Sample records for lentinan

  1. The use of lentinan for treating gastric cancer.


    Ina, Kenji; Kataoka, Takae; Ando, Takafumi


    Natural compounds containing fungal β-glucans have been used to improve general health for thousands of years in China and Japan. Lentinan, the backbone of β-(1, 3)-glucan with β-(1, 6) branches, is one of the active ingredients purified from Shiitake mushrooms and has been approved as a biological response modifier for the treatment of gastric cancer in Japan. Despite recent advances in chemotherapeutic agents, unresectable or recurrent gastric cancer remains an incurable disease, with survival rates being far from satisfactory. Recent clinical studies have shown that chemo-immunotherapy using lentinan prolongs the survival of patients with advanced gastric cancer, as compared to chemotherapy alone. In addition, trastuzumab, an antibody against HER2/neu growth factor receptor, has been used for the treatment of gastric cancer in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents. Lentinan may exert a synergistic action with anti-cancer monoclonal antibodies to activate complement systems through the mechanism of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and complement dependent cytotoxicity. Because a better understanding of its biological activities should enable us to use lentinan more efficiently in the treatment of gastric cancer, immunological effects provided by β-glucans, a possible mode of action of lentinan, and its clinical application including future potential uses are discussed in the present review. PMID:23092289

  2. [Effect of lentinan against immunosuppression of lymphocytes cultured in simulated microgravity environment].


    Hao, Tong; Wang, Yan-Meng; Li, Jun-Jie; Du, Zhi-Yan; Duan, Cui-Mi; Wang, Chang-Yong; Song, Jing-Ping; Wang, Lin-Jie; Li, Ying-Hui; Wang, Yan


    This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of lentinan on the immune function of splenic lymphocytes in rotary cell culture system (RCCS) microgravity environment. The splenic lymphocytes from mice were separated and cultured in the normal gravity and the microgravity environments. The cells were treated with lentinan solution (0, 10, 20 and 40 µg/ml). After incubated with lentinan for indicated times (24, 48 and 72 h), the cell proliferation, secretion of cytokine and the expression of cell surface markers were detected by MTT method, ELISA and flow cytometry respectively. The results indicated that lentinan of above mentioned concentrations did not obviously promote the lymphocyte proliferation, but increased the secretion of IL-2 and IFN-γ and enhanced the expression of lymphocyte surface markers CD4 and CD8 in microgravity environment. It is concluded that lentinan has the ability to enhance the lymphocyte immune function in microgravity environment. PMID:22391193

  3. Intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of lentinan: influence on IL-8 and TNFR1 expression in intestinal epithelial cells.


    Nishitani, Yosuke; Zhang, Ling; Yoshida, Masaru; Azuma, Takeshi; Kanazawa, Kazuki; Hashimoto, Takashi; Mizuno, Masashi


    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. It is unknown whether β-1,3;1,6-glucan can induce immune suppressive effects. Here, we study intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of Lentinula edodes-derived β-1,3;1,6-glucan, which is known as lentinan. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mice were used to elucidate effects of lentinan in vivo. In the cellular level assessment, lentinan was added into a co-culture model consisting of intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells and LPS-stimulated macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Ligated intestinal loop assay was performed for assessing effects of lentinan on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) in vivo. Oral administration of lentinan (100 µg/mouse) significantly ameliorated DSS-induced colitis in body weight loss, shortening of colon lengths, histological score, and inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression in inflamed tissues. Lentinan reduced interleukin (IL)-8 mRNA expression and nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation in Caco-2 cells without decreasing of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production from RAW264.7 cells. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that surface levels of TNF receptor (TNFR) 1 were decreased by lentinan treatment. A clathrin-mediated endocytosis inhibitor, monodansylcadaverine, canceled lentinan inhibition of IL-8 mRNA expression. Moreover, lentinan inhibited TNFR1 expression in Caco-2 cells in both protein and mRNA level. Lentinan also inhibited TNFR1 mRNA expression in mouse IECs. These results suggest that lentinan exhibits intestinal anti-inflammatory activity through inhibition of IL-8 mRNA expression associated with the inhibition of NF-κB activation which is triggered by TNFR1 endocytosis and lowering of their expression in IECs. Lentinan may be effective for the treatment of gut inflammation including IBD. PMID:23630633

  4. Morphologies and conformation transition of lentinan in aqueous NaOH solution.


    Zhang, Xufeng; Zhang, Lina; Xu, Xiaojuan


    Molecular morphologies and conformation transition of lentinan, a beta-(1-->3)-D-glucan from Lentinus edodes, were studied in aqueous NaOH solution by atomic force microscopy (AFM), viscometry, multiangle laser light scattering, and optical rotation measurements. The results revealed that lentinan exists as triple-helical chains and as single random-coil chains at NaOH concentration lower than 0.05M and higher than 0.08M, respectively. Moreover, the dramatic changes in weight-average molecular weight Mw, radius of gyration [s2](1/2), intrinsic viscosity [eta], as well as specific optical rotation at 589 nm [alpha]589 occurred in a narrow range of NaOH concentration between 0.05 and 0.08M NaOH, indicating that the helix-coil conformation transition of lentinan was carried out more easily than that of native schizophyllan and scleroglucan, and was irreversible. For the first time, we confirmed that the denatured lentinan molecule, which was dissolved in 0.15M NaOH to be disrupted into single coil chains, could be renatured as triple helical chain by dialyzing against abundant water in the regenerated cellulose tube at ambient temperature (15 degrees C). In view of the AFM image, lentinan in aqueous solution exhibited the linear, circular, and branched species of triple helix compared with native linear schizophyllan or scleroglucan. PMID:15356872

  5. Optimization of selenizing conditions for Seleno-Lentinan and its characteristics.


    Ren, Guangming; Li, Koukou; Hu, Yang; Yu, Min; Qu, Juanjuan; Xu, Xiuhong


    Lentinan was successfully modified with nitric acid-sodium selenite method based on L9(3(4)) orthogonal experiments. The optimum selenizing conditions were obtained according to selenium conversion rate as follows: Lentinan of 1.0g, pH of 4.5, temperature of 70°C and sodium selenite of 1.50g. The antioxidant activity assays in vitro (DPPH, reducing power, superoxide radicals and hydroxyl radicals) proved that Lentinan had stronger antioxidant activity after selenizing. The elevations of serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, as well as the abnormal hepatic architecture, verified that oral administration of Seleno-Lentinan (SL2-1) markedly alleviated oxidative damage in the liver of mice induced by D-gal. In addition, SL2-1 significantly increased total antioxidant capacity, activities and protein expressions of catalase and glutathione peroxidase and lowered malondialdehyde levels in serum and liver. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis indicated that selenium of SL2-1 was mostly existed as the formations of OSeO, SeO and SeOC. Scanning electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis revealed that the surface structure and elemental components of Lentinan significantly changed after selenizing. The results are instructive for the development of organic selenium-supplement resource. PMID:26261081

  6. Gel formation and low-temperature intramolecular conformation transition of a triple-helical polysaccharide lentinan in water.


    Zhang, Yangyang; Xu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Lina


    The gelation behavior of the triple-helical polysaccharide lentinan fractions having different molecular weights in water at 25 degrees C were studied by using a rheometer. The analysis of concentration and molecular weight dependence of shear stress and shear viscosity showed that aqueous lentinan is a typical shear-thinning fluid, possessing potential as a viscosity control agent, and that a weak gel with entangled network structure formed. The dynamic oscillatory behavior of lentinan in the temperature range of 1-15 degrees C was also investigated by rheologic method. The storage modulus G' and complex viscosity eta* increased first with decreasing temperature, and underwent a maximum centered at 7-9 degrees C, and then decreased with further decreasing temperature. This abnormal phenomenon was ascribed to formation of rigid structure in the gel state, which was confirmed by the experimental results from micro-DSC. The micro-DSC curves showed that an endothermic peak appeared at 7-9 degrees C for lentinan in water upon heating, which was attributable to the intramolecular order-disorder structure transition similar to triple-helical polysaccharide schizophyllan. Namely, at lower temperature, the side glucose residues of lentinan (triplix II) formed a well-organized triple-helical structure (triplix I) through hydrogen-bonding with the surrounding water molecules. Moreover, this conformation transition was proved to be thermally reversible. PMID:18506809

  7. Lentinan-Modified Carbon Nanotubes as an Antigen Delivery System Modulate Immune Response in Vitro and in Vivo.


    Xing, Jie; Liu, Zhenguang; Huang, Yifan; Qin, Tao; Bo, Ruonan; Zheng, Sisi; Luo, Li; Huang, Yee; Niu, Yale; Wang, Deyun


    Adjuvants enhance immunogenicity and sustain long-term immune responses. As vital components of vaccines, efficient adjuvants are highly desirable. Recent evidence regarding the potential of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to act as a support material has suggested that certain properties, such as their unique hollow structure, high specific surface area, and chemical stability, make CNTs desirable for a variety of antigen-delivery applications. Lentinan, a β-1,3-glucohexaose with β-1,6-branches that is extracted from the mushroom Lentinus edodes, is an effective immunostimulatory drug that has been clinically used in Japan and China, and recent studies have proved that specific beta-glucans can bind to various immune receptors. In this research, we covalently attached lentinan to multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and tested their ability to enhance immune responses as a vaccine delivery system. In vitro study results showed that the nanotube constructs could rapidly enter dendritic cells and carry large amounts of antigen. Moreover, maturation markers were significantly upregulated versus the control. Thus, lentinan-modified multiwalled carbon nanotubes (L-MWCNTs) were regarded as an effective intracellular antigen depot and a catalyzer that could induce phenotypic and functional maturation of dendritic cells. Furthermore, compared with L-MWCNTs (35 μg/mL), a corresponding concentration of carboxylic carbon nanotubes (C-MWCNTs, 31.8 μg/mL) and an equivalent concentration of lentinan (3.2 μg/mL) did not remarkably influence the immune reaction in vitro or in vivo. Hence, we can hypothesize that the capability of L-MWCNTs was a consequence of the increased intracellular quantity of lentinan grafted onto the nanotubes. Overall, our studies demonstrated that L-MWCNTs significantly increased antigen accumulation in the cells and potentiated cellular and humoral immunity. In conclusion, L-MWCNTs constitute a potential vaccine delivery system to enhance immunogenicity

  8. Induction of cytotoxic peritoneal exudate cells by T-cell immune adjuvants of the beta(1 leads to 3) glucan-type lentinan and its analogues.

    PubMed Central

    Hamuro, J; Röllinghoff, M; Wagner, H


    Eight distinct polysaccharides (PS) of beta(1 leads to 3) glucan type were tested for their capacity to render murine peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) cytotoxic. After intraperitoneal injection of lentinan, pachymaran and HE-pachyman 3 and 4 highly cytotoxic PEC were induced. Pachyman and HE-pachyman 1 and 2 were of moderate effect, whereas CM-pachymaran and HE-pachyman 3 and 4, highly cytotoxic PEC were induced. Pachyman and HE-pachymacrophages. The induction of PEC-dependent cytotoxicity exhibited a strict dose relationship. Optimal administration of PS resulted in the induction of cytotoxicity, which persisted for more than 25 days. Surprisingly, none of the PS tested was capable of rendering normal or thioglycollate-induced PEC cytoxic under in vitro conditions. It is suggested that the capacity of PS to render in vivo macrophages cytotoxic is related to the potency of these PS to activate the alternative pathway of complement system (APC) in so far as C3b may be the essential component required to render macrophages cytotoxic. PMID:6966608

  9. Lentinan mitigates therarubicin-induced myelosuppression by activating bone marrow-derived macrophages in an MAPK/NF-κB-dependent manner.


    Liu, Qiang; Dong, Lei; Li, Hong; Yuan, Jia; Peng, Yuping; Dai, Shejiao


    Bone marrow (BM) suppression (also known as myelosuppression) is the most common and most severe side-effect of therarubicin (THP) and thereby limits the clinical application of this anticancer agent. Lentinan (LNT), a glucan extracted from dried shiitake mushrooms (Lentinula edodes), exhibits a variety of pharmacological activities. The objectives of the present study were to determine the effect of LNT on the myelosuppression of THP-treated mice and to examine the pharmacological mechanism of these effects. In vivo experiments indicated that non-cytotoxic levels of LNT strongly increased blood myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity; improved BM structural injuries; increased the numbers of leukocytes and neutrophils in the blood and BM; elevated the blood levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF); and reduced the self-healing period in THP-treated mice. In vitro experiments indicated that LNT increased the viability of BM-derived macrophages (BMDMs) in a time- and dose-dependent manner without toxic side-effects and markedly increased the release of G-CSF, GM-CSF and M-CSF by BMDMs. Further analyses revealed that LNT activated the NF-κB and MAPK signalling pathways and promoted the nuclear import of p65 and that BAY 11-7082 (a specific inhibitor of NF-κB) suppressed the release of G-CSF, GM-CSF and M-CSF. Furthermore, we found that U0126, SB203580 and SP600125 (specific inhibitors of ERK, p38 and JNK, respectively) markedly inhibited the IKK/IκB/NF-κB-dependent release of G-CSF, GM-CSF and M-CSF. In conclusion, LNT induces the production of G-CSF, GM-CSF and M-CSF by activating the MAPK/NF-κB signalling pathway in BM cells, thereby mitigating THP-induced myelosuppression. PMID:27121155

  10. Polysaccharide from Lentinus edodes combined with oxaliplatin possesses the synergy and attenuation effect in hepatocellular carcinoma.


    Zhang, Yu; Li, Qiang; Wang, Junfeng; Cheng, Fang; Huang, Xiao; Cheng, Yao; Wang, Kaiping


    Despite the great progress in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, combination chemotherapy is still the main choice of treatment for patients with unresectable metastatic or recurrent hepatocellular cancer. Lentinan, which has been used as an immunomodulator in the treatment of cancer, possesses anti-tumor activities. However, the mechanisms by which Lentinan inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma remain unknown. Our study showed that Lentinan has a significantly synergistic anti-tumor effect with oxaliplatin against HepG2 cells in vitro and in H22 tumor-bearing mice through the mitochondria pathway and for the inhibition of NF-κB, Stat3 and survivin signaling. Moreover, Lentinan moderated side effects induced by oxaliplatin. These findings suggested that Lentinan may be an ideal agent for the combination therapy of oxaliplatin against hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:27130669

  11. Soluble polyglycans enhance recovery from cobalt-60-induced hemopoietic injury

    SciTech Connect

    Patchen, M.L.; DiLuzio, N.R.; Jacques, P.; MacVittie, T.J.


    Six soluble polyglycans (glucan-C, glucan-F, glucan-S, krestin, lentinan, and schizophyllan), two soluble polymannans (mannan-A and mannan-R), and one soluble polyfructan (levan) were assayed for their ability to enhance hemopoietic recovery in C3H/HeN mice when administered either 1 h before or 1 h after a 6.5-Gy dose of cobalt-60 radiation. Hemopoietic recovery was measured by the endogenous spleen colony assay and was compared with recovery in both radiation control mice and irradiated mice treated with glucan-P (a particulate polyglycan previously shown to enhance recovery from radiation-induced hemopoietic injury). Compared with radiation controls, when administered before irradiation, mannan-A, glucan-F, and glucan-S enhanced endogenous colony formation 4.2-5.1-fold (equivalent to glucan-P), and levan and schizophyllan approximately 2.7-fold. Lentinan, krestin, mannan-R, and glucan-C did not enhance hemopoietic recovery above radiation controls under these conditions. When polyglycan administration was delayed until after irradiation, endogenous colony formation was enhanced 3.0-3.9-fold by mannan-A, schizophyllan, glucan-S, krestin, and glucan-F (at least comparable with glucan-P) but not at all by mannan-R, levan, lentinan, or glucan-C.

  12. Shiitake dermatitis.


    Mendonça, Camila Nemoto de; Silva, Priscila Mara Chaves E; Avelleira, João Carlos Regazzi; Nishimori, Fátima Satomi; Cassia, Flavia de Freire


    Shiitake Dermatitis is a skin eruption that resembles whiplash marks and occurs after consumption of raw shiitake mushrooms. It is caused by a toxic reaction to lentinan, a thermolabil polysaccharide which decomposes upon heating. We report the second case of this dermatitis in Brazil. A 25-year-old man presented with linearly arranged erythematous, pruritic papules on the trunk and limbs, after ingestion of a salad containing raw shiitake mushrooms. The eruption was self-limited, resolving within 10 days of onset. The recognition of this entity gains importance due to the increased consumption of shiitake mushrooms in occidental countries. PMID:25831007

  13. Surface properties of polyurethanes modified by bioactive polysaccharide-based polyelectrolyte multilayers.


    Wang, Yifeng; Hong, Qunfeng; Chen, Yanjun; Lian, Xinxin; Xiong, Yanfei


    Lentinan, a mushroom polysaccharide, isolated from Lentinus edodes (Shiitake mushroom) was sulfated in dimethylsulfoxide to obtain a water-soluble derivative coded as LS. Then, two polysaccharide-based polyelectrolytes, polyanionic lentinan sulfate (LS) and polycationic chitosan (CS), were alternatively deposited onto the surfaces of polyurethane (PU) via layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique. The surfaces modified by polysaccharide-based multilayers were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle measurements. The fibrinogen adsorption and platelet adhesion to the surfaces, cytocompatibility to L-929 cells, and antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa of unmodified PU and LbL-modified PU were tested in vitro, respectively. The results showed that the water contact angle decreased gradually during the successive buildup of the polysaccharide-based multilayers, and decreased slowly after four bilayers were assembled. The surface roughness of PU modified by five bilayers (LS as topmost layer) increased compared with that of unmodified PU. The fibrinogen adsorption on the surface decreased 81% after assembly of five bilayers (LS as topmost layer). The number of adherent platelets on the surface modified by five bilayers (LS as topmost layer) is reduced, in comparison with that of the unmodified PU. The tests of L-929 cells indicated that LbL-modified PU surfaces had better cytocompatibility than unmodified PU. In addition, PU modified by polysaccharide-based multilayers showed antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa. PMID:22771524

  14. [Evaluation and consideration of BRM-BRM and HDP (host defense potentiators)].


    Chihara, G


    It should first be stressed that the term BRM is wrong and unscientific, since this would include potassium cyanide or cancer chemotherapeutics in the strict sense of the term. Therefore, in this article we discuss the evaluation of Host Defence Potentiators (HDP). IL-2 or TNF should not be included as HDP because their action is local and not selective to cancer cells, similar to the case of cancer chemotherapeutics. IL-2 is not useful without the presence of IL-2-responsive cells in the host. The most important facet of the action of HDP is to increase the response of the host to cytokines or other bioactive substances according to the degree of maturation, differentiation or proliferation of responsive cells in the host defence mechanism. Lentinan appears to represent a unique class of HDP, markedly potentiating host resistance to cancer and bacterial, viral and parasitic infections, and shows prominent antitumor activity in syngeneic and autochthonous hosts, suppressing chemical and viral oncogenesis. The most important target of HDP is complete prevention of recurrence after "curative" surgery fundamentally through growth inhibition and regression of a small number of autochthonous tumor cells scattered in the host. Considering the excellent end-point results for phase III advanced and recurrent gastrointestinal and breast cancer, lentinan seems to be the most hopeful drug against cancer recurrence. The development of various new types of MDP mediating host homeostasis in the immune, endocrine and nervous systems and nutritional states is expected. PMID:3382231

  15. Characterization of polarized THP-1 macrophages and polarizing ability of LPS and food compounds.


    Chanput, Wasaporn; Mes, Jurriaan J; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Wichers, Harry J


    Little is known about the polarizing potential of currently used human macrophage cell lines, while a better understanding phenomena can support the prediction of effects in vivo based on in vitro analysis. To test the polarization capability of PMA differentiated-THP-1 macrophages (M0), cells were stimulated with 20 ng ml(-1) IFNγ + 1 μg ml(-1) LPS and 20 ng ml(-1) IL-4, which are known to influence macrophage polarization in vivo and ex vivo into the M1 and M2 state, respectively. Apart from several well-known M1 and M2 markers, also new possible markers for M1 and M2 polarization were analysed in this study. The expression of M1 marker genes was up-regulated in IFNγ + LPS stimulated-M0 THP-1 macrophages. The IL-4 stimulated-M0 THP-1 macrophages expressed M2 cell membrane receptor genes. However, M2 chemokine and their receptor genes were only slightly up-regulated which might be due to the complexity of the secondary cell-cell interaction of the chemokine system. Lipopolysaccharides from E. coli (LPS) and food compounds [lentinan, vitamin D3 (vD3) and the combination of lentinan + vitamin D3 (Len + vD3)] were investigated for their polarizing ability on M0 THP-1 macrophages towards either the M1 or M2 state. LPS (700 ng ml(-1)) was able to skew M0 THP-1 macrophages towards the M1 direction since all analysed M1 marker genes were strongly expressed. Lentinan, vD3 and Len + vD3 did not induce expression of either M1 or M2 markers, indicating no polarizing ability of these compounds. Based on the expression of M1 and M2 marker genes we concluded that THP-1 macrophages could be successfully polarized into either the M1 or M2 state. Therefore, they can be used as a new macrophage polarizing model to estimate the polarizing/switching ability of test food compounds. PMID:23135314

  16. Syntheses of new rare earth complexes with carboxymethylated polysaccharides and evaluation of their in vitro antifungal activities.


    Sun, Xiaobo; Jin, Xiaozhe; Pan, Wei; Wang, Jinping


    In the present paper, La, Eu and Yb were selected to represent light, middle and heavy rare earths to form complexes with polysaccharides through chelating coordination of carboxyl groups, which were added into polysaccharide chains by means of carboxymethylation. Their antifungal activities against plant pathogenic fungi were evaluated using growth rate method. These rare earth complexes exhibited various antifungal activities against the tested fungi, depending on rare earth elements, polysaccharide types and fungal species. Among these three metal elements (i.e. La, Eu and Yb), Yb formed the complexes with the most effective antifungal properties. Furthermore, the results showed that ligands of carboxymethylated polysaccharides played a key role in promoting cytotoxicity of the rare earth complexes. Carboxymethylated Ganoderma applanatum polysaccharide (CGAP) was found to be the most effective ligand to form complexes with antifungal activities, followed by carboxymethylated lentinan (CLNT) and carboxymethylated Momordica charantia polysaccharide (CMCP). PMID:25256475

  17. Anticancer properties of polysaccharides isolated from fungi of the Basidiomycetes class.


    Lemieszek, Marta; Rzeski, Wojciech


    Basidiomycete mushrooms represent a valuable source of biologically active compounds with anticancer properties. This feature is primarily attributed to polysaccharides and their derivatives. The anticancer potential of polysaccharides is linked to their origin, composition and chemical structure, solubility and method of isolation. Moreover, their activity can be significantly increased by chemical modifications. Anticancer effects of polysaccharides can be expressed indirectly (immunostimulation) or directly (cell proliferation inhibition and/or apoptosis induction). Among the wide range of polysaccharides with documented anticancer properties, lentinan, polysaccharide-K (PSK) and schizophyllan deserve special attention. These polysaccharides for many years have been successfully applied in cancer treatment and their mechanism of action is the best known. PMID:23788896

  18. Anticancer properties of polysaccharides isolated from fungi of the Basidiomycetes class

    PubMed Central

    Rzeski, Wojciech


    Basidiomycete mushrooms represent a valuable source of biologically active compounds with anticancer properties. This feature is primarily attributed to polysaccharides and their derivatives. The anticancer potential of polysaccharides is linked to their origin, composition and chemical structure, solubility and method of isolation. Moreover, their activity can be significantly increased by chemical modifications. Anticancer effects of polysaccharides can be expressed indirectly (immunostimulation) or directly (cell proliferation inhibition and/or apoptosis induction). Among the wide range of polysaccharides with documented anticancer properties, lentinan, polysaccharide-K (PSK) and schizophyllan deserve special attention. These polysaccharides for many years have been successfully applied in cancer treatment and their mechanism of action is the best known. PMID:23788896

  19. Impact of complementary mistletoe extract treatment on quality of life in breast, ovarian and non-small cell lung cancer patients. A prospective randomized controlled clinical trial.


    Piao, B K; Wang, Y X; Xie, G R; Mansmann, U; Matthes, H; Beuth, J; Lin, H S


    Standardized aqueous mistletoe extracts have been applied to cancer patients for several decades as complementary medicine. A multicentric, randomized, open, prospective clinical trial was conducted in three oncological centers in the People's Republic of China in Bejing, Shenyang and Tianjin. Following the guidelines of "Good Clinical Practice" (GCP) this study was performed to get information on efficacy safety and side-effects of the standardized mistletoe extract (sME). Two hundred and thirty-three patients with breast (n=68), ovarian (n=71) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC; n=94) were enrolled into this study. Two hundred and twenty-four patients fulfilled the requirements for final analysis (n=115 treated with sME HELIXOR A; n=109 comprising the control group being treated with the approved immunomodulating phytopharmacon Lentinan). All patients were provided with standard tumor-destructive treatment schedules and complementarily treated with sME or Lentinan during chemotherapy according to treatment protocol. Biometrically, the patients of the control and sME treatment group were comparable regarding distribution, clinical classification (WHO) and treatment protocols. Analysis was performed according to the "Intention to treat principle". Quality of life (QoL) was significantly (p<0.05) improved for patients who were complementarily treated with sME, as determined by the questionnaires FLIC (Functional Living Index-Cancer), TCM (Traditional Chinese Medicine Index) and the KPI (Karnofsky Performance Index) in comparison to the control group. Additionally, the occurrence of adverse events (AEs) was less frequent in the sME than in the control group (total number of AEs 52 versus 90 and number of serious AEs 5 versus 10 in study and control group, most of them due to chemotherapy). Only one serious AE was allocated to complementary treatment in each group (1 angioedema in sME group). All other side-effects of the sME (7 harmless local inflammatory

  20. Antitumor activity of mushroom polysaccharides: a review.


    Ren, Lu; Perera, Conrad; Hemar, Yacine


    Mushrooms were considered as a special delicacy by early civilizations and valued as a credible source of nutrients including considerable amounts of dietary fiber, minerals, and vitamins (in particularly, vitamin D). Mushrooms are also recognized as functional foods for their bioactive compounds offer huge beneficial impacts on human health. One of those potent bioactives is β-glucan, comprising a backbone of glucose residues linked by β-(1→3)-glycosidic bonds with attached β-(1→6) branch points, which exhibits antitumor and immunostimulating properties. The commercial pharmaceutical products from this polysaccharide source, such as schizophyllan, lentinan, grifolan, PSP (polysaccharide-peptide complex) and PSK (polysaccharide-protein complex), have shown evident clinical results. The immunomodulating action of mushroom polysaccharides is to stimulate natural killer cells, T-cells, B-cells, neutrophils, and macrophage dependent immune system responses via differing receptors involving dectin-1, the toll-like receptor-2 (a class of proteins that play a role in the immune system), scavengers and lactosylceramides. β-Glucans with various structures present distinct affinities toward these receptors to trigger different host responses. Basically, their antitumor abilities are influenced by the molecular mass, branching configuration, conformation, and chemical modification of the polysaccharides. This review aims to integrate the information regarding nutritional, chemical and biological aspects of polysaccharides in mushrooms, which will possibly be employed to elucidate the correlation between their structural features and biological functions. PMID:22865023

  1. [Immunomodulatory and antitumor properties of polysaccharide peptide (PSP)].


    Piotrowski, Jakub; Jędrzejewski, Tomasz; Kozak, Wiesław


    Modern medicine successfully uses multiple immunomodulators of natural origin, that can affect biological reactions and support body's natural defense mechanisms including antitumor activities. Among them is a group of products derived from fungi, including schizophyllan, lentinan, polysaccharide Krestin (PSK), and polysaccharidepeptide (PSP). Present paper is focused on polysaccharidepeptide, which due to the negligible toxicity and numerous benefits for health, is increasingly used in China and Japan as an adjuvant in the treatment of cancer. PSP is a protein-polisaccharide complex with a molecular weight 100 kDa derived from Coriolus versicolor mushroom. The results of numerous studies and clinical trials confirm that it inhibits the growth of cancer cells in in vitro and in vivo settings as well as decreases cancer treatment-related adverse side effects such as fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, and pain. PSP is able to restore weakened immune response observed in patients with cancer during chemotherapy. Its anti-tumor effects seemed to be mediated through immunomodulatory regulation. PSP stimulates cells of the immune system, induces synthesis of cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), eicosanoids including prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), histamine, reactive oxygen species and nitrogen mediators. There is a growing interest in understanding the mechanisms of PSP action. Because of its unique properties and safety, PSP may become a widely used therapeutic agent in the near future. PMID:25614677

  2. β-Glucan from Lentinus edodes Inhibits Nitric Oxide and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Production and Phosphorylation of Mitogen-activated Protein Kinases in Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated Murine RAW 264.7 Macrophages*

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaojuan; Yasuda, Michiko; Nakamura-Tsuruta, Sachiko; Mizuno, Masashi; Ashida, Hitoshi


    Lentinan (LNT), a β-glucan from the fruiting bodies of Lentinus edodes, is well known to have immunomodulatory activity. NO and TNF-α are associated with many inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of LNT extracted by sonication (LNT-S) on the NO and TNF-α production in LPS-stimulated murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. The results suggested that treatment with LNT-S not only resulted in the striking inhibition of TNF-α and NO production in LPS-activated macrophage RAW 264.7 cells, but also the protein expression of inducible NOS (iNOS) and the gene expression of iNOS mRNA and TNF-α mRNA. It is surprising that LNT-S enhanced LPS-induced NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation and NF-κB luciferase activity, but severely inhibited the phosphorylation of JNK1/2 and ERK1/2. The neutralizing antibodies of anti-Dectin-1 and anti-TLR2 hardly affected the inhibition of NO production. All of these results suggested that the suppression of LPS-induced NO and TNF-α production was at least partially attributable to the inhibition of JNK1/2 and ERK1/2 activation. This work discovered a promising molecule to control the diseases associated with overproduction of NO and TNF-α. PMID:22102286

  3. Extraction, purification and antibacterial activities of a polysaccharide from spent mushroom substrate.


    Zhu, Hongji; Sheng, Kai; Yan, Erfu; Qiao, Jianjun; Lv, Feng


    To contribute towards effective exploitation and utilization of spent mushroom substrate (SMS), a water-soluble polysaccharide named PL was isolated and purified from SMS. The total sugar content and monosaccharide composition were analyzed by phenol-sulfuric acid method and capillary electrophoresis, and infrared spectroscopy was also performed for structure characterization. The results showed that the total sugar content of crude polysaccharide from SMS was about 25.8%, the polysaccharide contained two fractions (PL1 and PL2), which was mainly composed of glucose, rhamnose and mannose with a molar ratio of 1:3.13:1.16. The attributions of the main absorptions of both PL1 and PL2 were characteristic of glycosidic structures, and the FT-IR spectra of PL2 and lentinan were very similar. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Sarcina lutea were used to study the antibacterial activity and minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the polysaccharide. The antibacterial activity of polysaccharide from SMS against E. coli was the strongest, while the weakest against S. lutea, and the MICs of PL2 were 12.5, 25 and 100 μg/mL, respectively. PMID:22138450

  4. Protective effect of polysaccharides on simulated microgravity-induced functional inhibition of human NK cells.


    Huyan, Ting; Li, Qi; Yang, Hui; Jin, Ming-Liang; Zhang, Ming-Jie; Ye, Lin-Jie; Li, Ji; Huang, Qing-Sheng; Yin, Da-Chuan


    Polysaccharides are believed to be strong immunostimulants that can promote the proliferation and activity of T cells, B cells, macrophages and natural killer (NK) cells. This study aimed to investigate the effects of five polysaccharides (Grifola frondosa polysaccharide (GFP), lentinan (LNT), G. lucidum polysaccharide (GLP), Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) and yeast glucan (YG)) on primary human NK cells under normal or simulated microgravity (SMG) conditions. Our results demonstrated that polysaccharides markedly promoted the cytotoxicity of NK cells by enhancing IFN-γ and perforin secretion and increasing the expression of the activating receptor NKp30 under normal conditions. Meanwhile polysaccharides can enhance NK cell function under SMG conditions by restoring the expression of the activating receptor NKG2D and reducing the early apoptosis and late apoptosis/necrosis. Moreover, the antibody neutralization test showed that CR3 may be the critical receptor involved in polysaccharides induced NK cells activation. These findings indicated that polysaccharides may be used as immune regulators to promote the health of the public and astronauts during space missions. PMID:24299844

  5. The use of mushroom glucans and proteoglycans in cancer treatment.


    Kidd, P M


    Immunoceuticals can be considered as substances having immunotherapeutic efficacy when taken orally. More than 50 mushroom species have yielded potential immunoceuticals that exhibit anticancer activity in vitro or in animal models and of these, six have been investigated in human cancers. All are non-toxic and very well tolerated. Lentinan and schizophyllan have little oral activity. Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC) is poorly defined but has shown early clinical promise. Maitake D-Fraction has limited proof of clinical efficacy to date, but controlled research is underway. Two proteoglycans from Coriolus versicolor - PSK (Polysaccharide-K) and PSP (Polysaccharide-Peptide - have demonstrated the most promise. In Japanese trials since 1970, PSK significantly extended survival at five years or beyond in cancers of the stomach, colon-rectum, esophagus, nasopharynx, and lung (non-small cell types), and in a HLA B40-positive breast cancer subset. PSP was subjected to Phase II and Phase III trials in China. In double-blind trials, PSP significantly extended five-year survival in esophageal cancer. PSP significantly improved quality of life, provided substantial pain relief, and enhanced immune status in 70-97 percent of patients with cancers of the stomach, esophagus, lung, ovary, and cervix. PSK and PSP boosted immune cell production, ameliorated chemotherapy symptoms, and enhanced tumor infiltration by dendritic and cytotoxic T-cells. Their extremely high tolerability, proven benefits to survival and quality of life, and compatibility with chemotherapy and radiation therapy makes them well suited for cancer management regimens. PMID:10696116

  6. Optimised isolation of polysaccharides from Lentinula edodes strain NCBI JX915793 using response surface methodology and their antibacterial activities.


    Sharma, Shivani; Khanna, P K; Kapoor, S


    Mycelial growth in a defined medium by submerged fermentation is a rapid and alternative method for obtaining fungal biomass of consistent quality. Biomass, exopolysaccharides (EPS) and intracellular polysaccharides (IPS) production were optimised by response surface methodology in Lentinula edodes strain LeS (NCBI JX915793). The optimised conditions were pH 5.0, temperature 26°C, incubation period of 25 days and agitation rate of 52 r/min for L. edodes strain LeS. Under the calculated optimal culture conditions, biomass production (5.88 mg mL(-1)), EPS production (0.40 mg mL(-1)) and IPS production (12.45 mg g(-1)) were in agreement with the predicted values for biomass (5.93 mg mL(-1)), EPS (0.55 mg mL(-1)) and IPS production (12.64 mg g(-1)). Crude lentinan exhibited highest antibacterial effects followed by alcoholic, crude and aqueous extracts. The results obtained may be useful for highly effective yield of biomass and bioactive metabolites. PMID:25868404

  7. Construction of selenium nanoparticles/β-glucan composites for enhancement of the antitumor activity.


    Jia, Xuewei; Liu, Qingye; Zou, Siwei; Xu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Lina


    We report on a green procedure for the stabilization of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) by a naturally occurring β-glucan with triple helical conformation known as Lentinan (t-LNT) in water after denaturing into single chains (s-LNT) at 140 °C. The results demonstrated that the s-LNT can interact with SeNPs through Se-O-H interaction. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra, UV/vis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) showed that s-LNT coated SeNPs to form a stable nano-composite Se/s-LNT, leading to good dispersion of SeNPs. Especially, the as-prepared Se/s-LNT composite in the solution could remain homogeneous and translucent for 30 days without any precipitates. Different size distribution of SeNPs was prepared by simply controlling the concentrations of selenite sodium and the corresponding reducing agent ascorbic acid. The size effect of SeNPs on anti-tumor activity was revealed that the SeNPs with more evenly particle size distribution show the higher anticancer activity. PMID:25498656

  8. Local induction of a tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like cytotoxic factor in murine tissues with tumorous and nontumorous inflammation after systemic administration of antitumor polysaccharides.


    Takahashi, K; Yamazaki, M; Abe, S


    Local induction of a cytotoxic factor (CF), which was reported by us to be a tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like molecule, in murine tumor tissues by i.v. administration of antitumor polysaccharides was studied. The CF was measured by cytolysis assay against L929 fibroblasts in vitro. The antitumor polysaccharides mannoglucan polyalcohol (MGA), lentinan, carboxymethyl-(1----3)-beta-D-linear glucan DP540 (CM-TAK) and yeast mannan induced the CF in MH134 hepatoma tissues inoculated intradermally, with MGA inducing the highest level of the CF. MGA induced the CF in MM46 mammary carcinoma, Ehrlich carcinoma, and MH134 hepatoma, the growth of which were all inhibited by MGA, but not in Lewis lung carcinoma and EL-4 lymphoma, which are therapeutically resistant to MGA. MGA induced the CF in solid MH134 hepatoma tissues inoculated subcutaneously or intramuscularly as well as intradermally, but not in ascitic fluids with intraperitoneal MH134 hepatoma on which MGA is ineffective. These findings suggest that CF induction is correlated with the antitumor activity of polysaccharides. CF induction in tumor tissues was detectable 6 h after i.d. inoculation of MH134 hepatoma. Even in nontumorous inflammatory skin tissues produced by injection of TAK, the CF was induced by MGA. Thus, the early inflammatory reaction with accumulation of host cells and MGA treatment act cooperatively in local induction of the CF. PMID:3183925

  9. Heating-induced conformational change of a novel beta-(1-->3)-D-glucan from Pleurotus geestanus.


    Zhang, Mei


    Recently, we isolated and purified a neutral polysaccharide (PGN) from edible fungus Pleurotus geestanus. Its structure was characterized by a range of physical-chemical methods, including high performance anion exchange chromatography, uronic acid, and protein analyses, size exclusion chromatography with ultraviolet, refractive index and light scattering detectors, and nuclear magnetic resonance. Our results revealed that PGN is a novel beta-(1-->3)-D-glucan with glucose attached to every other sugar residues at Position 6 in the backbone. It has a degree of branching of 1/2. Such structure is different from typical beta-(1-->3)-D-glucans schizophyllan and lentinan in which DB is 1/3 and 2/5, respectively. Rheological study showed a very interesting melting behavior of PGN in water solution: heating PGN in water leads to two transitions, in the range of 8-12.5 degrees C and 25-60 degrees C, respectively. The melting behavior and conformational changes were characterized by rheometry, micro-differential scan calorimetry, atomic force microscopy, static and dynamic light scattering at different temperatures. The first heating-induced transition corresponds to the disintegration of polymer bundles into small helical clusters, resembling the heating-induced dissociation of SPG in water at 7 degrees C; the second one might correspond to the dissociation of helical strands to individual chains. The ability of PGN to undergo a conformation/viscosity transition in water upon heating is very valuable to immobilize cells or enzymes or therapeutic DNA/RNA, which makes PGN a potentially useful biomaterial. PMID:19768780

  10. Activation of the NRF2-ARE signalling pathway by the Lentinula edodes polysaccharose LNT alleviates ROS-mediated cisplatin nephrotoxicity.


    Chen, Qian; Peng, Huixia; Dong, Lei; Chen, Lijuan; Ma, Xiaobin; Peng, Yuping; Dai, Shejiao; Liu, Qiang


    The nephrotoxicity of cisplatin (cis-DDP) limits its general clinical applications. Lentinan (LNT), a dextran extracted from the mushroom Lentinula edodes, has been shown to have multiple pharmacological activities. The primary objective of the current study was to determine whether and how LNT alleviates cis-DDP- induced cytotoxicity in HK-2 cells and nephrotoxicity in mice. LNT did not interfere with cisplatin's anti-tumour efficacy in vitro and functioned cooperatively with cis-DDP to inhibit activity in HeLa and A549 tumour cells. LNT alleviated the cis-DDP-induced decrease in HK-2 cell viability, caspase-3 activation and cleavage of the DNA repair enzyme PARP, decreased HK-2 cell apoptosis and inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in HK-2 cells. The inhibitor of ROS (N-acetyl-L-cysteine, NAC) could decreased the apoptosis of HK-2 cell. In addition, LNT significantly prevented cis-DDP-induced kidney injury in vivo. LNT itself could not eliminate ROS levels in vitro. Further studies demonstrated that LNT induced NF-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein and mRNA expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner. LNT promoted Nrf2 translocation to the nucleus and binding to the antioxidant-response element (ARE) sequence and induced the transcription and translation of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), aldo-keto reductases 1C1 and 1C2 (AKR1C), and NADP(H):quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). Finally, we used hNrf2 siRNA and an Nrf2 agonist (tBHQ) to inhibit or enhance Nrf2 expression. The results demonstrated that the LNT-mediated alleviation of cis-DDP-induced nephrotoxicity was achieved by preventing the accumulation of ROS in a manner that depended on the activation of the Nrf2-ARE signalling pathway. PMID:27093515