Science.gov

Sample records for lentes tecnis z-9000

  1. Visual Performance of Tecnis ZM900 Diffractive Multifocal IOL after 2500 Implants: A 3-Year Followup

    PubMed Central

    Akaishi, Leonardo; Vaz, Rodrigo; Vilella, Graziela; Garcez, Rodrigo C.; Tzelikis, Patrick F.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate visual performance for near, intermediate, and distant vision; complaints of photic phenomena, and patient satisfaction with the new diffractive multifocal IOL used in eyes which underwent phacoemulsification. Methods. Two thousand and five hundred consecutive eyes undergoing Tecnis ZM900 multifocal IOL implantation were included in this retrospective analysis. The minimum followup of 3 months was required after the surgery. Patients were assessed for uncorrected near visual acuity (UNVA) at a fixed distance (33 cm), uncorrected intermediate visual acuity (UIVA) at 60 cm, and uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA). Using a subjective questionnaire, patients satisfaction, their independence from using glasses, and the perception of glare and halo phenomena were also evaluated at the last follow-up. Results. Two thousand and five hundred eyes of 1558 patients underwent cataract surgery and Tecnis ZM900 multifocal IOL implantation. Four hundred and eighty seven patients (31.3%) were men, and 1071 (68.7%) were women. The mean age of the patients was 66.17 years. A UDVA of 20/30 or better was achieved by 85% of eyes. A UNVA of J1 was achieved by 93.7% of eyes and that of J2 or better was achieved by 98%. A UIVA of J4 or better was achieved by 65% and J5 or better was achived by more than 82.8% of the eyes in the study. Glare and halos were reported as severe by only 6.1% and 2.12% of patients, respectively. Ninety seven percent reported complete spectacle independence and 88% stated that they are totally satisfied with their quality of vision and would choose to have the same lens implanted again after the first implant. Five percent of the eyes in the study needed a second procedure (enhancement) to achieve a better visual result. No patient underwent lens exchange. Conclusion. Excellent near, intermediate, and distant vision was observed in patients implanted with the Tecnis ZM900 diffractive multifocal IOL. Spectacle independence and a

  2. Clinical Outcomes after Uncomplicated Cataract Surgery with Implantation of the Tecnis Toric Intraocular Lens

    PubMed Central

    Lubiński, Wojciech; Kaźmierczak, Beata; Gronkowska-Serafin, Jolanta; Podborączyńska-Jodko, Karolina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the clinical outcomes after uncomplicated cataract surgery with implantation of an aspheric toric intraocular lens (IOL) during a 6-month follow-up. Methods. Prospective study including 27 consecutive eyes of 18 patients (mean age: 66.1 ± 11.4 years) with a visually significant cataract and corneal astigmatism ≥ 0.75 D and undergoing uncomplicated cataract surgery with implantation of the Tecnis ZCT toric IOL (Abbott Medical Optics). Visual, refractive, and keratometric outcomes as well as IOL rotation were evaluated during a 6-month follow-up. At the end of the follow-up, patient satisfaction and perception of optical/visual disturbances were also evaluated using a subjective questionnaire. Results. At 6 months after surgery, mean LogMAR uncorrected (UDVA) and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) were 0.19 ± 0.12 and 0.14 ± 0.10, respectively. Postoperative UDVA of 20/40 or better was achieved in 92.6% of eyes. Mean refractive cylinder decreased significantly from −3.73 ± 1.96 to −1.42 ± 0.88 D (p < 0.001), while keratometric cylinder did not change significantly (p = 0.44). Mean absolute IOL rotation was 1.1 ± 2.4°, with values of more than 5° in only 2 eyes (6.9%). Mean patient satisfaction score was 9.70 ± 0.46, using a scale from 0 (not at all satisfied) to 10 (very satisfied). No postoperative optical/visual disturbances were reported. Conclusion. Cataract surgery with implantation of the Tecnis toric IOL is an effective method of refractive correction in eyes with corneal astigmatism due to the good IOL positional stability, providing high levels of patient's satisfaction. PMID:27022478

  3. Simplificando a luneta com lente de óculos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canalle, J. B. G.; de Souza, A. C. F.

    2003-08-01

    A principal ferramenta de trabalho do astrônomo é o telescópio. O manuseio do mesmo é sempre motivo de enorme curiosidade por parte de alunos do ensino fundamental ou médio e até mesmo dos respectivos professores. Visando propiciar o acesso de alunos e professores ou interessados em geral a uma luneta de fácil construção, com materiais alternativos, de fácil localização no comércio, de baixo custo, resistente ao manuseio de alunos, simplificamos a montagem de uma luneta construída com lente de óculos, de 1 ou 2 graus positivos, e monóculo de fotografia, publicado por este autor no CCEF, vol.11(3), 212, 1994. Esta luneta, a qual permite ver as crateras lunares, apresentava como maior dificuldade de construção o tripé e o local de formação da imagem. Substituímos o tripé de madeira por uma simples garrafa PET de 2 litros cheia d'água. No lugar da ocular usamos a lente do monóculo de fotografia (ou visor de fotografia) encaixado dentro de uma bucha de redução curta, de 40 x 32 mm, e esta não mais dentro de uma luva (conexão hidráulica) de 40 mm de diâmetro, mas sim encostada no próprio tubo de PVC móvel (o qual permite o ajuste do foco) de 40 mm de diâmetro e presa a este por outro tubo de 40 mm de diâmetro e 10 cm de comprimento, serrado ao longo do seu comprimento. Com isto podemos ajustar a posição deste tubo de 10 cm também para que uma das suas extremidades coincida com o local de formação da imagem. Desta forma o observador saberá o local exato da formação da imagem, o que não era evidente na montagem anterior e causava uma dificuldade inicial até se descobrir a posição exata em que se deveria colocar o olho. Deste maneira, a montagem inicial que já era simples ficou ainda mais simples, mais barata e mais confortável para o uso. Um exemplar da mesma será exposto durante a XXIX Reunião Anual da Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira para inspeção e uso dos participantes.

  4. 48 CFR 252.223-7008 - Prohibition of Hexava-lent Chromium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Chromium. 252.223-7008 Section 252.223-7008 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.223-7008 Prohibition of Hexava-lent Chromium. As prescribed in 223.7306, use the following clause: Prohibition of Hexavalent Chromium (JUN 2013) (a) Definitions. As used...

  5. Predicting survival in malignant pleural effusion: development and validation of the LENT prognostic score

    PubMed Central

    Clive, Amelia O; Kahan, Brennan C; Hooper, Clare E; Bhatnagar, Rahul; Morley, Anna J; Zahan-Evans, Natalie; Bintcliffe, Oliver J; Boshuizen, Rogier C; Fysh, Edward T H; Tobin, Claire L; Medford, Andrew R L; Harvey, John E; van den Heuvel, Michel M; Lee, Y C Gary; Maskell, Nick A

    2014-01-01

    Background Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) causes debilitating breathlessness and predicting survival is challenging. This study aimed to obtain contemporary data on survival by underlying tumour type in patients with MPE, identify prognostic indicators of overall survival and develop and validate a prognostic scoring system. Methods Three large international cohorts of patients with MPE were used to calculate survival by cell type (univariable Cox model). The prognostic value of 14 predefined variables was evaluated in the most complete data set (multivariable Cox model). A clinical prognostic scoring system was then developed and validated. Results Based on the results of the international data and the multivariable survival analysis, the LENT prognostic score (pleural fluid lactate dehydrogenase, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance score (PS), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and tumour type) was developed and subsequently validated using an independent data set. Risk stratifying patients into low-risk, moderate-risk and high-risk groups gave median (IQR) survivals of 319 days (228–549; n=43), 130 days (47–467; n=129) and 44 days (22–77; n=31), respectively. Only 65% (20/31) of patients with a high-risk LENT score survived 1 month from diagnosis and just 3% (1/31) survived 6 months. Analysis of the area under the receiver operating curve revealed the LENT score to be superior at predicting survival compared with ECOG PS at 1 month (0.77 vs 0.66, p<0.01), 3 months (0.84 vs 0.75, p<0.01) and 6 months (0.85 vs 0.76, p<0.01). Conclusions The LENT scoring system is the first validated prognostic score in MPE, which predicts survival with significantly better accuracy than ECOG PS alone. This may aid clinical decision making in this diverse patient population. PMID:25100651

  6. 12 CFR 7.1003 - Money lent at banking offices or at other than banking offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...(j) and 12 CFR 5.30, “money” is deemed to be “lent” only at the place, if any, where the borrower in... without violating 12 U.S.C. 36, 12 U.S.C. 81 and 12 CFR 5.30, provided that a third party is used to... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Money lent at banking offices or at other...

  7. Theoretical and Methodological Issues with Testing the SCCT and RIASEC Models: Comment on Lent, Sheu, and Brown (2010) and Lubinski (2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Vogel, David L.

    2010-01-01

    The current article replies to comments made by Lent, Sheu, and Brown (2010) and Lubinski (2010) regarding the study "Interpreting the Interest-Efficacy Association From a RIASEC Perspective" (Armstrong & Vogel, 2009). The comments made by Lent et al. and Lubinski highlight a number of important theoretical and methodological issues, including the…

  8. Estatística de lentes gravitacionais e o gás de chaplygin generalizado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, A. L. S.

    2003-08-01

    A estatística de lentes gravitacionais constitui uma poderosa ferramenta utilizada na obtenção de vínculos sobre parâmetros cosmológicos, principalmente sobre modelos com uma constante cosmológica. Embora de forma às vezes controversa, antes de 1998, a análise tradicional mostrava que modelos com o parâmetro de densidade da matéria da ordem da unidade são preferidos. Esse resultado começou a ser questionado, alguns anos atrás, com as indicações, advindas da análise de supernovas com alto valor de desvio para o vermelho, de que nosso Universo está acelerando. Atualmente há enorme interesse em saber qual é a natureza da componente responsável pela aceleração cósmica. Energia escura é a denominação usual dessa componente e sua característica principal é possuir pressão negativa. Nos modelos cosmológicos tradicionais, além da energia escura, considera-se também uma outra componente de origem desconhecida. Ela é denominada matéria escura e possui pressão nula. Mais recentemente modelos unificadores em que energia escura e matéria escura são manifestações distintas de um mesmo fluido (altas densidades matéria escura, baixas densidades energia escura) foram sugeridos. Um desses modelos é conhecido como Gás de Chaplygin Generalizado que é o modelo que investigaremos. Em nosso trabalho apresentamos vínculos sobre parâmetros desse modelo usando a estatística de lentes gravitacionais. Usamos observações de quasares na faixa do visível e consideramos extinção em nosso estudo. Análises semelhantes anteriores com esse tipo de objetos e que não consideram extinção são inconsistentes. Comparação dos vínculos obtidos através de lentes gravitacionais com outros advindos de outros testes será também apresentada.

  9. Assessment of the insecticidal potential of Eucalyptus urograndis essential oil against Rhodnius neglectus Lent (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    Gomes, S P; Favero, S

    2013-08-01

    The resistance of triatomines to pyrethroids has been reported in several Latin American countries, including Brazil, indicating the need for the development of new approaches for the control of vectors of the Chagas disease. In here, we evaluated the insecticidal potential of the essential oil of Eucalyptus urograndis (Myrtaceae) against unsexed third and fourth instars of Rhodnius neglectus Lent (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in topical application, fumigation, surface contact, and repellency . The insecticidal activity of the essential oil tested was detected by topical application (LD50 = 0.1731 μL/insect and LD99 = 0.2948 μL/insect for 24 h), fumigation (LC50 = 0.021 mL/mL air and LC99 = 0.1525 mL/mL air for 24 h) and surface contact (LC50 = 0.7073 μL/cm(2) and LC99 = 4.59 μL/cm(2) for 24 h). Mortality observed after 48-72-h exposure was very high and did not allow for any adjustment of the mortality curve. In the repellency assay, an effect was observed on 80% of tested nymphs. However, no repellency was observed after 24 h of exposure. Eucalyptus urograndis essential oil has a high insecticidal and repellent potential for R. neglectus nymphs, whether serving as a molecular model for new substances or as an alternative for the control of these insects. PMID:23949865

  10. Acarbose, lente carbohydrate, and prebiotics promote metabolic health and longevity by stimulating intestinal production of GLP-1.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F; DiNicolantonio, James J

    2015-01-01

    The α-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose, which slows carbohydrate digestion and blunts postprandial rises in plasma glucose, has long been used to treat patients with type 2 diabetes or glucose intolerance. Like metformin, acarbose tends to aid weight control, postpone onset of diabetes and decrease risk for cardiovascular events. Acarbose treatment can favourably affect blood pressure, serum lipids, platelet aggregation, progression of carotid intima-media thickness and postprandial endothelial dysfunction. In mice, lifetime acarbose feeding can increase median and maximal lifespan-an effect associated with increased plasma levels of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) and decreased levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). There is growing reason to suspect that an upregulation of fasting and postprandial production of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-stemming from increased delivery of carbohydrate to L cells in the distal intestinal tract-is largely responsible for the versatile health protection conferred by acarbose. Indeed, GLP-1 exerts protective effects on vascular endothelium, the liver, the heart, pancreatic β cells, and the brain which can rationalise many of the benefits reported with acarbose. And GLP-1 may act on the liver to modulate its production of FGF21 and IGF-I, thereby promoting longevity. The benefits of acarbose are likely mimicked by diets featuring slowly-digested 'lente' carbohydrate, and by certain nutraceuticals which can slow carbohydrate absorption. Prebiotics that promote colonic generation of short-chain fatty acids represent an alternative strategy for boosting intestinal GLP-1 production. The health benefits of all these measures presumably would be potentiated by concurrent use of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors, which slow the proteolysis of GLP-1 in the blood. PMID:25685364

  11. Theoretical and methodological issues with testing the SCCT and RIASEC models: Comment on Lent, Sheu, and Brown (2010) and Lubinski (2010).

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Vogel, David L

    2010-04-01

    The current article replies to comments made by Lent, Sheu, and Brown (2010) and Lubinski (2010) regarding the study "Interpreting the Interest-Efficacy Association From a RIASEC Perspective" (Armstrong & Vogel, 2009). The comments made by Lent et al. and Lubinski highlight a number of important theoretical and methodological issues, including the process of defining and differentiating between constructs, the assumptions underlying Holland's (1959, 1997) RIASEC (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional types) model and interrelations among constructs specified in social cognitive career theory (SCCT), the importance of incremental validity for evaluating constructs, and methodological considerations when quantifying interest-efficacy correlations and for comparing models using multivariate statistical methods. On the basis of these comments and previous research on the SCCT and Holland models, we highlight the importance of considering multiple theoretical perspectives in vocational research and practice. Alternative structural models are outlined for examining the role of interests, self-efficacy, learning experiences, outcome expectations, personality, and cognitive abilities in the career choice and development process. PMID:21133575

  12. Detecção inesperada de efeitos de lentes fracas em grupos de galáxias pouco luminosos em raios-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, R.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Lima Neto, G. B.; Cypriano, E. S.; Lengruber, L. L.; Cuevas, H.; Ramirez, A.

    2003-08-01

    Obtivemos, como parte do programa de verificação científica do GMOS Sul, imagens profundas de três grupos de galáxias: G97 e G102 (z~0,4) e G124 (z = 0,17). Esses alvos foram selecionados a partir do catálogo de fontes extensas de Vikhlinin (1998), por terem luminosidades em raios X menores que 3´1043 ergs s-1, valor cerca de uma ou duas ordens de grandeza inferior ao de aglomerados de galáxias. O objetivo primário dessas observações é o estudo da evolução de galáxias em grupos. Grupos são ambientes menos densos que aglomerados, contêm a grande maioria das galáxias do Universo mas que, até o momento, foram estudados detalhadamente apenas no Universo local (z~0). Com esses dados efetuamos uma análise estatística da distorção na forma das galáxias de fundo (lentes gravitacionais fracas) como forma de inferir o conteúdo e a distribuição de massa nesses grupos apesar de que, em princípio, esse efeito não deveria ser detectado uma vez que os critérios de seleção adotados previlegiam sistemas de baixa massa. De fato, para G124 obtivemos apenas um limite superior para sua massa que é compatível com sua luminosidade em raios X. De modo contrário e surpreendente, os objetos G102 e G097, aparentam ter massas que resultariam em dispersões de velocidade maiores que 1000 km s-1, muito maiores do que se espera para grupos de galáxias. Com efeito, para G097 obtivemos, a partir de dados do satélite XMM, uma estimativa para a temperatura do gás intragrupo de kT = 2,6 keV, que é tipica de sistemas com dispersões de velocidade de ~ 600 km s-1, bem característica de grupos. Essas contradições aparentes entre lentes fracas e raios X podem ser explicadas de dois modos: i) a massa obtida por lentes estaria sobreestimada devido à superposição de estruturas massivas ao longo da linha de visada ou ii) a temperatura do gás do meio intra-grupo reflete o potencial gravitacional de estruturas menores que estariam se fundindo para formar uma

  13. Long-term results of adjuvant imatinib mesylate in localized, high-risk, primary gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST): ACOSOG Z9000 (Alliance) intergroup phase 2 trial

    PubMed Central

    DeMatteo, Ronald P.; Ballman, Karla V.; Antonescu, Cristina R.; Corless, Christopher; Kolesnikova, Violetta; von Mehren, Margaret; McCarter, Martin D.; Norton, Jeffrey; Maki, Robert G.; Pisters, Peter W.T.; Demetri, George D.; Brennan, Murray F.; Owzar, Kouros

    2014-01-01

    Objective To conduct the first adjuvant trial of imatinib mesylate for treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Summary Background Data GIST is the most common sarcoma. While surgical resection has been the mainstay of therapy for localized, primary GIST, postoperative tumor recurrence is common. The KIT proto-oncogene or, less frequently, platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) is mutated in GIST; the gene products of both are inhibited by imatinib mesylate. Methods This was a phase II, intergroup trial led by the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group (ACOSOG), registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT00025246. From 09/2001 to 09/2003, we accrued 106 patients who had undergone complete gross tumor removal but were deemed at high risk for recurrence. Patients were prescribed imatinib 400 mg/day for 1 year and followed with serial radiologic evaluation. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). Results After a median follow-up of 7.7 years, the 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS rate was 99, 97, and 83%, which compared favorably with a historical 5 year OS rate of 35%. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year RFS rate was 96, 60, and 40%. On univariable analysis, age and mitotic rate were associated with OS. On multivariable analysis, the RFS rate was lower with increasing tumor size, small bowel site, KIT exon 9 mutation, high mitotic rate, and older age. Conclusion Adjuvant imatinib in patients with primary GIST who are at high risk of recurrence prolongs OS compared to that of historical controls. Optimal duration of adjuvant therapy remains undefined. (NCT00025246) PMID:23860199

  14. An Excel-lent Card Trick

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zullo, Holly S.

    2011-01-01

    Card tricks based on mathematical principles can be a great way to get students interested in exploring some important mathematical ideas. In this article, the author discusses a simple spreadsheet implementation that shows students why the card trick works and allows them to explore several variations. As an added bonus, students are introduced…

  15. School-Wide Success Builds on 'ExCEL'lent Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boutelle, Marsha

    2008-01-01

    It's not often that the goals of closing the achievement gap, providing professional development opportunities to teachers, and benefiting children by using innovative and effective instructional methods coincide. But at Sutterville Elementary School in Sacramento, CA, they do. This article describes the School-Wide Success (SWS) program, its…

  16. "I Gave up MySpace for Lent": New Teachers and Social Networking Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kist, William

    2008-01-01

    This Digital Literacies column describes the dilemma many new teachers feel as their uses of social networking sites pose conflicts with institutional cautions regarding educators' participation in these kinds of online activities. Pre-service teachers discuss the challenges of marrying their own out-of-school literacies to mandated professional…

  17. 12 CFR 7.1003 - Money lent at banking offices or at other than banking offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...(j) and 12 CFR 5.30, “money” is deemed to be “lent” only at the place, if any, where the borrower in... without violating 12 U.S.C. 36, 12 U.S.C. 81 and 12 CFR 5.30, provided that a third party is used to... escrow agent at a real estate closing....

  18. New record and cytogenetic analysis of Psammolestes tertius Lent & Jurberg, 1965 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) from Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, J; Alevi, K C C; Fonseca, E O L; Souza, O M F; Santos, C G S; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V; da Rosa, J A

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the first occurrence of Psammolestes tertius in the Chapada Diamantina region, located in the city of Seabra, Bahia State, in northeastern Brazil. Following an active search, 24 P. tertius specimens were collected from Phacellodomus rufifrons (rufous-fronted thornbird) nests. The insects did not present any symptoms of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi. P. tertius males were cytogenetically analyzed, and the results were compared with those of other specimens from the Brazilian State of Ceará. Triatomines from both locations presented the same cytogenetic characteristics: 22 chromosomes, little variation in the size of the autosomes, Y chromosomes that were larger than the X chromosomes, a chromocenter formed only by the sex chromosomes during prophase, and autosomes lacking constitutive heterochromatin. However, it is important to note that this species shows intraspecific chromosomal variation. In light of the results obtained, it is recommended that more studies be performed to characterize P. tertius. These studies will be particularly helpful in understanding this species in ecological, biological, biogeographical, and phylogenetic terms. PMID:27420943

  19. Aspheric versus Spherical Posterior Chamber Intraocular Lenses

    PubMed Central

    Jafarinasab, Mohammad-Reza; Feizi, Sepehr; Baghi, Ahmad-Reza; Ziaie, Hossein; Yaseri, Mehdi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To compare spherical aberration and contrast sensitivity function following implantation of four different foldable posterior chamber intraocular lenses (IOLs), namely Sensar, Akreos AO, Tecnis, and AcrySof IQ. Methods In this randomized clinical trial, 68 eyes of 68 patients with senile cataracts underwent phacoemulsification and IOL implantation with Sensar (n=17), Akreos AO (n=17), Tecnis (n=17), or AcrySof IQ (n=17). Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) and best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), spherical aberration and contrast sensitivity function (CSF) were compared among the study groups, 3 months after surgery. Results There was no significant difference between the study groups in terms of age (P = 0.21). Mean postoperative BSCVA with Sensar, Akreos AO, Tecnis, and AcrySof IQ was 0.15±0.10, 0.12±0.9, 0.08±0.08, and 0.08±0.07 logMAR, respectively (P=0.08). Spherical aberration measured over a 4 mm pupil was significantly higher with Sensar and Akreos AO than the two other IOLs. The difference between Tecnis and AcrySof IQ was significantly in favor of the former IOL. Over a 6 mm pupil, spherical aberrations were comparable with Sensar and Akreos AO, furthermore spherical aberration was also comparable among eyes implanted with Akreos AO, AcrySof IQ, and Tecnis. Sensar yielded significantly inferior results as compared to Acrysof IQ and Tecnis. CSF with Sensar was inferior to the three aspheric IOLs at the majority of spatial frequencies. Tecnis yielded significantly better mesopic CSF at 1.5 and 3 cycles per degree spatial frequencies. Conclusion Tecnis and AcrySof IQ provided significantly better visual function as compared to Sensar and Akreos AO, especially with smaller pupil size. However, this difference diminished with increasing pupil size. PMID:22737364

  20. Quelques caracteristiques du comportement linguistique des apprenants lents (Some Characteristics of the Linguistic Behavior of Slow Learners). Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Painchaud-LeBlanc, Gisele

    In order to attempt to identify the linguistic difficulties of slow learners, errors made by two groups of English-speaking adults learning French as a second language were compared. The subjects of the two groups shared similar characteristics, with the exception of the amount of time required to cover the same linguistic material (Group 1: 17…

  1. ?La Maétresse dit que je suis lent?: Représentation de l'école française dans le discours d'élèves immigrés

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasquez, Ana; Proux, Michelle B.

    1984-06-01

    The difficulties of immigrant children at school have generally been studied with the emphasis either on their deficiencies or on the schemes which they devise to enable them to adapt. The study which is presented here, however, aims at a radically different approach by viewing the problem within the theoretical framework of transculturation and by examining the way in which the pupils themselves perceive the French school system. A study is made of the outcome of 101 interviews which were conducted in their mother tongue with Spanish- or Portuguese-speaking boys and girls aged between 10 and 17 years old. On the basis of statistical analysis by computer, indices were formulated with the intention of establishing (a) the relationship between the researcher and the subject during the interview; (b) the links between the subject as an individual and his/her peer-group (`me' — `us'); (c) his/her perception of `others'; and (d) the way in which he/she relates to his/her experience (as something to be positively accepted — or to be suffered; `active' or `passive'). Keywords illustrate and underline the difficulties encountered both by pupils and by the school to grasp the idea of time norms as a cultural shaping and to perceive how relative they are.

  2. El rol de Ia colaboracion y el Modelo de Aprendizaje Basado en Proyectos (ABPr) mediante el lente de la Teoria de Actividad (CHAT): un estudio de caso con estudiantes de 9no grado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Isabel C.

    Los modelos de eensenanza y aprendizaje constructivistas conceptualizan el aprendizaje como un proceso activo. El modelo de Aprendizaje Basado en Proyectos (ABPr) se distingue por una serie de componentes, entre los cuales se destaca el aspecto colaborativo y cooperativo como un reto al momento de su implantacion. Son pocas las investigaciones que se concentran en este aspecto del modelo. En este estudio, se analizaron las diversas interacciones que surgen durante la implantacion de una unidad curricular sobre el tema de Geologia de Puerto Rico, la cual se diseno con el modelo ABPr cuyo enfoque es orientacion a proyectos. Particularmente, se examinaron las interacciones sociales que surgen entre los pares y entre pares y docente durante el proceso de planificacion y desarrollo de los productos finales, al igual que las interacciones entre los estudiantes y el material didactico en estas etapas del modelo. La investigacion es de tipo cualitativo e incorpora como diseno el estudio de caso. Las diversas interacciones constituyen la unidad de analisis. En el estudio participaron 19 estudiantes de 9no grado, a quienes se organizaron en 5 grupos colaborativos por temas de interes (Pangea, Placas tectonicas, Volcanes, Tsunamis y Terremotos). Las tecnicas que se utilizaron para recopilar los datos fueron: observaciones participativas, grupos focales y analisis de documentos (cuadernos reflexivos y respuestas de los estudiantes a la pregunta central del proyecto). Para el analisis de los datos se aplico la teoria de actividad (CHAT) que concentra la unidad de analisis en la actividad humana en un contexto particular. Los resultados del estudio senalan que las interacciones entre pares, entre pares y docente, asi como entre estudiantes y material didactico son fundamentales en el proceso de aprendizaje. Una mayor interaccion entre pares durante las etapas de planificar y desarrollar los productos finales de la unidad, promueve una mejor comprension de los conceptos de la unidad, segun evidencia los productos finales del ABPr. La interaccion con el docente es muy importante para mediar los conflictos y desacuerdos que surgen como parte de las interacciones entre pares. Por lo tanto, el uso de diversas estrategias de andamiaje por parte del docente durante las reuniones de los grupos colaborativos es esencial para el exito del modelo ABPr.

  3. Wavefront analysis and modulation transfer function of three multifocal intraocular lenses

    PubMed Central

    Santhiago, Marcony R; Netto, Marcelo V; Barreto, Jackson; Gomes, Beatriz AF; Schaefer, Arthur; Kara-Junior, Newton

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate wavefront performance and modulation transfer function (MTF) in the human eye after the implantation of diffractive or refractive multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs). Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, interventional, comparative, nonrandomized clinical study. Uncorrected distance and near visual acuity, and wavefront analysis including MTF curves (iTrace aberrometer, Tracey Technologies, Houston, TX, USA) were measured in 60 patients after bilateral IOL implantation with 6 months of follow-up. Forty eyes received the diffractive ReSTOR (Alcon), 40 eyes received the refractive ReZoom (Advanced Medical Optics) and 40 eyes, the Tecnis ZM900 (Advanced Medical Optics). The comparison of MTF and aberration between the intraocular lenses was performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by the Dunn test when necessary. Results: The mean uncorrected distance visual acuity was similar in all three groups of multifocal IOLs. The ReSTOR group provided better uncorrected near visual acuity than the ReZoom group (P < 0.001), but similar to the Tecnis group. Spherical aberration was significantly higher in the ReZoom group (P = 0.007). Similar MTF curves were found for the aspheric multifocal IOL Tecnis and the spheric multifocal IOL ReSTOR, and both performed better than the multifocal IOL ReZoom in a 5 mm pupil (P < 0.001 at all spatial frequencies). Conclusions: Diffractive IOLs studied presented similar MTF curves for a 5 mm pupil diameter. Both diffractive IOLs showed similar spherical aberration, which was significantly better with the full-diffractive IOL Tecnis than with the refractive IOL ReZoom. PMID:20195032

  4. Test of a Social Cognitive Model of Work Satisfaction in Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Ryan D.; Lent, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Lent and Brown [Lent, R. W., & Brown, S. D. (2006). "Integrating person and situation perspectives on work satisfaction: A social-cognitive view." "Journal of Vocational Behavior,69", 236-247] recently proposed an integrative model of work satisfaction linked to social cognitive career theory. The model posits that work satisfaction is predicted…

  5. Social Cognitive Influences on Mexican Americans' Career Choices across Holland's Themes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Lisa Y.; Robitschek, Chris; Celebi, Elif; Andersen, Christie; Hoang, Uyen

    2010-01-01

    This study examined several propositions of social cognitive career theory ([Lent et al., 1994] and [Lent et al., 2000]) with a sample of 393 Mexican American college students. It was hypothesized that person input (i.e., age) and background contextual variables (i.e., Anglo orientation, Mexican orientation, familism, instrumentality, and…

  6. Visual and Refractive Outcomes after Cataract Surgery with Implantation of a New Toric Intraocular Lens

    PubMed Central

    Mazzini, Cinzia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate and report the visual, refractive and aberrometric outcomes of cataract surgery with implantation of the new aspheric Tecnis ZCT toric intraocular lens (IOL) in eyes with low to moderate corneal astigmatism. Methods We conducted a prospective study of 19 consecutive eyes of 17 patients (mean age: 78 years) with a visually significant cataract and moderate corneal astigmatism [higher than 1 diopter (D)] undergoing cataract surgery with implantation of the aspheric Tecnis ZCT toric IOL (Abbott Medical Optics). Visual, refractive and aberrometric changes were evaluated during a 6-month follow-up. Ocular aberrations as well as IOL rotation were evaluated by means of the OPD-Station II (Nidek). Results The six-month postoperative spherical equivalent and power vector components of the refractive cylinder were within ±0.50 D in all eyes (100%). Postoperative logMAR uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuities (UDVA/CDVA) were 0.1 (about 20/25) or better in almost all eyes (94.74%). The mean logMAR CDVA improved significantly from 0.41 ± 0.23 to 0.02 ± 0.05 (p < 0.01). No significant changes were found in corneal astigmatism (p = 0.73). The mean IOL rotation was 3.33 ± 1.94°. This parameter did not correlate with higher-order aberrations (r = −0.09, p = 0.73). A significant improvement in the Strehl ratio was also observed (p < 0.01), which was consistent with the significant reduction in higher-order aberrations (p = 0.02). Conclusion Cataract surgery with implantation of the aspheric Tecnis ZCT IOL is a predictable and effective procedure for visual rehabilitation in eyes with cataract and low to moderate corneal astigmatism, providing an excellent postoperative ocular optical quality. PMID:23898293

  7. Prospective evaluation of visual outcomes with three presbyopia-correcting intraocular lenses following cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ang, RE; Martinez, GA; Cruz, EM; Tiongson, AA; Dela Cruz, AG

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To compare the visual acuity and quality of vision achieved with three widely-used intraocular lenses (IOLs) in subjects with bilateral cataracts. Patients and methods This three-arm, parallel, prospective, partially masked, single-surgeon study randomized 78 subjects to receive bilateral Crystalens® Advanced Optics (AO) accommodating IOLs, AcrySof® IQ ReSTOR® +3.0 multifocal IOLs, or TECNIS® Multifocal IOLs. Examinations were assessed through days 120 to 180. Results The Crystalens AO group had statistically significantly better monocular and binocular, high-contrast (HC) and low-contrast (LC) uncorrected intermediate visual acuity, HC and LC distance-corrected intermediate visual acuity, and significantly fewer monocular and binocular halos and starbursts than did the ReSTOR and TECNIS groups. Monocular and binocular, HC and LC uncorrected near visual acuity exhibited no significant differences among the three lenses. For monocular and binocular HC distance-corrected near visual acuity, the Crystalens AO performed significantly better than the TECNIS and was not significantly different from the ReSTOR. For monocular and binocular LC distance-corrected near visual acuity, the Crystalens AO performed significantly better than both the ReSTOR and the TECNIS. Contrast sensitivity was clinically similar between groups. The Crystalens AO produced statistically fewer halos and starbursts. Conclusion All three IOLs had excellent uncorrected acuity results at all distances and had good safety, confirming the established safety and effectiveness of these IOLs. Distance and near vision were similar between all three IOLs, and the Crystalens AO provided statistically significantly better intermediate vision. PMID:24092961

  8. Comparison of the Astigmatic Power of Toric Intraocular Lenses Using Three Toric Calculators

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Ju; Lee, Hun; Woo, Young Jae; Kim, Eung Kweon; Seo, Kyoung Yul; Kim, Ha Yan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare the astigmatic power of toric intraocular lenses (IOLs) obtained from the AcrySof, TECNIS, and iTrace toric calculator in patients with preoperative with-the-rule (WTR) or against-the-rule (ATR) corneal astigmatism. Materials and Methods Fifty eyes with cataract and corneal astigmatism greater than 0.75 diopters were enrolled in each group (WTR and ATR). Keratometric values were measured using autokeratometry, an IOLMaster, and an iTrace, which incorporated corneal topography and ray-tracing aberrometry. Based on measured keratometric values, the astigmatic power of each toric IOL was calculated using three toric calculators. Results Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement between six pairwise corneal astigmatism values in both groups. The TECNIS calculator tended to suggest a higher astigmatic power of the toric IOL than the AcrySof calculator. With the higher astigmatism and keratometric values from the IOLMaster, in both groups, calculations from the AcrySof and TECNIS calculators resulted in higher calculated astigmatic powers than those from same calculators with autokeratometry-measured values, demonstrating good agreement. With the higher calculated astigmatic power values, the values from the iTrace toric calculator using keratometric values obtained from iTrace ray tracing wavefront aberrometry or iTrace simulated keratometry showed fair to moderate agreement with those from the other calculator-keratometry pairs in both groups. Conclusion To achieve the best refractive outcome after toric IOL implantation, understanding the differences in keratometric values between instruments and in calculated astigmatic power among toric calculator programs is necessary. Moreover, systemic analysis of each toric calculator in conjunction with postoperative data is required. PMID:26069135

  9. 2. West and south elevation. Copied from an old print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. West and south elevation. Copied from an old print by Joseph Hill, lent to survey by Evelyn S. Craig. - Jansonist Colony, Steeple Building, Main & Bishop Hill Streets, Bishop Hill, Henry County, IL

  10. 3. West and south elevations. Joseph Hill, photographer, copied from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. West and south elevations. Joseph Hill, photographer, copied from photo lent by Evelyn S. Craig. August 1936. - Jansonist Colony, Steeple Building, Main & Bishop Hill Streets, Bishop Hill, Henry County, IL

  11. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer August 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer August 1936 FIRST ORIGINAL STORE AND POSTOFFICE, COPY OF AN EARLY PHOTOGRAPH. LENT BY EVELYN S. CRAIG - Jansonist Colony, Colony Store & Post Office, Main & Bishop Hill Streets, Bishop Hill, Henry County, IL

  12. Visual acuity and patient satisfaction at varied distances and lighting conditions after implantation of an aspheric diffractive multifocal one-piece intraocular lens

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Daniel H

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the study is to evaluate the visual acuity and patient satisfaction at varied distances under photopic and mesopic lighting conditions in patients bilaterally implanted with aspheric diffractive multifocal one-piece intraocular lenses. Methods In this retrospective–prospective study, 16 patients with a mean age of 66.2±9.2 years (range: 50–81 years) who had undergone bilateral phacoemulsification surgery with implantation of a Tecnis multifocal one-piece intraocular lens (ZMB00) were evaluated. Monocular and binocular uncorrected and distance-corrected visual acuities were measured at distance (20 ft), intermediate (70–80 cm), and near (35–40 cm) under photopic (85 cd/m2) and mesopic (3 cd/m2) lighting conditions and were compared using the paired t-test. All patients also completed a subjective questionnaire. Results At a mean follow-up of 9.5±3.9 months, distance, near, and intermediate visual acuity improved significantly from preoperative acuity. Under photopic and mesopic conditions, 93.8% and 62.5% of patients, respectively, had binocular uncorrected intermediate visual acuity of 20/40 or better, and 62.5% and 31.3% of patients had binocular uncorrected near visual acuity of 20/20 or better. All patients were satisfied with their overall vision without using glasses and/or contact lenses when compared with before surgery. A total of 87.5% of patients reported no glare and 68.8% of patients reported no halos around lights at night. Conclusion Tecnis multifocal one-piece intraocular lenses provide good distance, intermediate, and near visual acuity under photopic as well as mesopic lighting conditions. High levels of spectacle independence with low levels of photic phenomenon were achieved, resulting in excellent patient satisfaction. PMID:27536061

  13. Where Are the Women in Women's Sports? Predictors of Female Athletes' Interest in a Coaching Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran-Miller, Kelli; Flores, Lisa Y.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we used social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) to examine the development of female athletes' career interest in coaching and, specifically, the impact of contextual factors (female coaching role models, working hours, and perceived discrimination) on coaching self-efficacy and outcome expectations.…

  14. Reading Comprehension: A Matter of Referents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartelli, Lora M.

    1980-01-01

    The study involving 46 learning disabled children (mean age eight years) was designed to determine the effects of training in paradigmatic language structures on the reading process of Ss. Findings lent support for the semantic and syntactic relativity of words and for the meaning inherent in the nucleus of key verbal elements linking ideas to one…

  15. Social Cognitive Predictors of Academic Interests and Goals in Engineering: Utility for Women and Students at Historically Black Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lent, Robert W.; Brown, Steven D.; Sheu, Hung-Bin; Schmidt, Janet; Brenner, Bradley R.; Gloster, Clay S.; Wilkins, Gregory; Schmidt, Linda C.; Lyons, Heather

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the utility of social cognitive career theory (SCCT; R. W. Lent, S. D. Brown, & G. Hackett, 1994) in predicting engineering interests and major choice goals among women and men and among students at historically Black and predominantly White universities. Participants (487 students in introductory engineering courses at 3…

  16. College Expectations of Rural Appalachian Youth: An Exploration of Social Cognitive Career Theory Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Saba Rasheed; Saunders, Jodi L.

    2006-01-01

    An examination of social cognitive career theory (SCCT; R. W. Lent, S. D. Brown, & G. Hackett, 1994, 2000) factors contributing to the college expectations of high school students (N = 87) in rural Appalachia was conducted. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed support for the role of SCCT variables in predicting expectations to…

  17. College Students' Social Justice Interest and Commitment: A Social-Cognitive Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Matthew J.; Sendrowitz, Kerrin; Connacher, Christopher; Blanco, Susana; de La Pena, Cristina Muniz; Bernardi, Shaina; Morere, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the degree to which social-cognitive career theory (SCCT; R. W. Lent, S. D. Brown, & G. Hackett, 1994) explained the development of social justice interest and commitment. Data from 274 college students and latent variable path modeling were used to test theoretically and empirically derived SCCT direct and…

  18. Relation of Contextual Supports and Barriers to Choice Behavior in Engineering Majors: Test of Alternative Social Cognitive Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lent, Robert W.; Brown, Steven D.; Schmidt, Janet; Brenner, Bradley; Lyons, Heather; Treistman, Dana

    2003-01-01

    Social cognitive career theory (SCCT; R. W. Lent, S. D. Brown, and G. Hackett, 1994) and general social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1999, 2000) posit somewhat different relations between contextual variables and choice actions. The authors tested the predictions of these 2 model variations. Participants (328 students in an introductory engineering…

  19. Testing a Social Cognitive Model of Career Choice Development within the Context of a Minority Teacher Recruitment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffner, Monika; Jepsen, David A.

    This study tested various aspects of the social cognitive career theory (SCCT) suggested by Lent, et al. (1994), addressing whether these constructs could be modeled using data from adolescents participating in a minority teacher recruitment program for urban and rural at-risk minority students. The study hypothesized that self-efficacy and…

  20. Longitudinal Relations of Self-Efficacy to Outcome Expectations, Interests, and Major Choice Goals in Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lent, Robert W.; Sheu, Hung-Bin; Singley, Daniel; Schmidt, Janet A.; Schmidt, Linda C.; Gloster, Clay S.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the nature of the temporal relations among the core person variables in the social cognitive model of academic and career choice [Lent, R. W., Brown, S. D., & Hackett, G. (1994). Toward a unifying social cognitive theory of career and academic interest, choice, and performance [Monograph]. "Journal of Vocational Behavior," 45,…

  1. Testing the Choice Model of Social Cognitive Career Theory across Holland Themes: A Meta-Analytic Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheu, Hung-Bin; Lent, Robert W.; Brown, Steven D.; Miller, Matthew J.; Hennessy, Kelly D.; Duffy, Ryan D.

    2010-01-01

    Social cognitive career theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) seeks to explain the factors that shape educational and vocational interests and choices. We used meta-analytic path analyses to synthesize data (from 1981 to 2008) relevant to SCCT's interest and choice hypotheses, organizing the literature according to Holland's (1997) broad…

  2. The Gendered Nature of Career Related Learning Experiences: A Social Cognitive Career Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Christine M.; Subich, Linda M.

    2006-01-01

    The learning experiences questionnaire (LEQ; Schaub & Tokar, 2005) was used to examine learning experiences as they relate to SCCT (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) across the Holland (1997) RIASEC typology. In particular, differences in men's and women's career related learning experiences were examined. A sample of 319 undergraduates at a public…

  3. Family Factors Associated with Sixth-Grade Adolescents' Math and Science Career Interests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Sherri L.; Steward, Jason C.; Lapan, Richard T.

    2004-01-01

    This study tested a causal model, based on social cognitive career theory (SCCT; R. W. Lent, S. D. Brown, & G. Hackett, 1994, 2000), of math and science career interests among 6th-grade adolescents (N = 318). Consistent with SCCT, it was found that career gender-typing, mother's and father's support for pursuing math and science careers, as well…

  4. Initial Scale Development of the Contextual Support for Post-Secondary Planning Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Saba Rasheed; Martens, Jessica Kelly; Button, Christopher; Larma, Nicholas C.

    2011-01-01

    Vocational psychologists and career theorists have articulated the importance of social support in the development of career plans for high school youth. More recently, Lent, Brown, and Hackett carefully articulated the location of contextual supports in the Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) framework. However, there is a paucity of research…

  5. From the Social-Cognitive Career Theory Perspective: A College of Education Faculty Model for Explaining Their Intention to Use Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Ismail

    2008-01-01

    A model, based on Social-Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994, 2002), was developed to test the influence of the College of Education (COE) faculty members' self-efficacy in, outcome expectations from, and interest in educational technology on their intentions to use the technology. While outcome expectations affect faculty…

  6. Racial Ideology in Predicting Social Cognitive Career Variables for Black Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byars-Winston, Angela M.

    2006-01-01

    This exploratory study expanded Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) by incorporating the personal variable of racial ideology (Sellers, Rowley, Chavous, Shelton, & Smith, 1997). The association of racial ideology (i.e., nationalist, humanist, assimilationist, and oppressed minority) to self-efficacy variables,…

  7. Prospective First-Generation College Students: A Social-Cognitive Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Melinda M.; Borders, L. DiAnne

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated differences in college-going expectations of middle school students who would be the 1st in their families to attend college. Social-cognitive career theory (SCCT; R. W. Lent, S. D. Brown, & G. Hackett, 1994) was used to examine college-related expectations in 272 seventh-grade students. Differences were found between…

  8. Feeling the Threat: Stereotype Threat as a Contextual Barrier to Women's Science Career Choice Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deemer, Eric D.; Thoman, Dustin B.; Chase, Justin P.; Smith, Jessi L.

    2014-01-01

    Social cognitive career theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994, 2000) holds that contextual barriers inhibit self-efficacy and goal choice intentions from points both near and far from the active career development situation. The current study examined the influence of one such proximal barrier, stereotype threat, on attainment of these…

  9. Attending to Place, Race, and Community: Trans-Local Partnering between Scholars and Activists in Central Appalachia and the Black Belt South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Rosalind; Bernard, Marcus; Mullinax, Maureen; Worthen, Dreamal; Finch, Sokoya; Womack, Veronica

    2012-01-01

    The communities in the Black Belt South and Central Appalachian regions in the United States share long histories of persistent subjugation. Both regions also have strong traditions of partnerships between grassroots activists and scholars--partnerships that have, at times, lent resilient responses to political, economic and cultural challenges,…

  10. Predicting the Math/Science Career Goals of Low-Income Prospective First-Generation College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garriott, Patton O.; Flores, Lisa Y.; Martens, Matthew P.

    2013-01-01

    The present study used social cognitive career theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) to predict the math/science goal intentions of a sample of low-income prospective first-generation college students (N = 305). Structural equation modeling was used to test a model depicting relationships between contextual (i.e., social class, learning…

  11. Mexican American Middle School Students' Goal Intentions in Mathematics and Science: A Test of Social Cognitive Career Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Rachel L.; Flores, Lisa Y.; Worthington, Robert L.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether sociocontextual and sociocognitive variables explained the math/science goals of 409 Mexican American youth using a modified version of R. W. Lent, S. D. Brown, and G. Hackett's (1994) social cognitive career theory. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that the hypothesized model explained a significant…

  12. Math and Science Social Cognitive Variables in College Students: Contributions of Contextual Factors in Predicting Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byars-Winston, Angela M.; Fouad, Nadya A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of two contextual factors, parental involvement and perceived career barriers, on math/science goals. Using social cognitive career theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994), a path model was tested to investigate hypothesized relationships between math- and science-related efficacy beliefs (i.e., task and…

  13. Developing Effective Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, T.J.

    In this introductory work, the main principles on which British companies are basing management development programs are presented, and stages in assuring a supply of effective managerial talent are set forth: stages in assuring a supply of effective managerial t"lent are set forth: program planning based on clear objectives and communication;…

  14. Career Goals, Preferences, and Support for Students in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Belva A.

    2013-01-01

    Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory has been adapted by Lent, Brown, and Hackett (1994) to form social cognitive career theory (SCCT). The theory posits three interlocking steps in academic and career development: interest, choice goal, and choice goal action. Self-efficacy, outcome expectations, barriers, and supports are hypothesized to…

  15. Two Tests of the Social Cognitive Model of Well-Being in Portuguese College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lent, Robert W.; Taveira, Maria do Ceu; Lobo, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    A social cognitive model of well-being (Lent & Brown, 2006, 2008) was tested in two studies (one cross-sectional, one longitudinal) with Portuguese college students. Participants in Study 1 (N = 366) completed measures of academic self-efficacy, environmental support, goal progress, academic satisfaction and stress, trait positive affect, and…

  16. Schooling along the Color Line: Progressives and the Education of Blacks in the New South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the writings and speeches of several "progressive" southern academics who formed the basis of the crusade for industrial education for blacks. Shows how these intellectuals lent the authority of their institutions and the weight of their ideas to promote an educational system designed to maintain racial control and black subservience.…

  17. Examining a Model of Life Satisfaction among Unemployed Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Ryan D.; Bott, Elizabeth M.; Allan, Blake A.; Torrey, Carrie L.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined a model of life satisfaction among a diverse sample of 184 adults who had been unemployed for an average of 10.60 months. Using the Lent (2004) model of life satisfaction as a framework, a model was tested with 5 hypothesized predictor variables: optimism, job search self-efficacy, job search support, job search…

  18. Influence of Social Cognitive and Ethnic Variables on Academic Goals of Underrepresented Students in Science and Engineering: A Multiple-Groups Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byars-Winston, Angela; Estrada, Yannine; Howard, Christina; Davis, Dalelia; Zalapa, Juan

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigated the academic interests and goals of 223 African American, Latino/a, Southeast Asian, and Native American undergraduate students in 2 groups: biological science (BIO) and engineering (ENG) majors. Using social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994), we examined the relationships of social cognitive…

  19. Behavior Modification Programs for Deaf-Blind Children. Proceedings of a Workshop Held July 13-14, 1970 (Pineville, Louisiana).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Edwin K., Ed.

    Proceedings of a workshop (Pineville, Louisiana, July 13-14, 1970) on behavior modification programs for deaf-blind children are presented. James Lent discusses the principles of behavior modification and the habilitation of deaf blind children while Pat Aycock utilized case histories to consider shaping behavior of multiply handicapped crib…

  20. Social Cognitive Career Theory, Conscientiousness, and Work Performance: A Meta-Analytic Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Steven D.; Lent, Robert W.; Telander, Kyle; Tramayne, Selena

    2011-01-01

    We performed a meta-analytic path analysis of an abbreviated version of social cognitive career theory's (SCCT) model of work performance (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994). The model we tested included the central cognitive predictors of performance (ability, self-efficacy, performance goals), with the exception of outcome expectations. Results…

  1. Predicting the Job and Life Satisfaction of Italian Teachers: Test of a Social Cognitive Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lent, Robert W.; Nota, Laura; Soresi, Salvatore; Ginevra, Maria C.; Duffy, Ryan D.; Brown, Steven D.

    2011-01-01

    This study tested a social cognitive model of work and life satisfaction (Lent & Brown, 2006, 2008) in a sample of 235 Italian school teachers. The model offered good overall fit to the data, though not all individual path coefficients were significant. Three of five predictors (favorable work conditions, efficacy-relevant supports, and…

  2. Relation of Social-Cognitive Factors to Academic Satisfaction in Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lent, Robert W.; Singley, Daniel; Sheu, Hung-Bin; Schmidt, Janet A.; Schmidt, Linda C.

    2007-01-01

    Lent (2004) posited a model of domain-specific and overall life satisfaction in which social-cognitive variables (self-efficacy, outcome expectations, environmental supports, and perceived goal progress) play key roles. In this study, the authors examined the relation of these variables to academic satisfaction. Participants were 153 engineering…

  3. The Social Cognitive Model of Job Satisfaction among Teachers: Testing and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badri, Masood A.; Mohaidat, Jihad; Ferrandino, Vincent; El Mourad, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    The study empirically tests an integrative model of work satisfaction (0280, 0140, 0300 and 0255) in a sample of 5,022 teachers in Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates. The study provided more support for the Lent and Brown (2006) model. Results revealed that this model was a strong fit for the data and accounted for 82% of the variance in work…

  4. The Revenue Imperative: Finding New Funding Streams in the Face of Budget Cuts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Kim

    2011-01-01

    By all accounts, 2010 was a watershed year for community colleges. President Obama touted the role these institutions play in putting Americans back to work, and widespread enrollment increases lent credibility to the notion that students at long last are realizing the benefits of two-year quality and value compared with the higher price of…

  5. Relationships between College Knowledge and College-Going Beliefs of Eighth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisely, Lynn Woodward

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships of college knowledge and parent education level with these college-going beliefs: (a) self-efficacy, (b) outcome expectations, (c) likelihood both to go to and graduate from college, (d) choice intentions, and (e) educational goals. Social Cognitive Career Theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) provided the…

  6. Social Cognitive Career Theory and the Prediction of Interests and Choice Goals in the Computing Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lent, Robert W.; Lopez, Antonio M., Jr.; Lopez, Frederick G.; Sheu, Hung-Bin

    2008-01-01

    We tested the fit of the social cognitive choice model [Lent, R.W., Brown, S.D., & Hackett, G. (1994). "Toward a unifying social cognitive theory of career and academic interest, choice, and performance [Monograph]." "Journal of Vocational Behavior," 45, 79-122] to the data across gender, educational level, and type of university among students in…

  7. Freshman Engineering Students At-Risk of Non-Matriculation: Self-Efficacy for Academic Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernst, Jeremy V.; Bowen, Bradley D.; Williams, Thomas O.

    2016-01-01

    Students identified as at-risk of non-academic continuation have a propensity toward lower academic self-efficacy than their peers (Lent, 2005). Within engineering, self-efficacy and confidence are major markers of university continuation and success (Lourens, 2014 Raelin, et al., 2014). This study explored academic learning self-efficacy specific…

  8. The Moral Impotence of Contemporary Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filion, Yves R.

    2004-01-01

    Technological growth in developed and developing countries in the 20th century has lent a great deal of importance to scientific reasoning in the management of human affairs. An important outgrowth has been the development of systems thinking to organize the workplace. The business reengineering process and the enterprise resource planning system…

  9. The Ongoing Social Construction of the Counseling for Work and Relationship Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Mary Sue

    2012-01-01

    This rejoinder to the three reactions papers by Blustein (2012), Byars-Winston (2012), and Lent (2012) focuses first on the issue of what is old and what is new about the counseling for work and relationship perspective. This includes the issue of holism, the influence of contextualism, and the designation of new categories and a new discourse for…

  10. The acquisition process of musical tonal schema: implications from connectionist modeling.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Rie; Hartono, Pitoyo; Abe, Jun-Ichi

    2015-01-01

    Using connectionist modeling, we address fundamental questions concerning the acquisition process of musical tonal schema of listeners. Compared to models of previous studies, our connectionist model (Learning Network for Tonal Schema, LeNTS) was better equipped to fulfill three basic requirements. Specifically, LeNTS was equipped with a learning mechanism, bound by culture-general properties, and trained by sufficient melody materials. When exposed to Western music, LeNTS acquired musical 'scale' sensitivity early and 'harmony' sensitivity later. The order of acquisition of scale and harmony sensitivities shown by LeNTS was consistent with the culture-specific acquisition order shown by musically westernized children. The implications of these results for the acquisition process of a tonal schema of listeners are as follows: (a) the acquisition process may entail small and incremental changes, rather than large and stage-like changes, in corresponding neural circuits; (b) the speed of schema acquisition may mainly depend on musical experiences rather than maturation; and PMID:26441725

  11. Perceived Social Status and Learning Experiences in Social Cognitive Career Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mindi N.; Dahling, Jason J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a model based on Social Cognitive Career Theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) that placed perceived social status as an antecedent of career-related learning experiences, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations. Gender was included in the present model and results indicated that gender related as expected to…

  12. A Longitudinal Examination of Adolescent Career Planning and Exploration Using a Social Cognitive Career Theory Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Mary E.; Creed, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    This study used social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994), as a framework to investigate predictors of career choice actions, operationalised as career planning and career exploration. The model was tested cross-sectionally and longitudinally with 631 high school students enrolled in Grades 10-12. Students completed measures of…

  13. Modeling College Women's Perceptions of Elite Leadership Positions with Social Cognitive Career Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeagley, Emily E.; Subich, Linda M.; Tokar, David M.

    2010-01-01

    The utility of Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) for predicting college women's interests and goals for positions of elite leadership was examined with 156 undergraduate women at a public university. They completed measures of elite leadership self-efficacy expectations, outcome expectations, interests, and goals.…

  14. Pick a Pair. Pancake Pairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Pat

    2005-01-01

    Cold February weather and pancakes are a traditional pairing. Pancake Day began as a way to eat up the foods that were abstained from in Lent--traditionally meat, fat, eggs and dairy products. The best-known pancake event is The Pancake Day Race in Buckinghamshire, England, which has been run since 1445. This column describes pairs of books that…

  15. Legal Forum: The Changing Federal Role in Bilingual Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Martha M.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a brief overview of historical developments and recent activity regarding the federal government's policy toward bilingual education. Focuses mainly on the Supreme Court's Lau v. Vichols decision of 1974, which lent support to bilingual education, and the Reagan Administration's challenges to current funding practices for such education.…

  16. Integrating Person and Situation Perspectives on Work Satisfaction: A Social-Cognitive View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lent, Robert W.; Brown, Steven D.

    2006-01-01

    Social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) was originally designed to help explain interest development, choice, and performance in career and educational domains. These three aspects of career/academic development were presented in distinct but overlapping segmental models. This article presents a fourth social cognitive model…

  17. Social Cognitive and Cultural Orientation Predictors of Well-Being in Asian American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hui, Kayi; Lent, Robert W.; Miller, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the predictive utility of Lent and Brown's social cognitive model of educational and work well-being with a sample of Asian American college students, indexing well-being in terms of academic and social domain satisfaction. In addition, we examined the role of acculturation and enculturation as culture-specific predictors…

  18. The Development and Initial Validation of Social Cognitive Career Theory Instruments to Measure Choice of Medical Specialty and Practice Location

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Mary E.; Creed, Peter A.; Searle, Judy

    2009-01-01

    Social cognitive career theory served as the basis for the instrument development for scales assessing self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and goals to predict medical career choice. Lent and Brown's conceptualization of social cognitive constructs guided the development of items to measure choice of medical specialty and practice location. Study…

  19. The Effects of Instructor-Learner Interactions on Learner Satisfaction in Online Masters Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaren, Angelene C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to investigate the extent instructor-learner interactions affected learner satisfaction in online, semester-long Masters courses. This research study lent itself to several questions: To what extent do instructor-learner interactions affect learner satisfaction in online Masters courses; To what extent does…

  20. Resolution of M. bovis phylogeny using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Piecemeal analysis of Mycobacterium bovis (MBO) genomes and conventional genotyping methods have not lent to a comprehensive resolution of its genetic diversity to explain the wide range of disease phenotypes caused by this zoonotic pathogen. Conventional genotyping methods like spoligotyping and V...

  1. In the Company of Critical Thinkers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lent, ReLeah

    2006-01-01

    What if we could truly engage high schools students in learning by actively involving them in research and discussion leading to concrete actions on issues that interest them? Lent describes her experiences working with student study groups composed of high school students and teachers or adult community members. Study groups differ from…

  2. Teaching Petrarchan and Anti-Petrarchan Discourses in Early Modern English Lyrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribes, Purificación

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present article is to help students realize that Petrarchism has been an influential source of inspiration for Early Modern English lyrics. Its topics and conventions have lent themselves to a wide variety of appropriations which the present selection of texts for analysis tries to illustrate. A few telling examples from Spenser,…

  3. Longitudinal Test of a Social Cognitive Model of Academic and Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singley, Daniel B.; Lent, Robert W.; Sheu, Hung-Bin

    2010-01-01

    The authors tested a social cognitive model of academic and overall life satisfaction in a sample of 769 university students. The predictors, drawn from Lent's unifying perspective on well-being and psychosocial adjustment, included social cognitive (academic self-efficacy, goal progress, social support) and personality (trait positive affect)…

  4. Adolescents on the Edge: Stories and Lessons to Transform Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lent, ReLeah Cossett; Baca, Jimmy Santiago

    2010-01-01

    Fusing Jimmy Santiago Baca's talents as a writer of memoir with ReLeah Cossett Lent's expertise in building and empowering classroom communities, this book offers a completely new approach to reaching at-risk adolescents. Centered around conflicts and life-altering choices, Baca's gripping personal narratives--delivered through short stories and…

  5. Math Interest and Choice Intentions of Non-Traditional African-American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Byron

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the application of the social-cognitive career theory (SCCT) (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) to the math interest and choice intentions of non-traditional African-American college student population. The associations between the social-cognitive constructs were examined to identify their relation to math interest and choice…

  6. The Role of Career Barriers in High School Students' Career Choice Behavior in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tien, Hsiu-Lan Shelley; Wang, Ying-Fen; Liu, Ling-Chun

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of career barriers in social cognitive career theory (R. W. Lent, S. D. Brown, & G. Hackett, 1994). The participants were 584 high school students in Taiwan, Republic of China. The gender differences in perceived career barriers and career self-efficacy were significant. Results of hierarchical…

  7. 12 CFR 208.100 - Sale of bank's money orders off premises as establishment of branch office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sale of bank's money orders off premises as... SYSTEM (REGULATION H) Interpretations § 208.100 Sale of bank's money orders off premises as establishment... deposits are received, or checks paid, or money lent.” The basic question is whether the sale of a...

  8. The Career Development of Mexican American Adolescent Women: A Test of Social Cognitive Career Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Lisa Y.; O'Brien, Karen M.

    2002-01-01

    This study tested R. W. Lent, S. D. Brown, and G. Hackett's (1994) model of career choice with 364 Mexican American adolescent women. Path analyses were run to determine the influence of contextual and social cognitive variables on career aspiration, career choice prestige, and traditionality. Partial support for the model was evidenced as…

  9. Role of Family Background, Student Behaviors, and School-Related Beliefs in Predicting High School Dropout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parr, Alyssa K.; Bonitz, Verena S.

    2015-01-01

    The authors' purpose was to test a parsimonious model derived from social cognitive career theory (R. W. Lent, S. D. Brown, & G. Hackett, 1994) and expectancy value theory (J. S. Eccles & A. Wigfield, 2002) that integrates groups of variables (demographic background, student behaviors, and school-related beliefs) with the goal of…

  10. Career Counseling for Women Preparing to Leave Abusive Relationships: A Social Cognitive Career Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachter Morris, Carrie A.; Shoffner, Marie F.; Newsome, Deborah W.

    2009-01-01

    Career counselors work with people from varied segments of society. For battered women, some of the challenges they face from intimate partner violence may significantly influence their career exploration and decision making. Social cognitive career theory (SCCT; R. W. Lent, S. D. Brown, & G. Hackett, 1994) is a framework that has important…

  11. Identifying the Antecedent in the Relation between Career Interests and Self-Efficacy: Is It One, the Other, or Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nauta, Margaret M.; Kahn, Jeffrey H.; Angell, James W.; Cantarelli, Erika A.

    2002-01-01

    Social-cognitive career theory (R. W. Lent, S. D. Brown, & G. Hackett, 1994) postulates that changes in self-efficacy precede changes in interests, but the cross-sectional nature of most research has precluded the examination of temporal precedence in the relation between these variables. The authors assessed college students' career interests and…

  12. Applying Social Cognitive Career Theory to Predict Interests and Choice Goals in Statistics among Spanish Psychology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Angeles

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the usefulness of social cognitive career theory--SCCT (Lent, Brown, and Hackett, 1994) in predicting interests and goals relating to statistics among psychology students. The participants were 1036 Spanish students who completed measurements of statistics-related mastery experiences, self-efficacy, outcome expectations,…

  13. Game-Based Learning: How to Delight and Instruct in The 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman, Joel

    2004-01-01

    Not long after he completed his Ph.D. at the University of Michigan, Mike Van Lent used his interest in videogames and artificial intelligence to land a research professorship at the University of Southern California (USC). There he edits the Journal of Game Development and conducts studies for the Institute for Creative Technologies, a $45…

  14. Career Counseling as an Environmental Support: Exploring Influences on Career Choice, Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy, and Career Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makela, Julia Panke

    2011-01-01

    This study was motivated by concerns regarding the difficult academic and career choices facing today's college students as they navigate higher education and encounter career barriers along their paths. Using Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) as a primary framework, the study sought to understand the role that…

  15. Facing the Issues: Challenges, Censorship, and Reflection through Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lent, ReLeah Cossett

    2008-01-01

    ReLeah Cossett Lent provides practical advice for ensuring that books are kept on shelves and in classrooms for students to read. She outlines steps for creating professional learning communities that engage with censorship issues and prepare schools to deal with book challenges in thoughtful, supportive ways. (Contains 4 figures.)

  16. Fitting the Bill: Commissioned Theatre Projects on Human Rights in Pakistan--The Work of Karachi-Based Theatre Group "Tehrik e Niswan"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundrawala, Asma

    2007-01-01

    Theatre practitioners in Pakistan's southern city Karachi have seen a recent surge of interest in the past two decades by donor agencies from the Western world to fund theatre companies and employ various forms of theatre for development to service their agendas and areas of interest within their target communities. This trend may have lent a…

  17. Social-Cognitive Factors Affecting Clients' Career and Life Satisfaction after Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verbruggen, Marijke; Sels, Luc

    2010-01-01

    This study examines factors affecting clients' career and life satisfaction in the first 6 months after having participated in career counseling. In particular, we tested a large subset of the recent social-cognitive model of work satisfaction of Lent and Brown using a longitudinal data set of 195 former counseling clients. Our results showed that…

  18. College-Level Choice of Latino High School Students: A Social-Cognitive Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Laura M.

    2012-01-01

    Latino students attend 2-year colleges more often than 4-year colleges. This has an impact on the rate of bachelor's degree attainment, because the transfer rate between the 2 levels is low. The author uses national data to identify predictors associated with college-level choice and then uses social-cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, &…

  19. Understanding and Facilitating Career Development of People of Appalachian Culture: An Integrated Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Mei; Russ, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    The literature on career development for people of Appalachian culture is sparse. This article reviews cultural values of Appalachians and proposes an innovative career intervention model to best serve people of this culture. The model integrates the concepts of the social cognitive career development approach (R. W. Lent, S. D. Brown, & G.…

  20. Across Academic Domains: Extensions of the Social-Cognitive Career Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fouad, Nadya A.; Smith, Philip L.; Zao, Kathryn E.

    2002-01-01

    In the present study, the authors investigated the academic subject matter domain specificity of the social-cognitive career choice model (R. W. Lent, S. D. Brown, & G. Hackett, 1994). The relationships between self-efficacy, goals, outcome expectations, and interests were examined across the subject areas of art, social science, math/science, and…

  1. Student Teachers' Perceptions of Cooperating Teachers as Teacher Educators: Development of Standards Based Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holbert, Romena M. Garrett

    2011-01-01

    Cooperating teachers play important roles in student teachers' development as educators. The purpose of this study was to develop a measure that enables systematic investigation of the actions and interactions of cooperating teachers during student teaching. Three sets of educational standards lent focus to this work. The measures developed were…

  2. Precursors of Learning Experiences in Social Cognitive Career Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tokar, David M.; Thompson, Mindi N.; Plaufcan, Melissa R.; Williams, Christine M.

    2007-01-01

    This study extended the research on Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT; [Lent, R. W., Brown, S. D., & Hackett, G. (1994). Toward a unifying social cognitive theory of career and academic interest, choice, and performance. "Journal of Vocational Behavior," 45, 79-122]) by examining the contributions of 3 person inputs (personality, gender, and…

  3. Gender in the Development of Career Related Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Christine Marie

    2010-01-01

    Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) delineates the ways in which social forces may influence women's career development and create gender segregation in different types of occupations (see Betz, 2007 for a review). However, a number of questions remain, specifically in regards to how social forces may shape the core…

  4. Effects of Social Supports on the Career Choice Consideration of Chinese Farmers: A Social Cognitive Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Li

    2012-01-01

    Drawing from social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994), this study explored social supports' influence on the career choice consideration of farmers during China's current process of urbanization. A questionnaire was designed based on interviews with 140 people and a pretest with a sample of 419 participants. A total of 628…

  5. Strong Vocational Interest Blank and Kuder Occupational Interest Survey Differences Reexamined in Terms of Holland's Vocational Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shea, Arthur J.; Harrington, Thomas F., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    This study interpreted a factor analysis of like-named scales in terms of Holland's theory of vocational choice. The Holland system facilitated the naming of the factors and provided possible explanations of low correlations between like-named scales. Finally, the results lent support to Holland's categories of occupational activity. Comments by…

  6. Variables that Affect Math Teacher Candidates' Intentions to Integrate Computer-Assisted Mathematics Education (CAME)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    Based on Social Cognitive Carier Theory (SCCT) (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994, 2002), this study tested the effects of mathematics teacher candidates' self-efficacy in, outcome expectations from, and interest in CAME on their intentions to integrate Computer-Assisted Mathematics Education (CAME). While mathematics teacher candidates' outcome…

  7. A Longitudinal Examination of the Social-Cognitive Model Applied to High School Girls' Choices of Nontraditional College Majors and Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nauta, Margaret M.; Epperson, Douglas L.

    2003-01-01

    This study tested a partial version of R. W. Lent, S. D. Brown, and G. Hackett's (1994) social-cognitive career theory model. Among 204 high school girls who attended science, math, and engineering (SME) career conferences, the authors used a 4-year longitudinal design to predict the choice of an SME college major and SME self-efficacy and outcome…

  8. The acquisition process of musical tonal schema: implications from connectionist modeling

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, Rie; Hartono, Pitoyo; Abe, Jun-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Using connectionist modeling, we address fundamental questions concerning the acquisition process of musical tonal schema of listeners. Compared to models of previous studies, our connectionist model (Learning Network for Tonal Schema, LeNTS) was better equipped to fulfill three basic requirements. Specifically, LeNTS was equipped with a learning mechanism, bound by culture-general properties, and trained by sufficient melody materials. When exposed to Western music, LeNTS acquired musical ‘scale’ sensitivity early and ‘harmony’ sensitivity later. The order of acquisition of scale and harmony sensitivities shown by LeNTS was consistent with the culture-specific acquisition order shown by musically westernized children. The implications of these results for the acquisition process of a tonal schema of listeners are as follows: (a) the acquisition process may entail small and incremental changes, rather than large and stage-like changes, in corresponding neural circuits; (b) the speed of schema acquisition may mainly depend on musical experiences rather than maturation; and (c) the learning principles of schema acquisition may be culturally invariant while the acquired tonal schemas are varied with exposed culture-specific music. PMID:26441725

  9. 12 CFR 712.4 - What must an FCU and a CUSO do to maintain separate corporate identities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... borrowings by the CUSO indicate that the FCU is not liable. (b) Legal opinion. Prior to an FCU investing in a... will limit potential exposure of the FCU to no more than the loss of funds invested in, or lent to, the... a manner that will limit potential exposure of the FCU to no more than the loss of funds invested...

  10. 12 CFR 712.4 - What must an FCU and a CUSO do to maintain separate corporate identities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... borrowings by the CUSO indicate that the FCU is not liable. (b) Legal opinion. Prior to an FCU investing in a... will limit potential exposure of the FCU to no more than the loss of funds invested in, or lent to, the... a manner that will limit potential exposure of the FCU to no more than the loss of funds invested...

  11. Overcoming Textbook Fatigue: 21st Century Tools to Revitalize Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lent, ReLeah Cossett

    2012-01-01

    Go beyond a one-size-fits-all approach to teaching, and discover how shifting textbooks from "sole source" to just another resource revitalizes your practice, improves student achievement, and meets Common Core State Standards. Veteran teacher and literacy expert ReLeah Cossett Lent explains that how you use textbooks makes a huge difference in…

  12. Comparison of pseudophakic retinal straylight in spherical/aspherical and hydrophobic/hydrophilic intraocular lens

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yong; Song, Hui; Chen, Jing; Tang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    AIM To study the potential reasons of increased straylight in pseudophakic eyes. METHODS Cross-sectional study. Seventy patients diagnosed as bilateral age-related cataract and implanted with Tecnis ZA9003, Sensar AR40e, SA60AT, XLSTABI ZO or Akeros AO intraocular lens (IOL) were enrolled in this research. Straylight was measured by a C-Quant straylight meter three to four weeks postoperatively. Five different modalities of IOL, including spherical/aspherical optics and hydrophobic/hydrophilic material were tested in this study. Normal as well as dilated pupils were used. The main outcome variable for straylight measurement was the logarithmic straylight parameter, log(s). RESULTS The straylight parameter increased significantly after pupil dilation (P<0.05). Straylight of aspherical IOL was significantly higher after pupil dilation (P<0.05) compared to spherical IOL. In normal pupil, straylight of hydrophobic IOL was significant higher when compared with hydrophilic IOL (P<0.05). CONCLUSION Straylight and visual acuity stand for the different aspects of visual function. Several factors including pupil diameter, optic material, aspherical design of IOL influence intraocular light scattering in pseudophakic eyes. Further investigation was needed to study the impact of optic material and optic surface design on pseudophakic straylight. PMID:26682163

  13. Toric intraocular lenses for correction of astigmatism in keratoconus and after corneal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mol, Ilse EMA; Van Dooren, Bart TH

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To describe the results of cataract extraction with toric intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in patients with preexisting astigmatism from three corneal conditions (keratoconus, postkeratoplasty, and postpterygium surgery). Methods Cataract patients with topographically stable, fairly regular (although sometimes very high) corneal astigmatism underwent phacoemulsification with implantation of a toric IOL (Zeiss AT TORBI 709, Alcon Acrysof IQ toric SN6AT, AMO Tecnis ZCT). Postoperative astigmatism and refractive outcomes, as well as visual acuities, vector reduction, and complications were recorded for all eyes. Results This study evaluated 17 eyes of 16 patients with a mean age of 60 years at the time of surgery. Mean follow-up in this study was 12 months. The corrected distance Snellen visual acuity (with spectacles or contact lenses) 12 months postoperatively was 20/32 or better in 82% of eyes. The mean corneal astigmatism was 6.7 diopters (D) preoperatively, and 1.5 D of refractive cylinder at 1-year follow-up. No vision-compromising intra- or postoperative complications occurred and decentration or off-axis alignment of toric IOLs were not observed. Conclusion Phacoemulsification with toric IOL implantation was a safe and effective procedure in the three mentioned corneal conditions. Patient selection, counseling, and IOL placement with optimal astigmatism correction are crucial. PMID:27382249

  14. High order aberration and straylight evaluation after cataract surgery with implantation of an aspheric, aberration correcting monofocal intraocular lens

    PubMed Central

    Kretz, Florian T A; Tandogan, Tamer; Khoramnia, Ramin; Auffarth, Gerd U

    2015-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the quality of vision in respect to high order aberrations and straylight perception after implantation of an aspheric, aberration correcting, monofocal intraocular lens (IOL). METHODS Twenty-one patients (34 eyes) aged 50 to 83y underwent cataract surgery with implantation of an aspheric, aberration correcting IOL (Tecnis ZCB00, Abbott Medical Optics). Three months after surgery they were examined for uncorrected (UDVA) and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), contrast sensitivity (CS) under photopic and mesopic conditions with and without glare source, ocular high order aberrations (HOA, Zywave II) and retinal straylight (C-Quant). RESULTS Postoperatively, patients achieved a postoperative CDVA of 0.0 logMAR or better in 97.1% of eyes. Mean values of high order abberations were +0.02±0.27 (primary coma components) and -0.04±0.16 (spherical aberration term). Straylight values of the C-Quant were 1.35±0.44 log which is within normal range of age matched phakic patients. The CS measurements under mesopic and photopic conditions in combination with and without glare did not show any statistical significance in the patient group observed (P≥0.28). CONCLUSION The implantation of an aspherical aberration correcting monofocal IOL after cataract surgery resulted in very low residual higher order aberration (HOA) and normal straylight. PMID:26309872

  15. Complex carbohydrates in the dietary management of patients with glycogenosis caused by glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Smit, G P; Ververs, M T; Belderok, B; Van Rijn, M; Berger, R; Fernandes, J

    1988-07-01

    Carbohydrates with digestion characteristics between those of lente uncooked starches and rapidly digestible oligosaccharides were administered in a dose of 1.5 g/kg body weight to five patients with glycogenosis from glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency. Postprandial duration of normoglycemia and concentrations of blood insulin and lactate were determined. Uncooked barley groats in water, or incorporated in a meal turned out to behave as lente carbohydrates. Uncooked couscous in water, couscous incorporated in a meal, and partially cooked macaroni given as a meal behaved as semilente carbohydrates as compared with uncooked cornstarch and glucose. The in vitro determination of the digestibility index along with the in vivo tolerance test enables us to choose and incorporate semilente carbohydrates in the day-time treatment of patients. PMID:3291600

  16. Anaphylaxis to subcutaneous neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin with simultaneous sensitization to protamine and insulin.

    PubMed

    Blanco, C; Castillo, R; Quiralte, J; Delgado, J; García, I; de Pablos, P; Carrillo, T

    1996-06-01

    We report an insulin-treated diabetic patient who suffered, in a 2-month period, three severe anaphylactic reactions immediately after self-administered subcutaneous injections of neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) human recombinant-DNA insulin. These reactions consisted of local and systemic symptoms, including dyspnea and hypotension. A simultaneous sensitization to human insulin and to protamine was demonstrated, both by skin tests and by the determination of serum specific IgE. Suspecting protamine allergy, we performed a test dose to human lente insulin with perfect tolerance. After a 1-year follow-up with lente-insulin treatment, no reactions have occurred, despite treatment interruptions. Therefore, protamine IgE-mediated allergy probably caused our patient's reactions. In conclusion, protamine sensitization should be ruled out in any patient with a history of reactions to subcutaneous protamine-containing insulins, even if insulin sensitization is present. PMID:8837667

  17. New Directions for Early Literacy in a Digital Age: The iPad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flewitt, Rosie; Messer, David; Kucirkova, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss how iPads offer innovative opportunities for early literacy learning but also present challenges for teachers and children. We lent iPads to a Children's Centre nursery (3- to 4-year-olds), a primary school reception class (4- to 5-year-olds) and a Special School (7- to 13-year-olds), discussed their potential uses with…

  18. Construction of a lentiviral T/A vector for direct analysis of PCR-amplified promoters.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fu-xian; Zhu, Zhi-wei; Chen, Xiao-yu; Huang, Jing; Shi, Tuan-yuan; Li, Jun-xing; Pan, Jian-zhi

    2014-11-01

    The promoter plays an important role in the regulation of gene expression. To analyze a promoter's activity, we developed a novel lentiviral T/A vector that contains two reporter genes, a luciferase (Luc2) gene and a green fluorescent protein (Venus) gene, that are linked via an internal ribosome entry site (IRES2). To test the performance of this vector, phosphoglycerate kinase-1 (PGK) and elongation factor-1α (EF1α) promoters were amplified by PCR and inserted into this lentiviral T/A vector using T4 DNA ligase, yielding two promoter-reporter vectors: pLent-T-PGK and pLent-T-EF1α. When these vectors were transfected into 293T cells, we observed a higher level of Venus expression under a fluorescence microscopy in the case of pLent-T-EF1α as compared to pLent-T-PGK. The results of the luciferase reporter assay showed that the ratio of the promoter activities of EF1α and PGK was approximately 9:1. The two promoter-reporter vectors were also packaged as lentiviral particles to conduct promoter activity assay in cultured cells. The ratio of the promoter activities of EF1α and PGK was 4.23:1 when they were infected into 293T cells at a multiplicity of infection of 1. This value is comparable to that of a parallel experiment using the commercial luciferase reporter vector pGL4.10 with an activity ratio of 5.99:1 for EF1α and PGK. These results indicate that lentiviral T/A vector will be a useful tool for analysis of promoter activity and specificity. PMID:25091945

  19. Rediscovery and New Morphological Data on Two Hassalstrongylus (Nematoda: Heligmonellidae) Coparasitic in the Marsh Rat Holochilus chacarius (Rodentia: Cricetidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Digiani, María Celina; Notarnicola, Juliana; Navone, Graciela T

    2015-10-01

    Two species of Hassalstrongylus Durette-Desset, 1971, coparasitic in Holochilus chacarius Thomas (Rodentia, Cricetidae) and not recorded since their original description in 1937, were newly found in their type host and locality. Hassalstrongylus mazzai (Freitas, Lent and Almeida, 1937) and Hassalstrongylus argentinus (Freitas, Lent and Almeida, 1937) were obtained from Ho. chacarius from 2 different populations: one from Salta Province (northwest Argentina) and another from Chaco Province (northeast Argentina). The species described as Heligmonoides mazzai Freitas, Lent and Almeida, 1937 had been transferred to Hassalstrongylus even though its synlophe had never been studied. We provide the first descriptions and illustrations of the synlophe of males and females of Hassalstrongylus mazzai and the female of H. argentinus and account for morphological and metrical variability. We confirm, through the study of the synlophe, the placement of Hassalstrongylus mazzai in the genus Hassalstrongylus and designate neotypes for the species because the type material deposited by the authors could not be found. Females of both species were morphologically very similar, and a principal components analysis (PCA) performed on some morphometrical characters showed that the body length, uterus length, and an unexpected character as the number of eggs were useful characters in the discrimination of both species. PMID:26193068

  20. Comparison of Through-Focus Image Quality Across Five Presbyopia-Correcting Intraocular Lenses (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Pepose, Jay S.; Wang, Daozhi; Altmann, Griffith E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To assess through-focus polychromatic image sharpness of five US Food and Drug Administration–approved presbyopia-correcting intraocular lenses (IOLs) through a range of object vergences and pupil diameters utilizing an image sharpness algorithm. Methods A 1951 US Air Force resolution target was imaged through a Crystalens AO (AO) (Bausch & Lomb Surgical, Aliso Viejo, California), Crystalens HD (HD) (Bausch & Lomb Surgical, Aliso Viejo, California), aspheric ReSTOR +4.0 (R4) (Alcon Laboratories, Fort Worth, Texas), aspheric ReSTOR +3.0 (R3) (Alcon Laboratories, Fort Worth, Texas), and Tecnis Multifocal Acrylic (TMF) (Abbott Medical Optics, Irvine, California) IOL in an anatomically and optically accurate model eye and captured digitally for each combination of pupil diameter and object vergence. The sharpness of each digital image was objectively scored using a two-dimensional gradient function. Results The AO lens had the best distance image sharpness for all pupil diameters, followed by the HD. With a 5-mm pupil, the R4 lens achieved distance image quality similar to the HD, but inferior to the AO. The R3 successfully moved the near focal point farther from the patient compared to the R4, but did not improve image sharpness at intermediate distances and showed worse distance and near image sharpness. Consistent with apodization, the ReSTOR IOLs displayed better distance and poorer near image sharpness as pupil diameter increased. The TMF lens showed consistent distance and near image sharpness across pupil diameters and exhibited the best near image sharpness for all pupil diameters. Conclusions Differing IOL design strategies to increase depth of field are associated with quantifiable differences in image sharpness at varying vergences and pupil sizes. An objective comparison of the imaging properties of specific presbyopia-correcting IOLs, in conjunction with patients’ pupil sizes, can be useful in selecting the most appropriate IOL for each patient

  1. Clinical evaluation of two multifocal intraocular lens implantation patterns

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hao-Tian; Chen, Wei-Rong; Ding, Zhao-Feng; Chen, Wan; Wu, Chang-Rui

    2012-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the visual outcomes and patient satisfaction of two multifocal intraocular lens implantation patterns, with the decision between the two patterns being guided by the patients' choice of visual zones that best suited their lifestyle, or lifestyle zones. METHODS This is a prospective non-randomized comparative study. The lifestyle zones of 32 consecutive age-related cataract patients (64 eyes) were investigated individually to guide the surgical decision between two multifocal intraocular lens implantation patterns. The first group (MIX) received a combined implantation of a ReZoom NXG1 lens in the dominant eye and a Tecnis ZM900 lens in the other eye. The second group (MATCH) received bilateral ReZoom NXG1 lenses. One year postoperatively, the patients were assessed for binocular uncorrected visual acuity, reading visual acuity, reading speed and depth of focus under different luminance and were surveyed for visual disturbances, satisfaction and complete spectacle independence. RESULTS According to the determination of lifestyle zones, 18 and 14 patients were included in the MIX and MATCH groups, respectively. One year postoperatively, each of the patients exhibited positive visual outcomes and lifestyle satisfaction, although there were still some differences between the two groups. Generally, patients in the MATCH group had better distance visual acuity than those in the MIX group. In contrast, patients in the MIX group had better near visual acuity, better reading acuity and better reading speed than those in the MATCH group. Between the two groups, there was no clear difference in intermediate visual acuity, and the depths of focus between the two groups were approximately equal. The results of the mean NEI-RQL-42 questionnaire score, overall satisfaction, and complete spectacle independence did not differ between the two groups. CONCLUSION Different multifocal intraocular lenses implantation patterns can have differing advantages and

  2. Comparison Between Digital and Manual Marking for Toric Intraocular Lenses

    PubMed Central

    Elhofi, Abdel Hamid; Helaly, Hany Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To compare the clinical outcome of digital and manual marking for toric intraocular lens (IOL) alignment. This is a prospective clinical study that included 60 eyes of 60 patients undergoing cataract surgery with coexisting corneal astigmatism more than 1 diopter (D). The eyes were randomly assigned to either digital image guidance using VERION digital marker (Alcon Laboratories, Ft. Worth, TX) or manual slitlamp-assisted preoperative marking using pendulum-attached marker. Tecnis toric IOL (Abbott Medical Optics, Inc, Santa Ana, CA) was implanted in all cases. The mean postoperative uncorrected distance visual acuity (UCDVA) for the digital-marking group was 0.12 + 0.12 logMAR, and for the manual-marking group was 0.18 + 0.14 logMAR (P = 0.104). The mean deviation from targeted induced astigmatism (TIA) for the first group was 0.10 + 0.08 D and for the second group was 0.20 + 0.14 D (P = 0.001). The mean postoperative toric IOL misalignment measured by the slitlamp was 2.4° + 1.96° for the first group and was 4.33° + 2.72° for the second group (P = 0.003). Accurate alignment of the toric IOL is important to achieve the desired astigmatism correction. VERION system has the advantage of preoperative planning and intraoperative digital guidance of the toric IOL alignment. The use of VERION system resulted in less postoperative deviation from TIA and showed less postoperative toric IOL misalignment than using manual-marking technique. PMID:26402830

  3. Correlation between contrast sensitivity and higher-order aberration based on pupil diameter after cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Takefumi; Negishi, Kazuno; Ohnuma, Kazuhiko; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between contrast sensitivity and calculated higher-order aberrations based on individual natural pupil diameter after cataract surgery. Methods This prospective study included 120 eyes from 92 patients who were randomized to receive one of four lenses, including three aspheric lenses (Acrysof SN60WF, Tecnis ZA9000, and Hoya Py60AD) and one spherical lens (Acrysof SN60AT). Contrast sensitivity, higher-order aberrations of the whole eye, and pupil diameter under photopic and mesopic conditions were measured 1 month postoperatively. Higher-order aberrations were decomposed into Zernike coefficients, calculated according to individual pupil diameter. The correlation between higher-order aberrations and contrast sensitivity was evaluated. Results There were no significant differences in contrast sensitivity function between the four types of lenses under photopic conditions. However, the contrast sensitivity function and area under log contrast sensitivity function in the aspheric lenses were significantly better than in the spherical lens under mesopic conditions. Under mesopic conditions, spherical aberration in eyes with aspheric lenses was significantly lower than in eyes with spherical lenses (P < 0.05). Under photopic conditions, coma aberration had a significant negative correlation with contrast sensitivity at 12 cycles/degree. Under mesopic conditions, spherical aberration had a significant negative correlation with contrast sensitivity at 3, 6, and 12 cycles/degree with glare, and with contrast sensitivity at 6 and 18 cycles/degree without glare. Conclusion In terms of influence on visual function, coma aberration may be more significant under photopic conditions and spherical aberration under mesopic conditions. PMID:22205829

  4. Objective Evaluation of Through-focus Optical Performance of Premium Intraocular Lenses Using an Optical Bench System

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myoung Joon; Zheleznyak, Len; MacRae, Scott; Tchah, Hungwon; Yoon, Geunyoung

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate spherical aberration and through-focus optical performances of 5 premium and 2 monofocal intraocular lenses (IOLs) in optical bench tests. SETTING Flaum Eye Institute, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, USA. METHODS Five premium IOLs, ReSTOR +4D (SN6AD3), ReSTOR +3D (SA6AD1), ReZoom (NXG1), Tecnis multifocal (ZM900) and Crystalens HD (HD500), were tested using an optical bench system consisting of a wet cell with an artificial pupil, a custom-developed Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, and an image capturing device. Two monofocal IOLs, SofPort AO (LI60AOV) and AcrySof (SN60AT), were used as controls. No accommodation was simulated in the system. The spherical aberration profiles of each IOL were measured using the wavefront sensor. Through-focus images of a 1951 United States Air Force resolution target were analyzed. To evaluate image quality cross-correlation coefficients, comparing the likenesses of captured images and perfect reference image, were calculated. RESULTS For a 5 mm pupil the SN6AD3, SA6AD1, NXG1, ZM900 and HD500 premium IOLs had spherical aberrations of −0.27 μm, −0.24 μm, −0.35 μm, −0.33 μm and +0.12 μm, respectively. Image quality for distant objects was poorer with multifocal and accommodating IOLs than with monofocal IOLs. All multifocal IOLs had effective distant and near image quality, but showed loss in intermediate image quality. Due to bispheric optic design, an accommodating IOL, HD 500, showed slightly increased depth of field compared with the monofocal IOLs. CONCLUSIONS Each premium IOL has different design strategy and optical characteristics, including spherical aberration profile and through-focus image quality. Thus, the choice of premium IOLs should be based on optical characteristics. PMID:21700107

  5. Comparison Between Digital and Manual Marking for Toric Intraocular Lenses: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Elhofi, Abdel Hamid; Helaly, Hany Ahmed

    2015-09-01

    To compare the clinical outcome of digital and manual marking for toric intraocular lens (IOL) alignment. This is a prospective clinical study that included 60 eyes of 60 patients undergoing cataract surgery with coexisting corneal astigmatism more than 1 diopter (D). The eyes were randomly assigned to either digital image guidance using VERION digital marker (Alcon Laboratories, Ft. Worth, TX) or manual slitlamp-assisted preoperative marking using pendulum-attached marker. Tecnis toric IOL (Abbott Medical Optics, Inc, Santa Ana, CA) was implanted in all cases. The mean postoperative uncorrected distance visual acuity (UCDVA) for the digital-marking group was 0.12 + 0.12 logMAR, and for the manual-marking group was 0.18 + 0.14 logMAR (P = 0.104). The mean deviation from targeted induced astigmatism (TIA) for the first group was 0.10 + 0.08 D and for the second group was 0.20 + 0.14 D (P = 0.001). The mean postoperative toric IOL misalignment measured by the slitlamp was 2.4° + 1.96° for the first group and was 4.33° + 2.72° for the second group (P = 0.003). Accurate alignment of the toric IOL is important to achieve the desired astigmatism correction. VERION system has the advantage of preoperative planning and intraoperative digital guidance of the toric IOL alignment. The use of VERION system resulted in less postoperative deviation from TIA and showed less postoperative toric IOL misalignment than using manual-marking technique. PMID:26402830

  6. Protection of Salivary Function by Concomitant Pilocarpine During Radiotherapy: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study

    SciTech Connect

    Burlage, Fred R. Roesink, Judith M.; Kampinga, Harm H.; Coppes, Rob P.; Terhaard, Chris; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Luijk, Peter van; Stokman, Monique A.; Vissink, Arjan

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of concomitant administration of pilocarpine during radiotherapy for head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) on postradiotherapy xerostomia. Methods and Materials: A prospective, double blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial including 170 patients with HNSCC was executed to study the protective effect of pilocarpine on radiotherapy-induced parotid gland dysfunction. The primary objective endpoint was parotid flow rate complication probability (PFCP) scored 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after radiotherapy. Secondary endpoints included Late Effects of Normal Tissue/Somatic Objective Management Analytic scale (LENT SOMA) and patient-rated xerostomia scores. For all parotid glands, dose-volume histograms were assessed because the dose distribution in the parotid glands is considered the most important prognostic factor with regard to radiation-induced salivary dysfunction. Results: Although no significant differences in PFCP were found for the two treatments arms, a significant (p = 0.03) reduced loss of parotid flow 1 year after radiotherapy was observed in those patients who received pilocarpine and a mean parotid dose above 40 Gy. The LENT SOMA and patient-rated xerostomia scores showed similar trends toward less dryness-related complaints for the pilocarpine group. Conclusions: Concomitant administration of pilocarpine during radiotherapy did not improve the PFCP or LENT SOMA and patient-rated xerostomia scores. In a subgroup of patients with a mean dose above 40 Gy, pilocarpine administration resulted in sparing of parotid gland function. Therefore, pilocarpine could be provided to patients in whom sufficient sparing of the parotid is not achievable.

  7. Espectroscopia multi-objeto e imageamento de Abell 586 com GMOS - o estado dinâmico de um aglomerado de galáxias com arcos gravitacionais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cypriano, E. S.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Kneib, J.-P.; Campusano, L.

    2003-08-01

    Nesse trabalho é apresentado um estudo do conteúdo de massa do aglomerado de galáxias A586 (z = 0.171) bem como sua distribuição espacial. Isso foi feito a partir de dados de espectroscopia multi-objeto e imageamento obtidos com o instrumento GMOS acoplado ao telescópio Gemini-Norte. A massa desse aglomerado foi estudada a partir da posição dos seus arcos gravitacionais (lentes fortes), da medida estatística da distorção na forma das galáxias de fundo (lentes fracas) e através da dispersão de velocidades de uma amostra de cerca de 30 galáxias pertencentes ao aglomerado (teorema do virial). Os dois primeiros métodos não dependem do estado dinâmico do aglomerado, enquanto que o terceiro sim. Desse modo, comparando seus resultados pode-se estimar o grau de relaxamento desse sistema. Dados de raios X presentes na literatura também serão incluídos nessa análise. Nossos resultados preliminares a partir das técnicas de lentes fracas, mostram que, supondo que a distribuição de massa desse aglomerado seja a de uma esfera isotérmica, espera-se que ele apresente uma dispersão de velocidades de 1330+/-78 km s-1, em contradicao com medidas similares feitas por Dahle et al. 2002 que encontram valores tão altos quanto 1680 km s-1. Já o estudo dinâmico resultou numa dispersão de velocidades de ~950 km s-1.

  8. Grading-System-Dependent Volume Effects for Late Radiation-Induced Rectal Toxicity After Curative Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Laan, Hans Paul van der

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: To assess the association between the dose distributions in the rectum and late Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (RTOG/EORTC), Late Effects of Normal Tissue SOMA, and Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 3.0 graded rectal toxicity among patients with prostate cancer treated with RT. Methods and Materials: Included in the study were 124 patients who received three-dimensional conformal RT for prostate cancer to a total dose of 70 Gy in 2-Gy fractions. All patients completed questionnaires regarding rectum complaints before RT and during long-term follow-up. Late rectum Grade 2 or worse toxicity, according to RTOG/EORTC, LENT SOMA, and CTCAE v3.0 criteria, was analyzed in relation to rectal dose and volume parameters. Results: Dose-volume thresholds (V40 {>=}65%, V50 {>=}55%, V65 {>=}45%, V70 {>=}20%, and a rectum volume {<=}140 cm{sup 3}), significantly discriminated patients with late Grade 0-1 and Grade 2 or worse rectal toxicity, particularly using the LENT SOMA and CTCAE v3.0 systems. The rectum volume receiving {>=}70 Gy (V70) was most predictive for late Grade 2 or worse rectal toxicity with each of the grading systems. The associations were strongest, however, with use of the LENT SOMA system. Conclusions: Volume effects for late radiation-induced rectal toxicity are present, but their clinical significance depends on the grading system used. This should be taken into account in the interpretation of studies reporting on radiation-induced rectal toxicity.

  9. Late Gastrointestinal Toxicity After Dose-Escalated Conformal Radiotherapy for Early Prostate Cancer: Results From the UK Medical Research Council RT01 Trial (ISRCTN47772397)

    SciTech Connect

    Syndikus, Isabel; Morgan, Rachel C.; Sydes, Matthew R.; Graham, John D.; Dearnaley, David P.

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: In men with localized prostate cancer, dose-escalated conformal radiotherapy (CFRT) improves efficacy outcomes at the cost of increased toxicity. We present a detailed analysis to provide further information about the incidence and prevalence of late gastrointestinal side effects. Methods and Materials: The UK Medical Research Council RT01 trial included 843 men with localized prostate cancer, who were treated for 6 months with neoadjuvant radiotherapy and were randomly assigned to either 64-Gy or 74-Gy CFRT. Toxicity was evaluated before CFRT and during long-term follow-up using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grading, the Late Effects on Normal Tissue: Subjective, Objective, Management (LENT/SOM) scale, and Royal Marsden Hospital assessment scores. Patients regularly completed Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy--Prostate (FACT-P) and University of California, Los Angeles, Prostate Cancer Index (UCLA-PCI) questionnaires. Results: In the dose-escalated group, the hazard ratio (HR) for rectal bleeding (LENT/SOM grade {>=}2) was 1.55 (95% CI, 1.17-2.04); for diarrhea (LENT/SOM grade {>=}2), the HR was 1.79 (95% CI, 1.10-2.94); and for proctitis (RTOG grade {>=}2), the HR was 1.64 (95% CI, 1.20-2.25). Compared to baseline scores, the prevalence of moderate and severe toxicities generally increased up to 3 years and than lessened. At 5 years, the cumulative incidence of patient-reported severe bowel problems was 6% vs. 8% (standard vs. escalated, respectively) and severe distress was 4% vs. 5%, respectively. Conclusions: There is a statistically significant increased risk of various adverse gastrointestinal events with dose-escalated CFRT. This remains at clinically acceptable levels, and overall prevalence ultimately decreases with duration of follow-up.

  10. Schulzia chiribita n. sp. (Nematoda, Trichostrongylina, Molineoidea) parasite of Leptodactylus rhodonotus (Amphibian) from Peru.

    PubMed

    Durette-Desset, M C; Florindez, D T; Morales, E

    2000-03-01

    A third species of the genus Schulzia Travassos, 1937 a parasite of Leptodactylus rhodonotus (Amphibian, Leptodactylidae) originating from Peru is described. By the pattern of the caudal bursa, the specimens are closely related to the two other species. They are distinguished from Schulzia uzu Lent & Santos, 1989, parasite from Atelopus oxyrhynchus in Venezuela, by the shape of the ovejector and from Schulzia travassosi Durette-Desset, Baker & Vaucher, 1985, parasite from Bufo crucifer in Brasil, Bufo granulosus and Leptodactylus bufonius in Paraguay, by the shape of the spicules. The presence of a new species in Peru points out the wide geographic distribution of the genus in the Neotropical region. PMID:10743644

  11. Developing a Vision: Incorporating Ecosystem Services into Decision Making - Proceedings of a Workshop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hogan, Dianna; Arthaud, Greg; Goodman, Iris; Pattison, Malka; Sayre, Roger G.; Shapiro, Carl; Van Horne, Bea

    2009-01-01

    The production, location, use, and value of ecosystem services have become an important factor in resource management. Decisions relating to resource conservation and restoration, as well as development, require an understanding of the services provided by natural systems and the response of these systems to natural and human-induced change. Increased demands for development and the resulting pressures on ecosystem services have lent urgency to the need for an improved understanding of the value of natural capital. However, resource management decisions are often made without considering the importance and value of services resulting from natural systems.

  12. Guidelines to come to minimized tensile strength loss upon cellulase application.

    PubMed

    Lenting, H B; Warmoeskerken, M M

    2001-08-23

    Application of cellulase technology in the textile production process often results in a certain loss of tensile strength along with the desired performance. In this paper guidelines are given how to come to minimization or even prevention of tensile strength loss. Part of the considerations is based on the hypothesis given in the accompanying paper (Lenting and Warmoeskerken, 2001, J. Biotechnol.) concerning the mechanism of interaction between cellulase action and applied shear force. Recommendations given concern the enzyme choice, process parameters and enzyme targeting. PMID:11500216

  13. Is Crohn's disease due to defective immunity?

    PubMed Central

    Korzenik, J R

    2007-01-01

    The understanding of the pathophysiology of Crohn's disease is currently undergoing a reassessment. The concept of this disease as a primary T cell disorder is being questioned, with a new emphasis on the role of innate immunity in initiating early events and in perpetuating the inflammatory state. Crohn's disease has been proposed instead to result from impaired innate immunity, encompassing the mucosal barrier and cellular elements including neutrophils and macrophages. Recent advances in genetics, functional studies on innate immunity and therapeutic trials on patients with Crohn's disease have lent support to this evolving hypothesis. PMID:17172582

  14. Lise Meitner and the beta-ray energy controversy: An historical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, Sallie A.

    1983-06-01

    Much has been written about the early history of beta-ray research and the controversy it provoked. Many prominent physicists lent their talents to the solution of this puzzling problem. One of the foremost of these was Lise Meitner, conspicuous in the fray not only because of her creative experimental work, but also because of her attachment to a physical principle—the simplicity of nature. This article reviews the sequence of events as they preceded, coincided with, and followed her work on the subject.

  15. Lise Meitner and the beta-ray energy controversy: An historical perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, S.A.

    1983-06-01

    Much has been written about the early history of beta-ray research and the controversy it provoked. Many prominent physicists lent their talents to the solution of this puzzling problem. One of the foremost of these was Lise Meitner, conspicuous in the fray not only because of her creative experimental work, but also because of her attachment to a physical principle: the simplicity of nature. This article reviews the sequence of events as they preceded, coincided with, and followed her work on the subject.

  16. Update on drugs used to treat endocrine diseases in small animals.

    PubMed

    Behrend, Ellen N

    2006-09-01

    Drug therapy for the endocrine system is implemented to replace a hormone deficiency or to prevent or reduce the formation or effects of excess hormone. Treatment of endocrine disorders covers diseases of the pituitary, adrenal, parathyroid, and thyroid glands as well as the endocrine pancreas. This article focuses on new therapies currently available for specific diseases. Administration of trilostane for treatment of hyperadrenocorticism and use of insulin glargine, protamine zinc insulin (PZI), and porcine Lente insulin for diabetes mellitus are discussed. In addition, transdermal methimazole therapy for treatment of feline hyperthyroidism and administration of progestins for pituitary dwarfism are considered. PMID:16984828

  17. Triatoma jatai sp. nov. in the state of Tocantins, Brazil (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Teves-Neves, Simone Caldas; dos Santos-Mallet, Jacenir Reis; Carbajal-de-la-Fuente, Ana Laura; Lopes, Catarina Macedo

    2013-01-01

    Triatoma jatai sp. nov. is the first new species of triatomine to be described in the state of Tocantins, in the northern region of Brazil. It was caught on rock outcrops in the wild environment and, more recently, invading homes. While T. jatai sp. nov. is morphologically similar to Triatoma costalimai, it is distinguished by its general colouring, differences in the blotches on the connexivum, wing size in females and external structures of the male genitalia. The type series has been deposited in the Entomological Collection and Herman Lent Collection, Oswaldo Cruz Institute-Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:23828010

  18. Differentiation between Triatoma arthurneivai and Triatoma wygodzinskyi (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) using cytotaxonomy.

    PubMed

    Alevi, K C C; Imperador, C H L; Moreira, F F F; Jurberg, J; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V

    2016-01-01

    Using classic morphometric techniques to examine the head and thorax of Triatoma specimens, researchers identified a possible taxonomic problem involving T. arthurneivai (Lent & Martins) and T. wygodzinskyi (Lent). A recent geometric morphometric study indicated that the insects captured outside the Serra do Cipó region, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were T. wygodzinskyi. The misidentification of T. arthurneivai as T. wygodzinskyi could result in several problems associated with entoepidemiological lifting, the biological characterization of the species, and phylogenetic reconstruction. For the first time, we describe the use of cytogenetic analysis as a tool for differentiation between T. arthurneivai and T. wygodzinskyi. The results indicated that both species had the same number of chromosomes 2n = 22 (20A + XY). However, analyses of spermatocytes during early prophase indicated that it was possible to differentiate T. arthurneivai and T. wygodzinskyi, because only T. arthurneivai exhibited heteropycnotic blocks distributed in the chromatin. Therefore, we highlight the analysis of spermatocytes as a taxonomic tool for the characterization of T. arthurneivai and T. wygodzinskyi, and suggest that the technique can be used for entoepidemiological lifting in vector control programs. Thus, the results presented here, in conjunction with morphometric analyses, are of utmost taxonomic and epidemiological importance for the identification of T. arthurneivai and T. wygodzinskyi specimens. PMID:27420940

  19. Anaphylaxis to protamine masquerading as an insulin allergy.

    PubMed

    Kim, R

    1993-01-01

    This is the case of a 62-year-old man referred for the evaluation of insulin allergy. This patient had reacted to the subcutaneous injection of Novolin 70/30 (Squibb, Princeton, N.J.) and Humulin NPH (Eli Lilly, Indianapolis, Ind.). These reactions were characterized by the immediate onset of diffuse pruritic urticaria and angioedema with progression to hypotension as well as a local reaction. Past history also included anaphylactic shock after intravenous administration of protamine sulfate used for heparin reversal during arterial bypass surgery. Immediate hypersensitivty skin testing to protamine containing (NPH) insulin and protamine sulfate USP were strongly positive, while Lente insulin (Eli Lilly, Indianapolis, Ind.) and controls were negative. RAST tests revealed the titers > 24 ng/ml of protamine specific IgE with 98 percent inhibition and 1163 ng/ml of protamine specific IgG with 29 percent inhibition, while levels of insulin specific antibodies were negligible. Subsequently, the patient was treated with non-protamine containing insulin preparation, Lente insulin, without further incident. This study confirms the diagnosis of Type I hypersensitivity to protamine sulfate masquerading as insulin allergy. PMID:8454092

  20. Immunologic analysis of anaphylaxis to protamine component in neutral protamine Hagedorn human insulin.

    PubMed

    Dykewicz, M S; Kim, H W; Orfan, N; Yoo, T J; Lieberman, P

    1994-01-01

    We report the clinical and immunologic analysis of two patients with diabetes who had anaphylaxis to neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) human insulin in the absence of allergy to regular insulin. A 36-year-old woman without a recent history of local insulin reactions or interruption of insulin therapy experienced anaphylaxis within 15 minutes of her usual morning dose of subcutaneously administered NPH human insulin. A 62-year-old man with a history of generalized reactions to NPH human insulin and of anaphylaxis to intravenously administered protamine had generalized urticaria after injection of NPH human insulin. Both patients subsequently tolerated Lente human insulin. Skin test results in both patients were negative to regular and Lente insulin preparations but positive to NPH insulin and to protamine at concentrations tested. In vitro assays demonstrated that both patients had markedly elevated serum levels of IgE and IgG to protamine, but not to regular human insulin, and that their IgE antibodies to protamine recognized protamine antigenic determinants in NPH human insulin. We conclude that the anaphylactic reactions to NPH insulin in our patients were mediated by IgE to protamine, which should be a pathogenetic consideration in the evaluation of immediate-type reactions to protamine-containing insulins. PMID:8308177

  1. Ecotopes, natural infection and trophic resources of Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Costa, J; de Almeida, J R; Britto, C; Duarte, R; Marchon-Silva, V; Pacheco, R da S

    1998-01-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis is considered as one of the most important Chagas disease vectors in the northeastern Brazil. This species presents chromatic variations which led to descriptions of subspecies, synonymized by Lent and Wygodzinsky (1979). In order to broaden bionomic knowledge of these distinct colour patterns of T. brasiliensis, captures were performed at different sites, where the chromatic patterns were described: Caicó, Rio Grande do Norte (T. brasiliensis brasiliensis Neiva, 1911), it will be called the "brasiliensis population"; Espinosa, Minas Gerais (T. brasiliensis melanica Neiva & Lent 1941), the "melanica population" and Petrolina, Pernambuco (T. brasiliensis macromelasoma, Galvão 1956), the "macromelasoma population". A fourth chromatic pattern was collected in Juazeiro, Bahia the darker one in overall cuticle coloration, the "Juazeiro population". At the sites of Caicó, Petrolina and Juazeiro, specimens were captured in peridomiciliar ecotopes and in wilderness. In Espinosa the specimens were collected only in wilderness, even though several exhaustive captures have been performed in peridomicile at different sites of this municipality. A total of 298 specimens were captured. The average registered infection rate was 15% for "brasiliensis population" and of 6.6% for "melanica population". Specimens of "macromelasoma" and of "Juazeiro populations" did not present natural infection. Concerning trophic resources, evaluated by the precipitin test, feeding eclecticism for the different colour patterns studied was observed, with dominance of goat blood in household surroundings as well as in wilderness. PMID:9698835

  2. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Radiation-Induced Cystitis and Proctitis

    SciTech Connect

    Oliai, Caspian; Fisher, Brandon; Jani, Ashish; Wong, Michael; Poli, Jaganmohan; Brady, Luther W.; Komarnicky, Lydia T.

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To provide a retrospective analysis of the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) for treating hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) and proctitis secondary to pelvic- and prostate-only radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Nineteen patients were treated with HBOT for radiation-induced HC and proctitis. The median age at treatment was 66 years (range, 15-84 years). The range of external-beam radiation delivered was 50.0-75.6 Gy. Bleeding must have been refractory to other therapies. Patients received 100% oxygen at 2.0 atmospheres absolute pressure for 90-120 min per treatment in a monoplace chamber. Symptoms were retrospectively scored according to the Late Effects of Normal Tissues-Subjective, Objective, Management, Analytic (LENT-SOMA) scale to evaluate short-term efficacy. Recurrence of hematuria/hematochezia was used to assess long-term efficacy. Results: Four of the 19 patients were lost to follow-up. Fifteen patients were evaluated and received a mean of 29.8 dives: 11 developed HC and 4 proctitis. All patients experienced a reduction in their LENT-SOMA score. After completion of HBOT, the mean LENT-SOMA score was reduced from 0.78 to 0.20 in patients with HC and from 0.66 to 0.26 in patients with proctitis. Median follow-up was 39 months (range, 7-70 months). No cases of hematuria were refractory to HBOT. Complete resolution of hematuria was seen in 81% (n = 9) and partial response in 18% (n = 2). Recurrence of hematuria occurred in 36% (n = 4) after a median of 10 months. Complete resolution of hematochezia was seen in 50% (n = 2), partial response in 25% (n = 1), and refractory bleeding in 25% (n = 1). Conclusions: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is appropriate for radiation-induced HC once less time-consuming therapies have failed to resolve the bleeding. In these conditions, HBOT is efficacious in the short and long term, with minimal side effects.

  3. Similarity of the patterns of sensilla on the antennae of Triatoma melanosoma and Triatoma infestans.

    PubMed

    Catalá, S; Torres, M

    2001-04-01

    The patterns of sensilla on the antennae of sylvatic Triatoma melanosoma Lent, Jurberg, Galvao and Carcavallo 1994 were compared with those of three samples of Triatoma infestans (Klug 1834) - one of domestic populations in Paraguay, Bolivia, Argentina and Chile, one of the sylvatic 'dark morph' from the Bolivian Chaco, and one from sylvatic sites in the Cochabamba region of Bolivia. The results of multivariate analysis indicated that, in terms of their antennal sensilla, the T. melanosoma and the 'dark morph' of T. infestans were more similar to the domestic T. infestans than to the sylvatic T. infestans from Cochabamba. As in previous molecular and genetic studies, there was no evidence to indicate that the bugs identified as T. melanosoma and those identified as T. infestans belonged to different species. The taxonomic position of T. melanosoma should therefore be reconsidered. PMID:11339888

  4. A SYNCHRONIZED FIR/VUV LIGHT SOURCE AT JEFFERSON LAB

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Benson, David Douglas, George Neil, Michelle D. Shinn, Gwyn Williams

    2012-07-01

    We describe a dual free-electron laser (FEL) configuration on the UV Demo FEL at Jefferson Lab that allows simultaneous lasing at FIR/THz and UV wavelengths. The FIR/THz source would be an FEL oscillator with a short wiggler providing nearly diffraction-limited pulses with pulse energy exceeding 50 microJoules. The FIR source would use the exhaust beam from a UVFEL. The coherent harmonics in the VUV from the UVFEL are out-coupled through a hole. The FIR source uses a shorter resonator with either hole or edge coupling to provide very high power FIR pulses. Simulations indicate excel-lent spectral brightness in the FIR region with over 100 W/cm-1 output.

  5. Developmental biology and databases: how to archive, find and query gene expression patterns using the world wide web.

    PubMed

    Armit, Chris

    2007-10-01

    Systems biology has undergone an explosive growth in recent times. The staggering amount of expression data that can now be obtained from microarray chip analysis and high-throughput in situ screens has lent itself to the creation of large, terabyte-capacity databases in which to house gene expression patterns. Furthermore, innovative methods can be used to interrogate these databases and to link genomic information to functional information of embryonic cells, tissues and organs. These formidable advancements have led to the development of a whole host of online resources that have allowed biologists to probe the mysteries of growth and form with renewed zeal. This review seeks to highlight general features of these databases, and to identify the methods by which expression data can be retrieved. PMID:19279703

  6. The joint actions of adolescents in peer conversations about career.

    PubMed

    Young, R A; Antal, S; Bassett, M E; Post, A; Devries, N; Valach, L

    1999-08-01

    Ten career conversations between adolescent peers were video-taped to examine the joint actions of adolescents that emerge in actual conversations about career. Based on an action-theoretical approach, joint action refers to the intentional behavior of a group of people attempting to realize a common goal or engage in a common process. The actual conversations and the adolescents' recall of their thoughts and feelings during the conversations were used to identify the joint actions that occurred in the conversations and the meaning that the conversations had for the adolescents. Goals of the actions included educational planning, career selection, and personal future. The functions the adolescents undertook in the conversations to reach these goals were identified as exploring, formulating, validating, and challenging. Based on these results, it was proposed that self-refinement was the project that energized and guided the joint actions and lent meaning to the conversations. PMID:10469516

  7. Role of momentum and velocity for radiating electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capdessus, Rémi; Noble, Adam; McKenna, Paul; Jaroszynski, Dino A.

    2016-02-01

    Radiation reaction remains one of the most fascinating open questions in electrodynamics. The development of multi-petawatt laser facilities capable of reaching extreme intensities has lent this topic a new urgency, and it is now more important than ever to properly understand it. Two models of radiation reaction, due to Landau and Lifshitz and due to Sokolov, have gained prominence, but there has been little work exploring the relation between the two. We show that in the Sokolov theory, electromagnetic fields induce a Lorentz transformation between momentum and velocity, which eliminates some of the counterintuitive results of Landau-Lifshitz. In particular, the Lorentz boost in a constant electric field causes the particle to lose electrostatic potential energy more rapidly than it otherwise would, explaining the longstanding mystery of how an electron can radiate while experiencing no radiation reaction force. These ideas are illustrated in examples of relevance to astrophysics and laser-particle interactions, where radiation reaction effects are particularly prominent.

  8. Through-the-earth communication: Experiment results from Billie Mine and Mississippi Chemical Mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buettner, H. M.; Didwall, E. M.; Bukofzer, D. C.

    1988-06-01

    As part of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) effort to evaluate Through-the-Earth Communication (TEC) as an option for military communication systems, experiments were conducted involving transmission, reception, and performance monitoring of digital electromagnetic communication signals propagating through the earth. The two experiments reported on here not only demonstrated that TEC is useful for transmissions at digital rates above a few bits per second, but also provided data on performance parameters with which to evaluate TEC in various military applications. The most important aspect of these experiments is that the bit error rate (BER) is measured rather than just estimated from purely analytic developments. By measuring this important parameter, not only has more credibility been lent to the proof of concept goals of the experiment, but also a means for judging the effects of assumptions in BER theoretical models has been provided.

  9. Media Use, Cognitive Performance, and Life Satisfaction of the Chinese Elderly.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shaojing; Zhang, Shuangyue; Fan, Xitao

    2016-10-01

    Media use and aging is an important interdisciplinary topic pertaining to communication, gerontology, and psychology, among others. Integrating research on media-induced recovery and life satisfaction, the present study examined media uses and effects in the context of health and aging. Specifically, data from a large random sample were analyzed to investigate the relationships between media use, cognitive performance, and life satisfaction among the Chinese elderly. Results, in general, lent support to the slightly modified structural model. Specifically, media-induced recovery outcomes can be categorized into proximate (e.g., cognitive performance), intermediate (e.g., health satisfaction), and distal levels (e.g., life satisfaction). Also, situational factors (e.g., disease history) had statistically significant effects on media-induced recovery outcomes. Theoretical and practical implications of the research findings were discussed, and future research directions were suggested. PMID:26933791

  10. [José Lima Pedreira de Freitas and the redefinition and control of Chagas disease].

    PubMed

    Rocha, Juan Stuardo Yazlle

    2016-08-01

    A brief overview of the evolution of knowledge about Chagas disease since its discovery by Carlos Chagas in 1909 until the mid-1940s is presented. The trajectory of physician Pedreira de Freitas and his growing involvement in research in the area led to his contributions to laboratory diagnosis - which lent consistency and security to epidemiological surveys of Chagas disease - and the redefinition of the scale of the disease in Brazil and the Americas with its terrible social and economic impact. His proposal for the disease prevention model - based on selective purging in the application of insecticide - was adopted nationally and internationally and made it possible to bring the disease under control in Brazil and other countries. He devoted himself with equal intensity to enhancing the teaching of medical practices in the community and was a pioneer in the implementation of preventive medicine in medical education in Brazil. PMID:27557035

  11. AN AUTOPSIC ART: DRAWINGS OF 'DR GRANVILLE'S MUMMY' IN THE ROYAL SOCIETY ARCHIVES.

    PubMed

    Riggs, Christina

    2016-06-20

    In 1821 Augustus Bozzi Granville FRS unwrapped and dissected an ancient Egyptian mummy, presenting the results of his examination to the Royal Society in 1825. He commissioned artist Henry Perry to draw the process in stages; these drawings were subsequently engraved by James Basire for publication in Philosophical Transactions. This article presents the original drawings for the first time, allowing comparison with their engravings. Taken together with Granville's accounts of the unwrapping of the mummy, the drawings demonstrate the significant role of illustration and other visual practices in anatomical argumentation in the early nineteenth century, as well as the prestige that commissioned illustrations lent to the performance and dissemination of scientific expertise. Moreover, the drawings include one of the key visual tropes of race science--a skull in left-facing profile, mapped with a facial angle--and thus indicate the early incorporation of Egyptian mummies into typologies of race. PMID:27386713

  12. Vertebral Morphometry.

    PubMed

    Chou, Sharon H; Vokes, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    There is as yet no agreement about the criteria by which to arrive at an imaging diagnosis of a vertebral fracture. Because high-grade fractures result in alterations in vertebral shape, 1 possible avenue of diagnosis has been to quantitate changes in vertebral shape. The result has been a variety of methods for the relative and absolute measurements of vertebral dimensions. Such measurements have also lent themselves to automated computed analysis. The number of techniques reflects the absence of any consensus about the best. The semiquantitative technique proposed by Genant has become the most widely used and has served the field well for comparative purposes. Its use in higher grade fractures has been widely endorsed, if some concepts (e.g., short vertebral height-vertebrae) are at variance with lower grades of fracturing. Vertebral morphometry may be the only recourse in high volume epidemiological and interventional studies. PMID:26349790

  13. Examining the career development of Mexican American middle school students: A test of social cognitive career theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Rachel Leah

    This study tested portions of Lent, Brown, and Hackett's (1994) Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) in the domain of mathematics and science with a sample of Mexican American middle school students. Results supported a modified path model. This study's findings supported several SCCT propositions regarding the positive relationships among background contextual affordances, learning experiences, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, interests, and goals. However, findings suggested that the influence of person inputs (i.e., gender and generational status) and some background contextual affordances (i.e., acculturation level) on learning experiences may be not be direct; instead, an indirect effect via a relationship with other background contextual affordances (i.e., perceived social support and social class) was found. Furthermore, results supported direct effects of gender on self-efficacy and learning experiences on goal intentions---two relationships not posited in SCCT. Implications for future research and counseling with Mexican American adolescents are discussed.

  14. Productivity --- 8 for 8. [Labor Relations at Gulf Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Breaux, M.P.

    1983-03-01

    According to the author, a spokesman for Gulf Oil Corporation, the petroleum industry in the United States has reason to be proud of its record in labor relations, in labor negotiations, and in the success of its bargaining. For many years, this industry found itself alone in advocating noncompliance with COLAs and not participating in fully paid medical plans and other labor programs other industries felt it necessary to adopt and underwrite. This staunch resistance lent the petroleum industry, over the years, the reputation of an industrial dinosaur, but this has lately changed as industry at large, especially during an economic recession, has seen the wisdom behind the motives of the petroleum industry. The author goes on to state that Gulf's employees are well paid and that the last contract, stipulating a 9 percent and 7 percent increase over the next two years, was a bilaterally fair settlement.

  15. [Prominence in the media, renown in the sciences: the construction of a paradigmatic feminist and a scientist at Rio de Janeiro's Museu Nacional].

    PubMed

    Lopes, Maria Margaret

    2008-06-01

    Bertha Lutz was one of the women of her generation who enjoyed indisputable political and scientific authority. She wrote much and even more was written about her, especially during her day. The newspaper chronicles by Lima Barreto, countless letters, scientific papers, and unpublished texts by Bertha herself that are surveyed in this article indicate how much her feminism--inseparable from other dimensions of her life--fostered her professional career. Her feminism earned her a carefully constructed renown and visibility that interlocked with her professional performance. Science lent her social prestige and guaranteed legitimacy for her causes. During a period when the scientific community itself was engaged in publicizing its own activities, Bertha's feminist prominence in the media helped her make a name in the sciences. PMID:19397030

  16. Chinese College Test Takers' Individual Differences and Reading Test Performance: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Limei

    2016-06-01

    This study reports on the relationships between test takers' individual differences and their performance on a reading comprehension test. A total of 518 Chinese college students (252 women and 256 men; M age = 19.26 year, SD = 0.98) answered a questionnaire and sit for a reading comprehension test. The study found that test takers' L2 language proficiency was closely linked to their test performance. Test takers' employment of strategies was significantly and positively associated with their performance on the test. Test takers' motivation was found to be significantly associated with reading test performance. Test anxiety was negatively related to their use of reading strategies and test performance. The results of the study lent support to the threshold hypothesis of language proficiency. The implications for classroom teaching were provided. PMID:27173665

  17. Optimization of Orchestral Layouts Based on Instrument Directivity Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroud, Nathan Paul

    The experience of hearing an exceptional symphony orchestra perform in an excel- lent concert hall can be profound and moving, causing a level of excitement not often reached for listeners. Romantic period style orchestral music, recognized for validating the use of intense emotion for aesthetic pleasure, was the last significant development in the history of the orchestra. In an age where orchestral popularity is waning, the possibil- ity of evolving the orchestral sound in our modern era exists through the combination of our current understanding of instrument directivity patterns and their interaction with architectural acoustics. With the aid of wave field synthesis (WFS), newly proposed variations on orchestral layouts are tested virtually using a 64-channel WFS array. Each layout is objectively and subjectively compared for determination of which layout could optimize the sound of the orchestra and revitalize the excitement of the performance.

  18. From a pump handle to oral rehydration therapy: a model of translational research.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Stanley G

    2007-12-01

    Few afflictions have attracted as much attention and impacted on as many societal and biomedical areas as cholera. Dr. John Snow's studies launched the field of epidemiology, were early applications of medical cartography, and promoted the use of statistical methods in medicine. The finding that cholera was due to the ingestion of contaminated water lent to the demise of the prevalent "miasmatic theory of contagion," set the platform for the "germ theory of disease," and promoted the growth of public health concerns for water purification and sanitation. More recent attention to this disease led to the notion of "secretory diarrhea" and the translation of basic principles to the development of oral rehydration therapy and its "spin-offs" (Gatorade and Pedilyte). PMID:18057392

  19. Building the new schoolhouse: the Massachusetts school building authority.

    PubMed

    Ames, Jennifer; Levenstein, Charles

    2013-01-01

    In a 2010 special issue of New Solutions on school health and environment, Paulson and Barnett asked who is responsible for the environmental health of schools. The Massachusetts School Building Authority (MSBA), the product of liberals trying to bring organization and efficiency to school construction, is an "off-label" and only partial answer to the question. The MSBA, established in 2004, lent its ear to health and safety advocates who seized an opportunity to implement regulations, guidelines, and education reforms at the level of school construction. The MSBA's progressiveness is a model to localities and states across the United States facing the dual crisis of attacks on public education and financial inefficiency. However, the MSBA is still in its infancy. Time will tell whether the MSBA, viewed as a limited state pilot program, can survive and expand its environmental health programs or whether its initiative is only as good as its current leadership. PMID:23896077

  20. Status of SOFCo SOFC technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Privette, R.; Perna, M.A.; Kneidel, K.

    1996-12-31

    SOFCo, a Babcock & Wilcox/Ceramatec Research & Development Limited Partnership, is a collaborative research and development venture to develop technologies related to planar, solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). SOFCo has successfully demonstrated a kW-class, solid-oxide fuel cell module operating on pipeline natural gas. The SOFC system design integrates the air preheater and the fuel processor with the fuel cell stacks into a compact test unit; this is the platform for multi-kW modules. The cells, made of tape-cast zirconia electrolyte and conventional electrode materials, exhibit excel lent stability in single-cell tests approaching 40,000 hours of operation. Stack tests using 10-cm and 15-cm cells with ceramic interconnects also show good performance and stability in tests for many thousands of hours.

  1. The Advent of Printing as an Obstacle to the Development of Rational Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Ring, Malvin E.

    1972-01-01

    At the time that printing came onto the scene in western Europe in the mid-1400s, the medical community was struggling in the depths of superstition, and little rational medicine was being practiced. With this new invention, a flood of ancient, outmoded texts was released upon the public, and eager readers frequently were unaware that books they were being sold as new works were actually in some cases a thousand years old. Added to this was the fact that the appearance in print of this irrational material lent credibility and authoritativeness to unscientific writings. Thus, in contrast to many other fields which were immeasurably helped by the advent of the printed book, rational medicine was in fact held back and prevented from developing for at least a full century. It was not until the Renaissance was well under way that important original contributions by such towering figures as Vesalius supplanted these worthless repetitions of ancient superstitions. PMID:4559907

  2. Academic satisfaction among Latino/a and White men and women engineering students.

    PubMed

    Flores, Lisa Y; Navarro, Rachel L; Lee, Hang Shim; Addae, Dorothy A; Gonzalez, Rebecca; Luna, Laura L; Jacquez, Ricardo; Cooper, Sonya; Mitchell, Martha

    2014-01-01

    The current study tests a model of academic satisfaction in engineering based on Lent, Brown, and Hackett's (1994, 2000) social cognitive career theory among a sample of 527 engineering majors attending a Hispanic serving institution. The findings indicated that (a) an alternative bidirectional model fit the data for the full sample; (b) all of the hypothesized relations were significant for the full sample, except the path from engineering interests to goals; (c) social cognitive career theory predictors accounted for a significant amount of variance in engineering goals (26.6%) and academic satisfaction (45.1%); and (d) the model parameters did not vary across men and women or across Latino/a and White engineering undergraduate students. Implications for research and practice are discussed in relation to persistence in engineering among women and Latinos/as. PMID:24188652

  3. Laser-induced fluorescence of space-exposed polyurethane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Ralph H., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The object of this work was to utilize laser-induced fluorescence technique to characterize several samples of space-exposed polyurethane. These samples were flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), which was in a shuttle-like orbit for nearly 6 years. Because of our present work to develop laser-induced-fluorescence inspection techniques for polymers, space-exposed samples and controls were lent to us for evaluation. These samples had been attached to the outer surface of LDEF; therefore, they were subjected to thermal cycling, solar ultraviolet radiation, vacuum, and atomic oxygen. It is well documented that atomic oxygen and ultraviolet exposure have detrimental effects on many polymers. This was a unique opportunity to make measurements on material that had been naturally degraded by an unusual environment. During our past work, data have come from artificially degraded samples and generally have demonstrated a correlation between laser-induced fluorescence and tensile strength or elasticity.

  4. Processing-structure characterization of rheocast IN-100 superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Jung-Jen Allen; Apelian, Diran; Doherty, Roger D.

    1986-01-01

    The rheocasting solidification process was applied in the production of IN-100 nickel base superalloy, and the effects of processing variables, such as stirring speed, isothermal stirring time, and volume fraction solid during isothermal stirring, on the resultant rheocast structure were investigated. Ingots that were furnace cooled at the same rate but without stirring were compared with the rheocast ingots. Rheocasting yielded fine-grained structures, where the extent of microsegregation, the variation in macrostructure, and the solidification-induced porosity and ingot cracking were found to be reduced in comparison to the unstirred ingots. The grain size and nonuniformity were reduced by increasing the stirring speed, isothermal stirring time, or the volume fraction solid during stirring; decreased microsegregation was achieved by an increase in the volume fraction solid. The structures of grain boundaries lent support to the grain boundary mechanism proposed by Vogel et al. (1977) for rheocasting.

  5. From closed ranks to open doors: Elaine and John Cummings' mental health education experiment in 1950s Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    During late 1951 and early 1952, married couple, social biologist Elaine Cumming and psychiatrist John Cumming, led a mental health education experiment in Indian Head, Saskatchewan. The study, which was intended to inform strategies toward deinstitutionalization, sought to determine if attitudes regarding mental illness could be changed through commonly used educational practices. It was shaped by the shared interests of powerful philanthropic, charitable, psychiatric, academic and governmental bodies to create healthier citizens and a stronger democratic nation through expert knowledge. However, in addition to the disappointing findings indicating that attitudes remained unchanged, the town appeared to close ranks against the research team. Nonetheless, the Cummings' later association with sociologists at Harvard University enabled them to interpret the results in a way that lent the study credibility and themselves legitimacy, thus opening the door to their careers as very successful researchers and policy-makers. PMID:22514867

  6. [Insulin therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus: past and present].

    PubMed

    Pires, Antonio Carlos; Chacra, Antonio Roberto

    2008-03-01

    The discovery of insulin can be considered the milestone of diabetes mellitus history and a great achievement for its treatment. The first insulin available was the regular. Afterwards, Hagedorn added the protamine to the insulin, thus, creating the NPH insulin. In the 1950s an insulin free of protamine was synthesized: the lente insulin. With the advent of molecular biology, synthetic human insulin was synthesized using recombinant DNA technology. Most recently several types of insulin analogues were available, providing the patients with better metabolic control. Type 1 diabetes mellitus treatment includes plain substitution and individualization for short-acting plus long-acting insulin according to the physician's assistance, besides regular practice of physical activities and diet orientations. In type 1 diabetes mellitus the insulin of low variability is the best choice since basal/bolus insulin therapy or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion pump can mimetize the physiological release of insulin by beta cells. PMID:18438537

  7. Joseph Leidy: his contributions to otology.

    PubMed

    Meyers, A

    1976-09-01

    Few men of science have contributed more to our understanding of the workings of nature than Joseph Leidy. Philosopher, anatomist, paleontologist, botanist, educator, and natural scientist in the purest sense of the work, Leidy's interest in the humanities and in all aspects of nature lent itself to his exact descriptions of new species and unchartered anatomic realms. His insistence on man's acquaintance with nature fostered a humanistic and sensitive approach to life, something that needs more emphasis today. This communication deals with Leidy's life, his philosophy, and his unique dedication to the study of nature. An appreciation and understanding of his anatomic expertise, particularly of the temporal bone, hopefully will sensitize the modern otologist to the heart and mind of one that preceded him. PMID:786235

  8. Sheet silicon cell/module technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, A. D.

    1983-01-01

    The cost involved in the performance of the standard operations for the manufacture of silicon wafers is insignificant in the case of space photovoltaics applications. It is, however, a decisive factor with respect to terrestrial applications of silicon photovoltaic devices. In 1975, a program was, therefore, begun to develop low cost silicon solar arrays for terrestrial applications. The goal was silicon-based photovoltaic (PV) modules ready for installation at a selling price of $0.50/watt (1975 dollars). Sheet and ribbon silicon growth held out the promise of reduced cost through continuous operation, high material throughput, high material utilization efficiency, and a product whose shape lent itself to the assembly of high packing density modules. Attention is given to ribbon growth technologies, sheet technology generic problems, and ribbon cell and module technology status. It is concluded that the potential for crystalline ribbon silicon appears to be better today than ever before.

  9. Environmental induction of the fetal epigenome

    PubMed Central

    Odom, Lawrence N; Taylor, Hugh S

    2011-01-01

    The healthy adult is the result of successful interaction between the maternal environment and the developing fetal epigenome. The Barker hypothesis first suggested that in utero exposure to the maternal environment impacts adult health and disease. Since the origin of this theory, numerous studies have lent further support. Epigenomic alteration involves DNA methylation and histone modifications. Pregnancy, when the epigenome is typically actively programmed, is a vulnerable time, when exposures may have the most profound epigenetic effect. Recent advances have allowed an understanding of the extent and mechanism by which environmental exposures alter the epigenome of the fetus. Healthcare providers who treat and counsel reproductive-age women are in a unique position to protect against these epigenetic alterations and therefore prevent adverse impact on the developing fetus that may manifest throughout life. PMID:21297874

  10. Complementary and alternative medicine. Considering the alternatives.

    PubMed

    Weber, D O

    1998-01-01

    Therapies variously described as alternative, complementary, or unconventional because they lie outside the realm of scientific medicine practiced by graduates of orthodox U.S. medical schools are gaining mainstream respectability despite many questions about their efficacy and safety. Depending on definitions, surveys indicate that fewer than 10 percent to nearly 40 percent of Americans supplement or substitute for conventional health care with alternative systems of medical practice. Spending for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) nationwide has been estimated at up to $14 billion a year. Establishment of an Office of Alternative Medicine in the National Institutes of Health in 1992 has heartened advocates of CAM, increased interest and government funding for research into unorthodox therapies, and lent credibility to CAM modalities. Embracing marginal therapies may represent an opportunity for physicians and health systems to reduce inappropriate consumption, offer a wider range of choices to patients, and profit from a lucrative market. PMID:10351720

  11. Applications of finite element and wave envelope element approximations to turbofan engine noise radiation including flight effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrett, A. V.; Eversman, W.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of acoustic radiation from turbofan engine inlets in flow has not lent itself fully to analysis by numerical means because of the large domains and high frequencies involved. The current work has extended the use of finite elements and wave envelope elements, elements which simulate decay and wavelike behaviour in their interpolation functions, from the no-flow case in which they have been proven, to cases incorporating mean flow. By employing an irrotational mean flow assumption, the acoustics problem has been posed in an axisymmetric formulation in terms of acoustic velocity potential, thus minimizing computer solution storage requirements. The results obtained from the numerical procedures agree well with known analytical solutions, static experimental jet engines inflow data, and also with flight test results.

  12. Empowering the Community to Manage Diabetes Better: An Integrated Partnership-Based Model

    PubMed Central

    Bamne, Arun; Shah, Daksha; Palkar, Sanjivani; Uppal, Shweta; Majumdar, Anurita; Naik, Rohan

    2016-01-01

    Context Rising number of diabetes cases in India calls for collaboration between the public and private sectors. Aims: Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM) partnered with Eli Lilly and Company (India) [Eli Lilly] to strengthen the capacity of their diabetes clinics. Materials and Methods Medical Officers, dispensaries and Assistant Medical Officers (AMOs) located at attached health posts were trained on an educational tool, Diabetes Conversation Map™ (DCM) by a Master Trainer. This tool was then used to educate patients and caregivers visiting the MCGM diabetes clinics. Results Twenty-eight centers conducted 168 sessions, and 1616 beneficiaries availed the education over six months. General feedback from health providers was that DCM helps clear misconceptions among patients and caregivers in an interactive way and also improves compliance of patients. Conclusions This communication highlights a unique public-private partnership where the sincere efforts of public sector organization (MCGM) were complemented by the educational expertise lent by a private firm. PMID:27051094

  13. Description and preliminary calibration results for the Langley hypersonic CF4 tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Midden, R. E.; Miller, C. G.

    1978-01-01

    A detailed description of the hypersonic CF4 tunnel is presented along with discussion of the basic components, instrumentation, and operating procedure. Operational experience with the CF4 reclaimer and lead-bath heater is discussed. Comparison of measured and predicted shock detachment distance on a sphere and pressure distributions measured on a sharp leading-edge flat plate revealed the absence of significant flow nonuniformity and lent creditability to predicted free stream flow conditions. The economic operation of this facility centers about the CF4 reclaimer, which was designed to operate at an efficiency of 90 to 95 percent. A number of modifications were made to the reclaimer system to improve its performance, and presently, the system reclaims approximately 75 percent of the test gas. Even with current budgetary constraints, this efficiency permits the CF4 tunnel to be operated as a viable research wind tunnel.

  14. Integrating quality improvement into continuing medical education activities within a community hospital system.

    PubMed

    Eiser, Arnold R; McNamee, William B; Miller, Jean Yodis

    2013-01-01

    The integration of the Mercy Health System's quality improvement (QI) and continuing medical educational (CME) activities is described. With the implementation of computerized medical data, the opportunities for QI-focused CME are growing. The authors reviewed their regularly scheduled series and special CME programs to assess their impact on quality care processes. Clinical improvements were affected by combining national guidelines and advancements with local clinical data and interactions with physicians within interdisciplinary as well as specialty conferences. Case-based, multidisciplinary conferences lent themselves to this process to a greater extent than didactic conferences. The latter also could lead to QI when the topics were focused on specific quality initiatives that often are part of a national QI initiative. Although the authors consider these efforts to be at an intermediate stage of development, they have observed several QI/patient safety process improvements. PMID:22984092

  15. Longwall Guidance and Control Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The longwall guidance and control (G&C) system was evaluated to determine which systems and subsystems lent themselves to automatic control in the mining of coal. The upper coal/shale interface was identified as the reference for a vertical G&C system, with two sensors (the natural backgound and the sensitized pick) being used to locate and track this boundary. In order to insure a relatively smooth recession surface (roof and floor of the excavated seam), a last and present cut measuring instrument (acoustic sensor) was used. Potentiometers were used to measure elevations of the shearer arms. The intergration of these components comprised the vertical control system (pitch control). Yaw and roll control were incorporated into a face alignment system which was designed to keep the coal face normal to its external boundaries. Numerous tests, in the laboratory and in the field, have confirmed the feasibility of automatic horizon control, as well as determining the face alignment.

  16. [Diagnosing pulmonary embolism during pregnancy: how should we do?].

    PubMed

    Soulier V; Righini M; Perrier A

    2014-10-22

    No diagnostic strategy for pulmonary embo- lism (PE) during pregnancy is based on strong evidence and unanimously accepted. Clinical scores are not validated. The diagnostic yield of the non radiating tests is low: D-dimer is rarely negative in pregnant women and lower limb venous compression ultrasonography is poorly sensitive. Nevertheless, they are still recommended as first line exams. The radia- ting exams (ventilation-perfusion scintigra- phy and thoracic angio-CT) have an equiva- lent diagnostic yield (more than 90%). But both raise the risk of cancer: any childhood cancer for the fetus (scintigraphy), and breast cancer for the mother (angio-CT). However, the diagnosis of PE in the pregnant woman has a major impact and must be established with certainty, even if this requires performing radiation imaging. PMID:25518203

  17. Imagerie Resolue dans le Temps des Photons et Neutres Metastables Emis D'une Surface Par Stimulation Electronique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclerc, Gregoire

    L'appareil que nous presentons ici a ete mis au point pour permettre d'accumuler des images numeriques, resolues dans le temps, de la desorption par stimulation electronique (DSE) d'ions positifs et negatifs, de photons et de neutres metastables, tout en conservant des capacites de base de diffraction d'electrons lents (DEL) et de transmission d'electrons lents (TEL). Le spectrometre comporte un monochromateur d'electrons a secteur cylindrique de 127^ circ dont l'optique de sortie permet la focalisation du faisceau d'electrons sur une large gamme d'energies. Le detecteur consiste en un empilement de galettes de microcanaux et d'une anode resistive a encodage de division de charges. La reponse spatiale du detecteur a ete calibree et plusieurs causes de non-linearite ont ete localisees et corrigees. Des methodes de correction materielle et logicielle des distorsions spatiales sont presentees. La resolution temporelle des evenements est obtenue en pulsant le faisceau d'electrons, et de facon synchrone la detection, laquelle est couplee a un micro-ordinateur. La premiere partie de ce travail est consacree a la caracterisation du spectrometre et la presentation de nombreux parametres operationnels, obtenus soit au moment de la conception, soit experimentalement. Suit la presentation de donnees de DEL et de DSE pour le systeme Ar/Pt(111) en films minces a 15K. Les sequences temporelles d'images de metastables d'Ar desorbes ont revele la presence de plusieurs populations distinctes, ayant des distributions angulaires et distributions d'energie cinetique que nous avons pu separer. Les fonctions d'excitation de l'emission de photons et de la desorption de differentes composantes de metastables, ainsi que la dependance de ces signaux sur l'epaisseur des films d'Ar, sont aussi presentees et analysees. Les techniques que nous avons developpees ont permis de cerner les mecanismes en jeu pour la desorption et la luminescence.

  18. Hypofractionated Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Carcinoma of the Prostate: Analysis of Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Coote, Joanna H.; Wylie, James P.; Cowan, Richard A.; Logue, John P.; Swindell, Ric; Livsey, Jacqueline E.

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: Dose escalation for prostate cancer improves biological control but with a significant increase in late toxicity. Recent estimates of low {alpha}/{beta} ratio for prostate cancer suggest that hypofractionation may result in biological advantage. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) should enable dose escalation to the prostate while reducing toxicity to local organs. We report late toxicity data of a hypofractionated IMRT regime. Methods and Materials: Eligible men had T2-3N0M0 adenocarcinoma prostate, and either Gleason score {>=} 7 or prostate-specific antigen 20-50 ng/L. Patients received 57-60 Gy to prostate in 19-20 fractions using five-field IMRT. All received hormonal therapy for 3 months before radiotherapy to a maximum of 6 months. Toxicity was assessed 2 years postradiotherapy using the RTOG criteria, LENT/SOMA, and UCLA prostate index assessment tools. Results: Acute toxicity was favorable with no RTOG Grade 3 or 4 toxicity. At 2 years, there was 4% Grade 2 bowel and 4.25% Grade 2 bladder toxicity. There was no Grade 3 or 4 bowel toxicity; one patient developed Grade 3 bladder toxicity. UCLA data showed a slight improvement in urinary function at 2 years compared with pretreatment. LENT/SOMA assessments demonstrated general worsening of bowel function at 2 years. Patients receiving 60 Gy were more likely to develop problems with bowel function than those receiving 57 Gy. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that hypofractionated radiotherapy using IMRT for prostate cancer is well tolerated with minimal late toxicity at 2 years posttreatment. Ongoing studies are looking at the efficacy of hypofractionated regimes with respect to biological control.

  19. Brain Injury After Proton Therapy or Carbon Ion Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer and Skull Base Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Miyawaki, Daisuke Murakami, Masao; Demizu, Yusuke; Sasaki, Ryohei; Niwa, Yasue; Terashima, Kazuki; Nishimura, Hideki; Hishikawa, Yoshio; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2009-10-01

    Purpose: To assess the incidence of early delayed or late morbidity of Brain after particle therapy for skull base tumors and head-and-neck cancers. Methods and Materials: Between May 2001 and December 2005, 59 patients with cancerous invasion of the skull base were treated with proton or carbon ion therapy at the Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center. Adverse events were assessed according to the magnetic resonance imaging findings (late effects of normal tissue-subjective, objective, management, analytic [LENT-SOMA]) and symptoms (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events [CTCAE], version 3.0). Dose-volume histograms were used to analyze the relationship between the dose and volume of the irradiated brain and the occurrence of brain injury. The median follow-up time was 33 months. Results: Of the 48 patients treated with proton therapy and 11 patients treated with carbon ion radiotherapy, 8 (17%) and 7 (64%), respectively, developed radiation-induced brain changes (RIBCs) on magnetic resonance imaging (LENT-SOMA Grade 1-3). Four patients (7%) had some clinical symptoms, such as vertigo and headache (CTCAE Grade 2) or epilepsy (CTCAE Grade 3). The actuarial occurrence rate of RIBCs at 2 and 3 years was 20% and 39%, respectively, with a significant difference in the incidence between the proton and carbon ion radiotherapy groups. The dose-volume histogram analyses revealed significant differences between Brain lobes with and without RIBCs in the actuarial volume of brain lobes receiving high doses. Conclusion: Particle therapies produced minimal symptomatic brain toxicities, but sequential evaluation with magnetic resonance imaging detected a greater incidence of RIBCs. Significant differences were observed in the irradiated brain volume between Brain lobes with and without RIBCs.

  20. Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment of Chronic Refractory Radiation Proctitis: A Randomized and Controlled Double-Blind Crossover Trial With Long-Term Follow-Up

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, Richard E. Tenorio, L. M. Catalina; Hussey, James R.; Toklu, Akin S.; Cone, D. Lindsie; Hinojosa, Jose G.; Desai, Samir P.; Dominguez Parra, Luis; Rodrigues, Sylvia D.; Long, Robert J.; Walker, Margaret B.

    2008-09-01

    Purpose: Cancer patients who undergo radiotherapy remain at life-long risk of radiation-induced injury to normal tissues. We conducted a randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover trial with long-term follow-up to evaluate the effectiveness of hyperbaric oxygen for refractory radiation proctitis. Methods and Materials: Patients with refractory radiation proctitis were randomized to hyperbaric oxygen at 2.0 atmospheres absolute (Group 1) or air at 1.1 atmospheres absolute (Group 2). The sham patients were subsequently crossed to Group 1. All patients were re-evaluated by an investigator who was unaware of the treatment allocation at 3 and 6 months and Years 1-5. The primary outcome measures were the late effects normal tissue-subjective, objective, management, analytic (SOMA-LENT) score and standardized clinical assessment. The secondary outcome was the change in quality of life. Results: Of 226 patients assessed, 150 were entered in the study and 120 were evaluable. After the initial allocation, the mean SOMA-LENT score improved in both groups. For Group 1, the mean was lower (p 0.0150) and the amount of improvement nearly twice as great (5.00 vs. 2.61, p = 0.0019). Similarly, Group 1 had a greater portion of responders per clinical assessment than did Group 2 (88.9% vs. 62.5%, respectively; p 0.0009). Significance improved when the data were analyzed from an intention to treat perspective (p = 0.0006). Group 1 had a better result in the quality of life bowel bother subscale. These differences were abolished after the crossover. Conclusion: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy significantly improved the healing responses in patients with refractory radiation proctitis, generating an absolute risk reduction of 32% (number needed to treat of 3) between the groups after the initial allocation. Other medical management requirements were discontinued, and advanced interventions were largely avoided. Enhanced bowel-specific quality of life resulted.

  1. Predicting the STEM outcomes of academically qualified women: A longitudinal examination of social cognitive career theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasson, Jillian Woodford

    There is a well-documented gender disparity in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, which has been the focus of research for several decades (i.e., Betz & Hackett, 1981; Ceci & Williams, 2009, 2010; Wang, Eccles, & Kenny, 2013). Questions as to why this is the case are not new; however, with the growing body of research, there seem to be more questions than answers. This study drew primarily from the vocational psychology literature, particularly Social Cognitive Career Theory, building on previous literature in this area by examining differences in career choices made over time by qualified women across different stages in the education-to-career pathway. The results of the present study indicate that among qualified women many of the SCCT personal and contextual variables are relevant to STEM career development. Moreover, findings from the present study support the hypothesis (Lent et al., 1994) that personal, environmental, and behavioral variables affect one another. An important aspect of the SCCT model is the acknowledgment that at any given point in time, certain variables will carry different weight (Lent et al., 1994). The current study provides further support for this and underscores the necessity of understanding and framing career development as a process, unfolding across several developmental stages. These findings, their generalizability, and implications for practice should be carefully considered in the context of several limitations that this sample was influenced by: limitations in reliability and selection of variables, lack of diversity within the sample, as well as the extraneous variables related to overall economic and political backdrop.

  2. Modélisation de la dynamique de la chaîne peptidique des protéines en solution par RMN à travers les couplages dipolaires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouvignies, G.; Bernadó, P.; Blackledge, M.

    2005-11-01

    L'activité d'une protéine est liée non seulement à sa structure, mais également à sa dynamique, et il est important de connaître la nature de ses mouvements pour comprendre sa fonction biologique. La résonance magnétique nucléaire est particulièrement utile pour étudier la dynamique d'une molécule en solution sur une gamme de temps de corrélation très large. En particulière, la relaxation des spins 15N ou 13C donne accès aux mouvements moléculaires avec les temps caractéristiques entre les dizaines de picosecondes et le temps de corrélation rotationelle de la molécule (autour de 10ns pour une protéine monomérique de 20 kD à 300 K). Les vitesses de relaxation dépendent de la flexibilité de chaque site, et peuvent être caractérisé en termes d'amplitude et de temps caractéristique locale. La précision de ces paramètres et sa compréhension en termes de fonction exigent que la réorientation globale de la molécule soit correctement prise en compte. Ces méthodes expérimentales, qui seront présentées ici brièvement, font maintenant partie de la panoplie d'expériences appliquées dans l'étude de la relation structure-dynamique d'une protéine et ses partenaires. Néanmoins les mouvements plus lents, entre la nano et la milliseconde, sont plus difficiles à étudier, et il y a très peu d'information disponible sur la nature de la dynamique de la chaîne peptidique dans cette gamme de temps par RMN. Très récemment de nouvelles méthodologies ont été proposées, basées sur l'alignement préférentiel d'une protéine par rapport au champ magnétique, induit par dissolution de la molécule dans un cristal liquide très dilué. Dans ces conditions les changements conformationels sur des temps caractéristique plus lents (jusqu'au millisecondes) peuvent être étudiés. Nous présenterons cette technique, et quelques résultats, comparant la dynamique rapide (ps-ns), et plus lente le long de la chaîne peptidique de quatre protéines.

  3. 70 Gy Versus 80 Gy in Localized Prostate Cancer: 5-Year Results of GETUG 06 Randomized Trial;Prostate cancer; Dose escalation; Conformal radiotherapy; Randomized trial

    SciTech Connect

    Beckendorf, Veronique; Guerif, Stephane; Le Prise, Elisabeth; Cosset, Jean-Marc; Bougnoux, Agnes; Chauvet, Bruno; Salem, Naji; Chapet, Olivier; Bourdain, Sylvain; Bachaud, Jean-Marc; Maingon, Philippe; Hannoun-Levi, Jean-Michel; Malissard, Luc; Simon, Jean-Marc; Pommier, Pascal; Hay, Men; Dubray, Bernard; Lagrange, Jean-Leon; Luporsi, Elisabeth; Bey, Pierre

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To perform a randomized trial comparing 70 and 80 Gy radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Patients and Methods: A total of 306 patients with localized prostate cancer were randomized. No androgen deprivation was allowed. The primary endpoint was biochemical relapse according to the modified 1997-American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology and Phoenix definitions. Toxicity was graded using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 1991 criteria and the late effects on normal tissues-subjective, objective, management, analytic scales (LENT-SOMA) scales. The patients' quality of life was scored using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire 30-item cancer-specific and 25-item prostate-specific modules. Results: The median follow-up was 61 months. According to the 1997-American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology definition, the 5-year biochemical relapse rate was 39% and 28% in the 70- and 80-Gy arms, respectively (p = .036). Using the Phoenix definition, the 5-year biochemical relapse rate was 32% and 23.5%, respectively (p = .09). The subgroup analysis showed a better biochemical outcome for the higher dose group with an initial prostate-specific antigen level >15 ng/mL. At the last follow-up date, 26 patients had died, 10 of their disease and none of toxicity, with no differences between the two arms. According to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scale, the Grade 2 or greater rectal toxicity rate was 14% and 19.5% for the 70- and 80-Gy arms (p = .22), respectively. The Grade 2 or greater urinary toxicity was 10% at 70 Gy and 17.5% at 80 Gy (p = .046). Similar results were observed using the LENT-SOMA scale. Bladder toxicity was more frequent at 80 Gy than at 70 Gy (p = .039). The quality-of-life questionnaire results before and 5 years after treatment were available for 103 patients with no differences found between the 70- and 80-Gy arms. Conclusion: High-dose radiotherapy provided a

  4. Psychological considerations of man in space: Problems & solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kass, J.; Kass, R.; Samaltedinov, I.

    With concrete plans for long duration flight taking form a new impetus is lent to preparing man for this hostile and unnatural environment. Cramped conditions, isolation from family and loved ones, work stress, fear, and incompatibility with fellow crew, are but a few of the problems suffered by astronauts and cosmonauts during their long missions in orbit about the earth. Although criteria for selection of crew is one aspect of attacking the problem, it has not solved it Notwithstanding good selection, team combination, and counselling before flight, problems have still occurred with unwanted consequences. Incompatibility of team members, far from being the exception, has been frequent. This has been detrímental both physiologically and psychologically for the individual as well as for the operational success and safety of the missions. Because problems will inevitably occur in future long duration missions, especially when they are of international and multi-cultural nature, the importance of dealing with them is underlined. This paper takes a different approach towards ameliorating these problems, namely that of psychological group training before a mission.

  5. Origin of the words denoting some of the most ancient old world pulse crops and their diversity in modern European languages.

    PubMed

    Mikić, Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    This preliminary research was aimed at finding the roots in various Eurasian proto-languages directly related to pulses and giving the words denoting the same in modern European languages. Six Proto-Indo-European roots were indentified, namely arnk(')- ('a leguminous plant'), *bhabh- ('field bean'), *[Formula: see text] ('a kernel of leguminous plant', 'pea'), ghArs- ('a leguminous plant'), *kek- ('pea') and *lent- ('lentil'). No Proto-Uralic root was attested save hypothetically *kača ('pea'), while there were two Proto-Altaic roots, *bŭkrV ('pea') and *[Formula: see text] ('lentil'). The Proto-Caucasianx root *[Formula: see text] denoted pea, while another one, *hōwł(ā) ('bean', 'lentil') and the Proto-Basque root *iłha-r ('pea', 'bean', 'vetch') could have a common Proto-Sino-Caucasian ancestor, *hVwłV ('bean') within the hypothetic Dené-Caucasian language superfamily. The Modern Maltese preserved the memory of two Proto-Semitic roots, *'adaš- ('lentil') and *pūl- ('field bean'). The presented results prove that the most ancient Eurasian pulse crops were well-known and extensively cultivated by the ancestors of all modern European nations. The attested lexicological continuum witnesses the existence of a millennia-long links between the peoples of Eurasia to their mutual benefit. This research is meant to encourage interdisciplinary concerted actions between plant scientists dealing with crop evolution and biodiversity, archaeobotanists and language historians. PMID:22973458

  6. Proteogenomic Discovery of a Small, Novel Protein in Yeast Reveals a Strategy for the Detection of Unannotated Short Open Reading Frames.

    PubMed

    Yagoub, Daniel; Tay, Aidan P; Chen, Zhiliang; Hamey, Joshua J; Cai, Curtis; Chia, Samantha Z; Hart-Smith, Gene; Wilkins, Marc R

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, proteomic data have contributed to genome annotation efforts, most notably in humans and mice, and spawned a field termed "proteogenomics". Yeast, in contrast with higher eukaryotes, has a small genome, which has lent itself to simpler ORF prediction. Despite this, continual advances in mass spectrometry suggest that proteomics should be able to improve genome annotation even in this well-characterized species. Here we applied a proteogenomics workflow to yeast to identify novel protein-coding genes. Specific databases were generated, from intergenic regions of the genome, which were then queried with MS/MS data. This suggested the existence of several putative novel ORFs of <100 codons, one of which we chose to validate. Synthetic peptides, RNA-Seq analysis, and evidence of evolutionary conservation allowed for the unequivocal definition of a new protein of 78 amino acids encoded on chromosome X, which we dub YJR107C-A. It encodes a new type of domain, which ab initio modeling suggests as predominantly α-helical. We show that this gene is nonessential for growth; however, deletion increases sensitivity to osmotic stress. Finally, from the above discovery process, we discuss a generalizable strategy for the identification of short ORFs and small proteins, many of which are likely to be undiscovered. PMID:26554900

  7. Interaction between heat acclimation and exogenous insulin in brown adipose tissue of rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, H.; Yamashita, H.; Sato, N.; Habara, Y.; Gasa, S.; Nagasawa, J.; Sato, Y.; Ishikawa, M.; Segawa, M.; Yamamoto, M.

    1992-09-01

    Seventy-one male Wistar strain rats (7 weeks old) were kept at 5, 25, or 34° C, respectively, for 2 weeks with or without insulin administration. Insulin (Novo Lente MC) was given subcutaneously in a dose of 3.62 nmol/125 µl saline per 100 g body weight. An apparent effect of insulin treatment was noted only in heat-exposed rats, resulting in a remarkable gain in inter-scapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) mass of heat-acclimated, insulin-treated rats in terms of weight or weight per unit body weight. The BAT from heat-acclimated, insulin-treated rats had significantly higher levels of protein, DNA, RNA, and triglyceride than BAT from heat-acclimated, saline-treated rats. Therefore, it seems likely that the growth of BAT in heat-acclimated, insulin-treated rats was mostly due to the anabolic effects of insulin. The uncoupling protein mRNA was, however, present in BAT of heat-acclimated, insulin-treated rats at rather a depressed level, explaining a corresponding decrease in cold tolerance. On the other hand, the expression of insulin receptor mRNA was attenuated in BAT of rats from all the insulin-treated groups, possibly due to the down-regulation of insulin. Thus, there appeared to be some linkage among BAT, heat acclimation, and insulin.

  8. Predicting the math/science career goals of low-income prospective first-generation college students.

    PubMed

    Garriott, Patton O; Flores, Lisa Y; Martens, Matthew P

    2013-04-01

    The present study used social cognitive career theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) to predict the math/science goal intentions of a sample of low-income prospective first-generation college students (N = 305). Structural equation modeling was used to test a model depicting relationships between contextual (i.e., social class, learning experiences, proximal supports and barriers) and person-cognitive (i.e., self-efficacy, outcome expectations, interests, goals) variables as hypothesized in SCCT and based on previous literature on low-income first-generation college students. Results indicated that the hypothesized model provided the best representation of the data. All paths in the model were statistically significant, with the exceptions of paths from self-efficacy to goals, outcome expectations to interests, and perceived barriers to self-efficacy. Bootstrapping procedures revealed that the relationships between social class, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations were mediated through learning experiences. Furthermore, the relationship between social supports and goals was mediated by self-efficacy and interests and the relationships between self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and goals were mediated by interests. Contrary to hypotheses, the relationship between barriers and goals was not mediated by self-efficacy and interests. The hypothesis that proximal contextual supports and barriers would moderate the relationship between interests and goals was not supported. The final model explained 66% and 55% of the variance in math/science interests and goals, respectively. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:23506512

  9. Object representations and their relationship to psychopathology and physical health status in African-American women in primary care.

    PubMed

    Porcerelli, John H; Huprich, Steven K; Binienda, Juliann; Karana, Dunia

    2006-11-01

    Object relations theories hypothesize a relationship between self/other representations and level of psychopathology. Research has lent support to this hypothesis. This study was conducted to examine the link between object representation and psychopathology, stress, physical health status, and alcohol abuse in 110 African-American women in primary care. Object representations were assessed through spontaneous descriptions of parents. Psychopathology and physical health status were assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire and the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form Health Survey, both of which were designed for medical settings. The results support the link between dimensions of object representations (developmental level, benevolence, punitiveness) and psychopathology and between object representations and aspects of health status. Punitive maternal and paternal representations were most robustly associated with psychopathology and health status and were the only representational variables associated with alcohol abuse. The findings provide additional support for the object representations-psychopathology link and extend the research by demonstrating associations among object representations, alcohol abuse, and health status. PMID:17102708

  10. The New Pessimism about Petroleum Resources: Debunking the Hubbert Model (and Hubbert Modelers)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, M. C.

    2004-12-01

    Recently, numerous publications have appeared warning that oil production is near an unavoidable, geologically-determined peak that could have consequences up to and including "war, starvation, economic recession, possibly even the extinction of homo sapiens" (Campbell in Ruppert 2002) The current series of alarmist articles could be said to be merely reincarnations of earlier work which proved fallacious, but the authors insist that they have made significant advances in their analyses, overcoming earlier errors. For a number of reasons, this work has been nearly impenetrable to many observers, which seems to have lent it an added cachet. However, careful examination of the data and methods, as well as extensive perusal of the writings, suggests that the opacity of the work is-at best-obscuring the inconclusive nature of their research. Some of the arguments about resource scarcity resemble those made in the 1970s. They have noted that discoveries are low (as did Wilson, 1977), and that most estimates of ultimately recoverable resources (URR) are in the range of 2 trillion barrels, approximately twice production to date. But beyond that, Campbell and Laherrere in particular claim that they have developed accurate estimates of URR, and thus, unlike earlier work, theirs is more scientific and reliable. In other words, this time the wolf is really here. But careful examination of their work reveals instead a pattern of errors and mistaken assumptions presented as conclusive research results.

  11. The Cyclic Peptide Ecumicin Targeting ClpC1 Is Active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wei; Kim, Jin-Yong; Anderson, Jeffrey R.; Akopian, Tatos; Hong, Seungpyo; Jin, Ying-Yu; Kandror, Olga; Kim, Jong-Woo; Lee, In-Ae; Lee, Sun-Young; McAlpine, James B.; Mulugeta, Surafel; Sunoqrot, Suhair; Wang, Yuehong; Yang, Seung-Hwan; Yoon, Tae-Mi; Goldberg, Alfred L.; Pauli, Guido F.; Cho, Sanghyun

    2014-01-01

    Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) has lent urgency to finding new drug leads with novel modes of action. A high-throughput screening campaign of >65,000 actinomycete extracts for inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis viability identified ecumicin, a macrocyclic tridecapeptide that exerts potent, selective bactericidal activity against M. tuberculosis in vitro, including nonreplicating cells. Ecumicin retains activity against isolated multiple-drug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains of M. tuberculosis. The subcutaneous administration to mice of ecumicin in a micellar formulation at 20 mg/kg body weight resulted in plasma and lung exposures exceeding the MIC. Complete inhibition of M. tuberculosis growth in the lungs of mice was achieved following 12 doses at 20 or 32 mg/kg. Genome mining of lab-generated, spontaneous ecumicin-resistant M. tuberculosis strains identified the ClpC1 ATPase complex as the putative target, and this was confirmed by a drug affinity response test. ClpC1 functions in protein breakdown with the ClpP1P2 protease complex. Ecumicin markedly enhanced the ATPase activity of wild-type (WT) ClpC1 but prevented activation of proteolysis by ClpC1. Less stimulation was observed with ClpC1 from ecumicin-resistant mutants. Thus, ClpC1 is a valid drug target against M. tuberculosis, and ecumicin may serve as a lead compound for anti-TB drug development. PMID:25421483

  12. Spatial filtering improved tomographic PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Discetti, Stefano; Natale, Andrea; Astarita, Tommaso

    2013-04-01

    Tomographic reconstruction accuracy is of fundamental importance to obtain reliable three-dimensional three-components velocity field measurements when implementing tomographic particle image velocimetry. Algebraic methods (Herman and Lent 1976) are quite well established to handle the problem in case of high spatial frequency spots on a dark background imaged by a limited number of simultaneous views; however, their efficacy is limited in case of dense distributions to be reconstructed. In the present work, an easy implementable modified version of the commonly used multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique is proposed, allowing a remarkable improvement of the tomographic reconstruction quality only slightly increasing the computational cost. The technique is based on artificial diffusion applied by Gaussian smoothing after each iteration of the reconstruction procedure. Numerical simulations show that the increase in the reconstruction quality leads to a significant reduction of the modulation effects in the velocity measurement due to the coherent ghost particles motion. An experimental application in fractal grid turbulence highlights an improvement of the signal strength and a reduction of the uncertainty in the velocity measurement.

  13. Development of radiation damage during in-situ Kr++ irradiation of Fesbnd Nisbnd Cr model austenitic steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desormeaux, M.; Rouxel, B.; Motta, A. T.; Kirk, M.; Bisor, C.; de Carlan, Y.; Legris, A.

    2016-07-01

    In situ irradiations of 15Cr/15Nisbnd Ti and 15Cr/25Nisbnd Ti model austenitic steels were performed at the Intermediate Voltage Electron Microscope (IVEM)-Tandem user Facility (Argonne National Laboratory) at 600 °C using 1 MeV Kr++. The experiment was designed in the framework of cladding development for the GEN IV Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR). It is an extension of previous high dose irradiations on those model alloys at JANNuS-Saclay facility in France, aimed at investigating swelling mechanisms and microstructure evolution of these alloys under irradiation [1]. These studies showed a strong influence of Ni in decreasing swelling. In situ irradiations were used to continuously follow the microstructure evolution during irradiation using both diffraction contrast imaging and recording of diffraction patterns. Defect analysis, including defect size, density and nature, was performed to characterize the evolving microstructure and the swelling. Comparison of 15Cr/15Nisbnd Ti and 15Cr/25Nisbnd Ti irradiated microstructure has lent insight into the effect of nickel content in the development of radiation damage caused by heavy ion irradiation. The results are quantified and discussed in this paper.

  14. Le système opioïde endogène et l’addiction aux drogues1

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Résumé L’addiction aux drogues est une maladie psychiatrique chronique qui conduit à d’importantes altérations adaptatives dans les circuits de récompense du cerveau. Plusieurs systèmes de neurotransmission sont impliqués dans ces modifications. Cependant, un des systèmes neurochimiques qui joue un rôle essentiel dans l’addiction est le système opioïde endogène. Les récepteurs opioïdes et les peptides opioïdes endogènes sont très largement présents dans les structures cérébrales qui contrôlent les phénomènes de récompense, en particulier le système mésolimbique. Ces récepteurs et peptides opioïdes participent d’une manière sélective à plusieurs aspects des processus addictifs induits par les opiacés, les cannabinoïdes, les psychostimulants, l’alcool et la nicotine. Cette revue rend compte de l’état actuel des connaissances sur la participation de chaque composante du système opioïde endogène dans les propriétés addictives des différentes drogues. PMID:20176158

  15. 'Who is the ideal candidate?': decisions and issues relating to visual neuroprosthesis development, patient testing and neuroplasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merabet, Lotfi B.; Rizzo, Joseph F., III; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Fernandez, Eduardo

    2007-03-01

    Appropriate delivery of electrical stimulation to intact visual structures can evoke patterned sensations of light in individuals who have been blind for many years. This pivotal finding has lent credibility to the concept of restoring functional vision by artificial means. As numerous groups worldwide pursue human clinical testing with visual prosthetic devices, it is becoming increasingly clear that there remains a considerable gap between the challenges of prosthetic device development and the rehabilitative strategies needed to implement this new technology in patients. An important area of future work will be the development of appropriate pre- and post-implantation measures of performance and establishing candidate selection criteria in order to quantify technical advances, guide future device design and optimize therapeutic success. We propose that the selection of an 'ideal' candidate should also be considered within the context of the variable neuroplastic changes that follow vision loss. Specifically, an understanding of the adaptive and compensatory changes that occur within the brain could assist in guiding the development of post-implantation rehabilitative strategies and optimize behavioral outcomes.

  16. [COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ALBENDAZOLE VERSUS NITROFURANS AND NITROIMIDAZOLES IN THE TREATMENT OF GIARDIASIS IN CHILDREN

    PubMed

    Chan Del Pino, Manuel; Cueva Cornejo, Lina; Troyes Rivera, Lucinda

    1999-01-01

    A prospective, longitudinal, comparative, open and aleatory study in Jaen (Cajamarca--Peru), was performed during November 1997 and January of 1998. The objective was to demonstrate the efficacy and tolerance of Albendazol compared with Metronidazol, Furazolidona, Tinidazol and Secnidazol in the treatment of giardiasis in children. 79 children with giardiasis, confirmed by parasitologic studies were evaluated and distributed randorrily for aleatory code in A,B,C,D and E groups. The A group received Albendazol (5 days), the B group Metronidazol (10 days), the C group Furazolidona (10 days), the D group Tinidazol (1 d a) and the E group Secnidazol (1 d a); Clinical controls and coproparasitologic studies were performad during and after the treatment. The cl nical efficacy in the groups was of 100% and the efficacy coproparas tological of 94.1% with Albendazol, 93.3% with Secnidazol and 100% with Metronidazol. Furazolidona and Tinidazol. The global efficacy was excel lent with Al bendazol in 64,7% and in less than 40% with the other drugs, being the biggest pharmacological tolerance with Albendazol (82,3%) and Secnidazol (80%). We conclude that Albendazol is as effective as Metronidazol, Furazolidona, Tinidazol and Secnidazol but faster in eradicating the Giardia lambila in children and with better tolerance that Metronidazol, Furazolidona and Tinidazol. We consider necessary to control Epidemiological factor associated, to eradicate the parasite permanently. PMID:12196811

  17. Ethical considerations of mobile phone use by patients in KwaZulu-Natal: Obstacles for mHealth?

    PubMed Central

    Mars, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background mHealth has the potential to facilitate telemedicine services, particularly in the developing world. Concern has been expressed about the confidentiality of health information that is relayed by mobile phone. Aim We examined the habits and practices of mobile phone use by patients in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Methods We conducted a descriptive survey of two patient populations: 137 urban patients attending private practitioners and 139 patients in remote rural areas attending outpatient departments in Government-funded hospitals. The questionnaire covered several domains: demographics, mobile phone use, privacy and confidentiality and future use for health-related matters. Results Two hundred and seventy-six patients completed the questionnaire. We found that a third of our participants shared their mobile phone with others, 24% lent their phone to others and more than half received health-related messages for other people. Mobile phone theft was common, as was number changing. Thirty-eight percent of the people were not able to afford airtime for more than a week in the past year and 22% of rural patients were unable to keep their phone charged. Mobile phone signal coverage was significantly worse in the rural areas than in urban areas. Conclusion This study highlights the legal and ethical ramifications that these practices and findings will have on mHealth programmes in our setting. Healthcare providers and regulators will need to consider how patients use and manage their mobile phones when developing services and regulations. PMID:26245406

  18. Paperless anesthesia: uses and abuses of these data.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Brian J; Merry, Alan F

    2015-12-01

    Demonstrably accurate records facilitate clinical decision making, improve patient safety, provide better defense against frivolous lawsuits, and enable better medical policy decisions. Anesthesia Information Management Systems (AIMS) have the potential to improve on the accuracy and reliability of handwritten records. Interfaces with electronic recording systems within the hospital or wider community allow correlation of anesthesia relevant data with biochemistry laboratory results, billing sections, radiological units, pharmacy, earlier patient records, and other systems. Electronic storage of large and accurate datasets has lent itself to quality assurance, enhancement of patient safety, research, cost containment, scheduling, anesthesia training initiatives, and has even stimulated organizational change. The time for record making may be increased by AIMS, but in some cases has been reduced. The question of impact on vigilance is not entirely settled, but substantial negative effects seem to be unlikely. The usefulness of these large databases depends on the accuracy of data and they may be incorrect or incomplete. Consequent biases are threats to the validity of research results. Data mining of biomedical databases makes it easier for individuals with political, social, or economic agendas to generate misleading research findings for the purpose of manipulating public opinion and swaying policymakers. There remains a fear that accessibility of data may have undesirable regulatory or legal consequences. Increasing regulation of treatment options during the perioperative period through regulated policies could reduce autonomy for clinicians. These fears are as yet unsubstantiated. PMID:26432199

  19. Injury to the lung from cancer therapy: Clinical syndromes, measurable endpoints, and potential scoring systems

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, S.; Rubin, P.; Phillips, T.L.

    1995-03-30

    Toxicity of the respiratory system is a common side effect and complication of anticancer therapy that can result in significant morbidity. The range of respiratory compromise can extend from acute lethal events to degrees of chronic pulmonary decompensation, manifesting years after the initial cancer therapy. This review examines the anatomic-histologic background of the lung and the normal functional anatomic unit. The pathophysiology of radiation and chemotherapy induced lung injury is discussed as well as the associated clinical syndromes. Radiation tolerance doses and volumes are assessed in addition to chemotherapy tolerance and risk factors and radiation-chemotherapy interactions. There are a variety of measurable endpoints for detection and screening. Because of the wide range of available quantitative tests, it would seem that the measurement of impaired lung function is possible. The development of staging systems for acute and late toxicity is discussed an a new staging system for Late Effects in Normal Tissues :(LENT) is proposed. 115 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

  20. Malignant Tumors of the Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinuses: Long-Term Outcome and Morbidity With Emphasis on Hypothalamic-Pituitary Deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Snyers, An Janssens, Geert; Twickler, Marcel B.; Hermus, Ad R.; Takes, Robert P.; Kappelle, Arnoud C.; Merkx, Matthias A.W.; Dirix, Piet; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term outcome after surgery and radiotherapy for patients with sinonasal cancer and assess late toxicity, with special emphasis on hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction. Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis of 168 patients treated for sinonasal cancer in a single institute between 1986 and 2006. A more detailed analysis was performed on a subgroup of 76 patients with adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma treated with curative intent. Long-term survivors were evaluated for late toxicity by a multidisciplinary team using the late effects of normal tissues (LENT SOMA) scoring system. Additional endocrinologic tests were performed for assessment of hypothalamic-pituitary function. Results: Five-year actuarial local control and overall survival rates were 62% and 35% for all patients and 64% and 42% for the subgroup with squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. In multivariate analysis, T stage was the only significant factor predicting local relapse (79% at 5 years for T1-T3 vs. 53% for T4; p = 0.006). Sinonasal mucosal melanomas had the highest rate of regional failure (33% at 5 years). Thirteen of 21 patients (62%) evaluated at the late morbidity clinic had hormonal disturbances, of whom 5 (24%) had definitive evidence of hypopituitarism with multiple hormonal deficiencies. Conclusion: Local failure is the dominant cause of treatment failure for patients with sinonasal cancer, with T4 stage the only independent predictor. Because of a high rate of radiation-induced hypopituitarism, we recommend endocrinologic surveillance for these patients.

  1. Osteogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Forlino, Antonella; Marini, Joan C

    2016-04-16

    Osteogenesis imperfecta is a phenotypically and molecularly heterogeneous group of inherited connective tissue disorders that share similar skeletal abnormalities causing bone fragility and deformity. Previously, the disorder was thought to be an autosomal dominant bone dysplasia caused by defects in type I collagen, but in the past 10 years discoveries of novel (mainly recessive) causative genes have lent support to a predominantly collagen-related pathophysiology and have contributed to an improved understanding of normal bone development. Defects in proteins with very different functions, ranging from structural to enzymatic and from intracellular transport to chaperones, have been described in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta. Knowledge of the specific molecular basis of each form of the disorder will advance clinical diagnosis and potentially stimulate targeted therapeutic approaches. In this Seminar, together with diagnosis, management, and treatment, we describe the defects causing osteogenesis imperfecta and their mechanism and interrelations, and classify them into five groups on the basis of the metabolic pathway compromised, specifically those related to collagen synthesis, structure, and processing; post-translational modification; folding and cross-linking; mineralisation; and osteoblast differentiation. PMID:26542481

  2. Captain Cook's beer: the antiscorbutic use of malt and beer in late 18th century sea voyages.

    PubMed

    Stubbs, Brett J

    2003-01-01

    The custom of allowing British seamen the regular use of fermented liquor is an old one. Ale was a standard article of the sea ration as early as the fourteenth century. By the late eighteenth century, beer was considered to be at once a food (a staple beverage and essential part of the sea diet), a luxury (helping to ameliorate the hardship and irregularity of sea life) and a medicine (conducive to health at sea). In particular, beer and its precursors, wort and malt, were administered with the aim of preventing and curing scurvy. This paper examines the use of malt and beer during late eighteenth century British sea voyages, particularly their use as antiscorbutic agents, focusing on James Cook's three voyages during the period 1768-1780. Cook administered sweet wort (an infusion of malt), beer (prepared from an experimental, concentrated malt extract), and spruce beer (prepared mainly from molasses), among many other items, in his attempts to prevent and to cure scurvy. Despite the inconclusive nature of his own experiments, he reported favourably after his second voyage (1772-1775) on the use of wort as an antiscorbutic sea medicine (for which purpose it is now known to be useless). Cook thereby lent credibility to erroneous medical theories about scurvy, helping to perpetuate the use of ineffective treatments and to delay the discovery of a cure for the disorder. PMID:12810402

  3. Alkaline phosphatase activity in salivary gland cells of Rhodnius neglectus and R. prolixus (Hemiptera, Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Lima-Oliveira, A P M; Alevi, K C C; Anhê, A C B; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V

    2016-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase activity was detected in salivary gland cells of the Rhodnius neglectus Lent, 1954, and R. prolixus Stal, 1859, vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909 (etiological agent of Chagas disease) and T. rangeli Tejera, 1920 (pathogenic to insect). The Gomori technique was used to demonstrate alkaline phosphatase activity. Alkaline phosphatase activity was observed throughout the entire gland, with an increased activity in the posterior region of the principal gland. In particular, phosphatase activity was found in the nucleolar corpuscles, suggesting a relationship with the rRNA transcription and ribosomal biogenesis. Alkaline phosphatase was also detected in the nuclear membrane and nuclear matrix, suggesting an association with the nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of ribonucleoproteins and the mechanisms of cell cycle and DNA replication, respectively. This study highlights the importance of alkaline phosphatase in the salivary gland of R. prolixus and R. neglectus and emphasizes its importance in secretory activity. Secretory activity is directly involved in hematophagy and, consequently, in development during metamorphosis. The observed presence of alkaline phosphatase suggests its involvement in the production of saliva allowing feeding of these insects that are important vectors of Chagas disease. PMID:27525888

  4. Corrosion of structural materials by lead-based reactor coolants.

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, D. P.; Leibowitz, L.; Maroni, V. A.; McDeavitt, S. M.; Raraz, A. G.

    2000-11-16

    Advanced nuclear reactor design has, in recent years, focused increasingly on the use of heavy-liquid-metal coolants, such as lead and lead-bismuth eutectic. Similarly, programs on accelerator-based transmutation systems have also considered the use of such coolants. Russian experience with heavy-metal coolants for nuclear reactors has lent credence to the validity of this approach. Of significant concern is the compatibility of structural materials with these coolants. We have used a thermal convection-based test method to allow exposure of candidate materials to molten lead and lead-bismuth flowing under a temperature gradient. The gradient was deemed essential in evaluating the behavior of the test materials in that should preferential dissolution of components of the test material occur we would expect dissolution in the hotter regions and deposition in the colder regions, thus promoting material transport. Results from the interactions of a Si-rich mild steel alloy, AISI S5, and a ferritic-martensitic stainless steel, HT-9, with the molten lead-bismuth are presented.

  5. Multicultural counseling self-efficacy scale-racial diversity form: factor structure and test of a social cognitive model.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Hung-Bin; Rigali-Oiler, Marybeth; Lent, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to gather evidence on the factor structure and concurrent criterion validity of the multicultural counseling self-efficacy scale-racial diversity form (MCSE-RD; Sheu & Lent, 2007). The MCSE-RD was designed to assess therapists' perceived capabilities in performing culturally relevant in-session behaviors in cross-racial counseling. Participants were 209 students in counseling-related graduate programs in the USA. Confirmatory factor analyses identified a bifactor structure in which responses to MCSE-RD items could be explained by one generic and three multicultural-specific counseling self-efficacy factors. Support was also found for a social cognitive model in which self-efficacy and interests in multicultural counseling mediated the effects of prior cross-racial client contacts and perceptions of multicultural training environments on intent to perform multicultural counseling in the future. Additionally, outcome expectations were predictive of multicultural counseling interests and choice goals. Implications for multicultural training and directions for future research are highlighted. PMID:22574664

  6. UV photography of the earth and the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The fundamental aim of this experiment was the acquisition of ultraviolet photographs of the earth and the moon that could be used to interpret similar imagery of Mars and Venus. Venus shows no markings whatever when viewed in visible light, a phenomenon that is in keeping with its immensely thick atmosphere and perpetual cloud cover, but in the near ultraviolet, the planet exhibits low contrast markings which vary in position and appearance with time. Mars posed just the opposite problem from Venus at wavelengths below 4500 A, Mars shows very little detail, sometimes none at all, whereas at longer wavelengths, the surface is clearly visible. Occasionally observers have reported that this obscuration has lifted and the ground has become visible at the shorter wavelengths as well. Such events have been labeled blue clearings and led to the suggestion that the ultraviolet obscuration was caused by an atmospheric haze. Mariner 6 and 7 observations of Mars failed to find such a haze and lent support to the alternative view that ascribed the absence of detail on UV photographs to a simple lack of contrast between Martian surface features at these wavelengths.

  7. Correlates of lending needles/syringes among HIV-seropositive injection drug users.

    PubMed

    Metsch, Lisa R; Pereyra, Margaret; Purcell, David W; Latkin, Carl A; Malow, Robert; Gómez, Cynthia A; Latka, Mary H

    2007-11-01

    Among HIV-positive injection drug users (IDUs), we examined the correlates of lending needles/syringes with HIV-negative and unknown status injection partners. HIV-positive IDUs (N=738) from 4 cities in the United States who reported injection drug use with other IDUs in the past 3 months participated in an audio computer-assisted self-administered interview. Eighteen percent of study participants self-reported having lent their needles to HIV-negative or unknown status injection partners. Multivariate analyses showed that 6 variables were significantly associated with this high-risk injecting practice. Older IDUs, high school graduates, and those reporting more supportive peer norms for safer drug use were less likely to lend needles/syringes. Admission to a hospital for drug treatment in the past 6 months, having injected with >1 person in the past 3 months, and having more psychiatric symptoms were all associated with more risk. These findings underscore the need for a continued prevention focus on HIV-positive IDUs that recognizes the combination of drug use, mental health factors, and social factors that might affect this high-risk injecting practice, which could be associated with HIV and hepatitis C transmission. PMID:18089987

  8. Indicators of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) career interest among middle school students in the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Leila A.

    This study examines middle school students' perceptions of a future career in a science, math, engineering, or technology (STEM) career field. Gender, grade, predispositions to STEM contents, and learner dispositions are examined for changing perceptions and development in career-related choice behavior. Student perceptions as measured by validated measurement instruments are analyzed pre and post participation in a STEM intervention energy-monitoring program that was offered in several U.S. middle schools during the 2009-2010, 2010-2011 school years. A multiple linear regression (MLR) model, developed by incorporating predictors identified by an examination of the literature and a hypothesis-generating pilot study for prediction of STEM career interest, is introduced. Theories on the career choice development process from authors such as Ginzberg, Eccles, and Lent are examined as the basis for recognition of career concept development among students. Multiple linear regression statistics, correlation analysis, and analyses of means are used to examine student data from two separate program years. Study research questions focus on predictive ability, RSQ, of MLR models by gender/grade, and significance of model predictors in order to determine the most significant predictors of STEM career interest, and changes in students' perceptions pre and post program participation. Analysis revealed increases in the perceptions of a science career, decreases in perceptions of a STEM career, increase of the significance of science and mathematics to predictive models, and significant increases in students' perceptions of creative tendencies.

  9. Active transport of 131I across the blood—brain barrier

    PubMed Central

    Davson, Hugh; Hollingsworth, Jillian R.

    1973-01-01

    The ventricular space of rabbits was perfused with a low-viscosity silicone oil for the purpose of (1) collecting freshly secreted cerebrospinal fluid (c.s.f.) uninfluenced by diffusional exchanges with the brain and (2) studying passage of solutes from the blood into the brain, uncomplicated by exchanges with c.s.f. The freshly secreted c.s.f. appeared as fine droplets suspended in the less dense silicone, and accumulated at the bottom of the collected silicone. Studies on the penetration of 24Na from blood into this fluid indicated that considerable exchanges with the brain had occurred between its secretion and collection, in spite of this method of collection. The second objective was attained, in that the exchanges between the freshly secreted fluid and the brain were quantitatively insufficient to affect the measure of kinetics of uptake by brain from the blood. In consequence, it was possible to demonstrate unequivocally that the increased uptake by brain of 131I, when treated with perchlorate, was due to inhibition of an active process occurring across the blood—brain barrier. Other studies, involving ventriculo-cisternal perfusion with artificial c.s.f., lent further support to this concept. 131I distribution is some 32% of the brain weight, a figure close to the `chloride-space'. PMID:4355804

  10. Teaching ethics in the clinic. The theory and practice of moral case deliberation.

    PubMed

    Molewijk, A C; Abma, T; Stolper, M; Widdershoven, G

    2008-02-01

    A traditional approach to teaching medical ethics aims to provide knowledge about ethics. This is in line with an epistemological view on ethics in which moral expertise is assumed to be located in theoretical knowledge and not in the moral experience of healthcare professionals. The aim of this paper is to present an alternative, contextual approach to teaching ethics, which is grounded in a pragmatic-hermeneutical and dialogical ethics. This approach is called moral case deliberation. Within moral case deliberation, healthcare professionals bring in their actual moral questions during a structured dialogue. The ethicist facilitates the learning process by using various conversation methods in order to find answers to the case and to develop moral competencies. The case deliberations are not unique events, but are a structural part of the professional training on the work floor within healthcare institutions. This article presents the underlying theory on (teaching) ethics and illustrates this approach with an example of a moral case deliberation project in a Dutch psychiatric hospital. The project was evaluated using the method of responsive evaluation. This method provided us with rich information about the implementation process and effects the research process itself also lent support to the process of implementation. PMID:18234952

  11. [The real philanthropic expedition of the smallpox vaccine: monarchy and modernity in 1803].

    PubMed

    Rigau-Pérez, José G

    2004-09-01

    Smallpox resulted in the death of 30 % of those who acquired it, so the preventive method discovered by Edward Jenner (London, 1798) spread very quickly. At the request in 1803 of Carlos IV, king of Spain, his government evaluated offers to carry smallpox vaccine to the colonies. The selected proposal, by doctor Francisco Xavier de Balmis, sought to take the lymph to America and Asia in a chain of arm to arm vaccination of foundlings. The Expedition set sail from Corunna on November 30, 1803, stopped in the Canary Isles, Puerto Rico, and Venezuela and after Caracas (1804) split in two groups. Balmis led some members of the Expedition to Cuba and Mexico. For the trip to the Philippines, in 1805, parents lent their children in exchange for economic compensation and the promise that the boys would be returned home. The Expedition returned to Mexico in August, 1807, but Balmis separately took vaccine to China and returned to Spain. Another contingent of the Expedition, under vice-director José Salvany, took vaccine to what we know as Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. His assistant Manuel Grajales reached the Chilean Patagonia in 1811. This article also comments on three principal themes - the institutional management of the scientific project, the conflicts that characterized its course, and the children's experience. The Vaccine Expedition was a brave and humanitarian endeavor, but also an extraordinary sanitary and administrative success. It was not until the twentieth century that a global eradication campaign eliminated smallpox in the world. PMID:15631178

  12. Insights into how nucleotide supplements enhance the peroxidase-mimicking DNAzyme activity of the G-quadruplex/hemin system.

    PubMed

    Stefan, Loic; Denat, Franck; Monchaud, David

    2012-09-01

    Since the initial discovery of the catalytic capability of short DNA fragments, this peculiar enzyme-like property (termed DNAzyme) has continued to garner much interest in the scientific community because of the virtually unlimited applications in developing new molecular devices. Alongside the exponential rise in the number of DNAzyme applications in the last past years, the search for convenient ways to improve its overall efficiency has only started to emerge. Credence has been lent to this strategy by the recent demonstration that the quadruplex-based DNAzyme proficiency can be enhanced by ATP supplements. Herein, we have made a further leap along this path, trying first of all to decipher the actual DNAzyme catalytic cycle (to gain insights into the steps ATP may influence), and subsequently investigating in detail the influence of all the parameters that govern the catalytic efficiency. We have extended this study to other nucleotides and quadruplexes, thus demonstrating the versatility and broad applicability of such an approach. The defined exquisitely efficient DNAzyme protocols were exploited to highlight the enticing advantages of this method via a 96-well plate experiment that enables the detection of nanomolar DNA concentrations in real-time with the naked-eye (see movie as Supplementary Data). PMID:22730286

  13. The pleasures and perils of prophetic advocacy: Henry E. Sigerist and the politics of medical reform.

    PubMed Central

    Fee, E

    1996-01-01

    Henry E. Sigerist, an internationally renowned medical historian, played a surprisingly important and visible role in American medical politics in the 1930s and 1940s. Born in Paris of Swiss parents, he was professor in Leipzig, Germany, before coming to the United States in 1932 as professor of the history of medicine at Johns Hopkins University. Once in America. Sigerist became deeply involved in medical politics and the campaign for national health insurance. He argued that individualized medical practice was outdated and should gradually be superseded by state-run and state-financed health services. National health insurance was but one step in this historical progression. Sigerist thus lent the weight of history itself to the cause of medical care reform. The charming and erudite Sigerist was welcomed by the leaders of academic medicine in America. Soon, he emerged as a spokesman of the left wing of the medical profession, an effective and popular speaker and an impassioned advocate of socialized medicine. This paper traces Sigerist's political ideas and activities, and his contributions toward medical care reform in the United States. Images p1639-a p1642-a PMID:8916536

  14. [Role of black bean Phaseolus vulgaris on the nutritional status of Guatemalan population].

    PubMed

    Serrano, José; Goñi, Isabel

    2004-03-01

    Guatemala provides an example of epidemiological superposition, in which health problems typical of developed countries and developing countries are both observed. Nutritional deficiencies in some micronutrients like vitamin A and iron coexist alongside chronic diseases such as diabetes type II and cardiovascular diseases. The importance of black beans in the normal Guatemala diet is well known:70g per capita of black beans are consumed daily. Black beans are an important sources of protein and energy in the diet. They contain "lente" digestion carbohydrates and a high proportion of non-digested carbohydrates that may be fermented in the large intestine. Theses types of carbohydrates are associated with a low glycemic response, low serum cholesterol levels, and a decrease of colon cancer risk factors. These physiological effects may be related to colonic fermentation end products (propionic and butyric acids). Black beans also contain several antinutritional compounds (enzymatic inhibitors, haemaglutenins, saponins and phytic acid, etc.), some of them thermolabiles that are partially eliminated during culinary processes and may modify the nutritional quality of beans. Black beans play a crucial role in the etiology of several diseases in Guatemala. PMID:15332354

  15. Exploring the work lives of adults with serious mental illness from a vocational psychology perspective.

    PubMed

    Millner, Uma Chandrika; Rogers, Erna Sally; Bloch, Philippe; Costa, William; Pritchett, Sharon; Woods, Tracy

    2015-10-01

    Current vocational services for adults with serious mental illness remain largely atheoretical and disconnected from mainstream vocational psychology research and practice. This study explored the perspectives on work of adults with serious mental illness, compared perspectives of young and older adults, and assessed these perspectives for the applicability of a well-established theory of vocational psychology. A national sample of 76 individuals with mental illness engaged in the workforce completed a semistructured questionnaire. We applied the principles of a participatory approach to consensual qualitative research methodology in the study design and data analysis. Results yielded a large number of categories, which clustered under domains representative of the primary constructs of social cognitive career theory (SCCT; Lent, 2013). These domains included the antecedents of self-efficacy, namely, personal accomplishments, vicarious learning, social persuasion, and physical or emotional states as well as additional constructs of outcome expectations, personal goals, and contextual barriers. The SCCT model will likely provide a useful framework to bridge the gap between career development theory and vocational services for individuals with mental illness. PMID:26460981

  16. Resolving Presynaptic Structure by Electron Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Guy A.; Jackson, Dakota R.; Spirou, George A.

    2016-01-01

    A key goal in neurobiology is to generate a theoretical framework that merges structural, physiological and molecular explanations of brain function. These categories of explanation do not advance in synchrony; advances in one category define new experiments in other categories. For example, the synapse was defined physiologically and biochemically before it was visualized using electron microscopy. Indeed, the original descriptions of synapses in the 1950s were lent credence by the presence of spherical vesicles in presynaptic terminals that were considered to be the substrate for quantal neurotransmission. In the last few decades, our understanding of synaptic function has again been driven by physiological and molecular techniques. The key molecular players for synaptic vesicle structure, mobility and fusion were identified and applications of the patch clamp technique permitted physiological estimation of neurotransmitter release and receptor properties. These advances demand higher resolution structural images of synapses. During the 1990s a second renaissance in cell biology driven by EM was fueled by improved techniques for electron tomography (ET) with the ability to compute virtual images with nm resolution between image planes. Over the last fifteen years, ET has been applied to the presynaptic terminal with special attention to the active zone and organelles of the nerve terminal. In this review, we first summarize the technical improvements that have led to a resurgence in utilization of ET and then we summarize new insights gained by the application of ET to reveal the high-resolution structure of the nerve terminal. PMID:25683026

  17. Bioethics and anti-bioethics in light of Nazi medicine: what must we remember?

    PubMed

    Wikler, D; Barondess, J

    1993-03-01

    Only recently have historians explored in depth the role of the medical profession in Nazi Germany. Several recent works reveal that physicians joined the Nazi party in disproportionate numbers and lent both their efforts and their authority to Nazi eugenic and racist programs. While the crimes of the physician Mengele and a few others are well known, recent research points to a much broader involvement by the profession, even in its everyday clinical work. Analogous activities existed in the German legal and industrial communities; disruption of the medical ethic thus sprang from the broader social contexts of Nazi Germany. The new United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, now opening on the Mall in Washington, D.C., will have an opportunity to educate the public about both the great crimes at Auschwitz and other camps, and the gradual but thorough degradation of ethics in the German medical profession. From this presentation, contemporary bioethics can ponder the proper use of the Nazi analogy in bioethical debate. PMID:10171397

  18. Deaf students and scientists side-by-side: Self-efficacy and modeling in real-world earth science research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jepson, Patricia Jane

    Deaf and hard of hearing students from five high schools were involved in an earth science project on geological faults. Variables of interest were self-efficacy in science and self-efficacy in career decision-making. The influence and characteristics of role models for deaf and hard of hearing students were also examined. Social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) was used as the theoretical base in this mixed method study. The fault curriculum unit was a collaborative project between Geosciences faculty at the University of Massachusetts and SOAR-High, an earth science program coordinated by the Clerc Center at Gallaudet University. Students participated in three interconnected learning components: (a) classroom experiments using a specially designed sandbox unit to model changes that take place in the earth's crust; (b) videoconferences with geoscientists; and (c) a five-day field trip where students, teachers, and scientists worked side-by-side in the field studying faults in Utah. Quantitative and qualitative data focused on science self-efficacy, career decision-making self-efficacy, and the influence of role models. Results suggested that active, student-centered learning activities had a positive impact on science self-efficacy and career decision making self-efficacy.

  19. Electrisation

    PubMed Central

    Chaibdraa, A.; Medjellekh, M.S.; Bentakouk, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    Summary La qualité de la prise en charge en urgence des patients atteints d'accidents d'électrisation dépend du degré de compréhension des données physiopathologiques à l'origine des nombreuses manifestations cliniques, dominées par la mort subite. La connaissance des rôles respectifs des différentes caractéristiques de l'électricité (les ampères tuent, les volts brûlent, le risque potentiellement élevé de traumatisme associé), de l'électrothermie et des mécanismes à l'échelon cellulaire a permis de mieux appréhender son extrême gravité. Les conséquences fonctionnelles, esthétiques et psychologiques, avec de lourdes séquelles, expliquent le caractère multidisciplinaire de la prise en charge au long cours. Face à une morbidité importante, la prévention est fondamentale, en particulier pour les professions exposées et pour ce qui concerne les accidents domestiques chez l'enfant. PMID:21991147

  20. Investigation of social cognitive career theory for minority recruitment in school psychology.

    PubMed

    Bocanegra, Joel O; Gubi, Aaron A; Cappaert, Kevin J

    2016-06-01

    School psychology trainers have historically struggled to adequately increase the number of professionals from diverse backgrounds. An increase in diverse providers is important in meeting the needs of a burgeoning racial/ethnic minority student population. Previous research suggests that minority undergraduate psychology students have less knowledge and exposure to school psychology than for counseling and clinical psychology, and that students with greater exposure or knowledge of school psychology reported significantly greater choice intentions for school psychology. The purpose of this study is to test the applicability of the Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) in explaining minority undergraduate psychology students' choice intentions for school psychology. This study is an analysis of existing data and is based on a national sample of 283 minority undergraduate psychology students. All instruments used in this study were found to have internal consistency ranging from .83 to .91. Students' learning experiences, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and choice intentions for school psychology were evaluated by way of a mediator analysis. Results from a path analysis suggest that outcome expectations mediated the relationship between exposure and choice intentions for school psychology. Implications for minority recruitment practices are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27243246

  1. Risk and markets for ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Bendor, Todd K; Riggsbee, J Adam; Doyle, Martin

    2011-12-15

    Market-based environmental regulations (e.g., cap and trade, "payments for ecosystem services") are increasingly common. However, few detailed studies of operating ecosystem markets have lent understanding to how such policies affect incentive structures for improving environmental quality. The largest U.S. market stems from the Clean Water Act provisions requiring ecosystem restoration to offset aquatic ecosystems damaged during development. We describe and test how variations in the rules governing this ecosystem market shift risk between regulators and entrepreneurs to promote ecological restoration. We analyze extensive national scale data to assess how two critical aspects of market structure - (a) the geographic scale of markets and (b) policies dictating the release of credits - affect the willingness of entrepreneurs to enter specific markets and produce credits. We find no discernible relationship between policies attempting to ease market entry and either the number of individual producers or total credits produced. Rather, market entry is primarily related to regional geography (the prevalence of aquatic ecosystems) and regional economic growth. Any improvements to policies governing ecosystem markets require explicit evaluation of the interplay between policy and risk elements affecting both regulators and entrepreneurial credit providers. Our findings extend to emerging, regulated ecosystem markets, including proposed carbon offset mechanisms, biodiversity banking, and water quality trading programs. PMID:22044319

  2. [Haute Autorite de sante opinion on cost-effectiveness of health products : results and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Midy, Fabienne; Raimond, Véronique; Thébaut, Clémence; Sambuc, Cléa; Rumeau-Pichon, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Since 3rd October 2013 in France, drug companies applying for reimbursement of an innovative and expensive drug or medical device are required to provide the French National Authority for Health (HAS) with a cost-effectiveness assessment of their product. After a methodological audit of the economic evaluation submitted by the drug company, the Health Economics and Public Health Committee (CEESP) issues an opinion on the expected or observed cost-effectiveness. This opinion is sent to the Pricing Committee (CEPS) which determines the price of the product. After summarizing the French reimburse'!lent and pricing system, the objective of this article is to review the first 22 months of activity, in which HAS issued 30 cost-effectiveness opinions. The process, based on exchanges between drug companies and HAS, allowed the pricing committee to document the economic criterion in the majority of applications, while characterizing the degree of uncertainty of the results. For ten applications, major methodological concerns led the CEESP to reject the drug company's assessment. PMID:26752035

  3. Should Hypersexual Disorder be Classified as an Addiction?

    PubMed

    Kor, Ariel; Fogel, Yehuda; Reid, Rory C; Potenza, Marc N

    2013-01-01

    Hypersexual behavior has been documented within clinical and research settings over the past decade. Despite recent research on hypersexuality and its associated features, many questions remain how best to define and classify hypersexual behavior. Proposed diagnostic criteria for Hypersexual Disorder (HD) have been proposed for the DSM-5 and a preliminary field trial has lent some support to the reliability and validity of the HD diagnosis. However, debate exists with respect to the extent to which the disorder might be categorized as a non-substance or behavioral addiction. In this article, we will discuss this debate in the context of data citing similarities and differences between hypersexual disorder, drug addictions, and pathological gambling. The authors of this paper conclude that despite many similarities between the features of hypersexual behavior and substance-related disorders, the research on HD at this time is in its infancy and much remains to be learned before definitively characterizing HD as an addiction at this time. PMID:24273404

  4. Comparison of hydraulic and hemolytic properties of different impeller designs of an implantable rotary blood pump by computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Arvand, Arash; Hahn, Nicole; Hormes, Marcus; Akdis, Mustafa; Martin, Michael; Reul, Helmut

    2004-10-01

    A mixed-flow blood pump for long-term applications has been developed at the Helmholtz-Institute in Aachen, Germany. Central features of this implantable pump are a centrally integrated motor, a blood-immersed mechanical bearing, magnetic coupling of the impeller, and a shrouded impeller, which allows a relatively wide clearance. The aim of the study was a numerical analysis of hydraulic and hemolytic properties of different impeller design configurations. In vitro testing and numerical simulation techniques (computational fluid dynamics [CFD]) were applied to achieve a comprehensive overview. Pressure-flow charts were experimentally measured in a mock loop in order to validate the CFD data. In vitro hemolysis tests were performed at the main operating point of each impeller design. General flow patterns, pressure-flow charts, secondary flow rates, torque, and axial forces on the impeller were calculated by means of CFD. Furthermore, based on streak line techniques, shear stress (stress loading), exposure times, and volume percentage with critical stress loading have been determined. Comparison of CFD data with pressure head measurements showed excel-lent agreement. Also, impressive trend conformity was observed between in-vitro hemolysis results and numerical data. Comparison of design variations yielded clear trends and results. Design C revealed the best hydraulic and hemolytic properties and was chosen as the final design for the mixed-flow rotary blood pump. PMID:15384994

  5. Understanding the gender gap: Social cognitive changes during an introductory stem course.

    PubMed

    Hardin, Erin E; Longhurst, Melanie O

    2016-03-01

    Despite robust support for the basic theoretical model of social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) and predictions that, for example, increases (or declines) in self-efficacy would lead to subsequent increases (or declines) in interest, there has been surprisingly little longitudinal research that has directly examined the extent to which members of different groups (e.g., women and men) actually do experience changes in critical social-cognitive variables over time early in their curricula in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Knowing the extent to which such changes occur in typical introductory undergraduate courses is important for targeting interventions to increase persistence of underrepresented groups in STEM. We measured social-cognitive-career-theory-relevant variables near the middle and at the end of the 1st semester of a gateway introductory chemistry course and found that women had lower STEM self-efficacy, coping self-efficacy, and STEM interest than did men, even after controlling for actual course performance. Although there were no detrimental changes across the semester for women or men, men experienced a small but significant increase in their perceived support for pursuing a STEM degree, whereas women did not. PMID:26436723

  6. New records of bat ectoparasites (Diptera, Hemiptera and Siphonaptera) from northern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Autino, Analía G; Claps, Guillermo L; Sánchez, Mariano S; Barquez, Rubén M

    2009-01-01

    New species of bat-ectoparasite insects are added to the fauna of Argentina and distributional limits are extended for others, based on information obtained from 21 species of bats collected. New data is reported for the distribution of 23 species of bat ectoparasites, of which 17 belong to the Order Diptera [14 Streblidae: Anastrebla caudiferae Wenzel, Anatrichobius scorzai Wenzel, Aspidoptera phyllostomatis (Perty), Megistopoda aranea (Coquillett), M. proxima (Sèguy), Metelasmus pseudopterus Coquillett, Noctiliostrebla aitkeni Wenzel, N. dubia (Rudow), Paradyschiria fusca Speiser, Paradyschiria sp., Strebla chrotopteri Wenzel, Strebla diaemi Wenzel, Trichobius parasiticus Gervais y Xenotrichobius noctilionis Wenzel, and three Nycteribiidae: Basilia carteri Scott, B. plaumanni Scott y B.neamericana Schuurmans Stekhoven (Jr)], three belong to the Order Siphonaptera [one Ischnopsyllidae: Myodopsylla isidori (Weyenbergh), one Tungidae: Rhynchopsyllus pulex Haller, and one Stephanocircidae: Craneopsylla m. minerva (Rothschild)] and three belong to Order Hemiptera [two Polyctenidae: Hesperoctenes fumarius (Westwood) and H. vicinus Jordan, and one Cimicidae: Latrocimex spectans Lent]. Some records are new for Argentina, while others are new for the provinces of Corrientes, Chaco, Entre Ríos, Jujuy, Misiones and Salta. Also new host-parasite relationships are reported. PMID:19488504

  7. Use of two surface analyzers to evaluate the surface roughness of four esthetic restorative materials after polishing.

    PubMed

    Joniot, Sabine; Salomon, Jean Pierre; Dejou, Jacques; Grégoire, Geneviève

    2006-01-01

    This study had two aims: determine how well four esthetic restorative materials lent themselves to polishing and compare the results obtained using two different techniques for evaluating surface roughness. The four materials used were two composites modified by the addition of resin, Dyract AP (Dentsply) and Dyract Flow (Dentsply); one composite designed for posterior restorations, SureFil (Dentsply) and one universal micromatrix composite, Esthet-X (Dentsply). Five test pieces were made with each product by inserting the material into cylindrical molds and polymerizing it layer by layer. A single operator polished the specimens on the same day using the Enhance system (Dentsply) and two aluminum oxide pastes. The surfaces were studied successively by means of two surface analyzers: a high-resolution optical profilometer (Nanosurf 488, SAS Technology) and a mechanical profilometer (Mitutoyo Surftest-SV 402). These measurements gave the mean roughness of the surface (Ra). Ten zones were examined for each specimen, and the specimens were observed under an optical microscope (PMG3 inverted metallographic microscope) at 50x magnification. The qualitative and quantitative analyses of the results showed good surface states for all materials. However, the composites based on nano- and micro-filler technology gave the smoothest surfaces after polishing. A comparison of the values obtained with each method of observation showed that mechanical profilometry tended to show roughness caused by polishing, while optical profilometry brought out roughness due to the structure of the material itself. PMID:16536192

  8. The metaphor of epigenesis: Kant, Blumenbach and Herder.

    PubMed

    Helbig, Daniela; Nassar, Dalia

    2016-08-01

    Over the last few decades, the meaning of the scientific theory of epigenesis and its significance for Kant's critical philosophy have become increasingly central questions. Most recently, scholars have argued that epigenesis is a key factor in the development of Kant's understanding of reason as self-grounding and self-generating. Building on this work, our claim is that Kant appealed to not just any epigenetic theory, but specifically Johann Friedrich Blumenbach's account of generation, and that this appeal must be understood not only in terms of self-organization, but also in terms of the demarcation of a specific domain of inquiry: for Blumenbach, the study of life; for Kant, the study of reason. We argue that Kant adopted this specific epigenetic model as a result of his dispute with Herder regarding the independence of reason from nature. Blumenbach's conception of epigenesis and his separation of a domain of the living from the non-living lent Kant the tools to demarcate metaphysics, and to guard reason against Herder's attempts to naturalize it. PMID:27474190

  9. [Sudeck disease].

    PubMed

    Enderle, A; Gregl, A

    1990-12-01

    In 1900, the Hamburg surgeon P.H.M. Sudeck was the first to describe the clinical and radiological symptomatology of the disorder to which he later lent his name. He devoted his scientific career to this disorder, "acute inflammatory atrophy" of bone and soft-tissue as he called it. He elaborated the histology of the disorder with his students and advocated the pathogenic peripheral humoral theory. In later years seven further attempts to explain the pathogenesis were published. The present paper notes that this disorder, which can be divided into three distinct stages, is diagnosed mainly on the basis of clinical factors, above all in the early stage, and that x-rays in the early stages are difficult to differentiate from those of immobilisation osteoporosis since both disorders can manifest as patchy rare fraction and fibrous osteolysis in subchondral bone and old growth plates. Moreover, the author also notes that 10% of all Sudeck cases are not preceded by trauma; these must be understood as spontaneous Sudeck or as Sudeck after distant disturbances. A few sources also refer to Sudeck's dystrophy in the presence of lymphatic congestion. Another, special form of Sudeck's atrophy, is the shoulder-hand syndrome which, however, cannot always be differentiated precisely from rheumatic disorders or dystrophic contractures. PMID:1708182

  10. Compression of thick laminated composite beams with initial impact-like damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breivik, N. L.; Guerdal, Z.; Griffin, O. H., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    While the study of compression after impact of laminated composites has been under consideration for many years, the complexity of the damage initiated by low velocity impact has not lent itself to simple predictive models for compression strength. The damage modes due to non-penetrating, low velocity impact by large diameter objects can be simulated using quasi-static three-point bending. The resulting damage modes are less coupled and more easily characterized than actual impact damage modes. This study includes the compression testing of specimens with well documented initial damage states obtained from three-point bend testing. Compression strengths and failure modes were obtained for quasi-isotropic stacking sequences from 0.24 to 1.1 inches thick with both grouped and interspersed ply stacking. Initial damage prior to compression testing was divided into four classifications based on the type, extent, and location of the damage. These classifications are multiple through-thickness delaminations, isolated delamination, damage near the surface, and matrix cracks. Specimens from each classification were compared to specimens tested without initial damage in order to determine the effects of the initial damage on the final compression strength and failure modes. A finite element analysis was used to aid in the understanding and explanation of the experimental results.

  11. Influence of social cognitive and ethnic variables on academic goals of underrepresented students in science and engineering: a multiple-groups analysis.

    PubMed

    Byars-Winston, Angela; Estrada, Yannine; Howard, Christina; Davis, Dalelia; Zalapa, Juan

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated the academic interests and goals of 223 African American, Latino/a, Southeast Asian, and Native American undergraduate students in two groups: biological science and engineering (S/E) majors. Using social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994), we examined the relationships of social cognitive variables (math/science academic self-efficacy, math/science outcome expectations), along with the influence of ethnic variables (ethnic identity, other-group orientation) and perceptions of campus climate to their math/science interests and goal commitment to earn an S/E degree. Path analysis revealed that the hypothesized model provided good overall fit to the data, revealing significant relationships from outcome expectations to interests and to goals. Paths from academic self-efficacy to S/E goals and from interests to S/E goals varied for students in engineering and biological science. For both groups, other-group orientation was positively related to self-efficacy and support was found for an efficacy-mediated relationship between perceived campus climate and goals. Theoretical and practical implications of the study's findings are considered as well as future research directions. PMID:20495610

  12. A public health physician named Walter Leser.

    PubMed

    Mello, Guilherme Arantes; Bonfim, José Ruben de Alcântara

    2015-09-01

    A brief review of the career of the public health physician Walter Sidney Pereira Leser, who died in 2004 aged 94. Self-taught, from his 1933 doctoral thesis he became a country reference in the field of statistics and epidemiology, with dozens of studies and supervisions. In the clinical field he is one of the founders of Fleury Laboratory, and participates in the creation of CREMESP. As an academic, Leser was a professor at the Escola de Sociologia e Política de São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina e Faculdade de Farmácia e Odontologia da USP. Also, Leser introduced objective tests in the college entrance examination, and led the creation of CESCEM and Carlos Chagas Foundation. In the Escola Paulista de Medicina he created the first Preventive Medicine Department of the country. As a public official, he was secretary of the State Department of Health of São Paulo between 1967 and 1971 and between 1975 and 1979, responsible for extensive reforms and innovations. Among the most remembered, the creation of sanitary medical career. Throughout this legacy, he lent his name to the "Medal of Honor and Merit Public Health Management" of the State of São Paulo. PMID:26331506

  13. Acetylcholinesterase is associated with a decrease in cell proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Aguilar, Benjamín; Vidal, Cecilio J; Palomec, Guillermina; García-Dolores, Fernando; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, María Concepción; Bucio, Leticia; Gómez-Olivares, José Luis; Gómez-Quiroz, Luis Enrique

    2015-07-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the enzyme that rapidly splits acetylcholine into acetate and choline, presents non-cholinergic functions through which may participate in the control of cell proliferation and apoptosis. These two features are relevant in cancer, particularly in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a very aggressive liver tumor with high incidence and poor prognosis in advanced stages. Here we explored the relation between acetylcholinesterase and HCC growth by testing the influence of AChE on proliferation of Huh-7 and HepG2 cell lines, addressed in monolayer cultures, spheroid formation and human liver tumor samples. Results showed a clear relation in AChE expression and cell cycle progression, an effect which depended on cell confluence. Inhibition of AChE activity led to an increase in cell proliferation, which was associated with downregulation of p27 and cyclins. The fact that Huh-7 and HepG2 cell lines provided similar results lent weight to the relationship of AChE expression with cell cycle progression in hepatoma cell lines at least. Human liver tumor samples exhibited a decrease in AChE activity as compared with normal tissue. The evidence presented herein provides additional support for the proposed tumor suppressor role of AChE, which makes it a potential therapeutic target in therapies against hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:25869328

  14. Endophytes are hidden producers of maytansine in Putterlickia roots.

    PubMed

    Kusari, Souvik; Lamshöft, Marc; Kusari, Parijat; Gottfried, Sebastian; Zühlke, Sebastian; Louven, Kathrin; Hentschel, Ute; Kayser, Oliver; Spiteller, Michael

    2014-12-26

    Several recent studies have lent evidence to the fact that certain so-called plant metabolites are actually biosynthesized by associated microorganisms. In this work, we show that the original source organism(s) responsible for the biosynthesis of the important anticancer and cytotoxic compound maytansine is the endophytic bacterial community harbored specifically within the roots of Putterlickia verrucosa and P. retrospinosa plants. Evaluation of the root endophytic community by chemical characterization of their fermentation products using HPLC-HRMS(n), along with a selective microbiological assay using the maytansine-sensitive type strain Hamigera avellanea revealed the endophytic production of maytansine. This was further confirmed by the presence of AHBA synthase genes in the root endophytic communities. Finally, MALDI-imaging-HRMS was used to demonstrate that maytansine produced by the endophytes is typically accumulated mainly in the root cortex of both plants. Our study, thus, reveals that maytansine is actually a biosynthetic product of root-associated endophytic microorganisms. The knowledge gained from this study provides fundamental insights on the biosynthesis of so-called plant metabolites by endophytes residing in distinct ecological niches. PMID:25478947

  15. Spontaneous haematoma of ligamentum flavum. Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Albanese, A; Braconi, A; Anile, C; Mannino, S; Sabatino, G; Mangiola, A

    2006-06-01

    Spontaneous infarction of the ligamentum flavum is a very rare cause of mielo-radicular compression. In the literature only four cases are reported, all characterized by a clinical history of slowly progressive mielo-radiculopathy and good outcome after surgical treatment. A 70 year-old female patient presented with a four months clinical history of spontaneous, sub-continuous, progressive lumbar pain with bilateral irradiation to the L4-L5 dermatomers, right leg monoparesis and hypoaesthesia affecting tactile, thermal and pain sensivity, urinary incontinence and constipation. CT scan and MRI evidenced an extradural ovalar lesion in correspondence of the L1-L2 levels, that exerted compression over the dural sac, dislocating it anteriorly. The patient underwent a L1-L2 laminectomy and the lesion was totally resected. Rapid improvement of the patient's symptomatology has been noticed in the postoperative period, with complete recovery during the following month. Histologic examinations demonstrated that the mass was a haematoma of the ligamentum flavum. It's our opinion, that a picture of ligamentum flavum haematoma should be taken into account in differential diagnosis of posterior mielo-radicular compression. The progressive growth of the haematoma may explain the long clinical history of these patients and surgical treatment, even if delayed, permits an excel-lent clinical outcome. PMID:16841030

  16. Sci—Thur AM: YIS - 11: Estimation of Bladder-Wall Cumulative Dose in Multi-Fraction Image-Based Gynaecological Brachytherapy Using Deformable Point Set Registration

    SciTech Connect

    Zakariaee, R; Brown, C J; Hamarneh, G; Parsons, C A; Spadinger, I

    2014-08-15

    Dosimetric parameters based on dose-volume histograms (DVH) of contoured structures are routinely used to evaluate dose delivered to target structures and organs at risk. However, the DVH provides no information on the spatial distribution of the dose in situations of repeated fractions with changes in organ shape or size. The aim of this research was to develop methods to more accurately determine geometrically localized, cumulative dose to the bladder wall in intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer. The CT scans and treatment plans of 20 cervical cancer patients were used. Each patient was treated with five high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy fractions of 600cGy prescribed dose. The bladder inner and outer surfaces were delineated using MIM Maestro software (MIM Software Inc.) and were imported into MATLAB (MathWorks) as 3-dimensional point clouds constituting the “bladder wall”. A point-set registration toolbox for MATLAB, Coherent Point Drift (CPD), was used to non-rigidly transform the bladder-wall points from four of the fractions to the coordinate system of the remaining (reference) fraction, which was chosen to be the emptiest bladder for each patient. The doses were accumulated on the reference fraction and new cumulative dosimetric parameters were calculated. The LENT-SOMA toxicity scores of these patients were studied against the cumulative dose parameters. Based on this study, there was no significant correlation between the toxicity scores and the determined cumulative dose parameters.

  17. Influence of Social Cognitive and Ethnic Variables on Academic Goals of Underrepresented Students in Science and Engineering: A Multiple-Groups Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Byars-Winston, Angela; Estrada, Yannine; Howard, Christina; Davis, Dalelia; Zalapa, Juan

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the academic interests and goals of 223 African American, Latino/a, Southeast Asian, and Native American undergraduate students in two groups: biological science and engineering (S/E) majors. Using social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994), we examined the relationships of social cognitive variables (math/science academic self-efficacy, math/science outcome expectations), along with the influence of ethnic variables (ethnic identity, other-group orientation) and perceptions of campus climate to their math/science interests and goal commitment to earn an S/E degree. Path analysis revealed that the hypothesized model provided good overall fit to the data, revealing significant relationships from outcome expectations to interests and to goals. Paths from academic self-efficacy to S/E goals and from interests to S/E goals varied for students in engineering and biological science. For both groups, other-group orientation was positively related to self-efficacy and support was found for an efficacy-mediated relationship between perceived campus climate and goals. Theoretical and practical implications of the study’s findings are considered as well as future research directions. PMID:20495610

  18. A study of the fracture process and factors that control toughness variability in Charpy V-notch specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchard, Real

    La presente etude a ete initiee pour developper une comprehension quantitative du processus de rupture avec les facteurs qui controlent la dispersion des mesures de tenacite lorsque des eprouvettes Charpy entaillees en V sont utilisees. Un grand nombre d'essais ont ete realises pour un acier C-Mn: eprouvettes Charpy testees sous impact, eprouvettes Charpy testees en flexion lente, eprouvettes axisymetriques entaillees et sollicitees en traction et essais de tenacite sur eprouvettes prefissurees. Base sur le concept de la statistique de Weibull, l'approche locale developpee par le groupe Beremin a ete utilisee pour decrire la probabilite de rupture par clivage en fonction de la contrainte appliquee aussi bien qu'en fonction de l'energie Charpy obtenue. Le calcul par elements finis a ete realise pour determiner la distribution de la deformation et des contraintes en pointe d'entaille et de fissure. La nouvelle approche introduite decrit bien les resultats experimentaux. Les points d'initiation du clivage ont ete identifies au MEB et par la suite, avec la technique de faisceau d'ions focalise, sectionnes, polis et examines. L'examen de la microstructure sous le point d'initiation revele clairement que le clivage s'initie par un mecanisme d'empilement de dislocations ou les dislocations sont arretees aux joints de grain, aux interfaces de perlite/ferrite ou de perlite qui agissent comme barrieres physiques.

  19. Implementing Innovative Technologies Through Lesson Plans: What Kind of Support Do Teachers Prefer?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, Noortje; Lazonder, Ard W.

    2015-12-01

    Lesson plans are a potentially powerful means to facilitate teachers' use of technology in the classroom. This study investigated which supplementary information is preferred by teachers when integrating a new technology into the classroom. Forty-six high school biology teachers (23 pre-service and 23 in-service) received a technology-infused lesson plan and were asked to choose between two sets of support materials that differed with regard to the extensiveness and integration of pedagogical and content information. Based on the technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge (TPACK) framework, pre-service teachers ( n = 23) were expected to prefer the appendix containing extensive and separate information, whereas in-service teachers ( n = 23) were predicted to prefer the succinct and integrated version. Teachers' responses to a forced-choice question confirmed the latter expectation, but lent insufficient support to the former. Semi-structured interviews further showed that the justifications of in-service teachers were generally consistent with the TPACK framework. Most pre-service teachers, by contrast, were future-oriented and preferred support that would help increase their proficiency rather than consolidate their existing knowledge base.

  20. Resolving presynaptic structure by electron tomography.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Guy A; Jackson, Dakota R; Spirou, George A

    2015-05-01

    A key goal in neurobiology is to generate a theoretical framework that merges structural, physiological, and molecular explanations of brain function. These categories of explanation do not advance in synchrony; advances in one category define new experiments in other categories. For example, the synapse was defined physiologically and biochemically before it was visualized using electron microscopy. Indeed, the original descriptions of synapses in the 1950s were lent credence by the presence of spherical vesicles in presynaptic terminals that were considered to be the substrate for quantal neurotransmission. In the last few decades, our understanding of synaptic function has again been driven by physiological and molecular techniques. The key molecular players for synaptic vesicle structure, mobility and fusion were identified and applications of the patch clamp technique permitted physiological estimation of neurotransmitter release and receptor properties. These advances demand higher resolution structural images of synapses. During the 1990s a second renaissance in cell biology driven by EM was fueled by improved techniques for electron tomography (ET) with the ability to compute virtual images with nm resolution between image planes. Over the last 15 years, ET has been applied to the presynaptic terminal with special attention to the active zone and organelles of the nerve terminal. In this review, we first summarize the technical improvements that have led to a resurgence in utilization of ET and then we summarize new insights gained by the application of ET to reveal the high-resolution structure of the nerve terminal. PMID:25683026

  1. The effect of Aloe ferox Mill. in the treatment of loperamide-induced constipation in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Constipation is the most common gastrointestinal complaint all over the world and it is a risk factor of colorectal cancer. In this study, the efficacy of aqueous leaf extract of Aloe ferox Mill. was studied against loperamide-induced constipation in Wistar rats. Methods Constipation was induced by oral administration of loperamide (3 mg/kg body weight) while the control rats received normal saline. The constipated rats were treated with 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight/day of the extract for 7 days during which the feeding characteristics, body weight, fecal properties and gastrointestinal transit ratio were monitored. Results The extract improved intestinal motility, increased fecal volume and normalized body weight in the constipated rats, which are indications of laxative property of the herb with the 200 mg/kg body weight of the extract showing the best efficacy. Conclusion The effect of the extract compares favourably well with senokot, a standard laxative drug. These findings have therefore, lent scientific credence to the folkloric use of the herb as a laxative agent by the people of the Eastern Cape of South Africa. PMID:20723249

  2. Controlling gene networks and cell fate with precision-targeted DNA-binding proteins and small-molecule-based genome readers

    PubMed Central

    Eguchi, Asuka; Lee, Garrett O.; Wan, Fang; Erwin, Graham S.; Ansari, Aseem Z.

    2014-01-01

    Transcription factors control the fate of a cell by regulating the expression of genes and regulatory networks. Recent successes in inducing pluripotency in terminally differentiated cells as well as directing differentiation with natural transcription factors has lent credence to the efforts that aim to direct cell fate with rationally designed transcription factors. Because DNA-binding factors are modular in design, they can be engineered to target specific genomic sequences and perform pre-programmed regulatory functions upon binding. Such precision-tailored factors can serve as molecular tools to reprogramme or differentiate cells in a targeted manner. Using different types of engineered DNA binders, both regulatory transcriptional controls of gene networks, as well as permanent alteration of genomic content, can be implemented to study cell fate decisions. In the present review, we describe the current state of the art in artificial transcription factor design and the exciting prospect of employing artificial DNA-binding factors to manipulate the transcriptional networks as well as epigenetic landscapes that govern cell fate. PMID:25145439

  3. Bioinformatics Identification of Drug Resistance-Associated Gene Pairs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ze-Jia; Yang, Qing-Yong; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Zhu, Qiang; Zhang, Qing-Ye

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Due to the extensive use of anti-tuberculosis drugs and the development of mutations, the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is recognized as one of the most dangerous threats to global tuberculosis control. Some single mutations have been identified to be significantly linked with drug resistance. However, the prior research did not take gene-gene interactions into account, and the emergence of transmissible drug resistance is connected with multiple genetic mutations. In this study we use the bioinformatics software GBOOST (The Hong Kong University, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China) to calculate the interactions of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) pairs and identify gene pairs associated with drug resistance. A large part of the non-synonymous mutations in the drug target genes that were included in the screened gene pairs were confirmed by previous reports, which lent sound solid credits to the effectiveness of our method. Notably, most of the identified gene pairs containing drug targets also comprise Pro-Pro-Glu (PPE) family proteins, suggesting that PPE family proteins play important roles in the drug resistance of Mtb. Therefore, this study provides deeper insights into the mechanisms underlying anti-tuberculosis drug resistance, and the present method is useful for exploring the drug resistance mechanisms for other microorganisms. PMID:27618895

  4. Evaluation of LANDSAT-1 image applications to geologic mapping, structural analysis and mineral resource inventory of South America with special emphasis on the Andes Mountain region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, W. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The discovery of copper mineralization along a lineament mapped in Area 7 (La Paz) has lent credence to the use of LANDSAT 1 data as a basic step in mineral exploration. In Area 9 (Copiapo Region), a number of lineaments were found to be associated with the largest copper deposits of the region. In Area 12 (Magallanes), the identification of what is believed to be a tertiary basin from LANDSAT 1 data has resulted in a new area for petroleum exploration. Band 7 images, as black and white transparencies, were found to be the most useful for geologic interpretation in both tropical vegetated areas and desert regions. Color composites made by the diazochrome process, chromaline process, and from color additive viewers provided additional information. Mosaics of LANDSAT 1 data covering 4 x 6 degrees of latitude and longitude compiled at the 1:1,000,000 scale were found to be an ideal size and format for most users.

  5. Violin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtin, Joseph; Rossing, Thomas D.

    The first known violins were built in Italy in the early 1500s. While not much is yet known about the instrument's prior development, European forebears include the rebec and the Renaissance fiddle, which themselves evolved from instruments found in the ancient Eastern world. The violin brought together in a particularly happy way features seen in a variety of earlier stringed instruments. Arched plates increased the stiffness-to-mass ratio of the body, creating a more brilliant sound and helping resist long-term deformation. A pronounced waist gave the bow access to the outermost strings, while the precisely calibrated curves of fingerboard and bridge enabled the strings to be played individually as well as in two-, three-, and even four-part chords. In contrast to the viola da gamba and guitar, the violin's top and back plates overhung the ribs, allowing easy removal for repairs, thus contributing to the instrument's fabled longevity. A graceful outline, harmonious proportions, and the minimal use of ornamentation together lent the violin a timeless beauty - explaining in part why it has resisted significant stylistic modification to this day. For a discussion of historical string instruments, see Chap. 17.

  6. Is the desire for status a fundamental human motive? A review of the empirical literature.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Cameron; Hildreth, John Angus D; Howland, Laura

    2015-05-01

    The current review evaluates the status hypothesis, which states that that the desire for status is a fundamental motive. Status is defined as the respect, admiration, and voluntary deference individuals are afforded by others. It is distinct from related constructs such as power, financial success, and social belongingness. A review of diverse literatures lent support to the status hypothesis: People's subjective well-being, self-esteem, and mental and physical health appear to depend on the level of status they are accorded by others. People engage in a wide range of goal-directed activities to manage their status, aided by myriad cognitive, behavioral, and affective processes; for example, they vigilantly monitor the status dynamics in their social environment, strive to appear socially valuable, prefer and select social environments that offer them higher status, and react strongly when their status is threatened. The desire for status also does not appear to be a mere derivative of the need to belong, as some theorists have speculated. Finally, the importance of status was observed across individuals who differed in culture, gender, age, and personality, supporting the universality of the status motive. Therefore, taken as a whole, the relevant evidence suggests that the desire for status is indeed fundamental. PMID:25774679

  7. Morphological specializations of baleen whales associated with hydrodynamic performance and ecological niche.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Becky L; Winn, Jeremy P; Fish, Frank E

    2006-11-01

    Feeding behavior, prey type, and habitat appear to be associated with the morphological design of body, fluke, and flippers in baleen whales. Morphometric data from whaling records and recent stranding events were compiled, and morphometric parameters describing the body length, and fluke and flipper dimensions for an "average" blue whale Balaenoptera musculus, humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae, gray whale Eschrichtius robustus, and right whale Eubalaena glacialis were determined. Body mass, body volume, body surface area, and fluke and flipper surface areas were estimated. The resultant morphological configurations lent themselves to the following classifications based on hydrodynamic principles: fast cruiser, slow cruiser, fast maneuverer, and slow maneuverer. Blue whales have highly streamlined bodies with small, high aspect ratio flippers and flukes for fast efficient cruising in the open ocean. On the other hand, the rotund right whale has large, high aspect ratio flukes for efficient slow speed cruising that is optimal for their continuous filter feeding technique. Humpbacks have large, high aspect ratio flippers and a large, low aspect ratio tail for quick acceleration and high-speed maneuvering which would help them catch their elusive prey, while gray whales have large, low aspect ratio flippers and flukes for enhanced low-speed maneuvering in complex coastal water habitats. PMID:17051544

  8. [Natural history and eighteenth-century ideas regarding generation and heredity: Buffon and Bonnet].

    PubMed

    Castañeda, L A

    1995-01-01

    The intellectual course of natural history reveals three conceptual approaches. The first was the taxonomic point of view, where naturalists worked to name and classify the living beings created by God. The second approach was provided by the eighteenth century's philosophical doctrine of mechanism, which lent natural history its method of endeavoring to comprehend the workings of organisms, inasmuch as the world "ran". Calling into question the adequacy of prior message, the third approach argued that living things display characteristics quite distinct from those of non-living matter, making it necessary to understand processes rather than simply decompose phenomena to then analyze them. This inadequacy became apparent at the moment when ideas of generation and heredity ascribed a reproductive history to living things, a history where the act of one fellow creature being formed by another plays an important role in coming to understand the workings of life. The paper analyzes these conceptual approaches from the perspective of Buffon's and Bonnet's ideas on reproduction and heredity, which represented opposite schools of thought: epigenesis and preformation. PMID:16688895

  9. Viral myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy: mechanisms, manifestations, and management

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, M; Cotton, J; Richardson, P; Shah, A

    2001-01-01

    Viral infection of the heart is relatively common and usually of little consequence. It can, however, lead to substantial cardiac damage and severe acute heart failure. It can also evolve into the progressive syndrome of chronic heart failure. Recent studies have gone some way towards unravelling the complex mechanisms underlying the heart muscle damage that occurs after viral infection. These studies have lent support to both immune and viral mediated (independent of an immune response) cardiac damage. Acute myocarditis can present in various ways, and it may be a cause of sudden death in an otherwise healthy young adult. New treatments for viral heart disease are awaited. In the meanwhile, the haemodynamic support of patients with acute left ventricular failure caused by myocarditis should be aggressive, to allow for the possibility of spontaneous recovery. Contemporary trials of treatment in chronic heart failure secondary to dilated cardiomyopathy support the use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, β adrenoceptor blockers, and spironolactone in such patients.


Keywords: myocarditis; heart failure; coxsackie B virus; dilated cardiomyopathy PMID:11123385

  10. Time to manage: patient strategies for coping with an absence of care coordination and continuity.

    PubMed

    Jowsey, Tanisha; Dennis, Simone; Yen, Laurann; Mofizul Islam, M; Parkinson, Anne; Dawda, Paresh

    2016-07-01

    This paper examines how people with chronic illnesses respond to absences of continuity and coordination of care. Little work has been done on how the ill person might mitigate flaws in a less than optimal system. Our qualitative research, carried out among 91 participants in Australia, reveals that people with chronic illnesses create strategies to facilitate the management of their care. These strategies included efforts to improve communication between themselves and their health care practitioners; keeping personal up-to-date medication lists; and generating their own specific management plans. While we do not submit that it is patients' responsibility to attend to gaps in the health system, our data suggests that chronically ill people can, in and through such strategies, exert a measure of agency over their own care; making it effectively more continuous and coordinated. Participants crafted strategies according to the particular social and bodily rhythms that their ongoing illnesses had lent to their lives. Our analysis advances the view that the ill body itself is capable of enfolding the health system into the rhythms of illness - rather than the ill body always fitting into the overarching structural tempo. This entails an agent-centric view of time in illness experience. A Virtual Abstract of this paper can be found at: https://youtu.be/UwbxlEJOTx8. PMID:26871716