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1

"Essentially Christian, eminently philanthropic": the Mission to Lepers in British India.  

PubMed

The early history of the Mission to Lepers in India is an interplay between politics, religion, and medicine in the context of British imperialism. The Mission pursued the dual but inseparable goals of evangelization and civilization, advancing not only a religious program but also a political and cultural one. These activities and their consequences were multi-faceted because while the missionaries pursued their religious calling, they also provided medical care to people and in places that the colonial government was unable or unwilling. Within the context of the British imperial program, the work imparted Western social and cultural ideals on the colonial populations they served, inculcated patients with Christian beliefs, and provided medical care to individuals who had been expelled from their own communities. Physical healing was intimately tied to religious salvation, spiritual healing, and the civilizing process. PMID:14650416

Joseph, D George

2003-01-01

2

LEPER: Library of Experimental PhasE Relations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Library of Experimental PhasE Relations (LEPER) seeks to compile published experimental determinations of magmatic phase equilibria and provide those data on the web with a searchable and downloadable interface. Compiled experimental data include the conditions and durations of experiments, the bulk compositions of experimental charges, and the identity, compositions and proportions of phases observed, and, where available, estimates of experimental and analytical uncertainties. Also included are metadata such as the type of experimental device, capsule material, and method(s) of quantitative analysis. The database may be of use to practicing experimentalists as well as the wider Earth science community. Experimentalists may find the data useful for planning new experiments and will easily be able to compare their results to the full body of previous experimentnal data. Geologists may use LEPER to compare rocks sampled in the field with experiments performed on similar bulk composition or with experiments that produced similar-composition product phases. Modelers may use LEPER to parameterize partial melting of various lithologies. One motivation for compiling LEPER is for calibration of updated and revised versions of MELTS, however, it is hoped that the availability of LEPER will facilitate formulation and calibration of additional thermodynamic or empirical models of magmatic phase relations and phase equilibria, geothermometers and more. Data entry for LEPER is occuring presently: As of August, 2006, >6200 experiments have been entered, chiefly from work published between 1997 and 2005. A prototype web interface has been written and beta release on the web is anticipated in Fall, 2006. Eventually, experimentalists will be able to submit their new experimental data to the database via the web. At present, the database contains only data pertaining to the phase equilibria of silicate melts, but extension to other experimental data involving other fluids or sub-solidus phase equilibria may be contemplated. Also, the data are at present limited to natural or near-natural systems, but in the future, extension to synthetic (i.e., CMAS, etc.) systems is also possible. Each would depend in part on whether there is community demand for such databases. A trace element adjunct to LEPER is presently in planning stages.

Davis, F.; Gordon, S.; Mukherjee, S.; Hirschmann, M.; Ghiorso, M.

2006-12-01

3

Yeast Colony Embedding Method  

PubMed Central

Patterning of different cell types in embryos is a key mechanism in metazoan development. Communities of microorganisms, such as colonies and biofilms also display patterns of cell types. For example, in the yeast S. cerevisiae, sporulated cells and pseudohyphal cells are not uniformly distributed in colonies. The functional importance of patterning and the molecular mechanisms that underlie these patterns are still poorly understood. One challenge with respect to investigating patterns of cell types in fungal colonies is that unlike metazoan tissue, cells in colonies are relatively weakly attached to one another. In particular, fungal colonies do not contain the same extensive level of extracellular matrix found in most tissues . Here we report on a method for embedding and sectioning yeast colonies that reveals the interior patterns of cell types in these colonies. The method can be used to prepare thick sections (0.5 ?) useful for light microscopy and thin sections (0.1 ?) suitable for transmission electron microscopy. Asci and pseudohyphal cells can easily be distinguished from ovoid yeast cells by light microscopy , while the interior structure of these cells can be visualized by EM. The method is based on surrounding colonies with agar, infiltrating them with Spurr's medium, and then sectioning. Colonies with a diameter in the range of 1-2 mm are suitable for this protocol. In addition to visualizing the interior of colonies, the method allows visualization of the region of the colony that invades the underlying agar. PMID:21445054

Piccirillo, Sarah; Honigberg, Saul M.

2011-01-01

4

Murre Colony, Inset Detail  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This inset of the associated murre colony photo shows evidence of nesting and chick-feeding in a California common murre colony on Prince Island off San Miguel Island off Southern California. Ecologists Josh Adams and Jonathan Felis of the USGS Western Ecological Research Center shot this and other ...

5

Social Studies; Colonial America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in grades seven through nine will examine and analyze the political organization, social structure, economic life, and values of the American Colonial period in this quinmester arranged American Studies course. Since the thirteen English Colonies effected the United States development, many of our nations foundations in government,…

Hanson, Paul S.

6

My Moon Colony  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the futuristic concept of the moon as a place people can inhabit. They brainstorm what people would need to live on the moon and then design a fantastic Moon colony and decide how to power it. Student use the engineering design process, which includes researching various types of energy sources and evaluating which would be best for their moon colonies.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

7

Growth of Bacterial Colonies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On hard agar gel, there is insufficient surface hydration for bacteria to swim or swarm. Instead, growth occurs in colonies of close-packed cells, which expand purely due to repulsive interactions: individual bacteria push each other out of the way through the force of their growth. In this way, bacterial colonies represent a new type of ``active'' granular matter. In this study, we investigate the physical, biochemical, and genetic elements that determine the static and dynamic aspects of this mode of bacterial growth for E. coli. We characterize the process of colony expansion empirically, and use discrete and continuum models to examine the extent to which our observations can be explained by the growth characteristics of non-communicating cells, coupled together by physical forces, nutrients, and waste products. Our results challenge the commonly accepted modes of bacterial colony growth and provide insight into sources of growth limitation in crowded bacterial communities.

Warren, Mya; Hwa, Terence

2013-03-01

8

Explore Colonial Boston  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Explore the town of Boston and its natural and human-made features in colonial times in this interactive activity produced by WGBH and featuring materials from the Norman B. Leventhal Map Center at the Boston Public Library.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2012-06-30

9

Ant Colony Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT IN THIS PAPER, WE STUDY THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE TWO TECHNIQUES KNOWN AS ANT COLONY OPTIMIZATION (ACO) AND STOCHASTIC GRADIENT DESCENT. MORE PRECISELY, WE SHOW THAT SOME EMPIRICAL ACO ALGORITHMS APPROXIMATE STOCHASTIC GRADIENT DESCENT IN THE SPACE OF PHEROMONES, AND WE PROPOSE AN IMPLEMENTATION OF STOCHASTIC GRADIENT DESCENT THAT BELONGS TO THE FAM-ILY OF ACO ALGORITHMS. WE THEN USE

Marco Dorigo; Mauro Birattari

2010-01-01

10

Ant Colony Optimization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ant Colony Optimization project uses the behavior of ants as a model to solve optimization problems, such as how to minimize Internet traffic congestion. Several downloadable research papers are included on the project's homepage, as well as links to news stories, radio broadcasts, and conference proceedings about ant algorithms.

Dorigo, Marco

2008-01-04

11

Colonial American Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While a foundation of German scientific methods enabled the rapid growth of North American Astronomy in the nineteenth century, during the seventeenth and most of the eighteenth centuries, the colonial men of science looked only to the English mother country for scientific patronage and guidance. An essay on fundamental astronomy appeared in one of the annual colonial almanacs as early as 1656, telescopic observations were made about 1660 and the first original colonial astronomical work was published by Thomas Danforth on the comet of 1664. By 1671 the Copernican ideas were so espoused at Harvard College that a physics class refused to read a Ptolemaic textbook when it was assigned to them by a senior instructor. At least in the Cambridge-Boston area, contemporary colonialist had access to the most recent scientific publications from the mother country. Observations of the great comet of 1680 by the Almanac maker, John Foster, reached Isaac Newton and were used and gratefully acknowledged in his Principia. During the seventeenth century the colonial interest in astronomy was more intense than it was for other sciences but colonists still occupied a position in the scientific backwater when compared with contemporary European scientists. Nevertheless, the science of astronomy was successfully transplanted from England to North America in the seventeenth century.

Yeomans, Donald K.

2007-12-01

12

Images of Colonialism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The history of colonialism is a compelling one, and it can be narrated through first-hand documents such as journals, drawings, or photographs. This particular digital collection from the Harvard College Library contains more than 700 images which offer insight into European perspectives on how popular perceptions of Asia and Africa were created and disseminated. The collection is primarily made up of late-19th and early-20th century trade cards and illustrated European newspapers. Visitors can use the collection to draw contrasts between colonial powers, such as the French, the British and the Dutch. First-time visitors will want to dive right into the collection, and the image viewer offered here allows visitors to zoom in for a closer look. While all of the items here are quite worthy, users shouldn't miss the cards created for the Liebig's Extract of Meat Company or the views of Bangkok.

13

Growing yeast into cylindrical colonies.  

PubMed

Microorganisms often form complex multicellular assemblies such as biofilms and colonies. Understanding the interplay between assembly expansion, metabolic yield, and nutrient diffusion within a freely growing colony remains a challenge. Most available data on microorganisms are from planktonic cultures, due to the lack of experimental tools to control the growth of multicellular assemblies. Here, we propose a method to constrain the growth of yeast colonies into simple geometric shapes such as cylinders. To this end, we designed a simple, versatile culture system to control the location of nutrient delivery below a growing colony. Under such culture conditions, yeast colonies grow vertically and only at the locations where nutrients are delivered. Colonies increase in height at a steady growth rate that is inversely proportional to the cylinder radius. We show that the vertical growth rate of cylindrical colonies is not defined by the single-cell division rate, but rather by the colony metabolic yield. This contrasts with cells in liquid culture, in which the single-cell division rate is the only parameter that defines the population growth rate. This method also provides a direct, simple method to estimate the metabolic yield of a colony. Our study further demonstrates the importance of the shape of colonies on setting their expansion. We anticipate that our approach will be a starting point for elaborate studies of the population dynamics, evolution, and ecology of microbial colonies in complex landscapes. PMID:24853750

Vulin, Clément; Di Meglio, Jean-Marc; Lindner, Ariel B; Daerr, Adrian; Murray, Andrew; Hersen, Pascal

2014-05-20

14

Colony image acquisition and genetic segmentation algorithm and colony analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colony anaysis is used in a large number of engineerings such as food, dairy, beverages, hygiene, environmental monitoring, water, toxicology, sterility testing. In order to reduce laboring and increase analysis acuracy, many researchers and developers have made efforts for image analysis systems. The main problems in the systems are image acquisition, image segmentation and image analysis. In this paper, to acquire colony images with good quality, an illumination box was constructed. In the box, the distances between lights and dishe, camra lens and lights, and camera lens and dishe are adjusted optimally. In image segmentation, It is based on a genetic approach that allow one to consider the segmentation problem as a global optimization,. After image pre-processing and image segmentation, the colony analyses are perfomed. The colony image analysis consists of (1) basic colony parameter measurements; (2) colony size analysis; (3) colony shape analysis; and (4) colony surface measurements. All the above visual colony parameters can be selected and combined together, used to make a new engineeing parameters. The colony analysis can be applied into different applications.

Wang, W. X.

2012-01-01

15

Fever in honeybee colonies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Honeybees, Apis spp., maintain elevated temperatures inside their nests to accelerate brood development and to facilitate defense against predators. We present an additional defensive function of elevating nest temperature: honeybees generate a brood-comb fever in response to colonial infection by the heat-sensitive pathogen Ascosphaera apis. This response occurs before larvae are killed, suggesting that either honeybee workers detect the infection before symptoms are visible, or that larvae communicate the ingestion of the pathogen. This response is a striking example of convergent evolution between this "superorganism" and other fever-producing animals.

Starks, P. T.; Blackie, Caroline A.; Seeley, Thomas D.

16

The Colony of Jamestown  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn who came over to Jamestown and why they came in the first place! First watch a video about why people came to the Americas: A video that explains why people came to the Americas in the first place Then once they got there, lets find out who was in Jamestown (click on Jamestown on the left hand side): Early American colonization Make sure you read up about the history of Jamestown: History of Jamestown and if thats confusion for you, here's another video: Video about the colony of Jamestown Once ...

Ms. Shaul

2009-06-10

17

[Psychiatry in colonial Mexico].  

PubMed

This article describes the knowledges, descriptions and treatments of the mental illnesses by the physicians of the Colonial Mexico (XVI to XIX Centuries). In the first part we can appreciate the spanish ascendancy in the XVI century; in the second one the influence in our country of the Malleus Maleficarum and in the third one the renovation of the Mexican medicine who tries to be part of the universal movement, although in this case, the universe is practically France in the XVIII century and the beginning of the XIX. PMID:7484189

Calderón Narváez, G

1994-12-01

18

Colony image acquisition and segmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For counting of both colonies and plaques, there is a large number of applications including food, dairy, beverages, hygiene, environmental monitoring, water, toxicology, sterility testing, AMES testing, pharmaceuticals, paints, sterile fluids and fungal contamination. Recently, many researchers and developers have made efforts for this kind of systems. By investigation, some existing systems have some problems. The main problems are image acquisition and image segmentation. In order to acquire colony images with good quality, an illumination box was constructed as: the box includes front lightning and back lightning, which can be selected by users based on properties of colony dishes. With the illumination box, lightning can be uniform; colony dish can be put in the same place every time, which make image processing easy. The developed colony image segmentation algorithm consists of the sub-algorithms: (1) image classification; (2) image processing; and (3) colony delineation. The colony delineation algorithm main contain: the procedures based on grey level similarity, on boundary tracing, on shape information and colony excluding. In addition, a number of algorithms are developed for colony analysis. The system has been tested and satisfactory.

Wang, W. X.

2007-12-01

19

Post-Colonial Theory and Action Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay explores connections between post-colonial theory and action research. Post-colonial theory is committed to addressing the plague of colonialism. Action research, at its core, promises to problematize uncontested "colonial" hegemonies of any form. Both post-colonial theory and action research engage dialogic, critically reflective and…

Parsons, Jim B.; Harding, Kelly J.

2011-01-01

20

Ant Colony Optimization From Scholarpedia  

E-print Network

Ant Colony Optimization From Scholarpedia From Scholarpedia, the free peer-reviewed encyclopedia p.18620 Curator: Marco Dorigo, IRIDIA, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium Ant colony to difficult optimization problems. In ACO, a set of software agents called artificial ants search for good

Libre de Bruxelles, Université

21

Colony Variation in Staphylococcus lugdunensis  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus lugdunensis is being increasingly reported as a pathogen with an outcome resembling that of S. aureus rather than coagulase-negative staphylococci. Recent local isolates exhibited colonial variation that delayed identification and interpretation of clinical significance. Until now previous descriptions have not emphasized colonial variation as an important identifying characteristic of S. lugdunensis. PMID:9738081

Leung, Michael J.; Nuttall, Nichalas; Pryce, Todd M.; Coombs, Geoffrey W.; Pearman, John W.

1998-01-01

22

Colony collapse disorder in Europe.  

PubMed

Colony collapse disorder (CCD) is a condition of honey bees, which has contributed in part to the recent major losses of honey bee colonies in the USA. Here we report the first CCD case from outside of the USA. We suggest that more standardization is needed for the case definition to diagnose CCD and to compare data on a global scale. PMID:23757238

Dainat, Benjamin; Vanengelsdorp, Dennis; Neumann, Peter

2012-02-01

23

Student Discipline in Colonial America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The basis for the severe discipline imposed on school children in colonial America, especially in the Puritan colonies, was the belief in original sin. The child was regarded as being born in sin and thus depraved and prone to sin. The purpose of education was to enable children to read the Bible and thus change the behavior which otherwise would…

Petry, John R.

24

The Colonial Echo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The College of William & Mary is one of the oldest institutions of higher learning in the United States, and they have a rich history interwoven with the history of the U.S. and the state of Virginia. Recently, they have begun adding a wide range of institutional documents to their digital archive. This section of the site features The Colonial Echo, which has served as the student yearbook of the College since 1899. The yearbook includes information about student groups and activities, campus events, scenes of campus, and materials on university administrators. The digitization project was made possible via funds from Professor Emeriti Richard Sherman and Armand Galfo. These unique documents capture moments of college frivolity, seriousness of purpose, and gravitas.

2012-01-13

25

Genetic diversity affects colony survivorship in commercial honey bee colonies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Honey bee ( Apis mellifera) queens mate with unusually high numbers of males (average of approximately 12 drones), although there is much variation among queens. One main consequence of such extreme polyandry is an increased diversity of worker genotypes within a colony, which has been shown empirically to confer significant adaptive advantages that result in higher colony productivity and survival. Moreover, honey bees are the primary insect pollinators used in modern commercial production agriculture, and their populations have been in decline worldwide. Here, we compare the mating frequencies of queens, and therefore, intracolony genetic diversity, in three commercial beekeeping operations to determine how they correlate with various measures of colony health and productivity, particularly the likelihood of queen supersedure and colony survival in functional, intensively managed beehives. We found the average effective paternity frequency ( m e ) of this population of honey bee queens to be 13.6 ± 6.76, which was not significantly different between colonies that superseded their queen and those that did not. However, colonies that were less genetically diverse (headed by queens with m e ? 7.0) were 2.86 times more likely to die by the end of the study when compared to colonies that were more genetically diverse (headed by queens with m e > 7.0). The stark contrast in colony survival based on increased genetic diversity suggests that there are important tangible benefits of increased queen mating number in managed honey bees, although the exact mechanism(s) that govern these benefits have not been fully elucidated.

Tarpy, David R.; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Pettis, Jeffrey S.

2013-08-01

26

Genetic diversity affects colony survivorship in commercial honey bee colonies.  

PubMed

Honey bee (Apis mellifera) queens mate with unusually high numbers of males (average of approximately 12 drones), although there is much variation among queens. One main consequence of such extreme polyandry is an increased diversity of worker genotypes within a colony, which has been shown empirically to confer significant adaptive advantages that result in higher colony productivity and survival. Moreover, honey bees are the primary insect pollinators used in modern commercial production agriculture, and their populations have been in decline worldwide. Here, we compare the mating frequencies of queens, and therefore, intracolony genetic diversity, in three commercial beekeeping operations to determine how they correlate with various measures of colony health and productivity, particularly the likelihood of queen supersedure and colony survival in functional, intensively managed beehives. We found the average effective paternity frequency (m e ) of this population of honey bee queens to be 13.6?±?6.76, which was not significantly different between colonies that superseded their queen and those that did not. However, colonies that were less genetically diverse (headed by queens with m e ???7.0) were 2.86 times more likely to die by the end of the study when compared to colonies that were more genetically diverse (headed by queens with m e ?>?7.0). The stark contrast in colony survival based on increased genetic diversity suggests that there are important tangible benefits of increased queen mating number in managed honey bees, although the exact mechanism(s) that govern these benefits have not been fully elucidated. PMID:23728203

Tarpy, David R; Vanengelsdorp, Dennis; Pettis, Jeffrey S

2013-08-01

27

Classics of American Colonial History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Presented by Dinsmore Documentation, Classics of American Colonial History is a research database consisting of scholarly books and articles on American colonial history that, according to the creators, "appear to be of continuing interest." The collection currently offers 22 source materials by 15 different authors. Browseable by author or subject, the collection contains subject categories including Administration, African Americans and Slavery, Economics and Trade, Immigration from Europe, Law, Native Americans, Politics, Religion, and Wars.

28

Chronic sublethal stress causes bee colony failure.  

PubMed

Current bee population declines and colony failures are well documented yet poorly understood and no single factor has been identified as a leading cause. The evidence is equivocal and puzzling: for instance, many pathogens and parasites can be found in both failing and surviving colonies and field pesticide exposure is typically sublethal. Here, we investigate how these results can be due to sublethal stress impairing colony function. We mathematically modelled stress on individual bees which impairs colony function and found how positive density dependence can cause multiple dynamic outcomes: some colonies fail while others thrive. We then exposed bumblebee colonies to sublethal levels of a neonicotinoid pesticide. The dynamics of colony failure, which we observed, were most accurately described by our model. We argue that our model can explain the enigmatic aspects of bee colony failures, highlighting an important role for sublethal stress in colony declines. PMID:24112478

Bryden, John; Gill, Richard J; Mitton, Robert A A; Raine, Nigel E; Jansen, Vincent A A

2013-12-01

29

Chronic sublethal stress causes bee colony failure  

PubMed Central

Current bee population declines and colony failures are well documented yet poorly understood and no single factor has been identified as a leading cause. The evidence is equivocal and puzzling: for instance, many pathogens and parasites can be found in both failing and surviving colonies and field pesticide exposure is typically sublethal. Here, we investigate how these results can be due to sublethal stress impairing colony function. We mathematically modelled stress on individual bees which impairs colony function and found how positive density dependence can cause multiple dynamic outcomes: some colonies fail while others thrive. We then exposed bumblebee colonies to sublethal levels of a neonicotinoid pesticide. The dynamics of colony failure, which we observed, were most accurately described by our model. We argue that our model can explain the enigmatic aspects of bee colony failures, highlighting an important role for sublethal stress in colony declines. PMID:24112478

Bryden, John; Gill, Richard J; Mitton, Robert A A; Raine, Nigel E; Jansen, Vincent A A; Hodgson, David

2013-01-01

30

Genetic diversity affects colony survivorship in commercial honey bee colonies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Honey bee (Apis mellifera) queens mate with unusually high numbers of males (average of approximately 12 drones), although there is much variation among queens. One main consequence of such extreme polyandry is an increased diversity of worker genotypes within a colony, which has been shown empirica...

31

Murre Colony on Prince Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A breeding colony of California common murres (Uria aalge californica) on Prince Island off San Miguel Island off Southern California. Ecologists Josh Adams and Jonathan Felis of the USGS Western Ecological Research Center shot this and other high-resolution digital telephotos from a research vessel...

32

The Vine and Olive Colony.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the historical sources of "Some Plant Olive Trees," a utopian novel by Emma Gelders Sterne, which offers a fictional account of the Vine and Olive colony, one of the most colorful yet least known utopian communities of the nineteenth century. (AYC)

Albinski, Nan Bowman

1985-01-01

33

Ant Colony Optimization for Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The very basis of this thesis is the collective behavior of ants in colonies. Ants are an excellent example of how rather simple behavior on a local level can lead to complex behavior on a global level that is beneficial for the individuals. The key in the self-organization of ants is communication through pheromones. When an ant forages for food,

J. M. Van Ast

2010-01-01

34

Indigenous Perspectives on Colonial Encounters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay examines how and why two works of postcolonial literature (Master of the Ghost Dreaming by the Aboriginal Australian writer Narogin Mudrooroo and Indigo: Mapping the Waters by the British writer Marina Warner) and two films (Werner Herzog’s 1973 German classic Aguirre: The Wrath of God and the 1986 Australian Broadcasting Corporation film Babakiueria) invite readers to re-imagine colonial

Rebecca Weaver-Hightower

2006-01-01

35

Queen promiscuity lowers disease within honeybee colonies  

PubMed Central

Most species of social insects have singly mated queens, but in some species each queen mates with numerous males to create a colony with a genetically diverse worker force. The adaptive significance of polyandry by social insect queens remains an evolutionary puzzle. Using the honeybee (Apis mellifera), we tested the hypothesis that polyandry improves a colony's resistance to disease. We established colonies headed by queens that had been artificially inseminated by either one or 10 drones. Later, we inoculated these colonies with spores of Paenibacillus larvae, the bacterium that causes a highly virulent disease of honeybee larvae (American foulbrood). We found that, on average, colonies headed by multiple-drone inseminated queens had markedly lower disease intensity and higher colony strength at the end of the summer relative to colonies headed by single-drone inseminated queens. These findings support the hypothesis that polyandry by social insect queens is an adaptation to counter disease within their colonies. PMID:17015336

Seeley, Thomas D; Tarpy, David R

2006-01-01

36

"Unauthorised colonies" and the City of Delhi  

E-print Network

This research was undertaken, to understand the phenomenon of "unauthorised colonies" in relation to the city of Delhi, to which they belong. "Unauthorised Colonies" is the label given by the Delhi Development Authority ...

Mukherjee, Snehanshu

1988-01-01

37

Ant Colonies for the Traveling Salesman Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an artificial ant colony capable of solving the traveling salesman problem (TSP).Ants of the artificial colony are able to generate successively shorter feasible tours by usinginformation accumulated in the form of a pheromone trail deposited on the edges of the TSPgraph. Computer simulations demonstrate that the artificial ant colony is capable of generatinggood solutions to both symmetric and

Luca Maria Gambardella; Marco Dorigo

1997-01-01

38

Ant Colony Optimization for Constraint Satisfaction  

E-print Network

Ant Colony Optimization for Constraint Satisfaction Christine Solnon LIRIS, UMR 5205 CNRS / University of Lyon Tutorial at CP'2007 #12;Ant Colony Optimization Application to car sequencing Application to CSPs Conclusion Table of contents 1 Basic principles of Ant Colony Optimization 2 Application

Solnon, Christine

39

Ant colonies for the travelling salesman problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an artificial ant colony capable of solving the travelling salesman problem (TSP). Ants of the artificial colony are able to generate successively shorter feasible tours by using information accumulated in the form of a pheromone trail deposited on the edges of the TSP graph. Computer simulations demonstrate that the artificial ant colony is capable of generating good solutions

Marco Dorigo; Luca Maria Gambardella

1997-01-01

40

Colonialism in Asia: A Critical Look!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cartoons, text, questions, and activities encourage students to link the present with the past, to look at colonialism from the perspective of the colonized, and to see how the global economy perpetuates the trade structures begun during the colonial era. After exploring colonialism in the past, early contacts by Europeans with other cultures, the…

Gage, Susan

41

Ant Colonies for the QAP  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents HAS-QAP, an hybrid ant colony system coupled with a local search, applied to thequadratic assignment problem. HAS-QAP uses pheromone trail information to perform modifications onQAP solutions, differently from more traditional ant systems that use pheromone trail information toconstruct complete solutions. HAS-QAP is analysed and compared with some of the best heuristics availablefor the QAP: two taboo search

L. M. Gambardella; É. D. Taillard; M. Dorigo

1997-01-01

42

Conceptual design of a lunar colony  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A systems engineering study is presented for a proposed lunar colony. The lunar colony was to grow from an existent, 12-man, earth-dependent lunar surface base and was to utilize lunar resources, becoming as earth-independent as possible. An in-depth treatment of some of the aspects of the lunar colony was given. We have found that the use of lunar resources is feasible for oxygen production (both for breathing and for space tug fuel), food production, and building materials. A program is outlined for recycling waste materials developed at the colony as well as a full program for growth and research activity of the colony to a level of 180 colonists. Recommendations for the lunar colony are given.

Dalton, C. (editor); Hohmann, E. (editor)

1972-01-01

43

The MacDowell Colony Exhibition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Artist colonies have always fascinated the American public, and whether they have been informally organized or not, they seem to provide great opportunities for a variety of collaborations. One of the oldest of these colonies is the MacDowell Colony in Peterborough, New Hampshire. The colony was started in 1907 by the composer Edward MacDowell and his wife Marian, and over the past century it has been host to the likes of Willa Cather, Leonard Bernstein, Thorntown Wilder, and James Baldwin. This site was created in conjunction with an in situ exhibit at the Thomas Jefferson Building at the Library of Congress, and visitors to the site will be able to learn about the history of the colony through first-hand accounts, video clips featuring the curators of the exhibit, and objects that have been part of the colony's history. Some of these digitized objects include photographs, manuscripts, and musical scores.

44

Science, Technology and Institutional Co-operation in Africa: From Pre-Colonial to Colonial Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper covers two phases of the history of science, technology and institutional co-operation in Africa - pre-colonial and colonial. It is structured into three sections. Section one looks at pre-colonial science and technology (S&T) and points out that most discussions on the socio- economic analysis of S&T in Africa often neglect the pre-colonial phase, even though indigenous knowledge is

Frank K. Teng-Zeng

2006-01-01

45

Hegemony and Accommodation in the History Curriculum in Colonial Botswana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A reanalysis of colonial education is necessary in order to highlight its multifaceted and hybrid nature in specific colonial contexts. Although in general, colonial education served the socio-political needs of the colonial machinery, the colonial government's hegemonic authority over the school curriculum did not operate as a totalising…

Mafela, Lily

2014-01-01

46

Modelling and Analysis of Phase Variation in Bacterial Colony Growth  

E-print Network

Modelling and Analysis of Phase Variation in Bacterial Colony Growth Ovidiu P^arvu1 , David Gilbert case study, namely phase variation patterning in bacterial colony growth, forming circular colonies phase variation patterning in bacterial colony growth, forming circular colonies on a flat medium

Gilbert, David

47

Post-Colonial Recovering and Healing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notions of white supremacy, racism, sexism, and patriarchy constitute the power relationships and hierarchical structures of colonialism. Power is accessed when certain cultural forms are made to prevail over others, thus producing racialized and marginalized identities. The will to control what is different is the main tenet of colonialism.…

Weenie, Angelina

48

Colonialism, legitimation, and policing in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most existing historiographies of colonial and post-colonial policing in Ghana have focused nearly exclusively on providing a basic understanding of managerial issues—that is, organisational and administrative structure, functions and modes of operation. Our knowledge of issues of police legitimation, and of the ‘quality of policing’ remains very limited. This article discusses these issues and establishes the vital importance of history

Justice Tankebe

2008-01-01

49

Course in Determination of Colony Strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

How many bees do actually live in a hive ? Is the culmination number of a colony 30'000 or 60'000 bees? What is the number of bees in a strong colony at the beginning and at the end of wintering ? When does the rate of brood rearing reach the maximum? How many worker bees and drones are reared during

Anton Imdorf; Luzio Gerig

50

Colonial America: A Course of Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This illustrated unit of study can be incorporated into regular social studies courses in elementary classrooms. The unit focuses on life in the 13 original colonies from the settlement period to the Revolutionary War. Activities are provided to help students learn the names and locations of the colonies. A highlight of the unit is a study of the…

Bennett, Sondra; Stephens, Mark

51

Pathogen webs in collapsing honey bee colonies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recent losses in honey bee colonies are unusual in their severity, geographical distribution, and, in some cases, failure to present recognized symptoms of known disease. Domesticated honey bees face numerous pests and pathogens, tempting hypotheses that colony collapses arise from exposure to new o...

52

Colony Collapse Disorder: A descriptive studey  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Over the last two winters, there have been large-scale, unexplained losses of managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies in the United States. In the absence of a known cause, this syndrome was named Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) because the main trait was a rapid loss of adult worker bees. We ...

53

Predictive markers of honey bee colony collapse  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Managed honey bee colonies are currently affected by abrupt depopulation during winter and many factors are suspected to be involved, either alone or in combination. Pathogens are considered as principal actors, contributing to weaken colony health and leaving room for secondary infections. In parti...

54

Managing Varroa Mites in Honey Bee Colonies  

E-print Network

. While the male mite dies in the cell, the adult daughter mites climb onto an adult worker bee and feed Managing Varroa Mites in Honey Bee Colonies The varroa mite (Varroa destructor) is the most serious pest of honey bee colonies worldwide. This parasite was first detected in North Carolina in 1990

Tarpy, David R.

55

Colonial American Literature: A Guide to Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handout is a guide to library resources in the J. Murrey Atkins Library at the University of North Carolina-Charlotte for the study of colonial American literature. The guide is intended to help readers find sources of criticism on colonial and revolutionary literature. It explains important reference sources in the Atkins library reference…

Van Noate, Judith, Comp.

56

Predictive markers of honey bee colony collapse.  

PubMed

Across the Northern hemisphere, managed honey bee colonies, Apis mellifera, are currently affected by abrupt depopulation during winter and many factors are suspected to be involved, either alone or in combination. Parasites and pathogens are considered as principal actors, in particular the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, associated viruses and the microsporidian Nosema ceranae. Here we used long term monitoring of colonies and screening for eleven disease agents and genes involved in bee immunity and physiology to identify predictive markers of honeybee colony losses during winter. The data show that DWV, Nosema ceranae, Varroa destructor and Vitellogenin can be predictive markers for winter colony losses, but their predictive power strongly depends on the season. In particular, the data support that V. destructor is a key player for losses, arguably in line with its specific impact on the health of individual bees and colonies. PMID:22384162

Dainat, Benjamin; Evans, Jay D; Chen, Yan Ping; Gauthier, Laurent; Neumann, Peter

2012-01-01

57

Public health developments in colonial Malaya: colonialism and the politics of prevention.  

PubMed Central

In both African and Asian colonies until the late 19th century, colonial medicine operated pragmatically to meet the medical needs first of colonial officers and troops, immigrant settlers, and laborers responsible for economic development, then of indigenous populations when their ill health threatened the well-being of the expatriate population. Since the turn of the century, however, the consequences of colonial expansion and development for indigenous people's health had become increasingly apparent, and disease control and public health programs were expanded in this light. These programs increased government surveillance of populations at both community and household levels. As a consequence, colonial states extended institutional oversight and induced dependency through public health measures. Drawing on my own work on colonial Malaya, I illustrate developments in public health and their links to the moral logic of colonialism and its complementarity to the political economy. PMID:9987478

Manderson, L

1999-01-01

58

21 CFR 866.2180 - Manual colony counter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2180 Manual colony counter. (a) Identification. A manual colony...

2012-04-01

59

Automated counting of mammalian cell colonies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigating the effect of low-dose radiation exposure on cells using assays of colony-forming ability requires large cell samples to maintain statistical accuracy. Manually counting the resulting colonies is a laborious task in which consistent objectivity is hard to achieve. This is true especially with some mammalian cell lines which form poorly defined or `fuzzy' colonies, typified by glioma or fibroblast cell lines. A computer-vision-based automated colony counter is presented in this paper. It utilizes novel imaging and image-processing methods involving a modified form of the Hough transform. The automated counter is able to identify less-discrete cell colonies typical of these cell lines. The results of automated colony counting are compared with those from four manual (human) colony counts for the cell lines HT29, A172, U118 and IN1265. The results from the automated counts fall well within the distribution of the manual counts for all four cell lines with respect to surviving fraction (SF) versus dose curves, SF values at 2 Gy (SF2) and total area under the SF curve (Dbar). From the variation in the counts, it is shown that the automated counts are generally more consistent than the manual counts.

Barber, Paul R.; Vojnovic, Borivoj; Kelly, Jane; Mayes, Catherine R.; Boulton, Peter; Woodcock, Michael; Joiner, Michael C.

2001-01-01

60

Ant Colonies Shed Light on Metabolism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Press Release. Ants are usually regarded as the unwanted guests at a picnic. But a recent study of California seed harvester ants (Pogonomyrmex californicus) examining their metabolic rate in relation to colony size may lead to a better appreciation for the social, six-legged insects, whose colonies researchers say provide a theoretical framework for understanding cellular networks. Mr. Waters presented his paper, Scaling of Metabolism, Growth and Network Organization in Colonies of the Seed Harvester Ant, Pogonomyrmex californicus, at the American Physiological SocietyÂ?s Intersociety Meeting Global Science: Comparative Physiology in a Changing World. The program is located at http://the-aps.org/meetings/aps/comparative/preprogram.htm.

APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

2010-08-26

61

Underground Coal Gasification at Tennessee Colony  

E-print Network

The Tennessee Colony In Situ Coal Gasification Project conducted by Basic Resources Inc. is the most recent step in Texas Utilities Company's ongoing research into the utilization of Texas lignite. The project, an application of the Soviet...

Garrard, C. W.

1979-01-01

62

Rhetorics of Colonialism in Visual Documentation.  

E-print Network

??The original face-to-face encounter of American Indians in portraits and pictorial field studies reiterates the encounter between the colonial state, settlers and Indigenous communities. Mechanical… (more)

Paakspuu, Linda Kalli

2014-01-01

63

Identification of a Colonial Chordate Histocompatibility Gene  

PubMed Central

Histocompatibility is the basis by which multicellular organisms of the same species distinguish self from non-self. Relatively little is known about the mechanisms underlying histocompatibility reactions in lower organisms. Botryllus schlosseri is a colonial urochordate, a sister group of vertebrates, that exhibits a genetically determined natural transplantation reaction, whereby self-recognition between colonies leads to formation of parabionts with a common vasculature, whereas rejection occurs between incompatible colonies. Using genetically defined lines, whole-transcriptome sequencing, and genomics, we identified a single gene that encodes self/non-self and determines “graft” outcomes in this organism. This gene is significantly upregulated in colonies poised to undergo fusion or rejection, is highly expressed in the vasculature, and is functionally linked to histocompatibility outcomes. These findings establish a platform for advancing the science of allorecognition. PMID:23888037

Voskoboynik, Ayelet; Newman, Aaron M.; Corey, Daniel M.; Sahoo, Debashis; Pushkarev, Dmitry; Neff, Norma F.; Passarelli, Benedetto; Koh, Winston; Ishizuka, Katherine J.; Palmeri, Karla J.; Dimov, Ivan K.; Keasar, Chen; Fan, H. Christina; Mantalas, Gary L.; Sinha, Rahul; Penland, Lolita; Quake, Stephen R.; Weissman, Irving L.

2013-01-01

64

Application of continuous monitoring of honeybee colonies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Monitoring physical variables associated with honey bee colonies, including weight, temperature, humidity, respiratory gases, vibration, acoustics and forager traffic, in a continuous manner is becoming feasible for most researchers as the cost and size of electronic sensors and dataloggers decrease...

65

History: The Colonial Williamsburg Official History Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Colonial Williamsburg has been a popular destination for American history buffs for eight decades, and they continue to impress with their fine website dedicated to providing biographies, essays, and articles on "the everyday life of extraordinary Americans." Visitors can read biographies of people who inhabited colonial-era Williamsburg, listen to their fife and drums corps, and tour the town. One area that is definitely worth a look is the "Gardens" section of the site. Here visitors can learn about the landscape restoration work on the site, the history of the gardens, and read the gardener's blog. Further along, the "Clothing" area includes narrative descriptions of men's clothing, women's clothing, and African American clothing during colonial times. Also, visitors can dress a colonial person from head to toe in the interactive adventure, "Dressing the Part". The site is rounded out by a "Conferences, Forums, and Workshops" area that includes information about their scholarly activities and upcoming forums.

66

ColonyArea: An ImageJ Plugin to Automatically Quantify Colony Formation in Clonogenic Assays  

PubMed Central

The clonogenic or colony formation assay is a widely used method to study the number and size of cancer cell colonies that remain after irradiation or cytotoxic agent administration and serves as a measure for the anti-proliferative effect of these treatments. Alternatively, this assay is used to quantitate the transforming potential of cancer associated genes and chemical agents. Therefore, there is a need for a simplified and standardized analysis of colony formation assays for both routine laboratory use and for parallelized automated analysis. Here we describe the freely available ImageJ-plugin “ColonyArea”, which is optimized for rapid and quantitative analysis of focus formation assays conducted in 6- to 24-well dishes. ColonyArea processes image data of multi-well dishes, by separating, concentrically cropping and background correcting well images individually, before colony formation is quantitated. Instead of counting the number of colonies, ColonyArea determines the percentage of area covered by crystal violet stained cell colonies, also taking the intensity of the staining and therefore cell density into account. We demonstrate that these parameters alone or in combination allow for robust quantification of IC50 values of the cytotoxic effect of two staurosporines, UCN-01 and staurosporine (STS) on human glioblastoma cells (T98G). The relation between the potencies of the two compounds compared very well with that obtained from an absorbance based method to quantify colony growth and to published data. The ColonyArea ImageJ plugin provides a simple and efficient analysis routine to quantitate assay data of one of the most commonly used cellular assays. The bundle is freely available for download as supporting information. We expect that ColonyArea will be of broad utility for cancer biologists, as well as clinical radiation scientists. PMID:24647355

Kaur, Amanpreet; Westermarck, Jukka; Abankwa, Daniel

2014-01-01

67

Pathogen webs in collapsing honey bee colonies.  

PubMed

Recent losses in honey bee colonies are unusual in their severity, geographical distribution, and, in some cases, failure to present recognized characteristics of known disease. Domesticated honey bees face numerous pests and pathogens, tempting hypotheses that colony collapses arise from exposure to new or resurgent pathogens. Here we explore the incidence and abundance of currently known honey bee pathogens in colonies suffering from Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), otherwise weak colonies, and strong colonies from across the United States. Although pathogen identities differed between the eastern and western United States, there was a greater incidence and abundance of pathogens in CCD colonies. Pathogen loads were highly covariant in CCD but not control hives, suggesting that CCD colonies rapidly become susceptible to a diverse set of pathogens, or that co-infections can act synergistically to produce the rapid depletion of workers that characterizes the disorder. We also tested workers from a CCD-free apiary to confirm that significant positive correlations among pathogen loads can develop at the level of individual bees and not merely as a secondary effect of CCD. This observation and other recent data highlight pathogen interactions as important components of bee disease. Finally, we used deep RNA sequencing to further characterize microbial diversity in CCD and non-CCD hives. We identified novel strains of the recently described Lake Sinai viruses (LSV) and found evidence of a shift in gut bacterial composition that may be a biomarker of CCD. The results are discussed with respect to host-parasite interactions and other environmental stressors of honey bees. PMID:22927991

Cornman, R Scott; Tarpy, David R; Chen, Yanping; Jeffreys, Lacey; Lopez, Dawn; Pettis, Jeffery S; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Evans, Jay D

2012-01-01

68

Biomimicry: Further Insights from Ant Colonies?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomimicry means learning from nature. Well known examples include physical structures such as the Velcro fastener. But natural\\u000a selection has also “engineered” mechanisms by which the components of adaptive biological systems are organized. For example,\\u000a natural selection has caused the foragers in an ant colony to cooperate and communicate in order to increase the total foraging\\u000a success of the colony.

Francis L. W. Ratnieks

2007-01-01

69

Pathogen Webs in Collapsing Honey Bee Colonies  

PubMed Central

Recent losses in honey bee colonies are unusual in their severity, geographical distribution, and, in some cases, failure to present recognized characteristics of known disease. Domesticated honey bees face numerous pests and pathogens, tempting hypotheses that colony collapses arise from exposure to new or resurgent pathogens. Here we explore the incidence and abundance of currently known honey bee pathogens in colonies suffering from Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), otherwise weak colonies, and strong colonies from across the United States. Although pathogen identities differed between the eastern and western United States, there was a greater incidence and abundance of pathogens in CCD colonies. Pathogen loads were highly covariant in CCD but not control hives, suggesting that CCD colonies rapidly become susceptible to a diverse set of pathogens, or that co-infections can act synergistically to produce the rapid depletion of workers that characterizes the disorder. We also tested workers from a CCD-free apiary to confirm that significant positive correlations among pathogen loads can develop at the level of individual bees and not merely as a secondary effect of CCD. This observation and other recent data highlight pathogen interactions as important components of bee disease. Finally, we used deep RNA sequencing to further characterize microbial diversity in CCD and non-CCD hives. We identified novel strains of the recently described Lake Sinai viruses (LSV) and found evidence of a shift in gut bacterial composition that may be a biomarker of CCD. The results are discussed with respect to host-parasite interactions and other environmental stressors of honey bees. PMID:22927991

Cornman, R. Scott; Tarpy, David R.; Chen, Yanping; Jeffreys, Lacey; Lopez, Dawn; Pettis, Jeffery S.; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Evans, Jay D.

2012-01-01

70

COLONY HIGH SCHOOL, 2008 -2009 We are Colony High School, a  

E-print Network

COLONY HIGH SCHOOL, 2008 - 2009 We are Colony High School, a control school in the AEIN Network in our school. AEIN is funded under a $9.3 million grant from the U.S. Department of Education. The ideas and motivation to achieve our goals in school improvement. Roles and responsibilities of leadership were

Pantaleone, Jim

71

Genetic diversity within honeybee colonies prevents severe infections and promotes colony growth.  

PubMed Central

Multiple mating by social insect queens increases the genetic diversity among colony members, thereby reducing intracolony relatedness and lowering the potential inclusive fitness gains of altruistic workers. Increased genetic diversity may be adaptive, however, by reducing the prevalence of disease within a nest. Honeybees, whose queens have the highest levels of multiple mating among social insects, were investigated to determine whether genetic variation helps to prevent chronic infections. I instrumentally inseminated honeybee queens with semen that was either genetically similar (from one male) or genetically diverse (from multiple males), and then inoculated their colonies with spores of Ascosphaera apis, a fungal pathogen that kills developing brood. I show that genetically diverse colonies had a lower variance in disease prevalence than genetically similar colonies, which suggests that genetic diversity may benefit colonies by preventing severe infections. PMID:12596763

Tarpy, David R

2003-01-01

72

Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm for Continuous Domains Based on Position Distribution Model of Ant Colony Foraging  

PubMed Central

Ant colony optimization algorithm for continuous domains is a major research direction for ant colony optimization algorithm. In this paper, we propose a distribution model of ant colony foraging, through analysis of the relationship between the position distribution and food source in the process of ant colony foraging. We design a continuous domain optimization algorithm based on the model and give the form of solution for the algorithm, the distribution model of pheromone, the update rules of ant colony position, and the processing method of constraint condition. Algorithm performance against a set of test trials was unconstrained optimization test functions and a set of optimization test functions, and test results of other algorithms are compared and analyzed to verify the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. PMID:24955402

Liu, Liqiang; Dai, Yuntao

2014-01-01

73

Colony Collapse Disorder: A Descriptive Study  

PubMed Central

Background Over the last two winters, there have been large-scale, unexplained losses of managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies in the United States. In the absence of a known cause, this syndrome was named Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) because the main trait was a rapid loss of adult worker bees. We initiated a descriptive epizootiological study in order to better characterize CCD and compare risk factor exposure between populations afflicted by and not afflicted by CCD. Methods and Principal Findings Of 61 quantified variables (including adult bee physiology, pathogen loads, and pesticide levels), no single measure emerged as a most-likely cause of CCD. Bees in CCD colonies had higher pathogen loads and were co-infected with a greater number of pathogens than control populations, suggesting either an increased exposure to pathogens or a reduced resistance of bees toward pathogens. Levels of the synthetic acaricide coumaphos (used by beekeepers to control the parasitic mite Varroa destructor) were higher in control colonies than CCD-affected colonies. Conclusions/Significance This is the first comprehensive survey of CCD-affected bee populations that suggests CCD involves an interaction between pathogens and other stress factors. We present evidence that this condition is contagious or the result of exposure to a common risk factor. Potentially important areas for future hypothesis-driven research, including the possible legacy effect of mite parasitism and the role of honey bee resistance to pesticides, are highlighted. PMID:19649264

vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Evans, Jay D.; Saegerman, Claude; Mullin, Chris; Haubruge, Eric; Nguyen, Bach Kim; Frazier, Maryann; Frazier, Jim; Cox-Foster, Diana; Chen, Yanping; Underwood, Robyn; Tarpy, David R.; Pettis, Jeffery S.

2009-01-01

74

The colonial present: botanical gardens as sites of nationalism, environmentalism and aboriginality in British Columbia.  

E-print Network

??Recent scholarship on post-colonialism highlights the enduring legacies of colonial institutions. This thesis uses ethnographic research and historical analysis to investigate one set of colonial… (more)

Khaledi, Bardia

2010-01-01

75

Colony Fusion in a Parthenogenetic Ant, Pristomyrmex punctatus  

PubMed Central

In the ant Pristomyrmex punctatus Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), all young workers lay a small number of eggs parthenogenetically. Some colonies consist of monoclonal individuals that provide high inclusive fitness, according to the kin selection theory. However, in some populations, a majority of the colonies contain multiple lineages. Intracolonial genetic variation of parthenogenetic ants cannot be explained by the multiple mating of single founderesses or by the foundation of a colony by multiple foundresses, which are the usual causes of genetically diverse colonies in social insects. Here, we hypothesized that the fusion of established colonies might facilitate the formation of multiclonal colonies. Colony fusion decreases indirect benefits because of the reduction in intracolonial relatedness. However, when suitable nesting places for overwintering are scarce, colony fusion provides a strategy for the survival of colonies. Here, ants derived from different colonies were allowed to encounter one another in a container with just one nesting place. Initially, high aggression was observed; however, after several days, no aggression was observed and the ants shared the nest. When the fused colonies were allowed to transfer to two alternative nests, ants from different colonies occupied the same nest. This study highlights the importance of limiting the number of nesting places in order to understand the genetic diversity of parthenogenetic ant colonies. PMID:23895053

Satow, Show; Satoh, Toshiyuki; Hirota, Tadao

2013-01-01

76

Colony fusion in a parthenogenetic ant, Pristomyrmex punctatus.  

PubMed

In the ant Pristomyrmex punctatus Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), all young workers lay a small number of eggs parthenogenetically. Some colonies consist of monoclonal individuals that provide high inclusive fitness, according to the kin selection theory. However, in some populations, a majority of the colonies contain multiple lineages. Intracolonial genetic variation of parthenogenetic ants cannot be explained by the multiple mating of single founderesses or by the foundation of a colony by multiple foundresses, which are the usual causes of genetically diverse colonies in social insects. Here, we hypothesized that the fusion of established colonies might facilitate the formation of multiclonal colonies. Colony fusion decreases indirect benefits because of the reduction in intracolonial relatedness. However, when suitable nesting places for overwintering are scarce, colony fusion provides a strategy for the survival of colonies. Here, ants derived from different colonies were allowed to encounter one another in a container with just one nesting place. Initially, high aggression was observed; however, after several days, no aggression was observed and the ants shared the nest. When the fused colonies were allowed to transfer to two alternative nests, ants from different colonies occupied the same nest. This study highlights the importance of limiting the number of nesting places in order to understand the genetic diversity of parthenogenetic ant colonies. PMID:23895053

Satow, Show; Satoh, Toshiyuki; Hirota, Tadao

2013-01-01

77

The Colonialism of the English Only Movement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that attempts to institute proper and effective methods of educating non English speaking students cannot be reduced simply to issues of language, but rest on a full understanding of the ideological elements that generate and sustain linguistic, cultural, and racial discrimination, which represent vestiges of a colonial legacy in today's…

Macedo, Donaldo

2000-01-01

78

Policing native pleasures: a colonial history.  

PubMed

The moral modality of colonial power is still with us when it comes to the recreation of sexual norms of traditional or feudal society. We can examine the emergent properties of colonial knowledge anew by exploring how the colonial regime's strategic attention of regulating brothels in India differed from the analytic of power Foucault described for sexuality in European society. It turns out that amongst other things, public anxieties about the failure of adaptation by South Asians are incapable of leaving sexuality aside as a key interpretive device for their culture. The British preoccupation with reproducing the dynamics of the bourgeois matrimonial market on foreign soil in the mid-nineteenth century similarly necessitated a sociological pretext for racial purity. However, the kind of knowledge a typical traveller and employee of the East India Company brought to the Victorian public from his own researches in the brothels and streets of colonial India, which revealed how popular prostitution was as a vice amongst the officer class, was also more than a welcome imaginary relief from Christian morality; it was an alternative vision of modernity. PMID:23240839

Jabbar, Naheem

2012-12-01

79

Colonialism, state and policing in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Police forces in Nigeria have been variously described as corrupt, oppressive and subservient to the whims and caprices of the government of the day. This paper analyses the development of police forces in Nigeria since the era of British colonial domination in the country. Police corruption and repression in Nigeria is analyzed in the context of the wider political and

Etannibi E. O. Alemika

1993-01-01

80

Fire protection for a Martian colony  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fire prevention failures that occurred in Apollo 1 and Challenger accidents are reviewed and used to discuss fire protection measures that should be taken in a Martian colony. Fire detection systems, classes of fire, and suppression agents are described. The organization of fire fighting personnel appropriate for Mars is addressed.

Robert M. Beattie Jr.

1989-01-01

81

Fire protection for a Martian colony  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fire prevention failures that occurred in Apollo 1 and Challenger accidents are reviewed and used to discuss fire protection measures that should be taken in a Martian colony. Fire detection systems, classes of fire, and suppression agents are described. The organization of fire fighting personnel appropriate for Mars is addressed.

Beattie, Robert M., Jr.

82

Detection of Campylobacter Colonies using Hyperspectral Imaging  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Isolation and detection of Campylobacter in foods via direct plating involves lengthy laboratory procedures including enrichments and microaerobic incubations, which take several days to a week. The incubation time for growing Campylobacter colonies in agar media is typically 24 hours to 48 hours. F...

83

Colonial Newspaper Reaction to the Somerset Decision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine colonial American press coverage of the British court decision to free American slave James Somerset, a study was conducted to clarify why the decision worked as a victory for British abolitionists but was usually cited even in post-Revolution America in the passage of increasingly oppressive slave legislation. Twenty-three of the…

Bradley, Patricia

84

Interpretación económica del último periodo colonial mexicano  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent contributions, some economic historians established the existence of a crisis in the mining industry during the late colonial period in Mexico. Nevertheless, their arguments are weaken if we consider the effects of the mining sector on the rest of the economy. We will show that the decline in the price of silver in terms of maize was caused

Carlos A. Ponzio de León

1998-01-01

85

Project Final Report: HPC-Colony II  

SciTech Connect

This report recounts the HPC Colony II Project which was a computer science effort funded by DOE's Advanced Scientific Computing Research office. The project included researchers from ORNL, IBM, and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The topic of the effort was adaptive system software for extreme scale parallel machines. A description of findings is included.

Jones, Terry R [ORNL; Kale, Laxmikant V [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Moreira, Jose [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center

2013-11-01

86

Buckling instability in ordered bacterial colonies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacterial colonies often exhibit complex spatio-temporal organization. This collective behavior is affected by a multitude of factors ranging from the properties of individual cells (shape, motility, membrane structure) to chemotaxis and other means of cell-cell communication. One of the important but often overlooked mechanisms of spatio-temporal organization is direct mechanical contact among cells in dense colonies such as biofilms. While in natural habitats all these different mechanisms and factors act in concert, one can use laboratory cell cultures to study certain mechanisms in isolation. Recent work demonstrated that growth and ensuing expansion flow of rod-like bacteria Escherichia coli in confined environments leads to orientation of cells along the flow direction and thus to ordering of cells. However, the cell orientational ordering remained imperfect. In this paper we study one mechanism responsible for the persistence of disorder in growing cell populations. We demonstrate experimentally that a growing colony of nematically ordered cells is prone to the buckling instability. Our theoretical analysis and discrete-element simulations suggest that the nature of this instability is related to the anisotropy of the stress tensor in the ordered cell colony.

Boyer, Denis; Mather, William; Mondragón-Palomino, Octavio; Orozco-Fuentes, Sirio; Danino, Tal; Hasty, Jeff; Tsimring, Lev S.

2011-04-01

87

Order and instabilities in dense bacterial colonies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of cell colonies is governed by the interplay of many physical and biological factors, ranging from properties of surrounding media to cell-cell communication and gene expression in individual cells. The biomechanical interactions arising from the growth and division of individual cells in confined environments are ubiquitous, yet little work has focused on this fundamental aspect of colony formation. By combining experimental observations of growing monolayers of non-motile strain of bacteria Escherichia coli in a shallow microfluidic chemostat with discrete-element simulations and continuous theory, we demonstrate that expansion of a dense colony leads to rapid orientational alignment of rod-like cells. However, in larger colonies, anisotropic compression may lead to buckling instability which breaks perfect nematic order. Furthermore, we found that in shallow cavities feedback between cell growth and mobility in a confined environment leads to a novel cell streaming instability. Joint work with W. Mather, D. Volfson, O. Mondrag'on-Palomino, T. Danino, S. Cookson, and J. Hasty (UCSD) and D. Boyer, S. Orozco-Fuentes (UNAM, Mexico).

Tsimring, Lev

2012-02-01

88

Colonial Continuities and Educational Inequalities in Indonesia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the effect of 350 years of Dutch colonial rule upon Indonesian educational policies and the resulting regional inequalities in education. It was Dutch policy not to educate most of the children from the poorer social classes, but to use education to maintain and strengthen the existing social structure. Education was also used…

Carpenter, Harold F., Jr.

89

Economic Development of British Colonial America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through a close study of a rich set of demographic and economic statistics, students will see the development over 150 years of two similar yet divergent colonies (Virginia and Barbados). They will work through population, land use, and trade statistics with closely-guiding questions in order to find links between one set of numbers and another.

Serena Zabin

90

Insights & Perspectives Colony Collapse Disorder in context  

E-print Network

large- scale die-offs of honey bees around the world, and has sparked enormous interest from both the winter of 2008/2009, $10% of the 2.3 million managed honey bee colonies in the US died with ``CCD most important monoculture crops still benefits from this ecosystem service [2]. Western honey bees

Shutler, Dave

91

Extractive Institutions in Colonial Africa Federico Tadei  

E-print Network

the long-term effects of colonial trade monopsonies and coercive #12;vi labor institutions. By combining of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California of Technology for providing me with a productive and enjoyable research environment. I am deeply indebted to my

Winfree, Erik

92

A Quantitative Model of Honey Bee Colony Population Dynamics  

PubMed Central

Since 2006 the rate of honey bee colony failure has increased significantly. As an aid to testing hypotheses for the causes of colony failure we have developed a compartment model of honey bee colony population dynamics to explore the impact of different death rates of forager bees on colony growth and development. The model predicts a critical threshold forager death rate beneath which colonies regulate a stable population size. If death rates are sustained higher than this threshold rapid population decline is predicted and colony failure is inevitable. The model also predicts that high forager death rates draw hive bees into the foraging population at much younger ages than normal, which acts to accelerate colony failure. The model suggests that colony failure can be understood in terms of observed principles of honey bee population dynamics, and provides a theoretical framework for experimental investigation of the problem. PMID:21533156

Khoury, David S.; Myerscough, Mary R.; Barron, Andrew B.

2011-01-01

93

A quantitative model of honey bee colony population dynamics.  

PubMed

Since 2006 the rate of honey bee colony failure has increased significantly. As an aid to testing hypotheses for the causes of colony failure we have developed a compartment model of honey bee colony population dynamics to explore the impact of different death rates of forager bees on colony growth and development. The model predicts a critical threshold forager death rate beneath which colonies regulate a stable population size. If death rates are sustained higher than this threshold rapid population decline is predicted and colony failure is inevitable. The model also predicts that high forager death rates draw hive bees into the foraging population at much younger ages than normal, which acts to accelerate colony failure. The model suggests that colony failure can be understood in terms of observed principles of honey bee population dynamics, and provides a theoretical framework for experimental investigation of the problem. PMID:21533156

Khoury, David S; Myerscough, Mary R; Barron, Andrew B

2011-01-01

94

The hyper-cube framework for ant colony optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant colony optimization is a metaheuristic approach belonging to the class of model-based search algorithms. In this paper, we propose a new framework for implementing ant colony optimization algorithms called the hyper-cube framework for ant colony optimization. In contrast to the usual way of implementing ant colony optimization algorithms, this framework limits the pheromone values to the interval [0,1]. This

Christian Blum; Marco Dorigo

2004-01-01

95

The Ant Colony Metaphor for Searching Continuous Design Spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a form of dynamical computational system—the ant colony—and presents an ant colony model for continuous space optimisation problems. The ant colony metaphor is applied to a real world heavily constrained engineering design problem. It is capable of accelerating the search process and finding acceptable solutions which otherwise could not be discovered by a GA. By integrating the

George Bilchev; Ian C. Parmee

1995-01-01

96

Oversea Education and British Colonial Education 1929-63.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on an early twentieth century journal called "Oversea Education," designed to increase communication among British colonies, particularly for education, based on William Ormsby Gore's travels among the colonies. Describes Frank Ward's editorial work that championed the rights of colonial subjects to have better educational policy. (KDR)

Whitehead, Clive

2003-01-01

97

Deformed Wing Virus Implicated in Overwintering Honeybee Colony Losses ?  

PubMed Central

The worldwide decline in honeybee colonies during the past 50 years has often been linked to the spread of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and its interaction with certain honeybee viruses. Recently in the United States, dramatic honeybee losses (colony collapse disorder) have been reported; however, there remains no clear explanation for these colony losses, with parasitic mites, viruses, bacteria, and fungal diseases all being proposed as possible candidates. Common characteristics that most failing colonies share is a lack of overt disease symptoms and the disappearance of workers from what appears to be normally functioning colonies. In this study, we used quantitative PCR to monitor the presence of three honeybee viruses, deformed wing virus (DWV), acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), and black queen cell virus (BQCV), during a 1-year period in 15 asymptomatic, varroa mite-positive honeybee colonies in Southern England, and 3 asymptomatic colonies confirmed to be varroa mite free. All colonies with varroa mites underwent control treatments to ensure that mite populations remained low throughout the study. Despite this, multiple virus infections were detected, yet a significant correlation was observed only between DWV viral load and overwintering colony losses. The long-held view has been that DWV is relatively harmless to the overall health status of honeybee colonies unless it is in association with severe varroa mite infestations. Our findings suggest that DWV can potentially act independently of varroa mites to bring about colony losses. Therefore, DWV may be a major factor in overwintering colony losses. PMID:19783750

Highfield, Andrea C.; El Nagar, Aliya; Mackinder, Luke C. M.; Noël, Laure M.-L. J.; Hall, Matthew J.; Martin, Stephen J.; Schroeder, Declan C.

2009-01-01

98

Australia and France on Fire: An Anti-Colonial Critique  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Professor George Sefa Dei has written and taught extensively in the fields of anti-colonialism and anti-racism. His latest work on the subject is "Anti-Colonialism and Education: The Politics of Resistance," co-edited with Arlo Kempf for Sense Publishers (2006). Dei and Kempf are also co-authoring a forthcoming volume on anti-colonial theory. Arlo…

Dei, George Sefa; Kempf, Arlo

2006-01-01

99

Deformed wing virus implicated in overwintering honeybee colony losses.  

PubMed

The worldwide decline in honeybee colonies during the past 50 years has often been linked to the spread of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and its interaction with certain honeybee viruses. Recently in the United States, dramatic honeybee losses (colony collapse disorder) have been reported; however, there remains no clear explanation for these colony losses, with parasitic mites, viruses, bacteria, and fungal diseases all being proposed as possible candidates. Common characteristics that most failing colonies share is a lack of overt disease symptoms and the disappearance of workers from what appears to be normally functioning colonies. In this study, we used quantitative PCR to monitor the presence of three honeybee viruses, deformed wing virus (DWV), acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), and black queen cell virus (BQCV), during a 1-year period in 15 asymptomatic, varroa mite-positive honeybee colonies in Southern England, and 3 asymptomatic colonies confirmed to be varroa mite free. All colonies with varroa mites underwent control treatments to ensure that mite populations remained low throughout the study. Despite this, multiple virus infections were detected, yet a significant correlation was observed only between DWV viral load and overwintering colony losses. The long-held view has been that DWV is relatively harmless to the overall health status of honeybee colonies unless it is in association with severe varroa mite infestations. Our findings suggest that DWV can potentially act independently of varroa mites to bring about colony losses. Therefore, DWV may be a major factor in overwintering colony losses. PMID:19783750

Highfield, Andrea C; El Nagar, Aliya; Mackinder, Luke C M; Noël, Laure M-L J; Hall, Matthew J; Martin, Stephen J; Schroeder, Declan C

2009-11-01

100

Iridovirus and Microsporidian Linked to Honey Bee Colony Decline  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIn 2010 Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), again devastated honey bee colonies in the USA, indicating that the problem is neither diminishing nor has it been resolved. Many CCD investigations, using sensitive genome-based methods, have found small RNA bee viruses and the microsporidia, Nosema apis and N. ceranae in healthy and collapsing colonies alike with no single pathogen firmly linked to

Jerry J. Bromenshenk; Colin B. Henderson; Charles H. Wick; Michael F. Stanford; Alan W. Zulich; Rabih E. Jabbour; Samir V. Deshpande; Patrick E. McCubbin; Robert A. Seccomb; Phillip M. Welch; Trevor Williams; David R. Firth; Evan Skowronski; Margaret M. Lehmann; Shan L. Bilimoria; Joanna Gress; Kevin W. Wanner; Robert A. Cramer

2010-01-01

101

Brazilian Higher Education from a Post-Colonial Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines Brazilian higher education (HE) politics from a post-colonial perspective. The term "post-colonial" originally referred to a historical period of colonial empires established by European nations. Nowadays, the term commonly distinguishes a field of contemporary studies of "defamiliarisation of the imperial North" made up of…

Leite, Denise

2010-01-01

102

The Genesis of Public Relations in British Colonial Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrates how the British Colonial Office employed public relations strategies as they administered the British colony of Northern Rhodesia before, during, and after World War II. Demonstrates how civil servants in London and colonial officials implemented public relations policies, strategies, and tactics on an ad hoc basis, covering political…

Smyth, Rosaleen

2001-01-01

103

Amino acids control ammonia pulses in yeast colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual yeast colonies produce pulses of volatile ammonia separated by phases of medium acidification. Colonies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant defective in the general amino acid permease, Gap1p, exhibit decreased ammonia production. Mutations in the S. cerevisiae amino acid sensor SPS completely abolish the colony ammonia pulses. In contrast, the ammonia pulse production is independent of external concentrations of ammonium and

Blanka Zikánová; Martin Kuthan; Markéta ?i?icová; Jitka Forstová; Zdena Palková

2002-01-01

104

Developmental Instability in Incipient Colonies of Social Insects  

PubMed Central

Social insect colonies can provide homeostatic conditions that buffer the incidence of environmental fluctuations on individuals, which have contributed to their ecological success. Coptotermes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) is a highly invasive termite genus and several species have important economic impact in many areas of the world. Mature Coptotermes colonies with millions of individuals can provide optimal environmental condition and nurturing capacity for the developing brood. However, it was previously suggested that contrary to mature colonies, incipient colonies may be exposed to critical stress, which may explain for the low success rate of establishment within the first year of the life of a termite colony. We here investigated the stress imposed on individuals of incipient colonies by comparing the developmental instability of individuals between incipient and mature colonies of two Coptotermes species, C. formosanus Shiraki and C. gestroi (Wasmann). We assessed the developmental instability by measuring the asymmetry of morphological traits from the head capsule of the soldier caste. Soldiers from incipient colonies of both species displayed strong asymmetrical traits in comparison to soldiers from mature colonies. We suggest that homeostatic conditions for optimal development are reached as the colony matures, and confirmed that the incipient colony remains a critical bottleneck where individuals are exposed to high developmental stress. PMID:25423502

Chouvenc, Thomas; Basille, Mathieu; Li, Hou-Feng; Su, Nan-Yao

2014-01-01

105

Detection of Campylobacter colonies using hyperspectral imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of Campylobacter in foods of animal origin is the leading cause of bacterially induced human gastroenteritis. Isolation and detection of Campylobacter in foods via direct plating involves lengthy laboratory procedures including enrichments and microaerobic incubations, which\\u000a take several days to a week. The incubation time for growing Campylobacter colonies in agar media usually takes 24–48 h. Oftentimes the problem

Seung Chul Yoon; Kurt C. Lawrence; John E. Line; Gregory R. Siragusa; Peggy W. Feldner; William R. Windham

2010-01-01

106

The Development of Politics in Extraterrestrial Colonies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existence of feudal or totalitarian interplanetary empires has been a favourite theme in Science Fiction. Although the vast distances between the stars make the emergence of an interstellar empire impossible without the creation of a faster than light drive, this is not necessarily true for the other worlds within our solar system. Environmental constraints on the off-world colonies themselves, and repressive, hierarchical and feudalistic social and commercial institutions and customs inherited from the parent cultures on Earth and a tradition of military rule descending from the foundation of these colonies may all work to bring about a new feudal or totalitarian social order on humanity's extraterrestrial colonies. There are encouraging signs that this may not be the case, however. Already the debate over the projected colonisation of Mars is a factor influencing present controversies over repressive institutions and customs. Nevertheless, those wishing for a free, democratic, and politically, socially and technologically innovative and vigorous human society spreading throughout the solar system should not become complacent.

Sivier, D. J.

107

From snowflake formation to growth of bacterial colonies II: Cooperative formation of complex colonial patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In nature, bacterial colonies must often cope with hostile environmental conditions. To do so they have developed sophisticated cooperative behaviour and intricate communication capabilities, such as direct cell- cell physical interactions via extra-membrane polymers, collective production of extracellular 'wetting' fluid for movement on hard surfaces, longrange chemical signalling such as quorum sensing and chemotactic (bias of movement according to gradient of chemical agent) signalling, collective activation and deactivation of genes and even exchange of genetic material. Utilizing these capabilities, the bacterial colonies develop complex spatio-temporal patterns in response to adverse growth conditions. We present a wealth of beautiful patterns formed during colonial development of various bacterial strains and for different environmental conditions. Invoking ideas from pattern formation in non-living systems and using generic modelling we are able to reveal novel bacterial strategies which account for the salient features of the evolved patterns. Using the models, we demonstrate how bacterial communication leads to colonial self-organization that can only be achieved via cooperative behaviour of the cells. It can be viewed as the action of a singular feedback between the microscopic level (the individual cells) and the macroscopic level (the colony) in the determination of the emerging patterns.

Ben-Jacob, Eshel

1997-03-01

108

MICROBIOLOGY: Subversion of Schwann Cells and the Leper's Bell  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Leprosy has been the scourge of humanity for thousands of years, yet we still know very little about the pathogenesis of this tragic disease. In his Perspective, Brophy explains exciting new findings (Rambukkana et al.) that reveal how the bacterium causing this disease, M. leprae, instigates demyelination of peripheral nerves without the help of the immune system, and subverts the attempts of myelinating Schwann cells to repair the damage.

Peter J. Brophy (University of Edinburgh; Department of Preclinical Veterinary Sciences)

2002-05-03

109

First Recorded Loss of an Emperor Penguin Colony in the Recent Period of Antarctic Regional Warming: Implications for Other Colonies  

PubMed Central

In 1948, a small colony of emperor penguins Aptenodytes forsteri was discovered breeding on Emperor Island (67° 51? 52? S, 68° 42? 20? W), in the Dion Islands, close to the West Antarctic Peninsula (Stonehouse 1952). When discovered, the colony comprised approximately 150 breeding pairs; these numbers were maintained until 1970, after which time the colony showed a continuous decline. By 1999 there were fewer than 20 pairs, and in 2009 high-resolution aerial photography revealed no remaining trace of the colony. Here we relate the decline and loss of the Emperor Island colony to a well-documented rise in local mean annual air temperature and coincident decline in seasonal sea ice duration. The loss of this colony provides empirical support for recent studies (Barbraud & Weimerskirch 2001; Jenouvrier et al 2005, 2009; Ainley et al 2010; Barber-Meyer et al 2005) that have highlighted the vulnerability of emperor penguins to changes in sea ice duration and distribution. These studies suggest that continued climate change is likely to impact upon future breeding success and colony viability for this species. Furthermore, a recent circumpolar study by Fretwell & Trathan (2009) highlighted those Antarctic coastal regions where colonies appear most vulnerable to such changes. Here we examine which other colonies might be at risk, discussing various ecological factors, some previously unexplored, that may also contribute to future declines. The implications of this are important for future modelling work and for understanding which colonies actually are most vulnerable. PMID:21386883

Trathan, Philip N.; Fretwell, Peter T.; Stonehouse, Bernard

2011-01-01

110

Playback of colony sound alters the breeding schedule and clutch size in zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) colonies  

PubMed Central

The hypothesis that social stimulation, derived from the presence and activities of conspecifics, can hasten and synchronize breeding in colonies of birds was tested. A modified playback/recorder system was used to continuously exaggerate the amount of colony sound available to zebra finches throughout their courtship period. Males that heard ‘sound supplements’ generated from their own colony sang more than males in control colonies that did not receive playback; males that heard samples from a different colony, sang at an intermediate level. Females that were exposed to the vocalizations of their mate and playback from a colony other than their own, laid eggs earlier and more synchronously than females in control colonies. Females that heard the vocalizations of their mate along with playback samples generated from their own colony, laid eggs more synchronously but not earlier than control females. Both acoustic treatments caused females to lay larger clutches. Social stimulation influences the breeding schedule and clutch size in zebra finch colonies. If there are advantages associated with these effects, social stimulation may contribute to the maintenance of colonial breeding systems. PMID:15734692

Waas, Joseph R.; Colgan, Patrick W.; Boag, Peter T.

2005-01-01

111

Combined Final Report for Colony II Project  

SciTech Connect

(This report was originally submmited by the lead PI (Terry Jones, ORNL) on October 22, 2013 to the program manager, Lucy Nowell. It is being submitted from University of Illinois in accordance with instructions). HPC Colony II seeks to provide portable performance for leadership class machines. Our strategy is based on adaptive system software that aims to make the intelligent decisions necessary to allow domain scientists to safely focus on their task at hand and allow the system software stack to adapt their application to the underlying architecture. This report describes the research undertaken towards these objectives and the results obtained over the performance period of the project.

Kale, Laxmikant [University of Illinois] [University of Illinois; Jones, Terry [Oak Ridge National Laboratory] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Moreira, Jose [IBM Corp.] [IBM Corp.

2013-10-23

112

Intercellular Genomics of Subsurface Microbial Colonies  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes progress in the second year of this project. The objective is to develop methods and software to predict the spatial configuration, properties and temporal evolution of microbial colonies in the subsurface. To accomplish this, we integrate models of intracellular processes, cell-host medium exchange and reaction-transport dynamics on the colony scale. At the conclusion of the project, we aim to have the foundations of a predictive mathematical model and software that captures the three scales of these systems – the intracellular, pore, and colony wide spatial scales. In the second year of the project, we refined our transcriptional regulatory network discovery (TRND) approach that utilizes gene expression data along with phylogenic similarity and gene ontology analyses and applied it successfully to E.coli, human B cells, and Geobacter sulfurreducens. We have developed a new Web interface, GeoGen, which is tailored to the reconstruction of microbial TRNs and solely focuses on Geobacter as one of DOE’s high priority microbes. Our developments are designed such that the frameworks for the TRND and GeoGen can readily be used for other microbes of interest to the DOE. In the context of modeling a single bacterium, we are actively pursuing both steady-state and kinetic approaches. The steady-state approach is based on a flux balance that uses maximizing biomass growth rate as its objective, subjected to various biochemical constraints, for the optimal values of reaction rates and uptake/release of metabolites. For the kinetic approach, we use Karyote, a rigorous cell model developed by us for an earlier DOE grant and the DARPA BioSPICE Project. We are also investigating the interplay between bacterial colonies and environment at both pore and macroscopic scales. The pore scale models use detailed representations for realistic porous media accounting for the distribution of grain size whereas the macroscopic models employ the Darcy-type flow equations and up-scaled advective-diffusive transport equations for chemical species. We are rigorously testing the relationship between these two scales by evaluating macroscopic parameters using the volume averaging methodology applied to pore scale model results.

Ortoleva, Peter; Tuncay, Kagan; Gannon, Dennis; Meile, Christof

2007-02-14

113

Impact of Flooding on Illinois River Wading Bird Colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of severe and protracted flooding on two mixed-species colonies of wading birds were assessed in central Illinois. Both colony sites have been monitored since 1962. Historically, Great Blue Herons, Ardea herodias, Great Egrets, Casmerodius albus (threatened in Illinois), and Black-crowned Night-Herons, Nycticorax nycticorax (endangered in Illinois), nested in each colony. Annual ground censuses revealed declines in breeding populations following

Richard G. Bjorklund; Daniel J. Holm

114

The Contemporary Reality of Canadian Imperialism: Settler Colonialism and the Hybrid Colonial State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author's fundamental contention is this: Canadian society remains driven by the logic of imperialism and engages in concerted colonial action against Indigenous peoples whose claims to land and self-determination continue to undermine the legitimacy of Canadian authority and hegemony. The imperial ambitions of the Canadian state and its…

Barker, Adam J.

2009-01-01

115

Stable isotope enrichment in laboratory ant colonies: effects of colony age, metamorphosis, diet, and fat storage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ecologists use stable isotopes to infer diets and trophic levels of animals in food webs, yet some assumptions underlying these inferences have not been thoroughly tested. We used laboratory-reared colonies of Solenopsis invicta Buren (Formicidae: Solenopsidini) to test the effects of metamorphosis,...

116

JAX Colony Management System (JCMS): an extensible colony and phenotype data management system.  

PubMed

The Jackson Laboratory Colony Management System (JCMS) is a software application for managing data and information related to research mouse colonies, associated biospecimens, and experimental protocols. JCMS runs directly on computers that run one of the PC Windows operating systems, but can be accessed via web browser interfaces from any computer running a Windows, Macintosh, or Linux operating system. JCMS can be configured for a single user or multiple users in small- to medium-size work groups. The target audience for JCMS includes laboratory technicians, animal colony managers, and principal investigators. The application provides operational support for colony management and experimental workflows, sample and data tracking through transaction-based data entry forms, and date-driven work reports. Flexible query forms allow researchers to retrieve database records based on user-defined criteria. Recent advances in handheld computers with integrated barcode readers, middleware technologies, web browsers, and wireless networks add to the utility of JCMS by allowing real-time access to the database from any networked computer. PMID:20140675

Donnelly, Chuck J; McFarland, Mike; Ames, Abigail; Sundberg, Beth; Springer, Dave; Blauth, Peter; Bult, Carol J

2010-04-01

117

Pre-Colonial Systems of Writing and Post-Colonial Languages of Publication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous accounts of "europhone" status (anglophone, francophone, etc.) have inadequately addressed spoken-written differences as well as different post-colonial developments taken by Southeast Asia, South Asia, North Africa, and East Africa vis-a-vis those of West, Central, and Southern Africa. This article investigates the extent to which the…

Riney, Timothy J.

1998-01-01

118

From snowflake formation to growth of bacterial colonies II: Cooperative formation of complex colonial patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

In nature, bacterial colonies must often cope with hostile environmental conditions. To do so they have developed sophisticated cooperative behaviour and intricate communication capabilities, such as direct cell- cell physical interactions via extra-membrane polymers, collective production of extracellular 'wetting' fluid for movement on hard surfaces, longrange chemical signalling such as quorum sensing and chemotactic (bias of movement according to gradient

Eshel Ben-Jacob

1997-01-01

119

Elucidation of Strongyloides stercoralis by bacterial-colony displacement.  

PubMed Central

Two cases of unsuspected Strongyloides stercoralis infection were elucidated by the displacement of bacterial colonies on primary plating media. Observation of primary plates inoculated for the diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia or gastroenteritis revealed that normal flora colonies had been moved and were aligned in a pathway, or track. This unusual colony alignment prompted us to request a stool for the examination of parasites, and S. stercoralis was found. It was concluded that the parasite is capable of motility on agar surfaces, resulting in the displacement of bacterial colonies that make up the normal flora. Images PMID:3088034

Panosian, K J; Marone, P; Edberg, S C

1986-01-01

120

Laser-induced speckle scatter patterns in Bacillus colonies  

PubMed Central

Label-free bacterial colony phenotyping technology called BARDOT (Bacterial Rapid Detection using Optical scattering Technology) provided successful classification of several different bacteria at the genus, species, and serovar level. Recent experiments with colonies of Bacillus species provided strikingly different characteristics of elastic light scatter (ELS) patterns, which were comprised of random speckles compared to other bacteria, which are dominated by concentric rings and spokes. Since this laser-based optical sensor interrogates the whole volume of the colony, 3-D information of micro- and macro-structures are all encoded in the far-field scatter patterns. Here, we present a theoretical model explaining the underlying mechanism of the speckle formation by the colonies from Bacillus species. Except for Bacillus polymyxa, all Bacillus spp. produced random bright spots on the imaging plane, which presumably dependent on the cellular and molecular organization and content within the colony. Our scatter model-based analysis revealed that colony spread resulting in variable surface roughness can modify the wavefront of the scatter field. As the center diameter of the Bacillus spp. colony grew from 500 to 900 ?m, average speckles area decreased two-fold and the number of small speckles increased seven-fold. In conclusion, as Bacillus colony grows, the average speckle size in the scatter pattern decreases and the number of smaller speckle increases due to the swarming growth characteristics of bacteria within the colony. PMID:25352840

Kim, Huisung; Singh, Atul K.; Bhunia, Arun K.; Bae, Euiwon

2014-01-01

121

Varroa-Virus Interaction in Collapsing Honey Bee Colonies  

PubMed Central

Varroa mites and viruses are the currently the high-profile suspects in collapsing bee colonies. Therefore, seasonal variation in varroa load and viruses (Acute-Kashmir-Israeli complex (AKI) and Deformed Wing Virus (DWV)) were monitored in a year-long study. We investigated the viral titres in honey bees and varroa mites from 23 colonies (15 apiaries) under three treatment conditions: Organic acids (11 colonies), pyrethroid (9 colonies) and untreated (3 colonies). Approximately 200 bees were sampled every month from April 2011 to October 2011, and April 2012. The 200 bees were split to 10 subsamples of 20 bees and analysed separately, which allows us to determine the prevalence of virus-infected bees. The treatment efficacy was often low for both treatments. In colonies where varroa treatment reduced the mite load, colonies overwintered successfully, allowing the mites and viruses to be carried over with the bees into the next season. In general, AKI and DWV titres did not show any notable response to the treatment and steadily increased over the season from April to October. In the untreated control group, titres increased most dramatically. Viral copies were correlated to number of varroa mites. Most colonies that collapsed over the winter had significantly higher AKI and DWV titres in October compared to survivors. Only treated colonies survived the winter. We discuss our results in relation to the varroa-virus model developed by Stephen Martin. PMID:23526946

Francis, Roy M.; Nielsen, Steen L.; Kryger, Per

2013-01-01

122

Efficient Division and Sampling of Cell Colonies Using Microcup Arrays  

PubMed Central

A microengineered array to sample clonal colonies is described. The cells were cultured on an array of individually releasable elements until the colonies expanded to cover multiple elements. Single elements were released using a laser-based system and collected to sample cells from individual colonies. A greater than an 85% rate in splitting and collecting colonies was achieved using a 3-dimensional cup-like design or “microcup”. Surface modification using patterned titanium deposition of the glass substrate improved the stability of microcup adhesion to the glass while enabling minimization of the laser energy for splitting the colonies. Smaller microcup dimensions and slotting the microcup walls reduced the time needed for colonies to expand into multiple microcups. The stem cell colony retained on the array and the collected fraction within released microcups remained undifferentiated and viable. The colony samples were characterized by both reporter gene expression and a destructive assay (PCR) to identify target colonies. The platform is envisioned as a means to rapidly establish cell lines using a destructive assay to identify desired clones. PMID:23099535

Pai, Jeng-Hao; Kluckman, Kimberly; Cowley, Dale O.; Bortner, Donna M.; Sims, Christopher E.; Allbritton, Nancy L.; Allbritton, Nancy L.

2012-01-01

123

21 CFR 866.2170 - Automated colony counter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2170 Automated colony counter. (a) Identification. An automated...

2012-04-01

124

21 CFR 866.2170 - Automated colony counter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2170 Automated colony counter. (a) Identification. An automated...

2014-04-01

125

Dynamics of the presence of israeli acute paralysis virus in honey bee colonies with colony collapse disorder.  

PubMed

The determinants of Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), a particular case of collapse of honey bee colonies, are still unresolved. Viruses including the Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) were associated with CCD. We found an apiary with colonies showing typical CCD characteristics that bore high loads of IAPV, recovered some colonies from collapse and tested the hypothesis if IAPV was actively replicating in them and infectious to healthy bees. We found that IAPV was the dominant pathogen and it replicated actively in the colonies: viral titers decreased from April to September and increased from September to December. IAPV extracted from infected bees was highly infectious to healthy pupae: they showed several-fold amplification of the viral genome and synthesis of the virion protein VP3. The health of recovered colonies was seriously compromised. Interestingly, a rise of IAPV genomic copies in two colonies coincided with their subsequent collapse. Our results do not imply IAPV as the cause of CCD but indicate that once acquired and induced to replication it acts as an infectious factor that affects the health of the colonies and may determine their survival. This is the first follow up outside the US of CCD-colonies bearing IAPV under natural conditions. PMID:24800677

Hou, Chunsheng; Rivkin, Hadassah; Slabezki, Yossi; Chejanovsky, Nor

2014-05-01

126

Dynamics of the Presence of Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus in Honey Bee Colonies with Colony Collapse Disorder  

PubMed Central

The determinants of Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), a particular case of collapse of honey bee colonies, are still unresolved. Viruses including the Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) were associated with CCD. We found an apiary with colonies showing typical CCD characteristics that bore high loads of IAPV, recovered some colonies from collapse and tested the hypothesis if IAPV was actively replicating in them and infectious to healthy bees. We found that IAPV was the dominant pathogen and it replicated actively in the colonies: viral titers decreased from April to September and increased from September to December. IAPV extracted from infected bees was highly infectious to healthy pupae: they showed several-fold amplification of the viral genome and synthesis of the virion protein VP3. The health of recovered colonies was seriously compromised. Interestingly, a rise of IAPV genomic copies in two colonies coincided with their subsequent collapse. Our results do not imply IAPV as the cause of CCD but indicate that once acquired and induced to replication it acts as an infectious factor that affects the health of the colonies and may determine their survival. This is the first follow up outside the US of CCD-colonies bearing IAPV under natural conditions. PMID:24800677

Hou, Chunsheng; Rivkin, Hadassah; Slabezki, Yossi; Chejanovsky, Nor

2014-01-01

127

MACS-VRPTW: A MULTIPLE ANT COLONY SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE ROUTING PROBLEMS WITH TIME WINDOWS  

Microsoft Academic Search

MACS-VRPTW, an Ant Colony Optimization based approach useful to solve vehicle routing problems with time windows is presented. MACS-VRPTW is organized with a hierarchy of artificial ant colonies designed to successively optimize a multiple objective function: the first colony minimizes the number of vehicles while the second colony minimizes the traveled distances. Cooperation between colonies is performed by exchanging information

Luca Maria Gambardella; E. Taillard; Giovanni Agazzi

1999-01-01

128

Can redistribution of breeding colonies on a landscape mitigate changing predation danger?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproductive success of colonially breeding species depends in part upon a trade-off between the benefit of a dilution effect against nestling predation within larger colonies and colony conspicuousness. However, there may be no net survivorship benefit of dilution if smaller colonies are sufficiently inconspicuous. This raises the question about how the size distribution of breeding colonies on a landscape

James K. Kenyon; Barry D. Smith; Robert W. Butler

2007-01-01

129

Effects of worker genotypic diversity on honey bee colony development and behavior ( Apis mellifera L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been numerous reports of genetic influences on division of labor in honey bee colonies, but the effects of worker genotypic diversity on colony behavior are unclear. We analyzed the effects of worker genotypic diversity on the phenotypes of honey bee colonies during a critical phase of colony development, the “nest initiation” phase. Five groups of colonies were studied

Robert E. Page Jr; Gene E. Robinson; M. Kim Fondrk; Medhat E. Nasr

1995-01-01

130

Colonialism, Education and Rural Buddhist Communities in Bangladesh  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper will excavate pre-independence (British/Pakistan) and post-independence colonial education interventions into Buddhist culture and education with the view to expose the nature and shape of colonial domination and related Buddhist efforts at cultural and educational decolonization. This will be accomplished by (a) considering a brief…

Barua, Bijoy

2007-01-01

131

Model Specification Searches Using Ant Colony Optimization Algorithms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ant colony optimization is a recently proposed heuristic procedure inspired by the behavior of real ants. This article applies the procedure to model specification searches in structural equation modeling and reports the results. The results demonstrate the capabilities of ant colony optimization algorithms for conducting automated searches.

Marcoulides, George A.; Drezner, Zvi

2003-01-01

132

The Political Economy of Colonial Education: Mozambique, 1930-1975.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Under colonial fascism and during the revolutionary period leading to independence, the schooling of the African majority in Mozambique had no direct link with the economy, was more a mechanism of social control than of labor reproduction, and (in contrast to other African colonies) did not produce an African middle class supportive of the…

Cross, Michael

1987-01-01

133

Ant colony optimization with the characteristic of social work division  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to solve the continuous space optimization problems, an ant colony optimization with the characteristic of social work division is presented. The decimal coding rule of the variables in continuous space is explained. The paper presents six behaviors of artificial ant, the function of the promotion team ant colony and the three-dimensional coordinate pheromone system. Computer simulation results indicate

Li Xinxin; Luo Yi; Zhang Juntao

2008-01-01

134

Discover for Yourself: An Optimal Control Model in Insect Colonies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We describe the enlightening path of self-discovery afforded to the teacher of undergraduate mathematics. This is demonstrated as we find and develop background material on an application of optimal control theory to model the evolutionary strategy of an insect colony to produce the maximum number of queen or reproducer insects in the colony at…

Winkel, Brian

2013-01-01

135

State and Social Christianity in Post-colonial Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of Christianity's rapid growth in post-colonial Singapore, why has Pentecostalism replaced liberal Christianity as the dominant form in the last few decades? Going beyond existing cultural explanations of Pentecostal affinity with Asian folk religions and the modernization thesis, I look at the Church as social movement, as social Christianity engaging, specifically in Singapore, the post-colonial developmental state.

Daniel P. S. Goh

2010-01-01

136

Indigenous Knowledge in the Science Curriculum: Avoiding Neo-Colonialism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science education in Papua New Guinea has been influenced by neo-colonial practices that have significantly contributed to the silencing of the Papua New Guinea voice. This silencing has led to the production of science curriculum documents that are irrelevant to the students for whom they are written. To avoid being caught up in neo-colonial

Ryan, Ann

2008-01-01

137

Whose freedom? Whose memories? Commemorating Danish colonialism in St. Croix  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article addresses the issues of cultural and archival historical representations as they are presented in Danish journalism about historical events taking place in the former colonies of Denmark, the current United States' Virgin Islands (USVI). The (post)colonial relationship between Denmark and USVI has been overlooked by Danish and 'western'-based scholars for quite some time. The article presents the case

Bolette B. Blaagaard

2011-01-01

138

A hybrid discrete Artificial Bee Colony - GRASP algorithm for clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new hybrid algorithm, which is based on the concepts of the artificial bee colony (ABC) and greedy randomized adaptive search procedure (GRASP), for optimally clustering N objects into K clusters. The proposed algorithm is a two phase algorithm which combines an artificial bee colony optimization algorithm for the solution of the feature selection problem and a

Y. Marinakis; M. Marinaki; N. Matsatsinis

2009-01-01

139

The Legacy of Western Overseas Colonialism on Democratic Survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using an original dataset that covers the period from 1951 to 1995, we consider the enduring effects of Western overseas colonialism on the democratic survival of postcolonial democracies. We treat colonialism as a holistic phenomenon and differentiate the relative effects of its legacies with regard to the level of economic development, social fragmentation, and the relationship between the state and

Michael Bernhard; Christopher Reenock; Timothy Nordstrom

2004-01-01

140

Allee effects and colony collapse disorder in honey bees  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We propose a mathematical model to quantify the hypothesis that a major ultimate cause of Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) in honey bees is the presence of an Allee effect in the growth dynamics of honey bee colonies. In the model, both recruitment of adult bees as well as mortality of adult bees have...

141

How natural infection by Nosema ceranae causes honeybee colony collapse.  

PubMed

In recent years, honeybees (Apis mellifera) have been strangely disappearing from their hives, and strong colonies have suddenly become weak and died. The precise aetiology underlying the disappearance of the bees remains a mystery. However, during the same period, Nosema ceranae, a microsporidium of the Asian bee Apis cerana, seems to have colonized A. mellifera, and it's now frequently detected all over the world in both healthy and weak honeybee colonies. For first time, we show that natural N. ceranae infection can cause the sudden collapse of bee colonies, establishing a direct correlation between N. ceranae infection and the death of honeybee colonies under field conditions. Signs of colony weakness were not evident until the queen could no longer replace the loss of the infected bees. The long asymptomatic incubation period can explain the absence of evident symptoms prior to colony collapse. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that healthy colonies near to an infected one can also become infected, and that N. ceranae infection can be controlled with a specific antibiotic, fumagillin. Moreover, the administration of 120 mg of fumagillin has proven to eliminate the infection, but it cannot avoid reinfection after 6 months. We provide Koch's postulates between N. ceranae infection and a syndrome with a long incubation period involving continuous death of adult bees, non-stop brood rearing by the bees and colony loss in winter or early spring despite the presence of sufficient remaining pollen and honey. PMID:18647336

Higes, Mariano; Martín-Hernández, Raquel; Botías, Cristina; Bailón, Encarna Garrido; González-Porto, Amelia V; Barrios, Laura; Del Nozal, M Jesús; Bernal, José L; Jiménez, Juan J; Palencia, Pilar García; Meana, Aránzazu

2008-10-01

142

Science and the "Civilizing Mission": France and the Colonial Enterprise  

E-print Network

Science and the "Civilizing Mission": France and the Colonial Enterprise Patrick Petitjean REHSEIS with a conference "20th Century Sciences: Beyond the Metropolis". 1 ORSTOM (Office de la Recherche Scientifique et," founded in 1943.2 This conference showed an evident acceptance of the colonial heritage in science

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

143

The Transatlantic Constitution: Colonial Legal Culture and the Empire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Departing from traditional approaches to colonial legal history, Mary Sarah Bilder argues that American law and legal culture developed within the framework of an evolving, unwritten transatlantic constitution that lawyers, legislators, and litigants on both sides of the Atlantic understood. The central tenet of this constitution--that colonial laws and customs could not be repugnant to the laws of England but

Mary Sarah Bilder

2005-01-01

144

The Legacy of Colonialism: Law and Women's Rights in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between nineteenth century England and colonial India was complex in terms of negotiating the different constituencies that claimed an interest in the economic and moral development of the colonies. After India became subject to the sovereignty of the English Monarchy in 1858, its future became indelibly linked with that of England's, yet India's own unique history and culture

Varsha Chitnis; Danaya Wright

2007-01-01

145

The paradoxical after-life of colonial governmentality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Employing the emergency number 911 as a device to open onto two continents of governance – one ‘hot’ the other ‘cold’, one binary, the other the disaggregation of the binary – this paper shows that colonial governmentality is marked by a paradoxical combination of the two. Moreover, it argues that colonial governmentality is the progenitor of this form of governance

Michael Dutton

2010-01-01

146

Nonrelatives inherit colony resources in a primitive termite  

PubMed Central

The evolution of eusociality, especially how selection would favor sterility or subfertility of most individuals within a highly social colony, is an unresolved paradox. Eusociality evolved independently in diverse taxa, including insects (all ants and termites; some bees, wasps, thrips, and beetles), snapping shrimp, and naked mole rats. Termites have received comparatively less focus than the haplodiploid Hymenoptera (ants, bees, and wasps); however, they are the only diploid group with highly complex colonies and an extraordinary diversity of castes. In this study we staged encounters between unrelated colonies of primitive dampwood termites, Zootermopsis nevadensis, mimicking natural meetings that occur under bark. During encounters, kings and/or queens were killed and surviving members merged into one colony. After encounters, members of both unrelated colonies cooperated as a single social unit. We determined the colony of origin of replacement reproductives that emerged after death of kings and/or queens. Here, we document that replacement reproductives developed from workers in either or both original colonies, inherited the merged resources of the colony, and sometimes interbred. Because this species shares many characteristics with ancestral termites, these findings demonstrate how ecological factors could have promoted the evolution of eusociality by accelerating and enhancing direct fitness opportunities of helper offspring, rendering relatedness favoring kin selection less critical. PMID:19805058

Johns, Philip M.; Howard, Kenneth J.; Breisch, Nancy L.; Rivera, Anahi; Thorne, Barbara L.

2009-01-01

147

Does genetic diversity hinder parasite evolution in social insect colonies?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyandry is often difficult to explain because benefits of the behaviour have proved elusive. In social insects, polyandry increases the genetic diversity of workers within a colony and this has been suggested to improve the resistance of the colony to disease. Here we examine the possible impact of host genetic diversity on parasite evolution by carrying out serial passages of

W. O. H. HUGHES; J. J. BOOMSMA

2005-01-01

148

Thoughts on information and integration in honey bee colonies  

E-print Network

Review Thoughts on information and integration in honey bee colonies Thomas D. Seeley Section 1997) Abstract - Solving the puzzle of colony integration in honey bees requires understanding how a worker bee acquires the information that she needs to decide correctly, moment-by-moment, what task

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

149

A model for predation pressure in colonial birds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different explanations have been proposed for the existence of colonial breeding behavior in birds, but field studies offer no conclusive results. We analyze the interplay between learning habits and predation pressure by means of numerical simulations. Our analysis suggests that extremely simple learning processes and equally simplistic models of predation pressure lead to the formation of stable colonies.

Tella, J. L.; de Cara, M. A. R.; Pla, O.; Guinea, F.

2001-06-01

150

Restoration of a multi-species seabird colony  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nesting herring and great black-backed gulls (Larus argentatus and Larus marinus) were removed from a recently abandoned tern (Sterna sp.) colony through a combination of poisoning and shooting. Following gull control, all three species of tern that had nested in the colony prior to the arrival of the gulls returned and nested in increasing numbers. In addition to the restoration

John G. T. Anderson; Catherine M. Devlin

1999-01-01

151

Rapid communication Response of Apis mellifera L colonies  

E-print Network

Rapid communication Response of Apis mellifera L colonies infested with Varroa jacobsoni Oud O- tude of the removal behavior. Apis mellifera/ Varroa jacobsoni/ hygienic behavior INTRODUCTION of A mellifera colonies to Varroa-infested brood cells has been investi- gated. Using special combs which

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

152

Colony integration and reproductive conflict in honey bees  

E-print Network

Review Colony integration and reproductive conflict in honey bees P.K. Visscher Department 1997) Abstract - Honey bee colonies, although highly cooperative, are composed of genetically dis production of males. Sex ratio conflict is expected to be minimal and hard to measure in honey bees

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

153

Idiocy and the Law in Colonial New England.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of laws and records of the courts of colonial New England indicates early laws of Massachusetts extended certain rights to idiots: they authorized the transfer of property, exonerated idiots who committed capital crimes, and extended relief to impoverished idiots. The relationship between colonial laws and present legislation is examined.…

Wickham, Parnel

2001-01-01

154

The Importance of Microbes in Nutrition and Health of Honey Bee Colonies Part-2: Factors Affecting the Microbial Community in Honey Bee Colonies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Honey bee colonies have innumerable symbiotic bacteria and fungi that are essential to the health of the colony. In the first part of this series, we discussed the importance of microbes in maintaining the health of honey bee colonies. The bacteria, yeasts and molds that live in a healthy colony a...

155

Histiocytic typhlocolitis in two colony Beagle dogs.  

PubMed

Two young female Beagle dogs in a laboratory colony with clinical signs of loose stools and fecal blood were confirmed to have histiocytic ulcerative colitis by histologic evaluation. This syndrome is well recognized in other dog breeds such as Boxers and related French Bulldogs, Mastiffs, Alaskan malamutes and Doberman Pinschers. Formalin-fixed paraffin sections of large intestine from one dog demonstrated the presence of Escherichia coli strain LF82 by immunohistochemistry and 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. E coli strain LF82 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease and similar bacteria have been cultured from cases of histiocytic ulcerative colitis in Boxer dogs. Spontaneous histiocytic ulcerative colitis must be differentiated from test article-related findings in nonclinical toxicity studies in Beagle dogs. PMID:25467750

Carvallo, Francisco R; Kerlin, Roy; Fredette, Claudine; Pisharath, Harshan; DebRoy, Chitrita; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie; Pardo, Ingrid D

2015-02-01

156

Optic disc detection using ant colony optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The retinal fundus images are used in the treatment and diagnosis of several eye diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma. This paper proposes a new method to detect the optic disc (OD) automatically, due to the fact that the knowledge of the OD location is essential to the automatic analysis of retinal images. Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is an optimization algorithm inspired by the foraging behaviour of some ant species that has been applied in image processing for edge detection. Recently, the ACO was used in fundus images to detect edges, and therefore, to segment the OD and other anatomical retinal structures. We present an algorithm for the detection of OD in the retina which takes advantage of the Gabor wavelet transform, entropy and ACO algorithm. Forty images of the retina from DRIVE database were used to evaluate the performance of our method.

Dias, Marcy A.; Monteiro, Fernando C.

2012-09-01

157

Genetic variation within social insect colonies reduces parasite load  

PubMed Central

In colonies of social Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps), workers are often not very closely related to each other, because queens mate with several different males (polyandry) or because several functional queens are present (polygyny). Both characteristics increase genetic variation among the queens' reproductive and worker offspring, but the benefits of this increased variation remain obscure. Here we report an experiment where genetically homogeneous and genetically heterogeneous colonies of the bumble bee, Bombus terrestris, have been exposed to parasitism under field conditions. Colonies of high or low genetic variation were achieved by adding and removing brood from donor colonies. The results showed a consistent effect in that genetically variable colonies experienced reduced parasite loads, i.e. lower prevalence, intensity and parasite species richness, for a range of protozoa, nematodes, mites or parasitoids affecting the workers. We therefore propose that polyandry and/or polygyny of social insects may be beneficial under parasitism.

Liersch, S.; Schmid-Hempel, P.

1998-01-01

158

Leisure, economy and colonial urbanism: Darjeeling, 1835–1930  

PubMed Central

This article posits that the hill station of Darjeeling was a unique form of colonial urbanism. It shifts historiographical interest from major urban centres in colonial India (such as Bombay or Calcutta) and instead attempts a greater understanding of smaller urban centres. In the process, it also interrogates the category of hill stations, which have been understood as exotic and scenic sites rather than as towns that were integral to the colonial economy. In arguing that hill stations, particularly Darjeeling, were not merely the scenic and healthy ‘other’ of the clamorous, dirty and diseased plains of India, it refutes suggestions that the ‘despoiling’ or overcrowding of Darjeeling was incremental to the purposes of its establishment. Instead, it suggests that Darjeeling was part of the colonial mainstream; its urbanization and inclusion into the greater colonial economy was effected from the time of its establishment. Therefore, a constant tension between its exotic and its functional elements persisted throughout. PMID:24273391

BHATTACHARYA, NANDINI

2013-01-01

159

Iridovirus and Microsporidian Linked to Honey Bee Colony Decline  

PubMed Central

Background In 2010 Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), again devastated honey bee colonies in the USA, indicating that the problem is neither diminishing nor has it been resolved. Many CCD investigations, using sensitive genome-based methods, have found small RNA bee viruses and the microsporidia, Nosema apis and N. ceranae in healthy and collapsing colonies alike with no single pathogen firmly linked to honey bee losses. Methodology/Principal Findings We used Mass spectrometry-based proteomics (MSP) to identify and quantify thousands of proteins from healthy and collapsing bee colonies. MSP revealed two unreported RNA viruses in North American honey bees, Varroa destructor-1 virus and Kakugo virus, and identified an invertebrate iridescent virus (IIV) (Iridoviridae) associated with CCD colonies. Prevalence of IIV significantly discriminated among strong, failing, and collapsed colonies. In addition, bees in failing colonies contained not only IIV, but also Nosema. Co-occurrence of these microbes consistently marked CCD in (1) bees from commercial apiaries sampled across the U.S. in 2006–2007, (2) bees sequentially sampled as the disorder progressed in an observation hive colony in 2008, and (3) bees from a recurrence of CCD in Florida in 2009. The pathogen pairing was not observed in samples from colonies with no history of CCD, namely bees from Australia and a large, non-migratory beekeeping business in Montana. Laboratory cage trials with a strain of IIV type 6 and Nosema ceranae confirmed that co-infection with these two pathogens was more lethal to bees than either pathogen alone. Conclusions/Significance These findings implicate co-infection by IIV and Nosema with honey bee colony decline, giving credence to older research pointing to IIV, interacting with Nosema and mites, as probable cause of bee losses in the USA, Europe, and Asia. We next need to characterize the IIV and Nosema that we detected and develop management practices to reduce honey bee losses. PMID:20949138

Bromenshenk, Jerry J.; Henderson, Colin B.; Wick, Charles H.; Stanford, Michael F.; Zulich, Alan W.; Jabbour, Rabih E.; Deshpande, Samir V.; McCubbin, Patrick E.; Seccomb, Robert A.; Welch, Phillip M.; Williams, Trevor; Firth, David R.; Skowronski, Evan; Lehmann, Margaret M.; Bilimoria, Shan L.; Gress, Joanna; Wanner, Kevin W.; Cramer, Robert A.

2010-01-01

160

Declining thick-billed murre Uria lomvia colonies experience higher gull predation rates: an inter-colony comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Avian predators of colonial-nesting seabirds preferentially attack individuals nesting alone or on the edge of groups, apparently because they can forage without being struck by defending neighbours. If nesting densities of colonial seabirds declined, predators are predicted to have fewer foraging constraints and consequently a greater impact on seabird reproduction. Thus, avian predation could prevent the recovery of seabird populations

H. Grant Gilchrist

1999-01-01

161

ARRIVAL AND DEPARTURE FREQUENCIES OF GREAT BLUE HERONS AT TWO OREGON ESTUARINE COLONIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

of low tide, and the largest average colony synchrony was then 23% of the breeding herons\\/h. The average time between arrivals per heron at a 36-39-nest and an 8-nest colony was 6.7 h, which indicates that herons infrequently returned to a colony. Most herons (64% at the larger colony, 95% at the smaller colony) departed the colony alone. The clumping

RANGE D. BAYER

162

The colonial context of Filipino American immigrants' psychological experiences.  

PubMed

Because of the long colonial history of Filipinos and the highly Americanized climate of postcolonial Philippines, many scholars from various disciplines have speculated that colonialism and its legacies may play major roles in Filipino emigration to the United States. However, there are no known empirical studies in psychology that specifically investigate whether colonialism and its effects have influenced the psychological experiences of Filipino American immigrants prior to their arrival in the United States. Further, there is no existing empirical study that specifically investigates the extent to which colonialism and its legacies continue to influence Filipino American immigrants' mental health. Thus, using interviews (N = 6) and surveys (N = 219) with Filipino American immigrants, two studies found that colonialism and its consequences are important factors to consider when conceptualizing the psychological experiences of Filipino American immigrants. Specifically, the findings suggest that (a) Filipino American immigrants experienced ethnic and cultural denigration in the Philippines prior to their U.S. arrival, (b) ethnic and cultural denigration in the Philippines and in the United States may lead to the development of colonial mentality (CM), and (c) that CM may have negative mental health consequences among Filipino American immigrants. The two studies' findings suggest that the Filipino American immigration experience cannot be completely captured by the voluntary immigrant narrative, as they provide empirical support to the notion that the Filipino American immigration experience needs to be understood in the context of colonialism and its most insidious psychological legacy- CM. PMID:23875854

David, E J R; Nadal, Kevin L

2013-07-01

163

A View of Future Human Colonies on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a recent feasibility study, ORBITEC conceptualized systems and an evolving architecture for producing and utilizing Mars-based in-situ resources utilization (ISRU) propellant combinations. The propellants will be used to support the propulsion and power systems for ground and flight vehicles that would be part of Mars exploration and colonization. The key aspect of the study was to show the benefits of ISRU, develop an analysis methodology, as well as provide some guidance to future propellant system choices based upon what is known today about Mars. The study time frame included an early unmanned and manned exploration period (now to 2040) and a colonization period that occurs from 2040 to 2090. As part of this feasibility study, ORBITEC developed two different Mars colonization scenarios, namely a low case that ends with a 100-person colony and a high case that ends with a 10.000-person colony. A population growth model, mission traffic model, and infrastructure model was developed for each scenario to better understand the requirements of future Mars colonies. This paper outlines the characteristics of the Mars colonies that ORBITEC envisions under both colonization scenarios. This includes a discussion of the flow of people and materials between the Earth and Mars, the infrastructure requirements of the colonies, potential colony configurations, and the mission requirements of the colonies.

Gustafson, Robert J.; Rice, Eric E.; Gramer, Daniel J.; White, Brant C.

2003-01-01

164

Between stigmatisation and regulation: prostitution in colonial Northern Vietnam.  

PubMed

Colonisation was a masculine adventure which took place in a distorted world full of 'welcoming' native women. The colonial encounter therefore was both racial and gendered: boundaries between European men and Vietnamese women were obvious. On the other hand the intimacy that resulted from this encounter blurred the racial boundaries that were the foundation of the colonial order. These boundaries had to be redrawn or sharpened. Focusing on French colonial northern Vietnam (Tonkin) this paper examines how the whole colonial encounter was embodied in the sexual encounter between European men and native women and how prostitution was an integral part of the colonial order. This analysis of the regulation of prostitution and its ambivalence reveals that the definition of prostitution and its treatment by the French colonial authorities was political, racial and therefore connected to a specific period. The political definition of prostitution in today's Vietnam is different from the colonial one. This shift reveals that prostitution is a pertinent vantage point from which one can study how a society apprehends itself and its own future. PMID:20364443

Tracol-Huynh, Isabelle

2010-08-01

165

The hyper-cube framework for ant colony optimization.  

PubMed

Ant colony optimization is a metaheuristic approach belonging to the class of model-based search algorithms. In this paper, we propose a new framework for implementing ant colony optimization algorithms called the hyper-cube framework for ant colony optimization. In contrast to the usual way of implementing ant colony optimization algorithms, this framework limits the pheromone values to the interval [0,1]. This is obtained by introducing changes in the pheromone value update rule. These changes can in general be applied to any pheromone value update rule used in ant colony optimization. We discuss the benefits coming with this new framework. The benefits are twofold. On the theoretical side, the new framework allows us to prove that in Ant System, the ancestor of all ant colony optimization algorithms, the average quality of the solutions produced increases in expectation over time when applied to unconstrained problems. On the practical side, the new framework automatically handles the scaling of the objective function values. We experimentally show that this leads on average to a more robust behavior of ant colony optimization algorithms. PMID:15376861

Blum, Christian; Dorigo, Marco

2004-04-01

166

Impacts of inbreeding on bumblebee colony fitness under field conditions  

PubMed Central

Background Inbreeding and the loss of genetic diversity are known to be significant threats to small, isolated populations. Hymenoptera represent a special case regarding the impact of inbreeding. Haplodiploidy may permit purging of deleterious recessive alleles in haploid males, meaning inbreeding depression is reduced relative to diploid species. In contrast, the impact of inbreeding may be exacerbated in Hymenopteran species that have a single-locus complementary sex determination system, due to the production of sterile or inviable diploid males. We investigated the costs of brother-sister mating in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris. We compared inbred colonies that produced diploid males and inbred colonies that did not produce diploid males with outbred colonies. Mating, hibernation and colony founding took place in the laboratory. Once colonies had produced 15 offspring they were placed in the field and left to forage under natural conditions. Results The diploid male colonies had a significantly reduced fitness compared to regular inbred and outbred colonies; they had slower growth rates in the laboratory, survived for a shorter time period under field conditions and produced significantly fewer offspring overall. No differences in success were found between non-diploid male inbred colonies and outbred colonies. Conclusion Our data illustrate that inbreeding exacts a considerable cost in Bombus terrestris through the production of diploid males. We suggest that diploid males may act as indicators of the genetic health of populations, and that their detection could be used as an informative tool in hymenopteran conservation. We conclude that whilst haplodiploids may suffer less inbreeding depression than diploid species, they are still highly vulnerable to population fragmentation and reduced genetic diversity due to the extreme costs imposed by the production of diploid males. PMID:19573223

Whitehorn, Penelope R; Tinsley, Matthew C; Brown, Mark JF; Darvill, Ben; Goulson, Dave

2009-01-01

167

Polymerase chain reaction for verification of fluorescent colonies of Erwinia chrysanthemi and Pseudomonas putida WCS358 in immunofluorescence colony staining.  

PubMed

The potential of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for verifying the identity of colonies stained by the immunofluorescence colony-staining (IFC) procedure was investigated. Using primers directed against conserved sequences of the pectate lyase-genes coding for isozymes PLa, PLd and PLe of Erwinia chrysanthemi, the authors confirmed the identity of 96% of 20 fluorescent target colonies, punched from IFC-stained samples with pure cultures. In pour plates with mixtures of Erw. chrysanthemi and non-target colonies from potato peel extracts, the identity of 90% of 113 target colonies was confirmed. Using primers directed against sequences of the ferric-pseudobactin receptor gene pupA of Pseudomonas putida WCS358, the identity of 96% of 22 target colonies was confirmed in IFC-stained samples with pure cultures. In pour plates with mixtures of Ps. putida WCS358 and non-target bacteria from compost extracts, the identity of 59% of 108 fluorescent colonies was confirmed by PCR. It was shown that components from non-target bacteria lowered the threshold level of PCR for Ps. putida WCS358 100-fold. PMID:8567494

van der Wolf, J M; van Beckhoven, J R; de Vries, P M; Raaijmakers, J M; Bakker, P A; Bertheau, Y; van Vuurde, J W

1995-11-01

168

Modeling the dynamics of ant colony optimization.  

PubMed

The dynamics of Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithms is studied using a deterministic model that assumes an average expected behavior of the algorithms. The ACO optimization metaheuristic is an iterative approach, where in every iteration, artificial ants construct solutions randomly but guided by pheromone information stemming from former ants that found good solutions. The behavior of ACO algorithms and the ACO model are analyzed for certain types of permutation problems. It is shown analytically that the decisions of an ant are influenced in an intriguing way by the use of the pheromone information and the properties of the pheromone matrix. This explains why ACO algorithms can show a complex dynamic behavior even when there is only one ant per iteration and no competition occurs. The ACO model is used to describe the algorithm behavior as a combination of situations with different degrees of competition between the ants. This helps to better understand the dynamics of the algorithm when there are several ants per iteration as is always the case when using ACO algorithms for optimization. Simulations are done to compare the behavior of the ACO model with the ACO algorithm. Results show that the deterministic model describes essential features of the dynamics of ACO algorithms quite accurately, while other aspects of the algorithms behavior cannot be found in the model. PMID:12227995

Merkle, Daniel; Middendorf, Martin

2002-01-01

169

Granulocyte Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor  

PubMed Central

Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model for multiple sclerosis, can be induced by immunization with a number of myelin antigens. In particular, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, a central nervous system (CNS)-specific antigen expressed on the myelin surface, is able to induce a paralytic MS-like disease with extensive CNS inflammation and demyelination in several strains of animals. Although not well understood, the egress of immune cells into the CNS in EAE is governed by a complex interplay between pro and antiinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. The hematopoietic growth factor, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), is considered to play a central role in maintaining chronic inflammation. The present study was designed to investigate the previously unexplored role of GM-CSF in autoimmune-mediated demyelination. GM-CSF?/? mice are resistant to EAE, display decreased antigen-specific proliferation of splenocytes, and fail to sustain immune cell infiltrates in the CNS, thus revealing key activities for GM-CSF in the development of inflammatory demyelinating lesions and control of migration and/or proliferation of leukocytes within the CNS. These results hold implications for the pathogenesis of inflammatory and demyelinating diseases and may provide the basis for more effective therapies for inflammatory diseases, and more specifically for multiple sclerosis. PMID:11581310

McQualter, Jonathan L.; Darwiche, Rima; Ewing, Christine; Onuki, Manabu; Kay, Thomas W.; Hamilton, John A.; Reid, Hugh H.; Bernard, Claude C.A.

2001-01-01

170

How can bee colony algorithm serve medicine?  

PubMed

Healthcare professionals usually should make complex decisions with far reaching consequences and associated risks in health care fields. As it was demonstrated in other industries, the ability to drill down into pertinent data to explore knowledge behind the data can greatly facilitate superior, informed decisions to ensue the facts. Nature has always inspired researchers to develop models of solving the problems. Bee colony algorithm (BCA), based on the self-organized behavior of social insects is one of the most popular member of the family of population oriented, nature inspired meta-heuristic swarm intelligence method which has been proved its superiority over some other nature inspired algorithms. The objective of this model was to identify valid novel, potentially useful, and understandable correlations and patterns in existing data. This review employs a thematic analysis of online series of academic papers to outline BCA in medical hive, reducing the response and computational time and optimizing the problems. To illustrate the benefits of this model, the cases of disease diagnose system are presented. PMID:25489530

Salehahmadi, Zeinab; Manafi, Amir

2014-07-01

171

Was Fundamental Education Another Form Of Colonialism?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A description of the work of Pedro Tamesis Orata provides an opportunity to investigate the conflicts that can occur when educators seek to reduce poverty while trying to respect indigenous cultures. A native of the Philippines, Orata completed his doctoral studies at the Ohio State University in 1927. During US President Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal, he accepted the position of school principal for the US Bureau of Indian Affairs. After World War II, he directed the spread of fundamental education through the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). In his final years, he returned to the Philippines where he began a movement to spread what were called self-help high schools. In these activities, Orata taught people to follow John Dewey's five steps of thinking while working to improve their standards of living. In the 1970s, educators, such as Paulo Freire, complained that problem-solving methods, similar to those Orata favored, reinforced the oppressive aspects of formerly colonial societies. While Freire may have been overly critical, conflicts among cultural orientations appear to be unavoidable. The hope behind this investigation is that the difficulties can be reduced when people understand the different forces that persist.

Watras, Joseph

2007-01-01

172

21 CFR 866.2170 - Automated colony counter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2170 Automated colony counter. (a)...

2010-04-01

173

21 CFR 866.2180 - Manual colony counter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2180 Manual colony counter. (a)...

2011-04-01

174

21 CFR 866.2180 - Manual colony counter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2180 Manual colony counter. (a)...

2013-04-01

175

21 CFR 866.2170 - Automated colony counter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2170 Automated colony counter. (a)...

2013-04-01

176

21 CFR 866.2180 - Manual colony counter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2180 Manual colony counter. (a)...

2010-04-01

177

21 CFR 866.2180 - Manual colony counter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2180 Manual colony counter. (a)...

2014-04-01

178

21 CFR 866.2170 - Automated colony counter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2170 Automated colony counter. (a)...

2011-04-01

179

Post-Colonial Cultures and Globalization in France  

E-print Network

among these minorities. Language policies in France The mid-France signed the Council of Europe Charter for Regional or Minority Languages,language policies in France and their implications for post-colonial minorities.

Hargreaves, Alec G.

2005-01-01

180

Honeybee colony collapse due to Nosema ceranae in professional apiaries.  

PubMed

Honeybee colony collapse is a sanitary and ecological worldwide problem. The features of this syndrome are an unexplained disappearance of adult bees, a lack of brood attention, reduced colony strength, and heavy winter mortality without any previous evident pathological disturbances. To date there has not been a consensus about its origins. This report describes the clinical features of two professional bee-keepers affecting by this syndrome. Anamnesis, clinical examination and analyses support that the depopulation in both cases was due to the infection by Nosema ceranae (Microsporidia), an emerging pathogen of Apis mellifera. No other significant pathogens or pesticides (neonicotinoids) were detected and the bees had not been foraging in corn or sunflower crops. The treatment with fumagillin avoided the loss of surviving weak colonies. This is the first case report of honeybee colony collapse due to N. ceranae in professional apiaries in field conditions reported worldwide. PMID:23765741

Higes, Mariano; Martín-Hernández, Raquel; Garrido-Bailón, Encarna; González-Porto, Amelia V; García-Palencia, Pilar; Meana, Aranzazu; Del Nozal, María J; Mayo, R; Bernal, José L

2009-04-01

181

From colonial jewel to socialist metropolis : Dalian 1895-1955  

E-print Network

the China Eastern Railway (CER), the Russian navy made itsand the Russian blueprint for “conquest by railway. ” 47Russian colonial blueprint, particularly in terms of what he calls “conquest by railway,”

Hess, Christian A.

2006-01-01

182

Pre-colonial Ethnic Institutions and Contemporary African Development*  

PubMed Central

We investigate the role of deeply-rooted pre-colonial ethnic institutions in shaping comparative regional development within African countries. We combine information on the spatial distribution of ethnicities before colonization with regional variation in contemporary economic performance, as proxied by satellite images of light density at night. We document a strong association between pre-colonial ethnic political centralization and regional development. This pattern is not driven by differences in local geographic features or by other observable ethnic-specific cultural and economic variables. The strong positive association between pre-colonial political complexity and contemporary development obtains also within pairs of adjacent ethnic homelands with different legacies of pre-colonial political institutions. PMID:25089052

Michalopoulos, Stelios; Papaioannou, Elias

2013-01-01

183

A non-policing honey bee colony (Apis mellifera capensis)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Cape honey bee Apis mellifera capensis, workers lay female eggs without mating by thelytokous parthenogenesis. As a result, workers are as related to worker-laid eggs as they are to queen-laid eggs and therefore worker policing is expected to be lower, or even absent. This was tested by transferring worker- and queen-laid eggs into three queenright A. m. capensis discriminator colonies and monitoring their removal. Our results show that worker policing is variable in A. m. capensis and that in one colony worker-laid eggs were not removed. This is the first report of a non-policing queenright honey bee colony. DNA microsatellite and morphometric analysis suggests that the racial composition of the three discriminator colonies was different. The variation in policing rates could be explained by differences in degrees of hybridisation between A. m. capensis and A. m. scutellata, although a larger survey is needed to confirm this.

Beekman, Madeleine; Good, Gregory; Allsopp, Mike; Radloff, Sarah; Pirk, Chris; Ratnieks, Francis

2002-09-01

184

Translation, Biopoliticsand Colonial difference Naoki Sakai and Jon Solomon  

E-print Network

Translation, Biopoliticsand Colonial difference Naoki Sakai and Jon Solomon The primary imperative in codification.According to this representational scheme, "translation" names the process ofencoding parlance, "cultural translation" names the ostensibly ethicalrelation to the other founded on mutual

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

185

Data mining with an ant colony optimization algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work proposes an algorithm for data mining called Ant-Miner (Ant Colony-based Data Miner). The goal of Ant-Miner is to extract classification rules from data. The algorithm is inspired by both research on the behavior of real ant colonies and some data mining concepts and principles. We compare the performance of Ant-Miner with CN2, a well-known data mining algorithm for

Rafael S. Parpinelli; Heitor S. Lopes; Alex Alves Freitas

2002-01-01

186

Video Bioinformatics Analysis of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Colony Growth  

PubMed Central

Because video data are complex and are comprised of many images, mining information from video material is difficult to do without the aid of computer software. Video bioinformatics is a powerful quantitative approach for extracting spatio-temporal data from video images using computer software to perform dating mining and analysis. In this article, we introduce a video bioinformatics method for quantifying the growth of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) by analyzing time-lapse videos collected in a Nikon BioStation CT incubator equipped with a camera for video imaging. In our experiments, hESC colonies that were attached to Matrigel were filmed for 48 hours in the BioStation CT. To determine the rate of growth of these colonies, recipes were developed using CL-Quant software which enables users to extract various types of data from video images. To accurately evaluate colony growth, three recipes were created. The first segmented the image into the colony and background, the second enhanced the image to define colonies throughout the video sequence accurately, and the third measured the number of pixels in the colony over time. The three recipes were run in sequence on video data collected in a BioStation CT to analyze the rate of growth of individual hESC colonies over 48 hours. To verify the truthfulness of the CL-Quant recipes, the same data were analyzed manually using Adobe Photoshop software. When the data obtained using the CL-Quant recipes and Photoshop were compared, results were virtually identical, indicating the CL-Quant recipes were truthful. The method described here could be applied to any video data to measure growth rates of hESC or other cells that grow in colonies. In addition, other video bioinformatics recipes can be developed in the future for other cell processes such as migration, apoptosis, and cell adhesion. PMID:20495527

Lin, Sabrina; Fonteno, Shawn; Satish, Shruthi; Bhanu, Bir; Talbot, Prue

2010-01-01

187

Diffusion-limited growth in bacterial colony formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colonies of bacterial species called Bacillus subtilis have been found to grow two-dimensionally and self-similarly on agar plates through diffusion-limited processes in a nutrient concentration field. We obtained a fractal dimension of the colony patterns of D=1.73+\\/-0.02, very close to that of the two-dimensional DLA model, and confirmed the existence of the screening effect of protruding main branches against inner

Mitsugu Matsushita; Hiroshi Fujikawa

1990-01-01

188

Characterization of Colony Morphology Variants Isolated from Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms  

PubMed Central

In this study, we report the isolation of small, rough, strongly cohesive colony morphology variants from aging Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms. Similar to many of the P. aeruginosa colony morphology variants previously described in the literature, these variants autoaggregate in liquid culture and hyperadhere to solid surfaces. They also exhibit increased hydrophobicity and reduced motility compared to the wild-type parent strain. Despite the similarities in appearance of our colony morphology variant isolates on solid medium, the isolates showed a range of responses in various phenotypic assays. These variants form biofilms with significant three-dimensional structure and more biomass than the wild-type parent. To further explore the nature of the variants, their transcriptional profiles were evaluated. The variants generally showed increased expression of the psl and pel loci, which have been previously implicated in the adherence of P. aeruginosa to solid surfaces. When a mutation in the psl locus was introduced into a colony morphology variant, the colony morphology was only partially affected, but hyperadherence and autoaggregation were lost. Finally, similar colony morphology variants were found in isolates from cystic fibrosis patients. These variants displayed many of the same characteristics as the laboratory variants, suggesting a link between laboratory and cystic fibrosis biofilms. PMID:16085879

Kirisits, Mary Jo; Prost, Lynne; Starkey, Melissa; Parsek, Matthew R.

2005-01-01

189

Transits of Venus and Colonial India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomical expeditions during the colonial period had a political and national significance also. Measuring the earth and mapping the sky were activities worthy of powerful and power- seeking nations. Such was the sanctity of global astronomical activity that many other agendas could be hidden under it. An early astronomy-related expedition turned out to be extremely beneficial, to botany. The expedition sent by the French Government in 1735 to South America under the leadership of Charles Marie de la Condamine (1701--1774) ostensibly for the measurement of an arc of the meridian at Quito in Ecuador surreptitiously collected data that enabled Linnaeus to describe the genus cinchona in 1742. When the pair of transits of Venus occurred in 1761 and 1769, France and England were engaged in a bitter rivalry for control of India. The observation of the transits became a part of the rivalry. A telescope presented by the British to a South Indian King as a decorative toy was borrowed back for actual use. Scientifically the transit observations were a wash out, but the exercise introduced Europe to details of living Indian tradition of eclipse calculations. More significantly, it led to the institutionalization of modern astronomy in India under the auspices of the English East India Company (1787). The transits of Venus of 1874 and 1882 were important not so much for the study of the events as for initiating systematic photography of the Sun. By this, Britain owned most of the world's sunshine, and was expected to help European solar physicists get data from its vast Empire on a regular basis. This and the then genuinely held belief that a study of the sun would help predict failure of monsoons led to the institutionalization of solar physics studies in India (1899). Of course, when the solar physicists learnt that solar activity did not quite determine rainfall in India, they forgot to inform the Government.

Kochhar, Rajesh

2012-09-01

190

A metagenomic survey of microbes in honey bee colony collapse disorder  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), honey bee colonies inexplicably lose all of their workers. CCD has resulted in a loss of 50-90% of colonies in beekeeping operations across the United States. The observation that irradiated combs from affected colonies can be repopulated with naïve bees suggests a...

191

Experimental study for automatic colony counting system based on image processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colony number in many colony calculating experiments is counted by manual method at present, therefore it is difficult to get the result quickly and accurately when the number of experimental sample is large. A new automatic colony counting system was developed, which makes use of image-processing technology to feasibly count white bacterial colonies in clear plates according to the RGB

Shen Wei-zheng; Zhao Jie; Wu Ya-chun; Zheng Hui

2010-01-01

192

Division of labour in colony defence against vertebrate predators by the social wasp Polistes fuscatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study I examined how the paper wasp, Polistes fuscatus, defends a colony when faced with a vertebrate attack. I looked for a division of labour in defensive behaviour within a colony and examined whether this behaviour changes over the colony cycle. The colonies were presented with a model of an adult red-winged blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus, and a speaker

Timothy M. Judd

2000-01-01

193

Spread of plague among black-tailed prairie dogs is associated with colony spatial characteristics  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sylvatic plague (Yersinia pestis) is an exotic pathogen that is highly virulent in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) and causes widespread colony losses and individual mortality rates >95%. We investigated colony spatial characteristics that may influence inter-colony transmission of plague at 3 prairie dog colony complexes in the Great Plains. The 4 spatial characteristics we considered include: colony size, Euclidean distance to nearest neighboring colony, colony proximity index, and distance to nearest drainage (dispersal) corridor. We used multi-state mark-recapture models to determine the relationship between these colony characteristics and probability of plague transmission among prairie dog colonies. Annual mapping of colonies and mark-recapture analyses of disease dynamics in natural colonies led to 4 main results: 1) plague outbreaks exhibited high spatial and temporal variation, 2) the site of initiation of epizootic plague may have substantially influenced the subsequent inter-colony spread of plague, 3) the long-term effect of plague on individual colonies differed among sites because of how individuals and colonies were distributed, and 4) colony spatial characteristics were related to the probability of infection at all sites although the relative importance and direction of relationships varied among sites. Our findings suggest that conventional prairie dog conservation management strategies, including promoting large, highly connected colonies, may need to be altered in the presence of plague. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

Johnson, T.L.; Cully, J.F., Jr.; Collinge, S.K.; Ray, C.; Frey, C.M.; Sandercock, B.K.

2011-01-01

194

A Metagenomic Survey of Microbes in Honey Bee Colony Collapse Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In colony collapse disorder (CCD), honey bee colonies inexplicably lose their workers. CCD has resulted in a loss of 50 to 90% of colonies in beekeeping operations across the United States. The observation that irradiated combs from affected colonies can be repopulated with naive bees suggests that infection may contribute to CCD. We used an unbiased metagenomic approach to survey

Diana L. Cox-Foster; Sean Conlan; Edward C. Holmes; Gustavo Palacios; Jay D. Evans; Nancy A. Moran; Phenix-Lan Quan; Thomas Briese; Mady Hornig; David M. Geiser; Vince Martinson; Dennis vanEngelsdorp; Abby L. Kalkstein; Andrew Drysdale; Jeffrey Hui; Junhui Zhai; Liwang Cui; Stephen K. Hutchison; Jan Fredrik Simons; Michael Egholm; Jeffery S. Pettis; W. Ian Lipkin

2007-01-01

195

Antipredator benefits of group living in colonial web-building spiders: the ‘early warning’ effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mexican colonial web-building spider Metepeira incrassata is frequently attacked by predatory wasps from a number of families. Previous studies have shown that wasps often attack more than one spider during a ‘run’ on a colony, but capture success declines as colony size increases, and that spiders in the central core of the colony have lower risk (Rayor & Uetz

GEORGE W. UETZ; Jay Boyle; CRAIG S. HIEBER; R. Stimson Wilcox

2002-01-01

196

Colony growth of human T-lymphocyte colony forming units (TL-CFU) after X-irradiation.  

PubMed

The effect of X-irradiation on growth of T-lymphocyte colony forming units (TL-CFU) from human peripheral blood was investigated. The results indicate that not the number of activated TL-CFU but the number of cell cycles of colony forming cells was reduced by X-irradiation. Therefore we presume that TL-CFU belong to a relatively radio-resistant cell population within the PHA-responsive lymphocytes. Kinetic studies revealed that colony growth following irradiation was delayed mainly during the phase of the first cell cycle. Preculture of the cells for 24 hours after irradiation with 1,200 R in the absence of PHA caused total inhibition of colony growth in the subsequent agar culture. In the presence of PHA no inhibition was observed. This finding appears to reflect a repair mechanism from radiation damage of lymphocytes stimulated by PHA. PMID:6979353

Ulmer, A J; Flad, H D

1981-12-01

197

California gull chicks raised near colony edges have elevated stress levels.  

PubMed

Coloniality in nesting birds represents an important life history strategy for maximizing reproductive success. Birds nesting near the edge of colonies tend to have lower reproductive success than individuals nesting near colony centers, and offspring of edge-nesting parents may be impaired relative to those of central-nesting parents. We used fecal corticosterone metabolites in California gull chicks (Larus californicus) to examine whether colony size or location within the colony influenced a chick's physiological condition. We found that chicks being raised near colony edges had higher fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations than chicks raised near colony centers, but that colony size (ranging from 150 to 11,554 nests) had no influence on fecal corticosterone levels. Fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations also increased with chick age. Our results suggest that similarly aged California gull chicks raised near colony edges may be more physiologically stressed, as indicated by corticosterone metabolites, than chicks raised near colony centers. PMID:21596043

Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T

2011-08-01

198

Individuals in an osprey colony discriminate between high and low quality information  

Microsoft Academic Search

A potential benefit of living in a colony is that animals may gain information about the location of good foraging sites from other colony members1-3. The role of information transfer as a major benefit favouring the evolution of coloniality is, however, very poorly understood4. Information transfer has been demonstrated for only a few colonial vertebrate species5-7, but not all colonial

Erick Greene

1987-01-01

199

Measurement of ammonia emissions from tropical seabird colonies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The excreta (guano) of seabirds at their breeding colonies represents a notable source of ammonia (NH3) emission to the atmosphere, with effects on surrounding ecosystems through nitrogen compounds being thereby transported from sea to land. Previous measurements in temperate UK conditions quantified emission hotspots and allowed preliminary global upscaling. However, thermodynamic processes and water availability limit NH3 formation from guano, which suggests that the proportion of excreted nitrogen that volatilizes as NH3 may potentially be higher at tropical seabird colonies than similar colonies in temperate or sub-polar regions. To investigate such differences, we measured NH3 concentrations and environmental conditions at two tropical seabird colonies during the breeding season: a colony of 20,000 tern spp. and noddies on Michaelmas Cay, Great Barrier Reef, and a colony of 200,000 Sooty terns on Ascension Island, Atlantic Ocean. At both sites time-integrated NH3 concentrations and meteorological parameters were measured. In addition, at Ascension Island, semi-continuous hourly NH3 concentrations and micrometeorological parameters were measured throughout the campaign. Ammonia emissions, quantified using a backwards Lagrangian atmospheric dispersion model, were estimated at 21.8 ?g m-2 s-1 and 18.9 ?g m-2 s-1 from Michaelmas Cay and Ascension Island, respectively. High temporal resolution NH3 data at Ascension Island estimated peak hourly emissions up to 377 ?g NH3 m2 s-1. The estimated percentage fraction of total guano nitrogen volatilized was 67% at Michaelmas Cay and 32% at Ascension Island, with the larger value at the former site attributed to higher water availability. These values are much larger than published data for sub-polar locations, pointing to a substantial climatic dependence on emission of atmospheric NH3 from seabird colonies.

Riddick, S. N.; Blackall, T. D.; Dragosits, U.; Daunt, F.; Braban, C. F.; Tang, Y. S.; MacFarlane, W.; Taylor, S.; Wanless, S.; Sutton, M. A.

2014-06-01

200

The production of diaspora: Algerian emigration from colonialism to neo-colonialism (1840-1970).  

PubMed

"This paper is part of a larger project investigating the production and regulation of North African immigrants in the greater Paris automobile industry. Its aims are twofold. First, to reverse the emphasis placed on immigrants in the receiving countries and to (re-)explore the historical production of Algerian emigration into metropolitan industry, more specifically within the automobile industry....Second, in adopting an ¿articulation of modes of production' (AMOP) narrative as an alternative to other Eurocentric approaches, the first part of this paper emphasizes the contradictory layering of various modes which have produced an Algerian colonial diaspora. The latter half of the paper argues that the history of post-independence Algeria confirms that emigration was reinforced through a complex neocolonial relationship during a period of rapid acceleration of Algerian migration to France." PMID:12292879

Samers, M

1997-01-01

201

Colonie Interim Storage Site: Annual environmental report for calendar year 1990, Colonie, New York  

SciTech Connect

Environmental monitoring of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS) and surrounding area began in 1984. CISS is part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), a DOE program to decontaminate or otherwise control sties where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. The routine environmental monitoring program at CISS includes sampling networks for external gamma radiation exposures and for radium-226, throium-232, an total uranium concentrations in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Additionally, the nonradiological parameters volatile and semivolatile organics, pesticides/polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), metals, total organic carbon (TOC), total organic halides (TOX), specific conductivity, and pH are measured in groundwater. 14 refs., 20 figs., 25 tabs.

Not Available

1991-09-01

202

Colonie Interim Storage Site annual site environmental report for calendar year 1989, Colonie, New York  

SciTech Connect

IN 1984, Congress assigned the cleanup of the National Lead (NL) Industries site in Colonie, New York, to the Department of Energy (DOE) as part of a decontamination research and development project under the 1984 Energy and Water Appropriations Act. DOE then included the site in the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), an existing DOE program to decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain for the early years of the nation's atomic energy program. DOE instituted an environmental monitoring program at the site in 1984. Results are presented annually in reports such as this. Under FUSRAP, the first environmental monitoring report for this site presented data for calendar year 1984. This report presents the findings of the environmental monitoring program conducted during calendar year 1989. 16 refs., 17 figs., 14 tabs.

Not Available

1990-05-01

203

Colony size predicts division of labour in attine ants.  

PubMed

Division of labour is central to the ecological success of eusocial insects, yet the evolutionary factors driving increases in complexity in division of labour are little known. The size-complexity hypothesis proposes that, as larger colonies evolve, both non-reproductive and reproductive division of labour become more complex as workers and queens act to maximize inclusive fitness. Using a statistically robust phylogenetic comparative analysis of social and environmental traits of species within the ant tribe Attini, we show that colony size is positively related to both non-reproductive (worker size variation) and reproductive (queen-worker dimorphism) division of labour. The results also suggested that colony size acts on non-reproductive and reproductive division of labour in different ways. Environmental factors, including measures of variation in temperature and precipitation, had no significant effects on any division of labour measure or colony size. Overall, these results support the size-complexity hypothesis for the evolution of social complexity and division of labour in eusocial insects. Determining the evolutionary drivers of colony size may help contribute to our understanding of the evolution of social complexity. PMID:25165765

Ferguson-Gow, Henry; Sumner, Seirian; Bourke, Andrew F G; Jones, Kate E

2014-10-22

204

Ant Colonies Prefer Infected over Uninfected Nest Sites  

PubMed Central

During colony relocation, the selection of a new nest involves exploration and assessment of potential sites followed by colony movement on the basis of a collective decision making process. Hygiene and pathogen load of the potential nest sites are factors worker scouts might evaluate, given the high risk of epidemics in group-living animals. Choosing nest sites free of pathogens is hypothesized to be highly efficient in invasive ants as each of their introduced populations is often an open network of nests exchanging individuals (unicolonial) with frequent relocation into new nest sites and low genetic diversity, likely making these species particularly vulnerable to parasites and diseases. We investigated the nest site preference of the invasive pharaoh ant, Monomorium pharaonis, through binary choice tests between three nest types: nests containing dead nestmates overgrown with sporulating mycelium of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum (infected nests), nests containing nestmates killed by freezing (uninfected nests), and empty nests. In contrast to the expectation pharaoh ant colonies preferentially (84%) moved into the infected nest when presented with the choice of an infected and an uninfected nest. The ants had an intermediate preference for empty nests. Pharaoh ants display an overall preference for infected nests during colony relocation. While we cannot rule out that the ants are actually manipulated by the pathogen, we propose that this preference might be an adaptive strategy by the host to “immunize” the colony against future exposure to the same pathogenic fungus. PMID:25372856

Pontieri, Luigi; Vojvodic, Svjetlana; Graham, Riley; Pedersen, Jes Søe; Linksvayer, Timothy A.

2014-01-01

205

Remedial action work plan for the Colonie site. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The Colonie site is a DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) site located in the Town of Colonie, New York, and consisting of an interim storage site and several vicinity properties. The Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS) is the former National Lead (NL) Industries plant located at 1130 Central Avenue. There are 11 vicinity properties that received remedial action in 1984: 7 located south of the site on Yardboro and Palmer Avenues just across the Colonie-Albany town limits in Albany, and 4 located northwest of the site along Central Avenue in Colonie. Of these properties, nine are residences and two are commercial properties. This document describes the engineering design, construction, and associated plans for remedial action on the vicinity properties and the interim storage site. These plans include both radiological and chemical work. Radiological work includes: excavating the above-guideline radioactive wastes on the vicinity properties; designing required facilities for the interim storage site; preparing the interim storage site to receive these contaminated materials; transporting the contaminated materials to the interim waste storage stockpile; and preparing necessary schedules for accomplishing the remedial actions. Chemical work involves: developing the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) closure plans; neutralizing chemical hazards associated with plating solutions; inventorying on-site chemicals; and disposal of chemicals and/or residues. 17 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Not Available

1985-08-01

206

The American Colony in Jerusalem, 1870-2006  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tremendous collection from the Library of Congress brings together over 10,000 manuscripts, maps, and visual materials from about a hundred years of the American Colony in Jerusalem. These materials were gifted to the Library of Congress in 2004, and the collection consists of photographs, pamphlets, telegrams, letters, book manuscripts, diaries, and ephemera that talk about the colony, along with addressing the broader history of Palestine and the Middle East in the 19th and 20th centuries. One of the highlights of the site is a special feature on the Bertha Vester diaries. Vester was the principal leader of the American Colony from 1923 to 1968, and her 48 diaries make for fascinating reading. The site also includes a timeline of events, and essays like "The Vester Diaries" and "A Community in Jerusalem".

207

Giant vesicles "colonies": a model for primitive cell communities.  

PubMed

Current research on the origin of life typically focuses on the self-organisation of molecular components in individual cell-like compartments, thereby bringing about the emergence of self-sustaining minimal cells. This is justified by the fact that single cells are the minimal forms of life. No attempts have been made to investigate the cooperative mechanisms that could derive from the assembly of individual compartments. Here we present a novel experimental approach based on vesicles "colonies" as a model of primitive cell communities. Experiments show that several advantages could have favoured primitive cell colonies when compared with isolated primitive cells. In fact there are two novel unexpected features typical of vesicle colonies, namely solute capture and vesicle fusion, which can be seen as the basic physicochemical mechanisms at the origin of life. PMID:22689306

Carrara, Paolo; Stano, Pasquale; Luisi, Pier Luigi

2012-07-01

208

Modeling colony collapse disorder in honeybees as a contagion.  

PubMed

Honeybee pollination accounts annually for over $14 billion in United States agriculture alone. Within the past decade there has been a mysterious mass die-off of honeybees, an estimated 10 million beehives and sometimes as much as 90% of an apiary. There is still no consensus on what causes this phenomenon, called Colony Collapse Disorder, or CCD. Several mathematical models have studied CCD by only focusing on infection dynamics. We created a model to account for both healthy hive dynamics and hive extinction due to CCD, modeling CCD via a transmissible infection brought to the hive by foragers. The system of three ordinary differential equations accounts for multiple hive population behaviors including Allee effects and colony collapse. Numerical analysis leads to critical hive sizes for multiple scenarios and highlights the role of accelerated forager recruitment in emptying hives during colony collapse. PMID:25365602

Kribs-Zaleta, Christopher M; Mitchell, Christopher

2014-12-01

209

Correlated Phenotypic Transitions to Competence in Bacterial Colonies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genetic competence is a phenotypic state of a bacterial cell in which it is capable of importing DNA, presumably to hasten its exploration of alternate genes in its quest for survival under stress. Recently, it was proposed that this transition is uncorrelated among different cells in the colony. Motivated by several discovered signaling mechanisms which create colony- level responses, we present a model for the influence of quorum- sensing signals on a colony of B. Subtilis cells during the transition to genetic competence. Coupling to the external signal creates an effective inhibitory mechanism, which results in anti-correlation between the cycles of adjacent cells. We show that this scenario is consistent with the specific experimental measurement, which fails to detect some underlying collective signaling mechanisms. Rather, we suggest other parameters that should be used to verify the role of a quorum-sensing signal. We also study the conditions under which phenotypic spatial patterns may emerge.

Hecht, Inbal; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Levine, Herbert

2008-03-01

210

Neonicotinoid pesticide reduces bumble bee colony growth and queen production.  

PubMed

Growing evidence for declines in bee populations has caused great concern because of the valuable ecosystem services they provide. Neonicotinoid insecticides have been implicated in these declines because they occur at trace levels in the nectar and pollen of crop plants. We exposed colonies of the bumble bee Bombus terrestris in the laboratory to field-realistic levels of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid, then allowed them to develop naturally under field conditions. Treated colonies had a significantly reduced growth rate and suffered an 85% reduction in production of new queens compared with control colonies. Given the scale of use of neonicotinoids, we suggest that they may be having a considerable negative impact on wild bumble bee populations across the developed world. PMID:22461500

Whitehorn, Penelope R; O'Connor, Stephanie; Wackers, Felix L; Goulson, Dave

2012-04-20

211

The Plymouth Colony Archive Project at the University of Virginia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This valuable Website offers a wealth of documentary materials from the original Plymouth Colony settlement. The archive presents an extensive collection of searchable, online texts, including "court records, Colony laws, biographical profiles of selected colonists, probate inventories, wills," and analyses of these primary materials. The Website also has photographs and a description of the ongoing archaeological and reconstruction work at the settlement site, historical illustrations from the 1911 text by Albert Christopher Addison, The Romantic Story of the Mayflower Pilgrims, a walking tour of the colony courtesy of a link to ArchNet at the University of Connecticut, and a list of links to a number of related Websites. Researchers will be happy to know the Archive is searchable.

Deetz, James F.; Deetz, Patricia S.

1998-01-01

212

Gonococcal pilus subunit size heterogeneity correlates with transitions in colony piliation phenotype, not with changes in colony opacity  

PubMed Central

The apparent subunit sizes for pili of gonococci (Gc) have been visualized by using either Iodogen 125I-labeled whole Gc or immunoblotting with antipilus antiserum. These methods permitted definition of pilus subunit sizes for Gc of a given strain that had undergone changes either in piliation phenotype or in colonial opacity/protein II phenotype. The results indicate that pilus subunit size does not change coincident with changes in colony opacity/protein II phenotypes; but change in pilus subunit size is seen after a change in piliation phenotype (P+ leads to P++, and vice versa). Marked diversity in pilus subunit sizes is found for Gc of individual strains when P+ derivatives of P- colonies are compared. This diversity extends to pilus subunits of Gc found in single colonies; two distinct pilus forms were demonstrated for Gc residing in several single colonies. These findings show that Gc of a given strain are able to express any of a number of different pilus subunit size forms. PMID:6138388

1983-01-01

213

The Regulation of Ant Colony Foraging Activity without Spatial Information  

PubMed Central

Many dynamical networks, such as the ones that produce the collective behavior of social insects, operate without any central control, instead arising from local interactions among individuals. A well-studied example is the formation of recruitment trails in ant colonies, but many ant species do not use pheromone trails. We present a model of the regulation of foraging by harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex barbatus) colonies. This species forages for scattered seeds that one ant can retrieve on its own, so there is no need for spatial information such as pheromone trails that lead ants to specific locations. Previous work shows that colony foraging activity, the rate at which ants go out to search individually for seeds, is regulated in response to current food availability throughout the colony's foraging area. Ants use the rate of brief antennal contacts inside the nest between foragers returning with food and outgoing foragers available to leave the nest on the next foraging trip. Here we present a feedback-based algorithm that captures the main features of data from field experiments in which the rate of returning foragers was manipulated. The algorithm draws on our finding that the distribution of intervals between successive ants returning to the nest is a Poisson process. We fitted the parameter that estimates the effect of each returning forager on the rate at which outgoing foragers leave the nest. We found that correlations between observed rates of returning foragers and simulated rates of outgoing foragers, using our model, were similar to those in the data. Our simple stochastic model shows how the regulation of ant colony foraging can operate without spatial information, describing a process at the level of individual ants that predicts the overall foraging activity of the colony. PMID:22927811

Prabhakar, Balaji; Dektar, Katherine N.; Gordon, Deborah M.

2012-01-01

214

Colony differences in response to trapping in roseate terns  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Both members of seabird pairs are normally required to fledge young. Seabirds that nest in sites accessible to predators usually have one parent in attendance during the egg/chick phase. Time devoted to foraging can vary with individual skill and age, prey availability and abundance (Seamy 1978), and distance to foraging grounds (Safina 1990). Although average skill of similar-aged individuals should not vary from colony to colony (Ryder 1980), prey availability and abundance, and spatial distribution of foraging grounds may vary. Thus, the percent of time both members of a pair are present at the nest site may vary in different colonies. In this paper, we examine parental behavior in response to trapping in Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii) nesting in three of the six major colonies in the northeastern United States: Cedar Beach, New York, Falkner Island, Connecticut; and Bird Island, Massachusetts. Roseate Terns were listed on the United States? Endangered Species List in 1987. We were interested in differences among colonies in how often both parents were present, how soon a mate returned to the nest if one parent was temporarily removed, how soon a trapped bird returned to the nest after release, and the time during which the nest was left unguarded. We feel it is important to recognize and make management decisions based on colony differences where they exist. Our study follows directly from earlier work at Cedar Beach on trapping vulnerability of Common Terns (Sterna hirundo) and Roseate Terns. Nisbet reported that Roseate Terns at Bird Island required about three hours to return to the nest after trapping.

Burger, J.; Nisbet, I.C.T.; Zingo, J.M.; Spendelow, J.A.; Safina, C.; Gochfeld, M.

1995-01-01

215

Indigenous knowledge in the science curriculum: avoiding neo-colonialism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science education in Papua New Guinea has been influenced by neo-colonial practices that have significantly contributed to the silencing of the Papua New Guinea voice. This silencing has led to the production of science curriculum documents that are irrelevant to the students for whom they are written. To avoid being caught up in neo-colonial practices, Western science educators ought to consider the notion of cultural mediators. This position, I argue, infers an obligation to take responsibility for their actions and to consider postcolonial discourses as a way of understanding the relationships and dialogue between different ways of knowing.

Ryan, Ann

2008-09-01

216

Morphology of Ureaplasma urealyticum (T-mycoplasma) organisms and colonies.  

PubMed Central

The morphology of Ureaplasm urealyticum in broth cultures was studied by phase-contrast microscopy. Most organisms appeared singly or in pairs. Long filaments and long chains of cocci, common in classical mycoplasma cultures, were not observed. On solid medium, U. urealyticum produced "fried-egg" colonies which developed according to the scheme suggested by Razin and Oliver (J. Gen. Microbiol., 1961) for the morphogenesis of the classical mycoplasma colonies. The formation of the peripheral zone of the colonies followed that of the central zone only when growth conditions were adequate, Hence, the appearance of peripheral zones, and consequently the larger colony size, can be taken as an indicator of improved growth conditions. Incubation in an atmosphere of 100% CO2 resulted in significantly larger colonies than in an atmosphere of N2, O2, or air. CO2 acts as a buffer, keeping the pH at the optimal range for Ureaplasma growth (pH 6.0 to 6.5) in the presence of the ammonia produced from the urea hydrolyzed by the organisms. The addition to the medium of 0.01 M urea together with 0.01 M putrescine enabled better growth than with urea alone. Small amounts of phosphate improved growth in an atmosphere of CO2, apparently fulfilling a nutritional role. Under nitrogen, higher phosphate concentrations were required for good growth, apparently serving as a buffer as well as a nutrient. Sodium chloride and sucrose which had been added to increase the tonicity of the medium inhibited growth above 0.1 M. An increase in the agar concentration above 2% resulted in decreased colony size. Likewise, prolonged drying of the agar plates caused a marked decrease in colony size, mostly affecting the peripheral zone. The addition of both urea and putrescine to the growth medium and incubation in a humidified CO2 atmosphere are recommended for improved growth and formation of fried-egg colonies of U. ureaplyticum on agar. It must be emphasized that these experiments were carried out with a laboratory-adapted strain. Images PMID:15986

Razin, S; Masover, G K; Palant, M; Hayflick, L

1977-01-01

217

Detection of fungi colony growth on bones by dynamic speckle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we have studied the dynamic speckle patterns of mucor fungi colonies, which were inoculated on different samples. We were interested in analyzing the development of fungi colonies in bones, since during the last two years, a series of infections by mucor fungi have been reported on patients from different hospitals in Argentina. Coincidentally, all of these infections appeared on patients that were subjected to a surgical intervention for implantation of a titanium prosthesis. Apparently, the reason of the infection was a deficient sterilization process in conjunction with an accidental contamination. We observed that fungi growth, activity and death can be distinguished by means of the dynamic speckle technique.

Vincitorio, F. M.; Budini, N.; Mulone, C.; Spector, M.; Freyre, C.; López Díaz, A. J.; Ramil, A.

2013-11-01

218

BEEHAVE: a systems model of honeybee colony dynamics and foraging to explore multifactorial causes of colony failure  

PubMed Central

A notable increase in failure of managed European honeybee Apis mellifera L. colonies has been reported in various regions in recent years. Although the underlying causes remain unclear, it is likely that a combination of stressors act together, particularly varroa mites and other pathogens, forage availability and potentially pesticides. It is experimentally challenging to address causality at the colony scale when multiple factors interact. In silico experiments offer a fast and cost-effective way to begin to address these challenges and inform experiments. However, none of the published bee models combine colony dynamics with foraging patterns and varroa dynamics. We have developed a honeybee model, BEEHAVE, which integrates colony dynamics, population dynamics of the varroa mite, epidemiology of varroa-transmitted viruses and allows foragers in an agent-based foraging model to collect food from a representation of a spatially explicit landscape. We describe the model, which is freely available online (www.beehave-model.net). Extensive sensitivity analyses and tests illustrate the model's robustness and realism. Simulation experiments with various combinations of stressors demonstrate, in simplified landscape settings, the model's potential: predicting colony dynamics and potential losses with and without varroa mites under different foraging conditions and under pesticide application. We also show how mitigation measures can be tested. Synthesis and applications. BEEHAVE offers a valuable tool for researchers to design and focus field experiments, for regulators to explore the relative importance of stressors to devise management and policy advice and for beekeepers to understand and predict varroa dynamics and effects of management interventions. We expect that scientists and stakeholders will find a variety of applications for BEEHAVE, stimulating further model development and the possible inclusion of other stressors of potential importance to honeybee colony dynamics. PMID:25598549

Becher, Matthias A; Grimm, Volker; Thorbek, Pernille; Horn, Juliane; Kennedy, Peter J; Osborne, Juliet L

2014-01-01

219

Traditional vocations and modern professions among Tamil Brahmans in colonial and post-colonial south India.  

PubMed

Since the nineteenth century, Tamil Brahmans have been very well represented in the educated professions, especially law and administration, medicine, engineering and nowadays, information technology. This is partly a continuation of the Brahmans' role as literate service people, owing to their traditions of education, learning and literacy, but the range of professions shows that any direct continuity is more apparent than real. Genealogical data are particularly used as evidence about changing patterns of employment, education and migration. Caste traditionalism was not a determining constraint, for Tamil Brahmans were predominant in medicine and engineering as well as law and administration in the colonial period, even though medicine is ritually polluting and engineering resembles low-status artisans' work. Crucially though, as modern, English-language, credential-based professions that are wellpaid and prestigious, law, medicine and engineering were and are all deemed eminently suitable for Tamil Brahmans, who typically regard their professional success as a sign of their caste superiority in the modern world. In reality, though, it is mainly a product of how their old social and cultural capital and their economic capital in land were transformed as they seized new educational and employment opportunities by flexibly deploying their traditional, inherited skills and advantages. PMID:21128371

Fuller, C J; Narasimhan, Haripriya

2010-01-01

220

Ant colony optimization for resource-constrained project scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ant colony optimization approach (ACO) for the resource-constrained project schedul- ing problem (RCPSP) is presented. Combi- nations of two pheromone evaluation meth- ods are used by the ants to find new solutions. We tested our ACO algorithm on a set of large benchmark problems from the PSPLIB. Compared to several other heuristics for the RCPSP including genetic algorithms, simu-

Daniel Merkle; Martin Middendorf; Hartmut Schmeck

2002-01-01

221

The Ant Colony Optimization Metaheuristic: Algorithms, Applications, and Advances  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of ACO algorithms is very lively, as testified, for example, by the successful biannual workshop (ANTS—From Ant Colonies to Artificial Ants: A Series of International Workshops on Ant Algorithms; http:\\/\\/iridia.ulb.ac.be\\/~ants\\/) where researchers meet to discuss the properties of ACO and other ant algorithms, both theoretically and experimentally.

Marco Dorigo; Thomas Stützle

222

Solving Symmetric and Asymmetric TSPs by Ant Colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present ACS, a distributed algorithm for the solution of combinatorial optimization problems which was inspired by the observation of real colonies of ants. We apply ACS to both symmetric and asymmetric traveling salesman problems. Results show that ACS is able to find good solutions to these problems.

Luca Maria Gambardella; Marco Dorigo

1996-01-01

223

The Ant System: Optimization by a colony of cooperating agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analogy with the way ant colonies function has suggested the definition of a new computational paradigm, which we call Ant System. We propose it as a viable new approach to stochastic combinatorial optimization. The main characteristics of this model are positive feedback, distributed computation, and the use of a constructive greedy heuristic. Positive feedback accounts for rapid discovery of

Marco Dorigo; Vittorio Maniezzo; Alberto Colorni

1995-01-01

224

Ant system: optimization by a colony of cooperating agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analogy with the way ant colonies function has suggested the definition of a new computational paradigm, which we call ant system (AS). We propose it as a viable new approach to stochastic combinatorial optimization. The main characteristics of this model are positive feedback, distributed computation, and the use of a constructive greedy heuristic. Positive feedback accounts for rapid discovery

Marco Dorigo; Vittorio Maniezzo; Alberto Colorni

1996-01-01

225

Ant Colony Optimisation1 12.1 Introduction  

E-print Network

Chapter 12 Ant Colony Optimisation1 12.1 Introduction Real ants can find a shortest path from the old one is no longer feasible due to a new obstacle. In Figure (12.1 A) ants are moving on a straight line that connects a food source to their nest. An ant: · deposits pheromone while walking

Grant, P. W.

226

Automated selection and harvesting of pluripotent stem cell colonies.  

PubMed

The ability of pluripotent stem cells to differentiate into specialized cells of all three germ layers, their capability to self-renew, and their amenability to genetic modification provide fascinating prospects for the generation of cell lines for biomedical applications. Therefore, stem cells must increasingly suffice in terms of industrial standards, and automation of critical or time-consuming steps becomes a fundamental prerequisite for their routine application. Cumbersome manual picking of individual stem cell colonies still represents the most frequently used method for passaging or derivation of clonal stem cell lines. Here, we explore an automated harvesting system (CellCelector™) for detection, isolation, and propagation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and murine induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Automatically transferred hESC colonies maintained their specific biological characteristics even after repeated passaging. We also selected and harvested primary iPSCs derived from mouse embryonic fibroblasts expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the Oct4 promotor using either morphological criteria or GFP fluorescence. About 80% of the selected and harvested primary iPSC colonies gave rise to homogenously GFP-expressing iPSC lines. To validate the iPSC lines, we analyzed the expression of pluripotency-associated markers and multi-germ layer differentiation potential in vitro. Our data indicate that the CellCelector™ technology enables efficient identification and isolation of pluripotent stem cell colonies at the phase contrast or fluorescence level. PMID:23586788

Haupt, Simone; Grützner, Jan; Thier, Marc-Christian; Kallweit, Tobias; Rath, Barbara Helen; Laufenberg, Iris; Forgber, Michael; Eberhardt, Jens; Edenhofer, Frank; Brüstle, Oliver

2012-01-01

227

The Primary School Curriculum in a Colonial Society  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A history of primary school curriculum in Guyana, a former British colony, points out social determinates of curriculum. Ruling groups emphasized agriculture and manual arts in public education to maintain class distinctions while the masses fought for academic education as a key to financial and social success. (JH)

Bacus, M. Kazim

1974-01-01

228

Nonrelatives inherit colony resources in a primitive termite  

E-print Network

Nonrelatives inherit colony resources in a primitive termite Philip M. Johnsa , Kenneth J. Howarda taxa, including insects (all ants and termites; some bees, wasps, thrips, and beetles), snapping shrimp, and naked mole rats. Termites have received comparatively less focus than the haplodip- loid Hymenoptera

Yorke, James

229

Contributed Paper Estimating the Density of Honeybee Colonies across  

E-print Network

Contributed Paper Estimating the Density of Honeybee Colonies across Their Natural Range to Fill the Gap in Pollinator Decline Censuses RODOLFO JAFF´E, VINCENT DIETEMANN, MIKE H. ALLSOPP,§ CECILIA, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa §Honeybee Research Section, ARC-Plant Protection Research

Paxton, Robert

230

Reliving Colonial Days in Your Classroom. Curriculum Boosters. Social Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article presents hands-on classroom projects to teach elementary students about colonial American history. Students make their own natural dyes, cook blueberry slump, and play cup-and-ball the way the colonists did. The activities integrate science, math, history, art, and language arts. (SM)

Hennessey, Gail Skroback

1994-01-01

231

Race and Colonialism: The Domestic Case in Theory and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that at this juncture in history the internal colony theory seems most relevant for understanding the complexities of race and class in a society which is both racist and capitalist. As a process oriented model, this theory helps to explain the function of race in a society based on class and sexual exploitation. (Author/AM)

Staples, Robert

1976-01-01

232

From Savage to Citizen: Education, Colonialism and Idiocy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In constructing a framework for the participation and inclusion in political life of subjects, the Enlightenment also produced a series of systematic exclusions for those who did not qualify: including "idiots" and "primitive races". "Idiocy" emerged as part of wider strategies of governance in Europe and its colonies. This opened up the…

Simpson, Murray K.

2007-01-01

233

Post-Colonial Cultures and Globalization in France  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the papers in this colloquium relate to the territories which the European powers built up overseas during a period of several centuries, part of a process which some theorists of globalization have referred to as a kind of globalization avant la lettre. During the colonial period, the main direction of population flows was from Europe to the overseas

Alec G. Hargreaves

2005-01-01

234

Sir Banister Fletcher: pillar to post–colonial readings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Looking at world architecture in a post-colonial light, what is the possibility for a ‘world history of architecture’? This question is approached through thoughts on east-west plunderings in architectural history and in the strange double image of world history portrayed in Banister Fletcher's A History of Architecture, which (in all but the earliest and very latest editions) divided the world

John Mckean

2006-01-01

235

"Colonial Matters": Dating at Antioch College in the 1870's.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transcribing and footnoting some 186 family letters and documents which revolve around social life at Antioch College (Ohio) in the 1870s and everyday life during the same period allowed a professor to examine a metaphor for personal relationships used at the time: colonialism. His great grandmother, a young widow with three minor children, moved…

Chamberlain, William

236

The colony environment modulates sleep in honey bee workers.  

PubMed

One of the most important and evolutionarily conserved roles of sleep is the processing and consolidation of information acquired during wakefulness. In both insects and mammals, environmental and social stimuli can modify sleep physiology and behavior, yet relatively little is known about the specifics of the wake experiences and their relative contribution to experience-dependent modulation of sleep. Honey bees provide an excellent model system in this regard because their behavioral repertoire is well characterized and the environment they experience during the day can be manipulated while keeping an ecologically and sociobiologically relevant context. We examined whether social experience modulates sleep in honey bees, and evaluated the relative contribution of different social signals. We exposed newly emerged bees to different components of their natural social environment and then monitored their sleep behavior in individual cages in a constant lab environment. We found that rich waking experience modulates subsequent sleep. Bees that experienced the colony environment for 1 or 2 days slept more than same-age sister bees that were caged individually or in small groups in the lab. Furthermore, bees placed in mesh-enclosures in the colony, that prevented direct contact with nestmates, slept similarly to bees freely moving in the colony. These results suggest that social signals that do not require direct or close distance interactions between bees are sufficiently rich to encompass almost the entire effect of the colony on sleep. Our findings provide a remarkable example of social experience-dependent modulation of an essential biological process. PMID:25524987

Eban-Rothschild, Ada; Bloch, Guy

2015-02-01

237

Dynamic Optimization of Chemical Processes using Ant Colony Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant colony framework is illustrated by considering dynamic optimization of six important bench marking examples. This new computational tool is simple to implement and can tackle problems with state as well as terminal constraints in a straightforward fashion. It requires fewer grid points to reach the global optimum at relatively very low computational effort. The examples with varying degree of

J. Rajesh; Kapil Gupta; Hari Shankar Kusumakar; Vaidyanathan K. Jayaraman; Bhaskar D. Kulkarni

2001-01-01

238

Reconstructing Amino Acid Interaction Networks by an Ant Colony Approach  

E-print Network

Reconstructing Amino Acid Interaction Networks by an Ant Colony Approach Omar GACI and Stefan BALEV are the proteins amino acids and whose edges are the interactions between them. We consider the problem of reconstructing protein's interaction network from its amino acid sequence. We rely on a probability that two

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

239

Art Education in Colonial India: Implementation and Imposition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Historical inquiry in art education forms the basis of any research undertaken in the field. It is on this path that we discover ignored moments and personalities and clarify challenging ideas, thus approaching history from multiple perspectives. This historical study attempts to reframe the past of colonial Indian art education within the broader…

Kantawala, Ami

2012-01-01

240

The View from the Veranda: Understanding Today's Colonial Student  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Like the steady stream of colonial families of decades past traveling to their country's dominions abroad, contemporary education abroad students are similar passengers on a powerful steamship bound for lands of new sounds, sights and wonders. Although their studies may be challenging and demanding, students are exhilarated with thoughts of new…

Ogden, Anthony

2008-01-01

241

Ant Colony Optimization for vehicle routing in advanced logistics systems  

E-print Network

ways, for instance, adding more than one depot, considering more than one vehicle type, accounting, have an impact as great as the solution strategy. In this paper we present DyvOil and AntRoute, two metaheuristic such as Ant Colony System. We also describe the case of Pina Petroli, a fuel oil distribution

Gambardella, Luca Maria

242

Extractive Institutions and Gains From Trade: Evidence from Colonial Africa  

E-print Network

. First, because of the low population densities of French Africa and the high cost of labor rela- tive from Africans. In this paper, I tackle this issue by analyzing how trade monopsonies and coercive labor institutions reduced African gains from trade during the colonial period. By using new data on prices

Faraon, Andrei

243

Recruitment and Postrecruitment Interactions in a Colonial Hydroid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The colonial athecate hydroid Hydractinia echinata encrusts gastropod shells inhabited by hermit crabs of the genus Pagurus. In field samples recruits were found clustered in specific locations on the undersurface of Urosalpinx cinerea shells. Assays of the behavior of larvae indicated that the bacteria that induce metamorphosis coat the entire shell. A series of laboratory experiments demonstrated that site-specific recruitment

Philip O. Yund; Clifford W. Cunningham; Leo W. Buss

1987-01-01

244

AUTOMATED RADIO NETWORK DESIGN USING ANT COLONY OPTIMIZATION  

E-print Network

AUTOMATED RADIO NETWORK DESIGN USING ANT COLONY OPTIMIZATION by Jeffrey Allen Sharkey A thesis by each member of the thesis committee and has been found to be satisfactory regarding content, English help as I learned about radio systems and propagation algorithms. I would like to thank Dr. John Paxton

Dyer, Bill

245

Exxon scrutiny brings huge rise in colony cost estimate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exxon's first hint that all was not well with the Colony oil shale project came when the company's engineers started poring over the cost estimate and design prepared by C.F. Braun and Arco, drawn up when Arco was the project leader and before Exxon bought its 60% share. Exxon's engineers found themselves making revisions for mathematical errors discovered during their

1982-01-01

246

Survey and Census of Colonial Nesting Seabirds in South Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

(Pelecanus occidentalis) are often associated with the coast and are frequently the focus of tourism posters, souvenirs, and crafts. The well-being of colonial seabirds and other waterbirds is synonymous with the health of the coast. Their variety of feeding mechanisms, broad prey base, wide range of salinity preferences, and a place near the top of the food chain all suggest

Philip M. Wilkinson

247

En echelon patterns of Calyptogena colonies in the Japan Trench  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution of Calyptogena phaseoliformis colonies in right-stepping en echelon patterns was observed by the Japanese submersible Shinkai 6500 at the foot of the landward escarpment of the northern Japan Trench at around 6437 6274 m depth. The north-south trending Sanriku Escarpment has a thrust origin and is subparallel to the trench axis along which the Pacific plate is being subducted beneath the North America or Okhotsk plate at about 300° at a rate of about 7.8 to 8.3 cm/yr. The trends of colonies are concentrated at 250°, 300°, and 330°: each trend matches either an antithetic riedel shear, extension fracture, or synthetic riedel shear, respectively, within a left-lateral shear regime caused by the oblique subduction. Methane- and hydrogen sulfide bearing fluid advection from depth occurs essentially along the thrust fault, but finally seeps along the fractures at the sea floor. This supplies energy to the food chain through bacteria utilizing hydrogen sulfide, then eventually sustains the Calyptogena colonies. Because the clams select the best places to survive, the geometric arrangement of the clam colonies provides a kinematic indicator of relative plate motions.

Ogawa, Yujiro; Fujioka, Kantaro; Fujikura, Katsunori; Iwabuchi, Yo

1996-09-01

248

Deaf Colonials: Evidence Suggests that Some Were Literate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the literacy of early Americans with deafness. Two colonials are profiled: Jonathan Lambert, who was taught reading and writing in a rural area of England noted for its number of deaf inhabitants and who founded a signing community on Martha's Vineyard; and John Edge, who attended a neighborhood school prior to the advent of formal deaf…

Carroll, Cathryn

1997-01-01

249

Trophic Interactions in a High Arctic Snow Goose Colony  

Microsoft Academic Search

SYNOPSIS. We examined the role of trophic interactions in structuring a high arctic tundra community characterized by a large breeding colony of greater snow geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica). According to the exploitation ecosystem hypothesis of Oksanen et al. (1981), food chains are controlled by top-down interactions. However, because the arctic primary productivity is low, herbivore populations are too small to

GILLES GAUTHIER; J OEL BETY; J EAN-FRANCO ISGIROUX; LINE ROCHEFORT

2004-01-01

250

Genetic Stock Identification Of Production Colonies Of Russian Honey Bees  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The prevalence of Nosema ceranae in managed honey bee colonies has increased dramatically in the past 10 – 20 years worldwide. A variety of genetic testing methods for species identification and prevalence are now available. However sample size and preservation method of samples prior to testing hav...

251

Mass Spectral Molecular Networking of Living Microbial Colonies  

SciTech Connect

Integrating the governing chemistry with the genomics and phenotypes of microbial colonies has been a "holy grail" in microbiology. This work describes a highly sensitive, broadly applicable, and costeffective approach that allows metabolic profiling of live microbial colonies directly from a Petri dish without any sample preparation. Nanospray desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (MS), combined with alignment of MS data and molecular networking, enabled monitoring of metabolite production from live microbial colonies from diverse bacterial genera, including Bacillus subtilis, Streptomyces coelicolor, Mycobacterium smegmatis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This work demonstrates that, by using these tools to visualize small molecular changes within bacterial interactions, insights can be gained into bacterial developmental processes as a result of the improved organization of MS/MS data. To validate this experimental platform, metabolic profiling was performed on Pseudomonas sp. SH-C52, which protects sugar beet plants from infections by specific soil-borne fungi [R. Mendes et al. (2011) Science 332:1097–1100]. The antifungal effect of strain SHC52 was attributed to thanamycin, a predicted lipopeptide encoded by a nonribosomal peptide synthetase gene cluster. Our technology, in combination with our recently developed peptidogenomics strategy, enabled the detection and partial characterization of thanamycin and showed that it is amonochlorinated lipopeptide that belongs to the syringomycin family of antifungal agents. In conclusion, the platform presented here provides a significant advancement in our ability to understand the spatiotemporal dynamics of metabolite production in live microbial colonies and communities.

Watrous, Jeramie D.; Roach, Patrick J.; Alexandrov, Theodore; Heath, Brandi S.; Yang, Jane Y.; Kersten, Roland; vander Voort, Menno; Pogliano, Kit; Gross, Harald; Raaijmakers, Jos M.; Moore, Bradley S.; Laskin, Julia; Bandeira, Nuno; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

2012-06-26

252

Environmental and Genetic Determinants of Colony Morphology in Yeast  

PubMed Central

Nutrient stresses trigger a variety of developmental switches in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. One of the least understood of such responses is the development of complex colony morphology, characterized by intricate, organized, and strain-specific patterns of colony growth and architecture. The genetic bases of this phenotype and the key environmental signals involved in its induction have heretofore remained poorly understood. By surveying multiple strain backgrounds and a large number of growth conditions, we show that limitation for fermentable carbon sources coupled with a rich nitrogen source is the primary trigger for the colony morphology response in budding yeast. Using knockout mutants and transposon-mediated mutagenesis, we demonstrate that two key signaling networks regulating this response are the filamentous growth MAP kinase cascade and the Ras-cAMP-PKA pathway. We further show synergistic epistasis between Rim15, a kinase involved in integration of nutrient signals, and other genes in these pathways. Ploidy, mating-type, and genotype-by-environment interactions also appear to play a role in the controlling colony morphology. Our study highlights the high degree of network reuse in this model eukaryote; yeast use the same core signaling pathways in multiple contexts to integrate information about environmental and physiological states and generate diverse developmental outputs. PMID:20107600

Granek, Joshua A.; Magwene, Paul M.

2010-01-01

253

Microsatellite loci for the invasive colonial hydrozoan Cordylophora caspia  

EPA Science Inventory

Cordylophora caspia, a colonial hydrozoan native to the Ponto-Caspian region, has become a common invader of both fresh and brackish water ecosystems of North America and Europe. Here we describe 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci for this species. Preliminary analyses indicate ...

254

A Colony of Highly Phosphorescent EarthWorms  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN the sheltered westward corner of a small grass-plat in this city there is a colony of highly phosphorescent earth-worms. The annelid is round, pellucid, slender, of a faint yellowish tint, is about two inches long, and is not flattened behind. I have been unable to distinguish segmentation. The worm is entirely luminous. The phosphorescence has precisely the bright greenish

J. Lloyd-Bozward

1897-01-01

255

Across the Colonial Divide: Conversations about Evaluation in Indigenous Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay engages questions of evaluator role and indigenous peoples participation in evaluation within colonial and decolonization contexts. Specifically, I critique the Western emphasis on cultural competence and contrast the utility of "mainstream" evaluation approaches alongside three indigenous inquiry models (Te Kotahitanga,…

Cavino, Hayley Marama

2013-01-01

256

The Racial Stereotype, Colonial Discourse, Fetishism, and Racism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper draws on the work of Homi Bhabha to mount an explanation for a facet of (post)colonial racism, the 'paradox of otherness' as exemplified in the racial stereotype. The paradox in question operates at the levels of discourse and identification alike. As a mode of discourse the stereotype functions to exaggerate difference of the other, whilst nevertheless attempting to

Derek Hook

2005-01-01

257

On the performance of artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm is an optimization algorithm based on a particular intelligent behaviour of honeybee swarms. This work compares the performance of ABC algorithm with that of differential evolution (DE), particle swarm optimization (PSO) and evolutionary algorithm (EA) for multi-dimensional numeric problems. The simulation results show that the performance of ABC algorithm is comparable to those of the

Dervis Karaboga; Bahriye Basturk

2008-01-01

258

A Burkholderia pseudomallei Colony Variant Necessary for Gastric Colonization  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT? Diverse colony morphologies are a hallmark of Burkholderia pseudomallei recovered from infected patients. We observed that stresses that inhibit aerobic respiration shifted populations of B. pseudomallei from the canonical white colony morphotype toward two distinct, reversible, yet relatively stable yellow colony variants (YA and YB). As accumulating evidence supports the importance of B. pseudomallei enteric infection and gastric colonization, we tested the response of yellow variants to hypoxia, acidity, and stomach colonization. Yellow variants exhibited a competitive advantage under hypoxic and acidic conditions and alkalized culture media. The YB variant, although highly attenuated in acute virulence, was the only form capable of colonization and persistence in the murine stomach. The accumulation of extracellular DNA (eDNA) was a characteristic of YB as observed by 4?,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining of gastric tissues, as well as in an in vitro stomach model where large amounts of eDNA were produced without cell lysis. Transposon mutagenesis identified a transcriptional regulator (BPSL1887, designated YelR) that when overexpressed produced the yellow phenotype. Deletion of yelR blocked a shift from white to the yellow forms. These data demonstrate that YB is a unique B. pseudomallei pathovariant controlled by YelR that is specifically adapted to the harsh gastric environment and necessary for persistent stomach colonization. IMPORTANCE? Seemingly uniform populations of bacteria often contain subpopulations that are genetically identical but display unique characteristics which offer advantages when the population is faced with infrequent but predictable stresses. The pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei is capable of forming several reversible colony types, and it interconverted between one white type and two yellow types under certain environmental stresses. The two yellow forms exhibited distinct advantages in low-oxygen and acidic environments. One yellow colony variant was the only form capable of chronic stomach colonization. Areas of gastric infection were marked by bacteria encased in a DNA matrix, and the yellow forms were able to produce large amounts of extracellular DNA in vitro. We also identified the regulator in control of yellow colony variant formation. These findings demonstrate a role in infection for colony variation and provide a mechanism for chronic stomach colonization—a frequently overlooked niche in melioidosis. PMID:25650400

Austin, C. R.; Goodyear, A. W.; Bartek, I. L.; Stewart, A.; Sutherland, M. D.; Silva, E. B.; Zweifel, A.; Vitko, N. P.; Tuanyok, A.; Highnam, G.; Mittelman, D.; Keim, P.; Schweizer, H. P.; Vázquez-Torres, A.; Dow, S. W. C.

2015-01-01

259

A child of the empire: British sociology and colonialism, 1940s-1960s.  

PubMed

British sociology was established as an academic discipline between 1945 and 1965, just as the British Empire was gearing up for a new phase of developmental colonialism backed by the social and other sciences. Many parts of the emerging sociological discipline became entangled with colonialism. Key themes and methods in sociology and the staff of sociology departments emerged from this colonial context. Historians have tended to place postwar British sociology in the context of expanding higher education and the welfare state, and have overlooked this colonial constellation. The article reconstructs this forgotten moment of disciplinary founding and explores three of the factors that promoted colonial sociology: the Colonial Social Science Research Council, the so-called Asquith universities, and the social research institutes in the colonies; and the involvement of sociologists from the London School of Economics in training colonial officials. PMID:24037899

Steinmetz, George

2013-01-01

260

DISSECTING COLONY DEVELOPMENT OF NEUROSPORA CRASSA USING mRNA PROFILING AND COMPARTATIVE GENOMICS APPROACHES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Colony development, which includes hyphal extension, branching, anastomosis and asexual sporulation are fundamental aspects of the lifecycle of filamentous fungi; genetic mechanisms underlying these phenomena are poorly understood. We conducted transcriptional profiling during colony development of...

261

Effects of a fipronil spot treatment on field colonies of Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).  

PubMed

This field study investigated the colony effect of a fipronil spot treatment applied to active infestations of Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Spot treatments were applied to a single active independent monitor from each of four colonies in which multiple independent monitors were established. All treated monitors were abandoned, and the contents of the treated monitors were replaced with untreated wood at the approximately 30-d posttreatment inspection. All colonies survived treatment and only one colony exhibited long-term effects, which included significant reductions in termite collections and increased worker size. The affected colony was treated within 1 m of its primary nest. Two colonies exhibited a correlation between monitor termite production and distance from treatment. Distance appears to be a factor limiting fipronil's colony effects. The Formosan subterranean termite may not be a good candidate for the exterior perimeter and localized interior treatment label option because of the large range and size of the colony. PMID:24772555

Osbrink, W L A; Cornelius, M L; Showler, A T; Pound, J M

2014-04-01

262

POPULATION CHANGE AND NOSEMA SPORE LEVELS IN COLONIES STARTED WITH PACKAGE BEES  

E-print Network

POPULATION CHANGE AND NOSEMA SPORE LEVELS IN COLONIES STARTED WITH PACKAGE BEES T. LEHNERT H. SHIMANUKI Bioenvironmental Bee Laboratory, Federal Research Science and Education Administration, USDA, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 SUMMARY Ten colonies with yellow bees and black queens were established

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

263

Low-Cost, High-Throughput, Automated Counting of Bacterial Colonies  

PubMed Central

Research involving bacterial pathogens often requires enumeration of bacteria colonies. Here we present a low-cost, high-throughput colony counting system consisting of colony counting software and a consumer-grade digital camera or document scanner. We demonstrate that this software, called “NICE” (NIST's Integrated Colony Enumerator), can count bacterial colonies as part of a high-throughput multiplexed opsonophagocytic killing assay (MOPA) used to characterize pneumococcal vaccine efficacy. The results obtained with NICE correlate well with the results obtained from manual counting, with a mean difference of less than 3 %. NICE is also rapid; it can count colonies from multiple reaction wells within minutes and export the results to a spreadsheet for data processing. As this program is freely available from NIST, NICE should be helpful in bacteria colony enumeration required in many microbiological studies, and in standardizing colony counting methods. PMID:20140968

Clarke, Matthew L.; Burton, Robert L.; Hill, A. Nayo; Litorja, Maritoni; Nahm, Moon H.; Hwang, Jeeseong

2010-01-01

264

Microfabricated Arrays for Splitting and Assay of Clonal Colonies  

PubMed Central

A microfabricated platform was developed for highly parallel and efficient colony picking, splitting and clone identification. A pallet array provided patterned cell colonies which mated to a second printing array composed of bridging microstructures formed by a supporting base and attached post. The posts enabled mammalian cells from colonies initially cultured on the pallet array to migrate to corresponding sites on the printing array. Separation of the arrays simultaneously split the colonies creating a patterned replica. Optimization of array elements provided transfer efficiencies greater than 90% using bridging posts of 30 ?m diameter and 100 ?m length and total colony numbers of 3000. Studies using five mammalian cell lines demonstrated that a variety of adherent cell types could be cultured and effectively split with printing efficiencies of 78–92%. To demonstrate the technique’s utility, clonal cell lines with siRNA knockdown of Coronin 1B were generated using the arrays and compared to a traditional FACS/Western Blotting-based approach. Identification of target clones required a destructive assay to identify cells with an absence of Coronin 1B brought about by the successful infection of interfering shRNA construct. By virtue of miniaturization and its parallel format, the platform enabled the identification and generation of 12 target clones from a starting sample of only 3900 cells and required only 5-man hours over 11 days. In contrast, the traditional method required 500,000 cells and generated only 5 target clones with 34-man hours expended over 47 days. These data support the considerable reduction in time, manpower and reagents using the miniaturized platform for clonal selection by destructive assay versus conventional approaches. PMID:23153031

Gach, Philip C.; Xu, Wei; King, Samantha J.; Sims, Christopher E.; Bear, James; Allbritton, Nancy L.

2012-01-01

265

FluG affects secretion in colonies of Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Colonies of Aspergillus niger are characterized by zonal heterogeneity in growth, sporulation, gene expression and secretion. For instance, the glucoamylase gene glaA is more highly expressed at the periphery of colonies when compared to the center. As a consequence, its encoded protein GlaA is mainly secreted at the outer part of the colony. Here, multiple copies of amyR were introduced in A. niger. Most transformants over-expressing this regulatory gene of amylolytic genes still displayed heterogeneous glaA expression and GlaA secretion. However, heterogeneity was abolished in transformant UU-A001.13 by expressing glaA and secreting GlaA throughout the mycelium. Sequencing the genome of UU-A001.13 revealed that transformation had been accompanied by deletion of part of the fluG gene and disrupting its 3' end by integration of a transformation vector. Inactivation of fluG in the wild-type background of A. niger also resulted in breakdown of starch under the whole colony. Asexual development of the ?fluG strain was not affected, unlike what was previously shown in Aspergillus nidulans. Genes encoding proteins with a signal sequence for secretion, including part of the amylolytic genes, were more often downregulated in the central zone of maltose-grown ?fluG colonies and upregulated in the intermediate part and periphery when compared to the wild-type. Together, these data indicate that FluG of A. niger is a repressor of secretion. PMID:25370014

Wang, Fengfeng; Krijgsheld, Pauline; Hulsman, Marc; de Bekker, Charissa; Müller, Wally H; Reinders, Marcel; de Vries, Ronald P; Wösten, Han A B

2015-01-01

266

Vimentin is necessary for colony growth of human diploid keratinocytes.  

PubMed

The role of vimentin (Vim) in diploid epithelial cells is not well known. To understand its biological function, we cultured human epidermal keratinocytes under conditions that support migration, proliferation, stratification and terminal differentiation. We identified a keratinocyte subpopulation that shows a p63(+)/?5?1(bright) phenotype and displays Vim intermediate filaments (IFs) besides their keratin IF network. These cells were mainly located at the proliferative/migratory rim of the growing colonies; but also, they were scarce and scattered or formed small groups of basal cells in confluent stratified epithelia. Stimulation of cells with EGF and wounding experiments in confluent arrested epithelia increased the number of Vim(+) keratinocytes in an extent higher to the expected for a cell population doubling. BrdU labeling demonstrated that most of the proliferative cells located at the migratory border of the colony have Vim, in contrast with proliferative cells located at the basal layer at the center of big colonies which lacked of Vim IFs, suggesting that Vim expression was not solely linked to proliferation. Therefore, we silenced Vim mRNA in the cultured keratinocytes and observed an inhibition of colony growth. Such results, together with long-term cultivation assays which showed that Vim might be associated to pattern formation in cultured epithelia, suggest that Vim expression is essential for a highly motile phenotype, which is necessary for keratinocyte colony growth and possibly for development and wound healing. Vim(+)/p63(+)/?5?1(bright) epithelial cells may play a significant physiological role in embryonic morphogenetic movements; wound healing and other pathologies such as carcinomas and hyperproliferative diseases. PMID:25142512

Castro-Muñozledo, Federico; Velez-DelValle, Cristina; Marsch-Moreno, Meytha; Hernández-Quintero, Miriam; Kuri-Harcuch, Walid

2015-01-01

267

Contrasting genetic structuring between colonies of the World’s smallest penguin, Eudyptula minor (Aves: Spheniscidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Little Penguin, Eudyptula minor, is a seabird that nests in colonies throughout New Zealand and southern Australia. Individuals from different colonies in\\u000a southeast Australia differ significantly in morphology and ecology, suggesting that some genetic structuring may exist among\\u000a colonies. In contrast, the marking of individuals with flipper bands has revealed some, albeit infrequent, movement between\\u000a colonies. To determine the

Rebecca L. Overeem; Christopher M. Austin; Peter Dann; Christopher P. Burridge

2008-01-01

268

Sudden deaths and colony population decline in Greek honey bee colonies.  

PubMed

During June and July of 2009, sudden deaths, tremulous movements and population declines of adult honey bees were reported by the beekeepers in the region of Peloponnesus (Mt. Mainalo), Greece. A preliminary study was carried out to investigate these unexplained phenomena in this region. In total, 37 bee samples, two brood frames containing honey bee brood of various ages, eight sugar samples and four sugar patties were collected from the affected colonies. The samples were tested for a range of pests, pathogens and pesticides. Symptomatic adult honey bees tested positive for Varroa destructor, Nosema ceranae, Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), Acute paralysis virus (ABPV), Deformed wing virus (DWV), Sacbrood virus (SBV) and Black queen cell virus (BQCV), but negative for Acarapis woodi. American Foulbrood was absent from the brood samples. Chemical analysis revealed that amitraz, thiametoxan, clothianidin and acetamiprid were all absent from symptomatic adult bees, sugar and sugar patty samples. However, some bee samples, were contaminated with imidacloprid in concentrations between 14 ng/g and 39 ng/g tissue. We present: the infection of Greek honey bees by multiple viruses; the presence of N. ceranae in Greek honey bees and the first record of imidacloprid (neonicotonoid) residues in Greek honey bee tissues. The presence of multiple pathogens and pesticides made it difficult to associate a single specific cause to the depopulation phenomena observed in Greece, although we believe that viruses and N. ceranae synergistically played the most important role. A follow-up in-depth survey across all Greek regions is required to provide context to these preliminary findings. PMID:20804765

Bacandritsos, N; Granato, A; Budge, G; Papanastasiou, I; Roinioti, E; Caldon, M; Falcaro, C; Gallina, A; Mutinelli, F

2010-11-01

269

Colonie Interim Storage Site annual environmental report for calendar year 1991, Colonie, New York  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the environmental monitoring program at the Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS) and surrounding area, implementation of the program, and monitoring results for 1991. Environmental monitoring at CISS began in 1984 when Congress added the site to the US Department of Energy's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. CISS property and surrounding areas were radioactively contaminated by operations conducted by National Lead Industries, which manufactured various components from uranium and thorium from 1958 to 1984. The environmental monitoring program at CISS includes sampling networks for external gamma radiation exposure and for radium-226, thorium-232, and total uranium concentrations in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Additionally, several nonradiological parameters are measured in groundwater. In 1992 the program will also include sampling networks for radioactive and chemical contaminants in stormwater to meet permit application requirements under the Clean Water Act. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other requirements in DOE.orders. Environmental standards are established to protect public health and the environment. Results of environmental monitoring during 1991 indicate that average concentrations of radioactive contaminants of concern were well below applicable standards and DCGS. Concentrations of some chemical contaminants in groundwater were above-the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (Class GA) and EPA guidelines for drinking water. The potential annual radiation exposure (excluding background) calculated for a hypothetical maximally exposed individual is 0.23 mrem (milliroentgen equivalent man), which is less than an individual would receive while traveling in an airplane at 12,000 meters (39,000 feet) for one hour.

Not Available

1992-09-01

270

Reduced availability of refuse and breeding output in a herring gull (Larus argentatus) colony  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the reproductive performance of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) in an old stable colony in SW Finland. Over the period 1993-1997, the colony decreased, and the garbage dumps the birds may have utilised have all closed. This had an effect on the breeding performance of the colony when comparing the year prior to the closing of the last garbage

Mikael Kilpi; Markus Öst

271

California gull chicks raised near colony edges have elevated stress levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coloniality in nesting birds represents an important life history strategy for maximizing reproductive success. Birds nesting near the edge of colonies tend to have lower reproductive success than individuals nesting near colony centers, and offspring of edge-nesting parents may be impaired relative to those of central-nesting parents. We used fecal corticosterone metabolites in California gull chicks (Larus californicus) to examine

Garth Herring; Joshua T. Ackerman

2011-01-01

272

Nestmate Recognition Differences between Honeybee Colonies of Apis cerana and Apis mellifera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nestmate recognition in Apis cerana and Apis mellifera was studied by introducing sealed queen cells heterospecifically between queenless colonies. No A. cerana queens were accepted by queenless A. mellifera; but A. mellifera queens were accepted in queenless A. cerana colonies. A. mellifera queens oviposited in queenless A. cerana colonies, but A. cerana workers removed most eggs. In time, egg removals

Ken Tan; Zheng-Wei Wang; Mingxian Yang; Randall Hepburn; Sarah Radloff

2010-01-01

273

Deformed wing virus implicated in over-wintering honeybee colony losses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The worldwide decline in honeybee colonies during the past 50 years has often been linked to the spread of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and its interaction with certain honeybee viruses. Recently in the United States, dramatic honeybee losses (colony collapse disorder) have been reported; however, there remains no clear explanation for these colony losses, with parasitic mites, viruses, bacteria,

Andrea C. Highfield; Aliya El Nagar; Luke C. M. Mackinder; Laure M.-L. J. Noel; Matthew J. Hall; Stephen J. Martin; Declan C. Schroeder

2009-01-01

274

The Politics of Writing Tribal Identities in the Sudan: The Case of the Colonial Nuba Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Linguistics is implicated in the colonial project of the invention of "self-contained" "racial" and "tribal units" in the Sudan. This paper has two objectives. First, to historicise the notions of "language" in the postcolonial discourse of language planning in the Sudan by reviewing one of the significant colonial policies: the colonial Nuba…

Abdelhay, Ashraf Kamal

2010-01-01

275

The Marriage Core of the Elite Network of Colonial Guatemala Narda Alcntara Valverde*  

E-print Network

The Marriage Core of the Elite Network of Colonial Guatemala Narda Alcántara Valverde* Silvia of Colonial Guatemala 1 The Marriage Core of the Elite Network of Colonial Guatemala1 Abstract The problem addressed is how an elite group manages to trap recycle wealth intergenerationally through marriage

White, Douglas R.

276

Response of mountain plovers to plague-driven dynamics of black-tailed prairie dog colonies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sylvatic plague is a major factor influencing prairie dog colony dynamics in the western Great Plains. We studied the nesting response of the mountain plover (Charadrius montanus), a grassland bird that nests on prairie dog colonies, to plague-driven dynamics of prairie dog colonies at three sites i...

277

A distance-dependent estimation of foraging ranges of neighbouring bird colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reliable estimation of foraging ranges is often an indispensable prerequisite of research in animal ecology and in species conservation. In colonial species, home ranges of members of one colony are frequently overlapping and for practical and theoretical reasons, it can be necessary to assess the foraging areas of whole colonies. Here, we show a method to calculate foraging areas

Erwin Nemeth; Peter Bossew; Christoph Plutzar

2005-01-01

278

Codebook design by a hybridization of ant colony with improved LBG algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant colony algorithm is a newly emerged stochastic searching optimization algorithm in recent years. In this paper, an appropriately adapted ant colony system embedded with a simple improved LBG algorithm is proposed for vector quantization codebook design. The emphasis is put on the design of the probability transfer function and the tabu list in the ant colony algorithm, the utilization

Li Xia; Luo Xuehui; Zhang Jihong

2003-01-01

279

Chemomodulation of cellular movement, collective formation of vortices by swarming bacteria, and colonial development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial colonies have developed sophisticated modes of cooperative behavior which enable them to respond to adverse growth conditions. It has been shown that such behavior can be manifested in formation of complex colonial patterns. Certain Bacillus species exhibit collective migration, “turbulent like” flow and emergence of whirlpools during colonial development. Here we present experimental observations of collective behavior and a

Eshel Ben-Jacob; Inon Cohen; András Czirók; Tamás Vicsek; David L. Gutnick

1997-01-01

280

Colony Hybridization: A Method for the Isolation of Cloned DNAs that Contain a Specific Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method has been developed whereby a very large number of colonies of Escherichia coli carrying different hybrid plasmids can be rapidly screened to determine which hybrid plasmids contain a specified DNA sequence or genes. The colonies to be screened are formed on nitrocellulose filters, and, after a reference set of these colonies has been prepared by replica plating, are

Michael Grunstein; David S. Hogness

1975-01-01

281

Qur'anic and "Ajami" Literacies in Pre-Colonial West Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional African literacy practices have often been ignored in the wake of European colonialism and the educational policies of colonial governments. Nonetheless, literacy had been established in parts of Africa following the introduction of Islam. This paper will examine the developments of literacy in pre-colonial West Africa. In this region,…

Diallo, Ibrahima

2012-01-01

282

Use of Vanishing Bearings to Locate New Wading Bird Colonies JAMES K. KENYON  

E-print Network

203 Use of Vanishing Bearings to Locate New Wading Bird Colonies JAMES K. KENYON Centre colony locations on the landscape. This study describes the use of vanishing bearings of Great Blue of associated breeding colonies. In 2002, frequency analysis of the vanishing bearings identified 23 modes

283

COLONY INSULARITY THROUGH QUEEN CONTROL ON WORKER SOCIAL MOTIVATION IN ANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We investigated the relative contribution of the queen and workers to colony nestmate recognition cues and on colony territoriality in the ant Camponotus fellah. Workers were either individually isolated, preventing contact with both queen and workers (Colony Deprived, CD), kept in queenless groups,...

284

Kinship and incompatibility between colonies of the acacia ant Pseudomyrmex ferruginea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of kinship on incompatibility between colonies of the acacia-ant Pseudomyrmex ferruginea was examined. Colonies were reared on a clone of Acacia hindsii in a standard environment. A slight but significant reduction in intercolony incompatibility was obtained within two inbred lineages, compared with the observed frequency of rejection for unrelated colonies. These results indicate that the relevant odor differences

Alex Mintzer; S. B. Vinson

1985-01-01

285

Lethal protein produced in response to competition between sibling bacterial colonies  

E-print Network

-regulation of colony growth might not be limited to P. dendritiformis. bacterial competition bacterial growthLethal protein produced in response to competition between sibling bacterial colonies Avraham Be 24, 2009) Sibling Paenibacillus dendritiformis bacterial colonies grown on low-nutrient agar medium

Ariel, Gil

286

Worker policing persists in a hopelessly queenless honey bee colony ( Apis mellifera )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In queenright colonies of Apis mellifera, worker policing normally eliminates worker-laid eggs thereby preventing worker reproduction. However, in queenless colonies that have failed to rear a replacement queen, worker reproduction is normal. Worker policing is switched off, many workers have active ovaries and lay eggs, and the colony rears a last batch of male brood before dying out. Here

N. Châline; S. J. Martin; F. L. W. Ratnieks

2004-01-01

287

Nutritional stress due to habitat loss may explain recent honeybee colony collapses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of the tremendous public interest in the recent large honeybee losses attributed to colony collapse disorder, there is still no definitive explanation for the phenomenon. With the hypothesis that nutritional stress due to habitat loss has played an important role in honeybee colony collapse, I analyze the land use data in United States to show that the colony

Dhruba Naug

2009-01-01

288

Extreme queen-worker dimorphism in Ropalidia ignobilis , a small-colony wasp (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Ropalidia ignobilis dwells in small colonies of 100 or fewer contemporaneous adults, founded by one or a few females. Variation in size is continuous when a number of colonies are combined, yet each colony produces females in two discrete morphological castes. Nest architecture shows that workers abruptly switch from producing small to large larvae. Large females apparently fulfill the

J. W. Wenzel

1992-01-01

289

Insulin signaling is involved in the regulation of worker division of labor in honey bee colonies  

E-print Network

Insulin signaling is involved in the regulation of worker division of labor in honey bee colonies novel regulation of conserved genes. Age-related division of labor in honey bee colonies, a highly of individuals. Older bees acquire the colony's food by foraging for nectar and pollen, and the younger ``nurse

Robinson, Gene E.

290

Collective decision-making in honey bees: how colonies choose among nectar sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

A honey bee colony can skillfully choose among nectar sources. It will selectively exploit the most profitable source in an array and will rapidly shift its foraging efforts following changes in the array. How does this colony-level ability emerge from the behavior of individual bees? The answer lies in understanding how bees modulate their colony's rates of recruitment and abandonment

Thomas D. Seeley; Scott Camazine; James Sneyd

1991-01-01

291

Heavy metal residues in prefledgling black-crowned night-herons from three Atlantic coast colonies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aquatic birds may serve as indicators of regional metal contamination. Because the food of prefledgling herons (Nycticorax nycticorax ) comes only from areas near the colony, their tissues should reflect local metal contamination. The authors' hypothesis was that prefledgling herons from the Rhode Island colony should have higher concentrations of metals than do those from either the North Carolina or Massachusetts colonies.

Custer, T.W.; Mulhern, B.L.

1983-01-01

292

Social foraging in honey bees: how nectar foragers assess their colony's nutritional status  

Microsoft Academic Search

A honey bee colony operates as a tightly integrated unit of behavioral action. One manifestation of this in the context of foraging is a colony's ability to adjust its selectivity among nectar sources in relation to its nutritional status. When a colony's food situation is good, it exploits only highly profitable patches of flowers, but when its situation is poor,

Thomas D. Seeley

1989-01-01

293

Creating Germans Abroad: White Education and the Colonial Condition in German Southwest Africa, 1894-1914  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From the perspective of German colonial supporters and authorities, appropriate white education in the settler colony of Southwest Africa (SWA) was essential for maintaining German hegemony in the territory. In order to reach this objective, the German colonial administration in SWA, with assistance from pedagogues and institutions in Germany,…

Walther, Daniel Joseph

2013-01-01

294

Naturally acquired Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida infection in a closed colony of rabbits: characteristics of isolates.  

PubMed

Twelve litters, comprising 41 rabbits aged 35 to 60 days old, in a closed university colony, were monitored for acquisition of nasal Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida infection. Isolates from 11 infected rabbits were characterized by colonial morphology, capsular type, biotype and antibiotic resistance. Selected isolates were further characterized by somatic antigen typing. Two major strains of P. multocida subsp. multocida were detected in the colony. One strain had mucoid colonies, fermented few carbohydrates and was serotype A:5, whereas, the other strain had smooth iridescent colonies, non-typeable capsular antigen, type 3 somatic antigen and fermented more than twice as many carbohydrates. PMID:1921322

Digiacomo, R F; Allen, V; Hinton, M H

1991-07-01

295

Random mitotic activities across human embryonic stem cell colonies.  

SciTech Connect

A systemic and quantitative study was performed to examine whether different levels of mitotic activities, assessed by the percentage of S-phase cells at any given time point, existed at different physical regions of human embryonic stem (hES) cell colonies at 2, 4, 6 days after cell passaging. Mitotically active cells were identified by the positive incorporation of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) within their newly synthesized DNA. Our data indicated that mitotically active cells were often distributed as clusters randomly across the colonies within the examined growth period, presumably resulting from local deposition of newly divided cells. This latter notion was further demonstrated by the confined growth of enhanced green florescence protein (EGFP) expressing cells amongst non-GFP expressing cells. Furthermore, the overall percentage of mitotically active cells remained constantly at about 50% throughout the 6-day culture period, indicating mitotic activities of hES cell cultures were time-independent under current growth conditions.

Jin, Q.; Duggan, R.; Dasa, S.; Li, F.; Chen, L. (Biosciences Division)

2010-08-01

296

Response Ant Colony Optimization of End Milling Surface Roughness  

PubMed Central

Metal cutting processes are important due to increased consumer demands for quality metal cutting related products (more precise tolerances and better product surface roughness) that has driven the metal cutting industry to continuously improve quality control of metal cutting processes. This paper presents optimum surface roughness by using milling mould aluminium alloys (AA6061-T6) with Response Ant Colony Optimization (RACO). The approach is based on Response Surface Method (RSM) and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO). The main objectives to find the optimized parameters and the most dominant variables (cutting speed, feedrate, axial depth and radial depth). The first order model indicates that the feedrate is the most significant factor affecting surface roughness. PMID:22294914

Kadirgama, K.; Noor, M. M.; Abd Alla, Ahmed N.

2010-01-01

297

Origin of HIV type 1 in colonial French Equatorial Africa?  

PubMed

Sociocultural factors during the postcolonial period have been implicated as paramount in generating conditions that promoted both the origin and subsequent epidemic spread of HIV-1 in Africa. We suggest, however, that the origin of the disease may lie in the interaction between colonial practices (e.g., labor camps, nonsterile vaccination campaigns) and traditional bushmeat hunting in French Equatorial Africa. Both the epidemiology of HIV-2 and the colonial history of West Africa appear more complex, but similar conditions existed there and may have contributed to the origin of HIV-2. Focusing the search for the origins of HIV-1 and HIV-2 on this earlier time period may contribute to understanding the evolution of the HIV viruses and the dynamics of emerging diseases. PMID:10628811

Chitnis, A; Rawls, D; Moore, J

2000-01-01

298

Allometry and stoichiometry of unicellular, colonial and multicellular phytoplankton.  

PubMed

Phytoplankton life forms, including unicells, colonies, pseudocolonies, and multicellular organisms, span a huge size range. The smallest unicells are less than 1 microm3 (e.g. cyanobacteria), while large unicellular diatoms may attain 10(9) microm3, being visible to the naked eye. Phytoplankton includes chemo-organotrophic unicells, colonies and multicellular organisms that depend on symbionts or kleptoplastids for their capacity to photosynthesize. Analyses of physical (transport within cells, diffusion boundary layers, package effect, turgor, and vertical movements) and biotic (grazing, viruses and other parasitoids) factors indicate potential ecological constraints and opportunities that differ among the life forms. There are also variations among life forms in elemental stoichiometry and in allometric relations between biovolume and specific growth. While many of these factors probably have ecological and evolutionary significance, work is needed to establish those that are most important, warranting explicit description in models. Other factors setting limitations on growth rate (selecting slow-growing species) await elucidation. PMID:19121029

Beardall, John; Allen, Drew; Bragg, Jason; Finkel, Zoe V; Flynn, Kevin J; Quigg, Antonietta; Rees, T Alwyn V; Richardson, Anthony; Raven, John A

2009-01-01

299

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factors as prophylaxis against febrile neutropenia.  

PubMed

Myelosuppression secondary to chemotherapy remains a serious adverse effect of cancer therapy that causes high morbidity and mortality. Several current European and American guidelines recommend consideration of primary prophylaxis with colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) when the risk of febrile neutropenia is higher than 20 %. The main factors associated with a high risk of febrile neutropenia include the chemotherapy regimen, tumor type, and patient-related factors such as old age and/or comorbidities. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the most relevant clinical trials and updated recommendations of the main guidelines on the role of granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSFs) in febrile neutropenia, examining whether the combination of G-CSF with chemotherapy improves overall survival. Future directions for G-CSF use are also discussed. PMID:25284722

Cortés de Miguel, Sol; Calleja-Hernández, Miguel Ángel; Menjón-Beltrán, Salomón; Vallejo-Rodríguez, Inmaculada

2015-02-01

300

A Hybrid Ant Colony Algorithm for Loading Pattern Optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electricité de France (EDF) operates 58 nuclear power plant (NPP), of the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) type. The loading pattern (LP) optimization of these NPP is currently done by EDF expert engineers. Within this framework, EDF R&D has developed automatic optimization tools that assist the experts. The latter can resort, for instance, to a loading pattern optimization software based on ant colony algorithm. This paper presents an analysis of the search space of a few realistic loading pattern optimization problems. This analysis leads us to introduce a hybrid algorithm based on ant colony and a local search method. We then show that this new algorithm is able to generate loading patterns of good quality.

Hoareau, F.

2014-06-01

301

Writing sex and sexuality: archives of colonial North India.  

PubMed

This article focuses on disparate sites and subjects to reflect on and problematize the relationship between sexuality and the archives in colonial north India. I dwell on how ‘recalcitrant’ and hidden histories of sexuality can be gleaned by not only expanding our arenas of archives, but also by decentering and recasting colonial archives. I do so by specifically investigating some of the “indigenous” writings in Hindi, through texts concerning homosexuality, sex manuals, the writings of a woman ayurvedic practitioner, didactic literature and its relationship to Dalit (outcaste) sexuality, and current popular Dalit literature and its representations of the past. The debate for me here is not about the flaws of archival uses but rather of playing one archive against another, of appropriating many parallel, alternative, official, and popular archives simultaneously to shape a more nuanced and layered understanding of sexuality. PMID:22250308

Gupta, Charu

2011-01-01

302

Genetic diversity within honeybee colonies increases signal production by waggle-dancing foragers  

PubMed Central

Recent work has demonstrated considerable benefits of intracolonial genetic diversity for the productivity of honeybee colonies: single-patriline colonies have depressed foraging rates, smaller food stores and slower weight gain relative to multiple-patriline colonies. We explored whether differences in the use of foraging-related communication behaviour (waggle dances and shaking signals) underlie differences in foraging effort of genetically diverse and genetically uniform colonies. We created three pairs of colonies; each pair had one colony headed by a multiply mated queen (inseminated by 15 drones) and one colony headed by a singly mated queen. For each pair, we monitored the production of foraging-related signals over the course of 3 days. Foragers in genetically diverse colonies had substantially more information available to them about food resources than foragers in uniform colonies. On average, in genetically diverse colonies compared with genetically uniform colonies, 36% more waggle dances were identified daily, dancers performed 62% more waggle runs per dance, foragers reported food discoveries that were farther from the nest and 91% more shaking signals were exchanged among workers each morning prior to foraging. Extreme polyandry by honeybee queens enhances the production of worker–worker communication signals that facilitate the swift discovery and exploitation of food resources. PMID:18198143

Mattila, Heather R; Burke, Kelly M; Seeley, Thomas D

2008-01-01

303

A critical number of workers in a honeybee colony triggers investment in reproduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social insect colonies, like individual organisms, must decide as they develop how to allocate optimally their resources among survival, growth, and reproduction. Only when colonies reach a certain state do they switch from investing purely in survival and growth to investing also in reproduction. But how do worker bees within a colony detect that their colony has reached the state where it is adaptive to begin investing in reproduction? Previous work has shown that larger honeybee colonies invest more in reproduction (i.e., the production of drones and queens), however, the term `larger' encompasses multiple colony parameters including number of adult workers, size of the nest, amount of brood, and size of the honey stores. These colony parameters were independently increased in this study to test which one(s) would increase a colony's investment in reproduction via males. This was assayed by measuring the construction of drone comb, the special type of comb in which drones are reared. Only an increase in the number of workers stimulated construction of drone comb. Colonies with over 4,000 workers began building drone comb, independent of the other colony parameters. These results show that attaining a critical number of workers is the key parameter for honeybee colonies to start to shift resources towards reproduction. These findings are relevant to other social systems in which a group's members must adjust their behavior as a function of the group's size.

Smith, Michael L.; Ostwald, Madeleine M.; Loftus, J. Carter; Seeley, Thomas D.

2014-10-01

304

Colony mapping: A new technique for monitoring crevice-nesting seabirds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Monitoring populations of auklets and other crevice-nesting seabirds remains problematic, although numerous methods have been attempted since the mid-1960s. Anecdotal evidence suggests several large auklet colonies have recently decreased in both abundance and extent, concurrently with vegetation encroachment and succession. Quantifying changes in the geographical extent of auklet colonies may be a useful alternative to monitoring population size directly. We propose a standardized method for colony mapping using a randomized systematic grid survey with two components: a simple presence/absence survey and an auklet evidence density survey. A quantitative auklet evidence density index was derived from the frequency of droppings and feathers. This new method was used to map the colony on St. George Island in the southeastern Bering Sea and results were compared to previous colony mapping efforts. Auklet presence was detected in 62 of 201 grid cells (each grid cell = 2500 m2) by sampling a randomly placed 16 m2 plot in each cell; estimated colony area = 155 000 m2. The auklet evidence density index varied by two orders of magnitude across the colony and was strongly correlated with means of replicated counts of birds socializing on the colony surface. Quantitatively mapping all large auklet colonies is logistically feasible using this method and would provide an important baseline for monitoring colony status. Regularly monitoring select colonies using this method may be the best means of detecting changes in distribution and population size of crevice-nesting seabirds. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2006.

Renner, H.M.; Renner, M.; Reynolds, J.H.; Harping, A.M.A.; Jones, I.L.; Irons, D.B.; Byrd, G.V.

2006-01-01

305

Interadult feeding of jelly in honeybee ( Apis mellifera L.) colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Honeybee nurses (8 days old) were injected with 14C-phenylalanine. These bees then dispensed the 14C-labelled protein-rich products of their hypopharyngeal glands to the queen and the brood, and also to young drones and workers of all age classes. In small colonies containing 400–800 bees, nearly one-quarter of the radioactivity which could not be recovered in the nurses was fed by

Karl Crailsheim

1991-01-01

306

An Ant Colony System for the Open Vehicle Routing Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the open vehicle routing problem (OVRP), in which the vehicles do not return to the starting depot after\\u000a serving the last customers or, if they do, they must make the same trip in the reverse order. We present an ant colony system\\u000a hybridized with local search for solving the OVRP (ACS-OVRP). Additionally, a Post-Optimization procedure is incorporated

Xiangyong Li; Peng Tian

2006-01-01

307

Acadian Settlement in Louisiana: Colonial Populations and Imperial Policy  

E-print Network

2007) Frances Bailey Kolb Department of History Texas A&M University Fellows Co-Advisors: Dr. Katherine C. Engel Dr. April L. Hatfield Department of History This paper examines the influence of colonial policy and intercultural relations... and in conjunction with the Glasscock Center for Humanities Research for their financial support. I would also like to recognize Dr. April L. Hatfield and Dr. Katherine C. Engel who have advised me throughout the adventure, encouraging each stage of research...

Kolb, Frances Bailey

2007-08-03

308

Repeated loss of coloniality and symbiosis in scleractinian corals  

PubMed Central

The combination of coloniality and symbiosis in Scleractinia is thought to confer competitive advantage over other benthic invertebrates, and it is likely the key factor for the dominance of corals in tropical reefs. However, the extant Scleractinia are evenly split between zooxanthellate and azooxanthellate species. Most azooxanthellate species are solitary and nearly absent from reefs, but have much wider geographic and bathymetric distributions than reef corals. Molecular phylogenetic analyses have repeatedly recovered clades formed by colonial/zooxanthellate and solitary/azooxanthellate taxa, suggesting that coloniality and symbiosis were repeatedly acquired and/or lost throughout the history of the Scleractinia. Using Bayesian ancestral state reconstruction, we found that symbiosis was lost at least three times and coloniality lost at least six times, and at least two instances in which both characters were lost. All of the azooxanthellate lineages originated from ancestors that were reconstructed as symbiotic, corroborating the onshore–offshore diversification trend recorded in marine taxa. Symbiotic sister taxa of two of these descendant lineages are extant in Caribbean reefs but disappeared from the Mediterranean before the end of the Miocene, whereas extant azooxanthellate lineages have trans-Atlantic distributions. Thus, the phyletic link between reef and nonreef communities may have played an important role in the dynamics of extinction and recovery that marks the evolutionary history of scleractinians, and some reef lineages may have escaped local extinction by diversifying into offshore environments. However, this macroevolutionary mechanism offers no hope of mitigating the effects of climate change on coral reefs in the next century. PMID:20547851

Barbeitos, Marcos S.; Romano, Sandra L.; Lasker, Howard R.

2010-01-01

309

Repeated loss of coloniality and symbiosis in scleractinian corals.  

PubMed

The combination of coloniality and symbiosis in Scleractinia is thought to confer competitive advantage over other benthic invertebrates, and it is likely the key factor for the dominance of corals in tropical reefs. However, the extant Scleractinia are evenly split between zooxanthellate and azooxanthellate species. Most azooxanthellate species are solitary and nearly absent from reefs, but have much wider geographic and bathymetric distributions than reef corals. Molecular phylogenetic analyses have repeatedly recovered clades formed by colonial/zooxanthellate and solitary/azooxanthellate taxa, suggesting that coloniality and symbiosis were repeatedly acquired and/or lost throughout the history of the Scleractinia. Using Bayesian ancestral state reconstruction, we found that symbiosis was lost at least three times and coloniality lost at least six times, and at least two instances in which both characters were lost. All of the azooxanthellate lineages originated from ancestors that were reconstructed as symbiotic, corroborating the onshore-offshore diversification trend recorded in marine taxa. Symbiotic sister taxa of two of these descendant lineages are extant in Caribbean reefs but disappeared from the Mediterranean before the end of the Miocene, whereas extant azooxanthellate lineages have trans-Atlantic distributions. Thus, the phyletic link between reef and nonreef communities may have played an important role in the dynamics of extinction and recovery that marks the evolutionary history of scleractinians, and some reef lineages may have escaped local extinction by diversifying into offshore environments. However, this macroevolutionary mechanism offers no hope of mitigating the effects of climate change on coral reefs in the next century. PMID:20547851

Barbeitos, Marcos S; Romano, Sandra L; Lasker, Howard R

2010-06-29

310

Differential susceptibility across honey bee colonies in larval chalkbrood resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chalkbrood susceptibility of in vitro reared honey bee larvae was investigated. Larvae were grafted from 3–4 colonies headed\\u000a by pure mated queens of Apis mellifera carnica, A. m. ligustica and A. m. mellifera, respectively. Three day old larvae were fed with different dosages of Ascophaera apis spores and a clear dose-response relationship was shown. Over the whole experiment LD50 estimates

Annette Bruun Jensen; Bo Vest Pedersen; Jørgen Eilenberg

2009-01-01

311

Disease control during the colonial period in Australia.  

PubMed

The first permanent European settlers of Australia arrived in 1788 to establish a penal colony at Sydney, New South Wales (NSW). As the colony grew and wool production increased, more free settlers and emancipists developed farming in inland Australia. During the 1840s veterinarians commenced arriving in small numbers but they were not closely associated with the development and execution of disease control programs, which was left to lay inspectors of stock. The arrival of William Tyson Kendall and coordinated action with Graham Mitchell led to the establishment of a private veterinary college following the passage of veterinary surgeons legislation in Victoria. From this time, veterinarians came to be appointed to positions formerly occupied by lay inspectors and the veterinary profession was able to take up the role of planning and executing government-led disease control programs. From a colony relying on wool for export to the UK, technical advancements in meat freezing and pasture improvement widened the range and increased the quantity of exported products. Before the advent of veterinary advances, sheep scab was eradicated, a vaccine was developed for anthrax and glanders infection of horses was prevented entry to Australia. Graduates from the Melbourne Veterinary College spread across Australia and in this period a conservative quarantine policy was developed following inaction to control an outbreak of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) and the escape of rabbits to form a plague across the continent. Coordinated control of CBPP had to await the next century and advancement of technology increased our understanding of bacteriology and immunity of infectious diseases. Veterinary services were provided to the militia sent by the colonies to the Boer Wars in South Africa 1987-1901 and the veterinarians from Victoria were led by an Australian trained veterinarian. PMID:21696369

Turner, A J

2011-07-01

312

Comparative Studies on Growth and Physiological Responses of Unicellular and Colonial Microcystis aeruginosa to Acorus calamus.  

PubMed

In order to explore the growth inhibition and physiological responses of unicellular and colonial Microcystis aeruginosa during coexistence with Acorus calamus, algal densities, chlorophyll a contents, exopolysaccharide (EPS) concentrations, malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, catalase (CAT) activities, and peroxidase (POD) activities of the two algae strains were analyzed. Although the unicellular and colonial strains of M. aeruginosa were both inhibited by A. calamus, unicellular algae were more sensitive than the colonial algae. The measurement results for EPS, MDA, CAT, and POD showed that unicellular M. aeruginosa had higher levels of stress related damage than colonial strains when they were exposed to the same density of A. calamus, and the cellular defense system of colonial M. aeruginosa was stronger than that of unicellular M. aeruginosa. Natural blooms of Microcystis are typically composed of colonial forms of M. aeruginosa, therefore future efforts to control such blooms, possibly through the development of new algicides, should focus on the unique characteristics of colonial M. aeruginosa strains. PMID:25416545

Zhang, S-H; Chang, J-J; Cao, J-Y; Yang, C-L

2015-02-01

313

Trade-offs limiting the evolution of coloniality: ecological displacement rates used to measure small costs  

PubMed Central

Multicellular organisms that benefit from division of labour are presumably descended from colonial species that initially derived benefits from larger colony size, before the evolution of specialization. Life in a colony can have costs as well as benefits, but these can be hard to measure. We measured physiological costs to life in a colony using a novel method based on population dynamics, comparing growth rates of unicells and kairomone-induced colonies of a green alga Desmodesmus subspicatus against a reference co-occurring species. Coloniality negatively affected growth during the initial log growth phase, while no adverse effect was detected under nutrient-limited competitive conditions. The results point to costs associated with traits involved in rapid growth rather than those associated with efficient growth under resource scarcity. Some benefits of coloniality (e.g. defence from herbivory) may be different from when this trait evolved, but our approach shows how costs would have depended on conditions. PMID:20739317

Yokota, Kiyoko; Sterner, Robert W.

2011-01-01

314

Economic investment by ant colonies in searches for better homes  

PubMed Central

Organisms should invest more in gathering information when the pay-off from finding a profitable resource is likely to be greater. Here, we ask whether animal societies put more effort in scouting for a new nest when their current one is of low quality. We measured the scouting behaviour of Temnothorax albipennis ant colonies when they inhabit nest-sites with different combinations of desirable attributes. We show that the average probability of an ant scouting decreases significantly with an increase in the quality of the nest in which the colony currently resides. This means that the greater the potential gain from finding a new nest, the more effort a colony puts into gathering information regarding new nest-sites. Our results show, for the first time to our knowledge, the ability of animal societies to respond collectively to the quality of a resource they currently have at their disposal (e.g. current nest-site) and regulate appropriately their information gathering efforts for finding an alternative (e.g. a potentially better nest-site). PMID:24088565

Doran, Carolina; Pearce, Tom; Connor, Aaron; Schlegel, Thomas; Franklin, Elizabeth; Sendova-Franks, Ana B.; Franks, Nigel R.

2013-01-01

315

Radial and Spiral Stream Formation in Proteus mirabilis Colonies  

PubMed Central

The enteric bacterium Proteus mirabilis, which is a pathogen that forms biofilms in vivo, can swarm over hard surfaces and form a variety of spatial patterns in colonies. Colony formation involves two distinct cell types: swarmer cells that dominate near the surface and the leading edge, and swimmer cells that prefer a less viscous medium, but the mechanisms underlying pattern formation are not understood. New experimental investigations reported here show that swimmer cells in the center of the colony stream inward toward the inoculation site and in the process form many complex patterns, including radial and spiral streams, in addition to previously-reported concentric rings. These new observations suggest that swimmers are motile and that indirect interactions between them are essential in the pattern formation. To explain these observations we develop a hybrid model comprising cell-based and continuum components that incorporates a chemotactic response of swimmers to a chemical they produce. The model predicts that formation of radial streams can be explained as the modulation of the local attractant concentration by the cells, and that the chirality of the spiral streams results from a swimming bias of the cells near the surface of the substrate. The spatial patterns generated from the model are in qualitative agreement with the experimental observations. PMID:22219724

Xue, Chuan; Budrene, Elena O.; Othmer, Hans G.

2011-01-01

316

Communication and spatial relationships in a colony of common grackles.  

PubMed

Most communication among common grackles Quiscalus quiscula occurs at distances of less than a few metres in the noisy environment of a breeding colony. This report examines both the adaptations of communication to these conditions and the effects of communication in regulating individual's spatial relationships. For each of six vocalizations and five action patterns studied in one colony, I consider variation in the form of the display, the circumstances associated with its use, and the responses it elicits. Each individual, male or female, has one characteristic, stereotyped song pattern that would facilitate individual recognition between mates. Variation in the components of vocalizations and action patterns is of two kinds: unidimensional, with either covarying or nested components, or multidimensional, with independently varying components, alternatives that have different implications for communication. The wide-spectrum sounds made by common grackles offer advantages in close-range communication in colonies, because the ease of locating such signals would minimize the cocktail-party effect, although they would have disadvantages in long-range communication. Most vocalizations of common grackles lack assocations with specific responses or external contexts, a situation that should often characterize short-range communication between acquainted individuals. The responses to vocalizations vary with context, especially the initial spatial relationships and identities of the interactors. PMID:962193

Wiley, R H

1976-08-01

317

``Campo del Cielo'' Meteorites: Astronomical Heritage and Cultural Colonialism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the province of Chaco, Argentina, there is a very unique dispersion of metallic meteorites called ``Campo del Cielo''. One of the meteoric fragments of this dispersion, the meteorite called ``El Chaco'', consisting of 37 tons, is the second heaviest in the world. These meteorites are of great importance to the worldview of the Moqoit, aboriginal people that inhabit this region. For the local Creole population the meteorites are also relevant, that's why they have being cited in numerous documents and reports since the colonial period. During the first months of 2012, two Argentine artists and the Artistic Director of the German contemporary art exhibition called dOCUMENTA (13) tried to move ``El Chaco'' meteorite to Germany in order to exhibit it as an artistic object. Due to the fact that moving the meteorite could have a negative impact according to the Moqoit cosmology and that they were not able to participate in the decision they begun a manifestation against the movement of El Chaco. The opposition made by aboriginal communities and experts in cultural astronomy was able to stop the transfer. The whole process and its impact on the local community have promoted a deep discussion about art, science and cultural colonialism. In this paper we aim to address this debate and its consequences. This will allow us to think about contemporary forms of colonialism that are hidden in many scientific and artistic projects. Furthermore, we aim to debate about the most effective ways of protecting astronomical heritage in the Third World.

López, Alejandro Martín; Altman, Agustina

2012-09-01

318

Rationality in collective decision-making by ant colonies  

PubMed Central

Economic models of animal behaviour assume that decision-makers are rational, meaning that they assess options according to intrinsic fitness value and not by comparison with available alternatives. This expectation is frequently violated, but the significance of irrational behaviour remains controversial. One possibility is that irrationality arises from cognitive constraints that necessitate short cuts like comparative evaluation. If so, the study of whether and when irrationality occurs can illuminate cognitive mechanisms. We applied this logic in a novel setting: the collective decisions of insect societies. We tested for irrationality in colonies of Temnothorax ants choosing between two nest sites that varied in multiple attributes, such that neither site was clearly superior. In similar situations, individual animals show irrational changes in preference when a third relatively unattractive option is introduced. In contrast, we found no such effect in colonies. We suggest that immunity to irrationality in this case may result from the ants’ decentralized decision mechanism. A colony's choice does not depend on site comparison by individuals, but instead self-organizes from the interactions of multiple ants, most of which are aware of only a single site. This strategy may filter out comparative effects, preventing systematic errors that would otherwise arise from the cognitive limitations of individuals. PMID:19625319

Edwards, Susan C.; Pratt, Stephen C.

2009-01-01

319

Automated counting of bacterial colonies by image analysis.  

PubMed

Research on microorganisms often involves culturing as a means to determine the survival and proliferation of bacteria. The number of colonies in a culture is counted to calculate the concentration of bacteria in the original broth; however, manual counting can be time-consuming and imprecise. To save time and prevent inconsistencies, this study proposes a fully automated counting system using image processing methods. To accurately estimate the number of viable bacteria in a known volume of suspension, colonies distributing over the whole surface area of a plate, including the central and rim areas of a Petri dish are taken into account. The performance of the proposed system is compared with verified manual counts, as well as with two freely available counting software programs. Comparisons show that the proposed system is an effective method with excellent accuracy with mean value of absolute percentage error of 3.37%. A user-friendly graphical user interface is also developed and freely available for download, providing researchers in biomedicine with a more convenient instrument for the enumeration of bacterial colonies. PMID:25451456

Chiang, Pei-Ju; Tseng, Min-Jen; He, Zong-Sian; Li, Chia-Hsun

2015-01-01

320

Does a polyandrous honeybee queen improve through patriline diversity the activity of her colony’s scouting foragers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies indicate that the foraging success of a honeybee colony is enhanced when it has numerous genetically diverse\\u000a patrilines because of queen polyandry. We determined whether foraging is improved in part because patriline diversity generates\\u000a more responsive populations of scouting foragers. Scouts search for new food sources and advertise them with waggle dances\\u000a to inform other foragers about unexploited

Heather R. Mattila; Thomas D. Seeley

2011-01-01

321

Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental assessment for the Colonie site, Colonie, New York  

SciTech Connect

This work plan has been prepared to document the scoping and planning process performed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to support remedial action activities at the Colonie site. The site is located in eastern New York State in the town of Colonie near the city of Albany. Remedial action of the Colonie site is being planned as part of DOE's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. The DOE is responsible for controlling the release of all radioactive and chemical contaminants from the site. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) must be prepared to support the decision-making process for evaluating remedial action alternatives. This work plan contains a summary of information known about the site as of January 1988, presents a conceptual site model that identifies potential routes of human exposure to site containments, identifies data gaps, and summarizes the process and proposed studies that will be used to fill the data gaps. In addition, DOE activities must be conducted in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which requires consideration of the environmental consequences of a proposed action as part of its decision-making process. This work also describes the approach that will be used to evaluate potential remedial action alternatives and includes a description of the organization, project controls, and task schedules that will be employed to fulfill the requirements of both CERCLA and NEPA. 48 refs., 18 figs., 25 tabs.

Not Available

1990-06-01

322

Bulletin of Entomological Research (2003) 93, 439445 DOI: 10.1079/BER2003258 Termite colony ontogeny: a long-term  

E-print Network

lineages. Soldier caste proportion of the colony total and mean wet weights for workers, soldiers and kings in five of the colonies (17%); none lost both parents. The queenless colonies contained exclusively female replacement reproductives (neotenics); the kingless colony contained a female-skewed mixture of male

Yorke, James

323

Validation of Five-Colony Pool Analysis Using Multiplex Real-Time PCR for Detection of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli?  

PubMed Central

Five Escherichia coli colonies/patient were studied to evaluate the reliability of a multiplex real-time PCR assay for detection of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli groups, using a pool of five colonies rather than individual colonies. Sensitivity and specificity were 98% and 100%, respectively, at a fifth of the cost of the individual colony analysis. PMID:19357211

Barletta, F.; Ochoa, T. J.; Ecker, L.; Gil, A. I.; Lanata, C. F.; Cleary, T. G.

2009-01-01

324

Studies on a colony of colour-ringed Herring Gulls Larus argentatus: II. Colony occupation and feeding outside the breeding season  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of colour-ringed Herring Gulls over 6 years at a colony in NE England has shown that many of the breeding birds are present in every month of the year. A majority of the adult females leave the colony for a month or more during the non-breeding season but this absence is not sychronized and some of the birds

J. C. Coulson; J. Butterfield

1986-01-01

325

Internal skeletal analysis of the colonial azooxanthellate scleractinian Dendrophyllia cribrosa using microfocus X-ray CT images: Underlying basis for its rigid and highly adaptive colony structure.  

PubMed

Dendrophyllid Scleractinia exhibit a variety of colonial morphologies, formed under the strict constraints on (1) budding sites, (2) orientations of the directive septa of offsets, (3) inclination of budding direction, and (4) those constraints in every generation. Dendrophyllia cribrosa exhibits a sympodial dendroid form, characteristically large coralla, and occasional fusions of adjacent branches within the same colony. Adjacent corallites are bound and supported by coenosteum skeleton. This study examined the inner skeletal structures at the junctions of fused branches using a non-destructive microfocus X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging approach, and considered the reasons for the large colonial sizes and their adaptive significance. Three-dimensional reconstructions of two-dimensional X-ray CT images reveal that individual corallites are not directly connected in fused parts. Additionally, no completely buried individuals were found within fused skeleton. When adjacent branches approach one another, constituent corallites change their growth directions to avoid collisions between the branches. The adjacent branches fuse without a reduction in the number of constituent corallites, leading to the establishment of reticular and rigid colonial structures. In addition, a nearly even distribution of individuals on the colony surface facilitates efficient intake of nutrients. Thus, the growth of large D. cribrosa colonies involves avoidance of collision between constituent individuals, the reinforcement of colonial structure, and efficient uptake of nutrients. These observations provide insights on the dynamics of interrelationships between colony-making mechanisms and the adaptive strategies required under habitat conditions such as specific current activities. PMID:25463019

Sentoku, Asuka; Morisaki, Hitomi; Masumoto, Shinji; Ohno, Rie; Tomiyama, Takayuki; Ezaki, Yoichi

2015-01-01

326

Sexual Reproductive Biology of a Colonial Rotifer Sinantherina socialis (Rotifera: Monogononta): Do mating strategies vary between colonial and solitary rotifer species?  

PubMed Central

In many aquatic invertebrates including monogonont rotifers, sex provides genetic variation and dormant stages that allows dispersal in time and space. While the reproductive biology of some solitary monogonont rotifer species is known, little is known concerning mating behaviors in colonial rotifers. Coloniality poses unique challenges to the typical mating behavior of solitary rotifers. For instance, most species engage in circling behavior, where the male swims in close proximity to the female. In colonial forms, access to a particular female may be hindered by nearby colony mates. Here we provide descriptions of (1) male morphology, (2) mating behavior, and (3) types of eggs of the widespread colonial rotifer Sinantherina socialis, and discuss modifications in mating strategies as a consequence of coloniality. Two important differences from mating patterns documented in solitary rotifers were found in S. socialis. First, duration of circling phase of mating is protracted for males encountering small colonies of females as compared to solitary females. Males encountering single females removed from their colonies behave similarly to those of solitary species. Second, duration of copulation in S. socialis is the shortest reported for any rotifer species. Endogamy might occur in this species as sons copulate with their sisters and mothers, at least under laboratory conditions. Examples of behaviour in linked video clips. PMID:24932095

Rico-Martínez, Roberto; Walsh, Elizabeth J.

2014-01-01

327

Characterization of viral siRNA populations in honey bee colony collapse disorder.  

PubMed

Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), a special case of collapse of honey bee colonies, has resulted in significant losses for beekeepers. CCD-colonies show abundance of pathogens which suggests that they have a weakened immune system. Since honey bee viruses are major players in colony collapse and given the important role of viral RNA interference (RNAi) in combating viral infections we investigated if CCD-colonies elicit an RNAi response. Deep-sequencing analysis of samples from CCD-colonies from US and Israel revealed abundant small interfering RNAs (siRNA) of 21-22 nucleotides perfectly matching the Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), Kashmir virus and Deformed wing virus genomes. Israeli colonies showed high titers of IAPV and a conserved RNAi-pattern of matching the viral genome. That was also observed in sample analysis from colonies experimentally infected with IAPV. Our results suggest that CCD-colonies set out a siRNA response that is specific against predominant viruses associated with colony losses. PMID:24725944

Chejanovsky, Nor; Ophir, Ron; Schwager, Michal Sharabi; Slabezki, Yossi; Grossman, Smadar; Cox-Foster, Diana

2014-04-01

328

Influence of individual cell motility on the 2D front roughness dynamics of tumour cell colonies.  

PubMed

The dynamics of in situ 2D HeLa cell quasi-linear and quasi-radial colony fronts in a standard culture medium is investigated. For quasi-radial colonies, as the cell population increased, a kinetic transition from an exponential to a constant front average velocity regime was observed. Special attention was paid to individual cell motility evolution under constant average colony front velocity looking for its impact on the dynamics of the 2D colony front roughness. From the directionalities and velocity components of cell trajectories in colonies with different cell populations, the influence of both local cell density and cell crowding effects on individual cell motility was determined. The average dynamic behaviour of individual cells in the colony and its dependence on both local spatio-temporal heterogeneities and growth geometry suggested that cell motion undergoes under a concerted cell migration mechanism, in which both a limiting random walk-like and a limiting ballistic-like contribution were involved. These results were interesting to infer how biased cell trajectories influenced both the 2D colony spreading dynamics and the front roughness characteristics by local biased contributions to individual cell motion. These data are consistent with previous experimental and theoretical cell colony spreading data and provide additional evidence of the validity of the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation, within a certain range of time and colony front size, for describing the dynamics of 2D colony front roughness. PMID:24893945

Muzzio, N E; Pasquale, M A; González, P H; Arvia, A J

2014-06-01

329

Disturbance Driven Colony Fragmentation as a Driver of a Coral Disease Outbreak  

PubMed Central

In September of 2010, Brewer's Bay reef, located in St. Thomas (U.S. Virgin Islands), was simultaneously affected by abnormally high temperatures and the passage of a hurricane that resulted in the mass bleaching and fragmentation of its coral community. An outbreak of a rapid tissue loss disease among coral colonies was associated with these two disturbances. Gross lesion signs and lesion progression rates indicated that the disease was most similar to the Caribbean coral disease white plague type 1. Experiments indicated that the disease was transmissible through direct contact between colonies, and five-meter radial transects showed a clustered spatial distribution of disease, with diseased colonies being concentrated within the first meter of other diseased colonies. Disease prevalence and the extent to which colonies were bleached were both significantly higher on unattached colony fragments than on attached colonies, and disease occurred primarily on fragments found in direct contact with sediment. In contrast to other recent studies, disease presence was not related to the extent of bleaching on colonies. The results of this study suggest that colony fragmentation and contact with sediment played primary roles in the initial appearance of disease, but that the disease was capable of spreading among colonies, which suggests secondary transmission is possible through some other, unidentified mechanism. PMID:23437335

Brandt, Marilyn E.; Smith, Tyler B.; Correa, Adrienne M. S.; Vega-Thurber, Rebecca

2013-01-01

330

Our women must return home: institutionalized patriarchy in colonial central Nyanza district, 1945-1963.  

PubMed

Colonial policies and practices were very instrumental in the creation of the Luo Diaspora. This Diaspora extended far beyond the physical and cultural boundaries of Central Nyanza as was constituted by the colonial administration. To colonial officials, this Diaspora represented "detribalized natives" responsible for social decay and immorality in the colonial townships. Similarly, to the male elders in the rural areas, this Diaspora was an affront towards destabilizing tribal authority and sanctions, which governed Luo moral order, Luo marriage, and Luo identity as it existed prior to colonialism. This article uses patriarchy as an analytical framework to understand how male elders and colonial officials collaborated to assert control over young women under suspicion of prostitution. The article argues that the Ramogi African Welfare Association (RAWA) was a post-war patriarchal institution which was used by male elders, with the encouragement of the colonial officials, to intimidate, harass and repatriate young women seeking wage employment within the emerging colonial townships. In this article, I use archival and field data gathered from Central Nyanza between 1999 and 2002 to illustrate how institutionalized patriarchy threatened many women and young girls seeking to migrate to colonial towns in order to exploit the limited economic and social opportunities that colonialism provided. PMID:20976983

Okuro, Samwel Ong'wen

2010-01-01

331

Modulation of colony stimulating factor release and apoptosis in human colon cancer cells by anticancer drugs  

PubMed Central

Modulation of the immune response against tumour cells is emerging as a valuable approach for cancer treatment. Some experimental studies have shown that secretion of colony stimulating factors by cancer cells reduces their tumorigenicity and increases their immunogenicity probably by promoting the cytolitic and antigen presenting activities of leukocytes. We have observed that human colon cancer cells (HT-29) are able to secrete granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and macrophage-colony stimulating factor when stimulated with cytokines (IL-1? and TNF-?). In this study we assessed, for the first time, the effects of several anticancer drugs on colony stimulating factor release or apoptosis in HT-29 cells. Cytokine-induced release of granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and macrophage-colony stimulating factor was significantly increased by cisplatin and 6-mercaptopurine. Taxol only increased macrophage-colony stimulating factor release while reduced that of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor. No changes in colony stimulating factor secretion were observed after treatment with methotrexate. Only cisplatin and taxol induced apoptosis in these cells. Secretion of colony stimulating factors by colon cancer cells may contribute to the immune host response against them. Anticancer drugs such as cisplatin and 6-mercaptopurine increase colony stimulating factor secretion by cytokine stimulated cancer cells probably through mechanisms different to those leading to cell apoptosis, an effect that may contribute to their anti-neoplasic action. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 1316–1321. DOI: 10.1038/sj/bjc/6600240 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:11953891

Calatayud, S; Warner, T D; Mitchell, J A

2002-01-01

332

Aerial estimation of the size of gull breeding colonies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Counts on photographs and visual estimates of the numbers of territorial gulls are usually reliable indicators of the number of gull nests, but single visual estimates are not adequate to measure the number of nests in individual colonies. To properly interpret gull counts requires that several islands with known numbers of nests be photographed to establish the ratio of gulls to nests applicable for a given local census. Visual estimates are adequate to determine total breeding gull numbers by regions. Neither visual estimates nor photography will reliably detect annual changes of less than about 2.5 percent.

Kadlec, J.A.; Drury, W.H.

1968-01-01

333

One's Colonies: a virtual reality environment of oriental residences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is a statement about my virtual reality environment project, One's Colonies, and a description of the creative process of the project. I was inspired by the buildings in my hometown-Taiwan, which is really different from the architectural style in the United States. By analyzing the unique style of dwellings in Taiwan, I want to demonstrate how the difference between geography, weather and culture change the appearance of the living space. Through this project I want to express the relationship between architectural style and cultural difference, and how the emotional condition or characteristics of the residents are affected by their residencies.

Chi, Catherine

2013-03-01

334

Eighteenth-century colonial American merchant ship construction  

E-print Network

and trade in general. Examples include D. MacGregor?s Merchant Sailing Ships, 1775- 1815: Sovereignty of Sail, R. Gardiner?s The Heyday of Sail: The Merchant Sailing Ship, 1650-1830, and H. Chapelle?s History of American Sailing Ships. 4 Although... data can be analyzed in an effort to better understand colonial shipbuilding techniques. Endnotes 1 Davis 1962, 71. 2 Goodwin 2001; Lavery 1987. 3 Chapman 1971. 4 MacGregor 1988; Gardiner 1995; Chapelle 1935. 5 Morris et al. 1995...

VanHorn, Kellie Michelle

2005-02-17

335

Correlated phenotypic transitions to competence in bacterial colonies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genetic competence is a phenotypic state of a bacterial cell in which it is capable of importing DNA, presumably to improve survival under stress. Motivated by several colony-level known responses, we present a model for the influence of quorum sensing on the transition to competence of B. Subtilis. Coupling to the external signal creates an effective inhibitory mechanism, which results in anticorrelation between the cycles of adjacent cells. We show that this is consistent with recent experimental measurements and propose measurement methods to verify the role of quorum-sensing signals.

Hecht, Inbal; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Levine, Herbert

2007-10-01

336

The Colonie FUSRAP Site: CY2002 Situation Report  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a summary of accomplishments at the Colonie FUSRAP Site in Fiscal Year 2002. During this period several significant milestones were achieved and have set the stage for the project to be completed in a more comprehensive manner, ahead of schedule and at a lower cost than the original Remedial Plan inherited from the Dept of Energy in 1997. Discussion of the DOE and subsequent USACE remedial plans is included along with summary level discussions of the key site infrastructure and remedial elements.

Sheeran, A. R.; Dufek, K.; Moore, J.

2003-02-26

337

Multi-Megawatt Gas Turbine Power Systems for Lunar Colonies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A concept for development of second generation 10 MWe prototype lunar power plant utilizing a gas cooled fission reactor supplying heated helium working fluid to two parallel 5 MWe closed cycle gas turbines is presented. Such a power system is expected to supply the energy needs for an initial lunar colony with a crew of up to 50 persons engaged in mining and manufacturing activities. System performance and mass details were generated by an author developed code (BRMAPS). The proposed pilot power plant can be a model for future plants of the same capacity that could be tied to an evolutionary lunar power grid.

Juhasz, Albert J.

2006-01-01

338

Lower disease infections in honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies headed by polyandrous vs monandrous queens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the relationship between genetic diversity and disease susceptibility in honeybee colonies living under natural conditions. To do so, we created colonies in which each queen was artificially inseminated with sperm from either one or ten drones. Of the 20 colonies studied, 80% showed at least one brood disease. We found strong differences between the two types of colonies in the infection intensity of chalkbrood and in the total intensity of all brood diseases (chalkbrood, sacbrood, American foulbrood, and European foulbrood) with both variables lower for the colonies with higher genetic diversity. Our findings demonstrate that disease can be an important factor in the ecology of honeybee colonies and they provide strong support for the disease hypothesis for the evolution of polyandry by social insect queens.

Tarpy, David R.; Seeley, Thomas D.

2006-04-01

339

Age and breeding success related to nest position in a White stork Ciconia ciconia colony  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coloniality is a breeding system that may produce benefits in terms of breeding success, although these advantages could vary according to factors such as colony size or nest position. We studied breeder's age in relation to nest position (peripheral or central) within the colony. In addition, we studied the relationship between breeding success and nest position, controlling for breeder's age, a highly correlated factor, in a White Stork Ciconia ciconia colony over a 7-year period. Our results show that central nests are mainly occupied by adult birds and had lower failure rates. However, controlling for breeder's age, nest position per se did not explain breeding success. The scarce predation and the lack of human disturbance in the study colony could explain the absence of differences in breeding success between different nest positions within the colony.

Vergara, Pablo; Aguirre, José I.

2006-11-01

340

An improved ant colony algorithm with diversified solutions based on the immune strategy  

PubMed Central

Background Ant colony algorithm has emerged recently as a new meta-heuristic method, which is inspired from the behaviours of real ants for solving NP-hard problems. However, the classical ant colony algorithm also has its defects of stagnation and premature. This paper aims at remedying these problems. Results In this paper, we propose an adaptive ant colony algorithm that simulates the behaviour of biological immune system. The solutions of the problem are much more diversified than traditional ant colony algorithms. Conclusion The proposed method for improving the performance of traditional ant colony algorithm takes into account the polarization of the colonies, and adaptively adjusts the distribution of the solutions obtained by the ants. This makes the solutions more diverse so as to avoid the stagnation and premature phenomena. PMID:17217521

Qin, Ling; Pan, Yi; Chen, Ling; Chen, Yixin

2006-01-01

341

Tumor promoters enhance myeloid and erythroid colony formation by normal mouse hemopoietic cells.  

PubMed Central

The diterpene tumor promoters enhance the proliferation in culture of myeloid and erythroid precursor cells from normal mouse hemopoietic tissues. The effect is observed only with those diterpenes that are tumor promoters, including 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA); diterpenes that are inactive as tumor promoters are ineffective as stimulators of colony formation. Tumor promoters act synergistically with suboptimal concentrations of conditioned medium used as a source of colony-stimulating factor (CSF) to increase both the number and size of myeloid colonies. Formation of myeloid colonies is stimulated by tumor promoters even without addition of CSF. Both pure and mixed granulocyte/macrophage colonies develop; high concentrations (> 100 micrograms/ml) of TPA are more favorable for macrophage colony formation. In erythropoietin-stimulated cultures, tumor promoters enhance the development of relatively early and intermediate of erythroid precursors, whereas later erythroid precursors are unaffected. PMID:6968905

Fibach, E; Marks, P A; Rifkind, R A

1980-01-01

342

Social parasitism by Cape honeybee workers in colonies of their own subspecies ( Apis mellifera capensis Esch.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  Social parasitism is widespread in the eusocial insects. Although social parasites often show a reduced worker caste, unmated\\u000a workers can also parasitize colonies. Cape honeybee workers, Apis mellifera capensis, can establish themselves as social parasites in host colonies of other honeybee subspecies. However, it is unknown whether\\u000a social parasitism by laying workers also occurs among Cape honeybee colonies. In order

S. Härtel; P. Neumann; F. S. Raassen; R. F. A. Moritz; H. R. Hepburn

2006-01-01

343

Recruitment-dance signals draw larger audiences when honey bee colonies have multiple patrilines  

PubMed Central

Honey bee queens (Apis mellifera) who mate with multiple males produce colonies that are filled with numerous genetically distinct patrilines of workers. A genetically diverse colony benefits from an enhanced foraging effort, fuelled in part by an increase in the number of recruitment signals that are produced by foragers. However, the influence of patriline diversity on the attention paid to these signals by audiences of potentially receptive workers remains unexplored. To determine whether recruitment dances performed by foragers in multiple-patriline colonies attract a greater number of dance followers than dances in colonies that lack patriline diversity, we trained workers from multiple- and single-patriline colonies to forage in a greenhouse and monitored their dance-following activity back in the hives. On average, more workers followed a dance if it was performed in a multiple-patriline colony rather than a single-patriline colony (33% increase), and for a greater number of dance circuits per follower. Furthermore, dance-following workers in multiple-patriline colonies were more likely to exit their hive after following a dance, although this did not translate to a difference in colony-level exit rates between treatment types. Recruiting nest mates to profitable food sources through dance communication is critical to a colony’s foraging success and long-term fitness; polyandrous queens produce colonies that benefit not only from increased recruitment signalling, but also from the generation of larger and more attentive audiences of signal receivers. This study highlights the importance of integrating responses of both signal senders and receivers to understand more fully the success of animal-communication systems. PMID:21350596

Mattila, H. R.; Seeley, T. D.

2010-01-01

344

COLONY-SITE AND NEST-SITE USE BY COMMON GRACKLES IN NORTH DAKOTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

searched 638 quarter sections (0.8 X 0.8 km) for Common Grackle (Quiscalus quiscula) nesting sites in Benson County, North Dakota, in 1989 and 1990. We found 3596 active nests in 202 colonies on 177 quarter sections. Colonies in shelterbelts next to inhabited farmsteads were found at greater than expected frequencies (P 5 0.05), whereas colonies in vegetation associated with potholes

H. JEFFREY HOMAN; GEORGE M. LINZ; WILLIAM J. BLEIER; ROBERT B. CARLSON

1996-01-01

345

Nestmate recognition and incompatibility between colonies of the acacia-ant Pseudomyrmex ferruginea  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Compatibility between workers of 21 different colonies of the acacia-ant Pseudomyrmex ferruginea was examined. The colonies were reared from foundress queens in the greenhouse, on a clone of Acacia hindsii. Widespread incompatibility between colonies was encountered in these tests. Since diet and nesting environment are uniform, these results strongly suggest that the ants are producing recognition pheromones.2.Worker brood from a

Alex Mintzer

1982-01-01

346

Impact of Chronic Neonicotinoid Exposure on Honeybee Colony Performance and Queen Supersedure  

PubMed Central

Background Honeybees provide economically and ecologically vital pollination services to crops and wild plants. During the last decade elevated colony losses have been documented in Europe and North America. Despite growing consensus on the involvement of multiple causal factors, the underlying interactions impacting on honeybee health and colony failure are not fully resolved. Parasites and pathogens are among the main candidates, but sublethal exposure to widespread agricultural pesticides may also affect bees. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate effects of sublethal dietary neonicotinoid exposure on honeybee colony performance, a fully crossed experimental design was implemented using 24 colonies, including sister-queens from two different strains, and experimental in-hive pollen feeding with or without environmentally relevant concentrations of thiamethoxam and clothianidin. Honeybee colonies chronically exposed to both neonicotinoids over two brood cycles exhibited decreased performance in the short-term resulting in declining numbers of adult bees (?28%) and brood (?13%), as well as a reduction in honey production (?29%) and pollen collections (?19%), but colonies recovered in the medium-term and overwintered successfully. However, significantly decelerated growth of neonicotinoid-exposed colonies during the following spring was associated with queen failure, revealing previously undocumented long-term impacts of neonicotinoids: queen supersedure was observed for 60% of the neonicotinoid-exposed colonies within a one year period, but not for control colonies. Linked to this, neonicotinoid exposure was significantly associated with a reduced propensity to swarm during the next spring. Both short-term and long-term effects of neonicotinoids on colony performance were significantly influenced by the honeybees’ genetic background. Conclusions/Significance Sublethal neonicotinoid exposure did not provoke increased winter losses. Yet, significant detrimental short and long-term impacts on colony performance and queen fate suggest that neonicotinoids may contribute to colony weakening in a complex manner. Further, we highlight the importance of the genetic basis of neonicotinoid susceptibility in honeybees which can vary substantially. PMID:25084279

Sandrock, Christoph; Tanadini, Matteo; Tanadini, Lorenzo G.; Fauser-Misslin, Aline; Potts, Simon G.; Neumann, Peter

2014-01-01

347

Response of mountain plovers to plague-driven dynamics of black-tailed prairie dog colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sylvatic plague is a major factor influencing the dynamics of black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies in the western Great Plains. We studied the nesting response of the mountain plover (Charadrius montanus), a grassland bird that nests on prairie dog colonies, to plague-driven dynamics of prairie dog colonies at three sites in\\u000a the western Great Plains. First, we examined plover

David J. Augustine; Stephen J. Dinsmore; Michael B. Wunder; Victoria J. Dreitz; Fritz L. Knopf

2008-01-01

348

Predation of artificial ground nests on white-tailed prairie dog colonies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Prairie dog (Cynomys spp.) colonies are unique to prairie and shrub-steppe landscapes. However, widespread eradication, habitat loss, and sylvatic plague (Yersinia pestis) have reduced their numbers by 98% since historical times. Birds associated with prairie dogs also are declining. Potential nest predators, such as coyotes (Canis latrans), swift foxes (Vulpes velox), and badgers (Taxidea taxus), may be attracted to colonies where a high concentration of prairie dogs serve as available prey. Increased abundance of small mammals, including prairie dogs, also may increase the risk of predation for birds nesting on colonies. Finally, because grazing by prairie dogs may decrease vegetation height and canopy cover, bird nests may be easier for predators to locate. In this study, we placed 1,444 artificial ground nests on and off 74 white-tailed prairie dog (C. leucurus) colonies to test the hypothesis that nest predation rates are higher on colonies than at nearby off sites (i.e., uncolonized habitat). We sampled colonies from 27 May to 16 July 1997 at the following 3 complexes: Coyote Basin, Utah and Colorado; Moxa Arch, Wyoming; and Shirley Basin, Wyoming. Differences in daily predation rates between colonies and paired off sites averaged 1.0% (P = 0.060). When converted to a typical 14-day incubation period, predation rates averaged 14% higher on colonies (57.7 ?? 2.7%; ?? ?? SE) than at off sites (50.4 ?? 3.1%). Comparisons of habitat variables on colonies to off sites showed percent canopy cover of vegetation was similar (P = 0.114), percent bare ground was higher on colonies (P 0.288). Although we found the risk of nest predation was higher on white-tailed prairie dog colonies than at off sites, fitness of birds nesting on colonies might depend on other factors that influence foraging success, reproductive success, or nestling survival.

Baker, B.W.; Stanley, T.R.; Sedgwick, J.A.

1999-01-01

349

Grouping of soil bacteria by analysis of colony formation on agar plates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The colony formation of soil bacteria was studied in relation to incubation time. The process was simulated by a colony-forming curve (CFC) which was a superposition of several component curves (cCFC) given theoretically by the first-order reaction (FOR) model. This model had been previously proposed to define the colony formation of cells of a single culture. Soil bacteria were divided

T. Hashimoto; T. Hattori

1989-01-01

350

Effect of Zinc Phosphide Rodenticide on Prairie Dog Colony Expansion as Determined From Aerial Photography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerial photography (1:16,000) was used to evaluate the effectiveness of zinc phosphide in reducing area expansion of black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies over a 5-year period in western South Dakota. Untreated prairie dog colonies increased 65 % in area, compared to a 1% increase on treated colonies (P = 0.11). Zinc phosphide, applied at 3-year intervals, was effective in

DANIEL W. URESK; GREG L. SCHENBECK

351

Colony-live —a high-throughput method for measuring microbial colony growth kinetics— reveals diverse growth effects of gene knockouts in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Background Precise quantitative growth measurements and detection of small growth changes in high-throughput manner is essential for fundamental studies of bacterial cell. However, an inherent tradeoff for measurement quality in high-throughput methods sacrifices some measurement quality. A key challenge has been how to enhance measurement quality without sacrificing throughput. Results We developed a new high-throughput measurement system, termed Colony-live. Here we show that Colony-live provides accurate measurement of three growth values (lag time of growth (LTG), maximum growth rate (MGR), and saturation point growth (SPG)) by visualizing colony growth over time. By using a new normalization method for colony growth, Colony-live gives more precise and accurate growth values than the conventional method. We demonstrated the utility of Colony-live by measuring growth values for the entire Keio collection of Escherichia coli single-gene knockout mutants. By using Colony-live, we were able to identify subtle growth defects of single-gene knockout mutants that were undetectable by the conventional method quantified by fixed time-point camera imaging. Further, Colony-live can reveal genes that influence the length of the lag-phase and the saturation point of growth. Conclusions Measurement quality is critical to achieving the resolution required to identify unique phenotypes among a diverse range of phenotypes. Sharing high-quality genome-wide datasets should benefit many researchers who are interested in specific gene functions or the architecture of cellular systems. Our Colony-live system provides a new powerful tool to accelerate accumulation of knowledge of microbial growth phenotypes. PMID:24964927

2014-01-01

352

A metagenomic survey of microbes in honey bee colony collapse disorder.  

PubMed

In colony collapse disorder (CCD), honey bee colonies inexplicably lose their workers. CCD has resulted in a loss of 50 to 90% of colonies in beekeeping operations across the United States. The observation that irradiated combs from affected colonies can be repopulated with naive bees suggests that infection may contribute to CCD. We used an unbiased metagenomic approach to survey microflora in CCD hives, normal hives, and imported royal jelly. Candidate pathogens were screened for significance of association with CCD by the examination of samples collected from several sites over a period of 3 years. One organism, Israeli acute paralysis virus of bees, was strongly correlated with CCD. PMID:17823314

Cox-Foster, Diana L; Conlan, Sean; Holmes, Edward C; Palacios, Gustavo; Evans, Jay D; Moran, Nancy A; Quan, Phenix-Lan; Briese, Thomas; Hornig, Mady; Geiser, David M; Martinson, Vince; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Kalkstein, Abby L; Drysdale, Andrew; Hui, Jeffrey; Zhai, Junhui; Cui, Liwang; Hutchison, Stephen K; Simons, Jan Fredrik; Egholm, Michael; Pettis, Jeffery S; Lipkin, W Ian

2007-10-12

353

Ecosystem engineering by a colonial mammal: how prairie dogs structure rodent communities.  

PubMed

As ecosystem engineers, prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) physically alter their environment, but the mechanism by which these alterations affect associated faunal composition is not well known. We examined how rodent and vegetation communities responded to prairie dog colonies and landcover at the Cimarron National Grassland in southwest Kansas, USA. We trapped rodents and measured vegetation structure on and off colonies in 2000 and 2003. We plotted two separate ordinations of trapping grids: one based on rodent counts and a second based on vegetation variables. We regressed three factors on each ordination: (1) colony (on-colony and off-colony), (2) cover (shortgrass and sandsage), and (3) habitat (factorial cross of colony x cover). Rodent communities differed by colony but not cover. Vegetation differed across both gradients. Rodent responses to habitat reflected those of colony and cover, but vegetation was found to differ across cover only in the sandsage prairie. This interaction suggested that rodent composition responded to prairie dog colonies, but independently of vegetation differences. We conclude that burrowing and soil disturbance are more important than vegetation cropping in structuring rodent communities. PMID:19137937

VanNimwegen, Ron E; Kretzer, Justin; Cully, Jack F

2008-12-01

354

Censusing wading bird colonies: An update on the 'flight-line' count method  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. Thirteen mixed-species heronries (10 in Florida, two in Virginia, one in North Carolina) were studied in 1980 as part of a project begun in 1979 aimed at evaluating the 'flight-line' census method..2. Standardized counts of Snowy and Cattle Egrets, Louisiana and Little Blue Herons flying to and from the nesting colony were made for three hr periods, followed by a nest count of the colony. 3.Significant differences were found in the flight rates (number of birds per nest x hour) of the four species at the Chincoteague colony. However, when Cattle Egrets and Louisiana Herons were compared at all 13 colonies, their respective flight rates were in opposite rank to those at Chincoteague. Colony differences, then, may mask species differences. 4. A linear regression model showed a strong fit (R2=0.92) between the hourly flight number (3 hr means) and the nest number, but point estimates (single colony) had very large confidence limits. A given colony might be over-or underestimated by a factor of 2, using the regression equation as a predictive model. 5. A more appropriate application of the method would be to determine regionwide (e.g., state), rather than colony-specific, population estimates. 'Total' estimates for all (n= 13) colonies were within 10% of the actual nest number.

Erwin, R.M.

1981-01-01

355

Estimated areal extent of colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs in the northern Great Plains  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1997-1998, we undertook an aerial survey, with an aerial line-intercept technique, to estimate the extent of colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) in the northern Great Plains states of Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming. We stratified the survey based on knowledge of colony locations, computed 2 types of estimates for each stratum, and combined ratio estimates for high-density strata with average density estimates for low-density strata. Estimates of colony areas for black-tailed prairie dogs were derived from the average percentages of lines intercepting prairie dog colonies and ratio estimators. We selected the best estimator based on the correlation between length of transect line and length of intercepted colonies. Active colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs occupied 2,377.8 km2 i?? 186.4 SE, whereas inactive colonies occupied 560.4 i?? 89.2 km2. These data represent the 1st quantitative assessment of prairie-dog colonies in the northern Great Plains. The survey dispels popular notions that millions of square kilometers of colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs exist in the northern Great Plains and can form the basis for future survey efforts

Sidle, J.G.; Johnson, D.H.; Euliss, B.R.

2001-01-01

356

Cooperatively Generated Stresslet Flows Supply Fresh Fluid to Multicellular Choanoflagellate Colonies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flagellated protozoan Salpingoeca rosetta is one of the closest relatives of multicellular animals. Unicellular S. rosetta can be induced to form multicellular colonies, but colonies swim more slowly than individual cells so the advantages conferred by colony formation are uncertain. Here we use theoretical models to show that hydrodynamic cooperation between cells can increase the fluid supply to the colony, an important predictor of feeding rate. Our results suggest that hydrodynamic benefits may have been an important selective factor in the evolution of early multicellular animals.

Roper, Marcus; Dayel, Mark J.; Pepper, Rachel E.; Koehl, M. A. R.

2013-05-01

357

Atypical Colony Morphology of Staphylococcus lugdunensis Isolated from a Wound Specimen  

PubMed Central

The incidence of infections due to coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) has been steadily increasing in recent years. In this report, we describe an isolate of the CoNS Staphylococcus lugdunensis from a wound specimen with a colony morphology distinct from that of a classical S. lugdunensis colony. Specifically, wrinkled, medium-sized, beta hemolytic, opaque, rough white colonies were detected on blood agar. Catalase-positive, coagulase-negative, gram-positive cocci-yielding such colonies should be suspected of being S. lugdunensis.

Yazgi, Halil; Uyanik, M. Hamidullah

2010-01-01

358

Breeding ecology of Caspian terns at colonies on the Columbia Plateau  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We investigated the breeding ecology and diet of Caspian terns on the Columbia Plateau in southeastern Washington and northeastern Oregon. We examined trends in colony size and area during 1996-2001, and estimated number of breeding pairs, nesting density, fledging success, and diet composition at selected colony sites in 2000 and 2001. We found six tern colonies totaling ???1,000 breeding pairs, ranging in size from < 50 to nearly 700 pairs. Predation by mink caused complete abandonment of one of these colonies in 2000 and 2001. The relocation of ???9,000 Caspian tern breeding pairs from Rice Island to East Sand Island in the Columbia River estuary did not result in an obvious increase in the number of tern breeding pairs on the Columbia Plateau during the study period. The majority of Caspian tern prey items at colonies on the mid-Columbia River consisted of juvenile salmonids. At a colony in Potholes Reservoir, Washington, Caspian terns commuted over 100 km round-trip to the Columbia River to forage on juvenile salmonids, suggesting that locally abundant food may be limiting. High nesting densities at other mid-Columbia River colonies suggest that availability of breeding habitat may limit colony size. The small size of Caspian tern colonies on the Columbia Plateau, and possible constraints on availability of suitable nesting habitat within the study area, suggest that the level of predation on ESA-listed juvenile salmonids in this region will likely remain well below that currently observed in the Columbia River estuary.

Antolos, M.; Roby, D.D.; Collis, K.

2005-01-01

359

Accumulation of neutral mutations in growing cell colonies with competition  

PubMed Central

Neutral mutations play an important role in many biological processes including cancer initiation and progression, the generation of drug resistance in bacterial and viral diseases as well as cancers, and the development of organs in multicellular organisms. In this paper we study how neutral mutants are accumulated in nonlinearly-growing colonies of cells subject to growth constraints such as crowding or lack of resources. We investigate different types of growth control which range from “division-controlled” to “death-controlled” growth (and various mixtures of both). In division-controlled growth, the burden of handling overcrowding lies with the process of cell-divisions, the divisions slow down as the carrying capacity is approached. In death-controlled growth, it is death rate that increases to slow down expansion. We show that division-controlled growth minimizes the number of accumulated mutations, and death-controlled growth corresponds to the maximum number of mutants. We check that these results hold in both deterministic and stochastic settings. We further develop a general (deterministic) theory of neutral mutations and achieve an analytical understanding of the mutant accumulation in colonies of a given size in the absence of back-mutations. The long-term dynamics of mutants in the presence of back-mutations is also addressed. In particular, with equal forward-and back-mutation rates, if division-controlled and a death-controlled types are competing for space and nutrients, cells obeying division-controlled growth will dominate the population. PMID:22940236

Sorace, Ron; Komarova, Natalia L.

2012-01-01

360

One Giant Leap: How Insects Achieved Altruism and Colonial Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer reviewed article from the January 2008 issue of BioScience examines the origin of altruism leading to eusociality in Hymenoptera. The advanced colonial state of eusociality has evolved in insects as a defense of nest sites within foraging distance of persistent food sources. In the Hymenoptera, the final step in the approach to eusociality is through a suite of preadaptations comprising simultaneous provisioning, fidelity to the nest, and a preexisting propensity toward dominance behavior and the selection of tasks according to opportunity. The only genetic change needed to cross the threshold to the eusocial grade is the foundress's possession of an allele that holds the foundress and her offspring to the nest. The preadaptations provide the phenotypic flexibility required for eusociality, as well as the key emergent traits arising from interactions of the group members. Group (colony-level) selection then immediately acts on both of these traits. The rarity of the origin of eusociality is evidently due to the rarity of the combination of progressive provisioning with environments of the kind that give an edge to group selection over individual direct selection, causing offspring to stay at the natal nest rather than disperse. Several lines of evidence, examined here, suggest that collateral kin selection does not play a significant role.

Edward O. Wilson (Harvard University; )

2008-01-01

361

Colonies in engineered articular cartilage express superior differentiation.  

PubMed

In view of poor regeneration potential of the articular cartilage, in-vitro engineering of cartilage tissue offers a promising option for progressive joint disease. This study aims to develop a biologically engineered articular cartilage for autologous transplantation. The initial work involved determination of chondrocyte yield and viability, and morphological analysis. Cartilage was harvested from the knee, hip and shoulder joints of adult New Zealand white rabbits and chondrocytes were isolated by enzymatic digestion of the extra-cellular matrix before serial cultivation in DMEM/Ham's F12 media as monolayer cultures. No differences were noted in cell yield. Although chondrocytes viability was optimal (>93%) following harvest from native cartilage, their viability tended to be lowered on passaging. Chondrocytes aggregated in isogenous colonies comprising ovoid cells with intimate intracellular contacts and readily exhibited Safranin-O positive matrix; features typically associated with articular cartilage in-vivo. However, chondrocytes also existed concurrently in scattered bipolar/multipolar forms lacking Safranin-O expression. Therefore, early data demonstrated successful serial culture of adult chondrocytes with differentiated morphology seen in established chondrocyte colonies synthesizing matrix proteoglycans. PMID:16381284

Selvaratnam, L; Abd Rahim, S; Kamarul, T; Chan, K Y; Sureshan, S; Penafort, R; Ng, C L L

2005-07-01

362

Visual Navigation during Colony Emigration by the Ant Temnothorax rugatulus  

PubMed Central

Many ants rely on both visual cues and self-generated chemical signals for navigation, but their relative importance varies across species and context. We evaluated the roles of both modalities during colony emigration by Temnothorax rugatulus. Colonies were induced to move from an old nest in the center of an arena to a new nest at the arena edge. In the midst of the emigration the arena floor was rotated 60°around the old nest entrance, thus displacing any substrate-bound odor cues while leaving visual cues unchanged. This manipulation had no effect on orientation, suggesting little influence of substrate cues on navigation. When this rotation was accompanied by the blocking of most visual cues, the ants became highly disoriented, suggesting that they did not fall back on substrate cues even when deprived of visual information. Finally, when the substrate was left in place but the visual surround was rotated, the ants' subsequent headings were strongly rotated in the same direction, showing a clear role for visual navigation. Combined with earlier studies, these results suggest that chemical signals deposited by Temnothorax ants serve more for marking of familiar territory than for orientation. The ants instead navigate visually, showing the importance of this modality even for species with small eyes and coarse visual acuity. PMID:23671713

Bowens, Sean R.; Glatt, Daniel P.; Pratt, Stephen C.

2013-01-01

363

Direct Detection of Bacterial Protein Secretion Using Whole Colony Proteomics*  

PubMed Central

Bacteria use a variety of secretion systems to transport proteins beyond their cell membrane to interact with their environment. For bacterial pathogens, these systems are key virulence determinants that transport bacterial proteins into host cells. Genetic screens to identify bacterial genes required for export have relied on enzymatic or fluorescent reporters fused to known substrates to monitor secretion. However, they cannot be used in analysis of all secretion systems, limiting the implementation across bacteria. Here, we introduce the first application of a modified form of whole colony MALDI-TOF MS to directly detect protein secretion from intact bacterial colonies. We show that this method is able to specifically monitor the ESX-1 system protein secretion system, a major virulence determinant in both mycobacterial and Gram-positive pathogens that is refractory to reporter analysis. We validate the use of this technology as a high throughput screening tool by identifying an ESAT-6 system 1-deficient mutant from a Mycobacterium marinum transposon insertion library. Furthermore, we also demonstrate detection of secreted proteins of the prevalent type III secretion system from the Gram-negative pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This method will be broadly applicable to study other bacterial protein export systems and for the identification of compounds that inhibit bacterial protein secretion. PMID:22580590

Champion, Matthew M.; Williams, Emily A.; Kennedy, George M.; DiGiuseppe Champion, Patricia A.

2012-01-01

364

Dam Dynamics in the Colonial Northeast and Chesapeake: Hydrologic Implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent work has highlighted the widespread presence of low-head dams for power generation during the 19th century. However, this work largely depends on census numbers tabulated in the mid-1800s, over 200 years after European activity began in North America. In order to compare the hydrologic implications of colonial era low-head dam construction with the impacts of other simultaneous processes (e.g., expatriation of the beaver or forest clearance), we have compiled historical data on mills to reconstruct the temporal and spatial dynamics of low-head dam construction in the colonial northeastern United States (i.e., Virginia to Maine). This reconstruction, combined with the results of related work on beaver pond dynamics and deforestation, provides several insights into the distribution and impacts of human impoundments during this period. While the resulting hydrologic changes are large, the addition of human dams to the system seems to be minimally offset and less important than changes arising from the expatriation of the beaver or the removal of trees during this early period. In addition, the spatial patterns of dam construction are complex, making prediction of hydrologic and associated responses more difficult to predict.

Bain, D. J.; Salant, N. L.; Brandt, S. L.

2008-12-01

365

Colony sex ratios vary with breeding system but not relatedness asymmetry in the facultatively polygynous ant Pheidole pallidula.  

PubMed

We investigated sex allocation in a Mediterranean population of the facultatively polygynous (multiple queen per colony) ant Pheidole pallidula. This species shows a strong split sex ratio, with most colonies producing almost exclusively a single-sex brood. Our genetic (microsatellite) analyses reveal that P. pallidula has an unusual breeding system, with colonies being headed by a single or a few unrelated queens. As expected in such a breeding system, our results show no variation in relatedness asymmetry between monogynous (single queen per colony) and polygynous colonies. Nevertheless, sex allocation was tightly associated with the breeding structure, with monogynous colonies producing a male-biased brood and polygynous colonies almost only females. In addition, sex allocation was closely correlated with colony total sexual productivity. Overall, our data show that when colonies become more productive (and presumably larger) they shift from monogyny to polygyny and from male production to female production, a pattern that has never been reported in social insects. PMID:12894941

Fournier, Denis; Keller, Laurent; Passera, Luc; Aron, Serge

2003-06-01

366

Nutritional ecology of the Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): growth and survival of incipient colonies feeding on preferred wood species.  

PubMed

The wood of 11 plant species was evaluated as a food source significantly impacting the growth and survival of incipient colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Colonies of C. formosanus feeding on pecan, Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.), and red gum, Liquidambar styraciflua L., produced significantly more progeny than colonies feeding on other wood species tested. Progeny of colonies feeding on pecan and American ash, Fraxinus americana L., had significantly greater survival than progeny of colonies feeding on other wood species. Colonies feeding on a nutritionally supplemented cellulose based matrix showed similar fitness characteristics as colonies feeding on the best wood treatments. These results indicate that differences observed in colony fitness can be partially explained by nutritional value of the food treatment, raising the possibility that wood from different tree species have different nutritional values to the Formosan subterranean termites. Colonies feeding on loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., and ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Laws., had significantly lower survival and produced significantly fewer workers and soldiers than colonies feeding on other wood species. Colony survival from 90 to 180 d of age and from 90 to 360 d of age was significantly correlated with the number of workers present at 90 d of colony age, indicating that colony survival depends on the presence of workers. Wood consumption in a multiple-choice study was significantly correlated with colony fitness value. This suggests that feeding preference of C. formosanus is at least partially influenced by the nutritional value of the food source. PMID:12650352

Morales-Ramos, Juan A; Rojas, M Guadalupe

2003-02-01

367

Reversible Commitment to Differentiation by Human Multipotent Stromal Cells (MSCs) in Single-Cell Derived Colonies  

PubMed Central

Objective Human multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) readily form single-cell derived colonies when plated at clonal densities. However, the colonies are heterogeneous since the cells from a colony form new colonies that vary in size and differentiation potential when re-plated at clonal densities. The experiments here tested the hypothesis that the cells in the inner regions of colonies are partially differentiated but the differentiation is reversible. Materials and Methods Cells were separately isolated from the dense inner regions (IN) and less dense outer regions (OUT) of single-cell derived colonies. The cells were then compared by assays of their transcriptomes and proteins, and for clonogenicity and differentiation. Results The IN cells expressed fewer cell-cycle genes and higher levels of genes for extracellular matrix than the OUT cells. When transferred to differentiation medium, differentiation of the colonies occurred primarily in the IN regions. However, the IN cells were indistinguishable from OUT cells when re-plated at clonal densities and assayed for rates of propagation and clonogenicity. Also, the colonies formed by IN cells were similar to colonies formed by OUT cells in that they had distinct IN and OUT regions. Cultures of IN and OUT cells remained indistinguishable through multiple passages (30-75 population doublings), and both cells formed colonies that were looser and less dense as they were expanded. Conclusions The results demonstrated that the cells in the inner region of single-derived colonies are partially differentiated but the differentiation can be reversed by re-plating the cells at clonal densities. PMID:18619725

Ylöstalo, Joni; Bazhanov, Nikolay; Prockop, Darwin J

2008-01-01

368

Metribuzin impairs the unicell-colony transformation in the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus.  

PubMed

Active growth is a prerequisite for the formation of grazing-protective, mostly eight-celled colonies by the ubiquitous green alga Scenedesmus in response to chemical cues from zooplankton. Colonies can also be evoked by chemically quite similar manmade anionic surfactants, such as FFD-6. In this study, it was hypothesized that growth-inhibiting concentrations of the herbicide metribuzin impair the ability of Scenedesmus obliquus to form colonies in response to the surfactant morphogen FFD-6. The results confirmed that the formation of colonies in S. obliquus was hampered by metribuzin. EC50 values of metribuzin for colony inhibition (approximately 11 ?g L(-1)) were similar to those for growth and photosynthesis inhibition (12-25 ?g metribuzinL(-1)). In the absence of the colony-inducing surfactant FFD-6, S. obliquus populations were comprised of 92% unicells, having on average 1.2 cells per colony at all tested metribuzin concentrations (0-100 ?g L(-1)). In contrast, in the presence of FFD-6 and at low metribuzin concentrations (0 and 5 ?g L(-1)), S. obliquus had more than five cells per colony with a high portion of eight-celled colonies. However, increasing concentrations of metribuzin decreased the number of colonies in the FFD-6-exposed populations and caused them to remain mostly unicellular at the highest concentrations (50 and 100 ?g L(-1)). This study revealed that metribuzin impeded growth and by doing so, also obstructed the possibility for unicellular Scenedesmus to form colonies. Consequently, an increase in mortality of Scenedesmus from grazing is expected. PMID:20971494

Lürling, M

2011-01-01

369

Influence of fire on black-tailed prairie dog colony expansion in shortgrass steppe  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Factors influencing the distribution and abundance of black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies are of interest to rangeland managers because of the significant influence prairie dogs can exert on both livestock and biodiversity. We examined the influence of 4 prescribed burns and one wildfire on the rate and direction of prairie dog colony expansion in shortgrass steppe of southeastern Colorado. Our study was conducted during 2 years with below-average precipitation, when prairie dog colonies were expanding throughout the study area. Under these dry conditions, the rate of black-tailed prairie dog colony expansion into burned grassland (X?? = 2.6 ha??100-m perimeter-1??y-1; range = 0.8-5.9 ha??100-m perimeter-1??y-1; N = 5 colonies) was marginally greater than the expansion rate into unburned grassland (X?? =1.3 ha??100-m perimeter-1??y-1; range = 0.2-4.9 ha??100-m perimeter-1??y-1; N = 23 colonies; P = 0.066). For 3 colonies that were burned on only a portion of their perimeter, we documented consistently high rates of expansion into the adjacent burned grassland (38%-42% of available burned habitat colonized) but variable expansion rates into the adjacent unburned grassland (2%-39% of available unburned habitat colonized). While our results provide evidence that burning can increase colony expansion rate even under conditions of low vegetative structure, this effect was minor at the scale of the overall colony complex because some unburned colonies were also able to expand at high rates. This result highlights the need to evaluate effects of fire on colony expansion during above-average rainfall years, when expansion into unburned grassland may be considerably lower.

Augustine, D.J.; Cully, J.F., Jr.; Johnson, T.L.

2007-01-01

370

Epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease in Landhi Dairy Colony, Pakistan, the world largest Buffalo colony  

PubMed Central

Background Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Pakistan and causes huge economic losses. This work focus on the Landhi Dairy Colony (LDC), located in the suburbs of Karachi. LDC is the largest Buffalo colony in the world, with more than 300,000 animals (around 95% buffaloes and 5% cattle, as well as an unknown number of sheep and goats). Each month from April 2006 to April 2007 we collected mouth-swabs from apparently healthy buffaloes and cattle, applying a convenient sampling based on a two-stage random sampling scheme, in conjunction with participatory information from each selected farm. Furthermore, we also collected epithelium samples from animals with clinical disease, as well as mouth-swabs samples from those farms. In addition, we analysed a total of 180 serum samples randomly collecting 30 samples each month at the local slaughterhouse, from October 2006 to March 2007. Samples have been screened for FMDV by real-time RT-PCR and the partial or full 1D coding region of selected isolates has been sequenced. Serum samples have been analysed by applying serotype-specific antibody ELISA and non-structural proteins (NSP) antibody ELISA. Results FMDV infection prevalence at aggregate level shows an endemic occurrence of FMDV in the colony, with peaks in August 2006, December 2006 and February 2007 to March 2007. A significant association of prevalence peaks to the rainy seasons, which includes the coldest time of the year and the muslimic Eid-festival, has been demonstrated. Participatory information indicated that 88% of all questioned farmers vaccinate their animals. Analysis of the serum samples showed high levels of antibodies for serotypes O, A, Asia 1 and C. The median endpoint-titre for all tested serotypes, except serotype C, in VNT titration is at a serum dilution of equal or above 1/100. All 180 serum samples collected have been tested for antibodies against the non-structural proteins and all but four have been found positive. Out of the 106 swab-samples from apparently healthy and affected animals positive in real-time RT-PCR, we sequenced the partial or full 1D coding region from 58 samples. In addition we sequenced the full 1D coding region of 17 epithelium samples from animals with clinical signs of FMD. From all sequenced samples, swabs and epithelium, 19 belong to the regional PanAsia II lineage of serotype O and 56 to the A/Iran/2005 lineage of serotype A. Conclusion For an effective and realisable FMD control program in LDC, we suggest to introduce a twice annually mass vaccination of all buffaloes and cattle in the colony. These mass vaccinations should optimally take place shortly before the beginning of the two rainy periods, e.g. in June and September. Those vaccinations should, in our opinion, be in addition to the already individually performed vaccinations of single animals, as the latter usually targets only newly introduced animals. This suggested combination of mass vaccination of all large ruminants with the already performed individually vaccination should provide a continuous high level of herd immunity in the entire colony. Vaccines used for this purpose should contain the matching vaccine strains, i.e. as our results indicate antigens for A/Iran/2005 and the regional type of serotype O (PanAsia II), but also antigens of the, in this world region endemic, Asia 1 lineage should be included. In the long term it will be important to control the vaccine use, so that subclinical FMD will be avoided. PMID:18445264

Klein, Joern; Hussain, Manzoor; Ahmad, Munir; Afzal, Muhammad; Alexandersen, Soren

2008-01-01

371

The relevance of the Mediterranean Region to colonial waterbird conservation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Mediterranean Sea is the largest partially enclosed sea in the world and provides habitat to more than 100 species of waterbirds from the Palearctic-North African-Middle Eastern regions. Even though the Mediterranean suffers from pollution, has little tidal influence, and is oligotrophic, more than half of the western Palearctic populations of numerous waterfowl species winter in the region. Thirty-three species of colonial waterbirds breed along the 46,000 km Mediterranean coastline with nine species considered threatened or endangered, mostly because of wetland loss and degradation. The long history of human activity and scientific investigations in the region has taught some valuable lessons. In the area of colonial waterbird biology and conservation, we have learned important lessons about the value of long-term monitoring and research on selected populations. From marking studies of Greater Flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber roseus) and Little Egrets (Egretta garzetta) results have been used to derive useful information about metapopulation dynamics. Involvement of both African and European biologists allowed year-round Studies of these species that yielded valuable spin-offs for training in avian and wetland conservation. We have also learned the value of man-made wetlands as feeding and nesting sites for some colonial waterbirds. Careful evaluations of the habitat quality of different types of wetlands are required, as in contaminant levels such as lead shot and pesticides. Wetland conservationists have also learned from some instructive mistakes. Dam construction and agricultural incentive programs sponsored by the European Community, the World Bank, and others from the past have largely ignored impacts on wetlands and wildlife. In some areas, economic ventures such as aquaculture operations and salt mining have not involved waterbird habitat needs in their planning. Research and conservation needs include: (1) establishing regional monitoring programs and data banks for seabirds, wading birds, ducks, and geese; (2) implementing a wetland inventory for many Countries with little quantitative data on wetlands; (3) improving habitat quality assessments; (4) improving relationships with industry, the private citizenry, and government officials to further an appreciation for the value of wetlands and waterbirds; (5) enhancing training efforts, especially in underdeveloped Countries; (6) evaluating the effects of hunting and other disturbances to nesting and feeding waterbirds in different regions; (7) setting up 'sister-reserve' (twinned) sites in Europe and Africa to foster international linkages and training; and (8) fostering local-regional conservation programs to preserve reed beds, wet woodlots, and other key habitats.

Erwin, R.M.

1996-01-01

372

Determinants of local recruitment in a growing colony of Audouin's gull  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Local recruitment of Audouin's gull (Larus audouinii Payraudeau) was studied between 1988 and 1997 at the Ebro Delta colony (north-western Mediterranean). Since its establishment in 1981, the colony has dramatically grown to include, in 1997, 65% of the total world population. Several hypotheses were tested, involving the eÄects of a badger predatory event in 1994, and sex, age

Daniel Oro; Roger Pradel

2000-01-01

373

Biological Relevance of Colony Morphology and Phenotypic Switching by Burkholderia pseudomallei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melioidosis is a notoriously protracted illness and is difficult to cure. We hypothesize that the causative organism, Burkholderia pseudomallei, undergoes a process of adaptation involving altered expression of surface determinants which facilitates persistence in vivo and that this is reflected by changes in colony morphology. A colony morphotyping scheme and typing algorithm were developed using clinical B. pseudomallei isolates. Morphotypes

Narisara Chantratita; Vanaporn Wuthiekanun; Khaemaporn Boonbumrung; R. Tiyawisutsri; M. Vesaratchavest; D. Limmathurotsakul; W. Chierakul; S. Wongratanacheewin; S. Pukritiyakamee; N. J. White; N. P. J. Day; S. J. Peacock

2007-01-01

374

Ant Colony Optimization and its Application to Boolean Satisfiability for Digital VLSI Circuits  

E-print Network

Ant Colony Optimization and its Application to Boolean Satisfiability for Digital VLSI Circuits and Computer Engineering Dept., Rutgers University Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA Abstract Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) [8] is a non- deterministic algorithm framework that mimics the forag- ing behavior of ants

Parashar, Manish

375

Red Imported Fire Ant Biology Red imported fire ants live in colonies that contain  

E-print Network

Red Imported Fire Ant Biology Red imported fire ants live in colonies that contain cream-colored to white immature ants, often called brood. The brood is comprised of the eggs, larvae, and pupae. Also within the colonies are adult ants of different types, or castes. The castes include winged males, winged

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

376

Precise Assessment of the Number of Patrilines and of Genetic Relatedness in Honeybee Colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sociobiologists have long sought to estimate precisely the relatedness among members of social insect colonies because of the central significance of kinship in evolutionary and behavioural studies. By using microsatellites, we directly identified the 7-20 subfamilies (patrilines) present in five honeybee colonies belonging to three different subspecies (Apis mellifera mellifera, A. m. carnica and A. m. ligustica). By focusing further

Arnaud Estoup; Michel Solignac; Jean-Marie Cornuet

1994-01-01

377

Honeybee Colony Integration: Worker-Worker Interactions Mediate Hormonally Regulated Plasticity in Division of Labor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult workers in honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies exhibit plasticity in hormonally regulated, age-based division of labor by altering their pattern of behavioral development in response to changes in colony conditions. One form of this plasticity is precocious development: levels of juvenile hormone increase prematurely and bees begin foraging as much as 2 weeks earlier than average. We used two experimental

Zhi-Yong Huang; Gene E. Robinson

1992-01-01

378

HOUSEHOLD AND STRUCTURAL INSECTS Effect of Fipronil on Subterranean Termite Colonies (Isoptera  

E-print Network

HOUSEHOLD AND STRUCTURAL INSECTS Effect of Fipronil on Subterranean Termite Colonies (Isoptera of the eastern subterranean termite Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). We installed). Our results provide strong evidence for potent colony wide effects of Ã?pronil on subterranean termites

Vargo, Ed

379

Evolving the Building Activity of a Termite Colony for Finite Element Mesh Generation  

E-print Network

Evolving the Building Activity of a Termite Colony for Finite Element Mesh Generation A. E. Langham of social insects such as wasps and termites. Structures produced are 2-Dimensional triangular meshes which a Genetic Algorithm to evolve a set of rules which can be used by a colony of termite­like agents to mesh

Grant, P. W.

380

Social foraging by honeybees: how colonies allocate foragers among patches of flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand how a colony of honeybees keeps its forager force focussed on rich sources of food, and analysis was made of how the individual foragers within a colony decide to abandon or continue working (and perhaps even recruit to) patches of flowers. A nectar forager grades her behavior toward a patch in response to both the nectar intake rate

Thomas D. Seeley

1986-01-01

381

Number of honeybee colonies in areas with high and low beekeeping activity in Southern Mexico  

E-print Network

/ honeybee / microsatellites / pollinator decline / population size 1. INTRODUCTION The western honeybee ApisNumber of honeybee colonies in areas with high and low beekeeping activity in Southern Mexico Robin ­ The number of colonies in feral and managed honeybee populations (Apis mellifera) was determined for various

Paxton, Robert

382

COLONY COLLAPSE DISORDER (CCD), FEDERAL FUNDING AND THE CHALLENGES OF BEE DECLINE RESEARCH: A BUREAUCRAT'S PERSPECTIVE  

E-print Network

COLONY COLLAPSE DISORDER (CCD), FEDERAL FUNDING AND THE CHALLENGES OF BEE DECLINE RESEARCH to Colony Collapse Disorder, a seemingly new crisis which threatens the honeybee industry and crop growers who depend on honeybees for pollination services. In this article, I describe my experience

Delaplane, Keith S.

383

26 | FUTURES Scientists have an official name for the disappearing honeybees --colony collapse disorder.  

E-print Network

of unprecedented colony losses, bee populations were rapidly declining. Honeybees are the main pollinators26 | FUTURES Scientists have an official name for the disappearing honeybees -- colony collapse the country began to panic. Their honeybees were disappearing. Keepers would open a hive to check

Huang, Zachary

384

An abrupt transition in colony founding behaviour in the ant Messor pergandei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transitions in behaviour across a continuous distribution of organisms can provide valuable information on how variation in behaviour is maintained. We used analyses developed for interspecific hybrid zones to examine geographic variation in colony founding strategy in the desert seed-harvester ant,Messor pergandei. Newly mated females initiate new colonies either alone (haplometrosis) or cooperatively with other foundresses (pleometrosis). The incidence of

SARA CAHAN; KEN R. HELMS; STEVEN W. RISSING

1998-01-01

385

On Colonizing "Colonialism": The Discourses of the History of English in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Numerous commentators argue that the worldwide use of English in education is an important outcome of colonialism. While accepting that there is much truth in this general conclusion, the present authors also recognize an irony. In too few cases do commentators base their arguments on historical evidence; in too many, they treat colonialism as an…

Sweeting, Anthony; Vickers, Edward

2005-01-01

386

CONTINUOUS POWER SUPPLY FOR A ROBOT COLONY GARY PARKER, CONNECTICUT COLLEGE, USA, parker@conncoll.edu  

E-print Network

to the robot is that the power supplied is continuous and uninterrupted. The disadvantages are: the powerCONTINUOUS POWER SUPPLY FOR A ROBOT COLONY GARY PARKER, CONNECTICUT COLLEGE, USA, parker, kanor@conncoll.edu ABSTRACT A continuous power supply for the robots of a colony is presented

Parker, Gary B.

387

Indigenous Australian Women's Leadership: Stayin' Strong against the Post-Colonial Tide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, I reflect on my experiences as an Indigenous woman researcher coming to grips with colonialism through a post-colonialism lens. I also discuss a study which examines the leadership journey of a group of Indigenous Australian women. The research, which includes an auto-ethnographic approach, was guided by an Indigenous worldview…

White, Nereda

2010-01-01

388

“Racism” and Colonialism: Meanings of Difference and Ruling Practices in America's Pacific Empire  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the meanings of “race” and difference in the first years of American colonialism in the Philippines, Guam, and Samoa. Moving beyond existing sociological studies of “race” and “colonial discourse,” I demonstrate that the meanings of racial difference in the U.S. Pacific empire were contemporaneously polyvalent, constituting an overarching field of multiple rather than uniform classifications. The different

Julian Go

2004-01-01

389

Coloniality in Korea And A South Korean Project For Overcoming Modernity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coloniality in East Asia is very much a part of the modern world system and should be understood in the context of modernity, Eurocentrism (including Americanism), racism and ethnicism. The 'division system' in Korea, which is itself the aftermath of Japanese colonialism, encompasses the entire peninsula with the vested interests of the two Koreas in collusion as well as hostile

Paik Nak-Chung

2000-01-01

390

Entrenching the English Language in a British Colony: Curriculum Policy and Practice in Trinidad and Tobago  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper recognizes that the teaching of English was an objective in British colonial expansion, and investigates some approaches used in schools to accomplish this end at a time when learners already had a basic grasp of the language. The Colony used in this example is Trinidad and Tobago, and the period immediately prior to closure of over a…

London, Norrel A.

2003-01-01

391

Pictured Politics: Visualizing Colonial History in South American Civic Portrait Collections  

E-print Network

Pictured Politics: Visualizing Colonial History in South American Civic Portrait Collections Emily South American capitals, Lima, Buenos Aires, and Bogotá, this presentation considers how works of art were active components in the construction of American colonial histories and political relationships

Zhou, Yaoqi

392

Ant Colony Approach to Predict Amino Acid Interaction Networks Le Havre University  

E-print Network

Ant Colony Approach to Predict Amino Acid Interaction Networks Omar GACI Le Havre University LITIS the notion of protein interaction network. This is a graph whose vertices are the proteins amino acids's interaction network from its amino acid sequence. An ant colony approach is used to solve this problem. 1

Boyer, Edmond

393

Musical Acculturation through Primary School Activities during Japanese Colonial Rule of Korea (1910-1945)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Global colonialism and continuing post-colonial influences caused widespread cultural change at the interface of different cultures. Musical acculturation can be observed in most colonised countries. Some pro-colonialists apologetically allege that through colonisation the colonised territories would receive developmental aid and economical…

Kim, Jeong Ha

2014-01-01

394

Differential Evolution for RFID Antenna Design: A Comparison with Ant Colony Optimisation  

E-print Network

Differential Evolution for RFID Antenna Design: A Comparison with Ant Colony Optimisation James. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of ACM for your personal use are compared with those gen- erated by a family of ant colony optimisation (ACO) meta- heuristics that have

Montgomery, James

395

Survey of the Least and Crested Auklet colony near Sugarloaf Head,  

E-print Network

º 53'N 179º 37' E) is one of the largest among the nine auklet colonies in the Aleutian Islands (grasses), with evidence of ongoing encroachment of vegetation. Openings into underlying rock crevices were resembled burrows. There is apparently little opportunity for colony expansion, due to lack of suitable

Jones, Ian L.

396

First analysis of risk factors associated with bee colony collapse disorder by classification and regression trees  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sudden losses of managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies are considered an important problem worldwide but the underlying cause or causes of these losses are currently unknown. In the United States, this syndrome was termed Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), since the defining trait was a rapid ...

397

Demonstrating effective RNAi product line to control honeybee colony collapse factors  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) phenomenon affecting honey bees is still not fully understood, but there is a strong consensus that some specific pathogens and pests are major contributing factors to colony losses. Viruses, microsporidia, and the Varroa mite are considered the top three contribut...

398

Small Colony Variant of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius ST71 Presenting as a Sticky Phenotype  

PubMed Central

We first observed the phenomenon of small colony variants (SCVs) in a Staphylococcus pseudintermedius sequence type 71 (ST71) strain, isolated from a non-pet owner. Although we found that small-sized colonies share main features with Staphylococcus aureus SCVs, they nevertheless show a novel, particular, and sticky phenotype, whose expression was extremely stable, even after subcultivation. PMID:24452163

Carretto, Edoardo; Polilli, Ennio; Marrollo, Roberta; Santarone, Stella; Fazii, Paolo; D'Antonio, Domenico; Rossano, Alexandra; Perreten, Vincent

2014-01-01

399

Daily foraging schedule of field colonies of the eastern tent caterpillar Malacosoma americanum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The daily foraging patterns of seven colonies of the eastern tent caterpillar, Malacosoma americanum, were monitored photoelectronically during the last three larval stadia to provide the first detailed record of the foraging behavior of a gregarious caterpillar under field conditions. Colonies were active an average of 49.3% of each day. Three bouts of foraging, centered about 0600 h, 1500 h

T. D. Fitzgerald; Tim Casey; Barbara Joos

1988-01-01

400

After Empire: National Identity and Post-colonial Families of Nations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The `special relationships' formed by Spain, France and Britain with their former colonies demonstrate that even ties initially based on political and economic domination transform the identities of both parties. In this study, we show how European post-colonial behavior in Africa, Asia and Latin America has been inspired by historically rooted subjective conceptions of national identity and norms of interstate

ALISON BRYSK; CRAIG PARSONS; WAYNE SANDHOLTZ

2002-01-01

401

Engaging Diversity in Teaching Religion and Theology: An Intercultural, De-Colonial Epistemic Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay explores new ways of engaging diversity in the production of knowledge in the classroom using coloniality as an analytical lens. After briefly engaging some of the recent literature on coloniality, focusing on the epistemic dimension, the author uses the example of teaching a course on religion, culture, and theology, where he employs…

Andraos, Michel Elias

2012-01-01

402

Distribution of Paenibacillus larvae spores inside honey bee colonies and its relevance for diagnosis.  

PubMed

One of the most important factors affecting the development of honey bee colonies is infectious diseases such as American foulbrood (AFB) caused by the spore forming Gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. Colony inspections for AFB clinical symptoms are time consuming. Moreover, diseased cells in the early stages of the infection may easily be overlooked. In this study, we investigated whether it is possible to determine the sanitary status of a colony based on analyses of different materials collected from the hive. We analysed 237 bee samples and 67 honey samples originating from 71 colonies situated in 13 apiaries with clinical AFB occurrences. We tested whether a difference in spore load among bees inside the whole hive exists and which sample material related to its location inside the hive was the most appropriate for an early AFB diagnosis based on the culture method. Results indicated that diagnostics based on analysis of honey samples and bees collected at the hive entrance are of limited value as only 86% and 83%, respectively, of samples from AFB-symptomatic colonies were positive. Analysis of bee samples collected from the brood nest, honey chamber, and edge frame allowed the detection of all colonies showing AFB clinical symptoms. Microbiological analysis showed that more than one quarter of samples collected from colonies without AFB clinical symptoms were positive for P. larvae. Based on these results, we recommend investigating colonies by testing bee samples from the brood nest, edge frame or honey chamber for P. larvae spores. PMID:18573258

Gillard, M; Charriere, J D; Belloy, L

2008-09-01

403

Density effects in a colonial monoculture: experimental studies with a marine bryozoan ( Membranipora membranacea L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naturally occurring monocultures of plants and animals are not common, despite recent emphasis on the analysis of density effects in artificial plant monocultures. In natural populations, Membranipora membranacea, an encrusting marine bryozoan, usually forms monospecific, nearly even-aged stands on kelp blades. We experimentally manipulated the density of M. membranacea colonies and monitored the responses of individual colonies on settling panels.

C. Drew Harvell; Hal Caswell; Paul Simpson

1990-01-01

404

Identity and Sense of Belonging in Post-Colonial Education in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the construction of local and national identities among secondary school students in post-colonial Hong Kong. As a Chinese society that has undergone a prolonged period of British colonial rule, the reunification of capitalist Hong Kong with the motherland under socialism in 1997 has set the context for a negotiation of…

Kuah-Pearce, Khun Eng; Fong, Yiu-Chak

2010-01-01

405

GROWTH OF YOUNG COLONIES OF COPTOTERMES FORMOSANUS (ISOPTERA: RHINOTERMITIDAE) FEEDING ON SINGLE VERSUS MULTIPLE WOOD SPECIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The impact of diet diversity on growth of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) colonies was studied. Groups of 22 one-year-old colonies of C. formosanus were fed different combinations of 3 wood species or one of 5 single species of wood including loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.)...

406

Caste developmental pathways in colonies of Coptotermes lacteus (Froggatt) headed by primary reproductives (Isoptera, Rhinotermitidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Coptotermes is a widespread and economically important genus, but essential features of its caste system remain poorly known. In the Australian species, C. lacteus (Froggatt, 1898), Lenz and Runko (1993) found that orphaned colonies, headed by nymphoid replacement reproductives, produce all year round a brood of nymphs which is almost exclusively male. A detailed study of castes in colonies

Y. Roisin; M. Lenz

1999-01-01

407

Fatigue cracking characteristics of beta-annealed large colony Ti11 alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to better understand the large scatter in the fatigue results associated with beta-annealed microstructures of alpha + beta titanium alloys, the fatigue crack initiation and propagation behavior of thin center notched Ti-11 specimens with a large colony alpha platelet microstructure was investigated. Colonies with a mean intercept diam of greater than 1 mm were grown in 2 mm

D. Eylon; P. J. Bania

1978-01-01

408

Wars of attrition: colony size determines competitive outcomes in a guild of African acacia ants  

E-print Network

Wars of attrition: colony size determines competitive outcomes in a guild of African acacia ants competition for nest sites in a guild of acacia ants residing on Acacia drepanolobium. I show that (1 differences in estimated average colony size among the four acacia ant species, and (3) experimental

Palmer, Todd M.

409

COMMUNITY AND ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY Plant Resources and Colony Growth in an Invasive Ant: The  

E-print Network

COMMUNITY AND ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY Plant Resources and Colony Growth in an Invasive Ant of plants and honeydew-producing insects feeding on plants to the growth of colonies of the invasive ant tissues are rich in proteins (amino acids) that are important to developing ant larvae, whereas plant

Helms, Ken

410

Lubricating bacteria model for the growth of bacterial colonies exposed to ultraviolet radiation  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we study the morphological transition of bacterial colonies exposed to ultraviolet radiation by modifying the bacteria model proposed by Delprato et al. Our model considers four factors: the lubricant fluid generated by bacterial colonies, a chemotaxis initiated by the ultraviolet radiation, the intensity of the ultraviolet radiation, and the bacteria's two-stage destruction rate with given radiation intensities. Using this modified model, we simulate the ringlike pattern formation of the bacterial colony exposed to uniform ultraviolet radiation. The following is shown. (1) Without the UV radiation the colony forms a disklike pattern and reaches a constant front velocity. (2) After the radiation is switched on, the bacterial population migrates to the edge of the colony and forms a ringlike pattern. As the intensity of the UV radiation is increased the ring forms faster and the outer velocity of the colony decreases. (3) For higher radiation intensities the total population decreases, while for lower intensities the total population increases initially at a small rate and then decreases. (4) After the UV radiation is switched off, the bacterial population grows both outward as well as into the inner region, and the colony's outer front velocity recovers to a constant value. All these results agree well with the experimental observations [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 158102 (2001)]. Along with the chemotaxis, we find that lubricant fluid and the two-stage destruction rate are critical to the dynamics of the growth of the bacterial colony when exposed to UV radiation, and these were not previously considered.

Zhang Shengli; Zhang Lei; Liang Run; Zhang Erhu; Liu Yachao; Zhao Shumin [Department of Applied Physics, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)

2005-11-01

411

An Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm for the 2D HP Protein Folding Problem  

E-print Network

An Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm for the 2D HP Protein Folding Problem Alena Shmygelska, Rosal, the two dimensional hydrophobic-polar (2D HP) protein folding problem. We introduce an ant colony algorithm closely approaches that of specialised, state-of-the methods for 2D HP protein folding. 1

Hoos, Holger H.

412

Quorum sensing, recruitment, and collective decision-making during colony emigration by the ant Leptothorax albipennis  

Microsoft Academic Search

When its nest is damaged, a colony of the ant Leptothorax albipennis skillfully emigrates to the best available new site. We investigated how this ability emerges from the behaviors used by ants to recruit nestmates to potential homes. We found that, in a given emigration, only one-third of the colony's workers ever recruit. At first, they summon fellow recruiters via

Stephen C. Pratt; Eamonn B. Mallon; David J. T. Sumpter; Nigel R. Franks

2002-01-01

413

OCCURRENCE AND HABITAT CHARACTERISTICS OF BURROWING OWL NESTS IN GUNNISON'S PRAIRIE DOG COLONIES  

E-print Network

OCCURRENCE AND HABITAT CHARACTERISTICS OF BURROWING OWL NESTS IN GUNNISON'S PRAIRIE DOG COLONIES Because Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia) often nest in colonies of prairie dogs (Cynomys sp.), recent to determine the presence and relative abundance of Burrowing Owls, monitored nests to estimate nest success

Beier, Paul

414

Facilitation of Robust Growth of Prochlorococcus Colonies and Dilute Liquid Cultures by \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Axenic (pure) cultures of marine unicellular cyanobacteria of the Prochlorococcus genus grow efficiently only if the inoculation concentration is large; colonies form on semisolid medium at low efficiencies. In this work, we describe a novel method for growing Prochlorococcus colonies on semisolid agar that improves the level of recovery to approximately 100%. Prochlorococcus grows robustly at low cell concentrations, in

J. Jeffrey Morris; Robin Kirkegaard; Martin J. Szul; Zackary I. Johnson; Erik R. Zinser

2008-01-01

415

Colony Size of Phaeocystis Antarctica (Prymnesiophyceae) as Influenced by Zooplankton Grazers  

EPA Science Inventory

The haptophyte Phaeocystis antarctica is a dominant phytoplankton species in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, and exists as solitary cells and mucilaginous colonies that differ by several orders of magnitude in size. Recent studies with P. globosa suggested that colony formation and enl...

416

Ligia Grischa: A Successful Swiss Colony on the Dakota Territory Frontier  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1877 a small group of Swiss immigrants from the Graubunden canton formed a cooperative with another Swiss group in Stillwater, Minnesota, to begin a colony in eastern South Dakota. These settlers founded the Badus Swiss colony on the open prairie in Lake County, Dakota Territory (later South Dakota), based on cooperative rules written in…

Quinn, Todd; Benedict, Karl; Dickey, Jeff

2012-01-01

417

A survey of honey bee colony losses in the United States, fall 2008 to spring 2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This study records the third consecutive year of high winter losses in managed honey bee colonies in the USA. Over the winter of 2008-9 an estimated 29% of all US colonies died. Operations which pollinated Californian almond orchards over the survey period had lower average losses than those which did not. Beekeepers consider normal losses to be 17.6%, and

Dennis vanEngelsdorp; Jerry Hayes; Robyn Underwood; Jeff Pettis

2010-01-01

418

Survival of mite infested (Varroa destructor )h oney bee (Apis mellifera) colonies in a Nordic climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

An isolated honey bee population (N = 150) was established on the southern tip of Gotland, an island in the Baltic sea. After infestation with 36 to 89 Varroa destructor mites per colony, they were unmanaged and allowed to swarm. For over six years colonies were monitored for swarming, winter losses, infestation rate in the fall, and bee population size

Ingemar F; Peter R

419

A survey of managed honey bee colony losses in the USA, fall 2009 to winter 2010  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study records the fourth consecutive year of high winter losses in managed honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies in the USA. Over the winter of 2009-2010, US beekeepers responding to this survey lost an average of 42.2% of their colonies, for a total loss of 34.4%. Commercial beekeepers (those op...

420

LANDSCAPE INFLUENCE ON THE QUALITY OF HERON AND EGRET COLONY SITES  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated landscape associations related to heron and egret colony site selection and the productivity of successful great blue heron (Ardea herodias) and great egret (Ardea alba) nests. The study was based on annual observations (1991-2005) at 45 colony sites known to be active within 10 km of historic tidal marshes of northern San Francisco Bay. The analyses focuse do

John P. Kelly; Diana Stralberg; Katie Etienne; Mark McCaustland

2008-01-01

421

Phelps-Stokes in Congo: Transferring Educational Policy Discourse to Govern Metropole and Colony  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article combines a historical with a social/political anthropological framework to examine the role played by the transfer of educational discourse between the United States-based Phelps-Stokes Fund and the Belgian Ministry of Colonies in the formulation of the colonial education policy of "adapted education" in the 1920s. The author argues…

Seghers, Maud

2004-01-01

422

new adults were recovered from each of the colonies to which adult beetles were introduced.  

E-print Network

new adults were recovered from each of the colonies to which adult beetles were introduced. These included 483 to 3 623 larvae, 300­1 000 pupae, and 200­500 new adult beetles per infested containment unit. No small hive beetles of any stage were found in the control colony when sacrificed. Beetle

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

423

Colony composition and specialized predation on millipedes in the enigmatic ponerine ant genus Probolomyrmex (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Colonies of Probolomyrmex dammermani Wheeler were collected in West Java, Indonesia. The nests contained a few millipedes of the family Polyxenidae, all of which were completely divested of their covering setae. Laboratory experiments showed that the ants fed only on polyxenids. The following bionomic characteristics were also noted: colony size was small (14 workers on average; range 8-21) with

F. Ito

1998-01-01

424

Reproductive characteristics of a captive colony of big-eared climbing rats (Ototylomys phyllotis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors analyzed the breeding characteristics of a colony of Ototylomys phyllotis (big-eared climbing rat) from Campeche, México, that was bred in captivity for 6 y. The big-eared climbing rat is a reservoir of Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana, a causal agent of localized cutaneous leishmaniasis on the Yucatán Peninsula. The colony had been established to facilitate studies analyzing the effectiveness of

Mateo F. Itzá-Ortiz; Erika I. Sosa-Bibiano; Fernando J. Andrade-Narváez; Nicole R. Van Wynsberghe

2011-01-01

425

Silencing the Subaltern: Nation-State/Colonial Governmentality and Bilingual Education in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article introduces the concept of "nation-state/colonial governmentality" as a framework for analyzing the ways current language ideologies marginalize the language practices of subaltern populations. Specifically, the article focuses on the innate limitations of re-appropriating nation-state/colonial governmentality in an attempt…

Flores, Nelson

2013-01-01

426

Colony state and regulation of pollen foraging in the honey bee, Apis mellifera L  

Microsoft Academic Search

To place social insect foraging behavior within an evolutionary context, it is necessary to establish relationships between individual foraging decisions and parameters influencing colony fitness. To address this problem, we examined interactions between individual foraging behavior and pollen storage levels in the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. Colonies responded to low pollen storage conditions by increasing pollen intake rates 54%

Jennifer H. Fewell; Mark L. Winston

1992-01-01

427

Cooperative wasp-killing by mixed-species colonies of honeybees, Apis cerana and Apis mellifera  

E-print Network

Cooperative wasp-killing by mixed-species colonies of honeybees, Apis cerana and Apis mellifera Ken-species colonies of honeybees, Apis cerana and Apis mellifera, were tested against a predatory wasp, Vespa velutina / defensive behaviour / mixed species / Apis cerana / Apis mellifera 1. INTRODUCTION Altruism and cooperation

428

Malaria eradication as a legacy of colonial discourse: the case of Sri Lanka.  

PubMed

Analysis of the history of malaria control in British Ceylon reveals that, besides public health considerations, it was guided by the interests of the colonial powers to expand territory, justify colonial domination, protect the plantation industries and medicalize social misery. The implications of the latter considerations for the choice of a malaria eradication strategy are discussed. PMID:7898952

Silva, K T

1994-08-01

429

A Comparison of Educational and Child-Rearing Practices of Urban America and British Colonial Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to describe the practices and ideologies held in common by the African colonial system of education and the urban American educational system. It is advocated that the following ideas be applied from the American colonial experience to improve American ghetto schools: (1) a continued effort in assisting the American…

Ongiri, David O.

430

Learning Abroad: The Colonial Educational Experiment in India, 1813-1919  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper contributes to the special issue by offering a new framework in time periods that demonstrates the changing nature of the intellectual transfer to and from colonial India and to posit the imperatives that drove these changes. It shows that the nature of educational exchange in India was transformed in elemental ways during the colonial

Allender, Tim

2009-01-01

431

Teaching Morality and Religion in Nineteenth-Century Colonial Algeria: Gender and the Civilising Mission  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Historians have long presented France's "civilizing mission" within its colonies in secular terms ignoring women's presence as both actors and subjects. This is particularly true in Algeria where the colonial government's explicitly prohibited proselytism. This article emphasizes women's roles pursuing both secular and religious goals in Algeria.…

Rogers, Rebecca

2011-01-01

432

Response of waterbird colonies in southern Louisiana to recent drought and hurricanes  

E-print Network

Response of waterbird colonies in southern Louisiana to recent drought and hurricanes P. L. Leberg1 colonial waterbirds; Hurricane Katrina; Hurricane Rita; climate change. Correspondence Paul L. Leberg-1795.2007.00141.x Abstract Although hurricanes have been implicated in causing shifts in waterbird use of individual

Green, Clay - Department of Biology, Texas State University

433

Egg-laying, egg-removal, and ovary development by workers in queenright honey bee colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The study investigates whether worker policing via the selective removal of worker-laid male eggs occurs in normal honey bee colonies with a queen. Queenright honey bee colonies were set up with the queen below a queen excluder. Frames of worker brood and drone comb were placed above the queen excluder. Daily inspections of the drone frames revealed the presence

Francis L. W. Ratnieks

1993-01-01

434

Self-organizing pattern formation on the combs of honey bee colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A characteristic pattern of brood, pollen, and honey develops on the combs of a honey bee colony, consisting of three distinct concentric regions — a central brood area, a surrounding rim of pollen, and a large peripheral region of honey. That the pattern is consistent and well-organized suggests its adaptive value for the colony, yet the mechanism of pattern

Scott Camazine

1991-01-01

435

Identification of a complex genetic network underlying Saccharomyces cerevisiae colony morphology  

PubMed Central

When grown on solid substrates, different microorganisms often form colonies with very specific morphologies. Whereas the pioneers of microbiology often used colony morphology to discriminate between species and strains, the phenomenon has not received much attention recently. In this study, we use a genome-wide assay in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to identify all genes that affect colony morphology. We show that several major signalling cascades, including the MAPK, TORC, SNF1 and RIM101 pathways play a role, indicating that morphological changes are a reaction to changing environments. Other genes that affect colony morphology are involved in protein sorting and epigenetic regulation. Interestingly, the screen reveals only few genes that are likely to play a direct role in establishing colony morphology, with one notable example being FLO11, a gene encoding a cell-surface adhesin that has already been implicated in colony morphology, biofilm formation, and invasive and pseudohyphal growth. Using a series of modified promoters for fine-tuning FLO11 expression, we confirm the central role of Flo11 and show that differences in FLO11 expression result in distinct colony morphologies. Together, our results provide a first comprehensive look at the complex genetic network that underlies the diversity in the morphologies of yeast colonies. PMID:22882838

Voordeckers, Karin; De Maeyer, Dries; Zande, Elisa; Vinces, Marcelo D; Meert, Wim; Cloots, Lore; Ryan, Owen; Marchal, Kathleen; Verstrepen, Kevin J

2012-01-01

436

Identification of Staphylococcus aureus Colony-Spreading Stimulatory Factors from Mammalian Serum  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus aureus forms giant colonies on soft-agar surfaces, which is called colony-spreading. In the present study, we searched for host factors that influence S. aureus colony-spreading activity. The addition of calf serum, porcine serum, or silkworm hemolymph to soft-agar medium stimulated S. aureus colony-spreading activity. Gel filtration column chromatography of calf serum produced a high molecular weight fraction and a low molecular weight fraction, both of which exhibited colony-spreading stimulatory activity. In the low molecular weight fraction, we identified the stimulatory factor as bovine serum albumin. The stimulatory fraction in the high molecular weight fraction was identified as high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles. Delipidation of HDL abolished the stimulatory activity of HDL. Phosphatidylcholine, which is the major lipid component in HDL particles, stimulated the colony-spreading activity. Other phosphatidylcholine-containing lipoprotein particles, low-density lipoprotein and very low-density lipoprotein, also showed colony-spreading stimulatory activity. These findings suggest that S. aureus colony-spreading activity is stimulated by albumin and lipoprotein particles in mammalian serum. PMID:24831518

Omae, Yosuke; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kaito, Chikara

2014-01-01

437

Termites: a Retinex implementation based on a colony of agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a novel implementation of the Retinex algorithm with the exploration of the image done by an ant swarm. In this case the purpose of the ant colony is not the optimization of some constraints but is an alternative way to explore the image content as diffused as possible, with the possibility of tuning the exploration parameters to the image content trying to better approach the Human Visual System behavior. For this reason, we used "termites", instead of ants, to underline the idea of the eager exploration of the image. The paper presents the spatial characteristics of locality and discusses differences in path exploration with other Retinex implementations. Furthermore a psychophysical experiment has been carried out on eight images with 20 observers and results indicate that a termite swarm should investigate a particular region of an image to find the local reference white.

Simone, Gabriele; Audino, Giuseppe; Farup, Ivar; Rizzi, Alessandro

2012-01-01

438

A closed life-support system for space colonies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1975, a system design study was performed to examine a completely self-contained system for a permanent colony of 10,000 inhabitants in space. Fundamental to this design was the life support system. Since resupply from earth is prohibitive in transportation costs, it was decided to use a closed system with the initial supply of oxygen coming from processing of lunar ores, and the supply of carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen from earth. The problem of life support was treated starting with the nutritional and metabolic requirements for the human population, creating a food and water chain sufficient to supply these demands, adding the additional requirements for the animal and plant sources in the food chain, feeding back useful waste products, supplying water as required from different sources, and closing the loop by processing organic wastes into CO2. This concept places the burden of the system upon plants for O2 generation and waste processing the CO2 generation.

Johnson, R. D.; Jebens, H. J.; Sweet, H. C.

1977-01-01

439

Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for Single-Trial Electroencephalogram Analysis.  

PubMed

In this study, we propose an analysis system combined with feature selection to further improve the classification accuracy of single-trial electroencephalogram (EEG) data. Acquiring event-related brain potential data from the sensorimotor cortices, the system comprises artifact and background noise removal, feature extraction, feature selection, and feature classification. First, the artifacts and background noise are removed automatically by means of independent component analysis and surface Laplacian filter, respectively. Several potential features, such as band power, autoregressive model, and coherence and phase-locking value, are then extracted for subsequent classification. Next, artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm is used to select features from the aforementioned feature combination. Finally, selected subfeatures are classified by support vector machine. Comparing with and without artifact removal and feature selection, using a genetic algorithm on single-trial EEG data for 6 subjects, the results indicate that the proposed system is promising and suitable for brain-computer interface applications. PMID:25392006

Hsu, Wei-Yen; Hu, Ya-Ping

2014-11-11

440

An Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for Uncertain Portfolio Selection  

PubMed Central

Portfolio selection is an important issue for researchers and practitioners. In this paper, under the assumption that security returns are given by experts' evaluations rather than historical data, we discuss the portfolio adjusting problem which takes transaction costs and diversification degree of portfolio into consideration. Uncertain variables are employed to describe the security returns. In the proposed mean-variance-entropy model, the uncertain mean value of the return is used to measure investment return, the uncertain variance of the return is used to measure investment risk, and the entropy is used to measure diversification degree of portfolio. In order to solve the proposed model, a modified artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm is designed. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the modelling idea and the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. PMID:25089292

Chen, Wei

2014-01-01

441

Population growth in colonial America: A study of Ipswich, Massachusetts.  

PubMed

Abstract During the colonial period, the settlements that subsequently became the United States of America experienced a tremendous growth of population. Although part of this increase was due to emigration from England and other European countries, most of the growth must be laid to the natural increase of the immigrants and their descendants. We are only beginning to probe the mechanisms ofthis increase. By numerous local studies, using the methods of historical demography that have largely been developed with work in French and English sources, we should eventually be able to describe the demographic nature of New World communities, and to understand how their populations were responding to a new physical, social and economic environment. PMID:22070145

Norton, S L

1971-11-01

442

Solving the Attribute Reduction Problem with Ant Colony Optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attribute reduction is an important process in rough set theory. More minimal attribute reductions are expected to help clients make decisions in some cases, though the minimal attribute reduction problem (MARP) is proved to be an NP-hard problem. In this paper, we propose a new heuristic approach for solving the MARP based on the ant colony optimization (ACO) metaheuristic. We first model the MARP as finding an assignment which minimizes the cost in a graph. Afterward, we introduce a preprocessing step that removes the redundant data in a discernibility matrix through the absorption operator and the cutting operator, the goal of which is to favor a smaller exploration of the search space at a lower cost. We then develop a new algorithm R-ACO for solving the MARP. Finally, the simulation results show that our approach can find more minimal attribute reductions more efficiently in most cases.

Yu, Hong; Wang, Guoyin; Lan, Fakuan

443

Automated selection of appropriate pheromone representations in ant colony optimization.  

PubMed

Ant colony optimization (ACO) is a constructive metaheuristic that uses an analogue of ant trail pheromones to learn about good features of solutions. Critically, the pheromone representation for a particular problem is usually chosen intuitively rather than by following any systematic process. In some representations, distinct solutions appear multiple times, increasing the effective size of the search space and potentially misleading ants as to the true learned value of those solutions. In this article, we present a novel system for automatically generating appropriate pheromone representations, based on the characteristics of the problem model that ensures unique pheromone representation of solutions. This is the first stage in the development of a generalized ACO system that could be applied to a wide range of problems with little or no modification. However, the system we propose may be used in the development of any problem-specific ACO algorithm. PMID:16053571

Montgomery, James; Randall, Marcus; Hendtlass, Tim

2005-01-01

444

Transport of lunar material to the sites of the colonies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An 'existence proof' is attempted for the feasibility of transport of lunar material to colonies in space. Masses of lunar material are accelerated to lunar escape by a tracked magnetically levitated mass driver; aim precision is to 1 km miss distance at L5 per mm/sec velocity error at the lunar surface. Mass driver design and linear synchronous motor drive design are discussed; laser-sensed checkpoints aid in velocity and directional precision. Moon-L5 trajectories are calculated. The design of the L5 construction station, or 'catcher vehicle,' is described; loads are received by chambers operating in a 'Venus flytrap' mode. Further research studies needed to round out the concept are listed explicitly.

Heppenheimer, T. A.

1977-01-01

445

A Multistrategy Optimization Improved Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm  

PubMed Central

Being prone to the shortcomings of premature and slow convergence rate of artificial bee colony algorithm, an improved algorithm was proposed. Chaotic reverse learning strategies were used to initialize swarm in order to improve the global search ability of the algorithm and keep the diversity of the algorithm; the similarity degree of individuals of the population was used to characterize the diversity of population; population diversity measure was set as an indicator to dynamically and adaptively adjust the nectar position; the premature and local convergence were avoided effectively; dual population search mechanism was introduced to the search stage of algorithm; the parallel search of dual population considerably improved the convergence rate. Through simulation experiments of 10 standard testing functions and compared with other algorithms, the results showed that the improved algorithm had faster convergence rate and the capacity of jumping out of local optimum faster. PMID:24982924

Liu, Wen

2014-01-01

446

The colonial origins of comparative development: An empirical investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We exploit differences in European mortality rates to estimate the\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009effect of institutions on economic performance. Europeans adopted\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009very different colonization policies in different colonies, with\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009different associated institutions. In places where Europeans faced\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009high mortality rates, they, could not settle and were more likely\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009to set up extractive institutions. These institutions persisted to\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009the present. Exploiting differences in European

Daron Acemoglu; Simon Johnson; James A. Robinson

2001-01-01

447

Improved Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm Based Gravity Matching Navigation Method  

PubMed Central

Gravity matching navigation algorithm is one of the key technologies for gravity aided inertial navigation systems. With the development of intelligent algorithms, the powerful search ability of the Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm makes it possible to be applied to the gravity matching navigation field. However, existing search mechanisms of basic ABC algorithms cannot meet the need for high accuracy in gravity aided navigation. Firstly, proper modifications are proposed to improve the performance of the basic ABC algorithm. Secondly, a new search mechanism is presented in this paper which is based on an improved ABC algorithm using external speed information. At last, modified Hausdorff distance is introduced to screen the possible matching results. Both simulations and ocean experiments verify the feasibility of the method, and results show that the matching rate of the method is high enough to obtain a precise matching position. PMID:25046019

Gao, Wei; Zhao, Bo; Zhou, Guang Tao; Wang, Qiu Ying; Yu, Chun Yang

2014-01-01

448

Improved artificial bee colony algorithm based gravity matching navigation method.  

PubMed

Gravity matching navigation algorithm is one of the key technologies for gravity aided inertial navigation systems. With the development of intelligent algorithms, the powerful search ability of the Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm makes it possible to be applied to the gravity matching navigation field. However, existing search mechanisms of basic ABC algorithms cannot meet the need for high accuracy in gravity aided navigation. Firstly, proper modifications are proposed to improve the performance of the basic ABC algorithm. Secondly, a new search mechanism is presented in this paper which is based on an improved ABC algorithm using external speed information. At last, modified Hausdorff distance is introduced to screen the possible matching results. Both simulations and ocean experiments verify the feasibility of the method, and results show that the matching rate of the method is high enough to obtain a precise matching position. PMID:25046019

Gao, Wei; Zhao, Bo; Zhou, Guang Tao; Wang, Qiu Ying; Yu, Chun Yang

2014-01-01

449

Colony size as a buffer against seasonality: Bergmann's rule in social insects  

SciTech Connect

In eusocial species, the size of the superorganism is the summed sizes of its component individuals. Bergmann's rule, the cline of decreasing size with decreasing latitude, applies to colony size in ants. Using data from the literature and our own collections, we show that colony sizes of tropical ant species are on average 1/10th the size of temperate species. The patterns holds for 5 of 6 subfamilies and 15 of 16 genera tested. What causes this trend Larger colonies of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, are better able to protect the queen (the colony's reproductive tissue) against food shortage, likely by sacrificing workers (it's somatic tissue). Days of queen survival follows the allometry M[sup 0.25]. We propose that the shorter growing seasons in temperate latitudes cull small-colony species through over-wintering starvation.

Kaspari, M.; Vargo, E. (Lawrence Livermore Laboratories, CA (United States))

1994-06-01

450

Characterisation of metachronal waves on the surface of the spherical colonial alga Volvox carteri  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volvox carteri is a spherical colonial alga, consisting of thousands of biflagellate cells. The somatic cells embedded on the surface of the colony beat their flagella in a coordinated fashion, producing a net fluid motion. Using high-speed imaging and particle image velocimetry (PIV) we have been able to accurately analyse the time-dependent flow fields around such colonies. The somatic cells on the colony surface may beat their flagella in a perfectly synchronised fashion, or may exhibit metachronal waves travelling on the surface. We analyse the dependence of this synchronisation on fundamental parameters in the system such as colony radius, characterise the speed and wavelength of the observed metachronal waves, and investigate possible models to account for the exhibited behaviour.

Brumley, Douglas; Polin, Marco; Morez, Constant; Goldstein, Raymond; Pedley, Timothy

2012-02-01

451

Chronic exposure of a honey bee colony to 2.45 GHz continuous wave microwaves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A honey bee colony (Apis mellifera L.) was exposed 28 days to 2.45 GHz continuous wave microwaves at a power density (1 mW/sq cm) expected to be associated with rectennae in the solar power satellite power transmission system. Differences found between the control and microwave-treated colonies were not large, and were in the range of normal variation among similar colonies. Thus, there is an indication that microwave treatment had little, if any, effect on (1) flight and pollen foraging activity, (2) maintenance of internal colony temperature, (3) brood rearing activity, (4) food collection and storage, (5) colony weight, and (6) adult populations. Additional experiments are necessary before firm conclusions can be made.

Westerdahl, B. B.; Gary, N. E.

1981-01-01

452

Pathogens, pests, and economics: drivers of honey bee colony declines and losses.  

PubMed

The Western honey bee (Apis mellifera) is responsible for ecosystem services (pollination) worth US$215 billion annually worldwide and the number of managed colonies has increased 45% since 1961. However, in Europe and the U.S., two distinct phenomena; long-term declines in colony numbers and increasing annual colony losses, have led to significant interest in their causes and environmental implications. The most important drivers of a long-term decline in colony numbers appear to be socioeconomic and political pressure on honey production. In contrast, annual colony losses seem to be driven mainly by the spread of introduced pathogens and pests, and management problems due to a long-term intensification of production and the transition from large numbers of small apiaries to fewer, larger operations. We conclude that, while other causal hypotheses have received substantial interest, the role of pests, pathogens, and management issues requires increased attention. PMID:24496582

Smith, Kristine M; Loh, Elizabeth H; Rostal, Melinda K; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos M; Mendiola, Luciana; Daszak, Peter

2013-12-01

453

Lack of evidence for an association between Iridovirus and colony collapse disorder.  

PubMed

Colony collapse disorder (CCD) is characterized by the unexplained losses of large numbers of adult worker bees (Apis mellifera) from apparently healthy colonies. Although infections, toxins, and other stressors have been associated with the onset of CCD, the pathogenesis of this disorder remains obscure. Recently, a proteomics study implicated a double-stranded DNA virus, invertebrate iridescent virus (Family Iridoviridae) along with a microsporidium (Nosema sp.) as the cause of CCD. We tested the validity of this relationship using two independent methods: (i) we surveyed healthy and CCD colonies from the United States and Israel for the presence of members of the Iridovirus genus and (ii) we reanalyzed metagenomics data previously generated from RNA pools of CCD colonies for the presence of Iridovirus-like sequences. Neither analysis revealed any evidence to suggest the presence of an Iridovirus in healthy or CCD colonies. PMID:21738798

Tokarz, Rafal; Firth, Cadhla; Street, Craig; Cox-Foster, Diana L; Lipkin, W Ian

2011-01-01

454

Raiders from the sky: slavemaker founding queens select for aggressive host colonies.  

PubMed

Reciprocal selection pressures in host-parasite systems drive coevolutionary arms races that lead to advanced adaptations in both opponents. In the interactions between social parasites and their hosts, aggression is one of the major behavioural traits under selection. In a field manipulation, we aimed to disentangle the impact of slavemaking ants and nest density on aggression of Temnothorax longispinosus ants. An early slavemaker mating flight provided us with the unique opportunity to study the influence of host aggression and demography on founding decisions and success. We discovered that parasite queens avoided colony foundation in parasitized areas and were able to capture more brood from less aggressive host colonies. Host colony aggression remained consistent over the two-month experiment, but did not respond to our manipulation. However, as one-fifth of all host colonies were successfully invaded by parasite queens, slavemaker nest foundation acts as a strong selection event selecting for high aggression in host colonies. PMID:22809720

Pamminger, Tobias; Modlmeier, Andreas P; Suette, Stefan; Pennings, Pleuni S; Foitzik, Susanne

2012-10-23

455

Lack of Evidence for an Association between Iridovirus and Colony Collapse Disorder  

PubMed Central

Colony collapse disorder (CCD) is characterized by the unexplained losses of large numbers of adult worker bees (Apis mellifera) from apparently healthy colonies. Although infections, toxins, and other stressors have been associated with the onset of CCD, the pathogenesis of this disorder remains obscure. Recently, a proteomics study implicated a double-stranded DNA virus, invertebrate iridescent virus (Family Iridoviridae) along with a microsporidium (Nosema sp.) as the cause of CCD. We tested the validity of this relationship using two independent methods: (i) we surveyed healthy and CCD colonies from the United States and Israel for the presence of members of the Iridovirus genus and (ii) we reanalyzed metagenomics data previously generated from RNA pools of CCD colonies for the presence of Iridovirus-like sequences. Neither analysis revealed any evidence to suggest the presence of an Iridovirus in healthy or CCD colonies. PMID:21738798

Street, Craig; Cox-Foster, Diana L.; Lipkin, W. Ian

2011-01-01

456

Pseudomonas aeruginosa: changes in antibiotic susceptibility, enzymatic activity, and antigenicity among colonial morphotypes.  

PubMed

Colonial variants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa have received renewed interest because of their occurrence in sputum cultures of patients with cystic fibrosis. We encountered 11 strains of P. aeruginosa from various body sites of non-cystic fibrosis patients. The strains showed two to three colonial variants, including smooth, rough, and iridescent morphotypes that arose from subculture of a single colony of P. aeruginosa originating from a primary source. The colonial segregants differed in antibiotic susceptibility (resistance to gentamicin, carbenicillin, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline), presence or absence of exoenzymes (gelatinase and elastase), degree of proteolytic activity (caseinase), pigmentation, and antigenicity. These observations suggest that in vivo dissociation with concomitant changes in enzymatic and surface properties might greatly enhance invasiveness. Concurrent differences in antimicrobial susceptibility among the colonial variants could account in some instances for the failure of antibiotic treatment in P. aeruginosa infections in which one would anticipate a positive therapeutic response. PMID:6808021

Sheehan, D J; Janda, J M; Bottone, E J

1982-05-01

457

Molecular genetic evidence of formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) colony survivorship after prolonged inundation.  

PubMed

Levee breaches because of Hurricane Katrina in 2005 inundated 80% of the city of New Orleans, LA. Formosan subterranean termites were observed actively foraging within in-ground monitoring stations within months after this period of flooding. It was unknown if the activity could be attributed to preexisting colonies that survived inundation or to other colonies surviving flooding by being located at higher elevations readily invading these territories. Genotypic profiles of 17 termite colonies collected from eight inundated locations before flooding were compared with termite colonies after flooding from the same locations to determine Formosan subterranean termite survival after sustained flooding. Results indicate that 14 colonies were able to survive inundation for extended periods. PMID:22606822

Owens, Carrie B; Su, Nan-Yao; Husseneder, Claudia; Riegel, Claudia; Brown, Kenneth S

2012-04-01

458

Chronic exposure of a honey bee colony to 2. 45 GHz continuous wave microwaves  

SciTech Connect

A honey bee colony (Apis mellifera L.) was exposed 28 days to 2.45 GHz continuous wave microwaves at a power density (1 mW/sq cm) expected to be associated with rectennae in the solar power satellite power transmission system. Differences found between the control and microwave-treated colonies were not large, and were in the range of normal variation among similar colonies. Thus, there is an indication that microwave treatment had little, if any, effect on (1) flight and pollen foraging activity, (2) maintenance of internal colony temperature, (3) brood rearing activity, (4) food collection and storage, (5) colony weight, and (6) adult populations. Additional experiments are necessary before firm conclusions can be made.

Westerdahl, B.B.; Gary, N.E.

1981-01-01

459

The Logic of Location: Malaria Research in Colonial India, Darjeeling and Duars, 1900–30  

PubMed Central

This article explores the scientific and entrepreneurial incentives for malaria research in the tea plantations of north Bengal in colonial India. In the process it highlights how the logic of ‘location’ emerged as the central trope through which medical experts, as well as colonial administrators and planters, defined malaria research in the region. The paper argues that the ‘local’ emerged as both a prerequisite of colonial governance as well as a significant component of malaria research in the field. Despite the ambiguities that such a project entailed, tropical medicine was enriched from a diverse understanding of local ecology, habitation, and structural modes of production. Nevertheless, the locality itself did not benefit from anti-malarial policy undertaken either by medical experts or the colonial state. This article suggests that there was a disjuncture between ‘tropical medicine’ and its ‘field’ that could not be accommodated within the colonial plantation system. PMID:21461309

BHATTACHARYA, NANDINI

2011-01-01

460

All you can eat: is food supply unlimited in a colonially breeding bird?  

PubMed

Food availability is generally considered to determine breeding site selection and therefore plays an important role in hypotheses explaining the evolution of colony formation. Hypotheses trying to explain why birds join a colony usually assume that food is not limited, whereas those explaining variation in colony size suggest that food is under constraint. In this study, we investigate the composition and amount of food items not eaten by the nestlings and found in nest burrows of colonially nesting European bee-eaters (Merops apiaster). We aimed to determine whether this unconsumed food is an indicator of unlimited food supply, the result of mistakes during food transfer between parents and chicks or foraging selectivity of chicks. Therefore, we investigated the amount of dropped food for each nest in relation to reproductive performance and parameters reflecting parental quality. Our data suggest that parents carry more food to the nest than chicks can eat and, hence, food is not limited. This assumption is supported by the facts that there is a positive relationship between dropped food found in a nest and the number of fledglings, nestling age, and chick health condition and that the amount of dropped food is independent of colony size. There is variation in the amount of dropped food within colonies, suggesting that parent foraging efficiency may also be an important determinant. Pairs nesting in the center of a colony performed better than those nesting on the edge, which supports the assumption that quality differences between parents are important as well. However, dropped food cannot be used as an indicator of local food availability as (1) within-colony variation in dropped food is larger than between colony variation and, (2) the average amount of dropped food is not related to colony size. PMID:25691970

Hoi, Herbert; Krištofík, Ján; Darolová, Alžbeta

2015-01-01

461

All you can eat: is food supply unlimited in a colonially breeding bird?  

PubMed Central

Food availability is generally considered to determine breeding site selection and therefore plays an important role in hypotheses explaining the evolution of colony formation. Hypotheses trying to explain why birds join a colony usually assume that food is not limited, whereas those explaining variation in colony size suggest that food is under constraint. In this study, we investigate the composition and amount of food items not eaten by the nestlings and found in nest burrows of colonially nesting European bee-eaters (Merops apiaster). We aimed to determine whether this unconsumed food is an indicator of unlimited food supply, the result of mistakes during food transfer between parents and chicks or foraging selectivity of chicks. Therefore, we investigated the amount of dropped food for each nest in relation to reproductive performance and parameters reflecting parental quality. Our data suggest that parents carry more food to the nest than chicks can eat and, hence, food is not limited. This assumption is supported by the facts that there is a positive relationship between dropped food found in a nest and the number of fledglings, nestling age, and chick health condition and that the amount of dropped food is independent of colony size. There is variation in the amount of dropped food within colonies, suggesting that parent foraging efficiency may also be an important determinant. Pairs nesting in the center of a colony performed better than those nesting on the edge, which supports the assumption that quality differences between parents are important as well. However, dropped food cannot be used as an indicator of local food availability as (1) within-colony variation in dropped food is larger than between colony variation and, (2) the average amount of dropped food is not related to colony size.

Hoi, Herbert; Krištofík, Ján; Darolová, Alžbeta

2015-01-01

462

UC Davis Survey Questionnaire for 2011 Honey Bee Colony Health (All information is confidential and will not be released)  

E-print Network

1 UC Davis Survey Questionnaire for 2011 Honey Bee Colony Health (All information is confidential in the bee sampling program proposed in the accom- panying letter (includes an initial visit by Dr. Johnson ______________________________________________________________________________ Number of colonies that died

Ferrara, Katherine W.

463

NUTRITIONAL ECOLOGY OF THE FORMOSAN SUBTERRANEAN TERMITE ISOPTERA RHINOTERMITIDAE)GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF INCIPIENT COLONIES FEEDING ONPREFERRED WOOD SPECIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wood species as food source significantly impacted growth and survival of incipient colonies of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Colonies of C. formosanus feeding on pecan (Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.)) and red gum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) produced significantly more p...

464

Dividing and Ruling the World? A Statistical Test of the Effects of Colonialism on Postcolonial Civil Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To test claims that postcolonial civil violence is a common legacy of colonialism, we create a dataset on the colonial heritage of 160 countries and explore whether a history of colonialism is related to indicators of inter-communal conflict, political rebellion and civil war in the years 1960-1999. The analysis provides evidence against sweeping…

Lange, Matthew; Dawson, Andrew

2009-01-01

465

The effects of hive color and feeding on the size of winter clusters of Russian honey bee colonies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study determined the effects of hive color (black or white) and its interaction with feeding on colony growth of Russian colonies through the winter. One hundred and forty two colonies with pure-mated Russian queens were established. One half of them were in hives painted white and one half o...

466

Coloniality of power” and racial dynamics: Notes toward a reinterpretation of Latino Caribbeans in New York City  

Microsoft Academic Search

The category of “Latino” collapses the differences among populations with diverse historical experiences of oppression. We establish in this article a distinction within the Latino Caribbean diaspora among “immigrants\\/’ “colonial immigrants,” and “colonial\\/racial subjects” of the U.S. empire. Using the notion of “coloniality of power” developed by Peruvian sociologist Aníbal Quijano, we argue that the social position and racialization of

Ramón Grosfoguel; Chloe S. Georas

2000-01-01

467

Colonial Guilt and the Recycling of Oppression: The Merit of Unofficial History in Transforming the State's Narrative  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article juxtaposes colonial guilt with selective historical memory of Palestinian narratives as presented in the Israeli state-mandated history textbooks. The advancement of colonial guilt imposes a particular subjective truth of oppressed groups' historical memories. The purpose of colonial guilt is to keep the power structure intact by maintaining a victimhood hierarchy that engages oppressed groups to compete for the

Janette Habashi

2012-01-01

468

Dealing with American Foulbrood American foulbrood (AFB) is a highly contagious bacterial disease of honey bee larvae. Diseased colonies usually  

E-print Network

of honey bee larvae. Diseased colonies usually die. The unprotected, spore-contaminated nectar, honey inoculum to the next colonies. There is no method by which your bees can be prevented from robbing a dying or dead colony. So, if you are keeping bees in an area known to have a history of American foulbrood

Ferrara, Katherine W.

469

Colony-forming cells in the adult mouse pancreas are expandable in Matrigel and form endocrine/acinar  

E-print Network

Colony-forming cells in the adult mouse pancreas are expandable in Matrigel and form endocrine into another type of colony, which we name "Endo- crine/Acinar." These Endocrine/Acinar colonies are comprised mostly of endocrine- and acinar-like cells, as ascertained by RNA expression analysis

Sander, Maike

470

Comparison of productivity of colonies of honey bees, Apis mellifera, supplemented with sucrose or high fructose corn syrup  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Honey bee colony feeding trials were conducted to determine whether differential effects of carbohydrate feeding (sucrose syrup vs. high fructose corn syrups) were detected between colonies fed exclusively on these syrups. In one experiment, colonies installed within a closed arena had increased pr...

471

Small mammals associated with colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) in the Southern High Plains  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We compared diversity and abundance of small mammals at colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) and paired non-colony sites. Of colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs in our study area, >80 were on slopes of playa lakes; thus, we used sites of colonies and non-colonies that were on slopes of playa lakes. We trapped small mammals on 29 pairs of sites. Overall abundance did not differ between types of sites, but some taxa exhibited associations with colonies (Onychomys leucogaster) or non-colonies (Chaetodipus hispidus, Reithrodontomys, Sigmodon hispidus). Diversity and evenness of small mammals did not differ between colonies and non-colonies in 2002, but were higher on non-colonies in 2003. Although we may not have detected some rare or infrequently occurring species, our data reveal differences in diversity and evenness of more common species among the types of sites. Prairie dogs are touted as a keystone species with their colonies associated with a greater faunal diversity than adjacent lands. Our findings contradict several studies reporting greater diversity and abundance of small mammals at colonies of prairie dogs. We suggest that additional research across a wider landscape and incorporating landscape variables beyond the immediate trapping plot may further elucidate interspecific associations between black-tailed prairie dogs and species of small rodents.

Pruett, A.L.; Boal, C.W.; Wallace, M.C.; Whitlaw, H.A.; Ray, J.D.

2010-01-01

472

Colonial Guilt and the Recycling of Oppression: The Merit of Unofficial History in Transforming the State's Narrative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article juxtaposes colonial guilt with selective historical memory of Palestinian narratives as presented in the Israeli state-mandated history textbooks. The advancement of colonial guilt imposes a particular subjective truth of oppressed groups' historical memories. The purpose of colonial guilt is to keep the power structure intact by…

Habashi, Janette

2012-01-01

473

gitter: a robust and accurate method for quantification of colony sizes from plate images.  

PubMed

Colony-based screens that quantify the fitness of clonal populations on solid agar plates are perhaps the most important source of genome-scale functional information in microorganisms. The images of ordered arrays of mutants produced by such experiments can be difficult to process because of laboratory-specific plate features, morphed colonies, plate edges, noise, and other artifacts. Most of the tools developed to address this problem are optimized to handle a single setup and do not work out of the box in other settings. We present gitter, an image analysis tool for robust and accurate processing of images from colony-based screens. gitter works by first finding the grid of colonies from a preprocessed image and then locating the bounds of each colony separately. We show that gitter produces comparable colony sizes to other tools in simple cases but outperforms them by being able to handle a wider variety of screens and more accurately quantify colony sizes from difficult images. gitter is freely available as an R package from http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/gitter under the LGPL. Tutorials and demos can be found at http://omarwagih.github.io/gitter. PMID:24474170

Wagih, Omar; Parts, Leopold

2014-03-01

474

Male parentage does not vary with colony kin structure in a multiple-queen ant.  

PubMed

Kin selection theory predicts that, in social Hymenoptera, the parentage of males should be determined by within-colony relatedness. We present a model showing that, when sex ratios are split (bimodal) as a function of colony kin structure, the predictions of kin selection theory regarding the occurrence of worker reproduction and policing (prevention of worker reproduction) require modification. To test the predictions of kin selection theory and our model, we estimated using microsatellites the frequency of worker-produced male eggs and adults in the facultatively polygynous (multiple-queen) ant Leptothorax acervorum. Analysis of 210 male eggs and 328 adult males from 13 monogynous (single-queen) and nine polygynous colonies demonstrated that the frequency of worker-produced males was low (2.3-4.6% of all males) and did not differ significantly between colony classes or between eggs and adults. This suggested workers' self-restraint as the cause of infrequent worker reproduction in both colony classes. Such an outcome is not predicted either by comparing relatedness values or by our model. Therefore, it appears that factors other than colony kin structure and sex ratio effects determine the pattern of male parentage in the study population. A likely factor is a colony-level cost of worker reproduction. PMID:14635844

Hammond, R L; Bruford, M W; Bourke, A F G

2003-05-01

475

Optimisation of a honeybee-colony's energetics via social learning based on queuing delays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural selection shaped the foraging-related processes of honeybees in such a way that a colony can react to changing environmental conditions optimally. To investigate this complex dynamic social system, we developed a multi-agent model of the nectar flow inside and outside of a honeybee colony. In a honeybee colony, a temporal caste collects nectar in the environment. These foragers bring their harvest into the colony, where they unload their nectar loads to one or more storer bees. Our model predicts that a cohort of foragers, collecting nectar from a single nectar source, is able to detect changes in quality in other food sources they have never visited, via the nectar processing system of the colony. We identified two novel pathways of forager-to-forager communication. Foragers can gain information about changes in the nectar flow in the environment via changes in their mean waiting time for unloadings and the number of experienced multiple unloadings. This way two distinct groups of foragers that forage on different nectar sources and that never communicate directly can share information via a third cohort of worker bees. We show that this noisy and loosely knotted social network allows a colony to perform collective information processing, so that a single forager has all necessary information available to be able to 'tune' its social behaviour, like dancing or dance-following. This way the net nectar gain of the colony is increased.

Thenius, Ronald; Schmickl, Thomas; Crailsheim, Karl

2008-06-01

476

Evaluation of lysozyme-HCl for the treatment of chalkbrood disease in honey bee colonies.  

PubMed

Chalkbrood, caused by Ascosphaera apis (Maassen and Claussen) Olive and Spiltor, is a cosmopolitan fungal disease of honey bee larvae (Apis mellifera L.) for which there is no chemotherapeutic control. We evaluated the efficacy of lysozyme-HCl, an inexpensive food-grade antimicrobial extracted from hen egg white, for the treatment of chalkbrood disease in honey bee colonies. Our study compared three doses of lysozyme-HCl in sugar syrup (600, 3,000, and 6,000 mg) administered weekly for 3 wk among chalkbrood-inoculated colonies, colonies that were inoculated but remained untreated, and colonies neither inoculated or treated. Lysozyme-HCl at the highest dose evaluated was found to suppress development of chalkbrood disease in inoculated colonies to levels observed in uninoculated, untreated colonies, and did not adversely affect adult bee survival or brood production. Honey production was significantly negatively correlated with increased disease severity but there were no significant differences in winter survival among treatment groups. Based on our results, lysozyme-HCl appears to be a promising, safe therapeutic agent for the control of chalkbrood in honey bee colonies. PMID:23356049

Van Haga, A; Keddie, B A; Pernal, S F

2012-12-01

477

Risk factors associated with mortality from white-nose syndrome among hibernating bat colonies  

PubMed Central

White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a disease responsible for unprecedented mortality in hibernating bats. First observed in a New York cave in 2006, mortality associated with WNS rapidly appeared in hibernacula across the northeastern United States. We used yearly presence–absence data on WNS-related mortality among hibernating bat colonies in the Northeast to determine factors influencing its spread. We evaluated hazard models to test hypotheses about the association between the timing of mortality and colony-level covariates, such as distance from the first WNS-affected site, colony size, species diversity, species composition and type of hibernaculum (cave or mine). Distance to origin and colony size had the greatest effects on WNS hazard over the range of observations; the type of hibernaculum and species composition had weaker effects. The distance effect showed a temporal decrease in magnitude, consistent with the pattern of an expanding epizootic. Large, cave-dwelling bat colonies with high proportions of Myotis lucifugus or other species that seek humid microclimates tended to experience early mortality. Our results suggest that the timing of mortality from WNS is largely dependent on colony location, and large colonies tend to be first in an area to experience high mortality associated with WNS. PMID:21632616

Wilder, Aryn P.; Frick, Winifred F.; Langwig, Kate E.; Kunz, Thomas H.

2011-01-01

478

gitter: A Robust and Accurate Method for Quantification of Colony Sizes From Plate Images  

PubMed Central

Colony-based screens that quantify the fitness of clonal populations on solid agar plates are perhaps the most important source of genome-scale functional information in microorganisms. The images of ordered arrays of mutants produced by such experiments can be difficult to process because of laboratory-specific plate features, morphed colonies, plate edges, noise, and other artifacts. Most of the tools developed to address this problem are optimized to handle a single setup and do not work out of the box in other settings. We present gitter, an image analysis tool for robust and accurate processing of images from colony-based screens. gitter works by first finding the grid of colonies from a preprocessed image and then locating the bounds of each colony separately. We show that gitter produces comparable colony sizes to other tools in simple cases but outperforms them by being able to handle a wider variety of screens and more accurately quantify colony sizes from difficult images. gitter is freely available as an R package from http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/gitter under the LGPL. Tutorials and demos can be found at http://omarwagih.github.io/gitter PMID:24474170

Wagih, Omar; Parts, Leopold

2014-01-01

479

Population genetics of the California National Primate Research Center's (CNPRC) captive Callicebus cupreus colony.  

PubMed

The California National Primate Research Center maintains a small colony of titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus) for behavioral studies. While short tandem repeat (STR) markers are critical for the genetic management of the center's rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) breeding colony, STRs are not used for this purpose in the maintenance of the center's titi monkey colony. Consequently, the genetic structure of this titi monkey population has not been characterized. A lack of highly informative genetic markers in titi monkeys has also resulted in scant knowledge of the species' genetic variation in the wild. The purpose of this study was to develop a panel of highly polymorphic titi monkey STRs using a cross-species polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification protocol that could be used for the genetic management of the titi monkey colony. We screened 16 STR primer pairs and selected those that generated robust and reproducible polymorphic amplicons. Loci that were found to be highly polymorphic, very likely to be useful for parentage verification, pedigree assessment, and studying titi monkey population genetics, were validated using Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and linkage disequilibrium analyses. The genetic data generated in this study were also used to assess directly the impact on the colony's genetic diversity of a recent adenovirus outbreak. While the adenovirus epizootic disease caused significant mortality (19 deaths among the 65 colony animals), our results suggest that the disease exhibited little or no influence on the overall genetic diversity of the colony. PMID:25179309

Mendoza, Adrian; Ng, Jillian; Bales, Karen L; Mendoza, Sally P; George, Debra A; Smith, David Glenn; Kanthaswamy, Sree

2015-01-01

480

Parasitoids and competitors influence colony-level responses in the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social insect colonies respond to challenges set by a variable environment by reallocating work among colony members. In many social insects, such colony-level task allocation strategies are achieved through individual decisions that produce a self-organized adapting group. We investigated colony responses to parasitoids and native ant competitors in the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta). Parasitoid flies affected fire ants by decreasing the proportion of workers engaged in foraging. Competitors also altered colony-level behaviours by reducing the proportion of foraging ants and by increasing the proportion of roaming majors, whose role is colony defence. Interestingly, the presence of both parasitism and competition almost always had similar effects on task allocation in comparison to each of the biotic factors on its own. Thus, our study uniquely demonstrates that the interactive effect of both parasitism and competition is not necessarily additive, implying that these biotic factors alter colony behaviour in distinct ways. More generally, our work demonstrates the importance of studying the dynamics of species interactions in a broader context.

Mehdiabadi, Natasha J.; Kawazoe, Elizabeth A.; Gilbert, Lawrence E.

2004-11-01

481

The distribution of depleted uranium contamination in Colonie, NY, USA.  

PubMed

Uranium oxide particles were dispersed into the environment from a factory in Colonie (NY, USA) by prevailing winds during the 1960s and '70s. Uranium concentrations and isotope ratios from bulk soil samples have been accurately measured using inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) without the need for analyte separation chemistry. The natural range of uranium concentrations in the Colonie soils has been estimated as 0.7-2.1 microg g(-1), with a weighted geometric mean of 1.05 microg g(-1); the contaminated soil samples comprise uranium up to 500+/-40 microg g(-1). A plot of (236)U/(238)U against (235)U/(238)U isotope ratios describes a mixing line between natural uranium and depleted uranium (DU) in bulk soil samples; scatter from this line can be accounted for by heterogeneity in the DU particulate. The end-member of DU compositions aggregated in these bulk samples comprises (2.05+/-0.06) x 10(-3)(235)U/(238)U, (3.2+/-0.1)x10(-5)(236)U/(238)U, and (7.1+/-0.3) x 10(-6)(234)U/(238)U. The analytical method is sensitive to as little as 50 ng g(-1) DU mixed with the natural uranium occurring in these soils. The contamination footprint has been mapped northward from site, and at least one third of the uranium in a soil sample from the surface 5 cm, collected 5. 1km NNW of the site, is DU. The distribution of contamination within the surface soil horizon follows a trend of exponential decrease with depth, which can be approximated by a simple diffusion model. Bioturbation by earthworms can account for dispersal of contaminant from the soil surface, in the form of primary uranium oxide particulates, and uranyl species that are adsorbed to organic matter. Considering this distribution, the total mass of uranium contamination emitted from the factory is estimated to be c. 4.8 tonnes. PMID:19853279

Lloyd, N S; Chenery, S R N; Parrish, R R

2009-12-20

482

Colony-stimulating factor 1 potentiates lung cancer bone metastasis.  

PubMed

Colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1) is essential for osteoclastogenesis that mediates osteolysis in metastatic tumors. Patients with lung cancer have increased CSF1 in serum and high levels are associated with poor survival. Adenocarcinomas metastasize rapidly and many patients suffer from bone metastasis. Lung cancer stem-like cells sustain tumor growth and potentiate metastasis. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of CSF1 in lung cancer bone metastasis and whether inhibition of CSF1 ameliorates the disease. Human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells were examined in vitro for CSF1/CSF1R. A549-luc cells were injected intracardiac in NOD/SCID mice and metastasis was assessed. To determine the effect of CSF1 knockdown (KD) in A549 cells on bone metastasis, cells were stably transfected with a retroviral vector containing short-hairpin CSF1 (KD) or empty vector (CT). Results showed that A549 cells express CSF1/CSF1R; CSF1 increased their proliferation and invasion, whereas soluble CSF1R inhibited invasion. Mice injected with A549-luc cells showed osteolytic bone lesions 3.5 weeks after injection and lesions increased over 5 weeks. Tumors recapitulated adenocarcinoma morphology and showed osteoclasts along the tumor/bone interface, trabecular, and cortical bone loss. Analyses of KD cells showed decreased CSF1 protein levels, reduced colony formation in soft agar assay, and decreased fraction of stem-like cells. In CSF1KD mice, the incidence of tumor metastasis was similar to controls, although fewer CSF1KD mice had metastasis in both hind limbs. KD tumors showed reduced CSF1 expression, Ki-67+ cells, and osteoclasts. Importantly, there was a low incidence of large tumors >0.1?mm(2) in CSF1KD mice compared with control mice (10% vs 62.5%). This study established a lung osteolytic bone metastasis model that resembles human disease and suggests that CSF1 is a key determinant of cancer stem cell survival and tumor growth. Results may lead to novel strategies to inhibit CSF1 in lung cancer and improve management of bone metastasis. PMID:24468794

Hung, Jaclyn Y; Horn, Diane; Woodruff, Kathleen; Prihoda, Thomas; LeSaux, Claude; Peters, Jay; Tio, Fermin; Abboud-Werner, Sherry L

2014-04-01

483

Measurement of soil bacterial colony temperatures and isolation of a high heat-producing bacterium  

PubMed Central

Background The cellular temperatures of microorganisms are considered to be the same as those of their surroundings because the cellular volume is too small to maintain a cellular temperature that is different from the ambient temperature. However, by forming a colony or a biofilm, microorganisms may be able to maintain a cellular temperature that is different from the ambient temperature. In this study, we measured the temperatures of bacterial colonies isolated from soils using an infrared imager and investigated the thermogenesis by a bacterium that increases its colony temperature. Results The temperatures of some colonies were higher or lower than that of the surrounding medium. A bacterial isolate with the highest colony temperature was identified as Pseudomonas putida. This bacterial isolate had an increased colony temperature when it grew at a temperature suboptimal for its growth. Measurements of heat production using a microcalorimeter showed that the temperature of this extraordinary, microcalorimetrically determined thermogenesis corresponded with the thermographically observed increase in bacterial colony temperature. When investigating the effects of the energy source on this thermal behavior, we found that heat production by this bacterium increased without additional biomass production at a temperature suboptimal for its growth. Conclusions We found that heat production by bacteria affected the bacterial colony temperature and that a bacterium identified as Pseudomonas putida could maintain a cellular temperature different from the ambient temperature, particularly at a sub-optimal growth temperature. The bacterial isolate P. putida KT1401 increased its colony temperature by an energy-spilling reaction when the incubation temperature limited its growth. PMID:23497132

2013-01-01

484

Modeling temperature-mediated fluctuation in colony size in the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta.  

PubMed

In the social insects, colony size is central to the survival of the queen. Two endogenous factors, worker longevity and queen's daily egg production, are known to determine maximum colony size. A third endogenous factor, duration of worker development from egg to adult, regulates the rate of colony growth. In this paper, we report findings from a simulation quantifying the effects of temperature on colony size in the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. The monthly average temperature over a six year period for the panhandle of north Florida was interpolated to determine the effects of daily temperature on a queen's egg production, worker developmental time and worker longevity. Additional daily temperatures were simulated: 7°C higher and 7°C lower than daily temperatures for north Florida. As expected, colony size was the largest when annual temperatures were the highest across seasons, ranging from 57,000 to 187,000. Colony size at intermediate daily temperatures ranged from 14,000 to 103,000; small colonies recovered rapidly as temperatures warmed. Colony size at lower daily temperatures ranged from 14,000 to 21,000. Extended worker longevity at lower temperatures compensated for low egg production and longer developmental time. And vice versa, the queen's high rate of egg production and the shorter developmental time compensated for shorter worker longevity at high temperatures. Because the fire ant nest consists of a heat-collecting dome in which to incubate brood during cold weather, and deep chambers in which to cool workers during hot weather, colony size is likely to be higher and more stable than our simulation showed. The extended longevity of workers and queens at low temperatures, and perhaps their ability to hibernate below the permafrost, might explain the ability of ants to colonize habitats worldwide. PMID:22575550

Asano, Erika; Cassill, Deby L

2012-07-21

485

Acetate Availability and Utilization Supports the Growth of Mutant Sub-Populations on Aging Bacterial Colonies  

PubMed Central

When bacterial colonies age most cells enter a stationary phase, but sub-populations of mutant bacteria can continue to grow and accumulate. These sub-populations include bacteria with mutations in rpoB (RNA polymerase ?-subunit) or rpoS (RNA polymerase stress-response sigma factor). Here we have identified acetate as a nutrient present in the aging colonies that is utilized by these mutant subpopulations to support their continued growth. Proteome analysis of aging colonies showed that several proteins involved in acetate conversion and utilization were upregulated during aging. Acetate is known to be excreted during the exponential growth phase but can be imported later during the transition to stationary phase and converted to acetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA is used in multiple processes, including feeding into the TCA cycle, generating ATP via the glyoxylate shunt, as a source of acetyl groups for protein modification, and to support fatty acid biosynthesis. We showed that deletion of acs (encodes acetyl-CoA synthetase; converts acetate into acetyl-CoA) significantly reduced the accumulation of rpoB and rpoS mutant subpopulations on aging colonies. Measurement of radioactive acetate uptake showed that the rate of conversion decreased in aging wild-type colonies, was maintained at a constant level in the rpoB mutant, and significantly increased in the aging rpoS mutant. Finally, we showed that the growth of subpopulations on aging colonies was greatly enhanced if the aging colony itself was unable to utilize acetate, leaving more acetate available for mutant subpopulations to use. Accordingly, the data show that the accumulation of subpopulations of rpoB and rpoS mutants on aging colonies is supported by the availability in the aging colony of acetate, and by the ability of the subpopulation cells to convert the acetate to acetyl-CoA. PMID:25275605

Bergman, Jessica M.; Wrande, Marie; Hughes, Diarmaid

2014-01-01

486

Origins and relationships of colonial Heliophyllum in the upper Middle Devonian (Givetian) of New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Heliophyllum halli Milne-Edwards and Haime is common to abundant in many Lower and Middle Devonian stratigraphic units in New York. Most Heliophyllum are solitary, but both branching and massive colonies are known. Four 'populations' of colonial Heliophyllum in the Givetian part of the sequence are distinct, as is a fifth form that occurs through the section. Each of the colonial forms is interpreted as an independent derivative of solitary forms of H. halli. The relationships appear to range from infrasubspecific to specific, and it is suggested that the complex should be recognized as the Heliophyllum halli species group.

Oliver, W.A., Jr.

1997-01-01

487

Fluorescent method for the detection of excreted ribonuclease around bacterial colonies.  

PubMed

Lanyi, Janos K. (Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, Calif.), and Joshua Lederberg. Fluorescent method for the detection of excreted ribonuclease around bacterial colonies. J. Bacteriol. 92:1469-1472. 1966.-A test for the release of extracellular ribonuclease by Bacillus subtilis colonles was developed. The method consists of incorporating acridine orange and ribonucleic acid into nutrient agar plates and viewing the grown bacterial colonies under ultraviolet light. Regions of ribonuclease secretion appear as dark halos around the colonies on a green fluorescent background. The theoretical basis and the utility of this test are discussed. PMID:4958882

Lanyi, J K; Lederberg, J

1966-11-01

488

Application of the artificial bee colony algorithm for solving the set covering problem.  

PubMed

The set covering problem is a formal model for many practical optimization problems. In the set covering problem the goal is to choose a subset of the columns of minimal cost that covers every row. Here, we present a novel application of the artificial bee colony algorithm to solve the non-unicost set covering problem. The artificial bee colony algorithm is a recent swarm metaheuristic technique based on the intelligent foraging behavior of honey bees. Experimental results show that our artificial bee colony algorithm is competitive in terms of solution quality with other recent metaheuristic approaches for the set covering problem. PMID:24883356

Crawford, Broderick; Soto, Ricardo; Cuesta, Rodrigo; Paredes, Fernando

2014-01-01

489

Polygynous colony formation in the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)  

E-print Network

1977). ~Po 1 to ld 5 y f pt Qn of tn species after mating flights (Sturtevant 1938). Small gl gn fo d'ng o1o *f ~pd n f' (Janzen 1973) and Atta ~te ana (Echols 1966) fuse to form polygynous colonies. Pleometrosis, intranidal mating and