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Sample records for lend le vahakanala

  1. The Toy Lending Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiscont, Jeanne Mull

    This paper explores the concept of toy lending libraries. The first six chapters discuss: (1) the history of toy lending libraries; (2) the values and purposes of using games and toys with children; (2) the contribution of games and toys to the goals of a children's services library division; (3) examples of toy lending service in public…

  2. 12 CFR 195.22 - Lending test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lending test. 195.22 Section 195.22 Banks and... Assessing Performance § 195.22 Lending test. (a) Scope of test. (1) The lending test evaluates a savings... lending test except the community development lending criterion. (b) Performance criteria. The...

  3. 12 CFR 563e.22 - Lending test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lending test. 563e.22 Section 563e.22 Banks and... Assessing Performance § 563e.22 Lending test. (a) Scope of test. (1) The lending test evaluates a savings... section. The OTS will not consider these loans under any criterion of the lending test except...

  4. 12 CFR 345.22 - Lending test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lending test. 345.22 Section 345.22 Banks and... REINVESTMENT Standards for Assessing Performance § 345.22 Lending test. (a) Scope of test. (1) The lending test... consider these loans under any criterion of the lending test except the community development...

  5. 12 CFR 563e.22 - Lending test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lending test. 563e.22 Section 563e.22 Banks and... Assessing Performance § 563e.22 Lending test. (a) Scope of test. (1) The lending test evaluates a savings... section. The OTS will not consider these loans under any criterion of the lending test except...

  6. 12 CFR 345.22 - Lending test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lending test. 345.22 Section 345.22 Banks and... REINVESTMENT Standards for Assessing Performance § 345.22 Lending test. (a) Scope of test. (1) The lending test... consider these loans under any criterion of the lending test except the community development...

  7. Lending sociodynamics and economic instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Raymond J.

    2011-11-01

    We show how the dynamics of economic instability and financial crises articulated by Keynes in the General Theory and developed by Minsky as the Financial Instability Hypothesis can be formalized using Weidlich’s sociodynamics of opinion formation. The model addresses both the lending sentiment of a lender in isolation as well as the impact on that lending sentiment of the behavior of other lenders. The risk associated with lending is incorporated through a stochastic treatment of loan dynamics that treats prepayment and default as competing risks. With this model we are able to generate endogenously the rapid changes in lending opinion that attend slow changes in lending profitability and find these dynamics to be consistent with the rise and collapse of the non-Agency mortgage-backed securities market in 2007/2008. As the parameters of this model correspond to well-known phenomena in cognitive and social psychology, we can both explain why economic instability has proved robust to advances in risk measurement and suggest how policy for reducing economic instability might be formulated in an experimentally sound manner.

  8. South Carolina's SC LENDS: Optimizing Libraries, Transforming Lending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamby, Rogan; McBride, Ray; Lundberg, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Since SC LENDS started operating in June 2009, more public libraries have come on board. All of this on the back end connects to a Mozilla-based staff client that has distributions for Mac OS X and Microsoft Windows, using SSL encryption to keep communications secure and private between remote libraries and the servers hosted at a high-end…

  9. Documentation of the lending process

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, S.H.; Manion, J.S.; Garcia-Hohmann, J.

    1981-08-01

    US DOE has forged a partnership with the American Bankers Association, the US League of Savings Associations, and the National League of Savings and Loans to develop training materials for senior financial institution officials, loan officers and staff appraisers in the area of energy efficient considerations at the residential time of transfer. Also, training materials will be developed to enable financial institutions to educate their customers regarding residential energy efficiency. To reach this goal, the lending process must be documented to provide training material developers with an understanding of possible areas where the lending process can be most effected by energy education. Objective of this report was to document the mortgage lending process by conducting a literature search. Researchers concentrated on the role of both primary lenders and the secondary mortgage market. Also, studies were made on the types of mortgage plans, linkages between major actors (e.g., real estate agents, appraisers, senior bank officials, loan officers), guarantors (e.g., FHA, VA), and mortgage variations due to region and building type and owner.

  10. 12 CFR 228.22 - Lending test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lending test. 228.22 Section 228.22 Banks and... REINVESTMENT (REGULATION BB) Standards for Assessing Performance § 228.22 Lending test. (a) Scope of test. (1) The lending test evaluates a bank's record of helping to meet the credit needs of its assessment...

  11. 12 CFR 228.22 - Lending test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lending test. 228.22 Section 228.22 Banks and...) COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT (REGULATION BB) Standards for Assessing Performance § 228.22 Lending test. (a) Scope of test. (1) The lending test evaluates a bank's record of helping to meet the credit needs of...

  12. 12 CFR 25.22 - Lending test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lending test. 25.22 Section 25.22 Banks and... DEPOSIT PRODUCTION REGULATIONS Regulations Standards for Assessing Performance § 25.22 Lending test. (a) Scope of test. (1) The lending test evaluates a bank's record of helping to meet the credit needs of...

  13. 12 CFR 25.22 - Lending test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lending test. 25.22 Section 25.22 Banks and... DEPOSIT PRODUCTION REGULATIONS Regulations Standards for Assessing Performance § 25.22 Lending test. (a) Scope of test. (1) The lending test evaluates a bank's record of helping to meet the credit needs of...

  14. 12 CFR 228.22 - Lending test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lending test. 228.22 Section 228.22 Banks and... REINVESTMENT (REGULATION BB) Standards for Assessing Performance § 228.22 Lending test. (a) Scope of test. (1) The lending test evaluates a bank's record of helping to meet the credit needs of its assessment...

  15. 76 FR 43385 - Lending and Investment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Lending and Investment AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury... on the following information collection. Title of Proposal: Lending and Investment. OMB Number:...

  16. 76 FR 28504 - Lending and Investment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Lending and Investment AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury... collection. Title of Proposal: Lending and Investment. OMB Number: 1550-0078. Form Number: N/A....

  17. 12 CFR 613.3200 - International lending.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false International lending. 613.3200 Section 613... Financing for Banks Operating Under Title III of the Farm Credit Act § 613.3200 International lending. (a...) International business operations. A bank for cooperatives or an agricultural credit bank may finance a...

  18. 12 CFR 613.3200 - International lending.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false International lending. 613.3200 Section 613... Financing for Banks Operating Under Title III of the Farm Credit Act § 613.3200 International lending. (a...) International business operations. A bank for cooperatives or an agricultural credit bank may finance a...

  19. 12 CFR 613.3200 - International lending.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false International lending. 613.3200 Section 613... Financing for Banks Operating Under Title III of the Farm Credit Act § 613.3200 International lending. (a...) International business operations. A bank for cooperatives or an agricultural credit bank may finance a...

  20. 12 CFR 613.3200 - International lending.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false International lending. 613.3200 Section 613... Financing for Banks Operating Under Title III of the Farm Credit Act § 613.3200 International lending. (a...) International business operations. A bank for cooperatives or an agricultural credit bank may finance a...

  1. 12 CFR 613.3200 - International lending.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false International lending. 613.3200 Section 613... Financing for Banks Operating Under Title III of the Farm Credit Act § 613.3200 International lending. (a...) International business operations. A bank for cooperatives or an agricultural credit bank may finance a...

  2. 75 FR 58509 - Truth in Lending

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... Regulation Z to implement changes to TILA made by the Home Ownership and Equity Act (HOEPA). 60 FR 15463; Mar... preserving responsible lending and sustainable homeownership. See 74 FR 43232; Aug. 26, 2009. The comment... amount. \\3\\ See Home Equity Lending Market; Notice of Hearings, 72 FR 30380; May 31, 2007; Home...

  3. 12 CFR 613.3100 - Domestic lending.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Domestic lending. 613.3100 Section 613.3100 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELIGIBILITY AND SCOPE OF FINANCING Financing for Banks Operating Under Title III of the Farm Credit Act § 613.3100 Domestic lending. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this subpart,...

  4. 12 CFR 613.3005 - Lending objective.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lending objective. 613.3005 Section 613.3005 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELIGIBILITY AND SCOPE OF FINANCING Financing Under Titles I and II of the Farm Credit Act § 613.3005 Lending objective. It is the objective...

  5. 12 CFR 25.22 - Lending test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... geographies in the bank's assessment area(s); (3) Borrower characteristics. The distribution, particularly in... individuals or geographies. (c) Affiliate lending. (1) At a bank's option, the OCC will consider loans by...

  6. 12 CFR 345.22 - Lending test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (iii) The number and amount of loans in low-, moderate-, middle-, and upper-income geographies in the... individuals or geographies. (c) Affiliate lending. (1) At a bank's option, the FDIC will consider loans by...

  7. 12 CFR 345.22 - Lending test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (iii) The number and amount of loans in low-, moderate-, middle-, and upper-income geographies in the... individuals or geographies. (c) Affiliate lending. (1) At a bank's option, the FDIC will consider loans by...

  8. 12 CFR 345.22 - Lending test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (iii) The number and amount of loans in low-, moderate-, middle-, and upper-income geographies in the... individuals or geographies. (c) Affiliate lending. (1) At a bank's option, the FDIC will consider loans by...

  9. 12 CFR 228.22 - Lending test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-, and upper-income geographies in the bank's assessment area(s); (3) Borrower characteristics. The... of low- or moderate-income individuals or geographies. (c) Affiliate lending. (1) At a bank's...

  10. 12 CFR 228.22 - Lending test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-, moderate-, middle-, and upper-income geographies in the bank's assessment area(s); (3) Borrower... credit needs of low- or moderate-income individuals or geographies. (c) Affiliate lending. (1) At a...

  11. 12 CFR 25.22 - Lending test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... geographies in the bank's assessment area(s); (3) Borrower characteristics. The distribution, particularly in... individuals or geographies. (c) Affiliate lending. (1) At a bank's option, the OCC will consider loans by...

  12. 12 CFR 25.22 - Lending test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... geographies in the bank's assessment area(s); (3) Borrower characteristics. The distribution, particularly in... individuals or geographies. (c) Affiliate lending. (1) At a bank's option, the OCC will consider loans by...

  13. 75 FR 66553 - Truth in Lending

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ...The Board is publishing for public comment an interim final rule amending Regulation Z (Truth in Lending). The interim rule implements Section 129E of the Truth in Lending Act (TILA), which was enacted on July 21, 2010, as Section 1472 of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act. TILA Section 129E establishes new requirements for appraisal independence for consumer credit......

  14. 12 CFR 365.2 - Real estate lending standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Real estate lending standards. 365.2 Section... POLICY REAL ESTATE LENDING STANDARDS Real Estate Lending Standards § 365.2 Real estate lending standards... estate, or that are made for the purpose of financing permanent improvements to real estate. (b)(1)......

  15. 12 CFR 34.62 - Real estate lending standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Real estate lending standards. 34.62 Section 34.62 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Real Estate Lending Standards § 34.62 Real estate lending standards. (a) Each national bank...

  16. 12 CFR 365.2 - Real estate lending standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Real estate lending standards. 365.2 Section... POLICY REAL ESTATE LENDING STANDARDS Real Estate Lending Standards § 365.2 Real estate lending standards... estate, or that are made for the purpose of financing permanent improvements to real estate. (b)(1)......

  17. 12 CFR 34.62 - Real estate lending standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Real estate lending standards. 34.62 Section 34.62 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Real Estate Lending Standards § 34.62 Real estate lending standards. (a) Each national bank...

  18. 12 CFR 365.2 - Real estate lending standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Real estate lending standards. 365.2 Section... POLICY REAL ESTATE LENDING STANDARDS Real Estate Lending Standards § 365.2 Real estate lending standards... estate, or that are made for the purpose of financing permanent improvements to real estate. (b)(1)......

  19. 12 CFR 34.62 - Real estate lending standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Real estate lending standards. 34.62 Section 34.62 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Real Estate Lending Standards § 34.62 Real estate lending standards. (a) Each national bank...

  20. 12 CFR 365.2 - Real estate lending standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Real estate lending standards. 365.2 Section 365.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY REAL ESTATE LENDING STANDARDS Real Estate Lending Standards § 365.2 Real estate lending standards. (a) Each insured state nonmember bank...

  1. 12 CFR 34.62 - Real estate lending standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Real estate lending standards. 34.62 Section 34.62 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Real Estate Lending Standards § 34.62 Real estate lending standards. (a) Each national bank...

  2. 12 CFR 560.101 - Real estate lending standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Real estate lending standards. 560.101 Section 560.101 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING AND INVESTMENT Lending and Investment Provisions Applicable to all Savings Associations § 560.101 Real estate lending standards. (a) Each savings...

  3. 12 CFR 34.62 - Real estate lending standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Real estate lending standards. 34.62 Section 34.62 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Real Estate Lending Standards § 34.62 Real estate lending standards. (a) Each national bank shall adopt and maintain written...

  4. Direct Lending: How To Improve Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jepsen, Keith

    This evaluation study developed 29 recommendations concerning the implementation of direct loans in providing financial assistance to postsecondary school students. The investigation included examination of a current Department of Education (ED) pilot program, a video teleconference to discuss direct lending with 23 individuals in education…

  5. 75 FR 80675 - Truth in Lending

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ..., (75 FR 66554) make the following corrections: 1. On page 66555, in the first column, line 24, correct... interim final rule published in the ] Federal Register of October 28, 2010 (75 FR 66554) (Docket No. R... October 28, 2010 (75 FR 66554) (Docket No. R- 1394), amending Regulation Z (Truth in Lending) to...

  6. 12 CFR 952.4 - Targeted Community Lending Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Targeted Community Lending Plan 952.4 Section... SHEET ITEMS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT CASH ADVANCE PROGRAMS § 952.4 Targeted Community Lending Plan Each Bank shall develop and adopt an annual Targeted Community Lending Plan pursuant to § 944.6 of this chapter....

  7. 12 CFR 952.4 - Targeted Community Lending Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Targeted Community Lending Plan 952.4 Section... SHEET ITEMS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT CASH ADVANCE PROGRAMS § 952.4 Targeted Community Lending Plan Each Bank shall develop and adopt an annual Targeted Community Lending Plan pursuant to § 944.6 of this chapter....

  8. 60 FR 35353 - Real Estate Lending and Appraisals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1995-07-07

    ... Office of the Comptroller of the Currency 12 CFR Part 34 RIN 1557-AB48 Real Estate Lending and Appraisals... modernize and clarify the real estate lending rules, reduce unnecessary regulatory burdens, and, consistent... clarify the OCC's real estate lending regulations. Discussion Part 34 consists of the following...

  9. 12 CFR 952.4 - Targeted Community Lending Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Targeted Community Lending Plan 952.4 Section... SHEET ITEMS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT CASH ADVANCE PROGRAMS § 952.4 Targeted Community Lending Plan Each Bank shall develop and adopt an annual Targeted Community Lending Plan pursuant to § 944.6 of this chapter....

  10. 12 CFR 952.4 - Targeted Community Lending Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Targeted Community Lending Plan 952.4 Section... SHEET ITEMS COMMUNITY INVESTMENT CASH ADVANCE PROGRAMS § 952.4 Targeted Community Lending Plan Each Bank shall develop and adopt an annual Targeted Community Lending Plan pursuant to § 944.6 of this chapter....

  11. 12 CFR 390.265 - Real estate lending standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Real estate lending standards. 390.265 Section 390.265 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY REGULATIONS TRANSFERRED FROM THE OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION Lending and Investment § 390.265 Real estate lending standards. (a) Each...

  12. 12 CFR 614.4360 - Lending and leasing limit violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lending and leasing limit violations. 614.4360... OPERATIONS Lending and Leasing Limits § 614.4360 Lending and leasing limit violations. (a) Each loan, except... and leasing limit on the date the loan is made, and at all times thereafter. Except as provided for...

  13. 12 CFR 365.2 - Real estate lending standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... approved by the bank's board of directors at least annually. (2) The lending policies must establish: (i) Loan portfolio diversification standards; (ii) Prudent underwriting standards, including...

  14. The Education Lending Policy of the European Investment Bank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuijnman, Albert

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the latest Education Lending Policy (ELP) of the European Investment Bank (EIB), adopted by the Board of Governors in 2008. It is structured in two parts. The first briefly presents the EIB in general and the evolution of its education lending portfolio in particular. This sets the stage for the second…

  15. 13 CFR 120.150 - What are SBA's lending criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What are SBA's lending criteria? 120.150 Section 120.150 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Policies Applying to All Business Loans Credit Criteria for Sba Loans § 120.150 What are SBA's lending criteria? The applicant (including an...

  16. 12 CFR 208.51 - Real estate lending standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Real estate lending standards. 208.51 Section 208.51 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... Appraisal Standards § 208.51 Real estate lending standards. (a) Adoption of written policies. Each...

  17. 12 CFR 208.51 - Real estate lending standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Real estate lending standards. 208.51 Section 208.51 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... Appraisal Standards § 208.51 Real estate lending standards. (a) Adoption of written policies. Each...

  18. 12 CFR 208.51 - Real estate lending standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Real estate lending standards. 208.51 Section 208.51 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... Appraisal Standards § 208.51 Real estate lending standards. (a) Adoption of written policies. Each...

  19. 12 CFR 208.51 - Real estate lending standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Real estate lending standards. 208.51 Section 208.51 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... Appraisal Standards § 208.51 Real estate lending standards. (a) Adoption of written policies. Each...

  20. Public Lending Right: A History of the Idea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stave, Thomas

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the history of the public lending right in terms of the debate between authors and librarians, factors which have influenced growth of author compensation for library lending, and its development (or status) in Scandinavia, The Netherlands, West Germany, Great Britain, Australia, and New Zealand. Thirty-five references are listed. (CHC)

  1. 61 FR 11294 - Real Estate Lending and Appraisals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1996-03-20

    ... Office of the Comptroller of the Currency 12 CFR Part 34 RIN 1557-AB48 Real Estate Lending and Appraisals... the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) is revising its rules governing real estate lending as part of...), and E (Other Real Estate Owned) (OREO) of 12 CFR part 34. 1 In the NPRM, the OCC proposed to ]...

  2. 12 CFR 1292.4 - Targeted Community Lending Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Targeted Community Lending Plan. 1292.4 Section 1292.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION COMMUNITY INVESTMENT CASH ADVANCE PROGRAMS § 1292.4 Targeted Community Lending Plan. Each Bank shall develop and...

  3. 12 CFR 32.4 - Calculation of lending limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... bank's capital category for purposes of 12 U.S.C. 1831o and 12 CFR 6.3. (b) Effective date. (1) A bank... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Calculation of lending limits. 32.4 Section 32.4 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING LIMITS §...

  4. 12 CFR 208.51 - Real estate lending standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Real estate lending standards. 208.51 Section 208.51 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... Appraisal Standards § 208.51 Real estate lending standards. (a) Adoption of written policies. Each...

  5. Analysis of the World Bank's pharmaceutical lending.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Monguió, Rosa; Rovira, Joan; Seoane-Vázquez, Enrique

    2007-04-01

    This article analyzes the World Bank's lending activity on pharmaceuticals and medical products (PMP) during the fiscal years (FY) 1999-2001 by regions, borrower and supplier country, and procurement method. Data for the study derived from the World Bank Project and the Business Warehouse databases. The information included all Bank projects approved during the study period. Information for the PMP procurement contracts was extracted for the health sector components of all sector projects awarded. Contract dollar amount was aggregated by borrower and supplier countries. A total of 365 contracts of PMP for a value of US$ 364.5 million (2001 prices) were awarded. International competitive bidding was the most common procurement method used representing 46.0% of the total PMP contracts amount. Domestic providers supplied 52.5% of the PMP contracts managed by the borrower countries. Twenty-two countries accounted for 97.0% of the total PMP purchased during the period of analysis. Only a small fraction of the Bank activity was directed to the pharmaceutical sector. There is a need for more involvement of the World Bank to increase accessibility, affordability and rational use of pharmaceuticals and medical products. An evaluation of the different procurement methods and their implications on drug quality and prices should be performed. PMID:16824640

  6. IMF-lending programs and suicide mortality.

    PubMed

    Goulas, Eleftherios; Zervoyianni, Athina

    2016-03-01

    While the economic consequences of IMF programs have been extensively analyzed in the literature, much less is known about how key welfare indicators, including suicide-mortality rates, correlate with countries' participation in such programs. This paper examines the impact of IMF lending on suicide mortality, using data from 30 developing and transition countries that received non-concessionary IMF loans during 1991-2008. Our results support the hypothesis of a positive causal relationship between suicide mortality and participation in IMF programs but reveal no systematic suicide-increasing effect from the size of IMF loans. This holds after accounting for self-selection into programs, resulting from the endogeneity of a country's decision to resort to the IMF for funding, and after controlling for standard socio-economic influences on suicidal behaviour. In particular, we find a positive aggregate suicide-mortality differential due to IMF-program participation of between 4 and 14 percentage points. We also find that the positive association between suicides and program participation is stronger and more robust among males. Comparing age groups, individuals belonging to the age group 45-to-64 exhibit the highest increase in suicide due to program-participation, which amounts to over 18 percentage points. Overall, our results imply that when countries are exposed to IMF programs in an attempt to resolve their economic problems, social-safety nets need to be designed to protect the adversely-affected part of the population. PMID:26874823

  7. 12 CFR 614.4351 - Computation of lending and leasing limit base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Computation of lending and leasing limit base... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Lending and Leasing Limits § 614.4351 Computation of lending and leasing limit base. (a) Lending and leasing limit base. An institution's lending and leasing limit base is composed...

  8. 12 CFR 614.4351 - Computation of lending and leasing limit base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computation of lending and leasing limit base... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Lending and Leasing Limits § 614.4351 Computation of lending and leasing limit base. (a) Lending and leasing limit base. An institution's lending and leasing limit base is composed...

  9. 12 CFR 160.100 - Real estate lending standards; purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Real estate lending standards; purpose and... LENDING AND INVESTMENT § 160.100 Real estate lending standards; purpose and scope. This section, and § 160... Improvement Act of 1991, 12 U.S.C. 1828(o), prescribe standards for real estate lending to be used by...

  10. 12 CFR 560.100 - Real estate lending standards; purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Real estate lending standards; purpose and scope. 560.100 Section 560.100 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING AND INVESTMENT Lending and Investment Provisions Applicable to all Savings Associations § 560.100 Real estate lending standards; purpose...

  11. 12 CFR 160.100 - Real estate lending standards; purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Real estate lending standards; purpose and... LENDING AND INVESTMENT § 160.100 Real estate lending standards; purpose and scope. This section, and § 160... Improvement Act of 1991, 12 U.S.C. 1828(o), prescribe standards for real estate lending to be used by...

  12. 12 CFR 160.100 - Real estate lending standards; purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Real estate lending standards; purpose and... LENDING AND INVESTMENT § 160.100 Real estate lending standards; purpose and scope. This section, and § 160... Improvement Act of 1991, 12 U.S.C. 1828(o), prescribe standards for real estate lending to be used by...

  13. Determinants of Default in P2P Lending.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Cinca, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Nieto, Begoña; López-Palacios, Luz

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies P2P lending and the factors explaining loan default. This is an important issue because in P2P lending individual investors bear the credit risk, instead of financial institutions, which are experts in dealing with this risk. P2P lenders suffer a severe problem of information asymmetry, because they are at a disadvantage facing the borrower. For this reason, P2P lending sites provide potential lenders with information about borrowers and their loan purpose. They also assign a grade to each loan. The empirical study is based on loans' data collected from Lending Club (N = 24,449) from 2008 to 2014 that are first analyzed by using univariate means tests and survival analysis. Factors explaining default are loan purpose, annual income, current housing situation, credit history and indebtedness. Secondly, a logistic regression model is developed to predict defaults. The grade assigned by the P2P lending site is the most predictive factor of default, but the accuracy of the model is improved by adding other information, especially the borrower's debt level. PMID:26425854

  14. Determinants of Default in P2P Lending

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies P2P lending and the factors explaining loan default. This is an important issue because in P2P lending individual investors bear the credit risk, instead of financial institutions, which are experts in dealing with this risk. P2P lenders suffer a severe problem of information asymmetry, because they are at a disadvantage facing the borrower. For this reason, P2P lending sites provide potential lenders with information about borrowers and their loan purpose. They also assign a grade to each loan. The empirical study is based on loans’ data collected from Lending Club (N = 24,449) from 2008 to 2014 that are first analyzed by using univariate means tests and survival analysis. Factors explaining default are loan purpose, annual income, current housing situation, credit history and indebtedness. Secondly, a logistic regression model is developed to predict defaults. The grade assigned by the P2P lending site is the most predictive factor of default, but the accuracy of the model is improved by adding other information, especially the borrower’s debt level. PMID:26425854

  15. Global Maps of Lunar Neutron Fluxes from the LEND Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvak, M. L.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Sanin, A.; Malakhov, A.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Droege, G.; Evans, L. G.; Garvin, J.; Golovin, D. V.; Harshman, K.; McClanahan, T. P.; Mokrousov, M. I.; Mazarico, E.; Milikh, G.; Neumann, G.; Sagdeev, R.; Smith, D. E.; Starr, R.; Zuber, M. T.

    2012-01-01

    The latest neutron spectrometer measurements with the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) are presented. It covers more than 1 year of mapping phase starting on 15 September 2009. In our analyses we have created global maps showing regional variations in the flux of thermal (energy range < 0.015 eV) and fast neutrons (>0.5 MeV), and compared these fluxes to variances in soil elemental composition, and with previous results obtained by the Lunar Prospector Neutron Spectrometer (LPNS). We also processed data from LEND collimated detectors and derived a value for the collimated signal of epithermal neutrons based on the comparative analysis with the LEND omnidirectional detectors. Finally, we have compared our final (after the data reduction) global epithermal neutron map with LPNS data.

  16. 75 FR 58489 - Regulation Z; Truth in Lending

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... rule would have guidance on how to interpret and comply with the statutory requirements. 74 FR 60143... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM 12 CFR Part 226 Regulation Z; Truth in Lending AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve...

  17. 7 CFR 1940.401 - Truth in lending.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Truth in lending. 1940.401 Section 1940.401 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  18. Banking on Solar: New Opportunities for Lending (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-08-01

    The U.S. solar industry is a $13.7 billion market with roughly 450,000 systems in place. Bank and credit union lending for solar system deployment represents a valuable new opportunity for lenders to expand their consumer and commercial customer relationships, bring on new relationships and open a new asset class category.

  19. 78 FR 17766 - Interagency Guidance on Leveraged Lending

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... INFORMATION. \\1\\ See 77 FR 19417 ``Proposed Guidance on Leveraged Lending'' dated March 30, 2012 at https...,'' Final Supervisory Guidance, 77 FR 29458 (May 17, 2012), at http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-05-17... Rule, Annual Stress Test, 77 FR 62417 (Oct. 15, 2012) (to be codified at 12 CFR part 325, subpart...

  20. 77 FR 21875 - Truth in Lending (Regulation Z)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ...The Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection (Bureau) is proposing to amend Regulation Z, which implements the Truth In Lending Act, and the official interpretation to the regulation, which interprets the requirements of Regulation Z. Regulation Z generally limits the total amount of fees that a credit card issuer may require a consumer to pay with respect to an account, limiting fees to 25......

  1. 12 CFR 160.101 - Real estate lending standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... regulation. 1 The agencies have adopted a uniform rule on real estate lending. See 12 CFR part 365 (FDIC); 12 CFR part 208, subpart C (Board); 12 CFR part 34, subpart D and 12 CFR 160.100-160.101 (OCC). Each... banks, “total capital” refers to that term described in table I of Appendix A to 12 CFR part 325....

  2. 12 CFR 560.101 - Real estate lending standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... regulation. 1 The agencies have adopted a uniform rule on real estate lending. See 12 CFR Part 365 (FDIC); 12 CFR Part 208, Subpart C (FRB); 12 CFR Part 34, Subpart D (OCC); and 12 CFR 560.100-560.101 (OTS). Each... capital” means “total risk-based capital” as defined in Appendix A to 12 CFR Part 208. For insured...

  3. 12 CFR 160.101 - Real estate lending standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... regulation. 1 The agencies have adopted a uniform rule on real estate lending. See 12 CFR part 365 (FDIC); 12 CFR part 208, subpart C (Board); 12 CFR part 34, subpart D and 12 CFR 160.100-160.101 (OCC). Each... banks, “total capital” refers to that term described in table I of appendix A to 12 CFR part 325....

  4. 12 CFR 560.101 - Real estate lending standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... regulation. 1 The agencies have adopted a uniform rule on real estate lending. See 12 CFR Part 365 (FDIC); 12 CFR Part 208, Subpart C (FRB); 12 CFR Part 34, Subpart D (OCC); and 12 CFR 560.100-560.101 (OTS). Each... capital” means “total risk-based capital” as defined in Appendix A to 12 CFR Part 208. For insured...

  5. 12 CFR 560.101 - Real estate lending standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... regulation. 1 The agencies have adopted a uniform rule on real estate lending. See 12 CFR Part 365 (FDIC); 12 CFR Part 208, Subpart C (FRB); 12 CFR Part 34, Subpart D (OCC); and 12 CFR 560.100-560.101 (OTS). Each... capital” means “total risk-based capital” as defined in Appendix A to 12 CFR Part 208. For insured...

  6. 12 CFR 160.101 - Real estate lending standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... regulation. 1 The agencies have adopted a uniform rule on real estate lending. See 12 CFR part 365 (FDIC); 12 CFR part 208, subpart C (Board); 12 CFR part 34, subpart D and 12 CFR 160.100-160.101 (OCC). Each... banks, “total capital” refers to that term described in table I of Appendix A to 12 CFR part 325....

  7. 12 CFR 560.101 - Real estate lending standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... regulation. 1 The agencies have adopted a uniform rule on real estate lending. See 12 CFR Part 365 (FDIC); 12 CFR Part 208, Subpart C (FRB); 12 CFR Part 34, Subpart D (OCC); and 12 CFR 560.100-560.101 (OTS). Each... capital” means “total risk-based capital” as defined in Appendix A to 12 CFR Part 208. For insured...

  8. 75 FR 19285 - Short-Term Lending Program (STLP)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ...This final rule governs the Short Term Lending Program (STLP), which provides financial assistance in the form of guarantees of short- term revolving lines of credit from Participating Lenders (PLs) to disadvantaged Business Enterprises (DBEs) and other certified small and disadvantaged business (SDBs) in connection with transportation-related contracts at the local, state and federal levels.......

  9. Residential Segregation and the Transformation of Home Mortgage Lending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Carolyn; Williams, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This article shows that, after decades of inequality, the 1990s saw sudden and dramatic increases in lending to low income and minority groups. Drawing in part on the work of Williams, Nesiba and McConnell (2005), we argue that government deregulation, industry restructuring and government-insured loans all fueled this growth by increasing the…

  10. 12 CFR 211.12 - Lending limits and capital requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... banks, as described in 12 CFR 250.165. (b) Loans and extensions of credit to one person—(1) Loans and... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lending limits and capital requirements. 211.12 Section 211.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE...

  11. 78 FR 70194 - Truth in Lending (Regulation Z)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... Regulation Z continues to apply to those entities.\\5\\ \\4\\ 76 FR 79768 (Dec. 22, 2011). \\5\\ Section 1029(a) of...). \\3\\ 76 FR 18354 (Apr. 4, 2011). Title X of the Dodd-Frank Act transferred rulemaking authority for a... CFR Part 226 BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1026 Truth in Lending (Regulation...

  12. 77 FR 22625 - Intermediary Lending Pilot (ILP) Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ...The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) requests that eligible organizations submit applications to become Intermediary Lending Pilot (ILP) Intermediaries. SBA will select up to 20 applicants to participate in the ILP program and receive direct loans of up to $1,000,000 each. ILP Intermediaries must use the ILP Loan funds to make loans of up to $200,000 to startup, newly established, or......

  13. How LEND sees the water on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanin, Anton; Mitrofanov, Igor; Litvak, Maxim; Boynton, William; Bodnarik, Julia; Hamara, Dave; Harshman, Karl; Chin, Gordon; Evans, Larry; Livengood, Timothy; McClanahan, Timothy; Sagdeev, Roald; Starr, Richard

    2016-04-01

    The Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) is operating on orbit around the Moon on-board the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft more than six years. LEND has been designed and manufactured to investigate presence and determine average amount of hydrogen in upper (~1 m depth) subsurface layer of the Lunar regolith with spatial resolution ~10 km from 50 km orbit and to check the hypothesis what the permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) at circumpolar regions are the main reservoirs of a large deposition of water ice on the Moon. One of most interesting and surprising LEND observations that not all large PSRs contain a detectable amount of hydrogen but there are neutron suppression regions (NSRs) with statistically significant suppression of neutron flux. The NSRs partially overlap or include PSRs in craters Cabeus, Shoemaker, Haworth (on South) and Rozhdestvensky U (on North) but significant part of their area spread out at sunlit territory. This means that hydrogen may be preserved for a long time or even accumulated at a subsurface regolith layer of sunlit areas. The majority of PSRs do not show statistically significant suppressions of neutron flux in comparison with neighbor sunlit vicinity. This implies a hypothesis what a permanent shadow is not only necessary condition for the hydrogen accumulation and preservation in the lunar subsurface. A method of water equivalent hydrogen (WEH) in top ~1 meter regolith estimation using LEND data has been developed. Maps of WEH distribution in North and South polar regions will be presented and discussed. Also, WEH estimation in case of hydrogen bearing regolith layer coverage by a dry regolith will be presented for largest NSRs.

  14. 12 CFR 390.265 - Real estate lending standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... regulation. 1 The agencies have adopted a uniform rule on real estate lending. See 12 CFR part 365 and §§ 390.264-390.265 (FDIC); 12 CFR part 208, subpart C (FRB); and 12 CFR part 34, subpart D (OCC). Each... capital” means “total risk-based capital” as defined in appendix A to 12 CFR part 208. For insured...

  15. 12 CFR 390.265 - Real estate lending standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... regulation. 1 The agencies have adopted a uniform rule on real estate lending. See 12 CFR part 365 and §§ 390.264-390.265 (FDIC); 12 CFR part 208, subpart C (FRB); and 12 CFR part 34, subpart D (OCC). Each... capital” means “total risk-based capital” as defined in appendix A to 12 CFR part 208. For insured...

  16. 12 CFR 550.370 - May I sell assets or lend money between fiduciary accounts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false May I sell assets or lend money between... Dealing § 550.370 May I sell assets or lend money between fiduciary accounts? You may sell assets or lend money between fiduciary accounts, if the transaction is fair to both accounts and is not prohibited...

  17. 12 CFR 560.100 - Real estate lending standards; purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Real estate lending standards; purpose and... § 560.100 Real estate lending standards; purpose and scope. This section, and § 560.101 of this subpart....S.C. 1828(o), prescribe standards for real estate lending to be used by savings associations and...

  18. 71 FR 75294 - Concentrations in Commercial Real Estate Lending, Sound Risk Management Practices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2006-12-14

    ..., ``Concentrations in Commercial Real Estate Lending, Sound Risk Management Practices,'' 71 FR 2302 (January 13, 2006... Office of Thrift Supervision Concentrations in Commercial Real Estate Lending, Sound Risk Management... is issuing final guidance: Concentrations in Commercial Real Estate (CRE) Lending, Sound...

  19. 12 CFR 560.100 - Real estate lending standards; purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Real estate lending standards; purpose and scope... Real estate lending standards; purpose and scope. This section, and § 560.101 of this subpart, issued.... 1828(o), prescribe standards for real estate lending to be used by savings associations and all...

  20. 12 CFR 390.264 - Real estate lending standards; purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Real estate lending standards; purpose and... Investment § 390.264 Real estate lending standards; purpose and scope. This section, and § 390.265, issued... for real estate lending to be used by State savings associations and all their includable...

  1. 12 CFR 560.100 - Real estate lending standards; purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Real estate lending standards; purpose and scope... Real estate lending standards; purpose and scope. This section, and § 560.101 of this subpart, issued.... 1828(o), prescribe standards for real estate lending to be used by savings associations and all...

  2. 12 CFR 390.264 - Real estate lending standards; purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Real estate lending standards; purpose and... Investment § 390.264 Real estate lending standards; purpose and scope. This section, and § 390.265, issued... for real estate lending to be used by State savings associations and all their includable...

  3. 12 CFR 560.100 - Real estate lending standards; purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Real estate lending standards; purpose and... § 560.100 Real estate lending standards; purpose and scope. This section, and § 560.101 of this subpart....S.C. 1828(o), prescribe standards for real estate lending to be used by savings associations and...

  4. 12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart D of... - Interagency Guidelines for Real Estate Lending

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interagency Guidelines for Real Estate Lending A Appendix A to Subpart D of Part 34 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Real Estate Lending Standards Pt. 34, Subpt. D, App. A Appendix A to Subpart D of Part...

  5. The Impact of Federal Preemption of State Antipredatory Lending Laws on the Foreclosure Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Lei; Quercia, Roberto G.; Reid, Carolina K.; White, Alan M.

    2012-01-01

    State antipredatory lending laws (APLs) are designed to protect borrowers against predatory lending that can increase the risk of default and deplete the home equity held by borrowers. Federal regulators instituted preemption that limited the scope and reach of state antipredatory lending regulations for certain lenders. Based on the variation in…

  6. Music Lending and Listening in Hospitals with Particular Reference to the Services Offered at Herlev Hospital, Copenhagen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, B.; Sorensen, M.

    Services provided by the library at Herlev Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark, are discussed, including patient and personnel lending, exhibitions, films, nursing school library, medical library, and music lending. (RAO)

  7. 16 CFR 14.16 - Interpretation of Truth-in-Lending Orders consistent with amendments to the Truth-in-Lending Act...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interpretation of Truth-in-Lending Orders consistent with amendments to the Truth-in-Lending Act and Regulation Z. 14.16 Section 14.16 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ADMINISTRATIVE INTERPRETATIONS, GENERAL POLICY STATEMENTS,...

  8. Bank Size and Small- and Medium-sized Enterprise (SME) Lending: Evidence from China

    PubMed Central

    SHEN, YAN; SHEN, MINGGAO; XU, ZHONG; BAI, YING

    2014-01-01

    Summary Using panel data collected in 2005, we evaluate how bank size, discretion over credit, incentive schemes, competition, and the institutional environment affect lending to small- and medium-sized enterprises in China. We deal with the endogeneity problem using instrumental variables, and a reduced-form approach is also applied to allow for weak instruments in estimation. We find that total bank asset is an insignificant factor for banks’ decision on small- and medium-enterprise (SME) lending, but more local lending authority, more competition, carefully designed incentive schemes, and stronger law enforcement encourage commercial banks to lend to SMEs. PMID:26052179

  9. 77 FR 55271 - Truth in Lending Act (Regulation Z); Loan Originator Compensation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ...The Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection is publishing for public comment a proposed rule amending Regulation Z (Truth in Lending) to implement amendments to the Truth in Lending Act (TILA) made by the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act). The proposal would implement statutory changes made by the Dodd- Frank Act to Regulation Z's current loan......

  10. 69 FR 1904 - Bank Activities and Operations; Real Estate Lending and Appraisals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2004-01-13

    ... proposal to determine that real estate brokerage is ``financial in nature.'' See 66 FR 307 (Jan. 3, 2001... Operations; Real Estate Lending and Appraisals AGENCY: Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, Treasury... governs national banks' real estate lending, and in three new sections to part 7 added by this final...

  11. 71 FR 2302 - Concentrations in Commercial Real Estate Lending, Sound Risk Management Practices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2006-01-13

    ... Commercial Real Estate Lending, Sound Risk Management Practices AGENCIES: Office of the Comptroller of the... this proposed guidance entitled, Concentrations in Commercial Real Estate Lending, Sound Risk... concentrations of commercial real estate loans on their balance sheets and are concerned that...

  12. 76 FR 60600 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Supplemental Quarterly Report (Small Business Lending...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... Business Lending Fund to report information about the level and type of loans they are making to small businesses on a quarterly basis. DATES: Written comments must be received on or before November 28, 2011 to... Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Supplemental Quarterly Report (Small Business Lending Fund,...

  13. 12 CFR 390.264 - Real estate lending standards; purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Real estate lending standards; purpose and scope. 390.264 Section 390.264 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY REGULATIONS TRANSFERRED FROM THE OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION Lending and Investment § 390.264 Real estate...

  14. 13 CFR 307.18 - Addition of lending areas; merger of RLFs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ECONOMIC ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE INVESTMENTS Special Requirements for Revolving Loan... Lending Areas. An RLF Recipient shall make loans to implement and assist economic activity only within its... Investment Assistance to the RLF Recipient; (ii) The Additional Lending Area must fulfill the...

  15. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 208 - Interagency Guidelines for Real Estate Lending Policies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... regulation. 1 The agencies have adopted a uniform rule on real estate lending. See 12 CFR part 365 (FDIC); 12 CFR part 208, subpart E (FRB); 12 CFR part 34, subpart D (OCC); and 12 CFR 563.100-101 (OTS). Each... lending should: • Identify the geographic areas in which the institution will consider...

  16. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 208 - Interagency Guidelines for Real Estate Lending Policies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... regulation. 1 The agencies have adopted a uniform rule on real estate lending. See 12 CFR part 365 (FDIC); 12 CFR part 208, subpart E (FRB); 12 CFR part 34, subpart D (OCC); and 12 CFR 563.100-101 (OTS). Each... lending should: • Identify the geographic areas in which the institution will consider...

  17. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 208 - Interagency Guidelines for Real Estate Lending Policies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... regulation. 1 The agencies have adopted a uniform rule on real estate lending. See 12 CFR part 365 (FDIC); 12 CFR part 208, subpart E (FRB); 12 CFR part 34, subpart D (OCC); and 12 CFR 563.100-101 (OTS). Each... lending should: • Identify the geographic areas in which the institution will consider...

  18. 12 CFR 723.3 - What are the requirements for construction and development lending?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What are the requirements for construction and development lending? 723.3 Section 723.3 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS MEMBER BUSINESS LOANS § 723.3 What are the requirements for construction and development lending? Except as...

  19. Fostering intentional interdisciplinary leadership in developmental disabilities: the North Carolina LEND experience.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Angela; Margolis, Lewis H; Umble, Karl; Chewning, Linda

    2015-02-01

    This study describes the effects of interdisciplinary leadership training on a retrospective cohort (2001-2009) of the University of North Carolina MCH Leadership Education in Neurodevelopmental and Related Disabilities (UNC-CH LEND) program, including LEND graduates who were selected to participate in a focused Interdisciplinary Leadership Development Program (ILDP) in addition to their LEND training. Specifically, the study examined graduates' reports of the relationship between LEND training and their attitudes/beliefs about interdisciplinary practice, as well as their reported use of interdisciplinary skills in their post-fellowship practice settings. Using a post-test design, participants in the LEND and ILDP programs were contacted to complete an on-line survey. Using a Conceptual Model guided by EvaluLEAD, respondents were asked to rate the influence of the UNC-LEND training program on their attitudes/beliefs and skills using a 5-point Likert scale, as well as through open-ended descriptions. The 49 LEND respondents represented a 56% overall response rate from years 2001-2009. ILDP participants reported greater agreement with interdisciplinary attitudes/beliefs and more frequent use of interdisciplinary skills than did the non-participants. Graduates of LEND as well as ILDP reported the influence of training through a range of qualitative responses. Response examples highlight the influence of LEND training to promote outcomes at the individual, organizational and systems level. Findings from this study illustrate that MCHB funded LEND training has a strong influence on the future employment and interdisciplinary practices of graduates for the MCH workforce as well as services for individuals with developmental disabilities, their families and systems of care. PMID:25366097

  20. 12 CFR 218.772 - Exemption from the definition of “broker” for banks engaging in securities lending transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... security lends the security temporarily to another party pursuant to a written securities lending agreement... collateral; (4) Providing mark-to-market, corporate action, recordkeeping or other services incidental to...

  1. 17 CFR 247.772 - Exemption from the definition of “broker” for banks engaging in securities lending transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... security lends the security temporarily to another party pursuant to a written securities lending agreement... collateral; (4) Providing mark-to-market, corporate action, recordkeeping or other services incidental to...

  2. 12 CFR 218.772 - Exemption from the definition of “broker” for banks engaging in securities lending transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... security lends the security temporarily to another party pursuant to a written securities lending agreement... collateral; (4) Providing mark-to-market, corporate action, recordkeeping or other services incidental to...

  3. 77 FR 16817 - Request for Comment on Payday Lending Hearing Transcript

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ...On January 19, 2012, the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection (Bureau) held a field hearing on payday lending. The Bureau invites the public to review the transcript and provide additional feedback on the issues raised in...

  4. People-to-People Lending: The Emerging E-Commerce Transformation of a Financial Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Greiner, Martina; Aronson, Jay E.

    This paper provides an overview of the concept of people-to-people (P2P) lending, a relatively new e-commerce phenomenon that has the potential to radically change the structure of the loan segment of the financial industry. P2P lending creates a marketplace of individuals and a social fabric through which these individuals interact. It provides efficient information transfer, thus perhaps creating more perfect markets. P2P lending requires information systems support to make it function, and to provide a social network mechanism that may be crucial for its success. We discuss different P2P lending marketplace models, and how information systems support the creation and management of these new marketplaces, and how they support the individuals involved. We conclude by providing some important research questions and directions, and issues for which further investigation is called.

  5. 78 FR 4725 - Escrow Requirements Under the Truth in Lending Act (Regulation Z)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ...The Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection (Bureau) is publishing a final rule that amends Regulation Z (Truth in Lending) to implement certain amendments to the Truth in Lending Act made by the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act). Regulation Z currently requires creditors to establish escrow accounts for higher-priced mortgage loans secured by a first......

  6. 16 CFR 14.16 - Interpretation of Truth-in-Lending Orders consistent with amendments to the Truth-in-Lending Act...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... practice (16 CFR 2.51). However, the Commission recognizes that the policy statement may not provide clear... Stat. 168), and under revised Regulation Z (12 CFR part 226, 46 FR 20848), and subsequent amendments to... Truth-in-Lending Act and Regulation Z (12 CFR part 226) will be interpreted and enforced consistent...

  7. 16 CFR 14.16 - Interpretation of Truth-in-Lending Orders consistent with amendments to the Truth-in-Lending Act...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... practice (16 CFR 2.51). However, the Commission recognizes that the policy statement may not provide clear... Stat. 168), and under revised Regulation Z (12 CFR part 226, 46 FR 20848), and subsequent amendments to... Truth-in-Lending Act and Regulation Z (12 CFR part 226) will be interpreted and enforced consistent...

  8. 16 CFR 14.16 - Interpretation of Truth-in-Lending Orders consistent with amendments to the Truth-in-Lending Act...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... practice (16 CFR 2.51). However, the Commission recognizes that the policy statement may not provide clear... Stat. 168), and under revised Regulation Z (12 CFR part 226, 46 FR 20848), and subsequent amendments to... Truth-in-Lending Act and Regulation Z (12 CFR part 226) will be interpreted and enforced consistent...

  9. 16 CFR 14.16 - Interpretation of Truth-in-Lending Orders consistent with amendments to the Truth-in-Lending Act...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... practice (16 CFR 2.51). However, the Commission recognizes that the policy statement may not provide clear... Stat. 168), and under revised Regulation Z (12 CFR part 226, 46 FR 20848), and subsequent amendments to... Truth-in-Lending Act and Regulation Z (12 CFR part 226) will be interpreted and enforced consistent...

  10. Direct Government Lending: The Bottom Line. A Critique of GAO's Report on Guaranteed Student Loans versus Direct Lending and Revised Savings Estimates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quick, Perry D.

    This report addresses the dollar savings described in the Government Accounting Office's (GAO) report supporting direct lending as opposed to the present guaranteed student loan program. The critique explains the changes in the GAO model assumptions and projections that are believed necessary to move from the original $4.8 billion savings to a…

  11. Le Indeterminacy in Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, David William

    The standard treatment of object pronouns in Latin American Spanish assigns a direct-object function to "lo" and "la" and an indirect-object function to "le." This study challenges this descriptive attribution in light of the contradictory and refractory evidence in Spanish morphosyntax. It is suggested that more detailed research, especially…

  12. Le Figaro. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Linda

    These instructional materials are designed for students with some French reading skills and vocabulary in late beginning or early intermediate senior high school French. The objectives are to introduce students to a French newspaper, "Le Figaro," and develop reading skills for skimming, gathering specific information, and relying on cognates. The…

  13. From Interlibrary Lending to Document Delivery: The British Library Document Supply Centre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrigan, Dennis

    1993-01-01

    Provides a history from 1926 to the present of interlibrary lending services for scientific and technical literature in Great Britain. The British Library Document Supply Centre's development, current state, and future plans are described, including the availability of its services in North America. (Contains 14 references.) (EAM)

  14. 12 CFR 390.150 - Guidelines relating to nondiscrimination in lending.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., religion, sex, handicap, familial status (having one or more children under the age of 18), marital status... practices—(1) Discrimination on the basis of sex or marital status. The Civil Rights Act of 1968 and the National Housing Act prohibit discrimination in lending on the basis of sex. The Equal Credit...

  15. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 30 - OCC Guidelines Establishing Standards for Residential Mortgage Lending Practices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... regulations in 12 CFR part 30. ii. As the OCC has previously indicated in guidance to national banks and in..., will involve violations of OCC regulations governing real estate lending activities, 12 CFR 34.3... CFR part 34, subpart C, and the Interagency Appraisal and Evaluation Guidelines (OCC Advisory...

  16. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 30 - OCC Guidelines Establishing Standards for Residential Mortgage Lending Practices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... regulations in 12 CFR part 30. ii. As the OCC has previously indicated in guidance to national banks and in..., will involve violations of OCC regulations governing real estate lending activities, 12 CFR 34.3... CFR part 34, subpart C, and the Interagency Appraisal and Evaluation Guidelines (OCC Advisory...

  17. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 30 - OCC Guidelines Establishing Standards for Residential Mortgage Lending Practices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false OCC Guidelines Establishing Standards for Residential Mortgage Lending Practices C Appendix C to Part 30 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS STANDARDS Pt. 30, App. C Appendix C to Part 30—OCC Guidelines Establishing Standards...

  18. Laptops to Go: A Student Assessment of a Library Laptop Lending Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summey, Terri; Gutierrez, Art

    2012-01-01

    Approximately five years ago, the library at Emporia State University started a laptop lending service to provide laptops for use in the library. The program has been highly successful. In the last few years, some modifications were made to the program, and netbooks were added. In this article, the authors will explore laptop programs in a variety…

  19. 78 FR 11279 - Loan Originator Compensation Requirements Under the Truth in Lending Act (Regulation Z)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ...The Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection (Bureau) is amending Regulation Z to implement amendments to the Truth in Lending Act (TILA) made by the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act). The final rule implements requirements and restrictions imposed by the Dodd-Frank Act concerning loan originator compensation; qualifications of, and registration or......

  20. 12 CFR 550.370 - May I sell assets or lend money between fiduciary accounts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false May I sell assets or lend money between fiduciary accounts? 550.370 Section 550.370 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FIDUCIARY POWERS OF SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS Exercising Fiduciary Powers Restrictions on...

  1. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 30 - OCC Guidelines Establishing Standards for Residential Mortgage Lending Practices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... regulations in 12 CFR part 30. ii. As the OCC has previously indicated in guidance to national banks and in..., will involve violations of OCC regulations governing real estate lending activities, 12 CFR 34.3... CFR part 34, subpart C, and the Interagency Appraisal and Evaluation Guidelines (OCC Advisory...

  2. 77 FR 32170 - Notice of Request for Renewal of Previously Approved Collection; Short Term Lending Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ... the renewal of the Short Term Lending Program--Application for Loan Guarantee. A 60 day Federal Register Notice (77 FR 14459) was published March 9, 2012 (DOT-OST 2008-0244). The agency did not receive... Office of the Secretary Notice of Request for Renewal of Previously Approved Collection; Short...

  3. 75 FR 50936 - Loan Policies and Operations; Lending and Leasing Limits and Risk Management

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    .... 583 (Dec. 10, 1971). \\3\\ See 58 FR 40311, July 28, 1993. \\4\\ Public Law 100-233, 101 Stat. 1568 (Jan. 6, 1988). \\5\\ See 58 FR 40311, 40318, July 28, 1993. The current regulations do not impose lending... Leasing Limits and Risk Management AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY:...

  4. Empirical Analysis of Effects of Bank Mergers and Acquisitions on Small Business Lending in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ita, Asuquo Akabom

    2012-11-01

    Mergers and acquisitions are the major instruments of the recent banking reforms in Nigeria.The effects and the implications of the reforms on the lending practices of merged banks to small businesses were considered in this study. These effects were divided into static and dynamic effects (restructuring, direct and external). Data were collected by cross-sectional research design and were subsequently analyzed by the ordinary least square (OLS) method.The analyses show that bank size, financial characteristics and deposit of non-merged banks are positively related to small business lending. While for the merged banks, the reverse is the case. From the above result, it is evident that merger and acquisition have not only static effect on small business lending but also dynamic effect, therefore, given the central position of small businesses in the current government policy on industrialization in Nigeria, policy makers in Nigeria, should consider both the static and dynamic effects of merger and acquisition on small business lending in their policy thrust.

  5. 12 CFR Appendix III to Part 27 - Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fair Housing Lending Inquiry/Application Log Sheet III Appendix III to Part 27 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR HOUSING HOME LOAN DATA SYSTEM Pt. 27, App. III Appendix III to Part 27—Fair Housing...

  6. 34 CFR 682.608 - Termination of a school's lending eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Termination of a school's lending eligibility. 682.608 Section 682.608 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL FAMILY EDUCATION LOAN (FFEL) PROGRAM...

  7. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 365 - Interagency Guidelines for Real Estate Lending Policies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements of the regulation. 5 The agencies have adopted a uniform rule on real estate lending. See 12 CFR part 365 (FDIC); 12 CFR part 208, subpart C (FRB); 12 CFR part 34, subpart D (OCC); and 12 CFR 563.100...” means “total risk-based capital” as defined in appendix A to 12 CFR part 208. For insured state...

  8. 12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Interagency Guidelines for Real Estate Lending Policies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... regulation. 5 The agencies have adopted a uniform rule on real estate lending. See 12 CFR part 365 (FDIC); 12...” refers to that term described in table I of appendix A to 12 CFR part 325 or 12 CFR 324.2, as applicable... 12 CFR 324.2, as applicable. Excluded Transactions The agencies also recognize that there are...

  9. 77 FR 39387 - Loan Policies and Operations; Lending and Leasing Limits and Risk Management; Effective Date

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... part 614 on May 24, 2011 (76 FR 29992) amending our regulations relating to lending and leasing limits... 24, 2011 (76 FR 29992) is effective July 1, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paul K. Gibbs, Senior Accountant, Office of Regulatory Policy, Farm Credit Administration, McLean, Virginia...

  10. 78 FR 6621 - Ability To Repay Standards Under the Truth in Lending Act (Regulation Z)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... lending model, and ties to their communities enable them to make more accurate assessments of consumers... deterioration in underwriting standards. See 73 FR 44524 (Jul. 30, 2008). The following is presented as..., which substantially parallels the Board's Regulation Z, 12 CFR part 226. See 76 FR 79767 (Dec. 22,...

  11. Water in the Moon's polar areas: Results of LEND neutron telescope mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrofanov, I. G.; Sanin, A. B.; Litvak, M. L.

    2016-02-01

    The results of LEND neutron telescope mapping of the lunar surface are presented. The estimations obtained show that the water content in the regolith in the polar areas of the Moon reaches 0.4 % by weight and not directly determined by the illuminated surface.

  12. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 30 - OCC Guidelines Establishing Standards for Residential Mortgage Lending Practices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false OCC Guidelines Establishing Standards for Residential Mortgage Lending Practices C Appendix C to Part 30 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS STANDARDS Pt. 30, App. C Appendix C to Part 30—OCC Guidelines Establishing Standards...

  13. White House Pins Hopes for Direct Lending on New Benefits for Those Who Consolidate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burd, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    The federal Department of Education will help college students save money on loan interest if they consolidate loans in the direct lending program while in college. Some college lobbyists feel the administration has not done enough to cut fees and help students and colleges and, as a result, may lose direct-loan participants to bank-loan programs.…

  14. 12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart D of... - Interagency Guidelines for Real Estate Lending

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... uniform rule on real estate lending. See 12 CFR part 365 (FDIC); 12 CFR part 208, subpart C (FRB); 12 CFR part 34, subpart D (OCC); and 12 CFR 563.100-101 (OTS). Each institution's policies must be...” means “total risk-based capital” as defined in appendix A to 12 CFR part 208. For insured state...

  15. 12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart D of... - Interagency Guidelines for Real Estate Lending

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... uniform rule on real estate lending. See 12 CFR part 365 (FDIC); 12 CFR part 208, subpart C (FRB); 12 CFR part 34, subpart D (OCC); and 12 CFR 563.100-101 (OTS). Each institution's policies must be...” means “total risk-based capital” as defined in appendix A to 12 CFR part 208. For insured state...

  16. 12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart D of... - Interagency Guidelines for Real Estate Lending

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... uniform rule on real estate lending. See 12 CFR part 365 (FDIC); 12 CFR part 208, subpart C (FRB); 12 CFR part 34, subpart D (OCC); and 12 CFR 563.100-101 (OTS). Each institution's policies must be...” means “total risk-based capital” as defined in appendix A to 12 CFR part 208. For insured state...

  17. 12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart D of... - Interagency Guidelines for Real Estate Lending

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... uniform rule on real estate lending. See 12 CFR part 365 (FDIC); 12 CFR part 208, subpart C (FRB); 12 CFR part 34, subpart D (OCC); and 12 CFR 563.100-101 (OTS). Each institution's policies must be...” means “total risk-based capital” as defined in appendix A to 12 CFR part 208. For insured state...

  18. Le mouvement du pôle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizouard, Christian

    2012-03-01

    Les variations de la rotation terrestre. En conditionnant à la fois notre vie quotidienne, notre perception du ciel, et bon nombre de phénomènes géophysiques comme la formation des cyclones, la rotation de la Terre se trouve au croisement de plusieurs disciplines. Si le phenomena se faisait uniformément, le sujet serait vite discuté, mais c'est parce que la rotation terrestre varie, même imperceptiblement pour nos sens, dans sa vitesse angulaire comme dans la direction de son axe, qu'elle suscite un grand intérêt. D'abord pour des raisons pratiques : non seulement les aléas de la rotation terrestre modi_ent à la longue les pointés astrométriques à un instant donné de la journée mais in_uencent aussi les mesures opérées par les techniques spatiales ; en consequence l'exploitation de ces mesures, par exemple pour déterminer les orbites des satellites impliqués ou pratiquer le positionnement au sol, nécessite une connaissance précise de ces variations. Plus fondamentalement, elles traduisent les propriétés globales de la Terre comme les processus physiques qui s'y déroulent, si bien qu'en analysant les causes des fluctuations observées, on dispose d'un moyen de mieux connaître notre globe. La découverte progressive des fluctuations de la rotation de la Terre a une longue histoire. Sous l'angle des techniques d'observation, trois époques se pro-celle du pointé astrométrique à l'oeil nu, à l'aide d'instruments en bois ou métalliques (quart de cercle muraux par exemple). À partir du XVIIe siècle débute l'astrométrie télescopique dont les pointés sont complétés par des datations de plus en plus précises grâce à l'invention d'horloges régulées par balancier. Cette deuxième époque se termine vers 1960, avec l'avènement des techniques spatiales : les pointés astrométriques sont délaissés au profit de la mesure ultra-précise de durées ou de fréquences de signaux électromagnétiques, grâce à l'invention des horloges

  19. Knowledge Aid as Instrument of Regulation: World Bank's Non-Lending Higher Education Support for Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molla, Tebeje

    2014-01-01

    In the context of low-income countries, the role of donors in public policymaking is of great importance. Donors use a combination of lending and non-lending instruments as pathways of influence to shape policy directions in aid-recipient countries. This paper reports some findings from a doctoral study on the role of the World Bank in the recent…

  20. 13 CFR 120.714 - How are grants made to non-lending technical assistance providers (NTAP)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How are grants made to non-lending technical assistance providers (NTAP)? 120.714 Section 120.714 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Microloan Program § 120.714 How are grants made to non-lending technical...

  1. Kyiv institutional buildings sector energy efficiency program: Lending and implementation assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Secrest, T.J.; Freeman, S.L.; Popelka, A.; Shestopal, P.A.; Gagurin, E.V.

    1997-08-01

    The government of Ukraine, through the State Committee of Energy Conservation (State Committee), is considering the implementation of energy efficiency measures in state and municipal institutional buildings in the city of Kyiv. The State Committee entered into a Memorandum of Cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct an assessment of the institutional buildings sector efficiency potential. This assessment will be used to support a potential loan by the World Bank for implementing a buildings efficiency improvement program in Kyiv. This report provides an assessment of the options for structuring the lending scenarios and the implementation of the program. Components to the lending structure are options for the disbursement of funds, options for the loan service, and other financial options and considerations. Program implementation includes management structures, reporting, installation activities, and post-installation activities such as training and verification.

  2. 12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Interagency Guidelines for Real Estate Lending Policies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... regulation. 5 The agencies have adopted a uniform rule on real estate lending. See 12 CFR part 365 (FDIC); 12...” means “total risk-based capital” as defined in appendix A to 12 CFR part 208. For insured state non-member banks, “total capital” refers to that term described in table I of appendix A to 12 CFR part...

  3. 12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Interagency Guidelines for Real Estate Lending Policies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... regulation. 5 The agencies have adopted a uniform rule on real estate lending. See 12 CFR part 365 (FDIC); 12...” means “total risk-based capital” as defined in appendix A to 12 CFR part 208. For insured state non-member banks, “total capital” refers to that term described in table I of appendix A to 12 CFR part...

  4. 12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Interagency Guidelines for Real Estate Lending Policies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... regulation. 5 The agencies have adopted a uniform rule on real estate lending. See 12 CFR part 365 (FDIC); 12...” means “total risk-based capital” as defined in appendix A to 12 CFR part 208. For insured state non-member banks, “total capital” refers to that term described in table I of appendix A to 12 CFR part...

  5. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 208 - Interagency Guidelines for Real Estate Lending Policies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... regulation. 1 The agencies have adopted a uniform rule on real estate lending. See 12 CFR part 365 (FDIC); 12 CFR part 208, subpart E (FRB); 12 CFR part 34, subpart D (OCC); and 12 CFR 563.100-101 (OTS). Each...” means “total risk-based capital” as defined in appendix A to 12 CFR part 208. For insured state...

  6. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 208 - Interagency Guidelines for Real Estate Lending Policies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... regulation. 1 The agencies have adopted a uniform rule on real estate lending. See 12 CFR part 365 (FDIC); 12 CFR part 208, subpart E (FRB); 12 CFR part 34, subpart D (OCC); and 12 CFR 563.100-101 (OTS). Each...” means “total risk-based capital” as defined in appendix A to 12 CFR part 208. For insured state...

  7. Race, Space, and Cumulative Disadvantage: A Case Study of the Subprime Lending Collapse

    PubMed Central

    Rugh, Jacob S.; Albright, Len; Massey, Douglas S.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we describe how residential segregation and individual racial disparities generate racialized patterns of subprime lending and lead to financial loss among black borrowers in segregated cities. We conceptualize race as a cumulative disadvantage because of its direct and indirect effects on socioeconomic status at the individual and neighborhood levels, with consequences that reverberate across a borrower's life and between generations. Using Baltimore, Maryland as a case study setting, we combine data from reports filed under the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act with additional loan-level data from mortgage-backed securities. We find that race and neighborhood racial segregation are critical factors explaining black disadvantage across successive stages in the process of lending and foreclosure, controlling for differences in borrower credit scores, income, occupancy status, and loan-to-value ratios. We analyze the cumulative cost of predatory lending to black borrowers in terms of reduced disposable income and lost wealth. We find the cost to be substantial. Black borrowers paid an estimated additional 5 to 11 percent in monthly payments and those that completed foreclosure in the sample lost an excess of $2 million in home equity. These costs were magnified in mostly black neighborhoods and in turn heavily concentrated in communities of color. By elucidating the mechanisms that link black segregation to discrimination we demonstrate how processes of cumulative disadvantage continue to undermine black socioeconomic status in the United States today. PMID:27478254

  8. The group-lending model and social closure: microcredit, exclusion, and health in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Schurmann, Anna T; Johnston, Heidi Bart

    2009-08-01

    According to social exclusion theory, health risks are positively associated with involuntary social, economic, political and cultural exclusion from society. In this paper, a social exclusion framework has been used, and available literature on microcredit in Bangladesh has been reviewed to explore the available evidence on associations among microcredit, exclusion, and health outcomes. The paper addresses the question of whether participation in group-lending reduces health inequities through promoting social inclusion. The group-lending model of microcredit is a development intervention in which small-scale credit for income-generation activities is provided to groups of individuals who do not have material collateral. The paper outlines four pathways through which microcredit can affect health status: financing care in the event of health emergencies; financing health inputs such as improved nutrition; as a platform for health education; and by increasing social capital through group meetings and mutual support. For many participants, the group-lending model of microcredit can mitigate exclusionary processes and lead to improvements in health for some; for others, it can worsen exclusionary processes which contribute to health disadvantage. PMID:19761085

  9. The Group-lending Model and Social Closure: Microcredit, Exclusion, and Health in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Heidi Bart

    2009-01-01

    According to social exclusion theory, health risks are positively associated with involuntary social, economic, political and cultural exclusion from society. In this paper, a social exclusion framework has been used, and available literature on microcredit in Bangladesh has been reviewed to explore the available evidence on associations among microcredit, exclusion, and health outcomes. The paper addresses the question of whether participation in group-lending reduces health inequities through promoting social inclusion. The group-lending model of microcredit is a development intervention in which small-scale credit for income-generation activities is provided to groups of individuals who do not have material collateral. The paper outlines four pathways through which microcredit can affect health status: financing care in the event of health emergencies; financing health inputs such as improved nutrition; as a platform for health education; and by increasing social capital through group meetings and mutual support. For many participants, the group-lending model of microcredit can mitigate exclusionary processes and lead to improvements in health for some; for others, it can worsen exclusionary processes which contribute to health disadvantage. PMID:19761085

  10. The variations of neutron component of lunar radiation background from LEND/LRO observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvak, M. L.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Sanin, A. B.; Bakhtin, B. N.; Bodnarik, J. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Evans, L. G.; Harshman, K.; Livengood, T. A.; Malakhov, A.; Mokrousov, M. I.; McClanahan, Т. P.; Sagdeev, R.; Starr, R.

    2016-03-01

    Lunar neutron flux data measured by the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) onboard NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) were analyzed for the period 2009-2014. We have re-evaluated the instrument's collimation capability and re-estimated the neutron counting rate measured in the Field of View (FOV) of the LEND collimated detectors, and found it to be 1.0±0.1 counts per second. We derived the spectral density of the neutron flux for various lunar regions using our comprehensive numerical model of orbital measurements. This model takes into account the location of the LEND instrument onboard LRO to calculate the surface leakage neutron flux and its propagation to the instrument detectors. Based on this we have determined the lunar neutron flux at the surface to be ~2 neutrons/[cm2 sec] in the epithermal energy range, 0.4 eV to 1 keV. We have also found variations of the lunar neutron leakage flux with amplitude as large as a factor of two, by using multi-year observations to explore variations in the Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) flux during the 23rd-24th solar cycles.

  11. 17 CFR 240.3a5-3 - Exemption from the definition of “dealer” for banks engaging in securities lending transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... lending transaction means a transaction in which the owner of a security lends the security temporarily to..., corporate action, recordkeeping or other services incidental to the administration of the securities lending...; and (2) Any substitutions of collateral occur. Definition of “Equity Security” as Used in Sections...

  12. 75 FR 28814 - Owner of Record and Re-Sale Data To Preclude Predatory Lending Practices (Property Flipping) on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ... Flipping) on FHA Insured Mortgages AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD. ACTION: Notice...: Owner of Record and Re-sale Data To Preclude Predatory Lending Practices (Property Flipping) on...

  13. 17 CFR 247.772 - Exemption from the definition of “broker” for banks engaging in securities lending transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...)); or (2) Any employee benefit plan that owns and invests on a discretionary basis, not less than $ 25... administration of the securities lending transaction; (5) Investing, or directing the investment of,...

  14. NEP facilities (LeRC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrone, Robert H.

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: the Electric Propulsion Research Building (no. 16) the Electric Power Laboratory (BLDG. 301); the Tank 6 Vacuum Facility; and test facilities for electric propulsion and LeRC.

  15. Le bégaiement

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Hector R.; Stoeckle, James H.

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Fournir une mise à jour sur l’épidémiologie, l’hérédité, la physiopathologie, le diagnostic et le traitement du bégaiement développemental. Qualité des données Une recherche d’études récentes ou non portant sur l’épidémiologie, l’hérédité, la physiopathologie, le diagnostic et le traitement du bégaiement développemental a été effectuée dans les bases de données MEDLINE et Cochrane. La plupart des recommandations s’appuient sur des études de petite envergure, des données probantes de qualité limitée ou des consensus. Message principal Le bégaiement est un trouble d’élocution fréquent chez les personnes de tous âges, il altère la fluidité verbale normale et l’enchaînement du discours. Le bégaiement a été lié à des différences de l’anatomie, du fonctionnement et de la régulation dopaminergique du cerveau qui seraient de source génétique. Il importe de poser le diagnostic avec attention et de faire les recommandations qui conviennent chez les enfants, car de plus en plus, le consensus veut que l’intervention précoce par un traitement d’orthophonie soit cruciale chez les enfants bègues. Chez les adultes, le bégaiement est lié à une morbidité psychosociale substantielle, dont l’anxiété sociale et une piètre qualité de vie. Les traitements pharmacologiques ont soulevé l’intérêt depuis quelques années, mais les données cliniques sont limitées. Le traitement des enfants et des adultes repose sur l’orthophonie. Conclusion De plus en plus de recherches ont tenté de lever le voile sur la physiopathologie du bégaiement. La meilleure solution pour les enfants et les adultes bègues demeure la recommandation à un traitement d’orthophonie.

  16. Money Lending Practices and Adolescent Dating Relationship Abuse: Results from a National Sample.

    PubMed

    Copp, Jennifer E; Mumford, Elizabeth A; Taylor, Bruce G

    2016-09-01

    Research on adult intimate partner violence has demonstrated that economic considerations and financial decision-making are associated with the use of violence in marital and cohabiting relationships. Yet limited work has examined whether financial behaviors influence the use of violence in adolescent dating relationships. We use data from the National Survey on Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence (STRiV) (n = 728), a comprehensive national household survey dedicated specifically to the topic of adolescent relationship abuse, to examine associations between requests for money lending, economic control/influence, financial socialization and adolescent relationship abuse among a large, diverse sample of male and female adolescents [48 % female; 30 % non-White, including Black (10 %), Hispanic (2 %), and other (18 %)]. Findings suggest that requests for money lending are associated with heightened risk of moderate and serious threats/physical violence perpetration and victimization, net of traditional predictors. We discuss the implications of our findings for intervention and prevention efforts. PMID:27299764

  17. Use of Apollo 17 Epoch Neutron Spectrum as a Benchmark in Testing LEND Collimated Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Gordon; Sagdeev, R.; Milikh, G.

    2011-01-01

    The Apollo 17 neutron experiment LPNE provided a unique set of data on production of neutrons in the Lunar soil bombarded by Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR). It serves as valuable "ground-truth" in the age of orbital remote sensing. We used the neutron data attributed to Apollo 17 epoch as a benchmark for testing the LEND's collimated sensor, as introduced by the geometry of collimator and efficiency of He3 counters. The latter is defined by the size of gas counter and pressure inside it. The intensity and energy spectrum of neutrons escaping the lunar surface are dependent on incident flux of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) whose variability is associated with Solar Cycle and its peculiarities. We obtain first the share of neutrons entering through the field of view of collimator as a fraction of the total neutron flux by using the angular distribution of neutron exiting the Moon described by our Monte Carlo code. We computed next the count rate of the 3He sensor by using the neutron energy spectrum from McKinney et al. [JGR, 2006] and by consider geometry and gas pressure of the LEND sensor. Finally the neutron count rate obtained for the Apollo 17 epoch characterized by intermediate solar activity was adjusted to the LRO epoch characterized by low solar activity. It has been done by taking into account solar modulation potential, which affects the GCR flux, and in turn changes the neutron albedo flux.

  18. Correlates of lending needles/syringes among HIV-seropositive injection drug users.

    PubMed

    Metsch, Lisa R; Pereyra, Margaret; Purcell, David W; Latkin, Carl A; Malow, Robert; Gómez, Cynthia A; Latka, Mary H

    2007-11-01

    Among HIV-positive injection drug users (IDUs), we examined the correlates of lending needles/syringes with HIV-negative and unknown status injection partners. HIV-positive IDUs (N=738) from 4 cities in the United States who reported injection drug use with other IDUs in the past 3 months participated in an audio computer-assisted self-administered interview. Eighteen percent of study participants self-reported having lent their needles to HIV-negative or unknown status injection partners. Multivariate analyses showed that 6 variables were significantly associated with this high-risk injecting practice. Older IDUs, high school graduates, and those reporting more supportive peer norms for safer drug use were less likely to lend needles/syringes. Admission to a hospital for drug treatment in the past 6 months, having injected with >1 person in the past 3 months, and having more psychiatric symptoms were all associated with more risk. These findings underscore the need for a continued prevention focus on HIV-positive IDUs that recognizes the combination of drug use, mental health factors, and social factors that might affect this high-risk injecting practice, which could be associated with HIV and hepatitis C transmission. PMID:18089987

  19. Hydrogen mapping of the lunar south pole using the LRO neutron detector experiment LEND.

    PubMed

    Mitrofanov, I G; Sanin, A B; Boynton, W V; Chin, G; Garvin, J B; Golovin, D; Evans, L G; Harshman, K; Kozyrev, A S; Litvak, M L; Malakhov, A; Mazarico, E; McClanahan, T; Milikh, G; Mokrousov, M; Nandikotkur, G; Neumann, G A; Nuzhdin, I; Sagdeev, R; Shevchenko, V; Shvetsov, V; Smith, D E; Starr, R; Tretyakov, V I; Trombka, J; Usikov, D; Varenikov, A; Vostrukhin, A; Zuber, M T

    2010-10-22

    Hydrogen has been inferred to occur in enhanced concentrations within permanently shadowed regions and, hence, the coldest areas of the lunar poles. The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission was designed to detect hydrogen-bearing volatiles directly. Neutron flux measurements of the Moon's south polar region from the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft were used to select the optimal impact site for LCROSS. LEND data show several regions where the epithermal neutron flux from the surface is suppressed, which is indicative of enhanced hydrogen content. These regions are not spatially coincident with permanently shadowed regions of the Moon. The LCROSS impact site inside the Cabeus crater demonstrates the highest hydrogen concentration in the lunar south polar region, corresponding to an estimated content of 0.5 to 4.0% water ice by weight, depending on the thickness of any overlying dry regolith layer. The distribution of hydrogen across the region is consistent with buried water ice from cometary impacts, hydrogen implantation from the solar wind, and/or other as yet unknown sources. PMID:20966247

  20. Le pompage optique naturel dans le milieu astrophysique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecker, J.-C.

    The title of this lecture abstracts only a part of it : the importance in astrophysics of the study of non-LTE situations has become considerable, as well in the stellar atmospheres as, still more, in the study of fortuitous coincidences as a mechanism of formation of emission line nebular spectra, or of molecular interstellar « masers ». Another part of this talk underlines the role of Kastler in his time, and describes his warm personality through his public reactions in front of the nuclear armement, of the Viet-Nam and Algerian wars, of the problems of political refugees... Kastler was a great scientist ; he was also a courageous humanist. 1976 : Les accords nucléaires du Brésil : allocution d'ouverture (19 mars). Colloque sur le sujet ci-dessus. 1976 : La promotion de la culture dans le nouvel ordre économique international, allocution à l'occasion d'une table ronde sur ce thème par l'UNESCO (23-27 juin 1976) ; « Sciences et Techniques », octobre 1976. 1979 : La bête immonde (avec J.-C. Pecker), « Le Matin », 20 mars. 1979 : Appel à nos ministres (avec J.-C. Pecker), « Le Monde », 13 décembre. 1979 : Le flou, le ténébreux, l'irrationnel (avec J.-C. Pecker), « Le Monde », 14 septembre. 1980 : Education à la paix, Préface, in : Publ. UNESCO. 1981 : Le vrai danger, « Le Monde », 6 août 1981. 1982 : Nucléaire civil et militaire, « Le Monde », 1er juin 1982. 1982 : Les scientifiques face à la perspective d'holocauste nucléaire (texte inédit). Le titre de cette communication en résume seulement une partie : l'importance prise en astrophysique par l'analyse des situations hors ETL est devenue considérable, qu'il s'agisse des atmosphères stellaires, ou plus encore, des coïncidences fortuites de la formation des spectres d'émission nébulaires, ou des « masers » moléculaires interstellaires. Une autre partie de cet exposé souligne lele de Kastler dans son époque, et décrit sa personnalité généreuse à travers ses r

  1. Insolation Effects on Lunar Hydrogen: Observation from the LRO LEND and LOLA Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClanahan, T. P.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Droege, G.; Evans, L. G.; Garvin, J.; Harshman, K.; Livak, M. M.; Malakhov, A.; Milikh, G. M.; Namkung, M.; Nandikotkur, G.; Neumann, G.; Smith, D.; Sagdeev, R.; Sanin, A. G.; Starr, R. D.; Trombka, J. I.; Zuber, M. T.

    2011-01-01

    The Moon's polar permanent shadow regions (PSR) have long been considered the unique repository for volatile Hydrogen (H) Largely, this was due to the extreme and persistently cold environment that has been maintained over eons of lunar history. However, recent discoveries indicate that the H picture may be more complex than thc PSR hypothesis suggests. Observations by the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detect (LEND) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) indicate some H concentrations lie outside PSR. Similarly, observations from Chandraayan-l's M3 and Deep Impact's EPOXI near infra-red observations indicate diurnal cycling of volatile H in lower latitudes. These results suggest other geophysical phenomena may also play a role in the Lunar Hydrogen budget. In this presentation we review the techniques and results from the recent high latitude analysis and apply similar techniques to equatorial regions. Results from our low latitude analysis will be reported. We discuss interpretations and implications for Lunar Hydrogen studies

  2. Le LHC, un tunnel cosmique

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Et si la lumière au bout du tunnel du LHC était cosmique ? En d?autres termes, qu?est-ce que le LHC peut nous apporter dans la connaissance de l?Univers ? Car la montée en énergie des accélérateurs de particules nous permet de mieux appréhender l?univers primordial, chaud et dense. Mais dans quel sens dit-on que le LHC reproduit des conditions proches du Big bang ? Quelles informations nous apporte-t-il sur le contenu de l?Univers ? La matière noire est-elle détectable au LHC ? L?énergie noire ? Pourquoi l?antimatière accumulée au CERN est-elle si rare dans l?Univers ? Et si le CERN a bâti sa réputation sur l?exploration des forces faibles et fortes qui opèrent au sein des atomes et de leurs noyaux, est-ce que le LHC peut nous apporter des informations sur la force gravitationnelle qui gouverne l?évolution cosmique ? Depuis une trentaine d?années, notre compréhension de l?univers dans ses plus grandes dimensions et l?appréhension de son comportement aux plus petites distances sont intimement liées : en quoi le LHC va-t-il tester expérimentalement cette vision unifiée ? Tout public, entrée libre / Réservations au +41 (0)22 767 76 76

  3. 78 FR 30739 - Amendments to the 2013 Escrows Final Rule under the Truth in Lending Act (Regulation Z)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    .... \\1\\ 78 FR 4726 (Jan. 22, 2013). \\2\\ The other rules include: Ability-to-Repay and Qualified Mortgage Standards under the Truth in Lending Act (Regulation Z) (2013 ATR Final Rule), 78 FR 6407 (Jan. 30, 2013...) (2013 HOEPA Final Rule), 78 FR 6855 (Jan. 31, 2013); Disclosure and Delivery Requirements for Copies...

  4. From a Knowledge Container to a Mobile Learning Platform: What RULA Learned from the Laptop Lending Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Weina; Dermody, Kelly; Burgess, Colleen; Wang, Fangmin

    2014-01-01

    Technology lending has proven to be one of the most popular services that the Ryerson University Library and Archives (RULA) has offered in the past few years. Given the number of commuting digital natives comprising our student body, the library wanted to know how these students were using our current laptop loan program and how this service…

  5. A Project to Support a Utilization Program for the Parent/Child Toy Lending Library: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Far West Lab. for Educational Research and Development, San Francisco, CA.

    This project was designed to stimulate the fullest and most rapid possible utilization of the Parent/Child Toy Lending Library. The Library is an eight-week course for parents of pre-school children. Parents learn how to teach concepts such as color matching, auditory discrimination, problem solving, and motor coordination using eight basic toys…

  6. 12 CFR 32.7 - Residential real estate loans, small business loans, and small farm loans (“Supplemental Lending...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Residential real estate loans, small business... COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING LIMITS § 32.7 Residential real estate loans... association may make residential real estate loans or extensions of credit to one borrower in the lesser...

  7. Summary of the Symposium of Institutional Lending in the Stafford Loan Program (Washington, D.C., March 13, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance, Washington, DC.

    This publication offers a summary of a symposium designed to elicit dialogue on the costs and benefits of eliminating the restrictions on institutional lending in the Stafford Loan Program. Approximately 100 people, representing postsecondary institutions, commercial lenders, guaranty agencies, secondary markets, loan servicing groups, and…

  8. Experiment LEND of the NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter for high-resolution mapping of neutron emission of the Moon.

    PubMed

    Mitrofanov, I G; Sanin, A B; Golovin, D V; Litvak, M L; Konovalov, A A; Kozyrev, A S; Malakhov, A V; Mokrousov, M I; Tretyakov, V I; Troshin, V S; Uvarov, V N; Varenikov, A B; Vostrukhin, A A; Shevchenko, V V; Shvetsov, V N; Krylov, A R; Timoshenko, G N; Bobrovnitsky, Y I; Tomilina, T M; Grebennikov, A S; Kazakov, L L; Sagdeev, R Z; Milikh, G N; Bartels, A; Chin, G; Floyd, S; Garvin, J; Keller, J; McClanahan, T; Trombka, J; Boynton, W; Harshman, K; Starr, R; Evans, L

    2008-08-01

    The scientific objectives of neutron mapping of the Moon are presented as 3 investigation tasks of NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission. Two tasks focus on mapping hydrogen content over the entire Moon and on testing the presence of water-ice deposits at the bottom of permanently shadowed craters at the lunar poles. The third task corresponds to the determination of neutron contribution to the total radiation dose at an altitude of 50 km above the Moon. We show that the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) will be capable of carrying out all 3 investigations. The design concept of LEND is presented together with results of numerical simulations of the instrument's sensitivity for hydrogen detection. The sensitivity of LEND is shown to be characterized by a hydrogen detection limit of about 100 ppm for a polar reference area with a radius of 5 km. If the presence of ice deposits in polar "cold traps" is confirmed, a unique record of many millions of years of lunar history would be obtained, by which the history of lunar impacts could be discerned from the layers of water ice and dust. Future applications of a LEND-type instrument for Mars orbital observations are also discussed. PMID:18844457

  9. Le Planetaire (Around the World)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebouillet, Andre; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This section, "Le Planetaire," contains an interview with Anne Slack on the American Association of Teachers of French and contemporary French culture, a review of a dictionary of familiar French for students, dates to remember, events of interest to French teachers and a general bibliography. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  10. Water Ice Permafrost at Lunar Poles: Observational Evidence from Lend Instrument Onboard Lro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrofanov, I.; Sanin, A.; Litvak, M.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Evans, L. G.; Garvin, J.; Harshman, K.; McClanahan, T. R.; Milikh, G. M.; Sagdeev, R.; Starr, R. D.

    2012-12-01

    Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) of LRO measured the flux of epithermal neutrons with high spatial resolution of 10 km for the amplitude of 50 km. The LEND data from the polar caps above 80degree latitude were tested for the presence of local spots of epithermal Neutron Suppression Regions (NSRs) [1, 2]. Six such spots have been found, five at South pole and one at North pole. One of them, NSR S4 in the Cabeus crater, has been suggested, as the best impact site for direct evaluation of the content of lunar volatiles, including the water, by LCROSS instruments [3]. And indeed, a lot of water has been found in the plume, corresponding to 5.6 +/- 2.4 weight % [4]. Another interesting spot NSR S1 is identified with the crater Shoemaker, which PSR perfectly coincides with the contour of the strong neutron suppression. It was shown [5] that there is very good agreement between the profile of the crater depth and the decrease of the flux of epithermal neutrons. Concluding the LEND data analysis of NSRs, one may present two main results: (1) Only two of NSRs are associated with PSRs (Cabeus and Shoemaker), another large PSRs do not manifest a signature of local neutron suppression. (2) There are several NSRs, which have surface illuminated by Sun light. These results could be interpreted by the model of water ice perma-frost, which suggest that NSRs are associated with spots with permanently cold regolith with stable water ice in the porosity volume. In PSRs, the ice bearing layer is the upper most one. If the surface of NSR is periodically illuminated, the ice bearing layer should lie below the top layer of ice-free regolith. During a night, the cold top layer absorbs water molecules from the exosphere (still illuminated nearby hills could be source of these molecules). During a day, the top layer is heated, and water molecules diffuse from the porosity volume into the both directions: upward to exosphere, and downward to the cold layer of permafrost. Such

  11. Testing Lunar Permanently Shadowed Regions for Water Ice: LEND Results from LRO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanin, A. B.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Malakhov, A.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Droege, G.; Evans, L. G.; Garvin, J.; Golovin, D. V.; Harshman, K.; McClanahan, T. P.; Mokrousov, M. I.; Mazarico, E.; Milikh, G.; Neumann, G.; Sagdeev, R.; Smith, D. E.; Starr, R. D.; Zuber, M. T.

    2012-01-01

    We use measurements from the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) collimated sensors during more than one year of the mapping phase of NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission to make estimates of the epithermal neutron flux within known large Permanently Shadowed Regions (PSRs). These are compared with the local neutron background measured outside PSRs in sunlit regions. Individual and collective analyses of PSR properties have been performed. Only three large PSRs, Shoemaker and Cabeus in the south and Rozhdestvensky U in the north, have been found to manifest significant neutron suppression. All other PSRs have much smaller suppression, only a few percent, if at all. Some even display an excess of neutron emission in comparison to the sunlit vicinity around them. Testing PSRs collectively, we have not found any average suppression for them. Only the group of 18 large PSRs, with area >200 square kilometers, show a marginal effect of small average suppression, approx. 2%, with low statistical confidence. An approx. 2% suppression corresponds to approx. 125 ppm of hydrogen taking into account the global neutron suppression near the lunar poles and assuming a homogeneous H distribution in depth in the regolith. This means that all PSRs, except those in Shoemaker, Cabeus and Rozhdestvensky U craters, do not contain any significant amount of hydrogen in comparison with sunlit areas around them at the same latitude.

  12. Survey of Medical Literature Borrowed from the National Lending Library for Science and Technology *

    PubMed Central

    Wood, David N.; Bower, Cathryn A.

    1969-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a four-week questionnaire survey carried out at the National Lending Library (N.L.L.), Great Britian, to discover which types of organizations were the principal users of medical literature, what types of literature were used, and which were the main sources of references to medical publications. Industrial organizations and universities accounted for the majority (62 percent) of the loans, most of which were English-language periodicals published since 1960. For the whole sample, citation lists in periodical articles were the principal sources of references, although for literature published in the last fifteen months, abstracting and indexing journals were the main sources. Of the latter, Index Medicus proved to be the most fruitful source of references. By asking whether the item requested was really useful to their work, a measure of the reliability of the different sources of references was obtained. Appendixes include the questionnaire, a list of the most frequently borrowed journals, and a list of abstracting and indexing journals used as sources of references. PMID:5782264

  13. In re LePage.

    PubMed

    2001-01-01

    Court Decision: 18 Pacific Reporter, 3d Series 1177; 2001 Mar 8 (date of decision). The Supreme Court of Wyoming held that the state Department of Health was not authorized to inquire about the sincerity of a mother's religious beliefs when determining whether her daughter was exempt from a public school immunization requirement. Susan LePage submitted a request to the Department of Health seeking to exempt her daughter from receiving the hepatitis B vaccination. The Department of Health inquired into the sincerity of LePage's religious beliefs against vaccination and determined that her objections were of a personal or philosophical nature and not on religious grounds. The Department of Health denied LePage's request. The Supreme Court of Wyoming held that state law requires the Department of Health to grant an exemption upon the submission of a written objection and does not allow the Department of Health to make an inquiry into the sincerity of the requestor's religious beliefs. The court balanced a valid state interest in protecting schoolchildren from disease with the relatively low number of requests for exemption and its confidence in parents to make decisions in the best interest of their children's physical and spiritual health. Since there was no justification within the statute to allow a religious inquiry, the court held that the Department of Health had exceeded its authority with LePage. Furthermore, state law did not require a religious waiver to exempt a child from this particular vaccine. The lower court's holding was reversed. PMID:16479706

  14. Le Fevre [Le Fèvre; LeFebvre], Jean (1652-1706)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Born in Lisieux, France, became an associate of JEAN PICARD and PHILIPPE DE LA HIRE, became a member of the Académie des Sciences and worked on rather routine work calculating ephemeredes, and surveying. Le Fevre accused La Hire of stealing his tables after Philippe de La Hire published Tabulae Astronomicae in 1687. In 1701, resentful at not having been named official publisher of ephemerides to ...

  15. Portevin-Le chatelier effect

    PubMed

    Franklin; Mertens; Marder

    2000-12-01

    Aluminum subjected to smooth mechanical loading does not often deform in a correspondingly smooth manner. Typically it deforms inhomogeneously through the propagation of deformation fronts that slowly traverse the sample. These are called Portevin-Le Chatelier fronts; what determines their velocity has been somewhat mysterious. We present a phenomenological theory for deformation fronts that centers on a nonlocal rate dependence of the flow stress. In a one-dimensional idealization the equations can be solved exactly, and compared directly with experiment. Many significant features of deformation fronts are captured, including a well-known transition from hopping to continuous front motion. The phenomenology's predictions are confirmed by our experiments. PMID:11138118

  16. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2008-09-01

    Fragmentation et astéroïdes binaires; Astéroïde géocroiseur triple; Rosetta sort de son hibernation; Messenger; Transit lunaire vu par Deep Impact; Titan; Phobos; Phoenix; Einstein avait raison; Le ballet des taches rouges; Le poids des lentilles;

  17. Estimating Background and Lunar Contribution to Neutrons Detected by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livengood, T. A.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Chin, G.; Boynton, W. V.; Evans, L. G.; Litvak, M. L.; McClanahan, T. P.; Sagdeev, R.; Sanin, A. B.; Starr, R. D.; Su, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    The fraction of hydrogen-bearing species embedded in planetary regolith can be determined from the ratio between measured epithermal neutron leakage flux and the flux measured from similar dry regolith. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft is equipped with the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) instrument to measure embedded hydrogen in the Moon's polar regions and elsewhere. We have investigated the relative contribution of lunar and non-lunar (spacecraft-sourced) neutrons by modeling maps of the measured count rate from three of the LEND detector systems using linear combinations of maps compiled from the Lunar Prospector Neutron Spectrometer (LPNS) and the LEND detectors, demonstrating that the two systems are compatible and enabling reference signal to be inferred to enable detecting hydrogen and hydrogen-bearing volatiles. The pole-to-equator contrast ratio in epithermal neutrons indicates that the average concentration of hydrogen in the Moon's polar regolith above 80° north or south latitude is ~110 ppmw, or 0.10±0.01 wt% water-equivalent hydrogen. Above 88° north or south, the concentration increases to ~140 ppmw, or 0.13±0.02 wt% water-equivalent hydrogen. Nearly identical suppression of neutron flux at both the north and south poles, despite differences in topography and distribution of permanently-shadowed regions, supports the contention that hydrogen is broadly distributed in the polar regions and increasingly concentrated approaching the poles. Similarity in the degree of neutron suppression in low-energy and high-energy epithermal neutrons suggests that the hydrogen fraction is relatively uniform with depth down to ~1 m; the neutron leakage flux is insensitive to greater depth.

  18. Le syndrome d'apert

    PubMed Central

    Benmiloud, Sarra; Chaouki, Sana; Atmani, Samir; Hida, Moustapha

    2013-01-01

    Le syndrome d'Apert est une affection congénitale rare, caractérisée par une sténose cranio-faciale associée à une syndactylie des mains et des pieds. Sa prise en charge doit être précoce et multidisciplinaire. Sa gravité réside dans la coexistence de plusieurs malformations avec un risque d'hypertension intracrânienne chronique responsable d'une cécité et d'une débilité mentale. Les auteurs rapportent une nouvelle observation à travers laquelle ils illustrent les aspects cliniques et évolutifs ainsi que les difficultés thérapeutiques de cette affection. PMID:23565313

  19. Intraday LeBaron effects

    PubMed Central

    Bianco, Simone; Corsi, Fulvio; Renò, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    We study the relation at intraday level between serial correlation and volatility of the Standard and Poor (S&P) 500 stock index futures returns. At daily and weekly levels, serial correlation and volatility forecasts have been found to be negatively correlated (LeBaron effect). After finding a significant attenuation of the original effect over time, we show that a similar but more pronounced effect holds by using intraday measures, by such as realized volatility and variance ratio. We also test the impact of unexpected volatility, defined as the part of volatility which cannot be forecasted, on the presence of intraday serial correlation in the time series by employing a model for realized volatility based on the heterogeneous market hypothesis. We find that intraday serial correlation is negatively correlated to volatility forecasts, whereas it is positively correlated to unexpected volatility.

  20. Topographically Induced Thermal Effects on Lunar Hydrogen Distributions: Correlated Observations from the LRO LEND and LOLA Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClanahan, T. P.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Droege, G.; Evans L. G.; Garvin, J.; Harshman, K.; Litvak, M. L.; Malakhov, A.; Milikha, G. M.; Namkung, M.; Nandikotkur, G.; Neumann, G.; Smith, D.; Sagdeev, R.; Sanin, A. G.; Starr, R. D.; Trombka, J. I.; Zuber, M. T.

    2012-01-01

    The question of whether water exists on the Moon's surface has long been an enigma to Lunar researchers. Largely, this was due to the thermally extreme lunar surface environment that would seem to preclude any long term maintenance, manufacture, transport or accumulation of hydrogen (H) volatiles over most of the lunar surface. As a result, for many years the cold permanent shadow regions (PSR) in the bottoms of craters near the lunar poles appeared to provide the basic conditions at least for maintenance of lunar hydrogen. Importantly, recent discoveries indicate that there is some hydrogen at the poles. However, the picture of the lunar hydrogen budget may be more complex than the PSR hypothesis has suggested. This evidence comes from observations by the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) that inclici1te 1) some H concentrations lie outside PSR and 2) though a few of the larger PSR's have high hydrogen, PSR does not appear to be an independent factor influencing the large-scale suppression of polar epithermals observed by LEND and the Lunar Prospector Neutron Spectrometer. In this research we investigate the possibility that the thermal contrast between pole-facing and equator facing-slopes is a factor influencing the surface distributions of lunar H. We perform this bulk correlated observation and study by developing a thermal proxy from slope data of the Lunar Orbiting Laser Altimeter (LOLA) digital elevation model (DEM) which is registered with the collimated LEND epithermal map. From the LOLA transforms we impose a thermal functional decomposition and systematic statistical analysis of the LEND epithermal map. Our hypothesis testing suggests in most high latitude bands studied> +/- 45 deg: Epithermal rates in pole-facing slopes are significantly lower than epithermal rates in equivalent equator-facing slopes. As a control study, we find that there is no statistically significant difference between

  1. LeSTIG1, an extracellular binding partner for the pollen receptor kinases LePRK1 and LePRK2, promotes pollen tube growth in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tang, Weihua; Kelley, Dior; Ezcurra, Inés; Cotter, Robyn; McCormick, Sheila

    2004-08-01

    As pollen tubes grow through the pistil they are thought to perceive and respond to diverse signals. The tomato pollen-specific receptor kinases LePRK1 and LePRK2 might participate in signaling during pollen tube growth. We previously showed that the extracellular domain of LePRK2 interacts with a pollen protein, LAT52, before but not after pollen germination. To determine whether LePRK2 might have different binding partner(s) after pollen germination, we characterized two more proteins that, like LAT52, were identified in yeast two-hybrid screens using the extracellular domains of LePRK1 and LePRK2 as baits. We show that LeSHY, a leucine-rich repeat protein from pollen, and LeSTIG1, a small cysteine-rich protein from pistil, can bind the extracellular domains of both LePRK1 and LePRK2 in vitro. In vitro binding assays with the extracellular domain of LePRK2 suggested that LeSTIG1 could displace binding of LAT52, consistent with the idea that LePRK1 and LePRK2 might interact with different ligands at different stages of pollen tube growth. Exogenous LeSTIG1 promotes pollen tube growth in vitro. The interaction of these pollen kinases with LeSTIG1 supports the notion that LePRK1 and LePRK2 are involved in mediating pollen-pistil interactions. PMID:15255864

  2. Jan Potocki et le "Gothic Novel"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finne, Jacques

    1970-01-01

    Establishes a parallel between the supernatural and fantastic qualities of Le Comte Jan Potocki's literary works, and the English gothic novels by comparing the elements of terror, mysterious atmosphere, and the supernatural beings involved. (DS)

  3. Insolation Effects on the Lunar Hydrogen Budget: Correlated Observations of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's LEND, LOLA and Diviner Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClanahan, T. P.; Mitrofanov, I.; Boynton, W. V.; Litvak, M.; Milikh, G. M.; Evans, L. G.; Starr, R. D.; Livengood, T. A.; Chin, G.; Harshman, K.; Droege, G.

    2012-12-01

    In this research we correlate the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's (LRO), Diviner radiometer temperature maps that characterize the Moon's thermal environment with maps derived from the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) and Lunar Orbiting Laser Altimeter (LOLA). In previous research, we found evidence that the Moon's Hydrogen budget was broadly influenced by insolation effects. In that analysis we implemented a transformation of LOLA's topography maps, thereby isolating poleward-facing and equator-facing slopes. We then integrated the LEND epithermal neutron maps over these regions and found that the epithermal neutron count rates were significantly lower in poleward-facing slopes vs. equivalent equator-facing slopes, yielding a localized "epithermal contrast". This result suggests higher H / H2O concentrations in poleward-facing slopes vs. comparable equator-facing slopes. It is also consistent with findings in terrestrial and Martian environments indicating similar H / H2O slope contrasts. In support of that finding we determined that the epithermal neutron rates over east and west-facing slopes were as predicted equivalent. The above effects were also similar for both North and South Poles. Together, this support indicated surface insolation is an important factor governing the Moon's Hydrogen budget. Temperature effects of insolation are primarily a function of a cosine process a = i cos Θ, which predicts the effective solar irradiation a, incident to a given surface as a function of its angular orientation Θ, to the source solar irradiation, i. Θ is locally a function of several variables including combined: seasonal, diurnal, topographic, latitude and regolith compositional effects which induces locally dependent and time variable temperature conditions. The Moons low obliquity and increased latitude predictably attenuate solar irradiation, which is well correlated with decreased near-surface temperatures towards the poles. Importantly, topographic

  4. Epithermal Neutron Observations and Lunar South Pole Targeting for LCROSS Impact Planning using the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Lunar Exploring Neutron Detector (LEND)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClanahan, T. P.; Mitrofanov, I.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Colaprete, A.; Evans, L. G.; Garvin, J.; Harshman, K.; Litvak, R.; Malakhov, A.; Milikh, G. M.; Nandikotkur, G.; Sagdeev, R.; Sanin, A. B.; Smith, D. E.; Starr, R. D.; Trombka, J.

    2009-01-01

    LCROSS impact targeting and planning efforts included quantifying South Polar epithermal neutron flux depressions in early LEND mapped results to maximize the expected plume Hydrogen (H) yield. Epithermal neutron surface fluxes are a key geochemical indicator of surface Hydrogen (H) concentration inferred to be elevated in polar permanent shadow regions (PSR). LCROSS impact target regions were delineated as (PSR) using illumination modeling of polar topography. To quantify targets potential yield for LCROSS, LEND epithermal neutron flux observations were integrated over LCROSS targets of interest and compared to background observations. Discussion will define methods review impact prior estimates and contrast post impact results.

  5. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Observations with the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND): Neutron Suppression Regions (NSR) and Polar Hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, G.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Golovin, D. V.; Evans, L. G.; Harshman, K.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Litvak, M. L.; McClanahan, T.; Milikh, G. M.; Sagdeev, R.; Sanin, A. B.; Shevchenko, V.; Shvetsov, V.; Smith, D.; Starr, R.; Trombka, J.; Zuber, M.

    2011-01-01

    Orbital detection of neutrons has become the dominant remote sensing technique for detecting and inferring H concentrations and its spatial distribution beneath planetary surfaces [Lawrence et al, (2010) Icarus, 205, pp. 195-209, Mitrofanov et al (2007) Science 297(5578), 78-81]. Indications for the presence of localized and relatively high water content was provided by LRO and LCROSS. LEND identified Cabeus, as the most promising LCROSS impact site [Mitrofanov I. et al. (2010) Science, 330, 483], and instruments onboard LRO and LCROSS have measured signatures of water, H2 and other volatiles in the impact plume [Colaprete A. et al. (2010) Science, 339,463, Gladstone R. et al. (2010) Science, 330, 472].

  6. Entrevue avec le Dr Charley Zeanah

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Le Dr Charles Zeanah est titulaire de la chaire de psychiatrie Mary K. Sellars-Polchow, professeur de pédiatrie clinique et vice-président de la pédopsychiatrie au département de psychiatrie et des sciences du comportement de la faculté de médecine de l’Université Tulane, à la Nouvelle-Orléans. Il est également directeur général de l’institut de la santé mentale des nourrissons et des jeunes enfants de Tulane. Il est récipiendaire de nombreux prix, notamment le prix de prévention Irving Phillips (AACAP), la mention élogieuse présidentielle pour sa recherche et son leadership exceptionnels en santé mentale des nourrissons (American Orthopsychiatric Association), le prix d’excellence clinique Sarah Haley Memorial (International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies), le prix de recherche en pédopsychiatrie Blanche F. Ittelson (APA), et le prix Serge Lebovici Award soulignant les contributions internationales à la santé mentale des nourrissons (World Association for Infant Mental Health). Le Dr Zeanah est fellow distingué de l’AACAP, fellow distingué de l’APA et membre du conseil d’administration de Zero to Three. Il est l’éditeur scientifique de Handbook of Infant Mental Health (3e édition) qui est considéré comme étant le manuel de pointe et la référence de base du domaine de la santé mentale des nourrissons.

  7. Study of Selected Educational Institutions and Students Participating in Direct School Lending Under the Federal Insured Student Loan Program: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cresap, McCormick, and Paget, Inc., Chicago, IL.

    The results of an evaluation study of selected educational institutions and students participating in direct school lending under the Federal Insured Student Loan Program (FISLP) is presented. Proprietary schools, which as a group have had a history of high default rates, and institutions of higher education, which are becoming the primary…

  8. 17 CFR 240.3a5-3 - Exemption from the definition of “dealer” for banks engaging in securities lending transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... replaced within one business day by another lending or borrowing transaction involving the same securities... borrower; (2) Receiving, delivering, or directing the receipt or delivery of loaned securities; (3) Receiving, delivering, or directing the receipt or delivery of collateral; (4) Providing...

  9. 17 CFR 240.3a5-3 - Exemption from the definition of “dealer” for banks engaging in securities lending transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... replaced within one business day by another lending or borrowing transaction involving the same securities... borrower; (2) Receiving, delivering, or directing the receipt or delivery of loaned securities; (3) Receiving, delivering, or directing the receipt or delivery of collateral; (4) Providing...

  10. 17 CFR 240.3a5-3 - Exemption from the definition of “dealer” for banks engaging in securities lending transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... replaced within one business day by another lending or borrowing transaction involving the same securities... borrower; (2) Receiving, delivering, or directing the receipt or delivery of loaned securities; (3) Receiving, delivering, or directing the receipt or delivery of collateral; (4) Providing...

  11. Keeping Score: Direct Student Lending. An Evaluation Prepared for the Iowa College Student Aid Commission and the Iowa Student Loan Liquidity Corporation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chance, William

    This paper provides recommendations for the development, implementation, and evaluation of a demonstration program designed to assess direct lending as a replacement for the current federal student loan program. It offers a list of principles which the demonstration project should address. Recommendations include: (1) maintenance of student…

  12. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2014-06-01

    Future lune ? - L'âge de la Lune - Des volcans actifs sur Vénus - Un lac dans le cratère Gusev ? - Météorites et atmosphère martiennes - L’hexagone de Saturne - Pluton - Exo-Terre - Bêta Pictoris b - Cérès et Vesta depuis Mars - Naine froide - Parallaxes par Hubble - L2 Puppis et le sort du Soleil - Supernova et lentille gravitationnelle - Champ magnétique galactique - L’objet de Sakurai - Fermi et la matière noire - Lentille naine

  13. Development, validation, and utility of an instrument to assess core competencies in the Leadership Education in Neurodevelopmental and Related Disabilities (LEND) program.

    PubMed

    Leff, Stephen S; Baum, Katherine T; Bevans, Katherine B; Blum, Nathan J

    2015-02-01

    To describe the development and psychometric evaluation of the Core Competency Measure (CCM), an instrument designed to assess professional competencies as defined by the Maternal Child Health Bureau (MCHB) and targeted by Leadership Education in Neurodevelopmental and Related Disabilities (LEND) programs. The CCM is a 44-item self-report measure comprised of six subscales to assess clinical, interdisciplinary, family-centered/cultural, community, research, and advocacy/policy competencies. The CCM was developed in an iterative fashion through participatory action research, and then nine cohorts of LEND trainees (N = 144) from 14 different disciplines completed the CCM during the first week of the training program. A 6-factor confirmatory factor analysis model was fit to data from the 44 original items. After three items were removed, the model adequately fit the data (comparative fit indices = .93, root mean error of approximation = .06) with all factor loadings exceeding .55. The measure was determined to be quite reliable as adequate internal consistency and test-retest reliability were found for each subscale. The instrument's construct validity was supported by expected differences in self-rated competencies among fellows representing various disciplines, and the convergent validity was supported by the pattern of inter-correlations between subscale scores. The CCM appears to be a reliable and valid measure of MCHB core competencies for our sample of LEND trainees. It provides an assessment of key training areas addressed by the LEND program. Although the measure was developed within only one LEND Program, with additional research it has the potential to serve as a standardized tool to evaluate the strengths and limitations of MCHB training, both within and between programs. PMID:24907024

  14. 23. VIEW OF LE CLAIRE LOCK (19211925), SHOWING OPERATING MACHINERY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW OF LE CLAIRE LOCK (1921-1925), SHOWING OPERATING MACHINERY, DOWSTREAM GATES, UPSTREAM SIDE - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 14, Upper Mississippi River, Le Claire, Scott County, IA

  15. 20. VIEW OF LE CLAIRE LOCK (19211925), SHOWING UPSTREAM GATES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW OF LE CLAIRE LOCK (1921-1925), SHOWING UPSTREAM GATES, DOWNSTREAM SIDE AND SOUTH LOCKWALL - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 14, Upper Mississippi River, Le Claire, Scott County, IA

  16. 30. INTERIOR VIEW OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER RECREATION OFFICE, LE CLAIRE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. INTERIOR VIEW OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER RECREATION OFFICE, LE CLAIRE BASE COMPOUND, LOOKING EAST - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 14, Upper Mississippi River, Le Claire, Scott County, IA

  17. 29. INTERIOR VIEW OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER RECREATION OFFICE BUILDING, LE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. INTERIOR VIEW OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER RECREATION OFFICE BUILDING, LE CLAIRE BASE COMPOUND, LOOKING WEST - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 14, Upper Mississippi River, Le Claire, Scott County, IA

  18. Restart function of the LE-5 engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Kunio; Koyari, Yukio; Yanagawa, Koji; Katsuta, Hideaki; Taniguchi, Hirofumi; Torii, Yoshihiro

    1993-10-01

    This report presents the restart function of the LE-5 (Liquid Engine-5). The development of a de/anti-ice system and a sufficient pump precooling system was key in establishing this function. To ensure high reliability, a contingency device was also adopted. The functions were proved through actual flights.

  19. Le Francais Courant: Part V, French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Instructional objectives of the Dade County Public Schools Quinmester Program in French for use with "Le Francais Courant: Part 5" focus on the development of mastery of the basic numbering system and other grammatical structures. Structures include the formation of the present tense of the irregular verbs "vouloir,""pouvoir," and "venir,"…

  20. Le Francais Moderne: Part I, French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Instructional objectives of the Dade County Public Schools Quinmester Program in French for use with "Le Francais Moderne: Part 1" focus on the development of vocabulary and mastery of grammatical structures. The formation of the passe compose with "avoir," object pronouns, the present tense of regular "-ir" verbs, and the irregular verbs…

  1. Le Chatelier's principle in replicator dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahverdyan, Armen E.; Galstyan, Aram

    2011-10-01

    The Le Chatelier principle states that physical equilibria are not only stable, but they also resist external perturbations via short-time negative-feedback mechanisms: a perturbation induces processes tending to diminish its results. The principle has deep roots, e.g., in thermodynamics it is closely related to the second law and the positivity of the entropy production. Here we study the applicability of the Le Chatelier principle to evolutionary game theory, i.e., to perturbations of a Nash equilibrium within the replicator dynamics. We show that the principle can be reformulated as a majorization relation. This defines a stability notion that generalizes the concept of evolutionary stability. We determine criteria for a Nash equilibrium to satisfy the Le Chatelier principle and relate them to mutualistic interactions (game-theoretical anticoordination) showing in which sense mutualistic replicators can be more stable than (say) competing ones. There are globally stable Nash equilibria, where the Le Chatelier principle is violated even locally: in contrast to the thermodynamic equilibrium a Nash equilibrium can amplify small perturbations, though both types of equilibria satisfy the detailed balance condition.

  2. A Colorful Demonstration of Le Chbtelier's Principle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Last, Arthur M.; Slade, Peter W.

    1997-01-01

    Le Chbtelier's Principle states that, when a system at equilibrium is subjected to stress, the system will respond in such a way as to minimize the effect of the stress. Describes a lecture demonstration that illustrates shifts in the position of equilibrium caused by a variety of factors. The equilibrium mixture contains iron (III) and…

  3. Type-1 chain histo-blood group antigens (Le(a), monosialosyl-Le(a), disialosyl-Le(a), Le(b), and H) in normal and malignant human endometrium.

    PubMed

    Ravn, V; Mandel, U; Svenstrup, B; Dabelsteen, E

    1994-01-01

    Type-1 chain histo-blood group antigens such as the Lewis (Le)a, monosialosyl-Le(a), Le(b) and H antigens show an increased expression in endometrial carcinomas. However, the possibility that these antigens are expressed under genetic or hormonal influence in endometrial carcinomas has not been considered. In the present study, the expression of type-1 chain carbohydrate antigens in normal and malignant endometrium was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and related to both genetic and hormonal factors. The glands of normal, non-secretory endometria expressed, in contrast with surface epithelial cells, Le(a), Le(b), disialosyl-Le(a), and H determinants infrequently. Adenomatous hyperplasias and endometrial carcinomas showed an increased expression of type-1 chain carbohydrates that was qualitatively influenced by the erythrocyte Lewis phenotype and the secretor status. Whereas Le(a+b-) non-secretors mainly accumulated Le(a) antigen, and only limited amounts of Le(b) antigen, Le(a-b+) secretors expressed H, Le(b) and Le(a) antigens. The expression of type-1 chain antigens showed no association with the serum-oestrogen level or to the hormone-receptor status. Thus the Lewis secretor status has a qualitative influence on the increased expression of type-1 chain antigens, which, however, seem to be unrelated to hormonal factors. Our findings suggest an increased activity of the Se-gene-defined or a closely related fucosyl-transferase in neoplastic endometrial epithelial cells. PMID:8032530

  4. In-country and lending institution environmental requirements for thermal power plants in the Philippines and India

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, A.T.; Khanna, R.

    1996-11-01

    Diverse environmental reviews and approvals are required by both Government and non-government organizations (NGOs) for licensing or permitting of major thermal power plants in Asia; specifically, India and Philippines. The number and type of approvals required for a specific project vary depending on site characteristics, fuel source, project-specific design and operating parameters as well as type of project financing. A model 400 MW coal-fired project located in Asia is presented to illustrate the various lender and host country environmental guidelines. A case study of the environmental reviews and approvals for Ogden Quezon Power, Inc. Project (Quezon Province, Republic of the Philippines) is also included. A list of acronyms is provided at the paper`s end. As independent power project (IPP) developers seek financing for these capital-intensive infrastructure projects, a number of international finance/lending institutions are likely to become involved. Each lender considers different environmental aspects of a project. This paper compares relevant environmental requirements of various lenders which finance IPPs and their interest in a project`s environmental review. Finally, the authors of this paper believe that the environmental review process can bring together many parties involved with IPP development, including local and central governments, non government organizations, various lenders (such as multilateral and export credit agencies) as well as project proponents. Environmental review provides input opportunity for interested and affected parties. Airing environmental issues in open forums such as public hearings or meetings helps ensure projects are not evaluated without public input.

  5. Delineating the Erosion-Potential of Agricultural Lands Within the Le Sueur Watershed Using Remotely Sensed Data and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maalim, F. K.; Melesse, A. M.; Thomas, A. R.; Belmont, P.; Azmera, L.; Jennings, C. E.

    2008-12-01

    lend credence to the classification criteria used and indicate the usefulness of remote sensing as well as GIS as tools in the extrapolation, integration and interpretation of the data collected. Key words: Le Sueur River, erosion, agriculture, remote sensing, GIS, Minnesota

  6. Le syndrome d’alcoolisme foetal

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    L’alcool est un tératogène physique et comportemental. Le syndrome d’alcoolisme foetal (SAF) est un trouble courant mais encore sous-diagnostiqué découlant de la consommation d’alcool par la mère pendant la grossesse. Bien qu’il puisse être prévenu, le SAF est également invalidant. Même si le SAF est présent dans tous les groupes socioéconomiques du Canada, sa prévalence est élevée dans certaines communautés inuites et des Premières nations du Canada. Le présent énoncé porte sur la prévention, le diagnostic, le dépistage précoce et la prise en charge du SAF par les professionnels de la santé. La prévention du SAF doit s’effectuer à deux échelons. La prévention primaire consiste à éliminer le SAF par une formation en classe ou dans la collectivité et à inciter les femmes à éviter de consommer de l’alcool avant la conception et pendant la grossesse. La prévention secondaire consiste à repérer les femmes qui boivent pendant leur grossesse et à réduire leur consommation. Le présent énoncé décrit plusieurs stratégies de dépistage, dont la stratégie T-ACE (tolérance-agacement, réduction, éveil). Les dispensateurs de soins devraient recommander l’abstinence dès la première visite prénatale. Un envoi rapide en consultation en vue de traiter l’alcoolisme est recommandé pour les femmes enceintes incapables d’arrêter de boire. Le présent énoncé décrit le diagnostic de SAF, de SAF partiel ou atypique, d’anomalies congénitales et de troubles neurodéveloppementaux reliés à l’alcool. En cas d’exposition à l’alcool in utero, un diagnostic de SAF devrait être envisagé en présence d’un retard de croissance courant ou antérieur, de certaines anomalies faciales touchant la lèvre supérieure et les yeux et d’anomalies neurodéveloppementales. Ces caractéristiques sont mieux quantifiées au moyen d’une méthode diagnostique à quatre chiffres. Des stratégies de dépistage précoce des

  7. Analysis of data from LEND instrument on LRO: May water deposits be expected on poles of Mercury?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrofanov, I.

    2012-04-01

    Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) of LRO measured the flux of epithermal neutrons with high spatial resolution ˜10 km for the amplitude of 50 km. The LEND data from the polar caps above 80° latitude were tested for the presence of local spots of epithermal Neutron Suppression Regions (NSRs), which have been identified with wa-ter ice permafrost. The model has been proposed, which explains the origin of water at lunar poles by chemical reactions between hydrogen of solar wind with oxygen of lunar regolith. The so-called solar water could be produced under the sunlit surface, and than migrate either at cold traps in he local vicinity from the irradiated spot of origin, or at cold subsur-face layer just below of the uppermost layer of origin. Similarly to the Moon, there are data of radio sensing of Mercury, which points out that this planet might have the water ice deposits at poles. Therefore, one may suspect that the main physics could also be similar at poles of the Moon and the Mercury: - if the water ice deposits are on the lunar poles, they should be at the Hermean poles as well; - if comets are not the main source for the water at lunar poles, they should not also be the main source for the polar water deposits on the Mercury. However, one should also take into account that the Moon and the Mercury have rather different physics of inter-action between the plasma of solar wind and the surface: - the Mercury have the dipole magnetic field, which is large enough to shield the equatorial belt of the planet from the direct interaction with the plasma of solar wind; - flux of solar wind and solar radiation at the orbit of Mercury are much larger than they are at the Earth orbit; - the average temperature of illuminated spots at Hermean poles is much larger than the temperature of illuminated spots at poles of the Moon. In addition to current neutron data from LRO, the data from MESSENGER should be studied for better under-standing of polar water ice

  8. Incarceration is associated with used syringe lending among active injection drug users with detectable plasma HIV-1 RNA: a longitudinal analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Informed by recent studies demonstrating the central role of plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL) on HIV transmission, interventions to employ HIV antiretroviral treatment as prevention (TasP) are underway. To optimize these efforts, evidence is needed to identify factors associated with both non-suppressed VL and HIV risk behaviours. Thus, we sought to assess the possible role played by exposure to correctional facilities on VL non-suppression and used syringe lending among HIV-seropositive people who use injection drugs (PWID). Methods We used data from the ACCESS study, a community-recruited prospective cohort. We used longitudinal multivariate mixed-effects analyses to estimate the relationship between incarceration and plasma HIV-1 RNA > 500 copies/mL among antiretroviral therapy (ART)-exposed active PWID and, during periods of non-suppression, the relationship between incarceration and used syringe lending. Results Between May 1996 and March 2012, 657 ART-exposed PWID were recruited. Incarceration was independently associated with higher odds of VL non-suppression (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 1.54, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI]: 1.10, 2.16). In a separate multivariate model restricted to periods of VL non-suppression, incarceration was independently associated with lending used syringes (AOR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.03, 3.18). Conclusions The current findings demonstrate that incarceration is associated with used syringe lending among active PWID with detectable plasma HIV-1 RNA. Our results provide a possible pathway for the commonly observed association between incarceration and increased risk of HIV transmission. Our results suggest that alternatives to incarceration of non-violent PWID and evidence-based combination HIV prevention interventions for PWID within correctional facilities are urgently needed. PMID:24289651

  9. Elevated variant density around SV breakpoints in germline lineage lends support to error-prone replication hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Dhokarh, Dhananjay; Abyzov, Alexej

    2016-07-01

    Copy number variants (CNVs) are a class of structural variants that may involve complex genomic rearrangements (CGRs) and are hypothesized to have additional mutations around their breakpoints. Understanding the mechanisms underlying CNV formation is fundamental for understanding the repair and mutation mechanisms in cells, thereby shedding light on evolution, genomic disorders, cancer, and complex human traits. In this study, we used data from the 1000 Genomes Project to analyze hundreds of loci harboring heterozygous germline deletions in the subjects NA12878 and NA19240. By utilizing synthetic long-read data (longer than 2 kbp) in combination with high coverage short-read data and, in parallel, by comparing with parental genomes, we interrogated the phasing of these deletions with the flanking tens of thousands of heterozygous SNPs and indels. We found that the density of SNPs/indels flanking the breakpoints of deletions (in-phase variants) is approximately twice as high as the corresponding density for the variants on the haplotype without deletion (out-of-phase variants). This fold change was even larger for the subset of deletions with signatures of replication-based mechanism of formation. The allele frequency (AF) spectrum for deletions is enriched for rare events; and the AF spectrum for in-phase SNPs is shifted toward this deletion spectrum, thus offering evidence consistent with the concomitance of the in-phase SNPs/indels with the deletion events. These findings therefore lend support to the hypothesis that the mutational mechanisms underlying CNV formation are error prone. Our results could also be relevant for resolving mutation-rate discrepancies in human and to explain kataegis. PMID:27216746

  10. The Vertical Distribution of Buried Volatiles at the Moon revealed by Thermal and Epithermal Neutron Fluxes from LEND Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, G.; Sagdeev, R.; Su, J. J.; Murray, J.; Livengood, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Determining the quantity and vertical distribution of volatile species on and below the surface of planetary bodies is vital to understand the primordial chemical inventory and subsequent evolution of planets. Volatiles may provide resources to support future human exploration. This is particularly true for the Moon, which is well observed by many methods from ground-based, lunar orbit, and in situ, and is an accessible destination or way station for human exploration. We present Geant4 models of relative fluxes of Fast, Epithermal, and Thermal neutron emission generated in a planetary regolith by galactic cosmic rays to reveal the first 1-2 meters vertical structure of embedded hydrogen or water. Varying ratios of Thermal versus Epithermal, low-energy-Epithermal versus high-energy-Epithermal, and Thermal versus Fast neutron emissions are diagnostics of the depth in which hydrogen/water layers are buried within the top 1-2 meters of the regolith. In addition, we apply model calculations to Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) thermal and epithermal data, acquired on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), in specific regions of the Moon to retrieve the vertical distribution of buried ice from the remote sensing information. GEANT4 is a set of particle physics transport simulation codes that exploits object-oriented software methods to deliver a comprehensive and flexible toolkit that is modular and extensible, based on a free open-source development model. GEANT4 has become a standard tool to simulate applications as diverse as particle telescope and detector response, space radiation shielding and optimization, total ionizing dose in spacecraft components, and biological effects of radiation.

  11. Internships: Lending a Hand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cayan, Sally; Jacquart, Jamie

    1990-01-01

    The benefits derived from an internship program within a college or university graduate education classroom are discussed, as well as the program's development and operation. Benefits from such a program are viewed as affecting both the institution and the interns themselves. The institution is provided with extra staff, along with their fresh…

  12. Lending a Helping Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Barrett Technology, Inc., of Cambridge, Massachusetts, received the 2003 Robotic Industries Association s Joseph Engelberger Award for Technology Leadership based on successful commercialization of its novel robotic manipulators. Designed for applications requiring superior adaptability, programmability, and dexterity, Barrett s devices provide state-of-the-art functionality and capability, as well as product integration with existing technology. The cutting-edge robotic manipulators originated through collaboration with NASA, the National Science Foundation, and the U.S. Air Force.

  13. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2013-06-01

    Une binaire remarquable; Collision de galaxies; La nébuleuse planétaire C1295; ALMA (suite); Couple massif; Astéroïdes lointains; L’eau de Jupiter; Occultation par Pluton; Super-Terres; Première image d’une planète massive autour d’une étoile double; Tempête au pôle de Saturne

  14. Les Troubles Respiratoires Chez Le Brule

    PubMed Central

    Fassi Fihri, J.; Ezzoubi, M.; Boukind, E.H.

    2010-01-01

    Summary A travers une revue de la littérature, cet article se propose d'exposer les particularités des troubles respiratoires chez le brûlé. Ces troubles sont liés à un mécanisme direct, lorsque l'arbre respiratoire est lésé par le transfert d'énergie thermique du à la brûlure et/ou par un mécanisme indirect, lorsque la fonction respiratoire et ventilatoire du poumon est perturbée par les phénomènes loco-régionaux ou généraux du brûlé. Ces troubles respiratoires sont aggravés par l'inhalation des gaz contenus dans la fumée d'incendie. Le diagnostic de ces troubles est clinique et paraclinique. Il doit être précoce et continu. Les patients nécessitent de différents moyens thérapeutiques tels que l'oxygénothérapie, la libération des voies respiratoires, l'amélioration de la mécanique ventilatoire et de la fonction respiratoire, l'antibiothérapie ou la chirurgie des séquelles. Cette prise en charge doit nécessairement être multidisciplinaire. PMID:21991224

  15. Moonshine: Diurnally varying hydration through natural distillation on the Moon, detected by the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livengood, T. A.; Chin, G.; Sagdeev, R. Z.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Evans, L. G.; Litvak, M. L.; McClanahan, T. P.; Sanin, A. B.; Starr, R. D.; Su, J. J.

    2015-07-01

    The Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND), on the polar-orbiting Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft, has detected suppression in the Moon's naturally-occurring epithermal neutron leakage flux that is consistent with the presence of diurnally varying quantities of hydrogen in the regolith near the equator. Peak hydrogen concentration (neutron flux suppression) is on the dayside of the dawn terminator and diminishes through the dawn-to-noon sector. The minimum concentration of hydrogen is in the late afternoon and dusk sector. The chemical form of hydrogen is not determinable from these measurements, but other remote sensing methods and anticipated elemental availability suggest water molecules or hydroxyl ions. Signal-to-noise ratio at maximum contrast is 5.6σ in each of two detector systems. Volatiles are deduced to collect in or on the cold nightside surface and distill out of the regolith after dawn as rotation exposes the surface to sunlight. Liberated volatiles migrate away from the warm subsolar region toward the nearby cold nightside surface beyond the terminator, resulting in maximum concentration at the dawn terminator. The peak concentration within the upper ∼1 m of regolith is estimated to be 0.0125 ± 0.0022 weight-percent water-equivalent hydrogen (wt% WEH) at dawn, yielding an accumulation of 190 ± 30 ml recoverable water per square meter of regolith at each dawn. Volatile transport over the lunar surface in opposition to the Moon's rotation exposes molecules to solar ultraviolet radiation. The short lifetime against photolysis and permanent loss of hydrogen from the Moon requires a resupply rate that greatly exceeds anticipated delivery of hydrogen by solar wind implantation or by meteoroid impacts, suggesting that the surface inventory must be continually resupplied by release from a deep volatile inventory in the Moon. The natural distillation of water from the regolith by sunlight and its capture on the cold night surface may

  16. Le déficit immunitaire humoral: mieux le connaître pour mieux le prendre en charge

    PubMed Central

    El Bakkouri, Jalila; Aadam, Zahra; Ailal, Fatima; Alj, Hanane Salih; Bousfiha, Ahmed Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Les déficits immunitaires humoraux (DIH) sont des maladies hétérogènes allant des formes asymptomatiques rencontrés lors des déficits sélectifs en immunoglobulines A (IgA) et en sous-classes d'IgG aux formes graves des agammaglobulinémies congénitales. Les patients atteints de DIH présentent souvent des infections ORL ou des voies respiratoires récidivantes ou sévères. Ces patients peuvent présenter un certain nombre de complications non infectieuses, telles que des manifestations auto-immunes et des entéropathies, qui pourraient être le seul symptôme clinique révélateur. Les formes sévères des DIH sont facilement diagnostiquées grâce au dosage des IgG totaux, des IgA et des IgM. La thérapie substitutive par les immunoglobulines reste le traitement de choix chez ces patients. PMID:25489366

  17. Lele de l’omalizumab dans le traitement de l’asthme allergique grave

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Kenneth R; Cartier, André; Hébert, Jacques; McIvor, R Andrew; Schellenberg, R Robert

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXTE : Un nouveau traitement anti-immunoglobuline E (anti-IgE) contre l’asthme, l’omalizumab, a été approuvé au Canada. OBJECTIF : Passer en revue les données fondamentales et cliniques sur l’omalizumab et examiner lele possible de ce médicament dans la prise en charge de l’asthme au Canada. MÉTHODOLOGIE : Une recherche documentaire a été effectuée dans MEDLINE afin de repérer les études menées de 1960 à 2006 sur l’omalizumab. La recherche a également porté sur les résumés de réunions scientifiques récentes dans le domaine des maladies respiratoires et des allergies; par ailleurs, toute donnée non publiée a été demandée au fabricant. Après avoir revu et résumé les données, un comité mixte constitué de spécialistes des maladies respiratoires et des allergies a rédigé un ensemble de recommandations relatives à l’utilisation de l’omalizumab. RÉSULTATS : L’omalizumab est un anticorps monoclonal humanisé qui se lie au domaine C epsilon 3 de la molécule d’IgE pour former des complexes immuns solubles qui sont éliminés par le système réticulo-endothélial. L’administration d’injections sous-cutanées espacées de deux ou de quatre semaines à la dose recommandée entraîne une diminution rapide des taux d’IgE circulantes libres. Lors de deux essais cliniques de phase III menés auprès de 1 405 adultes et adolescents atteints d’asthme modéré à grave qui recevaient des doses moyennes stables de corticostéroïdes en inhalation (CSI), l’omalizumab a diminué les taux d’exacerbation par rapport au placebo et a été associé à une amélioration des symptômes ainsi qu’à une épargne plus importante des corticostéroïdes. Dans un essai mené auprès de 419 patients atteints d’asthme grave non maîtrisé malgré l’utilisation de doses élevées de CSI et de la prise concomitante d’agonistes bêta-2 à action prolongée, les exacerbations graves étaient de 50 % moins fréquentes chez

  18. Intracranial subdural hygroma after Le Fort I osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Thompson, William L; Lee, Michael; MacIntosh, Robert Bruce

    2015-04-01

    Various intra- and postoperative complications have been well-documented after Le Fort I osteotomies; however, an intracranial subdural hygroma has not yet been reported in oral and maxillofacial studies. We report a unique case of an intracranial subdural hygroma requiring neurosurgical intervention after Le Fort I advancement. PMID:25631863

  19. The Use of Le by L1 Chinese Speakers and the Acquisition of Le by L2 Chinese Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bredeche, Chi Chen

    2011-01-01

    The perfective marker V-"le" is claimed to be one of the most problematic items in the acquisition of L2 Chinese, perhaps because no unified and comprehensive treatment of it exists in the literature. Although much has been written on this topic, the semantic and pragmatic functions of V-"le" have remained elusive. While linguists and grammarians…

  20. Energy levels, wavelengths, and radiative transition probabilities for the Na-like ions with 38 [le] Z [le] 45

    SciTech Connect

    Ying Zhang; Qiren Zhu; Shoufu Pan )

    1992-11-01

    The investigation by Z.-Q Zhang et al. (Acta Optica Sinica 11, 193, 1991) shows that it is possible to realize soft X-ray lasing in the water window 23.3-43.8 [Angstrom] with the Na-like recombination scheme, which requires a lower pumping power at a high-power laser facility than that with other schemes. The fine-structure levels with n [le] 15 and l [le] 6 in Na-like ions with 38 [le] Z [le] 45 and the probabilities for radiative transitions between these levels are calculated using the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock approach. The calculations show that the wavelengths of the anticipated laser transitions 6 f-4d and 6g-4f in the Na-like ions with 38 [le] Z [le] 43 and 5f-4d and 5g-4f in the Na-like ions with 40 [le] Z [le] 45 lie in the region of the water window.

  1. Le contrôle des infections au cabinet du pédiatre

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ La transmission des infections au cabinet du pédiatre est de plus en plus préoccupante. Le présent document expose les voies de transmission des infections et les principes sous-jacents aux mesures actuelles pour contrôler les infections. Pour prévenir les infections, il faut bien concevoir le cabinet et adopter des politiques administratives et de triage convenables, de même que des pratiques de base pour les soins de tous les patients (p. ex., hygiène des mains, port de gants, de masques, de lunettes de protection et d’une blouse d’hôpital pour des interventions précises; nettoyage, désinfection et stérilisation convenables des surfaces et du matériel, y compris les jouets, et techniques d’asepsie en cas d’interventions effractives) et des précautions additionnelles en cas d’infections précises. Le personnel doit avoir reçu les vaccins pertinents, et les personnes infectées doivent respecter les politiques de restriction au travail.

  2. Les Hemorragies Gastroduodenales de Stress Chez le Brule Grave

    PubMed Central

    Siah, S.; Fouadi, F.E.; Ababou, K.; Nassim Sabah, T.; Ihrai, I.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Les Auteurs rapportent trois observations d'hémorragies gastroduodénales de stress chez le brûlé grave. Ils rappellent l'importance des mesures thérapeutiques qui doivent être prises chez le brûlé grave, comme le traitement du choc, du sepsis, des plaies et de la douleur, la nutrition entérale précoce et l'oxygénothérapie. Tout cela permet de réduire les facteurs de risque de survenue d'une hémorragie gastroduodénale de stress. PMID:21991137

  3. Automated Verification of Design Patterns with LePUS3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Jonathan; Gasparis, Epameinondas; Eden, Ammon H.; Kazman, Rick

    2009-01-01

    Specification and [visual] modelling languages are expected to combine strong abstraction mechanisms with rigour, scalability, and parsimony. LePUS3 is a visual, object-oriented design description language axiomatized in a decidable subset of the first-order predicate logic. We demonstrate how LePUS3 is used to formally specify a structural design pattern and prove ( verify ) whether any JavaTM 1.4 program satisfies that specification. We also show how LePUS3 specifications (charts) are composed and how they are verified fully automatically in the Two-Tier Programming Toolkit.

  4. Impact de la varicocèle sur le volume testiculaire et les paramètres spermatiques

    PubMed Central

    Benazzouz, Mohamed Hicham; Essatara, Younes; El Sayegh, Hachem; Iken, Ali; Benslimane, Lounis; Nouini, Yassine

    2014-01-01

    Introduction La varicocèle est une pathologie masculine fréquente dont l'incidence est encore plus importante dans dans la population des hommes infertiles. Si ses mécanismes sont à ce jour incomplètement expliqués il semble acquis que la varicocèle peut être associée a une dysfonction testiculaire avec diminution du volume testiculaire et de la concentration en spermatozoïde de l’éjaculat. Méthodes Dans un premier temps nous exposons les résultats d'une étude rétrospective sur 5 ans (de Mars 2009 à Mars 2014), réalisée au service d'urologie A de l'hôpital Ibn Sina de Rabat et ayant comme objectif d’évaluer l'impact de la varicocèle palpable sur le volume testiculaire et les paramètres spermatiques. Tous les patients inclus dans notre étude avaient une varicocèle palpable. Dans un deuxième temps, et à travers une revue de la littérature nous discutons l'impact du traitement de la varicocèle sur la fertilité. Résultats 39 patients ont été inclus dans notre étude. L’âge moyen était de 29,71 ans et la varicocèle siégeait dans 89,74% des cas du coté gauche. Une atrophie testiculaire homolatérale à la varicocèle était retrouvée dans 7% des cas alors que des anomalies du spermogramme se voyaient dans 69,23% des cas. Conclusion L'impact de la varicocèle sur l'altération des paramètres spermatiques a été clairement établi bien que sa physio pathogénie ne soit pas bien élucidée. Le traitement chirurgical de la varicocèle semble indiqué chez les hommes infertiles présentant une varicocèle clinique et une altération significative du sperme. PMID:25918574

  5. New spatially continuous indices of redlining and racial bias in mortgage lending: links to survival after breast cancer diagnosis and implications for health disparities research.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Kirsten M M; Zhou, Yuhong; Matthews, Kevin; Bemanian, Amin; Laud, Purushottam W; Nattinger, Ann B

    2016-07-01

    Racial health disparities continue to be a serious problem in the United States and have been linked to contextual factors, including racial segregation. In some cases, including breast cancer survival, racial disparities appear to be worsening. Using the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA) database, we extend current spatial analysis methodology to derive new, spatially continuous indices of (1) racial bias in mortgage lending and (2) redlining. We then examine spatial patterns of these indices and the association between these new measures and breast cancer survival among Black/African American women in the Milwaukee, Wisconsin metropolitan area. These new measures can be used to examine relationships between mortgage discrimination and patterns of disease throughout the United States. PMID:27173381

  6. Development status of LE-7 fuel turbopump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, T.; Nagao, R.; Ohta, T.; Warashina, S.; Watanabe, H.; Oguchi, H.

    The liquid hydrogen turbopump (LH2 T/P) for the LE-7 engine has been developed since 1984. The component PDR was held in June 1988 and the basic troubles occurred at the development test were solved. Next, the component CDR-1 was held in December 1989 in order to feed back the test results of prototype LH2 T/P model to the design of qualification phase T/P. So, the production of these turbopumps was admitted. Recently, the component CDR-2 was held in February 1992 to reflect the counterparts adopted for some troubles (impeller and turbine blade cracks and so on) in long-time engine tests to the design of qualification phase T/P. In the qualification phase, the hydraulic characteristics and strength in the engine operating range were examined at the LH2 T/P component test, and its endurance confirmed at the engine tests. The LH2 turbopump component test was held at NASDA Kakuda and the engine test at Tashiro and Tanegashima. This paper describes the development status of LH2 T/P, containing the design description and the content of some troubles and its counterplans.

  7. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2007-09-01

    Anions interstellaires; S Orionis; Altaîr; Courants stellaires; Etoiles jeunes; 2MASSW J1207334-393254; Alpha Andromède; Etoiles à neutrons (1); LH54-425; AGNs invisibles; Deux supernovae; Les GRBs seon Swift; Peser les trous noirs; Formation de trous noirs; Trou noir; ondes gravitationnelles : Virgo entre dans sa phase d'exploitation scientifique; Amas de galaxies actifs; Amas de galaxies; Galaxies actives d'amas; L'univers statique: le retour; Macho; Exoplanètes; Exoplanètes habitables?; Exoplanètes habitables? (suite); Une année d'un an; Une année de 31 heures; Valse des Jupiters; Disque de HD 15115; Impact majeur; Planètes isolées; Super-Jupiter; Impact et mini-extinction; L'effet Pioneer; Toungouska; Spéléo martienne; Autres lunes dactives; Encelade; Hypérion; Pluton dépassé; Satellites d'Uranus; Titan

  8. Transmaxillary Sinus Approach for Le Fort II Osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Fukawa, Toshihiko; Hirakawa, Takashi; Satake, Toshihiko; Maegawa, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    Summary: The Le Fort II osteotomy is a relatively rare operation. The posterior wall osteotomy of the maxillary sinus (MS) is often difficult for Le Fort III. We developed the transmaxillary sinus approach (TSA) for the Le Fort II osteotomy that cuts the posterior wall of the MS directly. This report illustrates this easy-to-use procedure for the Le Fort II osteotomy in syndromic craniosynostosis. This procedure was performed in an 18-year-old patient with Apert syndrome and a 15-year-old patient with Pfeiffer syndrome. The thin anterior walls of the MS were removed through an intraoral approach to look inside the MS. Then, the posterior walls were cut by chisel under direct vision using light. The other osteotomy was performed as usual. Distraction osteogenesis with internal and external devices was used in combination. The advantages of TSA are the direct posterior wall osteotomy of the MS with no down fracture and minimal invasiveness to the mucosa of the MS under direct vision. However, the disadvantage is that TSA becomes a blind procedure in a case with no MS or hypoplasia. We developed the TSA for the Le Fort II osteotomy, which could provide direct observation and perform the posterior wall osteotomy of the MS without down fracture. We believe that TSA is an effective surgical procedure for the Le Fort II osteotomy. PMID:27014548

  9. Transmaxillary Sinus Approach for Le Fort II Osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shinji; Fukawa, Toshihiko; Hirakawa, Takashi; Satake, Toshihiko; Maegawa, Jiro

    2016-02-01

    The Le Fort II osteotomy is a relatively rare operation. The posterior wall osteotomy of the maxillary sinus (MS) is often difficult for Le Fort III. We developed the transmaxillary sinus approach (TSA) for the Le Fort II osteotomy that cuts the posterior wall of the MS directly. This report illustrates this easy-to-use procedure for the Le Fort II osteotomy in syndromic craniosynostosis. This procedure was performed in an 18-year-old patient with Apert syndrome and a 15-year-old patient with Pfeiffer syndrome. The thin anterior walls of the MS were removed through an intraoral approach to look inside the MS. Then, the posterior walls were cut by chisel under direct vision using light. The other osteotomy was performed as usual. Distraction osteogenesis with internal and external devices was used in combination. The advantages of TSA are the direct posterior wall osteotomy of the MS with no down fracture and minimal invasiveness to the mucosa of the MS under direct vision. However, the disadvantage is that TSA becomes a blind procedure in a case with no MS or hypoplasia. We developed the TSA for the Le Fort II osteotomy, which could provide direct observation and perform the posterior wall osteotomy of the MS without down fracture. We believe that TSA is an effective surgical procedure for the Le Fort II osteotomy. PMID:27014548

  10. Three-dimensional Nasolabial Morphologic Alterations Following Le Fort I

    PubMed Central

    DeSesa, Christopher R.; Metzler, Philip; Sawh-Martinez, Rajendra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Le Fort I osteotomy imparts significant changes to the nasolabial region. Past studies have relied on 2-dimensional data and have not delineated differences among various Le Fort I subtypes. The purpose of this study is to 3-dimensionally analyze Le Fort I–induced nasal and lip changes comparing advancement alone versus widening alone [surgically assisted maxillary expansion (SAME)] versus advancement and widening. We hypothesize that the combination of maxillary advancement with widening will result in the most profound changes. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed. Included Le Fort I patients were grouped as: (1) nonsegmental straight advancement, (2) widening without advancement, and (3) segmental advancement and widening. Pre- and postoperative 3-dimensional photogrammetry (Canfield) were analyzed. Anthropometric landmarks were placed and measured by 2 independent observers. Statistics involved both paired and unpaired t tests (significance = P < 0.05). Results: One hundred eight photogrammetric data sets were analyzed, including 46 single-piece, 26 SAME, and 36 segmental. Significant postoperative nasal changes were observed within each intragroup analysis. The most dramatic changes were seen after segmental Le Fort I with advancement and widening, which included alar base width, alar width, nostril width, and soft triangle angle, all P < 0.05. Conclusions: Le Fort I osteotomy results in significant alteration of the nasolabial morphology. This is the first study to 3-dimensionally analyze nasal changes that occur comparing maxillary advancement alone versus widening alone (SAME) versus advancement with widening. These objective data permit improved patient counseling and surgical planning. PMID:27622116