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Sample records for lentinus edodes berk

  1. Effects of different levels of wheat bran, rice bran and maize powder supplementation with saw dust on the production of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Singer)

    PubMed Central

    Moonmoon, Mahbuba; Shelly, Nasrat Jahan; Khan, Md. Asaduzzaman; Uddin, Md. Nazim; Hossain, Kamal; Tania, Mousumi; Ahmed, Saleh

    2010-01-01

    The cultivation of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) is increasing rapidly in Bangladesh due to its nutritional and medicinal importance with excellent flavor and longer shelf life. With the aim of increased production, we have cultivated L. edodes on saw dust (SD) supplemented with different levels (10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35% and 40%) of wheat bran (WB), rice bran (RB), maize powder (MP) and their combination (WB+RB+MP = 1:1:1) to investigate the growth, yield and quality of this mushroom. Most of the growth, yield and quality parameters varied significantly when mushrooms were cultivated with different levels of supplementation. The yield of mushroom was increased with the level of each supplementation upto a certain level, and then decreased. SD supplemented with 25% WB produced the highest number of fruiting bodies (34.8/500 g packet), highest biological yield (153.3/500 g packet), and biological efficiency (76.6%) of L. edodes. But the yield of the best quality mushroom was observed on SD with 40% WB supplementation; however, the qualities were not always supplementation dose dependent. In this study, we report that 25% WB supplementation with SD may be very effective for higher yield and 40% WB supplementation for better quality of L. edodes. PMID:23961143

  2. Preventive effects of Lentinus edodes on homocysteinemia in mice

    PubMed Central

    YANG, HYUN; HWANG, INHO; KIM, SUN; AHN, CHANGHWAN; HONG, EUI-JU; JEUNG, EUI-BAE

    2013-01-01

    Homocysteinemia is associated with cardiovascular and neuronal degenerative diseases. Deficiencies of the B vitamins lead to high homocysteine serum levels. Lentinus edodes (L. edodes) is also known as the Shiitake mushroom and may have beneficial effects on vascular and lipid metabolic diseases, including hypertension, homocysteinemia and lipidemia. In this study, we induced a homocysteinemia-like condition in mice by the administration of a folate- and vitamin B12-deficient diet and evaluated the effect of L. edodes on the homocysteinemia-like condition. Homocysteinemia was induced by the administration of a diet deficient in folate and vitamin B12 (DFV) for 6 weeks to mice aged 4–10 weeks. The homocysteinemic mice were treated with L. edodes flour (5, 10 and 20%), eritadenine (10 mg/kg) or DFV only (negative control) for 2 weeks. The DFV induced a significant increase in serum homocysteine levels. The increased homocysteine serum levels were reduced by eritadenine and L. edodes flour (5, 10 and 20%). Hepatic levels of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase (SAH) were significantly higher under DFV administration and the elevated SAH levels were reduced by treatment with L. edodes in a dose-dependent manner. The mRNA expression levels of DNA methyl transferases, DNMT1 and DNMT3a, were reduced in the DFV group, and the reduced levels of DNMT1 and DNMT3a mRNA expression were recovered in the eritadenine and L. edodes (5, 10 and 20%) groups. These results suggest that components of L. edodes, including eritadenine may have beneficial effects on hyperhomocysteinemia and its therapeutic effects may be involved in the regulation of DNA methylation-related genes in mice. PMID:24137209

  3. Lentinus edodes promotes fat removal in hypercholesterolemic mice

    PubMed Central

    YANG, HYUN; HWANG, INHO; KIM, SUN; HONG, EUI-JU; JEUNG, EUI-BAE

    2013-01-01

    Lentinus (L.) edodes (shiitake mushroom) is used as a traditional medicine in Asia. One of the components of L. edodes, eritadenine (an adenosine analog alkaloid), has been shown to reduce cholesterol levels. The hypocholesterolemic action of eritadenine appears to be achieved through the modification of hepatic phospholipid metabolism. In the present study, the effects of L. edodes in a mouse model of hypercholesterolemia were investigated. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by the consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD). The animals were divided into six groups, which were fed a normal diet, HFD alone, HFD containing eritadenine [10 mg/kg of body weight (BW)] or HFD with 5, 10 or 20% L. edodes, respectively, for 4 weeks (from 5 to 9 weeks of age). The mice in the six groups had similar BW gains. Total serum cholesterol (T-CHO), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglyceride (TG) levels were increased in the HFD-fed group compared with those in the normal diet group. However, the levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were not significantly altered. In mice treated with L. edodes (5, 10 or 20%), the T-CHO, LDL and TG serum levels were reduced in a dose-dependent manner. The mRNA expression of cholesterol 7-α-hydroxylase 1 (CYP7A1) was decreased in hypercholesterolemic mice and increased by eritadenine and L. edodes (5, 10 and 20%) supplementation. In liver tissues, it was observed that lipid accumulation was reduced by treatment with eritadenine and L. edodes. In addition, it was revealed that the formation of atherosclerotic plaques due to the HFD was also suppressed by eritadenine and L. edodes. The results of the study indicated that the consumption of an HFD may inhibit CYP7A1 expression in the liver by increasing serum T-CHO, LDL and TG levels. L. edodes may help regulate lipid metabolism, suggesting that this fungus ameliorates hypercholesterolemia in mice by regulating CYP7A1 expression in the liver. PMID:24255670

  4. Starch concentrations in log-grown shiitake mushrooms (Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shiitake (Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler) mushrooms have a reputation as a healthy food, in part from the abundance of different polysaccharides that may have functional food activities. Polysaccharide content of shiitake and shiitake-derived products are being utilized as a promotional tool to hea...

  5. Supplementary effect by harvest period of Lentinus edodes on the levels of blood glucose and serum lipid in diabetic KK mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of Lentinus edodes which were harvested at different times of maturity on blood glucose and lipid levels in diabetic mice. The diabetic KK mice were fed diet supplemented with Lentinus edodes harvested early (LE) or late (LL) for eight weeks, and ...

  6. Effective Removal of Cadmium Ions from a Simulated Gastrointestinal Fluid by Lentinus edodes

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Xin; Huang, Wen; Bian, Yinbing

    2014-01-01

    Lentinus edodes, a functional food, was evaluated as a potential antidote for adsorption/removal of cadmium ion from simulated gastrointestinal fluids. An adsorption/removal capacity of 65.12 mg/g was achieved by L. edodes in solutions with a pH ranging from 2.5 to 6.0, while little if any adsorption was observed in solutions with a pH under 2.5. In solutions with pH 6.0, 84% of the cadmium adsorption by L. edodes occurred in the first minute. Scanning electronic microscopic examination showed that the cell wall polysaccharides of L. edodes provided a rough sponge-like surface for effective cadmium adsorption. FTIR indicated that the carboxyl, hydroxyl and –NH groups of the cell wall polysaccharides and proteins were the primary functional groups that chemically bind with cadmium ions. The energy dispersive spectrometry further revealed that cation exchange might be attributed to cadmium biosorption. These results suggested that L. edodes was effective for cadmium detoxication, especially in low concentration. PMID:25469921

  7. A polysaccharide isolated from the liquid culture of Lentinus edodes (shiitake) mushroom mycelia containing black rice bran protects mice against a Salmonella lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endotoxemia (sepsis, septic shock) is an inflammatory, virulent disease that results mainly from bacterial infection. The present study investigates the inhibitory effect of the bio-processed polysaccharide (BPP) isolated from the edible Lentinus edodes liquid mycelial mushroom culture supplemented...

  8. Enzymatic formation of gold nanoparticles by submerged culture of the basidiomycete Lentinus edodes.

    PubMed

    Vetchinkina, Elena P; Loshchinina, Ekaterina A; Burov, Andrey M; Dykman, Lev A; Nikitina, Valentina E

    2014-07-20

    We report for the first time that the medicinal basidiomycete Lentinus edodes can reduce Au(III) from chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) to elemental Au [Au(0)], forming nanoparticles. Several methods, including transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence, and dynamic light scattering, were used to show that when the fungus was grown submerged, colloidal gold accumulated on the surface of and inside the mycelial hyphae as electron-dense particles mostly spherical in shape, with sizes ranging from 5 to 50nm. Homogeneous proteins (the fungal enzymes laccase, tyrosinase, and Mn-peroxidase) were found for the first time to be involved in the reduction of Au(III) to Au(0) from HAuCl4. A possible mechanism forming Au nanoparticles is discussed. PMID:24800960

  9. Antihyperlipidemic Effect of Dietary Lentinus edodes on Plasma, Feces and Hepatic Tissues in Hypercholesterolemic Rats.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ki Nam; Alam, Nuhu; Lee, Jae Seong; Cho, Hae Jin; Kim, Hye Young; Shim, Mi Ja; Lee, Min Woong; Lee, Tae Soo

    2011-06-01

    We investigated diet supplementation with shiitake mushroom fruiting bodies on biochemical and histological changes in hypercholesterolemic rats. Six-wk old female Sprague-Dawley albino rats were divided into three groups of 10 rats each. A diet containing 5% Lentinus edodes fruiting bodies given to hypercholesterolemic rats reduced plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), total lipid, phospholipids, and the LDL/high-density lipoprotein ratio by 34.33, 53.21, 75.00, 34.66, 25.73, and 71.43%, respectively. Feeding mushroom also significantly reduced body weight in hypercholesterolemic rats. However, it had no detrimental effects on plasma albumin, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, glucose, total protein, calcium, sodium, potassium, chloride, inorganic phosphate, magnesium, or enzyme profiles. Feeding mushroom increased total lipid and cholesterol excretion in feces. The plasma lipoprotein fraction, separated by agarose gel electrophoresis, indicated that L. edodes significantly reduced plasma β and pre-β-lipoprotein but increased α-lipoprotein. A histological study of hepatic cells by conventional hematoxylin-eosin and oil red-O staining showed normal findings for mushroom-fed hypercholesterolemic rats. These results suggest that shiitake mushrooms could be recommended as a natural cholesterol lowering substance in the diet. PMID:22783084

  10. In vivo anticancer and immunomodulating activities of mannogalactoglucan-type polysaccharides from Lentinus edodes (Berkeley) Singer.

    PubMed

    Jeff, Iteku Bekomo; Fan, Enxue; Tian, Meihong; Song, Chenyang; Yan, Jingmin; Zhou, Yifa

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the potential of mushrooms in modulating the immune system and/or suppressing tumor growth. Among the studied bioactive compounds in mushrooms, polysaccharides are the most important. Nontoxic fungal polysaccharides have a more important role in immunomodulating and antitumor activities which are related to their effects to act of immune effecter cells such as lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and natural killer cells involved in the innate and adaptive immunity. Two mannogalactoglucan-type polysaccharides (WPLE-N-2 and WPLE-A0.5-2), purified from the fruiting bodies of Lentinus edodes, were evaluated for their effects on the cellular immune response of Sarcoma 180 (S-180)-bearing mice. Mice were treated with 100 mg/kg body weight of the polysaccharides for 10 days. Significant tumor regressions of the polysaccharide groups' mice were observed compared to the control group. These polysaccharides could induce an increase in nitrite oxide (NO) production in peritoneal macrophages, significantly increase macrophage phagocytosis of tumor-bearing mice and augment concanavalin (ConA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced splenocytes proliferation. Our results indicated that immunomodulating activity occurred through host mediation in response to lymphocyte proliferation, macrophage phagocytosis and induction of NO production while the antitumor activity occurred through direct cytotoxicity. Our findings suggest that mannogalactoglucan-type polysaccharides from L. edodes can be explored as novel potential immunostimulants. Our research provides essential data to a better understanding of L. edodes bioactive compounds, especially polysaccharides. Our results also confirm the key role of β-linkages in the antitumor and immunomodulating effects of polysaccharides. PMID:27095922

  11. In vivo anticancer and immunomodulating activities of mannogalactoglucan-type polysaccharides from Lentinus edodes (Berkeley) Singer

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Enxue; Tian, Meihong; Song, Chenyang; Yan, Jingmin; Zhou, Yifa

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the potential of mushrooms in modulating the immune system and/or suppressing tumor growth. Among the studied bioactive compounds in mushrooms, polysaccharides are the most important. Nontoxic fungal polysaccharides have a more important role in immunomodulating and antitumor activities which are related to their effects to act of immune effecter cells such as lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and natural killer cells involved in the innate and adaptive immunity. Two mannogalactoglucan-type polysaccharides (WPLE-N-2 and WPLE-A0.5-2), purified from the fruiting bodies of Lentinus edodes, were evaluated for their effects on the cellular immune response of Sarcoma 180 (S-180)-bearing mice. Mice were treated with 100 mg/kg body weight of the polysaccharides for 10 days. Significant tumor regressions of the polysaccharide groups’ mice were observed compared to the control group. These polysaccharides could induce an increase in nitrite oxide (NO) production in peritoneal macrophages, significantly increase macrophage phagocytosis of tumor-bearing mice and augment concanavalin (ConA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced splenocytes proliferation. Our results indicated that immunomodulating activity occurred through host mediation in response to lymphocyte proliferation, macrophage phagocytosis and induction of NO production while the antitumor activity occurred through direct cytotoxicity. Our findings suggest that mannogalactoglucan-type polysaccharides from L. edodes can be explored as novel potential immunostimulants. Our research provides essential data to a better understanding of L. edodes bioactive compounds, especially polysaccharides. Our results also confirm the key role of β-linkages in the antitumor and immunomodulating effects of polysaccharides. PMID:27095922

  12. Bioconcentration factors and potential human health risks of heavy metals in cultivated Lentinus edodes in Chengdu, People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Pei, Donghui; Xie, Han; Song, Haihai; Xu, Heng; Wu, Yumeng

    2015-02-01

    Lentinus edodes is one of the most popular edible mushrooms in the market. However, it contains heavy metals that are poisonous to humans even at trace concentrations. The concentrations and bioconcentration factors of five heavy metals in cultivated L. edodes in Chengdu were studied, and the potential health risks to local residents associated with the cultivated L. edodes consumption were evaluated. Total concentrations of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), and mercury were determined in the fruiting bodies and the substrate from three agricultural areas. Fruiting bodies samples were collected at different growing times (2, 4, 6, and 8 days). The bioconcentration factors of heavy metals from the substrate to the fruiting bodies were estimated, and the potential health risks of local L. edodes were assessed. Because antioxidant enzymes can resist the creation of reactive oxygen species and defend against heavy metals, the activities of three antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase) in the fruiting bodies were also determined. A gradual change in heavy metal concentrations occurred across the growing time of the fruiting bodies. Cd transferred from the substrate to the fruiting bodies in larger concentrations than did Pb, Cr, and As. However, Chengdu residents were not exposed to significant health risks associated with consumption of local L. edodes. Nevertheless, more attention should be focused on children because of their higher sensitivity to metal pollutants. PMID:25710156

  13. Polysaccharide from Lentinus edodes Inhibits the Immunosuppressive Function of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoman; Li, Xiao; Tang, Jian; Ma, Chungwah; Xu, Xiaofei; Shao, Haitao; Hou, Baidong; Wang, Hui; Qin, Zhihai

    2012-01-01

    Reversing the function of immune suppressor cells may improve the efficacy of cancer therapy. Here, we have isolated a novel polysaccharide MPSSS (577.2 Kd) from Lentinus edodes and examined its effects on differentiation and function of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). MPSSS is composed of glucose (75.0%), galactose (11.7%), mannose (7.8%), and xylose (0.4%). In vivo, it inhibits the growth of McgR32 tumor cells, which is correlated with a reduced percentage of MDSCs in peripheral blood. In vitro, it induces both morphological and biophysical changes in MDSCs. Importantly, MPSSS up-regulates MHC II and F4/80 expression on MDSCs, and reverses their inhibition effect on CD4+ T cells in a dose-dependent manner. The mechanism study shows that MPSSS may stimulate MDSCs through a MyD88 dependent NF-κB signaling pathway. Together, we demonstrated for the first time that MPSSS stimulates the differentiation of MDSCs and reverses its immunosuppressive functions, shedding new light on developing novel anti-cancer strategies by targeting MDSCs. PMID:23272159

  14. Anti-tumor effect of β-glucan from Lentinus edodes and the underlying mechanism.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Zou, Siwei; Xu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Lina

    2016-01-01

    β-Glucans are well known for its various bioactivities, but the underlying mechanism has not been fully understood. This study focuses on the anti-tumor effect and the potential mechanism of a branched β-(1, 3)-glucan (LNT) extracted from Lentinus edodes. The in vivo data indicated that LNT showed a profound inhibition ratio of ~75% against S-180 tumor growth, even significantly higher than the positive control of Cytoxan (~54%). Interestingly, LNT sharply promoted immune cells accumulation into tumors accompanied by cell apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation during tumor development. Furthermore, LNT not only up-regulated expressions of the tumor suppressor p53, cell cycle arrestin p21 and pro-apoptotic proteins of Bax and caspase 3/9, but also down-regulated PARP1 and anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 expressions in tumor tissues. It was first found that LNT initiated p53-dependent signaling pathway to suppress cell proliferation in vitro, and the caspase-dependent pathway to induce cell apoptosis in vivo. The underlying anti-tumor mechanism was proposed that LNT activated immune responses to induce cell apoptosis through caspase 3-dependent signaling pathway and to inhibit cell proliferation possibly via p53-dependent signaling pathway in vivo. Besides, LNT inhibited angiogenesis by suppressing VEGF expression, leading to slow progression of tumors. PMID:27353254

  15. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of dried powder formulations of Agaricus blazei and Lentinus edodes.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Andreia A J; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Dueñas, Montserrat; Barros, Lillian; da Silva, Roberto; Gomes, Eleni; Santos-Buelga, Celestino

    2013-06-15

    Several mushroom species have been pointed out as sources of antioxidant compounds, in addition to their important nutritional value. Agaricus blazei and Lentinus edodes are among the most studied species all over the world, but those studies focused on their fruiting bodies instead of other presentations, such as powdered preparations, used as supplements. In the present work the chemical composition (nutrients and bioactive compounds) and antioxidant activity (free radical scavenging activity, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition) of dried powder formulations of the mentioned mushroom species (APF and LPF, respectively) were evaluated. Powder formulations of both species revealed the presence of essential nutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates and unsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, they present a low fat content (<2g/100g) and can be used in low-calorie diets, just like the mushrooms fruiting bodies. APF showed higher antioxidant activity and higher content of tocopherols and phenolic compounds (124 and 770 μg/100g, respectively) than LPF (32 and 690 μg/100g). Both formulations could be used as antioxidant sources to prevent diseases related to oxidative stress. PMID:23497872

  16. Anti-tumor effect of β-glucan from Lentinus edodes and the underlying mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hui; Zou, Siwei; Xu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Lina

    2016-01-01

    β-Glucans are well known for its various bioactivities, but the underlying mechanism has not been fully understood. This study focuses on the anti-tumor effect and the potential mechanism of a branched β-(1, 3)-glucan (LNT) extracted from Lentinus edodes. The in vivo data indicated that LNT showed a profound inhibition ratio of ~75% against S-180 tumor growth, even significantly higher than the positive control of Cytoxan (~54%). Interestingly, LNT sharply promoted immune cells accumulation into tumors accompanied by cell apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation during tumor development. Furthermore, LNT not only up-regulated expressions of the tumor suppressor p53, cell cycle arrestin p21 and pro-apoptotic proteins of Bax and caspase 3/9, but also down-regulated PARP1 and anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 expressions in tumor tissues. It was first found that LNT initiated p53-dependent signaling pathway to suppress cell proliferation in vitro, and the caspase-dependent pathway to induce cell apoptosis in vivo. The underlying anti-tumor mechanism was proposed that LNT activated immune responses to induce cell apoptosis through caspase 3-dependent signaling pathway and to inhibit cell proliferation possibly via p53-dependent signaling pathway in vivo. Besides, LNT inhibited angiogenesis by suppressing VEGF expression, leading to slow progression of tumors. PMID:27353254

  17. Elm tree (Ulmus parvifolia) bark bioprocessed with Mycelia of Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) mushrooms in liquid Culture: Composition and mechanism of protection against allergic asthma in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study investigated the antiasthma effect of a bioprocessed Ulmus parvifolia bark extract (BPUBE) from Lentinus edodes liquid mycelia culture against allergic asthma biomarkers in U266B1 leukemia cells and OVA-sensitized/challenged mice. BPUBE suppressed total IgE release from U266B1 cel...

  18. Supplementary Effects of Lentinus edodes with Different Harvest Period and Part on Neurotransmitters and Lipid peroxide levels in the Brain of Diabetic Mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to investigate the supplementary effects of Lentinus edodes which were harvested at different time period and part on acetylcholine content and its related enzyme activities in the brain of diabetic mouse model (KK mouse). We fed mice with standard diet(Control diet; CON) and...

  19. Solid-state bioconversion of phenolics from cranberry pomace and role of Lentinus edodes beta-glucosidase.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Z; Shetty, K

    2000-03-01

    Cranberry pomace contains large amounts of phenolic glycosides, which are important sources of free phenolics that have many food uses such as antioxidants, flavorings, and nutraceuticals. Our hypothesis was that these glycosides in cranberry pomace could be hydrolyzed by beta-glucosidase produced by Lentinus edodes during solid-state fermentation. On the basis of this hypothesis, our objective was to investigate the potential of using cranberry pomace as a substrate for the production of free phenolics and beta-glucosidase through solid-state fermentation by a food-grade fungus L. edodes. Our results suggested that L. edodes beta-glucosidase played a major role in release of phenolic aglycons from cranberry pomace during solid-state fermentation. After 50 days of cultivation, the yield of total free phenolics reached the maximum of 0.5 mg per g of pomace, while the beta-glucosidase activity was about 9 units per g of pomace. The enzyme exhibited optimal activity at 60 degrees C and at pH 3.5 and was stable at temperatures up to 50 degrees C and between pH 3 and 6.5. The major free phenolics produced from cranberry pomace were identified by HPLC as gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and p-coumaric acid. These results suggest that cranberry pomace is a potential substrate for producing food-grade phenolics and fungal beta-glucosidase. The L. edodes beta-glucosidase showed good stability and tolerance to low pH and, therefore has potential applications in wine and juice processing for aroma and flavor enrichment through enzymatic hydrolysis of glucoside precursors. PMID:10725170

  20. Physicochemical responses and microbial characteristics of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) to gum arabic coating enriched with natamycin during storage.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tianjia; Feng, Lifang; Zheng, Xiaolin; Li, Jianrong

    2013-06-01

    Physicochemical responses and microbial characteristics of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) to gum arabic (GA) coating incorporating natamycin (NA) during storage were investigated. Mushroom weight loss, firmness, total soluble solids, total sugar, reducing sugar, ascorbic acid, and microbial and sensory quality were measured. Mushroom coated with gum arabic+natamycin (GANA) maintained tissue firmness and showed reduction in microbial counts from yeasts and moulds compared with the control. In addition, GANA coating also delayed changes in the soluble solids concentration, total sugar and ascorbic acid. Sensory evaluation proved the efficacy of GANA coating by maintaining the overall quality of shiitake mushroom during the storage period. The efficiency was better than that of GA or NA treatment alone. Our study suggests that GANA has the potential to improve the quality of shiitake mushroom and extend its shelf-life up to 16d. PMID:23411335

  1. Identification of a CAP (adenylyl-cyclase-associated protein) homologous gene in Lentinus edodes and its functional complementation of yeast CAP mutants.

    PubMed

    Zhou, G L; Miyazaki, Y; Nakagawa, T; Tanaka, K; Shishido, K; Matsuda, H; Kawamukai, M

    1998-04-01

    The adenylyl-cyclase-associated protein, CAP, was originally identified in yeasts as a protein that functions in both signal transduction and cytoskeletal organization. This paper reports the identification of a cDNA and genomic DNA that encodes a CAP homologue from the mushroom Lentinus edodes. The L. edodes cap gene contains eight introns and an ORF encoding a 518 amino acid protein. The L. edodes CAP is 35.5% and 40.9% identical at the amino acid level with Saccharomyces cerevisiae CAP and Schizosaccharomyces pombe CAP, respectively. The C-terminal domain shows greater homology (39-46% identity) with yeast CAPs than does the N-terminal domain (27-35% identity). Southern blotting and Northern blotting results suggest that L. edodes cap is a single-copy gene and uniformly expressed. Expression of the L. edodes CAP in both Schiz. pombe and Sacch. cerevisiae complemented defects associated with the loss of the C-terminal domain function of the endogenous CAP. By using a yeast two-hybrid assay, an interaction was demonstrated between the L. edodes CAP and Schiz. pombe actin. This result and the functional complementation test indicate that CAP from L. edodes has a conserved C-terminal domain function. PMID:9579081

  2. Effect of the culture extract of Lentinus edodes mycelia on splenic sympathetic activity and cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jiao; Tanida, Mamoru; Fujisaki, Yoshiyuki; Horii, Yuko; Hashimoto, Kazuko; Nagai, Katsuya

    2009-01-28

    The spleen is an important organ for tumor immunity, and the splenic sympathetic nerve has a suppressive effect on splenic natural killer (NK) cytotoxicity. On the basis of this and reports that Lentinus edodes (Shiitake mushroom) has tumor-inhibitory effects, the authors hypothesized that an extract of a mycelial culture of L. edodes grown in a solid medium of sugar-cane bagasse and defatted rice bran-L.E.M-might affect the sympathetic splenic sympathetic nerve activity (Splenic-SNA) and thus inhibit tumor proliferation. Thus, the effect of L.E.M on Splenic-SNA and human cancer cell proliferation was examined. Splenic-SNA was found to be suppressed by an intraduodenal L.E.M injection in urethane-anesthetized rats, which significantly inhibited increases in the tumor volume of human colon and breast cancer cells implanted in athymic nude mice. These findings suggest that L.E.M has an inhibitory effect on tumor proliferation possibly via a reduction in NK cytotoxicity through the suppression of Splenic-SNA. PMID:19059811

  3. Protection against D-galactosamine-induced acute liver injury by oral administration of extracts from Lentinus edodes mycelia.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Aiko; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Hayashi, Shinji; Kodama, Daisuke; Isoda, Katsuhiro; Kondoh, Masuo; Kawase, Masaya; Tamesada, Makoto; Yagi, Kiyohito

    2006-08-01

    The development of oral medications to help prevent liver injury is desirable, and some mushrooms contain chemicals that show promise as such a treatment. Here, we tested whether a hot-water extract (L.E.M.) of the cultured mycelia of an edible mushroom, Lentinus edodes, could protect primary cultured hepatocytes from D-galactosamine (GalN)-induced injury. GalN induced cell death in the hepatocytes, and this effect was completely suppressed by the addition of 0.5 mg/ml L.E.M. Polyphenolic compounds contained in the L.E.M. seemed to be responsible for the protective effect. We next examined the protective effect of L.E.M. in a GalN-induced liver injury model in rats. In rats that had been treated with L.E.M. given orally or intraperitoneally, GalN caused less leakage of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, markers for liver injury, and a lower decrease in serum protein content, than in non-L.E.M.-treated rats. Histological analysis of the liver also showed a protective effect of L.E.M. Our findings indicate that L.E.M. administration is a promising treatment for protecting the liver from acute injury. PMID:16880621

  4. A Phytase Characterized by Relatively High pH Tolerance and Thermostability from the Shiitake Mushroom Lentinus edodes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guo-Qing; Wu, Ying-Ying; Ng, Tzi-Bun; Chen, Qing-Jun; Wang, He-Xiang

    2013-01-01

    A monomeric phytase with a molecular mass of 14 kDa was acquired from fresh fruiting bodies of the shiitake mushroom Lentinus edodes. The isolation procedure involved chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, CM-cellulose, Q-Sepharose, Affi-gel blue gel, and a final fast protein liquid chromatography-gel filtration on Superdex 75. The purified phytase demonstrated the unique N-terminal amino acid sequence DPKRTDQVN, which exhibited no sequence similarity with those of other phytases previously reported. It expressed its maximal activity at pH 5.0 and 37°C. Phytase activity manifested less than 20% change in activity over the pH range of 3.0–9.0, considerable thermostability with more than 60% residual activity at 70°C, and about 40% residual activity at 95°C. It displayed a wide substrate specificity on a variety of phosphorylated compounds with the following ranking: ATP > fructose-6-phosphate > AMP > glucose-6-phosphate > ADP > sodium phytate > β-glycerophosphate. The phytase activity was moderately stimulated by Ca2+, but inhibited by Al3+, Mn2+, Zn2+, and Cu2+ at a tested concentration of 5 mM. PMID:23586045

  5. Lentinus edodes and Pleurotus species lignocellulolytic enzymes activity in submerged and solid-state fermentation of lignocellulosic wastes of different composition.

    PubMed

    Elisashvili, Vladimir; Penninckx, Michel; Kachlishvili, Eva; Tsiklauri, Nino; Metreveli, Eka; Kharziani, Tamar; Kvesitadze, Giorgi

    2008-02-01

    Lentinus edodes and Pleurotus species from various origins were compared for the first time for their ability to produce lignocellulolytic enzyme in solid-state (SSF) and submerged (SF) fermentation of various plant raw material. Fungi cultivation in identical culture conditions revealed wide differences among both species and strains of the same species. The yields of CMCase (62.3Uml(-1)), xylanase (84.1 U ml(-1)), FPA (5.9 U ml(-1)), and laccase (4103 Ul(-1)) are the best so far obtained with the strains of oyster mushrooms. The study pointed out that the nature of lignocellulosic material and the method of fungi cultivation are factors determining the expression of lignocellulolytic potential of fungi as well as the ratio of individual enzymes in enzyme complex. SSF of tree leaves is favorable for laccase and MnP secretion by the majority L. edodes and Pleurotus strains, whereas SF provides better production of hydrolytic enzymes. PMID:17350827

  6. A polysaccharide isolated from the liquid culture of Lentinus edodes (shiitake) mushroom mycelia containing black rice bran protects mice against Salmonellosis through up-regulation of the Th1 immune reaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study investigated the antibacterial effect of a bioprocessed polysaccharide (BPP) isolated from Lentinus edodes liquid mycelial culture supplemented with black rice bran against murine salmonellosis. BPP was not bactericidal in vitro, but did, however stimulate uptake of the bacteria i...

  7. Influence of Lentinus edodes and Agaricus blazei extracts on the prevention of oxidation and retention of tocopherols in soybean oil in an accelerated storage test.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ana Carolina; Jorge, Neuza

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the methanol extracts of mushrooms Lentinus edodes and Agaricus blazei on the retention of tocopherols in soybean oil, when subjected to an accelerated storage test. The following treatments were subjected to an accelerated storage test in an oven at 60 °C for 15 days: Control (soybean oil without antioxidants), TBHQ (soybean oil + 100 mg/kg of TBHQ), BHT (soybean oil + 100 mg/kg of BHT), L. edodes (soybean oil + 3,500 mg/kg of L. edodes extract) and A. blazei (soybean oil + 3,500 mg/kg of A. blazei extract). The samples were analyzed for tocopherols naturally present in soybean oil and mass gain. The results showed, the time required to reach a 0.5% increase in mass was 13 days for TBHQ and 15 days for A. blazei. The content of tocopherols for TBHQ was 457.50 mg/kg and the A. blazei, 477.20 mg/kg. PMID:24876658

  8. Elm Tree (Ulmus parvifolia) Bark Bioprocessed with Mycelia of Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) Mushrooms in Liquid Culture: Composition and Mechanism of Protection against Allergic Asthma in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Phil; Lee, Sang Jong; Nam, Seok Hyun; Friedman, Mendel

    2016-02-01

    Mushrooms can break down complex plant materials into smaller, more digestible and bioactive compounds. The present study investigated the antiasthma effect of an Ulmus parvifolia bark extract bioprocessed in Lentinus edodes liquid mycelium culture (BPUBE) against allergic asthma in chicken egg ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized/challenged mice. BPUBE suppressed total IgE release from U266B1 cells in a dose-dependent manner without cytotoxicity. Inhibitory activity of BPUBE against OVA-specific IgE secretion in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was observed in OVA-sensitized/challenged asthmatic mice. BPUBE also inhibited OVA-specific IgG and IgG1 secretion into serum from the allergic mice, suggesting the restoration of a Th2-biased immune reaction to a Th1/Th2-balanced status, as indicated by the Th1/Th2 as well as regulatory T cell (Treg) cytokine profile changes caused by BPUBE in serum or BALF. Inflammatory cell counts in BALF and lung histology showed that leukocytosis and eosinophilia induced by OVA-sensitization/challenge were inhibited by the oral administration of BPUBE. Amelioration of eosinophil infiltration near the trachea was associated with reduced eotaxin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) levels. Changes in proinflammatory mediator levels in BALF suggest that BPUBE decreased OVA-sensitization-induced elevation of leukotriene C4 (LTC4) and prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). The finding that asthma-associated biomarker levels of OVA-sensitized/challenged mice were much more inhibited with BPUBE treatment than NPUBE (not-bioprocessed Ulmus parvifolia extract) treatment suggested the production of new bioactive compounds by the mushroom mycelia that may be involved in enhancing the observed antiasthmatic properties. The possible relation of the composition determined by proximate analysis and GC/MS to observed bioactivity is discussed. The results suggest that the elm tree (Ulmus parvifolia) bark bioprocessed with mycelia of shiitake (Lentinus edodes

  9. CW EPR and 9 GHz EPR imaging investigation of stable paramagnetic species and their antioxidant activities in dry shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes).

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Kouichi; Hara, Hideyuki

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the antioxidant activities and locations of stable paramagnetic species in dry (or drying) shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) using continuous wave (CW) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and 9 GHz EPR imaging. CW 9 GHz EPR detected paramagnetic species (peak-to-peak linewidth (ΔHpp) = 0.57 mT) in the mushroom. Two-dimensional imaging of the sharp line using a 9 GHz EPR imager showed that the species were located in the cap and shortened stem portions of the mushroom. No other location of the species was found in the mushroom. However, radical locations and concentrations varied along the cap of the mushroom. The 9 GHz EPR imaging determined the exact location of stable paramagnetic species in the shiitake mushroom. Distilled water extracts of the pigmented cap surface and the inner cap of the mushroom showed similar antioxidant activities that reduced an aqueous solution of 0.1 mM 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl. The present results suggest that the antioxidant activities of the edible mushroom extracts are much weaker than those of ascorbic acid. Thus, CW EPR and EPR imaging revealed the location and distribution of stable paramagnetic species and the antioxidant activities in the shiitake mushroom for the first time. PMID:26846304

  10. The influence of the hot water extract from shiitake medicinal mushroom, Lentinus edodes (higher Basidiomycetes) on the food intake, life span, and age-related locomotor activity of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Matjuskova, Natalya; Azena, Elena; Serstnova, Ksenija; Muiznieks, Indrikis

    2014-01-01

    Shiitake medicinal mushroom, Lentinus edodes, is among the most widely cultivated edible mushrooms in the world and is a well-studied source of nutrients and biologically active compounds. We have studied the influence of the dietary supplement of the polysaccharides containing a hot water extract of the mushroom L. edodes on the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster in terms of food intake, body weight, life span, and age-related locomotor activity. L. edodes extract, when added to the D. melanogaster feeding substrate at a 0.003-0.030% concentration (calculated for the dry weight of the polysaccharide fraction) did not influence food intake or body weight of the flies. It increased the life span and locomotor activities of male flies but was associated with early mortality and decreased locomotor activity of female flies. We conclude that the observed anti-aging effects of L. edodes extracts in the male D. melanogaster are not the result of dietary restriction. We propose that D. melanogaster is a suitable model organism for researching the molecular basis of the anti-aging effect of the shiitake mushroom extracts and sex linkage of these effects. PMID:25404225

  11. The anti-adhesive mode of action of a purified mushroom (Lentinus edodes) extract with anticaries and antigingivitis properties in two oral bacterial phatogens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In previous works we have shown that a low-molecular-mass (LMM) fraction from mushroom (Lentinus edodes) homogenate interferes with binding of Streptococcus mutans to hydroxyapatite and Prevotella intermedia to gingival cells. Additionally, inhibition of biofilm formation of both odonto- and periodonto-pathogenic bacteria and detachment from preformed biofilms have been described for this compound. Further purification of mushroom extract has been recently achieved and a sub-fraction (i.e. # 5) has been identified as containing the majority of the mentioned biological activities. The aim of this study was to characterise the bacterial receptors for the purified mushroom sub-fraction #5 in order to better elucidate the mode of action of this compound when interfering with bacterial adhesion to host surfaces or with bacteria-bacteria interactions in the biofilm state. Methods Candidate bacterial molecules to act as target of this compound were bacterial surface molecules involved in cell adhesion and biofilm formation, and, thus, we have considered cell wall associated proteins (CWPs), teichoic acid (TA) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) of S. mutans, and outer membrane proteins (OMPs) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of P. intermedia. Results Fifteen S. mutans CWPs and TA were capable of binding sub-fraction #5, while LTA did not. As far as P. intermedia is concerned, we show that five OMPs interact with sub-fraction # 5. Capacity of binding to P. intermedia LPS was also studied but in this case negative results were obtained. Conclusions Binding sub-fraction # 5 to surface molecules of S. mutans or P. intermedia may result in inactivation of their physiological functions. As a whole, these results indicate, at molecular level, the bacterial surface alterations affecting adhesion and biofim formation. For these antimicrobial properties, the compound may find use in daily oral hygiene. PMID:24564835

  12. Effect of L-Cysteine Pretreatment on the Control of Formaldehyde and Browning of the Culinary-Medicinal Shiitake Mushroom, Lentinus edodes (Higher Basidiomycetes) during Drying and Canning Processes.

    PubMed

    Li, Guijie; Wang, Qiang; Sun, Peng; Chen, Feng; Chen, Xiaolin; Wang, Cun; Zhao, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Fresh culinary-medicinal Shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes) were pretreated by soaking in 0.1 mg/mL of L-cysteine solution for 1 hour; then the variation in formaldehyde content and browning degree were studied during hot air-drying and canning processes. The results indicated that L-cysteine pretreatment significantly inhibited the increase of formaldehyde content and browning during the drying process; these increases in the pretreatment groups ranged from 7.0% to 14.0% and 65.4% to 68.9%, respectively, of that of the control groups. While the L-cysteine pretreatment did not seem to have a significant effect on controlling the formaldehyde content during the canning process, the increase of the browning degree of the canned products of the pretreatment groups ranged from 64.8% to 78.5% of that of the control groups, indicating the inhibitive effect of L-cysteine on browning during the canning process of L. edodes. Overall, L-cysteine pretreatment improved the sensory quality of both dried and canned L. edodes. PMID:25954964

  13. Effects of Lentinus edodes, Grifola frondosa and Pleurotus ostreatus administration on cancer outbreak, and activities of macrophages and lymphocytes in mice treated with a carcinogen, N-butyl-N-butanolnitrosoamine.

    PubMed

    Kurashige, S; Akuzawa, Y; Endo, F

    1997-05-01

    ICR mice were treated with a carcinogen, N-butyl-N'-butanolnitrosoamine BBN), every day for 8 consecutive weeks and the effects of oral administration of edible mushrooms on the induction of urinary bladder carcinoma and on the activities of macrophages and lymphocytes were studied. Bladder carcinoma were found in all 10 mice (100%) treated with BBN alone, while we observed carcinoma only in 9 of 17 mice (52.9%), in 7 of 15 mice (46.7%) and 13 of 20 mice (65.0%) treated with Lentinus edodes, Grifola frondosa and Pleurotus ostreatus, respectively. Chemotactic activity of macrophages was suppressed in mice treated with BBN alone but maintained almost the normal level in mice treated with BBN plus Lentinus, Grifola or Pleurotus. Lymphocytes collected from mice treated with BBN plus each mushroom showed almost normal blastogenic response against concanavalin A, although those from mice treated with BBN alone completely retarded their response. Cytotoxic activity of lymphocytes against Yac-1 cells was also maintained at a normal level in mice treated with BBN plus each mushroom. Whereas in mice treated with BBN alone significant depression of NK cell activity occurred. Significantly higher cytotoxic activity against P-815 cells was observed in lymphocytes from mice treated with BBN plus each mushroom than that in lymphocytes from normal mice or mice treated with BBN alone. PMID:9130004

  14. β-Glucan from Lentinus edodes Inhibits Nitric Oxide and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Production and Phosphorylation of Mitogen-activated Protein Kinases in Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated Murine RAW 264.7 Macrophages*

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaojuan; Yasuda, Michiko; Nakamura-Tsuruta, Sachiko; Mizuno, Masashi; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Lentinan (LNT), a β-glucan from the fruiting bodies of Lentinus edodes, is well known to have immunomodulatory activity. NO and TNF-α are associated with many inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of LNT extracted by sonication (LNT-S) on the NO and TNF-α production in LPS-stimulated murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. The results suggested that treatment with LNT-S not only resulted in the striking inhibition of TNF-α and NO production in LPS-activated macrophage RAW 264.7 cells, but also the protein expression of inducible NOS (iNOS) and the gene expression of iNOS mRNA and TNF-α mRNA. It is surprising that LNT-S enhanced LPS-induced NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation and NF-κB luciferase activity, but severely inhibited the phosphorylation of JNK1/2 and ERK1/2. The neutralizing antibodies of anti-Dectin-1 and anti-TLR2 hardly affected the inhibition of NO production. All of these results suggested that the suppression of LPS-induced NO and TNF-α production was at least partially attributable to the inhibition of JNK1/2 and ERK1/2 activation. This work discovered a promising molecule to control the diseases associated with overproduction of NO and TNF-α. PMID:22102286

  15. Conservation of the mycelia of the medicinal mushroom Humphreya coffeata (Berk.) Stey. in sterile distilled water

    PubMed Central

    García-García, Monserrat; Rocha-Zavaleta, Leticia; Valdez-Cruz, Norma A.; Trujillo-Roldán, Mauricio A.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there is a growing interest in obtaining and studying the biologically active compounds from higher basidiomycetes, such as Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus edodes and Inonotus obliquus[1], but the techniques for safe long-term storage are time-consuming, susceptible to contamination, and do not prevent genetic and physiological changes during long-term maintenance [2]. A recent strategy for obtaining biologically active compounds is using mycelia submerged cultures of these mushrooms, cultured under controlled laboratory conditions [1]. However, obtaining spores of these fungi under these conditions is difficult, and in most cases the way to obtain the spores is unknown [1]. Therefore, the strategy for mycelium storage seems to be more appropriated and simple.•A modification of Castellani's method [3–7] is proposed for higher basidiomycetes, by using the mycelium of Humphreya coffeata (Berk.) Stey., whose culture filtrates demonstrated bioactivity against lymphoma cells [8].•H. coffeata (Berk.) Stey. was grown on malt extract agar with filter paper disks that were removed after 4 days, placed in tubes with sterile distilled water, and stored at 4 °C.•Filter paper disks with H. coffeata (Berk.) Stey. stored at 4 °C were confirmed to be viable for up to 18 months, with no visible morphological alterations. PMID:26150929

  16. Conservation of the mycelia of the medicinal mushroom Humphreya coffeata (Berk.) Stey. in sterile distilled water.

    PubMed

    García-García, Monserrat; Rocha-Zavaleta, Leticia; Valdez-Cruz, Norma A; Trujillo-Roldán, Mauricio A

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there is a growing interest in obtaining and studying the biologically active compounds from higher basidiomycetes, such as Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus edodes and Inonotus obliquus[1], but the techniques for safe long-term storage are time-consuming, susceptible to contamination, and do not prevent genetic and physiological changes during long-term maintenance [2]. A recent strategy for obtaining biologically active compounds is using mycelia submerged cultures of these mushrooms, cultured under controlled laboratory conditions [1]. However, obtaining spores of these fungi under these conditions is difficult, and in most cases the way to obtain the spores is unknown [1]. Therefore, the strategy for mycelium storage seems to be more appropriated and simple.•A modification of Castellani's method [3-7] is proposed for higher basidiomycetes, by using the mycelium of Humphreya coffeata (Berk.) Stey., whose culture filtrates demonstrated bioactivity against lymphoma cells [8].•H. coffeata (Berk.) Stey. was grown on malt extract agar with filter paper disks that were removed after 4 days, placed in tubes with sterile distilled water, and stored at 4 °C.•Filter paper disks with H. coffeata (Berk.) Stey. stored at 4 °C were confirmed to be viable for up to 18 months, with no visible morphological alterations. PMID:26150929

  17. A Polysaccharide isolated from the liquid culture of Lentinus edodes (Shiitake) mushroom mycelia containing black rice bran protects mice against salmonellosis through upregulation of the Th1 immune reaction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Phil; Park, Sun Ok; Lee, Sang Jong; Nam, Seok Hyun; Friedman, Mendel

    2014-03-19

    The present study investigated the antibacterial effect of a bioprocessed polysaccharide (BPP) isolated from Lentinus edodes liquid mycelial culture supplemented with black rice bran against murine salmonellosis. BPP was not bactericidal in vitro, it did, however, stimulate uptake of the bacteria into RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells, as indicated by increased colony-forming unit (CFU) counts of the contents of the lysed macrophages incubated with Salmonella Typhimurium for 30 and 60 min. Two hours postinfection, the bacterial counts drastically increased in the macrophages, but 4 and 8 h postinfection BPP extract-treated cells showed lower bacterial counts than the vehicle (saline phosphate pH 7.4 buffer, PBS)-treated control. BPP elicited altered morphology and markedly elevated inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) mRNA and protein expression in the infected macrophage cells. BPP also activated leukocytes in S. Typhimurium-infected mice, as determined by spleen lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-γ levels in mice sera. ELISA analysis on cytokine production by Th1 and Th2 immune cells from splenocytes of infected mice showed significant increases in the levels of the following Th1 cytokines: IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and IL-12. Histology assays of the livers of mice infected with a sublethal dose (1 × 10(4) CFU) of S. Typhimurium showed that BPP, administered daily through an intraperitoneal (ip) or oral route, protected against necrosis of the liver, a biomarker of in vivo salmonellosis. The lifespan of mice similarly infected with a lethal dose of S. Typhimurium (1 × 10(5) CFU) was significantly extended by ip injection or oral administration of the BPP without side effects. These results suggest that the activity of BPP against bacterial infection in mice occurs mainly through the activation of macrophage-mediated immune response resulting from augmented Th1 immunity. The significance of the results for microbial food safety and human health and further

  18. Physicochemical properties and acute toxicity studies of a lectin from the saline extract of the fruiting bodies of the shiitake mushroom, Lentinula edodes (Berk)

    PubMed Central

    Eghianruwa, Queensley; Odekanyin, Oludele; Kuku, Adenike

    2011-01-01

    A lectin (LEL) was isolated from the fresh fruiting bodies of the shiitake mushroom Lentinula edodes by a combination of gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-150 and affinity chromatography on an N-acetyl-Dgalactosamine-Sepharose 4B column. Its molecular mass, as determined by gel filtration, was estimated to be 71, 000 Daltons and its structure is homotetrameric with subunit molecular weight of approximately 18,000 Daltons. LEL agglutinated non-specifically red blood cells from the human ABO system as well as rabbit erythrocytes and in haemagglutination inhibition assays, exhibited sugar-binding specificity toward N-acetyl-D-galactosamine. EDTA had no inhibitory effect on its haemagglutinating activity, which was stable up to 70°C and was not affected by changes in pH. The lectin had no covalently-linked carbohydrate and amino acid composition analysis revealed that it contained 124 amino acid residues and was rich in tyrosine, proline, phenylalanine, arginine, glutamic acid and cysteine. LEL did not cause mortality neither was it observed to alter the morphology of key organs when administered intraperitoneally at concentrations up to 10,000 mg kg-1 body weight of mice. PMID:22187665

  19. Higher Education Council of Berks County (HECBC) Economic Impact Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paff, L. A.; D'Allegro, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    In spring 2006, the Higher Education Council of Berks County (HECBC) conducted a study to measure the economic impact of the five colleges located in Berks County: Alvernia College, Albright College, Kutztown University, Pennsylvania State University, Berks Campus (Penn State Berks) and Reading Area Community College (RACC). Although many higher…

  20. 75 FR 62920 - Eastern Berks Gateway Railroad Company-Modified Rail Certificate-in Berks County, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... Surface Transportation Board Eastern Berks Gateway Railroad Company--Modified Rail Certificate--in Berks County, PA On September 13, 2010, Eastern Berks Gateway Railroad Company (EBGR), a noncarrier, filed a..., Ltd. and Blackwell Northern Gateway Railroad--Continuance in Control Exemption--Eastern Berks...

  1. Polysaccharide from Lentinus edodes combined with oxaliplatin possesses the synergy and attenuation effect in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Li, Qiang; Wang, Junfeng; Cheng, Fang; Huang, Xiao; Cheng, Yao; Wang, Kaiping

    2016-07-28

    Despite the great progress in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, combination chemotherapy is still the main choice of treatment for patients with unresectable metastatic or recurrent hepatocellular cancer. Lentinan, which has been used as an immunomodulator in the treatment of cancer, possesses anti-tumor activities. However, the mechanisms by which Lentinan inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma remain unknown. Our study showed that Lentinan has a significantly synergistic anti-tumor effect with oxaliplatin against HepG2 cells in vitro and in H22 tumor-bearing mice through the mitochondria pathway and for the inhibition of NF-κB, Stat3 and survivin signaling. Moreover, Lentinan moderated side effects induced by oxaliplatin. These findings suggested that Lentinan may be an ideal agent for the combination therapy of oxaliplatin against hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:27130669

  2. Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) mushroom extract protects against hydrogen peroxide induced cytotoxicity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Kuppusamy, U R; Chong, Y L; Mahmood, A A; Indran, M; Abdullah, Noorlidah; Vikineswary, S

    2009-04-01

    Lentinula edodes (Berk) Pegler, commonly known as Shiitake mushroom has been used as medicinal food in Asian countries, especially in China and Japan and is believed to possess strong immunomodulatory property. In the present study, the methanolic extract of the fruit bodies of L. edodes was investigated for cytoprotective effect against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by measuring the activities of xanthine oxidase (XO) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) . H2O2 at a concentration of 5 microM caused 50% inhibition of PBMCs viability. The extract improved the PBMC viability and exerted a dose-dependent protection against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity. At 100 microg/ml of extract concentration, the cell viability increased by 60% compared with the PBMCs incubated with H2O2 alone. The extract also inhibited XO activity in PBMC, while showing moderate stimulatory effect on GPx. However, in the presence of H2O2 alone, both the enzyme activities were increased significantly. The GPx activity increased, possibly in response to the increased availability of H2O2 in the cell. When the cells were pretreated with the extract and washed (to remove the extract) prior to the addition of H2O2, the GPx and XO activities as well as the cell viability were comparable to those when incubated with the extract alone. Thus, it is suggested that one of the possible mechanisms via which L. edodes methanolic extract confers protection against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in PBMC is by inhibiting the superoxide-producing XO and increasing GPx activity which could rapidly inactivate H2O2. PMID:19517993

  3. 35. END VIEW, INTERIOR, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS, BERK SWITCH TOWER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. END VIEW, INTERIOR, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  4. 38. INTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING COMPLETE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. INTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING COMPLETE SWITCH LEVER ASSEMBLAGE AND DISPLAY BOARD ON FRONT WALL - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  5. 36. INTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING SWITCHING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. INTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS FROM OPERATOR'S POSITION - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  6. 37. OBLIQUE VIEW, INTERIOR, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. OBLIQUE VIEW, INTERIOR, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  7. A novel cysteine desulfurase influencing organosulfur compounds in Lentinula edodes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Lei, Xiao-Yu; Chen, Lian-Fu; Bian, Yin-Bing; Yang, Hong; Ibrahim, Salam A.; Huang, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Organosulfur compounds are the basis for the unique aroma of Lentinula edodes, and cysteine sulfoxide lyase (C-S lyase) is the key enzyme in this trait. The enzyme from Alliium sativum has been crystallized and well-characterized; however, there have been no reports of the characterization of fungi C-S lyase at the molecular level. We identified a L. edodes C-S lyase (Lecsl), cloned a gene of Csl encoded Lecsl and then combined modeling, simulations, and experiments to understand the molecular basis of the function of Lecsl. Our analysis revealed Lecsl to be a novel cysteine desulfurase and not a type of cysteine sulfoxide lyase. The pyridoxal-5-phosphate (PLP) molecule bonded tightly to Lecsl to form a Lecsl-PLP complex. Moreover, the Lecsl had one active center that served to bind two kinds of substrates, S-methyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide and L-cysteine, and had both cysteine sulfoxide lyase and cysteine desulfurase activity. We found that the amino acid residue Asn393 was essential for the catalytic activity of Lecsl and that the gene Csl encoded a novel cysteine desulfurase to influence organosulfur compounds in L. edodes. Our results provide a new insight into understanding the formation of the unique aroma of L. edodes. PMID:26054293

  8. Relationship between Water Content and Osmotic Potential of Lentinula edodes

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sun-Young

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to understand how osmotic potentials in Lentinula edodes tissues are related to water contents and how they change while a mushroom matures. Water content and osmotic potential of L. edodes mushroom tissues from log cultivation and sawdust cultivation were measured and the relationships were analyzed. Osmotic potentials in the tissues were exponentially proportional to their moisture contents and there were strain differences in the potentials. Strain 290 has lower osmotic potential than strain 302, in the tissues at the same water content. As the mushrooms mature, tissue water content maintained ca 94% in head tissues and ca 90% in gills, but significantly decreased from ca 90% to 82% in the stipe tissues. Osmotic potential changes were similar to the tissue water content changes as the mushrooms mature. While osmotic potentials maintained -0.25 to -0.45 MPa in head and gill tissues, the potentials greatly decreased from -0.65 to -1.33MPa in stipe tissues. Our results show that osmotic potentials in L. edodes tissues are exponentially proportional to tissue water contents, that strains differ in osmotic potential related to water, and that stipe tissues can still have nutritional value when they mature. PMID:23997603

  9. Appraisal of Antihyperlipidemic Activities of Lentinus lepideus in Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ki Nam; Lee, Jae Seong; Kim, Hye Young; Lee, Kyung Rim; Shin, Pyung Gyun; Cheong, Jong Chun; Yoo, Young Bok; Alam, Nuhu; Ha, Tai Moon

    2011-01-01

    The wild edible mushroom, Lentinus lepideus has recently been cultivated for commercial use in Korea. While the mushroom has been widely used for nutritional and medicinal purposes, the possible anti-hyperlipidemic action is unclear. The effects of dietary L. lepideus on plasma and feces biochemical and on the liver histological status were investigated in hypercholesterolemic rats. Six-wk-old female Sprague-Dawley albino rats were divided into three groups of 10 rats each. Biochemical and histological examinations were performed. A diet containing 5% L. lepideus fruiting bodies reduced plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein, total lipid, phospholipids, and the ratio of low-density to high-density lipoprotein. Body weight was reduced. The diet did not adversely affect plasma biochemical and enzyme profiles. L. lepideus reduced significantly plasma β- and pre-β-lipoprotein, while α-lipoprotein content was increased. A histological study of hepatic cells by conventional hematoxylin-eosin and oil red O staining revealed normal findings for mushroom-fed hypercholesterolemic rats. The present study suggests that a diet supplemented with L. lepideus can provide health benefits by acting on the atherogenic lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rats. PMID:22783117

  10. Diversity and effect of Trichoderma spp. associated with green mold disease on Lentinula edodes in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gangzheng; Cao, Xiantao; Ma, Xiaolong; Guo, Mengpei; Liu, Changhao; Yan, Lianlian; Bian, Yinbing

    2016-08-01

    Lentinula edodes, one of the most important edible mushrooms in China, is affected heavily by the infection of green mold that overgrows mushroom mycelia. We collected the diseased samples from main L. edodes cultivation regions in China to characterize the pathogen and to study the effect of Trichoderma spp. on L. edodes species. We identified six Trichoderma species, that is, T. harzianum, T. atroviride, T. viride, T. pleuroticola, T. longibrachiatum, and T. oblongisporum based on the internal transcribed spacer or tef1-α sequences and morphology characteristics. In confrontation cultures on Petri plates or in tubes, and in L. edodes cultures in a medium containing Trichoderma metabolites, L. edodes mycelia were not only distorted and swollen, but also inhibited by Trichoderma isolates. It is not possible that adjusting pH value or temperature is used for controlling L. edodes green disease, because the growth of most of Trichoderma isolates and L. edodes shared similar pH and temperature conditions. PMID:27147196

  11. Lentinus squarrosulus (Mont.) mycelium enhanced antioxidant status in rat model

    PubMed Central

    Mhd Omar, Nor Adila; Abdullah, Sumaiyah; Abdullah, Noorlidah; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2015-01-01

    Aim Lentinus squarrosulus is an edible wild mushroom commonly found in Asia. This species has several interesting features such as rapid mycelial growth, and hence has the potential to be used as food, functional food, and nutraceuticals. Our previous study shows that L. squarrosulus contains potent antioxidant compounds in vitro. This study aims to investigate the in vivo bioavailability of L. squarrosulus mycelium extract and its antioxidant effect on biomarkers of antioxidant defense and oxidative stress. Methods Water extract of mycelial biomass of L. squarrosulus was analyzed for in vivo antioxidant effects, including cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), xanthine oxidase (XO), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs), and lipid hydroperoxides (LHPs) at 0 and 28 days. GPx and XO were also analyzed in liver homogenates. Normal Sprague Dawley rats were treated with 250 and 500 mg/kg of extract for 28 days. Results The serum CUPRAC level increased after treatment with both concentrations, indicating that there was sufficient bioavailability of the extract which contributed to the total antioxidant capacity. GPx activity in both serum and liver was increased and this correlated with LHP level after treatment with 250 mg/kg of extract, but XO activity was significantly decreased after treatment with 500 mg/kg of the extract. Lack of difference between AOPP levels implied that there were no significant changes in oxidative damage of protein after treatment. Conclusion This study clearly showed that L. squarrosulus mycelium antioxidant extract contains absorbable antioxidants that enter the circulating plasma and cause a significant acute increase in plasma antioxidant capacity. Thus, the water extract of L. squarrosulus mycelium, which can be obtained abundantly by liquid fermentation, may serve as an antioxidant ingredient in functional foods and nutraceuticals. PMID:26604694

  12. Genome Sequence of the Edible Cultivated Mushroom Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) Reveals Insights into Lignocellulose Degradation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lianfu; Gong, Yuhua; Cai, Yingli; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Yan; Xiao, Yang; Xu, Zhangyi; Liu, Yin; Lei, Xiaoyu; Wang, Gangzheng; Guo, Mengpei; Ma, Xiaolong; Bian, Yinbing

    2016-01-01

    Lentinula edodes, one of the most popular, edible mushroom species with a high content of proteins and polysaccharides as well as unique aroma, is widely cultivated in many Asian countries, especially in China, Japan and Korea. As a white rot fungus with lignocellulose degradation ability, L. edodes has the potential for application in the utilization of agriculture straw resources. Here, we report its 41.8-Mb genome, encoding 14,889 predicted genes. Through a phylogenetic analysis with model species of fungi, the evolutionary divergence time of L. edodes and Gymnopus luxurians was estimated to be 39 MYA. The carbohydrate-active enzyme genes in L. edodes were compared with those of the other 25 fungal species, and 101 lignocellulolytic enzymes were identified in L. edodes, similar to other white rot fungi. Transcriptome analysis showed that the expression of genes encoding two cellulases and 16 transcription factor was up-regulated when mycelia were cultivated for 120 minutes in cellulose medium versus glucose medium. Our results will foster a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of lignocellulose degradation and provide the basis for partial replacement of wood sawdust with agricultural wastes in L. edodes cultivation. PMID:27500531

  13. Genome Sequence of the Edible Cultivated Mushroom Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) Reveals Insights into Lignocellulose Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lianfu; Gong, Yuhua; Cai, Yingli; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Yan; Xiao, Yang; Xu, Zhangyi; Liu, Yin; Lei, Xiaoyu; Wang, Gangzheng; Guo, Mengpei; Ma, Xiaolong; Bian, Yinbing

    2016-01-01

    Lentinula edodes, one of the most popular, edible mushroom species with a high content of proteins and polysaccharides as well as unique aroma, is widely cultivated in many Asian countries, especially in China, Japan and Korea. As a white rot fungus with lignocellulose degradation ability, L. edodes has the potential for application in the utilization of agriculture straw resources. Here, we report its 41.8-Mb genome, encoding 14,889 predicted genes. Through a phylogenetic analysis with model species of fungi, the evolutionary divergence time of L. edodes and Gymnopus luxurians was estimated to be 39 MYA. The carbohydrate-active enzyme genes in L. edodes were compared with those of the other 25 fungal species, and 101 lignocellulolytic enzymes were identified in L. edodes, similar to other white rot fungi. Transcriptome analysis showed that the expression of genes encoding two cellulases and 16 transcription factor was up-regulated when mycelia were cultivated for 120 minutes in cellulose medium versus glucose medium. Our results will foster a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of lignocellulose degradation and provide the basis for partial replacement of wood sawdust with agricultural wastes in L. edodes cultivation. PMID:27500531

  14. DNA Polymorphisms in Lentinula edodes, the Shiitake Mushroom

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Rajiv K.

    1991-01-01

    DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were examined in Lentinula edodes strains. Genomic DNA from strain 70 was cloned in plasmid vector pUC19, and 18 random clones containing low-copy DNA sequences were used to probe seven strains in Southern DNA-DNA hybridizations. Each cloned fragment revealed DNA polymorphism. An RFLP genotype was determined for each strain and the genetic relatedness was assessed. The coefficients of genetic similarity among the seven strains ranged from 0.43 to 0.90. The inheritance of RFLP markers was examined in single spore isolates. Homokaryons displayed a loss of polymorphic bands compared with the parent dikaryon. Hybrids constructed by crossing compatible homokaryons displayed the inheritance of RFLP markers from each parent homokaryon. Images PMID:16348509

  15. EFFECTS OF MANAGEMENT FACTORS ON THE CONCENTRATION OF A HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT POLYSACCARIDE FRACTION FROM LOG-GROWN SHIITAKE MUSHROOMS (Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shiitake mushrooms have a reputation as a healthy food. Growers may be able to use the presence of health promoting constituents as a marketing tool to promote sales of their products for premium prices. There are few reports on the effects of management protocols for log-grown shiitakes on the conc...

  16. Grouping of multicopper oxidases in Lentinula edodes by sequence similarities and expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Yuichi; Nakade, Keiko; Yoshida, Kentaro; Natsume, Satoshi; Miyazaki, Kazuhiro; Sato, Shiho; van Peer, Arend F; Konno, Naotake

    2015-12-01

    The edible white rot fungus Lentinula edodes possesses a variety of lignin degrading enzymes such as manganese peroxidases and laccases. Laccases belong to the multicopper oxidases, which have a wide range of catalytic activities including polyphenol degradation and synthesis, lignin degradation, and melanin formation. The exact number of laccases in L. edodes is unknown, as are their complete properties and biological functions. We analyzed the draft genome sequence of L. edodes D703PP-9 and identified 13 multicopper oxidase-encoding genes; 11 laccases in sensu stricto, of which three are new, and two ferroxidases. lcc8, a laccase previously reported in L. edodes, was not identified in D703PP-9 genome. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the 13 multicopper oxidases can be classified into laccase sensu stricto subfamily 1, laccase sensu stricto subfamily 2 and ferroxidases. From sequence similarities and expression patterns, laccase sensu stricto subfamily 1 can be divided into two subgroups. Laccase sensu stricto subfamily 1 group A members are mainly secreted from mycelia, while laccase sensu stricto subfamily 1 group B members are expressed mainly in fruiting bodies during growth or after harvesting but are lowly expressed in mycelia. Laccase sensu stricto subfamily 2 members are mainly expressed in mycelia, and two ferroxidases are mainly expressed in the fruiting body during growth or after harvesting, and are expressed at very low levels in mycelium. Our data suggests that L. edodes laccases in same group share expression patterns and would have common biological functions. PMID:26384343

  17. Description of borehole geophysical and geologist logs, Berks Sand Pit Superfund Site, Longswamp Township, Berks County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Low, Dennis J.; Conger, Randall W.

    2003-01-01

    Between October 2002 and January 2003, geophysical logging was conducted in six boreholes at the Berks Sand Pit Superfund Site, Longswamp Township, Berks County, Pa., to determine (1) the waterproducing zones, water-receiving zones, zones of vertical borehole flow, orientation of fractures, and borehole and casing depth; and (2) the hydraulic interconnection between the six boreholes and the site extraction well. The boreholes range in depth from 61 to 270 feet. Geophysical logging included collection of caliper, natural-gamma, single-point-resistance, fluid-temperature, fluid-flow, and acoustic-televiewer logs. Caliper and acoustic-televiewer logs were used to locate fractures, joints, and weathered zones. Inflections on fluid-temperature and single-point-resistance logs indicated possible water-bearing fractures, and flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Single-point-resistance, natural-gamma, and geologist logs provided information on stratigraphy. Flowmeter measurements were conducted while the site extraction well was pumping and when it was inactive to determine the hydraulic connections between the extraction well and the boreholes. Borehole geophysical logging and heatpulse flowmetering indicate active flow in the boreholes. Two of the boreholes are in ground-water discharge areas, two boreholes are in ground-water recharge areas, and one borehole is in an intermediate regime. Flow was not determined in one borehole. Heatpulse flowmetering, in conjunction with the geologist logs, indicates highly weathered zones in the granitic gneiss can be permeable and effective transmitters of water, confirming the presence of a two-tiered ground-water-flow system. The effort to determine a hydraulic connection between the site extraction well and six logged boreholes was not conclusive. Three boreholes showed decreases in depth to water after pumping of the site extraction well; in two boreholes, the depth to water increased. One borehole was cased its

  18. Genetic dissection of fruiting body-related traits using quantitative trait loci mapping in Lentinula edodes.

    PubMed

    Gong, Wen-Bing; Li, Lei; Zhou, Yan; Bian, Yin-Bing; Kwan, Hoi-Shan; Cheung, Man-Kit; Xiao, Yang

    2016-06-01

    To provide a better understanding of the genetic architecture of fruiting body formation of Lentinula edodes, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) mapping was employed to uncover the loci underlying seven fruiting body-related traits (FBRTs). An improved L. edodes genetic linkage map, comprising 572 markers on 12 linkage groups with a total map length of 983.7 cM, was constructed by integrating 82 genomic sequence-based insertion-deletion (InDel) markers into a previously published map. We then detected a total of 62 QTLs for seven target traits across two segregating testcross populations, with individual QTLs contributing 5.5 %-30.2 % of the phenotypic variation. Fifty-three out of the 62 QTLs were clustered in six QTL hotspots, suggesting the existence of main genomic regions regulating the morphological characteristics of fruiting bodies in L. edodes. A stable QTL hotspot on MLG2, containing QTLs for all investigated traits, was identified in both testcross populations. QTLs for related traits were frequently co-located on the linkage groups, demonstrating the genetic basis for phenotypic correlation of traits. Meta-QTL (mQTL) analysis was performed and identified 16 mQTLs with refined positions and narrow confidence intervals (CIs). Nine genes, including those encoding MAP kinase, blue-light photoreceptor, riboflavin-aldehyde-forming enzyme and cyclopropane-fatty-acyl-phospholipid synthase, and cytochrome P450s, were likely to be candidate genes controlling the shape of fruiting bodies. The study has improved our understanding of the genetic architecture of fruiting body formation in L. edodes. To our knowledge, this is the first genome-wide QTL detection of FBRTs in L. edodes. The improved genetic map, InDel markers and QTL hotspot regions revealed here will assist considerably in the conduct of future genetic and breeding studies of L. edodes. PMID:26875873

  19. Occurrence of inorganic arsenic in edible Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) products.

    PubMed

    Llorente-Mirandes, Toni; Barbero, Mercedes; Rubio, Roser; López-Sánchez, José Fermín

    2014-09-01

    The present study reports arsenic speciation analysis in edible Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) products. The study focused on the extraction, and accurate quantification of inorganic arsenic (iAs), the most toxic form of arsenic, which was selectively separated and determined using anion exchange LC-ICPMS. A wide variety of edible Shiitake products (fresh mushrooms, food supplements, canned and dehydrated) were purchased and analysed. A cultivated Shiitake grown under controlled conditions was also analysed. The extraction method showed satisfactory extraction efficiencies (>90%) and column recoveries (>85%) for all samples. Arsenic speciation revealed that iAs was the major As compound up to 1.38 mg As kg(-1) dm (with a mean percentage of 84% of the total arsenic) and other organoarsenicals were found as minor species. Shiitake products had high proportions of iAs and therefore should not be ignored as potential contributors to dietary iAs exposure in populations with a high intake of Shiitake products. PMID:24731333

  20. The Blended Librarian: John D. Shankl Center for Learning Technologies, Penn State Berks Lehigh Valley College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Early in his library career, John Shank realized that not only were students choosing Internet resources over library, resources, but Faculty members were, too. Shank is now widely recognized as a librarian who's likely to change that. In his current positions as instructional design librarian at Penn State Berks--Lehigh Valley College and…

  1. Developmental Research of Off-Farm Agricultural Businesses in Berks County, Pennsylvania. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berks County Schools, Reading, PA.

    Student vocational interest and agricultural business surveys were conducted in Berks County, Pennsylvania to gauge career opportunities in off-farm agricultural occupations. The seven categories of businesses surveyed included agriculture supplies, agriculture mechanics, horticulture mechanics, floriculture, landscaping, turf, and garden center…

  2. Chemical Composition and Inhibitory Effect of Lentinula edodes Ethanolic Extract on Experimentally Induced Atopic Dermatitis in Vitro and in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Ju; Park, Zee-Yong; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    The ethanolic extract of Lentinula edodes was partially analyzed and then characterized for its efficacy in treating atopic dermatitis. Polyphenols were determined to be the major antioxidant component in the extract (6.12 mg/g), followed by flavonoids (1.76 mg/g), β-carotene (28.75 μg/g), and lycopene (5.25 μg/g). An atopic dermatitis (AD) model was established and epidermal and dermal ear thickness, mast cell infiltration, and serum immunoglobulin levels were measured after oral administration of the L. edodes extract for 4 weeks. L. edodes extract decreased Dermatophagoides farinae extract (DFE) and 4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced expression of several inflammatory cytokines in the ears, cervical lymph nodes, and splenocytes. Consequently, L. edodes extract may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of AD attributable to its immunomodulatory effects. PMID:27483228

  3. A Laccase with HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitory Activity from the Broth of Mycelial Culture of the Mushroom Lentinus tigrinus

    PubMed Central

    Xu, LiJing; Wang, HeXiang; Ng, TziBun

    2012-01-01

    A 59 kDa laccase with inhibitory activity against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (IC50 = 2.4 μM) was isolated from the broth of mycelial culture of the mushroom Lentinus tigrinus. The isolation procedure involved ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and CM-cellulose, and gel filtration by fast protein liquid chromatography on Superdex 75. The laccase was adsorbed on both types of ion exchangers. About 95-fold purification was achieved with a 25.9% yield of the enzyme. The procedure resulted in a specific enzyme activity of 76.6 U/mg. Its N-terminal amino acid sequence was GIPDLHDLTV, which showed little similarity to other mushroom laccase and other Lentinus tigrinus strain laccase. Its characteristics were different from previously reported laccase of other Lentinus tigrinus strain. Maximal laccase activity was observed at a pH of 4 and at a temperature of 60°C, respectively. This study yielded the information about the potentially exploitable activities of Lentinus tigrinus laccase. PMID:22536022

  4. [Biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the xylotrophic basidiomycete Lentinula edodes].

    PubMed

    Vetchinkina, E P; Burov, A M; Ageeva, M V; Dykman, L A; Nikitina, V E

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study to demonstrate that the medicinal basidiomycete Lentinula edodes can reduce gold (III) ions from hydrogen tetrachloaurate (chloroauric acid) H[AuCl4] to the elementary state with the formation of spherical nanoparticles (nanospheres). When a culture was grown under submerged conditions in the presence of chloroauric acid, the appearance of an intense purple-red color of L. edodes filamentous hyphae was recorded, which indicates that gold ions were reduced to gold nanoparticles. Using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray fluorescence, we observed accumulation of colloidal gold by the fungal mycelium in the form of electron-dense nanospheres of 5 to 50 nm in diameter on the surface and inside fungal cells. PMID:24455867

  5. Preparation of Lentinula edodes polysaccharide-calcium complex and its immunoactivity.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yujiao; Yan, Huidan; Zhang, Xuewu

    2015-01-01

    Polysaccharide is a major bioactive component of mushrooms. In this study, for the first time, starting from a new Lentinula edodes polysaccharide L2, we prepared a novel L2-calcium complex and the process was optimized. Scanning electron microscopy and Fourier Transform infrared spectrometry were used for characterization. The immunostimulating activities of L2 and L2-calcium complex were measured by enhancing the production of two cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 in RAW264.7 cells. While L2-calcium complex significantly stimulates the secretions of TNF-α and IL-6 compared with the control, complex with calcium ion decreased the secretion of them. These facts indicate that calcium ion can modulate immune stimulating activity of Lentinula edodes polysaccharide L2. PMID:26016702

  6. Decolorization of synthetic melanins by crude laccases of Lentinus polychrous Lév.

    PubMed

    Khammuang, Saranyu; Sarnthima, Rakrudee

    2013-01-01

    Melanins are complex natural pigments that darken the skin and are difficult to degrade. This study evaluated synthetic melanin decolorization by the crude laccase from fungus Lentinus polychrous in the absence and presence of selected redox mediators. The greatest melanin decolorization activity was 87 % at pH 6.5 within 3 h in the presence of 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) diammonium salt (ABTS), whereas only about 22 % melanin decolorized at pH 5.0 in case of no mediator. The optimum temperatures for melanin decolorization in the absence and presence of ABTS were 55 and 35°C, respectively. Using a natural redox mediator, 1.0 mmol/L vanillin leads to 45 % melanin decolorization. Our results suggest the possibility of applying vanillin for L. polychrous laccase-catalyzed decolorization of melanin. PMID:22678697

  7. Decolorization and biodegradation of reactive blue 220 textile dye by Lentinus crinitus extracellular extract.

    PubMed

    Niebisch, Carolina Heyse; Malinowski, Alexandre Knoll; Schadeck, Ruth; Mitchell, David A; Kava-Cordeiro, Vanessa; Paba, Jaime

    2010-08-15

    Studies were carried on the decolorization of the textile dye reactive blue 220 (RB220) by a novel isolate of Lentinus crinitus fungi. The optimal conditions for the production of destaining activity were obtained in media containing intermediate concentrations of ammonium oxalate and glucose (10 g L(-1)) as nitrogen and carbon sources, respectively, at 28 degrees C and pH 5.5. Maximum decolorization efficiency against RB220 achieved in this study was around 95%. Ultra-violet and visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometric analyses, before and after decolorization, suggest that decolorization was due to biodegradation. This effect was associated with a putative low molecular weight laccase (41 kDa) displaying good tolerance to a wide range of pH values, salt concentrations and temperatures, suggesting a potential role for this organism in the remediation of real dye containing effluents. PMID:20452721

  8. Whole genome de novo sequencing and genome annotation of the world popular cultivated edible mushroom, Lentinula edodes.

    PubMed

    Shim, Donghwan; Park, Sin-Gi; Kim, Kangmin; Bae, Wonsil; Lee, Gir Won; Ha, Byeong-Suk; Ro, Hyeon-Su; Kim, Myungkil; Ryoo, Rhim; Rhee, Sung-Keun; Nou, Ill-Sup; Koo, Chang-Duck; Hong, Chang Pyo; Ryu, Hojin

    2016-04-10

    Lentinula edodes, the popular shiitake mushroom, is one of the most important cultivated edible mushrooms. It is used as a food and for medicinal purposes. Here, we present the 46.1Mb draft genome of L. edodes, comprising 13,028 predicted gene models. The genome assembly consists of 31 scaffolds. Gene annotation provides key information about various signaling pathways and secondary metabolites. This genomic information should help establish the molecular genetic markers for MAS/MAB and increase our understanding of the genome structure and function. PMID:26924240

  9. Nutritional Composition, Antioxidant Activities, and Antiulcer Potential of Lentinus squarrosulus (Mont.) Mycelia Extract

    PubMed Central

    Mhd Omar, Nor Adila; Abdullah, Noorlidah; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2011-01-01

    Water extract of Lentinus squarrosulus mycelia was analysed for nutritional content, antioxidant capacity, and antiulcer ability. The extract contains high protein (57.6 g/100 g) and low total fat (0.5 g/100 g) and is rich in magnesium (0.4 g/100 g), potassium (3.8 g/100 g), vitamins B1 (1.42 mg/100 g), and B3 (194.29 mg/100 g) with total phenolic content of 39.16 mg/100 g. The cupric reducing antioxidant capacity and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity of the extract were A450 of 0.20 ± 0.03 at 0.5 mg/ml and IC50 of 14.29 mg/ml, respectively. Oral feeding of L. squarrosulus extract (250 mg/kg) offered significant gastric mucosal protection of Sprague-Dawley rats compared to cimetidine (50 mg/kg). The ulcer healing rate of ulcerated rats after 24, 48, and 72 hours of treatment was 82%, 90%, and 100%, respectively. The IL-1β level in the serum and the NF-κB level in the tissues indicate that the healing potential was associated with attenuation of proinflammatory cytokines. PMID:21423634

  10. Proteomic analysis of intestinal tissues from mice fed with Lentinula edodes-derived polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaofei; Yang, Jiguo; Ning, Zhengxiang; Zhang, Xuewu

    2016-01-01

    Lentinula edodes-derived polysaccharides are well known for their immunomodulation and antitumor activities. However, the mechanisms of action have not been fully elucidated. This study presents proteomic analysis of the colon and small intestine from mice fed with an immunostimulating heteropolysaccharide L2 from the fruit body of L. edodes. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and MALDI-TOF-TOF MS/MS were employed to characterize the protein profiles. Twenty nine gel spots representing 20 proteins in colon tissues and 38 gel spots in small intestine tissues representing 23 proteins were identified as showing significant changes in abundance. These differential proteins in abundance are mainly involved in metabolism, binding, structural components, and response to stimulus. Protein-protein interaction network analysis demonstrated mapping of the 20 colon proteins to a 7-protein and a 3-protein sub-network, and mapping of the 23 small intestine proteins to a 9-protein and a 5-protein sub-network. All the 40 altered proteins were integrated into a unified network containing 25 proteins, suggesting the existence of a concerted mechanism, although acting on the colon and small intestine separately. These findings facilitate the understanding of the regulatory mechanism in response to L2 treatment. PMID:26392301

  11. Molecular Cloning, Characterization, and Differential Expression of a Glucoamylase Gene from the Basidiomycetous Fungus Lentinula edodes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, J.; Chen, Y. H.; Kwan, H. S.

    2000-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of putative glucoamylase gene gla1 from the basidiomycetous fungus Lentinula edodes strain L54 is reported. The coding region of the genomic glucoamylase sequence, which is preceded by eukaryotic promoter elements CAAT and TATA, spans 2,076 bp. The gla1 gene sequence codes for a putative polypeptide of 571 amino acids and is interrupted by seven introns. The open reading frame sequence of the gla1 gene shows strong homology with those of other fungal glucoamylase genes and encodes a protein with an N-terminal catalytic domain and a C-terminal starch-binding domain. The similarity between the Gla1 protein and other fungal glucoamylases is from 45 to 61%, with the region of highest conservation found in catalytic domains and starch-binding domains. We compared the kinetics of glucoamylase activity and levels of gene expression in L. edodes strain L54 grown on different carbon sources (glucose, starch, cellulose, and potato extract) and in various developmental stages (mycelium growth, primordium appearance, and fruiting body formation). Quantitative reverse transcription PCR utilizing pairs of primers specific for gla1 gene expression shows that expression of gla1 was induced by starch and increased during the process of fruiting body formation, which indicates that glucoamylases may play an important role in the morphogenesis of the basidiomycetous fungus. PMID:10831434

  12. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF NEW SOURCES OF RESISTANCE TO Pseudoperonospora cubensis (Berk. et Curt.) Rostovzev in CUCUMBER.

    PubMed

    Szczechura, W; Staniaszek, M; Klosinska, U; Kozik, E U

    2015-10-01

    Downy mildew of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), caused by Pseudoperonospora cubensis (Berk. et Curt.) Rostovzev, is one of the most important foliar diseases of cucurbit crops. Two parental lines resistant PI 197085, susceptible PI 175695 and their F2 generation were used in our study. Inheritance of resistance to Pseudoperonospora cubensis in PI 197085 was quantitative. JoiMap 4.1 and MapQTL 6.0 software was used for a linkage groups construction and QTL mapping. Three QTL were detected: DM1, DM2, DM3. The loci were mapped on chromosome 5 of cucumber genome. Molecular analysis confirmed results of classical quantitative genetics indicating that resistance to Pseudoperonospora cubensis in PI 197085 is polygenic trait. PMID:27169228

  13. Field trials of flocoumafen against warfarin-resistant infestations of the Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus Berk.).

    PubMed Central

    Buckle, A. P.

    1986-01-01

    The anticoagulant rodenticide flocoumafen was tested against warfarin-resistant Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus Berk.) infesting farm buildings. Complete control was obtained in 10-21 days (mean 14.2 days) in six treatments in which baits poisoned with 0.005% flocoumafen were maintained, in surplus, until rats ceased to feed from them. A further six treatments, in which the application of poisoned bait was restricted to periodic placements of 50 g, were also completely successful in 15-30 days (mean 21.0 days). Less poisoned bait was used in the restricted flocoumafen treatments than in the unrestricted treatments but the time taken to control the rat infestations was significantly longer. PMID:3755451

  14. Biodegradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol by shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) using vanillin as an activator.

    PubMed

    Tsujiyama, S; Muraoka, T; Takada, N

    2013-07-01

    The white-rot shiitake mushroom, Lentinula edodes, was used to degrade an environmentally hazardous compound, 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP), using vanillin as an activator. Vanillin increased the mycelial growth from 74 to 118 mg/150 ml culture and accelerated laccase and Mn-peroxidase production from the maximum on days 24-28 without vanillin to days 10-14. It eliminated 92% of 100 mM DCP with 50 mg vanillin/l compared with only 15% without vanillin. GC-MS revealed that a diaryl ether dimer of DCP was formed in the culture without vanillin, whereas dimer formation was diminished with vanillin addition. This indicates that vanillin enhances the degradation of DCP and disrupts the formation of the toxic dimer. Therefore, lignin-derived phenol such as vanillin can be used as natural and eco-friendly activators to control white-rot mushrooms, thereby facilitating the effective degradation of environmentally hazardous compounds. PMID:23515893

  15. Increased mycelial biomass production by Lentinula edodes intermittently illuminated by green light emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Glukhova, Lubov B; Sokolyanskaya, Ludmila O; Plotnikov, Evgeny V; Gerasimchuk, Anna L; Karnachuk, Olga V; Solioz, Marc; Karnachuk, Raisa A

    2014-11-01

    Fungi possess a range of light receptors to regulate metabolism and differentiation. To study the effect of light on Lentinula edodes (the shiitake mushroom), mycelial cultures were exposed to blue, green, and red fluorescent lights and light-emitting diodes, as well as green laser light. Biomass production, morphology, and pigment production were evaluated. Exposure to green light at intervals of 1 min/d at 0.4 W/m(2) stimulated biomass production by 50-100 %, depending on the light source. Light intensities in excess of 1.8 W/m(2) or illumination longer than 30 min/d did not affect biomass production. Carotenoid production and morphology remained unaltered during increased biomass production. These observations provide a cornerstone to the study of photoreception by this important fungus. PMID:25048231

  16. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 3): Douglassville Disposal Site, Berks County, Pennsylvania (second remedial action), June 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-24

    The Douglassville Disposal site occupies approximately 50 acres of land in Union Township, Berks County, Pennsylvania. It is almost entirely within the 100-year floodplain of the Schuylkill River. In 1941, Berks Associates began recycling lubrication oil at the site; waste solvents were recycled in the 1950s and 1960s. Wastes generated from those recycling processes were stored in onsite lagoons from 1941 until 1972. In November 1970, heavy rains caused the lagoons to overflow and release 1,000,000 - 3,000,000 gallons of wastes down the Schuylkill River. Operations then turned to the practice of refining waste oils for use as fuel in industrial boilers. Beginning in 1979, oily waste sludge from the new recycling process was landfarmed onsite.

  17. [Photosensitization in cattle grazing on pastures of Brahciaria decumbens Stapf infested with Pithomyces chartarum (Berk. & Curt.) M.B. Ellis].

    PubMed

    Andrade, S O; da Silva Lopes, H O; de Almeida Barros, M; Leite, G G; Dias, S M; Saueressig, M; Nobre, D; Temperini, J A

    1978-01-01

    Aspects of photosensitization in bovines grazing on pastures of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf infested with Pithomyces chartarum (Berk. & Curt.) M.B. Ellis infested all pastures 45(2):117-136, 1978. This paper reports experimental studies on photosensitization in bovines grazing on different pastures of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf in the "Cerrados" region (Planaltina, DF). Climatic conditions, zinc content and occurence of fungi on pastures were investigated. Pithomyces chartarum (Berk. & Curt.) M.B. Ellis infested all pastures examined. Photosensitization was observed in one animal maintained on a pasture of B. decumbens formed with seeds from Australia. Clinical and necropsy data were similar to those related in literature for sporidesmin-intoxicated animals. An isolate of P. chartarum and samples of bovine bile were assayed for sporidesmin presence. PMID:573108

  18. Structural and Functional Roles of Glycosylation in Fungal Laccase from Lentinus sp.

    PubMed Central

    Jeng, Wen-Yih; Lee, Cheng-Chung; Hsu, Chih-An; Wen, Tuan-Nan; Wang, Andrew H.-J.; Shyur, Lie-Fen

    2015-01-01

    Laccases are multi-copper oxidases that catalyze the oxidation of various organic and inorganic compounds by reducing O2 to water. Here we report the crystal structure at 1.8 Å resolution of a native laccase (designated nLcc4) isolated from a white-rot fungus Lentinus sp. nLcc4 is composed of three cupredoxin-like domains D1-D3 each folded into a Greek key β-barrel topology. T1 and T2/T3 copper binding sites and three N-glycosylated sites at Asn75, Asn238, and Asn458 were elucidated. Initial rate kinetic analysis revealed that the kcat, Km, and kcat/Km of nLcc4 with substrate ABTS were 3,382 s-1, 65.0 ± 6.5 μM, and 52 s-1μM-1, respectively; and the values with lignosulfonic acid determined using isothermal titration calorimetry were 0.234 s-1, 56.7 ± 3.2 μM, and 0.004 s-1μM-1, respectively. Endo H-deglycosylated nLcc4 (dLcc4), with only one GlcNAc residue remaining at each of the three N-glycosylation sites in the enzyme, exhibited similar kinetic efficiency and thermal stability to that of nLcc4. The isolated Lcc4 gene contains an open reading frame of 1563 bp with a deduced polypeptide of 521 amino acid residues including a predicted signaling peptide of 21 residues at the N-terminus. Recombinant wild-type Lcc4 and mutant enzymes N75D, N238D and N458D were expressed in Pichia pastoris cells to evaluate the effect on enzyme activity by single glycosylation site deficiency. The mutant enzymes secreted in the cultural media of P. pastoris cells were observed to maintain only 4-50% of the activity of the wild-type laccase. Molecular dynamics simulations analyses of various states of (de-)glycosylation in nLcc support the kinetic results and suggest that the local H-bond networks between the domain connecting loop D2-D3 and the glycan moieties play a crucial role in the laccase activity. This study provides new insights into the role of glycosylation in the structure and function of a Basidiomycete fungal laccase. PMID:25849464

  19. Structural and functional roles of glycosylation in fungal laccase from Lentinus sp.

    PubMed

    Maestre-Reyna, Manuel; Liu, Wei-Chun; Jeng, Wen-Yih; Lee, Cheng-Chung; Hsu, Chih-An; Wen, Tuan-Nan; Wang, Andrew H-J; Shyur, Lie-Fen

    2015-01-01

    Laccases are multi-copper oxidases that catalyze the oxidation of various organic and inorganic compounds by reducing O2 to water. Here we report the crystal structure at 1.8 Å resolution of a native laccase (designated nLcc4) isolated from a white-rot fungus Lentinus sp. nLcc4 is composed of three cupredoxin-like domains D1-D3 each folded into a Greek key β-barrel topology. T1 and T2/T3 copper binding sites and three N-glycosylated sites at Asn75, Asn238, and Asn458 were elucidated. Initial rate kinetic analysis revealed that the kcat, Km, and kcat/Km of nLcc4 with substrate ABTS were 3,382 s-1, 65.0 ± 6.5 μM, and 52 s-1μM-1, respectively; and the values with lignosulfonic acid determined using isothermal titration calorimetry were 0.234 s-1, 56.7 ± 3.2 μM, and 0.004 s-1μM-1, respectively. Endo H-deglycosylated nLcc4 (dLcc4), with only one GlcNAc residue remaining at each of the three N-glycosylation sites in the enzyme, exhibited similar kinetic efficiency and thermal stability to that of nLcc4. The isolated Lcc4 gene contains an open reading frame of 1563 bp with a deduced polypeptide of 521 amino acid residues including a predicted signaling peptide of 21 residues at the N-terminus. Recombinant wild-type Lcc4 and mutant enzymes N75D, N238D and N458D were expressed in Pichia pastoris cells to evaluate the effect on enzyme activity by single glycosylation site deficiency. The mutant enzymes secreted in the cultural media of P. pastoris cells were observed to maintain only 4-50% of the activity of the wild-type laccase. Molecular dynamics simulations analyses of various states of (de-)glycosylation in nLcc support the kinetic results and suggest that the local H-bond networks between the domain connecting loop D2-D3 and the glycan moieties play a crucial role in the laccase activity. This study provides new insights into the role of glycosylation in the structure and function of a Basidiomycete fungal laccase. PMID:25849464

  20. Cytotoxic and antitumor activities of a polypore macrofungus, Phellinus rimosus (Berk) Pilat.

    PubMed

    Ajith, T A; Janardhanan, K K

    2003-02-01

    Cytotoxic and antitumor activities of ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous extracts of a wood inhabiting polypore macrofungus, Phellinus rimosus (Berk) Pilat. were studied. Ethyl acetate and methanol extracts showed in vitro cytotoxic activity against Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA) and Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC) cell lines. The aqueous extract did not exhibit cytotoxicity against the tested cell lines. All the three extracts were highly effective in inhibiting growth of solid tumor induced by DLA cell line in mice. However, the antitumor activity of ethyl acetate extract was higher than that of methanol and aqueous extracts. The ethyl acetate extract was also effective in preventing the EAC induced ascites tumor development in mice. The antitumor activity of all the three extracts against solid tumor at a dose of 50 mg/kg (p.o.) was comparable to the clinically used standard reference drug, cisplatin (4 mg/kg, i.p.). Pre-treatment of the extracts was also effective in inhibiting the tumor growth induced by DLA cell lines. The experimental results revealed that ethyl acetate extract of P. rimosus possessed significant antitumor activity. The findings thus suggest the potential use of this mushroom as antitumor agent. PMID:12648809

  1. Effects of substrate moisture content, log weight and filter porosity on shiitake (Lentinula edodes) yield.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qing; Liu, Ping; Wang, Xin; Royse, Daniel J

    2008-11-01

    Production costs for shiitake (Lentinula edodes) are on the rise in the United States due to increasing expenses including materials, labor and energy. Increased yield and improved bioconversion of raw materials may improve grower profit margins and may help reduce the cost of shiitake to the consumer. Two crops (Crop 1 and 2) of shiitake were grown to evaluate effects of three substrate moisture contents (50%, 55% and 60%), two log weights (2.7 and 3.2kg) and three porosities of bag filter (low, medium and high) on mushroom yield (g/log) and biological efficiency (BE). Yield data were collected under controlled environmental conditions for two breaks. The formulation with 55% substrate moisture gave the highest yield and BE. Higher mushroom yields were produced from heavier logs (3.2kg), but BE was not significantly affected. Filter porosity significantly affected yield and BE in Crop 1 but not in Crop 2. Significant interactions were observed for log moisture content x filter porosity for both crops. There were no significant two-way interactions observed for filter porosity x log weight or three-way interactions observed for moisture content x filter porosity x log weight. Maximum yields were obtained from 3.2kg logs with a substrate moisture content of ca. 55% using medium or low porosity-filtered bags. This study may provide growers with additional information to better optimize production practices and become more efficient and competitive. PMID:18485700

  2. Quantitative changes in the biochemical composition of lignocellulosic residues during the vegetative growth of Lentinula edodes

    PubMed Central

    Gaitán-Hernández, Rigoberto; Esqueda, Martín; Gutiérrez, Aldo; Beltrán-García, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    The chemical changes in barley-straw (BS), wheat-straw (WS) and vineyard-pruning (VP) substrates were determined during colonization of Lentinula edodes mycelia (during primordium development) in solid state fermentation. Primordia appeared 39-50 days after inoculation. VP appeared to promote early sporophore initiation. The concentration of hemicellulose in BS and VP decreased gradually from 25.5% to 15.6% and from 15.8% to 12.3%, respectively. However in WS, hemicellulose decreased from 27.2% to 9.5%. Lignin broke down continuously in BS and WS, with 31.8% and 34.4% degradation, respectively; higher than that of cellulose. During the pinning stage, the C:N ratio decreased in VP and BS, but not in WS. On all substrates the phenols decreased notably throughout the first week of mycelial growth. The time elapsed (days) to pinning was positively correlated with cellulose content (r=0.89), total sugar (r=0.85) and inversely correlated to lignin (r=−1.00) and phenol content (r=−0.55). PMID:24031601

  3. Lentinula edodes-derived polysaccharide rejuvenates mice in terms of immune responses and gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaofei; Yang, Jiguo; Ning, Zhengxiang; Zhang, Xuewu

    2015-08-01

    Aging is characterized by impaired immunity and unbalanced gut microbiota. Prebiotics have the capability to prevent or reverse age-related declines in health by modulating gut microbiota. Mushroom polysaccharides have been suggested to be potential prebiotics. However, their effects on the immunity and gut microbiota in aged mice have not been determined. This study firstly assessed the effects of a heteropolysaccharide L2 isolated from the fruit body of L. edodes on the immune response of aged mice, and then compared the composition of fecal microbiota in adult (N), old (O) and L2-treated old (Oa) mice using the high-throughput pyrosequencing technique. The results showed that L2 can restore the age-attenuated immune responses by increasing cytokine levels in peripheral blood. Moreover, L2 can partly reverse the age-altered composition of gut microbiota. The Euclidean distances (De) among 3 groups (N, O and Oa) are determined to be De(O, N) = 0.19, De(O, Oa) = 0.20, and De(N, Oa) = 0.10, i.e. there is a marked reduction in the distance from 0.19 to 0.1 by L2. This suggests the beneficial effects of L2 on enhancing immunity and improving gut health. PMID:26135107

  4. Comparison of Immunomodulatory and Anticancer Activities in Different Strains of Tremella fuciformis Berk.

    PubMed

    Han, Chien-Kuo; Chiang, Hsin-Chieh; Lin, Chien-Yin; Tang, Chih-Hsin; Lee, Hsinyu; Huang, Ding-Ding; Zeng, Yu-Ru; Chuang, Tsai-Ni; Huang, Yuan-Li

    2015-01-01

    Tremella fuciformis Berk (TF) is a common edible and medicinal mushroom, and has long been used in food and in Chinese medicine. It possesses anticancer, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidative, and neuroprotective abilities. Since their cultivation is a problem, TFs in Taiwan are primarily imported from China, which has a problem with pesticide residues. Thus, the question of whether the Taiwan cultivated TFs, T1, and T6 showed similar or even better results than TFs from China (CH) was assessed in the present study. The results of the physicochemical tests of these TFs showed that T1 extracted by hot water (T1H) has the highest concentration of polysaccharide; meanwhile, T6 extracted by cold water (T6C) showed the highest amount of protein. Regarding the immune modulatory effects of these TFs, hot water extracts of these TFs augmented significantly the inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS), interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-[Formula: see text] mRNA expression than those of cold water extracts. On the other hand, the cold water extracts of TFs, especially of T1C, obviously suppressed cancer cell survival better than those of hot water extracts. Interestingly, we found that hot water extracts of TFs may augment necrotic cell death, whereas, cold water extracts of TFs induce apoptosis. Furthermore, we also showed that these TFs activate caspase-3 cleavage, up regulate the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and decrease MMP-9 expressions in PC-3 cells. Taken together, our results indicated that T1 and T6 strains of TFs showed the similar immune modulatory and anticancer abilities were better than the CH strain of TFs. PMID:26621447

  5. Extracts from Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) Edible Mushrooms Enriched with Vitamin D Exert an Anti-Inflammatory Hepatoprotective Effect.

    PubMed

    Drori, Ariel; Shabat, Yehudit; Ben Ya'acov, Ami; Danay, Ofer; Levanon, Dan; Zolotarov, Lidya; Ilan, Yaron

    2016-04-01

    Vitamin D has been known for its anti-inflammatory properties. Extracts derived from Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) edible mushroom exert an anti-inflammatory effect. These extracts contain high levels of ergosterol, which converts into ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) following exposure to ultraviolet light, followed by absorption and hydroxylation into the active form 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. To determine the anti-inflammatory effect of overexpression of vitamin D in edible mushrooms, L. edodes mushrooms were exposed to ultraviolet-B light, freeze-dried, followed by measurement of vitamin D2 contents, in their dry weight. C57B1/6 mice were orally treated with vitamin D2-enriched or nonenriched mushroom extract prior and during concanavalin A-immune-mediated liver injury. Exposure to ultraviolet light increased vitamin D2 content in Shiitake edible mushrooms. Following feeding of vitamin D-enriched mushroom extracts to mice with immune-mediated hepatitis, a significant decrease in liver damage was noted. This was shown by a decrease in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase serum levels, a decrease in proportion of mice with severe liver injury, and by improvement in liver histology. These effects were associated with a decrease in serum interferon gamma levels. A synergistic effect was noted between the anti-inflammatory effect of the mushroom extracts and that of vitamin D. Oral administration of vitamin D-enriched L. edodes edible mushroom exerts a synergistic anti-inflammatory effect in the immune-mediated hepatitis. The data support its potential use as safe immunomodulatory adjuvant for the treatment of HCV and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. PMID:27027234

  6. Rapid genotyping by low-coverage resequencing to construct genetic linkage maps of fungi: a case study in Lentinula edodes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genetic linkage maps are important tools in breeding programmes and quantitative trait analyses. Traditional molecular markers used for genotyping are limited in throughput and efficiency. The advent of next-generation sequencing technologies has facilitated progeny genotyping and genetic linkage map construction in the major grains. However, the applicability of the approach remains untested in the fungal system. Findings Shiitake mushroom, Lentinula edodes, is a basidiomycetous fungus that represents one of the most popular cultivated edible mushrooms. Here, we developed a rapid genotyping method based on low-coverage (~0.5 to 1.5-fold) whole-genome resequencing. We used the approach to genotype 20 single-spore isolates derived from L. edodes strain L54 and constructed the first high-density sequence-based genetic linkage map of L. edodes. The accuracy of the proposed genotyping method was verified experimentally with results from mating compatibility tests and PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism on a few known genes. The linkage map spanned a total genetic distance of 637.1 cM and contained 13 linkage groups. Two hundred sequence-based markers were placed on the map, with an average marker spacing of 3.4 cM. The accuracy of the map was confirmed by comparing with previous maps the locations of known genes such as matA and matB. Conclusions We used the shiitake mushroom as an example to provide a proof-of-principle that low-coverage resequencing could allow rapid genotyping of basidiospore-derived progenies, which could in turn facilitate the construction of high-density genetic linkage maps of basidiomycetous fungi for quantitative trait analyses and improvement of genome assembly. PMID:23915543

  7. [Role of the NO Synthase System in Response to Abiotic Stress Factors for Basidiomycetes Lentinula edodes and Grifola frondosa].

    PubMed

    Loshchinina, E A; Nikitina, V E

    2016-01-01

    Effect of stressors (unfavorable pH and temperature or carbon and nitrogen limitation) on the synthesis of the components of the NO synthase signaling system was studied in submerged cultures of xylotrophic basidiomycetes Lentinula edodes and Grifola frondosa. Marker compounds of the NO synthase signaling system were found in both cultures. A simultaneous increase of the concentrations of NO and citrulline in the culture liquid of the basidiomycetes grown at superoptimal pH and in nitrogen-limited medium indicates the activation of the NO synthase signaling system under such stress conditions. PMID:27476203

  8. Comparative Analysis of High School Graduates in Berks County from Vocational, Academic and General Curricula for the Years 1983, 1986, and 1990. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runkle, Robert A.; And Others

    High school, postsecondary education, and work experience records of graduates from four high school programs of study were compared. The population consisted of all graduates (n=7,890) from academic, general, area vocational-technical school (AVTS), and home school vocational programs (HSVOC) from 16 sending school districts in Berks County,…

  9. Optimised isolation of polysaccharides from Lentinula edodes strain NCBI JX915793 using response surface methodology and their antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shivani; Khanna, P K; Kapoor, S

    2016-01-01

    Mycelial growth in a defined medium by submerged fermentation is a rapid and alternative method for obtaining fungal biomass of consistent quality. Biomass, exopolysaccharides (EPS) and intracellular polysaccharides (IPS) production were optimised by response surface methodology in Lentinula edodes strain LeS (NCBI JX915793). The optimised conditions were pH 5.0, temperature 26°C, incubation period of 25 days and agitation rate of 52 r/min for L. edodes strain LeS. Under the calculated optimal culture conditions, biomass production (5.88 mg mL(-1)), EPS production (0.40 mg mL(-1)) and IPS production (12.45 mg g(-1)) were in agreement with the predicted values for biomass (5.93 mg mL(-1)), EPS (0.55 mg mL(-1)) and IPS production (12.64 mg g(-1)). Crude lentinan exhibited highest antibacterial effects followed by alcoholic, crude and aqueous extracts. The results obtained may be useful for highly effective yield of biomass and bioactive metabolites. PMID:25868404

  10. Purification and characterization of an extracellular laccase from the edible mushroom Lentinula edodes, and decolorization of chemically different dyes.

    PubMed

    Nagai, M; Sato, T; Watanabe, H; Saito, K; Kawata, M; Enei, H

    2002-11-01

    A laccase (EC 1.10.3.2) was isolated from the culture filtrate of Lentinula edodes. The enzyme was purified to a homogeneous preparation using hydrophobic, anion-exchange, and size-exclusion chromatographies. SDS-PAGE analysis showed the purified laccase, Lcc 1, to be a monomeric protein of 72.2 kDa. The enzyme had an isoelectric point of around pH 3.0. The optimum pH for enzyme activity was around 4.0, and it was most active at 40 degrees C and stable up to 35 degrees C. The enzyme contained 23.8% carbohydrate and some copper atoms. The enzyme oxidized 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt, p-phenylendiamine, pyrogallol, guaiacol, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, catechol, and ferulic acid, but not veratryl alcohol, tyrosine, and beta-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) alanine. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of Lcc 1 showed close homology to the N-terminal sequences determined for laccases from Phlebia radiata, Trametes villosa, and Trametes versicolor, but only low similarity was observed to a previously reported laccase from L. edodes. Lcc 1 was effective in the decolorization of chemically different dyes - Remazole Brilliant Blue R, Bromophenol Blue, methyl red, and Naphtol Blue Black - without any mediators, but the decolorization of two dyes - red poly(vinylamine)sulfonate-anthrapyridone dye and Reactive Orange 16 - did require some redox mediators. PMID:12436315

  11. Isolation and Characterization of Monokaryotic Strains of Lentinula edodes Showing Higher Fruiting Rate and Better Fruiting Body Production

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Byeong-Suk; Kim, Sinil

    2015-01-01

    The effects of monokaryotic strains on fruiting body formation of Lentinula edodes were examined through mating and cultivation of the mated dikaryotic mycelia in sawdust medium. To accomplish this, monokaryotic strains of L. edodes were isolated from basidiospores of the commercial dikaryotic strains, Chamaram (Cham) and Sanjo701 (SJ701). A total of 703 matings (538 self-matings and 165 outcrosses) were performed, which generated 133 self-mates and 84 outcross mates. The mating rate was 25% and 50% for self-mating and outcross, respectively. The bipolarity of the outcross indicated the multi-allelic nature of the mating type genes. The mating was only dependent on the A mating type locus, while the B locus showed no effect, implying that the B locus is multi-allelic. Next, 145 selected dikaryotic mates were cultivated in sawdust medium. The self-mated dikaryotic progenies showed 51.3% and 69.5% fruiting rates for Cham and SJ701, respectively, while the fruiting rate of the outcross mates was 63.2%. The dikaryotic mates generated by mating with one of the monokaryotic strains, including A20, B2, E1, and E3, showed good fruiting performance and tended to yield high fruiting body production, while many of the monokaryotic strains failed to form fruiting bodies. Overall, these findings suggest that certain monokaryotic strains have traits enabling better mating and fruiting. PMID:25892911

  12. Selection of strains of Lentinula edodes and Lentinula boryana adapted for efficient mycelial growth on wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Mata, G; Delpech, P; Savoie, J M

    2001-09-01

    Mycelial growth rates are presented for 11 strains of Lentinula edodes and six strains of Lentinula boryana cultivated on solid media: derived from malt extract (MEA); malt yeast extract (YMEA); and, YMEA plus soluble lignin derivatives (YMEA+WSLD). The results were compared with data for mycelial growth rates, of the same strains cultivated on substrates derived from wheat straw treated at different temperatures (50, 65, 75 and autoclaving at 121 degrees C). In general, the addition of WSLD significantly reduced mycelial growth rates in both species. The greatest mycelial growth rate was obtained on sterilized straw at 121 degrees C for the majority of strains. However, this growth was not significantly different from that obtained at 75 degrees C. L. edodes showed greater growth rates than L. boryana. The feasibility of using estimates of mycelial growth rate on YMEA and YMEA+WSLD are discussed as possible indicators of a strain's potential for mycelial growth on substrates derived from wheat straw. PMID:15487920

  13. Centesimal composition and physical-chemistry analysis of the edible mushroom Lentinus strigosus occurring in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Sales-Campos, Ceci; Araujo, Lidia M; Minhoni, Marli T A; Andrade, Meire C N

    2013-01-01

    The centesimal composition and the physical and chemical analyses of Lentinus strigosus, an edible mushroom occurring in the Brazilian Amazon and produced in alternative substrates based on wood and agroindustrial residues, were evaluated. For this purpose, the C, N, pH, soluble solids, water activity, protein, lipids, total fiber, ash, carbohydrate, and energy levels were determined. The substrates were formulated from Simarouba amara Aubl. ("marupá"), Ochroma piramidale Cav. Ex. Lam. ("pau-de-balsa") and Anacardium giganteum ("cajuí") sawdust and Bactris gasipaes Kunth ("pupunheira") stipe and Saccharum officinarum (sugar cane bagasse). The results indicated that the nutritional composition of L. strigosus varied with the substrate of cultivation; the protein levels found in mushrooms grown in the different substrates (18-21.5%) varied with the substrate and was considered high; the soluble solids present in the mushrooms could have a relation with complex B hydrosoluble vitamins. L. strigosus could be considered as important food owing to its nutritional characteristics such as high protein content, metabolizable carbohydrates and fibers, and low lipids and calories content. PMID:24141410

  14. Structural characterization of a novel neutral polysaccharide from Lentinus giganteus and its antitumor activity through inducing apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yuting; Zhao, Yingting; Zeng, Hongliang; Zhang, Yaling; Zheng, Baodong

    2016-12-10

    A novel neutral polysaccharide (LGPS-1), with a molecular weight of 1.547×10(5)Da, was isolated from Lentinus giganteus by precipitation and purification. The monosaccharides included d-mannose (Man), d-glucose (Glc) and d-galactose (Gal) with a molar ratio of 3.0:4.1:7.1. The backbone of LGPS-1 was composed of 1,6-Galp and 1,3,6-Manp whereas the branches were composed of 1,6-Glcp and 1-Glcp. The anticancer efficacy of LGPS-1 was assessed using HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells. The results showed that LGPS-1 inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells and also induced the activation of caspase-3, and cleavage of PARP-1. Western blot analysis revealed that LGSP-1 significantly induced a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δym), increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, promoted the release of cytochrome c into cytoplasm as well as inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt in HepG2 cells. These findings suggest that LGPS-1 induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells through intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. PMID:27577914

  15. Nutritional value and proteases of Lentinus citrinus produced by solid state fermentation of lignocellulosic waste from tropical region.

    PubMed

    Machado, Ana Rita Gaia; Teixeira, Maria Francisca Simas; de Souza Kirsch, Larissa; Campelo, Maria da Conceição Loureiro; de Aguiar Oliveira, Ila Maria

    2016-09-01

    This paper examined the growth and yield performance of Lentinus citrinus on cupuaçu exocarp (Theobroma grandiflorum) mixed with litter (CE + LI) or rice bran (Oryza sativa) (CE + RB) in the ratio of 2:1 (800 g:200 g) to investigate the nutritional composition and proteolytic potential of the fruiting body produced. Significance values of yield were determined on substrate combinations. In CE + LI the biological efficiency of the mushrooms was 93.5% and the content of fat (4.5%), fiber (11.0%), protein (27.0%) and amino acids were higher when compared with CE + RB. Among the amino acids, the amount of glutamic acid, aspartic acid, alanine, arginine and leucine was high. The biological efficiency on CE + RB reduced to 84.2% and based on the nutritional value, carbohydrates (53.59%), energy (324.33 kcal) and minerals such as zinc, iron, copper, potassium and phosphorus were higher in this substrate combination. Protease activity from fruiting body was significant in CE + LI (463.55 U/mL). This protease showed an optimal activity at 50 °C in neutral and alkaline pH with maximum stability at 30 °C at alkaline pH. This is the first report of L. citrinus fruiting body nutritional composition with potential for human food and application in industrial processes. PMID:27579012

  16. Proximate composition and functionality of the culinary-medicinal tiger sawgill mushroom, Lentinus tigrinus (higher Basidiomycetes), from the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Dulay, Rich Milton R; Arenas, Minerva C; Kalaw, Sofronio P; Reyes, Renato G; Cabrera, Esperanza C

    2014-01-01

    The proximate composition and functionality of Lentinus tigrinus were evaluated to establish and popularize this mushroom as functional food source. The evaluation of functionality focused on the antibacterial and hypoglycemic activities of the mushroom extracts. An acute single oral dose toxicity test in mice was used for its biosafety analysis. The pileus contained higher amounts of protein (25.9%), fat (2.1%), and ash (7.4%) and a higher energetic value (142.1 kcal/100 g) than the corresponding stipe, whereas the stipe contained higher amounts of total carbohydrates (67.7%), which consist of dietary fiber (63.0%) and reducing sugar (4.7%), than the pileus. Biosafety analysis confirmed that L. tigrinus is an edible mushroom species; it was found to be toxicologically safe in imprinting control region mice. The administration of lyophilized hot water extract of the fruiting body (both 100 and 250 mg/ kg doses) to diabetic mice significantly lowered the glucose level by 26.9% in the third week, which was significantly comparable to the results of the antidiabetic agent glibenclamide, which was used as a positive control. In vitro antibacterial assay showed that the ethanolic extract of the fruiting body and the immobilized secondary mycelia had high antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus but not on Escherichia coli. Combining its useful nutrients and significant biological properties, L. tigrinus can be considered a natural source of safe nutraceuticals. PMID:24940907

  17. Assessment of Palm Press Fibre and Sawdust-Based Substrate Formulas for Efficient Carpophore Production of Lentinus squarrosulus (Mont.) Singer

    PubMed Central

    Chiejina, Nneka Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Development of efficient substrate formulas to improve yield and shorten production time is one of the prerequisites for commercial cultivation of edible mushrooms. In this study, fifteen substrate formulas consisting of varying ratios of palm press fibre (PPF), mahogany sawdust (MS), Gmelina sawdust, wheat bran (WB), and fixed proportions of 1% calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and 1% sucrose were assessed for efficient Lentinus squarrosulus production. Proximate compositions of mushrooms produced on the different substrate formulas were also analysed and compared. Substrate formulations containing 85% PPF, 13% WB, 1% CaCO3, and 1% sucrose were found to produce the highest carpophore yield, biological efficiency and size (206.5 g/kg, 61.96%, and 7.26 g, respectively). Days to production (first harvest) tended to increase with an increase in the amount of WB in the substrate formulas, except for PPF based formulas. The addition of WB in amounts equivalent to 8~18% in substrate formulas containing 80~90% PPF resulted in a decrease in the time to first harvest by an average of 17.7 days compared to 80~90% MS with similar treatment. Nutritional content of mushrooms was affected by the different substrate formulas. Protein content was high for mushrooms produced on formulas containing PPF as the basal substrate. Thus, formulas comprising PPF, WB, CaCO3, and sucrose at 85% : 13% : 1% : 1%) respectively could be explored as starter basal ingredients for efficient large scale production of L. squarrosulus. PMID:26839507

  18. Lentinus (Panus) tigrinus augmentation of a historically contaminated soil: matrix decontamination and structure and function of the resident bacterial community.

    PubMed

    Federici, E; Giubilei, M A; Cajthaml, T; Petruccioli, M; D'Annibale, A

    2011-02-28

    The ability of Lentinus tigrinus to grow and to degrade persistent aromatic hydrocarbons in aged contaminated soil was assessed in this study. L. tigrinus extensively colonized the soil; its degradation activity after 60 d incubation at 28°C, however, was mostly limited to dichloroaniline isomers, polychlorinated benzenes and diphenyl ether while the fungus was unable to deplete 9,10-anthracenedione and 7-H-benz[DE]anthracene-7-one which were the major soil contaminants. Although clean-up levels were limited, both density of cultivable heterotrophic bacteria and richness of the resident bacterial community in L. tigrinus microcosms (LtM) increased over time to a significantly larger extent than the respective amended incubation controls (1.9×10(9) CFU g(-1) vs. 1.0×10(9) CFU g(-1) and 37 vs. 16, respectively). Naphthalene- and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase gene copy numbers, however, decreased over time at a higher rate in LtM than in incubation controls likely due to a higher stimulation on heterotrophs than xenobiotics-degrading community members. PMID:21177025

  19. A Novel Apoptosis Correlated Molecule: Expression and Characterization of Protein Latcripin-1 from Lentinula edodes C91–3

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ben; Zhong, Mintao; Lun, Yongzhi; Wang, Xiaoli; Sun, Wenchang; Li, Xingyun; Ning, Anhong; Cao, Jing; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Lei; Huang, Min

    2012-01-01

    An apoptosis correlated molecule—protein Latcripin-1 of Lentinula edodes C91–3—was expressed and characterized in Pichia pastoris GS115. The total RNA was obtained from Lentinula edodes C91–3. According to the transcriptome, the full-length gene of Latcripin-1 was isolated with 3′-Full Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE) and 5′-Full RACE methods. The full-length gene was inserted into the secretory expression vector pPIC9K. The protein Latcripin-1 was expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115 and analyzed by Sodium Dodecylsulfonate Polyacrylate Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot. The Western blot showed that the protein was expressed successfully. The biological function of protein Latcripin-1 on A549 cells was studied with flow cytometry and the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyl-tetrazolium Bromide (MTT) method. The toxic effect of protein Latcripin-1 was detected with the MTT method by co-culturing the characterized protein with chick embryo fibroblasts. The MTT assay results showed that there was a great difference between protein Latcripin-1 groups and the control group (p < 0.05). There was no toxic effect of the characterized protein on chick embryo fibroblasts. The flow cytometry showed that there was a significant difference between the protein groups of interest and the control group according to apoptosis function (p < 0.05). At the same time, cell ultrastructure observed by transmission electron microscopy supported the results of flow cytometry. The work demonstrates that protein Latcripin-1 can induce apoptosis of human lung cancer cells A549 and brings new insights into and advantages to finding anti-tumor proteins. PMID:22754362

  20. Transcriptome analysis of candidate genes and signaling pathways associated with light-induced brown film formation in Lentinula edodes.

    PubMed

    Tang, Li-Hua; Jian, Hua-Hua; Song, Chun-Yan; Bao, Da-Peng; Shang, Xiao-Dong; Wu, Da-Qiang; Tan, Qi; Zhang, Xue-Hong

    2013-06-01

    High-throughput Illumina RNA-seq was used for deep sequencing analysis of the transcriptome of poly(A)+ RNA from mycelium grown under three different conditions: 30 days darkness (sample 118), 80 days darkness (313W), and 30 days darkness followed by 50 days in the light (313C), in order to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the process of light-induced brown film (BF) formation in the edible mushroom, Lentinula edodes. Of the three growth conditions, BF formation occurred in 313C samples only. Approximately 159.23 million reads were obtained, trimmed, and de novo assembled into 31,511 contigs with an average length of 1,746 bp and an N 50 of 2,480 bp. Based on sequence orientations determined by a BLASTX search against the NR, Swiss-Prot, COG, and KEGG databases, 24,246 (76.9 %) contigs were assigned putative descriptions. Comparison of 313C/118 and 313C/313W expression profiles revealed 3,958 and 5,651 significantly differentially expressed contigs (DECs), respectively. Annotation using the COG database revealed that candidate genes for light-induced BF formation encoded proteins linked to light reception (e.g., WC-1, WC-2, phytochrome), light signal transduction pathways (e.g., two-component phosphorelay system, mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway), and pigment formation (e.g., polyketide synthase, O-methyltransferase, laccase, P450 monooxygenase, oxidoreductase). Several DECs were validated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Our report is the first to identify genes associated with light-induced BF formation in L. edodes and represents a valuable resource for future genomic studies on this commercially important mushroom. PMID:23624682

  1. A Novel Lentinula edodes Laccase and Its Comparative Enzymology Suggest Guaiacol-Based Laccase Engineering for Bioremediation

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Kin-Sing; Cheung, Man-Kit; Au, Chun-Hang; Kwan, Hoi-Shan

    2013-01-01

    Laccases are versatile biocatalysts for the bioremediation of various xenobiotics, including dyes and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. However, current sources of new enzymes, simple heterologous expression hosts and enzymatic information (such as the appropriateness of common screening substrates on laccase engineering) remain scarce to support efficient engineering of laccase for better “green” applications. To address the issue, this study began with cloning the laccase family of Lentinula edodes. Three laccases perfectio sensu stricto (Lcc4A, Lcc5, and Lcc7) were then expressed from Pichia pastoris, characterized and compared with the previously reported Lcc1A and Lcc1B in terms of kinetics, stability, and degradation of dyes and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Lcc7 represented a novel laccase, and it exhibited both the highest catalytic efficiency (assayed with 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) [ABTS]) and thermostability. However, its performance on “green” applications surprisingly did not match the activity on the common screening substrates, namely, ABTS and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol. On the other hand, correlation analyses revealed that guaiacol is much better associated with the decolorization of multiple structurally different dyes than are the two common screening substrates. Comparison of the oxidation chemistry of guaiacol and phenolic dyes, such as azo dyes, further showed that they both involve generation of phenoxyl radicals in laccase-catalyzed oxidation. In summary, this study concluded a robust expression platform of L. edodes laccases, novel laccases, and an indicative screening substrate, guaiacol, which are all essential fundamentals for appropriately driving the engineering of laccases towards more efficient “green” applications. PMID:23799101

  2. A novel apoptosis correlated molecule: expression and characterization of protein Latcripin-1 from Lentinula edodes C(91-3).

    PubMed

    Liu, Ben; Zhong, Mintao; Lun, Yongzhi; Wang, Xiaoli; Sun, Wenchang; Li, Xingyun; Ning, Anhong; Cao, Jing; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Lei; Huang, Min

    2012-01-01

    An apoptosis correlated molecule-protein Latcripin-1 of Lentinula edodes C(91-3)-was expressed and characterized in Pichia pastoris GS115. The total RNA was obtained from Lentinula edodes C(91-3). According to the transcriptome, the full-length gene of Latcripin-1 was isolated with 3'-Full Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE) and 5'-Full RACE methods. The full-length gene was inserted into the secretory expression vector pPIC9K. The protein Latcripin-1 was expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115 and analyzed by Sodium Dodecylsulfonate Polyacrylate Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot. The Western blot showed that the protein was expressed successfully. The biological function of protein Latcripin-1 on A549 cells was studied with flow cytometry and the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyl-tetrazolium Bromide (MTT) method. The toxic effect of protein Latcripin-1 was detected with the MTT method by co-culturing the characterized protein with chick embryo fibroblasts. The MTT assay results showed that there was a great difference between protein Latcripin-1 groups and the control group (p < 0.05). There was no toxic effect of the characterized protein on chick embryo fibroblasts. The flow cytometry showed that there was a significant difference between the protein groups of interest and the control group according to apoptosis function (p < 0.05). At the same time, cell ultrastructure observed by transmission electron microscopy supported the results of flow cytometry. The work demonstrates that protein Latcripin-1 can induce apoptosis of human lung cancer cells A549 and brings new insights into and advantages to finding anti-tumor proteins. PMID:22754362

  3. Reduction of organic and inorganic selenium compounds by the edible medicinal basidiomycete Lentinula edodes and the accumulation of elemental selenium nanoparticles in its mycelium.

    PubMed

    Vetchinkina, Elena; Loshchinina, Ekaterina; Kursky, Viktor; Nikitina, Valentina

    2013-12-01

    We report for the first time that the medicinal basidiomycete Lentinula edodes can reduce selenium from inorganic sodium selenite (Se(IV)) and the organoselenium compound 1,5-diphenyl-3-selenopentanedione-1,5 (DAPS-25) to the elemental state, forming spherical nanoparticles. Submerged cultivation of the fungus with sodium selenite or with DAPS-25 produced an intense red coloration of L. edodes mycelial hyphae, indicating accumulation of elemental selenium (Se(0)) in a red modification. Several methods, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), and X-ray fluorescence, were used to show that red Se(0) accumulated intracellularly in the fungal hyphae as electron-dense nanoparticles with a diameter of 180.51±16.82 nm. Under designated cultivation conditions, shiitake did not reduce selenium from sodium selenate (Se(VI)). PMID:24385361

  4. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 3): Douglassville Disposal Site, Berks County, Pennsylvania, September 1985. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-27

    The Douglassville Disposal Site occupies approximately 50 acres of land along the southern bank of the Schuylkill River in southeastern Berks County, Union Township, Pennsylvania. Site operations included lubricating-oil recycling in 1941 and waste solvents recycling in the 1950's and 1960's. Wastes generated from these operations were stored in several lagoons located in the northern half of the site until 1972. In November 1970, ten days of heavy rain caused the lagoons to overflow and breach safety dikes releasing 2-3 million gallons of wastes. The dikes were repaired and a Federal decree was issued stating that no more waste material was to be stored in the lagoons. Actions were also initiated to dispose of remaining waste materials. Before the action could be carried out, tropical storm Agnes caused the Schuylkill River to overflow its banks and inundate the entire site. An estimated 6 to 8 million gallons of wastes were released and carried downstream by floodwaters for about 15 miles.

  5. Characterization of the basidiomycetes Thelephora ganbajun Zang and Termitomyces albuminosus (Berk.) Heim by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gang; Song, Dingshan; Liu, Jian-hong; Zhao, Dezhang; Zhou, Yilan; Ou, Jiaming; Sun, Shizhong

    2006-09-01

    The basidiomycetes Thelephora ganbajun Zang and Termitomyces albuminosus (Berk.) Heim are two of the most favorite edible mushrooms in Yunnan Province, Southwest of China. In this paper, Fourier transform infrared speciroseopy (FTIR) was used to characterize the fruiting bodies of the two wild growing edible mushrooms. The results show that each mushroom has its characteristic infrared spectrum, in which the major peaks are attributed to proteins and polysaccharides. The spectra indicate that the poiysaccharides of the two mushrooms contain, both. α- and β-glycosidic linkage. A characteristic band of Thelephora ganbajun is an obvious band at about 1763 cm -1, which indicates that the mushroom contain oil. Differences are observed in the spectra of different parts of the fruiting body of Termitomyces albuminosus. According to the differences of the characteristic spectra peaks and absorbance ratios, the different parts of mushroom can be discriminated. The results suggest that the different species of mushrooms might be identified by the vibrational spectral features of the different parts of the fruiting bodies of mushrooms.

  6. Influence of nitrogen sources on the enzymatic activity and grown by Lentinula edodes in biomass Eucalyptus benthamii.

    PubMed

    Pedri, Z C; Lozano, L M S; Hermann, K L; Helm, C V; Peralta, R M; Tavares, L B B

    2015-11-01

    Lignocellulose is the most abundant environmental component and a renewable organic resource in soil. There are some filamentous fungi which developed the ability to break down and use cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin as an energy source. The objective of this research was to analyze the effect of three nitrogen resources (ammonium sulfate, saltpetre, soybean) in the holocellulolitic activity of Lentinula edodes EF 50 using as substrate sawdust E. benthamii. An experimental design mixture was applied with repetition in the central point consisting of seven treatments (T) of equal concentrations of nitrogen in ammonium sulfate, potassium nitrate and soybean. The enzymatic activity of avicelase, carboxymetilcellulase, β-glucosidase, xylanases and manganese peroxidase was determined. The humidity, pH, water activity (aw) and qualitative analysis of mycelial growth in 8 times of cultivation were evaluated. The results showed negative effect on enzyme production in treatments with maximum concentration of ammonium sulfate and potassium nitrate. The treatments with cooked soybean flour expressed higher enzymatic activities in times of 3, 6 and 9 days of culture, except in the activity of manganese peroxidase. The highest production was observed in the treatment with ammonium sulfate, and soybean (83.86 UI.L-1) at 20 days of cultivation. PMID:26675911

  7. Trace metals related to historical iron smelting at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site, Berks and Chester Counties, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    2011-01-01

    Iron ore containing elevated concentrations of trace metals was smelted at Hopewell Furnace during its 113 years of operation (1771-1883). The ore used at Hopewell Furnace was obtained from iron mines within 5 miles of the furnace. The iron-ore deposits were formed about 200 million years ago and contain abundant magnetite, the primary iron mineral, and accessory minerals enriched in arsenic, cobalt, copper, lead, and other metals. Hopewell Furnace, built by Mark Bird during 1770-71, was one of the last of the charcoal-burning, cold-blast iron furnaces operated in Pennsylvania. The most productive years for Hopewell Furnace were from 1830 to 1837. Castings were the most profitable product, especially the popular Hopewell Stove. More than 80,000 stoves were cast at Hopewell, which produced as many as 23 types and sizes of cooking and heating stoves. Beginning in the 1840s, the iron industry shifted to large-scale, steam-driven coke and anthracite furnaces. Independent rural enterprises like Hopewell could no longer compete when the iron and steel industries consolidated in urban manufacturing centers. The furnace ceased operation in 1883 (Kurjack, 1954). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Park Service, completed a study at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site (NHS) in Berks and Chester Counties, Pennsylvania, to determine the fate of toxic trace metals, such as arsenic, cobalt, and lead, released into the environment during historical iron-smelting operations. The results of the study, conducted during 2008-10, are presented in this fact sheet.

  8. Improvement of yield of the edible and medicinal mushroom Lentinula edodes on wheat straw by use of supplemented spawn

    PubMed Central

    Gaitán-Hernández, Rigoberto; Cortés, Norberto; Mata, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    The research evaluated the interactions of two main factors (strain / types of spawn) on various parameters with the purpose to assess its effect on yield and biochemical composition of Lentinula edodes fruiting bodies cultivated on pasteurized wheat straw. The evaluation was made with four strains (IE-40, IE-105, IE-124 and IE-256). Different types of spawns were prepared: Control (C) (millet seed, 100%), F1 (millet seed, 88.5%; wheat bran, 8.8%; peat moss, 1.3%; and CaS04, 1.3%) and F2 (the same formula as F1, but substituting the wheat bran with powdered wheat straw). Wheat straw was pasteurized by soaking it for 1 h in water heated to 65 °C. After this the substrate (2 kg wet weight) was placed in polypropylene bags. The bags were inoculated with each spawn (5% w/w) and incubated in a dark room at 25 °C. A proximate analysis of mature fruiting bodies was conducted. The mean Biological Efficiency (BE) varied between 66.0% (C-IE-256) and 320.1% (F1-IE-124), with an average per strain of 125.6%. The highest mean BE was observed on spawn F1 (188.3%), significantly different from C and F2. The protein content of fruiting bodies was high, particularly in strain IE-40-F1 (17.7%). The amount of fat varied from 1.1 (F1-IE-40) to 2.1% (F2-IE-105) on dry matter. Carbohydrates ranged from 58.8% (F1-IE-40) to 66.1% (F1-IE-256). The energy value determined ranged from 302.9 kcal (F1-IE-40) to 332.0 kcal (F1-IE-256). The variability on BE observed in this study was significantly influenced by the spawn’s formulation and genetic factors of the different strains. PMID:25242929

  9. Improvement of yield of the edible and medicinal mushroom Lentinula edodes on wheat straw by use of supplemented spawn.

    PubMed

    Gaitán-Hernández, Rigoberto; Cortés, Norberto; Mata, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    The research evaluated the interactions of two main factors (strain / types of spawn) on various parameters with the purpose to assess its effect on yield and biochemical composition of Lentinula edodes fruiting bodies cultivated on pasteurized wheat straw. The evaluation was made with four strains (IE-40, IE-105, IE-124 and IE-256). Different types of spawns were prepared: Control (C) (millet seed, 100%), F1 (millet seed, 88.5%; wheat bran, 8.8%; peat moss, 1.3%; and CaS04, 1.3%) and F2 (the same formula as F1, but substituting the wheat bran with powdered wheat straw). Wheat straw was pasteurized by soaking it for 1 h in water heated to 65 °C. After this the substrate (2 kg wet weight) was placed in polypropylene bags. The bags were inoculated with each spawn (5% w/w) and incubated in a dark room at 25 °C. A proximate analysis of mature fruiting bodies was conducted. The mean Biological Efficiency (BE) varied between 66.0% (C-IE-256) and 320.1% (F1-IE-124), with an average per strain of 125.6%. The highest mean BE was observed on spawn F1 (188.3%), significantly different from C and F2. The protein content of fruiting bodies was high, particularly in strain IE-40-F1 (17.7%). The amount of fat varied from 1.1 (F1-IE-40) to 2.1% (F2-IE-105) on dry matter. Carbohydrates ranged from 58.8% (F1-IE-40) to 66.1% (F1-IE-256). The energy value determined ranged from 302.9 kcal (F1-IE-40) to 332.0 kcal (F1-IE-256). The variability on BE observed in this study was significantly influenced by the spawn's formulation and genetic factors of the different strains. PMID:25242929

  10. Activation of the NRF2-ARE signalling pathway by the Lentinula edodes polysaccharose LNT alleviates ROS-mediated cisplatin nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian; Peng, Huixia; Dong, Lei; Chen, Lijuan; Ma, Xiaobin; Peng, Yuping; Dai, Shejiao; Liu, Qiang

    2016-07-01

    The nephrotoxicity of cisplatin (cis-DDP) limits its general clinical applications. Lentinan (LNT), a dextran extracted from the mushroom Lentinula edodes, has been shown to have multiple pharmacological activities. The primary objective of the current study was to determine whether and how LNT alleviates cis-DDP- induced cytotoxicity in HK-2 cells and nephrotoxicity in mice. LNT did not interfere with cisplatin's anti-tumour efficacy in vitro and functioned cooperatively with cis-DDP to inhibit activity in HeLa and A549 tumour cells. LNT alleviated the cis-DDP-induced decrease in HK-2 cell viability, caspase-3 activation and cleavage of the DNA repair enzyme PARP, decreased HK-2 cell apoptosis and inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in HK-2 cells. The inhibitor of ROS (N-acetyl-L-cysteine, NAC) could decreased the apoptosis of HK-2 cell. In addition, LNT significantly prevented cis-DDP-induced kidney injury in vivo. LNT itself could not eliminate ROS levels in vitro. Further studies demonstrated that LNT induced NF-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein and mRNA expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner. LNT promoted Nrf2 translocation to the nucleus and binding to the antioxidant-response element (ARE) sequence and induced the transcription and translation of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), aldo-keto reductases 1C1 and 1C2 (AKR1C), and NADP(H):quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). Finally, we used hNrf2 siRNA and an Nrf2 agonist (tBHQ) to inhibit or enhance Nrf2 expression. The results demonstrated that the LNT-mediated alleviation of cis-DDP-induced nephrotoxicity was achieved by preventing the accumulation of ROS in a manner that depended on the activation of the Nrf2-ARE signalling pathway. PMID:27093515

  11. Protective effect of Tremella fuciformis Berk extract on LPS-induced acute inflammation via inhibition of the NF-κB and MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jangho; Ha, Su Jeong; Lee, Hye Jin; Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Yun Tai; Song, Kyung-Mo; Kim, Young-Jun; Kim, Hyun Ku; Jung, Sung Keun

    2016-07-13

    Tremella fuciformis Berk (TFB) has long been used as a traditional medicine in Asia. Although TFB exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, the mechanisms of action responsible have remained unknown. We confirmed the anti-inflammatory effects of Tremella fuciformis Berk extract (TFE) in RAW 264.7 cells and observed significantly suppressed LPS-induced iNOS/NO and COX-2/PGE2 production. TFE also suppressed LPS-induced IKK, IkB, and p65 phosphorylation, as well as LPS-induced translocation of p65 from the cytosol. Additionally, TFE inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of MAPKs. In an acute inflammation study, oral administration of TFE significantly inhibited LPS-induced IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α production and iNOS and COX-2 expression. The major bioactive compounds from TFB extract were identified as gentisic acid, protocatechuic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, and coumaric acid. Among these compounds, protocatechuic acid showed the strongest inhibitory effects on LPS-induced NO production in RAW 264.7 cells. Overall, these results suggest that TFE is a promising anti-inflammatory agent that suppresses iNOS/NO and COX-2/PGE2 expression, as well as the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. PMID:27334265

  12. Important role of fungal intracellular laccase for melanin synthesis: purification and characterization of an intracellular laccase from Lentinula edodes fruit bodies.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Masaru; Kawata, Maki; Watanabe, Hisayuki; Ogawa, Machiko; Saito, Kumiko; Takesawa, Toshikazu; Kanda, Katsuhiro; Sato, Toshitsugu

    2003-09-01

    A laccase (EC 1.10.3.2) was isolated from the fully browned gills of Lentinula edodes fruit bodies. The enzyme was purified to a homogeneous preparation using hydrophobic, cation-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. SDS-PAGE analysis showed the purified laccase, Lcc 2, to be a monomeric protein of 58.0 kDa. The enzyme had an isoelectric point of around pH 6.9. The optimum pH for enzyme activity was around 3.0 against 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)diammonium salt (ABTS), and it was most active at 40 degrees C and stable up to 50 degrees C. The enzyme contained 8.6 % carbohydrate and some copper atoms. The enzyme oxidized ABTS, p-phenylenediamine, pyrogallol, guaiacol, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, catechol and ferulic acid, but not veratryl alcohol and tyrosine. Beta-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)alanine (L-DOPA), which was not oxidized by a laccase previously reported from the culture filtrate of L. edodes, was also oxidized by Lcc 2, and the oxidative product of L-dopa was identified as L-DOPA quinone by HPLC analysis. Lcc 2 was able to oxidize phenolic compounds extracted from fresh gills to brown-coloured products, suggesting a role for laccase in melanin synthesis in this strain. PMID:12949171

  13. Endo-β-1,3-Glucanase GLU1, from the Fruiting Body of Lentinula edodes, Belongs to a New Glycoside Hydrolase Family ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Yuichi; Nakade, Keiko; Konno, Naotake

    2011-01-01

    The cell wall of the fruiting body of the mushroom Lentinula edodes is degraded after harvesting by enzymes such as β-1,3-glucanase. In this study, a novel endo-type β-1,3-glucanase, GLU1, was purified from L. edodes fruiting bodies after harvesting. The gene encoding it, glu1, was isolated by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR using primers designed from the N-terminal amino acid sequence of GLU1. The putative amino acid sequence of the mature protein contained 247 amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 26 kDa and a pI of 3.87, and recombinant GLU1 expressed in Pichia pastoris exhibited β-1,3-glucanase activity. GLU1 catalyzed depolymerization of glucans composed of β-1,3-linked main chains, and reaction product analysis by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) clearly indicated that the enzyme had an endolytic mode. However, the amino acid sequence of GLU1 showed no significant similarity to known glycoside hydrolases. GLU1 has similarity to several hypothetical proteins in fungi, and GLU1 and highly similar proteins should be classified as a novel glycoside hydrolase family (GH128). PMID:21965406

  14. Expression and functional analysis of novel molecule - Latcripin-13 domain from Lentinula edodes C91-3 produced in prokaryotic expression system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Zhong, Mintao; Liu, Ben; Sha, Li; Lun, Yongzhi; Zhang, Wei; Li, Xingyun; Wang, Xiaoli; Cao, Jing; Ning, Anhong; Huang, Min

    2015-01-25

    The shiitake mushroom Lentinula edodes has health benefits and is used to treat various diseases due to its immunomodulatory and antineoplastic properties. In the present study, the Latcripin-13 domain, isolated from L. edodes, was expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta-gami(DE3) in the form of inclusion bodies. The Latcripin-13 domain was purified by Ni-His affinity chromatography with high purity and refolded by urea gradient dialysis. The product showed biological activity in A549 cells, a human lung cancer cell line, by flow cytometry and the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. The MTT assay and the flow cytometry results revealed that there was a great difference between the Latcripin-13 domain-treated group and the control group (p<0.05). Similarly, cell apoptosis observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) supported the flow cytometry results. This work demonstrated that the Latcripin-13 domain can induce apoptosis of A549 cells, which will bring new insights into the development of new antitumor drugs in the future. PMID:25447899

  15. Biobleaching of Acacia kraft pulp with extracellular enzymes secreted by Irpex lacteus KB-1.1 and Lentinus tigrinus LP-7 using low-cost media.

    PubMed

    Afrida, Sitompul; Tamai, Yutaka; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Osaki, Mitsuru

    2014-08-01

    The white-rot fungi Irpex lacteus KB-1.1 and Lentinus tigrinus LP-7 have been shown in previous studies to have high biobleaching activity in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate the activities and stabilities of extracellular enzymes, prepared from I. lacteus and L. tigrinus culture grown in three types of economical media of agricultural and forestry wastes, for biobleaching of Acacia oxygen-delignified kraft pulp using kappa number reduction as an indicator of delignification. After 3 days of incubation, the extracellular enzymes preparations from I. lacteus and L. tigrinus cultures in media of Acacia mangium wood powder supplemented with rice bran and addition 1 % glucose (WRBG), resulted in significant decrease of 4.4 and 6.7 %, respectively. A slightly higher kappa number reduction (7.4 %) was achieved with the combine extracellular enzymes from I. lacteus and L. tigrinus. One of the strategies for reducing the cost of enzyme production for treatment processes in the pulp and paper industry is the utilization of agricultural and forestry waste. Thus, WRBG has potential as a culture medium for producing stable lignolytic enzymes simply and economically. PMID:24699808

  16. Public health assessment for crossley farm/Hereford groundwater, Hereford township, Berks County, Pennsylvania, Region 3. CERCLIS No. PAD981740061. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The report describes an illegal waste disposal site in east central Pennsylvania and its effect on groundwater in the area surrounding the site. The Crossley Farm (Hereford Groundwater) site is in the Huffs Church community of Hereford Township, Berks County. Illegal waste disposal activities reportedly occurred at the site from the mid-1960's to mid-1970's. About 250 residents live hydrogeological downgradient of the site (within two miles) and another 200 live within one-half mile upgradient of the site. The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources has collected groundwater samples in 1983 and the EPA has collected samples in 1986. The estimated exposures are to substances (trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene in particular) in groundwater at concentrations that with long-term exposure can cause adverse health effects to the population.

  17. Crystal structure of a blue laccase from Lentinus tigrinus: evidences for intermediates in the molecular oxygen reductive splitting by multicopper oxidases

    PubMed Central

    Ferraroni, Marta; Myasoedova, Nina M; Schmatchenko, Vadim; Leontievsky, Alexey A; Golovleva, Ludmila A; Scozzafava, Andrea; Briganti, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    Background Laccases belong to multicopper oxidases, a widespread class of enzymes implicated in many oxidative functions in pathogenesis, immunogenesis and morphogenesis of organisms and in the metabolic turnover of complex organic substances. They catalyze the coupling between the four one-electron oxidations of a broad range of substrates with the four-electron reduction of dioxygen to water. These catalytic processes are made possible by the contemporaneous presence of at least four copper ion sites, classified according to their spectroscopic properties: one type 1 (T1) site where the electrons from the reducing substrates are accepted, one type 2 (T2), and a coupled binuclear type 3 pair (T3) which are assembled in a T2/T3 trinuclear cluster where the electrons are transferred to perform the O2 reduction to H2O. Results The structure of a laccase from the white-rot fungus Lentinus (Panus) tigrinus, a glycoenzyme involved in lignin biodegradation, was solved at 1.5 Å. It reveals a asymmetric unit containing two laccase molecules (A and B). The progressive reduction of the copper ions centers obtained by the long-term exposure of the crystals to the high-intensity X-ray synchrotron beam radiation under aerobic conditions and high pH allowed us to detect two sequential intermediates in the molecular oxygen reduction pathway: the "peroxide" and the "native" intermediates, previously hypothesized through spectroscopic, kinetic and molecular mechanics studies. Specifically the electron-density maps revealed the presence of an end-on bridging, μ-η1:η1 peroxide ion between the two T3 coppers in molecule B, result of a two-electrons reduction, whereas in molecule A an oxo ion bridging the three coppers of the T2/T3 cluster (μ3-oxo bridge) together with an hydroxide ion externally bridging the two T3 copper ions, products of the four-electrons reduction of molecular oxygen, were best modelled. Conclusion This is the first structure of a multicopper oxidase which

  18. On the wave amplitude blow-up in the Berk-Breizman model for nonlinear evolution of a plasma wave driven resonantly by fast ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaleśny, Jarosław; Galant, Grzegorz; Lisak, Mietek; Berczyński, Paweł; Berczyński, Stefan

    2011-12-01

    In this paper the Berk-Breizman (BB) model of plasma wave instability arising on the stability threshold is considered. An interesting although physically unacceptable feature of the model is the explosive behaviour occurring in the regime of small values of the collision frequency parameter. We present an analytical description of the explosive solution, based on a fitting to the numerical solution of the BB equation with the collision parameter equal to zero. We find that the chaotic behaviour taking place for small but non-zero values of the collision parameter is absent in this case; therefore, chaotic behaviour seems to be an independent phenomenon not directly related to the blow-up regime. The time and the velocity dependence of the distribution function are found numerically and plotted to better understand what actually happens in the model. It allows us to obtain a good qualitative understanding of the time evolution of the mode amplitude including the linear growth of the amplitude, reaching its maximum and then decreasing towards the zero value. Nevertheless, we have no satisfactory physical explanation of the amplitude evolution when the amplitude vanishes at some time and then revives but with an opposite phase.

  19. Anticoagulant resistance in the United Kingdom and a new guideline for the management of resistant infestations of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus Berk.).

    PubMed

    Buckle, Alan

    2013-03-01

    Anticoagulant resistance was first discovered in UK Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus Berk.) in 1958 and has been present ever since. The possible detrimental impact of resistance on effective rodent control was quickly recognised, and, for almost three decades, extensive research was conducted on the geographical distribution and severity of anticoagulant resistance in UK rats. Various schemes for the eradication of resistant rats were also implemented. At first, surveys showed resistance only to the first-generation anticoagulants, such as warfarin, chlorophacinone and coumatetralyl, but, later, resistance to the more potent second-generation anticoagulants, such as difenacoum and bromadiolone, was also discovered. Unlike some European countries, where only one or two resistance mutations occur, virtually all known rat resistance mutations occur in the United Kingdom, and five (Leu128Gln, Tyr139Ser, Tyr139Cys, Tyr139Phe and Leu120Gln) are known to have significant impacts on anticoagulant efficacy. Little is currently known of the geographical extent of anticoagulant resistance among Norway rats in the United Kingdom because no comprehensive survey has been conducted recently. At an operational level, anticoagulants generally retain their utility for Norway rat control, but it is impossible to control resistant rats in some areas because of restrictions on the use of the more potent resistance-breaking compounds. This paper reviews the development of resistance in Norway rats in the United Kingdom, outlines the present situation for resistance management and introduces a new resistance management guideline from the UK Rodenticide Resistance Action Group. PMID:22730379

  20. Immobilization of manganese peroxidase from Lentinula edodes and its biocatalytic generation of MnIII-chelate as a chemical oxidant of chlorophenols.

    PubMed

    Grabski, A C; Grimek, H J; Burgess, R R

    1998-10-20

    Manganese peroxidase (MnP) purified from commercial cultures of Lentinula edodes was covalently immobilized through its carboxyl groups using an azlactone-functional copolymer derivatized with ethylenediamine and 2-ethoxy-1-ethoxycarbonyl-1,2-dihydroquinoline (EEDQ) as a coupling reagent. The tethered enzyme was employed in a two-stage immobilized MnP bioreactor for catalytic generation of chelated MnIII and subsequent oxidation of chlorophenols. Manganese peroxidase immobilized in the enzyme reactor (reactor 1) produced MnIII-chelate, which was pumped into another chemical reaction vessel (reactor 2) containing the organopollutant. Reactor 1-generated MnIII-chelates oxidized 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,4, 6-trichlorophenol in reactor 2, demonstrating a two-stage enzyme and chemical system. H2O2 and oxalate chelator concentrations were varied to optimize the immobilized MnP's oxidation of MnII to MnIII. Oxidation of 1.0 mM MnII to MnIII was initially measured at 78% efficiency under optimized conditions. After 24 h of continuous operation under optimized reaction conditions, the reactor still oxidized 1.0 mM MnII to MnIII with approximately 69% efficiency, corresponding to 88% of the initial MnP activity. PMID:10099422

  1. Water-Soluble Compounds from Lentinula edodes Influencing the HMG-CoA Reductase Activity and the Expression of Genes Involved in the Cholesterol Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gil-Ramírez, Alicia; Caz, Víctor; Smiderle, Fhernanda R; Martin-Hernandez, Roberto; Largo, Carlota; Tabernero, María; Marín, Francisco R; Iacomini, Marcello; Reglero, Guillermo; Soler-Rivas, Cristina

    2016-03-01

    A water extract from Lentinula edodes (LWE) showed HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity but contained no statins. NMR indicated the presence of water-soluble α- and β-glucans and fucomannogalactans. Fractions containing derivatives of these polysaccharides with molecular weight down to approximately 1 kDa still retained their inhibitory activity. Once digested LWE was applied to Caco2 in transport experiments, no significant effect was noticed on the modulation of cholesterol-related gene expression. But, when the lower compartment of the Caco2 monolayer was applied to HepG2, some genes were modulated (after 24 h). LWE was also administrated to normo- and hypercholesterolemic mice, and no significant lowering of serum cholesterol levels was observed; but reduction of triglycerides in liver was observed. However, LWE supplementation modulated the transcriptional profile of some genes involved in the cholesterol metabolism similarly to simvastatin, suggesting that it could hold potential as a hypolipidemic/hypocholesterolemic extract, although further dose-dependent studies should be carried out. PMID:26877235

  2. Antitumor activity of a polysaccharide-protein complex isolated from a wood-rotting polypore macro fungus Phellinus rimosus (Berk) Pilat.

    PubMed

    Meera, C R; Janardhanan, Kainoor K

    2012-01-01

    A protein-bound, water-soluble polysaccharide-protein complex was isolated from a medicinal mushroom, Phellinus rimosus (Berk) Pilat (PPC-Pr). The isolation was achieved by hot water extraction, filtration, solvent precipitation, dialysis, and freeze-drying. The proximate analysis showed that PPC-Pr comprised 54.8% polysaccharide and 28.6% protein. The molecular weight of the compound was determined by gel filtration using a Sephadex G 100. The molecular weight of PPC-Pr was approximately 1,200,000 D. The thin-layer chromatography analysis of PPC-Pr after acid hydrolysis with trifluroacetic acid showed that it was composed of glucose as the only monosaccharide unit. The amino acid profile analysis of PPC-Pr revealed that it contained large amounts of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, alanine, glycine, and serine. Thus, the results indicated that PPC-Pr is a glucan-protein complex. The PPC-Pr did not show in vitro cytotoxic activity against Dalton's lymphoma ascites and Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma cell lines. The PPC-Pr was found to be effective in increasing the life span of ascites tumors induced by Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma cell line in mice. PPC-Pr also was found to have significant preventive and curative effects on solid tumors induced by the Dalton's lymphoma ascites cell line. The experimental results thus indicated that protein-bound polysaccharide (PPC-Pr) isolated from P. rimosus possessed profound antitumor activity. The findings suggest the potential therapeutic use of this compound as an antitumor agent. PMID:23339697

  3. Age-associated impairment of antitumor immunity in carcinoma-bearing mice and restoration by oral administration of Lentinula edodes mycelia extract.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Satoru; Matsui, Yasunori; Wachi, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Harashima, Nanae; Harada, Mamoru

    2016-08-01

    Because cancer is associated with aging, immunological features in the aged should be considered in anticancer immunotherapy. In this study, we investigated antitumor immunity in aged mice using a CT26 colon carcinoma model. The tumor growth of CT26 was accelerated in aged mice compared with that in young mice, but this difference was not observed in nude mice. The serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were higher in aged mice than those in young mice, irrespective of the CT26-bearing state. The in vitro induction of CT26-specific CTLs from aged mice that were vaccinated with doxorubicin (DTX)-treated CT26 cells was impaired. In vivo neutralization of IL-6, but not TNF-α, showed a tendency to restore the in vitro induction of CT26-specific CTLs from vaccinated aged mice. Analyses on tumor-infiltrating immune cells as early as day 5 after CT26 inoculation revealed that monocytic and granulocytic MDSCs preferentially infiltrated into tumor sites in aged mice compared with young mice. Alternatively, oral administration of Lentinula edodes mycelia (L.E.M.) extract, which has the potential to suppress inflammation in tumor-bearing hosts, decreased the serum levels of IL-6 in aged mice. When administration of L.E.M. extract was started 1 week earlier, CT26 growth was retarded in aged mice and the in vivo priming of tumor-specific CTLs was improved in CT26-vaccinated aged mice. These results indicate early infiltration of MDSCs is related to impaired immunity of aged hosts and that oral administration of L.E.M. extract can mitigate the impairment. PMID:27312060

  4. Evaluation of geophysical logs and aquifer-isolation tests, Phase III, August 2002 to March 2004, Crossley Farm superfund site, Hereford township, Berks County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conger, Randall W.; Low, Dennis J.

    2006-01-01

    Between August 2002 and March 2004, geophysical logging was conducted in 23 boreholes at the Crossley Farm Superfund Site, Hereford Township, Berks County, Pa., to determine the water-producing zones, water-receiving zones, zones of vertical-borehole flow, and fracture orientation where applicable. The boreholes ranged in depth from 71 to 503 ft(feet) below land surface. The geophysical logging determined the placement of well screens and packers, which allow monitoring and sampling of water-bearing zones in the fractured bedrock so the horizontal and vertical distribution of contaminated ground water migrating from known sources could be determined. Geophysical logging included collection of caliper (22 boreholes), fluid-temperature (17 boreholes),single-point-resistance (17 boreholes), natural-gamma (17 boreholes), fluid-flow (18 boreholes), and acoustic-televiewer (13 boreholes) logs. Caliper and acoustic-televiewer logs were used to locate fractures, joints, and weathered zones. Inflections on fluid-temperature and single-point-resistance logs indicated possible water-bearing zones, and flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Single-point-resistance, natural-gamma, and geologist logs provided information on stratigraphy; the geologist log also provided information on the location of possible water-producing zones. Borehole geophysical logging and heatpulse flowmetering indicated active flow in 10 boreholes. Seven of the boreholes are in ground-water discharge areas and three boreholes are in ground-water recharge areas. Heatpulse flowmetering, in conjunction with the geologist logs, indicates lithologic contacts (changes in lithology from a gneiss dominated by quartz-plagioclase-feldspar mineralogy to a gneiss dominated by hornblende mineralogy) are typically fractured, permeable, and effective transmitters of water. Single-well, aquifer-isolation (packer) tests were performed on two boreholes. Packers were set at depths ranging from 210 to 465 ft

  5. In vitro effects of plant and mushroom extracts on immunological function of chicken lymphocytes and macrophages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was conducted to examine the effects of milk thistle (Silybum marianum), turmeric (Curcuma longa), reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum), and shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) on innate immunity and tumor cell viability. In vitro culture of chicken spleen lymphocytes with extracts ...

  6. Dexmedetomidine protects against learning and memory impairments caused by electroconvulsive shock in depressed rats: Involvement of the NMDA receptor subunit 2B (NR2B)-ERK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xin; Zhuang, Fu-Zhi; Qin, Shou-Jun; Zhou, Li; Wang, Yun; Shen, Qing-Feng; Li, Mei; Villarreal, Michelle; Benefield, Lauren; Gu, Shu-Ling; Ma, Teng-Fei

    2016-09-30

    Cognitive impairment is a common adverse effect of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) during treatment for severe depression. Dexmedetomidine (DEX), a sedative-anesthetic drug, is used to treat post-ECT agitation. However, it is not known if DEX can protect against ECT-induced cognitive impairments. To address this, we used chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) to establish a model of depression for ECT treatment. Our Morris water maze and sucrose preference test results suggest that DEX alleviates ECT-induced learning and memory impairments without altering the antidepressant efficacy of ECT. To further investigate the underlying mechanisms of DEX, hippocampal expression of NR2B, p-ERK/ERK, p-CREB/CREB, and BDNF were quantified by western blotting. These results show that DEX suppresses over-activation of NR2B and enhances phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in the hippocampus of ECT-treated depressed rats. Furthermore, DEX had no significant effect on ECT-induced increases in p-CREB and BDNF. Overall, our findings suggest that DEX ameliorates ECT-induced learning and memory impairments in depressed rats via the NR2B-ERK signaling cascade. Moreover, CREB/BDNF seems not appear to participate in the cognitive protective mechanisms of DEX during ECT treatment. PMID:27455425

  7. [Antiviral properties of basidiomycetes metabolites].

    PubMed

    Avtonomova, A V; Krasnopolskaya, L M

    2014-01-01

    The data on the antiviral action of the Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus edodes, Grifola frondosa, Agaricus brasiliensis and other basidiomycetes metabolites are summurized. The metabolites of these species of basidiomycetes exhibit a direct antiviral effect on herpes simplex virus types I and II, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, influenza virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and others. Moreover, metabolites of basidiomycetes increased antiviral immunity. PMID:25975107

  8. Equilibrium and kinetic studies on biosorption of Pb(II) by common edible macrofungi: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuan; Hao, Ruixia; Yang, Shiqin

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we studied the natural bioaccumulation and biosorption of Pb(II) in several common edible macrofungi. The macrofungi include the following species: Lentinus edodes, Pleurotus eryngii, Flammulina velutipes, Hypsizygus marmoreus, and Agrocybe cylindracea. The present analysis of Pb(II) revealed distinct capabilities of metal accumulation among individual species. Moreover, the natural concentrations of lead did not reach a health risk level when cultivated in uncontaminated soil. In the biosorption experiment by edible macrofungi, we found that the equilibrium data of living sporocarp (P. eryngii and H. marmoreus) and the homogenate of L. edodes and F. velutipes fit the Freundlich model well. Other data samples exhibited a better fit to the Langmuir model. The edible macrofungi showed a higher lead removal capacity than did other biosorbents. Furthermore, the pseudo-second-order kinetics model exhibited the best fit to the biosorption processes. The effectiveness of edible macrofungi as biosorbents for Pb(II) was confirmed. PMID:26928439

  9. Production of ligninolytic enzymes by cultures of white rot fungi.

    PubMed

    Górska, Ewa B; Jankiewicz, Urszula; Dobrzyński, Jakub; Agnieszka Gałązka; Sitarek, Monika; Gozdowski, Dariusz; Russel, Stefan; Kowalczyk, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Some Basidiomycota were chosen for studies of key ligninases synthesis (25°C, 30 days) in modified medium (shaken or not cultures) with added wheat straw. Liquid Czapek medium with straw yielded a higher amount of laccase than peroxidase, ground straw induced enzyme worse than chopped straw. With peroxidase the reverse dependencies were observed. Laccase of Lentinus edodes synthesized two enzyme isoforms (ca 30 and 16 kDa). In T. versicolor culture active laccase protein with highest molecular mass ca 65 kDa was found. P. sajor-caju yielded three different peroxidase isoforms. Ligninase biosynthesis depended on strain, straw fragmentation extent, culture method and growth medium. PMID:25804067

  10. [Protective activity of aqueous extracts from higher mushrooms against Herpes simplex virus type-2 on albino mice model].

    PubMed

    Razumov, I A; Kazachinskaia, E I; Puchkova, L I; Kosogorova, T A; Gorbunova, I A; Loktev, V B; Tepliakova, T V

    2013-01-01

    Toxicity and antiviral activity of aqueous extracts from higher mushrooms such as Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler (shiitake), Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm. (oyster), Inonotus obliquus (Ach. ex Pers.) Pilát (chaga), Hydnellum compactum (Pers.) P. Karst. (compact tooth) were studied. In doses of 0.8 to 4.0 mg (dry weight) per mouse administered orally or intraperitoneally the extracts showed no acute toxicity. When the dose of the chaga extract was increased to 20 mg per mouse, a half of the animals died. Intraperitoneal administration of the aqueous extracts in a dose of 0.4-2 mg per mouse prior to the contamination by a single LD50 of Herpes simplex type 2 provided 100-percent survival of the animals exposed to the Lentinula edodes or Pleurotus ostreatus extracts and 90-percent survival of the animals exposed to the Inonotus obliquus or Hydnellum compactum extracts. PMID:24738237

  11. Terpenoids and sterols from some Japanese mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Yaoita, Yasunori; Kikuchi, Masao; Machida, Koichi

    2014-03-01

    Over the past twenty years, our research group has been studying the chemical constituents of mushrooms. From nineteen species, namely, Amanita virgineoides Bas (Amanitaceae), Daedaleopsis tricolor (Bull.: Fr.) Bond. et Sing. (Polyporaceae), Grifolafrondosa (Fr.) S. F. Gray (Polyporaceae), Hericium erinaceum (Bull.: Fr.) Pers. (Hericiaceae), Hypsizigus marmoreus (Peck) Bigelow (Tricholomataceae), Lactarius piperatus (Scop.: Fr.) S. F. Gray (Russulaceae), Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Sing. (Pleurotaceae), Lyophyllyum connatum (Schum.: Fr.) Sing. (Tricholomataceae), Naematoloma sublateritium (Fr.) Karst. (Strophariaceae), Ompharia lapidescens Schroeter (Polyporaceae), Panellus serotinus (Pers.: Fr.) Kuhn. (Tricholomataceae), Pholiota nameko (T. Ito) S. Ito et Imai in Imai (Strophariaceae), Pleurotus eringii (DC.: Fr.) Quel. (Pleurotaceae), Polyporus umbellatus Fries (Polyporaceae), Russula delica Fr. (Russulaceae), Russula sanguinea (Bull.) Fr. (Russulaceae), Sarcodon aspratus (Berk.) S. Ito (Thelephoraceae), Tricholoma matsutake (S. Ito et Imai) Sing. (Tricholomataceae), and Tricholomaportentosum (Fr.) Quel. (Tricholomataceae), we isolated eight new sesquiterpenoids, six new meroterpenoids, three new triterpenoids, and twenty eight new sterols. In this review, structural features of these new compounds are discussed. PMID:24689228

  12. Screening of Lignocellulose-Degrading Superior Mushroom Strains and Determination of Their CMCase and Laccase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Fen, Li; Xuwei, Zhu; Nanyi, Li; Puyu, Zhang; Shuang, Zhang; Xue, Zhao; Pengju, Li; Qichao, Zhu; Haiping, Lin

    2014-01-01

    In order to screen lignocellulose-degrading superior mushroom strains ten strains of mushrooms (Lentinus edodes939, Pholiota nameko, Lentinus edodes868, Coprinus comatus, Macrolepiota procera, Auricularia auricula, Hericium erinaceus, Grifola frondosa, Pleurotus nebrodensis, and Shiraia bambusicola) were inoculated onto carboxymethylcellulose agar-Congo red plates to evaluate their ability to produce carbomethyl cellulase (CMCase). The results showed that the ratio of transparent circle to mycelium circle of Hericium erinaceus was 8.16 (P < 0.01) higher than other strains. The filter paper culture screening test showed that Hericium erinaceus and Macrolepiota procera grew well and showed extreme decomposition of the filter paper. When cultivated in guaiacol culture medium to detect their abilities to secrete laccase, Hericium erinaceus showed the highest ability with the largest reddish brown circles of 4.330 cm. CMCase activity determination indicated that Coprinus comatus and Hericium erinaceus had the ability to produce CMCase with 33.92 U/L on the 9th day and 22.58 U/L on the 10th day, respectively, while Coprinus comatus and Pleurotus nebrodensis had the ability to produce laccase with 496.67 U/L and 489.17 U/L on the 16th day and 18th day. Based on the results, Coprinus comatus might be the most promising lignocellulose-degrading strain to produce both CMCase and laccase at high levels. PMID:24693246

  13. Screening of lignocellulose-degrading superior mushroom strains and determination of their CMCase and laccase activity.

    PubMed

    Fen, Li; Xuwei, Zhu; Nanyi, Li; Puyu, Zhang; Shuang, Zhang; Xue, Zhao; Pengju, Li; Qichao, Zhu; Haiping, Lin

    2014-01-01

    In order to screen lignocellulose-degrading superior mushroom strains ten strains of mushrooms (Lentinus edodes939, Pholiota nameko, Lentinus edodes868, Coprinus comatus, Macrolepiota procera, Auricularia auricula, Hericium erinaceus, Grifola frondosa, Pleurotus nebrodensis, and Shiraia bambusicola) were inoculated onto carboxymethylcellulose agar-Congo red plates to evaluate their ability to produce carbomethyl cellulase (CMCase). The results showed that the ratio of transparent circle to mycelium circle of Hericium erinaceus was 8.16 (P < 0.01) higher than other strains. The filter paper culture screening test showed that Hericium erinaceus and Macrolepiota procera grew well and showed extreme decomposition of the filter paper. When cultivated in guaiacol culture medium to detect their abilities to secrete laccase, Hericium erinaceus showed the highest ability with the largest reddish brown circles of 4.330 cm. CMCase activity determination indicated that Coprinus comatus and Hericium erinaceus had the ability to produce CMCase with 33.92 U/L on the 9th day and 22.58 U/L on the 10th day, respectively, while Coprinus comatus and Pleurotus nebrodensis had the ability to produce laccase with 496.67 U/L and 489.17 U/L on the 16th day and 18th day. Based on the results, Coprinus comatus might be the most promising lignocellulose-degrading strain to produce both CMCase and laccase at high levels. PMID:24693246

  14. A toxic metabolite of Nigrospora oryzae (Berk and Br.) petch.

    PubMed

    Wilson, M E; Davis, N D; Diener, U L

    1986-09-01

    Nigrospora oryzae was isolated from dallisgrass (Paspalum dilatatum Poir.) collected in Auburn and from hay shipped under refrigeration to Florida. Some of these samples were eaten by cattle and horses that subsequently developed lameness. Metabolites of N. oryzae were separated by thin layer chromatography and tested for toxicity. Only one metabolite was toxic. Metabolite A showed toxicity to brine shrimp with an LD50 = 500 micrograms/ml in 8 h. It also had an antibiotic effect on Bacillus megaterium ATCC 14581 with a minimum inhibitory level of 10.1 micrograms/disc. As little as 435 micrograms of a crude methanolic extract of N. oryzae showed mild toxicity to chick embryos. The metabolite was not toxic to mice nor rats at the levels tested. Quantitative procedures developed for the determination of metabolite A showed that the maximum production occurred in yeast extract-sucrose liquid medium with an initial pH of 5-6, when incubated as a stationary culture for 28 days at 25 degrees C. It was concluded that metabolite A is a weak antibiotic rather than a mycotoxin, and was probably not associated with the symptoms of lameness observed in cattle and horses. The antibiotic is not one previously reported for N. oryzae. PMID:3095644

  15. UBV Photometry of the young open cluster Berkely 87

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinyemi, Abolaji; Eskridge, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    We obtained UBV imaging of a field in the young open cluster Berkeley 87. From these images, we measured the brightness of ~180 stars in the cluster. Our photometry was calibrated using published photometry (Turner & Forbes 1982 PASP 94, 789) of a subset of stars in our field. The cluster is in a region of the sky with strongly varying extinction. Therefore we made a (U-B)-(B-V) color-color diagram of the field and used this to de-redden the stars on a case by case basis. We de-reddened the stars using the unreddened supergiant and main sequence colors from Astrophysical Quantities (Cox 2000).The color-magnitude diagrams of the de-reddened stars are compared to the Padova isochrones(Marigo et al 2008 A&A 482 883). The isochrones are generated for a range of ages, with solar metalicity and no α enhancement. The best fit for the isochrones was the main sequence de-reddened stars from which the age of the cluster is estimated to be 20 million years. This is older than previous age estimates (1-5 million years) from earlier studies of the cluster. This may indicate age variation in the cluster.We acknowledge the support of the Physics and Astronomy department, and the College of Science and Engineering, Minnesota State University, Mankato.

  16. Phytochemical and antimicrobial activities of Himalayan Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc.

    PubMed

    Mamta; Mehrotra, Shubhi; Amitabh; Kirar, Vandana; Vats, Praveen; Nandi, Shoma Paul; Negi, P S; Misra, Kshipra

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the phytochemical and antimicrobial activities and also quantified bioactive nucleoside using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) of five extracts of Indian Himalayan Cordyceps sinensis prepared with different solvents employing accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) technique. The phytochemical potential of these extracts was quantified in terms of total phenolic and total flavonoid content while antioxidant activities were determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2 -azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Total reducing power (TRP) was determined by converting iron (III) into iron (II) reduction assay. CS(50%Alc) (15.1 ± 0.67mg/g of dry extract) and CS(100%Alc) (19.3 ± 0.33 mg/g of dry extract) showed highest phenolic and flavonoid content, respectively while CS(Aq) extract showed maximum antioxidant activity and the highest concentration of the three nucleosides (adenine 12.8 ± 0.49 mg/g, adenosine 0.36 ± 0.28 mg/g and uracil 0.14 ± 0.36 mg/g of dry extract) determined by HPTLC. The evaluation of extracts for antimicrobial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial strains showed CS(25%Alc), CS(75%Alc) and CS(100%Alc) extract to be more effective against E. coli, P. aerugenosa and B. subtilis giving 9, 7 and 6.5 mm of zone of inhibition (ZOI) in 93.75, 93.75 and 45 μg concentration, respectively, whereas CS(Aq) extract showed minimal inhibition against these. PMID:25675710

  17. Comparison of antioxidant and antiproliferation activities of polysaccharides from eight species of medicinal mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peiying; Yong, Yangyang; Gu, Yifan; Wang, Zeliang; Zhang, Shizhu; Lu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Polysaccharides from mushrooms including Pleurotus eryngii, P. ostreatus, P. nebrodensis, Lentinus edodes, Hypsizygus marmoreus, Flammulina velutipes, Ganoderma lucidum, and Hericium erinaceus were isolated by water extraction and alcohol precipitation. Our results suggest that all tested polysaccharides have the significant antioxidant capacities of scavenging free radicals (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl radicals). Among them, the H. erinaceus polysaccharide exhibits the highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity, whereas the L. edodes polysaccharide shows the strongest scavenging ability for hydroxyl radicals. Furthermore, using the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line and HeLa cells, all 8 selected polysaccharides are able to inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells, but the strength of inhibition varied depending on the mushroom species and the concentration used. Notably, G. lucidum polysaccharide shows the highest inhibition activity on MCF-7 cells. By comparison, H. erinaceus polysaccharide has the strongest inhibitory effect on HeLa cells. Moreover, high-performance liquid chromatography with a carbohydrate analysis column showed significant differences in polysaccharide components among these mushrooms. Thus our data suggest that the different species of mushrooms have the variable functions because of their own specific polysaccharide components. The 8 mushroom polysaccharides have the potential to be used as valuable functional food additives or sources of therapeutic agents for antioxidant and cancer treatments, especially polysaccharides from H. erinaceus, L. edodes, and G. lucidum. PMID:25954912

  18. Effects of different drying methods on the product quality and volatile compounds of whole shiitake mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yuting; Zhao, Yingting; Huang, Jijun; Zeng, Hongliang; Zheng, Baodong

    2016-04-15

    Various drying methods play important roles in the preservation of foods. However, how the different drying methods affect the quality of some foods is not clear. This paper evaluates the effects of hot air, vacuum, microwave, and microwave vacuum drying techniques on important qualities and volatile compounds of whole shiitake (Lentinus edodes) mushrooms. These four drying methods resulted in a significantly (p<0.05) increase in the content of total free amino acids and the relative content of sulfur compounds of dried products. Microwave vacuum drying helped to maintain larger amounts of taste-active amino acids, and improved nutrient retention and color attributes. Furthermore, the uniform honeycomb network created by microwave vacuum drying along with a less collapsed structure of dried samples can be used to explain the observed high rehydration ratio. Therefore, microwave vacuum drying should be a potential method for obtaining high-quality dried mushrooms. PMID:26617008

  19. Preparation of polysaccharide loaded collagen membrane with anti-oxidative activity.

    PubMed

    Shu, Zibin; Ding, Shengli; He, Xiaohong; Dai, Xuemei; Xiao, Qian; Yang, Min; Leng, Xue; Ma, Yanshun; Yang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    The scavenging activity of polysaccharides from Lycium barbarum, Lentinus edodes and Ganoderma Lucidum Karst to DPPH free radicals was investigated. It was found that among the three polysaccharides, Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) exhibits the best scavenging activity. Polysaccharide loaded collagen membranes were prepared by mixing LBP with collagen, starch, glycerol, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and glutaraldehyde. In vitro drug release from membranes was evaluated. With increasing the immersion time, the release rate first increases and then slows down. Meanwhile, the scavenging activity to DPPH radicals exhibits similar variation, in agreement with a good release effect of the membrane. The optimal formulation of collagen membrane and preparation parameters were obtained considering the overall properties and the scavenging activity to radicals. PMID:26406078

  20. Degradation of lignin in pulp mill wastewaters by white-rot fungi on biofilm.

    PubMed

    Wu, Juan; Xiao, Ya-Zhong; Yu, Han-Qing

    2005-08-01

    An investigation was conducted to explore the lignin-degrading capacity of attached-growth white-rot fungi. Five white-rot fungi, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus, Lentinus edodes, Trametes versicolor and S22, grown on a porous plastic media, were individually used to treat black liquor from a pulp and paper mill. Over 71% of lignin and 48% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) were removed from the wastewater. Several factors, including pH, concentrations of carbon, nitrogen and trace elements in wastewater, all had significant effects on the degradation of lignin and the removal of COD. Three white-rot fungi, P. chrysosporium, P. ostreatus and S22, showed high capacity for lignin degradation at pH 9.0-11.0. The addition of 1 g l-1 glucose and 0.2 g l-1 ammonium tartrate was beneficial for the degradation of lignin by the white-rot fungi studied. PMID:15792583

  1. Synergistic Effect of Dietary Curcuma, Capsicum, and Lentinus on enhancing local immunity against Eimeria acervulina infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditionally, the application of prophylactic antibiotics has been successful in reducing infection-related morbidity and mortality in animal production. However, with increasing concerns over the widespread use of feed-added chemicals in animal production and the emergence of antibiotic resistant ...

  2. Distribution of trace metals at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site, Berks and Chester Counties, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Reif, Andrew G.

    2011-01-01

    Hopewell Furnace, located approximately 50 miles northwest of Philadelphia, was a cold-blast, charcoal iron furnace that operated for 113 years (1771 to 1883). The purpose of this study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, was to determine the distribution of trace metals released to the environment from an historical iron smelter at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site (NHS). Hopewell Furnace used iron ore from local mines that contained abundant magnetite and accessory sulfide minerals enriched in arsenic, cobalt, copper, and other metals. Ore, slag, cast iron furnace products, soil, groundwater, stream base flow, streambed sediment, and benthic macroinvertebrates were sampled for this study. Soil samples analyzed in the laboratory had concentrations of trace metals low enough to meet Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection standards for non-residential use. Groundwater samples from the supply well met U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water regulations. Concentrations of metals in surface-water base flow at the five stream sampling sites were below continuous concentration criteria for protection of aquatic organisms. Concentrations of metals in sediment at the five stream sites were below probable effects level guidelines for protection of aquatic organisms except for copper at site HF-3. Arsenic, copper, lead, zinc, and possibly cobalt were incorporated into the cast iron produced by Hopewell Furnace. Manganese was concentrated in slag along with iron, nickel, and zinc. The soil near the furnace has elevated concentrations of chromium, copper, iron, lead, and zinc compared to background soil concentrations. Concentrations of toxic elements were not present at concentrations of concern in water, soil, or stream sediments, despite being elevated in ore, slag, and cast iron furnace products. The base-flow surface-water samples indicated good overall quality. The five sampled sites generally had low concentrations of nutrients and major ions but had elevated concentrations of iron, manganese, and strontium when compared to sites sampled in adjacent watersheds. The background site on Baptism Creek generally had the lowest concentrations and yields of constituents. Low concentrations of nutrients and major ions at all five sites indicate that measured concentrations can be attributed to general land use and geology and not to point sources. Streambed-sediment sampling results indicated higher concentrations of all metals except nickel at sites on French Creek compared to the background site on Baptism Creek. Concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, and nickel were highest in sediment from the sampling site upstream from Hopewell Furnace. The highest concentrations of arsenic, boron, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, and zinc were detected at the site just below Hopewell Furnace, which indicates that the source of these metals may be in Hopewell Furnace NHS. The invertebrate community at the background site on Baptism Creek was dominated by pollution sensitive taxa indicating a healthy, diverse benthic-macroinvertebrate community. Benthic-macroinvertebrate communities at sampling sites on French Creek indicated disturbed communities when compared to the background site on Baptism Creek and that the overall stream quality immediately above and below Hopewell Furnace NHS is degraded. The benthic-macroinvertebrate communities were dominated by pollution-tolerant taxa, and taxa were less diverse than at the background site. Habitat conditions at the upstream site on French Creek were good but were degraded at downstream sites on French Creek. The major habitat issues at these sites were related to a lack of stable substrate, erosion, and deposition. Water quality and streambed-sediment quality do not indicate that the degraded benthic-macroinvertebrate communities are the result of poor water quality. Habitat conditions (erosion and sedimentation) and physical alterations (water temperature) from the outfall of Hopewell Lake are the most likely cause

  3. Geohydrology of the Furnace Creek basin and vicinity, Berks, Lancaster, and Lebanon counties, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cecil, L.D.

    1988-01-01

    The Furnace Creek basin is an area of 8.95 square miles, about three- fourths of which is underlain by metamorphic rocks of low permeability. Reported yields for 14 wells in these rocks range from 1 to 60 gal/min (gallons per minute), with a median of 7.5 gal/min. The northern part of the study area consists of highly permeable carbonate rocks. Nondomestic wells in these rocks typically yield from 200 to 300 gal/min and one well yields 1,200 gal/min. Ground-water discharge from a 4.18-square-mile drainage area underlain by Precambrian granitic and hornblende gneiss averaged 868,000 gallons per day per square mile from October 1983 through September 1985. Thus, as much as 3,630,000 gallons per day could be pumped from wells in this area on a sustained basis. However, pumping this amount would have major adverse effects on streamflow. A water-budget analysis for March 1984 to February 1985 showed that precipitation was 52.16 inches, streamflow was 26.38 inches, evapotranspiration was 29.29 inches, ground-water storage decreased by 5.94 inches and diversions made by Womelsdorf-Robesonia Joint Authority for water supply totaled 2.43 inches. Precipitation during this period was above normal. Four of 18 wells sampled for water quality had iron, manganese, or nitrate concentrations above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's recommended limits. The crystalline rocks in the study area yield soft to moderately hard water that is generally acidic.

  4. Evaluation of geophysical logs, phase I, for Crossley Farms Superfund Site, Berks County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conger, Randall W.

    1998-01-01

    Twenty-one wells were drilled at Crossley Farms Superfund Site between December 15, 1987, and May 1, 1988, to define and monitor the horizontal and vertical distribution of ground-water contamination emanating from a suspected contaminant source area (Blackhead Hill). Eight well clusters were drilled on or near the Crossley Site and three well clusters were drilled at locations hydrologically down gradient from the site. Depths of wells range from 21 to 299 feet below land surface. These wells were installed in saprolite in shallow, intermediate, and deep water-producing zones of the fractured bedrock aquifer. Borehole-geophysical and video logging were conducted between April 24, 1997, and May 8, 1997, to determine the water-producing zones, water-receiving zones, zones of vertical flow, borehole depth, and casing integrity in each well. This data and interpretation will be used to determine the location of the well intake for the existing open-hole wells, which will be retrofitted to isolate and monitor water-producing zones and prevent further cross-contamination within each open borehole, and identify wells that may need rehabilitation or replacement. Caliper and video logs were used to locate fractures, inflections on fluid-temperature and fluidresistivity logs indicated possible fluid-bearing fractures, and flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Single-point-resistance and natural-gamma logs provided information on stratigraphy. After interpretation of geophysical logs, video logs, and driller?s notes, all wells will be constructed so that water-level fluctuations can be monitored and discrete water samples collected from shallow, intermediate, and deep water-bearing zones in each well. Geophysical logs were run on seven bedrock and two deep bedrock wells. Gamma logs were run on 10 bedrock wells. Twenty-two wells were inspected visually with the borehole video camera for casing integrity.

  5. Hepatoprotective Effects of Panus giganteus (Berk.) Corner against Thioacetamide- (TAA-) Induced Liver Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Wei-Lun; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Chua, Kek-Heng; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Tan, Yee-Shin; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2012-01-01

    Panus giganteus, a culinary and medicinal mushroom consumed by selected indigenous communities in Malaysia, is currently being considered for large scale cultivation. This study was undertaken to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of P. giganteus against thioacetamide- (TAA-) induced liver injury in Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were injected intraperitoneally with TAA thrice weekly and were orally administered freeze-dried fruiting bodies of P. giganteus (0.5 or 1 g/kg) daily for two months, while control rats were given vehicle or P. giganteus only. After 60 days, rats administered with P. giganteus showed lower liver body weight ratio, restored levels of serum liver biomarkers and oxidative stress parameters comparable to treatment with the standard drug silymarin. Gross necropsy and histopathological examination further confirmed the hepatoprotective effects of P. giganteus. This is the first report on hepatoprotective effects of P. giganteus. The present study showed that P. giganteus was able to prevent or reduce the severity of TAA-induced liver injury. PMID:22649470

  6. Diplonine, a neurotoxin isolated from cultures of the fungus Stenocarpella maydis (Berk.) Sacc. that induces diplodiosis.

    PubMed

    Snyman, Leendert D; Kellerman, T Stephanus; Vleggaar, Robert; Flett, Bradley C; Basson, Karin M; Schultz, R Anitra

    2011-08-24

    Diplodiosis is a neuromycotoxicosis of cattle and sheep caused by ingestion of maize infected with the ear-rot fungus Stenocarpella (= Diplodia ) maydis . Apart from ataxia, paresis, and paralysis, the toxin is responsible for stillbirths and neonatal losses characterized by the presence of spongiform degeneration in the white matter of the brain in the offspring of dams exposed to infected maize cobs. In the present study a toxin, named diplonine, which induced neurological signs in guinea pigs resembling some of those occurring in cattle and sheep, was isolated from S. maydis cultures. Purification of diplonine was achieved by methanol extraction followed by chromatographic separation on silica gel and RP-18 stationary phases. The structure and relative configuration of diplonine were defined by analysis of NMR and MS data as (S)-2-amino-2-[(1R,2S)-1-hydroxy-2-methylcyclopropyl]acetic acid or the (S)-2-amino-2-[(1S,2R)-diastereomer. PMID:21780820

  7. 76 FR 1134 - Foreign-Trade Zone 147-Berks County, PA; Site Renumbering Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... acres)-- Chambersburg Industrial Park; Site 10 (1214)--Cumberland Valley Business Park, Franklin County; Site 11 (310 acres)--ProLogis Park 81, Interstate 81 and Walnut Bottom Road, Cumberland County; Site...

  8. 76 FR 12022 - Foreign-Trade Zone 147-Berks County, PA; Site Renumbering Notice; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... The Federal Register notice (76 FR 1134, 1/7/11) describing the renumbering of sites within Foreign... acres)--Cumberland Valley Business Park (formerly Letterkenny Army Depot), 5121A Coffey Avenue, Franklin County; Site 11 (310 acres)--ProLogis Park 81, Interstate 81 and Walnut Bottom Road, Cumberland...

  9. J. Edward Berk distinguished lecture: avoiding burnout: finding balance between work and everything else.

    PubMed

    Surawicz, Christina M

    2014-04-01

    Burnout has been defined as "a state of mental exhaustion caused by one's professional life." Increasing evidence shows high rates of burnout among medical professionals, including gastroenterologists. Factors that contribute to burnout include work-home conflict and longer work hours. Among gastroenterologists, the risk for burnout seems to be highest during the first three years on the job after fellowship. Strategies to treat and prevent burnout include identifying and balancing personal and professional goals, shaping one's career to optimize meaning, identifying stressors, and nurturing wellness strategies. PMID:24642578

  10. Bacteriological water quality of Tulpehocken Creek basin, Berks and Lebanon Counties, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, James L.

    1978-01-01

    A four month intensive study of the bacteriological quality of water in the Tulpehocken Creek basin indicates that (1) the streams locally contain high densities of bacteria indicative of fecal contamination, (2) nonpoint waste sources, particularly livestock, are the dominant influence in the excessive bacteriological-indicator counts observed, and (3) retention time of water in the proposed Blue Marsh Lake is believed sufficient to reduce bacteria densities to acceptable levels except following intense rainfall and runoff events during normally low flow periods.

  11. Immune-enhancing effects of Maitake (Grifola frondosa) and Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) extracts

    PubMed Central

    Vetvickova, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of glucan in stimulation of immune reactions has been studied for several decades. In this report, we focused on the effects of orally administered glucan Maitake and Shiitake on immune reactions. Materials and methods We measured phagocytosis, NK cell activity, and secretion of IL-6, IL-12, IFN-γ as well as C-reactive protein (CRP) after 14 days of oral application of tested glucans. For comparison, active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) was used in all reactions. Results We found significant stimulation of defense reaction. In all cases, the most active was the Maitake-Shiitake combination, with Maitake alone being the second strongest, followed by Shiitake on its own and AHCC. Conclusions Short-term oral application of natural immunomodulating glucans from Maitake and Shiitake mushrooms strongly stimulated both the cellular and humoral branch of immune reactions. These activities were significantly higher than those of AHCC. PMID:25332990

  12. Preparation, characterization, and biological properties of β-glucans.

    PubMed

    Rahar, Sandeep; Swami, Gaurav; Nagpal, Navneet; Nagpal, Manisha A; Singh, Gagan Shah

    2011-04-01

    β-Glucans are soluble fibers with physiological functions, such as, interference with absorption of sugars and reduction of serum lipid levels. β-glucans are found in different species, such as, Rhynchelytrum repens, Lentinus edodes, Grifola frondosa, Tremella mesenterica, Tremella aurantia, Zea may, Agaricus blazei, Phellinus baummi, Saccharomyces cerevisae (yeast), and Agaricus blazei murell (mushroom). Analysis of the fractions reveals the presence of arabinose, glucose, xylose, and traces of rhamnose and galactose. The presence of β-glucan in these fractions is confirmed by hydrolyzing the polymers with endo-β-glucanase from Bacillus subtilis, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the characteristic oligosaccharides produced. The 4 M KOH fractions from different tissues are subjected to gel permeation chromatography on Sepharose 4B, with separation of polysaccharides, with different degrees of polymerization, the highest molecular mass (above 2000 kDa) being found in young leaves. The molecular mass of the leaf blade polymers is similar (250 kDa) to that of the maize coleoptiles β-glucan used for comparison. The 4 M KOH fraction injected into rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes has shown hypoglycemic activity, reducing blood sugar to normal levels for approximately 24 hours. This performance is better than that obtained with pure β-glucan from barley, which decreases blood sugar levels for about four hours. These results suggest that the activity of β-glucans is responsible for the use of this plant extract as a hypoglycemic drug in folk medicine. PMID:22171300

  13. Discrimination method of the volatiles from fresh mushrooms by an electronic nose using a trapping system and statistical standardization to reduce sensor value variation.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Kouki; Shimizu, Nobuo; Manome, Yoshinobu; Ikeda, Keiichi; Yamamoto, Kenji; Tomizawa, Yasuko

    2013-01-01

    Electronic noses have the benefit of obtaining smell information in a simple and objective manner, therefore, many applications have been developed for broad analysis areas such as food, drinks, cosmetics, medicine, and agriculture. However, measurement values from electronic noses have a tendency to vary under humidity or alcohol exposure conditions, since several types of sensors in the devices are affected by such variables. Consequently, we show three techniques for reducing the variation of sensor values: (1) using a trapping system to reduce the infering components; (2) performing statistical standardization (calculation of z-score); and (3) selecting suitable sensors. With these techniques, we discriminated the volatiles of four types of fresh mushrooms: golden needle (Flammulina velutipes), white mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), shiitake (Lentinus edodes), and eryngii (Pleurotus eryngii) among six fresh mushrooms (hen of the woods (Grifola frondosa), shimeji (Hypsizygus marmoreus) plus the above mushrooms). Additionally, we succeeded in discrimination of white mushroom, only comparing with artificial mushroom flavors, such as champignon flavor and truffle flavor. In conclusion, our techniques will expand the options to reduce variations in sensor values. PMID:24233028

  14. The cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tongtong; Beelman, Robert B; Lambert, Joshua D

    2012-12-01

    An increasing body of scientific literature suggests that dietary components may exert cancer preventive effects. Tea, soy, cruciferous vegetables and other foods have been investigated for their cancer preventive potential. Some non-edible mushrooms like Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) have a history use, both alone and in conjunction with standard therapies, for the treatment of various diseases including cancer in some cultures. They have shown efficacy in a number of scientific studies. By comparison, the potential cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms have been less well-studied. With similar content of putative effective anticancer compounds such as polysaccharides, proteoglycans, steroids, etc., one might predict that edible mushrooms would also demonstrate anticancer and cancer preventive activity. In this review, available data for five commonly-consumed edible mushrooms: button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), A. blazei, oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes), and maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms is discussed. The results of animal model and human intervention studies, as well as supporting in vitro mechanistic studies are critically evaluated. Weaknesses in the current data and topics for future work are highlighted. PMID:22583406

  15. Storage temperature and UV-irradiation influence on the ergosterol content in edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Villares, Ana; Mateo-Vivaracho, Laura; García-Lafuente, Ana; Guillamón, Eva

    2014-03-15

    Ergosterol (5,7,22-ergostatrien-3β-ol) and ergosteryl derivatives from different genera of edible mushrooms were separated and quantified by an isocratic reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The technique allowed a rapid separation of free ergosterol and two ergosteryl derivatives occurring in mushrooms. The ergosterol content varied considerably depending on the fungus. Thus, the species Agaricus bisporus and Hygrophorus marzuolus presented high quantities of ergosterol (6.4-6.8 mg/g, dry matter) followed by Pleurotus ostreatus, Calocybe gambosa, Lentinus edodes, and Boletus edulis (3.3-4.0mg/g). In contrast, other species, such as Cantharellus cibarius, Lactarius deliciosus and Craterellus cornucopioides, contained significantly lower ergosterol amounts (0.2-0.4 mg/g). Two ergosteryl derivatives were found in mushrooms and also the content depended on the fungus. The stability of ergosterol, in terms of the formation of ergosterol peroxide, was evaluated under different storage temperatures and UV radiation. The lower the temperature (-20°C) and the radiation time (10 min), the lower ergosterol oxidation was observed. PMID:24206714

  16. Chemical composition and nutrition value of dried cultivated culinary-medicinal mushrooms from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cağlarirmak, Necla

    2011-01-01

    Dietary fiber, raw fiber, fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose, vitamin A (retinol), B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), B6 (pyridoxine), and niacin contents of dried cultivated mushroom species Agaricus bisporus (white and brown), Lentinus edodes, and Pleurotus ostreatus were determined and evaluated for nutrient and chemical composition. Assays of dried mushroom samples were carried out after the drying process. Dried shiitake samples showed the highest dietary fiber and raw fiber content (23.23 +/- 0.018 and 9.71 +/- 0.039 microg/100 g, respectively). Mushrooms in this study were valuable sources of vitamins such as retinol, thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine, and niacin. A. bisporus contained the highest vitamin A content (43.93 +/- 1.85 microg/100 g) and shiitake had the highest contents of thiamine and pyridoxine (0.63 +/- 0.012 and 0.56 +/- 0.01 mg/100 g, respectively). Portobello had the highest riboflavin and niacin contents (0.90 +/- 0.015 and 8.37 +/- 0.17 mg/100 g, respectively). PMID:22164765

  17. A novel and potent ribonuclease from fruiting bodies of the mushroom Pleurotus pulmonarius.

    PubMed

    Ye, X Y; Ng, T B

    2002-05-01

    A ribonuclease (RNase), with an N-terminal sequence different from those of ribonucleases from the mushrooms Irpex lacteus, Lentinus edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus tuber-regium, and Volvariella volvacea, was purified from fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Pleurotus pulmonarius. The N-terminal sequence of P. pulmonarius RNase manifested homology to a portion of the sequences of ribosome inactivating protein abrin-b, abrin-c, and abrin-d, and Bacillus subtilis transcriptional regulator. The ribonuclease was adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel, CM-Sepharose, and Mono S. It displayed a molecular mass of 14.4 kDa in both sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel filtration on Superdex 75. The ribonuclease exhibited an activity of 25 114 U/mg on yeast tRNA. The highest ribonucleolytic activity was demonstrated toward poly C, followed by poly A, and then by poly G. There was no activity toward poly U. The optimal pH for its activity was 7 and the optimal temperature was 55 degrees C. It inhibited cell-free translation in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate with an IC50 of 0.33 nM. PMID:12054550

  18. Isolation of a new ribonuclease from fruiting bodies of the silver plate mushroom Clitocybe maxima.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hexiang; Ng, T B

    2004-06-01

    A ribonuclease, with an N-terminal sequence exhibiting some homology to ribonuclease from Pleurotus ostreatus (Family Pleurotaceae), has been purified from fruiting bodies of the silver plate mushroom Clitocybe maxima (Family Tricholomataceae). However, there is little resemblance between the N-terminal sequences of ribonucleases from various Pleurotus species, and a lesser extent of resemblance between ribonucleases from C. maxima and Pleurotus tuber-regium. No structural relationship exists between ribonuclease from C. maxima, and those from Volvariella volvacea, Lentinus edodes and Irpex lacteus. The purification protocol involved ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on CM-Sepharose, and fast protein liquid chromatography on Superdex 75. The ribonuclease was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose and adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel and CM-Sepharose. It exhibited a molecular mass of 17.5 kDa in both gel filtration and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. It manifested roughly the same ribonucleolytic potency toward poly A and poly G followed by poly U. Its activity toward poly C was, by comparison, meager. The temperature and pH required for its optimal activity were, respectively, 70 degrees C and 6.5-7.0. PMID:15203239

  19. Anti-inflammatory effects of five commercially available mushroom species determined in lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ activated murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Gunawardena, Dhanushka; Bennett, Louise; Shanmugam, Kirubakaran; King, Kerryn; Williams, Roderick; Zabaras, Dimitrios; Head, Richard; Ooi, Lezanne; Gyengesi, Erika; Münch, Gerald

    2014-04-01

    Inflammation is a well-known contributing factor to many age-related chronic diseases. One of the possible strategies to suppress inflammation is the employment of functional foods with anti-inflammatory properties. Edible mushrooms are attracting more and more attention as functional foods since they are rich in bioactive compounds, but their anti-inflammatory properties and the effect of food processing steps on this activity has not been systematically investigated. In the present study, White Button and Honey Brown (both Agaricus bisporus), Shiitake (Lentinus edodes), Enoki (Flammulina velutipes) and Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) preparations were tested for their anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) activated murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. Potent anti-inflammatory activity (IC₅₀<0.1 mg/ml), measured as inhibition of NO production, could be detected in all raw mushroom preparations, but only raw Oyster (IC₅₀=0.035 mg/ml), Shiitake (IC₅₀=0.047 mg/ml) and Enoki mushrooms (IC₅₀=0.099 mg/ml) showed also potent inhibition of TNF-α production. When the anti-inflammatory activity was followed through two food-processing steps, which involved ultrasonication and heating, a significant portion of the anti-inflammatory activity was lost suggesting that the anti-inflammatory compounds might be susceptible to heating or prone to evaporation. PMID:24262531

  20. Recent progress of research on medicinal mushrooms, foods, and other herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Yang, Xiaoming; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Ting; Wu, Shou-Fang; Shi, Qian; Itokawa, Hideji

    2012-04-01

    This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms ( bā xī mó gū; Agaricus blazei, yún zhī; Coriolus versicolor, líng zhī; Ganoderma lucidum, xiāng xùn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, niú zhāng zhī; Taiwanofungus camphoratus), Cordyceps ( dōng chóng xià cǎo), pomegranate ( shí liú; Granati Fructus), green tea ( lǜ chá; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum), garlic ( dà suàn; Allii Sativi Bulbus), turmeric ( jiāng huáng; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma), and Artemisiae Annuae Herba ( qīng hāo; sweet wormwood). Many of the discussed herbal products have gained popularity in their uses as dietary supplements for health benefits. The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716120

  1. Preparation, characterization, and biological properties of β-glucans

    PubMed Central

    Rahar, Sandeep; Swami, Gaurav; Nagpal, Navneet; Nagpal, Manisha A.; Singh, Gagan Shah

    2011-01-01

    β-Glucans are soluble fibers with physiological functions, such as, interference with absorption of sugars and reduction of serum lipid levels. β-glucans are found in different species, such as, Rhynchelytrum repens, Lentinus edodes, Grifola frondosa, Tremella mesenterica, Tremella aurantia, Zea may, Agaricus blazei, Phellinus baummi, Saccharomyces cerevisae (yeast), and Agaricus blazei murell (mushroom). Analysis of the fractions reveals the presence of arabinose, glucose, xylose, and traces of rhamnose and galactose. The presence of β-glucan in these fractions is confirmed by hydrolyzing the polymers with endo-β-glucanase from Bacillus subtilis, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the characteristic oligosaccharides produced. The 4 M KOH fractions from different tissues are subjected to gel permeation chromatography on Sepharose 4B, with separation of polysaccharides, with different degrees of polymerization, the highest molecular mass (above 2000 kDa) being found in young leaves. The molecular mass of the leaf blade polymers is similar (250 kDa) to that of the maize coleoptiles β-glucan used for comparison. The 4 M KOH fraction injected into rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes has shown hypoglycemic activity, reducing blood sugar to normal levels for approximately 24 hours. This performance is better than that obtained with pure β-glucan from barley, which decreases blood sugar levels for about four hours. These results suggest that the activity of β-glucans is responsible for the use of this plant extract as a hypoglycemic drug in folk medicine. PMID:22171300

  2. Screen and effect analysis of immunostimulants for sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiye; Sun, Xiuqin; Zheng, Fengrong; Hao, Linhua

    2009-02-01

    Immunostimulants may improve disease resistance of aquaculture animals by promoting the nonspecific immunity response of the organisms. Five types of saccharides, including chitosan, yeast polysaccharide, burdock oligosaccharide, seaweed polysaccharide and lentinus edodes polysaccharide, were screened for potential use as immunostimulants by using spectrophotometry. The saccharides were injected into Apostichopus japonicus, a sea cucumber, and the lysozyme and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities of the coelomic fluid and epidermal slime were monitored in six consecutive days. The results show that the lysozyme activity of the animal’s coelomic fluid was significantly stimulated on day 2, day 4 and day 6 after the injection of the saccharides ( P<0.05). The effects of chitosan and yeast polysaccharide were the most notable. The lysozyme activity of the epidermal slime was significantly increased by chitosana, yeast polysaccharide, seaweed polysaccharide, and burdock oligosaccharide on day 1 and day 2 after the injection ( P<0.05). The SOD activity of the coelomic fluid was significantly promoted by the saccharides on day 2 and day 4 post-injection ( P<0.05), while the SOD activity of the epidermal slime increased on day 2. These findings indicate that chitosan and yeast polysaccharide are the most effective immunostimulants and potential healthy anti-disease feedstuff for A. japonicus.

  3. Discrimination Method of the Volatiles from Fresh Mushrooms by an Electronic Nose Using a Trapping System and Statistical Standardization to Reduce Sensor Value Variation

    PubMed Central

    Fujioka, Kouki; Shimizu, Nobuo; Manome, Yoshinobu; Ikeda, Keiichi; Yamamoto, Kenji; Tomizawa, Yasuko

    2013-01-01

    Electronic noses have the benefit of obtaining smell information in a simple and objective manner, therefore, many applications have been developed for broad analysis areas such as food, drinks, cosmetics, medicine, and agriculture. However, measurement values from electronic noses have a tendency to vary under humidity or alcohol exposure conditions, since several types of sensors in the devices are affected by such variables. Consequently, we show three techniques for reducing the variation of sensor values: (1) using a trapping system to reduce the infering components; (2) performing statistical standardization (calculation of z-score); and (3) selecting suitable sensors. With these techniques, we discriminated the volatiles of four types of fresh mushrooms: golden needle (Flammulina velutipes), white mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), shiitake (Lentinus edodes), and eryngii (Pleurotus eryngii) among six fresh mushrooms (hen of the woods (Grifola frondosa), shimeji (Hypsizygus marmoreus) plus the above mushrooms). Additionally, we succeeded in discrimination of white mushroom, only comparing with artificial mushroom flavors, such as champignon flavor and truffle flavor. In conclusion, our techniques will expand the options to reduce variations in sensor values. PMID:24233028

  4. The Anticaries Effect of a Food Extract (Shiitake) in a Short-Term Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Lingström, Peter; Zaura, Egija; Hassan, Haidar; Buijs, Mark J.; Hedelin, Pamie; Pratten, Jonathan; Spratt, David; Daglia, Maria; Karbowiak, Aneta; Signoretto, Caterina; Rosema, Martijn; van der Weijden, Fridus; Wilson, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The main objective was to investigate whether low-molecular-weight fraction of edible mushroom shiitake extract (Lentinus edodes) possesses caries-preventive properties. The study was designed as a double-blind, three-leg, cross-over, randomized, controlled clinical trial carried out on two series of volunteers at the University of Gothenburg, and the Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam. Volunteers rinsed twice daily with a solution containing low-molecular-weight fraction of edible mushroom, placebo (negative control without active ingredients), or Meridol (positive control, AmF-SnF2) for two weeks, with a two-week washout period between each rinsing period. Changes in the acidogenicity of dental plaque before and after a sucrose challenge, shifts in microbial composition, and plaque scores were determined. Frequent rinses with shiitake reduced the metabolic activity of dental plaque. No reduction of plaque scores and no inhibition of the production of organic acids in plaque was found. Minor differences in microbial composition between test sessions were found. To conclude, the results indicate that shiitake extract has anticariogenic potential, but not to the same extent as the positive control. PMID:22500081

  5. Morphologies and conformation transition of lentinan in aqueous NaOH solution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xufeng; Zhang, Lina; Xu, Xiaojuan

    2004-10-01

    Molecular morphologies and conformation transition of lentinan, a beta-(1-->3)-D-glucan from Lentinus edodes, were studied in aqueous NaOH solution by atomic force microscopy (AFM), viscometry, multiangle laser light scattering, and optical rotation measurements. The results revealed that lentinan exists as triple-helical chains and as single random-coil chains at NaOH concentration lower than 0.05M and higher than 0.08M, respectively. Moreover, the dramatic changes in weight-average molecular weight Mw, radius of gyration [s2](1/2), intrinsic viscosity [eta], as well as specific optical rotation at 589 nm [alpha]589 occurred in a narrow range of NaOH concentration between 0.05 and 0.08M NaOH, indicating that the helix-coil conformation transition of lentinan was carried out more easily than that of native schizophyllan and scleroglucan, and was irreversible. For the first time, we confirmed that the denatured lentinan molecule, which was dissolved in 0.15M NaOH to be disrupted into single coil chains, could be renatured as triple helical chain by dialyzing against abundant water in the regenerated cellulose tube at ambient temperature (15 degrees C). In view of the AFM image, lentinan in aqueous solution exhibited the linear, circular, and branched species of triple helix compared with native linear schizophyllan or scleroglucan. PMID:15356872

  6. Bioactive and Structural Metabolites of Pseudomonas and Burkholderia Species Causal Agents of Cultivated Mushrooms Diseases1

    PubMed Central

    Andolfi, Anna; Cimmino, Alessio; Cantore, Pietro Lo; Iacobellis, Nicola Sante; Evidente, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Pseudomonas tolaasii, P. reactans and Burkholderia gladioli pv. agaricicola, are responsible of diseases on some species of cultivated mushrooms. The main bioactive metabolites produced by both Pseudomonas strains are the lipodepsipeptides (LDPs) tolaasin I and II and the so called White Line Inducing Principle (WLIP), respectively, LDPs which have been extensively studied for their role in the disease process and for their biological properties. In particular, their antimicrobial activity and the alteration of biological and model membranes (red blood cell and liposomes) was established. In the case of tolaasin I interaction with membranes was also related to the tridimensional structure in solution as determined by NMR combined with molecular dynamic calculation techniques. Recently, five news minor tolaasins, tolaasins A–E, were isolated from the culture filtrates of P. tolaasii and their chemical structure was determined by extensive use of NMR and MS spectroscopy. Furthermore, their antimicrobial activity was evaluated on target micro-organisms (fungi—including the cultivated mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, Lentinus edodes, and Pleurotus spp.—chromista, yeast and bacteria). The Gram positive bacteria resulted the most sensible and a significant structure-activity relationships was apparent. The isolation and structure determination of bioactive metabolites produced by B. gladioli pv. agaricicola are still in progress but preliminary results indicate their peptide nature. Furthermore, the exopolysaccharide (EPS) from the culture filtrates of B. gladioli pv. agaricicola, as well as the O-chain and lipid A, from the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of the three bacteria, were isolated and the structures determined. PMID:19787100

  7. Cellular and physiological effects of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi).

    PubMed

    Sliva, Daniel

    2004-10-01

    In Asia, a variety of dietary products have been used for centuries as popular remedies to prevent or treat different diseases. A large number of herbs and extracts from medicinal mushrooms are used for the treatment of diseases. Mushrooms such as Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi), Lentinus edodes (Shiitake), Grifola frondosa (Maitake), Hericium erinaceum (Yamabushitake), and Inonotus obliquus (Chaga) have been collected and consumed in China, Korea, and Japan for centuries. Until recently, these mushrooms were largely unknown in the West and were considered 'fungi' without any nutritional value. However, most mushrooms are rich in vitamins, fiber, and amino acids and low in fat, cholesterol, and calories. These mushrooms contain a large variety of biologically active polysaccharides with immunostimulatory properties, which contribute to their anticancer effects. Furthermore, other bioactive substances, including triterpenes, proteins, lipids, cerebrosides, and phenols, have been identified and characterized in medicinal mushrooms. This review summarizes the biological effects of Ganoderma lucidum upon specific signaling molecules and pathways, which are responsible for its therapeutic effects. PMID:15544548

  8. Isolation of laccase gene-specific sequences from white rot and brown rot fungi by PCR

    SciTech Connect

    D`Souza, T.M.; Boominathan, K.; Reddy, C.A.

    1996-10-01

    Degenerate primers corresponding to the consensus sequences of the copper-binding regions in the N-terminal domains of known basidiomycete laccases were used to isolate laccase gene-specific sequences from strains representing nine genera of wood rot fungi. All except three gave the expected PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequences of each of the PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequence of each of the PCR products analyzed as a laccase gene sequence, suggesting the specificity of the primers. PCR products of the white rot fungi Ganoderma lucidum, Phlebia brevispora, and Trametes versicolor showed 65 to 74% nucleotide sequence similarity to each other; the similarity in deduced amino acid sequences was 83 to 91%. The PCR products of Lentinula edodes and Lentinus tigrinus, on the other hand, showed relatively low nucleotide and amino acid similarities (58 to 64 and 62 to 81%, respectively); however, these similarities were still much higher than when compared with the corresponding regions in the laccases of the ascomycete fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa. A few of the white rot fungi, as well as Gloeophyllum trabeum, a brown rot fungus, gave a 144-bp PCR fragment which had a nucleotide sequence similarity of 60 to 71%. Demonstration of laccase activity in G. trabeum and several other brown rot fungi was of particular interest because these organisms were not previously shown to produce laccases. 36 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Synthesis and swelling properties of β-cyclodextrin-based superabsorbent resin with network structure.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhanhua; Liu, Shouxin; Fang, Guizhen; Zhang, Bin

    2013-02-15

    A biodegradable, β-cyclodextrin-based superabsorbent resin was synthesized by the inverse suspension method. The microstructure, chemical structure, and thermal performance of the resin were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. The effects of the synthesis conditions (dosage of cross-linking agent, mass ratios of acrylic acid to acrylamide, mass ratios of β-cyclodextrin to total monomer, neutralization degree, initiator dosage, and reaction time) were optimized to achieve a resin with a maximum swelling capacity. The water absorbency of the optimized resin in distilled water was 1544.76 g/g and that in 0.9 wt.% NaCl was 144.52 g/g. The resin, which is thermoplastic as well as pH-sensitive, had good salt resistance and underwent a maximum in swelling with time in CaCl(2) and AlCl(3) solutions. The fracture surface of the dry resin contained many pores. After swelling, the internal hydrogel showed a typical three-dimensional network structure. The biodegradation of the resin reached 71.2% after 18 days treatment at 30 °C with Lentinus edodes. PMID:23399293

  10. Surface properties of polyurethanes modified by bioactive polysaccharide-based polyelectrolyte multilayers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yifeng; Hong, Qunfeng; Chen, Yanjun; Lian, Xinxin; Xiong, Yanfei

    2012-12-01

    Lentinan, a mushroom polysaccharide, isolated from Lentinus edodes (Shiitake mushroom) was sulfated in dimethylsulfoxide to obtain a water-soluble derivative coded as LS. Then, two polysaccharide-based polyelectrolytes, polyanionic lentinan sulfate (LS) and polycationic chitosan (CS), were alternatively deposited onto the surfaces of polyurethane (PU) via layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique. The surfaces modified by polysaccharide-based multilayers were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle measurements. The fibrinogen adsorption and platelet adhesion to the surfaces, cytocompatibility to L-929 cells, and antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa of unmodified PU and LbL-modified PU were tested in vitro, respectively. The results showed that the water contact angle decreased gradually during the successive buildup of the polysaccharide-based multilayers, and decreased slowly after four bilayers were assembled. The surface roughness of PU modified by five bilayers (LS as topmost layer) increased compared with that of unmodified PU. The fibrinogen adsorption on the surface decreased 81% after assembly of five bilayers (LS as topmost layer). The number of adherent platelets on the surface modified by five bilayers (LS as topmost layer) is reduced, in comparison with that of the unmodified PU. The tests of L-929 cells indicated that LbL-modified PU surfaces had better cytocompatibility than unmodified PU. In addition, PU modified by polysaccharide-based multilayers showed antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa. PMID:22771524

  11. Trypsin-specific inhibitors from the basidiomycete Clitocybe nebularis with regulatory and defensive functions.

    PubMed

    Avanzo, Petra; Sabotic, Jerica; Anzlovar, Sabina; Popovic, Tatjana; Leonardi, Adrijana; Pain, Roger H; Kos, Janko; Brzin, Joze

    2009-12-01

    We have isolated serine protease inhibitors from the basidiomycete Clitocybe nebularis, CnSPIs, using trypsin affinity chromatography. Full-length gene and cDNA sequences were determined for one of them, named cnispin, and the recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli at high yield. The primary structure and biochemical properties of cnispin are very similar to those of the Lentinus edodes serine protease inhibitor, until now the only member of the I66 family of protease inhibitors in the MEROPS classification. Cnispin is highly specific towards trypsin, with K(i) in the nanomolar range. It also exhibited weaker inhibition of chymotrypsin and very weak inhibition of subtilisin and kallikrein; other proteases were not inhibited. Inhibitory activity against endogenous proteases from C. nebularis revealed a possible regulatory role for CnSPIs in the endogenous proteolytic system. Another possible biological function in defence against predatory insects was indicated by the deleterious effect of CnSPIs on the development of larvae of Drosophila melanogaster. These findings, together with the biochemical and genetic characterization of cnispin, suggest a dual physiological role for this serine protease inhibitor of the I66 MEROPS family. PMID:19696108

  12. Antimutagenic effect of Phellinus rimosus (Berk) Pilat against chemical induced mutations of histidine dependent Salmonella typhimurium strains.

    PubMed

    Ajith, T A; Janardhanan, K K

    2011-10-01

    Mutations are one of the important factors contributing to oncogenesis. Somatic mutations have been detected in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in various types of cancers. In vitro antimutagenic activity of ethyl acetate extract of macro fungus, Phellinus rimosus was evaluated by Ames' mutagenicity assay. The effect was evaluated against the direct acting mutagens (sodium azide, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, doxorubicin and 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine) and mutagen needing activation (2-acetyl aminofluorine, and benzo[a]pyrene). The extract was significantly (p<0.05) and dose dependently effective against direct acting mutagens and mutagen needing activation. Among the antimutagenic activity against directly acting mutagens, effect was found to be highest against doxorubicin-induced mutation. The antimutagenic effect of the extract against indirect acting mutagen in the presence of mammalian metabolic activation system was also found to be significant (p<0.01). The background bacterial growth and number of revertant colonies in the extract alone treated plate with or with out metabolic activator was almost same as that of spontaneous revertants. This indicated the non-toxic nature of the extract. The effect was partially ascribed to the antioxidant activity. The results of the study suggest the possible antitumor mechanisms of P. rimosus. PMID:21784121

  13. 78 FR 70537 - University of California, Berkely, et al.; Notice of Decision on Application for Duty-Free Entry...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    .... Intended Use: See notice at 78 FR 7399-7400, February 1, 2013. Comments: None received. Decision: Approved... the enzymatic activity of an RNA II polymerase along its template, a DNA gene, while synthesizing the... view of transcription through nucleosomal DNA. By visualizing transcription steps, it is possible...

  14. Pleurotus giganteus (Berk.) Karunarathna & K.D. Hyde: Nutritional value and in vitro neurite outgrowth activity in rat pheochromocytoma cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Drugs dedicated to alleviate neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s have always been associated with debilitating side effects. Medicinal mushrooms which harness neuropharmacological compounds offer a potential possibility for protection against such diseases. Pleurotus giganteus (formerly known as Panus giganteus) has been consumed by the indigenous people in Peninsular Malaysia for many years. Domestication of this wild mushroom is gaining popularity but to our knowledge, medicinal properties reported for this culinary mushroom are minimal. Methods The fruiting bodies P. giganteus were analysed for its nutritional values. Cytotoxicity of the mushroom’s aqueous and ethanolic extracts towards PC12, a rat pheochromocytoma cell line was assessed by using 3-[4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Neurite outgrowth stimulation assay was carried out with nerve growth factor (NGF) as control. To elucidate signaling mechanisms involved by mushroom extract-induced neurite outgrowth, treatment of specific inhibitor for MEK/ERK and PI3K signalling pathway was carried out. Results The fruiting bodies of P. giganteus were found to have high carbohydrate, dietary fibre, potassium, phenolic compounds and triterpenoids. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts induced neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells in a dose- and time-dependant manner with no detectable cytotoxic effect. At day 3, 25 μg/ml of aqueous extract and 15 μg/ml of ethanolic extract showed the highest percentage of neurite-bearing cells, i.e. 31.7 ± 1.1% and 33.3 ± 0.9%; respectively. Inhibition treatment results suggested that MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt are responsible for neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells stimulated by P. giganteus extract. The high potassium content (1345.7 mg/100 g) may be responsible for promoting neurite extension, too. Conclusions P. giganteus contains bioactive compounds that mimic NGF and are responsible for neurite stimulation. Hence, this mushroom may be developed as a nutraceutical for the mitigation of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:22812497

  15. 77 FR 3500 - Reading Powder Coatings, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Berks and Beyond Employment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ... November 3, 2011 (76 FR 68220). At the request of the State agency, the Department reviewed the... Employment and Training Administration Reading Powder Coatings, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From..., applicable to workers of Reading Powder Coatings, Inc., Reading, Pennsylvania. The workers are engaged...

  16. 76 FR 73684 - Tiger Drylac USA, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Berks and Beyond Employment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... production of powder coatings. Specifically, the workers provided customer service, IT, and lab services. The notice was published in the Federal Register on November 3, 2011 (76 FR 68220). At the request of the... to include all workers of the subject firm adversely affected by a shift in the production of...

  17. Versatile applications of the culinary-medicinal mushroom Mycoleptodonoides aitchisonii (Berk.) Maas G. (Higher Basidiomycetes): a review.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Gayathri; Oh, Deuk-Sil; Shin, Hyun-Jae

    2012-01-01

    Higher Basidiomycetes medicinal mushroom Mycoleptodonoides aitchisonii has become attractive as a natural health product because of its antihypertensive effects on human health. Moreover, the food industry is especially interested in the preparation of the nutritional tonic of this mushroom. Various studies on this mushroom have shown that it has antidiabetic, antihypertensive, and antioxidant effects. The aim of this review is to report the present findings from studies on this mushroom and to discuss its future prospects. PMID:23510177

  18. The mode of interaction between Vitis and Plasmopara viticola Berk. & Curt. Ex de Bary depends on the host species.

    PubMed

    Jürges, G; Kassemeyer, H-H; Dürrenberger, M; Düggelin, M; Nick, P

    2009-11-01

    In order to obtain insight into host responses to grapevine downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola), we compared pathogen development on a panel of Vitis species from North America, Asia and Europe. Leaf discs from different host species were inoculated in parallel, and the colonisation of the mesophyll was visualised by aniline blue staining and quantified with respect to infection incidence and mycelial growth. In parallel, the morphology of guard cells was screened for the presence of an internal cuticular rim after staining with acridine orange and using low-temperature scanning electron microscopy. We observed three response patterns: (i) inhibition of pathogen development early after attachment of zoospores; (ii) successful colonisation of the mesophyll by the pathogen; and (iii) aberrant development, where the pathogen does not attach to guard cells, but produces hyphae on the leaf surface without formation of viable sporangiophores. Inhibition is observed in the North American and Siberian species, successful colonisation prevails in the European hosts, and surface hyphae are found on non-Siberian Asiatic species. We propose that the interaction between host and pathogen is under control of specific signals that have been subject to evolutionary diversification. PMID:19796366

  19. Studies towards optimising the isolation of diplonine, a neurotoxin isolated from cultures of Stenocarpella maydis (Berk.) Sacc.

    PubMed

    Snyman, Leendert D; Flett, Bradley C; Schultz, Rowina A

    2014-01-01

    Diplonine, a mycotoxin that induces neurotoxic clinical signs in the guinea pig, resembling those occurring in cattle and sheep with diplodiosis, was isolated previously from a Stenocarpella maydisculture. Knowledge of the chemical properties of the toxin, which was characterised as a substituted ß-cyclopropylamino acid, enabled amendments in the present study to the initial steps of the isolation procedure. Extraction with water and fractionation by cation exchange chromatography improved the efficiency of isolation, potentially allowing the preparation of larger amounts of the toxin. PMID:25686294

  20. Effects of mushroom and herb polysaccharides, as alternatives for an antibiotic, on growth performance of broilers.

    PubMed

    Guo, F C; Kwakkel, R P; Williams, B A; Li, W K; Li, H S; Luo, J Y; Li, X P; Wei, Y X; Yan, Z T; Verstegen, M W A

    2004-10-01

    (1) This in vivo trial was conducted to study the effects of polysaccharide extracts of two mushrooms, Lentinus edodes (LenE) and Tremella fuciformis (TreE), and a herb, Astragalus membranaceus (AstE) on growth performance, and the weights of organs and the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of broiler chickens. (2) Three extracts (LenE, TreE and AstE) were supplemented at inclusion rates of 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4 g/kg from 7 to 14 d of age and compared with an antibiotic treatment group (20 mg/kg, virginiamycin (VRG) as well as a group of non-supplemented birds. (3) Body weight (BW) gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of the extract-supplemented groups were not significantly different from those of the antibiotic group. Significant effects of type of extract and concentration on growth performance were found from 7 to 28 d of age. Generally, birds fed with LenE showed higher BW gain and lower FCR from 7 to 28 d of age than those fed with TreE and AstE and 2 g/kg LenE was considered the optimal inclusion rate for enhanced broiler growth. However, the extracts had no significant effect on the relative weights of organs and GIT compared with the antibiotic group. (4) The birds fed the extracts showed better growth performance than the non-supplemented birds, but were not significantly different from those fed VRG. Of the three extracts, LenE appeared to be a potential growth promoter. Future studies are needed to investigate whether the extracts can be used as alternatives for antibiotic growth promoters in challenged birds, and to elucidate the mechanisms for potentially enhanced growth performance in poultry. PMID:15623224

  1. Dietary eritadenine suppresses guanidinoacetic Acid-induced hyperhomocysteinemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Fukada, Shin-ichiro; Setoue, Minoru; Morita, Tatsuya; Sugiyama, Kimio

    2006-11-01

    We assessed the effect of eritadenine, a hypocholesterolemic factor isolated from the edible mushroom Lentinus edodes, on plasma homocysteine concentration using methyl-group acceptor-induced hyperhomocysteinemic rats. Male Wistar rats were fed a control diet or diets supplemented with a methyl-group acceptor or a precursor of methyl-group acceptor. Diets were supplemented with guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) at 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 g/kg, nicotinic acid (NiA) or ethanolamine (EA) at 5 and 10 g/kg, or glycine at 25 and 50 g/kg, and the rats were fed for 10 d (Expt. 1). Plasma total homocysteine concentration was increased 255 and 421% by 5 and 10 g/kg GAA, respectively, and 39 and 58% by 5 and 10 g/kg NiA, respectively, but not by EA or glycine. GAA supplementation dose-dependently decreased the hepatic S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) concentration and the activity of cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) and increased the hepatic S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) and homocysteine concentrations. In another study in which rats were fed 5 g/kg GAA-supplemented diet for 1-10 d, plasma homocysteine and the other variables affected in Expt. 1 were affected in rats fed the GAA-supplemented diet (Expt. 2). We investigated the effect of supplementation of 5 g/kg GAA-supplemented diet with eritadenine (50 mg/kg) on plasma homocysteine concentration (Expt. 3). Eritadenine supplementation significantly suppressed the GAA-induced increase in plasma homocysteine concentration. Eritadenine also restored the decreased SAM concentration and CBS activity in the liver, whereas it further increased hepatic SAH concentration, suggesting that eritadenine might elicit its effect by both slowing homocysteine production and increasing cystathionine formation. The results confirm that GAA is a useful compound to induce experimental hyperhomocysteinemia and indicate that eritadenine can effectively counteract the hyperhomocysteinemic effect of GAA. PMID:17056803

  2. Immunomodulatory capacity of fungal proteins on the cytokine production of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Jeurink, Prescilla V; Noguera, Cristina Lull; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Wichers, Harry J

    2008-08-01

    Immunomodulation by fungal compounds can be determined by the capacity of the compounds to influence the cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMC). These activities include mitogenicity, stimulation and activation of immune effector cells. Eight mushroom strains (Agaricus blazei, Coprinus comatus, Flammulina velutipes, Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa, Volvariella volvacea, Lentinus edodes, and Pleurotus ostreatus) were tested for the immunomodulating activity of the isolated protein fractions and polysaccharides fractions present in mycelia and culture liquid. The fungal proteins and polysaccharides have been investigated for their in vitro effect on the cytokine profile (IFN-gamma, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12 and TNF-alpha) of unstimulated or hPBMC stimulated with the polyclonal stimulations PMA/Ca-I, ConA or LPS. In addition to their influence on the cytokine profile, the hemagglutination activity of the fungal proteins on rabbit red blood cells was determined. Proteins from V. volvacea and G. lucidum showed immunomodulating activity without the presence of any mitogen, however, neither of them decreased the production of IL-4 and IFN-gamma in combination with a stimulus. All used stimuli resulted in an induction of IL-12 in the presence of the protein extracts, suggesting a direct effect on monocytes. This effect might lead to the indirect immunomodulation of T cell activation and cytokine production. In addition, both protein extracts showed more hemagglutination activity after trypsin treatment of the rabbit red blood cells, indicating the presence of carbohydrate-binding proteins, like lectins and FIPs. In conclusion, the protein extracts of V. volvacea and G. lucidum contain immunomodulating activity by acting directly on monocytes and thereby modulating T cell activation. Further purification of the fungal extracts is needed to clarify whether there are FIPs or lectins present that are responsible for this immunomodulating activity

  3. Effects of mushroom and chicory extracts on the shape, physiology and proteome of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dental caries is an infectious disease which results from the acidic demineralisation of the tooth enamel and dentine as a consequence of the dental plaque (a microbial biofilm) accumulation. Research showed that several foods contain some components with antibacterial and antiplaque activity. Previous studies indicated antimicrobial and antiplaque activities in a low-molecular-mass (LMM) fraction of extracts from either an edible mushroom (Lentinus edodes) or from Italian red chicory (Cichorium intybus). Methods We have evaluated the antimicrobial mode of action of these fractions on Streptococcus mutans, the etiological agent of human dental caries. The effects on shape, macromolecular syntheses and cell proteome were analysed. Results The best antimicrobial activity has been displayed by the LMM mushroom extract with a bacteriostatic effect. At the MIC of both extracts DNA synthesis was the main macromolecular synthesis inhibited, RNA synthesis was less inhibited than that of DNA and protein synthesis was inhibited only by roughly 50%. The partial inhibition of protein synthesis is compatible with the observed significant increase in cell mass. The increase in these parameters is linked to the morphological alteration with transition from cocci of the untreated control to elongated cells. Interestingly, these modifications were also observed at sub-MIC concentrations. Finally, membrane and cytosol proteome analysis was conducted under LMM mushroom extract treatment in comparison with untreated S. mutans cells. Significant changes were observed for 31 membrane proteins and 20 of the cytosol fractions. The possible role of the changed proteins is discussed. Conclusions This report has shown an antibiotic-like mode of action of mushroom and chicory extracts as demonstrated by induced morphogenetic effects and inhibition of specific macromolecular synthesis. This feature as well as the safe use of this extract as result of its natural origin render the

  4. In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori effects of medicinal mushroom extracts, with special emphasis on the Lion's Mane mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (higher Basidiomycetes).

    PubMed

    Shang, Xiaodong; Tan, Qi; Liu, Ruina; Yu, Kangying; Li, Pingzuo; Zhao, Guo-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Although the medicinal mushroom Hericium erinaceus is used extensively in traditional Chinese medicine to treat chronic superficial gastritis, the underlining pharmaceutical mechanism is yet to be fully understood. In this study, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of extracts prepared from the fruiting bodies of 14 mushroom species (H. erinaceus, Ganoderma lucidum, Cordyceps militaris, Pleurotus eryngii, P. ostreatus, Agrocybe aegerita, Lentinus edodes, Agaricus brasiliensis, A. bisporus, Coprinus comatus, Grifola frondosa, Phellinus igniarius, Flammulina velutipes, and Hypsizygus marmoreus) were determined against Helicobacter pylori using laboratory strains of ATCC 43504 and SS1 as well as 9 clinical isolates via an in vitro microplate agar diffusion assay. Ethanol extracts (EEs) of 12 mushrooms inhibited the growth of H. pylori in vitro, with MIC values <3 mg/mL. EEs of H. erinaceus and G. lucidum also inhibited Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 7360;10 mg/mL) but had no effect on the growth of two Escherichia coli test strains (MIC >10 mg/mL). MIC values of ethyl acetate fractions (EAFs) of H. erinaceus against 9 clinical isolates of H. pylori ranged between 62.5 and 250 µg/mL. The bacteriostatic activity of EAFs was found to be concentration-dependant, and the half maximal inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values for H. pylori ATCC 43504 were 73.0 and 200 µg/mL, respectively. The direct inhibitory effect of EEs and EAFs of H. erinaceus against H. pylori could be another pharmaceutical mechanism of medicinal mushrooms-besides the immunomodulating effect of polysaccharides, suggested previously-in the treatment of H. pylori-associated gastrointestinal disorders. Further research to identify the active component(s) is currently undertaking in our laboratory. PMID:23557368

  5. Microbial liquefaction of peat for the production of synthetic fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Gunasekaran, M.

    1988-01-01

    Objectives of this study were: to evaluate the potential of using various microorganisms to hydrolyse and liquify peat; to determine the optimal conditions for peat hydrolysis and liquefaction; to study the co-metabolizable substances; to separate the compounds present in liquified peat by alumina and silica acid chromatography and capillary gas chromatography; and to identify the compounds in liquified peat by capillary GC-Mass spectrometry. Organisms used in the study include: Coprinus comatus, Coriolus hirsutus, Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus edodes, Lenzites trabea, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus, P. sapidus, Polyporus adjustus, Neurospora sitophila, Rhizophus arrhizus, Bacillus subtilis, Acinetobacter sp. and Alcaligenes sp. The fungi were maintained and cultivated in potato dextrose agar at 30 C. The bacteria were maintained in nutrient agar at 30 C. We have also initiated work on coal solubilization in addition to the studies on peat liquefaction. A relatively new substratum or semi-solid base for culture media called Pluronic F-127, or Polyol (BASF, New Jersey). Objectives of this study were: (1) to study the growth patterns of Candida ML 13 on pluronic as substratum; (2) to determine the rate of microbial coal solubilization on pluronic F-127 amended in different growth media; (3) to separate the mycelial mat of Candida ML 13 from unsolubilized coal particles and solubilized coal products from pluronic F-127; (4) to determine the effects of pH on microbial coal solubilization in pluronic F-127 media; (5) the effect of concentration of pluronic F-127 in media on coal solubilization; and, (6) to study the role of extracellular factors secreted by Candida ML 13 on coal solubilization in pluronic F-127 media. Results are discussed. 4 refs.

  6. Novel and rapid method for determination of organophosphorus pesticide residues in edible fungus using direct gas purge microsyringe extraction coupled on-line with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nan, Jingxi; Wang, Juan; Piao, Xiangfan; Yang, Cui; Wu, Xue; Quinto, Maurizio; Li, Donghao

    2015-09-01

    In this work a new analytical method for a rapid and simultaneous determination of 28 organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) residues in edible fungus using gas purge microsyringe extraction (GP-MSE), coupled with on-line gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GP-MSE-GC-MS) has been developed and optimized. GP-MSE, a novel gas flow liquid-phase microextraction technique, has been then fruitfully used as innovative and one-step extraction procedure, allowing a direct injection into the gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometry detector (GC-MS) system without any further cleaning step. Once optimized, the GP-MSE-GC-MS analysis procedure showed reproducibility values, resolutions, linear responses, detection and quantification limits that allowed to consider this method suitable for the analysis of the 28 OPPs in real samples. Furthermore, OPP recoveries and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 85.26% to 100.21%, and from 1.6% to 6.9%, respectively. This procedure was then used for the analysis of real samples and the obtained results were compared with those of ultrasonic extraction-solid phase extraction. Among the 28 OPPs, 14 of them were found in Lentinus edodes and Enoki mushrooms fungus samples, with a total concentrations of 112.7 and 210.7 μg kg(-1), respectively. This work demonstrated then that GP-MSE-GC-MS provided a highly efficient, solvent-saving, accurate and sensitive quantitative analysis method for a rapid determination of OPPs in edible fungus. PMID:26003693

  7. Lentinan-Modified Carbon Nanotubes as an Antigen Delivery System Modulate Immune Response in Vitro and in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Xing, Jie; Liu, Zhenguang; Huang, Yifan; Qin, Tao; Bo, Ruonan; Zheng, Sisi; Luo, Li; Huang, Yee; Niu, Yale; Wang, Deyun

    2016-08-01

    Adjuvants enhance immunogenicity and sustain long-term immune responses. As vital components of vaccines, efficient adjuvants are highly desirable. Recent evidence regarding the potential of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to act as a support material has suggested that certain properties, such as their unique hollow structure, high specific surface area, and chemical stability, make CNTs desirable for a variety of antigen-delivery applications. Lentinan, a β-1,3-glucohexaose with β-1,6-branches that is extracted from the mushroom Lentinus edodes, is an effective immunostimulatory drug that has been clinically used in Japan and China, and recent studies have proved that specific beta-glucans can bind to various immune receptors. In this research, we covalently attached lentinan to multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and tested their ability to enhance immune responses as a vaccine delivery system. In vitro study results showed that the nanotube constructs could rapidly enter dendritic cells and carry large amounts of antigen. Moreover, maturation markers were significantly upregulated versus the control. Thus, lentinan-modified multiwalled carbon nanotubes (L-MWCNTs) were regarded as an effective intracellular antigen depot and a catalyzer that could induce phenotypic and functional maturation of dendritic cells. Furthermore, compared with L-MWCNTs (35 μg/mL), a corresponding concentration of carboxylic carbon nanotubes (C-MWCNTs, 31.8 μg/mL) and an equivalent concentration of lentinan (3.2 μg/mL) did not remarkably influence the immune reaction in vitro or in vivo. Hence, we can hypothesize that the capability of L-MWCNTs was a consequence of the increased intracellular quantity of lentinan grafted onto the nanotubes. Overall, our studies demonstrated that L-MWCNTs significantly increased antigen accumulation in the cells and potentiated cellular and humoral immunity. In conclusion, L-MWCNTs constitute a potential vaccine delivery system to enhance immunogenicity

  8. Estimating the Economic Impact of Higher Education: A Case Study of the Five Colleges in Berks County, Pennsylvania. Professional File Number 117, Summer 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Allegro, Mary-Lou; Paff, Lolita A.

    2010-01-01

    Most economic impact studies are prepared by external consultants at significant cost to an individual college, a higher education state system, or a set of institutions with similar Carnegie Classifications. This case study provides a detailed framework that academic institutions may use to derive economic impact estimates without hiring external…

  9. The development of a blood clotting response test for discriminating between difenacoum-resistant and susceptible Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus, Berk.).

    PubMed

    Gill, J E; Kerins, G M; Langton, S D; MacNicoll, A D

    1993-01-01

    1. A new test for identifying levels of difenacoum resistance in the Norway rat is described, based upon the differential physiological response to difenacoum administration. 2. This test is based on changes in blood clotting activity over 4 days, following administration of the rodenticide difenacoum in conjunction with menadione (vitamin K3). 3. The anticoagulant effect is reduced only in rats that are resistant or tolerant to difenacoum. 4. This test procedure is quicker than traditional feeding tests, and identifies the degree of resistance in both laboratory and wild rats that have difenacoum resistance genes. PMID:8097452

  10. Characterization of a linear DNA plasmid from the filamentous fungal plant pathogen Glomerella musae [Anamorph: Colletotrichum musae (Berk. and Curt.) arx.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freeman, S.; Redman, R.S.; Grantham, G.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    A 7.4-kilobase (kb) DNA plasmid was isolated from Glomerella musae isolate 927 and designated pGML1. Exonuclease treatments indicated that pGML1 was a linear plasmid with blocked 5' termini. Cell-fractionation experiments combined with sequence-specific PCR amplification revealed that pGML1 resided in mitochondria. The pGML1 plasmid hybridized to cesium chloride-fractionated nuclear DNA but not to A + T-rich mitochondrial DNA. An internal 7.0-kb section of pGML1 was cloned and did not hybridize with either nuclear or mitochondrial DNA from G. musae. Sequence analysis revealed identical terminal inverted repeats (TIR) of 520 bp at the ends of the cloned 7.0-kb section of pGML1. The occurrence of pGML1 did not correspond with the pathogenicity of G. musae on banana fruit. Four additional isolates of G. musae possessed extrachromosomal DNA fragments similar in size and sequence to pGML1.

  11. 4. Photocopy of photograph (from cover of Historical Review of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of photograph (from cover of Historical Review of Berks County, XXXVI, Summer, 1971) 1971, George M. Meiser IX, photographer FRONT FACADES - George Stoudt House, Eight Cornered House Road (Penn Township), Mount Pleasant, Berks County, PA

  12. 7. Anthony Bley, Photographer September, 1976 L TO R: TWO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Anthony Bley, Photographer September, 1976 L TO R: TWO CHICKEN HOUSES, PIG BARN, MILKSHED, BARN - Dundore Farm, State Route 183 & Church Road vicinity, Penn Township (moved to Brownsville vicinity, Lower Heidelberg Township, Berks County), Mount Pleasant, Berks County, PA

  13. 1. Summer, 1975 L TO R: PRIVY, PIG BARN, SILO, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Summer, 1975 L TO R: PRIVY, PIG BARN, SILO, BARN - Konig-Speicher Farm, North side of Church Road, south of Tulpehocken Creek, North Heidelberg Township (moved to Willow Street, Lenhartsville, Berks County), Mount Pleasant, Berks County, PA

  14. 6. Anthony Bley, Photographer Summer, 1975 L TO R: GRANARY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Anthony Bley, Photographer Summer, 1975 L TO R: GRANARY, TWO CHICKEN HOUSES, PIG BARN - Dundore Farm, State Route 183 & Church Road vicinity, Penn Township (moved to Brownsville vicinity, Lower Heidelberg Township, Berks County), Mount Pleasant, Berks County, PA

  15. Operation Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohl, K. Robert

    The needs of teachers for high-demand and seasonal films have been met by a cooperative effort of the Berks County Educational Television Committee, local school districts, the Berks and Suburban TV cable companies and the Berks County Intermediate Unit in a project called Operation Cooperation. Regionalization of the instructional media services…

  16. The role of culinary-medicinal mushrooms on human welfare with a pyramid model for human health.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu Ting; Wasser, Solomon P

    2012-01-01

    Mushrooms are part of fungal biota characterized by wonder. They rise up from lignocellulosic wastes: yet they become so bountiful and nourishing. Mushrooms are environmentally friendly. They biosynthesize their own food from agricultural crop residues, which would otherwise cause health hazards. The extant records show the continued use of some mushrooms, e.g., Lentinus edodes, Ganoderma lucidum, and Cordyceps sinensis are now centuries old. This review presents a pyramid model for mushroom uses (industries), as food, dietary supplements (tonic), and medicine. A regular intake of mushrooms can make us healthier, fitter, and happier, and help us live longer. The sense of purpose and vision for the mushroom industries is also briefly discussed. A variety of mushrooms have been used traditionally in many different cultures for the maintenance of health and in the prevention and treatment of various diseases. A total of 126 medicinal functions are thought to be produced by medicinal mushrooms (MM) and fungi, including antitumor, immunomodulating, antioxidant, radical scavenging, cardiovascular, anti-hypercholesterolemia, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-parasitic, antifungal, detoxification, hepatoprotective, and anti-diabetic effects. Special attention is paid to mushroom polysaccharides. Many, if not all, higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms contain biologically active polysaccharides in fruit bodies, cultured mycelium, and cultured broth. The data on mushroom polysaccharides are summarized for approximately 700 species of higher Hetero- and Homobasidiomycetes. In particular, the most important for modern medicine are polysaccharides with antitumor and immunostimulating properties. Several of the mushroom polysaccharide compounds have proceeded through phase I, II, and III clinical trials and are used extensively and successfully as drugs in Asia to treat various cancers and other diseases. Mushrooms are superior sources of different types of dietary supplements (DSs

  17. Public health assessment for petitioned Cabot-Wrought Products, Division of Cabot Corporation (A/K/A NGK Metals/Cabot Berylco, Incorporated), Muhlenberg, Berks County, Pennsylvania, Region 3. Cerclis No. PAD044540136. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-27

    The NGK Metals Corporation is a beryllium processing plant located approximately four miles north of Reading, Pennsylvania. The beryllium processing plant has released hazardous substances into the environment through on-site disposal of process wastes, wastewater discharge, and air emissions. Based upon environmental and exposure data evaluated by ATSDR, concentrations of contaminants detected in air, water, soil, and sediment are not believed to represent any public health hazard. However, ATSDR has classified the NGK site as an Indeterminate Public Health Hazard. The classification is primarily due to the fact that no data exist for air (prior to 1979) and groundwater (prior to 1990).

  18. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 FIREPLACE, NORTHWEST ROOM, FIRST FLOOR. - Henry Fisher House, State Route 622 (Oley Township), Yellow House, Berks County, PA

  19. Pain-related behaviors and neurochemical alterations in mice expressing sickle hemoglobin: modulation by cannabinoids

    PubMed Central

    Kohli, Divyanshoo R.; Li, Yunfang; Khasabov, Sergey G.; Gupta, Pankaj; Kehl, Lois J.; Ericson, Marna E.; Nguyen, Julia; Gupta, Vinita; Hebbel, Robert P.; Simone, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    Sickle cell disease causes severe pain. We examined pain-related behaviors, correlative neurochemical changes, and analgesic effects of morphine and cannabinoids in transgenic mice expressing human sickle hemoglobin (HbS). Paw withdrawal threshold and withdrawal latency (to mechanical and thermal stimuli, respectively) and grip force were lower in homozygous and hemizygous Berkley mice (BERK and hBERK1, respectively) compared with control mice expressing human hemoglobin A (HbA-BERK), indicating deep/musculoskeletal and cutaneous hyperalgesia. Peripheral nerves and blood vessels were structurally altered in BERK and hBERK1 skin, with decreased expression of μ opioid receptor and increased calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P immunoreactivity. Activators of neuropathic and inflammatory pain (p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, STAT3, and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase) showed increased phosphorylation, with accompanying increase in COX-2, interleukin-6, and Toll-like receptor 4 in the spinal cord of hBERK1 compared with HbA-BERK. These neurochemical changes in the periphery and spinal cord may contribute to hyperalgesia in mice expressing HbS. In BERK and hBERK1, hyperalgesia was markedly attenuated by morphine and cannabinoid receptor agonist CP 55940. We show that mice expressing HbS exhibit characteristics of pain observed in sickle cell disease patients, and neurochemical changes suggestive of nociceptor and glial activation. Importantly, cannabinoids attenuate pain in mice expressing HbS. PMID:20304807

  20. 3. Anthony Bley, Photographer. September, 1976 L TO R: CORN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Anthony Bley, Photographer. September, 1976 L TO R: CORN CRIB, FRAME OF WHEAT BARN, BARN, MILKSHED - Dundore Farm, State Route 183 & Church Road vicinity, Penn Township (moved to Brownsville vicinity, Lower Heidelberg Township, Berks County), Mount Pleasant, Berks County, PA

  1. 5. Anthony Bley, Photographer Summer, 1975 L TO R: CORN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Anthony Bley, Photographer Summer, 1975 L TO R: CORN CRIB-WAGON SHED, BARN, FRAME OF WHEAT BARN, CORN CRIB, PIG BARN - Dundore Farm, State Route 183 & Church Road vicinity, Penn Township (moved to Brownsville vicinity, Lower Heidelberg Township, Berks County), Mount Pleasant, Berks County, PA

  2. 4. Anthony Bley, Photographer September, 1976 L TO R: CORN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Anthony Bley, Photographer September, 1976 L TO R: CORN CRIB, -WAGON SHED, BARN, FRAME OF WHEAT BARN, CORN CRIB - Dundore Farm, State Route 183 & Church Road vicinity, Penn Township (moved to Brownsville vicinity, Lower Heidelberg Township, Berks County), Mount Pleasant, Berks County, PA

  3. A Story About People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Univ., NY. Alternate Media Center.

    The Community Video Workshop, a pilot project being undertaken by the Alternate Media Center of New York University's School of the Arts in cooperation with ATC and Berks TV Cable Company, was intended to make cable television facilities available to Berks County. This document consists of a collection of newspaper clippings, letters, memos, and…

  4. Test and Evaluation of Public Service Uses of Cable Television: Reading, Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Univ., NY. Reading Consortium.

    The New York University-Reading Consortium proposed to evaluate the use of interactive cable television for the delivery of public services to the the elderly residents of Reading, Pennsylvania. The project represented the collaborative efforts of New York University, the City of reading, the Berks TV Cable Company, the Berks County Senior…

  5. Effect of fungal treatments of fibrous agricultural by-products on chemical composition and in vitro rumen fermentation and methane production.

    PubMed

    Tuyen, D V; Phuong, H N; Cone, J W; Baars, J J P; Sonnenberg, A S M; Hendriks, W H

    2013-02-01

    Maize stover, rice straw, oil palm fronds and sugarcane bagasse were treated with the white-rot fungi Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus eryngii, or Pleurotus ostreatus at 24 °C for 0-6 weeks. The fungi increased total gas production from oil palm fronds by 68-132%, but none of the fungi improved the in vitro rumen fermentability of maize stover. C. subvermispora and L. edodes increased total gas production of sugarcane bagasse by 65-71%, but P. eryngii and P. ostreatus decreased it by 22-50%. There was a linear relationship (P<0.05) between the proportion of lignin in the original substrate and the increase in in vitro gas production observed for C. subvermispora and L. edodes treatments (R2=0.92 and 0.96, respectively). It is concluded that C. subvermispora and L. edodes have a particularly high potential to improve the nutritive value of highly lignified ruminant feeds. PMID:23261998

  6. DETAIL VIEW OF END OF TRUSS SHOWING CONNECTION OF DECORATIVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF END OF TRUSS SHOWING CONNECTION OF DECORATIVE "KNEE", RAILING ENDPOST AND UPPER AND LOWER CHORDS - Scarlets Mill Bridge, Spanning former Reading Railroad, Scarlets Mill, Berks County, PA

  7. Anticipating the Social Consequences of AIDS: A Position Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berk, Richard A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Focuses on the social consequences of the AIDS epidemic, arguing that sociologists have an important contribution to make in planning for the long-range social consequences of AIDS. Concludes with three different commentaries on Berk's article. (Author/BSR)

  8. Did You Hear the One about the Professor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Describes the ways in which a professor of statistics uses humor in the classroom. Ronald A. Berk uses humor as systematic teaching tool even though some other faculty and administrators consider his approach frivolous. (SLD)

  9. 3. GENERAL VIEW OF KEIM FARMHOUSE (at left of photo; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW OF KEIM FARMHOUSE (at left of photo; the structure at right is the Keim Stone Cabin, HABS No. PA-1041). - Keim House, West of Lobachsville (Pike Township), Lobachsville, Berks County, PA

  10. 174. STORAGE ROOM, SOUTH WEST CORNER OF STORAGE AREA ADDED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    174. STORAGE ROOM, SOUTH WEST CORNER OF STORAGE AREA ADDED AS PART OF 1905 ELEVATOR ADDITION. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  11. 125. BENCH SHOP, LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT CENTER OF ROOM SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    125. BENCH SHOP, LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT CENTER OF ROOM SHOWING TOOL SHARPENER ON RIGHT AND ELECTRIC TABLE SAW AT CENTER. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  12. 178. PAINT SHOP, LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARD CENTER OF ROOM. OPENING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    178. PAINT SHOP, LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARD CENTER OF ROOM. OPENING IN BACKGROUND IS SLIDING WALL. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  13. 118. BENCH SHOP, NORTHWEST CORNER SHOWING ENTRANCE TO ROOM FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    118. BENCH SHOP, NORTHWEST CORNER SHOWING ENTRANCE TO ROOM FROM OUTSIDE. OFFICE SAFE AT CENTER. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  14. 173. STORAGE ROOM, LOOKING WEST FROM ELEVATOR SHAFT INTO STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    173. STORAGE ROOM, LOOKING WEST FROM ELEVATOR SHAFT INTO STORAGE AREA ADDED AS PART OF 1905 ELEVATOR ADDITION. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  15. 175. STORAGE ROOM, SOUTH WALL OF STORAGE ROOM, ADDED WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    175. STORAGE ROOM, SOUTH WALL OF STORAGE ROOM, ADDED WITH ELEVATOR ADDITION OF 1905. WALL IS EXTERIOR OF ORIGINAL WAGON WORKS OF 1883. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  16. 97. NORTHWEST CORNER OF BOILER ROOM. EQUIPMENT HAS BEEN REMOVED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    97. NORTHWEST CORNER OF BOILER ROOM. EQUIPMENT HAS BEEN REMOVED AND ROOM IS NOW USED FOR STORAGE. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  17. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 FRONT DOORWAY ON THE EAST. - Hunter House, 2 miles North of Yellow House, east of State Route 662 (Oley Township), Yellow House, Berks County, PA

  18. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 NORTHEAST AND NORTHWEST ELEVATIONS, NORTH CORNER. - Griesemer Mill, 3.5 miles North of State Route 562, near Manatawny Creek, Yellow House, Berks County, PA

  19. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 SOUTHEAST (FRONT) AND NORTHEAST ELEVATION. - Dr. George De Benneville House, State Route 662 vicinity (Oley Township), Yellow House, Berks County, PA

  20. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 EAST WALL OF SOUTHWEST ROOM, FIRST FLOOR. - Henry Fisher House, State Route 622 (Oley Township), Yellow House, Berks County, PA

  1. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 WEST ELEVATION. - Spang House, 3 miles North of State Route 562, West side of Manatawny Creek (Spangsville, Oley Township), Yellow House, Berks County, PA

  2. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 DETAIL OF SOUTHEAST (FRONT) FACADE. - Dr. George De Benneville House, State Route 662 vicinity (Oley Township), Yellow House, Berks County, PA

  3. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 NORTHEAST ELEVATION. - Griesemer Mill, 3.5 miles North of State Route 562, near Manatawny Creek, Yellow House, Berks County, PA

  4. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 NORTHEAST CORNER, NORTHWEST ROOM, SECOND FLOOR. - Henry Fisher House, State Route 622 (Oley Township), Yellow House, Berks County, PA

  5. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 SOUTHEAST AND NORTHEAST ELEVATIONS. - Griesemer Mill, 3.5 miles North of State Route 562, near Manatawny Creek, Yellow House, Berks County, PA

  6. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS. - Hunter House, 2 miles North of Yellow House, east of State Route 662 (Oley Township), Yellow House, Berks County, PA

  7. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 NORTHWEST CORNER, NORTHWEST ROOM, SECOND FLOOR. - Henry Fisher House, State Route 622 (Oley Township), Yellow House, Berks County, PA

  8. 16. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 DOORWAYS, NORTHWEST TO SOUTHWEST ROOMS, SECOND FLOOR. - Henry Fisher House, State Route 622 (Oley Township), Yellow House, Berks County, PA

  9. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 NORTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS. - Hunter House, 2 miles North of Yellow House, east of State Route 662 (Oley Township), Yellow House, Berks County, PA

  10. 13. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 EAST WALL, NORTHWEST ROOM, SECOND FLOOR. - Henry Fisher House, State Route 622 (Oley Township), Yellow House, Berks County, PA

  11. 14. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 FIREPLACE, EAST WALL, NORTHWEST ROOM, SECOND FLOOR. - Henry Fisher House, State Route 622 (Oley Township), Yellow House, Berks County, PA

  12. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 SOUTH (FRONT) ELEVATION. - Spang House, 3 miles North of State Route 562, West side of Manatawny Creek (Spangsville, Oley Township), Yellow House, Berks County, PA

  13. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 SOUTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS. - Hunter House, 2 miles North of Yellow House, east of State Route 662 (Oley Township), Yellow House, Berks County, PA

  14. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 INTERIOR, VIEW EAST. - Griesemer Mill Covered Bridge, 3.5 miles north of State Route 562, spanning Manatawny Creek, Yellow House, Berks County, PA

  15. 15. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 EAST WALL, SOUTHWEST ROOM, SECOND FLOOR. - Henry Fisher House, State Route 622 (Oley Township), Yellow House, Berks County, PA

  16. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Cervin Robinson, Photographer August, 1958 VIEW FROM NORTH. - Griesemer Mill Covered Bridge, 3.5 miles north of State Route 562, spanning Manatawny Creek, Yellow House, Berks County, PA

  17. 108. BASEMENT, DRIVE SHAFT BENEATH ORIGINAL SHOP OF 1883. BELT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    108. BASEMENT, DRIVE SHAFT BENEATH ORIGINAL SHOP OF 1883. BELT AT RIGHT CONNECTS TO MAIN DRIVE SHAFT. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  18. 134. WOOD SHOP, WEST WALL SHOWING GRUBER BUILT BELT SANDER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    134. WOOD SHOP, WEST WALL SHOWING GRUBER BUILT BELT SANDER ON RIGHT AND MORTICING MACHINE ON LEFT. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  19. 161. BLACKSMITH SHOP, OVERHEAD SHAFT. BELT ON LEFT CONNECTS TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    161. BLACKSMITH SHOP, OVERHEAD SHAFT. BELT ON LEFT CONNECTS TO SHAFTS WHICH RUN POWER PRESS AND HYDRAULIC TIRE SETTER. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  20. 42. July 1974. WOOD SHOP, VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. July 1974. WOOD SHOP, VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING THE FIRST GRUBER-BUILT SANDER AND ITS BELT CHASE (RAISED). - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  1. 107. BASEMENT, DRIVE SHAFT THAT RUNS JOINTER IN BENCH SHOP. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    107. BASEMENT, DRIVE SHAFT THAT RUNS JOINTER IN BENCH SHOP. BELT ON RIGHT CONNECTS TO MAIN DRIVE SHAFT. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  2. 158. BLACKSMITH SHOP, DRIVE SHAFT FOR BLACKSMITH AND WOOD SHOPS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    158. BLACKSMITH SHOP, DRIVE SHAFT FOR BLACKSMITH AND WOOD SHOPS. BELT ON RIGHT POWERS GRUBER BUILT BELT SANDER. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  3. 141. WOOD SHOP, EAST WALL SHOWING BELT SANDER ON RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    141. WOOD SHOP, EAST WALL SHOWING BELT SANDER ON RIGHT AND GRUBER BUILT SPOKE TENONING MACHINE ON LEFT. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  4. ALP - blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is a protein found in all body ... II Pancreatitis Renal cell carcinoma Alternative Names Alkaline phosphatase References Berk P, Korenblat K. Approach to the ...

  5. 46. June 1974. BLACKSMITH SHOP, VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING PUNCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. June 1974. BLACKSMITH SHOP, VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING PUNCH AND SHEAR MACHINE IN CENTER. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  6. 55. June 1974. BLACKSMITH SHOP, VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING ROGERSFORD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. June 1974. BLACKSMITH SHOP, VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING ROGERSFORD POWER PUNCH AND SHEAR WITH THE TIRE BENDER AT LEFT. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  7. 2. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING RELATION OF BRIDGE TO THE TOPOGRAPHY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING RELATION OF BRIDGE TO THE TOPOGRAPHY OF THE APPROACH ROAD. - Speicher Bridge, Church Road over Tulpehocken Creek between Penn & North Heidelberg Townships, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  8. 34. July 1974. WOOD SHOP, VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. July 1974. WOOD SHOP, VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING DETAILS OF JOHN GLEASON SPOKE LATHE. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  9. 1. GENERAL VIEW. OVERHANG, PAINTED RED, HAS VERTICAL SIDING AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW. OVERHANG, PAINTED RED, HAS VERTICAL SIDING AND FADED PAINTINGS OF FARM ANIMALS: COW, DONKEYS AND HORSE. - De Turck House, Barn, State Route 662 vicinity, Oley Township, Oley, Berks County, PA

  10. 1. GENERAL VIEW. TRIM, ROOF AND STABLE DOORS ALL ARE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW. TRIM, ROOF AND STABLE DOORS ALL ARE PAINTED RED. HEX SIGNS ARE PAINTED OCHRE, BLACK, RED, WHITE AND BLUE. NOTE PAINTED FLAGS ON SHED - Decorated White Barn, (Maiden Creek Township), Maiden Creek, Berks County, PA

  11. 24. July 1974. BENCH SHOP, VIEW OF THE SOUTHEAST CORNER. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. July 1974. BENCH SHOP, VIEW OF THE SOUTHEAST CORNER. NOTE VARIOUS METHODS OF STORING TOOLS AND THE ELECTRICAL SYSTEM. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  12. LOOKING WEST, BETWEEN READING DEPOT BRIDGE AND SKEW ARCH BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKING WEST, BETWEEN READING DEPOT BRIDGE AND SKEW ARCH BRIDGE (HAER No. PA-116). - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Reading Depot Bridge, North Sixth Street at Woodward Street, Reading, Berks County, PA

  13. 2. Photocopy of photographs (from the collection of Mr. and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of photographs (from the collection of Mr. and Mrs. Reifsnyder) ca. 1930, photographer unknown HOUSE WITH WORKHORSES AND PEOPLE IN FOREGROUND - George Stoudt House, Eight Cornered House Road (Penn Township), Mount Pleasant, Berks County, PA

  14. 50. June 1974. BLACKSMITH SHOP, VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING DOUBLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. June 1974. BLACKSMITH SHOP, VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING DOUBLE FORGE, HAWKEYE MANUFACTURING CO. FORGE HAMMER. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  15. 51. June 1974. BLACKSMITH SHOP, VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. June 1974. BLACKSMITH SHOP, VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING THE DOUBLE FORGE, HAWKEYE MANUFACTURING CO. FORGE HAMMER. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  16. Mechanical analogy of the nonlinear dynamics of a driven unstable mode near marginal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaleśny, J.; Marczyński, S.; Lisak, M.; Anderson, D.; Gałkowski, A.; Berczyński, P.; Berczyński, S.; Rogowski, R.

    2009-02-01

    The universal integrodifferential model equation derived by Berk et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1256 (1996)] for studying the nonlinear evolution of unstable modes driven by kinetic wave particle resonances near the instability threshold is reduced to a differential equation and next as a further simplification to a nonlinear oscillator equation. This mechanical analogy properly reproduces most of the essential physics of the system and allows an understanding of the qualitative features of the theory of Berk et al.

  17. Lentinellus herbarum, a rediscovered unclamped species.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Pierre-Arthur; Garcia, Guy; Roux, Pierre

    2003-06-01

    The fungus first described as Lentinus flabelliformis var. herbarum has been found fruiting on dead Epilobium angustifolium stalks at La Chaise-Dieu (France), the first record since its original diagnosis. The basidiospore characters, trama and hymenium structure indicate the species belongs Lentinellus sect. Omphalodei (Hericiales), but the absence of clamps is a remarkable character, new for this genus. The new combination L. herbarum comb. nov. (syn. Lentinus flabelliformis var. herbarum) is made and a neotype designated. A key to the eight European taxa of sect. Omphalodei is included. PMID:12951802

  18. Comparative Analysis of Pain Behaviours in Humanized Mouse Models of Sickle Cell Anemia.

    PubMed

    Lei, Jianxun; Benson, Barbara; Tran, Huy; Ofori-Acquah, Solomon F; Gupta, Kalpna

    2016-01-01

    Pain is a hallmark feature of sickle cell anemia (SCA) but management of chronic as well as acute pain remains a major challenge. Mouse models of SCA are essential to examine the mechanisms of pain and develop novel therapeutics. To facilitate this effort, we compared humanized homozygous BERK and Townes sickle mice for the effect of gender and age on pain behaviors. Similar to previously characterized BERK sickle mice, Townes sickle mice show more mechanical, thermal, and deep tissue hyperalgesia with increasing age. Female Townes sickle mice demonstrate more hyperalgesia compared to males similar to that reported for BERK mice and patients with SCA. Mechanical, thermal and deep tissue hyperalgesia increased further after hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) treatment in Townes sickle mice. Together, these data show BERK sickle mice exhibit a significantly greater degree of hyperalgesia for all behavioral measures as compared to gender- and age-matched Townes sickle mice. However, the genetically distinct "knock-in" strategy of human α and β transgene insertion in Townes mice as compared to BERK mice, may provide relative advantage for further genetic manipulations to examine specific mechanisms of pain. PMID:27494522

  19. Comparative Analysis of Pain Behaviours in Humanized Mouse Models of Sickle Cell Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Jianxun; Benson, Barbara; Tran, Huy; Ofori-Acquah, Solomon F.; Gupta, Kalpna

    2016-01-01

    Pain is a hallmark feature of sickle cell anemia (SCA) but management of chronic as well as acute pain remains a major challenge. Mouse models of SCA are essential to examine the mechanisms of pain and develop novel therapeutics. To facilitate this effort, we compared humanized homozygous BERK and Townes sickle mice for the effect of gender and age on pain behaviors. Similar to previously characterized BERK sickle mice, Townes sickle mice show more mechanical, thermal, and deep tissue hyperalgesia with increasing age. Female Townes sickle mice demonstrate more hyperalgesia compared to males similar to that reported for BERK mice and patients with SCA. Mechanical, thermal and deep tissue hyperalgesia increased further after hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) treatment in Townes sickle mice. Together, these data show BERK sickle mice exhibit a significantly greater degree of hyperalgesia for all behavioral measures as compared to gender- and age-matched Townes sickle mice. However, the genetically distinct “knock-in” strategy of human α and β transgene insertion in Townes mice as compared to BERK mice, may provide relative advantage for further genetic manipulations to examine specific mechanisms of pain. PMID:27494522

  20. Chromosomal integration of recombinant alpha-amylase and glucoamylase genes in saccharomyces cerevisiae for starch conversion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recombinant constructs of barley '-amylase and Lentinula edodes glucoamylase genes were integrated into the chromosomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The insertion was confirmed by PCR amplification of the gene sequence in the chromosomes. The expression was analyzed by SDS-PAGE of the enzymes puri...

  1. Determination of The Inflight Spectral Calibration of AVIRIS Using Atmospheric Absorption Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.

    1995-01-01

    Both the surface and atmospheric characteistics were measured for a calibration target during an inflight calibration experiment held at Lunar Lake, Nevada on April 5, 1994 (Green, et al., 1995). This paper uses upwelling spectral radiance predicted for the calibration target with the MODTRAN radiative transfer code (Berk, et al., 1986) to validage the spectral calibration of AVIRIS inflight.

  2. 75 FR 41276 - US Rail Partners, Ltd. and Blackwell Northern Gateway Railroad Company-Continuance in Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board US Rail Partners, Ltd. and Blackwell Northern Gateway Railroad Company--Continuance in Control Exemption--Eastern Berks Gateway Railroad Company US Rail Partners, Ltd. (USRP), a noncarrier holding company, and Blackwell Northern Gateway Railroad Company (BNGR), a Class III carrier,...

  3. 78 FR 41047 - UGI LNG, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission UGI LNG, Inc.; Notice of Application On June 17, 2013, UGI LNG, Inc. (UGI... Ontelaunee Township, Berks County, Pennsylvania. As more fully described in the application, the new.... Questions regarding this application may be directed to Frank H. Markle, Counsel for UGI LNG, by calling...

  4. Candidate genes associated with QTL controlling resistance to fusarium root rot in pea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium root rot (FRR) of pea (Pisum sativum L.) is a serious pathogen in the USA and Europe and genetic resistance offers an effective and economical control for this pathogen. Fusarium root rot is caused by the fungus pathogen (Haematonectria haematococca (Berk. & Broome) (Anamorph): Fusarium sol...

  5. Some Practical Solutions to Standard-Setting Problems: The Georgia Teacher Certification Test Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Stephen E.

    A standard-setting procedure was developed for the Georgia Teacher Certification Testing Program as tests in 30 teaching fields were revised. A list of important characteristics of a standard-setting procedure was derived, drawing on the work of R. A. Berk (1986). The best method was found to be a highly formalized judgmental, empirical Angoff…

  6. Comparisons of Young Children's Private Speech Profiles: Analogical Versus Nonanalogical Reasoners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Brenda H.; White, C. Stephen

    The primary intention of this study was to compare private speech profiles of young children classified as analogical reasoners (AR) with young children classified as nonanalogical reasoners (NAR). The secondary purpose was to investigate Berk's (1986) research methodology and categorical scheme for the collection and coding of private speech…

  7. The Benefits of Team Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morganti, Deena J.; Buckalew, Flora C.

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of team teaching focuses on librarians team teaching a course on information search strategy at the Pennsylvania State Berks Campus Library. Course requirements are described, planning for the course is discussed, grading practices are reviewed, and course and instructor evaluations are described. (two references) (LRW)

  8. Setting Cut-Scores: A Critical Review of the Angoff and Modified Angoff Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricker, Kathryn L.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review critically the Angoff (1971) and modified Angoff methods for setting cut-scores. The criteria used in this review were originally proposed by Berk (1986). The assumptions of the Angoff method and other current issues surrounding this method are also discussed. Recommendations are made for using the Angoff…

  9. Providing In-Service Education at a Minimal Cost for Title XX Early Childhood Caregivers through a Conference, Workshop Series, and Networking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Susan Anderson

    Due to funding cutbacks resulting from the Title XX Social Services Block Grant, ongoing inservice education for teachers in the Berks County, Pennsylvania, Intermediate Unit Child Care Program had not been provided for over 2 years. To meet the need for inservice training, a practicum was designed and implemented to (1) increase inservice…

  10. Reading, Pa.: Programming for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Red; Elton, Lynne

    1978-01-01

    Describes the community takeover of the Berks Community Television, an experiment in interactive cable television for delivery of social services to senior citizens in Reading (Pennsylvania). Programing and production involve the community at locations such as neighborhood centers, City Hall, County Court House, and other sites. (JMF)

  11. An Inter-Disciplinary Problem Solving Approach to Environmental Education, Interim Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, Thomas A.; Seidel, Janet C.

    Evaluation of an ESEA Title III project, "An Inter-Disciplinary Problem Solving Approach to Environmental Education" located in Berks County, Pennsylvania, is offered in this interim report. The report is primarily concerned with the degree to which operational and management process objectives are being achieved in each of four components:…

  12. Undergraduate Writing Majors and the Rhetoric of Professionalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisser, Christian; Grobman, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    The authors draw on two surveys conducted in 2009-10 with graduates from the BA in Professional Writing at Penn State Berks, a branch campus of Penn State University. The surveys led the authors to understand a set of common attributes among our alumni (what they call a "rhetoric of professionalism") while at the same time problematizing the…

  13. Reading Area Community College Community Needs Assessment Telephone Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Area Community Coll., PA.

    A telephone survey was conducted in 1981 at Reading Area Community College (RACC) to determine the educational needs of the community, particularly those of prospective students and employers. More specifically, the study sought to determine how the Berks County community perceived the quality of education provided at RACC and to ascertain the…

  14. The Cyber Sisters Club: Using the Internet To Bridge the Technology Gap with Inner City Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtman, Judy

    1998-01-01

    Describes a program developed at Penn State Berks-Lehigh Valley College (PA) for inner-city minority girls to use computer technology that was otherwise unavailable to them. Highlights include access issues, gender issues, girls' preferences in a learning environment, making technology relevant, introducing new skills, creating Web page, and…

  15. Teachers' Perceptions of Predicted Career Success of Students Who Choose Nontraditional Occupational Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epler, Doris M.

    A study analyzed the way teachers perceive potential employment success for nontraditional students. The study population consisted of a stratified random selection of 120 non-vocational and 64 vocational teachers from schools in Berks County, Pennsylvania. To measure the teachers' sex bias and dogmatism, the researcher used a case study approach.…

  16. Use of PCR analysis for identification of species and genus of Septoria on grain crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research on methods for molecular-genetic testing of the Septoria pathogens of wheat was initiated. Two species of septoria were studied: Septoria tritici Rob. et Desm., and Stagonospora nodorum [Berk] Castellani and E.G. Germano. Different protocols for extraction of DNA were applied; the best meth...

  17. Evolving toward Laughter in Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strean, William B.

    2008-01-01

    Lowman (1995) described the relationship between teacher and student and student engagement as the two most important ingredients in learning in higher education. Humour builds teacher-student connection (Berk, 1998) and engages students in the learning process. The bond between student and teacher is essential for learning, satisfaction, and…

  18. Criminogenic Effects of the Prison Environment on Inmate Behavior: Some Experimental Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Scott D.; Gaes, Gerald G.

    2005-01-01

    The current study analyzed a subset of the experimental data collected by Berk, Ladd, Graziano, and Baek (2003) to test whether different intensities of incarceration make inmates more criminal while incarcerated. There were 561 male inmates whose equivalent classification scores indicated they had the same level of risk to commit institutional…

  19. Interlibrary Cooperation: A County-Wide Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Susan S.; Hanf, Betty

    The lack of proximity to large information centers combined with limited budgets, resources, and expertise prompted the special libraries of Berks County, Pennsylvania, to attempt a network for interlibrary sharing. Information specialists from large an small industrial, medical, and public resource centers organized and operated a network of…

  20. Physiological specialization of Stagonospora nodorum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Septoriosis is a harmful disease of wheat, widespread all over the world, including Russia. Stagonospora nodorum (Berk.) Castellani and E.G. Germano is one of the main agents of Septoria wheat diseases. There is no information on physiological specialization of this pathogen. Not many authors stud...

  1. 81. EXTERIOR VIEW, EAST SIDE, SHOWING ENTRANCE TO BOILER ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    81. EXTERIOR VIEW, EAST SIDE, SHOWING ENTRANCE TO BOILER ROOM ON LEFT, ENTRANCE TO STABLES AT CENTER, AND ENTRANCE TO ENGINE ROOM ON RIGHT. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  2. 14. June 1974. VIEW OF THE ENGINE ROOM, LOOKING NORTH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. June 1974. VIEW OF THE ENGINE ROOM, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING THE OTTO GASOLINE ENGINE, THE DRIVE PULLEY IS BARELY VISIBLE TO THE LEFT OF THE FLYWHEEL. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  3. 49. July 1974. BLACKSMITH SHOP, VIEW LOOKING WEST, SHOWING DOUBLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. July 1974. BLACKSMITH SHOP, VIEW LOOKING WEST, SHOWING DOUBLE FORGE, SHEAR, BELT CHASE, AND PART OF THE HAWKEYE MANUFACTURING CO. FORGE HAMMER. IN THE FOREGROUND IS THE SWAGE BLOCK. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  4. 39. July 1974. WOOD SHOP, VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING (LEFTTORIGHT): ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. July 1974. WOOD SHOP, VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING (LEFT-TO-RIGHT): GRUBER-BUILT HUB-BORING MACHINE, MORTISING MACHINE, AND GRUBER-BUILT BELT-SANDER: ALL ARE POWERED FROM LINESHAFTING IN THE BLACKSMITH SHOP. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  5. 37. July 1974. WOOD SHOP, VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. July 1974. WOOD SHOP, VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING THE PLANER WITH ITS BELT CHASE FROM THE BASEMENT LINESHAFT AND THE BELTING SYSTEM FOR THE TABLE-SHAPER. BEYOND THE PLANER IS THE BAND SAW. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  6. 36. July 1974. WOOD SHOP, VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. July 1974. WOOD SHOP, VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING THE FRANK & CO. EUREKA BAND SAW WITH ITS WOODEN CASE AND THE BELT FROM THE LINESHAFT BELOW WHICH POWERS THE TABLE-SHAPER. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  7. 31. July 1974. WOOD SHOP, VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. July 1974. WOOD SHOP, VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING THE WOOD-TURNING LATHE, THE GRUBER-BUILT SPOKE-TENONING MACHINE, AND ASSOCIATED BELT DRIVES. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  8. 44. July 1974. BLACKSMITH SHOP, VIEW LOOKING EAST THROUGH THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. July 1974. BLACKSMITH SHOP, VIEW LOOKING EAST THROUGH THE DOOR TO THE WOOD SHOP; ON THE LEFT IS THE D. H. POTTS TIRE SHRINKER; TO THE RIGHT OF THE DOOR IS THE BELT CHASE FROM THE BASEMENT LINESHAFT. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  9. 27. August 1974. BENCH SHOP, VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. August 1974. BENCH SHOP, VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING THE L. POWERS & CO. JOINTER AND ITS BELT CHASE, THE PATTERNS, THE GRUBER-BUILT WHEEL BARROW, AND JACOB H. GRUBER'S WHEELWRIGHT BENCH. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  10. 29. July 1974. WOOD SHOP, VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. July 1974. WOOD SHOP, VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT THE BELT CHASE FOR THE TRANSMISSION OF POWER FROM THE MAIN LINE-SHAFT BELOW TO THE MACHINES ALONG THE EAST WALL OF THE WOOD SHOP. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  11. 133. WOOD SHOP, LOOKING NORTHWEST SHOWING GRUBER BUILT BELT SANDER. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    133. WOOD SHOP, LOOKING NORTHWEST SHOWING GRUBER BUILT BELT SANDER. COUNTER WEIGHTED CHUTE COVERS BELT THAT DRIVES SANDER. DOOR TO BLACKSMITH SHOP IS VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  12. 26. July 1974. BENCH SHOP, VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. July 1974. BENCH SHOP, VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING THE BORING MACHINE PURCHASED IN 1885. THE BIT MAY BE LOWERED BY THE HANGING LINKAGE OR THE TABLE RAISED BY THE FOOT PEDAL. NOTICE THE CHASE FOR THE BELTS, BUILT NO LESS CAREFULLY THAN THE MACHINE ITSELF. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  13. PERSPECTIVE WITH WEST PORTAL. THE BRIDGE IS CLAD IN HORIZONTAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE WITH WEST PORTAL. THE BRIDGE IS CLAD IN HORIZONTAL CLAPBOARD SIDING AND HAS A SHEET METAL ROOF. NOTE THE TWO OPENINGS THAT RUN THE LENGTH OF THE BRIDGE; ONE IS AT THE EAVES AND THE OTHER IS ABOUT 4’ ABOVE THE DECK. - Dreibelbis Station Bridge, Spanning Maiden Creek, Balthaser Road (TR 745), Lenhartsville, Berks County, PA

  14. What We All (Supposedly) Know about the Poor: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Ruby Payne's "Framework"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworin, Joel E.; Bomer, Randy

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses a professional development text by Ruby Payne that claims to inform teachers about the lives and minds of children from poor households. We use Critical Discourse Analysis (Fairclough, 1995; Gee, 2005; Rogers, Malancharuvil-Berkes, & Mosley, 2005) to examine how the author enlists readers' participation in deficit discourses…

  15. Evidence-Based versus Junk-Based Evaluation Research: Some Lessons from 35 Years of the Evaluation Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berk, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Along with the late Howard Freeman, Richard Berk was a founding editor of "Evaluation Review" (then "Evaluation Quarterly") in 1977. He resigned as editor of this journal at the end of 2010. In this article, he reflects on his experiences. (Contains 3 notes.)

  16. Growth sensitivity of Corynespora cassiicola to Thiophanate-methyl, Iprodione, and Fludioxonil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corynespora cassiicola (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) C.T. Wei, causal agent of Corynespora leaf spot, can cause devastating epidemics in African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha H. Wendl.) production facilities. Because of phytotoxicity and visible residue issues with some fungicides such as chlorothalonil, pro...

  17. 9. July 1974. SOUTH SIDE OF THE WORKS, SHOWING RIGHTTOLEFT: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. July 1974. SOUTH SIDE OF THE WORKS, SHOWING RIGHT-TO-LEFT: 1885 ADDITION TO THE PRE-1883 FARM SHOP, TWO-STORY 1905 ADDITION, ONE STORY ADDITION OF 1908, AND IRON SHED. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  18. 30. July 1974. WOOD SHOP, VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. July 1974. WOOD SHOP, VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING THE WOOD-TURNING LATHE AND THE SPOKE CUT-OFF SAW MOUNTED ON ITS WAYS. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  19. Effect of detergent on the quantification of grapevine downy mildew Sporangia from leaf discs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grapevine downy mildew (DM), caused by the oomycete Plasmopara viticola (Berk. & Curt.) Berlese & de Toni, is a major disease, especially in humid viticultural areas. Development of resistant cultivars is an important objective for grapevine breeding. In order to establish a reliable and inexpensive...

  20. 75 FR 71094 - Notice of Commission Meeting and Public Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... meeting include the dockets listed below: 1. Pennsylvania Utility Company, D-1975-093 CP-4. An application..., Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. 3. Amity Township, D-1990-078 CP-3. An application to renew the approval of...), in Amity Township, Berks County, Pennsylvania. 4. Shoemakersville Borough Authority, D-1993-074...

  1. 66. August 1974. WAGON STORAGE, VIEW LOOKING EAST. NOTE THREELEGGED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. August 1974. WAGON STORAGE, VIEW LOOKING EAST. NOTE THREE-LEGGED STOOL ORIGINALLY USED FOR THE PROCESS OF TIRE-SETTING. WHEEL WAS LAID ON STOOL, HEATED TIRE LAID ON TOP OF IT, THEN COOLED WITH WATER. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  2. Improving Student Writing Skills in a History Lecture Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keightley, David N.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a writing skill improvement project in which graduate students at Berkely graded papers written by undergraduate students in a course on the origins of Chinese civilization. Critical examination of student papers, combined with opportunities to discuss and rewrite the papers, encouraged students to develop a thesis, eliminate irrelevant…

  3. [Cordyceps sinensis, a fungi used in the Chinese traditional medicine].

    PubMed

    Illana Esteban, Carlos

    2007-12-31

    Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. is an ascomycete fungus known in China since antiquity, which is still being used today. A summary, showing relevant papers about this fungus, regarding habitat, history, marketing, consumption, nomenclature, pharmacological composition, culture and medical use, is presented. PMID:18095756

  4. Resistance to Tan Spot and Stagonospora nodorum Blotch in Wheat-Alien Species Derivatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tan spot [caused by Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (Died.) Drechs.] and Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB) [caused by Stagonospora nodorum (Berk.) Castellani and Germano] are destructive fungal diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) throughout the world. Host plant resistance is thought to be an effi...

  5. Web-Enhanced General Chemistry Increases Student Completion Rates, Success, and Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaral, Katie E.; Shank, John D.; Shibley, Ivan A., Jr.; Shibley, Lisa R.

    2013-01-01

    General Chemistry I historically had one of the highest failure and withdrawal rates at Penn State Berks, a four-year college within the Penn State system. The course was completely redesigned to incorporate more group work, the use of classroom response systems, peer mentors, and a stronger online presence via the learning management system…

  6. 61. August 1974. PAINT SHOP, VIEW LOOKING EAST. THE WINDOW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. August 1974. PAINT SHOP, VIEW LOOKING EAST. THE WINDOW IS IN THE CENTER OF A SLIDING DOOR THAT OPENS ONTO THE PORCH AT THE EAST END OF THE ORIGINAL 1883 SHOP. THE DOOR WAS USED FOR HAULING THE WAGONS UP TO THE PAINT SHOP. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  7. 45. July 1974. BLACKSMITH SHOP, VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING BELT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. July 1974. BLACKSMITH SHOP, VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING BELT CHASE FOR TWO BELTS FROM THE BASEMENT, THE W. E. & J. BARNES CO. DRILL PRESS, AND THE DRILL PRESS USED FOR REAMING. THE BELT PASSING THROUGH THE WALL POWERS THE SANDER IN THE WOOD SHOP. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  8. Equal Educational Opportunity: Hearings Before the Select Committee on Equal Educational Opportunity of the United States Senate, Ninety-Second Congress, First Session on Equal Educational Opportunity. Part 16A--Inequality in School Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Equal Educational Opportunity.

    Testimony recorded in these hearings was presented by: Dr. Mark Shedd, Superintendent of Schools, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Dr. Robert Blanchard, Superintendent of Schools, Portland Public Schools, Portland Oregon; Joel Berke, Director, Educational Finance and Governance Program, Policy Institute of the Syracuse University Research Corp.; James…

  9. The Bookmark Procedure for Setting Cut-Scores and Finalizing Performance Standards: Strengths and Weaknesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jie

    2006-01-01

    The Bookmark standard-setting procedure was developed to address the perceived problems with the most popular method for setting cut-scores: the Angoff procedure (Angoff, 1971). The purposes of this article are to review the Bookmark procedure and evaluate it in terms of Berk's (1986) criteria for evaluating cut-score setting methods. The…

  10. Lentinoid and Polyporoid Fungi, Two Generic Conglomerates Containing Important Medicinal Mushrooms in Molecular Perspective.

    PubMed

    Zmitrovich, Ivan V; Kovalenko, Alexander E

    2016-01-01

    Polyporoid and lentinoid fungi contain the important producers of substances having immunomodulatory, antitumoral, antiviral, and antihyperlipidemic effects. The discovery of several phylogenetic lines within the lentinoid-polyporoid continuum will help with target metabolomic analysis of species still not studied in pharmacological respects. The purpose of the present work was to increase a resolution in the lentinoid-polyporoid phylogenetic zone by means of selection of both the main representatives of Lentinus-related genera and poorly known/intermediate taxa such as Lentinus suavissimus, Neofavolus spp., and the resupinate part of Polyporus (genera Perenniporia and Pachykytospora) in the context of the basic structure of the Polyporales tree. The molecular phylogeny of highlighting all the polyporoid and lentinoid nodes was reconstructed using nLSU ITS rDNA and TEF datasets. The data obtained from ITS, TEF, and LSU coincide in support of core Polyporaceae of 10 clades corresponded to the generic level and 7 of these (Cerioporus, Cladomeris, Favolus, Lentinus, Neofavolus, Picipes, and Polyporus s.str.) contain generic units characterized by polyporoid or lentinoid morphotypes. The other 2 clades containing lentinoid taxa are outside the core Polyporaceae, namely Panus (Meruliaceae, Polyporales) and Neolentinus (Gloeophyllaceae, Gloeophyllales). A new genus, Picipes, is described and 25 new combinations are proposed. PMID:27279442

  11. Preliminary study on antifungal effect of commercial essential oils against white rot fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid, Nurul Izzaty; Baharum, Azizah; Daud, Fauzi

    2015-09-01

    Protecting and preserving wood plastic composite from deterioration caused by fungal attack is a high challenge issue to cater nowadays. The objective of this study was to carry out a screening test towards antifungal effect of essential oil and to investigate the potential of raw materials that will be used as basic material for manufacturing wood plastic composite against white rot fungi. Essential oils from four types of natural products comprising cinnamon, lemongrass, lavender and geranium have been screened for their ability to inhibit five types of white rot fungi species which are Lentinus squarrosulus, Pleuorotus pulmonarius, Lentinus sp., Pleuorotus sajor-caju and Lignosus rhinocerus. The antifungal evaluation showed that no inhibitory effect against tested white rot fungi since the mycelia completely filled the plates. From the observation, mycelia of L. squarrosulus, P. pulmonarius and Lentinus sp. were found to filled the surface of falcon tubes with rubber sawdust after 15 days. Mycelia of L. squarrosulus and P. pulmonarius also were found to completely covered the surface of media that contain polypropylene and maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene on it. Therefore, this report proved that the main materials that will be applicable in manufacturing of wood plastic composite had potential to be degraded by this type of fungal attack.

  12. Assessment of arsenic bioaccessibility in raw and cooked edible mushrooms by a PBET method.

    PubMed

    Llorente-Mirandes, Toni; Llorens-Muñoz, Mariona; Funes-Collado, Virginia; Sahuquillo, Àngels; López-Sánchez, José Fermín

    2016-03-01

    The present study reports arsenic analysis in Lentinula edodes, Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus before and after being cooked. Furthermore, arsenic in raw and cooked mushroom was determined in the gastric and gastrointestinal bioaccessible fractions obtained after simulating human digestion by means of an in vitro physiologically based extraction test (PBET). Several certified reference materials (SRM 1568a, SRM 1570a, CRM 7503-a, BC211 and IPE-120) were analysed to evaluate the proposed methods. Total arsenic content was 1393, 181 and 335μgAskg(-1) for L. edodes, A. bisporus and P. ostreatus, respectively, and decreased by between 53% and 71% in boiled mushroom and less than 11% in griddled mushroom. High bioaccessibility was observed in raw, boiled and griddled mushroom, ranging from 74% to 89% and from 80% to 100% for gastric and gastrointestinal extracts, respectively, suggesting the need to consider the potential health risk of consumption of the mushrooms analysed. PMID:26471627

  13. Mycelium growth kinetics and optimal temperature conditions for the cultivation of edible mushroom species on lignocellulosic substrates.

    PubMed

    Zervakis, G; Philippoussis, A; Ioannidou, S; Diamantopoulou, P

    2001-01-01

    The influence of environmental parameters on mycelial linear growth of Pleurotus ostreatus, P. eryngii, P. pulmonarius, Agrocybe aegerita, Lentinula edodes, Volvariella volvacea and Auricularia auricula-judae was determined in two different nutrient media in a wide range of temperature, forming the basis for the assessment of their temperature optima. V. volvacea grew faster at 35 degrees C, P. eryngii at 25 degrees C, P. ostreatus and P. pulmonarius at 30 degrees C, A. aegerita at 25 or 30 degrees C and A. auricula-judae at 20 or 25 degrees C depending on the nutrient medium used and L. edodes at 20 or 30 degrees C depending on the strain examined. The mycelium extension rates were evaluated on seven mushroom cultivation substrates: wheat straw, cotton gin-trash, peanut shells, poplar sawdust, oak sawdust, corn cobs and olive press-cake. The mycelium extension rates (linear growth and colonization rates) were determined by the 'race-tube' technique, and were found to be the highest on cotton gin-trash, peanut shells and poplar sawdust for Pleurotus spp. and A. aegerita. Wheat straw, peanut shells and particularly cotton gin-trash supported fast growth of V. volvacea, whereas wheat straw was the most suitable substrate for L. edodes and A. auricula-judae. Supplemented oak sawdust and olive press-cake were poor substrates for most species examined, while almost all strains performed adequately on corn cobs. PMID:11702409

  14. Quasilinear Model for Energetic Particles Interacting with TAE Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghantous, Katy; Gorelenkov, Nikolai; Berk, Herbert

    2010-11-01

    TAE instabilities are thought to be a major source of Energetic Particle transport which could set limits on operational scenarios, especially for burning plasmas, and causes damage to the first wall. The quasilinear model proposed by Berk et al.ootnotetextH. L. Berk et al, Nucl. Fusion, 35:1661, 1995. relies on diffusion mechanisms for particle dynamics to captures the evolution of the energetic particle distribution function and the associated mode amplitude. Using the bump-on-tail as a paradigm, we analyze the dynamics near the resonances for accurate diffusion coefficient representation. We verify the model to get the predicted single mode saturation levels and benchmark the case of multimode overlap against particle codes. Using the TAE mode structures computed by the ideal MHD code NOVA, we generalize this method to relax energetic particles' profiles in the full 3D phase space.

  15. Laboratory test of seven rodenticides for the control of Mastomys natalensis.

    PubMed

    Gill, J E; Redfern, R

    1979-10-01

    Laboratory feeding tests were carried out to assess the efficacy of seven rodenticides against Mastomys natalensis. The poisons (warfarin, coumatetralyl, difenacoum, brodifacoum, bromadiolone, calciferol and zinc phosphide) were all toxic at the concentrations normally used against Rattus norvegicus (Berk.), although several were unpalatable. Trials are now needed to demonstrate the relative efficacy of these poisons in the field, but it is likely that, given suitable bait formulations, they would all be useful as practical control agents. PMID:489963

  16. Laboratory test of seven rodenticides for the control of Mastomys natalensis.

    PubMed Central

    Gill, J. E.; Redfern, R.

    1979-01-01

    Laboratory feeding tests were carried out to assess the efficacy of seven rodenticides against Mastomys natalensis. The poisons (warfarin, coumatetralyl, difenacoum, brodifacoum, bromadiolone, calciferol and zinc phosphide) were all toxic at the concentrations normally used against Rattus norvegicus (Berk.), although several were unpalatable. Trials are now needed to demonstrate the relative efficacy of these poisons in the field, but it is likely that, given suitable bait formulations, they would all be useful as practical control agents. PMID:489963

  17. Accepted Trichoderma names in the year 2015.

    PubMed

    Bissett, John; Gams, Walter; Jaklitsch, Walter; Samuels, Gary J

    2015-12-01

    A list of 254 names of species and two names of varieties in Trichoderma with name or names against which they are to be protected, following the ICN (Melbourne Code, Art. 14.13), is presented for consideration by the General Committee established by the Congress, which then will refer them to the Nomenclature Committee for Fungi (NCF). This list includes 252 species, one variety and one form. Two new names are proposed: T. neocrassum Samuel (syn. Hypocrea crassa P. Chaverri & Samuels), T. patellotropicum Samuels (syn. Hypocrea patella f. tropica Yoshim. Doi). The following new combinations in Trichoderma are proposed: T. brevipes (Mont.) Samuels, T. cerebriforme (Berk.) Samuels, T. latizonatum (Peck) Samuels, and T. poronioideum (A. Möller) Samuels. The following species are lectotypified: T. americanum (Canham) Jaklitsch & Voglmayr, Gliocladium flavofuscum J.H. Miller, Giddens & A.A. Foster, T. inhamatum Veerkamp & W. Gams, T. konilangbra Samuels, O. Petrini & C.P. Kubicek, T. koningii Oudem., T. pezizoides (Berk. & Broome) Jaklitsch & Voglmayr, T. sulphureum (Schwein.) Jaklitsch & Voglmayr and T. virens (J.H. Miller, Giddens & A.A. Foster) Arx. Epitypes are proposed for the following species: T. albocorneum (Yoshim. Doi) Jaklitsch & Voglmayr, T. albofulvum (Berk. & Broome) Jaklitsch & Voglmayr, T. atrogelatinosum (Dingley) Jaklitsch & Voglmayr, T. corneum (Pat.) Jaklitsch & Voglmayr, T. cornu-damae (Pat.) Z.X. Zhu & W.Y. Zhuang, T. flaviconidium (P. Chaverri, Druzhinina & Samuels) Jaklitsch & Voglmayr, T. hamatum (Bonord.) Bain., T. hunua (Dingley) Jaklitsch & Voglmayr, T. patella (Cooke & Peck) Jaklitsch & Voglmayr, Hypocrea patella f. tropica Yoshim. Doi, T. polysporum (Link) Rifai, T. poronioideum (A. Möller) Samuels T. semiorbis (Berk.) Jaklitsch & Voglmayr, T. sulphureum (Schwein.) Jaklitsch & Voglmayr, and T. tropicosinense (P.G. Liu) P.G. Liu, Z.X. Zhu & W.Y. Zhuang. PMID:26734542

  18. Effects of Climate Change on Regional Crop Production in Eastern Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, S. T.; Mangan, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    Regional climate changes can significantly alter crop yields for agriculturally important areas. Berks County, PA, is an agrarian community whose crop production is typical of southeastern Pennsylvania, with corn as a major crop. Mean annual temperatures in Pennsylvania are predicted to increase by 4 degrees C and precipitation is expected to increase 5% by 2100. We examined changes in 20th Century Berks County crop yields, particularly corn, in response to yearly variations in temperature and precipitation. Crop yields for corn are predicted by models to increase up to a 29 degrees C threshold, beyond which yields will significantly decrease. This study quantifies the effects of recent climate change on Berks County crop production and predicts potential changes for the future. It is important to consider regional climate change effects if we are to fully understand the impacts of global change on food crop production. This study also incorporates anecdotal data from farmers to note their perceptions of crop productivity as related to environmental changes and to determine other factors that may affect farming practices and crop yields.

  19. Ligninases production by Basidiomycetes strains on lignocellulosic agricultural residues and their application in the decolorization of synthetic dyes.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Eleni; Aguiar, Ana Paula; Carvalho, Caio César; Bonfá, Maricy Raquel B; da Silva, Roberto; Boscolo, Mauricio

    2009-01-01

    Wood rotting Basidiomycetes collected in the "Estação Ecológica do Noroeste Paulista", São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil, concerning Aphyllophorales order and identified as Coriolopsis byrsina SXS16, Lentinus strigellus SXS355, Lentinus sp SXS48, Picnoporus sanguineus SXS 43 and Phellinus rimosus SXS47 were tested for ligninases production by solid state fermentation (SSF) using wheat bran or rice straw as culture media. C. byrsina produced the highest laccase (200 U mL(-1)) and Lentinus sp produced the highest activities of manganese peroxidase (MnP) and lignin peroxidase (LiP) (7 and 8 U mL(-1), respectively), when cultivated on wheat bran. The effect of N addition on enzyme production was studied in medium containing rice straw and the data showed an increase of 3 up to 4-fold in the laccase production compared to that obtained in SSF on wheat bran. The laccases presented optimum pH at 3.0-3.5 and were stable at neutral pH values. Optimum pH for MnP and LiP activities was at 3.5 and between 4.5 and 6.0, respectively. All the strains produced laccase with optimum activities between 55-60ºC while the peroxidases presented maximum activity at temperatures of 30 to 55ºC. The crude enzymes promoted decolorization of chemically different dyes with around 70% of decolorization of RBBR and cybacron blue 3GA in 6h of treatment. The data indicated that enzymes from these basidiomycetes strains are able to decolorize synthetic dyes. PMID:24031314

  20. Ligninases production by Basidiomycetes strains on lignocellulosic agricultural residues and their application in the decolorization of synthetic dyes

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Eleni; Aguiar, Ana Paula; Carvalho, Caio César; Bonfá, Maricy Raquel B.; da Silva, Roberto; Boscolo, Mauricio

    2009-01-01

    Wood rotting Basidiomycetes collected in the “Estação Ecológica do Noroeste Paulista”, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil, concerning Aphyllophorales order and identified as Coriolopsis byrsina SXS16, Lentinus strigellus SXS355, Lentinus sp SXS48, Picnoporus sanguineus SXS 43 and Phellinus rimosus SXS47 were tested for ligninases production by solid state fermentation (SSF) using wheat bran or rice straw as culture media. C. byrsina produced the highest laccase (200 U mL-1) and Lentinus sp produced the highest activities of manganese peroxidase (MnP) and lignin peroxidase (LiP) (7 and 8 U mL-1, respectively), when cultivated on wheat bran. The effect of N addition on enzyme production was studied in medium containing rice straw and the data showed an increase of 3 up to 4-fold in the laccase production compared to that obtained in SSF on wheat bran. The laccases presented optimum pH at 3.0-3.5 and were stable at neutral pH values. Optimum pH for MnP and LiP activities was at 3.5 and between 4.5 and 6.0, respectively. All the strains produced laccase with optimum activities between 55-60ºC while the peroxidases presented maximum activity at temperatures of 30 to 55ºC. The crude enzymes promoted decolorization of chemically different dyes with around 70% of decolorization of RBBR and cybacron blue 3GA in 6h of treatment. The data indicated that enzymes from these basidiomycetes strains are able to decolorize synthetic dyes. PMID:24031314

  1. Immunomodulating compounds in Basidiomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Masashi; Nishitani, Yosuke

    2013-01-01

    Mushrooms are distinguished as important food containing immunomodulating and anticancer agents. These compounds belong mostly to polysaccharides especially β-d-glucans. Among them, β-1,3-glucan with side chain β-1,6-glucose residues have more important roles in immunomodulating and antitumor activities. In this review, we have introduced polysaccharide mainly from Lentinula edodes and Agaricus blazei Murill with immunomodulating and antitumor activities. In addition, the mechanism of activation of immune response and signal cascade are also reviewed. PMID:23704809

  2. Mushroom polysaccharides and lipids synthesized in liquid agitated and static cultures. Part I: screening various mushroom species.

    PubMed

    Diamantopoulou, Panagiota; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Kapoti, Maria; Komaitis, Michael; Aggelis, George; Philippoussis, Antonios

    2012-06-01

    The effect of four synthetic media containing glucose (initial concentration 30 g l(-1)) on mycelial growth, exopolysaccharides (EPS) and cellular lipids production was examined in 11 mushroom species after 12 and 16 days of culture in static- and shake-flasks. Fatty acid analysis of cellular lipids produced was also performed. Agitation had a positive effect on biomass production, glucose consumption and lipid biosynthesis. Media that favoured the production of biomass were not suitable for EPS biosynthesis and vice versa. Biomass values varied from ~1.0 g l(-1) (Lentinula edodes) to ~19 g l(-1) (Pleurotus ostreatus), while the highest EPS quantity achieved ranged between 1.6 and 1.8 g l(-1) (for Ganoderma lucidum and L. edodes, respectively). Quantities of total cellular lipids varied between 2.5 and 18.5 % w/w, in dry mycelial mass for the fungi tested. Lipid in dry weight values were influenced by the medium composition. Cellular lipids presented noticeable quantities of poly-unsaturated fatty acids like linoleic acid. Compared to most of the mushrooms tested, lipids of Volvariella volvacea were more saturated. The ability of several mushroom species of our study to produce in notable quantities the above-mentioned added-value compounds renders these fungi worthy for further investigations. PMID:22573010

  3. Evaluation of Waste Mushroom Medium as a Fermentable Substrate and Bioethanol Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, Ai; Sasaki, Chizuru; Asada, Chikako; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    Waste Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) mushroom medium, a lignocellulosic aglicultural residue, was evaluated as a fermentable substrate. 87% of the fermentable sugars remained in the waste mushroom medium. The sugar yield of the waste mushroom medium (46.3%) was higher than that of raw mushroom medium (20.3%) after 48 h of enzymatic saccharification by Meicelase because L. edodes changed wood structure. These results indicated that the waste mushroom medium is a suitable substrate for fermentation. Next, the efficient ethanol production using steam explosion pretreatment was studied. After 30 h of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using Meicelase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae AM12, 20.0 g/L ethanol was produced from 100 g/L water-insoluble residue of the waste mushroom medium treated at a steam pressure of 20 atm and a steaming time of 5 min. This corresponded to an ethanol yield of 77.0% of the theoretical, i.e. 14.7 g of ethanol obtained from 100 g of waste mushroom medium.

  4. Optimizing edible fungal growth and biodegradation of inedible crop residues using various cropping methods.

    PubMed

    Nyochembeng, Leopold M; Beyl, Caula A; Pacumbaba, R P

    2008-09-01

    Long-term manned space flights to Mars require the development of an advanced life support (ALS) ecosystem including efficient food crop production, processing and recycling waste products thereof. Using edible white rot fungi (EWRF) to achieve effective biomass transformation in ALS requires optimal and rapid biodegradative activity on lignocellulosic wastes. We investigated the mycelial growth of Lentinula edodes and Pleurotus ostreatus on processed residues of various crops under various cropping patterns. In single cropping, mycelial growth and fruiting in all strains were significantly repressed on sweet potato and basil. However, growth of the strains was improved when sweet potato and basil residues were paired with rice or wheat straw. Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus) strains were better than shiitake (L. edodes) strains under single, paired, and mixed cropping patterns. Mixed cropping further eliminated the inherent inhibitory effect of sweet potato, basil, or lettuce on fungal growth. Co-cropping fungal species had a synergistic effect on rate of fungal growth, substrate colonization, and fruiting. Use of efficient cropping methods may enhance fungal growth, fruiting, biodegradation of crop residues, and efficiency of biomass recycling. PMID:18155518

  5. Incorporated nematocysts in Aeolidiella stephanieae (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia, Aeolidoidea) mature by acidification shown by the pH sensitive fluorescing alkaloid Ageladine A.

    PubMed

    Obermann, Dana; Bickmeyer, Ulf; Wägele, Heike

    2012-11-01

    The sequestration of nematocysts (a special group of cnidocysts) from cnidarian prey with subsequent use in defence is described for few metazoan phyla. Members of the taxon Aeolidoidea (Nudibranchia, Gastropoda) are well-known for this. Questions regarding the reasons some nematocysts do not discharge when the gastropod feeds and how these same nematocysts can be transported along the digestive tract into specialized morphological structures called cnidosacs, remain unanswered. Within the cnidosac, nematocysts are incorporated in cells and finally be used for defence against predators. The most plausible explanation for this phenomenon suggests there are immature and therefore non-functional nematocysts in the food. A recent study by Berking and Herrmann (2005) on cnidarians suggested that the nematocysts mature by acidification via proton transfer into the nematocyst capsule. According to this hypothesis only immature nematocysts are transported into the cnidosac where they are then made functional through an accumulation of protons. In this study we present a fluorescence staining method that tests the hypothesis by Berking and Herrmann (2005) and detects changes in the pH values of incorporated nematocysts, interpreted as changes in maturation stages. This marker, the fluorescent dye Ageladine A, stains nematocyst capsules according to their pH values. With Ageladine A we were able to show that kleptocnides indeed change their pH value after incorporation into the aeolidoidean cnidosac. PMID:22910369

  6. Analysis of particles produced during airbag deployment by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and their deposition on surrounding surfaces: a mid-research summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, J. Matney

    2011-06-01

    Airbags can be encountered in forensic work when investigating a car crash and are typically constructed with primerlike material to begin the deployment apparatus. The mechanisms of airbag deployment can produce particles ideal for scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) analysis. A recent study published by Berk studied airbags with vents and showed that it is possible for particles generated from the deployment of these airbags to deposit on surfaces in the vehicle as the airbags deflate.1 Another paper published by Berk reported particles similar in morphology and composition to primer gunshot residue (GSR) are produced by side impact airbags.2 This paper's aim will be to show mid-point results of a study still in progress in which non-vented airbags were analyzed to determine if they exhibited the same particle depositing features as their vented airbag counterparts. Further investigation in this study is being performed to find more airbags which produce primer gunshot residue-like particles containing lead, barium, and antimony from airbag deployment. To date, the study has resulted in (1) non-vented airbags exhibiting deposition of particles suitable for SEM/EDS analysis and (2) no gunshot residue-like particles being detected from the airbag residues studied thus far.

  7. Parallel magnetic field perturbations in gyrokinetic simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Joiner, N.; Hirose, A.; Dorland, W.

    2010-07-15

    At low beta it is common to neglect parallel magnetic field perturbations on the basis that they are of order beta{sup 2}. This is only true if effects of order beta are canceled by a term in the nablaB drift also of order beta[H. L. Berk and R. R. Dominguez, J. Plasma Phys. 18, 31 (1977)]. To our knowledge this has not been rigorously tested with modern gyrokinetic codes. In this work we use the gyrokinetic code GS2[Kotschenreuther et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 88, 128 (1995)] to investigate whether the compressional magnetic field perturbation B{sub ||} is required for accurate gyrokinetic simulations at low beta for microinstabilities commonly found in tokamaks. The kinetic ballooning mode (KBM) demonstrates the principle described by Berk and Dominguez strongly, as does the trapped electron mode, in a less dramatic way. The ion and electron temperature gradient (ETG) driven modes do not typically exhibit this behavior; the effects of B{sub ||} are found to depend on the pressure gradients. The terms which are seen to cancel at long wavelength in KBM calculations can be cumulative in the ion temperature gradient case and increase with eta{sub e}. The effect of B{sub ||} on the ETG instability is shown to depend on the normalized pressure gradient beta{sup '} at constant beta.

  8. Design, synthesis, biological activities, and 3D-QSAR of new N,N'-diacylhydrazines containing 2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)propane moiety.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing-Hai; Pan, Li; Ma, Yi; Weng, Jian-Quan; Tan, Cheng-Xia; Li, Yong-Hong; Shi, Yan-Xia; Li, Bao-Ju; Li, Zheng-Ming; Zhang, Yong-Gang

    2011-10-01

    A series of new N,N'-diacylhydrazine derivatives were synthesized efficiently under microwave irradiation. Their structures were characterized by (1) H NMR, MS, and elemental analysis. Various biological activities of these compounds were tested. Most of them exhibited higher herbicidal activities against dicotyledonous weeds than monocotyledonous weeds. In addition, favorable in vivo fungicidal activities were also found of these compounds against Cladosporium cucumerinum, Corynespora cassiicola, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum(Lib.)de Bary, Erysiphe cichoracearum, and Colletotrichum orbiculare (Berk aLMont) Arx. All compounds displayed excellent plant growth regulatory activities: 100% inhibition was achieved against the radicle growth of cucumber. To further investigate the structure-activity relationship, comparative molecular field analysis was performed on the basis of herbicidal activity data, resulting in a statistically reliable model with good predictive power (r(2) = 0.913, q(2) =0.556). Based on the calculation, five additional novel compounds were designed and synthesized. Satisfyingly, compound 4u displayed excellent herbicidal activity (94.7%) at 1500 g/ha, although it is less active than 2,4-D. Meanwhile, this compound also exhibited good fungicidal activity against C. orbiculare (Berk aLMont) Arx (82.16%). PMID:21816005

  9. Nutritional Properties of Some Edible Wild Mushrooms in Sabah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kian Shin, Chong; Fook Yee, Chye; Jau Shya, Lee; Atong, Markus

    Ten edible wild mushrooms that were commonly consumed by the native of Sabah were identified as Lentinellus omphallodes, Lentinus cilliatus, Pleurotus sp1, Pleurotus sp2, Schizophyllum commune, Hygrocybe sp., Volvariella sp., Auricularia auricula, Trametes sp. The nutritive value of these wild mushrooms was determined. The protein content of the mushrooms ranged from 5-15% of dry weight, whereas most of the wild species were found to have low fat content (1-5%). Potassium is the most abundant mineral, followed by magnesium and calcium. The sodium concentration was relatively low in all wild mushrooms. However, the calcium content in Pleurotus sp1 is 10 times higher than the cultivated mushrooms. Overall, the trace element concentrations across all wild mushrooms were in the order Fe>Zn>Mn>Cu>Cr. The high protein and low fat characteristic of these wild mushrooms indicating the need to further determine their amino acid and fatty acid profiles.

  10. The molecular genetics of cultivated mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Whiteford, J R; Thurston, C F

    2000-01-01

    The types, economic significance and methods of production of the principal cultivated mushrooms are described in outline. These organisms are all less than ideal for conventional genetic analysis and breeding, so molecular methods afford a particular opportunity to advance our understanding of their biology and potentially give the prospect of improvement by gene manipulation. The sequences described are limited to those found in GenBank by August 1999. The gene sequences isolated from the white button mushroom Agaricus bisporus, the shiitake Lentinula edodes, the oyster mushrooms Pleurotus spp., the paddy straw mushroom Volvariella volvacea and the enotake Flammulina velutipes are described. The largest group are genes from A. bisporus, which includes 29 for intracellular proteins and 12 for secreted proteins. In comparison, only a total of 26 sequences can be reported for the other cultivated species. A. bisporus is also the only cultivated species for which molecular karyotyping is already supported by reliable markers for all 13 of its chromosomes. PMID:10907549

  11. Mushroom-derived preparations in the prevention of H2O2-induced oxidative damage to cellular DNA.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yu-ling; James, Anthony E; Benzie, Iris F F; Buswell, John A

    2002-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of the sporophores of eight mushroom species were assessed for their ability to prevent H2O2-induced oxidative damage to cellular DNA using the single-cell gel electrophoresis ("Comet") assay. The highest genoprotective effects were obtained with cold (20 degrees C) and hot (100 degrees C) water extracts of Agaricus bisporus and Ganoderma lucidum fruit bodies, respectively. No protective effects were observed with Mushroom Derived Preparations (MDPs) from Flammulina velutipes, Auricularia auricula, Hypsizygus marmoreus, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus sajor-caju, and Volvariella volvacea. These findings indicate that some edible mushrooms represent a valuable source of biologically active compounds with potential for protecting cellular DNA from oxidative damage. PMID:11835288

  12. Highly efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Volvariella volvacea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Guo, Liqiong; Zhang, Kai; Wu, Qi; Lin, Junfang

    2008-11-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) was successfully applied to the edible straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea. Mycelium pellets were transformed to cold stress resistance using the afp gene as both a selective marker and a reporter gene, under the control of a heterologous Lentinula edodes gpd promoter. The efficiency of transformation is over 100 times higher than that previously reported in V. volvacea. Stable integration of the afp gene with 1-4 copy numbers was confirmed in all 10 randomly selected transgenic events by Southern blot analysis. The mitotic stability of the transformants was demonstrated after five successive transfers on PDA medium without selection pressure and the PCR analysis of basidiospores harvested from transformants. PMID:18434137

  13. Expression of multi-functional cellulase gene mfc in Coprinus cinereus under control of different basidiomycete promoters.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shujie; Yang, Peizhou; Guo, Liqiong; Lin, Junfang; Lou, Nannan

    2009-10-01

    Multi-functional cellulase gene mfc was expressed in Coprinus cinereus under naturally non-inductive conditions using three heterologous promoters. Endo-beta-1,4-glucanase expression was achieved in solid and liquid media with promoter sequences from the Lentinula edodesgpd gene, the Flammulina velutipes gpd gene and the Volvariella volvaceagpd gene. As measured by enzyme activity in liquid cultures, a 613-bp gpd promoter fragment from L. edodes was most efficient, followed by a 752-bp gpd fragment from F. velutipes. The V. volvacea gpd promoter sequence was less active, in comparison. Irrespective of the promoter used, enzymatic activities increase 34-fold for highly active transformants and 29-fold for less active one by using cellulase-inducing medium. The highest activities of endo-beta-1,4-glucanase (34.234 U/ml) and endo-beta-1,4-xylanase (263.695 U/ml) were reached by using the L. edodesgpd promoter. PMID:19442518

  14. Selection of strains for shiitake production in axenic substrate.

    PubMed

    Zied, Diego Cunha; Maciel, William Pereira; Marques, Simone Cristina; da Silveira E Santos, Débora Marques; Rinker, Danny Lee; Dias, Eustáquio Souza

    2016-10-01

    Shiitake mushroom consumption is increasing in Brazil. In addition to the implementation of new production methods, it is also important to increase productivity, quality and reduce production costs. In this study, six commercial Lentinula edodes strains were characterized for genetic diversity (rep-PCR analysis) and mushroom production (yield, number and weight of individual mushrooms) using different substrates and cultural conditions. All strains showed genetic differences by repetitive element palindromic based-polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR). The richest substrate resulted in the greatest production under both environmental conditions. Strains LE4 and LE6 produced the majority of their mushrooms earlier than the other strains. The highest number of mushrooms was observed in the LE6 strain while the highest weights of individual mushrooms were observed in the LE4 strain. Controlled environmental conditions resulted in superior production for all strains, except for LE4, which had empirically greater yield in the semi-controlled environmental condition. PMID:27565778

  15. Screening of beta-glucan contents in commercially cultivated and wild growing mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Sari, Miriam; Prange, Alexander; Lelley, Jan I; Hambitzer, Reinhard

    2017-02-01

    Mushrooms have unique sensory properties and nutritional values as well as health benefits due to their bioactive compounds, especially beta-glucans. Well-known edible and medicinal mushroom species as well as uncommon or unknown species representing interesting sources of bioactive beta-glucans have been widely studied. Commercially cultivated and wild growing mushrooms were analysed for their beta-glucan contents. Enzymatic determinations of all glucans, alpha-glucans and beta-glucans in 39 mushrooms species were performed, leading to very remarkable results. Many wild growing species present high beta-glucan contents, especially Bracket fungi. The well-known cultivated species Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes and Cantharellus cibarius as well as most screened wild growing species show higher glucan contents in their stipes than caps. PMID:27596390

  16. Pressurized water extraction of β-glucan enriched fractions with bile acids-binding capacities obtained from edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Palanisamy, Marimuthu; Aldars-García, Laila; Gil-Ramírez, Alicia; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Marín, Francisco R; Reglero, Guillermo; Soler-Rivas, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    A pressurized water extraction (PWE) method was developed in order to extract β-glucans with bile acids-binding capacities from cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes, and Pleurotus ostreatus) to be used as supplements to design novel foods with hypocholesterolemic properties. Extraction yields were higher in individual than sequential extractions being the optimal extraction parameters: 200°C, 5 cycles of 5 min each at 10.3 MPa. The crude polysaccharide (PSC) fractions, isolated from the PWE extracts contained mainly β-glucans (including chitooligosaccharides deriving from chitin hydrolysis), α-glucans, and other PSCs (hetero-/proteo-glucans) depending on the extraction temperature and mushroom strain considered. The observed bile acids-binding capacities of some extracts were similar to a β-glucan enriched fraction obtained from cereals. PMID:24399760

  17. The applications of polysaccharides from various mushroom wastes as prebiotics in different systems.

    PubMed

    Chou, Wei-Ting; Sheih, I-Chuan; Fang, Tony J

    2013-07-01

    The bases or stipes of mushrooms are normally discarded as low-economic value animal feed and compost. There are no known reports on deriving polysaccharides from these mushroom wastes for use as prebiotics. This study showed that the relatively low concentration (0.1% to 0.5%) of polysaccharides from Lentinula edodes stipe, Pleurotus eryngii base, and Flammulina velutipes base can enhance the survival rate of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum during cold storage. The polysaccharides had synergistic effects with the peptides and amino acids from a yogurt culture to maintain probiotics above 10(7) CFU/mL during cold storage, and they also had significant protective effects on these probiotics in simulated gastric and bile juice conditions to achieve beneficial effects in the host. These results showed that mushroom wastes, which are cheaper than other sources, could be an important, new, alternative source of prebiotics. PMID:23701736

  18. A Comparative Accuracy Analysis of Classification Methods in Determination of Cultivated Lands with Spot 5 Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    kaya, S.; Alganci, U.; Sertel, E.; Ustundag, B.

    2013-12-01

    A Comparative Accuracy Analysis of Classification Methods in Determination of Cultivated Lands with Spot 5 Satellite Imagery Ugur ALGANCI1, Sinasi KAYA1,2, Elif SERTEL1,2,Berk USTUNDAG3 1 ITU, Center for Satellite Communication and Remote Sensing, 34469, Maslak-Istanbul,Turkey 2 ITU, Department of Geomatics, 34469, Maslak-Istanbul, Turkey 3 ITU, Agricultural and Environmental Informatics Research Center,34469, Maslak-Istanbul,Turkey alganci@itu.edu.tr, kayasina@itu.edu.tr, sertele@itu.edu.tr, berk@berk.tc ABSTRACT Cultivated land determination and their area estimation are important tasks for agricultural management. Derived information is mostly used in agricultural policies and precision agriculture, in specifically; yield estimation, irrigation and fertilization management and farmers declaration verification etc. The use of satellite image in crop type identification and area estimate is common for two decades due to its capability of monitoring large areas, rapid data acquisition and spectral response to crop properties. With launch of high and very high spatial resolution optical satellites in the last decade, such kind of analysis have gained importance as they provide information at big scale. With increasing spatial resolution of satellite images, image classification methods to derive the information form them have become important with increase of the spectral heterogeneity within land objects. In this research, pixel based classification with maximum likelihood algorithm and object based classification with nearest neighbor algorithm were applied to 2012 dated 2.5 m resolution SPOT 5 satellite images in order to investigate the accuracy of these methods in determination of cotton and corn planted lands and their area estimation. Study area was selected in Sanliurfa Province located on Southeastern Turkey that contributes to Turkey's agricultural production in a major way. Classification results were compared in terms of crop type identification using

  19. Recycling of Vineyard and Winery Wastes as Nutritive Composts for Edible Mushroom Cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petre, Marian; Teodorescu, Alexandru

    2011-01-01

    Every year, in Romania huge amounts of wine and vine wastes cause serious environmental damages in vineyards as well as nearby winery factories, for instance, by their burning on the soil surface or their incorporation inside soil matrix. The optimal and efficient way to solve these problems is to recycle these biomass wastes as main ingredients in nutritive composts preparation that could be used for edible mushrooms cultivation. In this respect, the main aim of this work was to establish the best biotechnology of winery and vine wastes recycling by using them as appropriate growth substrata for edible and medicinal mushrooms. According to this purpose, two mushroom species of Basidiomycetes, namely Lentinula edodes as well as Pleurotus ostreatus were used as pure mushroom cultures in experiments. The experiments of inoculum preparation were set up under the following conditions: constant temperature, 23° C; agitation speed, 90-120 rev min-1 pH level, 5.0-6.0. All mycelia mushroom cultures were incubated for 120-168 h. In the next stage of experiments, the culture composts for mushroom growing were prepared from the lignocellulose wastes as vine cuttings and marc of grapes in order to be used as substrata in mycelia development and fruit body formation. The tested culture variants were monitored continuously to keep constant the temperature during the incubation as well as air humidity, air pressure and a balanced ratio of the molecular oxygen and carbon dioxide. In every mushroom culture cycle all the physical and chemical parameters that could influence the mycelia growing as well as fruit body formation of L. edodes and P. ostreatus were compared to the same fungal cultures that were grown on poplar logs used as control samples.

  20. Experimental validation of the MODTRAN 5.3 sea surface radiance model using MIRAMER campaign measurements.

    PubMed

    Ross, Vincent; Dion, Denis; St-Germain, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    Radiometric images taken in mid-wave and long-wave infrared bands are used as a basis for validating a sea surface bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) being implemented into MODTRAN 5 (Berk et al. [Proc. SPIE5806, 662 (2005)]). The images were obtained during the MIRAMER campaign that took place in May 2008 in the Mediterranean Sea near Toulon, France. When atmosphere radiances are matched at the horizon to remove possible calibration offsets, the implementation of the BRDF in MODTRAN produces good sea surface radiance agreement, usually within 2% and at worst 4% from off-glint azimuthally averaged measurements. Simulations also compare quite favorably to glint measurements. The observed sea radiance deviations between model and measurements are not systematic, and are well within expected experimental uncertainties. This is largely attributed to proper radiative coupling between the surface and the atmosphere implemented using the DISORT multiple scattering algorithm. PMID:22614400

  1. Two dimensional (r-theta) transport model for synchrotron radiation of FRC plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qerushi, Artan; Barnes, Dan; TAE Team

    2013-10-01

    A two dimensional (r-theta) transport model has been developed for describing the power loss in FRC reactor plasmas and the transport of energy due to synchrotron radiation as well as the transport of energy due to synchrotron radiation. The transport model uses 1d FRC equilibrium profiles and solves the equation of radiative transfer in two dimensions (r-theta) taking into account the absorption and emission of synchrotron radiation. Relativistic expressions are used for both the absorption and the emission coefficients of synchrotron radiation. The reflection of synchrotron radiation from metal walls is taken into account using the approach of Krajcik. The results of the two-dimensional calculations are compared with simpler 1d calculations, which use an approach developed by Dawson and Berk et al., and 0d calculations which use an approach developed by Trubnikov.

  2. Simplified models for the nonlinear evolution of two fast-particle-driven modes near the linear stability threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galant, Grzegorz; Zaleśny, Jarosław; Lisak, Mietek; Berczyński, Paweł; Berczyński, Stefan

    2011-05-01

    An analytical model that is based on purely differential equations of the nonlinear dynamics of two plasma modes driven resonantly by high-energy ions near the instability threshold is presented here. The well-known integro-differential model of Berk and Breizman (BB) extended to the case of two plasma modes is simplified here to a system of two coupled nonlinear differential equations of fifth order. The effects of the Krook, diffusion and dynamical friction (drag) relaxation processes are considered, whereas shifts in frequency and wavenumber between the modes are neglected. In spite of these simplifications the main features of the dynamics of the two plasma modes are retained. The numerical solutions to the model equations show competition between the two modes for survival, oscillations, chaotic regimes and 'blow-up' behavior, similar to the BB model.

  3. Theoretical interpretation of frequency sweeping observations in the Mega-Amp Spherical Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vann, R. G. L.; Dendy, R. O.; Gryaznevich, M. P.

    2005-03-01

    Frequency sweeping (chirping) of high frequency magnetohydrodynamic modes is widely observed in tokamak plasmas. In this paper observations of chirping in neutral-beam-heated plasmas in the Mega-Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) [A. Sykes, R. J. Akers, L. C. Appel et al., Nucl. Fusion 41, 1423 (2001)] are considered, and it is shown that these may be interpreted using the Berk-Breizman augmentation of the Vlasov-Maxwell equations. This model includes an energetic particle source: it leads not only to a single chirp but also to a series of bursting events. This repetitious behavior is characteristic of the chirping seen in experiments such as MAST. The similarity between features in velocity space and features in frequency space reinforces the theory that hole-clump pair formation is responsible for the observed frequency sweeping.

  4. Trapped Particle Instability in Kinetic Stabilized Tandem Mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berk, Herbert; Pratt, Jane

    2009-11-01

    The kinetic stabilizer tandem mirror (KSTM) devised by R. F. Post (J. Fus. Energy 2007) is an innovative concept devised to stabilize a symmetric tandem mirror machines using a concept devised by D. Ryutov (Proc. of Course and Workshop, Varenna, Italy, 1987) and empirically verified in the Gas Dynamic Trap (Ivanov, et. al. Trans. Fusion Technology 39, 127, 2001). The KSTM uses the momentum flux of unconfined particles that only sample the outer end regions of the mirror where there is very favorable field line curvature. Charged ion beams at relatively low energy are externally injected into the ends and reflected out from the ends. MHD stability with a power drain less than the fusion power production can be achieved. We examine the effect of fast growing trapped particle instability (Berk et. al. Sov J. Plasma Phys. 1983) on the overall stability. In this case stability is very sensitive to the electron connection between the stabilizer and end plug.

  5. New species and distribution records of Clavulina (Cantharellales, Basidiomycota) from the Guiana Shield.

    PubMed

    Henkel, Terry W; Aime, M Catherine; Uehling, Jessie K; Smith, Matthew E

    2011-01-01

    Two new species of Clavulina Schroet. (Clavulinaceae, Cantharellales, Basidiomycota) and new distribution records for Clavulina amazonensis Corner and Clavulina sprucei (Berk.) Corner are described from the Pakaraima Mountains of Guyana, in the central Guiana Shield region. These fungi occur in rainforests dominated by ectomycorrhizal (ECM) trees of the leguminous genus Dicymbe (Fabaceae subfam. Caesalpinioideae). Macromorphological, micromorphological and habitat data are provided for each species. Nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region and 28S subunit were obtained for new species and from representative collections of C. amazonensis and C. sprucei. The two new species, Clavulina kunmudlutsa sp. nov. and Clavulina tepurumenga sp. nov., constitute important edible fungi for the Patamona Amerindians. Our specimens of C. sprucei represent the first reports of the species since 1853 as well as a range extension of nearly 1500 km, while sequence data from basidiomata as well as ECM roots suggest that this taxon consists of a cryptic species complex. PMID:21262982

  6. New records of Cantharellus species from the northwestern Himalayas of India

    PubMed Central

    Deepika, Kumari; Reddy, M. Sudhakara; Upadhyay, Ramesh C.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated several collections of the genus Cantharellus (Cantharellaceae) from the northwestern Himalayas, India, on the basis of morphology and molecular data. Phylogenetic relationships and species limits were investigated by using nuclear ribosomal large subunit sequences (LSU). We recognized 13 species: Cantharellus appalachiensis Petersen, C. cibarius Fries, C. lateritius (Berk) Singer, C. miniatescens Heinem, C. minor Peck, C. pseudoformosus and seven species, C. applanatus sp. nov., C. elongatipes sp. nov., C. fibrillosus sp. nov., C. himalayensis sp. nov., C. indicus sp. nov., C. natarajanii sp. nov., and C. umbonatus sp. nov., as new to science. All these species are described and their taxonomy and ecology are discussed. In addition, a key is provided to all the recognized species. The phylogenetic analysis recovered 10 major supported clades of Cantharellus species. PMID:24587961

  7. Spectroscopic determination of kinetic parameters for frequency sweeping Alfven eigenmodes

    SciTech Connect

    Lesur, M.; Idomura, Y.; Shinohara, K.; Garbet, X.

    2010-12-15

    A method for analyzing fundamental kinetic plasma parameters, such as linear drive and external damping rate, based on experimental observations of chirping Alfven eigenmodes, is presented. The method, which relies on new semiempirical laws for nonlinear chirping characteristics, consists of fitting procedures between the so-called Berk-Breizman model and the experiment in a quasiperiodic chirping regime. This approach is applied to the toroidicity induced Alfven eigenmode (TAE) on JT-60 Upgrade (JT-60U) [N. Oyama et al., Nucl. Fusion 49, 104007 (2009)], which yields an estimation of the kinetic parameters and suggests the existence of TAEs far from marginal stability. Two collision models are considered, and it is shown that dynamical friction and velocity-space diffusion are essential to reproduce nonlinear features observed in experiments. The results are validated by recovering measured growth and decay of perturbation amplitude and by estimating collision frequencies from experimental equilibrium data.

  8. A search for p-mode pulsations in white dwarf stars using the Berkeley Visible Imaging Tube detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilkenny, D.; Welsh, B. Y.; Koen, C.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; Kotze, M. M.

    2014-01-01

    We present high-speed photometry (resolution 0.1 s) obtained during the commissioning of the Berkely Visible Imaging Tube system on the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). The observations were an attempt to search for very rapid p-mode oscillations in white dwarf stars and included three DA stars known to be g-mode pulsators (ZZ Cet, HK Cet and AF Pic), one other DA star (WD 1056-384) not known to be variable and one AM Cvn star (HP Lib). No evidence was found for any variations greater than about 1 mmag in amplitude (˜0.1 per cent) at frequencies in excess of 60 mHz (periods <17 s) in any of the target stars, though several previously known g-mode frequencies were recovered.

  9. Evaluation of Mycelial Nutrients, Bioactive Compounds, and Antioxidants of Five Himalayan Entomopathogenic Ascomyceteous Fungi from India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sapan Kumar; Gautam, Nandini; Atri, Narender Singh

    2015-01-01

    In this study, using standard methods, mycelial nutrients, bioactive compounds, and antioxidants were analyzed for the first time for five fungal species: Isaria sinclairii (Berk.) Lloyd, I. tenuipes Peck, I. japonica Yasuda, I. farinosa (Holmsk) Fr. and Cordyceps tuberculata (Lebert) Maire. All of these species were low in fat content and rich in protein, fiber, ash, and carbohydrates. Mineral elements (Fe, Mg, Cu, Mn, and Ca) were detected in appreciable amounts. All three types of fatty acids (saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated) as well as bioactive compounds (ascorbic acid, β-carotene, lycopene, phenolic compounds, and polysaccharides) were detected for each species. The investigated species showed high ferric-reducing antioxidant power as well as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl radical scavenging activity. Although differences were observed in the values of each species, each species showed richness in one or more components. PMID:26559700

  10. Isolation and antifungal activity of kakuol, a propiophenone derivative from Asarum sieboldii rhizome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Yeop; Moon, Surk Sik; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2005-08-01

    An antifungal substance active against Colletotrichum orbiculare (Berk & Mont) Arx was isolated from the methanol extracts of Asarum sieboldii (Miq) Maek rhizomes. High-resolution MS, NMR and UV spectral data confirmed that the antifungal substance is kakuol, 2-hydroxy-4,5-methylenedioxypropiophenone. Colletotrichum orbiculare was most sensitive to kakuol, with MIC of 10 microg ml(-1). Kakuol also completely inhibited the mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea Pers ex Fr and Cladosporium cucumerinum Ellis & Arthur at 50 microg ml(-1) and 30 microg ml(-1), respectively. However, no antimicrobial activity was found against yeast and bacteria even at 100 microg ml(-1). Kakuol exhibited a protective activity against the development of anthracnose disease on cucumber plants. The control efficacy of kakuol against the anthracnose disease was in general somewhat less than that of the commercial fungicide chlorothalonil. This is the first report to demonstrate in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of kakuol against C. orbiculare infection. PMID:15846774

  11. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for deliberate self-harm.

    PubMed

    Slee, Nadja; Arensman, Ella; Garnefski, Nadia; Spinhoven, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Patients who engage in deliberate self-harm (DSH) form a heterogeneous population. There is a need for psychotherapeutic interventions that give therapists the flexibility to tailor the treatment plan to the needs of an individual patient. To detect essential ingredients for treatment, three different cognitive-behavioral theories of DSH will be reviewed: (1) the cognitive-behavioral theory of Linehan (1993a), (2) the cognitive theory of Berk, Henriques, Warman, Brown, and Beck (2004), and (3) the cognitive-behavioral theory of Rudd, Joiner, and Rajab (2001). A review of these theories makes it possible to compare the different approaches to the essential aspects in the treatment of DSH: a trusting patient-therapist relationship, building emotion regulation skills, cognitive restructuring, and behavioral pattern breaking. An overview will be given of therapeutic techniques that can be used to address the cognitive, emotional, behavioral, and interpersonal problems associated with DSH. PMID:18265737

  12. Application of Differential Proteomic Analysis to Authenticate Ophiocordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shiwei; Lai, Xintian; Li, Bifang; Wu, Cong; Wang, Shifeng; Chen, Xuejian; Huang, Jingmin; Yang, Guowu

    2016-03-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. is one of the most well-known fungi in traditional Chinese medicine and is attracting attention because of its nutritious and medicinal properties. The present study aimed to produce a proteomic map to identify common O. sinensis proteins. The caterpillar body and stroma of O. sinensis collected from five locations and four fungal specimens of similar appearance were examined by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Five proteins were identified using MALDI-TOF--TOF/MS, and the 2-DE identification pattern was provided. OCS_04585 and β-lactamase domain-containing protein, the two abundant and characteristic proteins, were separated and purified using liquid-phase isoelectric focusing. The products were high-quality materials that can be used for future protein-function studies and immunoassay development. PMID:26660081

  13. Dexmedetomidine ameliorates nocifensive behavior in humanized sickle cell mice.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Gabriela; Wang, Li; Almeida, Luis E F; Kenyon, Nicholas; Afsar, Nina; Nouraie, Mehdi; Finkel, Julia C; Quezado, Zenaide M N

    2015-05-01

    Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) can have recurrent episodes of vaso-occlusive crises, which are associated with severe pain. While opioids are the mainstay of analgesic therapy, in some patients, increasing opioid use results in continued and increasing pain. Many believe that this phenomenon results from opioid-induced tolerance or hyperalgesia or that SCD pain involves non-opioid-responsive mechanisms. Dexmedetomidine, a specific α2-adrenoreceptor agonist, which has sedative and analgesic properties, reduces opioid requirements, and can facilitate opioid withdrawal in clinical settings. We hypothesized that dexmedetomidine would ameliorate the nociception phenotype of SCD mice. Townes and BERK SCD mice, strains known to have altered nociception phenotypes, were used in a crossover preclinical trial that measured nocifensive behavior before and after treatment with dexmedetomidine or vehicle. In a linear dose-effect relationship, over 60-min, dexmedetomidine, compared with vehicle, significantly increased hot plate latency in Townes and BERK mice (P≤0.006). In sickle, but not control mice, dexmedetomidine improved grip force, an indicator of muscle pain (P=0.002). As expected, dexmedetomidine had a sedative effect in sickle and control mice as it decreased wakefulness scores compared with vehicle (all P<0.001). Interestingly, the effects of dexmedetomidine on hot plate latency and wakefulness scores were different in sickle and control mice, i.e., dexmedetomidine-related increases in hotplate latency and decreases in wakefulness scores were significantly smaller in Townes sickle compared to control mice. In conclusion, these findings of beneficial effects of dexmedetomidine on the nociception phenotype in SCD mice might support the conduct of studies of dexmedetomidine in SCD patients. PMID:25724786

  14. Cytochrome b gene structure and consequences for resistance to Qo inhibitor fungicides in plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Grasso, Valeria; Palermo, Simona; Sierotzki, Helge; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gisi, Ulrich

    2006-06-01

    The cytochrome b (cyt b) gene structure was characterized for different agronomically important plant pathogens, such as Puccinia recondita f sp tritici (Erikss) CO Johnston, P graminis f sp tritici Erikss and Hennings, P striiformis f sp tritici Erikss, P coronata f sp avenae P Syd & Syd, P hordei GH Otth, P recondita f sp secalis Roberge, P sorghi Schwein, P horiana Henn, Uromyces appendiculatus (Pers) Unger, Phakopsora pachyrhizi Syd & P Syd, Hemileia vastatrix Berk & Broome, Alternaria solani Sorauer, A alternata (Fr) Keissl and Plasmopara viticola (Berk & Curt) Berlese & de Toni. The sequenced fragment included the two hot spot regions in which mutations conferring resistance to QoI fungicides may occur. The cyt b gene structure of these pathogens was compared with that of other species from public databases, including the strobilurin-producing fungus Mycena galopoda (Pers) P Kumm, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Meyer ex Hansen, Venturia inaequalis (Cooke) Winter and Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet. In all rust species, as well as in A solani, resistance to QoI fungicides caused by the mutation G143A has never been reported. A type I intron was observed directly after the codon for glycine at position 143 in these species. This intron was absent in pathogens such as A alternata, Blumeria graminis (DC) Speer, Pyricularia grisea Sacc, Mycosphaerella graminicola (Fuckel) J Schröt, M fijiensis, V inaequalis and P viticola, in which resistance to QoI fungicides has occurred and the glycine is replaced by alanine at position 143 in the resistant genotype. The present authors predict that a nucleotide substitution in codon 143 would prevent splicing of the intron, leading to a deficient cytochrome b, which is lethal. As a consequence, the evolution of resistance to QoI fungicides based on G143A is not likely to evolve in pathogens carrying an intron directly after this codon. PMID:16688790

  15. Comparative study of contents of several bioactive components in fruiting bodies and mycelia of culinary-medicinal mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shin-Yi; Chen, Yu-Kai; Yu, Hui-Tzu; Barseghyan, Gayane S; Asatiani, Mikheil D; Wasser, Solomon P; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2013-01-01

    Mushrooms (including fruiting bodies and mycelia) contain several bioactive components such as lovastatin, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and ergothioneine. This article reports the results of 49 samples, including 9 fruiting bodies, 39 mycelia, and 1 vegetative cell, of 35 species of culinary-medicinal mushrooms from 18 genera: Agaricus, Agrocybe, Coprinus, Cordyceps, Cyathus, Daedalia, Flammulina, Fomes, Ganoderma, Grifola, Laetiporus, Lentinus, Morchella, Ophiocordyceps, Pleurotus, Trametes, Tremella, and Verpa. The results show that Cyathus striatus strain 978 contained the highest amount of lovastatin (995.66 mg/kg) in mycelia. Among fruiting bodies, 6 samples contained a high amount of GABA (274.86-822.45 mg/kg), whereas among mycelia, contents of GABA in 27 samples ranged from 215.36 to 2811.85 mg/kg. Among mycelia, Pleurotus cornucopiae strain 1101 contained the highest amount of ergothioneine (3482.09 mg/kg). Overall, these 3 bioactive components were commonly found in most mushrooms, and the results obtained might be related to their beneficial effects. PMID:23662618

  16. Comparative study of contents of several bioactive components in fruiting bodies and mycelia of culinary-medicinal mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Lo, Yu-Chang; Lin, Shin-Yi; Ulziijargal, Enkhjargal; Chen, Shin-Yu; Chien, Rao-Chi; Tzou, Yi-Jing; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2012-01-01

    Mushrooms have been consumed for thousands of years, and several bioactive components were found therein, including lovastatin, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and ergothioneine. The study reported herein was to analyze these three bioactive components in 15 fruiting bodies and 9 mycelia of 19 species of mushrooms from genera Agaricus, Agrocybe, Auricularia, Boletus, Ganoderma, Hypsizygus, Inonotus, Lentinus, Morchella, Pleurotus, Tremella, Termitomyces, and Volvariella. The results show that Hypsizygus marmoreus contained the highest amount of lovastatin (628.05 mg/kg) in fruiting bodies and Morchella esculenta contained the highest amount (1438.42 mg/ kg) in mycelia. Agaricus brasiliensis contained the highest amount of GABA (1844.85 mg/kg) in fruiting bodies, and mycelia of Boletus edulis, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, and Termitomyces albuminosus contained extraordinarily higher amounts (1274.03, 1631.67, and 2560.00 mg/kg, respectively). Volvariella volvacea contained the highest amount of ergothioneine (537.27 mg/kg) in fruiting bodies and mycelia; Boletus edulis, Pleurotus ferulae, and P. salmoneostramineus contained relatively higher amount of ergothioneine too (258.03, 250.23, and 222.08 mg/kg, respectively). However, none of these components was detected in fruiting bodies of Inonotus obliquus. In conclusion, these three bioactive components were commonly found in most mushrooms, and these results might be related to their beneficial effects. PMID:23510173

  17. Antibacterial and DNA degradation potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized via green route.

    PubMed

    Manna, Dilip K; Mandal, Amit K; Sen, Ipsita K; Maji, Praloy K; Chakraborti, Soumyananda; Chakraborty, Ranadhir; Islam, Syed S

    2015-09-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using a hetero polysaccharide (PS) isolated from Lentinus squarrosulus (Mont.) Singer. The polysaccharide fraction (consisting of glucose, fucose and galactose) serves the role of both reducing as well as stabilizing agent. UV-vis spectroscopy showed maximum absorbance at 407 nm due to surface plasmon resonance. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) exhibited that the average diameter of the nanoparticles was 2.78±1.47 nm. The XRD analysis revealed face-centered cubic (fcc) geometry of silver nanoparticles. Antibacterial activity of the AgNPs-PS conjugate was tested against multiple antibiotics resistant (MAR) Escherichia coli strain MREC33 and found that the killing was due to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Internalization of AgNPs-PS conjugate along with its DNA degradation capability was demonstrated using flow cytometry. AgNPs-PS conjugates showed negligible toxicity to human RBCs. This LD50 dosage of AgNPs-PS conjugates in combination with each of the four antibiotics (ampicillin, azithromycin, kanamycin and netilmicin) to which E. coli MREC33 was resistant, showed synergistic effect to inhibit complete bacterial growth. PMID:26188293

  18. Screening of basidiomycetes in submerged cultivation based on antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Umeo, S H; Souza, G P N; Rapachi, P M; Garcia, D M; Paccola-Meirelles, L D; Valle, J S; Colauto, N B; Linde, G A

    2015-01-01

    Submerged cultivation of medicinal basidiomycetes is a reproducible and efficient method of producing mycelia and metabolites. The antioxidant activity indicates its medicinal properties and is an important tool for basidiomycete screening. In this study, we analyzed the production of mycelial biomass and exopolysaccharides and the antioxidant activity of basidiomycete strains in submerged cultivation. Twenty-five strains were used for submerged cultivation in extract malt medium, and the production of mycelial biomass and exopolysaccharides was evaluated. Antioxidant activity was determined using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method. Among the 25 evaluated strains, Lentinus crinitus produced the highest biomass, reaching 1190 ± 52 mg·L(-1)day(-1); Agaricus subrufescens strains had the highest exopolysaccharide production from 18.96 ± 0.15 to 20.97 ± 2.10 mg L(-1)·day(-1). Additionally, A. subrufescens showed the highest total antioxidant activity, reinforcing the therapeutic potential of this basidiomycete. No significant correlation was found between mycelial biomass or exopolysaccharide production and antioxidant activity; however, the results depended on each species and the strains of the same species. We found large variations in the production of mycelial biomass and exopolysaccharides and in antioxidant activity among different species and among strains of the same species. Thus, evaluating the total antioxidant activity is an important tool for identifying strains with biotechnological potential. PMID:26345925

  19. Decolorization of salt-alkaline effluent with industrial reactive dyes by laccase-producing Basidiomycetes strains.

    PubMed

    Moreira-Neto, S L; Mussatto, S I; Machado, K M G; Milagres, A M F

    2013-04-01

    The discharge of highly coloured synthetic dye effluents into rivers and lakes is harmful to the water bodies, and therefore, intensive researches have been focussed on the decolorization of wastewater by biological, physical or chemical treatments. In the present study, 12 basidiomycetes strains from the genus Pleurotus, Trametes, Lentinus, Peniophora, Pycnoporus, Rigidoporus, Hygrocybe and Psilocybe were evaluated for decolorization of the reactive dyes Cibacron Brilliant Blue H-GR and Cibacron Red FN-2BL, both in solid and liquid media. Among the evaluated fungi, seven showed great ability to decolorize the synthetic textile effluent, both in vivo (74-77%) or in vitro (60-74%), and laccase was the main ligninolytic enzyme involved on dyes decolorization. Pleurotus ostreatus, Trametes villosa and Peniophora cinerea reduced near to 60% of the effluent colour after only 1 h of treatment. The decolorization results were still improved by establishing the nitrogen source and amount to be used during the fungal strains cultivation in synthetic medium previous their action on the textile effluent, with yeast extract being a better nitrogen source than ammonium tartarate. These results contribute for the development of an effective microbiological process for decolorization of dye effluents with reduced time of treatment. PMID:23350659

  20. Comparative study of antioxidant activities and total phenolic content of selected edible wild mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Yim, Hip Seng; Chye, Fook Yee; Lee, Mee Yee; Matanjun, Patricia; How, Siew Eng; Ho, Chun Wai

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to assess the antioxidant activities (AOA) and total phenolic content (TPC) of water extracts of selected edible wild mushrooms: Pleurotus porrigens, Schizophyllum commune, Hygrocybe conica, and Lentinus ciliatus. The AOA were evaluated against DPPH radical and ABTS radical cation scavenging ability, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and beta-carotene-linoleate bleaching (beta-CB) assays, and the Folin-Ciocalteu method for TPC. BHA was used as reference. P. porrigens showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) DPPH* scavenging ability (90.78 +/- 0.30%) and FRAP (6.37 +/- 0.22 mM FE/100g), while Sch. commune showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) ABTS*+ inhibition activity (94.96 +/- 0.70%) and beta-CB inhibition activity (94.18 +/- 0.17%), respectively. TPC was found in a descending order of P. poriggens > L. ciliatus = Pleurotus ostreatus (cultivated) > H. conica = Sch. commune. Positive correlation was observed between the AOA and TPC. When compared to BHA (2 mM), P. porrigens showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) DPPH* scavenging ability and reducing power, while Sch. commune showed comparable DPPH* scavenging ability and ABTS*+ inhibition activity. All the mushrooms have better ABTS*+ inhibition activity than BHA (1 mM). The beta-CB inhibition activity of BHA was significantly higher than those of edible wild mushrooms. The water extracts of edible wild mushrooms showed potent antioxidant activities compared to BHA to a certain extent. PMID:22135876

  1. Toxicity profile of choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvents for fungi and Cyprinus carpio fish.

    PubMed

    Juneidi, Ibrahim; Hayyan, Maan; Mohd Ali, Ozair

    2016-04-01

    An investigation on the toxicological assessment of 10 choline chloride (ChCl)-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) towards four fungi strains and Cyprinus carpio fish was conducted. ChCl was combined with materials from different chemical groups such as alcohols, sugars, acids and others to form DESs. The study was carried out on the individual DES components, their aqueous mixture before DES formation and their formed DESs. The agar disc diffusion method was followed to investigate their toxicity on four fungi strains selected as a model of eukaryotic microorganisms (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Aspergillus niger, Lentinus tigrinus and Candida cylindracea). Among these DESs, ChCl:ZnCl2 exhibited the highest inhibition zone diameter towards the tested fungi growth in vitro, followed by the acidic group (malonic acid and p-toluenesulfonic acid). Another study was conducted to test the acute toxicity and determine the lethal concentration at 50 % (LC50) of the same DESs on C. carpio fish. The inhibition range and LC50 of DESs were found to be different from their individual components. DESs were found to be less toxic than their mixture or individual components. The LC50 of ChCl:MADES is much higher than that of ChCl:MAMix. Moreover, the DESs acidic group showed a lower inhibition zone on fungi growth. Thus, DESs should be considered as new components with different physicochemical properties and toxicological profiles, and not merely compositions of compounds. PMID:26743645

  2. A phylogenetic re-evaluation of Phyllosticta (Botryosphaeriales)

    PubMed Central

    Wikee, S.; Lombard, L.; Nakashima, C.; Motohashi, K.; Chukeatirote, E.; Cheewangkoon, R.; McKenzie, E.H.C.; Hyde, K.D.; Crous, P.W.

    2013-01-01

    Phyllosticta is a geographically widespread genus of plant pathogenic fungi with a diverse host range. This study redefines Phyllosticta, and shows that it clusters sister to the Botryosphaeriaceae (Botryosphaeriales, Dothideomycetes), for which the older family name Phyllostictaceae is resurrected. In moving to a unit nomenclature for fungi, the generic name Phyllosticta was chosen over Guignardia in previous studies, an approach that we support here. We use a multigene DNA dataset of the ITS, LSU, ACT, TEF and GPDH gene regions to investigate 129 isolates of Phyllosticta, representing about 170 species names, many of which are shown to be synonyms of the ubiquitous endophyte P. capitalensis. Based on the data generated here, 12 new species are introduced, while epitype and neotype specimens are designated for a further seven species. One species of interest is P. citrimaxima associated with tan spot of Citrus maxima fruit in Thailand, which adds a fifth species to the citrus black spot complex. Previous morphological studies lumped many taxa under single names that represent complexes. In spite of this Phyllosticta is a species-rich genus, and many of these taxa need to be recollected in order to resolve their phylogeny and taxonomy. Taxonomic novelties: New species - Phyllosticta abieticola Wikee & Crous, P. aloeicola Wikee & Crous, P. citrimaxima Wikee, Crous, K.D. Hyde & McKenzie, P. leucothoicola Wikee, Motohashi & Crous, P. mangifera-indica Wikee, Crous, K.D. Hyde & McKenzie, P. neopyrolae Wikee, Motohashi, Crous, K.D. Hyde & McKenzie, P. pachysandricola Wikee, Motohashi & Crous, P. paxistimae Wikee & Crous, P. podocarpicola Wikee, Crous, K.D. Hyde & McKenzie, P. rhaphiolepidis Wikee, C. Nakash. & Crous, P. rubra Wikee & Crous, P. vacciniicola Wikee, Crous, K.D. Hyde & McKenzie; New combinations - P. foliorum (Sacc.) Wikee & Crous, P. philoprina (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Wikee & Crous; Epitypifications (basionyms) - P. concentrica Sacc., P. cussoniae Cejp, P

  3. Remote sensing to monitor cover crop adoption in southeastern Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hively, Wells; Sjoerd Duiker; Greg McCarty; Prabhakara, Kusuma

    2015-01-01

    In the Chesapeake Bay Watershed, winter cereal cover crops are often planted in rotation with summer crops to reduce the loss of nutrients and sediment from agricultural systems. Cover crops can also improve soil health, control weeds and pests, supplement forage needs, and support resilient cropping systems. In southeastern Pennsylvania, cover crops can be successfully established following corn (Zea mays L.) silage harvest and are strongly promoted for use in this niche. They are also planted following corn grain, soybean (Glycine max L.), and vegetable harvest. In Pennsylvania, the use of winter cover crops for agricultural conservation has been supported through a combination of outreach, regulation, and incentives. On-farm implementation is thought to be increasing, but the actual extent of cover crops is not well quantified. Satellite imagery can be used to map green winter cover crop vegetation on agricultural fields and, when integrated with additional remote sensing data products, can be used to evaluate wintertime vegetative groundcover following specific summer crops. This study used Landsat and SPOT (System Probatoire d’ Observation de la Terre) satellite imagery, in combination with the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service Cropland Data Layer, to evaluate the extent and amount of green wintertime vegetation on agricultural fields in four Pennsylvania counties (Berks, Lebanon, Lancaster, and York) from 2010 to 2013. In December of 2010, a windshield survey was conducted to collect baseline data on winter cover crop implementation, with particular focus on identifying corn harvested for silage (expected earlier harvest date and lower levels of crop residue), versus for grain (expected later harvest date and higher levels of crop residue). Satellite spectral indices were successfully used to detect both the amount of green vegetative groundcover and the amount of crop residue on the surveyed fields. Analysis of wintertime satellite imagery

  4. Biodecolorization and biodegradation of reactive Levafix Blue E-RA granulate dye by the white rot fungus Irpex lacteus.

    PubMed

    Kalpana, Duraisamy; Velmurugan, Natarajan; Shim, Jae Hong; Oh, Byung-Taek; Senthil, Kalaiselvi; Lee, Yang Soo

    2012-11-30

    The treatment of effluents from textile industry with microorganisms, especially bacteria and fungi, has recently gained attention. The present study was conducted using white rot fungi Irpex lacteus, Trametes hirsuta, Trametes sp., and Lentinula edodes for the decolorization of reactive textile Levafix Blue E-RA granulate dye. I. lacteus resulted in the best decolorization and degradation of the dye within four days. Therefore, more detailed studies were carried out using I. lacteus. The decolorization was evaluated at various concentration, pH values, and temperatures. The activities of laccase, manganese peroxidase, and lignin peroxidase enzymes were estimated to reveal the roles of enzymes in decolorization. The colorless nature of the fungal cells revealed that decolorization occurred through degradation, and confirmed by analysis of the metabolites by UV-visible spectroscopy and High Performance Liquid Chromatography after decolorization. The metabolites were identified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, and functional group analysis was performed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The degraded dye metabolites were assessed for phytotoxicity using Vigna radiata and Brassica juncea, which demonstrated nontoxic nature of the metabolites formed after degradation of dye. PMID:22846889

  5. Filamentous fungi as a source of natural antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Smith, Helen; Doyle, Sean; Murphy, Richard

    2015-10-15

    Ten species of filamentous fungi grown in submerged flask cultures were investigated for antioxidant capacity. Effective antioxidant activity was demonstrated in terms of β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching, radical scavenging, reduction of metal ions and chelating abilities against ferrous ions. Different extraction methods affected antioxidant activities through their effect on biologically active compounds produced in fungal mycelia. The methanolic extract of each fungus was typically more effective in antioxidant properties. Phenolic content was established in the range of 0.44-9.33 mg/g, flavonoid contents were in the range of 0.02-3.90 mg/g and condensed tannin contents were in the range of 1.77-18.83 mg/g. Total phenol content of each extract was attributed to overall antioxidant capacity (r ⩾ 0.883-1.000). Submerged cultivation of Grifola frondosa, Monascus purpureus, Pleurotus spp., Lentinula edodes and Trametes versicolor proved to be an effective method for the production of natural antioxidants. PMID:25952884

  6. Identification and Characterization of Trichoderma Species Damaging Shiitake Mushroom Bed-Logs Infested by Camptomyia Pest.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun Young; Kwon, Hyuk Woo; Yun, Yeo Hong; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2016-05-28

    The shiitake mushroom industry has suffered from Camptomyia (gall midges) pest, which feeds on the mycelium of shiitake mushroom during its cultivation. It has been postulated that fungal damage of shiitake bed-logs is associated with infestation by the insect pest, but this is not well understood. To understand the fungal damage associated with Camptomyia pest, various Trichoderma species were isolated, identified, and characterized. In addition to two previously known Trichoderma species, T. citrinoviride and T. deliquescens, two other Trichoderma species, T. harzianum and T. atroviride, were newly identified from the pestinfested bed-log samples obtained at three mushroom farms in Cheonan, Korea. Among these four species, T. harzianum was the most evident. The results of a chromogenic media-based assay for extracellular enzymes showed that these four species have the ability to produce amylase, carboxyl-methyl cellulase, avicelase, pectinase, and β-glucosidase, thus indicating that they can degrade wood components. A dual culture assay on PDA indicated that T. harzianum, T. atroviride, and T. citrinoviride were antagonistic against the mycelial growth of a shiitake strain (Lentinula edodes). Inoculation tests on shiitake bed-logs revealed that all four species were able to damage the wood of bed-logs. Our results provide evidence that the four green mold species are the causal agents involved in fungal damage of shiitake bed-logs infested by Camptomyia pest. PMID:26930351

  7. [Codon usage bias in the straw mushroom Volvariella volvacea].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Lü, Beibei; He, Jianhua; Wang, Jinbin; Wu, Xiao; Wu, Guogan; Bao, Dapeng; Chen, Mingjie; Zhang, Jinsong; Tan, Qi; Tang, Xueming

    2014-09-01

    We analyzed the whole genome coding sequence of Volvariella volvacea to study the pattern utilization of codons by Codon W 1.4.2. As results, 24 optimal codons were identified. Moreover, the frequency of codons usage was calculated by CUSP program. We compared the frequency of codons usage of V. volvacea with other organisms including 6 modal value species (Homo sapiens, Saccharomys cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thalian, Mus musculus, Danio rerio and Drosophila melanogaster) and 4 edible fungi (Coprinopsis cinerea, Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes and Pleurotus ostreatus). We found that there were less differences in 3 edible fungi (excluding Pleurotus ostreatus) than 6 modal value species, comparing with the frequency of codons usage of V. volvacea. With software SPSS16.0, cluster analysis which showed differences in the size of codon bias, reflects the evolutionary relationships between species, which can be used as a reference of evolutionary relationships of species. This was the first time for analysis the codon preference among the whole coding sequences of edible fungi, serving as theoretical basis to apply genetic engineering of V. volvacea. PMID:25720157

  8. Mushroom cryopreservation and its effect on survival, yield and genetic stability.

    PubMed

    Singh, S K; Upadhyay, R C; Kamal, Shwet; Tiwari, Mugdha

    2004-01-01

    Mycelial stock cultures of Agaricus bisporus, A. Bitorquis, Pleurotus flabellatus, P. Sajor-caju, P. Ostreatus, P. Sapidus, Auricularia polytricha, Lentinula edodes, Morchella esculenta and Volvariella volvacea were maintained by frequent subculturing at an interval of two months and separately as wheat grain spawn in liquid nitrogen with 15 percent glycerol. Preservation of mushroom stock cultures as wheat grain spawn under liquid nitrogen proved to be the better method of maintenance. The percent recoveries of stored samples were unchanged from the first recovery after six months to the last recovery after 42 months in nine out of 11 stock cultures preserved under liquid nitrogen. However, a marginal decline in survival of 10 % was recorded in Auricularia polytricha and Volvariella volvacea. Yields before preservation of mushroom stock cultures and after 30 months of preservation exhibited static biological efficiency and fruitbody weight. The comparison of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS) PCR amplified products did not exhibit DNA fragment variation in banding patterns at the intraspecific level during preservation of stock cultures by either method. The modified cryopreservation protocol and experimental demonstration of genetic stability of stock cultures reported here validate the use of mushroom cryopreservation techniques and supports studies on genetic stability of preserved biological materials. PMID:15031742

  9. Solubilization and Mineralization of Lignin by White Rot Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, C. David; Kropp, Bradley R.; Reid, Ian D.

    1992-01-01

    The white rot fungi Lentinula edodes, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus sajor-caju, Flammulina velutipes, and Schizophyllum commune were grown in liquid media containing 14C-lignin-labelled wood, and the formation of water-soluble 14C-labelled products and 14CO2, the growth of the fungi, and the activities of extracellular lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, and laccase were measured. Conditions that affect the rate of lignin degradation were imposed, and both long-term (0- to 16-day) and short-term (0- to 72-h) effects on the production of the two types of product and on the activities of the enzymes were monitored. The production of 14CO2-labelled products from the aqueous ones was also investigated. The short-term studies showed that the different conditions had different effects on the production of the two products and on the activities of the enzymes. Nitrogen sources inhibited the production of both products by all species when differences in growth could be discounted. Medium pH and manganese affected lignin degradation by the different species differently. With P. chrysosporium, the results were consistent, with lignin peroxidase playing a role in lignin solubilization and manganese peroxidase being important in subsequent CO2 production. PMID:16348781

  10. Effects of UV-B Radiation Levels on Concentrations of Phytosterols, Ergothioneine, and Polyphenolic Compounds in Mushroom Powders Used As Dietary Supplements.

    PubMed

    Sapozhnikova, Yelena; Byrdwell, William Craig; Lobato, Amada; Romig, Bill

    2014-03-27

    Compositional changes of powder dietary supplements made from mushrooms exposed to different levels of UV-B irradiation were evaluated for the bioactive naturally occurring mushroom antioxidant, ergothioneine; other natural polyphenolic compounds, e.g., flavonoids, lignans, etc.; and selected phytosterols. Four types of mushroom powder consisting of white, brown (Agaricus bisporus), oyster (Pleurotus ostreatus), and shiitake (Lentinula edodes) mushrooms from three different treatment groups (control, low and high UV-B exposures) were evaluated. Ergothioneine concentrations found in mushroom powders were 0.4-10.4 mg/g dry weight (dw) and were not appreciably affected by UV-B radiation. No individual polyphenols were detected above 0.1 μg/g. Phytosterols ergosterol (2.4-6.2 mg/g dw) and campesterol (14-43 μg/g dw) were measured in mushroom powder samples. Ergosterol concentrations decreased significantly with the increased level of UV-B treatment for all mushroom powder types, except for white. These results provide some new information on effects of UV-B radiation on these important natural bioactive compounds in mushrooms. PMID:24628700

  11. Preparation and swelling behavior of a novel self-assembled β-cyclodextrin/acrylic acid/sodium alginate hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhanhua; Liu, Shouxin; Zhang, Bin; Wu, Qinglin

    2014-11-26

    A novel biodegradable β-cyclodextrin/acrylic acid/sodium alginate (CSA) hydrogel with a three-dimensional network structure was self-assembled by inverse suspension copolymerization. The CSA resin was pH sensitive and had good water absorption properties in pH 6-8 buffer solutions. At a β-CD:AA:SA mass ratio of 1:9:3 the CSA water absorbency was found to be 1403 g/g and the CSA hydrogel strength was 4.968 N. In 0.005-0.1 mol/L chloride salt and sulfate salt solutions the CSA water absorbencies increased as follows: NaCl>KCl>MgCl2>CaCl2>FeCl3, and Na2SO4>K2SO4>FeSO4>Al2(SO4)3, respectively. The release of water from the CSA hydrogel occurred slowly over 120 h. The biodegradation efficiency of the resin reached 85.3% for Lentinula edodes. The super water absorbency, good salt resistance and excellent water retention properties of CSA make it suitable for application as an agricultural water retention agent in saline soils. PMID:25256504

  12. Latcripin-13 domain induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase in human lung carcinoma A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Wan, Xianyao; Gao, Yifan; Zhong, Mintao; Sha, Li; Liu, Ben; Zhang, Wei; Tian, Li; Ruan, Wenjing; Cao, Shuyun; Huang, Min

    2016-07-01

    Latcripin-13 domain, isolated from the transcriptome of Lentinula edodes C91-3, contains a regulator of chromosome condensation (RCC1) domain/β-lactamase-inhibitor protein II (BLIP-II) and a plant homeodomain (PHD). Latcripin-13 domain has been shown to have antitumor effects. However, the underlying molecular pharmacology is largely unknown. We report here that Latcripin-13 domain induced cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase and caused the apoptosis of human lung carcinoma A549 cells via the GSK3β-cyclin D1 and caspase-8/NF-κB signaling pathways. Western blot analysis showed that Latcripin-13 domain decreased cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), while it increased the ratio of GSK3β/phosphorylated GSK3β. Importantly, Latcripin-13 domain induced nuclear fragmentation and chromatin condensation in the A549 cells. In addition, treatment of the A549 cells with Latcripin-13 domain resulted in the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, accompanied by an increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase-3, -8, and -9. Intriguingly, western blot analysis revealed that NF-κB was significantly downregulated by Latcripin-13 domain. These results demonstrated that Latcripin-13 domain induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G1 phase in the A549 cells, providing a mechanism for the antitumor effects of Latcripin-13 domain. PMID:27221765

  13. The Effects of Fractions from Shiitake Mushroom on Composition and Cariogenicity of Dental Plaque Microcosms in an In Vitro Caries Model

    PubMed Central

    Zaura, Egija; Buijs, Mark J.; Hoogenkamp, Michel A.; Ciric, Lena; Papetti, Adele; Signoretto, Caterina; Stauder, Monica; Lingström, Peter; Pratten, Jonathan; Spratt, David A.; Wilson, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the anticariogenic potential of the (sub)fractions obtained from the edible mushroom shiitake (Lentinula edodes) in in vitro caries model. We used a modified constant depth film fermentor (CDFF) with pooled saliva as the inoculum and bovine dentin as a substratum. The test compounds were low molecular weight fraction (MLMW) of the shiitake extract and subfractions 4 and 5 (SF4 and SF5) of this fraction. Chlorhexidine (CHX) and water served as a positive and a negative control, respectively. Dentin mineral loss was quantified (TMR), microbial shifts within the microcosms were determined (qPCR), and the acidogenicity of the microcosms was assessed (CIA). From the compounds tested, the SF4 of shiitake showed strong inhibiting effect on dentin demineralization and induced microbial shifts that could be associated with oral health. The acid producing potential was increased, suggesting uncoupling of the glycolysis of the microbiota by the exposure to SF4. In conclusion, the results suggest that SF4 of shiitake has an anticariogenic potential. PMID:21941428

  14. Characterization and cloning of laccase gene from Hericium coralloides NBRC 7716 suitable for production of epitheaflagallin 3-O-gallate.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Nobuya; Takagi, Shinya; Miki, Asami; Kurokawa, Junji

    2016-01-01

    Epitheaflagallin 3-O-gallate (ETFGg) is a minor polyphenol found in black tea extract, which has good physiological functions. It is synthesized from epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) with gallic acid via laccase oxidation. Various basidiomycetes and fungi were screened to find a suitable laccase for the production of ETFGg. A basidiomycete, Hericium coralloides NBRC 7716, produced an appropriate extracellular laccase. The purified laccase produced twice the level of ETFGg compared with commercially available laccase from Trametes sp. The enzyme, termed Lcc2, is a monomeric protein with an apparent molecular mass of 67.2 kDa. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of Lcc2 is quite different from laccase isolated from the fruiting bodies of Hericium. Lcc2 showed similar substrate specificity to known laccases and could oxidize various phenolic substrates, including pyrogallol, gallic acid, and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol. The full-length lcc2 gene was obtained by PCR using degenerate primers, which were designed based on the N-terminal amino acid sequence of Lcc2 and conserved copper-binding sites of laccases, and 5'-, and 3'-RACE PCR with mRNA. The Lcc2 gene showed homology with Lentinula edodes laccase (sharing 77% amino acid identity with Lcc6). We successfully produced extracellular Lcc2 using a heterologous expression system with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Moreover, it was confirmed that the recombinant laccase generates similar levels of ETFGg as the native enzyme. PMID:26672458

  15. Water Extract from Spent Mushroom Substrate of Hericium erinaceus Suppresses Bacterial Wilt Disease of Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, A Min; Min, Kyeong Jin; Lee, Sang Yeop

    2015-01-01

    Culture filtrates of six different edible mushroom species were screened for antimicrobial activity against tomato wilt bacteria Ralstonia solanacearum B3. Hericium erinaceus, Lentinula edodes (Sanjo 701), Grifola frondosa, and Hypsizygus marmoreus showed antibacterial activity against the bacteria. Water, n-butanol, and ethyl acetate extracts of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) of H. erinaceus exhibited high antibacterial activity against different phytopathogenic bacteria: Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, R. solanacearum, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, X. campestris pv. campestris, X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria, X. axonopodis pv. citiri, and X. axonopodis pv. glycine. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that water extracts of SMS (WESMS) of H. erinaceus induced expressions of plant defense genes encoding β-1,3-glucanase (GluA) and pathogenesis-related protein-1a (PR-1a), associated with systemic acquired resistance. Furthermore, WESMS also suppressed tomato wilt disease caused by R. solanacearum by 85% in seedlings and promoted growth (height, leaf number, and fresh weight of the root and shoot) of tomato plants. These findings suggest the WESMS of H. erinaceus has the potential to suppress bacterial wilt disease of tomato through multiple effects including antibacterial activity, plant growth promotion, and defense gene induction. PMID:26539048

  16. Water Extract from Spent Mushroom Substrate of Hericium erinaceus Suppresses Bacterial Wilt Disease of Tomato.

    PubMed

    Kwak, A Min; Min, Kyeong Jin; Lee, Sang Yeop; Kang, Hee Wan

    2015-09-01

    Culture filtrates of six different edible mushroom species were screened for antimicrobial activity against tomato wilt bacteria Ralstonia solanacearum B3. Hericium erinaceus, Lentinula edodes (Sanjo 701), Grifola frondosa, and Hypsizygus marmoreus showed antibacterial activity against the bacteria. Water, n-butanol, and ethyl acetate extracts of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) of H. erinaceus exhibited high antibacterial activity against different phytopathogenic bacteria: Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, R. solanacearum, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, X. campestris pv. campestris, X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria, X. axonopodis pv. citiri, and X. axonopodis pv. glycine. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that water extracts of SMS (WESMS) of H. erinaceus induced expressions of plant defense genes encoding β-1,3-glucanase (GluA) and pathogenesis-related protein-1a (PR-1a), associated with systemic acquired resistance. Furthermore, WESMS also suppressed tomato wilt disease caused by R. solanacearum by 85% in seedlings and promoted growth (height, leaf number, and fresh weight of the root and shoot) of tomato plants. These findings suggest the WESMS of H. erinaceus has the potential to suppress bacterial wilt disease of tomato through multiple effects including antibacterial activity, plant growth promotion, and defense gene induction. PMID:26539048

  17. Themes for mushroom exploitation in the 21st century: Sustainability, waste management, and conservation.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Siu Wai; Law, Shui Chee; Ching, Mei Lun; Cheung, Ka Wan; Chen, Ming Jie

    2000-12-01

    Because many natural resources are limited, sustainability becomes an important concept in maintaining the human population, health, and environment. Mushrooms are a group of saprotrophic fungi. Mushroom cultivation is a direct utilization of their ecological role in the bioconversion of solid wastes generated from industry and agriculture into edible biomass, which could also be regarded as a functional food or as a source of drugs and pharmaceuticals. To make the mushroom cultivation an environmentally friendly industry, the basic biology of mushrooms and the cultivation technology must be researched and developed. This is very true for Lentinula edodes, Volvariella volvacea, and Ganoderma lucidum, which are commonly consumed in Asian communities but are now gaining popularity worldwide. Besides the conventional method, strain improvement can also be exploited by protoplast fusion and transformation. Biodiversity is the key contribution to the genetic resource for breeding programs to fulfill different consumer demands. The conservation of these mushrooms becomes essential and is in immediate need not only because of the massive habitat loss as a result of human inhabitation and deforestation, but also because of the introduced competition by a cultivar with the wild germ plasm. Spent mushroom compost, a bulky solid waste generated from the mushroom industry, however, can be exploited as a soil fertilizer and as a prospective bioremediating agent. PMID:12483569

  18. A Simple Multistage Closed-(Box+Reservoir) Model of Chemical Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caimmi, R.

    2011-12-01

    Simple closed-box (CB) models of chemical evolution are extended on two respects, namely (i) simple closed-(box+reservoir) (CBR) models allowing gas outflow from the box into the reservoir (Hartwick 1976) or gas inflow into the box from the reservoir (Caimmi 2007) with rate proportional to the star formation rate, and (ii) simple multistage closed-(box+reservoir) (MCBR) models allowing different stages of evolution characterized by different inflow or outflow rates. The theoretical differential oxygen abundance distribution (TDOD) predicted by the model maintains close to a continuous broken straight line. An application is made where a fictitious sample is built up from two distinct samples of halo stars and taken as representative of the inner Galactic halo. The related empirical differential oxygen abundance distribution (EDOD) is represented, to an acceptable extent, as a continuous broken line for two viable [O/H]-[Fe/H] empirical relations. The slopes and the intercepts of the regression lines are determined, and then used as input parameters to MCBR models. Within the errors (mpsigma), regression line slopes correspond to a large inflow during the earlier stage of evolution and to low or moderate outflow during the subsequent stages. A possible inner halo - outer (metal-poor) bulge connection is also briefly discussed. Quantitative results cannot be considered for applications to the inner Galactic halo, unless selection effects and disk contamination are removed from halo samples, and discrepancies between different oxygen abundance determination methods are explained.

  19. Study on vitamin D₂ stability in dried mushrooms during drying and storage.

    PubMed

    Sławińska, Aneta; Fornal, Emilia; Radzki, Wojciech; Skrzypczak, Katarzyna; Zalewska-Korona, Marta; Michalak-Majewska, Monika; Parfieniuk, Ewa; Stachniuk, Anna

    2016-05-15

    The main objective of this work was to determine the stability of vitamin D2 in dried mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinula edodes during storage, as well as to examine the possibility of inducing vitamin D2 production in dried mushrooms by UVB irradiation. After 1.5 year storage of dried mushrooms, the level of vitamin D2 in button mushrooms was found to be 6.90 μg/g dw, which is a 48.32% of initial level of vitamin D2. In the case of dried oyster and shiitake mushrooms there was a decrease to the level of 66.90% and 68.40%, respectively. It was determined that dried mushrooms can produce ergocalciferol under UVB irradiation. The highest content of vitamin D2 was observed in A. bisporus. Freeze-dried A. bisporus contained from 42.08 to 119.21 μg/g dw and hot-air dried mushrooms contained from 21.51 to 81.17 μg/g dw vitamin D2. PMID:26775962

  20. Pilot studies on scale-up biocatalysis of 7-β-xylosyl-10-deacetyltaxol and its analogues by an engineered yeast.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wan-Cang; Zhu, Ping

    2015-06-01

    Paclitaxel content in yew tree is extremely low, causing a worldwide shortage of this important anticancer drug. Yew tree can also produce abundant 7-β-xylosyl-10-deacetyltaxol that can be bio-converted into 10-deacetyltaxol for semi-synthesis of paclitaxel. However, the bio-conversion by the screened natural microorganisms was inefficient. We have constructed the recombinant yeast with a glycoside hydrolase gene from Lentinula edodes and explored the bioconversion. Based on previously established reaction conditions, the bioconversion of 7-β-xylosyl-10-deacetyltaxol or its extract was further optimized and scaled up with the engineered yeast harvested from 200-L scale high-cell-density fermentation. The optimization included the freeze-dried cell amount, dimethyl sulfoxide concentration, addition of 0.5% antifoam supplement, and substrate concentration. A 93-95% bioconversion and 83% bioconversion of 10 and 15 g/L 7-β-xylosyltaxanes in 10 L reaction volume were achieved, respectively. The yield of 10-deacetyltaxol reached 10.58 g/L in 1 L volume with 15 g/L 7-β-xylosyl-10-deacetyltaxol. The conversion efficiencies were not only much higher than those of other reports and our previous work, but also realized in 10 L reaction volume. A pilot-scale product purification was also established. Our study bridges the gap between the basic research and commercial utilization of 7-β-xylosyl-10-deacetyltaxol for the industrial production of semi-synthetic paclitaxel. PMID:25860125

  1. Beta-induced Alfven-acousti Eigenmodes in NSTX and DIII-D Driven by Beam Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Gorelenkov, N. N.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Berk, H. L.; Crocker, N. A.; Darrow, D.; Fredrickson, E.; Fu, G. Y.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Menard, J.; Nazikian, R.

    2009-03-06

    Kinetic theory and experimental observations of a special class of energetic particle driven instabilities called here Beta-induced Alfven-Acoustic Eigenmodes (BAAE) are reported confirming previous results [N.N. Gorelenkov H.L. Berk, N.A. Crocker et. al. Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 49 B371 (2007)] The kinetic theory is based on the ballooning dispersion relation where the drift frequency effects are retained. BAAE gaps are recovered in kinetic theory. It is shown that the observed certain low-frequency instabilities on DIII-D [J.L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42 614 (2002)] and National Spherical Torus Experiment [M. Ono, S.M. Kaye, Y.-K M. Peng et. al., Nucl. Fusion 40 3Y 557 (2000)] are consistent with their identification as BAAEs. BAAEs deteriorated the fast ion confinement in DIII-D and can have a similar effect in next-step fusion plasmas, especially if excited together with multiple global Toroidicity-induced shear Alfven Eigenmode (TAE) instabilities. BAAEs can also be used to diagnose safety factor profiles, a technique known as magnetohydrodynamic spectroscopy.

  2. Crustal structure of southwestern Montana and east-central Idaho: Results of a reversed seismic refraction line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheriff, Steven D.; Stickney, Michael C.

    1984-04-01

    On October 20, 1982, we collected seismic refraction data on a 250 km line segment between Butte, Montana and Challis, Idaho. These data are from two open pit mine blasts; one at Anaconda Minerals Companys' southeast Berkely pit and the other at Cyprus Mines Corporations' Thompson creek mine. Eight of our ten recorders wrote clear records of both blasts with measured travel times accurate to +/-0.2 seconds. We supplemented these data with data from permanent stations in the Butte area. The Pg (crustal) velocity is 5.8 km/s to the southwest and 6.0 km/s to the northeast. The Pn (mantle) velocity is 7.9 km/s to the northeast and 8.1 km/s to the southwest; total travel-times are equal. The S-wave velocity in the crust is about 3.5 km/s. The symmetry of the travel-time results, with their intersection within one kilometer of the midpoint between the pit blasts, strongly suggests the refraction line overlies a horizontal Moho or parallels the strike line of a dipping Moho surface. These data indicate the crust in southwestern Montana and east-central Idaho is approximately 33 km thick. Contrasting tectonic processes, compression and thickening during the Laramide orogeny with extension and thinning since the Paleocene, resulted in a crust with slightly less than normal thickness.

  3. New, rare and remarkable records of microfungi from the Slovakian Republic.

    PubMed

    Feige, G B; Ale-Agha, N; Jensen, M; Brassmann, M; Christiaans, B; Kricke, R

    2005-01-01

    During an excursion to the Slovakian Republic (lower and upper Tatra) of the Botanical Institute of the University of Essen in 2004 we were able to collect about 150 species of microfungi as parasites or saprophytes on cultivated crops and wild plants. Some of them are new for the entire world and a few of them are new for the Slovakian Republic, e.g: Ramularia liliicola N. Ale-Agha, U. Braun & G.B. Feige on Lilium martagon L.; Septoria aegopodii DESM. Ex Kickx. F. on Aegopodium podagaria L.; Puccinia asarina Kunze on Asarum europaeum L.; Puccinia polygoni ALB. & SCHW. and Puccinia polygoni-amphibii PERS. on Bilderdykia convolvulus (L.) Du Mont.; Ramularia chamaenerii Rostr. and Mycosphaerella chamaenerii Saville on Epilobium angustifolium L.; Plasmopara pusilla (de By.) Schroet on Geranium sylvaticum L.; Cercosporidium depressum (Berk. & Br.) Deighta on Angelica sylvestris L. All specimens are located in the Herbarium ESS, Mycotheca Parva collection G.B. Feige & N. Ale-Agha. PMID:16637188

  4. A putative precursor for the small ribosomal RNA from mitochondria of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Osinga, K A; Evers, R F; Van der Laan, J C; Tabak, H F

    1981-01-01

    We have characterized a putative precursor RNA (15.5S) for the 15S ribosomal RNA in mitochondria of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hybrids were formed with mitochondrial RNA and mtDNA fragments terminally labelled at restriction sites located within the gene coding for 15S ribosomal RNA and treated with S1 nuclease (Berk, A.J. and Sharp, J.A. (1977) 12, 721-732). Sites of resistant hybrids were measured by agarose gel electrophoresis and end points of RNAs determined. The 15.5S RNA is approximately 80 nucleotides longer than the 15S ribosomal RNA, with the extra sequences being located at the 5'-end. Both 15S ribosomal RNA and 15.5S RNA are fully localised within a 2000 base pair HapII fragment. This putative precursor and the mature 15S ribosomal RNA are also found in petite mutants which retain the 15S ribosomal RNA gene. The petite mutant with the smallest genetic complexity has its end point of deletion (junction) just outside the HapII site located in the 5' flank of the 15S ribosomal RNA genes as determined by S1 nuclease analysis. This leaves a DNA stretch approximately 300 base pairs long where an initiation signal for mitochondrial transcription may be present. Images PMID:6262728

  5. Simulation Model of Rapid TAE Chirping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ge; Berk, H. L.

    2010-11-01

    Spontaneous nonlinear coherent frequency chirping structures can arise due to the resonant interaction of energetic particles with a discrete toroidal Alfven eigenmode (TAE). The initial development of a coherent structure is quantitatively described by a now standard hole-clump chirping theory. However, it is still unclear what conditions are needed for the TAE chirping frequency to deviate far from the bulk plasma eigenfrequency and enter the Alfven continuum. In our model, the linear TAE controlling equation is derived from the Berk-Mett quadratic form. The interaction is studied with the linear wave with the nonlinear response of energetic particles. For the present study we simplify the wave to a single symmetric couplet while a two-dimensional distribution is used to describe the energetic particles. In order to resolve the fine structure in the phase space, the numerical scheme integrates the Vlasov equation in the Fourier transformed phase space using a method developed by Breizman and Petviashvili. The simulation results show the saturated wave amplitude and square root law of the initial chirping are in accord with previous theory. We have found conditions where the chirping signal enters the Alfven continuum and a larger amplitude and more rapidly chirping signal then develops. Plots of the phase space structure can reproduce the shape of the separatrix structure that partitions the trapped and passing particles. We attempt to relate the portrait of the phase space structure with the measured wave amplitude and chirping frequency.

  6. Trapped Particle Instabilities in the Kinetically Stabilized Tandem Mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, J.; Berk, H. L.; Horton, W.

    2009-05-01

    The kinetically stabilized tandem mirror (KSTM) is an innovative design to stabilize MHD modes in an axially symmetric tandem mirror machine (Post, J. Fus. Energy 2007). Originally proposed by Ryutov (Ryutov, Proc. of Course and Workshop, Varenna, Italy, 1987), this stabilizer has been empirically verified in the Gas Dynamic Trap (Ivanov, Anakeev et.al. Trans. Fusion Technology. 39, 127, 2001). The KSTM uses the momentum flux of escaping particles that sample good magnetic-field-line-curvature region outside the central confinement region. Charged ion beams at relatively low energy are externally injected from the ends into the expander region at an energy that is consistent with a stable MHD prediction and acceptable power loss for fusion. If stable, the KSTM would be extremely useful for limiting radial diffusion since the chaotic step size is minimized. We confirm that MHD stability is achieved in the KSTM. We examine the effect of the trapped particle instability discussed in Berk, Rosenbluth, et al. Sov. J. Plasma Phys. 1983 on overall stability. In this case stability is very sensitive to the electron connection between the stabilizer and the end plug.

  7. Morphological and molecular characterization of a fungus, Hirsutella sp., isolated from planthoppers and psocids in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Andrea V; Simurro, María E; Balatti, Pedro A

    2013-01-01

    A mycosed planthopper, Oliarus dimidiatus Berg (Hemiptera: Cixiidae), and two psocids, Heterocaecilius sp. (Psocodea: Pseudocaeciliidae) and Ectopsocus sp. (Ectopsocidae), were collected from Los Hornos and La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina between February and September 2007. Observations of mycelia growing on the host revealed that the putative fungal parasite had synnemata supporting monophialidic conidiogenous cells. Likewise, in vitro fungal cultures presented characteristics typical of the fungus Hirsutella citriformis Speare (Ascomycota: Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae). The identity of the isolated fungi characterized based on morphological aspects was complemented by means of the internal transcribed spacer sequences. The sequences of both isolates were highly homologous to those of Cordyceps sp. (Fries) Link and Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Berkely) G.H. Sung, J.M. Sung, Hywel-Jones, and Spatafora (Ophiocordycipitaceae). We additionally confirmed that both isolates had the ability to infect and kill adults of Delphacodes kuscheli Fennah (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) after 10 days. Therefore, based on the morphology of the isolated fungi, their ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequence, and their ability to parasite insects, we conclude that the fungi isolated belong to the genus Hirsutella and might have biotechnological potential. PMID:23885970

  8. Small-molecule nociceptin receptor agonist ameliorates mast cell activation and pain in sickle mice.

    PubMed

    Vang, Derek; Paul, Jinny A; Nguyen, Julia; Tran, Huy; Vincent, Lucile; Yasuda, Dennis; Zaveri, Nurulain T; Gupta, Kalpna

    2015-12-01

    Treatment of pain with morphine and its congeners in sickle cell anemia is suboptimal, warranting the need for analgesics devoid of side effects, addiction and tolerance liability. Small-molecule nociceptin opioid receptor ligands show analgesic efficacy in acute and chronic pain models. We show that AT-200, a high affinity nociceptin opioid receptor agonist with low efficacy at the mu opioid receptor, ameliorated chronic and hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced mechanical, thermal and deep tissue/musculoskeletal hyperalgesia in HbSS-BERK sickle mice. The antinociceptive effect of AT-200 was antagonized by SB-612111, a nociceptin opioid receptor antagonist, but not naloxone, a non-selective mu opioid receptor antagonist. Daily 7-day treatment with AT-200 did not develop tolerance and showed a sustained anti-nociceptive effect, which improved over time and led to reduced plasma serum amyloid protein, neuropeptides, inflammatory cytokines and mast cell activation in the periphery. These data suggest that AT-200 ameliorates pain in sickle mice via the nociceptin opioid receptor by reducing inflammation and mast cell activation without causing tolerance. Thus, nociceptin opioid receptor agonists are promising drugs for treating pain in sickle cell anemia. PMID:26294734

  9. Small-molecule nociceptin receptor agonist ameliorates mast cell activation and pain in sickle mice

    PubMed Central

    Vang, Derek; Paul, Jinny A.; Nguyen, Julia; Tran, Huy; Vincent, Lucile; Yasuda, Dennis; Zaveri, Nurulain T.; Gupta, Kalpna

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of pain with morphine and its congeners in sickle cell anemia is suboptimal, warranting the need for analgesics devoid of side effects, addiction and tolerance liability. Small-molecule nociceptin opioid receptor ligands show analgesic efficacy in acute and chronic pain models. We show that AT-200, a high affinity nociceptin opioid receptor agonist with low efficacy at the mu opioid receptor, ameliorated chronic and hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced mechanical, thermal and deep tissue/musculoskeletal hyperalgesia in HbSS-BERK sickle mice. The antinociceptive effect of AT-200 was antagonized by SB-612111, a nociceptin opioid receptor antagonist, but not naloxone, a non-selective mu opioid receptor antagonist. Daily 7-day treatment with AT-200 did not develop tolerance and showed a sustained anti-nociceptive effect, which improved over time and led to reduced plasma serum amyloid protein, neuropeptides, inflammatory cytokines and mast cell activation in the periphery. These data suggest that AT-200 ameliorates pain in sickle mice via the nociceptin opioid receptor by reducing inflammation and mast cell activation without causing tolerance. Thus, nociceptin opioid receptor agonists are promising drugs for treating pain in sickle cell anemia. PMID:26294734

  10. Phonological Neighborhood Effects in Spoken Word Production: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Peramunage, D.; Blumstein, S. E.; Myers, E.B.; Goldrick, M.; Baese-Berk, M.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the neural systems underlying lexically conditioned phonetic variation in spoken word production. Participants were asked to read aloud singly presented words which either had a voiced minimal pair (MP) neighbor (e.g. cape) or lacked a minimal pair (NMP) neighbor (e.g. cake). The voiced neighbor never appeared in the stimulus set. Behavioral results showed longer voice-onset time for MP target words, replicating earlier behavioral results (Baese-Berk & Goldrick, 2009). fMRI results revealed reduced activation for MP words compared to NMP words in a network including the left posterior superior temporal gyrus, the supramarginal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, and precentral gyrus. These findings support cascade models of spoken word production and show that neural activation at the lexical level modulates activation in those brain regions involved in lexical selection, phonological planning, and ultimately motor plans for production. The facilitatory effects for words with minimal pair neighbors suggest that competition effects reflect the overlap inherent in the phonological representation of the target word and its minimal pair neighbor. PMID:20350185

  11. Observations on morphologic and genetic diversity in populations of Filoboletus manipularis (Fungi: Mycenaceae) in southern Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Vydryakova, Galina A.; Morozova, Olga V.; Redhead, Scott A.; Bissett, John

    2014-01-01

    The morphological variation of basidiomata of Filoboletus manipularis (Berk) Singer collected in southern Viet Nam was studied. Phylogenetic analyses comprising three gene loci indicated that these collections, although exhibiting widely varying morphologies, represented a single species with a population composed of genetically diverse, sexually compatible monokaryon parental strains. No correlation was found between any aspect of morphological variation and intraspecific phylogenetic patterns for the three gene loci studied. Primers were designed to amplify the intron-rich 5′ region of the translation elongation factor 1-α gene (tef1α) and amplicons cloned and sequenced to characterize the parental haplotypes for individual basidiomata. The presence of recombination over the entire morphological diversity seen was confirmed by split decomposition analysis and analysis of gene diversity indicated a lack of allelic fixation within local populations. On several occasions, more than two apparent parental haplotypes were characterized from individual basidiomata, indicating that at least some basidiomata are chimeric or otherwise develop from a multinucleate condition. The literature supporting our observations of the occurrence of multinucleate basidiomata is reviewed and possible mechanisms for this phenomenon are proposed. PMID:24999440

  12. Soft-spectrum gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laros, J. G.; Fenimore, E. E.; Fikani, M. M.; Klebesadel, R. W.; Kane, S. R.

    1985-01-01

    A typical gamma to ray burst (GRB), when observed over the approximately 30 keV to 1 MeV range, has a 1 to 10 s duration and a spectrum describable in terms of a several-hundred-keV exponential function. However, KONUS data indicate that some GRBs may belong to a separate class of short (approximately 0.1 s), soft (kT 50 keV) events. This result has been questioned because the KONUS experiments, with only 4 s spectral time resolution and a lack of information approximately 30 keV, are not particularly well suited for the detection and study of these bursts. The UC Berkely/Los Alamos Solar X-Ray Spectrometer/GRB experiment on the International Cometry Explorer (ICE), with nearly continuous coverage of approxiomately one-sixth of the sky down to 5 keV at 0.5 s resolution, is better designed for such a task. Using ICE data, it was confirmed that soft-spectrum events do indeed exist, apparently with properties that set them apart from the general GRB population. Results from the ICE experiment are presented.

  13. Characterization of multifunctional organic nitrates and other VOC during BEARPEX 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atlas, E.; Hynes, T.; Bauer, D.; Ren, X.

    2008-12-01

    There is an interest in the role of organic nitrates during the oxidation of reactive hydrocarbons, especially isoprene and terpenes emitted from vegetation. These biogenic VOC are highly reactive and laboratory studies have shown that they can form organic nitrates in high yield during oxidation by OH and NO3 radicals. These high yields can have a significant impact on radical budgets, ozone formation, nitrogen cycling, and possibly aerosol formation. However, with few exceptions, the actual organic nitrate products from biogenic VOC have not been identified, either in the lab or in the field. Measurement of 'Total Alkyl Nitrate' by a thermal dissociation laser-induced fluorescence (TD-LIF) technique (Cohen et al., UC-Berk) suggests the presence of significant organic nitrate that has not been identified. Presumably the components of this measurement are multifunctional nitrates that are difficult to measure with conventional techniques. We have used a micro-charcoal adsorption technique (and evaluated other sorbents) to measure a range of organic nitrates and other higher molecular weight VOC in the Blodgett Forest during BEARPEX 2007. The goal of this study was to characterize the range and types of organic nitrates in the forest environment and provide some preliminary estimates of the magnitude of the multifunctional nitrates present. The analytical technique was also used to characterize other higher molecular weight VOC in the forest environment. In addition to terpene compounds, a large number and range of methoxylated or methylated VOC were identified.

  14. PLASMA ENERGETIC PARTICLES SIMULATION CENTER (PEPSC)

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, Herbert L.

    2014-05-23

    The main effort of the Texas group was to develop theoretical and simplified numerical models to understand chirping phenomena often seen for Alfven and geodesic acoustic waves in experimental plasmas such as D-III-D, NSTX and JET. Its main numerical effort was to modify the AEGIS code, which was originally developed as an eigenvalue solver. To apply to the chirping problem this code has to be able to treat the linear response to the continuum and the response of the plasma to external drive or to an internal drive that comes from the formation of phase space chirping structures. The theoretical underpinning of this investigation still needed to be more fully developed to understand how to best formulate the theoretical problem. Considerable progress was made on this front by B.N. Breizman and his collaborators and a new reduced model was developed by H. L. Berk and his PhD student, G. Wang which can be uses as simplified model to describe chirping in a large aspect ratio tokamak. This final report will concentrate on these two directions that were developed as well as results that were found in the work with the AEGIS code and in the progress in developing a novel quasi-linear formulation for a description of Alfvenic modes destabilized by energetic particles, such as alpha particles in a burning plasma.

  15. Molecular interactions of the phytotoxins destruxin B and sirodesmin PL with crucifers and cereals: metabolism and elicitation of plant defenses.

    PubMed

    Pedras, M Soledade C; Khallaf, Iman

    2012-05-01

    Destruxin B and sirodesmin PL are phytotoxins produced by the phytopathogenic fungi Alternaria brassicae (Berk.) Sacc. and Leptosphaeria maculans (asexual stage Phoma lingam), respectively. The molecular interaction of destruxin B and sirodesmin PL with cruciferous and cereal species was investigated using HPLC-ESI-MS(n). It was determined that crucifers transformed destruxin B to hydroxydestruxin B, but sirodesmin PL was not transformed. Overall, the results suggest that the five cruciferous species Arabidopsis thaliana, Thellungiella salsuginea, Erucastrum gallicum, Brassica rapa and Brassica napus are likely to produce a destruxin B detoxifying enzyme (destruxin B hydroxylase), similar to other cruciferous species reported previously. In addition, HPLC analyses and quantification of the phytoalexins elicited in each cruciferous species by these phytotoxins indicates that sirodesmin PL elicits a larger number of phytoalexins than destruxin B. Interestingly, transformation of destruxin B appears to occur also in the cereals Avena sativa and Triticum aestivum; however, the various destruxin metabolites detected in these cereals suggest that these reactions are non-specific enzymatic transformations, contrary to those observed in crucifers, where only a main transformation pathway is detectable. None of the toxins appear to elicit production of metabolites in either A. sativa or T. aestivum. PMID:22414311

  16. Scenarios for the nonlinear evolution of alpha particle induced Alfven wave instability

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, H.L.; Breizman, B.N.; Ye, Huanchun.

    1992-03-01

    Various nonlinear scenarios are given for the evolution of energetic particles that are slowing down in a background plasma and simultaneously causing instability of the background plasma waves. If the background damping is sufficiently weak, a steady-state wave is established as described by Berk and Breizman. For larger background damping rate pulsations develop. Saturation occurs when the wave amplitude rises to where the wave trapping frequency equals the growth rate. The wave then damps due to the small background dissipation present and a relatively long quiet interval exists between bursts while the free energy of the distribution is refilled by classical transport. In this scenario the anomalous energy loss of energetic particles due to diffusion is small compared to the classical collisional energy exchange with the background plasma. However, if at the trapping frequency, the wave amplitude is large enough to cause orbit stochasticity, a phase space explosion'' occurs where the wave amplitudes rise to higher levels which leads to rapid loss of energetic particles.

  17. Scenarios for the nonlinear evolution of alpha particle induced Alfven wave instability

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, H.L.; Breizman, B.N.; Ye, Huanchun

    1992-03-01

    Various nonlinear scenarios are given for the evolution of energetic particles that are slowing down in a background plasma and simultaneously causing instability of the background plasma waves. If the background damping is sufficiently weak, a steady-state wave is established as described by Berk and Breizman. For larger background damping rate pulsations develop. Saturation occurs when the wave amplitude rises to where the wave trapping frequency equals the growth rate. The wave then damps due to the small background dissipation present and a relatively long quiet interval exists between bursts while the free energy of the distribution is refilled by classical transport. In this scenario the anomalous energy loss of energetic particles due to diffusion is small compared to the classical collisional energy exchange with the background plasma. However, if at the trapping frequency, the wave amplitude is large enough to cause orbit stochasticity, a phase space ``explosion`` occurs where the wave amplitudes rise to higher levels which leads to rapid loss of energetic particles.

  18. Simple, rapid /sup 125/I-labeled cyclosporine double antibody/polyethylene glycol radioimmunoassay used in a pediatric cardiac transplant program

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, L.S.; Webb, G.; Imperio, N.C.; Nehlsen-Cannarella, S.L.; Eby, W.C.

    1986-01-01

    We modified the Sandoz cyclosporine radioimmunoassay because of our need for frequent clinical monitoring of cyclosporine drug levels in allo- and xenograft pediatric cardiac transplant patients. With application of a commercially available (/sup 125/I)cyclosporine label in place of (/sup 3/H)cyclosporine and a second antibody/polyethylene glycol (PEG) method of separation in place of charcoal separation, we simplified and enhanced the speed and precision of assay performance. Studies of 140 whole blood samples comparing this new method to the (/sup 3/H)cyclosporine radioimmunoassay (RIA) method of Berk and colleagues yielded a coefficient of correlation of 0.96 (p less than 0.00001) with means of 626 and 667 ng/ml for (/sup 3/H)RIA and (/sup 125/I)RIA, respectively, and a regression equation of y = 28 + 1.02x. The major advantages are that total assay time is reduced to approximately 1 h; (/sup 125/I)cyclosporine label is used, avoiding the problems associated with liquid scintillation counting; and precision is enhanced by separating bound and free fractions with second antibody/PEG. These modifications should provide for greater ease of assay performance and improved clinical utility of cyclosporine monitoring not only in the pediatric but also in the adult transplant patient.

  19. Cannabinoid receptor-specific mechanisms to alleviate pain in sickle cell anemia via inhibition of mast cell activation and neurogenic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Lucile; Vang, Derek; Nguyen, Julia; Benson, Barbara; Lei, Jianxun; Gupta, Kalpna

    2016-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia is a manifestation of a single point mutation in hemoglobin, but inflammation and pain are the insignia of this disease which can start in infancy and continue throughout life. Earlier studies showed that mast cell activation contributes to neurogenic inflammation and pain in sickle mice. Morphine is the common analgesic treatment but also remains a major challenge due to its side effects and ability to activate mast cells. We, therefore, examined cannabinoid receptor-specific mechanisms to mitigate mast cell activation, neurogenic inflammation and hyperalgesia, using HbSS-BERK sickle and cannabinoid receptor-2-deleted sickle mice. We show that cannabinoids mitigate mast cell activation, inflammation and neurogenic inflammation in sickle mice via both cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2. Thus, cannabinoids influence systemic and neural mechanisms, ameliorating the disease pathobiology and hyperalgesia in sickle mice. This study provides ‘proof of principle’ for the potential of cannabinoid/cannabinoid receptor-based therapeutics to treat several manifestations of sickle cell anemia. PMID:26703965

  20. Interaction of periodate-oxidized target cells and cytolytic T lymphocytes: a model system of "polyclonal MHC recognition".

    PubMed

    Keren, Z; Berke, G

    1986-09-01

    In oxidation-dependent cytotoxicity (ODCC), cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL) non-specifically recognize, bind to and lyse oxidized target cells (O-TC) but the precise mechanism whereby CTL react with O-TC is far from clear (Berke, G., Immunol. Rev. 1983. 72:5). Here we present evidence that CTL/O-TC interactions are blocked by aldehyde-reactive reagents such as hydroxylamine, adipic acid dihydrazide and thiocarbohydrazide and that preformed CTL/O-TC conjugates dissociate upon reduction with NaBH4, suggesting that active aldehyde groups of O-TC rather than intercellular Schiff bases are involved in the recognition and lysis of O-TC by CTL in ODCC. The aldehydes are bound to trypsin-sensitive, non-H-2 glycoproteins that appear to be different and unique in the three different target cell lines so far examined (EL4, L1210, R1.1). In view of these and previous findings we would like to suggest that in ODCC, active aldehydes react with adjacent major histocompatibility complex and perhaps other cell-surface molecules to create a multitude of modified conformations, responsible for the "polyclonal" (nonspecific) MHC recognition and lysis of O-TC by CTL, as well as for an altered pattern of H-2 antibody binding to O-TC. PMID:3019706

  1. Cannabinoid receptor-specific mechanisms to alleviate pain in sickle cell anemia via inhibition of mast cell activation and neurogenic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Lucile; Vang, Derek; Nguyen, Julia; Benson, Barbara; Lei, Jianxun; Gupta, Kalpna

    2016-05-01

    Sickle cell anemia is a manifestation of a single point mutation in hemoglobin, but inflammation and pain are the insignia of this disease which can start in infancy and continue throughout life. Earlier studies showed that mast cell activation contributes to neurogenic inflammation and pain in sickle mice. Morphine is the common analgesic treatment but also remains a major challenge due to its side effects and ability to activate mast cells. We, therefore, examined cannabinoid receptor-specific mechanisms to mitigate mast cell activation, neurogenic inflammation and hyperalgesia, using HbSS-BERK sickle and cannabinoid receptor-2-deleted sickle mice. We show that cannabinoids mitigate mast cell activation, inflammation and neurogenic inflammation in sickle mice via both cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2. Thus, cannabinoids influence systemic and neural mechanisms, ameliorating the disease pathobiology and hyperalgesia in sickle mice. This study provides 'proof of principle' for the potential of cannabinoid/cannabinoid receptor-based therapeutics to treat several manifestations of sickle cell anemia. PMID:26703965

  2. A specific and sensitive method for the detection of Colletotrichum musae in banana fruit.

    PubMed

    Faisal, Peeran Mohammed; Prema, Ranjitham; Nagendran, Krishnan; Gandhi, Kathikeyan; Raguchander, Thiruvengadam; Prabakar, Kuppusamy

    2013-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Banana anthracnose incited by Colletotrichum musae (Berk & Curt.) Arx. is a serious disease both in field and in postharvest marketing stage. Molecular methods are most suitable for the early detection of infection. AIM: The latent infection of C. musae makes it very difficult to detect the infected fruit lot, hence aim is to detect the latent infection using molecular approach. METHODS: The molecular variability generated from fourteen isolates of C. musae by RAPD-PCR technique was utilized to determine the phylogentic relationship and develop SCAR markers. RESULTS: The genetic similarity coefficient within each group and variation between the groups were observed. Decamer OPA-01 generated a RAPD polymorphic profile that distinguished C. musae from the other organism. Cloning and sequencing of the specific band yielded 588bp sequences, to which forward CM-SCAR-FP and reverse CM-SCAR-RP were designed. The SCAR primer pair amplified a single SCAR of 490bp from each of the 14 isolates of C. musae, and was able to detect the pathogen in as low as 30ng of DNA from infected fruit peel tissue. CONCLUSION: The developed SCAR markers can aid the detection process every quickly and accurately which will help exporters. PMID:23402827

  3. Partition of E1A proteins between soluble and structural fractions of adenovirus-infected and -transformed cells.

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, P K; Flint, S J

    1986-01-01

    The partition of E1A proteins between soluble and structural framework fractions of human cells infected or transformed by subgroup C adenoviruses was investigated by using gentle cell fractionation conditions. A polyclonal antibody raised against a trpE-E1A fusion protein (K.R. Spindler, D.S.E. Rosser, and A. J. Berk, J. Virol. 132-141, 1984) synthesized in Escherichia coli was used to measure the steady-state levels of E1A proteins recovered in the various fractions by immunoblotting. The relative concentration of E1A proteins recovered in the soluble fraction of adenovirus type 2-infected cells was at least fivefold greater than the relative concentration in the corresponding fraction of transformed 293 cells. The observed distribution of E1A proteins was not altered by the sulfhydryl-blocking reagent N-ethylmaleimide. E1A proteins were recovered in nuclear matrix, chromatin, and cytoskeleton fractions after further fractionation of the structural framework fraction. However, the E1A protein species that could be identified by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis were not uniformly distributed among the subcellular fractions examined. The results obtained when fractionation was performed in the presence of the oxidation catalysts Cu2+ or (ortho-phenanthroline)2 Cu2+ indicate that E1A proteins can be efficiently cross-linked, via disulfide bonds, to the structural framework of both adenovirus-infected and adenovirus-transformed cells. Images PMID:3023654

  4. Scientific attributes of a researcher and member of The Triological Society.

    PubMed

    Berke, Gerald S

    2012-05-01

    This presidential address discusses the comments from the first Mayo Clinic's Chair, Harold Lille, MD, regarding different contributions by members of The Triological Society in his 1939 presidential address. It then goes on to discuss scientific research attributes expected of members of the Society that were gleaned from a fusion of Dr. Berke's notions with what other famous researchers, inventors, and philosophers have said about aspects of research. The areas covered include research motivation, the process of research, the scientific method, imagination, intuition and luck, questioning in science, tenacity, ideas, and knowledge. In summary, the following are the expected attributes of a researcher and member of the Society. The individual should enjoy the creation of new knowledge and appreciate the mysteries of life and the joy of discoveries. He or she should be a staunch supporter of the scientific method, but should also understand that every researcher is a professional amateur, and that the process of research is often fraught with blind alleys and incorrect ideas and assumptions, and that ultimately hypotheses must be substantiated by experiments. A researcher must exhibit imagination and intuition augmented by tenacity and scientific questioning. Finally, he or she should recognize that chance favors the prepared mind, and always be on the lookout for novel ideas framed by a comprehension of existing knowledge, not just in one domain but across a broad horizon of disciplines. PMID:22294514

  5. Cultivar-specific kinetics of gene induction during downy mildew early infection in grapevine.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Andreia; Monteiro, Filipa; Fortes, Ana Margarida; Bonow-Rex, Martina; Zyprian, Eva; Sousa, Lisete; Pais, Maria Salomé

    2012-06-01

    The oomycete pathogen Plasmopara viticola (Berk. et Curt.) Berl. et de Toni is the causing agent of the destructive downy mildew disease in grapevine. Despite the advances towards elucidation of grapevine resistance mechanisms to downy mildew, increased knowledge of the biological and genetic components of the pathosystem is important to design suitable breeding strategies. Previously, a cDNA microarray approach was used to compare two Vitis vinifera genotypes Regent and Trincadeira (resistant and susceptible to downy mildew, respectively) in field conditions. The same cDNA microarray chip was used to confirm field-based results and to compare both genotypes under greenhouse conditions at 0, 6, and 12 h post-inoculation with P. viticola. Results show that when comparing both cultivars after pathogen inoculation, there is a preferential modulation of several defense, signaling, and metabolism associated transcripts in Regent. Early transcriptional changes are discussed in terms of genetic background and resistance mechanism. This study is the first to directly compare resistant and susceptible cultivars responses as early as 6 hpi with P. viticola, providing several candidate genes potentially related to the expression of resistance traits. PMID:22246600

  6. Optical detection of downy mildew in grapevine leaves: daily kinetics of autofluorescence upon infection.

    PubMed

    Bellow, Sébastien; Latouche, Gwendal; Brown, Spencer C; Poutaraud, Anne; Cerovic, Zoran G

    2013-01-01

    A 15-day survey of autofluorescence has been conducted upon infection by downy mildew [Plasmopara viticola (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Berl. & de Toni] of leaves of a susceptible grapevine genotype. Different autofluorescence signals were followed from the cellular to the whole-leaf level by using four types of devices for fluorosensing: a macroscope, a spectrofluorimeter, a portable field optical sensor (the Multiplex 3), and a field fluorescence sensor prototype with 335 nm excitation. It was shown for the first time, by the three different techniques and at three different scales, that the stilbene-dependent violet-blue autofluorescence (VBF) had a transitory behaviour, increasing to a maximum 6 days post-inoculation (DPI) and then decreasing to a constant lower level, nevertheless significantly higher than in the control leaf. This behaviour could be sensed from both sides of the leaf. On the abaxial side, VBF could discriminate the presence of infection from 1 DPI, and on the adaxial side from 3 DPI. There was a constant increase in blue-excited green fluorescence starting from 8 DPI, concomitant with a decrease in leaf chlorophyll content sensed by one reflectance and two fluorescence indices available on the Multiplex 3 sensor. These results show that a pre-symptomatic and symptomatic sensing of downy mildew is possible by autofluorescence-based sensors, and this is potentially applicable in the field. PMID:23213137

  7. Spatio-temporal soil moisture distribution and subsurface water flow in the Shale Hills Catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X.; Lin, H.; Zhu, Q.

    2006-12-01

    Systematic and dynamic soil moisture monitoring is needed to characterize areal soil moisture distribution and model subsurface water flow at various scales. Further understanding of soil-water interactions is the key to explore subsurface water flow and its pathways. Hydropedologic approaches integrating soils information with hydrological processes were used to investigate subsurface water flow (vertical and lateral) and possible flow pathways in the 7.9-ha Shale Hills Catchment in central Pennsylvania. Automatic monitoring systems were installed at seven sites using an array of soil matric potential probes (Campbell Scientific 229 and Decagon matric potential probes) and water content probes (Decagon ECH2O-5). These sites are distributed at different landforms (hilltop, hillslope, and valley floor), representing five soil series (Berks, Blairton, Ernest, Rushtown, Weikert). Probes were inserted at different soil depths as well as their interfaces. The positions of probe installation were designed based on site-specific soil morphology and soil properties from laboratory analysis (e.g., soil texture, bulk density, hydraulic conductivity, water retention). A rain gauge was also installed at each monitoring site. The results showed that different soil types, even different soil layers of the same soil type, displayed different hydrological behaviors. There were evidences that lateral flow contributes to the water flow in the Shale Hills Catchment.

  8. Mycodiversity on a dead stem of the giant hogweed--Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommer et Levier.

    PubMed

    Feige, G B; Ale-Agha, N

    2004-01-01

    During our investigations on microfungi in the Ruhr area we were able to find the remarkable mycodiversity of different genera and species on dead stems of Heracleum mantegazzianum, a Neophyt for the European flora. Altemaria alternata (FR.FR.) KEISSL., Camarosporium spec., Cladosporium herbarum (PERS.) LINK, Colletotrichum dematium (PERS. Ex FR.) GOVE, Dactylella armandii YADV., Dasyscyphus mollissimus (LASCH.) DENNIS, Dendryphion comosum WALLR., Endophragmia hyalosperma (CORDA) MORGAN-JONES & COLE, Epicoccum purpurescens EHRENB., Gliomastix luzulae (FUCKEL) MASON, Hymenoscyphus herbarum (PERS.) DENNIS, Lasiosphaeria caudata (FUCKEL) MASON, Lophiostoma caulium (FR.) CES. & de NOT, Periconia byssoides PERS., Phoma complanata (TODE EX FR.) DESM., Phoma longissima (PERS.) WESLEND., Pirottaea cf. nigrostriata GRADDON, Pleospora herbarum (PERS.) RABENH. EX. CES. & de NOT, Pleurophragmium parvisporum (PREUSS) HOLUBOVA-JECHOVA, Pyrenopeziza chailletii FUCKEL, Rhizopus stolonifer (EHRENB. FR.) VUILL, Sclerotina sclerotiorum (LIB.) DE BY., Septofusidium herbarum (BROWN & SMITH) SAMSON, Torula herbarum (PERS.) LINK, Trichoderma koningii OUDEM, Volutella melaloma BERK. & BR. The sample is located in the Herbarium ESS Mycotheca Parva, Collection G.B. Feige/N. Ale-Agha. PMID:15756828

  9. Determining the relevance of a certification exam to home health care nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Holland, D E

    1999-01-01

    Home health care is enjoying increased use and popularity. Unfortunately, in today's cost-cutting environment, home healthcare is also subject to increased scrutiny and inevitable reimbursement limitations. This is borne out by the impact on home healthcare as a result of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997. Berke (1998) reports that those at greatest risk for cutbacks in care are those that can least afford it--the oldest, sickest, poorest, and most frail. Compounding the financial dilemma that home health care clients face are multiple providers of care, an unrealistic media presentation of health care, and less time for anyone to provide psychosocial-focused care (Simmons, 1990). Home health care clients have a desperate need for an advocate to provide expert navigation through the health care system. Home health care providers are aware of and often responsible for bridging gaps in health, medical benefits, and social services. This article describes a process for determining the relevance of a certification to community nursing clinical practice--using the Advanced Certification in Continuity of Care (A-CCC) exam as the example. PMID:10695177

  10. Simulation and theory of spontaneous TAE frequency sweeping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ge; Berk, H. L.

    2012-09-01

    A simulation model, based on the linear tip model of Rosenbluth, Berk and Van Dam (RBV), is developed to study frequency sweeping of toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAEs). The time response of the background wave in the RBV model is given by a Volterra integral equation. This model captures the properties of TAE waves both in the gap and in the continuum. The simulation shows that phase space structures form spontaneously at frequencies close to the linearly predicted frequency, due to resonant particle-wave interactions and background dissipation. The frequency sweeping signals are found to chirp towards the upper and lower continua. However, the chirping signals penetrate only the lower continuum, whereupon the frequency chirps and mode amplitude increases in synchronism to produce an explosive solution. An adiabatic theory describing the evolution of a chirping signal is developed which replicates the chirping dynamics of the simulation in the lower continuum. This theory predicts that a decaying chirping signal will terminate at the upper continuum though in the numerical simulation the hole disintegrates before the upper continuum is reached.

  11. Model for spontaneous frequency sweeping of an Alfvén wave in a toroidal plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ge; Berk, H. L.

    2012-05-01

    We study the frequency chirping signals arising from spontaneously excited toroidial Alfvén eigenmode (TAE) waves that are being driven by an inverted energetic particle distribution whose free energy is tapped from the generic particle/wave resonance interaction. Initially a wave is excited inside the Alfvén gap with a frequency determined from the linear tip model of Rosenbluth, Berk and Van dam (RBV) [1]. Hole/clumps structures are formed and are observed to chirp towards lower energy states. We find that the chirping signals from clump enter the Alfvén continuum which eventually produce more rapid chirping signals. The accuracy of the adiabatic approximation for the mode evolution is tested and verified by demonstrating that a WKB-like decomposition of the time response for the field phase and amplitude agree with the data. Plots of the phase space structure correlate well with the chirping dependent shape of the separatrix structure. A novel aspect of the simulation is that it performed close to the wave frame of the phase space structure, which enables the numerical time step to remain the same during the simulation, independent of the rest frame frequency.

  12. LBQ2D, Extending the Line Broadened Quasilinear Model to TAE-EP Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghantous, Katy; Gorelenkov, Nikolai; Berk, Herbert

    2012-10-01

    The line broadened quasilinear model was proposed and tested on the one dimensional electrostatic case of the bump on tailfootnotetextH.L Berk, B. Breizman and J. Fitzpatrick, Nucl. Fusion, 35:1661, 1995 to study the wave particle interaction. In conventional quasilinear theory, the sea of overlapping modes evolve with time as the particle distribution function self consistently undergo diffusion in phase space. The line broadened quasilinear model is an extension to the conventional theory in a way that allows treatment of isolated modes as well as overlapping modes by broadening the resonant line in phase space. This makes it possible to treat the evolution of modes self consistently from onset to saturation in either case. We describe here the model denoted by LBQ2D which is an extension of the proposed one dimensional line broadened quasilinear model to the case of TAEs interacting with energetic particles in two dimensional phase space, energy as well as canonical angular momentum. We study the saturation of isolated modes in various regimes and present the analytical derivation and numerical results. Finally, we present, using ITER parameters, the case where multiple modes overlap and describe the techniques used for the numerical treatment.

  13. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of a Fungus, Hirsutella sp., Isolated from Planthoppers and Psocids in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, Andrea V.; Simurro, María E.; Balatti, Pedro A.

    2013-01-01

    A mycosed planthopper, Oliarus dimidiatus Berg (Hemiptera: Cixiidae), and two psocids, Heterocaecilius sp. (Psocodea: Pseudocaeciliidae) and Ectopsocus sp. (Ectopsocidae), were collected from Los Hornos and La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina between February and September 2007. Observations of mycelia growing on the host revealed that the putative fungal parasite had synnemata supporting monophialidic conidiogenous cells. Likewise, in vitro fungal cultures presented characteristics typical of the fungus Hirsutella citriformis Speare (Ascomycota: Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae). The identity of the isolated fungi characterized based on morphological aspects was complemented by means of the internal transcribed spacer sequences. The sequences of both isolates were highly homologous to those of Cordyceps sp. (Fries) Link and Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Berkely) G.H. Sung, J.M. Sung, Hywel-Jones, and Spatafora (Ophiocordycipitaceae). We additionally confirmed that both isolates had the ability to infect and kill adults of Delphacodes kuscheli Fennah (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) after 10 days. Therefore, based on the morphology of the isolated fungi, their ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequence, and their ability to parasite insects, we conclude that the fungi isolated belong to the genus Hirsutella and might have biotechnological potential. PMID:23885970

  14. Cytotoxicity of some edible mushrooms extracts over liver hepatocellular carcinoma cells in conjunction with their antioxidant and antibacterial properties

    PubMed Central

    Sadi, Gökhan; Emsen, Buğrahan; Kaya, Abdullah; Kocabaş, Aytaç; Çınar, Seval; Kartal, Deniz İrtem

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mushrooms have been valued for their nutritive content and as traditional medicines; several important medicinal properties of mushrooms have been recognized worldwide. Objective: The purpose of this study was to elucidate the cell growth inhibitory potential of four edible mushrooms; Coprinus comatus (O.F. Mull.) Pers. (Agaricaceae), Tricholoma fracticum (Britzelm.) Kreisel (Tricholomataceae), Rhizopogon luteolus Fr. and Nordholm (Rhizopogonaceae), Lentinus tigrinus (Bull.) Fr. (Polyporaceae) on hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells in conjunction with their antioxidant and antibacterial capacities. Materials and Methods: Five different extracts of edible mushrooms were obtained using water, methanol, acetone, n-hexane and chloroform as solvent systems for cytotoxic, antioxidant and antibacterial properties. Results: C. comatus showed substantial in vitro cytotoxic activity against HepG2 cell lines with all extracts especially with chloroform 50% inhibition (IC50 value of 0.086 mg/ml) and acetone (IC50 value of 0.420 mg/ml). Chloroform extract of C. comatus had maximum amount of β-carotene (25.94 μg/mg), total phenolic content (76.32 μg/mg) and lycopene (12.00 μg/mg), and n-hexane extract of L. tigrinus had maximum amount of flavonoid (3.67 μg/mg). While chloroform extract of C. comatus showed the highest 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) capturing activity (1.579 mg/ml), the best result for metal chelating activity was obtained from methanolic extract (0.842 mg/ml). Moreover, all tested mushrooms demonstrated antibacterial activity and n-hexane extract of L. tigrinus and acetone extracts of T. fracticum were the most active against tested microorganism. Conclusion: These results indicate that different extracts of investigated mushroom have considerable cytotoxic, antioxidant and antibacterial properties and may be utilized as a promising source of therapeutics. PMID:26109775

  15. Induction of a T-Helper 1 (Th1) immune response in mice by an extract from the Pleurotus eryngii (Eringi) mushroom.

    PubMed

    Ike, Kazunori; Kameyama, Natsuko; Ito, Akira; Imai, Soichi

    2012-12-01

    To assess the effect of edible mushroom extracts on the induction of T-helper 1 (Th1) immunity, we examined differences in interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-4 production in mice induced by hot-water extracts of 15 species of edible mushroom. Extracts from Agaricus bisporus, Flammulina velutipes, Hypsizigus marmoreus, Lentinula edodes, and Lyophyllum decastes induced both IFN-γ and IL-4 production in mice, whereas extracts from Pleurotus ostreatus only induced IL-4. In contrast, extracts from Agaricus blazei, Grifola frondosa, Morchella esculenta, Pholiota nameko, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, and Pleurotus eryngii induced only IFN-γ production. In particular, the extract from P. eryngii induced high levels of IFN-γ and reduced levels of IL-4. We further investigated the use of a trial immunogen using the P. eryngii extract as a Th1 immunostimulator. An oil-in-water emulsion of the hot-water extract from P. eryngii (immunostimulator) and ovalbumin (OVA; antigen) was used as a trial immunogen. This immunogen induced strong OVA-specific IgG2a antibody production in mice compared with the negative controls. In addition, OVA-specific IgG1 antibody levels were lower than those for the negative controls. Marked increases in serum IFN-γ levels and high-level production of IFN-γ in the culture supernatant from the CD4(+) spleen cells in the trial immunogen group mice were observed. Our results suggested that the hot-water extract from P. eryngii induced Th1 immunity by acting as an immunostimulator. PMID:23134464

  16. Spawn viability in edible mushrooms after freezing in liquid nitrogen without a cryoprotectant.

    PubMed

    Mata, Gerardo; Pérez-Merlo, Rosalía

    2003-08-01

    Five strains of edible mushrooms (Lentinula boryana, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus djamor, Pleurotus pulmonarius, and Volvariella volvacea) were studied. Spawn were prepared from sorghum seeds and then incubated for 14 days under optimum conditions for each species. Once covered by mycelia, the sorghum seeds were placed in polycarbonate vials for freezing in liquid nitrogen. The effect of adding a cryoprotective solution before freezing (either 10% glycerol v/v or 5% dimethylsulfoxide v/v) was evaluated as a function of mycelial growth and percent viability. Three main treatments were undertaken: (1) freezing with a glycerol or dimethylsulfoxide cryoprotectant, (2) freezing with water and (3) freezing without cryoprotectant or water. Samples were maintained frozen for a week, after which time they were thawed (10 min at 30 degrees C) and the seeds placed in Petri dishes with a culture medium. A recovery rate of 96.8% was obtained for the total number of samples summed over all strains and treatments. In contrast, 99.2% of the samples frozen without cryoprotectant were recovered. The recovery of frozen mycelia was delayed with respect to a control group, which was not frozen. However, no difference was observed in percent recovery and mycelial diameter when a new series of spawn was prepared from mycelia that had been previously frozen. Results obtained from this experiment demonstrate that an adequate recovery of mycelia can be obtained without using a cryoprotectant. This capacity might enable large quantities of commercial mushroom strains to be handled at reduced production costs. It is suggested that the mycelia survived freezing without cryoprotectants because they were embedded and protected within the sorghum seeds used to elaborate the spawn. PMID:12963408

  17. Identification and expression analysis of a new glycoside hydrolase family 55 exo-β-1,3-glucanase-encoding gene in Volvariella volvacea suggests a role in fruiting body development.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yongxin; Xie, Baogui; Yang, Zhiyun; Chen, Zhihong; Chen, Bingzhi; Deng, Youjin; Jiang, Yuji; van Peer, Arend F

    2013-09-15

    The edible straw mushroom Volvariella volvacea is an important crop in South East Asia and is predominantly harvested in the egg stage. Rapid stipe elongation and cap expansion result in a swift transition from the egg to elongation and maturation stage, which are subjected to fast senescence and deterioration. In other mushrooms, β-1,3-glucanases have been associated with degradation (softening) of the cell wall during stipe elongation and senescence. We present a new glycoside hydrolase family 55 (GH55) exo-β-1,3-glucanase gene, exg2, and highly conserved deduced EXG2 protein. The 3D model and presumed catalytic residues of V. volvacea EXG2 are identical to Lentinula edodes EXG2 and Phanerochaete chrysosporium Lam55A, supporting similar enzymatic functions. In addition to previous association to stipe elongation and senescence, our data clearly indicates a role for cap (pileus) expansion. Digital gene expression, quantitative PCR and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification analysis showed low exg2 and EXG2 levels in primordia, button, egg and elongation stages and significantly increased levels in the maturation stage. Subsequent relative quantitative PCR analysis designated expression of exg2 to the stipe in the elongation stage and to the pileus and stipe in the maturation stage. EXG2 cell wall softening activity, close correlation of exg2 expression with the principal expanding mushroom tissues and a strong conservation of expression patterns and protein sequences in other mushrooms, make V. volvacea exg2 an important candidate for future studies on mechanisms of fruiting body expansion and senescence causing commodity value loss. PMID:23751305

  18. Determination of total cadmium, lead, arsenic, mercury and inorganic arsenic in mushrooms: outcome of IMEP-116 and IMEP-39

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro, F.; Llorente-Mirandes, T.; López-Sánchez, J.F.; Rubio, R.; Sánchez Agullo, A.; Raber, G.; Scharf, H.; Vélez, D.; Devesa, V.; Fiamegos, Y.; Emteborg, H.; Seghers, J.; Robouch, P.; de la Calle, M.B.

    2015-01-01

    The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) of the Joint Research Centre (JRC), a Directorate General of the European Commission, operates the International Measurement Evaluation Program (IMEP). IMEP organises inter-laboratory comparisons in support of European Union policies. This paper presents the results of two proficiency tests (PTs): IMEP-116 and IMEP-39, organised for the determination of total Cd, Pb, As, Hg and inorganic As (iAs) in mushrooms. Participation in IMEP-116 was restricted to National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) officially appointed by national authorities in European Union member states. IMEP-39 was open to all other laboratories wishing to participate. Thirty-seven participants from 25 countries reported results in IMEP-116, and 62 laboratories from 36 countries reported for the IMEP-39 study. Both PTs were organised in support to Regulation (EC) No. 1881/2006, which sets the maximum levels for certain contaminants in food. The test item used in both PTs was a blend of mushrooms of the variety shiitake (Lentinula edodes). Five laboratories, with demonstrated measurement capability in the field, provided results to establish the assigned values (X ref). The standard uncertainties associated to the assigned values (u ref) were calculated by combining the uncertainty of the characterisation (u char) with a contribution for homogeneity (u bb) and for stability (u st), whilst u char was calculated following ISO 13528. Laboratory results were rated with z- and zeta (ζ)-scores in accordance with ISO 13528. The standard deviation for proficiency assessment, σ p, ranged from 10% to 20% depending on the analyte. The percentage of satisfactory z-scores ranged from 81% (iAs) to 97% (total Cd) in IMEP-116 and from 64% (iAs) to 84% (total Hg) in IMEP-39. PMID:25365736

  19. A high throughput colorimetric assay of β-1,3-D-glucans by Congo red dye.

    PubMed

    Semedo, Magda C; Karmali, Amin; Fonseca, Luís

    2015-02-01

    Mushroom strains contain complex nutritional biomolecules with a wide spectrum of therapeutic and prophylactic properties. Among these compounds, β-d-glucans play an important role in immuno-modulating and anti-tumor activities. The present work involves a novel colorimetric assay method for β-1,3-d-glucans with a triple helix tertiary structure by using Congo red. The specific interaction that occurs between Congo red and β-1,3-d-glucan was detected by bathochromic shift from 488 to 516 nm (>20 nm) in UV-Vis spectrophotometer. A micro- and high throughput method based on a 96-well microtiter plate was devised which presents several advantages over the published methods since it requires only 1.51 μg of polysaccharides in samples, greater sensitivity, speed, assay of many samples and very cheap. β-D-Glucans of several mushrooms (i.e., Coriolus versicolor, Ganoderma lucidum, Pleurotus ostreatus, Ganoderma carnosum, Hericium erinaceus, Lentinula edodes, Inonotus obliquus, Auricularia auricular, Polyporus umbellatus, Cordyseps sinensis, Agaricus blazei, Poria cocos) were isolated by using a sequence of several extractions with cold and boiling water, acidic and alkaline conditions and quantified by this microtiter plate method. FTIR spectroscopy was used to study the structural features of β-1,3-D-glucans in these mushroom samples as well as the specific interaction of these polysaccharides with Congo red. The effect of NaOH on triple helix conformation of β-1,3-D-glucans was investigated in several mushroom species. PMID:25555819

  20. Induction of a T-Helper 1 (Th1) Immune Response in Mice by an Extract from the Pleurotus eryngii (Eringi) Mushroom

    PubMed Central

    Kameyama, Natsuko; Ito, Akira; Imai, Soichi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract To assess the effect of edible mushroom extracts on the induction of T-helper 1 (Th1) immunity, we examined differences in interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-4 production in mice induced by hot-water extracts of 15 species of edible mushroom. Extracts from Agaricus bisporus, Flammulina velutipes, Hypsizigus marmoreus, Lentinula edodes, and Lyophyllum decastes induced both IFN-γ and IL-4 production in mice, whereas extracts from Pleurotus ostreatus only induced IL-4. In contrast, extracts from Agaricus blazei, Grifola frondosa, Morchella esculenta, Pholiota nameko, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, and Pleurotus eryngii induced only IFN-γ production. In particular, the extract from P. eryngii induced high levels of IFN-γ and reduced levels of IL-4. We further investigated the use of a trial immunogen using the P. eryngii extract as a Th1 immunostimulator. An oil-in-water emulsion of the hot-water extract from P. eryngii (immunostimulator) and ovalbumin (OVA; antigen) was used as a trial immunogen. This immunogen induced strong OVA-specific IgG2a antibody production in mice compared with the negative controls. In addition, OVA-specific IgG1 antibody levels were lower than those for the negative controls. Marked increases in serum IFN-γ levels and high-level production of IFN-γ in the culture supernatant from the CD4+ spleen cells in the trial immunogen group mice were observed. Our results suggested that the hot-water extract from P. eryngii induced Th1 immunity by acting as an immunostimulator. PMID:23134464

  1. Molecular classification and phylogenetic relationships of selected edible Basidiomycetes species.

    PubMed

    Avin, Farhat Ahmadi; Bhassu, Subha; Shin, Tan Yee; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2012-07-01

    Morphological identification of edible mushrooms can sometimes prove troublesome, because phenotypic variation in fungi can be affected by substrate and environmental factors. One of the most important problems for mushroom breeders is the lack of a systematic consensus tool to distinguish different species, which are sometimes morphologically identical. Basidiomycetes as one of the largest groups of edible mushrooms have become more important in recent times for their medicinal and nutritional properties. Partial rDNA sequences, including the Internal Transcribed Spacer I-5.8SrDNA-Internal Transcribed Spacer II, were used in this study for molecular identification and assessment of phylogenetic relationships between selected edible species of the Basidiomycetes. Phylogenetic trees showed five distinct clades; each clade belonging to a separate family group. The first clade included all the species belonging to the Pleurotaceae (Pleurotus spp.) family; similarly, the second, third, fourth, and fifth clades consist of species from the Agaricaceae (Agaricus sp.), Lyophllaceae (Hypsigygus sp.), Marasmiaceae (Lentinula edodes sp.) and Physalacriaceae (Flammulina velutipes sp.) families, respectively. Moreover, different species of each family were clearly placed in a distinct sub-cluster and a total of 13 species were taken for analysis. Species differentiation was re-confirmed by AMOVA analysis (among the populations: 99.67%; within: 0.33%), nucleotide divergence, haplotyping and P value. Polymorphism occurred throughout the ITS regions due to insertion-deletion and point mutations, and can be clearly differentiated within the families as well as genera. Moreover, this study proves that the sequence of the ITS region is a superior molecular DNA barcode for taxonomic identification of Basidiomycetes. PMID:22327649

  2. Active hexose correlated compound modulates LPS-induced hypotension and gut injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Doursout, Marie-Francoise; Liang, Yangyan; Sundaresan, Alamelu; Wakame, Koji; Fujii, Hajime; Takanari, Jun; Devakottai, Sundar; Kulkarni, Anil

    2016-10-01

    We hypothesized that AHCC; (Amino UP Chemical Co., Ltd., Sapporo, Japan), a mushroom mycelium extract obtained from liquid culture of Lentinula edodes, restores immune function in LPS-induced inflammation in the gut, especially when the nitric oxide signaling pathway is impaired. This is the first inter-disciplinary proposal to identify molecular mechanisms involved in LPS-induced immune dysfunction in the gut in conscious animals treated or non-treated with AHCC, a promoter of immune support. Specifically, we have tested the effects of AHCC on LPS-induced deleterious effects on blood pressure and gut injury in conscious rats. The time course of biological markers of innate/acquired immune responses, and inflammation/oxidative stress is fully described in the present manuscript. Rats were randomly assigned into 3 groups (N=6 per group). Group 1 received 10% of AHCC in drinking water for 5days; Group 2 received lipopolysaccharide (LPS; Escherichia coli 0111:B4 purchased from Sigma) only at 20mg/kg IV; Group 3 received combined treatments (AHCC + LPS). LPS was administered at 20mg/kg IV, 5days following AHCC treatment. We have demonstrated that AHCC decreased the LPS-deleterious effects of blood pressure and also decreased inflammatory markers e.g., cytokines, nitric oxide and edema formation. Finally, AHCC diminished lymphocyte infiltration, restoring gut architecture. Because AHCC was administered prior to LPS, our results indicate the potential impact of AHCC's prophylactic effects on LPS inflammation. Consequently, additional experiments are warrant to assess its therapeutic effects in sepsis-induced inflammation. PMID:27500458

  3. Intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of lentinan: influence on IL-8 and TNFR1 expression in intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nishitani, Yosuke; Zhang, Ling; Yoshida, Masaru; Azuma, Takeshi; Kanazawa, Kazuki; Hashimoto, Takashi; Mizuno, Masashi

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. It is unknown whether β-1,3;1,6-glucan can induce immune suppressive effects. Here, we study intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of Lentinula edodes-derived β-1,3;1,6-glucan, which is known as lentinan. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mice were used to elucidate effects of lentinan in vivo. In the cellular level assessment, lentinan was added into a co-culture model consisting of intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells and LPS-stimulated macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Ligated intestinal loop assay was performed for assessing effects of lentinan on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) in vivo. Oral administration of lentinan (100 µg/mouse) significantly ameliorated DSS-induced colitis in body weight loss, shortening of colon lengths, histological score, and inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression in inflamed tissues. Lentinan reduced interleukin (IL)-8 mRNA expression and nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation in Caco-2 cells without decreasing of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production from RAW264.7 cells. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that surface levels of TNF receptor (TNFR) 1 were decreased by lentinan treatment. A clathrin-mediated endocytosis inhibitor, monodansylcadaverine, canceled lentinan inhibition of IL-8 mRNA expression. Moreover, lentinan inhibited TNFR1 expression in Caco-2 cells in both protein and mRNA level. Lentinan also inhibited TNFR1 mRNA expression in mouse IECs. These results suggest that lentinan exhibits intestinal anti-inflammatory activity through inhibition of IL-8 mRNA expression associated with the inhibition of NF-κB activation which is triggered by TNFR1 endocytosis and lowering of their expression in IECs. Lentinan may be effective for the treatment of gut inflammation including IBD. PMID:23630633

  4. A monograph of Allantonectria, Nectria, and Pleonectria (Nectriaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota) and their pycnidial, sporodochial, and synnematous anamorphs

    PubMed Central

    Hirooka, Y.; Rossman, A.Y.; Samuels, G.J.; Lechat, C.; Chaverri, P.

    2012-01-01

    large perithecia are immersed, large ascospores, and peculiar anamorphs that form pycnidia or sporodochia either on their natural substrate or in culture. In this study the evolution of species, morphology, and ecology of the three genera, Allantonectria, Nectria, and Pleonectria, are discussed based on the phylogenetic analyses. In addition, descriptions, illustrations, and keys for identification are presented for the 56 species in Allantonectria, Nectria, and Pleonectria. Taxonomic novelties: New species: Nectria argentinensis Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Nectria berberidicola Hirooka, Lechat, Rossman, & P. Chaverri, Nectria himalayensis Hirooka, Rossman, & P. Chaverri, Nectria magnispora Hirooka, Rossman, & P. Chaverri, Nectria mariae Hirooka, Fournier, Lechat, Rossman, & P. Chaverri, Nectria pyriformis Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria boothii Hirooka, Rossman & Chaverri, Pleonectria clavatispora Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria ilicicola Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria okinawensis Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria pseudomissouriensis Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria quercicola Hirooka, Checa, Areual, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria strobi Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri. New combinations: Cosmospora proteae (Marinc., M.J. Wingf. & Crous) Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Nectricladiella viticola (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Neocosmospora guarapiensis (Speg.) Hirooka, Samuels, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Neocosmospora rehmiana (Kirschstein) Hirooka, Samuels, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria aquifolii (Fr.) Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria aurigera (Berk. & Rav.) Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria chlorinella (Cooke) Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria coryli (Fuckel) Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria cucurbitula (Tode: Fr.) Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria lonicerae (Seeler) Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria rosellinii (Carestia

  5. Ribosomal DNA of fly Sciara coprophila has a very small and homogeneous repeat unit.

    PubMed

    Renkawitz, R; Gerbi, S A; Glätzer, K H

    1979-05-23

    In this report we show by hybridization of restriction fragments and by Miller spreads that the unit repeat of the fly Sciara coprophila is only 8.4 kb which is the smallest known for a multicellular eukaryote. The 8.4 kb EcoR1 fragment containing a complete unit of Sciara rDNA was cloned in pBR322, and mapped by the method of Parker (1977) and also by double digestions. The coding regions for 28S, 18S, and 5.8S RNA were localized by the method of Berk and Sharp (1977). From these data we conclude that the nontranscribed spacer, external transcribed spacer, and internal transcribed spacer are all shorter than in other organisms, thereby giving rise to the shorter overall rDNA repeat unit of Sciara. At least 90% of the Sciara rDNA repeats are homogeneous, with a length of 8.4 kb, but a 700 bp ladder of minor bands can also be found in digestions of total genome DNA. This profile of major and minor bands is identical between the X and X' chromosomes, as seen by a comparison of several genotypes. There are only 45 rRNA genes per X chromosome of Sciara (Gerbi and Crouse, 1976). These can easily be counted by low magnification Miller spreads which show that virtually all gene copies are actively being transcribed in the stage of spermatogenesis examined. This is the first demonstration for any reiterated gene family where all copies are shown to be simultaneously active. PMID:288964

  6. Symptoms of Depression and Difficulty Initiating Sleep from Early Adolescence to Early Adulthood: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Hayley, Amie C.; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Sivertsen, Børge; Wold, Bente; Berk, Michael; Pasco, Julie A.; Øverland, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess the direction of the relationship and degree of shared associations between symptoms of depression and difficulty initiating sleep (DIS) from early adolescence to early adulthood. Design: Cross-sectional and longitudinal assessment of the symptoms of depression-DIS association from early adolescence (age 13 y) to early adulthood (age 23 y). Setting: Hordaland, Norway. Participants: There were 1,105 individuals (55% male) who took part in the Norwegian Longitudinal Health Behaviour Study (NLHB) and participated at least once across seven data collection waves during the years 1990–2000. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Characteristic data were obtained during the first assessment. Symptoms of depression and instances of DIS were assessed during each data collection wave. Symptoms of depression and DIS were associated in all data waves, and one-step cross-lagged bivariate correlations were significant and comparatively high for both factors. Structural equation modelling indicated that DIS and symptoms of depression at wave 1 remain relatively stable across waves (all P < 0.001), and a significant and consistent unidirectional cross-lagged effect was noted running from symptoms of depression to DIS from early adolescence to early adulthood. DIS is only marginally and inconsistently associated with the lagged symptoms of depression score across waves. Conclusions: These results suggest that symptoms of depression established in early adolescence are a moderate predictor of difficulty initiating sleep (DIS) in early adulthood, whereas the reverse association of DIS predicting depression was not convincingly supported. These findings are in contrast to previous findings that suggest sleep problems as a risk factor for the later development of depression. Citation: Hayley AC, Skogen JC, Sivertsen B, Wold B, Berk M, Pasco JA, Øverland S. Symptoms of depression and difficulty initiating sleep from early adolescence to early

  7. Harmonic Maps to Buildings and Singular Perturbation Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzarkov, Ludmil; Noll, Alexander; Pandit, Pranav; Simpson, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    The notion of a (uni)versal building associated with a point in the Hitchin base is introduced. The universal building is a building equipped with a harmonic map from the universal cover of the given Riemann surface that is initial among harmonic maps which induce the given cameral cover of the Riemann surface. The notion of a versal building is obtained by relaxing the uniqueness condition in the definition of an initial object. In the rank one case, the universal building is the leaf space of the quadratic differential defining the point in the Hitchin base. The main conjectures of this paper are: (1) a versal building always exists; (2) the asymptotics of the Riemann-Hilbert correspondence and the non-abelian Hodge correspondence are controlled by the harmonic map associated to any versal building; (3) spectral networks arise as inverse images of singularities of the versal building; and (4) versal buildings encode the data of a 3d Calabi-Yau category whose space of stability conditions has a connected component that contains the Hitchin base. The main theorem establishes the existence of the universal building, conjecture (3), as well as the Riemann-Hilbert part of conjecture (2), in the case of the rank two example introduced in the seminal work of Berk-Nevins-Roberts on higher order Stokes phenomena. It is also shown that the asymptotics of the Riemann-Hilbert correspondence are always controlled by a harmonic map to a certain building, which is constructed as the asymptotic cone of a symmetric space.

  8. Study of systematic trends in electronic and optical properties within ZnM2O4 (M = Co, Rh, Ir) family by FPLAPW method with PBE and TB-mBJ potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Saurabh

    2015-07-01

    The systematic trends for electronic and optical properties for the family of spinel oxides ZnM2O4 depending on the type of M element (M = Co, Rh, Ir) have been investigated using full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FPLAPW) method based on the density functional theory. Calculations have been performed by alternative form of generalized gradient approximation proposed by Perdew, Berke and Erzzehof (GGA-PBE) and by orbital independent Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson (TB-mBJ) potentials as coupled with GGA. The optimized unit cell length, a0, and internal parameter, u, calculated are in agreement with experimental data. TB-mBJ scheme shows a significant improvement in bandgaps over PBE value and are closer to the experimental data. By analyzing density of states (DOS), we find that more pronounced splitting of M-d states splitting is responsible for larger band gap in TB-mBJ scheme for ZnM2O4 compounds. It also shows valence band dispersion is reduced in the TB-mBJ scheme compared to the PBE. Optical properties have been calculated for the energy range 0-14 eV. The values of calculated reflectivity stays low till 3.5 eV which is consistent with energy gap. The results are analyzed on the basis of band to band transitions. We also present the analysis of frequency dependent refractive index, n (ω), and extinction coefficient, k (ω), of ZnM2O4 using PBE and TB-mBJ schemes.

  9. Rare or remarkable microfungi from Oaxaca (south Mexico)--Part II.

    PubMed

    Ale-Agha, N; Jensen, M; Brassmann, M; Kautz, S; Eilmus, S; Ballhorn, D J

    2008-01-01

    Microfungi were collected in southern Mexico in the vicinity of Puerto Escondido, Oaxaca in 2007. In 2006, samples were gathered from Acacia myrmecophytes [(Remarkable microfungi from Oaxaca of Acacia species) Part I]. In the present investigation [Part II], we collected microfungi from different parts of a variety of wild and cultivated higher plants belonging to the families Anacardiaceae, Caricaceae, Fabaceae, Moraceae, and Nyctaginacae. The microfungi found here live as parasites or saprophytes. Interestingly, the species Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. and Magn.) Briosi and Cavara has repeatedly been used to cause fungal infections of Phaseolus lunatus leaves in laboratory experiments. We could now find the same fungus as parasite on the same host plants under field conditions showing that results obtained in the laboratory are also relevant in nature. Most of the fungal species collected belong to the classes Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina and Deuteromycotina. Until now, some of the microfungi identified in this study have been rarely observed before or have been reported for the first time in Mexico, for example: Pestalotia acaciae Thüm. on Acacia collinsii Safford; Corynespora cassiicola (Berk. and M.A. Curtis) C.T. Wei on Carica papaya L.; Botryosphaeria ribis Grossenb. and Duggar and Cercosporella leucaenae (Raghu Ram and Mallaiah) U. Braun (new for Mexico) and Camptomeris leucaenae (F. Stevens and Dalbey) Syd. (new for Mexico) on Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit.; Oidium clitoriae Narayanas. and K. Ramakr. and Phakopsora cf. pachyrhizi Sydow and Sydow (new for Mexico) on Clitoria ternatea L.; Botryosphaeria obtusa (Schw.) Shoemaker on Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.; Cylindrocladium scoparium Morg. on Ficus benjamina L.; Acremonium sp. on Bougainvillea sp. All specimens are located in the herbarium ESS. Mycotheca Parva collection G.B. Feige and N. Ale-Agha. PMID:19226752

  10. Simulating VIIRS Observed Gas Flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, F. C.

    2015-12-01

    VIIRS Nightfire (VNF) had been proved being able to effectively detect gas flares at night, and characterize their temperature and source size. [1] However, limited access to generally confidential gas flare operation measurements made it difficult to verify the output. Although flared gas volume is occasionally available, it is not common to log the temperature and flames size which directly links to VNF output. To understand the mechanism of gas flare and how VIIRS perceives the event, a platform is proposed to simulate the gas flare being observed by VIIRS. The methodology can be described in three steps. (1) Use CFD simulation software ISIS-3D to simulate a simple gas flare. [2] Scalar fields of temperature and species concentration related to combustion are extracted from the simulation. The instantaneous scalar can be determined from time-averaging or guess by stochastic time and space series (TASS) from single-point statistics [3]. (2) Model spectral radiance intensity of simulated gas flare using RADCAL. [4] RADCAL developed by NIST can accurately model the spectral radiance emitted on the direction of lineof-sight given the spatial profile of temperature and concentration of species. (3) Use radiative transfer modeling to calculate the energy propagated to VIIRS. The modeled radiation will then be weighted by the MODTRAN [5] modeled transmissivity over predefined atmosphere to the satellite, with geometrical effects considered. Such platform can help understanding how exactly VNF is measuring gas flares, and thus lead to more precise characterization of combustion events. [1] C. D. Elvidge et al, Remote Sensing, 2013[2] IRSN ISIS-3D[3] M. E. Kounalakis et al, ASME J. Heat Transfer, 1991 [4] W. L. Grosshandler, NIST Technical Note 1402, 1993 [5] A. Berk et al, MODTRAN 5.2.0.0 User's Manual

  11. Soil mixing to decrease surface stratification of phosphorus in manured soils.

    PubMed

    Sharpley, Andrew N

    2003-01-01

    Continual applications of fertilizer and manure to permanent grassland or no-till soils can lead to an accumulation of P at the surface, which in turn increases the potential for P loss in overland flow. To investigate the feasibility of redistributing surface stratified P within the soil profile by plowing, Mehlich-3 P rich surface soils (128-961 mg kg(-) in 0-5 cm) were incubated with lower-P subsoil (16-119 mg kg(-1) in 5-20 cm) for 18 manured soils from Oklahoma and Pennsylvania that had received long-term manure applications (60-150 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1) as dairy, poultry, or swine manure for up to 20 yr). After incubating a mixture of 5 g surface soil (0- to 5-cm depth) and 15 g subsoil (5- to 20-cm depth) for 28 d, Mehlich-3 P decreased 66 to 90% as a function of the weighted mean Mehlich-3 P of surface and subsoil (i.e.. 1:3 ratio) (r2 = 0.87). At Klingerstown, Northumberland County, south central Pennsylvania, a P-stratified Berks soil (Typic Dystrochrept) (495 mg kg(-1) Mehlich-3 P in 0- to 5-cm depth) was chisel plowed to about 25 cm and orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) planted. Once grass was established and erosion minimized (about 20 wk after plowing and planting), total P concentration in overland flow during a 30-min rainfall (6.5 cm h(-1)) was 1.79 mg L(-1) compared with 3.4 mg L(-1) before plowing, with dissolved P reduced from 2.9 to 0.3 mg L(-1). Plowing P-stratified soils has the potential to decrease P loss in overland flow, as long as plowing-induced erosion is minimized. PMID:12931893

  12. Effects of UV-B radiation and periodic desiccation on the morphogenesis of the edible terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yan-Na; Zhang, Zhong-Chun; Feng, Jun-Li; Qiu, Bao-Sheng

    2012-10-01

    The terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme Berk. et M. A. Curtis has been a popular food and herbal ingredient for hundreds of years. To meet great market demand and protect the local ecosystem, for decades researchers have tried to cultivate N. flagelliforme but have failed to get macroscopic filamentous thalli. In this study, single trichomes with 50 to 200 vegetative cells were induced from free-living cells by low light and used to investigate the morphogenesis of N. flagelliforme under low UV-B radiation and periodic desiccation. Low-fluence-rate UV-B (0.1 W m(-2)) did not inhibit trichome growth; however, it significantly increased the synthesis of extracellular polysaccharides and mycosporine-like amino acids and promoted sheath formation outside the trichomes. Under low UV-B radiation, single trichomes developed into filamentous thalli more than 1 cm long after 28 days of cultivation, most of which grew separately in liquid BG11 medium. With periodic desiccation treatment, the single trichomes formed flat or banded thalli that grew up to 2 cm long after 3 months on solid BG11 medium. When trichomes were cultivated on solid BG11 medium with alternate treatments of low UV-B and periodic desiccation, dark and scraggly filamentous thalli that grew up to about 3 cm in length after 40 days were obtained. In addition, the cultivation of trichomes on nitrogen-deficient solid BG11 medium (BG11(0)) suggested that nitrogen availability could affect the color and lubricity of newly developed thalli. This study provides promising techniques for artificial cultivation of N. flagelliforme in the future. PMID:22865081

  13. Identification and characterization of microsatellite from Alternaria brassicicola to assess cross-species transferability and utility as a diagnostic marker.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ruchi; Kumar, Sudheer; Kashyap, Prem Lal; Srivastava, Alok Kumar; Mishra, Sanjay; Sharma, Arun Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Alternaria blight caused by Alternaria brassicicola (Schwein.) Wiltshire and A. brassicae (Berk.) Sacc., is one of the most important disease of rapeseed-mustard, characterized by the formation of spots on leaves, stem, and siliquae with premature defoliation and stunting of growth. These two species are very difficult to differentiate based on disease symptoms or spore morphology. Therefore, the aim of present investigation was to identify and characterize transferable microsatellite loci from A. brassicicola to A. brassicae for the development of diagnostic marker. A total of 8,457 microsatellites were identified from transcript sequences of A. brassicicola. The average density of microsatellites was one microsatellite per 1.94 kb of transcript sequence screened. The most frequent repeat was tri-nucleotide (74.03 %), whereas penta-nucleotide (1.14 %) was least frequent. Among amino acids, arginine (13.11 %) showed maximum abundance followed by lysine (10.11 %). A total of 32 alleles were obtained across the 31 microsatellite loci for the ten isolates of A. brassicicola. In cross-species amplifications, 5 of the 31 markers amplified the corresponding microsatellite regions in twenty isolates of A. brassicae and showed monomorphic banding pattern. Microsatellite locus ABS28 was highly specific for A. brassicicola, as no amplification was observed from twenty-nine other closely related taxa. Primer set, ABS28F/ABS28R, amplified a specific amplicon of 380 bp from all A. brassicicola isolates. Standard curves were generated for A. brassicicola isolate using SYBR Green I fluorescent dye for detection of amplification in real-time PCR assay. The lowest detection limit of assay was 0.01 ng. Thus, the primer set can be used as diagnostic marker to discriminate and diagnose A. brassicicola from synchronously occurring fungus, A. brassicae associated with rapeseed and mustard. PMID:25048820

  14. Antioxidant Capacity and Total Phenolics Content of the Fruiting Bodies and Submerged Cultured Mycelia of Sixteen Higher Basidiomycetes Mushrooms from India.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Rajendra; Varshney, Vinay K; Harsh, N S K; Kumar, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    The fruiting bodies and the submerged cultured mycelia of 16 higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms- Agaricus bisporus, Armillaria mellea, Auricularia auricula-judae, Ganoderma applanatum, G. lucidum, Laetiporus sulphureus, Lentinus tigrinus, Lycoperdon pyriforme, Phellinus linteus, Pleurotus ostreatus, P. sajor-caju, Polyporus arcularius, Russula brevipes, Schizophyllum commune, Sparassis crispa, and Spongipellis unicolor-from different taxonomic groups were examined for their antioxidant capacity (AOXC) and total phenolics content (TPC). Extraction of the freeze-dried and pulverized fruiting bodies and mycelia with methanol and water (8:2, v/v), followed by evaporation of the solvent under a vacuum, created their extracts, which were analyzed for their AOXC and TPC using a DPPH· scavenging assay and the Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively. The fruiting bodies and the culture mycelia of all the mushroom species exhibited varied antioxidant capacity; however, the fruiting bodies had more potent DPPH· scavenging than the corresponding mycelia irrespective of the mushroom species, as evident by the effective concentrations of extract that scavenges 50% of DPPH· (EC50) of the former (0.56-1.24 mg mL-1) being lower than those of the latter (2.51-8.39 mg mL-1). TPC in the fruiting bodies (6.08-24.85 mg gallic acid equivalent [GAE] g-1) were higher than those in the mycelia (4.17-13.34 mg GAE g-1). AOXC of the fruiting bodies (r = -0.755) and the culture mycelia (r = -0.903) also was correlated to their TPC. Among the cultured mycelia, A. bisporus, A. mellea, L. tigrinus, P. ostreatus, and S. crispa were highly promising in terms of their highest TPC (10.55, 13.34, 11.00, 10.37, and 10.19 mg GAE g-1, respectively) and the lowest EC50 values (3.33, 2.85, 2.51, 3.65, and 3.17 mg mL-1, respectively) as they relate to the development of antioxidants. PMID:26756185

  15. Elimination of Bisphenol A and Triclosan Using the Enzymatic System of Autochthonous Colombian Forest Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Arboleda, Carolina; Cabana, H.; De Pril, E.; Jones, J. Peter; Jiménez, G. A.; Mejía, A. I.; Agathos, S. N.; Penninckx, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) and triclosan (TCS) are known or suspected potential endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) which may pose a risk to human health and have an environmental impact. Enzyme preparations containing mainly laccases, obtained from Ganoderma stipitatum and Lentinus swartzii, two autochthonous Colombian forest white rot fungi (WRF), previously identified as high enzyme producers, were used to remove BPA and TCS from aqueous solutions. A Box-Behnken factorial design showed that pH, temperature, and duration of treatment were significant model terms for the elimination of BPA and TCS. Our results demonstrated that these EDCs were extensively removed from 5 mg L−1 solutions after a contact time of 6 hours. Ninety-four percent of TCS and 97.8% of BPA were removed with the enzyme solution from G. stipitatum; 83.2% of TCS and 88.2% of BPA were removed with the L. swartzii enzyme solution. After a 6-hour treatment with enzymes from G. stipitatum and L. swartzii, up to 90% of the estrogenic activity of BPA was lost, as shown by the yeast estrogen screen assay. 2,2-Azino-bis-(3-ethylthiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) was used as a mediator (laccase/mediator system) and significantly improved the laccase catalyzed elimination of BPA and TCS. The elimination of BPA in the absence of a mediator resulted in production of oligomers of molecular weights of 454, 680, and 906 amu as determined by mass spectra analysis. The elimination of TCS in the same conditions produced dimers, trimers, and tetramers of molecular weights of 574, 859, and 1146 amu. Ecotoxicological studies using Daphnia pulex to determine lethal concentration (LC50) showed an important reduction of the toxicity of BPA and TCS solutions after enzymatic treatments. Use of laccases emerges thus as a key alternative in the development of innovative wastewater treatment technologies. Moreover, the exploitation of local biodiversity appears as a potentially promising approach for identifying new efficient

  16. Elimination of bisphenol a and triclosan using the enzymatic system of autochthonous colombian forest fungi.

    PubMed

    Arboleda, Carolina; Cabana, H; De Pril, E; Jones, J Peter; Jiménez, G A; Mejía, A I; Agathos, S N; Penninckx, M J

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) and triclosan (TCS) are known or suspected potential endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) which may pose a risk to human health and have an environmental impact. Enzyme preparations containing mainly laccases, obtained from Ganoderma stipitatum and Lentinus swartzii, two autochthonous Colombian forest white rot fungi (WRF), previously identified as high enzyme producers, were used to remove BPA and TCS from aqueous solutions. A Box-Behnken factorial design showed that pH, temperature, and duration of treatment were significant model terms for the elimination of BPA and TCS. Our results demonstrated that these EDCs were extensively removed from 5 mg L(-1) solutions after a contact time of 6 hours. Ninety-four percent of TCS and 97.8% of BPA were removed with the enzyme solution from G. stipitatum; 83.2% of TCS and 88.2% of BPA were removed with the L. swartzii enzyme solution. After a 6-hour treatment with enzymes from G. stipitatum and L. swartzii, up to 90% of the estrogenic activity of BPA was lost, as shown by the yeast estrogen screen assay. 2,2-Azino-bis-(3-ethylthiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) was used as a mediator (laccase/mediator system) and significantly improved the laccase catalyzed elimination of BPA and TCS. The elimination of BPA in the absence of a mediator resulted in production of oligomers of molecular weights of 454, 680, and 906 amu as determined by mass spectra analysis. The elimination of TCS in the same conditions produced dimers, trimers, and tetramers of molecular weights of 574, 859, and 1146 amu. Ecotoxicological studies using Daphnia pulex to determine lethal concentration (LC50) showed an important reduction of the toxicity of BPA and TCS solutions after enzymatic treatments. Use of laccases emerges thus as a key alternative in the development of innovative wastewater treatment technologies. Moreover, the exploitation of local biodiversity appears as a potentially promising approach for identifying new efficient

  17. Changes of ginsenoside content by mushroom mycelial fermentation in red ginseng extract.

    PubMed

    Bae, Song Hwan; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Kim, Mi-Ryung; Kim, Sun Young; Kim, Jin-Man; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2011-06-01

    To obtain microorganisms for the microbial conversion of ginsenosides in red ginseng extract (RGE), mushroom mycelia were used for the fermentation of RGE. After fermentation, total sugar contents and polyohenol contents of the RGEs fermented with various mushrooms were not a significant increase between RGE and the ferments. But uronic acid content was relatively higher in the fermented RGEs cultured with Lentus edodes (2155.6 μg/mL), Phelllinus linteus (1690.9 μg/mL) and Inonotus obliquus 26137 and 26147 (1549.5 and 1670.7 μg/mL) compared to the RGE (1307.1 μg/mL). The RGEs fermented by Ph. linteus, Cordyceps militaris, and Grifola frondosa showed particularly high levels of total ginsenosides (20018.1, 17501.6, and 16267.0 μg/mL, respectively). The ferments with C. militaris (6974.2 μg/mL), Ph. linteus (9109.2 μg/mL), and G. frondosa (7023.0 μg/mL) also showed high levels of metabolites (sum of compound K, Rh1, Rg5, Rk1, Rg3, and Rg2) compared to RGE (3615.9 μg/mL). Among four different RGE concentrations examined, a 20 brix concentration of RGE was favorable for the fermentation of Ph. linteus. Maximum biotransformation of ginsneoside metabolites (9395.5 μg/mL) was obtained after 5 days fermentation with Ph. linteus. Maximum mycelial growth of 2.6 mg/mL was achieved at 9 days, in which growth was not significantly different during 5 to 9 days fermentation. During fermentation of RGE by Ph. linteus in a 7 L fermenter, Rg3, Rg5, and Rk1 contents showed maximum concentrations after 5 days similar to flask fermentation. These results confirm that fermentation with Ph. linteus is very useful for preparing minor ginsenoside metabolites while being safe for foods. PMID:23717066

  18. Lentinan mitigates therarubicin-induced myelosuppression by activating bone marrow-derived macrophages in an MAPK/NF-κB-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Dong, Lei; Li, Hong; Yuan, Jia; Peng, Yuping; Dai, Shejiao

    2016-07-01

    Bone marrow (BM) suppression (also known as myelosuppression) is the most common and most severe side-effect of therarubicin (THP) and thereby limits the clinical application of this anticancer agent. Lentinan (LNT), a glucan extracted from dried shiitake mushrooms (Lentinula edodes), exhibits a variety of pharmacological activities. The objectives of the present study were to determine the effect of LNT on the myelosuppression of THP-treated mice and to examine the pharmacological mechanism of these effects. In vivo experiments indicated that non-cytotoxic levels of LNT strongly increased blood myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity; improved BM structural injuries; increased the numbers of leukocytes and neutrophils in the blood and BM; elevated the blood levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF); and reduced the self-healing period in THP-treated mice. In vitro experiments indicated that LNT increased the viability of BM-derived macrophages (BMDMs) in a time- and dose-dependent manner without toxic side-effects and markedly increased the release of G-CSF, GM-CSF and M-CSF by BMDMs. Further analyses revealed that LNT activated the NF-κB and MAPK signalling pathways and promoted the nuclear import of p65 and that BAY 11-7082 (a specific inhibitor of NF-κB) suppressed the release of G-CSF, GM-CSF and M-CSF. Furthermore, we found that U0126, SB203580 and SP600125 (specific inhibitors of ERK, p38 and JNK, respectively) markedly inhibited the IKK/IκB/NF-κB-dependent release of G-CSF, GM-CSF and M-CSF. In conclusion, LNT induces the production of G-CSF, GM-CSF and M-CSF by activating the MAPK/NF-κB signalling pathway in BM cells, thereby mitigating THP-induced myelosuppression. PMID:27121155

  19. Ultra-scale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools (UV-CDAT)

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Dean N.

    2011-07-20

    This report summarizes work carried out by the Ultra-scale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools (UV-CDAT) Team for the period of January 1, 2011 through June 30, 2011. It discusses highlights, overall progress, period goals, and collaborations and lists papers and presentations. To learn more about our project, please visit our UV-CDAT website (URL: http://uv-cdat.org). This report will be forwarded to the program manager for the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER), national and international collaborators and stakeholders, and to researchers working on a wide range of other climate model, reanalysis, and observation evaluation activities. The UV-CDAT executive committee consists of Dean N. Williams of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Dave Bader and Galen Shipman of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Phil Jones and James Ahrens of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Claudio Silva of Polytechnic Institute of New York University (NYU-Poly); and Berk Geveci of Kitware, Inc. The UV-CDAT team consists of researchers and scientists with diverse domain knowledge whose home institutions also include the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the University of Utah. All work is accomplished under DOE open-source guidelines and in close collaboration with the project's stakeholders, domain researchers, and scientists. Working directly with BER climate science analysis projects, this consortium will develop and deploy data and computational resources useful to a wide variety of stakeholders, including scientists, policymakers, and the general public. Members of this consortium already collaborate with other institutions and universities in researching data discovery, management, visualization, workflow analysis, and provenance. The UV-CDAT team will address the following high-level visualization requirements: (1) Alternative parallel streaming statistics and analysis pipelines - Data

  20. Rheological evaluation of petroleum jelly as a base material in ointment and cream formulations: steady shear flow behavior.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Kyoung; Song, Ki-Won

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to systematically characterize a nonlinear rheological behavior of petroleum jelly (petrolatum) in steady shear flow fields correspondent to the spreading condition onto the human body. With this aim, using a strain-controlled rheometer, the steady shear flow properties of commercially available petroleum jelly have been measured at 37 degrees C (body temperature) over a wide range of shear rates. In this article, the shear rate dependence of steady shear flow behavior was reported from the experimentally obtained data. In particular, the existence of a yield stress and a non-Newtonian flow behavior were discussed in depth with a special emphasis on their importance in actual application onto the human body. In addition, several inelastic-viscoplastic flow models including a yield stress parameter were employed to make a quantitative description of the steady shear flow behavior, and then the applicability of these models was examined in detail. Main findings obtained from this study can be summarized as follows: (1) Petroleum jelly exhibits a finite magnitude of yield stress. The appearance of a yield stress is attributed to its three-dimensional network structure that can show a resistance to flow and plays an important role in determining a storage stability and sensory feature of the product. (2) Petroleum jelly demonstrates a pronounced non-Newtonian shear-thinning flow behavior which is well described by a power-law equation and may be interpreted by the disruption of a crystalline network under the influence of mechanical shear deformation. This rheological feature enhances sensory qualities of pharmaceutical and cosmetic products in which petroleum jelly is used as a base material during their actual usage. (3) The Casson, Mizrahi-Berk, Heinz-Casson and Herschel-Bulkley models are all applicable and have almost an equivalent ability to quantitatively describe the steady shear flow behavior of petroleum jelly whereas the

  1. Rectification at graphene-semiconductor interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebard, Arthur

    2013-03-01

    power conversion efficiencies approaching 9%. Collaborators: S. Tongay, X. Miao, K. Berke, M. K. Petterson, A. G. Rinzler, M. Lemaitre, B. Gila and B. R. Appleton. Work supported by the ONR under Contract Number 00075094 and by the NSF under Contract Number 1005301.

  2. Optimization of plant protection products treatments against Plasmopara viticola.

    PubMed

    La Torre, A; Gianferro, M; Spera, G

    2008-01-01

    Plant protection in conventional farming, and even more so in organic farming, requires careful and prudent action agro-environmental monitoring and epidemic risk assessment. Often, however, the plant protection products are distributed in a non-targeted way, even when reduced incidence of pests do not require any treatment. In order to optimize the treatments against downy mildew, multi-annual field trials, both in conventional and organic vineyards, have been carried out. In all farms were considered 3 thesis: 1 untreated control thesis (Test), in order to follow the coarse of infection, 1 standard farm reference thesis (St), where the treatments were carried out according to the usual farm procedures and 1 experimental thesis (X). Guideline EPPO/OEPP PP 1/31 (3) have been carried out. We monitored different environmental parameters capable to influence Plasmopora viticola (Berk. and Curt.) Berl. and De Toni development. In fact by a network of RTUs (Remote Terminal Units) distributed all over the vineyards transmitting every 15 minutes via radio or via GPRS to a centralized Data Base 12 environmental parameters: time, data, precipitation, soil temperature, solar radiation, wind direction, wind speed, atmospheric relative humidity, atmospheric temperature, leaf wetness, soil humidity to cm 20 and soil humidity to cm 40. In different phenological growth stages we carried out careful disease assessments on leaves and bunches to evaluate the onset and development of P. viticola. We have studied the downy mildew infections through monitoring the environmental parameters, knowledge of P. viticola biological cycle, the evaluation of cultivar sensibility, the agricultural production method and the area characteristics, to try to optimize the anti- downy mildew treatments. The achieved results have underlined the possibility to obtain a satisfactory protection against P. viticola by correct placing of treatments. In experimental thesis (X) the number of treatments was

  3. Recommended names for pleomorphic genera in Dothideomycetes.

    PubMed

    Rossman, Amy Y; Crous, Pedro W; Hyde, Kevin D; Hawksworth, David L; Aptroot, André; Bezerra, Jose L; Bhat, Jayarama D; Boehm, Eric; Braun, Uwe; Boonmee, Saranyaphat; Camporesi, Erio; Chomnunti, Putarak; Dai, Dong-Qin; D'souza, Melvina J; Dissanayake, Asha; Gareth Jones, E B; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Hernández-Restrepo, Margarita; Hongsanan, Sinang; Jaklitsch, Walter M; Jayawardena, Ruvishika; Jing, Li Wen; Kirk, Paul M; Lawrey, James D; Mapook, Ausana; McKenzie, Eric H C; Monkai, Jutamart; Phillips, Alan J L; Phookamsak, Rungtiwa; Raja, Huzefa A; Seifert, Keith A; Senanayake, Indunil; Slippers, Bernard; Suetrong, Satinee; Taylor, Joanne E; Thambugala, Kasun M; Tian, Qing; Tibpromma, Saowaluck; Wanasinghe, Dhanushka N; Wijayawardene, Nalin N; Wikee, Saowanee; Woudenberg, Joyce H C; Wu, Hai-Xia; Yan, Jiye; Yang, Tao; Zhang, Ying

    2015-12-01

    This paper provides recommendations of one name for use among pleomorphic genera in Dothideomycetes by the Working Group on Dothideomycetes established under the auspices of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF). A number of these generic names are proposed for protection because they do not have priority and/or the generic name selected for use is asexually typified. These include: Acrogenospora over Farlowiella; Alternaria over Allewia, Lewia, and Crivellia; Botryosphaeria over Fusicoccum; Camarosporula over Anthracostroma; Capnodium over Polychaeton; Cladosporium over Davidiella; Corynespora over Corynesporasca; Curvularia over Pseudocochliobolus; Elsinoë over Sphaceloma; Excipulariopsis over Kentingia; Exosporiella over Anomalemma; Exserohilum over Setosphaeria; Gemmamyces over Megaloseptoria; Kellermania over Planistromella; Kirschsteiniothelia over Dendryphiopsis; Lecanosticta over Eruptio; Paranectriella over Araneomyces; Phaeosphaeria over Phaeoseptoria; Phyllosticta over Guignardia; Podonectria over Tetracrium; Polythrincium over Cymadothea; Prosthemium over Pleomassaria; Ramularia over Mycosphaerella; Sphaerellopsis over Eudarluca; Sphaeropsis over Phaeobotryosphaeria; Stemphylium over Pleospora; Teratosphaeria over Kirramyces and Colletogloeopsis; Tetraploa over Tetraplosphaeria; Venturia over Fusicladium and Pollaccia; and Zeloasperisporium over Neomicrothyrium. Twenty new combinations are made: Acrogenospora carmichaeliana (Berk.) Rossman & Crous, Alternaria scrophulariae (Desm.) Rossman & Crous, Pyrenophora catenaria (Drechsler) Rossman & K.D. Hyde, P. dematioidea (Bubák & Wróbl.) Rossman & K.D. Hyde, P. fugax (Wallr.) Rossman & K.D. Hyde, P. nobleae (McKenzie & D. Matthews) Rossman & K.D. Hyde, P. triseptata (Drechsler) Rossman & K.D. Hyde, Schizothyrium cryptogamum (Batzer & Crous) Crous & Batzer, S. cylindricum (G.Y. Sun et al.) Crous & Batzer, S. emperorae (G.Y. Sun & L. Gao) Crous & Batzer, S. inaequale (G.Y. Sun & L

  4. Pathogenicity of Fusarium semitectum against crop pests and its biosafety to non-target organisms.

    PubMed

    Mikunthan, G; Manjunatha, M

    2006-01-01

    Microbial control is receiving more attention, since these alternative tactics, compared to chemical control methods, are energy saving, non polluting, ecologically sound and sustainable. A mycopathogen, Fusarium semitectum Berk. and Rav. (ARSEF 7233) was isolated from diseased cadavers of aphid (Aphis gossypii) and cultured in Saboraud Maltose Agar supplemented with Yeast extract medium (SMAY). Being isolated first time from the chilli ecosystem its potential was evaluated. Experiments were conducted to understand its pathogenicity against crop pests as well as to ensure its safety to non target organisms such as silk worm (Bombyx mor), honey bee (Apis indica) and earthworm (Eisenia foetida). A paper-thrips-paper sandwich method for thrips and detached-leaf bioassay method for mites were used. Test insects and mites either reared in laboratory or obtained from the field were topically applied with spore suspension of F. semitectum (1x10(9) spores/ml). Mortality was recorded and dead animals were surface sterilized with 0.5% NaOCl and placed in SMAY medium to confirm pathogenicity. Mulberry leaves sprayed with the fungal suspension were fed to larvae of B. mori and reared. Newly emerged A. indica were topically applied with fungus. The fungus grown in cow dung for two weeks was used to assess the composting ability of E. foetida. F. semitectum produced mycosis and caused mortality to sucking pests such as chilli thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis), broad mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus), sugarcane wooly aphid (Ceratavacuna lanigera), spiraling whitefly (Aleyrodicus disperses), whitefly (Bemisia tabaci, A. gossypii and coconut mite (Aceria guerroronis). The fungus did not cause mortality on larvae of lepidopteran insect pests and ladybird beetle (Menochilus sexmaculatus), predatory mite (Amblysius ovalis) and larval parasitoid (Goniozus nephantidis). F. semitectum failed to infect the larvae of B. mori and newly emerged A. indica and its brood. The mycopathogen had no

  5. ULTRAVIOLET CONTINUUM COLOR VARIABILITY OF LUMINOUS SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY QSOs

    SciTech Connect

    Sakata, Yu; Morokuma, Tomoki; Minezaki, Takeo; Yoshii, Yuzuru; Sameshima, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Yukiyasu; Koshida, Shintaro

    2011-04-10

    We examine whether the spectral energy distribution of UV continuum emission of active galactic nuclei changes during flux variation. We used multi-epoch photometric data of QSOs in Stripe 82 observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Legacy Survey and selected 10 bright QSOs observed with high photometric accuracies, in the redshift range of z = 1.0-2.4 where strong broad emission lines such as Ly{alpha} and C IV do not contaminate SDSS filters, to examine spectral variation of the UV continuum emission with broadband photometries. All target QSOs showed clear flux variations during the monitoring period 1998-2007, and the multi-epoch flux data in two different bands obtained on the same night showed a linear flux-to-flux relationship for all target QSOs. Assigning the flux in the longer wavelength to the x-axis in the flux-to-flux diagram, the x-intercept of the best-fit linear regression line was positive for most targets, which means that their colors in the observing bands become bluer as they become brighter. Then, the host-galaxy flux was estimated on the basis of the correlation between the stellar mass of the bulge of the host galaxy and the central black hole mass; the latter was estimated on the basis of the luminosity scaling relations for C IV or Mg II emission lines and their line width. We found that the longer-wavelength flux of the host galaxy was systematically smaller than that of the fainter extension of the best-fit regression line at the same shorter-wavelength flux for most targets. This result strongly indicates that the spectral shape of the continuum emission of QSOs in the UV region ({approx}1400-3600 A in rest-frame wavelength) usually becomes bluer as it becomes brighter. The multi-epoch flux data in the flux-to-flux diagram were found to be consistent with the wavelength-dependent amplitude of variation presented in Vanden Berk et al., which showed a larger amplitude of variation in shorter wavelengths. We also found that the

  6. Global transcriptome analysis of two wild relatives of peanut under drought and fungi infection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is one of the most widely grown grain legumes in the world, being valued for its high protein and unsaturated oil contents. Worldwide, the major constraints to peanut production are drought and fungal diseases. Wild Arachis species, which are exclusively South American in origin, have high genetic diversity and have been selected during evolution in a range of environments and biotic stresses, constituting a rich source of allele diversity. Arachis stenosperma harbors resistances to a number of pests, including fungal diseases, whilst A. duranensis has shown improved tolerance to water limited stress. In this study, these species were used for the creation of an extensive databank of wild Arachis transcripts under stress which will constitute a rich source for gene discovery and molecular markers development. Results Transcriptome analysis of cDNA collections from A. stenosperma challenged with Cercosporidium personatum (Berk. and M.A. Curtis) Deighton, and A. duranensis submitted to gradual water limited stress was conducted using 454 GS FLX Titanium generating a total of 7.4 x 105 raw sequence reads covering 211 Mbp of both genomes. High quality reads were assembled to 7,723 contigs for A. stenosperma and 12,792 for A. duranensis and functional annotation indicated that 95% of the contigs in both species could be appointed to GO annotation categories. A number of transcription factors families and defense related genes were identified in both species. Additionally, the expression of five A. stenosperma Resistance Gene Analogs (RGAs) and four retrotransposon (FIDEL-related) sequences were analyzed by qRT-PCR. This data set was used to design a total of 2,325 EST-SSRs, of which a subset of 584 amplified in both species and 214 were shown to be polymorphic using ePCR. Conclusions This study comprises one of the largest unigene dataset for wild Arachis species and will help to elucidate genes involved in responses to

  7. Grapevine downy mildew control using reduced copper amounts in organic viticulture.

    PubMed

    La Torre, A; Pompi, V; Mandalà, C; Cioffi, C

    2011-01-01

    Copper is an essential natural micronutrient. However, copper used as a plant protection product may have long-term consequences due to its accumulation in the soil. Limitations on copper use have therefore been defined in organic farming (Regulation EC 889/2008). In the light of new developments and evidence, the European Commission has planned to assess whether further restrictions are needed in the quantities of copper permitted. A two-year field trial was therefore set up with new copper formulations to evaluate the possibility of reducing the copper quantities applied with treatments and consequently to reduce copper soil residues. Plots were prepared, each containing 12 plants and repeated four times in randomized blocks. The test organism was Plasmopara viticola (Berk. and M.A. Curtis) Berl. and De Toni. Cupric formulations characterised by a low metallic content (Glutex CU 90 and Labicuper) were tested in comparison with a reference product (standard) and an untreated control. Evaluations of treatments were carried out periodically on 100 leaves and 100 bunches for each replicate. Data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. Chemical analyses were performed to determine copper residues on leaves, grapes and soil. Samplings of leaves and grapes were carried out for each replicate. Soil samples were taken from 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm depth. Total copper was determined using spectrophotometry in atomic absorption by acetylene-air flame (FAAS at lambda = 324.8 microm). The results showed that the tested products were effective in controlling downy mildew with a lower copper dosage than with the cupric formulations used as a standard. Glutex CU 90 formulation led to an annual input of copper that was a little more than a third compared to the standard and Labicuper about a fifth or a sixth. At harvest, copper levels in grapes were much lower than RML (fixed at 50 mg/kg). With regard to the impact of cupric treatments on organic vineyard soil, no

  8. Arsenic, Boron, and Fluoride Concentrations in Ground Water in and Near Diabase Intrusions, Newark Basin, Southeastern Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Sloto, Ronald A.

    2006-01-01

    During an investigation in 2000 by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) of possible contaminant releases from an industrial facility on Congo Road near Gilbertsville in Berks and Montgomery Counties, southeastern Pennsylvania, concentrations of arsenic and fluoride above USEPA drinking-water standards of 10 ?g/L and 4 mg/L, respectively, and of boron above the USEPA health advisory level of 600 ?g/L were measured in ground water in an area along the northwestern edge of the Newark Basin. In 2003, the USEPA requested technical assistance from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to help identify sources of arsenic, boron, and fluoride in the ground water in the Congo Road area, which included possible anthropogenic releases and naturally occurring mineralization in the local bedrock aquifer, and to identify other areas in the Newark Basin of southeastern Pennsylvania with similarly elevated concentrations of these constituents. The USGS reviewed available data and collected additional ground-water samples in the Congo Road area and four similar hydrogeologic settings. The Newark Basin is the largest of the 13 major exposed Mesozoic rift basins that stretch from Nova Scotia to South Carolina. Rocks in the Newark Basin include Triassic through Jurassic-age sedimentary sequences of sandstones and shales that were intruded by diabase. Mineral deposits of hydrothermal origin are associated with alteration zones bordering intrusions of diabase and also occur as strata-bound replacement deposits of copper and zinc in sedimentary rocks. The USGS review of data available in 2003 showed that water from about 10 percent of wells throughout the Newark Basin of southeastern Pennsylvania had concentrations of arsenic greater than the USEPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 ?g/L; the highest reported arsenic concentration was at about 70 ?g/L. Few data on boron were available, and the highest reported boron concentration in well-water samples was 60 ?g/L in contrast

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF GENOMIC AND GENETIC TOOLS FOR FOXTAIL MILLET, AND USE OF THESE TOOLS IN THE IMPROVEMENT OF BIOMASS PRODUCTION FOR BIOENERGY CROPS

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xinlu; Zale, Janice; Chen, Feng

    2013-01-22

    expression efficiency. Throughout these analyses, using plasmids with the hygromycin selectable marker, it was determined that 1.5 mg l-1 hygromycin was the optimal dose for genetic transformation of foxtail millet. In contrast, the nptII selectable marker appeared to yield many escapes. Three methods of transformation were employed in an attempt to produce stable transformants. An in planta transformation experiment, similar to the floral dip method used in Arabidopsis, which utilized a red fluorescent protein pporRFP from coral Porites porites and the hygromycin selectable marker, was tested using immature inflorescences. Although several plants were PCR positive using endpoint and Real-Time PCR and there was transient expression using pporRFP and GUS reporters, no plants were positive on Southern blot. Dipping in Agrobacterium may damage the anther or the pistil because seed production was significantly reduced. Agrobacterium transformation using embryogenic calli was also tested. Although hundreds of plants were regenerated from selection, none were positive using PCR. The third method was to wound germinated seeds with an Agrobacterium coated needle, but none of the plants were PCR positive. Although the Yugu1 genotype was recalcitrant to genetic transformation, several avenues of future research should be considered for foxtail millet. Calli from different foxtail millet genotypes should be screened and selected for regeneration potential, and some genotypes may be more amenable to transformation. Additional selectable markers should also be tested as hygromycin appears to be too stringent and there are too many escapes with nptII. This project has provided training for the following personnel: Dr. Xinlu Chen (postdoc), Xiaomei Liu (postdoc), Jayashree Desai (postdoc) and Kyle Berk (Undergraduate researcher). Conference presentations and peer-reviewed journal articles partly supported by this grant includes the following: 1. Baxter H., Equi R., Chen X, Berk K. and Zale

  10. Quality-assurance design applied to an assessment of agricultural pesticides in ground water from carbonate bedrock aquifers in the Great Valley of eastern Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breen, Kevin J.

    2000-01-01

    Assessments to determine whether agricultural pesticides are present in ground water are performed by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania under the aquifer monitoring provisions of the State Pesticides and Ground Water Strategy. Pennsylvania?s Department of Agriculture conducts the monitoring and collects samples; the Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP) Laboratory analyzes the samples to measure pesticide concentration. To evaluate the quality of the measurements of pesticide concentration for a groundwater assessment, a quality-assurance design was developed and applied to a selected assessment area in Pennsylvania. This report describes the quality-assurance design, describes how and where the design was applied, describes procedures used to collect and analyze samples and to evaluate the results, and summarizes the quality assurance results along with the assessment results. The design was applied in an agricultural area of the Delaware River Basin in Berks, Lebanon, Lehigh, and Northampton Counties to evaluate the bias and variability in laboratory results for pesticides. The design?with random spatial and temporal components?included four data-quality objectives for bias and variability. The spatial design was primary and represented an area comprising 30 sampling cells. A quality-assurance sampling frequency of 20 percent of cells was selected to ensure a sample number of five or more for analysis. Quality-control samples included blanks, spikes, and replicates of laboratory water and spikes, replicates, and 2-lab splits of groundwater. Two analytical laboratories, the PaDEP Laboratory and a U.S. Geological Survey Laboratory, were part of the design. Bias and variability were evaluated by use of data collected from October 1997 through January 1998 for alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, metolachlor, simazine, pendimethalin, metribuzin, and chlorpyrifos. Results of analyses of field blanks indicate that collection, processing, transport, and laboratory

  11. The Axisymmetric Tandem Mirror: A Magnetic Mirror Concept Game Changer Magnet Mirror Status Study Group

    SciTech Connect

    Simonen, T; Cohen, R; Correll, D; Fowler, K; Post, D; Berk, H; Horton, W; Hooper, E B; Fisch, N; Hassam, A; Baldwin, D; Pearlstein, D; Logan, G; Turner, B; Moir, R; Molvik, A; Ryutov, D; Ivanov, A A; Kesner, J; Cohen, B; McLean, H; Tamano, T; Tang, X Z; Imai, T

    2008-10-24

    experiments have confirmed the physics of effluent plasma stabilization predicted by theory. The plasma had a mean ion energy of 10 keV and a density of 5e19m-3. If successful, the axisymmetric tandem mirror extension of the GDT idea could lead to a Q {approx} 10 power plant of modest size and would yield important applications at lower Q. In addition to the GDT method, there are four other ways to augment stability that have been demonstrated; including: plasma rotation (MCX), diverter coils (Tara), pondermotive (Phaedrus & Tara), and end wall funnel shape (Nizhni Novgorod). There are also 5 stabilization techniques predicted, but not yet demonstrated: expander kinetic pressure (KSTM-Post), Pulsed ECH Dynamic Stabilization (Post), wall stabilization (Berk), non-paraxial end mirrors (Ryutov), and cusp ends (Kesner). While these options should be examined further together with conceptual engineering designs. Physics issues that need further analysis include: electron confinement, MHD and trapped particle modes, analysis of micro stability, radial transport, evaluation and optimization of Q, and the plasma density needed to bridge to the expansion-region. While promising all should be examined through increased theory effort, university-scale experiments, and through increased international collaboration with the substantial facilities in Russia and Japan The conventional wisdom of magnetic mirrors was that they would never work as a fusion concept for a number of reasons. This conventional wisdom is most probably all wrong or not applicable, especially for applications such as low Q (DT Neutron Source) aimed at materials testing or for a Q {approx} 3-5 fusion neutron source applied to destroying actinides in fission waste and breeding of fissile fuel.

  12. The Status of Research Regarding Magnetic Mirrors as a Fusion Neutron Source or Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Simonen, T

    2008-12-23

    experiments have confirmed the physics of effluent plasma stabilization predicted by theory. The plasma had a mean ion energy of 10 keV and a density of 5e19m-3. If successful, the axisymmetric tandem mirror extension of the GDT idea could lead to a Q {approx} 10 power plant of modest size and would yield important applications at lower Q. In addition to the GDT method, there are four other ways to augment stability that have been demonstrated; including: plasma rotation (MCX), diverter coils (Tara), pondermotive (Phaedrus & Tara), and end wall funnel shape (Nizhni Novgorod). There are also 5 stabilization techniques predicted, but not yet demonstrated: expander kinetic pressure (KSTM-Post), Pulsed ECH Dynamic Stabilization (Post), wall stabilization (Berk), non-paraxial end mirrors (Ryutov), and cusp ends (Kesner). While these options should be examined further together with conceptual engineering designs. Physics issues that need further analysis include: electron confinement, MHD and trapped particle modes, analysis of micro stability, radial transport, evaluation and optimization of Q, and the plasma density needed to bridge to the expansion-region. While promising all should be examined through increased theory effort, university-scale experiments, and through increased international collaboration with the substantial facilities in Russia and Japan The conventional wisdom of magnetic mirrors was that they would never work as a fusion concept for a number of reasons. This conventional wisdom is most probably all wrong or not applicable, especially for applications such as low Q (DT Neutron Source) aimed at materials testing or for a Q {approx} 3-5 fusion neutron source applied to destroying actinides in fission waste and breeding of fissile fuel.

  13. “The Marshall Rosenbluth International Summer School – 2007: Plasma Thermonuclear Fusion and Plasma Astrophysics – 2007”

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan, Vladislav Alexander

    2007-10-01

    Contents: H. Berk: Frequency Sweeping Due to Phase Space Structure Formation in Plasmas M. Campbell : The Legacy of Marshall Rosenbluth in the Development of the Laser Fusion Program in the United States J. Candy: Gyrokinetic Simulations of Fusion Plasmas P. Diamond: The Legacy of Marshall Rosenbluth in Magnetic Confinement Theory G-Y. Fu: Nonlinear Hybrid Simulations of Multiple Energetic Particle Driven Alfven Modes in Toroidal Plasmas O. Gurcan: Theory of Intrinsic Rotation and Momentum Transport V. L. Jacobs: Kinetic and Spectral Descriptions for Atomic Processes in Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas C. F. Kennel: Marshall Rosenbluth and Roald Sagdeev in Trieste:The Birth of Modern Space Plasma N. A. Krall: The Contribution of Marshall Rosenbluth in the Development of Plasma Drift Wave and Universal Instability Theories C. S. Liu: The Legacy of Marshall Rosenbluth in Laser-Plasma Interaction Research N. Rostoker: Plasma Physics Research With Marshall Rosenbluth - My Teacher R. Z. Sagdeev: The Legacy of Marshall Rosenbluth in Plasma Physics V. Alexander Stefan A Note on the Rosenbluth Paper: Phys. Rev. Letters, 29, 565 (1972), and the Research in Parametric Plasma Theory Thereupon J. W. Van Dam: The Role of Marshall Rosenbluth in the Development of the Thermonuclear Fusion Program in the U.S.A. E. P. Velikhov: Problems in Plasma Astrophysics R. White: The Role of Marshall Rosenbluth in the Development of the Particle and MHD Interaction in Plasmas X. Xu: Edge Gyrokinetic Theory and Continuum Simulations Marshall Nicholas ROSENBLUTH (A Brief Biography) b. February 5,1927 - Albany, New York. d. September 28, 2003 - San Diego, California. M. N. Rosenbluth, a world-acclaimed scientist, is one of the ultimate authorities in plasma and thermonuclear fusion research, often indicated by the sobriquet the "Pope of Plasma Physics." His theoretical contributions have been central to the development of controlled thermonuclear fusion. In the 1950s his pioneering work in

  14. Chemical Depth Profiling from Neutron Reflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    Tuncay Aktosun

    2006-03-21

    The material profile of a thin film can be analyzed by placing the film on a substrate and by sending a neutron beam onto it at various angles of incidence. Technically, the scattering length density of the film needs to be determined as a function of depth. A reflectometer is used to measure the amount of reflection (reflectivity) as a function of the angle of incidence. Mathematically, this is equivalent to sending the neutron beam onto the film at every energy but at a fixed angle of incidence. The film profile needs to be recovered from the measured reflectivity data. Unfortunately, the unique recovery is impossible, and many distinct unrelated profiles may correspond to the same reflectivity data. In our DOE/EPSCoR sponsored research, we have developed an analytical method to uniquely recover the profile of a thin film from the measured reflectivity data. We have shown that by taking reflectivity measurements with two different substrates, one can uniquely determine the film profile. Previously, it was known that one could uniquely recover the profile by taking reflectivity measurements with three different substrates, and our findings indicate that the same goal can be accomplished by using fewer measurements. At Mississippi State University we started an informal weekly seminar (called ''the reflectometry meeting'') at to attract various undergraduate and graduate students into the field. There were about 3 undergraduate students, 6 graduate students, and 2 faculty members attending these seminars. The PI has collaborated with Dr. Norm Berk at National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) on various aspects of neutron reflectometry, from which various interesting problems of theoretical and practical importance have arisen. One of these problems is closely related to the important mathematical problem known as analytic extrapolation. Under appropriate conditions (known to hold in neutron reflectometry), the reflection data taken in a finite interval

  15. GALEX observations of quasar variability in the ultraviolet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh, B. Y.; Wheatley, J. M.; Neil, J. D.

    2011-03-01

    Aims: Using archival observations recorded over a 5+ year timeframe with the NASA GALaxy Evolution eXplorer (GALEX) satellite, we present a study of the ultraviolet (UV) variability of 4360 quasars of redshifts up to z = 2.5 that have optical counterparts in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR5 spectroscopic catalog of Schneider et al. (2007, AJ, 134, 102). The observed changes in both the far UV (FUV: 1350-1785 Å) and near UV (NUV: 1770-2830 Å) AB magnitudes as a function of time may help differentiate between models of the emission mechanisms thought to operate in these active galaxies. Methods: A list of NUV and FUV variable quasars was derived from the UV light-curves of sources with 5 or more observational visits by GALEX that spanned a time-frame > 3 months. By measuring the error in the derived mean UV magnitude from the series of GALEX observations for each source, quasars whose UV variability was greater than the 3-σ variance from the mean observed value were deemed to be (intrinsically) UV variable. This conservative selection criterion (which was applied to both FUV and NUV observations) resulted in identifying 550 NUV and 371 FUV quasars as being statistically significant UV variable objects. Results: Following the work of Vanden Berk et al. (2004, ApJ, 601, 692), we have performed a structure function (SF) analysis of these data to search for possible correlations between UV variability and parameters such as rest frame time-lag, redshift, luminosity and radio loudness. Firstly, we observe that the amplitudes of variability as a function of time-lag for both the NUV and FUV data are far larger than those observed at visible wavelengths. Secondly, the levels of FUV variability are greater than those observed in the NUV for a given value of time-lag. Also, the amplitudes of both the NUV and FUV variability of quasars increase as a function of rest frame time-lag, irrespective of the value of quasar redshift, for time-lags <200 days. For time-lags >300

  16. Perception and response to gravity in higher fungi--a critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Moore, D

    1991-01-01

    hymenophore (gill, tube or tooth) is positively gravitropic and responds independently of the stem. Bracket polypores do not show tropisms but exhibit gravimorphogenetic responses such that gross disturbance leads to renewal of growth to produce and entirely new fruiting structure suitably reoriented to the new spatial position. One experiment performed on an orbiting space station suggests that, in the absence of a light stimulus, gravity may be required for initiation of fruiting in Polyporus brumalis. Otherwise, the indications from both clinostat and space-borne experiments are that the basic form of the mushroom (overall tissue arrangement of stem, cap, gills, hymenium, veil) in agaric and polypore alike is established independently of the gravity vector. Abnormal stem growth has been observed in clinostat cultures of Panus (= Lentinus) tigrinus and Polyporus brumalis, but the morphogenetic event which seems most dependent on gravity is sporulation (in the broadest sense). Cultures of P. brumalis on orbiting space craft fail to produce the poroid hymenophore and in clinostat experiments on the ground even karyogamy was rare in similar cultures. Coprinus cinereus grown on the clinostat was able to produce apparently normal fruit body primordia which failed to produce spores and then aborted, forming a new flush of primordia on the old. Taken together with the clear association between observation of gravitropism and the onset of sporulation, the implication is that commitment to the meiosis-sporulation pathway both requires the gravity vector and couples it in some way to fruit-body growth. There is no convincing evidence for a graviperception mechanism in fungi. There is no evidence for any organised means of communicating the gravitropic stimulus once it has been perceived. Reports of three different experimental studies reveal the authors' conviction that the apparently coordinated expression of gravitropic response is in truth a common, but independent, response by

  17. EDITORIAL: Special issue containing papers presented at the 11th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems Special issue containing papers presented at the 11th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnichenko, Ya.

    2010-08-01

    subsequent meetings (Aspenäs (1991), Trieste (1993), Princeton (1995), and JET/Abingdon (1997)) were entitled `Alpha Particles in Fusion Research'. During the JET/Abingdon meeting in 1997 it was decided to extend the topic by including other suprathermal particles, in particular accelerated electrons, and rename the meetings accordingly. The subsequent meetings with the current name `Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems' were held in Naka (1999), Gothenburg (2001), San Diego (2003), Takayama (2005) and Kloster Seeon (2007). The most recent meeting in this series was held in Kyiv, Ukraine, in September 2009. This was an anniversary meeting, 20 years after the first meeting. Like the first meeting, it was hosted by the Institute for Nuclear Research, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. It was attended by about 80 researchers from 18 countries, ITER, and EC. The program of the meeting consisted of 78 presentations, including 12 invited talks, 16 oral contributed talks, and 50 posters, which were selected by the International Advisory Committee (IAC). The IAC consisted of 11 people representing EC (L.-G. Eriksson), Germany (S. Günter), Italy (F. Zonca), Japan (K. Shinohara and K. Toi), Switzerland (A. Fasoli), UK (S. Sharapov), Ukraine (Ya. Kolesnichenko—IAC Chair), USA (H. Berk, W. Heidbrink, and R. Nazikian). The meeting program covered a wide range of physics issues concerning energetic ions in toroidal fusion facilities—tokamaks, stellarators, and spherical tori. Many new interesting and practically important results of both experimental and theoretical studies were reported. The research presented covered topics such as instabilities driven by energetic ions, transport of energetic ions caused by plasma microturbulence and destabilized eigenmodes, non-linear phenomena induced by the instabilities, classical transport processes, effects of runaway electrons, diagnostics of energetic ions and plasmas, and aspects of ITER physics. In addition to these

  18. Constraints on Ureilite Petrogenesis and Carbon-Metal-Silicate Equilibria on the UPB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodrich, C. A.; Holloway, J. R.

    1992-07-01

    of immiscible, hypereutectic Fe(Ni)-C liquids that were trapped by crystallizing silicates. In contrast, the interstitial metal and graphite show no evidence of having been a liquid Fe-C alloy and their confinement to grain boundaries and reduction rims is consistent with late addition. Goodrich and Berkley (2) argued that the spherules were carbon-saturated at 1200-1225 degrees C and therefore that the silicate liquid must have contained graphite. However, in the Fe-C system the stable graphite liquidus is much steeper than the metastable cohenite liquidus, and although these alloys were cohenite-saturated, they were not graphite-saturated. Hence, the silicate magma probably did not contain graphite and carbon was not the dominant control on fO(sub)2. Thus, it may be possible to reconcile the main constraints on ureilite petrogenesis without high pressures. [1] R.N. Clayton & T.K. Mayeda (1988] GCA 52, 1313. [2] C.A. Goodrich & J.L. Berkely (1986) GCA 50, 681.

  19. Special section containing papers presented at the 13th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems (Beijing, China, 17-20 September 2013) Special section containing papers presented at the 13th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems (Beijing, China, 17-20 September 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Z.

    2014-10-01

    In magnetic fusion plasmas, a significant fraction of the kinetic pressure is contributed by superthermal charged particles produced by auxiliary heating (fast ions and electrons) and fusion reactions (a-particles). Since these energetic particles are often far away from thermal equilibrium due to their non-Maxwellian distribution and steep pressure gradients, the free energy can excite electromagnetic instabilities to intensity levels well above the thermal fluctuations. The resultant electromagnetic turbulence could induce large transport of energetic particles, which could reduce heating efficiency, degrade overall plasma confinement, and damage fusion devices. Therefore, understanding and predicting energetic particle confinement properties are critical to the success of burning plasma experiments such as ITER since the ignition relies on plasma self-heating by a-particles. To promote international exchanges and collaborations on energetic particle physics, the biannual conference series under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) were help in Kyiv (1989), Aspenas (1991), Trieste (1993), Princeton (1995), JET/Abingdon (1997), Naka (1999), Gothenburg (2001), San Diego (2003), Takayama (2005), Kloster Seeon (2007), Kyiv (2009), and Austin (2011). The papers in this special section were presented at the most recent meeting, the 13th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems, which was hosted by the Fusion Simulation Center, Peking University, Beijing, China (17-20 September 2013). The program of the meeting consisted of 71 presentations, including 13 invited talks, 26 oral contributed talks, 30 posters, and 2 summary talks, which were selected by the International Advisory Committee (IAC). The IAC members include H. Berk, L.G. Eriksson, A. Fasoli, W. Heidbrink, Ya. Kolesnichenko, Ph. Lauber, Z. Lin, R. Nazikian, S. Pinches, S. Sharapov, K. Shinohara, K. Toi, G. Vlad, and X.T. Ding. The conference program

  20. EDITORIAL: The Nuclear Fusion Award The Nuclear Fusion Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Nuclear Fusion Award ceremony for 2009 and 2010 award winners was held during the 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Daejeon. This time, both 2009 and 2010 award winners were celebrated by the IAEA and the participants of the 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. The Nuclear Fusion Award is a paper prize to acknowledge the best distinguished paper among the published papers in a particular volume of the Nuclear Fusion journal. Among the top-cited and highly-recommended papers chosen by the Editorial Board, excluding overview and review papers, and by analyzing self-citation and non-self-citation with an emphasis on non-self-citation, the Editorial Board confidentially selects ten distinguished papers as nominees for the Nuclear Fusion Award. Certificates are given to the leading authors of the Nuclear Fusion Award nominees. The final winner is selected among the ten nominees by the Nuclear Fusion Editorial Board voting confidentially. 2009 Nuclear Fusion Award nominees For the 2009 award, the papers published in the 2006 volume were assessed and the following papers were nominated, most of which are magnetic confinement experiments, theory and modeling, while one addresses inertial confinement. Sabbagh S.A. et al 2006 Resistive wall stabilized operation in rotating high beta NSTX plasmas Nucl. Fusion 46 635-44 La Haye R.J. et al 2006 Cross-machine benchmarking for ITER of neoclassical tearing mode stabilization by electron cyclotron current drive Nucl. Fusion 46 451-61 Honrubia J.J. et al 2006 Three-dimensional fast electron transport for ignition-scale inertial fusion capsules Nucl. Fusion 46 L25-8 Ido T. et al 2006 Observation of the interaction between the geodesic acoustic mode and ambient fluctuation in the JFT-2M tokamak Nucl. Fusion 46 512-20 Plyusnin V.V. et al 2006 Study of runaway electron generation during major disruptions in JET Nucl. Fusion 46 277-84 Pitts R.A. et al 2006 Far SOL ELM ion energies in JET Nucl. Fusion 46 82-98 Berk H.L. et al 2006

  1. Pesticides in ground water in selected agricultural land-use areas and hydrogeologic settings in Pennsylvania, 2003-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loper, Connie A.; Breen, Kevin J.; Zimmerman, Tammy M.; Clune, John W.

    2009-01-01

    absence of bacteria only for the 10 wells representing the Blue Ridge crystalline and Triassic Lowland siliciclastic setting. Results of Spearman’s rank test showed strong positive correlations in the Devonian-Silurian carbonate setting between 1) the number of pesticides above the MRLs and nitrate concentration, and 2) concentrations of atrazine and nitrate. Atrazine concentration and nitrate concentration also showed a statistically significant positive correlation in the Great Valley siliciclastic setting. An additional component of baseline monitoring was to evaluate changes in pesticide concentration in water from wells representing hydrogeologic settings most vulnerable to contamination from pesticides. In 2003, 16 wells originally sampled in the 1990s were resampled—4 each in the Appalachian Mountain carbonate, Triassic Lowland siliciclastic, Great Valley carbonate, and Piedmont carbonate settings. Nine of these wells, where pesticide concentrations from 1993 and 2003 were analyzed at the NWQL, were chosen for a paired-sample analysis using concentrations of atrazine and metolachlor. A statistically significant decrease in atrazine concentration was identified using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test (p = 0.004); significant temporal changes in metolachlor concentrations were not observed (p = 0.625). Monitoring in three areas of special ground-water protection, where selected pesticide concentrations in well water were at or above the PPGWS action levels, was done at wells BE 1370 (Berks County, Oley Township), BA 437 (Blair County, North Woodbury Township), and LN 1842 (Lancaster County, Earl Township). Co-occurrence of pesticide-degradation products with parent compounds was documented for the first time in ground-water samples collected from these three wells. Degradation products of atrazine, cyanazine, acetochlor, alachlor, and metolachlor were commonly at larger concentrations than the parent compound in the same water sample. Pesticide occurrence in water