', 'Check traffic conditions on the highway on my route', 'Find a parking lot nearby', as well as answers to 'Where is my advisor?', and 'Where is my car?' will be an everyday rule in our lives (Charalambous & Panayiotou, 2004). A technology independent LBS architecture can be considered as comprised by three main parts (Girodon, 2002): A user requesting information, a mobile network operator and its partners, and several content providers (e.g. data, maps). The subscriber requests a personalized service dependant on his geographic location. The system will ask the Location Services Manager (which is in charge of handling requests, i.e., send/receive to the Location Calculator and the Content Providers) to pinpoint the location of the mobile. The Location Services Manager (LSM), using the Location Calculator, will ask the Content Provider (CP) to supply qualified information according to the mobile's geographical position. The LSM will eventually receive the answer from the CP and send it to the mobile, performing the essential data translations. Fig. 1 outlines the precedent concept. For effective provision of LBS, one has to provide an accurate location, as well as suitable information for users required by the corresponding service, with minimal expenditure. Thus, there are three main technology issues that have to be resolved for LBS: positioning technology, application technology, and location services (Dru & Saada, 2001). A very important technology is of course the positioning technology, the way to find out the location of a mobile device accurately. Due to the unique characteristics of the cellular environment, it is a great challenge to locate the user precisely. However, in many cases, application technology and location services are important consideration of LBS. Application technology manages the geographic information and delivers the customer requests to the appropriate service provider, thus it constitutes the communication system involved. LBS uses the geographic information to provide geographically sensitive information and services. Location-based applications and services are not sensitive to the type of location technology that is used - they merely rely on reasonably accurate geographic coordinates (Chan, 2003). This chapter is structured as follows: In Section 2, we describe the use and applications of LBSs. The current location determination technologies and standards are presented in Section 3. In Section 4 we describe the mathematical models used for the location and velocity estimation algorithms. An initial attempt for MS location estimation via received signal level using the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) approach and triangulation is presented in Sections 5. Since the former approach lacks acceptable accuracy for demanding services as numerical results reveal, the extended Kalman filter (EKF) approach, which is the main topic in this chapter, is introduced in Sections 6. In Section 7 we present numerical results. Section 8 provides concluding remarks.
Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL; Djouadi, Seddik M [ORNL; Kuruganti, Phani Teja [ORNL
This proceedings presents selected contributions from the participants of South America Dynamics Days 2011, which was hosted by the National Institute for Space Research (INPE), Brazil, in July 2010. Dynamics Days was founded in 1980 and is the longest standing and most respected international series of meetings devoted to the field of dynamics and nonlinearity. Traditionally it has brought together researchers from a wide range of backgrounds - including physics, biology, engineering, chemistry and mathematics - for interdisciplinary research into nonlinear science. Dynamics Days South America 2010 marked the beginning of the South American branch of Dynamics Days. It brought together, for the first time in South America, researchers from a wide range of backgrounds who share a common interest in the theory and applications of nonlinear dynamics. Thus, South American researchers had a forum to promote regional as well as international scientific and technological exchange and collaboration especially, but not exclusively, on problems that are particularly relevant for the development of science and technology in the South American region. Furthermore, the conference also brought together prominent scientists from around the world to review recent developments in nonlinear science. This conference comprised plenary invited talks, minisymposia, contributed talks and poster sessions. The articles that are compiled here were chosen from among the works that were presented as contributed talks and posters. They represent a good selection which allows one to put issues that were discussed during the conference into perspective. It is possible to evaluate the success of an initiative by using several indices. In relation to attendees, the conference had 311 participants from 22 countries, who presented 341 works. About 86% of the participants came from South American countries. These figures allow one to classify this Dynamics Days conference as that with the greatest number of attendees ever. Finally, we would like to express our gratitude to all the participants for their presentations, discussions, and remarkable interactions with one another. The tireless work undertaken by all the members of the International Advisory Committee and the Organizing Committee must also be recognized. We also wish to express our deep appreciation for the Scientific Societies and Research Support Agencies which supported the conference and provided all the resources which were necessary to make this idea of a South American Dynamics Days come true. Elbert E N Macau, Tiago Pereira, Antonio F B A Prado, Luiz F R Turci, and Othon C WinterEditors Conference photograph Conference photograph Conference photograph Conference photograph International Advisory Committee Adilson E MotterNorthwestern UniversityEvanston - IL - USA Alfredo OzorioCentro Brasileiro de Pesquisas FísicasRio de Janeiro - RJ - Brazil Celso Grebogi (Chair)University of AberdeenAberdeen - UK Ed OttUniversity of MarylandCollege Park - MD - USA Epaminondas Rosa JrIllinois State UniversityNormal - IL - USA Hans Ingo WeberPontifícia Universidade CatólicaRio de Janeiro - RJ - Brazil Holger KantzMax Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex SystemsDresden - Germany Jason Gallas (Co-chair)Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do SulPorto Alegre - RS - Brazil José Roberto Rios LeiteUniv. Federal de PernanbucoRecife - PE - Brazil Jürgen KurthsPotsdam Institute for climate Impact ResearchHumboldt University, Berlin - Germany Kenneth ShowalterWest Virginia UniversityMorgantown - WV - USA Lou PecoraNaval Research LabWashington - DC - USA Luis Antonio AguirreUniversidade Federal de Minas GeraisBelo Horizonte - MG - Brazil Marcelo VianaIMPA - Instituto Nacional de Matemática Pura e AplicadaRio de Janeiro - RJ - Brazil Miguel A F SanjuánUniversidad Rey Juan CarlosMadrid - Spain Paulo Roberto de Souza MendesPontifícia Universidade CatólicaRio de Janeiro - RJ - Brazil Roland KorbeleUniversidade de São PauloSão Carlos - SP - Brazil Rubens SampaioPontifícia Universidade CatólicaRio de Ja
Macau, Elbert E. N.; Pereira, Tiago; Prado, Antonio F. B. A.; Turci, Luiz F. R.; Winter, Othon C.
Objectives: to determine the incidence of conge- nital malformations in newborns in a university maternity hospital in Recife and assess the impact of malformation in perinatal and neonatal mortality. Methods: a longitudinal study was performed from September 2004 to May 2005 with all deliveries at the Instituto Materno Infantil Prof. Fernando Figueira, IMIP analyzed. The type and incidence of congenital
Melania Maria; Ramos de Amorim; Paulo Carvalho Vilela; Regina Viana; Dutra Santos; Luiza Medeiros; Vasconcelos Lima; Eduardo França; Pessoa de Melo; Paulo Fernando; Bezerra de Menezes
High resolution ultrasound imaging of the mouse placenta during development revealed highly echogenic foci localized near the materno-placental interface in early gestation and, near term, in the placental labyrinth (the exchange region of the placenta). Echogenic foci and calcium deposits identified in histological sections using Alizarin red staining showed similar localization and changes with gestation. Calcium deposits caused the echogenic
C. Akirav; Y. Lu; J. Mu; D. W. Qu; Y. Q. Zhou; J. Slevin; D. Holmyard; F. S. Foster; S. L. Adamson
We describe a girl with DiGeorge anomaly and normal cytogenetic and molecular studies, whose clinical course was complicated by graft versus host disease caused by intrauterine materno-fetal transfusion, and several immunohaematological alterations including a monoclonal gammapathy of undetermined significance (first IgG, which subsequently changed to IgM). The main clinical features and pathological findings are discussed.??
Ocejo-Vinyals, J.; Lozano, M.; Sanchez-Velasco, P.; de Diego, J. E.; Paz-Miguel, J.; Leyva-Cobian, F.
Objectives: To determine the indications for inevitable peripartum hysterectomy (IPH), associated demographic variables and the materno fetal outcome. Methodology: A retrospective analysis of twenty two patients that had inevitable peripartum hysterectomy (IPH) during the study period of 4 years, July 2001 to June 2005. Results: The mean age of the patients was 32.4 years with a range of 18 to
Adesiyun Adebiyi Gbadebo; Eseiegbe Edwin; Ameh Charles Anawo
Objective: To describe the clinical, radiological and endoscopic characteristics of foreign body aspiration among individuals under the age of 15 treated at a referral center in the city of São Luís, Brazil. Methods: This was a descriptive study using data from the medical charts of patients treated for foreign body aspiration at the Hospital Universitário Materno Infantil between 1995 and
Sílvia Teresa; Evangelista Vidotto; Marco Antonio Barbieri; José Albuquerque de Figueiredo Neto
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently become essential actors in various fields of physiology and medicine, especially as easily accessible circulating biomarkers, or as modulators of cell differentiation. To this respect, terminal differentiation of trophoblasts (the characteristic cells of the placenta in Therian mammals) into syncytiotrophoblast, villous trophoblast, or extravillous trophoblast constitutes a good example of such a choice, where miRNAs have recently been shown to play an important role. The aim of this review is to provide a snapshot of what is known today in placentation mechanisms that are mediated by miRNA, under the angles of materno–fetal immune dialog regulation, trophoblast differentiation, and angiogenesis at the materno–fetal interface. Also, two aspects of regulation of these issues will be highlighted: the part played by oxygen concentration and the specific function of imprinted genes in the developing placenta.
Doridot, Ludivine; Miralles, Francisco; Barbaux, Sandrine; Vaiman, Daniel
The causes for recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) remain unknown in a large proportion of the cases. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G and HLA-E are expressed on invasive trophoblast cells, and are supposed to confer to materno-fetal tolerance. A total of 14 different nucleotide sequences have been described for HLA-G, including one dysfunctional null allele (HLA-G*0105N), while five different sequences have been
K. A. Pfeiffer; R. Fimmers; G. Engels; H. van der Ven; K. van der Ven
We have analyzed the response to the treatment with benznidazol in newborns and nurslings in the Hospital Materno Infantil Germán Urquidi of Cochabamba, Bolivia, between 1999 and 2002. It is important an integral treatment of the nursling with a subsequent information directed to the family. The response was close to 100% when the treatment was correctly administrated. They were not adverse effects and the detected biochemical alterations did not present clinical significance. PMID:16482807
Suárez, Eduardo; Alonso-Vega, Cristina; Torrico, Faustino; Córdova, Marisol
Background. — Materno-fetal infection due to Pasteurella multocida is rare; it may be severe in the neonate.Case report. — A 27-year old woman was admitted at 37 weeks' gestation with a history of abdominal cramps. Twenty-four hours after delivery, the mother was febrile (40°C) and was given intravenous cefotaxime (2 days), followed by cefpodoxime (15 days). The newborn was febrile
F Escande; M Borde; F Pateyron
Fetus papyracie in a triplet pregnancy is indeed rare and can pose serious management challenges. These challenges are more pronounced where facilities for monitoring are either inadequate or nonexistent. A 39-year-old, grand multipara multipara was referred to the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital at 27 weeks gestation with preterm contractions. Materno fetal monitoring did not reveal the cause of the preterm contractions. She was delivered via caesarean section, at 36 weeks of gestation, on account of decreased fetal movement and the products were a live female fetus weighing 2.3 kg and two male papyraceous fetuses weighing 150 g and 130 g, respectively.
Bukar, M; Chama, CM; Bako, BG; Jonathan, BI
Fetus papyracie in a triplet pregnancy is indeed rare and can pose serious management challenges. These challenges are more pronounced where facilities for monitoring are either inadequate or nonexistent. A 39-year-old, grand multipara multipara was referred to the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital at 27 weeks gestation with preterm contractions. Materno fetal monitoring did not reveal the cause of the preterm contractions. She was delivered via caesarean section, at 36 weeks of gestation, on account of decreased fetal movement and the products were a live female fetus weighing 2.3 kg and two male papyraceous fetuses weighing 150 g and 130 g, respectively. PMID:24349837
Bukar, M; Chama, Cm; Bako, Bg; Jonathan, Bi
Alterations of the intrauterine and neonatal environment may predispose for disorders and diseases throughout later life (perinatal programming). Especially, hormones and nutrients are dose-dependent organizers of the developing organism. Studies in offspring of diabetic mothers (ODM) have paradigmatically contributed to the perception of this developmental principle and our understanding of causal mechanisms. Fetal and neonatal hyperinsulinism in consequence of materno-fetal hyperglycaemia is the pathognomic feature in ODM. Epidemiological, clinical, as well as experimental data indicate that both insulin and glucose, when occurring in elevated concentrations during perinatal life, may epigenetically program a predisposition for obesity and diabetes later on. Similar may occur due to pre- and neonatal overfeeding. From a clinical point of view, avoidance of materno-fetal overnutrition, universal diabetes screening in all pregnant women and adequate therapy of all forms of diabetes during pregnancy, as well as avoidance of neonatal overfeeding are therefore recommended. These measures might serve as causal approaches of a genuine prevention to the benefit of long-term offspring health. PMID:21945359
The primary function of the placenta is to act as an interface between the dam and fetus. The anatomic structure of the chorioallantoic placenta in eutherian mammals varies between different animal species. The placental types in eutherian mammals are classified from various standpoints based on the gross shape, the histological structure of the materno-fetal interface, the type of materno-fetal interdigitation, etc. Particularly, the histological structure is generally considered one of the most useful and instructive classifications for functionally describing placental type. In this system, three main types are recognized according to the cell layers comprising the interhemal area: (1) epitheliochorial type (horses, pigs and ruminants), (2) endotheliochorial type (carnivores) and (3) hemochorial type (primates, rodents and rabbits). The number of cell layers in the interhemal area is considered to modify the transfer of nutrients between maternal and fetal blood and is one of the important factors with respect to the difference in placental permeability between animal species. Therefore, in reproductive and developmental toxicity studies, careful attention should be paid to the histological structure of the interhemal area when extrapolating information concerning placental transfer characteristics to different animal species.
Furukawa, Satoshi; Kuroda, Yusuke; Sugiyama, Akihiko
Convulsive status epilepticus (SE) in children is an important public health problem, particularly in low-resource countries. A surveillance study was performed with consecutive enrollment of all children presenting with convulsive SE to Hospital Escuela Materno-Infantil Emergency Department in Tegucigalpa, Honduras over a 13-week period in 2003. In the 47 children with SE, the mean age was 4.5 years and the median seizure duration was 95 min. Mortality and morbidity were higher in children from rural locations, with all six deaths and three cases of new neurologic abnormalities occurring in rural children who had acute symptomatic SE. We conclude that childhood SE is common in the low-resource developing country of Honduras. Given the long delays in obtaining initial treatment in pediatric emergency facilities, availability of prehospital treatment may be of particular importance in this setting. PMID:19694798
Molinero, Marco R; Holden, Kenton R; Rodriguez, Luis C; Collins, Julianne S; Samra, Jose A; Shinnar, Shlomo
Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and GNP-based multifunctional nanocomposites are the subject of intensive studies and biomedical applications. This minireview summarizes our recent efforts in analytical and theranostic applications of engineered GNPs and nanocomposites by using plasmonic properties of GNPs and various optical techniques. Specifically, we consider analytical biosensing; visualization and bioimaging of bacterial, mammalian, and plant cells; photodynamic treatment of pathogenic bacteria; and photothermal therapy of xenografted tumors. In addition to recently published reports, we discuss new data on dot immunoassay diagnostics of mycobacteria, multiplexed immunoelectron microscopy analysis of Azospirillum brasilense, materno-embryonic transfer of GNPs in pregnant rats, and combined photodynamic and photothermal treatment of rat xenografted tumors with gold nanorods covered by a mesoporous silica shell doped with hematoporphyrin.
Khlebtsov, Nikolai; Bogatyrev, Vladimir; Dykman, Lev; Khlebtsov, Boris; Staroverov, Sergey; Shirokov, Alexander; Matora, Larisa; Khanadeev, Vitaly; Pylaev, Timofey; Tsyganova, Natalia; Terentyuk, Georgy
Cefpirome (CPO) is a new parenteral cephalosporin with a wide antibacterial spectrum. In order to explore the possibility of using CPO in late pregnancy, we studied its placental transfer in vitro in a model of human placenta infusion. Mother-to-foetus in vitro transfer of CPO is high, similar to that of amoxicillin, with a placental clearance index of 0.20. A pharmacokinetic simulation based upon this result and data from literature suggests that CPO concentrations in foetal blood and amniotic fluid should be appropriate for the treatment of severe materno-foetal infections in late pregnancy. These preliminary results need to be confirmed by in vivo pharmacokinetic and clinical studies before recommending the use of CPO in late pregnancy. PMID:7808782
Closse, C; Saux, M C; Breilh, D; Bouvier d'Yvoire, M; Grellet, J; Leng, J J
By its location between maternal and fetal bloodstreams the human placenta not only handles the materno-fetal transport of nutrients and gases, but may also be exposed to intrauterine conditions adversely affecting placental and fetal development. Such adverse conditions exist in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and have been associated with alterations in placental anatomy and physiology. These alterations are mainly based on changes on the micro-anatomical and/or even molecular level including aberrant villous vascularization, a disbalance of vasoactive molecules, and enhanced oxidative stress. The consequence thereof may be impaired fetal oxygenation and changes in transplacental nutrient supply. Although transplacental glucose flux is flow limited and independent of glucose transporter availability, transport of essential and nonessential amino acids and expression of genes involved in lipid transport and metabolism are significantly affected by GDM. PMID:22102097
Gauster, M; Desoye, G; Tötsch, M; Hiden, U
During pregnancy an environment allowing installation of tolerance toward the fetus is set up locally at the materno-fetal interface. Numerous effectors of immunity are involved in this tolerance (NK cell, T cell, Macrophages, dendritic cell). Specific mechanisms during pregnancy attract locally these immunological cells. In the decidua, they are educated toward tolerance. These mechanisms evolve during the pregnancy because at the end of the pregnancy, tolerance is broken to prepare and activate the labor. Ovarian tumors, after having surmounted the immunosurveillance, like trophoblast, chair the installation of a tolerance of their host facilitating the development of the disease. The blocking of these mechanisms of tolerance coupled with activation of mechanisms of defenses offer new perspectives in the treatment of the ovarian cancer. The authors suggest showing the analogies of the tolerance observed during ovarian cancer and pregnancy. The knowledge of the orchestration of the physiological mechanisms observed during pregnancy will offer new therapeutic targets. PMID:23182791
Hanssen, S; Collinet, P; Leblanc, E; Salzet, M; Vinatier, D
Possible relationships between maternal acid-base-electrolyte imbalance, histological changes in the maternal/extraembryonic tissues (decidua, placenta, membranes enclosing cavities), and fetal anomalies induced by maternotoxic doses of ethylene glycol, sodium salicylate, and cadmium chloride in rats were investigated. Acid-base-electrolyte, histologic and, teratologic studies were conducted concurrently with, as far as feasible, a similar protocol. Ethylene glycol caused 1) maternal homeostatic changes including metabolic acidosis and hyperosmolality, 2) extraembryonic lesions with degeneration of allantois and reduced villigenesis being more prevalent, and 3) materno-fetal effects such as decreases in fetal and maternal body weights, decreased maternal food intake, and fetal abnormalities (vertebral, rib, and sternebral defects). Few of these changes occurred when NaHCO3, an endogenous agent known to correct metabolic acidosis, was coadministered with ethylene glycol. Ethylene glycol-induced maternal metabolic acidosis, concurrent with hyperosmolality, was suspected to contribute toward reduction in villigenesis and fetal anomalies, including body weight reductions. Sodium salicylate induced the following: 1) mild maternal acidosis, hypokalemia, and hypophosphatemia with no significant change in pH; 2) maternal hemorrhage in extraembryonic cavities, papillary proliferation of the visceral yolk sac endoderm, and failure to form the chorioallantoic labyrinth; and 3) resorptions, hydrocephaly, rib defects, and fetal body weight reduction. Upon simultaneous treatment with sodium salicylate, NaHCO3 significantly reduced, and NH4Cl enhanced the incidence of the above histologic and teratologic effects, without significantly altering acid-base values. An etiologic association between the above salicylate-induced maternal and extraembryonic lesions and teratogenicity was likely. Cadmium chloride, whether administered by the intraperitoneal (ip) or intravenous (iv) route, caused 1) hydrocephaly, anophthalmia, vertebral and rib defects, reduction in fetal body weight, resorptions and maternal toxicity (acute peritonitis by the ip route only), and 2) extensive necrosis and hemorrhage in the decidua basalis, hemorrhage in the ectoplacental cone and around Reichert's membrane, and absence of chorioallantoic labyrinth. An etiologic relationship between these teratologic and histologic effects seemed probable, since both were dose-related. From the above studies, it was hypothesized that maternal factors--metabolic acidosis, hyperosmolality, hemorrhages in the ectoplacental cone, extraembryonic cavities, and around Reichert's membrane, and necrosis of decidua basalis--may have, directly or indirectly, reduced fetal nutrition and materno-embryonic gaseous exchange, which ultimately altered fetal development. PMID:1948764
Khera, K S
Background Transient receptor potential channel type 6 (TRPV6) and Calbindin-D9k (CaBP-9k) are involved in the active calcium (Ca2+) transport mechanism in many tissues including placenta and uterus, suggesting a role in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Moreover, TRPV6 and CaBP-9k seem to support the materno-fetal Ca2+ transport that is crucial for fetal Ca2+ homeostasis, bone growth and development. However, it is unknown if these proteins are also involved in the aetiology of pathologies associated with parturition in cows, such as retained fetal membranes (RFM). The aim of the current study was to create an expression profile of uterine and placentomal TRPV6 and CaBP-9k mRNAs and proteins during pregnancy and postpartum in cows with and without fetal membrane release. Methods Uteri and placentomes of 27 cows in different stages of pregnancy and placentomes of cows with and without RFM were collected. Protein and mRNA expression of TRPV6 and CaBP-9k was investigated by real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Results In the uterine endometrium, highest TRPV6 and CaBP-9k expression was found in the last trimester of pregnancy, with a particular increase of protein in the glandular epithelium. In the placentomes, a gradual increase in TRPV6 mRNA was detectable towards parturition, while protein expression did not change significantly. Placentomal CaBP-9k expression did not change significantly throughout pregnancy but immunohistochemistry revealed an increase in staining intensity in the maternal crypt epithelium. Immunohistochemical, stronger placental CaBP-9k signals were seen in animals with RFM compared to animals with an undisturbed fetal membrane release, while protein levels, measured by Western blot analyses did not change significantly. Conclusions The results of the present study demonstrate a dynamic expression of TRPV6 and CaBP-9k during pregnancy in the bovine uterine endometrium and placentomes, suggesting a functional role for these proteins in Ca2+ metabolism during pregnancy. The temporal and spatial expression patterns indicate that TRPV6 and CaBP-9k may be involved in materno-fetal Ca2+ transport, mainly through an interplacentomal transport, and that both proteins may participate in physiological processes that are crucial for fetal and placental development. However, neither TRPV6 nor CaBP-9k seem to be causative in the retention of fetal membranes.
Listeriosis is a rare food borne infection which, in the invasive form, presents as bloodstream infection, central nervous system infection, materno-fetal infection, or focal infection. Certain immunosuppressive conditions have been identified as risk factors for severe invasive disease. The invasive forms of listeriosis are associated with a high case fatality rate. We present the case of a 62-year-old male with an unremarkable medical history admitted to the Iasi Infectious Diseases Hospital for fever. headache, ataxia, and diplopia. Physical examination revealed high temperature, confusion, relative bradycardia, and signs of meningeal irritation. Laboratory test showed leukocyt osis with neutrophilia. pathological CSF findings (high WBC count with predominance of neutrophils, low glucose and high protein levels), increased liver enzymes (ALAT, ASAT, AP, gammaGT), and important renal impairment (normal levels at presentation). No abnormalities at chest x-ray, cranial CT and abdominal ultrasound. CSF and blood cultures were positive for Listeria monocytogenes. Under antibiotics (ampicillin and ciprofloxacin), the course was marked by respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation, coma, hypotension, tachycardia. and death 12 days after admission. The particularity of this case consists in the association of the two classical forms of invasive listeriosis, meningitis and bacteriemia, with a focal infection. acute hepatitis, and a course marked by multiple organ dysfunction syndromes and exitus in a previously apparently healthy individual. PMID:23272533
Teodor, Andra; Teodor, D; Miftode, Egidia; Pris?caru, D; Leca, Daniela; Petrovici, Cristina; Dorneanu, Olivia; Dorob?t, Carmen-Mihaela
The objective of this study was to investigate the incidence of acute flaccid paralysis in the pediatric population of Honduras over an 11-year period, determine what percentage of acute flaccid paralysis was Guillain-Barré syndrome, and identify the epidemiologic features of Guillain-Barré syndrome. There were 546 childhood cases of acute flaccid paralysis seen between January 1989 and December 1999 at the Hospital Escuela Materno-Infantil in Tegucigalpa, Honduras. Of these cases with acute flaccid paralysis, 394 (72.2%) were diagnosed with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Our incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome in the Honduran pediatric population (1.37/100,000 per year) is higher than that shown in other studies. There was a significantly higher incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome in younger children (ages 1-4 years), a significant preponderance of cases from rural areas, and a mild predominance in boys but a typical clinical presentation. The Honduran pediatric Guillain-Barré syndrome population had an increased mortality rate. Guillain-Barré syndrome has become the leading cause of childhood paralysis in Honduras. A better understanding of the population at highest risk and opportunities for earlier intervention with more effective therapeutic modalities may permit reducing the mortality among Honduran children who develop Guillain-Barré syndrome. PMID:14696900
Molinero, Marco R; Varon, Daniel; Holden, Kenton R; Sladky, John T; Molina, Ida B; Cleaves, Francisco
Although blood flow in the placental vasculature is governed by the same physiological forces of shear, pressure and resistance as in other organs, it is also uniquely specialized on the maternal and fetal sides. At the materno-fetal interface, the independent uteroplacental and umbilicoplacental circulations must coordinate sufficiently to supply the fetus with the nutrients and substrates it needs to grow and develop. Uterine arterial flow must increase dramatically to accommodate the growing fetus. Recent evidence delineates the hormonal and endothelial mechanisms by which maternal vessels dilate and remodel during pregnancy. The umbilical circulation is established de novo during embryonic development but blood does not flow through the placenta until late in the first trimester. The umbilical circulation operates in the interest of maintaining fetal oxygenation over the course of pregnancy, and is affected differently by mechanical and chemical regulators of vascular tone compared to other organs. The processes that match placental vascular growth and fetal tissue growth are not understood, but studies of compromised pregnancies provide clues. The subtle changes that cause the failure of the normally regulated vascular processes during pregnancy have not been thoroughly identified. Likewise, practical and effective therapeutic strategies to reverse detrimental placental perfusion patterns have yet to be investigated. PMID:24063386
Thornburg, Kent L; Louey, Samantha
The placenta is the exchange organ that regulates metabolic processes between the mother and her developing fetus. The adequate function of this organ is clearly vital for a physiologic gestational process and a healthy baby as final outcome. The umbilico-placental vasculature has the capacity to respond to variations in the materno-fetal milieu. Depending on the intensity and the extensity of the insult, these responses may be immediate-, mediate-, and long-lasting, deriving in potential morphostructural and functional changes later in life. These adjustments usually compensate the initial insults, but occasionally may switch to long-lasting remodeling and dysfunctional processes, arising maladaptation. One of the most challenging conditions in modern perinatology is hypoxia and oxidative stress during development, both disorders occurring in high-altitude and in low-altitude placental insufficiency. Hypoxia and oxidative stress may induce endothelial dysfunction and thus, reduction in the perfusion of the placenta and restriction in the fetal growth and development. This Review will focus on placental responses to hypoxic conditions, usually related with high-altitude and placental insufficiency, deriving in oxidative stress and vascular disorders, altering fetal and maternal health. Although day-to-day clinical practice, basic and clinical research are clearly providing evidence of the severe impact of oxygen deficiency and oxidative stress establishment during pregnancy, further research on umbilical and placental vascular function under these conditions is badly needed to clarify the myriad of questions still unsettled.
Herrera, Emilio A.; Krause, Bernardo; Ebensperger, German; Reyes, Roberto V.; Casanello, Paola; Parra-Cordero, Mauro; Llanos, Anibal J.
The potency of adult-derived circulating progenitor endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) is drastically surpassed by their fetal counterparts. Human pregnancy is associated with robust intensification of blood flow and vascular expansion in the uterus, crucial for placental perfusion and fetal supply. Here, we investigate whether fetal ECFCs transmigrate to maternal bloodstream and home to locations of maternal vasculogenesis, primarily the pregnant uterus. In the first instance, endothelial-like cells, originating from mouse fetuses expressing paternal eGFP, were identified within uterine endothelia. Subsequently, LacZ or enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP)-labeled human fetal ECFCs, transplanted into immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) fetuses on D15.5 pregnancy, showed similar integration into the mouse uterus by term. Mature endothelial controls (human umbilical vein endothelial cells), similarly introduced, were unequivocally absent. In humans, SRY was detected in 6 of 12 myometrial microvessels obtained from women delivering male babies. The copy number was calculated at 175 [IQR 149–471] fetal cells per millimeter square endothelium, constituting 12.5% of maternal vessel lumina. Cross-sections of similar human vessels, hybridized for Y-chromosome, positively identified endothelial-associated fetal cells. It appears that through ECFC donation, fetuses assist maternal uterine vascular expansion in pregnancy, potentiating placental perfusion and consequently their own fetal supply. In addition to fetal growth, this cellular mechanism holds implications for materno-fetal immune interactions and long-term maternal vascular health.
Sipos, Peter I; Rens, Willem; Schlecht, HElene; Fan, Xiaohu; Wareing, Mark; Hayward, Christina; Hubel, Carl A; Bourque, Stephane; Baker, Philip N; Davidge, Sandra T; Sibley, Colin P; Crocker, Ian P
The materno-foetal relationship is not simply maternal tolerance of a foreign tissue, but a series of intricate mutual cytokine interactions governing selective immune regulation and also control of the adhesion and vascularisation processes during this dialogue. There is strong evidence that locally secreted cytokines, such as interleukine 18 (IL18) control the implantation process and can cause implantation failure in case of absence or overactivation. Uterine flushing fluids may be analysed to determine the level of several cytokines. At the time of egg retrieval, the flushing procedure does not adversely affect pregnancy rates. We report a strong positive correlation between the presence of IL18 in the uterine flushing and bad implantation rates. The presence of IL18 in the lumina is the traduction of an overactivation of endometrial IL18 that should be diagnosed and treated. Moreover, endometrial biopsy could define which type of cytokinic dysregulation is implicated in repeated implantation failure and define which type of treatment need to be introduced. PMID:14968042
Eighty three primigravidae patients at the end of latency labor, erased cervix, 3 cm dilation, vertex presentation and adequate pelvis, were studied. Two groups were formed: 53 patients in the study group, who received active management of labor, and 30 patients in the control group, treated in the traditional way. In all the patients a graphic recording of labor, was carried out; it included all the events, and as labor advanced, a signoidal curve of cervical dilatation, was registered, as well as the hyperbolic one for presentation descent. The study group received the method in a systematized manner, as follows: 1. Peridular block. 2. Amniotomy. 3. IV oxytocin one hour after amniotomy. 4. FCR monitoring. 5. Detection of dystocia origin. Materno-fetal morbidity was registered in both groups, as well as cesarean section rate, instrumental delivery and its indications, labor duration, and time of stay in labor room. Diminution of above intems and opportune detection of dystocia, were determined. It was concluded that a constructive action plan, starting at hospital admission in most healthy women, allows a normal delivery of brief duration. PMID:2066009
Ruiz Ortiz, E; Villalobos Román, M; Flores Murrieta, G; Sotomayor Alvarado, L
Milk has been recognized to represent a functionally active nutrient system promoting neonatal growth of mammals. Cell growth is regulated by the nutrient-sensitive kinase mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). There is still a lack of information on the mechanisms of mTORC1 up-regulation by milk consumption. This review presents milk as a materno-neonatal relay system functioning by transfer of preferential amino acids, which increase plasma levels of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), insulin, growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) for mTORC1 activation. Importantly, milk exosomes, which regularly contain microRNA-21, most likely represent a genetic transfection system enhancing mTORC1-driven metabolic processes. Whereas human breast milk is the ideal food for infants allowing appropriate postnatal growth and species-specific metabolic programming, persistent high milk signaling during adolescence and adulthood by continued cow´s milk consumption may promote mTORC1-driven diseases of civilization.
With the aid of the scanning electron microscope the possible sites of materno-foetal oxygen transfer were investigated. Fresh small tissue pieces were obtained and processed from at least six regions of central and peripheral parts of the maternal surface of human full-term placentas. The surface ultrastructural features of the syncytiotrophoblast lining the stem and floating villi were surveyed. The microvilli projecting from the apical portion of the syncytiotrophoblast appeared to be highly pleomorphic and showed regional variation in their distribution. On the other hand, our results confirmed the occurrence of non-microvillous areas on the apices of some floating villi. When present, these areas were always free from contact with maternal red blood cells. Maternal red blood cells, however, were seen in close contact only with areas covered with microvilli. Occasionally, impressions ("footmarks") were apparent on some surfaces and detached microvilli were seen adherent to the surface of other maternal red cells which had separated from the villous surface. Our results indicate, therefore, that the microvillous areas of the chorionic villi are the most likely sites for oxygen transfer and that one of the functions of the microvilli is gas transfer across the placenta. PMID:7165397
Ibrahim, M E; Al-Zuhair, A G; Mughal, S; Hathout, H
The liver is the largest of the body's organs, with the greatest number of functions, playing a central role in coordinating metabolic homeostasis, nutrient processing and detoxification. The fetal liver forms during early gestation in response to a sequential array of distinct biological events, regulated by intrinsically programmed mechanisms and extracellular signals which instruct hepatic cells to either proliferate, differentiate or undergo apoptosis. A vast number of genes are involved in the initiation and control of liver development, many of which are sensitive to nutritional and hormonal regulation in utero. Moreover, liver mass is influenced by the gestational environment. Therefore, during periods of hepatic cell proliferation and differentiation, the developing fetal liver is sensitive to damage from both internal and external sources including teratogens, infection and nutritional deficiencies. For example, fetuses exposed to decreased materno-fetal nutrition during late gestation have a reduced liver mass, and/or perturbed liver function, which includes increased plasma LDL cholesterol and fibrinogen concentrations. These occur in conjunction with other risk factors present in the early stages of cardiovascular disease i.e. decreased glucose tolerance and insulin insensitivity in later life. Taken together, these findings suggest that liver mass, and later function, are essentially set in utero during fetal development—a process that is ultimately regulated by the intrauterine environment.
Hyatt, Melanie A; Budge, Helen
This study aimed to describe Toxoplasma gondii prevalence in Polish pregnant women and the incidence rates of congenital infections in their neonates observed between 2004 and 2012. Serological tests for T. gondii-specific IgG and IgM antibodies were performed on serum samples of 8281 pregnant women treated at the Polish Mother's Memorial Hospital Research Institute in Lodz. The yearly seroconversion rate for T. gondii IgG antibodies was estimated using a mathematical model to determine the dependency between age and prevalence. Mean prevalence of IgG antibodies between 2004 and 2012 in pregnant women was 40·6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 39·6-41·7] and increased with age with a yearly seroconversion rate of 0·8% (95% CI 0·6-1·0, P<0·001). Assuming a T. gondii materno-fetal transmission rate of 30% gave an estimate of 1·80/1000 neonates as congenitally infected. The increased mean age (28·7 vs 26·7 years, P<0·001) of pregnant women was probably the most important factor in abolishing the effect of falling prevalence rates. PMID:23721799
Nowakowska, D; Wujcicka, W; Sobala, W; Spiewak, E; Gaj, Z; Wilczy?ski, J
Introduction La présente étude rapporte les données sérologiques de 306 sérums collectés chez des parturientes au CHU de Bobo Dioulasso et analysés rétrospectivement au CHU de Reims en 2011. Le but était de déterminer le statut sérologique de ces parturientes et d'en déduire la conduite à tenir. Méthodes La recherche des IgG et des IgM anti toxoplasmiques était systématique. Les techniques d'agglutination haute sensibilisée et celle d'Immunocapture M ont servi à la recherche respective des anticorps spécifiques IgG et des IgM. Résultats Sur 306 sérums analysés, 95 (31%) avaient des IgG positifs et aucun n'avait des IgM. Deux cent onze (211) sérums (69%) des sérums n'avaient ni IgG, ni IgM. Conclusion Nos résultats montrent que 31% des femmes en dehors d'une immunodépression sous jacente, possèdent une immunité résiduelle vis à vis de Toxoplasma gondii et n'ont pas la nécessité d'avoir une surveillance sérologique pendant la grossesse. Cependant, 69% (211) des parturientes sont à risque d'une séroconversion, et devraient bénéficier de conseils hygiéno diététiques, associés à une surveillance sérologique durant la grossesse. Ces résultats montrent l'intérêt de mettre en place des mesures de prévention contre la toxoplasmose congénitale, étant l'une des affections materno - foetales les plus fréquentes par la mise en place d'un diagnostic prénatal de la toxoplasmose en routine dans notre hôpital.
Bamba, Sanata; Some, Der Adolphe; Chemla, Cathy; Geers, Regine; Guiguemde, Tinga Robert; Villena, Isabelle
Epoxiconazole (EPX; CAS-No. 133855-98-8) is a triazole class-active substance of plant protection products. At a dose level of 50 mg/kg bw/day, it causes a significantly increased incidence of late fetal mortality when administered to pregnant rats throughout gestation (gestation day [GD] 7-18 or 21), as reported previously (Taxvig et al., 2007, 2008) and confirmed in these studies. Late fetal resorptions occurred in the presence of significant maternal toxicity such as clear reduction of corrected body weight gain, signs of anemia, and, critically, a marked reduction of maternal estradiol plasma levels. Furthermore, estradiol supplementation at dose levels of 0.5 or 1.0 ?g/animal/day of estradiol cyclopentylpropionate abolished the EPX-mediated late fetal resorptions. No increased incidences of external malformations were found in rats cotreated with 50 mg/kg bw/day EPX and estradiol cyclopentylpropionate, indicating that the occurrence of malformations was not masked by fetal mortality under the study conditions. Overall, the study data indicate that fetal mortality observed in rat studies with EPX is not the result of direct fetal toxicity but occurs indirectly via depletion of maternal estradiol levels. The clarification of the human relevance of the estrogen-related mechanism behind EPX-mediated late fetal resorptions in rats warrants further studies. In particular, this should involve investigation of the placenta (Rey Moreno et al., 2013), since it is the materno-fetal interface and crucial for fetal maintenance. The human relevance is best addressed in a species which is closer to humans with reference to placentation and hormonal regulation of pregnancy, such as the guinea pig (Schneider et al., 2013). PMID:23720304
Stinchcombe, Stefan; Schneider, Steffen; Fegert, Ivana; Rey Moreno, Maria Cecilia; Strauss, Volker; Gröters, Sibylle; Fabian, Eric; Fussell, Karma C; Pigott, Geoffrey H; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard
Fetal supply with long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) during pregnancy is important for brain growth and visual and cognitive development and is provided by materno–fetal placental transfer. We recently showed that maternal fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genotypes modulate the amounts of LC-PUFA in maternal blood. Whether FADS genotypes influence the amounts of umbilical cord fatty acids has not been investigated until now. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of maternal and child FADS genotypes on the amounts of LC-PUFA in umbilical cord venous plasma as an indicator of fetal fatty acid supply during pregnancy. A total of eleven cord plasma n-6 and n-3 fatty acids were analysed for association with seventeen FADS gene cluster SNP in over 2000 mothers and children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. In a multivariable analysis, the maternal genotype effect was adjusted for the child genotype and vice versa to estimate which of the two has the stronger influence on cord plasma fatty acids. Both maternal and child FADS genotypes and haplotypes influenced amounts of cord plasma LC-PUFA and fatty acid ratios. Specifically, most analysed maternal SNP were associated with cord plasma levels of the precursor n-6 PUFA, whereas the child genotypes were mainly associated with more highly desaturated n-6 LC-PUFA. This first study on FADS genotypes and cord fatty acids suggests that fetal LC-PUFA status is determined to some extent by fetal fatty acid conversion. Associations of particular haplotypes suggest specific effects of SNP rs498793 and rs968567 on fatty acid metabolism.
Lattka, Eva; Koletzko, Berthold; Zeilinger, Sonja; Hibbeln, Joseph R.; Klopp, Norman; Ring, Susan M.; Steer, Colin D.
Syncytins are envelope genes of retroviral origin that have been co-opted for a role in placentation. They promote cell–cell fusion and are involved in the formation of a syncytium layer—the syncytiotrophoblast—at the materno-fetal interface. They were captured independently in eutherian mammals, and knockout mice demonstrated that they are absolutely required for placenta formation and embryo survival. Here we provide evidence that these “necessary” genes acquired “by chance” have a definite lifetime with diverse fates depending on the animal lineage, being both gained and lost in the course of evolution. Analysis of a retroviral envelope gene, the envV gene, present in primate genomes and belonging to the endogenous retrovirus type V (ERV-V) provirus, shows that this captured gene, which entered the primate lineage >45 million years ago, behaves as a syncytin in Old World monkeys, but lost its canonical fusogenic activity in other primate lineages, including humans. In the Old World monkeys, we show—by in situ analyses and ex vivo assays—that envV is both specifically expressed at the level of the placental syncytiotrophoblast and fusogenic, and that it further displays signs of purifying selection based on analysis of non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rates. We further show that purifying selection still operates in the primate lineages where the gene is no longer fusogenic, indicating that degeneracy of this ancestral syncytin is a slow, lineage-dependent, and multi-step process, in which the fusogenic activity would be the first canonical property of this retroviral envelope gene to be lost.
Esnault, Cecile; Cornelis, Guillaume; Heidmann, Odile; Heidmann, Thierry
Studies completed to date provide persuasive evidence that placental cell-derived exosomes play a significant role in intercellular communication pathways that potentially contribute to placentation and development of materno-fetal vascular circulation. The aim of this study was to establish the gestational-age release profile and bioactivity of placental cell-derived exosome in maternal plasma. Plasma samples (n?=?20 per pregnant group) were obtained from non-pregnant and pregnant women in the first (FT, 6-12 weeks), second (ST, 22-24 weeks) and third (TT, 32-38 weeks) trimester. The number of exosomes and placental exosome contribution were determined by quantifying immunoreactive exosomal CD63 and placenta-specific marker (PLAP), respectively. The effect of exosomes isolated from FT, ST and TT on endothelial cell migration were established using a real-time, live-cell imaging system (Incucyte). Exosome plasma concentration was more than 50-fold greater in pregnant women than in non-pregnant women (p<0.001). During normal healthy pregnancy, the number of exosomes present in maternal plasma increased significantly with gestational age by more that two-fold (p<0.001). Exosomes isolated from FT, ST and TT increased endothelial cell migration by 1.9±0.1, 1.6±0.2 and 1.3±0.1-fold, respectively compared to the control. Pregnancy is associated with a dramatic increase in the number of exosomes present in plasma and maternal plasma exosomes are bioactive. While the role of placental cell-derived exosome in regulating maternal and/or fetal vascular responses remains to be elucidated, changes in exosome profile may be of clinical utility in the diagnosis of placental dysfunction. PMID:24905832
Salomon, Carlos; Torres, Maria Jose; Kobayashi, Miharu; Scholz-Romero, Katherin; Sobrevia, Luis; Dobierzewska, Aneta; Illanes, Sebastian E; Mitchell, Murray D; Rice, Gregory E
The operations research and technical assistance (OR/TA) project in The Population Council has concentrated on fertility and infant mortality issues in Latin American and the Caribbean for more than a decade through INOPAL. INOPAL is an acronym for Investigacion Operacional en Planificacion Familiar y Atencion Materno-Infantil para America Latina y el Caribe (Operations Research in Family Planning and Maternal-Child Health in Latin America and the Caribbean). In March 1995, the project entered its third phase, INOPAL III, with the renewal of its contract from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). To facilitate communication between INOPAL, collaborating agencies, and USAID, INOPAL Director James Foreit moved from Peru to a Council office in Washington, D.C. INOPAL has six objectives: 1) to test the integration of family planning and reproductive health services; 2) to increase access to family planning; 3) to develop strategies to reach special populations; 4) to improve the sustainability of family planning programs; 5) to improve service quality; and 6) to institutionalize operations research capability in the region. INOPAL II conducted 61 subprojects in 12 countries in collaboration with 24 USAID cooperating agencies and other international organizations. The project established new services for postpartum women, adolescents, and rural women; improved program quality and financial sustainability; increased vasectomy promotion and the range of available contraceptives; and developed new modes of service delivery. A key finding of INOPAL II operations research was the importance of increasing cost-effectiveness to ensure program sustainability. INOPAL III will work toward all six objectives, with an emphasis on integrating reproductive health and family planning services. Operations research and technical assistance (OR/TA) subprojects will focus on the prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, perinatal and postpartum care, and postabortion care. PMID:12319543
1. In nine chronically catheterized fetuses in which all lung liquid was drained continuously from the time of surgery, the effects of continuous drainage of fetal urine for 1 week on fetal renal function, lung liquid production and salt and water balance were studied. Fetal wellbeing, as judged by fetal growth, urinary osmolality, blood gas status, arterial pressure and heart rate, was not adversely affected by urine drainage. The ewes, however, drank more water when fetal urine was drained. Thus. fetal plasma and urinary osmolalities declined (P < 0.25 and P < 0.05). 2. Fetal glomerular filtration rate fell from 75 +/- 4 ml kg-1 h-1 (+/- S.E.M., n = 9) before drainage to 54 +/- 7 ml kg-1 h-1 after drainage (n = 7; P < 0.005), and fetal renal sodium excretion also declined (P < 0.05). However, the excretion of sodium in lung liquid did not decrease and the fetal renin-angiotensin system was not activated. Fetal extracellular volume (561 +/- 44 ml kg-1, n = 7) and the calculated net sodium transfer (0.76 mmol kg-1 h-1, n = 6) and fluid transfer (15 +/- 2 ml kg-1 h-1, n = 8) to the fetus did not change. 3. It is concluded that overall fetal salt and water balance were maintained when all fetal urine and lung liquid were drained from fetal sheep in late gestation. Since drainage of urine and lung liquid considerably reduced the amniotic and allantoic fluids, transfer across the placenta and extraplacental membranes was able to compensate for the absence of these fluids. In response to the loss of sodium during drainage, fetal renal sodium conservation was about 11% of the total sodium conservation by the materno-fetal unit.
Gibson, K J; Lumbers, E R
Background: Preeclampsia is associated with significant materno-fetal morbidity and mortality. Podocyturia due to podocyte damage seems to be associated with the disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of urinary podocalyxin as a marker of preeclampsia in a Hispanic population. Methods: 63 patients were studied. 25 patients had preeclampsia/eclampsia (PE-E). 38 patients had normal pregnancies and served as control group. 24 hour proteinuria, urine protein/creatinine (UPC), urinary podocalyxin and perinatal outcomes were measured. A Podocalyxin ELISA test was used to detect podocyturia. Results: Mean age (years), mean±SD was 30.5±5.4 in normal patients vs 30.6±5.8 in PE-E, p=0.98. Median gestational age (weeks) was, 38 (range 21-42) for normal pregnancies and 36 (range 24-40) for patients with PE-E, <0.001. Urine podocalyxin/creatinine on admission (ng/mg), median [IQR] in normal patients was 55.9 [29.4, 74.9] vs 109.7 [63.8, 234.1] in PE-E, p=0.001. After adjusting for admission proteinuria, urinary podocalyxin remained independently associated with preeclampsia: OR=1.0040 (95% CI 1.0003-1.0078), p=0.03. There was low to moderate correlation between UPC and urinary podocalyxin, Spearman’s =0.31, p=0.01. In PE-E, post-partum urine podocalyxin was lower, median [IQR]: 69.7 [32.7, 184.8] p=0.19 vs admission. There was a trend towards more podocyturia and proteinuria in patients with eclampsia, comparing to those with preeclampsia. There was no association observed between podocyturia and neonatal mortality, IUGR or Apgar scores. Conclusions: Significantly higher levels of urinary podocalyxin are seen in preeclampsia/eclampsia. They tend to normalize after delivery.
Palacios de Franco, Ylbe; Velazquez, Karina; Segovia, Natalia; Acosta, Carolina; Yanosky, Deborah; Franco Palacios, Ylbe V; Ramos, Amanda; Franco Palacios, Carlos R
Maternal diabetes constitutes an unfavorable environment for embryonic and fetoplacental development. Despite current treatments, pregnant women with pregestational diabetes are at increased risk for congenital malformations, materno-fetal complications, placental abnormalities and intrauterine malprogramming. The complications during pregnancy concern the mother (gravidic hypertension and/or preeclampsia, cesarean section) and the fetus (macrosomia or intrauterine growth restriction, shoulder dystocia, hypoglycemia and respiratory distress). The fetoplacental impairment and intrauterine programming of diseases in the offspring’s later life induced by gestational diabetes are similar to those induced by type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Despite the existence of several developmental and morphological differences in the placenta from rodents and women, there are similarities in the alterations induced by maternal diabetes in the placenta from diabetic patients and diabetic experimental models. From both human and rodent diabetic experimental models, it has been suggested that the placenta is a compromised target that largely suffers the impact of maternal diabetes. Depending on the maternal metabolic and proinflammatory derangements, macrosomia is explained by an excessive availability of nutrients and an increase in fetal insulin release, a phenotype related to the programming of glucose intolerance. The degree of fetal damage and placental dysfunction and the availability and utilisation of fetal substrates can lead to the induction of macrosomia or intrauterine growth restriction. In maternal diabetes, both the maternal environment and the genetic background are important in the complex and multifactorial processes that induce damage to the embryo, the placenta, the fetus and the offspring. Nevertheless, further research is needed to better understand the mechanisms that govern the early embryo development, the induction of congenital anomalies and fetal overgrowth in maternal diabetes.
Vambergue, Anne; Fajardy, Isabelle
Placental malaria is a common clinical complication during pregnancy and is associated with abortion, premature delivery, intrauterine growth retardation and low birth weight. The present study was designed to delineate the underlying mechanism of placental pathology during malarial infection with special reference to oxidative stress and apoptosis. Experimentally, pregnant BALB/c mice were infected with Plasmodium berghei infected red blood cells on gestation day 10. The presence of malarial infection in placenta was confirmed by histopathological studies. It was observation that infected placenta had plugged placental sinusoids with parasitized red blood cells and malarial pigments. Interestingly, we found significant increase in the level of malondialdehyde, the index of oxidative stress and decreased activity of catalase, the antioxidant in infected placenta. Furthermore, in infected placenta the oxidative stress mediated apoptosis was determined by DNA fragmentation assay, ethidium bromide/acridine orange staining and caspase activity. It was observed that oxidative stress begin after second day of malarial infection. Interestingly, it was observed that there was down regulation of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and up regulation of pro-apoptotic protein Bax in infected placenta, suggesting the involvement of mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis which was further confirmed by activation of caspase 9. However, no change in the expression of Fas gene and caspase 8 activity, indicated the absence of death receptor pathway. Thus, it can be concluded that the placental pathology during malarial infection is mediated by mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis occurring due to augmented lipid peroxidation which may in turn jeopardise the materno-fetal relationship. PMID:22396790
Sharma, Lalita; Kaur, Jagdeep; Shukla, Geeta
Cortical development is a complex amalgamation of proliferation, migration, differentiation, and circuit formation. These processes follow defined timescales and are controlled by a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. It is currently unclear how robust and flexible these processes are and whether the developing brain has the capacity to recover from disruptions. What is clear is that there are a number of cognitive disorders or conditions that are elicited as a result of disrupted cortical development, although it may take a long time for the full pathophysiology of the conditions to be realized clinically. The critical window for the manifestation of a neurodevelopmental disorder is prolonged, and there is the potential for a complex interplay between genes and environment. While there have been extended investigations into the genetic basis of a number of neurological and mental disorders, limited definitive associations have been discovered. Many environmental factors, including inflammation and stress, have been linked to neurodevelopmental disorders, and it may be that a better understanding of the interplay between genes and environment will speed progress in this field. In particular, the development of the brain needs to be considered in the context of the whole materno-fetal unit as the degree of the metabolic, endocrine, or inflammatory responses, for example, will greatly influence the environment in which the brain develops. This review will emphasize the importance of extending neurodevelopmental studies to the contribution of the placenta, vasculature, cerebrospinal fluid, and to maternal and fetal immune response. These combined investigations are more likely to reveal genetic and environmental factors that influence the different stages of neuronal development and potentially lead to the better understanding of the etiology of neurological and mental disorders such as autism, epilepsy, cerebral palsy, and schizophrenia.
Stolp, Helen; Neuhaus, Ain; Sundramoorthi, Rohan; Molnar, Zoltan
Studies completed to date provide persuasive evidence that placental cell-derived exosomes play a significant role in intercellular communication pathways that potentially contribute to placentation and development of materno-fetal vascular circulation. The aim of this study was to establish the gestational-age release profile and bioactivity of placental cell-derived exosome in maternal plasma. Plasma samples (n?=?20 per pregnant group) were obtained from non-pregnant and pregnant women in the first (FT, 6–12 weeks), second (ST, 22–24 weeks) and third (TT, 32–38 weeks) trimester. The number of exosomes and placental exosome contribution were determined by quantifying immunoreactive exosomal CD63 and placenta-specific marker (PLAP), respectively. The effect of exosomes isolated from FT, ST and TT on endothelial cell migration were established using a real-time, live-cell imaging system (Incucyte). Exosome plasma concentration was more than 50-fold greater in pregnant women than in non-pregnant women (p<0.001). During normal healthy pregnancy, the number of exosomes present in maternal plasma increased significantly with gestational age by more that two-fold (p<0.001). Exosomes isolated from FT, ST and TT increased endothelial cell migration by 1.9±0.1, 1.6±0.2 and 1.3±0.1-fold, respectively compared to the control. Pregnancy is associated with a dramatic increase in the number of exosomes present in plasma and maternal plasma exosomes are bioactive. While the role of placental cell-derived exosome in regulating maternal and/or fetal vascular responses remains to be elucidated, changes in exosome profile may be of clinical utility in the diagnosis of placental dysfunction.
Salomon, Carlos; Torres, Maria Jose; Kobayashi, Miharu; Scholz-Romero, Katherin; Sobrevia, Luis; Dobierzewska, Aneta; Illanes, Sebastian E.; Mitchell, Murray D.; Rice, Gregory E.
The srbi gene encodes a lipoprotein receptor with high affinity for high density lipoprotein that is mainly expressed in the liver and in steroidogenic tissues. Disruption of this gene in mice and mutations in humans lead to alterations in lipoprotein metabolism and/or fertility. During murine development, scavenger receptor class B member I (SR-BI) is present in the yolk sac and the placenta and is only expressed in the embryo itself late in gestation. In humans, it has been detected in trophoblast cells and placenta. Although the proportion of mice carrying a null mutation in SR-BI obtained from heterozygous intercrosses is lower than the expected by the Mendelian ratio, suggesting the involvement of this receptor in intrauterine development, the cause of this demise has remained unknown. In this work, we show that embryos lacking SR-BI exhibit a high prevalence of exencephaly with a sex bias toward females. Immunolocalization studies confirmed that SR-BI is not expressed in the embryo at early stages of development and allowed a more detailed description of its localization in the cells that mediate maternal-fetal transport of nutrients. SR-BI-null embryos contain less cholesterol than their wild-type littermates, suggesting the involvement of SR-BI in materno-fetal cholesterol transport. Newborn SR-BI-deficient pups exhibit intrauterine growth restriction, suggesting that this receptor is also important for fetal growth. Altogether, the results of our work suggest that the presence of SR-BI in extraembryonic tissues is involved in the maternal-fetal transport of cholesterol and/or other lipids with a role during neural tube closure and fetal growth. PMID:23221804
Santander, Nicolás Guillermo; Contreras-Duarte, Susana; Awad, María Fernanda; Lizama, Carlos; Passalacqua, Isabella; Rigotti, Attilio; Busso, Dolores
The "CLAPSEN" approach was developed at the Hospital Materno Infantil German Urquidi in Cochabamba, to provide a global response for the study and treatment of childhood malnutrition. "CLAPSEN" is short for Clinical, Laboratory, Anthropometry, Psychology, Sociology, Nursing (Enfermera in Spanish) and Nutritional care. Most of the malnourished children admitted to Cochabamba Hospital are from poor families, more than three quarters of whom have only recently arrived in the city. Acute malnutrition is just one of the manifestations of a generally unfavorable environment. Malnutrition should not be considered as a simple deficiency in energy, protein or micronutrients, but rather as a multi-deficiency syndrome, also involving a lack of basic health and social care. This study demonstrates that malnourished children display a considerable degree of psychological retardation and of immune system depression. After five weeks of rehabilitation, the children were considered to have recuperated physically, as assessed by anthropometry, but not psychologically, as assessed by the adapted Dewer Score, or immunologically, as shown by the size of the thymus or the extent of maturation of lymphocytes. This strategy was not designed as a long-term approach for treating malnutrition, but rather as a research project to characterize the children arriving at the hospital, to determine the reasons for their malnutrition and to identify strategies that could be implemented earlier by health centers of social services, to prevent deterioration in the condition of these children to severe malnutrition requiring hospital admission. We believe that, in this Latin American context, in which the rate of acute malnutrition is low, the hospital should continue to be involved in the treatment of severely malnourished children with associated diseases. The child's stay in hospital should be short and once the child has recovered clinically, he should be sent home. In light of the observed levels of social deprivation, psychosocial and immune deficits, there appears to be a need for continued support for the family, to ensure the full recovery of the child and to prevent relapses. PMID:10960806
Sevilla, R; Sejas, E; Zalles, L; Belmonte, G; Chevalier, P; Parent, G; Katherine, H; Kolsteren, P
Introduction IL s'agira ici d’ identifier les particularités diagnostiques et la prise en charge de l'HRP au Centre Hospitalier de Ndioum au Sénégal. Méthodes Etude rétrospective descriptive menée à l'hôpital régional de Ndioum, durant la période allant du 1er Janvier 2009 au 31 Décembre 2011. Toutes les patientes qui avaient présenté un HRP étaient incluses. Pour chaque patiente, nous avions étudié les paramètres socio-démographiques et cliniques, les données thérapeutiques et le pronostic materno-foetal. Résultats La fréquence était de 6,05%. L’âge moyen de nos patientes était compris entre 29 et 84 ans et la parité moyenne de 4,92. Aucune consultation prénatale n’était effectuée chez 16% des patientes. Les évacuations représentaient 66% de cas. L’âge gestationnel moyen était de 36 semaines d'aménorrhées et la majorité des patientes (86%) était en travail. La gravite du tableau clinique était appréciée selon la classification de Sher avec 63% (114 cas) au grade 3. Une coagulopathie était observée chez 27,2% des patientes. Nous avions retrouvé une relation statistiquement significative entre la gravite du tableau clinique et le pronostic maternel (p = 0,026) et foetal (p = 0,0000). Une direction du travail était effectuée chez 109 patientes (60% des cas). L'expulsion foetale était obtenue par voie basse dans 49% des cas et une césarienne était effectuée dans 51% des cas. La morbidité maternelle était dominée par l'anémie secondaire à une hémorragie aigue dans 17,8% des cas et à l'insuffisance rénale aigue dans 6,1% des cas. Les éléments de mauvais pronostic étaient représentés par la gravité du tableau clinique (p = 0,03) et le mode d'admission dominé par les évacuations (p = 0,01), la relation était statistiquement significative. La voie d'accouchement n’était pas retrouvée comme élément de mauvais pronostic (p = 0,09). Nous avions noté douze cas de décès maternels soit 6,6% des patientes. Conclusion La prévention de la mortalité maternelle et foetale liée à cette affection passe par une amélioration du suivi prénatal, une meilleure organisation du plan d'accouchement et une amélioration des conditions d’évacuation. La mise en place d'une banque de sang fonctionnel, d'une unité réanimation médicale ainsi qu'un service de prise en charge néonatale devient une nécessité pour améliorer le pronostic maternel et néonatal.
Thiam, Ousmane; Mbaye, Magatte; Diouf, Abdou Aziz; Toure, Fode Baba; Gueye, Mamour; Niang, Mansour; Cisse, Mamadou Lamine; Dieye, Sidy; Moreau, Jean Charles
Background Placental malaria is a disease linked to the sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum infected red blood cells (IRBC) in the placenta, leading to reduced materno-fetal exchanges and to local inflammation. One of the virulence factors of P. falciparum involved in cytoadherence to chondroitin sulfate A, its placental receptor, is the adhesive protein VAR2CSA. Its localisation on the surface of IRBC makes it accessible to the immune system. VAR2CSA contains six DBL domains. The DBL6? domain is the most variable. High variability constitutes a means for the parasite to evade the host immune response. The DBL6? domain could constitute a very attractive basis for a vaccine candidate but its reported variability necessitates, for antigenic characterisations, identifying and classifying commonalities across isolates. Methodology/Principal Findings Local alignment analysis of the DBL6? domain had revealed that it is not as variable as previously described. Variability is concentrated in seven regions present on the surface of the DBL6? domain. The main goal of our work is to classify and group variable sequences that will simplify further research to determine dominant epitopes. Firstly, variable sequences were grouped following their average percent pairwise identity (APPI). Groups comprising many variable sequences sharing low variability were found. Secondly, ELISA experiments following the IgG recognition of a recombinant DBL6? domain, and of peptides mimicking its seven variable blocks, allowed to determine an APPI cut-off and to isolate groups represented by a single consensus sequence. Conclusions/Significance A new sequence approach is used to compare variable regions in sequences that have extensive segmental gene relationship. Using this approach, the VAR2CSA DBL6 domain is composed of 7 variable blocks with limited polymorphism. Each variable block is composed of a limited number of consensus types. Based on peptide based ELISA, variable blocks with 85% or greater sequence identity are expected to be recognized equally well by antibody and can be considered the same consensus type. Therefore, the analysis of the antibody response against the classified small number of sequences should be helpful to determine epitopes.
Badaut, Cyril; Bertin, Gwladys; Rustico, Tatiana; Fievet, Nadine; Massougbodji, Achille; Gaye, Alioune; Deloron, Philippe
The present study was performed to estimate the prevalence of HBV in pregnant women (mean age among groups 25,0 6,9) who live in areas of different endemicity, and located in the Departments of Lima, Junin, Apurimac, and Ayacucho in Peru. All studies were carried out using radioimmunological techniques. In the Instituto Materno Perinatal in Lima, located in a low endemical area, 2086 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 14 and 44 years were evaluated (for laboratory tests) at their first prenatal examination. A prevalence of 9,38% (HbsAG+), 0,38% (Ratio), and 3,18% (HBsAg+, anti-HBsAg+) was found, corresponding to 107 HBsAg+ pregnant women whose treated newborn wouId prevent the HBV chronic infection of approximate 21 newborn each year. 63% HBsAg+ pregnant women were born in Departments other than Lima. In the Hospital de Apoyo La Merced, located in Chanchamayo, Junin, which is a medium endemic area, 217 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 14 and 48 years were evaluated. The prevalence found in this Hospital was of 1,38% (HBsAg+), 1,2% (Ratio), and 17,8% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+). All positive HBsAg were negative for HBeAg. The projection of results corresponded to a total of 9 HbsAg+ pregnant women and 2 newborn preventive of chronic disease per year. In the Guillermo D az de la Vega Hospital in Abancay, Apurimac, located in a medium to high endemic area, 221 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 15 and 46 years were evaluated. A prevalence of 1,36% (HBsAg+), 1,0% (Ratio), and 36,16% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+) was found. All positive HBsAg were negative for HBeAg. Projected results corresponded to a total of 37 HBsAg+ pregnant carriers and 7 newborn preventive of chronic disease per year. The Hospital General de Huanta, in Ayacucho, located in a high endemicity area, presented a prevalence of 3,2% (HBsAg+), 1,9% (Ratio), and 76,2% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+) from 126 pregnant women evaluated with ages between 15 and 48 years old. These results gave a total projection per year of 39 HBsAg+ pregnant women and 8 newborn preventive of chronic hepatic disease. Among a total of 4 positive HBsAg cases, 3 positive pregnant women were studied for HBeAg. All 3 were negative. These results establish the prevalence of HbsAg and antiHBs in pregnant women from different endemical areas with significant prevalence in the Departments of Ayacucho (Huanta), and Apurimac (Abancay). They also contribute towards the costbenefit analysis for the prevention of HBV chronic infection. PMID:12196812
Vasquez, S.; Cabezas, C.; Garcia, B.; Torres, R.; Larrabure, G.; Suarez, M.; Lucen, A.; Pernaz, G.; Gonzales, L.; Miranda, G.; Davalos, E.; Galarza, C.; Camasca, N.; Jara, R.