Science.gov

Sample records for lensless digital holography

  1. On-chip differential interference contrast microscopy using lensless digital holography

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chulwoo; Isikman, Serhan O.; Khademhosseinieh, Bahar; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the use of a birefringent crystal with lensless digital holography to create an on-chip differential interference contrast (DIC) microscope. Using an incoherent source with a large aperture, in-line holograms of micro-objects are created, which interact with a uniaxial crystal and an absorbing polarizer, encoding differential interference contrast information of the objects on the chip. Despite the fact that a unit fringe magnification and an incoherent source with a large aperture have been used, holographic digital processing of such holograms rapidly recovers the differential phase contrast image of the specimen over a large field-of-view of ~24 mm2. PMID:20389485

  2. Application of short-coherence lensless Fourier-transform digital holography in imaging through diffusive medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yizhuo; Situ, Guohai; Pedrini, Giancarlo; Wang, Dayong; Javidi, Bahram; Osten, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    We propose a short-coherence lensless Fourier-transform digital holography for imaging through scattering media. The technique utilizes a low-power cw diode laser with short temporal coherence and enables the selection of the early-arriving photons through a diffusive medium by interfering with a spherical reference beam from the same source. An averaging technique is introduced to extract the weak signal from strong background noise. The proposed technique is verified using both theoretical analysis and experimental demonstration by imaging an object through a 3-mm-thick chicken breast tissue.

  3. Multi-angle lensless digital holography for depth resolved imaging on a chip

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ting-Wei; Isikman, Serhan O.; Bishara, Waheb; Tseng, Derek; Erlinger, Anthony; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2010-01-01

    A multi-angle lensfree holographic imaging platform that can accurately characterize both the axial and lateral positions of cells located within multi-layered micro-channels is introduced. In this platform, lensfree digital holograms of the micro-objects on the chip are recorded at different illumination angles using partially coherent illumination. These digital holograms start to shift laterally on the sensor plane as the illumination angle of the source is tilted. Since the exact amount of this lateral shift of each object hologram can be calculated with an accuracy that beats the diffraction limit of light, the height of each cell from the substrate can be determined over a large field of view without the use of any lenses. We demonstrate the proof of concept of this multi-angle lensless imaging platform by using light emitting diodes to characterize various sized microparticles located on a chip with sub-micron axial and lateral localization over ~60 mm2 field of view. Furthermore, we successfully apply this lensless imaging approach to simultaneously characterize blood samples located at multi-layered micro-channels in terms of the counts, individual thicknesses and the volumes of the cells at each layer. Because this platform does not require any lenses, lasers or other bulky optical/mechanical components, it provides a compact and high-throughput alternative to conventional approaches for cytometry and diagnostics applications involving lab on a chip systems. PMID:20588819

  4. Superresolution imaging method using phase-shifting digital lensless Fourier holography.

    PubMed

    Granero, Luis; Micó, Vicente; Zalevsky, Zeev; García, Javier

    2009-08-17

    A method which is useful for obtaining superresolved imaging in a digital lensless Fourier holographic configuration is presented. By placing a diffraction grating between the input object and the CCD recording device, additional high-order spatial-frequency content of the object spectrum is directed towards the CCD. Unlike other similar methods, the recovery of the different band pass images is performed by inserting a reference beam in on-axis mode and using phase-shifting method. This strategy provides advantages concerning the usage of the whole frequency plane as imaging plane. Thus, the method is no longer limited by the zero order term and the twin image. Finally, the whole process results in a synthetic aperture generation that expands up the system cutoff frequency and yields a superresolution effect. Experimental results validate our concepts for a resolution improvement factor of 3. PMID:19687979

  5. Synthetic aperture superresolved microscopy in digital lensless Fourier holography by time and angular multiplexing of the object information.

    PubMed

    Granero, Luis; Micó, Vicente; Zalevsky, Zeev; García, Javier

    2010-02-10

    The resolving power of an imaging system in digital lensless Fourier holographic configuration is mainly limited by the numerical aperture of the experimental setup that is defined by both the restricted CCD size and the presence of a beam splitter cube in front of the CCD. We present a method capable of improving the resolution in such a system configuration based on synthetic aperture (SA) generation by using time-multiplexing tilted illumination onto the input object. Moreover, a priori knowledge about the imaged object allows customized SA shaping by the addition of elementary apertures only in the directions of interest. Experimental results are provided, showing agreement with theoretical predictions and demonstrating a resolution limit corresponding with a synthetic numerical aperture value of 0.45. PMID:20154752

  6. High-resolution lensless Fourier transform holography for microstructure imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jie; Wang, Dayong; Wang, Huaying; Xie, Jianjun

    2007-12-01

    Digital holography combines the advantages of the optical holography and the computers. It can implement an all-digital processing and has the quasi real-time property. With lensless Fourier transform recording architecture, the limited bandwidth of CCD camera can be utilized sufficiently, and the sampling theorem is satisfied easily. Therefore, high-resolution can be achieved. So it is preferred in the microstructure imaging. In the paper, based on the Fresnel diffraction theory and the off-axis lensless Fourier transform recording architecture, the experimental optimization and correspondingly the digital reconstruction was investigated. Also, the lateral resolution of the reconstructed image was analyzed and improved by the proposed techniques. When the USAF test target was imaged without any pre-magnification, the lateral resolution of 3.1μm was achieved, which matched the theoretical prediction very well. The key points to achieve high resolution image are to use the smaller object and to arrange the distance between the object and the CCD plane as short as possible. Meanwhile, properly overlapping the reconstructed image with the DC term was helpful to improve the resolution. The noise in the reconstructed image could be reduced greatly by choosing the optical elements precisely and adjusting the beam path finely. The experimental results demonstrated that it is possible for the digital holographic microscopy to produce the high resolution image without the objective pre-magnification. The results also showed that, with a high quality hologram, the special image processing during the reconstruction may be unnecessary to obtain a high quality image.

  7. RGB digital lensless holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Sucerquia, Jorge

    2013-11-01

    The recent introduction of color digital lensless holographic microscopy (CDLHM) has shown the possibility of imaging microscopic specimens at full color without the need of lenses. Owing to the simplicity, robustness, and compactness of the digital lensless holographic microscopes (DLHM), they have been presented as the ideal candidates to being developed into portable holographic microscopes. However, in the case of CDLHM the utilization of three independent lasers hinders the portability option for this microscope. In this contribution an alternative to reduce the complexity of CDLHM aimed to recover the portability of this microscopy technology is presented. A super-bright white-light light-emitting diode (LED) is spectrally and spatially filtered to produce the needed illumination by CDLHM to work. CDLHM with LED illumination is used to image at full color a section of the head of a drosophila melanogaster fly (fruit fly). The LED-CDLHM method shows the capability of imaging objects of 2μm size in comparison with the micrometer resolution reported for LASER-CDLHM.

  8. Extreme-ultraviolet lensless Fourier-transform holography.

    PubMed

    Lee, S H; Naulleau, P; Goldberg, K A; Cho, C H; Jeong, S; Bokor, J

    2001-06-01

    We demonstrate 100-nm-resolution holographic aerial image monitoring based on lensless Fourier-transform holography at extreme-UV (EUV) wavelengths, using synchrotron-based illumination. This method can be used to monitor the coherent imaging performance of EUV lithographic optical systems. The system has been implemented in the EUV phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometer recently developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Here we introduce the idea of the holographic aerial image-recording technique and present imaging performance characterization results for a 10x Schwarzschild objective, a prototype EUV lithographic optic. The results are compared with simulations, and good agreement is obtained. Various object patterns, including phase-shift-enhanced patterns, have been studied. Finally, the application of the holographic aerial image-recording technique to EUV multilayer mask-blank defect characterization is discussed. PMID:18357280

  9. Field-portable reflection and transmission microscopy based on lensless holography

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Myungjun; Yaglidere, Oguzhan; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate a lensfree dual-mode holographic microscope that can image specimens in both transmission and reflection geometries using in-line transmission and off-axis reflection holography, respectively. This field-portable dual-mode holographic microscope has a weight of ~200 g with dimensions of 15 x 5.5 x 5cm, where a laser source is powered by two batteries. Based on digital in-line holography, our transmission microscope achieves a sub-pixel lateral resolution of ≤2 µm over a wide field-of-view (FOV) of ~24 mm2 due to its unit fringe magnification geometry. Despite its simplicity and ease of operation, in-line transmission geometry is not suitable to image dense or connected objects such as tissue slides since the reference beam gets distorted causing severe aberrations in reconstruction of such objects. To mitigate this challenge, on the same cost-effective and field-portable assembly we built a lensless reflection mode microscope based on digital off-axis holography where a beam-splitter is used to interfere a tilted reference wave with the reflected light from the object surface, creating an off-axis hologram of the specimens on a CMOS sensor-chip. As a result of the reduced space-bandwidth product of the off-axis geometry compared to its in-line counterpart, the imaging FOV of our reflection mode is reduced to ~9 mm2, while still achieving a similar sub-pixel resolution of ≤2 µm. We tested the performance of this compact dual-mode microscopy unit by imaging a US-air force resolution test target, various micro-particles as well as a histopathology slide corresponding to skin tissue. Due to its compact, cost-effective, and lightweight design, this dual-mode lensless holographic microscope might especially be useful for field-use or for conducting microscopic analysis in resource-poor settings. PMID:21991559

  10. Field-portable reflection and transmission microscopy based on lensless holography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myungjun; Yaglidere, Oguzhan; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2011-09-01

    We demonstrate a lensfree dual-mode holographic microscope that can image specimens in both transmission and reflection geometries using in-line transmission and off-axis reflection holography, respectively. This field-portable dual-mode holographic microscope has a weight of ~200 g with dimensions of 15 x 5.5 x 5cm, where a laser source is powered by two batteries. Based on digital in-line holography, our transmission microscope achieves a sub-pixel lateral resolution of ≤2 µm over a wide field-of-view (FOV) of ~24 mm(2) due to its unit fringe magnification geometry. Despite its simplicity and ease of operation, in-line transmission geometry is not suitable to image dense or connected objects such as tissue slides since the reference beam gets distorted causing severe aberrations in reconstruction of such objects. To mitigate this challenge, on the same cost-effective and field-portable assembly we built a lensless reflection mode microscope based on digital off-axis holography where a beam-splitter is used to interfere a tilted reference wave with the reflected light from the object surface, creating an off-axis hologram of the specimens on a CMOS sensor-chip. As a result of the reduced space-bandwidth product of the off-axis geometry compared to its in-line counterpart, the imaging FOV of our reflection mode is reduced to ~9 mm(2), while still achieving a similar sub-pixel resolution of ≤2 µm. We tested the performance of this compact dual-mode microscopy unit by imaging a US-air force resolution test target, various micro-particles as well as a histopathology slide corresponding to skin tissue. Due to its compact, cost-effective, and lightweight design, this dual-mode lensless holographic microscope might especially be useful for field-use or for conducting microscopic analysis in resource-poor settings. PMID:21991559

  11. Quantitative phase imaging by wide field lensless digital holographic microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adinda-Ougba, A.; Koukourakis, N.; Essaidi, A.; Ger­hardt, N. C.; Hofmann, M. R.

    2015-05-01

    Wide field, lensless microscopes have been developed for telemedicine and for resource limited setting [1]. They are based on in-line digital holography which is capable to provide amplitude and phase information resulting from numerical reconstruction. The phase information enables achieving axial resolution in the nanometer range. Hence, such microscopes provide a powerful tool to determine three-dimensional topologies of microstructures. In this contribution, a compact, low-cost, wide field, lensless microscope is presented, which is capable of providing topological profiles of microstructures in transparent material. Our setup consist only of two main components: a CMOSsensor chip and a laser diode without any need of a pinhole. We use this very simple setup to record holograms of microobjects. A wide field of view of ~24 mm², and a lateral resolution of ~2 μm are achieved. Moreover, amplitude and phase information are obtained from the numerical reconstruction of the holograms using a phase retrieval algorithm together with the angular spectrum propagation method. Topographic information of highly transparent micro-objects is obtained from the phase data. We evaluate our system by recording holograms of lines with different depths written by a focused laser beam. A reliable characterization of laser written microstructures is crucial for their functionality. Our results show that this system is valuable for determination of topological profiles of microstructures in transparent material.

  12. Photon counting digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demoli, Nazif; Skenderović, Hrvoje; Stipčević, Mario; Pavičić, Mladen

    2016-05-01

    Digital holography uses electronic sensors for hologram recording and numerical method for hologram reconstruction enabling thus the development of advanced holography applications. However, in some cases, the useful information is concealed in a very wide dynamic range of illumination intensities and successful recording requires an appropriate dynamic range of the sensor. An effective solution to this problem is the use of a photon-counting detector. Such detectors possess counting rates of the order of tens to hundreds of millions counts per second, but conditions of recording holograms have to be investigated in greater detail. Here, we summarize our main findings on this problem. First, conditions for optimum recording of digital holograms for detecting a signal significantly below detector's noise are analyzed in terms of the most important holographic measures. Second, for time-averaged digital holograms, optimum recordings were investigated for exposures shorter than the vibration cycle. In both cases, these conditions are studied by simulations and experiments.

  13. Compact, Light-weight and Cost-effective Microscope based on Lensless Incoherent Holography for Telemedicine Applications

    PubMed Central

    Mudanyali, Onur; Tseng, Derek; Oh, Chulwoo; Isikman, Serhan O.; Sencan, Ikbal; Bishara, Waheb; Oztoprak, Cetin; Seo, Sungkyu; Khademhosseini, Bahar; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2010-01-01

    Despite the rapid progress in optical imaging, most of the advanced microscopy modalities still require complex and costly set-ups that unfortunately limit their use beyond well equipped laboratories. In the meantime, microscopy in resource-limited settings has requirements significantly different from those encountered in advanced laboratories, and such imaging devices should be cost-effective, compact, light-weight and appropriately accurate and simple to be usable by minimally trained personnel. Furthermore, these portable microscopes should ideally be digitally integrated as part of a telemedicine network that connects various mobile health-care providers to a central laboratory or hospital. Toward this end, here we demonstrate a lensless on-chip microscope weighing ~46 grams with dimensions smaller than 4.2cm × 4.2cm × 5.8cm that achieves sub-cellular resolution over a large field of view of ~24 mm2. This compact and light-weight microscope is based on digital in-line holography and does not need any lenses, bulky optical/mechanical components or coherent sources such as lasers. Instead, it utilizes a simple light-emitting-diode (LED) and a compact opto-electronic sensor-array to record lensless holograms of the objects, which then permits rapid digital reconstruction of regular transmission or differential interference contrast (DIC) images of the objects. Because this lensless incoherent holographic microscope has orders-of-magnitude improved light collection efficiency and is very robust to mechanical misalignments it may offer a cost-effective tool especially for telemedicine applications involving various global health problems in resource limited settings. PMID:20401422

  14. Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications.

    PubMed

    Mudanyali, Onur; Tseng, Derek; Oh, Chulwoo; Isikman, Serhan O; Sencan, Ikbal; Bishara, Waheb; Oztoprak, Cetin; Seo, Sungkyu; Khademhosseini, Bahar; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2010-06-01

    Despite the rapid progress in optical imaging, most of the advanced microscopy modalities still require complex and costly set-ups that unfortunately limit their use beyond well equipped laboratories. In the meantime, microscopy in resource-limited settings has requirements significantly different from those encountered in advanced laboratories, and such imaging devices should be cost-effective, compact, light-weight and appropriately accurate and simple to be usable by minimally trained personnel. Furthermore, these portable microscopes should ideally be digitally integrated as part of a telemedicine network that connects various mobile health-care providers to a central laboratory or hospital. Toward this end, here we demonstrate a lensless on-chip microscope weighing approximately 46 grams with dimensions smaller than 4.2 cm x 4.2 cm x 5.8 cm that achieves sub-cellular resolution over a large field of view of approximately 24 mm(2). This compact and light-weight microscope is based on digital in-line holography and does not need any lenses, bulky optical/mechanical components or coherent sources such as lasers. Instead, it utilizes a simple light-emitting-diode (LED) and a compact opto-electronic sensor-array to record lensless holograms of the objects, which then permits rapid digital reconstruction of regular transmission or differential interference contrast (DIC) images of the objects. Because this lensless incoherent holographic microscope has orders-of-magnitude improved light collection efficiency and is very robust to mechanical misalignments it may offer a cost-effective tool especially for telemedicine applications involving various global health problems in resource limited settings. PMID:20401422

  15. Digital holography display (3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Cheok Peng; Zheng, Huadong; Chia, Yong Poo; Cheng, Chee Yuen; Yu, Yang; Yu, Yingjie; Asundi, Anand

    2013-06-01

    This paper is to describe a color digital holographic projector and this system is comprised of RGB lasers, 3 units of Digital Micro-Mirror Device (DMD) and high speed rotating diffuser. In this research, we focused on colorings Digital holograms and synchronized RGB digital holograms versus rotated diffuser. To achieve this phenomenon, three of the holograms optical path need to be aligned to pass through a same beam splitter and eventually combined as one colored holograms output While, this colored hologram will be reconstructed on volumetric screen (rotated diffuser) at the floating manner in free space. To obtain these result 3 key factors is investigated: 1. To configured 1 master and 2 slaves digital micro mirror illumination time 2. To reconstructed holograms orientation angle diffuser versus rotating speed. 3. To synchronize rotating diffuser speed versus DMD frame-rate Last but not least, the team built a prototype Color Digital Holography Display but more developments are required to follow up such as, enhance system's reliability, robustness, compactness and 3D realistic images floating in the free air space.

  16. Measurement of hygroscopic strain in deodar wood during convective drying using lensless Fourier transform digial holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Manoj; Shakher, Chandra

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, moisture induced deformation and shrinkage behaviour of deodar wood during convective drying is experimentally investigated by using digital holographic interferometry. There induces dimensional changes in wood due to the moisture absorption and desorption. Lensless Fourier transform digital holographic interferometry (LLFTDH) is used to study the moisture induced deformation and strain distribution in deodar wood. The proposed technique having high sensitivity and enables the observation of deformation and strain distribution during the variations of moisture content in the deodar wood.

  17. Lensless coherent imaging by sampling of the optical field with digital micromirror device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vdovin, G.; Gong, H.; Soloviev, O.; Pozzi, P.; Verhaegen, M.

    2015-12-01

    We have experimentally demonstrated a lensless coherent microscope based on direct registration of the complex optical field by sampling the pupil with a sequence of two-point interferometers formed by a digital micromirror device. Complete registration of the complex amplitude in the pupil of the imaging system, without any reference beam, provides a convenient link between the experimental and computational optics. Unlike other approaches to digital holography, our method does not require any external reference beam, resulting in a simple and robust registration setup. Computer analysis of the experimentally registered field allows for focusing the image in the whole range from zero to infinity, and for virtual correction of the aberrations present in the real optical system, by applying the adaptive wavefront corrections to its virtual model.

  18. Digital Holography Display (2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Cheok Peng; Asundi, A.; Yu, Yang; Xiao, Zhen Zhong

    This paper describes the extension work from the last Digital Holography Projector System. From the developed works shows that, some unforeseen factors have created the difficulties for the system alignment. Such factors are the DMD frame rate, light source and diffractive zero order. It is really the challenging development works to achieve the virtual 3D model display on the high speed rotation screen. The three most key factors are emphasizing: 1) The display device's frame rate; 2) The light source orientation angle; and 3) The zero order filtering optic. 1) This device's is the digital micro mirror, in short is DMD. It is the high speed switching device has developed by the most recent technology. The switching frame rate can go up as high as 291fps. At first, the 8 bits depth file must be digitalized and stored for DMD onboard Ram. The digitalized data are transmitting from the PC USB to DMD onboard Ram. Instead of the data are downloading directly from the PC to DVI or VGA during display, this downloading method cause slower down the display speed, which is the common frame rate of 30 Hz. Next, the onboard Ram data then transfer to the DMD mirror's for display, at the 8 bits 291 fps speed. At this frame rate, the display 2D image can almost cover for 10 of out of the 360 0 in 1 revolution. 2) This laser light source must be installed such that free for orientated in any arbitrary angle from 220 to 450. Which is normalized to the DMD mirrors and the brief sketch show on figure (a). The purpose of orientated the light source is ensure that multi diffractive order would be reflected straight from the mirrors. (This multi diffractive order is the phenomenon of the digital micro mirror's characteristic). This mean, the reconstruct images would be followed the DMD normalized direction reflected up to fibre conduit. Moreover, this orientated method install of the laser light source is making space for other optical lenses or device driver/controller. Because, all

  19. Compact Lens-less Digital Holographic Microscope for MEMS Inspection and Characterization.

    PubMed

    Bourgade, Thomas; Jianfei, Sun; Wang, Zhaomin; Elsa, Rosmin; Asundi, Anand

    2016-01-01

    A micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) is a widely used component in many industries, including energy, biotechnology, medical, communications, and automotive. However, effective inspection and characterization metrology systems are needed to ensure the functional reliability of MEMS. This study presents a system based on digital holography as a tool for MEMS metrology. Digital holography has gained increasing attention in the past 20 years. With the fast development and decreasing cost of sensor arrays, resolution of such systems has increased broadening potential applications. Thus, it has attracted attention from both research and industry sides as a potential reliable tool for industrial metrology. Indeed, by recording the interference pattern between an object beam (which contains sample height information) and a reference beam on a CCD camera, one can retrieve the quantitative phase information of an object. However, most of digital holographic systems are bulky and thus not easy to implement on industry production lines. The novelty of the system presented is that it is lens-less and thus very compact. In this study, it is shown that the Compact Digital Holographic Microscope (CDHM) can be used to evaluate several characteristics typically consider as criteria in MEMS inspections. The surface profiles of MEMS in both static and dynamic conditions are presented. Comparison with AFM is investigated to validate the accuracy of the CDHM. PMID:27404277

  20. Imaging live humans through smoke and flames using far-infrared digital holography.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, M; Pugliese, E; Paturzo, M; Bianco, V; Finizio, A; Pelagotti, A; Poggi, P; Miccio, L; Meucci, R; Ferraro, P

    2013-03-11

    The ability to see behind flames is a key challenge for the industrial field and particularly for the safety field. Development of new technologies to detect live people through smoke and flames in fire scenes is an extremely desirable goal since it can save human lives. The latest technologies, including equipment adopted by fire departments, use infrared bolometers for infrared digital cameras that allow users to see through smoke. However, such detectors are blinded by flame-emitted radiation. Here we show a completely different approach that makes use of lensless digital holography technology in the infrared range for successful imaging through smoke and flames. Notably, we demonstrate that digital holography with a cw laser allows the recording of dynamic human-size targets. In this work, easy detection of live, moving people is achieved through both smoke and flames, thus demonstrating the capability of digital holography at 10.6 μm. PMID:23482109

  1. Twin image removal in digital in-line holography based on iterative inter-projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bing Kuan; Chen, Tai-Yu; Hung, Shau Gang; Huang, Sheng-Lung; Lin, Jiunn-Yuan

    2016-06-01

    A simple and efficient phase retrieval method based on the iterative inter-projections of the recorded Fourier modulus between two effective holographic planes is developed to eliminate the twin image in digital in-line holography. The proposed algorithm converges stably in phase extraction procedures without requiring any prior knowledge or sophisticated support of the object and is applicable to lensless Gabor and Fourier holography as well as holographic microscopy with imaging lenses. Numerical and experimental results suggest that the spatial resolution enhancement on the reconstructed image can be achieved with this technique due to the capability of recovering the diffraction phases of low-intensity signals.

  2. Color digital lensless holographic microscopy: laser versus LED illumination.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Sucerquia, Jorge

    2016-08-20

    A comparison of the performance of color digital lensless holographic microscopy (CDLHM) as utilized for illumination of RGB lasers or a super-bright white-light LED with a set of spectral filters is presented. As the use of lasers in CDLHM conceals the possibility of having a compact, lightweight, portable, and low cost microscope, and additionally the limited available laser radiation wavelengths limit a real multispectral imaging microscope, here we present the use of super-bright white-light LED and spectral filters for illuminating the sample. The performance of RGB laser-CDLHM and LED-CDLHM is evaluated on imaging a section of the head of a Drosophila melanogaster fly. This comparison shows that there is trade-off between the spatial resolution of the microscope and the light sources utilized, which can be understood with regard to the coherence properties of the illuminating light. Despite the smaller spatial coherence features of LED-CDLHM in comparison with laser-CDLHM, the former shows promise as a portable RGB digital lensless holographic microscope that could be extended to other wavelengths by the use of different spectral filters. PMID:27556985

  3. DYI digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharovas, Stanislovas; Nikolskij, Andrej; Kuchin, Jevgenij

    2011-02-01

    We have created a programming tool which uses image data provided by webcam connected to personal computer and gives user an ability to see the future digital hologram preview on his computer screen, before sending video data to holographic printing companies. In order to print digital hologram, one needs to have a sequence of images of the same scene taken from different angles and nowadays web cameras - stand-alone or incorporated into mobile computer, can be an acceptable source of such image sequences. In this article we are describing this DIY holographic imaging process in details.

  4. Direct to Digital Holography

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, P.R.; Tobin, K.W.

    2007-09-30

    In this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) assisted nLine Corporation of Austin, TX in the development of prototype semiconductor wafer inspection tools based on the direct-to-digital holographic (DDH) techniques invented at ORNL. Key components of this work included, testing of DDH for detection of defects in High Aspect Ratio (HAR) structures, development of image processing techniques to enhance detection capabilities through the use of both phase and intensity, and development of methods for autofocus on the DDH tools.

  5. Lensless Imaging and Sensing.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Aydogan; McLeod, Euan

    2016-07-11

    High-resolution optical microscopy has traditionally relied on high-magnification and high-numerical aperture objective lenses. In contrast, lensless microscopy can provide high-resolution images without the use of any focusing lenses, offering the advantages of a large field of view, high resolution, cost-effectiveness, portability, and depth-resolved three-dimensional (3D) imaging. Here we review various approaches to lensless imaging, as well as its applications in biosensing, diagnostics, and cytometry. These approaches include shadow imaging, fluorescence, holography, superresolution 3D imaging, iterative phase recovery, and color imaging. These approaches share a reliance on computational techniques, which are typically necessary to reconstruct meaningful images from the raw data captured by digital image sensors. When these approaches are combined with physical innovations in sample preparation and fabrication, lensless imaging can be used to image and sense cells, viruses, nanoparticles, and biomolecules. We conclude by discussing several ways in which lensless imaging and sensing might develop in the near future. PMID:27420569

  6. Visualizing Breath using Digital Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobson, P. R.; Reid, I. D.; Wilton, J. B.

    2013-02-01

    Artist Jayne Wilton and physicists Peter Hobson and Ivan Reid of Brunel University are collaborating at Brunel University on a project which aims to use a range of techniques to make visible the normally invisible dynamics of the breath and the verbal and non-verbal communication it facilitates. The breath is a source of a wide range of chemical, auditory and physical exchanges with the direct environment. Digital Holography is being investigated to enable a visually stimulating articulation of the physical trajectory of the breath as it leaves the mouth. Initial findings of this research are presented. Real time digital hologram replay allows the audience to move through holographs of breath-born particles.

  7. Digital holography-based steganography.

    PubMed

    Hamam, Habib

    2010-12-15

    A steganographic method offering a high hiding capacity is presented in which the techniques of digital holography are used to distribute information from a small secret image across the larger pixel field of a cover image. An iterative algorithm is used to design a phase-only or complex hologram from a padded version of the secret image, quantizing this data according to the carrier data bits that are available within the intended cover image. By introducing the hologram data only into low-order bits of larger amplitude cover pixels, the change in the cover image remains imperceptible to the casual observer, with a peak signal-to-noise ratio of >40 dB. PMID:21165128

  8. Microstructure measurement of digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jicheng; Tian, Ailing; Wang, Hongjun; Zhu, Xueliang; Wang, Chunhui; Liu, Bingcai; Asundi, Anand

    2015-02-01

    Miniaturization is a development trend of electronics, machinery and information systems, while micro structure brought a large amount of new development for industrial and research applications, whereas, slow measuring speed and two-dimensional results of traditional micro measurement could not meet our needs, it's urgent to find a matching testing techniques with more sensitivity, more effectiveness and better to have a real-time three-dimensional display. Digital holography applied to the measurement of micro structure, it made up for the lacking of traditional micro structure measure systems of too much time consuming, poor immunity, easily damaging samples with its simple structure, high accuracy, non contact features and three-dimensional reproduction. This paper analyzed the key factors of digital holographic recording and reproducing process.In order to solve the low quality of holograms captured by traditional recording system, holograms and pre-processing algorithm was combined for real-time, by observing the holograms and delicate adjusting the system, to ensure that the collected holograms with full use of CCD width while convenient for subsequent processing. In the processing of reproduction,the influence of spectrum choice, reconstruction wavelength and algorithms and unwrapping algorithm was been studied, and finally obtained an accurate three-dimensional topography of the object. The improved rerecording system and reconstruction algorithm mentioned above solved the low holography quality, much noise and not clear shortcomings of the reconstructed image. Experiment on a raster, compared with traditional system and algorithm results, results showed that the recording system and determine algorithms can reproduce the three-dimensional topography of the object with high precision and has a broader applicability.

  9. Digital holography to light field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asundi, Anand; Zuo, Chao

    2014-05-01

    Holography uses wave (physical) optical principles of interference and diffraction to record and display images. Interference allows us to record the amplitude and phase of the optical wave emanating from an object on a film or recording medium and diffraction enables us to see this wave-field, i.e. the amplitude and phase of the object. Visually this corresponds to both perspective and depth information being reconstructed as in the original scene. Digital Holography has enabled quantification of phase which in some applications provides meaningful engineering parameters. There is growing interest in reconstructing this wavefield without interference. Thus the non-interferometric Transport of Intensity Equation (TIE) method is gaining increased research, which uses two or more defocused images to reconstruct the phase. Due to its non-interferometric nature, TIE relaxes the stringent beam-coherence requirements for interferometry, extending its applications to various optical fields with arbitrary spatial and temporal coherence. The alternate school of thought emerges from the computer science community primarily deals with ray optics. In a normal imaging system all rays emerging from an object point into are focused to a conjugate image point. Information of ray direction is lost and thus the perspective and depth information. A light field image is one that has information of both amplitude and direction of rays fanning from any object point and thus provides perspective (or what could be termed as phase) of the object wave as well. It would thus be possible to extract phase as we know it from this albeit for a coherent illumination case.

  10. Recent advances in digital holography [invited].

    PubMed

    Osten, Wolfgang; Faridian, Ahmad; Gao, Peng; Körner, Klaus; Naik, Dinesh; Pedrini, Giancarlo; Singh, Alok Kumar; Takeda, Mitsuo; Wilke, Marc

    2014-09-20

    This article presents an overview of recent advances in the field of digital holography, ranging from holographic techniques designed to increase the resolution of microscopic images, holographic imaging using incoherent illumination, phase retrieval with incoherent illumination, imaging of occluded objects, and the holographic recording of depth-extended objects using a frequency-comb laser, to the design of an infrastructure for remote laboratories for digital-holographic microscopy and metrology. The paper refers to current trends in digital holography and explains them using new results that were recently achieved at the Institute for Applied Optics of the University Stuttgart. PMID:25322137

  11. GPU-based calculations in digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madrigal, R.; Acebal, P.; Blaya, S.; Carretero, L.; Fimia, A.; Serrano, F.

    2013-05-01

    In this work we are going to apply GPU (Graphical Processing Units) with CUDA environment for scientific calculations, concretely high cost computations on the field of digital holography. For this, we have studied three typical problems in digital holography such as Fourier transforms, Fresnel reconstruction of the hologram and the calculation of vectorial diffraction integral. In all cases the runtime at different image size and the corresponding accuracy were compared to the obtained by traditional calculation systems. The programs have been carried out on a computer with a graphic card of last generation, Nvidia GTX 680, which is optimized for integer calculations. As a result a large reduction of runtime has been obtained which allows a significant improvement. Concretely, 15 fold shorter times for Fresnel approximation calculations and 600 times for the vectorial diffraction integral. These initial results, open the possibility for applying such kind of calculations in real time digital holography.

  12. Refocusing criterion via sparsity measurements in digital holography.

    PubMed

    Memmolo, Pasquale; Paturzo, Melania; Javidi, Bahram; Netti, Paolo A; Ferraro, Pietro

    2014-08-15

    Several automatic approaches have been proposed in the past to compute the refocus distance in digital holography (DH). However most of them are based on a maximization or minimization of a suitable amplitude image contrast measure, regarded as a function of the reconstruction distance parameter. Here we show that, by using the sparsity measure coefficient regarded as a refocusing criterion in the holographic reconstruction, it is possible to recover the focus plane and, at the same time, establish the degree of sparsity of digital holograms, when samples of the diffraction Fresnel propagation integral are used as a sparse signal representation. We employ a sparsity measurement coefficient known as Gini's index thus showing for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, its application in DH, as an effective refocusing criterion. Demonstration is provided for different holographic configurations (i.e., lens and lensless apparatus) and for completely different objects (i.e., a thin pure phase microscopic object as an in vitro cell, and macroscopic puppets) preparation. PMID:25121857

  13. EDITORIAL: Optical tomography and digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coupland, Jeremy; Lobera, Julia

    2008-07-01

    The articles in this special feature in Measurement Science and Technology concern exciting new developments in the field of digital holography—the process of electronically recording and numerically reconstructing an optical field [1]. Making use of the enormous advances in digital imaging and computer technology, digital holography is presented in a range of applications from fluid flow measurement and structural analysis to medical imaging. The science of digital holography rests on the foundations of optical holography, on the work of Gabor in the late 1940s, and on the development of laser sources in the 1960s, which made his vision a practical reality [2]. Optical holography, however, uses a photosensitive material, both to record a latent image and subsequently to behave as a diffractive optical element with which to reconstruct the incident field. In this way display holograms, using silver halide materials for example, can produce life-size images that are virtually indistinguishable from the object itself [3]. Digital holography, in contrast, separates the steps of recording and reconstruction, and the final image is most often in the form of a 3D computer model. Of course, television cameras have been used from the beginnings of holography to record interferometric images. However, the huge disparity between the resolution of holographic recording materials (more than 3000 cycles/mm) and television cameras (around 50 cycles/mm) was raised as a major concern by early researchers. TV holography, as it was sometimes called, generally recorded low numerical aperture (NA) holograms producing images with characteristically large speckle and was therefore more often referred to as electronic speckle pattern interferomery (ESPI) [4]. It is possible, however, to record large NA holograms on a sensor with restricted resolution by using an objective lens or a diverging reference wave [5]. This is generally referred to as digital holographic microscopy (DHM) since

  14. Multispectral digital lensless holographic microscopy: from femtosecond laser to white light LED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Sucerquia, J.

    2015-04-01

    The use of femtosecond laser radiation and super bright white LED in digital lensless holographic microscopy is presented. For the ultrafast laser radiation two different configurations of operation of the microscope are presented and the dissimilar performance of each one analyzed. The microscope operating with a super bright white light LED in combination with optical filters shows very competitive performance as it is compared with more expensive optical sources. The broadband emission of both radiation sources allows the multispectral imaging of biological samples to obtain spectral responses and/or full color images of the microscopic specimens; sections of the head of a Drosophila melanogaster fly are imaged in this contribution. The simple, solid, compact, lightweight, and reliable architecture of digital lensless holographic microscopy operating with broadband light sources to image biological specimens exhibiting micrometer-sized details is evaluated in the present contribution.

  15. Seeing through smoke and flames: a challenge for imaging capabilities, met thanks to digital holography at far infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locatelli, Massimiliano; Pugliese, Eugenio; Paturzo, Melania; Bianco, Vittorio; Finizio, Andrea; Pelagotti, Anna; Poggi, Pasquale; Miccio, Lisa; Meucci, Riccardo; Ferraro, Pietro

    2013-04-01

    We show that imaging alive people through smoke and flames is possible by Digital Holography at far infrared. This capability is of crucial importance in the security field to provide a new tool for firefighters and first responders in fire accidents. So far, the existing thermographic infrared cameras allows to see people through dense smoke, sensing the radiation emitted by human body. However, these devices are often blinded due to the flame emission, which is collected by the zoom lenses employed for the scope, and the information of the targets beyond the flames is unavoidably lost. On the contrary, lensless Digital Holography at far infrared avoids the typical saturation of the camera detectors returning clear images of targets seen behind veils of smoke and curtains of flames. Moreover, we demonstrate that human-size holograms can be recorded, allowing to move this promising technology outside the lab for safety applications.

  16. Simple optical setup implementation for digital Fourier transform holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, G. N.; Rodrigues, D. M. C.; dos Santos, P. A. M.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work a simple implementation of Digital Fourier Transform Holography (DFTH) setup is discussed. This is obtained making a very simple modification in the classical setup arquiteture of the Fourier Transform holography. It is also demonstrated the easy and practical viability of the setup in an interferometric application for mechanical parameters determination. The work is also proposed as an interesting advanced introductory training for graduated students in digital holography.

  17. Lensless two-photon imaging through a multicore fiber with coherence-gated digital phase conjugation.

    PubMed

    Conkey, Donald B; Stasio, Nicolino; Morales-Delgado, Edgar E; Romito, Marilisa; Moser, Christophe; Psaltis, Demetri

    2016-04-30

    We performed near-diffraction limited two-photon fluorescence (TPF) imaging through a lensless, multicore-fiber (MCF) endoscope utilizing digital phase conjugation. The phase conjugation technique is compatible with commercially available MCFs with high core density. We demonstrate focusing of ultrashort pulses through an MCF and show that the method allows for resolution that is not limited by the MCF core spacing. We constructed TPF images of fluorescent beads and cells by digital scanning of the phase-conjugated focus on the target object and collection of the emitted fluorescence through the MCF. PMID:27086688

  18. Lensless two-photon imaging through a multicore fiber with coherence-gated digital phase conjugation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conkey, Donald B.; Stasio, Nicolino; Morales-Delgado, Edgar E.; Romito, Marilisa; Moser, Christophe; Psaltis, Demetri

    2016-04-01

    We performed near-diffraction limited two-photon fluorescence (TPF) imaging through a lensless, multicore-fiber (MCF) endoscope utilizing digital phase conjugation. The phase conjugation technique is compatible with commercially available MCFs with high core density. We demonstrate focusing of ultrashort pulses through an MCF and show that the method allows for resolution that is not limited by the MCF core spacing. We constructed TPF images of fluorescent beads and cells by digital scanning of the phase-conjugated focus on the target object and collection of the emitted fluorescence through the MCF.

  19. Digital holography system for topography measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amezquita, R.; Rincon, O. J.; Torres, Y. M.; Amezquita, S.

    2011-08-01

    The optical characteristics of Diffractive Optical Elements are determined by the properties of the photosensitive film on which they are produced. When working with photoresist plates, the most important property is the change in the plate's topography for different exposures. In this case, the required characterization involves a topographic measurement that can be made using digital holography. This work presents a digital holography system in which a hologram's phase map is obtained from a single recorded image. The phase map is calculated by applying a phase-shifting algorithm to a set of images that are created using a digital phase-shifting/tilteliminating procedure. Also, the curvatures, introduced by the imaging elements used in the experimental setup, are digitally compensated for using a polynomial fitting-method. The object's topography is then obtained from this modified phase map. To demonstrate the proposed procedure, the topography of patches exposed on a Shipley 1818 photoresist plate by microlithography equipment-which is currently under construction-is shown.

  20. Application of multiple exposure digital in-line holography to particle tracking in a Bénard von Kármán vortex flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salah, N.; Godard, G.; Lebrun, D.; Paranthoën, P.; Allano, D.; Coëtmellec, S.

    2008-07-01

    Digital in-line holography is applied to studying the trajectories of individual water droplets in airflow. In order to track the particles, multiple exposure holography is performed using a modulated laser diode emitting at the wavelength of 635 nm and a lens-less CCD camera. This method leads to an accuracy better than 100 µm on the axial location. A study of the signal-to-noise ratio of such holograms shows that the number of exposures must be limited. Preliminary tests of this method are carried out in a Bénard-von Kármán street first characterized by laser Doppler velocimetry and hot wire anemometry. An example of a trajectory of a water droplet obtained in this flow at Reynolds number Re = 63 and Strouhal number St = 0.13 shows that digital holography is a promising method to extract the trajectories of droplets in laminar or turbulent flows.

  1. Digital spatially incoherent Fresnel holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Joseph; Brooker, Gary

    2007-04-01

    We present a new method for recording digital holograms under incoherent illumination. Light is reflected from a 3D object, propagates through a diffractive optical element (DOE), and is recorded by a digital camera. Three holograms are recorded sequentially, each for a different phase factor of the DOE. The three holograms are superposed in the computer, such that the result is a complex-valued Fresnel hologram. When this hologram is reconstructed in the computer, the 3D properties of the object are revealed.

  2. Direct-to-digital holography and holovision

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Clarence E.; Baylor, Larry R.; Hanson, Gregory R.; Rasmussen, David A.; Voelkl, Edgar; Castracane, James; Simkulet, Michelle; Clow, Lawrence

    2000-01-01

    Systems and methods for direct-to-digital holography are described. An apparatus includes a laser; a beamsplitter optically coupled to the laser; a reference beam mirror optically coupled to the beamsplitter; an object optically coupled to the beamsplitter, a focusing lens optically coupled to both the reference beam mirror and the object; and a digital recorder optically coupled to the focusing lens. A reference beam is incident upon the reference beam mirror at a non-normal angle, and the reference beam and an object beam are focused by the focusing lens at a focal plane of the digital recorder to form an image. The systems and methods provide advantages in that computer assisted holographic measurements can be made.

  3. Digital holography applied to microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depeursinge, Christian D.; Cuche, Etienne; Marquet, Pierre; Colomb, Tristan; Dahlgren, Pia; Marian, Anca A.; Montfort, Frederic; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2002-06-01

    We report on new developments of a technique called Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM), for the numerical reconstruction of digital holograms taken in microscopy, which allows simultaneous amplitude and quantitative phase contrast imaging. The reconstruction method computes the propagation of the complex optical wavefront diffracted by the object and is used to determine the refractive index and/or shape of the object with accuracies in the nanometer range along the optical axis.. The method requires the acquisition of a single hologram. The technique comprises the recording of a digital hologram of the specimen by means of a standard CCD camera at the exit of a Mach-Zehnder or Michelson type interferometer. The quantitative nature of the reconstructed phase distribution has been demonstrated by an application to surface profilometry where step height differences of a few nanometers have been measured. Another application takes place in biology for transmission phase- contrast imaging of living cells in culture. The resolution for thickness measurements depends on the refractive index of the specimen and a resolution of approximately 30 nanometers in height, and about half of a micro in width, has been achieved for living neural cells in cultures by using a high numerical aperture.

  4. Geometric phase shifting digital holography.

    PubMed

    Jackin, Boaz Jessie; Narayanamurthy, C S; Yatagai, Toyohiko

    2016-06-01

    A new phase shifting digital holographic technique using a purely geometric phase in Michelson interferometric geometry is proposed. The geometric phase in the system does not depend upon either optical path length or wavelength, unlike dynamic phase. The amount of geometric phase generated is controllable through a rotating wave plate. The new approach has unique features and major advantages in holographic measurement of transparent and reflecting three-dimensional (3D) objects. Experimental results on surface shape measurement and imaging of 3D objects are presented using the proposed method. PMID:27244436

  5. Remote metrology by comparative digital holography

    SciTech Connect

    Baumbach, Torsten; Osten, Wolfgang; Kopylow, Christoph von; Jueptner, Werner

    2006-02-10

    A method for the remote comparison of objects with regard to their shape or response to a load is presented. The method allows interferometric sensitivity for comparing objects with different microstructure. In contrast to the well-known incoherent techniques based on inverse fringe projection this new approach uses the coherent optical wave field of the master object as a mask for the illumination of the sample object. The coherent mask is created by digital holography to allow instant access to the complete optical information of the master object at any place desired. The mask is reconstructed by a spatial light modulator (SLM). The optical reconstruction of digital holograms with SLM technology allows modification of reconstructed wavefronts with respect to improvement of image quality, the skilled introduction of additional information about the object (augmented reality), and the alignment of the master and test object.

  6. Wavelet image processing applied to optical and digital holography: past achievements and future challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Katharine J.

    2005-08-01

    The link between wavelets and optics goes back to the work of Dennis Gabor who both invented holography and developed Gabor decompositions. Holography involves 3-D images. Gabor decompositions involves 1-D signals. Gabor decompositions are the predecessors of wavelets. Wavelet image processing of holography, both optical holography and digital holography, will be examined with respect to past achievements and future challenges.

  7. Study of clarinet reeds using digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetson, Karl A.

    2014-11-01

    A study of clarinet reeds demonstrates the capabilities of digital holography for identification and measurement of vibration modes, measurement of static displacement and creep, and measurement of shape profile. Three types of synthetic reeds were examined together with a number of cane reeds both wet and dry. It is shown that the synthetic reeds have fundamental vibration mode frequencies that are lower than those of natural cane reeds. The fundamental modes of cane reeds all lie above the range of notes played by the instrument whereas those of synthetic reeds do not. Examination of static displacements due to steady air flow showed creep effects due to inelasticity. Finally, projected fringes were used to measure the reed profile.

  8. Multispectral lensless digital holographic microscope: imaging MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cancer cell cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryle, James P.; Molony, Karen M.; McDonnell, Susan; Naughton, Thomas J.; Sheridan, John T.

    2009-08-01

    Digital holography is the process where an object's phase and amplitude information is retrieved from intensity images obtained using a digital camera (e.g. CCD or CMOS sensor). In-line digital holographic techniques offer full use of the recording device's sampling bandwidth, unlike off-axis holography where object information is not modulated onto carrier fringes. Reconstructed images are obscured by the linear superposition of the unwanted, out of focus, twin images. In addition to this, speckle noise degrades overall quality of the reconstructed images. The speckle effect is a phenomenon of laser sources used in digital holographic systems. Minimizing the effects due to speckle noise, removal of the twin image and using the full sampling bandwidth of the capture device aids overall reconstructed image quality. Such improvements applied to digital holography can benefit applications such as holographic microscopy where the reconstructed images are obscured with twin image information. Overcoming such problems allows greater flexibility in current image processing techniques, which can be applied to segmenting biological cells (e.g. MCF-7 and MDA-MB- 231) to determine their overall cell density and viability. This could potentially be used to distinguish between apoptotic and necrotic cells in large scale mammalian cell processes, currently the system of choice, within the biopharmaceutical industry.

  9. Second-harmonic illumination to enhance multispectral digital lensless holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Yero, Omel; Carbonell-Leal, Miguel; Lancis, Jesús; Garcia-Sucerquia, Jorge

    2016-03-01

    Multispectral digital lensless holographic microscopy (MDLHM) operating with second-harmonic illumination is shown. Added to the improvement of the spatial resolution of the previously reported MDLHM operating with near-infrared illumination, this second-harmonic MDLHM shows promise as a tool to study the behavior of biological samples under a broad spectral illumination. This illumination is generated by focusing a highly spatially coherent ultrashort pulsed radiation into an uncoated Type 1 β-BaB2O4 (BBO) nonlinear crystal. The second-harmonic MDLHM allows achieving multispectral images of biological samples with enhanced micrometer spatial resolution. The illumination wavelength of the second-harmonic MDLHM can be tuned by displacing a focusing optics with respect to a pinhole; spatially resolved information at different wavelengths of the sample can then be retrieved. PMID:26974116

  10. Compact lensless digital holographic microscopy using a curved mirror for an enlarged working distance.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ervin Cheng; Ng, Joshua Jeremiah; Lim, Choo Min; Qu, Weijuan

    2016-05-10

    Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) has a wide range of applications from the analysis of microelectronic mechanical systems (MEMS) to the measurement of cells. We intend on making the system more compact to improve the portability of the device. A concave mirror has been presented to be used in a lensless DHM system to effectively enlarge the working distance and at the same time maintain the compact size of the whole system. A theoretical analysis of the phase compensation between the object wave and the wave reflected from curved reference mirrors is given. Experimental demonstrations of the curved reference mirrors used in the DHM system have been obtained to support our idea. This would change the overall size and adaptability of the DHM system and provide a better understanding of the effects of phase reflected off a curved mirror. PMID:27168290

  11. Digital holography system for undergraduate student laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buranasiri, P.; Plaipichit, S.; Yindeesuk, W.; Yoshimori, K.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we discuss the digital holography (DH) experiment in our optical and communication laboratory course for undergraduate students at Physics department, KMITL. The purposes of DH experiment are presenting our students the meaning and advantage of DH and its applications. The Gabor configurations of in-line DH has been set up for recording a number of samples, which were placed on different distances, simultaneously. Then, the images of all objects have been numerical reconstructed by using computer. The students have been learned that all of reconstructed images have been got from only one time recording, while using the conventional recording technique, sharp images of different objects have been gotten from different recording time. The students also have been learned how to use DH technique for investigation some different kinds of samples on their own of interested such as a human hair or a fingerprint. In our future work, our DH system will be developed to be a portable apparatus for easily showing to children in different areas.

  12. Color and monochrome lensless on-chip imaging of Caenorhabditis elegans over a wide field-of-view

    PubMed Central

    Isikman, Serhan O.; Sencan, Ikbal; Mudanyali, Onur; Bishara, Waheb; Oztoprak, Cetin; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate color and monochrome on-chip imaging of Caenorhabditis elegans samples over a wide field-of-view using incoherent lensless in-line holography. Digital reconstruction of the recorded lensless holograms rapidly creates the C. elegans images within <1 s over a field-of-view of >24 mm2. By digitally combining the reconstructed images at three different wavelengths (red, green and blue), color images of dyed samples are also acquired. This wide field-of-view and compact on-chip imaging modality also permits straightforward integration with microfluidic systems. PMID:20390127

  13. Single-exposure two-dimensional superresolution in digital holography using a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser source array.

    PubMed

    Granero, Luis; Zalevsky, Zeev; Micó, Vicente

    2011-04-01

    We present a new implementation capable of producing two-dimensional (2D) superresolution (SR) imaging in a single exposure by aperture synthesis in digital lensless Fourier holography when using angular multiplexing provided by a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser source array. The system performs the recording in a single CCD snapshot of a multiplexed hologram coming from the incoherent addition of multiple subholograms, where each contains information about a different 2D spatial frequency band of the object's spectrum. Thus, a set of nonoverlapping bandpass images of the input object can be recovered by Fourier transformation (FT) of the multiplexed hologram. The SR is obtained by coherent addition of the information contained in each bandpass image while generating an enlarged synthetic aperture. Experimental results demonstrate improvement in resolution and image quality. PMID:21479012

  14. Shape and 3D acoustically induced vibrations of the human eardrum characterized by digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaleghi, Morteza; Furlong, Cosme; Cheng, Jeffrey Tao; Rosowski, John J.

    2014-07-01

    The eardrum or Tympanic Membrane (TM) transfers acoustic energy from the ear canal (at the external ear) into mechanical motions of the ossicles (at the middle ear). The acousto-mechanical-transformer behavior of the TM is determined by its shape and mechanical properties. For a better understanding of hearing mysteries, full-field-of-view techniques are required to quantify shape, nanometer-scale sound-induced displacement, and mechanical properties of the TM in 3D. In this paper, full-field-of-view, three-dimensional shape and sound-induced displacement of the surface of the TM are obtained by the methods of multiple wavelengths and multiple sensitivity vectors with lensless digital holography. Using our developed digital holographic systems, unique 3D information such as, shape (with micrometer resolution), 3D acoustically-induced displacement (with nanometer resolution), full strain tensor (with nano-strain resolution), 3D phase of motion, and 3D directional cosines of the displacement vectors can be obtained in full-field-ofview with a spatial resolution of about 3 million points on the surface of the TM and a temporal resolution of 15 Hz.

  15. High Temperature Measurements Of Martensitic transformations Using Digital Holography

    SciTech Connect

    Thiesing, Benjamin; Mann, Christopher J; Dryepondt, Sebastien N

    2013-01-01

    During thermal cycling of nickel-aluminum-platinum (NiAlPt) and single crystal Fe-15Cr-15Ni alloys, the structural changes associated with the martensite to austenite phase transformation were measured using dual-wavelength digital holography. Real-time in-situ measurements reveal the formation of striations within the NiPtAl alloy at 70 C and the FeCrNi alloy at 520 C. The results demonstrate that digital holography is an effective technique for acquiring non-contact, high precision information of the surface evolution of alloys at high temperatures.

  16. High temperature measurements of martensitic transformations using digital holography.

    PubMed

    Thiesing, Benjamin P; Mann, Christopher J; Dryepondt, Sebastien

    2013-07-01

    During thermal cycling of nickel-aluminum-platinum (NiAlPt) and single crystal iron-chromium-nickel (FeCrNi) alloys, the structural changes associated with the martensite to austenite phase transformation were measured using dual-wavelength digital holography. Real-time in situ measurements reveal the formation of striations within the NiAlPt alloy at 70°C and the FeCrNi alloy at 520°C. The results demonstrate that digital holography is an effective technique for acquiring noncontact, high precision information of the surface evolution of alloys at high temperatures. PMID:23842235

  17. Terahertz digital holography image processing based on MAP algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guang-Hao; Li, Qi

    2015-04-01

    Terahertz digital holography combines the terahertz technology and digital holography technology at present, fully exploits the advantages in both of them. Unfortunately, the quality of terahertz digital holography reconstruction images is gravely harmed by speckle noise which hinders the popularization of this technology. In this paper, the maximum a posterior estimation (MAP) filter is harnessed for the restoration of the digital reconstruction images. The filtering results are compared with images filtered by Wiener Filter and conventional frequency-domain filters from both subjective and objective perspectives. As for objective assessment, we adopted speckle index (SPKI) and edge preserving index (EPI) to quantitate the quality of images. In this paper, Canny edge detector is also used to outline the target in original and reconstruction images, which then act as an important role in the evaluation of filter performance. All the analysis indicate that maximum a posterior estimation filtering algorithm performs superiorly compared with the other two competitors in this paper and has enhanced the terahertz digital holography reconstruction images to a certain degree, allowing for a more accurate boundary identification.

  18. A digital holography set-up for 3D vortex flow dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebon, Benoît; Perret, Gaële; Coëtmellec, Sébastien; Godard, Gilles; Gréhan, Gérard; Lebrun, Denis; Brossard, Jérôme

    2016-06-01

    In the present paper, a digital in-line holography (DIH) set-up, with a converging beam, is used to take three-dimensional (3D) velocity measurements of vortices. The vortices are formed periodically at the edges of a submerged horizontal plate submitted to regular waves. They take the form of vortex filaments that extend from side to side of the channel. They undergo strongly three-dimensional instability mechanisms that remain very complicated to characterize experimentally. The experiments are performed in a 10 × 0.3 × 0.3 m3 wave flume. The DIH set-up is performed using a modulated laser diode emitting at the wavelength of 640 nm and a lensless CCD camera. The beam crosses the channel side to side. To reveal the flow dynamics, 30-μm hydrogen bubbles are generated at the edge of the plate to serve as tracers. Their locations are recorded on the holograms multiple times to access the dynamics of the flow. This method leads to an accuracy in the order of 100 μm on the axial location. Those measurements have been validated with stereo-PIV measurements. A very good agreement is found on time-averaged velocity fields between the two techniques.

  19. Quantitative phase imaging by three-wavelength digital holography

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, Christopher J; Bingham, Philip R; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William; Paquit, Vincent C

    2008-01-01

    Three-wavelength digital holography is applied to obtain surface height measurements over several microns of range, while simultaneously maintaining the low noise precision of the single wavelength phase measurement. The precision is preserved by the use of intermediate synthetic wavelength steps generated from the three wavelengths and the use of hierarchical optical phase unwrapping. As the complex wave-front of each wavelength can be captured simultaneously in one digital image, real-time performance is achievable.

  20. Synthetic aperture in terahertz in-line digital holography for resolution enhancement.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haochong; Rong, Lu; Wang, Dayong; Li, Weihua; Deng, Qinghua; Li, Bin; Wang, Yunxin; Zhan, Zhiqiang; Wang, Xuemin; Wu, Weidong

    2016-01-20

    Terahertz digital holography is a combination of terahertz technology and digital holography. In digital holography, the imaging resolution is the key parameter in determining the detailed quality of a reconstructed wavefront. In this paper, the synthetic aperture method is used in terahertz digital holography and the in-line arrangement is built to perform the detection. The resolved capability of previous terahertz digital holographic systems restricts this technique to meet the requirement of practical detection. In contrast, the experimental resolved power of the present method can reach 125 μm, which is the best resolution of terahertz digital holography to date. Furthermore, the basic detection of a biological specimen is conducted to show the practical application. In all, the results of the proposed method demonstrate the enhancement of experimental imaging resolution and that the amplitude and phase distributions of the fine structure of samples can be reconstructed by using terahertz digital holography. PMID:26835956

  1. Resolution enhancement phase-contrast imaging by microsphere digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yunxin; Guo, Sha; Wang, Dayong; Lin, Qiaowen; Rong, Lu; Zhao, Jie

    2016-05-01

    Microsphere has shown the superiority of super-resolution imaging in the traditional 2D intensity microscope. Here a microsphere digital holography approach is presented to realize the resolution enhancement phase-contrast imaging. The system is designed by combining the microsphere with the image-plane digital holography. A microsphere very close to the object can increase the resolution by transforming the object wave from the higher frequency to the lower one. The resolution enhancement amplitude and phase images can be retrieved from a single hologram. The experiments are carried on the 1D and 2D gratings, and the results demonstrate that the observed resolution has been improved, meanwhile, the phase-contrast image is obtained. The proposed method can improve the transverse resolution in all directions based on a single exposure. Furthermore, this system has extended the application of the microsphere from the conventional 2D microscopic imaging to 3D phase-contrast microscopic imaging.

  2. The use of digital/electronic holography for biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hongyue; Player, Michael A.; Watson, John; Hendry, David C.; Perkins, Rupert G.; Gust, Giselher; Paterson, David M.

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents the performance of electronic holography for imaging applications of biological and medical interest involving turbid media. It demonstrates that digital holography is useful for biological studies in the areas of estuary sediment erosion and imaging unstained living cells. In particular, we demonstrate the recording geometries of classical 'in-line' back illumination using a collimated beam for measuring micro-particles eroded in a cylindrical observation chamber; we also demonstrate a phase contrast set-up using a magnifying lens for observing biomedical micro-objects of unstained living cells in physiological saline. Practical results are presented for the studies of sediment erosion and transport, which provide information about how polymeric substances produced by the organisms in sediment and erosion shear velocity affect the sediment particle size when erosive stresses are applied to sediment beds.

  3. A CMOS image sensor with stacked photodiodes for lensless observation system of digital enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takehara, Hironari; Miyazawa, Kazuya; Noda, Toshihiko; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Tokuda, Takashi; Kim, Soo Hyeon; Iino, Ryota; Noji, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Jun

    2014-01-01

    A CMOS image sensor with stacked photodiodes was fabricated using 0.18 µm mixed signal CMOS process technology. Two photodiodes were stacked at the same position of each pixel of the CMOS image sensor. The stacked photodiodes consist of shallow high-concentration N-type layer (N+), P-type well (PW), deep N-type well (DNW), and P-type substrate (P-sub). PW and P-sub were shorted to ground. By monitoring the voltage of N+ and DNW individually, we can observe two monochromatic colors simultaneously without using any color filters. The CMOS image sensor is suitable for fluorescence imaging, especially contact imaging such as a lensless observation system of digital enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Since the fluorescence increases with time in digital ELISA, it is possible to observe fluorescence accurately by calculating the difference from the initial relation between the pixel values for both photodiodes.

  4. Holography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, H. Arthur

    Holography is a process which numbers among its many applications the creation of holograms--unique three dimensional photographs that show spatial relations and shifts just as they exist in reality. This book recounts the history of holography, tracing its development from Euclid's theory of light rays through Huygens' theory of wave motion to…

  5. In-line digital holography with double knife edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, Claudio; Iemmi, Claudio; Campos, Juan

    2015-06-01

    We study and test a new technique for in-line digital holography which avoids the formation of the conjugate images. Inline digital holography is based in a common path configuration. In this case, the hologram is produced by the interference between the reference wave front and the diffracted wave front by an almost transparent object. Twin images are obtained with obscured rings that difficult the determination of the best focusing plane. To avoid the conjugated image, the information of the magnitude and phase of the wave front are needed. In a recent work a new in-line digital holography technique was proposed. In this method the object is illuminated with a collimated wave front. A plane, close to the particles distribution is imaged onto a CCD by means of a convergent lens and at the same time, a knife edge is placed in the focal plane of the lens in order to block half of spatial frequency spectrum. In this way, by means of a numerical processing performed on the Fourier plane, it is possible to eliminate one of the components (real or conjugate) of the reconstructed images nevertheless it is observed a tiny deformation of the resulting hologram image. To compensate this effect, we propose a new configuration in which we implement the knife edge technique on both parts of the spectrum at the same time. Finally in the computer, we process the holograms to build one complete without deformation. This hologram is used to recover the wave front at different planes without the influence of the conjugate image.

  6. Insect Wing Displacement Measurement Using Digital Holography

    SciTech Connect

    Aguayo, Daniel D.; Mendoza Santoyo, Fernando; Torre I, Manuel H. de la; Caloca Mendez, Cristian I.

    2008-04-15

    Insects in flight have been studied with optical non destructive techniques with the purpose of using meaningful results in aerodynamics. With the availability of high resolution and large dynamic range CCD sensors the so called interferometric digital holographic technique was used to measure the surface displacement of in flight insect wings, such as butterflies. The wings were illuminated with a continuous wave Verdi laser at 532 nm, and observed with a CCD Pixelfly camera that acquire images at a rate of 11.5 frames per second at a resolution of 1392x1024 pixels and 12 Bit dynamic range. At this frame rate digital holograms of the wings were captured and processed in the usual manner, namely, each individual hologram is Fourier processed in order to find the amplitude and phase corresponding to the digital hologram. The wings displacement is obtained when subtraction between two digital holograms is performed for two different wings position, a feature applied to all consecutive frames recorded. The result of subtracting is seen as a wrapped phase fringe pattern directly related to the wing displacement. The experimental data for different butterfly flying conditions and exposure times are shown as wire mesh plots in a movie of the wings displacement.

  7. Analysis of clarinet reed oscillations with digital Fresnel holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picart, P.; Leval, J.; Piquet, F.; Boileau, J.-P.; Dalmont, J.-P.

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes optical instrumentation devoted to vibration analysis. Two strategies based on digital Fresnel holography are presented. The first, called time-averaging consists in the numerical reconstruction of the hologram after recording with an exposure time much greater than the vibration period. Thus, the holograms are amplitude modulated by a Bessel function. The last strategy, using a pulsed regime, allows the reconstruction of the full movement of the vibration, even if it exhibits very high amplitude. Experimental results presented in this paper concern the study of the vibrations of a clarinet reed under free and forced oscillation regimes.

  8. Image/video encryption using single shot digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoyu; Tang, Chen; Zhu, Xinjun; Li, Biyuan; Wang, Linlin; Yan, Xiusheng

    2015-05-01

    We propose a method for image/video encryption that combines double random-phase encoding in the Fresnel domain with a single shot digital holography. In this method, a complex object field can be reconstructed with only single frame hologram based on a constrained optimization method. The system without multiple shots and Fourier lens is simple, and allows to dynamically encrypt information. We test the proposed method on a computer simulated image, a grayscale image and a video in AVI format. Also we investigate the quality of the decryption process and the performance against noise attacks. The experimental results demonstrate the performance of the method.

  9. Digital holography applications in ophthalmology, biometry, and optical trapping characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potcoava, Mariana Camelia

    This dissertation combines various holographic techniques with application on the two- and three-dimensional imaging of ophthalmic tissue, fingerprints, and microsphere samples with micrometer resolution. Digital interference holography (DIH) uses scanned wavelengths to synthesize short-coherence interference tomographic images. We used DIH for in vitro imaging of human optic nerve head and retina. Tomographic images were produced by superposition of holograms. Holograms were obtained with a signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 50 dB. Optic nerve head characteristics (shape, diameter, cup depth, and cup width) were quantified with a few micron resolution (4.06--4.8mum). Multiple layers were distinguishable in cross-sectional images of the macula. To our knowledge, this is the first report of DIH use to image human macular and optic nerve tissue. Holographic phase microscopy is used to produce images of thin film patterns left by latent fingerprints. Two or more holographic phase images with different wavelengths are combined for optical phase unwrapping of images of patent prints. We demonstrated digital interference holography images of a plastic print, and latent prints. These demonstrations point to significant contributions to biometry by using digital interference holography to identify and quantify Level 1 (pattern), Level 2 (minutia points), and Level 3 (pores and ridge contours). Quantitative studies of physical and biological processes and precise non-contact manipulation of nanometer/micrometer trapped objects can be effectuated with nanometer accuracy due to the development of optical tweezers. A three-dimensional gradient trap is produced at the focus position of a high NA microscope objective. Particles are trapped axially and laterally due to the gradient force. The particle is confined in a potential well and the trap acts as a harmonic spring. The elastic constant or the stiffness along any axis is determined from the particle displacements in

  10. Experimental characterization of solid propellants combustion by digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Powell, Michael; Gao, Jian; Gunduz, Ibrahim; Guildenbecher, Daniel; Son, Steve

    2014-11-01

    Aluminum and other additions are widely used in solid propellants to improve performance. In this study, we apply digital holography as a three-dimensional diagnostic tool to characterize the burning of composite solid propellants with addition of different composite particles. Structures around the burning surfaces and reaction zones are identified, whereas the drop morphologies and their size/velocity distributions are quantified. The nano-second exposure of this imaging technique enables time-freezing measurements of the highly dynamic combustion process. The results are compared with discoveries from high-speed imaging. This technique is also applied to study the combustions of solid propellants under high-pressure environment.

  11. Full-field vibrometry with digital Fresnel holography

    SciTech Connect

    Leval, Julien; Picart, Pascal; Boileau, Jean Pierre; Pascal, Jean Claude

    2005-09-20

    A setup that permits full-field vibration amplitude and phase retrieval with digital Fresnel holography is presented. Full reconstruction of the vibration is achieved with a three-step stroboscopic holographic recording, and an extraction algorithm is proposed. The finite temporal width of the illuminating light is considered in an investigation of the distortion of the measured amplitude and phase. In particular, a theoretical analysis is proposed and compared with numerical simulations that show good agreement. Experimental results are presented for a loudspeaker under sinusoidal excitation; the mean quadratic velocity extracted from amplitude evaluation under two different measuring conditions is presented. Comparison with time averaging validates the full-field vibrometer.

  12. Alignment of master and sample in comparative digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, Xavier; Meister, Eugen; Pedrini, Giancarlo; Osten, Wolfgang

    2006-08-01

    A comparative digital holography system suitable for shape and deformation comparisons between master and sample objects with rough surfaces is described. The innovative aspect of comparative digital holography is the illumination of the sample by the conjugated wavefront of the master, as a type of coherent mask, using a liquid crystal display (LCD). The resulting interferogram indicates directly the shape or the deformation differences between the master and sample. As it is not necessary that both objects to be compared are located at the same place for this technique, remote shape or deformation comparison between a master and a sample is possible. A current research topic is the precise alignment of the sample and the reconstructed master wavefront so that the resulting phase map only contains information of the differences in shape or deformation. The reconstructed master wavefront can be adjusted digitally to correctly illuminate the sample object, by introducing an artificial phase-shift. This phase-shift is induced by the LCD, and offers also the possibility of calibrating precisely the set-up. The value for the phase-shift is obtained by a comparison of the resulting interferogram with a database containing fringes from simulations of misalignments between master and sample objects. Using the iterative algorithm described here, the correction of the sample position can be controlled by an automatic adaptation of the coherent mask.

  13. All-fibre pulsed digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schedin, Staffan; Pedrini, Giancarlo; Tiziani, Hans J.; Santoyo, Fernando Mendoza

    1999-07-01

    An all-fibre optic system was used to record pulsed digital holograms of objects undergoing static and dynamic deformations. Light from a pulsed ruby laser was divided in two beams, each launched through different optical fibres. One fibre carried the object beam illumination and the other conveyed the reference beam towards the detector of a CCD camera. Laser light scattered from the object surface was collected with a lens-optical fibre endoscope arrangement and combined at the CCD detector with the reference beam. The holograms thus formed were digitally recorded for static and dynamic conditions. For data evaluation the Fourier transform method was used. Results show phase maps that may be evaluated for static and dynamic object deformation. With the use of a pulsed laser, the all-fibre system presented here may find a number of useful applications outside the laboratory in areas such as micromechanics, microelectronics and medical endoscopy, where access to objects of interest is otherwise difficult.

  14. Underwater digital holography for studies of marine plankton.

    PubMed

    Sun, H; Benzie, P W; Burns, N; Hendry, D C; Player, M A; Watson, J

    2008-05-28

    Conventional and digital holographies are proving to be increasingly important for studies of marine zooplankton and other underwater biological applications. This paper reports on the use of a subsea digital holographic camera (eHoloCam) for the analysis and identification of marine organisms and other subsea particles. Unlike recording on a photographic film, a digital hologram (e-hologram) is recorded on an electronic sensor and reconstructed numerically in a computer by simulating the propagation of the optical field in space. By comparison with other imaging techniques, an e-hologram has several advantages such as three-dimensional spatial reconstruction, non-intrusive and non-destructive interrogation of the recording sampling volume and the ability to record holographic videos. The basis of much work in optics lies in Maxwell's electromagnetic theory and holography is no exception: we report here on two of the numerical reconstruction algorithms we have used to reconstruct holograms obtained using eHoloCam and how their starting point lies in Maxwell's equations. Derivation of the angular spectrum algorithm for plane waves is provided as an exact method for the in-line numerical reconstruction of digital holograms. The Fresnel numerical reconstruction algorithm is derived from the angular spectrum method. In-line holograms are numerically processed before and after reconstruction to remove periodic noise from captured images and to increase image contrast. The ability of the Fresnel integration reconstruction algorithm to extend the reconstructed volume beyond the recording sensor dimensions is also shown with a 50% extension of the reconstruction area. Finally, we present some images obtained from recent deployments of eHoloCam in the North Sea and Faeroes Channel. PMID:18222904

  15. Stimulated LIF studied using pulsed digital holography and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amer, Eynas; Stenvall, Jonas; Gren, Per; Sjödahl, Mikael

    2013-04-01

    A frequency tripled Q-switched Nd-YAG laser (wavelength 355 nm, pulse duration 12 ns) has been used to pump Coumarin 153 dye solved in ethanol. The laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectrum has been recorded using a spectrometer at different dye concentrations. The frequency doubled 532 nm beam from the same laser is used as a probe beam to pass through the excited volume of the dye. Because of stimulated emission an increase of the probe (532 nm) beam energy is recorded and a reduction of the spontaneous fluorescence spectrum intensity is observed. A model was developed that approaches the trend of the gain as a function of the probe beam energy at low dye concentrations (less than 0.08 g/L). The stimulated LIF is further recorded using digital holography. Digital holograms were recorded for different dye concentrations using collimated laser light (532 nm) passed through the dye volume. Two holograms without and with the UV laser beam were recorded. Intensity maps were calculated from the recorded digital holograms and are used to calculate the gain of the green laser beam due to the stimulated fluorescence emission which is coupled to the dye concentration. The gain of the coherent 532 nm beam is seen in the intensity maps and its value is about 40% for a dye concentration of 0.32 g/L and decreases with the decrease of the dye concentration. The results show that pulsed digital holography can be coupled to the stimulated LIF effect for imaging fluorescent species.

  16. Digital holography for second harmonic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaffer, E.; Depeursinge, C.

    2010-02-01

    Quantitative phase images make digital holographic microscopy (DHM) an excellent instrument for metrological, but also for biological applications, where it can reveal deformations and morphological details at ultrahigh resolution in the order of a few nanometers only, while also precisely determining the refractive index across a sample (e.g. cell or neuron). On the other hand, non-linear light-matter interactions have also proved very useful in microscopy. For instance, second harmonic generation (SHG) allows marker-free identification of cell structures, tubulin or membranes and, because of its coherent nature, SHG is very sensitive to the local sample structure and to the direction of the laser polarization. In addition, since SHG does not result from light absorption and subsequent re-emission, in opposition to fluorescence, photo-bleaching of the studied material can be avoided by a judicious selection of the laser wavelength. These characteristics make SHG very interesting for biomedical imaging. We have designed and built a microscope that combines the fast and precise DHM imaging with tagging capabilities of non-linear light-matter interactions. Here, we present the technique and look into its possible applications to biological and life sciences. Among promising applications is the 3D tracking of colloidal gold nanoparticles.

  17. Three-dimensional vibrometry of the human eardrum with stroboscopic lensless digital holography.

    PubMed

    Khaleghi, Morteza; Furlong, Cosme; Ravicz, Mike; Cheng, Jeffrey Tao; Rosowski, John J

    2015-05-01

    The eardrum or tympanic membrane (TM) transforms acoustic energy at the ear canal into mechanical motions of the ossicles. The acousto-mechanical transformer behavior of the TM is determined by its shape, three-dimensional (3-D) motion, and mechanical properties. We have developed an optoelectronic holographic system to measure the shape and 3-D sound-induced displacements of the TM. The shape of the TM is measured with dual-wavelength holographic contouring using a tunable near IR laser source with a central wavelength of 780 nm. 3-D components of sound-induced displacements of the TM are measured with the method of multiple sensitivity vectors using stroboscopic holographic interferometry. To accurately obtain sensitivity vectors, a new technique is developed and used in which the sensitivity vectors are obtained from the images of a specular sphere that is being illuminated from different directions. Shape and 3-D acoustically induced displacement components of cadaveric human TMs at several excitation frequencies are measured at more than one million points on its surface. A numerical rotation matrix is used to rotate the original Euclidean coordinate of the measuring system in order to obtain in-plane and out-of-plane motion components. Results show that in-plane components of motion are much smaller (<20%) than the out-of-plane motions’ components. PMID:25652791

  18. Three-dimensional vibrometry of the human eardrum with stroboscopic lensless digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaleghi, Morteza; Furlong, Cosme; Ravicz, Mike; Cheng, Jeffrey Tao; Rosowski, John J.

    2015-05-01

    The eardrum or tympanic membrane (TM) transforms acoustic energy at the ear canal into mechanical motions of the ossicles. The acousto-mechanical transformer behavior of the TM is determined by its shape, three-dimensional (3-D) motion, and mechanical properties. We have developed an optoelectronic holographic system to measure the shape and 3-D sound-induced displacements of the TM. The shape of the TM is measured with dual-wavelength holographic contouring using a tunable near IR laser source with a central wavelength of 780 nm. 3-D components of sound-induced displacements of the TM are measured with the method of multiple sensitivity vectors using stroboscopic holographic interferometry. To accurately obtain sensitivity vectors, a new technique is developed and used in which the sensitivity vectors are obtained from the images of a specular sphere that is being illuminated from different directions. Shape and 3-D acoustically induced displacement components of cadaveric human TMs at several excitation frequencies are measured at more than one million points on its surface. A numerical rotation matrix is used to rotate the original Euclidean coordinate of the measuring system in order to obtain in-plane and out-of-plane motion components. Results show that in-plane components of motion are much smaller (<20%) than the out-of-plane motions' components.

  19. Deformation and 3D-shape measurement system based on phase-shifting digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Songcan; Kolenovic, Ervin; Osten, Wolfgang; Jueptner, Werner P. O.

    2002-05-01

    This paper presents an endoscopic digital holographic interferometry system which is based on phase-shifting in-line digital holography. The system is able to measure both the shape and deformation of an object with the advantages of digital holography, such as real-time processing of the hologram. Two theoretical problems are briefly described: phase-shifting in- line holography and hologram data re-sampling for 2-wavelength contouring. In addition, initial experimental results of the deformation of a metal piece and surface 3D-shape measurement of a bottle cap are given.

  20. Reconstruction of off-axis lensless Fourier transform digital holograms based on angular spectrum theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guangjun; Wang, Huaying; Wang, Dayong; Xie, Jianjun; Zhao, Jie

    2007-12-01

    A simple holographic high-resolution imaging system without pre-magnification, which is based on off-axis lensless Fourier transform configuration, has been developed. Experimental investigations are performed on USAF resolution test target. The method based on angular spectrum theory for reconstructing lensless Fourier hologram is given. The reconstructed results of the same hologram at different reconstructing distances are presented for what is to our knowledge the first time. Approximate diffraction limited lateral resolution is achieved. The results show that the angular spectrum method has several advantages over more commonly used Fresnel transform method. Lossless reconstruction can be achieved for any numerical aperture holograms as long as the wave field is calculated at a special reconstructing distance, which is determined by the light wavelength and the chip size and the pixel size of the CCD sensor. This is very important for reconstructing an extremely large numerical aperture hologram. Frequency-domain spectrum filtering can be applied conveniently to remove the disturbance of zero-order. The reconstructed image wave field is accurate so long as the sampling theorem is not violated. The experimental results also demonstrate that for a high quality hologram, special image processing is unnecessary to obtain a high quality image.

  1. Digital polarization holography advancing geometrical phase optics.

    PubMed

    De Sio, Luciano; Roberts, David E; Liao, Zhi; Nersisyan, Sarik; Uskova, Olena; Wickboldt, Lloyd; Tabiryan, Nelson; Steeves, Diane M; Kimball, Brian R

    2016-08-01

    Geometrical phase or the fourth generation (4G) optics enables realization of optical components (lenses, prisms, gratings, spiral phase plates, etc.) by patterning the optical axis orientation in the plane of thin anisotropic films. Such components exhibit near 100% diffraction efficiency over a broadband of wavelengths. The films are obtained by coating liquid crystalline (LC) materials over substrates with patterned alignment conditions. Photo-anisotropic materials are used for producing desired alignment conditions at the substrate surface. We present and discuss here an opportunity of producing the widest variety of "free-form" 4G optical components with arbitrary spatial patterns of the optical anisotropy axis orientation with the aid of a digital spatial light polarization converter (DSLPC). The DSLPC is based on a reflective, high resolution spatial light modulator (SLM) combined with an "ad hoc" optical setup. The most attractive feature of the use of a DSLPC for photoalignment of nanometer thin photo-anisotropic coatings is that the orientation of the alignment layer, and therefore of the fabricated LC or LC polymer (LCP) components can be specified on a pixel-by-pixel basis with high spatial resolution. By varying the optical magnification or de-magnification the spatial resolution of the photoaligned layer can be adjusted to an optimum for each application. With a simple "click" it is possible to record different optical components as well as arbitrary patterns ranging from lenses to invisible labels and other transparent labels that reveal different images depending on the side from which they are viewed. PMID:27505793

  2. Off-axis illumination direct-to-digital holography

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Clarence E.; Price, Jeffery R.; Voelkl, Edgar; Hanson, Gregory R.

    2004-06-08

    Systems and methods are described for off-axis illumination direct-to-digital holography. A method of recording an off-axis illuminated spatially heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis, includes: reflecting a reference beam from a reference mirror at a non-normal angle; reflecting an object beam from an object at an angle with respect to an optical axis defined by a focusing lens; focusing the reference beam and the object beam at a focal plane of a digital recorder to form the off-axis illuminated spatially heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis; digitally recording the off-axis illuminated spatially heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis; Fourier analyzing the recorded off-axis illuminated spatially heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes by transforming axes of the recorded off-axis illuminated spatially heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes in Fourier space to sit on top of a heterodyne carrier frequency defined as an angle between the reference beam and the object beam; applying a digital filter to cut off signals around an original origin; and then performing an inverse Fourier transform.

  3. The application of digital image plane holography technology to identify Chinese herbal medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huaying; Guo, Zhongjia; Liao, Wei; Zhang, Zhihui

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, the imaging technology of digital image plane holography to identify the Chinese herbal medicine is studied. The optical experiment system of digital image plane holography which is the special case of pre-magnification digital holography was built. In the record system, one is an object light by using plane waves which illuminates the object, and the other one is recording hologram by using spherical light wave as reference light. There is a Micro objective lens behind the object. The second phase factor which caus ed by the Micro objective lens can be eliminated by choosing the proper position of the reference point source when digital image plane holography is recorded by spherical light. In this experiment, we use the Lygodium cells and Onion cells as the object. The experiment results with Lygodium cells and Onion cells show that digital image plane holography avoid the process of finding recording distance by using auto-focusing approach, and the phase information of the object can be reconstructed more accurately. The digital image plane holography is applied to the microscopic imaging of cells more effectively, and it is suit to apply for the identify of Chinese Herbal Medicine. And it promotes the application of digital holographic in practice.

  4. The application of digital image plane holography technology to identify Chinese herbal medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huaying; Guo, Zhongjia; Liao, Wei; Zhang, Zhihui

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, the imaging technology of digital image plane holography to identify the Chinese herbal medicine is studied. The optical experiment system of digital image plane holography which is the special case of pre-magnification digital holography was built. In the record system, one is an object light by using plane waves which illuminates the object, and the other one is recording hologram by using spherical light wave as reference light. There is a Micro objective lens behind the object. The second phase factor which caus ed by the Micro objective lens can be eliminated by choosing the proper position of the reference point source when digital image plane holography is recorded by spherical light. In this experiment, we use the Lygodium cells and Onion cells as the object. The experiment results with Lygodium cells and Onion cells show that digital image plane holography avoid the process of finding recording distance by using auto-focusing approach, and the phase information of the object can be reconstructed more accurately. The digital image plane holography is applied to the microscopic imaging of cells more effectively, and it is suit to apply for the identify of Chinese Herbal Medicine. And it promotes the application of digital holographic in practice.

  5. Time-averaged photon-counting digital holography.

    PubMed

    Demoli, Nazif; Skenderović, Hrvoje; Stipčević, Mario

    2015-09-15

    Time-averaged holography has been using photo-emulsions (early stage) and digital photo-sensitive arrays (later) to record holograms. We extend the recording possibilities by utilizing a photon-counting camera, and we further investigate the possibility of obtaining accurate hologram reconstructions in rather severe experimental conditions. To achieve this, we derived an expression for fringe function comprising the main parameters affecting the hologram recording. Influence of the main parameters, namely the exposure time and the number of averaged holograms, is analyzed by simulations and experiments. It is demonstrated that taking long exposure times can be avoided by averaging over many holograms with the exposure times much shorter than the vibration cycle. Conditions in which signal-to-noise ratio in reconstructed holograms can be substantially increased are provided. PMID:26371907

  6. Coherence experiments in single-pixel digital holography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jung-Ping; Guo, Chia-Hao; Hsiao, Wei-Jen; Poon, Ting-Chung; Tsang, Peter

    2015-05-15

    In optical scanning holography (OSH), the coherence properties of the acquired holograms depend on the single-pixel size, i.e., the active area of the photodetector. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, we have demonstrated coherent, partial coherent, and incoherent three-dimensional (3D) imaging by experiment in such a single-pixel digital holographic recording system. We have found, for the incoherent mode of OSH, in which the detector of the largest active area is applied, the 3D location of a diffusely reflecting object can be successfully retrieved without speckle noise. For the partial coherent mode employing a smaller pixel size of the detector, significant speckles and randomly distributed bright spots appear among the reconstructed images. For the coherent mode of OSH when the size of the pixel is vanishingly small, the bright spots disappear. However, the speckle remains and the signal-to-noise ratio is low. PMID:26393741

  7. Objective shearing digital holography for removing aberration from optical system.

    PubMed

    Pan, Weiqing; Tian, Kehan; Zhang, Chuhang

    2015-09-01

    We propose a new digital holography based on the lateral shearing interference concept to remove the total aberrations from the reference wave, illumination wave, and the optical elements. It uses three mutually shifted image holograms of the object that are divided from each other to obtain phase differences. The phase aberration can be removed and the original sample phase can be reconstructed by the phase differences. Then, the influence of the stage moving imprecision on the reconstruction quality is analyzed. Optical experiments verified that the proposed method can totally remove the phase aberrations. As a result, the proposed method could be used for ultra-precise optical measurement through eliminating optical phase aberration to increase the measurement accuracy. PMID:26368865

  8. Results from the LTX High-Speed Digital Holography System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, C. E. (Tommy), Jr.; Baylor, L. R.; Combs, S. K.; Meitner, S. J.; Rasmussen, D. A.; Granstedt, E. M.; Lundberg, D. P.; Jacobson, C. M.; Majeski, R.; Kaita, R.

    2011-10-01

    A high-speed CO2 laser digital holography system (500 frames per second (FPS) at 256 x 256 pixels, 1500 FPS at 128 x 128 pixels, etc., to a maximum of 43,000 FPS at 64 x 4 pixels) has been built for high-resolution imaging of electron density on the Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX). The laser operates at 9.1 microns by using an Oxygen-18 isotope, and has a power output up to 20 W. A FLIR SC4000 IR camera is used to capture the digital holograms. An acousto-optic modulator (AOM) is used to ``shutter'' the laser so that effective camera integration times down to less than one microsecond are possible. The system will be used for examining profile modifications on LTX with molecular cluster injection (MCI), supersonic gas injection (SGI), and external gas puffing. Results of measurements will be presented along with a discussion of system design, including noise-reduction techniques developed during system testing and initial operation. Partial Support from USDOE Contract DE-AC02-09CH11466 and USDOE Grant DE-FG02-07ER84724 is gratefully acknowledged.

  9. Digital Holography of Intracellular Dynamics to Probe Tissue Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Daniel; An, Ran; Turek, John; Nolte, David D.

    2015-01-01

    Digital holography provides improved capabilities for imaging through dense tissue. Using a short-coherence source, the digital hologram recorded from backscattered light performs laser ranging that maintains fidelity of information acquired from depths much greater than possible by traditional imaging techniques. Biodynamic Imaging (BDI) is a developing technology for live-tissue imaging of up to a millimeter in depth that uses the hologram intensity fluctuations as label-free image contrast and can study tissue behavior in native microenvironments. In this paper BDI is used investigate the change in adhesion-dependent tissue response in 3D cultures. The results show that increasing density of cellular adhesions slows motion inside tissue and alters the response to cytoskeletal drugs. A clear signature of membrane fluctuations was observed in mid frequencies (0.1 – 1 Hz) that was enhanced by the application of cytochalasin-D that degrades the actin cortex inside the cell membrane. This enhancement feature is only observed in tissues that have formed adhesions, because cell pellets initially do not show this signature, but develop this signature only after incubation enables adhesions to form. PMID:25967027

  10. Fresnelets: new multiresolution wavelet bases for digital holography.

    PubMed

    Liebling, Michael; Blu, Thierry; Unser, Michael

    2003-01-01

    We propose a construction of new wavelet-like bases that are well suited for the reconstruction and processing of optically generated Fresnel holograms recorded on CCD-arrays. The starting point is a wavelet basis of L2 to which we apply a unitary Fresnel transform. The transformed basis functions are shift-invariant on a level-by-level basis but their multiresolution properties are governed by the special form that the dilation operator takes in the Fresnel domain. We derive a Heisenberg-like uncertainty relation that relates the localization of Fresnelets with that of their associated wavelet basis. According to this criterion, the optimal functions for digital hologram processing turn out to be Gabor functions, bringing together two separate aspects of the holography inventor's work. We give the explicit expression of orthogonal and semi-orthogonal Fresnelet bases corresponding to polynomial spline wavelets. This special choice of Fresnelets is motivated by their near-optimal localization properties and their approximation characteristics. We then present an efficient multiresolution Fresnel transform algorithm, the Fresnelet transform. This algorithm allows for the reconstruction (backpropagation) of complex scalar waves at several user-defined, wavelength-independent resolutions. Furthermore, when reconstructing numerical holograms, the subband decomposition of the Fresnelet transform naturally separates the image to reconstruct from the unwanted zero-order and twin image terms. This greatly facilitates their suppression. We show results of experiments carried out on both synthetic (simulated) data sets as well as on digitally acquired holograms. PMID:18237877

  11. In vitro imaging of ophthalmic tissue by digital interference holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potcoava, Mariana C.; Kay, Christine N.; Kim, Myung K.; Richards, David W.

    2010-01-01

    We used digital interference holography (DIH) for in vitro imaging of human optic nerve head and retina. Samples of peripheral retina, macula, and optic nerve head from two formaldehyde-preserved human eyes were dissected and mounted onto slides. Holograms were captured by a monochrome CCD camera (Sony XC-ST50, with 780 × 640 pixels and pixel size of ∼9 µm). Light source was a solid-state pumped dye laser with tunable wavelength range of 560-605 nm. Using about 50 wavelengths in this band, holograms were obtained and numerically reconstructed using custom software based on NI LabView. Tomographic images were produced by superposition of holograms. Holograms of all tissue samples were obtained with a signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 50 dB. Optic nerve head characteristics (shape, diameter, cup depth, and cup width) were quantified with a few micron resolution (4.06-4.8 µm). Multiple layers were distinguishable in cross-sectional images of the macula. To our knowledge, this is the first report of DIH use to image human macular and optic nerve tissue. DIH has the potential to become a useful tool for researchers and clinicians in the diagnosis and treatment of many ocular diseases, including glaucoma and a variety of macular diseases.

  12. Vibratory strain field measurement by transverse digital holography.

    PubMed

    Stetson, Karl A

    2015-09-20

    A method is presented for measuring vibratory strain fields using phase-stepped, image-plane digital holography. An object surface is observed along its normal vector while illuminated at equal and opposite angles by two mutually coherent laser beams. One beam is phase stepped by quarter-wavelength increments between TV frames, and the resulting images are processed to yield holographic images. Object vibrations result in zero-order Bessel function fringes in the display. The second beam is modulated at the same frequency of the object vibration and is used to shift the fringes in a manner analogous to phase step interferometry. The resulting images are processed to yield a wrapped phase map, which is unwrapped and corrected for the error associated with using zero-order Bessel functions in place of cosine functions. The unwrapped images are processed to obtain the average slopes for image segments, and these slopes are multiplied by a scale factor to convert them to strain. The analysis program used here divides the field of view into five horizontal by four vertical segments, which provide a map of the vibratory strain field. PMID:26406526

  13. Measurement of rabbit eardrum vibration through stroboscopic digital holography

    SciTech Connect

    De Greef, Daniël; Dirckx, Joris J. J.

    2014-05-27

    In this work, we present a setup for high-power single shot stroboscopic digital holography and demonstrate it in an application on rabbit eardrum vibration measurement. The setup is able to make full-field time-resolved measurements of vibrating surfaces with a precision in the nanometer range in a broad frequency range. The height displacement of the measured object is visualized over the entire surface as a function of time. Vibration magnitude and phase maps can be extracted from these data, the latter proving to be very useful to reveal phase delays across the surface. Such deviations from modal motion indicate energy losses due to internal damping, in contrast to purely elastic mechanics. This is of great interest in middle ear mechanics and finite element modelling. In our setup, short laser pulses are fired at selected instants within the surface vibration period and are recorded by a CCD camera. The timing of the pulses and the exposure of the camera are synchronized to the vibration phase by a microprocessor. The high-power frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser produces pulses containing up to 5 mJ of energy, which is amply sufficient to record single-shot holograms. As the laser pulse length is 8 ns and the smallest time step of the trigger electronics is 1 μs, vibration measurements of frequencies up to 250 kHz are achievable through this method, provided that the maximum vibration amplitude exceeds a few nanometers. In our application, middle ear mechanics, measuring frequencies extend from 5 Hz to 20 kHz. The experimental setup will be presented, as well as results of measurements on a stretched circular rubber membrane and a rabbit's eardrum. Two of the challenges when measuring biological tissues, such as the eardrum, are low reflectivity and fast dehydration. To increase reflectivity, a coating is applied and to counteract the undesirable effects of tissue dehydration, the measurement setup and software have been optimized for speed without compromising

  14. Measurement of rabbit eardrum vibration through stroboscopic digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Greef, Daniël; Dirckx, Joris J. J.

    2014-05-01

    In this work, we present a setup for high-power single shot stroboscopic digital holography and demonstrate it in an application on rabbit eardrum vibration measurement. The setup is able to make full-field time-resolved measurements of vibrating surfaces with a precision in the nanometer range in a broad frequency range. The height displacement of the measured object is visualized over the entire surface as a function of time. Vibration magnitude and phase maps can be extracted from these data, the latter proving to be very useful to reveal phase delays across the surface. Such deviations from modal motion indicate energy losses due to internal damping, in contrast to purely elastic mechanics. This is of great interest in middle ear mechanics and finite element modelling. In our setup, short laser pulses are fired at selected instants within the surface vibration period and are recorded by a CCD camera. The timing of the pulses and the exposure of the camera are synchronized to the vibration phase by a microprocessor. The high-power frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser produces pulses containing up to 5 mJ of energy, which is amply sufficient to record single-shot holograms. As the laser pulse length is 8 ns and the smallest time step of the trigger electronics is 1 μs, vibration measurements of frequencies up to 250 kHz are achievable through this method, provided that the maximum vibration amplitude exceeds a few nanometers. In our application, middle ear mechanics, measuring frequencies extend from 5 Hz to 20 kHz. The experimental setup will be presented, as well as results of measurements on a stretched circular rubber membrane and a rabbit's eardrum. Two of the challenges when measuring biological tissues, such as the eardrum, are low reflectivity and fast dehydration. To increase reflectivity, a coating is applied and to counteract the undesirable effects of tissue dehydration, the measurement setup and software have been optimized for speed without compromising

  15. Image authentication via sparsity-based phase-shifting digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong

    2015-03-01

    Digital holography has been widely studied in recent years, and a number of applications have been demonstrated. In this paper, we demonstrate that sparsity-based phase-shifting digital holography can be applied for image authentication. In phase-shifting digital holography, the holograms are sequentially recorded. Only small parts of each hologram are available for numerical reconstruction. It is found that nonlinear correlation algorithm can be applied to simply authenticate the reconstructed object. The results illustrate that the recovered image can be correctly verified. In the developed system, the recorded holograms are highly compressed which can facilitate data storage or transmission, and one simple authentication strategy has been established instead of applying relatively complex algorithms (such as compressive sensing) to recover the object.

  16. Suppression of image autocorrelation artefacts in spectral domain optical coherence tomography and multiwave digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelikonov, V. M.; Gelikonov, G. V.; Terpelov, D. A.; Shabanov, D. V.; Shilyagin, P. A.

    2012-05-01

    An improved method for suppressing image artefacts in spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT) and multiwave digital holography, caused by the influence of coherent noise in the course of successive registration of an autocorrelation component and informative signal is reported. The method allows complete suppression of all types of coherent noises, provided that the sample of values used to record the autocorrelation component satisfies the conditions of Kotelnikov's theorem: in SD OCT — for the transverse structure of the studied medium, in multiwave digital holography — for the envelop function of the radiation source frequency tuning spectrum.

  17. Super-Resolved Digital Holography Based on the Coherent Diffraction Imaging Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bao-Sheng; Pan, Xing-Chen; Wang, Hai-Yan; Cheng, Jun; Gao, Shu-Mei; Liu, Cheng; Zhu, Jian-Qiang

    2013-05-01

    An algorithm is proposed to enhance the resolution of digital holography by retrieving the frequency components lost in common holograms. A pinhole is placed directly behind the specimen to record the hologram, and an iterative scheme commonly used in coherent diffraction imaging is adopted for the reconstruction. Since some of the frequency components lost in common digital holography can be properly retrieved, the resolution of the reconstructed image is remarkably improved. Theoretical analysis and computer simulations are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of this proposed technique.

  18. Suppression of image autocorrelation artefacts in spectral domain optical coherence tomography and multiwave digital holography

    SciTech Connect

    Gelikonov, V M; Gelikonov, G V; Terpelov, D A; Shabanov, D V; Shilyagin, P A

    2012-05-31

    An improved method for suppressing image artefacts in spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT) and multiwave digital holography, caused by the influence of coherent noise in the course of successive registration of an autocorrelation component and informative signal is reported. The method allows complete suppression of all types of coherent noises, provided that the sample of values used to record the autocorrelation component satisfies the conditions of Kotelnikov's theorem: in SD OCT - for the transverse structure of the studied medium, in multiwave digital holography - for the envelop function of the radiation source frequency tuning spectrum.

  19. A phase-shifting in-line digital holography of pre-magnification on imaging research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Qiaowen; Wang, Dayong; Rong, Lu; Wang, Yunxin; Zhao, Jie; Panezai, Spozmai

    2013-12-01

    A phase shifting digital holography with pre-magnification is designed. In order to fully utilize the bandwidth of the camera, a four-step phase-shifting digital holography is adopted to retrieve the complex distribution of the object. To further enhance the resolution of the reconstructed image without phase aberration, two microscope objectives (MOs) are placed in front of the object and the reference mirror. The MO in the reference arm provides parallel beam at the PZT plane thus improve the precision of the phase shifting. A 1951 USAF negative resolution target is used as the sample. Experiment result demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed method.

  20. Digital holography with electron wave: measuring into the nanoworld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza Santoyo, Fernando; Voelkl, Edgar

    2016-04-01

    Dennis Gabor invented Holography in 1949. His main concern at the time was centered on the spherical aberration correction in the recently created electron microscopes, especially after O. Scherzer had shown mathematically that round electron optical lenses always have a positive spherical aberration coefficient and the mechanical requirements for minimizing the spherical aberration were too high to allow for atomic resolution. At the time the lack of coherent electron sources meant that in-line holography was developed using quasi-coherent light sources. As such Holography did not produce scientific good enough results to be considered a must use tool. In 1956, G. Moellenstedt invented a device called a wire-biprism that allowed the object and reference beams to be combined in an off-axis configuration. The invention of the laser at the end of the 1950s gave a great leap to Holography since this light source was highly coherent and hence led to the invention of Holographic Interferometry during the first lustrum of the 1960s. This new discipline in the Optics field has successfully evolved to become a trusted tool in a wide variety of areas. Coherent electron sources were made available only by the late 1970s, a fact that gave an outstanding impulse to electron holography so that today nanomaterials and structures belonging to a wide variety of subjects can be characterized in regards to their physical and mechanical parameters. This invited paper will present and discuss electron holography's state of the art applications to study the shape of nanoparticles and bacteria, and the qualitative and quantitative study of magnetic and electric fields produced by novel nano-structures.

  1. Study of heat dissipation process from heat sink using lensless Fourier transform digital holographic interferometry.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Varun; Shakher, Chandra

    2015-02-20

    This paper presents the results of experimental investigations about the heat dissipation process of plate fin heat sink using digital holographic interferometry. Visual inspection of reconstructed phase difference maps of the air field around the heat sink with and without electric power in the load resistor provides qualitative information about the variation of temperature and the heat dissipation process. Quantitative information about the temperature distribution is obtained from the relationship between the digitally reconstructed phase difference map of ambient air and heated air. Experimental results are presented for different current and voltage in the load resistor to investigate the heat dissipation process. The effect of fin spacing on the heat dissipation performance of the heat sink is also investigated in the case of natural heat convection. From experimental data, heat transfer parameters, such as local heat flux and convective heat transfer coefficients, are also calculated. PMID:25968185

  2. Trajectory and velocity measurement of a particle in spray by digital holography

    SciTech Connect

    Lue Qieni; Chen Yiliang; Yuan Rui; Ge Baozhen; Gao Yan; Zhang Yimo

    2009-12-20

    We present a method for the trajectory and the velocity measurement of a particle in spray by digital holography. Based on multiple exposure digital in-line holography, a sequence of digital holograms of a dynamic spray particle field at different times are recorded with a CW laser and a high-speed CCD. The time evolution of the serial positions of particles, i.e., the motion trajectories of the particles, is obtained by numerically reconstructing the synthetic hologram of a sequence of digital holograms. The center coordinate (x,y) of each particle image can be extracted using a Hough transform and subpixel precision computing, and the velocity of an individual particle can also be obtained, which is then applied to measuring the velocity of diesel spray and alcohol spray. The research shows that the method presented in this paper for measuring spray field is feasible.

  3. High-resolution, lensless endoscope based on digital scanning through a multimode optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Ioannis N; Farahi, Salma; Moser, Christophe; Psaltis, Demetri

    2013-02-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate an ultra-thin rigid endoscope (450 μm diameter) based on a passive multimode optical fiber. We use digital phase conjugation to overcome the modal scrambling of the fiber to tightly focus and scan the laser light at its distal end. By exploiting the maximum number of modes available, sub-micron resolution, high quality fluorescence images of neuronal cells were acquired. The imaging system is evaluated in terms of fluorescence collection efficiency, resolution and field of view. The small diameter of the proposed endoscope, along with its high quality images offer an opportunity for minimally invasive medical endoscopic imaging and diagnosis based on cellular phenotype via direct tissue penetration. PMID:23411747

  4. Coded aperture correlation holography-a new type of incoherent digital holograms.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, A; Kashter, Yuval; Kelner, Roy; Rosen, Joseph

    2016-05-30

    We propose and demonstrate a new concept of incoherent digital holography termed coded aperture correlation holography (COACH). In COACH, the hologram of an object is formed by the interference of light diffracted from the object, with light diffracted from the same object, but that passes through a coded phase mask (CPM). Another hologram is recorded for a point object, under identical conditions and with the same CPM. This hologram is called the point spread function (PSF) hologram. The reconstructed image is obtained by correlating the object hologram with the PSF hologram. The image reconstruction of multiplane object using COACH was compared with that of other equivalent imaging systems, and has been found to possess a higher axial resolution compared to Fresnel incoherent correlation holography. PMID:27410157

  5. A novel method for identifying the order of interference using phase-shifting digital holography.

    PubMed

    Sokkar, T Z N; El-Farahaty, K A; Ramadan, W A; Wahba, H H; Raslan, M I; Hamza, A A

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we introduced a mathematical method for measuring the optical path length differences (OPDs), which is suitable for large OPD values where the fringes connections are difficult to detect. The proposed method is based on varying the width of the fringes, without changing the wavelength of the used coherent source. Also, in this work, we discussed the need for such method in off-axis phase-shifting digital holography. Low-resolution off-axis holograms failed to detect the correct interference order. In general, off-axis phase-shifting digital holography is limited by the resolution of the captured holograms. The results obtained using our proposed technique were compared to the results obtained using off-axis phase-shifting digital holograms and conventional two-beam interferometry. Holograms were given for illustration. PMID:26588671

  6. Security enhanced optical one-time password authentication method by using digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Sang Keun; Jeon, Seok Hee; Jeong, Jong Rae

    2015-03-01

    We propose a new optical one-time password(OTP) authentication method by using digital holography, which enhances security strength in the cryptosystem compared to the conventional electronic OTP method. In this paper, a challenge-response optical OTP authentication based on two-factor authentication is presented by 2-step quadrature phase-shifting digital holography using orthogonal polarization, and two-way authentication is also performed using the challenge-response handshake in both directions. The ID (identification), PW (password) and OTP information are encrypted with a shared key by applying phase-shifting digital holography, and these encrypted information are verified each other by the shared key. Because the encrypted digital holograms which are transmitted to the other party are expressed as random distribution, it guards against a replay attack and results in higher security level. Optically, encrypted digital hologram in our method is Fourier transform hologram and is recorded on CCD with 256 gray-level quantized intensities. The proposed method has an advantage that it does not need a time-synchronized OTP and can be applied to various security services. Computer experiments show that the proposed method is suitable for high secure OTP authentication.

  7. Real-time visualization and analysis of airflow field by use of digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, Jianglei; Wu, Bingjing; Chen, Xin; Liu, Junjiang; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Jianlin

    2013-04-01

    The measurement and analysis of airflow field is very important in fluid dynamics. For airflow, smoke particles can be added to visually observe the turbulence phenomena by particle tracking technology, but the effect of smoke particles to follow the high speed airflow will reduce the measurement accuracy. In recent years, with the advantage of non-contact, nondestructive, fast and full-field measurement, digital holography has been widely applied in many fields, such as deformation and vibration analysis, particle characterization, refractive index measurement, and so on. In this paper, we present a method to measure the airflow field by use of digital holography. A small wind tunnel model made of acrylic glass is built to control the velocity and direction of airflow. Different shapes of samples such as aircraft wing and cylinder are placed in the wind tunnel model to produce different forms of flow field. With a Mach-Zehnder interferometer setup, a series of digital holograms carrying the information of airflow filed distributions in different states are recorded by CCD camera and corresponding holographic images are numerically reconstructed from the holograms by computer. Then we can conveniently obtain the velocity or pressure information of the airflow deduced from the quantitative phase information of holographic images and visually display the airflow filed and its evolution in the form of a movie. The theory and experiment results show that digital holography is a robust and feasible approach for real-time visualization and analysis of airflow field.

  8. Experimental imaging research on continuous-wave terahertz in-line digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haochong; Wang, Dayong; Rong, Lu; Wang, Yunxin

    2014-09-01

    The terahertz (THz) imaging is an advanced technique on the basis of the unique characteristics of terahertz radiation. Due to its noncontact, non-invasive and high-resolution capabilities, it has already shown great application prospects in biomedical observation, sample measurement, and quality control. The continuous-wave terahertz in-line digital holography is a combination of terahertz technology and in-line digital holography of which the source is a continuous-wave terahertz laser. Over the past decade, many researchers used different terahertz sources and detectors to undertake experiments. In this paper, the pre-process of the hologram is accomplished after the holograms' recording process because of the negative pixels in the pyroelectric detector and the air vibration caused by the chopper inside the camera. To improve the quality of images, the phase retrieval algorithm is applied to eliminate the twin images. In the experiment, the pin which terahertz wave can't penetrate and the TPX slice carved letters "THz" are chosen for the samples. The amplitude and phase images of samples are obtained and the twin image and noise in the reconstructed images are suppressed. The results validate the feasibility of the terahertz in-line digital holographic imaging technique. This work also shows the terahertz in-line digital holography technique's prospects in materials science and biological samples' detection.

  9. Direct inversion of digital 3D Fraunhofer holography maps.

    PubMed

    Podorov, Sergei G; Förster, Eckhart

    2016-01-20

    Differential Fourier holography (DFH) gives an exact mathematical solution of the inverse problem of diffraction in the Fraunhofer regime. After the first publication [Opt. Express15, 9954 (2007)], DFH was successfully applied in many experiments to obtain amplitude and phase information about two-dimensional images. In this paper, we demonstrate numerically the possibility to apply DFH also for investigation of unknown three-dimensional objects. The first simulation is made for a double-spiral structure plus a line as a reference object. PMID:26835947

  10. Three-dimensional displacement measurement based on the combination of digital holography and digital image correlation.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hao; Pan, Bing

    2014-09-01

    A new simultaneous three-dimensional (3D) displacement measurement technique based on the combination of digital holography (DH) and digital imaging correlation (DIC) is proposed. The current DH-based 3D displacement measurement technique needs three sets of DH setups, and only the phase images are utilized in measurements, with all the intensity images discarded. In contrast, the proposed new technique only adopts a single off-axis DH setup. In the proposed technique, the phase images are used to extract out-of-plane displacements, but the intensity images (instead of being discarded) are processed by an intensity correlation algorithm to retrieve in-plane displacement components. Because the proposed technique fully takes advantage of all the information obtained by an off-axis DH without additional optical arrangements, it is simpler and more practical than the existing DH-based 3D displacement measurement technique. Experiments performed on a United States Air Force (USAF) target demonstrate that both the in-plane and out-of-plane displacements can be accurately determined by the proposed technique. PMID:25166100

  11. Preliminary Design of a Digital Holography PFC Erosion Diagnostic for MPEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, C. E. (Tommy), Jr.; Biewer, T. M.; Shaw, G. C.; Baylor, L. R.; Combs, S. K.; Meitner, S. J.; Rapp, J.; Hillis, D. L.; Granstedt, E. M.; Majeski, R.; Kaita, R.

    2015-11-01

    Preliminary design of a Digital Holography (DH) in-situ Plasma Facing Component (PFC) erosion diagnostic to be used on the proto-MPEX/MPEX experiment is presented. Design trade-offs are discussed including the selection of CO2 laser frequencies and whether/where to use reflective or refractive optical components. The costs and benefits of using a high-speed (expensive) infrared (IR) camera or a lower speed (inexpensive) IR camera, and whether to use simultaneous or sequential acquisition of DH exposures for the dual wavelength system are also described. Expected layout, resolution, and noise figures will be discussed, along with resolution and noise data from previous work at ORNL and PPPL. Partial Support from USDOE Contract DE-AC02-09CH11466 and USDOE Grant DE-FG02-07ER84724 for previous Digital Holography work done at ORNL and PPPL is gratefully acknowledged.

  12. Improvement of color reproduction in color digital holography by using spectral estimation technique.

    PubMed

    Xia, Peng; Shimozato, Yuki; Ito, Yasunori; Tahara, Tatsuki; Kakue, Takashi; Awatsuji, Yasuhiro; Nishio, Kenzo; Ura, Shogo; Kubota, Toshihiro; Matoba, Osamu

    2011-12-01

    We propose a color digital holography by using spectral estimation technique to improve the color reproduction of objects. In conventional color digital holography, there is insufficient spectral information in holograms, and the color of the reconstructed images depend on only reflectances at three discrete wavelengths used in the recording of holograms. Therefore the color-composite image of the three reconstructed images is not accurate in color reproduction. However, in our proposed method, the spectral estimation technique was applied, which has been reported in multispectral imaging. According to the spectral estimation technique, the continuous spectrum of object can be estimated and the color reproduction is improved. The effectiveness of the proposed method was confirmed by a numerical simulation and an experiment, and, in the results, the average color differences are decreased from 35.81 to 7.88 and from 43.60 to 25.28, respectively. PMID:22193005

  13. Three dimensional measurement of micro-optical components using digital holography and pattern recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Do-Hyung; Jeon, Sungbin; Cho, Janghyun; Lim, Geon; Park, No-Cheol; Park, Young-Pil

    2015-09-01

    This paper proposes a method for inspecting transparent micro-optical components that combines digital holography and pattern recognition. As many micro-optical components have array structures with numerous elements, the uniformity of each element is important. Consequently, an effective inspection requires simultaneous measurement of these elements. Pattern recognition is used to solve this issue and can be adopted effectively using the unique characteristics of digital holography to obtain both amplitude and phase information on the object. To verify this approach, an experimental demonstration was performed with a micro-lens array using a circle-detection algorithm based on the Hough Transform. As an experimental results 30 micro-lenses are detected and measured simultaneously by using proposed inspection method.

  14. Three-dimensional shape measurement based on dual-refractive-index digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Xiao-ou; Hu, Feng-jun; Wang, Hui

    2015-09-01

    A novel phase-imaging method based on dual-refractive-index digital holography has been presented, which in principle can be arbitrarily large compared to the wavelength and does not involve the usual phase unwrapping by detection of phase discontinuity. The method consists of the generation and combination of two phase maps in a digital holography system by use of two separate refractive indexes which varies with the air density in an air chamber where a recorded 3D object is in. For example, we have reconstructed the surface of a remote control keypad of size 5 mm×5 mm and maximum axial depth 0.631 mm, and the experimental result shows that the proposed approach is feasible and effective.

  15. Speckle noise reduction in digital holography due to angular diversity by spatial light modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Pu-hui; Wang, Da-yong; Rong, Lu; Wang, Yun-xin

    2012-11-01

    The reconstructed amplitude distribution of digital holography suffers from the contamination of speckle noise. We introduced and demonstrated an approach using phase SLM (spatial light modulator) to reduce speckle noise in digital holography. Multiple holograms were recorded through different illumination angle via SLM modulation. The speckle noise in the reconstructed image is suppressed by averaging these fields. The modulation interval of SLM exceeds the minimum angle of uncorrelated speckle pattern. Both reflective and transmissive experiments were conducted using USAF test target as the sample. The results show that the speckle noise was obviously suppressed and the contrast dropped to 36% of the initial value using 25 different angles. With the help of SLM modulation of illumination angle, the operation speed, accuracy and stability of the experiment has been greatly improved.

  16. Continuous-wave terahertz digital holography by use of a pyroelectric array camera.

    PubMed

    Ding, Sheng-Hui; Li, Qi; Li, Yun-Da; Wang, Qi

    2011-06-01

    Terahertz (THz) digital holography is realized based on a 2.52 THz far-IR gas laser and a commercial 124 × 124 pyroelectric array camera. Off-axis THz holograms are obtained by recording interference patterns between light passing through the sample and the reference wave. A numerical reconstruction process is performed to obtain the field distribution at the object surface. Different targets were imaged to test the system's imaging capability. Compared with THz focal plane images, the image quality of the reconstructed images are improved a lot. The results show that the system's imaging resolution can reach at least 0.4 mm. The system also has the potential for real-time imaging application. This study confirms that digital holography is a promising technique for real-time, high-resolution THz imaging, which has extensive application prospects. PMID:21633426

  17. Digital Holography for in Situ Real-Time Measurement of Plasma-Facing-Component Erosion

    SciTech Connect

    ThomasJr., C. E.; Granstedt, E. M.; Biewer, Theodore M; Baylor, Larry R; Combs, Stephen Kirk; Meitner, Steven J; Hillis, Donald Lee; Majeski, R.; Kaita, R.

    2014-01-01

    In situ, real time measurement of net plasma-facing-component (PFC) erosion/deposition in a real plasma device is challenging due to the need for good spatial and temporal resolution, sufficient sensitivity, and immunity to fringe-jump errors. Design of a high-sensitivity, potentially high-speed, dual-wavelength CO2 laser digital holography system (nominally immune to fringe jumps) for PFC erosion measurement is discussed.

  18. Effect of changing speckles in digital holography on measurements of static and vibratory displacements.

    PubMed

    Stetson, Karl A

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a study of speckle effects in measurements of static and vibratory displacements by digital holography. Such effects are shown to arise from changes in speckle fields that often occur between holographic recordings. These may be between recording holograms before and after static deformations or changes in sets of holograms recorded for vibration measurement. If the images do not change between such recordings, the effects appear to be limited mainly to round-off errors. PMID:27411207

  19. Digital holography for recovering 3D shape of red blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Memmolo, P.; Miccio, L.; Merola, F.; Gennari, O.; Netti, P.; Ferraro, Pietro

    2015-07-01

    Full morphometric data analysis and 3D rendering of Red Blood Cells (RBCs) is provided by means of Digital Holography (DH) in combination with Optical Tweezers (OT). The proposed method is compared with a geometrical model of RBC in order to evaluate its accuracy and tested for many kinds of RBCs, from healthy ones with double-concavity to that with abnormal shapes. Applications in diagnostics are foreseen.

  20. Optical design of cipher block chaining (CBC) encryption mode by using digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Sang Keun; Jeon, Seok Hee; Jung, Jong Rae; Kim, Nam

    2016-03-01

    We propose an optical design of cipher block chaining (CBC) encryption by using digital holographic technique, which has higher security than the conventional electronic method because of the analog-type randomized cipher text with 2-D array. In this paper, an optical design of CBC encryption mode is implemented by 2-step quadrature phase-shifting digital holographic encryption technique using orthogonal polarization. A block of plain text is encrypted with the encryption key by applying 2-step phase-shifting digital holography, and it is changed into cipher text blocks which are digital holograms. These ciphered digital holograms with the encrypted information are Fourier transform holograms and are recorded on CCDs with 256 gray levels quantized intensities. The decryption is computed by these encrypted digital holograms of cipher texts, the same encryption key and the previous cipher text. Results of computer simulations are presented to verify that the proposed method shows the feasibility in the high secure CBC encryption system.

  1. Lensless x-ray imaging in reflection geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, S.; Parks, D.H.; Seu, K.A.; Turner, J.J.; Chao, W.; Anderson, E.H.; Cabrini, S.; Kevan, S.D.; Su, R.

    2011-02-03

    Lensless X-ray imaging techniques such as coherent diffraction imaging and ptychography, and Fourier transform holography can provide time-resolved, diffraction-limited images. Nearly all examples of these techniques have focused on transmission geometry, restricting the samples and reciprocal spaces that can be investigated. We report a lensless X-ray technique developed for imaging in Bragg and small-angle scattering geometries, which may also find application in transmission geometries. We demonstrate this by imaging a nanofabricated pseudorandom binary structure in small-angle reflection geometry. The technique can be used with extended objects, places no restriction on sample size, and requires no additional sample masking. The realization of X-ray lensless imaging in reflection geometry opens up the possibility of single-shot imaging of surfaces in thin films, buried interfaces in magnetic multilayers, organic photovoltaic and field-effect transistor devices, or Bragg planes in a single crystal.

  2. Measurement of curvature and twist of a deformed object using digital holography

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Wen; Quan Chenggen; Cho Jui Tay

    2008-05-20

    Measurement of curvature and twist is an important aspect in the study of object deformation. In recent years, several methods have been proposed to determine curvature and twist of a deformed object using digital shearography. Here we propose a novel method to determine the curvature and twist of a deformed object using digital holography and a complex phasor. A sine/cosine transformation method and two-dimensional short time Fourier transform are proposed subsequently to process the wrapped phase maps. It is shown that high-quality phase maps corresponding to curvature and twist can be obtained. An experiment is conducted to demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

  3. Digital Stroboscopic Holography Setup for Deformation Measurement at Both Quasi-Static and Acoustic Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Greef, Daniël; Soons, Joris; Dirckx, Joris J. J.

    2014-10-01

    A setup for digital stroboscopic holography that combines the advantages of full-field digital holographic interferometry with a high temporal resolution is presented. The setup can be used to identify and visualize complicated vibrational patterns with nanometer amplitudes, ranging from quasi-static to high frequency vibrations. By using a high-energy pulsed laser, single-shot holograms can be recorded and stability issues are avoided. Results are presented for an acoustically stimulated rubber membrane and the technique is evaluated by means of an accuracy and a repeatability test. The presented technique offers wide application possibilities in areas such as biomechanics and industrial testing.

  4. Multilevel recording of complex amplitude data pages in a holographic data storage system using digital holography.

    PubMed

    Nobukawa, Teruyoshi; Nomura, Takanori

    2016-09-01

    A holographic data storage system using digital holography is proposed to record and retrieve multilevel complex amplitude data pages. Digital holographic techniques are capable of modulating and detecting complex amplitude distribution using current electronic devices. These techniques allow the development of a simple, compact, and stable holographic storage system that mainly consists of a single phase-only spatial light modulator and an image sensor. As a proof-of-principle experiment, complex amplitude data pages with binary amplitude and four-level phase are recorded and retrieved. Experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed holographic data storage system. PMID:27607703

  5. Parallel phase-shifting digital holography and its application to high-speed 3D imaging of dynamic object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awatsuji, Yasuhiro; Xia, Peng; Wang, Yexin; Matoba, Osamu

    2016-03-01

    Digital holography is a technique of 3D measurement of object. The technique uses an image sensor to record the interference fringe image containing the complex amplitude of object, and numerically reconstructs the complex amplitude by computer. Parallel phase-shifting digital holography is capable of accurate 3D measurement of dynamic object. This is because this technique can reconstruct the complex amplitude of object, on which the undesired images are not superimposed, form a single hologram. The undesired images are the non-diffraction wave and the conjugate image which are associated with holography. In parallel phase-shifting digital holography, a hologram, whose phase of the reference wave is spatially and periodically shifted every other pixel, is recorded to obtain complex amplitude of object by single-shot exposure. The recorded hologram is decomposed into multiple holograms required for phase-shifting digital holography. The complex amplitude of the object is free from the undesired images is reconstructed from the multiple holograms. To validate parallel phase-shifting digital holography, a high-speed parallel phase-shifting digital holography system was constructed. The system consists of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, a continuous-wave laser, and a high-speed polarization imaging camera. Phase motion picture of dynamic air flow sprayed from a nozzle was recorded at 180,000 frames per second (FPS) have been recorded by the system. Also phase motion picture of dynamic air induced by discharge between two electrodes has been recorded at 1,000,000 FPS, when high voltage was applied between the electrodes.

  6. High-speed parallel phase-shifting digital holography system using special-purpose computer for image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakue, Takashi; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2015-05-01

    We report a high-speed parallel phase-shifting digital holography system using a special-purpose computer for image reconstruction. Parallel phase-shifting digital holography is a technique capable of single-shot phase-shifting interferometry. This technique records information of multiple phase-shifted holograms required for calculation of phase-shifting interferometry with a single shot by using space-division multiplexing. This technique needs image-reconstruction process for a huge amount of recorded holograms. In particular, it takes a long time to calculate light propagation based on fast Fourier transform in the process and to obtain a motion picture of a dynamically and fast moving object. Then we designed a special-purpose computer for accelerating the image-reconstruction process of parallel phase-shifting digital holography. We developed a special-purpose computer consisting of VC707 evaluation kit (Xilinx Inc.) which is a field programmable gate array board. We also recorded holograms consisting of 128 × 128 pixels at a frame rate of 180,000 frames per second by the constructed parallel phase-shifting digital holography system. By applying the developed computer to the recorded holograms, we confirmed that the designed computer can accelerate the calculation of image-reconstruction process of parallel phase-shifting digital holography ~50 times faster than a CPU.

  7. Digital holography wave-front sensing in the presence of strong atmospheric turbulence and thermal blooming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Mark F.; Dragulin, Ivan V.; Cargill, Daniel S.; Steinbock, Michael J.

    2015-09-01

    Digital holography wave-front sensing in the off-axis image plane recording geometry shows distinct potential for directed-energy and remote-sensing applications. For instance, digital holographic detection provides access to the amplitude and wrapped phase associated with an optical field. From the wrapped phase, one can estimate the atmospheric aberrations present and perform adaptive-optics compensation and high-resolution imaging. This paper develops wave-optics simulations which explore the estimation accuracy of digital holography wave-front sensing in the presence of strong atmospheric turbulence and thermal blooming. Specifically, this paper models spherical-wave propagation through varying atmospheric conditions along a horizontal propagation path and formulates the field-estimated Strehl ratio as a function of the image-plane sampling, the coherence diameter, the log-amplitude variance, and the distortion number. Such results will allow one to assess the number of pixels needed in a detector array when using digital holographic detection in the presence of strong atmospheric turbulence and thermal blooming.

  8. Apparatus for direct-to-digital spatially-heterodyned holography

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Clarence E.; Hanson, Gregory R.

    2006-12-12

    An apparatus operable to record a spatially low-frequency heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis includes: a laser; a beamsplitter optically coupled to the laser; an object optically coupled to the beamsplitter; a focusing lens optically coupled to both the beamsplitter and the object; a digital recorder optically coupled to the focusing lens; and a computer that performs a Fourier transform, applies a digital filter, and performs an inverse Fourier transform. A reference beam and an object beam are focused by the focusing lens at a focal plane of the digital recorder to form a spatially low-frequency heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis which is recorded by the digital recorder, and the computer transforms the recorded spatially low-frequency heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes and shifts axes in Fourier space to sit on top of a heterodyne carrier frequency defined by an angle between the reference beam and the object beam and cuts off signals around an original origin before performing the inverse Fourier transform.

  9. Simultaneous depth determination of multiple objects by focus analysis in digital holography

    SciTech Connect

    Tachiki, Mark L.; Itoh, Masahide; Yatagai, Toyohiko

    2008-07-01

    Focus analysis techniques from computer vision are applied to digital holography to determine the depth (range) of multiple objects and their surfaces from a single hologram capture. With this method the depths of objects can be determined from a single hologram capture without the need for manual focusing and without prior information on object location. Variance and the Laplacian of Gaussian are analyzed as focus measures, and techniques are proposed for focus plane determination from the focus measure curves. The algorithm is described in detail and demonstrated through simulation and optical experiment.

  10. Digital off-axis holography with angular multiplexing and synthetic aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhaomin; Qu, Weijuan; Yang, Fang; Wen, Yongfu; Anand, Asundi

    2015-07-01

    This paper discusses conventional synthetic-aperture method combined angular multiplexing in digital holography to increase the resolution and to enlarge the field of view at the same time. A structured illumination is used to realize angular multiplexing. A camera is moved by a motorized x-y stage, and scanning is performed at imaging plane. In this way we extend the band-pass for single hologram recording as well as obtain a greater sensor area resulting in a larger numerical aperture (NA). A larger NA enables a more detailed reconstruction combined with a smaller depth of field. Moreover, a phase map of the object is experimentally presented.

  11. Three-wavelength digital holography using spatial frequency-division multiplexing and dual reference arms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahara, Tatsuki; Takeshita, Shingo; Morimoto, Kenta; Kaku, Toru; Arai, Yasuhiko

    2016-03-01

    We propose single-shot multiwavelength digital holography using a monochromatic image sensor and dual reference arms. Multiple wavelength information is multiplexed on the monochromatic image sensor plane in the space domain and is separated in the spatial frequency domain by utilizing the difference between the spatial frequencies of interference fringes at respective wavelengths. The recordable spatial bandwidth that is utilized for object waves is extended by using dual reference arms in comparison with that using a single reference arm. Both the three-dimensional and three-wavelength information of an object were recorded and reconstructed without the crosstalk between object waves with multiple wavelengths.

  12. Wavelength scanning digital interference holography for high-resolution ophthalmic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potcoava, Mariana C.; Kim, M. K.; Kay, Christine N.

    2009-02-01

    An improved digital interference holography (DIH) technique suitable for fundus images is proposed. This technique incorporates a dispersion compensation algorithm to compensate for the unknown axial length of the eye. Using this instrument we acquired successfully tomographic fundus images in human eye with narrow axial resolution less than 5μm. The optic nerve head together with the surrounding retinal vasculature were constructed. We were able to quantify a depth of 84μm between the retinal fiber and the retinal pigmented epithelium layers. DIH provides high resolution 3D information which could potentially aid in guiding glaucoma diagnosis and treatment.

  13. Monitoring and evaluation of drying of paint by using phase-shifting digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Masayuki

    2010-01-01

    We propose a novel method for monitoring the drying process of a painted surface by using phase-shifting digital holography. In comparison with previous methods using speckle patterns, the proposed method can afford an intensity image for directly monitoring and local variations of drying without an imaging lens. It can also be used for surfaces of complex shapes. In addition, quantitative analysis utilizing a cross-correlation function and phase change derived from the reconstructed complex amplitude is performed and the drying time of paint for different areas and temperature is evaluated. The technique is also applied to monitoring the drying process of a complex surface of a lightbulb.

  14. One-exposure phase-shifting digital holography based on the self-imaging effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemion, Agnieszka; Sypek, Maciej; Makowski, Michał; Suszek, Jaroslaw; Siemion, Andrzej; Wojnowski, Dariusz; Kolodziejczyk, Andrzej

    2010-05-01

    A diffractive optical element with self-imaging capabilities is used to make a phase-shifting digital holography optical system simpler and cheaper. Sequential phase-shifting requires multiple exposures, and parallel phase-shifting demands a more complicated optical system. As opposed to typical phase-shifting methods, using the self-imaging diffractive optical element requires only one exposure on a low-cost CMOS matrix, and due to the small number of needed elements, the optical system is very compact. Instead of the approximation and interpolation methods, the properties of the self-imaging effect are utilized in the recording process and in the numerical reconstruction process.

  15. Latest Results from the LTX High-Speed Digital Holography System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, C. E., Jr.; Granstedt, E. M.; Jacobson, C. M.; Lundberg, D. P.; Majeski, R.; Kaita, R.; Baylor, L. R.; Combs, S. K.; Meitner, S. J.; Rasmussen, D. A.

    2012-10-01

    During the last year research efforts for the LTX Digital Holography system have been concentrated on reducing noise and producing sample images. A high-speed CO2 laser digital holography system (500 frames per second (FPS) at 256 x 256 pixels, 1500 FPS at 128 x 128 pixels, etc., to a maximum of 43,000 FPS at 64 x 4 pixels) has been built for high-resolution imaging of electron density on the Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX). The laser operates at 9.1 microns by using an Oxygen-18 isotope, and has a power output up to 20 W. A FLIR SC4000 IR camera is used to capture the digital holograms. An acousto-optic modulator (AOM) is used to ``shutter'' the laser so that effective camera integration times down to less than one microsecond are possible. The system will be used for imaging measurements on LTX during molecular cluster injection (MCI), supersonic gas injection (SGI), and external gas injection. Results of noise reduction efforts along with sample images and any LTX results will be presented.

  16. Latest Results from the LTX High-Speed Digital Holography System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, C. E. (Tommy), Jr.; Granstedt, E. M.; Jacobson, C. M.; Majeski, R.; Kaita, R.; Baylor, L. R.; Combs, S. K.; Meitner, S. J.; Rasmussen, D. A.

    2013-10-01

    During the last year research efforts for the LTX Digital Holography system have been concentrated on reducing noise and diagnosing the flow pattern of the LTX Supersonic Gas Injector. A high-speed CO2 laser digital holography system (500 frames per second (FPS) at 256 × 256 pixels, 1500 FPS at 128 × 128 pixels, etc., to a maximum of 43,000 FPS at 64 × 4 pixels) has been built for high-resolution imaging of electron density on the Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX). The laser operates at 9.1 microns by using an Oxygen-18 isotope, and has a power output up to 20 W. A FLIR SC4000 IR camera is used to capture the digital holograms. An acousto-optic modulator (AOM) is used to ``shutter'' the laser so that effective camera integration times down to less than one microsecond are possible. The system will be used for imaging measurements on LTX during molecular cluster injection (MCI), supersonic gas injection (SGI), and injection from edge gas puffers. Results of noise reduction efforts along with ultra low noise flow-pattern images from the SGI will be presented. Partial Support from USDOE Contract DE-AC02-09CH11466 and USDOE Grant DE-FG02-07ER84724 is gratefully acknowledged.

  17. Content-based fused off-axis object illumination direct-to-digital holography

    DOEpatents

    Price, Jeffery R.

    2006-05-02

    Systems and methods are described for content-based fused off-axis illumination direct-to-digital holography. A method includes calculating an illumination angle with respect to an optical axis defined by a focusing lens as a function of data representing a Fourier analyzed spatially heterodyne hologram; reflecting a reference beam from a reference mirror at a non-normal angle; reflecting an object beam from an object the object beam incident upon the object at the illumination angle; focusing the reference beam and the object beam at a focal plane of a digital recorder to from the content-based off-axis illuminated spatially heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis; and digitally recording the content based off-axis illuminated spatially heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis.

  18. Compressive Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Se Hoon

    Compressive holography estimates images from incomplete data by using sparsity priors. Compressive holography combines digital holography and compressive sensing. Digital holography consists of computational image estimation from data captured by an electronic focal plane array. Compressive sensing enables accurate data reconstruction by prior knowledge on desired signal. Computational and optical co-design optimally supports compressive holography in the joint computational and optical domain. This dissertation explores two examples of compressive holography: estimation of 3D tomographic images from 2D data and estimation of images from under sampled apertures. Compressive holography achieves single shot holographic tomography using decompressive inference. In general, 3D image reconstruction suffers from underdetermined measurements with a 2D detector. Specifically, single shot holographic tomography shows the uniqueness problem in the axial direction because the inversion is ill-posed. Compressive sensing alleviates the ill-posed problem by enforcing some sparsity constraints. Holographic tomography is applied for video-rate microscopic imaging and diffuse object imaging. In diffuse object imaging, sparsity priors are not valid in coherent image basis due to speckle. So incoherent image estimation is designed to hold the sparsity in incoherent image basis by support of multiple speckle realizations. High pixel count holography achieves high resolution and wide field-of-view imaging. Coherent aperture synthesis can be one method to increase the aperture size of a detector. Scanning-based synthetic aperture confronts a multivariable global optimization problem due to time-space measurement errors. A hierarchical estimation strategy divides the global problem into multiple local problems with support of computational and optical co-design. Compressive sparse aperture holography can be another method. Compressive sparse sampling collects most of significant field

  19. Particle Imaging, Characterization and Extinction Measurement with Digital Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subedi, Nava; Berg, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    Digital holographic microcopy (DHM) can be a ground breaking technique in the field of particle diagnostic because of its capability for imaging, characterization and extinction measurement in situ. The beauty of this technique is that a single experimental set up is able to do all these works at the same time. In this sense DHM can be used to establish a new kind of instrumentation having the properties of cost-effective, light-weight and portable. Besides this, this technique also has lots of useful applications in the field of aerosol research, climate modeling, life science, polymer crystallization, and defense. We are using DHM for sub-micron sized particle imaging, characterization and extinction. In this work, a particle is illuminated by a pulsed laser and the interference pattern produced by superposition of particle's forward-scattered wave with the incident wave is recorded by a digital camera. The recorded pattern constitutes a digital hologram which can be numerically processed to get image, composition information and extinction cross-section of the particle. These information of the particle are the basic requirements for the characterization of respirable-sized (1-10 μm) aerosols particles.

  20. Iterative and noniterative nonuniform quantisation techniques in digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shortt, Alison E.; Naughton, Thomas J.; Javidi, Bahram

    2006-04-01

    Compression is essential for efficient storage and transmission of three-dimensional (3D) digital holograms. The inherent speckle content in holographic data causes lossless compression techniques, such as Huffman and Burrows-Wheeler (BW), to perform poorly. Therefore, the combination of lossy quantisation followed by lossless compression is essential for effective compression of digital holograms. Our complex-valued digital holograms of 3D real-world objects were captured using phase-shift interferometry (PSI). Quantisation reduces the number of different real and imaginary values required to describe each hologram. Traditional data compression techniques can then be applied to the hologram to actually reduce its size. Since our data has a nonuniform distribution, the uniform quantisation technique does not perform optimally. We require nonuniform quantisation, since in a histogram representation our data is denser around the origin (low amplitudes), thus requiring more cluster centres, and sparser away from the origin (high amplitudes). By nonuniformly positioning the cluster centres to match the fact that there is a higher probability that the pixel will have a low amplitude value, the cluster centres can be used more efficiently. Nonuniform quantisation results in cluster centres that are adapted to the exact statistics of the input data. We analyse a number of iterative (k-means clustering, Kohonen competitive neural network, SOM, and annealed Hopfield neural network), and non-iterative (companding, histogram, and optimal) nonuniform quantisation techniques. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each technique and highlight important factors that must be considered when choosing between iterative and non-iterative nonuniform quantisation. We measure the degradation due to lossy quantisation in the reconstruction domain, using the normalised rms (NRMS) metric.

  1. Perspectives of multimode fibers and digital holography for optogenetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarske, Jürgen W.; Haufe, Daniel; Koukourakis, Nektarios; Büttner, Lars

    2016-04-01

    Optogenetic approaches allow the activation or inhibition of genetically prescribed populations of neurons by light. In principle, optogenetics offers not only the ability to elucidate the functions of neural circuitry, but also new approaches to a treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and recovery of vision and auditory perception. Optogenetics already has revolutionized research in neuroscience. However, new methods for delivering light to three-dimensionally distributed structures e.g. in the brain are necessary. A major hurdle for focusing light through biological tissue is the occurring scattering and scrambling of the light. We demonstrate the correction of the scrambling in a multimode fiber by digital optical phase conjugation with a perspective for optogenetics.

  2. Estimation of vibration frequency of loudspeaker diaphragm by parallel phase-shifting digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakue, T.; Endo, Y.; Shimobaba, T.; Ito, T.

    2014-11-01

    We report frequency estimation of loudspeaker diaphragm vibrating at high speed by parallel phase-shifting digital holography which is a technique of single-shot phase-shifting interferometry. This technique records multiple phaseshifted holograms required for phase-shifting interferometry by using space-division multiplexing. We constructed a parallel phase-shifting digital holography system consisting of a high-speed polarization-imaging camera. This camera has a micro-polarizer array which selects four linear polarization axes for 2 × 2 pixels. We set a loudspeaker as an object, and recorded vibration of diaphragm of the loudspeaker by the constructed system. By the constructed system, we demonstrated observation of vibration displacement of loudspeaker diaphragm. In this paper, we aim to estimate vibration frequency of the loudspeaker diaphragm by applying the experimental results to frequency analysis. Holograms consisting of 128 × 128 pixels were recorded at a frame rate of 262,500 frames per second by the camera. A sinusoidal wave was input to the loudspeaker via a phone connector. We observed displacement of the loudspeaker diaphragm vibrating by the system. We also succeeded in estimating vibration frequency of the loudspeaker diaphragm by applying frequency analysis to the experimental results.

  3. High Speed Digital Holography for Density and Fluctuation Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    ThomasJr., C. E.; Baylor, Larry R; Combs, Stephen Kirk; Meitner, Steven J; Rasmussen, David A; Granstedt, E. M.; Majeski, R.; Kaita, R.

    2010-01-01

    The state of the art in electro-optics has advanced to the point where digital holographic acquisition of wavefronts is now possible. Holographic wavefront acquisition provides the phase of the wavefront at every measurement point. This can be done with accuracy on the order of a thousandth of a wavelength, given that there is sufficient care in the design of the system. At wave frequencies which are much greater than the plasma frequency, the plasma index of refraction is linearly proportional to the electron density and wavelength, and the measurement of the phase of a wavefront passing through the plasma gives the chord-integrated density directly for all points measured on the wavefront. High-speed infrared cameras up to 40 000 fps at 644 pixels with resolutions up to 640512 pixels suitable for use with a CO2 laser are readily available, if expensive.

  4. High speed digital holography for density and fluctuation measurements (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C. E. Jr.; Baylor, L. R.; Combs, S. K.; Meitner, S. J.; Rasmussen, D. A.; Granstedt, E. M.; Majeski, R. P.; Kaita, R.

    2010-10-15

    The state of the art in electro-optics has advanced to the point where digital holographic acquisition of wavefronts is now possible. Holographic wavefront acquisition provides the phase of the wavefront at every measurement point. This can be done with accuracy on the order of a thousandth of a wavelength, given that there is sufficient care in the design of the system. At wave frequencies which are much greater than the plasma frequency, the plasma index of refraction is linearly proportional to the electron density and wavelength, and the measurement of the phase of a wavefront passing through the plasma gives the chord-integrated density directly for all points measured on the wavefront. High-speed infrared cameras (up to {approx}40 000 fps at {approx}64x4 pixels) with resolutions up to 640x512 pixels suitable for use with a CO{sub 2} laser are readily available, if expensive.

  5. Investigating the Swimming of Microbial Pathogens Using Digital Holography.

    PubMed

    Thornton, K L; Findlay, R C; Walrad, P B; Wilson, L G

    2016-01-01

    To understand much of the behaviour of microbial pathogens, it is necessary to image living cells, their interactions with each other and with host cells. Species such as Escherichia coli are difficult subjects to image: they are typically microscopic, colourless and transparent. Traditional cell visualisation techniques such as fluorescent tagging or phase-contrast microscopy give excellent information on cell behaviour in two dimensions, but no information about cells moving in three dimensions. We review the use of digital holographic microscopy for three-dimensional imaging at high speeds, and demonstrate its use for capturing the shape and swimming behaviour of three important model pathogens: E. coli, Plasmodium spp. and Leishmania spp. PMID:27193535

  6. Fast particle characterization using digital holography and neural networks.

    PubMed

    Schneider, B; Dambre, J; Bienstman, P

    2016-01-01

    We propose using a neural network approach in conjunction with digital holographic microscopy in order to rapidly determine relevant parameters such as the core and shell diameter of coated, non-absorbing spheres. We do so without requiring a time-consuming reconstruction of the cell image. In contrast to previous approaches, we are able to obtain a continuous value for parameters such as size, as opposed to binning into a discrete number of categories. Also, we are able to separately determine both core and shell diameter. For simulated particle sizes ranging between 7 and 20 μm, we obtain accuracies of (4.4±0.2)% and (0.74±0.01)% for the core and shell diameter, respectively. PMID:26835632

  7. Superresolved imaging in digital holography by superposition of tilted wavefronts.

    PubMed

    Mico, Vicente; Zalevsky, Zeev; García-Martínez, Pascuala; García, Javier

    2006-02-10

    A technique based on superresolution by digital holographic microscopic imaging is presented. We used a two dimensional (2-D) vertical-cavity self-emitting laser (VCSEL) array as spherical-wave illumination sources. The method is defined in terms of an incoherent superposition of tilted wavefronts. The tilted spherical wave originating from the 2-D VCSEL elements illuminates the target in transmission mode to obtain a hologram in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer configuration. Superresolved images of the input object above the common lens diffraction limit are generated by sequential recording of the individual holograms and numerical reconstruction of the image with the extended spatial frequency range. We have experimentally tested the approach for a microscope objective with an exact 2-D reconstruction image of the input object. The proposed approach has implementation advantages for applications in biological imaging or the microelectronic industry in which structured targets are being inspected. PMID:16512523

  8. Toward soft-tissue elastography using digital holography to monitor surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Li, Shiguang; Mohan, Karan D; Sanders, William W; Oldenburg, Amy L

    2011-11-01

    Measuring the elasticity distribution inside the human body is of great interest because elastic abnormalities can serve as indicators of several diseases. We present a method for mapping elasticity inside soft tissues by imaging surface acoustic waves (SAWs) with digital holographic interferometry. With this method, we show that SAWs are consistent with Rayleigh waves, with velocities proportional to the square root of the elastic modulus greater than 2-40 kPa in homogeneous tissue phantoms. In two-layer phantoms, the SAW velocity transitions approximately from that of the lower layer to that of the upper layer as frequency is increased in agreement with the theoretical relationship between SAW dispersion and the depth-dependent stiffness profile. We also observed deformation in the propagation direction of SAWs above a stiff inclusion placed 8 mm below the surface. These findings demonstrate the potential for quantitative digital holography-based elastography of soft tissues as a noninvasive method for disease detection. PMID:22112110

  9. Multiwavelength digital holography for polishing tool shape measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lédl, Vít.; Psota, Pavel; Václavík, Jan; Doleček, Roman; Vojtíšek, Petr

    2013-09-01

    Classical mechano-chemical polishing is still a valuable technique, which gives unbeatable results for some types of optical surfaces. For example, optics for high power lasers requires minimized subsurface damage, very high cosmetic quality, and low mid spatial frequency error. One can hardly achieve this with use of subaperture polishing. The shape of the polishing tool plays a crucial role in achieving the required form of the optical surface. Often the shape of the polishing tool or pad is not known precisely enough during the manufacturing process. The tool shape is usually premachined and later is changed during the polishing procedure. An experienced worker could estimate the shape of the tool indirectly from the shape of the polished element, and that is why he can achieve the required shape in few reasonably long iterative steps. Therefore the lack of the exact tool shape knowledge is tolerated. Sometimes, this indirect method is not feasible even if small parts are considered. Moreover, if processes on machines like planetary (continuous) polishers are considered, the incorrect shape of the polishing pad could extend the polishing times extremely. Every iteration step takes hours. Even worse, polished piece could be wasted if the pad has a poor shape. The ability of the tool shape determination would be very valuable in those types of lengthy processes. It was our primary motivation to develop a contactless measurement method for large diffusive surfaces and demonstrate its usability. The proposed method is based on application of multiwavelength digital holographic interferometry with phase shift.

  10. Estimation of objects transverse parameters in off-axis and in-line Fresnel digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheremkhin, Pavel A.; Evtikhiev, Nikolay N.; Krasnov, Vitaly V.; Rodin, Vladislav G.; Starikov, Sergey N.

    2015-05-01

    In this report transverse parameters of objects registered with inline and off-axis Fresnel digital holography schemes were estimated: maximum transverse dimensions of objects, size and quantity of object resolution elements. By determining allowed locations of diffraction orders under reconstruction, new expressions for estimation of objects transverse parameters were obtained. In case of off-axis holography it is desirable that object should not overlap with zero-order and twin images. If object and twin images are located on opposite sides relative to zero-order under reconstruction, this is case of preventing of cyclic shift of twin image (PCS). If twin image is located on both sides relative to zero-order under reconstruction but don't overlap with object image, this is case of assumption of cyclic shift of twin image (ACS). ACS case allows to register digital holograms of larger objects compared to PCS case. However, for example, for automatic image processing, separate display of object and twin images relative to zero-order is often required. It was found that ACS case allows to register holograms with distance between the object and hologram 1.5 times lesser than in PCS case. And maximum transverse dimension of object in ACS case is always greater than in PCS case by the half of hologram size. For verification of obtained estimates, off-axis digital Fresnel holograms with 2048x2048 pixels were optically registered. Contour images located behind static scatter were used as objects. Confirmations on transverse object parameters estimates, satisfying ACS and PCS cases, were derived. These results demonstrate correctness of obtained quantitative estimates.

  11. Remote monitoring of building oscillation modes by means of real-time Mid Infrared Digital Holography

    PubMed Central

    Poggi, Pasquale; Locatelli, Massimiliano; Pugliese, Eugenio; Delle Donne, Dario; Lacanna, Giorgio; Meucci, Riccardo; Ripepe, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Non-destructive measurements of deformations are a quite common application of holography but due to the intrinsic limits in the interferometric technique, those are generally confined only to small targets and in controlled environment. Here we present an advanced technique, based on Mid Infrared Digital Holography (MIR DH), which works in outdoor conditions and provides remote and real-time information on the oscillation modes of large engineering structures. Thanks to the long wavelength of the laser radiation, large areas of buildings can be simultaneously mapped with sub-micrometric resolution in terms of their amplitude and frequency oscillation modes providing all the modal parameters vital for all the correct prevention strategies when the functionality and the health status of the structures have to be evaluated. The existing experimental techniques used to evaluate the fundamental modes of a structure are based either on seismometric sensors or on Ground-based Synthetic Aperture Radar (GbSAR). Such devices have both serious drawbacks, which prevent their application at a large scale or in the short term. We here demonstrate that the MIR DH based technique can fully overcome these limitations and has the potential to represent a breakthrough advance in the field of dynamic characterization of large structures. PMID:27032810

  12. Remote monitoring of building oscillation modes by means of real-time Mid Infrared Digital Holography.

    PubMed

    Poggi, Pasquale; Locatelli, Massimiliano; Pugliese, Eugenio; Delle Donne, Dario; Lacanna, Giorgio; Meucci, Riccardo; Ripepe, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Non-destructive measurements of deformations are a quite common application of holography but due to the intrinsic limits in the interferometric technique, those are generally confined only to small targets and in controlled environment. Here we present an advanced technique, based on Mid Infrared Digital Holography (MIR DH), which works in outdoor conditions and provides remote and real-time information on the oscillation modes of large engineering structures. Thanks to the long wavelength of the laser radiation, large areas of buildings can be simultaneously mapped with sub-micrometric resolution in terms of their amplitude and frequency oscillation modes providing all the modal parameters vital for all the correct prevention strategies when the functionality and the health status of the structures have to be evaluated. The existing experimental techniques used to evaluate the fundamental modes of a structure are based either on seismometric sensors or on Ground-based Synthetic Aperture Radar (GbSAR). Such devices have both serious drawbacks, which prevent their application at a large scale or in the short term. We here demonstrate that the MIR DH based technique can fully overcome these limitations and has the potential to represent a breakthrough advance in the field of dynamic characterization of large structures. PMID:27032810

  13. Remote monitoring of building oscillation modes by means of real-time Mid Infrared Digital Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poggi, Pasquale; Locatelli, Massimiliano; Pugliese, Eugenio; Delle Donne, Dario; Lacanna, Giorgio; Meucci, Riccardo; Ripepe, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    Non-destructive measurements of deformations are a quite common application of holography but due to the intrinsic limits in the interferometric technique, those are generally confined only to small targets and in controlled environment. Here we present an advanced technique, based on Mid Infrared Digital Holography (MIR DH), which works in outdoor conditions and provides remote and real-time information on the oscillation modes of large engineering structures. Thanks to the long wavelength of the laser radiation, large areas of buildings can be simultaneously mapped with sub-micrometric resolution in terms of their amplitude and frequency oscillation modes providing all the modal parameters vital for all the correct prevention strategies when the functionality and the health status of the structures have to be evaluated. The existing experimental techniques used to evaluate the fundamental modes of a structure are based either on seismometric sensors or on Ground-based Synthetic Aperture Radar (GbSAR). Such devices have both serious drawbacks, which prevent their application at a large scale or in the short term. We here demonstrate that the MIR DH based technique can fully overcome these limitations and has the potential to represent a breakthrough advance in the field of dynamic characterization of large structures.

  14. Sparsity-Based Pixel Super Resolution for Lens-Free Digital In-line Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jun; Leon Swisher, Christine; Im, Hyungsoon; Jeong, Sangmoo; Pathania, Divya; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Pivovarov, Misha; Weissleder, Ralph; Lee, Hakho

    2016-04-01

    Lens-free digital in-line holography (LDIH) is a promising technology for portable, wide field-of-view imaging. Its resolution, however, is limited by the inherent pixel size of an imaging device. Here we present a new computational approach to achieve sub-pixel resolution for LDIH. The developed method is a sparsity-based reconstruction with the capability to handle the non-linear nature of LDIH. We systematically characterized the algorithm through simulation and LDIH imaging studies. The method achieved the spatial resolution down to one-third of the pixel size, while requiring only single-frame imaging without any hardware modifications. This new approach can be used as a general framework to enhance the resolution in nonlinear holographic systems.

  15. Sparsity-Based Pixel Super Resolution for Lens-Free Digital In-line Holography

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jun; Leon Swisher, Christine; Im, Hyungsoon; Jeong, Sangmoo; Pathania, Divya; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Pivovarov, Misha; Weissleder, Ralph; Lee, Hakho

    2016-01-01

    Lens-free digital in-line holography (LDIH) is a promising technology for portable, wide field-of-view imaging. Its resolution, however, is limited by the inherent pixel size of an imaging device. Here we present a new computational approach to achieve sub-pixel resolution for LDIH. The developed method is a sparsity-based reconstruction with the capability to handle the non-linear nature of LDIH. We systematically characterized the algorithm through simulation and LDIH imaging studies. The method achieved the spatial resolution down to one-third of the pixel size, while requiring only single-frame imaging without any hardware modifications. This new approach can be used as a general framework to enhance the resolution in nonlinear holographic systems. PMID:27098438

  16. Digital in-line X-ray holography with zone plates.

    PubMed

    Heine, R; Gorniak, T; Nisius, T; Christophis, C; Pettitt, M E; Staier, F; Wilhein, T; Rehbein, S; Grunze, M; Rosenhahn, A

    2011-07-01

    Single pulse imaging with radiation provided by free-electron laser sources is a promising approach towards X-ray microscopy, which is expected to provide high resolution images of biological samples unaffected by radiation damage. One fully coherent imaging technique for this purpose is digital in-line holography. Key to its successful application is the creation of X-ray point sources with high photon flux. In this study we applied zone plates to create such point sources with synchrotron radiation provided by the storage ring BESSY II. The obtained, divergent light cone is applied to holographic microscopy of biological objects such as critical point dried Navicula perminuta diatoms and human cells using photons with an energy of 250 eV. Compared to conventional experiments employing pinholes, exposure times are reduced by two orders of magnitude. PMID:21740876

  17. Hologram encoding strategies for non-Bayesian noise suppression in digital holography reconstructions and optical display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, V.; Memmolo, P.; Finizio, A.; Paturzo, M.; Ferraro, P.

    2016-03-01

    Here we first propose a fast, one-shot, non-Bayesian method which performs a numerical synthesis of a moving aperture in order to reduce the noise in Digital Holography without prior information on its statistics. Starting from one single hologram capture, multiple uncorrelated reconstructions are provided by random sparse resampling masks, which can be incoherently averaged. Thus, the problem of the setup complexity introduced by multiple recordings gets solved. Besides, at the scope of performing DH display using a SLM, it is highly required to operate directly on the hologram, in order to obtain its denoised version without losing the coherence between amplitude and phase information. We then move a step forward, showing a novel encoding formula allowing us to directly synthesize denoised holograms to be optically displayed by SLMs.

  18. Optical image encryption based on joint fractional transform correlator architecture and digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qu; Guo, Qing; Lei, Liang; Zhou, Jinyun

    2013-04-01

    We present a hybrid configuration of joint transform correlator (JTC) and joint fractional transform correlator (JFTC) for encryption purpose. The original input is encoded in the joint fractional power spectrum distribution of JFTC. In our experimental arrangement, an additional random phase mask (master key) is holographically generated beforehand by a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a JTC as the object arm. The fractional order of JFTC, together with the master key, can remarkably strengthen the safety level of encryption. Different from many previous digital-holography-based encryption schemes, the stability and alignment requirement for our system is not high, since the interferometric operation is only performed in the generation procedure of the master key. The advantages and feasibility of the proposed scheme have been verified by the experimental results. By combining with a multiplex technique, an application for multiple images encryption using the system is also given a detailed description.

  19. Four-dimensional tracking of spatially incoherent illuminated samples using self-interference digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man, Tianlong; Wan, Yuhong; Wu, Fan; Wang, Dayong

    2015-11-01

    We present a new method for the four-dimensional tracking of a spatially incoherent illuminated object. Self-interference digital holography is utilized for recording the hologram of the spatially incoherent illuminated object. Three-dimensional spatial coordinates encoded in the hologram are extracted by holographic reconstruction procedure and tracking algorithms, while the time information is reserved by the single-shot configuration. Applications of the holographic tracking methods are expanded to the incoherent imaging areas. Speckles and potential damage to the samples of the coherent illuminated tracking methods are overcome. Results on the quantitative tracking of three-dimensional spatial position over time are reported. In practical, living zebra fish larva is used to demonstrate one of the applications of the method.

  20. Single-shot dual-wavelength phase unwrapping in parallel phase-shifting digital holography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yonghee; Ito, Yasunori; Tahara, Tatsuki; Inoue, Junichi; Xia, Peng; Awatsuji, Yasuhiro; Nishio, Kenzo; Ura, Shogo; Matoba, Osamu

    2014-04-15

    We propose a single-shot phase-unwrapping method using two wavelengths in parallel phase-shifting digital holography (PPSDH). The proposed method enables one to solve the phase ambiguity problem in PPSDH. We conducted an experiment of the proposed method using two lasers whose wavelengths are 473 and 532 nm. An object having about 1.9 μm step, which is 7.1 times larger than the half wavelength of one of the lasers (266 nm), was fabricated by using vapor deposition of aluminum. Single-shot measurement of the height of the object was successfully demonstrated, and the validity of the proposed method was verified. PMID:24978996

  1. Multiwavelength phase unwrapping and aberration correction using depth filtered digital holography.

    PubMed

    Jaedicke, Volker; Goebel, Sebastian; Koukourakis, Nektarios; Gerhardt, Nils C; Welp, Hubert; Hofmann, Martin R

    2014-07-15

    In this Letter, we present a new approach to processing data from a standard spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) system using depth filtered digital holography (DFDH). Intensity-based OCT processing has an axial resolution of the order of a few micrometers. When the phase information is used to obtain optical path length differences, subwavelength accuracy can be achieved, but this limits the resolvable step heights to half of the wavelength of the system. Thus there is a metrology gap between phase- and intensity-based methods. Our concept addresses this metrology gap by combining DFHD with multiwavelength phase unwrapping. Additionally, the measurements are corrected for aberrations. Here, we present proof of concept measurements of a structured semiconductor sample. PMID:25121676

  2. Self-patterning of a polydimethylsiloxane microlens array on functionalized substrates and characterization by digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merola, F.; Paturzo, M.; Coppola, S.; Vespini, V.; Ferraro, P.

    2009-12-01

    Microlens arrays are realized through a self-arrangement process of thin liquid polymeric polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) film on a functionalized polar dielectric crystal substrate. The self-arrangement process is named the pyro-electro-wetting mechanism. The substrate, a LiNbO3 (LN) z-cut wafer, has been micro-engineered with periodically poled ferroelectric domains, with the aim to provide an appropriate wettability patterning induced by a thermal stimulus. Different experimental procedures have been explored demonstrating that arrays of thousands of microlenses, having a diameter size of 100 µm and focal lengths ranging between 300 and 1100 µm, can be fabricated. Furthermore, a microscope interference method based on digital holography is adopted for microlens characterization.

  3. Large object investigation by digital holography with effective spectrum multiplexing under single-exposure approach

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ning Zhang, Yingying; Xie, Jun

    2014-10-13

    We present a method to investigate large object by digital holography with effective spectrum multiplexing under single-exposure approach. This method splits the original reference beam and redirects one of its branches as a second object beam. Through the modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer, the two object beams can illuminate different parts of the large object and create a spectrum multiplexed hologram onto the focal plane array of the charge-coupled device/complementary metal oxide semiconductor camera. After correct spectrum extraction and image reconstruction, the large object can be fully observed within only one single snap-shot. The flexibility and great performance make our method a very attractive and promising technique for large object investigation under common 632.8 nm illumination.

  4. Dual-wavelength digital holography with a single low-coherence light source.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Sungbin; Cho, Janghyun; Jin, Ji-Nan; Park, No-Cheol; Park, Young-Pil

    2016-08-01

    We propose a measurement system using dual-wavelength digital holography and low-coherence interferometry to measure micro- and nanostructure surface heights. To achieve an extended axial step-measurement range and better image quality, a single light-emitting diode generates two distinct light sources by filtering different center wavelengths and narrower bandwidths. The system can measure surface profile with higher step heights and lower speckle noise in a large field-of-view. Using single-source lighting and a simple configuration, the method supports compactly configured and lower-cost surface-topography measurement systems applicable in various fields. Experimental results for a standard step sample verify the system's performance. PMID:27505804

  5. Sparsity-Based Pixel Super Resolution for Lens-Free Digital In-line Holography.

    PubMed

    Song, Jun; Leon Swisher, Christine; Im, Hyungsoon; Jeong, Sangmoo; Pathania, Divya; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Pivovarov, Misha; Weissleder, Ralph; Lee, Hakho

    2016-01-01

    Lens-free digital in-line holography (LDIH) is a promising technology for portable, wide field-of-view imaging. Its resolution, however, is limited by the inherent pixel size of an imaging device. Here we present a new computational approach to achieve sub-pixel resolution for LDIH. The developed method is a sparsity-based reconstruction with the capability to handle the non-linear nature of LDIH. We systematically characterized the algorithm through simulation and LDIH imaging studies. The method achieved the spatial resolution down to one-third of the pixel size, while requiring only single-frame imaging without any hardware modifications. This new approach can be used as a general framework to enhance the resolution in nonlinear holographic systems. PMID:27098438

  6. Multi-point vibrometer based on high-speed digital in-line holography.

    PubMed

    Poittevin, Julien; Picart, Pascal; Faure, Charly; Gautier, François; Pézerat, Charles

    2015-04-10

    This paper describes a digital holographic setup based on in-line holography and a high-speed recording to get a multipoint vibrometer. The use of a high-speed sensor leads to specificities that enable the in-line configuration to be used. The case of transient vibrations is investigated through a full simulation of the holographic process. The simulation shows that the first instants are critical since distortion may occur, resulting in errors in the phase measurement. Experimental results are provided by exciting an aluminum beam with a transient signal. A comparison with the velocity measured by a pointwise vibrometer is provided. Frequency response functions are extracted and the experimental results confirm the ability of the method to provide full-field contactless measurements at the high-speed time scale evolution of the vibration. PMID:25967302

  7. Particle tracking by full-field complex wavefront subtraction in digital holography microscopy.

    PubMed

    Miccio, L; Memmolo, P; Merola, F; Fusco, S; Embrione, V; Paciello, A; Ventre, M; Netti, P A; Ferraro, P

    2014-03-21

    The 3D tracking of micro-objects, based on digital holography, is proposed through the analysis of the complex wavefront of the light scattered by the micro-samples. Exploiting the advantages of the off-axis full-field holographic interferometry, the tracking of multiple objects is achieved by a direct wavefront analysis at the focal plane overcoming the limitation of the conventional back focal plane interferometry in which only one object at a time can be tracked. Furthermore, the method proposed and demonstrated here is a step forward with respect to other holographic tracking tools. The approach is tested in two experiments, the first investigates the Brownian motion of particles trapped by holographic optical tweezers, while the second relates to the cell motility in a 3D collagen matrix, thus showing its usefulness for lab-on-chip systems in typical bioassay testing. PMID:24463986

  8. Acquisition and replay systems for direct-to-digital holography and holovision

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Clarence E.; Hanson, Gregory R.

    2003-02-25

    Improvements to the acquisition and replay systems for direct-to-digital holography and holovision are described. A method of recording an off-axis hologram includes: splitting a laser beam into an object beam and a reference beam; reflecting the reference beam from a reference beam mirror; reflecting the object beam from an illumination beamsplitter; passing the object beam through an objective lens; reflecting the object beam from an object; focusing the reference beam and the object beam at a focal plane of a digital recorder to form an off-axis hologram; digitally recording the off-axis hologram; and transforming the off-axis hologram in accordance with a Fourier transform to obtain a set of results. A method of writing an off-axis hologram includes: passing a laser beam through a spatial light modulator; and focusing the laser beam at a focal plane of a photorefractive crystal to impose a holographic diffraction grating pattern on the photorefractive crystal. A method of replaying an off-axis hologram includes: illuminating a photorefractive crystal having a holographic diffraction grating with a replay beam.

  9. Fused off-axis object illumination direct-to-digital holography with a plurality of illumination sources

    DOEpatents

    Price, Jeffery R.; Bingham, Philip R.

    2005-11-08

    Systems and methods are described for rapid acquisition of fused off-axis illumination direct-to-digital holography. A method of recording a plurality of off-axis object illuminated spatially heterodyne holograms, each of the off-axis object illuminated spatially heterodyne holograms including spatially heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis, includes digitally recording, with a first illumination source of an interferometer, a first off-axis object illuminated spatially heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis; and digitally recording, with a second illumination source of the interferometer, a second off-axis object illuminated spatially heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis.

  10. Micro-light-pipe array with an excitation attenuation filter for lensless digital enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takehara, Hironari; Nagasaki, Mizuki; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Takehara, Hiroaki; Noda, Toshihiko; Tokuda, Takashi; Ohta, Jun

    2016-03-01

    Digital enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is used for detecting various biomarkers with hypersensitivity. We have been developing compact systems by replacing the fluorescence microscope with a CMOS image sensor. Here, we propose a micro-light-pipe array structure made of metal filled with dye-doped resin, which can be used as a fabrication substrate of the micro-reaction-chamber array of digital ELISA. The possibility that this structure enhances the coupling efficiency for fluorescence was simulated using a simple model. To realize the structure, we fabricated a 30-µm-thick micropipe array by copper electroplating around a thick photoresist pattern. The typical diameter of each fabricated micropipe was 10 µm. The pipes were filled with yellow-dye-doped epoxy resin. The transmittance ratio of fluorescence and excitation light could be controlled by adjusting the doping concentration. We confirmed that an angled excitation light incidence suppressed the leakage of excitation light.

  11. Support-domain constrained phase retrieval algorithms in terahertz in-line digital holography reconstruction of a nonisolated amplitude object.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiaqi; Li, Qi; Zhou, Yi

    2016-01-10

    Phase retrieval algorithms applied to in-line digital holography reconstruction can weaken interference from the region outside the study target and an unstable light source, etc., by adopting the object-plane support domain constraint. Based on threshold segmentation and morphological filtering, a method to directly calculate the object-plane support domain is proposed in this paper. Combined with the above method, an improved support-domain constrained phase retrieval algorithm is presented. Then, imaging simulations and experiments on terahertz in-line digital holography reconstruction of nonisolated objects are conducted. The simulations study the influence of transmittance of the background plate, structural element of morphological filtering, etc., on the reconstruction effect of the improved algorithm without noise interference. Simulation and experiment results suggest that good reconstructed images can be obtained by this algorithm when transmittance of the background plate is greater than 0.90. PMID:26835775

  12. The influence of hologram aperture on speckle noise in the reconstructed image of digital holography and its reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Xiao-ou; Wang, Hui

    2008-01-01

    Based on the whole process of the recording and reconstruction of digital holography, we study the formation cause of speckle noise in its reconstructed image and acquire the conclusion that the small size of hologram aperture diffraction aggravates the speckle noise of reconstructed image and the speckle noise has been one of primary noise sources in the reconstruction process. In order to reduce the speckle noise resulting from little hologram aperture diffraction, we set an appropriate aperture function matching the recording parameter and aperture size of hologram and deconvolve the reconstructed image with it. The validity has been proved in theory and experiment. Therefore, it offers a brand-new thought and practical way to reduce the speckle noise in the reconstructed image of digital holography.

  13. Simultaneous amplitude-contrast and phase-contrast surface plasmon resonance imaging by use of digital holography

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shiping; Zhong, Jingang

    2012-01-01

    The surface plasmon resonance imaging technique provides a tool that allows high-throughput analysis and real-time kinetic measurement. A simultaneous amplitude-contrast and phase-contrast surface plasmon resonance imaging method is presented. The amplitude-contrast and phase-contrast images are simultaneously obtained by use of digital holography. The detection sensitivity of amplitude-contrast imaging and phase-contrast imaging can compensate for each other. Thus, the detectable sample components may cover a wider range of refractive index values for the simultaneous amplitude-contrast and phase-contrast imaging method than for the phase-contrast imaging method or amplitude-contrast imaging method. A detailed description of the theory and an experiment of monitoring the evaporation process of a drop of NaCl injection in real time are presented. In addition, the amplitude-contrast image has less coherent noise by digital holography. PMID:23243569

  14. Evaluating unsupervised methods to size and classify suspended particles using digital in-line holography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davies, Emlyn J.; Buscombe, Daniel D.; Graham, George W.; Nimmo-Smith, W. Alex M.

    2015-01-01

    Substantial information can be gained from digital in-line holography of marine particles, eliminating depth-of-field and focusing errors associated with standard lens-based imaging methods. However, for the technique to reach its full potential in oceanographic research, fully unsupervised (automated) methods are required for focusing, segmentation, sizing and classification of particles. These computational challenges are the subject of this paper, in which we draw upon data collected using a variety of holographic systems developed at Plymouth University, UK, from a significant range of particle types, sizes and shapes. A new method for noise reduction in reconstructed planes is found to be successful in aiding particle segmentation and sizing. The performance of an automated routine for deriving particle characteristics (and subsequent size distributions) is evaluated against equivalent size metrics obtained by a trained operative measuring grain axes on screen. The unsupervised method is found to be reliable, despite some errors resulting from over-segmentation of particles. A simple unsupervised particle classification system is developed, and is capable of successfully differentiating sand grains, bubbles and diatoms from within the surf-zone. Avoiding miscounting bubbles and biological particles as sand grains enables more accurate estimates of sand concentrations, and is especially important in deployments of particle monitoring instrumentation in aerated water. Perhaps the greatest potential for further development in the computational aspects of particle holography is in the area of unsupervised particle classification. The simple method proposed here provides a foundation upon which further development could lead to reliable identification of more complex particle populations, such as those containing phytoplankton, zooplankton, flocculated cohesive sediments and oil droplets.

  15. Focal Image Plane Detection Based on Central Coordinate Point Spectral Value in Off-Axis Digital Particle Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Peizhen; Deng, Lijun; Lu, Wenhui

    2015-12-01

    A method to detect the focal image plane from a single off-axis digital particle hologram is proposed. This method utilizes the central coordinate point spectral value of the reconstructed particle image as focusing criterion to detect the focal image plane. It is found that the central coordinate point spectral values come into maximum when the reconstruction distance is equal to the actual distance that was used in experiment of hologram acquisition. Numerical simulations are given to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. The proposed method is a potential and better option for studying three dimensional particles by using digital holography.

  16. Comparison of three-dimensional particle tracking and sizing using plenoptic imaging and digital in-line holography.

    PubMed

    Hall, Elise M; Thurow, Brian S; Guildenbecher, Daniel R

    2016-08-10

    Digital in-line holography (DIH) and plenoptic photography are two techniques for single-shot, volumetric measurement of 3D particle fields. Here we present a comparison of the two methods by applying plenoptic imaging to experimental configurations that have been previously investigated with DIH. These experiments include the tracking of secondary droplets from the impact of a water drop on a thin film of water and tracking of pellets from a shotgun. Both plenoptic imaging and DIH successfully quantify the 3D nature of these particle fields. This includes measurement of the 3D particle position, individual particle sizes, and three-component velocity vectors. For the initial processing methods presented here, both techniques give out-of-plane positional accuracy of approximately 1-2 particle diameters. For a fixed image sensor, digital holography achieves higher effective in-plane spatial resolutions. However, collimated and coherent illumination makes holography susceptible to image distortion through index of refraction gradients, as demonstrated in the shotgun experiments. In contrast, plenoptic imaging allows for a simpler experimental configuration and, due to the use of diffuse, white-light illumination, plenoptic imaging is less susceptible to image distortion in the shotgun experiments. PMID:27534487

  17. Novel Perspectives on the Characterization of Species-Dependent Optical Signatures of Bacterial Colonies by Digital Holography.

    PubMed

    Buzalewicz, Igor; Kujawińska, Małgorzata; Krauze, Wojciech; Podbielska, Halina

    2016-01-01

    The use of light diffraction for the microbiological diagnosis of bacterial colonies was a significant breakthrough with widespread implications for the food industry and clinical practice. We previously confirmed that optical sensors for bacterial colony light diffraction can be used for bacterial identification. This paper is focused on the novel perspectives of this method based on digital in-line holography (DIH), which is able to reconstruct the amplitude and phase properties of examined objects, as well as the amplitude and phase patterns of the optical field scattered/diffracted by the bacterial colony in any chosen observation plane behind the object from single digital hologram. Analysis of the amplitude and phase patterns inside a colony revealed its unique optical properties, which are associated with the internal structure and geometry of the bacterial colony. Moreover, on a computational level, it is possible to select the desired scattered/diffracted pattern within the entire observation volume that exhibits the largest amount of unique, differentiating bacterial features. These properties distinguish this method from the already proposed sensing techniques based on light diffraction/scattering of bacterial colonies. The reconstructed diffraction patterns have a similar spatial distribution as the recorded Fresnel patterns, previously applied for bacterial identification with over 98% accuracy, but they are characterized by both intensity and phase distributions. Our results using digital holography provide new optical discriminators of bacterial species revealed in one single step in form of new optical signatures of bacterial colonies: digital holograms, reconstructed amplitude and phase patterns, as well as diffraction patterns from all observation space, which exhibit species-dependent features. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on bacterial colony analysis via digital holography and our study represents an innovative approach

  18. Novel Perspectives on the Characterization of Species-Dependent Optical Signatures of Bacterial Colonies by Digital Holography

    PubMed Central

    Buzalewicz, Igor; Kujawińska, Małgorzata; Krauze, Wojciech; Podbielska, Halina

    2016-01-01

    The use of light diffraction for the microbiological diagnosis of bacterial colonies was a significant breakthrough with widespread implications for the food industry and clinical practice. We previously confirmed that optical sensors for bacterial colony light diffraction can be used for bacterial identification. This paper is focused on the novel perspectives of this method based on digital in-line holography (DIH), which is able to reconstruct the amplitude and phase properties of examined objects, as well as the amplitude and phase patterns of the optical field scattered/diffracted by the bacterial colony in any chosen observation plane behind the object from single digital hologram. Analysis of the amplitude and phase patterns inside a colony revealed its unique optical properties, which are associated with the internal structure and geometry of the bacterial colony. Moreover, on a computational level, it is possible to select the desired scattered/diffracted pattern within the entire observation volume that exhibits the largest amount of unique, differentiating bacterial features. These properties distinguish this method from the already proposed sensing techniques based on light diffraction/scattering of bacterial colonies. The reconstructed diffraction patterns have a similar spatial distribution as the recorded Fresnel patterns, previously applied for bacterial identification with over 98% accuracy, but they are characterized by both intensity and phase distributions. Our results using digital holography provide new optical discriminators of bacterial species revealed in one single step in form of new optical signatures of bacterial colonies: digital holograms, reconstructed amplitude and phase patterns, as well as diffraction patterns from all observation space, which exhibit species-dependent features. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on bacterial colony analysis via digital holography and our study represents an innovative approach

  19. Direct-to-digital holography reduction of reference hologram noise and fourier space smearing

    DOEpatents

    Voelkl, Edgar

    2006-06-27

    Systems and methods are described for reduction of reference hologram noise and reduction of Fourier space smearing, especially in the context of direct-to-digital holography (off-axis interferometry). A method of reducing reference hologram noise includes: recording a plurality of reference holograms; processing the plurality of reference holograms into a corresponding plurality of reference image waves; and transforming the corresponding plurality of reference image waves into a reduced noise reference image wave. A method of reducing smearing in Fourier space includes: recording a plurality of reference holograms; processing the plurality of reference holograms into a corresponding plurality of reference complex image waves; transforming the corresponding plurality of reference image waves into a reduced noise reference complex image wave; recording a hologram of an object; processing the hologram of the object into an object complex image wave; and dividing the complex image wave of the object by the reduced noise reference complex image wave to obtain a reduced smearing object complex image wave.

  20. Digital In-Line Holography System for 3D-3C Particle Tracking Velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, Mokrane; Lebrun, Denis; Allano, Daniel

    Digital in-line holography is a suitable method for measuring three dimensional (3D) velocity fields. Such a system records directly on a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera a couple of diffraction patterns produced by small particles illuminated by a modulated laser diode. The numerical reconstruction is based on the wavelet transformation method. A 3D particle field is reconstructed by computing the wavelet components for different scale parameters. The scale parameter is directly related to the axial distance between a given particle and the CCD camera. The particle images are identified and localized by analyzing the maximum of the wavelet transform modulus (WTMM) and the equivalent diameter of the particle image (Deq). Afterwards, a 3D point-matching (PM) algorithm is applied to the pair of sets containing the 3D particle locations. In the PM algorithm, the displacement of the particles is modeled by an affine transformation. This affine transformation is based on the use of the dual number quaternions. Afterwards, the velocity-field extraction is performed. This system is tested with simulated particle field displacements and the feasibility is checked with an experimental displacement.

  1. Calculation reduction method for color digital holography and computer-generated hologram using color space conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Nagahama, Yuki; Kakue, Takashi; Takada, Naoki; Okada, Naohisa; Endo, Yutaka; Hirayama, Ryuji; Hiyama, Daisuke; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2014-02-01

    A calculation reduction method for color digital holography (DH) and computer-generated holograms (CGHs) using color space conversion is reported. Color DH and color CGHs are generally calculated on RGB space. We calculate color DH and CGHs in other color spaces for accelerating the calculation (e.g., YCbCr color space). In YCbCr color space, a RGB image or RGB hologram is converted to the luminance component (Y), blue-difference chroma (Cb), and red-difference chroma (Cr) components. In terms of the human eye, although the negligible difference of the luminance component is well recognized, the difference of the other components is not. In this method, the luminance component is normal sampled and the chroma components are down-sampled. The down-sampling allows us to accelerate the calculation of the color DH and CGHs. We compute diffraction calculations from the components, and then we convert the diffracted results in YCbCr color space to RGB color space. The proposed method, which is possible to accelerate the calculations up to a factor of 3 in theory, accelerates the calculation over two times faster than the ones in RGB color space.

  2. Ultrafast axial scanning for two-photon microscopy via a digital micromirror device and binary holography.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jiyi; Gu, Chenglin; Zhang, Dapeng; Wang, Dien; Chen, Shih-Chi

    2016-04-01

    In this Letter, we present an ultrafast nonmechanical axial scanning method for two-photon excitation (TPE) microscopy based on binary holography using a digital micromirror device (DMD), achieving a scanning rate of 4.2 kHz, scanning range of ∼180  μm, and scanning resolution (minimum step size) of ∼270  nm. Axial scanning is achieved by projecting the femtosecond laser to a DMD programmed with binary holograms of spherical wavefronts of increasing/decreasing radii. To guide the scanner design, we have derived the parametric relationships between the DMD parameters (i.e., aperture and pixel size), and the axial scanning characteristics, including (1) maximum optical power, (2) minimum step size, and (3) scan range. To verify the results, the DMD scanner is integrated with a custom-built TPE microscope that operates at 60 frames per second. In the experiment, we scanned a pollen sample via both the DMD scanner and a precision z-stage. The results show the DMD scanner generates images of equal quality throughout the scanning range. The overall efficiency of the TPE system was measured to be ∼3%. With the high scanning rate, the DMD scanner may find important applications in random-access imaging or high-speed volumetric imaging that enables visualization of highly dynamic biological processes in 3D with submillisecond temporal resolution. PMID:27192259

  3. Calibration of particle position on digital holography using transparent resin block with dispersed particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Y.; Yoshino, T.; Harada, D.; Murata, S.

    2009-11-01

    This paper describes the use of a Calibration Block (CB) for evaluating the accuracy of digital holography in particle position measurement. CB made of acrylic has three layers and the gap between the layers is filled with transparent resin. The refractive index of the resin and the layers is almost the same (1.49). Fin Block (FB), which is not filled with resin, is introduced in order to evaluate effects of the resin. The fringe edges of several holographic patterns are observed by using three kinds of CB and FB. Each layer is coated with spherical particles (diameter: 16.36 ± 0.42 μ m). The influence of multiple scattering on the detected depth of the particles is evaluated by changing the number density of particles. Three kinds of CB and FB are prepared (averaged particle density in the holographic pattern; 83.2, 166.5 and 249.7). The fringe edges of the holographic patterns generated in CB and FB are observed, respectively. It is found that the fringe edges of CB are clearer than FB. Also, Multiple scattering acts as a source of background noise with high spatial frequency, which has almost the same frequency as that of the particle diffraction on the fringe patterns, and reduces the effective signal-to-noise ratio of the holographic pattern. CB can be used to evaluate the influence of multiple scattering on the detected particle depth.

  4. Digital holography reconstruction algorithms to estimate the morphology and depth of nonspherical absorbing particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guildenbecher, Daniel R.; Gao, Jian; Reu, Phillip L.; Chen, Jun

    2012-09-01

    In digital holography an object wave is numerically reconstructed from a recorded hologram. Using this technique it is possible to detect the position and size of particles in a 3D domain. In this work, particular focus is placed on quantification of particles with non-spherical morphologies. The in-line configuration is chosen due to the simplicity of the optical setup and minimal distortions of in-plane morphologies. However, this geometry is also characterized by a large depth-of-focus and high uncertainty in the detected depth. To quantify these uncertainties, this work begins with the definition of a non-dimensional model of hologram recording and reconstruction applied to single spherical and nonspherical particles. Typical CCD noise sources are included. Application of this model to two particle detection methods reveals the relevant merits and limitations of each particle detection method. From the lessons learned, a new hybrid particle detection method is proposed. Simulations indicate the hybrid method significantly improves upon the accuracy of the measured depth and particle morphologies. Furthermore, the proposed method automatically determines the optimum threshold for each particle, and, therefore, requires minimal user inputs. Finally, initial experimental results for spherical particles confirm the accuracy of the proposed hybrid method.

  5. Real-time terahertz digital holography with a quantum cascade laser

    PubMed Central

    Locatelli, Massimiliano; Ravaro, Marco; Bartalini, Saverio; Consolino, Luigi; Vitiello, Miriam S.; Cicchi, Riccardo; Pavone, Francesco; De Natale, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Coherent imaging in the THz range promises to exploit the peculiar capabilities of these wavelengths to penetrate common materials like plastics, ceramics, paper or clothes with potential breakthroughs in non-destructive inspection and quality control, homeland security and biomedical applications. Up to now, however, THz coherent imaging has been limited by time-consuming raster scanning, point-like detection schemes and by the lack of adequate coherent sources. Here, we demonstrate real-time digital holography (DH) at THz frequencies exploiting the high spectral purity and the mW output power of a quantum cascade laser combined with the high sensitivity and resolution of a microbolometric array. We show that, in a one-shot exposure, phase and amplitude information of whole samples, either in reflection or in transmission, can be recorded. Furthermore, a 200 times reduced sensitivity to mechanical vibrations and a significantly enlarged field of view are observed, as compared to DH in the visible range. These properties of THz DH enable unprecedented holographic recording of real world dynamic scenes. PMID:26315647

  6. Terahertz in-line digital holography of human hepatocellular carcinoma tissue

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Lu; Latychevskaia, Tatiana; Chen, Chunhai; Wang, Dayong; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Xun; Li, Zeyu; Huang, Haochong; Wang, Yunxin; Zhou, Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Terahertz waves provide a better contrast in imaging soft biomedical tissues than X-rays, and unlike X-rays, they cause no ionisation damage, making them a good option for biomedical imaging. Terahertz absorption imaging has conventionally been used for cancer diagnosis. However, the absorption properties of a cancerous sample are influenced by two opposing factors: an increase in absorption due to a higher degree of hydration and a decrease in absorption due to structural changes. It is therefore difficult to diagnose cancer from an absorption image. Phase imaging can thus be critical for diagnostics. We demonstrate imaging of the absorption and phase-shift distributions of 3.2 mm × 2.3 mm × 30-μm-thick human hepatocellular carcinoma tissue by continuous-wave terahertz digital in-line holography. The acquisition time of a few seconds for a single in-line hologram is much shorter than that of other terahertz diagnostic techniques, and future detectors will allow acquisition of meaningful holograms without sample dehydration. The resolution of the reconstructions was enhanced by sub-pixel shifting and extrapolation. Another advantage of this technique is its relaxed minimal sample size limitation. The fibrosis indicated in the phase distribution demonstrates the potential of terahertz holographic imaging to obtain a more objective, early diagnosis of cancer. PMID:25676705

  7. Real-time terahertz digital holography with a quantum cascade laser.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Massimiliano; Ravaro, Marco; Bartalini, Saverio; Consolino, Luigi; Vitiello, Miriam S; Cicchi, Riccardo; Pavone, Francesco; De Natale, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Coherent imaging in the THz range promises to exploit the peculiar capabilities of these wavelengths to penetrate common materials like plastics, ceramics, paper or clothes with potential breakthroughs in non-destructive inspection and quality control, homeland security and biomedical applications. Up to now, however, THz coherent imaging has been limited by time-consuming raster scanning, point-like detection schemes and by the lack of adequate coherent sources. Here, we demonstrate real-time digital holography (DH) at THz frequencies exploiting the high spectral purity and the mW output power of a quantum cascade laser combined with the high sensitivity and resolution of a microbolometric array. We show that, in a one-shot exposure, phase and amplitude information of whole samples, either in reflection or in transmission, can be recorded. Furthermore, a 200 times reduced sensitivity to mechanical vibrations and a significantly enlarged field of view are observed, as compared to DH in the visible range. These properties of THz DH enable unprecedented holographic recording of real world dynamic scenes. PMID:26315647

  8. Real-time terahertz digital holography with a quantum cascade laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locatelli, Massimiliano; Ravaro, Marco; Bartalini, Saverio; Consolino, Luigi; Vitiello, Miriam S.; Cicchi, Riccardo; Pavone, Francesco; de Natale, Paolo

    2015-08-01

    Coherent imaging in the THz range promises to exploit the peculiar capabilities of these wavelengths to penetrate common materials like plastics, ceramics, paper or clothes with potential breakthroughs in non-destructive inspection and quality control, homeland security and biomedical applications. Up to now, however, THz coherent imaging has been limited by time-consuming raster scanning, point-like detection schemes and by the lack of adequate coherent sources. Here, we demonstrate real-time digital holography (DH) at THz frequencies exploiting the high spectral purity and the mW output power of a quantum cascade laser combined with the high sensitivity and resolution of a microbolometric array. We show that, in a one-shot exposure, phase and amplitude information of whole samples, either in reflection or in transmission, can be recorded. Furthermore, a 200 times reduced sensitivity to mechanical vibrations and a significantly enlarged field of view are observed, as compared to DH in the visible range. These properties of THz DH enable unprecedented holographic recording of real world dynamic scenes.

  9. Terahertz in-line digital holography of human hepatocellular carcinoma tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Lu; Latychevskaia, Tatiana; Chen, Chunhai; Wang, Dayong; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Xun; Li, Zeyu; Huang, Haochong; Wang, Yunxin; Zhou, Zhou

    2015-02-01

    Terahertz waves provide a better contrast in imaging soft biomedical tissues than X-rays, and unlike X-rays, they cause no ionisation damage, making them a good option for biomedical imaging. Terahertz absorption imaging has conventionally been used for cancer diagnosis. However, the absorption properties of a cancerous sample are influenced by two opposing factors: an increase in absorption due to a higher degree of hydration and a decrease in absorption due to structural changes. It is therefore difficult to diagnose cancer from an absorption image. Phase imaging can thus be critical for diagnostics. We demonstrate imaging of the absorption and phase-shift distributions of 3.2 mm × 2.3 mm × 30-μm-thick human hepatocellular carcinoma tissue by continuous-wave terahertz digital in-line holography. The acquisition time of a few seconds for a single in-line hologram is much shorter than that of other terahertz diagnostic techniques, and future detectors will allow acquisition of meaningful holograms without sample dehydration. The resolution of the reconstructions was enhanced by sub-pixel shifting and extrapolation. Another advantage of this technique is its relaxed minimal sample size limitation. The fibrosis indicated in the phase distribution demonstrates the potential of terahertz holographic imaging to obtain a more objective, early diagnosis of cancer.

  10. Overview of Techniques Applicable to Self-Interference Incoherent Digital Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, J.; Kim, M. K.

    2013-12-01

    Self-interference incoherent digital holography (SIDH) retrieves the complex hologram from the object illuminated by the incoherent light. Supported by the adaptive optic feature, SIDH is readily applicable to the ocular imaging to investigate the human retinal cells. Considering the practical issues, issues related to resolution, phase-shifting, and contrast should be addressed to implement the viable SIDH system which is capable of recording the holographic information of human retinal cells under the incoherent illumination. Super resolution image reconstruction technique can be directly applied to SIDH to enhance the resolution of the system without any change of configuration. We present the improved way to incorporate the phase-shifting itself into the lateral shift required by the super resolution technique. To deal with the phase-shifting issue, we present an arbitrary phase shift retrieval algorithm which can reduce the number of phase-shift and accept the blind phase-shift. The single-shot imaging is also possible by adopting the off-axis configuration of SIDH. We will provide the detailed procedures to retrieve the complex hologram using the proposed arbitrary phase shifting algorithm and the off-axis configuration.

  11. Digital holography as a method for 3D imaging and estimating the biovolume of motile cells.

    PubMed

    Merola, F; Miccio, L; Memmolo, P; Di Caprio, G; Galli, A; Puglisi, R; Balduzzi, D; Coppola, G; Netti, P; Ferraro, P

    2013-12-01

    Sperm morphology is regarded as a significant prognostic factor for fertilization, as abnormal sperm structure is one of the most common factors in male infertility. Furthermore, obtaining accurate morphological information is an important issue with strong implications in zoo-technical industries, for example to perform sorting of species X from species Y. A challenging step forward would be the availability of a fast, high-throughput and label-free system for the measurement of physical parameters and visualization of the 3D shape of such biological specimens. Here we show a quantitative imaging approach to estimate simply and quickly the biovolume of sperm cells, combining the optical tweezers technique with digital holography, in a single and integrated set-up for a biotechnology assay process on the lab-on-a-chip scale. This approach can open the way for fast and high-throughput analysis in label-free microfluidic based "cytofluorimeters" and prognostic examination based on sperm morphology, thus allowing advancements in reproductive science. PMID:24129638

  12. High-speed femtosecond laser beam shaping based on binary holography using a digital micromirror device.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jiyi; Gu, Chenglin; Zhang, Dapeng; Chen, Shih-Chi

    2015-11-01

    In this Letter, we present a digital micromirror device (DMD)-based ultrafast beam shaper, i.e., DUBS. To our knowledge, the DUBS is the first binary laser beam shaper that can generate high-resolution (1140×912 pixels) arbitrary beam modes for femtosecond lasers at a rate of 4.2 kHz; the resolution and pattern rate are limited by the DMD. In the DUBS, the spectrum of the input pulsed laser is first angularly dispersed by a transmission grating and subsequently imaged to a DMD with beam modulation patterns; the transmission grating and a high-reflectivity mirror together compensate the angular dispersion introduced by the DMD. The mode of the output beam is monitored by a CCD camera. In the experiments, the DUBS is programmed to generate four different beam modes, including an Airy beam, Bessel beam, Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beam, and a custom-designed "peace-dove" beam via the principle of binary holography. To verify the high shaping rate, the Airy beam and LG beam are generated alternately at 4.2 kHz, i.e., the maximum pattern rate of our DMD. The overall efficiency of the DUBS is measured to be 4.7%. With the high-speed and high-resolution beam-shaping capability, the DUBS may find important applications in nonlinear microscopy, optical manipulation, and microscale/nanoscale laser machining, etc. PMID:26512472

  13. Tile-Based Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping for Digital Holography Using a Modular Framework.

    PubMed

    Antonopoulos, Georgios C; Steltner, Benjamin; Heisterkamp, Alexander; Ripken, Tammo; Meyer, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    A variety of physical and biomedical imaging techniques, such as digital holography, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enable measurement of the phase of a physical quantity additionally to its amplitude. However, the phase can commonly only be measured modulo 2π, as a so called wrapped phase map. Phase unwrapping is the process of obtaining the underlying physical phase map from the wrapped phase. Tile-based phase unwrapping algorithms operate by first tessellating the phase map, then unwrapping individual tiles, and finally merging them to a continuous phase map. They can be implemented computationally efficiently and are robust to noise. However, they are prone to failure in the presence of phase residues or erroneous unwraps of single tiles. We tried to overcome these shortcomings by creating novel tile unwrapping and merging algorithms as well as creating a framework that allows to combine them in modular fashion. To increase the robustness of the tile unwrapping step, we implemented a model-based algorithm that makes efficient use of linear algebra to unwrap individual tiles. Furthermore, we adapted an established pixel-based unwrapping algorithm to create a quality guided tile merger. These original algorithms as well as previously existing ones were implemented in a modular phase unwrapping C++ framework. By examining different combinations of unwrapping and merging algorithms we compared our method to existing approaches. We could show that the appropriate choice of unwrapping and merging algorithms can significantly improve the unwrapped result in the presence of phase residues and noise. Beyond that, our modular framework allows for efficient design and test of new tile-based phase unwrapping algorithms. The software developed in this study is freely available. PMID:26599984

  14. Tile-Based Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping for Digital Holography Using a Modular Framework

    PubMed Central

    Antonopoulos, Georgios C.; Steltner, Benjamin; Heisterkamp, Alexander; Ripken, Tammo; Meyer, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    A variety of physical and biomedical imaging techniques, such as digital holography, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enable measurement of the phase of a physical quantity additionally to its amplitude. However, the phase can commonly only be measured modulo 2π, as a so called wrapped phase map. Phase unwrapping is the process of obtaining the underlying physical phase map from the wrapped phase. Tile-based phase unwrapping algorithms operate by first tessellating the phase map, then unwrapping individual tiles, and finally merging them to a continuous phase map. They can be implemented computationally efficiently and are robust to noise. However, they are prone to failure in the presence of phase residues or erroneous unwraps of single tiles. We tried to overcome these shortcomings by creating novel tile unwrapping and merging algorithms as well as creating a framework that allows to combine them in modular fashion. To increase the robustness of the tile unwrapping step, we implemented a model-based algorithm that makes efficient use of linear algebra to unwrap individual tiles. Furthermore, we adapted an established pixel-based unwrapping algorithm to create a quality guided tile merger. These original algorithms as well as previously existing ones were implemented in a modular phase unwrapping C++ framework. By examining different combinations of unwrapping and merging algorithms we compared our method to existing approaches. We could show that the appropriate choice of unwrapping and merging algorithms can significantly improve the unwrapped result in the presence of phase residues and noise. Beyond that, our modular framework allows for efficient design and test of new tile-based phase unwrapping algorithms. The software developed in this study is freely available. PMID:26599984

  15. Three-dimensional microscopy by laser scanning and multi-wavelength digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khmaladze, Alexander

    This dissertation presents techniques of three-dimensional microscopy. First, an economical method of microscopic image formation that employs a raster-scanning laser beam focused on a sample, while non-imaging detector receives the scattered light is presented. The images produced by this method are analogous to the scanning electron microscopy with visible effects of shadowing and reflection. Compared to a conventional wide-field imaging system, the system allows for a greater flexibility, as the variety of optical detectors, such as PMT and position-sensitive quadrant photodiode can be used to acquire images. The system demonstrates a simple, low-cost method of achieving the resolution on the order of a micron. A further gain in terms of resolution and the depth of focus by using Bessel rather than Gaussian beams is discussed. Then, a phase-imaging technique to quantitatively study the three-dimensional structure of reflective and transmissive microscopic samples is presented. The method, based on the simultaneous dual-wavelength digital holography, allows for higher axial range at which the unambiguous phase imaging can be performed. The technique is capable of nanometer axial resolution. The noise level, which increases as a result of using two wavelengths, is then reduced to the level of a single wavelength. The method compares favorably to software unwrapping, as the technique does not produce nonexistent phase steps. Curvature mismatch between the reference and object beams is numerically compensated. The 3D images of porous coal samples and SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells are presented.

  16. Differential-interference-contrast digital in-line holography microscopy based on a single-optical-element.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuchao; Xie, Changqing

    2015-11-01

    Both digital in-line holography (DIH) and zone plate-based microscopy have received considerable interest as powerful imaging tools. However, the former suffers from a twin-image noise problem. The latter suffers from low efficiency and difficulty in fabrication. Here, we present an effective and efficient phase-contrast imaging approach, named differential-interference-contrast digital in-line holography (DIC-DIH), by using a single optical element to split the incident light into a plane wave and a converging spherical wave and generate a two-dimensional (2D) DIC effect simultaneously. Specifically, to improve image contrast, we present a new single optical element, termed 2D DIC compound photon sieves, by combining two overlaid binary gratings and a compound photon sieve through two logical XOR operations. The proof-of-concept experiments demonstrate that the proposed technique can eliminate the twin-image noise problem and improve image contrast with high efficiency. Additionally, we present an example of the phase-contrast imaging nonuniform thick photoresist development process. PMID:26512507

  17. Lensless reflective point diffraction interferometer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenhua; Chen, Lei; Zheng, Donghui; Yang, Ying; Han, Zhigang; Li, Jinpeng

    2016-07-01

    A lensless reflective point diffraction interferometer (LRPDI) is proposed for dynamic wavefront measurement. The point diffraction interferometer is integrated on a small substrate with properly designed thin film, which is used for generating the interferogram with high carrier frequency at a CCD target. By lensless imaging, the complex amplitude at the CCD target can be propagated to the conjugated plane of the exit pupil of an incident wavefront, which not only avoids the edge diffraction in the interferogram, but also eliminates systematic error. The accuracy of LRPDI is demonstrated by simulation and experiment, and a precision better than 1/150 wavelength is achieved. The new design with lensless imaging processing is suitable for dynamic wavefront measurement. PMID:27409204

  18. Optical sectioning using a digital Fresnel incoherent-holography-based confocal imaging system

    PubMed Central

    Kelner, Roy; Katz, Barak; Rosen, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new type of confocal microscope using Fresnel incoherent correlation holography (FINCH). Presented here is a confocal configuration of FINCH using a phase pinhole and point illumination that is able to suppress out-of-focus information from the recorded hologram and hence combine the super-resolution capabilities of FINCH with the sectioning capabilities of confocal microscopy. PMID:26413560

  19. Hard X-ray Fourier Transform Holography Using a Reference Scatterer Fabricated by Electron-Beam-Assisted Chemical-Vapor Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, M.; Isogami, S.; Tsunoda, M.; Takahashi, S.; Ishio, S.

    2011-09-09

    We present a fabrication method for a reference source that is efficient when used for lensless Fourier transform holography. This method produces a reference source that yields high spatial resolution and enhanced signal-to-noise ratio in a Fourier-transformed real-space image, and is particularly useful for Fourier transform holography experiments in the hard x-ray region.

  20. Co-design of an in-line holographic microscope with enhanced axial resolution: selective filtering digital holography.

    PubMed

    Verrier, Nicolas; Fournier, Corinne; Cazier, Anthony; Fournel, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Common-path digital in-line holography is considered as a valuable 3D diagnostic technique for a wide range of applications. This configuration is cost effective and relatively immune to variation in the experimental environment. Nevertheless, due to its common-path geometry, the signal-to-noise ratio of the acquired hologram is weak as most of the detector (i.e., CCD/CMOS sensor) dynamics are occupied by the reference field signal, whose energy is orders of magnitude higher than the field scattered by the imaged object. As it is intrinsically impossible to modify the ratio of energy of reference to the object field, we propose a co-design approach (optics/data processing) to tackle this issue. The reference to the object field ratio is adjusted by adding a 4-f device to a conventional in-line holographic setup, making it possible to reduce the weight of the reference field while keeping the object field almost constant. Theoretical analysis of the Crámer-Rao lower bounds of the corresponding imaging model illustrates the advantages of this approach. These lower bounds can be asymptotically reached using a parametric inverse problem reconstruction. This implementation results in a 60% gain in axial localization accuracy (for 100 μm diameter spherical objects) compared to a classical in-line holography setup. PMID:26831591

  1. Investigations of As-S-Se thin films for use as inorganic photoresist for digital image-matrix holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulanovs, Andrejs; Gerbreders, Vjacheslavs; Kirilovs, George; Teteris, Janis

    2011-10-01

    As-S-Se chalcogenide thin films are successfully employed in classical and dot-matrix holography as inorganic photoresists for obtaining a relief-phase hologram. However using these films for image-matrix hologram recording has not been studied due to some features of image-matrix technology. For the applied research of the optical properties of As-S-Se films an experimental device of digital image-matrix holographic recording based on 100 mW 405 nm semi-conductor laser and Spatial Light Modulator (SLM) has been created. The device has the following main parameters: 140 × 105 µm frame size; laser intensity during exposure 10 W/cm2. With the help of this device diffraction grating and security holograms were recorded on As-S-Se thin films. The work reported herein presents results of an experimental study of how diffraction efficiency (DE) of the received relief-phase holographic gratings depends on an exposure and period. Diffraction grating profiles and speed of etching corresponding to different exposure doses are shown. Hologram samples with DE = 65% have been received which allows for using chalcogenide film as alternative to organic photoresists in applied dot-matrix and image-matrix holography.

  2. Improvement of the size estimation of 3D tracked droplets using digital in-line holography with joint estimation reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verrier, N.; Grosjean, N.; Dib, E.; Méès, L.; Fournier, C.; Marié, J.-L.

    2016-04-01

    Digital holography is a valuable tool for three-dimensional information extraction. Among existing configurations, the originally proposed set-up (i.e. Gabor, or in-line holography), is reasonably immune to variations in the experimental environment making it a method of choice for studies of fluid dynamics. Nevertheless, standard hologram reconstruction techniques, based on numerical light back-propagation are prone to artifacts such as twin images or aliases that limit both the quality and quantity of information extracted from the acquired holograms. To get round this issue, the hologram reconstruction as a parametric inverse problem has been shown to accurately estimate 3D positions and the size of seeding particles directly from the hologram. To push the bounds of accuracy on size estimation still further, we propose to fully exploit the information redundancy of a hologram video sequence using joint estimation reconstruction. Applying this approach in a bench-top experiment, we show that it led to a relative precision of 0.13% (for a 60 μm diameter droplet) for droplet size estimation, and a tracking precision of {σx}× {σy}× {σz}=0.15× 0.15× 1~\\text{pixels} .

  3. Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array

    PubMed Central

    Bishara, Waheb; Sikora, Uzair; Mudanyali, Onur; Ting-Wei, Su; Yaglidere, Oguzhan; Luckhart, Shirley; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2011-01-01

    We report a portable lensless on-chip microscope that can achieve <1 μm resolution over a wide field-of-view of ~24 mm2 without the use of any mechanical scanning. This compact on-chip microscope weighs ~95 g and is based on partially coherent digital in-line holography. Multiple fiber-optic waveguides are butt-coupled to light emitting diodes, which are controlled by a low-cost micro-controller to sequentially illuminate the sample. The resulting lensfree holograms are then captured by a digital sensor-array and are rapidly processed using a pixel super-resolution algorithm to generate much higher resolution holographic images (both phase and amplitude) of the objects. This wide-field and high-resolution on-chip microscope, being compact and light-weight, would be important for global health problems such as diagnosis of infectious diseases in remote locations. Toward this end, we validate the performance of this field-portable microscope by imaging human malaria parasites (Plasmodium falciparum) in thin blood smears. Our results constitute the first-time that a lensfree on-chip microscope has successfully imaged malaria parasites. PMID:21365087

  4. Multi-illumination Gabor holography recorded in a single camera snap-shot for high-resolution phase retrieval in digital in-line holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz, Martin; Picazo-Bueno, Jose A.; Garcia, Javier; Micó, Vicente

    2015-05-01

    In this contribution we introduce MISHELF microscopy, a new concept and design of a lensless holographic microscope based on wavelength multiplexing, single hologram acquisition and digital image processing. The technique which name comes from Multi-Illumination Single-Holographic-Exposure Lensless Fresnel microscopy, is based on the simultaneous illumination and recording of three diffraction patterns in the Fresnel domain. In combination with a novel and fast iterative phase retrieval algorithm, MISHELF microscopy is capable of high-resolution (micron range) phase-retrieved (twin image elimination) biological imaging of dynamic events (video rate recording speed) since it avoids the time multiplexing needed for the in-line hologram sequence recording when using conventional phase-shifting or phase retrieval algorithms. MISHELF microscopy is validated using two different experimental layouts: one using RGB illumination and detection schemes and another using IRRB as illumination while keeping the RGB color camera as detection device. Preliminary experimental results are provided for both experimental layouts using a synthetic object (USAF resolution test target).

  5. Single-shot dual-wavelength phase reconstruction in off-axis digital holography with polarization-multiplexing transmission.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhe; Jiang, Zhuqing; Chen, Yifei

    2016-08-01

    A new system for single-shot dual-wavelength digital holographic microscopy with polarization-multiplexing path-shared transmission is presented. The key feature of the optical configuration is that the interference waves of two wavelengths having orthogonal polarization can transmit in the same interferometer paths at the same time, and two polarizers orthogonal to each other are placed in front of the CCD to realize single-shot recording of two holograms. The correlative filtering algorithm of the spatial-frequency spectrum for dual-wavelength digital holograms is reliable and efficient in the dual-wavelength path-shared configuration. The phase reconstruction in dual-wavelength digital holographic imaging is achieved by using this filtering algorithm. The experiment results of phase reconstruction of a groove grating demonstrate the reliability and validity of this optical configuration and the correlative filtering algorithm. This polarization-multiplexing configuration for dual-wavelength digital holography is compact and has more flexibility for the replacement of different-wavelength lasers. PMID:27505390

  6. Terahertz in-line digital holography of dragonfly hindwing: amplitude and phase reconstruction at enhanced resolution by extrapolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Lu; Latychevskaia, Tatiana; Wang, Dayong; Zhou, Xun; Huang, Haochong; Li, Zeyu; Wang, Yunxin

    2014-07-01

    We report here on terahertz (THz) digital holography on a biological specimen. A continuous-wave (CW) THz in-line holographic setup was built based on a 2.52 THz CO2 pumped THz laser and a pyroelectric array detector. We introduced novel statistical method of obtaining true intensity values for the pyroelectric array detector's pixels. Absorption and phase-shifting images of a dragonfly's hind wing were reconstructed simultaneously from single in-line hologram. Furthermore, we applied phase retrieval routines to eliminate twin image and enhanced the resolution of the reconstructions by hologram extrapolation beyond the detector area. The finest observed features are 35 {\\mu}m width cross veins.

  7. Quantitative, three-dimensional imaging of aluminum drop combustion in solid propellant plumes via digital in-line holography.

    PubMed

    Guildenbecher, Daniel R; Cooper, Marcia A; Gill, Walter; Stauffacher, Howard Lee; Oliver, Michael S; Grasser, Thomas W

    2014-09-01

    Burning aluminized propellants eject reacting molten aluminum drops with a broad size distribution. Prior to this work, in situ measurement of the drop size statistics and other quantitative flow properties was complicated by the narrow depth-of-focus of microscopic videography. Here, digital in-line holography (DIH) is demonstrated for quantitative volumetric imaging of the propellant plume. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, in-focus features, including burning surfaces, drop morphologies, and reaction zones, are automatically measured through a depth spanning many millimeters. By quantifying all drops within the line of sight, DIH provides an order of magnitude increase in the effective data rate compared to traditional imaging. This enables rapid quantification of the drop size distribution with limited experimental repetition. PMID:25166090

  8. Detection and correction of wavefront errors caused by slight reference tilt in two-step phase-shifting digital holography.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xianfeng; Cai, Luzhong; Gao, Fei; Jia, Yulei; Zhang, Hui

    2015-11-10

    A simple and convenient method, without the need for any additional optical devices and measurements, is suggested to improve the quality of the reconstructed object wavefront in two-step phase-shifting digital holography by decreasing the errors caused by reference beam tilt, which often occurs in practice and subsequently introduces phase distortion in the reconstructed wave. The effects of reference beam tilt in two-step generalized interferometry is analyzed theoretically, showing that this tilt incurs no error either on the extracted phase shift or on the retrieved real object wave amplitude on the recording plane, but causes great deformation of the recovered object wavefront. A corresponding error detection and correction approach is proposed, and the formulas to calculate the tilt angle and correct the wavefront are deduced. A series of computer simulations to find and remove the wavefront errors caused by reference beam tilt demonstrate the effectiveness of this method. PMID:26560791

  9. Extended ABCD matrix formalism for the description of femtosecond diffraction patterns; application to femtosecond digital in-line holography with anamorphic optical systems.

    PubMed

    Brunel, Marc; Shen, Huanhuan; Coetmellec, Sebastien; Lebrun, Denis

    2012-03-10

    We present a new model to predict diffraction patterns of femtosecond pulses through complex optical systems. The model is based on the extension of an ABCD matrix formalism combined with generalized Huygens-Fresnel transforms (already used in the CW regime) to the femtosecond regime. The model is tested to describe femtosecond digital in-line holography experiments realized in situ through a cylindrical Plexiglas pipe. The model allows us to establish analytical relations that link the holographic reconstruction process to the experimental parameters of the pipe and of the incident beam itself. Simulations and experimental results are in good concordance. Femtosecond digital in-line holography is shown to allow significant coherent noise reduction, and this model will be particularly efficient to describe a wide range of optical geometries. More generally, the model developed can be easily used in any experiment where the knowledge of the precise evolution of femtosecond transverse patterns is required. PMID:22410994

  10. Wavefront holoscopy: application of digital in-line holography for the inspection of engraved marks in progressive addition lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perucho, Beatriz; Micó, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Progressive addition lenses (PALs) are engraved with permanent marks at standardized locations in order to guarantee correct centering and alignment throughout the manufacturing and mounting processes. Out of the production line, engraved marks provide useful information about the PAL as well as act as locator marks to re-ink again the removable marks. Even though those marks should be visible by simple visual inspection with the naked eye, engraving marks are often faint and weak, obscured by scratches, and partially occluded and difficult to recognize on tinted or antireflection-coated lenses. Here, we present an extremely simple optical device (named as wavefront holoscope) for visualization and characterization of permanent marks in PAL based on digital in-line holography. Essentially, a point source of coherent light illuminates the engraved mark placed just before a CCD camera that records a classical Gabor in-line hologram. The recorded hologram is then digitally processed to provide a set of high-contrast images of the engraved marks. Experimental results are presented showing the applicability of the proposed method as a new ophthalmic instrument for visualization and characterization of engraved marks in PALs.

  11. Vibration of low amplitude imaged in amplitude and phase by sideband versus carrier correlation digital holography.

    PubMed

    Verrier, N; Alloul, L; Gross, M

    2015-02-01

    Sideband holography can be used to get field images (E0 and E1) of a vibrating object for both the carrier (E0) and the sideband (E1) frequency with respect to vibration. Here we propose to record E0 and E1 sequentially and to image the product E1E0* or the correlation 〈E1E0*〉. We show that these quantities are insensitive to the phase related to the object roughness and directly reflect the phase of the mechanical motion. The signal to noise can be improved by averaging E1E0* over a neighbor pixel, yielding 〈E1E0*〉. Experimental validation is made with a vibrating cube of wood and a clarinet reed. At 2 kHz, vibrations of amplitude down to 0.01 nm are detected. PMID:25680060

  12. Real and virtual image separation in digital in-line holography microscopy by recording two parallel holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Hangjian; Katz, Joseph

    2013-11-01

    Maintaining high magnification and micron resolution in applications of digital in-line holography microscopy for 3D velocity measurements requires a hologram plane located very close or even within the sample volume. Separation between overlapping real and virtual images becomes a challenge in such cases. Here, we introduced a simple method based on recording two holograms through the same microscope objective that are separated by a short distance from each other. When the same particle fields are reconstructed from the two holograms, the real images overlap, whereas virtual images are separated by twice the distance between hologram planes. Thus, real and virtual images can be easily distinguished. Due to the elongation of the reconstructed particle in the axial direction, the distance between hologram planes is selected to exceed the elongated traces. This technique has been applied to record 3D traces of thousands of 2 um particles in a 0 . 5 × 0 . 5 × 0 . 5 mm sample volume using hologram planes separated by 27 um. Experimental setup, alignment and data analysis procedures, including reconstruction, calibration, particles segmentation and precision particles positioning will be discussed. Sponsored by ONR.

  13. Study of transparent particles in the volume of optical medium using digital holography and singular-optics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaeva, Tatiana Y.; Petrov, Nikolay V.

    2015-05-01

    The study of particles that are transparent to the probing radiation but introduce a phase delay appears to be relevant especially in the fields of biology and medicine. In this paper, we propose an approach to the study of the distribution of transparent particles suspended in a volume of optical medium, which combines the method of digital holography and the concept of singular optics. For the numerical study of the particles, we use a method, based on the obtainment and analysis of zerograms that correspond to the spatial distributions of amplitude zeros of the complex amplitude of the field. We explore the features of the application of analysis of the amplitude zero distributions in solving the problem of studying transparent particles suspended in a volume of the optical medium. We investigate the effect of various particle parameters on the recorded hologram and the structure and distribution of the amplitude zeros of the electromagnetic field. We demonstrate the use of histograms of distributions of local densities of amplitude zeros for the characterization of a higher number of transparent particles in volume. Numerical experiments on the use of analysis of the amplitude zeros of the field have shown that there are a number of particular qualities in the distribution of the zeros of amplitude, which can be subsequently used to develop more accurate and efficient method of characterization of transparent particles.

  14. Digital in-line holography: 4-D imaging and tracking of micro-structures and organisms in microfluidics and biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Sucerquia, J.; Xu, W.; Jericho, S. K.; Jericho, M. H.; Tamblyn, I.; Kreuzer, H. J.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, in-line holography as originally proposed by Gabor, supplemented with numerical reconstruction, has been perfected to the point at which wavelength resolution both laterally and in depth is routinely achieved with light by using digital in-line holographic microscopy (DIHM). The advantages of DIHM are: (1) simplicity of the hardware (laser- pinhole-CCD camera), (2) magnification is obtained in the numerical reconstruction, (3) maximum information of the 3-D structure with a depth of field of millimeters, (4) changes in the specimen and the simultaneous motion of many species, can be followed in 4-D at the camera frame rate. We present results obtained with DIHM in biological and microfluidic applications. By taking advantage of the large depth of field and the plane-to-plane reconstruction capability of DIHM, we can produce 3D representations of the paths followed by micron-sized objects such as suspensions of microspheres and biological samples (cells, algae, protozoa, bacteria). Examples from biology include a study of the motion of bacteria in a diatom and the track of algae and paramecium. In microfluidic applications we observe micro-channel flow, motion of bubbles in water and evolution in electrolysis. The paper finishes with new results from an underwater version of DIHM.

  15. Phase correction method for least-squares wavefront calculation in statistical generalized phase-shifting digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Nobukazu; Kajihara, Kazuki

    2015-09-01

    When phase-shifting digital holography with a continuous fringe-scanning scheme is implemented using a PC-based measurement system without any synchronous circuit, nonuniform phase-shifted interference fringes are captured because of the fluctuation in the image-capturing interval. To cope with the nonuniform phase shifts, a statistical generalized phase-shifting approach is employed. Because the algorithm is designed to use an arbitrary phase shift, the nonuniform phase shifts do not obstruct object-wave retrieval. Moreover, multiple interference fringes can be obtained in a short time owing to the continuous fringe-scanning scheme. However, the wavefront calculation method is not designed for sequentially recorded interference fringes. To use multiple interference fringes appropriately, we develop a least-squares wavefront calculation method combined with corrections for the initial phase and the direction of phase rotation. We verify the proposed method by numerical simulations and optical experiments. The results show that the object wave with the same initial phase can be correctly reconstructed by using both phase correction methods simultaneously.

  16. Spatially-resolved, three-dimensional spray characterization of impinging jets by digital in-line holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jian; Rodrigues, Neil; Sojka, Paul; Chen, Jun

    2014-11-01

    The impinging jet injector is a preferred method for the atomization of liquid rocket propellants. The majority of experimental studies in literature are not spatially-resolved due to the limitations of widely available point-wise and two-dimensional (2D) diagnostic techniques such as phase Doppler anemometry (PDA), which requires significant experimental repetitions to give spatially-resolved measurements. In the present study, digital in-line holography (DIH) is used to provide spatially-resolved, three-dimensional (3D) characteristics of impinging jet sprays. A double-exposure DIH setup is configured to measure droplet 3D, three-component velocity as well as the size distribution. The particle information is extracted by the hybrid method, which is recently proposed as a particle detection method. To enlarge the detection volume, two parallel, collimated laser beams are used to simultaneously probe the spray at two locations, and two identical cameras are used to record the corresponding holograms. Such a setup has a detection volume of approximately 20 cm by 3.6 cm by 4.8 cm. Sprays of both Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids corresponding to regimes at relatively lower jet Reynolds and Weber numbers are investigated. Measurements from DIH are further verified by comparison with experimental data obtained from shadowgraph and PDA. It is revealed that DIH is particularly suitable to provide spatially-resolved, 3D measurements of impinging jet sprays that are not particularly dense.

  17. Dual-wavelength digital holography: single-shot shape evaluation using speckle displacements and regularization.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Per; Khodadad, Davood; Hällstig, Emil; Sjödahl, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the possibility of evaluating the shape of a free-form object in comparison with its shape prescribed by a CAD model. Measurements are made based on a single-shot recording using dual-wavelength holography with a synthetic wavelength of 1.4 mm. Each hologram is numerically propagated to different focus planes and correlated. The result is a vector field of speckle displacements that is linearly dependent on the local distance between the measured surface and the focus plane. From these speckle displacements, a gradient field of the measured surface is extracted through a proportional relationship. The gradient field obtained from the measurement is then aligned to the shape of the CAD model using the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm and regularization. Deviations between the measured shape and the CAD model are found from the phase difference field, giving a high precision shape evaluation. The phase differences and the CAD model are also used to find a representation of the measured shape. The standard deviation of the measured shape relative the CAD model varies between 7 and 19 μm, depending on the slope. PMID:24513998

  18. Visualized measurement of the acoustic levitation field based on digital holography with phase multiplication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Puchao; Li, Enpu; Zhao, Jianlin; Di, Jianglei; Zhou, Wangmin; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Ruifeng

    2009-11-01

    By using digital holographic interferometory with phase multiplication, the visualized measurement of the acoustic levitation field (ALF) with single axis is carried out. The digital holograms of the ALF under different conditions are recorded by use of CCD. The corresponding digital holographic interferograms reflecting the sound pressure distribution and the interference phase distribution are obtained by numerical reconstruction and phase subtraction, which are consistent with the theoretical results. It indicates that the proposed digital holographic interferometory with phase multiplication can successfully double the fringe number of the interference phase patterns of the ALF and improve the measurement precision. Compared with the conventional optical holographic interferometory, digital holographic interferometory has the merits of quasi real-time, more exactitude and convenient operation, and it provides an effective way for studying the sound pressure distribution of the ALF.

  19. Holography reinvented

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benton, Stephen A.

    2002-07-01

    This paper is entitled Holography Reinvented, because its theme is simply that each of the three best-known names in holography made their discoveries and inventions without knowing about the work of any the others; that is, each of them invented or reinvented holography, as it were. This is largely a presentation of anecdotal remarks drawn from conversations, observations drawn from historical documents, including some from the Museum of Holography files now at the MIT Museum, and observations drawn from the author's own experiences as holography has evolved. As such, any errors of fact or interpretation are entirely the author's own, as is the slant toward imaging or display holography that will be conspicuous. The three main players are Professors Denis Gabor, Emmett Leith, and Juri Denisyuk. A few other names will come into the story as well, notably: Pieter van Heerden (my former colleague at the Polaroid Research Labs) and Hussein M.A. El-Sum, among others.

  20. Ultra-fast digital holography of the femto-second order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Hongchen; Wang, Xiaolei; Mu, Guoguang

    2007-01-01

    We report on pulsed digital micro holographic systems recording ultra-fast process of the femto-second order, by spatially angular division multiplexing (SADM) and wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), respectively. Both intensity and phase images of the digitally reconstructed images are obtained through Fourier transformation and digital filtering, which show clearly the plasma forming and propagating dynamic process of laser induced ionization of ambient air at the wavelength of 800 nm, with a time resolution of 50 fs and frame intervals of 300 to 550 fs.

  1. Lens-less surface second harmonic imaging.

    PubMed

    Sly, Krystal L; Nguyen, Trang T; Conboy, John C

    2012-09-24

    Lens-less surface second harmonic generation imaging (SSHGI) is used to image an SHG active molecule, (S)-(+)-1,1'-bi-2-naphthol (SBN), incorporated into a lipid bilayer patterned with the 1951 United States Air Force resolution test target. Data show the coherent plane-wave nature of SHG allows direct imaging without the aid of a lens system. Lens-less SSHGI readily resolves line-widths as small as 223 μm at an object-image distance of 7.6 cm and line-widths of 397 μm at distances as far as 30 cm. Lens-less SSHGI simplifies the detection method, raises photon collection efficiency, and expands the field-of-view. These advantages allow greater throughput and make lens-less SSHGI a potentially valuable detection method for biosensors and medical diagnostics. PMID:23037346

  2. Parameter estimation of single cloud particle based on in-line digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Baosheng; Ma, Fei; Huang, Meng

    2015-11-01

    In terms of weather modification, detection of cloud droplet particles, which is one of the important measurements, will provides an important reference for artificial weather modification. Digital holographic technology, for that it can realize the three-dimensional particle field measurement and get detail parameters of particle, is widely used in particle measurement along with the high development of modern high resolution CCD and computer technology. In this text , particle of cloud droplet simulated in the laboratory were recorded. By using the in-line digital holographic to obtain the digital holographic image of cloud droplets particles, and single feature parameters (including the shape, size, ovality) of the cloud droplets particles by calculating . It laid a foundation for the future research of cloud group particle characteristics of particle field.

  3. Pulsed digital holography system recording ultrafast process of the femtosecond order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaolei; Zhai, Hongchen; Mu, Guoguang

    2006-06-01

    We report, for the first time to our knowledge, a pulsed digital microholographic system with spatial angular multiplexing for recording the ultrafast process of the femtosecond order. The optimized design of the two sets of subpulse-train generators in this system makes it possible to implement a digital holographic recording with spatial angular multiplexing of a frame interval of the femtosecond order, while keeping the incident angle of the object beams unchanged. Three pairs of amplitude and phase images from the same view angle digitally reconstructed by the system demonstrated the ultrafast dynamic process of laser-induced ionization of ambient air at a wavelength of 800 nm, with a time resolution of 50 fs and a frame interval of 300 fs.

  4. Self-imaging phase mask used in digital holography with phase-shifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajst, Agnieszka; Sypek, Maciej; Makowski, Michal; Suszek, Jaroslaw; Kolodziejczyk, Andrzej

    2008-12-01

    The digital reconstruction of an optically recorded hologram has become a fast developing method and has found a vast practical application in many branches of science and industry. An especially invented diffractive optical element with self imaging properties is placed in the reference beam. In the recording process this element forms its self-image in the hologram plane. Self-imaging properties of the diffractive optical element provide the possibility of recording a digital hologram by means of the phase-shifting without any additional imaging components. The innovation of the proposed method lies in using a self-imaging diffractive optical element which enables a significant simplification of a spatial phase shifting optical setup used to record the digital hologram with only a small decrease of the quality of the reconstructed image.

  5. Two-stage method to suppress speckle noise in digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Junmin; Zhou, Jinhe; Lang, Xiaoping; Li, Xiaoying

    2015-10-01

    The two-stage method is proposed to suppress speckle noise in the digital hologram. Three kinds of optical denoising ways are analyzed and compared at first. The optimal one is used to reduce speckle preliminarily. At the same time, the statistical property of the speckle is changed by the optical way. Then the optimized NLM algorithm is adopted to further suppress speckle noise. The experimental system is set up, and the performance indices are calculated. The results are compared with other algorithms. It is demonstrated that the presented method can effectively suppress speckle noise in the digital hologram and the processed image is very vivid.

  6. Dual-wavelength digital holography for 3D particle image velocimetry: experimental validation.

    PubMed

    Grare, S; Allano, D; Coëtmellec, S; Perret, G; Corbin, F; Brunel, M; Gréhan, G; Lebrun, D

    2016-01-20

    A multi-exposure digital in-line hologram of a particle field is recorded by two successive pulses of different wavelengths. During the reconstruction step, each recording can be independently analyzed by selecting a given wavelength. This procedure enables avoiding the superimposition of particle images that may be close to each other. PMID:26835957

  7. Real-time quantitative phase reconstruction in off-axis digital holography using multiplexing.

    PubMed

    Girshovitz, Pinhas; Shaked, Natan T

    2014-04-15

    We present a new approach for obtaining significant speedup in the digital processing of extracting unwrapped phase profiles from off-axis digital holograms. The new technique digitally multiplexes two orthogonal off-axis holograms, where the digital reconstruction, including spatial filtering and two-dimensional phase unwrapping on a decreased number of pixels, can be performed on both holograms together, without redundant operations. Using this technique, we were able to reconstruct, for the first time to our knowledge, unwrapped phase profiles from off-axis holograms with 1 megapixel in more than 30 frames per second using a standard single-core personal computer on a MATLAB platform, without using graphic-processing-unit programming or parallel computing. This new technique is important for real-time quantitative visualization and measurements of highly dynamic samples and is applicable for a wide range of applications, including rapid biological cell imaging and real-time nondestructive testing. After comparing the speedups obtained by the new technique for holograms of various sizes, we present experimental results of real-time quantitative phase visualization of cells flowing rapidly through a microchannel. PMID:24978968

  8. Polarization analysis by off-axis digital holography with an improved optical system and an evaluation of its performance by simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Yokota, Masayuki

    2008-12-01

    An optical system of off-axis digital holography for imaging the Jones vector of an object wave is improved, and a Faraday rotator for the reference wave is also newly constructed. To evaluate the accuracy of the polarization analysis, quarter- and half-wave plates are used as the object, and the distribution of the polarization state of the transmitted light is analyzed for various orientations of the wave plates. The polarization analysis is also simulated, and the effect of a finite value of the extinction ratio and the modulation error for the reference wave is investigated numerically.

  9. A new 3D tracking method for cell mechanics investigation exploiting the capabilities of digital holography in microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miccio, L.; Memmolo, P.; Merola, F.; Fusco, S.; Netti, P. A.; Ferraro, P.

    2014-03-01

    A method for 3D tracking has been developed exploiting Digital Holography features in Microscopy (DHM). In the framework of self-consistent platform for manipulation and measurement of biological specimen we use DHM for quantitative and completely label free analysis of samples with low amplitude contrast. Tracking capability extend the potentiality of DHM allowing to monitor the motion of appropriate probes and correlate it with sample properties. Complete 3D tracking has been obtained for the probes avoiding the amplitude refocusing in traditional tracking processes. Moreover, in biology and biomedical research fields one of the main topic is the understanding of morphology and mechanics of cells and microorganisms. Biological samples present low amplitude contrast that limits the information that can be retrieved through optical bright-field microscope measurements. The main effect on light propagating in such objects is in phase. This is known as phase-retardation or phase-shift. DHM is an innovative and alternative approach in microscopy, it's a good candidate for no-invasive and complete specimen analysis because its main characteristic is the possibility to discern between intensity and phase information performing quantitative mapping of the Optical Path Length. In this paper, the flexibility of DH is employed to analyze cell mechanics of unstained cells subjected to appropriate stimuli. DHM is used to measure all the parameters useful to understand the deformations induced by external and controlled stresses on in-vitro cells. Our configuration allows 3D tracking of micro-particles and, simultaneously, furnish quantitative phase-contrast maps. Experimental results are presented and discussed for in vitro cells.

  10. Lensless single-exposure super-resolved interferometric microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granero, Luis; Ferreira, Carlos; García, Javier; Micó, Vicente

    2013-04-01

    Single Exposure Super Resolved Interferometric Microscopy (SESRIM) has been recently proposed as a way to achieve one dimensional super resolved imaging in digital holographic microscopy. SESRIM uses Red-Green-Blue (RGB) multiplexing for illuminating the sample having different propagation angles for each one of the three illumination wavelengths and it has been experimentally validated considering color (A. Calabuig, V. Mico, J. Garcia, Z. Zalevsky, and C. Ferreira, "Single-exposure super-resolved interferometric microscopy by red-green-blue multiplexing," Opt. Lett. 36, 885-887, 2011) and monochrome (A. Calabuig, J. Garcia, C. Ferreira, Z. Zalevsky, and V. Mico, "Resolution improvement by single-exposure superresolved interferometric microscopy with a monochrome sensor," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 2346-2358, 2011) digital sensors for holographic recording. In this contribution, we will first review some of the characteristics of the previously reported SESRIM approaches and second, we will present preliminary results for the extension of SESRIM to the field of lensless holographic microscopy. Experimental results are reported validating this new kind of superresolution imaging method named as lensless SESRIM (L-SESRIM).

  11. Single-shot digital holography for fast measuring optical properties of fibers.

    PubMed

    Agour, Mostafa; El-Farahaty, Keremal; Seisa, Eman; Omar, Emam; Sokkar, Taha

    2015-10-01

    We propose a fast method for measuring optical properties, e.g., the refractive index profile and birefringence, of fibers. It is based on recovering the phase distribution of light refracted by a fiber sample at the recording plane from a single-shot digital hologram. During the recovering process, an optimized approach based on the spatial carrier frequency method was utilized. The proposed approach enhances affects that arise from the limited spatial extent of the bandpass filter associated with the implementation of the spatial carrier frequency method. In contrast to the low spatial resolution of off-axis digital holograms, the method ensures the best utilization of the camera support. From the recovered phase information, the optical path difference is measured; thus, the refractive index profile, the mean refractive index, and the birefringence of isotactic polypropylene (IPP) are determined. Experimental results are given for illustration. PMID:26479652

  12. Experimental verification of phase retrieval of microbeads in high-speed phase imaging using digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matoba, Osamu; Xia, Peng; Quan, Xiangyu; Nagahama, Naoya; Tanimoto, Shunsuke; Nitta, Kouichi; Awatsuji, Yasuhiro

    2016-06-01

    One of fast measurement systems of μm-size phase objects based on digital holographic microscope with transmission geometry is presented. For building a 3D inspection system of the phase objects, the improvement of recovered phase image is discussed. Under the CW laser illumination, the movement afterimage of phase object was observed. The phase object is recovered by deconvolution filter. Experimental and numerical evaluation are presented.

  13. An encryption scheme based on phase-shifting digital holography and amplitude-phase disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Li-Li; Xu, Ning; Yang, Geng

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we propose an encryption scheme based on phase-shifting digital interferometry. According to the original system framework, we add a random amplitude mask and replace the Fourier transform by the Fresnel transform. We develop a mathematical model and give a discrete formula based on the scheme, which makes it easy to implement the scheme in computer programming. The experimental results show that the improved system has a better performance in security than the original encryption method. Moreover, it demonstrates a good capability of anti-noise and anti-shear robustness.

  14. Direct to Digital Holography for Semiconductor Wafer Defect Detection and Review

    SciTech Connect

    ThomasJr., C. E.; Bahm, Tracy M.; Baylor, Larry R; Bingham, Philip R.; Burns, Steven W.; Chidley, Matthew D; Dai, Xiaolong; Delahanty, Robert J.; Doti, Christopher J.; El-Khashab, Ayman; Fisher, Robert L.; Gilbert, Judd M.; Cui, Hongtao; Goddard Jr, James Samuel; Hanson, Gregory R; Hickson, Joel D.; Hunt, Martin A.; Hylton, Kathy W; John, George C.; Jones, Michael L.; McDonald, Kenneth R.; Mayo, Michael W.; McMackin, Ian; Patek, David; Price, John H.; Rasmussen, David A; Schaefer, Louis J.; Scheidt, Thomas R.; Schulze, Mark A.; Schumaker, Philip D.; Shen, Bichuan; Smith, Randall G.; Su, Allen N.; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William; Usry, William R.; Voelkl, Edgar; Weber, Karsten S.; Jones, Paul G.; Owen, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    A method for recording true holograms (not holographic interferometry) directly to a digital video medium in a single image has been invented. This technology makes the amplitude and phase for every pixel of the target object wave available. Since phase is proportional to wavelength, this makes high-resolution metrology an implicit part of the holographic recording. Measurements of phase can be made to one hundredth or even one thousandth of a wavelength, so the technology is attractive for finding defects on semiconductor wafers, where feature sizes are now smaller than the wavelength of even deep ultra-violet light.

  15. Common-path depth-filtered digital holography for high resolution imaging of buried semiconductor structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkeldey, Markus; Schellenberg, Falk; Gerhardt, Nils C.; Paar, Christof; Hofmann, Martin R.

    2016-03-01

    We investigate digital holographic microscopy (DHM) in reflection geometry for non-destructive 3D imaging of semiconductor devices. This technique provides high resolution information of the inner structure of a sample while maintaining its integrity. To illustrate the performance of the DHM, we use our setup to localize the precise spots for laser fault injection, in the security related field of side-channel attacks. While digital holographic microscopy techniques easily offer high resolution phase images of surface structures in reflection geometry, they are typically incapable to provide high quality phase images of buried structures due to the interference of reflected waves from different interfaces inside the structure. Our setup includes a sCMOS camera for image capture, arranged in a common-path interferometer to provide very high phase stability. As a proof of principle, we show sample images of the inner structure of a modern microcontroller. Finally, we compare our holographic method to classic optical beam induced current (OBIC) imaging to demonstrate its benefits.

  16. Optimal principal component analysis-based numerical phase aberration compensation method for digital holography.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiasong; Chen, Qian; Zhang, Yuzhen; Zuo, Chao

    2016-03-15

    In this Letter, an accurate and highly efficient numerical phase aberration compensation method is proposed for digital holographic microscopy. Considering that most parts of the phase aberration resides in the low spatial frequency domain, a Fourier-domain mask is introduced to extract the aberrated frequency components, while rejecting components that are unrelated to the phase aberration estimation. Principal component analysis (PCA) is then performed only on the reduced-sized spectrum, and the aberration terms can be extracted from the first principal component obtained. Finally, by oversampling the reduced-sized aberration terms, the precise phase aberration map is obtained and thus can be compensated by multiplying with its conjugation. Because the phase aberration is estimated from the limited but more relevant raw data, the compensation precision is improved and meanwhile the computation time can be significantly reduced. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed technique could achieve both high compensating accuracy and robustness compared with other developed compensation methods. PMID:26977692

  17. Simultaneous dual-wavelength reflection digital holography applied to the study of the porous coal samples

    SciTech Connect

    Khmaladze, A.; Restrepo-Martinez, A.; Kim, M.; Castaneda, R.; Blandon, A.

    2008-06-15

    We present a simultaneous dual-wavelength phase-imaging digital holographic technique demonstrated on porous coal samples. The use of two wavelengths enables us to increase the axial range at which the unambiguous phase imaging can be performed, but also increases the noise. We employ a noise reduction 'fine map' algorithm, which uses the two-wavelength phase map as a guide to correct a single-wavelength phase image. Then, the resulting noise of a fine map is reduced to the level of single-wavelength noise. A comparison to software unwrapping is also presented. A simple way of correcting a curvature mismatch between the reference and the object beams is offered.

  18. Parallel Monitoring of Living Cell Cultures by Means of Digital-Holography and Fluorescent Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murav'eva, M. S.; Dudenkova, V. V.; Rybnikov, A. I.; Zakharov, Yu. N.

    2015-01-01

    We propose using the method of holographic microscopy to detect fine morphologic changes in living cells. An "LSM 510" laser confocal scanning microscope is modified to allow recording digital microholograms which can be used to reconstruct the amplitude and phase of the radiation transmitting through the sample. Measuring the phase increment of the object beam in cells and the intercellular space yields information on the optical length of the ray path in the cells (spatial dimensions and the refractive index), which in turn contains information on changes in the morphology and intracellular contents. Calcium activity is studied by means of fluorescent microscopy which makes it possible to detect minor variations in the intracellular concentration of calcium ions. By studying the dynamics of calcium oscillations and variations in the optical thickness, conclusions are made about the interrelation of functional and morphological variations, and comparative analysis of these variations is performed.

  19. Pulsed digital holography for high-speed contouring that uses a two-wavelength method.

    PubMed

    Pedrini, G; Fröning, P; Tiziani, H J; Gusev, M E

    1999-06-01

    A two-wavelength method for a fast shape measurement by use of a pulsed ruby laser is presented. The wavelength change is produced by alteration of the distance between the plates of the laser's output etalon. One plate of the etalon is mounted on a vibrating piezoelectric element; this allows a fast wavelength change. Two holograms at different wavelengths are recorded in a few microseconds by use of a CCD. The holograms are reconstructed digitally, and the wave-front phase is calculated. The shape is obtained by subtraction of the phases of the wave fronts recorded at different wavelengths. Environmental disturbances at low frequencies, such as air turbulence, vibrations, and object drift, have no influence on the measurement. Experimental results are presented. PMID:18319945

  20. Common path in-line holography using enhanced joint object reference digital interferometers

    PubMed Central

    Kelner, Roy; Katz, Barak; Rosen, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Joint object reference digital interferometer (JORDI) is a recently developed system capable of recording holograms of various types [Opt. Lett. 22(5), 4719 (2013)]. Presented here is a new enhanced system design that is based on the previous JORDI. While the previous JORDI has been based purely on diffractive optical elements, displayed on spatial light modulators, the present design incorporates an additional refractive objective lens, thus enabling hologram recording with improved resolution and increased system applicability. Experimental results demonstrate successful hologram recording for various types of objects, including transmissive, reflective, three-dimensional, phase and highly scattering objects. The resolution limit of the system is analyzed and experimentally validated. Finally, the suitability of JORDI for microscopic applications is verified as a microscope objective based configuration of the system is demonstrated. PMID:24663838

  1. Lensless in-line holographic microscope with Talbot grating illumination.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shaodong; Wang, Mingjun; Wu, Jigang

    2016-07-15

    We have developed a wide field-of-view lensless in-line holographic microscope (LIHM) capable of acquiring microscopic images with a compact design. In our imaging system, a Ronchi grating was illuminated by a collimated laser beam to generate a Talbot self-imaging grating illumination on the sample, and the in-line holograms were recorded by a CMOS imaging sensor behind the sample. An iterative reconstruction algorithm was then applied to reconstruct the sample image while eliminating the twin-image background that appears in traditional in-line holography. In the algorithm, the dark areas of the illumination grating were used as a known constraint to define the sample support that led to convergence of the iteration. The whole-sample image can be acquired by laterally shifting the grating. We demonstrated the performance of our iteration algorithm and imaging system by successfully acquiring images of polystyrene microspheres with 5 μm diameter and the wing of a green lacewing. PMID:27420484

  2. Custom field-of-view optofluidic imaging by synthetic digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, V.; Paturzo, M.; Marchesano, V.; Ferraro, P.

    2016-03-01

    A recently proposed imaging modality, named Space-Time Scanning Interferometry (STSI), exploits object scanning to synthesize interferograms mapped in a hybrid space-time domain. A single linear sensor array is sufficient to create such interferograms with unlimited Field of View (FoV) along the scanning direction. If properly selected, three detector lines allows to recovery the phase information by Phase Shifting (PS) interferometry algorithms. Here we show the application of the STSI method to microfluidic imaging of biological samples, where the required phase shift between interferograms is intrinsically offered due to the sample movement, i.e. scanning does not need to be provided. Besides, out-of-focus recordings are performed using a single line detector, in order to synthesize an unlimited FoV Space-Time Digital Hologram (STDH). As conventional DH, a STDH yields full-field, quantitative, flexible focusing imaging. In addition, in a STDH the FoV is customizable in one direction, so that the desired magnification of a large size sample can be set, still being able to image this entirely. Besides, STDH allows to capture data from a multitude of flowing samples and to process the corresponding information in a single operation, thus avoiding hologram stitching. Experiments have been carried out to demonstrate the capability of STDH provide very high-throughput imaging of objects flowing in a liquid volume using a linear sensor array easily embeddable onboard LoC platforms.

  3. Tomography using multiple wavelengths in digital holography: method, simulations, and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montfort, Frédéric; Charrière, Florian; Colomb, Tristan; Kuehn, Jonas; Cuche, Etienne; Depeursinge, Christian

    2006-04-01

    In this paper we present a method for tomographic imaging using multiple wavelengths in digital holographic microscopy. This method is based on the recording at different wavelengths equally separated in the k-domain, in off-axis geometry, of the interference between a reference wave and an object wave reflected by a microscopic sample and magnified by a microscope objective. A couple charged device (CCD) camera records consecutively the resulting holograms, which are then numerically reconstructed to obtain their resulting wavefront. Those wavefronts are then summed. The result of this operation is a constructive addition of complex waves in the selected plane and destructive addition in the others. Varying the plane of interest enables the scan the object in depth. For the presented simulations and experiments, twenty wavelengths are used in the 480-700 nm range. An object consisting of irregularly stairs with heights of 375, 525, 975, 1200 and 1275 nm is reconstructed. Its lateral dimensions are 250 × 250 microns. The results show clearly a 3D imaging technique with axial resolution under the micron.

  4. 3D visualization and biovolume estimation of motile cells by digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merola, F.; Miccio, L.; Memmolo, P.; Di Caprio, G.; Coppola, G.; Netti, P.

    2014-05-01

    For the monitoring of biological samples, physical parameters such as size, shape and refractive index are of crucial importance. However, up to now the morphological in-vitro analysis of in-vitro cells has been limited to 2D analysis by classical optical microscopy such as phase-contrast or DIC. Here we show an approach that exploits the capability of optical tweezers to trap and put in self-rotation bovine spermatozoa flowing into a microfluidic channel. At same time, digital holographic microscopy allows to image the cell in phase-contrast modality for each different angular position, during the rotation. From the collected information about the cell's phase-contrast signature, we demonstrate that it is possible to reconstruct the 3D shape of the cell and estimate its volume. The method can open new pathways for rapid measurement of in-vitro cells volume in microfluidic lab-on-a-chip platform, thus having access to 3D shape of the object avoiding tomography microscopy, that is an overwhelmed and very complex approach for measuring 3D shape and biovolume estimation.

  5. Focal length calibration of an electrically tunable lens by digital holography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaomin; Qu, Weijuan; Yang, Fang; Asundi, Anand Krishna

    2016-02-01

    The electrically tunable lens (ETL) is a novel current-controlled adaptive optical component which can continuously tune its focus in a specific range via changing its surface curvature. To quantitatively characterize its tuning power, here we assume the ETL to be a pure phase object and present a novel calibration method to dynamically measure its wavefront by use of digital holographic microscopy (DHM). The least squares method is then used to fit the radius of curvature of the wavefront. The focal length is obtained by substituting the radius into the Zemax model of the ETL. The behavior curve between the focal length of the ETL and its driven current is drawn, and a quadratic mathematic model is set up to characterize it. To verify our model, an ETL and offset lens combination is proposed and applied to ETL-based transport of intensity equation (TIE) phase retrieval microscopy. The experimental result demonstrates the calibration works well in TIE phase retrieval in comparison with the phase measured by DHM. PMID:26836076

  6. High-speed digital holography for neutral gas and electron density imaging.

    PubMed

    Granstedt, E M; Thomas, C E; Kaita, R; Majeski, R; Baylor, L R; Meitner, S J; Combs, S K

    2016-05-01

    An instrument was developed using digital holographic reconstruction of the wavefront from a CO2 laser imaged on a high-speed commercial IR camera. An acousto-optic modulator is used to generate 1-25 μs pulses from a continuous-wave CO2 laser, both to limit the average power at the detector and also to freeze motion from sub-interframe time scales. Extensive effort was made to characterize and eliminate noise from vibrations and second-surface reflections. Mismatch of the reference and object beam curvature initially contributed substantially to vibrational noise, but was mitigated through careful positioning of identical imaging lenses. Vibrational mode amplitudes were successfully reduced to ≲1 nm for frequencies ≳50 Hz, and the inter-frame noise across the 128 × 128 pixel window which is typically used is ≲2.5 nm. To demonstrate the capabilities of the system, a piezo-electric valve and a reducing-expanding nozzle were used to generate a super-sonic gas jet which was imaged with high spatial resolution (better than 0.8 lp/mm) at high speed. Abel inversions were performed on the phase images to produce 2-D images of localized gas density. This system could also be used for high spatial and temporal resolution measurements of plasma electron density or surface deformations. PMID:27250423

  7. Dual-Utility of Digital Holography & Epi-Fluorescence to Localize Cellular Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheldrake, Eric

    Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM) and Epi-Fluorescence have been combined for biological imaging. DHM is a non-invasive phase contrast microscopy technique that provides quantitative information such as the variations in refractive index and physical height. 3D physical height and refractive index profiles are imaged for HEK293 and CHO cells. These values and profiles are compared with known values for the sample gathered from literature and other microscopy techniques, including Scanning Electron Microscopy. The measured CHO cellular length is (15.31 +/- 2.60) microm. Localization of cellular nuclei is performed using the Epi-Fluorescence setup and the DNA specific fluorophore DAPI. The fluorescence intensity profile was imaged, where nuclei shape, size, and localization are compared using an A.1 Zeiss Fluorescence Microscope. The CHO cells are comparable with apoptotic cells, where the measured nucleus length is (10.91 +/- 2.27) microm. DHM and Epi-Fluorescence are combined to analyze the physical heights of the cell as well as localize its nucleus. The combination of these techniques are greatly advantageous to understand cellular functions and variability.

  8. Real-time phase-contrast analysis of domain switching in lithium niobate by digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grilli, Simonetta; Ferraro, Pietro; de Angelis, Marella; De Nicola, Sergio; Alfieri, Domenico; Paturzo, Melania; De Natale, Paolo; Sansone, Lucia; Pierattini, Giovanni

    2004-08-01

    We present a method for in-situ visualization of electric field domain reversal in congruent lithium niobate (LN) through an electro-optic interferometric technique. The crystal refractive index n changes by the linear electro-optic and piezoelectric effects along the z crystal axis, due to the external electric field. This variation depends on the domain orientation so that two adjacent antiparallel domains present a refractive index difference equal to 2Dn which is used for in-situ visualization of the reversed domain pattern during formation. A digital holographic (DH) technique is employed for a two-dimensional (2D) reconstruction of the wavefield transmitted by the sample in amplitude and phase during the process. The corresponding amplitude-map and phase-map movies are presented. The amplitude-map gives qualitative information about the spatial evolution of the domain boundaries while the phase-map provides measurement of the 2D distribution of the phase shift induced along the z axis. The phase-map movies provide unequivocal information about the spatial distribution of the reversed domain regions. This technique can be used as in-situ monitoring method alternative to the measurement of the poling current which provides information only about the amount of charge delivered to the sample, ignoring the spatial distribution of the domain boundaries.

  9. Dual-wavelength Digital Holography for quantification of cell volume and integral refractive index (RI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boss, Daniel; Kuehn, Jonas; Depeursinge, Christian; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Marquet, Pierre

    2011-07-01

    Quantitative Phase Imaging techniques such as DHM have emerged recently in life sciences and can be aimed at monitoring and quantifying non-invasively dynamic cellular processes modifying cell morphology and/or content. Concretely, the DHM phase signal depends on two cell parameters: cell thickness and integral refractive index. Consequently, due to its dual origin, the interpretation of the phase signal variations remain difficult. Since a net water flux across the cell membrane causes a variation of both parameters, the phase signal cannot be related directly to cellular RI or thickness variations, but must be understood as a coupled signal of these two parameters. We have developped a Dual-wavelength Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM) setup to separately measure in a single shot fashion cellular thickness and integral RI of living cells. The method is based on the use of an absorbing dye that causes a high RI dispersion in the extracellular medium at the two recording wavelength. Consequently, the phase signals measured at the two wavelengths, differ significantly from each other. Practically, both cell RI and thickness can be univocally determined from the two phase measurements. Important biophysical parameters of living cells, including dry mass concentrations and water membrane permeability can be deduced.

  10. Lensless Fluorescent Microscopy on a Chip

    PubMed Central

    Coskun, Ahmet F.; Su, Ting-Wei; Sencan, Ikbal; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2011-01-01

    On-chip lensless imaging in general aims to replace bulky lens-based optical microscopes with simpler and more compact designs, especially for high-throughput screening applications. This emerging technology platform has the potential to eliminate the need for bulky and/or costly optical components through the help of novel theories and digital reconstruction algorithms. Along the same lines, here we demonstrate an on-chip fluorescent microscopy modality that can achieve e.g., <4μm spatial resolution over an ultra-wide field-of-view (FOV) of >0.6-8 cm2 without the use of any lenses, mechanical-scanning or thin-film based interference filters. In this technique, fluorescent excitation is achieved through a prism or hemispherical-glass interface illuminated by an incoherent source. After interacting with the entire object volume, this excitation light is rejected by total-internal-reflection (TIR) process that is occurring at the bottom of the sample micro-fluidic chip. The fluorescent emission from the excited objects is then collected by a fiber-optic faceplate or a taper and is delivered to an optoelectronic sensor array such as a charge-coupled-device (CCD). By using a compressive-sampling based decoding algorithm, the acquired lensfree raw fluorescent images of the sample can be rapidly processed to yield e.g., <4μm resolution over an FOV of >0.6-8 cm2. Moreover, vertically stacked micro-channels that are separated by e.g., 50-100 μm can also be successfully imaged using the same lensfree on-chip microscopy platform, which further increases the overall throughput of this modality. This compact on-chip fluorescent imaging platform, with a rapid compressive decoder behind it, could be rather valuable for high-throughput cytometry, rare-cell research and microarray-analysis. PMID:21876522