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1

LEPER: Library of Experimental PhasE Relations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Library of Experimental PhasE Relations (LEPER) seeks to compile published experimental determinations of magmatic phase equilibria and provide those data on the web with a searchable and downloadable interface. Compiled experimental data include the conditions and durations of experiments, the bulk compositions of experimental charges, and the identity, compositions and proportions of phases observed, and, where available, estimates of experimental and analytical uncertainties. Also included are metadata such as the type of experimental device, capsule material, and method(s) of quantitative analysis. The database may be of use to practicing experimentalists as well as the wider Earth science community. Experimentalists may find the data useful for planning new experiments and will easily be able to compare their results to the full body of previous experimentnal data. Geologists may use LEPER to compare rocks sampled in the field with experiments performed on similar bulk composition or with experiments that produced similar-composition product phases. Modelers may use LEPER to parameterize partial melting of various lithologies. One motivation for compiling LEPER is for calibration of updated and revised versions of MELTS, however, it is hoped that the availability of LEPER will facilitate formulation and calibration of additional thermodynamic or empirical models of magmatic phase relations and phase equilibria, geothermometers and more. Data entry for LEPER is occuring presently: As of August, 2006, >6200 experiments have been entered, chiefly from work published between 1997 and 2005. A prototype web interface has been written and beta release on the web is anticipated in Fall, 2006. Eventually, experimentalists will be able to submit their new experimental data to the database via the web. At present, the database contains only data pertaining to the phase equilibria of silicate melts, but extension to other experimental data involving other fluids or sub-solidus phase equilibria may be contemplated. Also, the data are at present limited to natural or near-natural systems, but in the future, extension to synthetic (i.e., CMAS, etc.) systems is also possible. Each would depend in part on whether there is community demand for such databases. A trace element adjunct to LEPER is presently in planning stages.

Davis, F.; Gordon, S.; Mukherjee, S.; Hirschmann, M.; Ghiorso, M.

2006-12-01

2

prsente par Maxence Lepers  

E-print Network

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Paris-Sud XI, Université de

3

Colonial Williamsburg  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1926, at the urging of the Revered Dr. D.A.R. Goodwin, John D. Rockefeller Jr. began a complex and elaborate restoration project in the quiet town of Williamsburg that sought to preserve a few of the more important Revolutionary War-era buildings around the town. The project became increasingly ambitious, and eventually grew to encompass around 85 percent of the town's area from the 18th century. Today, Colonial Williamsburg is the world's largest living history museum, and is noted for its ability to incorporate and interpret diverse perspectives on America's colonial period. Those persons unable to visit Colonial Williamsburg in person may want to first peruse the "Explore & Learn" section of the site, where they can learn about the different social and ethnic groups that inhabited the town (such as African-American slaves and colonial children), and see the various buildings within the community. The archaeology section of the site is particularly compelling, as visitors can learn about the many ongoing projects underway, and younger users can learn about the practice of archaeology through various games, quizzes, and puzzles. Additionally, users can read selected articles from the organization's popular history magazine, "Colonial Williamsburg," dating back to 1992. [KMG

4

Colonial Landscape  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will identify manmade structures and the time periods in which they were created, learn how human endeavors affect the landscape, identify different types of plants that now grow wild as a result of colonial farming activity, and simulate colonial life by recreating foods that would have been produced at that time. First, they will go outside, examine the landscape, and imagine what would have been there three hundred years ago. They will be asked to examine the types of plants growing near the walls, plant some examples, and create recipes from the plants.

5

Colonial Invasions, Colonial Lives History 302  

E-print Network

;Examples of print primary source collections: The Broken Spears: the Aztec Account of the Conquest of Mexico Check QCAT for call numbers and location. Colonial Spanish America: a Documentary History Colonial Lives: Documents on Latin American History, 1550-1850 Letters and People of the Spanish Indies

Abolmaesumi, Purang

6

Social Studies; Colonial America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in grades seven through nine will examine and analyze the political organization, social structure, economic life, and values of the American Colonial period in this quinmester arranged American Studies course. Since the thirteen English Colonies effected the United States development, many of our nations foundations in government,

Hanson, Paul S.

7

My Moon Colony  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the futuristic concept of the moon as a place people can inhabit. They brainstorm what people would need to live on the moon and then design a fantastic Moon colony and decide how to power it. Student use the engineering design process, which includes researching various types of energy sources and evaluating which would be best for their moon colonies.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

8

Spanish Colonial Settlement Development and colonial Latin  

E-print Network

reliance, and opportunity Sustainable development #12;Colonial Latin American development -- Spain cases #12;Latin American Political Independence · Political but not economic · 1810s-1820s protracted of Italian and Spanish labor by the millions · Innovations in land tenure in Argentina #12;Results

Lopez-Carr, David

9

"They Treated Me Like a Leper"  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Hepatitis C virus is the most prevalent chronic blood-borne infection in the United States, typically acquired through contaminated blood products or needle sharing. We hypothesized that patients with chronic hepatitis C infection experience stigmatization independent of mode of acquisition and that it negatively affects quality of life. DESIGN Cross-sectional observation study. SETTING Specialty clinic in a tertiary referral hospital. PATIENTS Two hundred and ninety outpatients diagnosed with chronic hepatitis C infection and seen in a hepatology clinic. Thirty participants were excluded because of missing data. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Patients were asked to complete a demographic profile, a semistructured interview, the Sickness Impact Profile, and the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale. A team of two blinded coders analyzed the interviews. A total of 147 of the 257 study patients experienced stigmatization that they attributed to the disease. Women were more likely to report perceived stigmatization than men (P < .05). Age, education, professional status, and mode of infection did not influence the likelihood of stigmatization. Stigmatization was associated with higher anxiety (P < .01) and depression (P < .01), worsened quality of life (P < .01), loss of control (P < .01), and difficulty coping (P < .01). Individuals who experienced stigmatization also mentioned problems in their health care (P < .01) and work environment (P < .01) as well as with family members (P < .01). CONCLUSION Stigmatization is a very common emotionally burdensome experience for patients with hepatitis C, which can erode social support. As it penetrates even into the health care environment, physicians and other care providers should be aware of the existence and impact of such negative stereotyping. PMID:14521647

Zickmund, Susan; Ho, Evelyn Y; Masuda, Masahiro; Ippolito, Laura; LaBrecque, Douglas R

2003-01-01

10

Colonial American Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While a foundation of German scientific methods enabled the rapid growth of North American Astronomy in the nineteenth century, during the seventeenth and most of the eighteenth centuries, the colonial men of science looked only to the English mother country for scientific patronage and guidance. An essay on fundamental astronomy appeared in one of the annual colonial almanacs as early as 1656, telescopic observations were made about 1660 and the first original colonial astronomical work was published by Thomas Danforth on the comet of 1664. By 1671 the Copernican ideas were so espoused at Harvard College that a physics class refused to read a Ptolemaic textbook when it was assigned to them by a senior instructor. At least in the Cambridge-Boston area, contemporary colonialist had access to the most recent scientific publications from the mother country. Observations of the great comet of 1680 by the Almanac maker, John Foster, reached Isaac Newton and were used and gratefully acknowledged in his Principia. During the seventeenth century the colonial interest in astronomy was more intense than it was for other sciences but colonists still occupied a position in the scientific backwater when compared with contemporary European scientists. Nevertheless, the science of astronomy was successfully transplanted from England to North America in the seventeenth century.

Yeomans, Donald K.

2007-12-01

11

Colonialism, genocide, and Tibet  

Microsoft Academic Search

A central element of the narrative circulated by the Tibet Movement has been that China has carried out genocide and practised colonialism in Tibet. These notions are, for the most part, uncritically accepted by politicians and the media, especially in the West. This essay challenges such characterizations as inept and as obstacles to resolving the Tibet Question. It looks at

Barry Sautman

2006-01-01

12

Recent Honey Bee Colony Declines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report examines the recent sharp decline in U.S. honey bee colonies, which scientists are now calling the Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD). This phenomenon first became apparent among commercial migratory beekeepers along the East Coast during the last...

R. Johnson

2007-01-01

13

Honey Bee Colony Collapse Disorder.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Starting in late 2006, commercial migratory beekeepers along the East Coast of the United States began reporting sharp declines in their honey bee colonies. Because of the severity and unusual circumstances of these colony declines, scientists named this ...

R. Johnson

2010-01-01

14

Images of Colonialism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The history of colonialism is a compelling one, and it can be narrated through first-hand documents such as journals, drawings, or photographs. This particular digital collection from the Harvard College Library contains more than 700 images which offer insight into European perspectives on how popular perceptions of Asia and Africa were created and disseminated. The collection is primarily made up of late-19th and early-20th century trade cards and illustrated European newspapers. Visitors can use the collection to draw contrasts between colonial powers, such as the French, the British and the Dutch. First-time visitors will want to dive right into the collection, and the image viewer offered here allows visitors to zoom in for a closer look. While all of the items here are quite worthy, users shouldn't miss the cards created for the Liebig's Extract of Meat Company or the views of Bangkok.

15

Colonial House - PBS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Preview the newest installment in public television's hands-on history series, following Frontier House, Manor House, and 1900 House. Set in 1628, Colonial House will be broadcast in May. At the website, there are audio and video diaries in which the twenty-eight colonists from the UK and US give accounts of their experiences learning to live in 1628. Also provided is a map of the village and essays by the experts consulted for the show to insure historical authenticity. One such piece is _A Historian Awakens 1628_, by Emerson "Tad" Baker, a specialist on the early history of Maine, which is where Colonial House was filmed. There's also a Meet the Colonists gallery with photos and 21st and 17th century biographies of the settlers, lesson plans and activities for teachers, and a Resources section, with related Web sites and books.

16

COLONIALISM IS A SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

With this issue, Interventions begins the first of a new series of 'Liberation Classics'. Despite the wide-range of cultural, philosophical and politics texts produced during the twentieth-century liberation struggles by activist intellectuals in order to define the mechanisms of the operation of colonialism and to produce forms of counter-modernity posited against it, the field of postcolonial studies draws on a

Jean-Paul Sartre

2001-01-01

17

Josephine Baker's Colonial Pastiche  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay explores the first full-length film featuring Josephine Baker: La Siréne des tropiques, produced in 1927. It emphasizes the film's display of myriad facets of interwar French colonial culture and the place of that display in Baker's life and evolving celebrity. Baker's genius, it argues, lies in her playful juxtaposition of the full range of roles defined by the

Matthew Pratt Guterl

2010-01-01

18

Colony image acquisition and genetic segmentation algorithm and colony analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colony anaysis is used in a large number of engineerings such as food, dairy, beverages, hygiene, environmental monitoring, water, toxicology, sterility testing. In order to reduce laboring and increase analysis acuracy, many researchers and developers have made efforts for image analysis systems. The main problems in the systems are image acquisition, image segmentation and image analysis. In this paper, to acquire colony images with good quality, an illumination box was constructed. In the box, the distances between lights and dishe, camra lens and lights, and camera lens and dishe are adjusted optimally. In image segmentation, It is based on a genetic approach that allow one to consider the segmentation problem as a global optimization,. After image pre-processing and image segmentation, the colony analyses are perfomed. The colony image analysis consists of (1) basic colony parameter measurements; (2) colony size analysis; (3) colony shape analysis; and (4) colony surface measurements. All the above visual colony parameters can be selected and combined together, used to make a new engineeing parameters. The colony analysis can be applied into different applications.

Wang, W. X.

2012-01-01

19

Colony image acquisition and segmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For counting of both colonies and plaques, there is a large number of applications including food, dairy, beverages, hygiene, environmental monitoring, water, toxicology, sterility testing, AMES testing, pharmaceuticals, paints, sterile fluids and fungal contamination. Recently, many researchers and developers have made efforts for this kind of systems. By investigation, some existing systems have some problems. The main problems are image acquisition and image segmentation. In order to acquire colony images with good quality, an illumination box was constructed as: the box includes front lightning and back lightning, which can be selected by users based on properties of colony dishes. With the illumination box, lightning can be uniform; colony dish can be put in the same place every time, which make image processing easy. The developed colony image segmentation algorithm consists of the sub-algorithms: (1) image classification; (2) image processing; and (3) colony delineation. The colony delineation algorithm main contain: the procedures based on grey level similarity, on boundary tracing, on shape information and colony excluding. In addition, a number of algorithms are developed for colony analysis. The system has been tested and satisfactory.

Wang, W. X.

2007-12-01

20

Post-Colonial Theory and Action Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay explores connections between post-colonial theory and action research. Post-colonial theory is committed to addressing the plague of colonialism. Action research, at its core, promises to problematize uncontested "colonial" hegemonies of any form. Both post-colonial theory and action research engage dialogic, critically reflective and

Parsons, Jim B.; Harding, Kelly J.

2011-01-01

21

Student Discipline in Colonial America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The basis for the severe discipline imposed on school children in colonial America, especially in the Puritan colonies, was the belief in original sin. The child was regarded as being born in sin and thus depraved and prone to sin. The purpose of education was to enable children to read the Bible and thus change the behavior which otherwise would

Petry, John R.

22

Colony Variation in Staphylococcus lugdunensis  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus lugdunensis is being increasingly reported as a pathogen with an outcome resembling that of S. aureus rather than coagulase-negative staphylococci. Recent local isolates exhibited colonial variation that delayed identification and interpretation of clinical significance. Until now previous descriptions have not emphasized colonial variation as an important identifying characteristic of S. lugdunensis. PMID:9738081

Leung, Michael J.; Nuttall, Nichalas; Pryce, Todd M.; Coombs, Geoffrey W.; Pearman, John W.

1998-01-01

23

Genetic diversity affects colony survivorship in commercial honey bee colonies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Honey bee ( Apis mellifera) queens mate with unusually high numbers of males (average of approximately 12 drones), although there is much variation among queens. One main consequence of such extreme polyandry is an increased diversity of worker genotypes within a colony, which has been shown empirically to confer significant adaptive advantages that result in higher colony productivity and survival. Moreover, honey bees are the primary insect pollinators used in modern commercial production agriculture, and their populations have been in decline worldwide. Here, we compare the mating frequencies of queens, and therefore, intracolony genetic diversity, in three commercial beekeeping operations to determine how they correlate with various measures of colony health and productivity, particularly the likelihood of queen supersedure and colony survival in functional, intensively managed beehives. We found the average effective paternity frequency ( m e ) of this population of honey bee queens to be 13.6 6.76, which was not significantly different between colonies that superseded their queen and those that did not. However, colonies that were less genetically diverse (headed by queens with m e ? 7.0) were 2.86 times more likely to die by the end of the study when compared to colonies that were more genetically diverse (headed by queens with m e > 7.0). The stark contrast in colony survival based on increased genetic diversity suggests that there are important tangible benefits of increased queen mating number in managed honey bees, although the exact mechanism(s) that govern these benefits have not been fully elucidated.

Tarpy, David R.; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Pettis, Jeffrey S.

2013-08-01

24

Ubicomp's Colonial Impulse Paul Dourish1  

E-print Network

Economics, Human Factors, Standardization, Theory. INTRODUCTION We don't think about colonialism much to think about the sort of enterprise that colonialism was (and is). When we think of colonialism, perhaps, this construes colonialism as a territorial enterprise; one of us grew up in British classrooms that typically

Dourish,Paul

25

TEACHING RADICAL HISTORY Gender, Colonialism,  

E-print Network

TEACHING RADICAL HISTORY Gender, Colonialism, and Feminist Collaboration Antoinette Burton and Jean to develop a relationship with each other, with our respective fields and intel- lectual commitments imperatives in the graduate field we call "comparative women's and gender history" at UIUC. At the time

Subramanian, Venkat

26

The Roanoke Island Freedmen's Colony  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During the Civil War, Roanoke Island, located between the coast of North Carolina and the Outer Banks, became a refuge for escaped slaves, called contrabands or freedmen. This site, created by University of Virginia professor Patricia C. Click presents an account of the history and selected documents and maps of the Roanoke Island Freedmens Colony, as the community was known. Documents include letters from Superintendent of the Colony, Horace James, a minister and abolitionist from Massachusetts, and letters from Freedmen themselves. The documents have been transcribed and are in .pdf format, so users should not expect to see scanned versions of 19th century originals. The projects section includes seven projects for high school and college students, using historical materials at the site, and from other related Web sites. Professor Click has written a book, Time Full of Trial: The Roanoke Island Freedmenâs Colony, 1862-1867, and the Preview section contains the table of contents and Chapter One. Links in the site refer to this book for more information; in the Maps section users are referred to its online ordering instructions for more information on the layout of the colony.

Click, Patricia C.

2001-01-01

27

ANT COLONY OPTIMIZATION MARCO DORIGO  

E-print Network

to the same food source are discovered, the colony is more likely to select the short- est one because ants algorithms is the use of a positive feedback loop implemented by iterative modifications of the artificial additional techniques such as problem-specific solution improvement proce- dures. The development

Libre de Bruxelles, Université

28

Notable Ladies of Colonial Virginia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on the women of colonial Virginia, this learning activity package introduces students to the social history of that period. The unit is designed to be implemented in either a one or three-week format and makes use of audio tapes and slides gathered at the 1985 Stratford-Monticello Seminar held at the University of Virginia. (JDH)

Cipriano, Rose Marie

1986-01-01

29

Bacterial Colony Hybridization (Colony lift) AIM: Identify which bacterial colonies on a petri dish have integrated the desired insert.  

E-print Network

Bacterial Colony Hybridization (Colony lift) AIM: Identify which bacterial colonies on a petri dish on petri dishes Whatman Filter #1, trimmed to fit in the petri dish, does not need to be sterile fragment as a template. Large Pyrex tray Clean petri dishes Parafilm Hybridization oven set at 42°C

Abou Elela, Sherif

30

"Unauthorised colonies" and the City of Delhi  

E-print Network

This research was undertaken, to understand the phenomenon of "unauthorised colonies" in relation to the city of Delhi, to which they belong. "Unauthorised Colonies" is the label given by the Delhi Development Authority ...

Mukherjee, Snehanshu

1988-01-01

31

Insights & Perspectives Colony Collapse Disorder in context  

E-print Network

Insights & Perspectives Colony Collapse Disorder in context Geoffrey R. Williams1)2)? , David R in the scientific literature (e.g. [5]), these losses are inappropri- ately equated with ``Colony Collapse Disorder'' or CCD, which is character- ized by the rapid disappearance of adult bees from colonies containing brood

Shutler, Dave

32

Ant Colonies for the Traveling Salesman Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an artificial ant colony capable of solving the traveling salesman problem (TSP).Ants of the artificial colony are able to generate successively shorter feasible tours by usinginformation accumulated in the form of a pheromone trail deposited on the edges of the TSPgraph. Computer simulations demonstrate that the artificial ant colony is capable of generatinggood solutions to both symmetric and

Luca Maria Gambardella; Marco Dorigo

1997-01-01

33

Confronting Colonialism and Racism: Fanon and Gandhi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fanon and Gandhi were products of colonial social formations, confronting the violence of racism embedded in colonial domination and control by seeking emancipation through political action. This article explores the trajectory of Gandhi's political engagement to empower the Asian laboring and trading classes, racially discriminated and politically marginalized by the imperial-colonial set up in South Africa from the 1890s to

Hira Singh

2007-01-01

34

The American Colony in Jerusalem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Colony in Jerusalem was founded in 1881 by two Midwesterners, Anna and Horatio Spafford, with the intent of beginning a Christian utopian society. Over the group's 60-year history, they were able to engage in a variety of philanthropic outreach efforts (such as running soup kitchens, hospitals, and orphanages) without proselytizing. Drawing on a number of pieces of historical ephemera donated by Mrs. Valentine Vester, the Library of Congress has created this online collection that documents the Colony's history and its work. Visitors can move through the different sections of the exhibit offered here, stopping to read brief descriptions of each featured item along the way. Overall, a very nice exhibit dedicated to one of the 20th centuries less well-known utopian communities.

35

Binary artificial bee colony optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial bee colony (ABC) optimization is a rela- tively new population-based, stochastic optimization technique. ABC was developed to optimize unconstrained problems within continuous-valued domains. This paper proposes three versions of ABC that enable it to be applied to optimization problems with binary-valued domains. The performances of these binary ABC algorithms are compared on a benchmark of unconstrained optimization problems. The

G Pampara; A P Engelbrecht

2011-01-01

36

Ant Colony System for JSP  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper discusses the application of ACS metaheuristics (based on behaviour of real ants: stigmergy and synergetic effect\\u000a among ants) for Job-Shop Scheduling problem (JSP). This algorithm is improved by introducing the concept of critical events,\\u000a in which two new techniques will be applied. Thus, a more flexible heuristic technique is obtained, which improves the performance\\u000a of ant colony system

Urszula Boryczka

2004-01-01

37

Colony Defence and Natural Enemies  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter discusses in detail individual honeybees fending off an enemy and the effects that can be rendered when whole\\u000a colony defence is a coordinated, social effort. Enemies extend from viruses to bears. Whatever the predator, the nesting styles\\u000a and nests of the bees afford a first line of defence. These are supplemented by various weapons, including stings, mandibles,\\u000a legs

Stefan Fuchs; Jrgen Tautz

38

Intracolonial genetic variation affects reproductive skew and colony productivity during colony foundation in a parthenogenetic termite  

PubMed Central

Background In insect societies, intracolonial genetic variation is predicted to affect both colony efficiency and reproductive skew. However, because the effects of genetic variation on these two colony characteristics have been tested independently, it remains unclear whether they are affected by genetic variation independently or in a related manner. Here we test the effect of genetic variation on colony efficiency and reproductive skew in a rhinotermitid termite, Reticulitermes speratus, a species in which female-female pairs can facultatively found colonies. We established colonies using two types of female-female pairs: colonies founded by sisters (i.e., sister-pair colonies) and those founded by females from different colonies (i.e., unrelated-pair colonies). Colony growth and reproductive skew were then compared between the two types of incipient colonies. Results At 15months after colony foundation, unrelated-pair colonies were larger than sister-pair colonies, although the caste ratio between workers and nymphs, which were alternatively differentiated from young larvae, did not differ significantly. Microsatellite DNA analyses of both founders and their parthenogenetically produced offspring indicated that, in both sister-pair and unrelated-pair colonies, there was no significant skew in the production of eggs, larvae, workers and soldiers. Nymph production, however, was significantly more skewed in the sister-pair colonies than in unrelated-pair colonies. Because nymphs can develop into winged adults (alates) or nymphoid reproductives, they have a higher chance of direct reproduction than workers in this species. Conclusions Our results support the idea that higher genetic variation among colony members could provide an increase in colony productivity, as shown in hymenopteran social insects. Moreover, this study suggests that low genetic variation (high relatedness) between founding females increases reproductive skew via one female preferentially channeling her relatives along the reproductive track. This study thus demonstrated that, in social insects, intracolonial genetic variation can simultaneously affect both colony efficiency and reproductive skew. PMID:25123355

2014-01-01

39

Deadly competition between sibling bacterial colonies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a result of stress due to nutrient limitation or antibiotics, competing individual bacteria within a single colony may lyse sibling cells to release nutrients (cannibalism) or DNA (fratricide). However, we have recently shown that competition is not limited to individuals, but can occur at the colony level [A. Be'er et al., PNAS 106, 428 (2009); A. Be'er et al., PNAS 107, 6258 (2010).] In response to the presence of an encroaching sibling colony, Paenibacillus dendritiformis bacteria secrete a lethal protein, lysing cells at the interface between the colonies. Analysis of the proteins secreted by these competing sibling colonies, combined with a mathematical model, shows how colonies maintain their growth by self-regulating the secretion of two proteins: subtilisin (a well-known growth promoter), and Slf (a previously unknown protein, which is lethal). The results also explain why a single colony is not inhibited by its own secretions.

Be'Er, Avraham

2011-03-01

40

Colonial and Cellular Polymorphism in Xenorhabdus luminescens  

PubMed Central

A highly polymorphic Xenorhabdus luminescens strain was isolated. The primary form of X. luminescens was luminescent and nonswarming and produced a yellow pigment and antimicrobial substances. The primary form generated a secondary form that had a distinct orange pigmentation, was weakly luminescent, and did not produce antimicrobial substances. Both the primary and secondary forms generated a set of colony variants at frequencies that exceeded normal rates for spontaneous mutation. The variant forms include nonswarming and swarming forms that formed large colonies and a small-colony (SC) form. The primary and secondary forms generated their SC forms at frequencies of between 1 and 14% and 1 and 2%, respectively. The SC forms were distinct from their parental primary and secondary forms in colony and cellular morphology and in protein composition. The cellular morphology and protein patterns of the nonswarming and swarming colony variants were all very similar. The DNA fingerprints of all forms were similar. Each SC-form colony reverted at high frequency to the form from which it was derived. The proportion of parental-type cells in the SC-form colonies varied with age, with young colonies containing as few as 0.0002% parental-type cells. The primary-to-secondary switch was stable, but all the other colony forms were able to switch at high frequencies to the alternative colony phenotypes. Images PMID:16347906

Hurlbert, Ronald E.; Xu, Jimin; Small, Christopher L.

1989-01-01

41

Colonial Landscape and Rock Origin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is designed to help students develop appreciation and ownership for the natural world around them with the hope of increasing their interest in exploring and questioning the processes that created land forms. Some familiarity with stone walls and with colonial New England is helpful; the students should learn to understand how human endeavors affect the landscape. After taking a nature walk (hopefully in an area where there are stone walls), they will participate in an activity in which they "build" a model wall using stones buried in a plastic tray.

42

Conceptual design of a lunar colony  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A systems engineering study is presented for a proposed lunar colony. The lunar colony was to grow from an existent, 12-man, earth-dependent lunar surface base and was to utilize lunar resources, becoming as earth-independent as possible. An in-depth treatment of some of the aspects of the lunar colony was given. We have found that the use of lunar resources is feasible for oxygen production (both for breathing and for space tug fuel), food production, and building materials. A program is outlined for recycling waste materials developed at the colony as well as a full program for growth and research activity of the colony to a level of 180 colonists. Recommendations for the lunar colony are given.

Dalton, C. (editor); Hohmann, E. (editor)

1972-01-01

43

The MacDowell Colony Exhibition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Artist colonies have always fascinated the American public, and whether they have been informally organized or not, they seem to provide great opportunities for a variety of collaborations. One of the oldest of these colonies is the MacDowell Colony in Peterborough, New Hampshire. The colony was started in 1907 by the composer Edward MacDowell and his wife Marian, and over the past century it has been host to the likes of Willa Cather, Leonard Bernstein, Thorntown Wilder, and James Baldwin. This site was created in conjunction with an in situ exhibit at the Thomas Jefferson Building at the Library of Congress, and visitors to the site will be able to learn about the history of the colony through first-hand accounts, video clips featuring the curators of the exhibit, and objects that have been part of the colony's history. Some of these digitized objects include photographs, manuscripts, and musical scores.

44

comprenant dix colonies chacun, dix autres colonies (C) servaient de tmoins. Le trai-  

E-print Network

frames with- out foundation was 97 % (two to three evap- orators/colony, FA 60 %; SD = 4; n = 16). When = 1, n = 6) and 71 % (one per colony, FA 60 %; SD = 25; n = 18), respectively. The 'Universal'-evap

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

45

Simple, safe, effective destruction of honey bees in swarms, feral colonies, and managed colonies  

E-print Network

SIMPLE, SAFE, EFFECTIVE DESTRUCTION OF HONEY BEES IN SWARMS, FERAL COLONIES, AND MANAGED COLONIES A Thesis by WILLIAM JAMES SAMES IV Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A8 M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1989 Major Subject: Entomology SIMPLE, SAFE, EFFECTIVE DESTRUCTION OF HONEY BEES IN SWARMS, FERAL COLONIES, AND MANAGED COLONIES A Thesis by WILLIAM JAMES SAMES IV Approved as to style...

Sames, William James

2012-06-07

46

Collective control of nest climate parameters in bumblebee colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined two aspects of the social control of nest climate in bumblebee colonies: which parameters of nest climate bumblebees actively down-regulate by fanning and the dynamics of the colony response as colony size increased. Colonies of Bombus terrestris were exposed to an increase in carbon dioxide, temperature or relative humidity. We performed 70 temperature trials (six colonies), 58 CO2

ANJA WEIDENMU LLER; CHRISTOPH KLEINEIDAM; RGEN TAUTZ

2002-01-01

47

Colony Collapse Disorder: A Descriptive Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Over the last two winters, there have been large-scale, unexplained losses of managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies in the United States. In the absence of a known cause, this syndrome was named Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) because the main trait was a rapid loss of adult worker bees. We initiated a descriptive epizootiological study in order to

Dennis vanEngelsdorp; Jay D. Evans; Claude Saegerman; Chris Mullin; Eric Haubruge; Bach Kim Nguyen; Maryann Frazier; Jim Frazier; Diana Cox-Foster; Yanping Chen; Robyn Underwood; David R. Tarpy; Jeffery S. Pettis

2009-01-01

48

Colony Collapse Disorder: A Descriptive Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundOver the last two winters, there have been large-scale, unexplained losses of managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies in the United States. In the absence of a known cause, this syndrome was named Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) because the main trait was a rapid loss of adult worker bees. We initiated a descriptive epizootiological study in order to better

Dennis Vanengelsdorp; Jay D. Evans; Claude Saegerman; Chris Mullin; Eric Haubruge; Bach Kim Nguyen; Maryann Frazier; Jim Frazier; Diana Cox-Foster; Yanping Chen; Robyn Underwood; David R. Tarpy; Jeffery S. Pettis; Justin Brown

2009-01-01

49

March 2008 BEE CULTURE 53 Your Colony  

E-print Network

March 2008 BEE CULTURE 53 Evaluating Your Colony & Your Queen Deformed wing virus. Jennifer Berry and the 1st week of March appears, we southerners realize that crunch time is upon us. There are only a few short weeks to get our colonies set and ready to go. Otherwise nectar will be left untouched

Delaplane, Keith S.

50

Energy, Colonialism, and the American West.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Energy development has led many people concerned with the American West to consider it a powerless colony of outside interests. The characteristics of colonies, particularly external control by energy companies and the federal government, and the applicability of these characteristics to the West are discussed. (IS)

Warren, Eugene H., Jr.

1983-01-01

51

``Educational Problems of the Colonial Territories''  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN the leading article in Nature of August 20 on ``Educational Problems of the Colonial Territories'', it is stated that ``only some 450 scientists are at present engaged in Colonial research'', and that ``any expansion in research must draw largely on the limited supplies of scientific and technical man-power in Britain itself''. Most British scientific workers are superannuated at the

J. B. S. Haldane

1955-01-01

52

Post-Colonial Recovering and Healing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notions of white supremacy, racism, sexism, and patriarchy constitute the power relationships and hierarchical structures of colonialism. Power is accessed when certain cultural forms are made to prevail over others, thus producing racialized and marginalized identities. The will to control what is different is the main tenet of colonialism.

Weenie, Angelina

53

Colonialism in Modern America: The Appalachian Case.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The essays in this book illustrate a conceptual model for analyzing the social and economic problems of the Appalachian region. The model is variously called Colonialism, Internal Colonialism, Exploitation, or External Oppression. It highlights the process through which dominant outside industrial interests establish control, exploit the region,

Lewis, Helen Matthews, Ed.; And Others

54

Managing Varroa Mites in Honey Bee Colonies  

E-print Network

Managing Varroa Mites in Honey Bee Colonies The varroa mite (Varroa destructor) is the most serious pest of honey bee colonies worldwide. This parasite was first detected in North Carolina in 1990, having been introduced to the U.S. just three years earlier. Virtually all feral (or "wild") honey bee

Tarpy, David R.

55

Deadly competition between sibling bacterial colonies  

PubMed Central

Bacteria can secrete a wide array of antibacterial compounds when competing with other bacteria for the same resources. Some of these compounds, such as bacteriocins, can affect bacteria of similar or closely related strains. In some cases, these secretions have been found to kill sibling cells that belong to the same colony. Here, we present experimental observations of competition between 2 sibling colonies of Paenibacillus dendritiformis grown on a low-nutrient agar gel. We find that neighboring colonies (growing from droplet inoculation) mutually inhibit growth through secretions that become lethal if the level exceeds a well-defined threshold. In contrast, within a single colony developing from a droplet inoculation, no growth inhibition is observed. However, growth inhibition and cell death are observed if material extracted from the agar between 2 growing colonies is introduced outside a growing single colony. To interpret the observations, we devised a simple mathematical model for the secretion of an antibacterial compound. Simulations of this model illustrate how secretions from neighboring colonies can be deadly, whereas secretions from a single colony growing from a droplet are not. PMID:19129489

Be'er, Avraham; Zhang, H. P.; Florin, E.-L.; Payne, Shelley M.; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Swinney, Harry L.

2009-01-01

56

COVASIAM: an Image Analysis Method That Allows Detection of Confluent Microbial Colonies and Colonies of Various Sizes for Automated Counting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we introduce the confluent and various sizes image analysis method (COVASIAM), an auto- mated colony count technique that uses digital imaging technology for detection and separation of confluent microbial colonies and colonies of various sizes growing on petri dishes. The proposed method takes advantage of the optical properties of the surfaces of most microbial colonies. Colonies in

G. CORKIDI; R. DIAZ-URIBE; J. L. FOLCH-MALLOL; J. NIETO-SOTELO

57

Form and metabolic scaling in colonial animals.  

PubMed

Benthic colonial organisms exhibit a wide variation in size and shape and provide excellent model systems for testing the predictions of models that describe the scaling of metabolic rate with organism size. We tested the hypothesis that colony form will influence metabolic scaling and its derivatives by characterising metabolic and propagule production rates in three species of freshwater bryozoans that vary in morphology and module organisation and which demonstrate two- and three-dimensional growth forms. The results were evaluated with respect to predictions from two models for metabolic scaling. Isometric metabolic scaling in two-dimensional colonies supported predictions of a model based on dynamic energy budget theory (DEB) and not those of a model based on fractally branching supply networks. This metabolic isometry appears to be achieved by equivalent energy budgets of edge and central modules, in one species (Cristatella mucedo) via linear growth and in a second species (Lophopus crystallinus) by colony fission. Allometric scaling characterised colonies of a three-dimensional species (Fredericella sultana), also providing support for the DEB model. Isometric scaling of propagule production rates for C. mucedo and F. sultana suggests that the number of propagules produced in colonies increases in direct proportion with the number of modules within colonies. Feeding currents generated by bryozoans function in both food capture and respiration, thus linking metabolic scaling with dynamics of self-shading and resource capture. Metabolic rates fundamentally dictate organismal performance (e.g. growth, reproduction) and, as we show here, are linked with colony form. Metabolic profiles and associated variation in colony form should therefore influence the outcome of biotic interactions in habitats dominated by colonial animals and may drive patterns of macroevolution. PMID:24265433

Hartikainen, Hanna; Humphries, Stuart; Okamura, Beth

2014-03-01

58

Public health developments in colonial Malaya: colonialism and the politics of prevention.  

PubMed Central

In both African and Asian colonies until the late 19th century, colonial medicine operated pragmatically to meet the medical needs first of colonial officers and troops, immigrant settlers, and laborers responsible for economic development, then of indigenous populations when their ill health threatened the well-being of the expatriate population. Since the turn of the century, however, the consequences of colonial expansion and development for indigenous people's health had become increasingly apparent, and disease control and public health programs were expanded in this light. These programs increased government surveillance of populations at both community and household levels. As a consequence, colonial states extended institutional oversight and induced dependency through public health measures. Drawing on my own work on colonial Malaya, I illustrate developments in public health and their links to the moral logic of colonialism and its complementarity to the political economy. PMID:9987478

Manderson, L

1999-01-01

59

Tetrazolium staining by optical scanning overestimates colony size and number of colonies counted.  

PubMed

We measured the effect that staining with 2-(P-iodophenyl)-3-(p-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyl tetrazolium chloride (INT) had on the number and size distribution of tumor colonies counted using an optical image analyzer (FAS II). Staining increased the number of tumor colonies counted. By using opaque tumor cells or pigmented melanoma cells and measuring colony growth kinetics, we demonstrated that the use of INT staining to assist in counting tumor colonies artificially increased the size of viable tumor cell aggregates by adding a red precipitate to the outside surface of the cells. Laboratories that are using the INT method for drug screening are probably measuring colonies down to and below 42 microns in diameter. These small colonies could result from as few as one or two divisions. Thus, potentially useful drugs may be missed in the screen because of the presence of abortive colonies: i.e., lethally damaged cells completing only one or two divisions. PMID:3429933

Bregman, M D; Buckmeier, J; Meyskens, F L

1987-11-01

60

Colony image acquisition system and segmentation algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel colony analysis system including an adjustable image acquisition subsystem and a wavelet-watershed-based image segmentation algorithm. An illumination box was constructed--both front lightning and back lightning illuminations can be chosen by users based on the properties of Petri dishes. In the illumination box, the lightning is uniform, which makes image processing easy. A digital camera at the top of the box is connected to a PC computer; all the camera functions are controlled by the developed computer software in this study. As usual, in the image processing part, the hardest task is image segmentation which is carried out by the four different algorithms: 1. recursive image segmentation on gray similarity; 2. canny edge detection-based segmentation; 3. the combination of 1 and 2, and 4. colony delineation on wavelet and watershed. The first three algorithms can obtain good results for ordinary colony images, and for the images including a lot of small (tiny) colonies and dark colonies and overlapping (or touching) colonies, the algorithm 4 can obtain better results than the others. The algorithms are tested by using a large number of different colony images, and the testing results are satisfactory.

Wang, Weixing

2011-12-01

61

REVIEW of APPLICATION of ANT COLONY OPTIMIZATION  

E-print Network

Ant colony optimization is a technique for optimization that was introduced in the early 1990's. The inspiring source of ant colony optimization is the foraging behavior of real ant colonies.Ant colony optimization is new meta-heuristic that has proven its quality & versatility on various combinatorial optimization problems such as Traveling Salesman Problem, Vehicle routing problem. The main characteristic of this model are positive feedback, distributed computation, and the use of a constructive greedy heuristic. Positive feedback accounts for rapid discovery of good solutions,distributed computations avoids premature convergence, and greedy heuristic helps find acceptable solutions in early stages of the search process.In Ant Colony System, a set of cooperating agents called ants cooperate to find good solutions to TSP as well as VRP like problems. Ants cooperate using an indirect communication mediated by a pheromone they deposit on the edges of the graph.This behavior is exploited in artificial ant colonies for the search of approximate solutions to discrete optimization problems, to continuous optimization problems, and to important problems in telecommunications, such as routing and load balancing. First, we deal with the biological inspiration of ant colony optimization algorithms. We show how this biological inspiration can be transferred into an algorithm for discrete optimization.

Miss Hiteshri S. Khandre

62

Evolutional Ant Colony Method Using PSO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ant colony method is one of heuristic methods capable of solving the traveling salesman problem (TSP), in which a good tour is generated by the artificial ant's probabilistic behavior. However, the generated tour length depends on the parameter describing the ant's behavior, and the best parameters corresponding to the problem to be solved is unknown. In this technical note, the evolutional strategy is presented to find the best parameter of the ant colony by using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) in the parameter space. Numerical simulations for benchmarks demonstrate effectiveness of the evolutional ant colony method.

Morii, Nobuto; Aiyoshi, Eitarou

63

Underground Coal Gasification at Tennessee Colony  

E-print Network

The Tennessee Colony In Situ Coal Gasification Project conducted by Basic Resources Inc. is the most recent step in Texas Utilities Company's ongoing research into the utilization of Texas lignite. The project, an application of the Soviet...

Garrard, C. W.

1979-01-01

64

Morphology of Mature Mycobacterium ulcerans Colonies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Macroscopic examination reveals the presence of large and small Mycobacterium ulcerans colonies after 3 and 5 months of growth at 30°C on Middlebrook 7H10 agar supplemented with 10% oleic acid, albumin, dextrose, and catalase (OADC).

Shelley Haydel (Arizona State University;); Caitlin Otto (Arizona State University;)

2011-04-28

65

Identification of a Colonial Chordate Histocompatibility Gene  

PubMed Central

Histocompatibility is the basis by which multicellular organisms of the same species distinguish self from non-self. Relatively little is known about the mechanisms underlying histocompatibility reactions in lower organisms. Botryllus schlosseri is a colonial urochordate, a sister group of vertebrates, that exhibits a genetically determined natural transplantation reaction, whereby self-recognition between colonies leads to formation of parabionts with a common vasculature, whereas rejection occurs between incompatible colonies. Using genetically defined lines, whole-transcriptome sequencing, and genomics, we identified a single gene that encodes self/non-self and determines graft outcomes in this organism. This gene is significantly upregulated in colonies poised to undergo fusion or rejection, is highly expressed in the vasculature, and is functionally linked to histocompatibility outcomes. These findings establish a platform for advancing the science of allorecognition. PMID:23888037

Voskoboynik, Ayelet; Newman, Aaron M.; Corey, Daniel M.; Sahoo, Debashis; Pushkarev, Dmitry; Neff, Norma F.; Passarelli, Benedetto; Koh, Winston; Ishizuka, Katherine J.; Palmeri, Karla J.; Dimov, Ivan K.; Keasar, Chen; Fan, H. Christina; Mantalas, Gary L.; Sinha, Rahul; Penland, Lolita; Quake, Stephen R.; Weissman, Irving L.

2013-01-01

66

Optical image acquisition system for colony analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For counting of both colonies and plaques, there is a large number of applications including food, dairy, beverages, hygiene, environmental monitoring, water, toxicology, sterility testing, AMES testing, pharmaceuticals, paints, sterile fluids and fungal contamination. Recently, many researchers and developers have made efforts for this kind of systems. By investigation, some existing systems have some problems since they belong to a new technology product. One of the main problems is image acquisition. In order to acquire colony images with good quality, an illumination box was constructed as: the box includes front lightning and back lightning, which can be selected by users based on properties of colony dishes. With the illumination box, lightning can be uniform; colony dish can be put in the same place every time, which make image processing easy. A digital camera in the top of the box connected to a PC computer with a USB cable, all the camera functions are controlled by the computer.

Wang, Weixing; Jin, Wenbiao

2006-02-01

67

The Development of the Roman Colonies  

E-print Network

KU ScholarWorks | The University of Kansas Pre-1923 Dissertations and Theses Collection The Development of the Roman Colonies 1910 by Bartel Edward Ebel This work was digitized by the Scholarly Communications program staff in the KU Libraries...

Ebel, Bartell Edward

1910-01-01

68

ColonyArea: An ImageJ Plugin to Automatically Quantify Colony Formation in Clonogenic Assays  

PubMed Central

The clonogenic or colony formation assay is a widely used method to study the number and size of cancer cell colonies that remain after irradiation or cytotoxic agent administration and serves as a measure for the anti-proliferative effect of these treatments. Alternatively, this assay is used to quantitate the transforming potential of cancer associated genes and chemical agents. Therefore, there is a need for a simplified and standardized analysis of colony formation assays for both routine laboratory use and for parallelized automated analysis. Here we describe the freely available ImageJ-plugin ColonyArea, which is optimized for rapid and quantitative analysis of focus formation assays conducted in 6- to 24-well dishes. ColonyArea processes image data of multi-well dishes, by separating, concentrically cropping and background correcting well images individually, before colony formation is quantitated. Instead of counting the number of colonies, ColonyArea determines the percentage of area covered by crystal violet stained cell colonies, also taking the intensity of the staining and therefore cell density into account. We demonstrate that these parameters alone or in combination allow for robust quantification of IC50 values of the cytotoxic effect of two staurosporines, UCN-01 and staurosporine (STS) on human glioblastoma cells (T98G). The relation between the potencies of the two compounds compared very well with that obtained from an absorbance based method to quantify colony growth and to published data. The ColonyArea ImageJ plugin provides a simple and efficient analysis routine to quantitate assay data of one of the most commonly used cellular assays. The bundle is freely available for download as supporting information. We expect that ColonyArea will be of broad utility for cancer biologists, as well as clinical radiation scientists. PMID:24647355

Kaur, Amanpreet; Westermarck, Jukka; Abankwa, Daniel

2014-01-01

69

Transient nature of early haematopoietic spleen colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain cells (CFU-S) in the haematopoietic tissues of mice are able to form macroscopic nodules in the spleen 7-14 days after injection in heavily irradiated recipient mice1. At 7-9 days, most of the spleen colonies contain recognizable cells of one predominant haematopoietic lineage2, and do not contain cells capable of spleen colony formation on injection in secondary hosts3. However, by

M. C. Magli; N. N. Iscove; N. Odartchenko

1982-01-01

70

Spleen volume varies with colony size and parasite load in a colonial bird.  

PubMed

Comparisons across bird species have indicated that those more exposed to parasites and pathogens invest more in immunological defence, as measured by spleen size. We investigated how spleen volume varied with colony size, parasite load and an individual's colony-size history in the cliff swallow, Petrochelidon pyrrhonota, a colonial passerine bird of North America. We used a sample of over 1700 birds that had all died during a period of inclement weather in 1996. We experimentally manipulated ectoparasitism by fumigating nests in some colonies prior to the bad weather. Birds from parasite-free colonies had significantly smaller spleens than those from naturally infested sites; spleen volume did not differ between the sexes and did not vary with age. Mean spleen volume increased significantly with the colony size at a site prior to the bad weather in 1996 and at the site in 1995, both measures of colony size being indices of ectoparasitism at a site. An individual's history of breeding-colony size (defined as the average colony size it had occupied in years prior to 1996) had no association with its spleen size. The results are consistent with parasite-induced splenomegaly whenever birds are exposed to large numbers of ectoparasites. The results do not support spleen size as being a signal of differential life-history investment in immunological defence among individuals and thus run counter to interpretations from recent cross-species comparisons. PMID:12079660

Brown, Charles R; Bomberger Brown, Mary

2002-07-01

71

Spleen volume varies with colony size and parasite load in a colonial bird.  

PubMed Central

Comparisons across bird species have indicated that those more exposed to parasites and pathogens invest more in immunological defence, as measured by spleen size. We investigated how spleen volume varied with colony size, parasite load and an individual's colony-size history in the cliff swallow, Petrochelidon pyrrhonota, a colonial passerine bird of North America. We used a sample of over 1700 birds that had all died during a period of inclement weather in 1996. We experimentally manipulated ectoparasitism by fumigating nests in some colonies prior to the bad weather. Birds from parasite-free colonies had significantly smaller spleens than those from naturally infested sites; spleen volume did not differ between the sexes and did not vary with age. Mean spleen volume increased significantly with the colony size at a site prior to the bad weather in 1996 and at the site in 1995, both measures of colony size being indices of ectoparasitism at a site. An individual's history of breeding-colony size (defined as the average colony size it had occupied in years prior to 1996) had no association with its spleen size. The results are consistent with parasite-induced splenomegaly whenever birds are exposed to large numbers of ectoparasites. The results do not support spleen size as being a signal of differential life-history investment in immunological defence among individuals and thus run counter to interpretations from recent cross-species comparisons. PMID:12079660

Brown, Charles R; Bomberger Brown, Mary

2002-01-01

72

Multiple colony ant algorithm for job-shop scheduling problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant colony optimization (ACO) is a metaheuristic that takes inspiration from the foraging behaviour of a real ant colony to solve the optimization problem. This paper presents a multiple colony ant algorithm to solve the Job-shop Scheduling Problem with the objective that minimizes the makespan. In a multiple colony ant algorithm, ants cooperate to find good solutions by exchanging information

A. Udomsakdigool; V. Kachitvichyanukul

2008-01-01

73

DIFFERENTIAL DRONE PRODUCTION BY AFRICANIZED AND EUROPEAN HONEY BEE COLONIES  

E-print Network

DIFFERENTIAL DRONE PRODUCTION BY AFRICANIZED AND EUROPEAN HONEY BEE COLONIES Thomas E. RINDERER Road Baton Rouge, LA 7(1820, USA SUMMARY The numbers of mature drones leaving colonies of Africanizcd with 10 European and 10 Africanized colonies, were trapped for drones exiting individual colonies on 3

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

74

Effective object recognition for automated counting of colonies in Petri dishes (automated colony counting)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determination of the number of colonies (colony forming units, CFU) is a standard method in microbiological analysis to ensure the quality of drinking water. Normally this tedious work is still performed manually. A PC-based method for the automated counting of digitized images of Petri dishes is presented. The method includes highly specific and effective object recognition algorithms that ensure very

J. Marotz; C. Lbbert; W. Eisenbei

2001-01-01

75

COLONY HIGH SCHOOL, 2008 -2009 We are Colony High School, a  

E-print Network

COLONY HIGH SCHOOL, 2008 - 2009 We are Colony High School, a control school in the AEIN Network in our school. AEIN is funded under a $9.3 million grant from the U.S. Department of Education. The ideas and motivation to achieve our goals in school improvement. Roles and responsibilities of leadership were

Pantaleone, Jim

76

Colony Collapse Disorder: A Descriptive Study  

PubMed Central

Background Over the last two winters, there have been large-scale, unexplained losses of managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies in the United States. In the absence of a known cause, this syndrome was named Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) because the main trait was a rapid loss of adult worker bees. We initiated a descriptive epizootiological study in order to better characterize CCD and compare risk factor exposure between populations afflicted by and not afflicted by CCD. Methods and Principal Findings Of 61 quantified variables (including adult bee physiology, pathogen loads, and pesticide levels), no single measure emerged as a most-likely cause of CCD. Bees in CCD colonies had higher pathogen loads and were co-infected with a greater number of pathogens than control populations, suggesting either an increased exposure to pathogens or a reduced resistance of bees toward pathogens. Levels of the synthetic acaricide coumaphos (used by beekeepers to control the parasitic mite Varroa destructor) were higher in control colonies than CCD-affected colonies. Conclusions/Significance This is the first comprehensive survey of CCD-affected bee populations that suggests CCD involves an interaction between pathogens and other stress factors. We present evidence that this condition is contagious or the result of exposure to a common risk factor. Potentially important areas for future hypothesis-driven research, including the possible legacy effect of mite parasitism and the role of honey bee resistance to pesticides, are highlighted. PMID:19649264

vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Evans, Jay D.; Saegerman, Claude; Mullin, Chris; Haubruge, Eric; Nguyen, Bach Kim; Frazier, Maryann; Frazier, Jim; Cox-Foster, Diana; Chen, Yanping; Underwood, Robyn; Tarpy, David R.; Pettis, Jeffery S.

2009-01-01

77

Quantitative analysis of colony morphology in yeast  

PubMed Central

Microorganisms often form multicellular structures such as biofilms and structured colonies that can influence the organisms virulence, drug resistance, and adherence to medical devices. Phenotypic classification of these structures has traditionally relied on qualitative scoring systems that limit detailed phenotypic comparisons between strains. Automated imaging and quantitative analysis have the potential to improve the speed and accuracy of experiments designed to study the genetic and molecular networks underlying different morphological traits. For this reason, we have developed a platform that uses automated image analysis and pattern recognition to quantify phenotypic signatures of yeast colonies. Our strategy enables quantitative analysis of individual colonies, measured at a single time point or over a series of time-lapse images, as well as the classification of distinct colony shapes based on image-derived features. Phenotypic changes in colony morphology can be expressed as changes in feature space trajectories over time, thereby enabling the visualization and quantitative analysis of morphological development. To facilitate data exploration, results are plotted dynamically through an interactive Yeast Image Analysis web application (YIMAA; http://yimaa.cs.tut.fi) that integrates the raw and processed images across all time points, allowing exploration of the image-based features and principal components associated with morphological development. PMID:24447135

Ruusuvuori, Pekka; Lin, Jake; Scott, Adrian C.; Tan, Zhihao; Sorsa, Saija; Kallio, Aleksi; Nykter, Matti; Yli-Harja, Olli; Shmulevich, Ilya; Dudley, Aimee M.

2014-01-01

78

A SURVEY ON ANT COLONY OPTIMIZATION  

E-print Network

Abstract: This paper deals with Ant Colony Optimization, a heuristic algorithm with strong robustness and the ability of finding the optimal solution which has been applied to a number of combinatorial optimization (CO) problems, of which the most important one is the traveling salesman problem (TSP). Ants of the colony have the ability to generate shorter feasible tours through information, which is accumulated, in the form of a pheromone trail deposited on the TSP graphs edges. For solving the TSP problem, ACO is one of the high performance computing methods but still has some drawbacks, which include stagnation behavior, computational time, which is longer, and premature convergence problem.

Jaskiran Kaur; Inderpal Singh

79

Colony genetic organization and colony fusion in the termite Reticulitermes flavipes as revealed by foraging patterns over time and space.  

PubMed

Temporal and spatial analyses are seldom utilized in the study of colony genetic structure, but they are potentially powerful methods which can yield novel insights into the mechanisms underlying variation in breeding systems. Here we present the results of a study which incorporated both of these dimensions in an examination of genetic structure of subterranean termites in the genus Reticulitermes (primarily R. flavipes). Most colonies of this species (70%) were simple families apparently headed by outbred primary reproductives, while most of the remaining (27% of the total) colonies contained low effective numbers of moderately inbred reproductives. Mapping the spatial distribution of colony foraging sites over time revealed that despite the high colony density, the absolute foraging boundaries of most R. flavipes colonies were persistent and exclusive of other conspecific colonies, which suggests that this species is more territorial than has been implied by laboratory studies of intraspecific aggression. Nevertheless, we found a single colony (3% of all colonies) which contained the offspring of more than two unrelated reproductives. Although other studies have also described subterranean termite colonies with a similarly complex genetic composition, we demonstrate here that such colonies can form under natural conditions via the fusion of whole colonies. This study underscores how repeated sampling from individual colonies over time and space can yield information about colony spatial and genetic structure that cannot be obtained from conventional analyses or sampling methods. PMID:14717897

Deheer, Christopher J; Vargo, Edward L

2004-02-01

80

Ant Colony Optimisation for Bin Packing and  

E-print Network

Ant Colony Optimisation for Bin Packing and Cutting Stock Problems Frederick Ducatelle T H E U N I of Informatics University of Edinburgh 2001 #12; Abstract The bin packing and the cutting stock problems are two and evolutionary programming. In this dissertation, I try to solve the bin packing and the cutting stock problem

Ducatelle, Frederick

81

Colonial Continuities and Educational Inequalities in Indonesia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the effect of 350 years of Dutch colonial rule upon Indonesian educational policies and the resulting regional inequalities in education. It was Dutch policy not to educate most of the children from the poorer social classes, but to use education to maintain and strengthen the existing social structure. Education was also used

Carpenter, Harold F., Jr.

82

Colonial Newspaper Reaction to the Somerset Decision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine colonial American press coverage of the British court decision to free American slave James Somerset, a study was conducted to clarify why the decision worked as a victory for British abolitionists but was usually cited even in post-Revolution America in the passage of increasingly oppressive slave legislation. Twenty-three of the

Bradley, Patricia

83

Ant Colony Optimization and its Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant colony optimization is a metaheuristics approach which is inspired from the behavior of real ants. It was introduced in the early 1990's as a new method to tackle hard combinatorial optimization problems. We review the origin of the ACO and introduce ACO in a way that suits its theoretical study. Then we make a summary of the recent application

Dengfeng Xu; Liping Fu

2009-01-01

84

Women in Colonial and Revolutionary America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed as a supplemental teaching tool for upper elementary and middle school use, this unit contains information on the circumstances under which women of various cultures lived in the United States during the colonial and revolutionary periods and presents a perspective that is seldom included in textbooks. The unit includes biographies of ten

Eisenberg, Bonnie; And Others

85

Order and instabilities in dense bacterial colonies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of cell colonies is governed by the interplay of many physical and biological factors, ranging from properties of surrounding media to cell-cell communication and gene expression in individual cells. The biomechanical interactions arising from the growth and division of individual cells in confined environments are ubiquitous, yet little work has focused on this fundamental aspect of colony formation. By combining experimental observations of growing monolayers of non-motile strain of bacteria Escherichia coli in a shallow microfluidic chemostat with discrete-element simulations and continuous theory, we demonstrate that expansion of a dense colony leads to rapid orientational alignment of rod-like cells. However, in larger colonies, anisotropic compression may lead to buckling instability which breaks perfect nematic order. Furthermore, we found that in shallow cavities feedback between cell growth and mobility in a confined environment leads to a novel cell streaming instability. Joint work with W. Mather, D. Volfson, O. Mondrag'on-Palomino, T. Danino, S. Cookson, and J. Hasty (UCSD) and D. Boyer, S. Orozco-Fuentes (UNAM, Mexico).

Tsimring, Lev

2012-02-01

86

Economic Development of British Colonial America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through a close study of a rich set of demographic and economic statistics, students will see the development over 150 years of two similar yet divergent colonies (Virginia and Barbados). They will work through population, land use, and trade statistics with closely-guiding questions in order to find links between one set of numbers and another.

Zabin, Serena

87

Disability, Schooling, and the Artifacts of Colonialism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rejects the essentialist notion of the need to exclude children with disabilities from the school community, tracing the origin of disability segregation to the advent of western colonialism and demonstrating the symbiotic relationship between cultural and racial oppression and the oppression of people with disabilities. The paper strongly

Kliewer, Christopher; Fitzgerald, Linda May

2001-01-01

88

Education and Evangelism in the English Colonies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article considers two related educational endeavors of the Massachusetts colony. The first is the colonists' efforts to pass their religious traditions to their children. The second is the effort of missionaries to spread the Christian faith to Native Americans. In both cases, the colonists wanted their children and the American Indians to

Watras, Joseph

2008-01-01

89

Reconciliation and the Problem of Internal Colonialism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of scientific racism and social Darwinism in white colonial nations in the late nineteenth century ensured that indigenous peoples were regarded as an alien other to national identities based on racism and progress. This outlook gradually changed over time with the aid of socio-historical understanding developed by indigenous and non-indigenous revisionist historians, academics and activists, which sought to

Damien Short

2005-01-01

90

Colony Fusion in a Parthenogenetic Ant, Pristomyrmex punctatus  

PubMed Central

In the ant Pristomyrmex punctatus Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), all young workers lay a small number of eggs parthenogenetically. Some colonies consist of monoclonal individuals that provide high inclusive fitness, according to the kin selection theory. However, in some populations, a majority of the colonies contain multiple lineages. Intracolonial genetic variation of parthenogenetic ants cannot be explained by the multiple mating of single founderesses or by the foundation of a colony by multiple foundresses, which are the usual causes of genetically diverse colonies in social insects. Here, we hypothesized that the fusion of established colonies might facilitate the formation of multiclonal colonies. Colony fusion decreases indirect benefits because of the reduction in intracolonial relatedness. However, when suitable nesting places for overwintering are scarce, colony fusion provides a strategy for the survival of colonies. Here, ants derived from different colonies were allowed to encounter one another in a container with just one nesting place. Initially, high aggression was observed; however, after several days, no aggression was observed and the ants shared the nest. When the fused colonies were allowed to transfer to two alternative nests, ants from different colonies occupied the same nest. This study highlights the importance of limiting the number of nesting places in order to understand the genetic diversity of parthenogenetic ant colonies. PMID:23895053

Satow, Show; Satoh, Toshiyuki; Hirota, Tadao

2013-01-01

91

Nest site and colony characteristics of wading birds in selected atlantic coast colonies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nests of 5 spp. of wading birds [Egretta thula, Plegadis falcinellus, Florida caerulea, casmerodius albus and Hydranassa tricolor] were identified and marked during the breeding season at 6 locations from Maccachusetts [USA] to North Carolina [USA]. At the end of the breeding season, 12 characteristics of nest-site location were measured. Nest locations were mapped to examine dispersion and nearest neighbor relationships. Multivariate analysis were used to describe and compare sites and species. Variations in nest-sites between colonies were greater than between species; colonies differed mainly in the variety and size of vegetation. Birds preferred to nest in vegetation that offered relatively stable nest sites, and the dispersion of nests in the colonies was related to vegetative patterns. The interaction of these factors with the number of bird species and the abundance of birds in the colony determined whether nest sites were stratified, segregated or randomly distributed.

Beaver, D.L.; Osborn, R.G.; Custer, T.W.

1980-01-01

92

Nest-size and colony characteristics of wading birds in selected Atlantic Coast colonies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nests of 5 species of wading birds were identified and marked during the breeding season at 6 locations from Massachusetts to North Carolina. At the end of the breeding season 12 characteristics of nest-site location were measured. Nest locations were mapped to examine dispersion and nearest neighbor relationships. Multivariate analyses were used to describe and compare sites and species.....We found that variations in nest-sites between colonies were greater than between species; colonies differed mainly in the variety and size of vegetation; birds preferred to nest in vegetation that offered relatively stable nest-sites; and the dispersion of nests in the colonies was related to vegetative patterns. The interaction of these factors with the number of bird species and the abundance of birds in the colony seemed to determine whether nest-sites were stratified, segregated or randomly distributed.

Beaver, D.L.; Osborn, R.G.; Custer, T.W.

1980-01-01

93

Rural Drag: Settler Colonialism and the Queer Rhetorics of Rurality  

E-print Network

In the United States, rural culture is frequently thought of as traditional and authentically American. This belief stems from settler colonial histories in which Native lands are stolen and settled by white colonial communities. Through...

Nichols, Garrett Wedekind

2013-07-16

94

Digital image analysis of hematopoietic colonies in vitro.  

PubMed

A system for automatic analysis of in vitro hematopoietic colonies is described and evaluated. With the standard resolution provided by video cameras, the improvement in visualization obtained using features other than size and darkness when classifying potential colonies appears to be limited. We confirmed this by comparing results obtained with the test system with those obtained with a commercial one. However, for some applications it may be useful to supplement the system with specific methods, e.g., to separate merged colonies. Digital image analyses provide new possibilities, for instance of measuring the total cellularity of the dish or analyzing colonies according to the size and cell density of each colony. Examples provided are time course studies of colony development, cellularity feedback effects on colony sizes, and bell-shaped dose-response curves for the growth stimulation obtained by certain conditioned media on a subpopulation of progenitor cells that gives rise to large colonies. PMID:9728928

Benestad, H B; Srensen, T; Iranpour, K M; Liestl, K; Yogesan, K; Strm-Gundersen, I; Wang, X; Lvhaug, D

1998-09-01

95

Radial and Spiral Stream Formation in Proteus mirabilis Colonies  

E-print Network

The enteric bacterium Proteus mirabilis, which is a pathogen that forms biofilms in vivo, can swarm over hard surfaces and form a variety of spatial patterns in colonies. Colony formation involves two distinct cell types: ...

Xue, Chuan

96

Ant Colony System Vector Quantization effect on image data hiding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant colony system (ACS) is a combinatorial optimization method motivated by the behaviour of real ants. Ant Colony System Vector Quantization (ACS-VQ) is lossy compression technique, which utilizes zerotree vectors from the wavelet transform of a number o

Usman Ali; Shahid Khan; Nasir Rajpoot

2004-01-01

97

An Exploratory Study of Online Information Regarding Colony Collapse Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cause or causes of Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) are uncertain. CCD defines specific characteristics of the nationwide deaths of honey bee colonies in the last decade. Adult bees often disappear from the hive and die, leaving the colony weak and vulnerable to disease. Environmental scientists and agriculturalists have developed many different theories about CCD and its origins. The different

Meredith K. Boehm

2012-01-01

98

The Genesis of Public Relations in British Colonial Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrates how the British Colonial Office employed public relations strategies as they administered the British colony of Northern Rhodesia before, during, and after World War II. Demonstrates how civil servants in London and colonial officials implemented public relations policies, strategies, and tactics on an ad hoc basis, covering political

Smyth, Rosaleen

2001-01-01

99

Iridovirus and Microsporidian Linked to Honey Bee Colony Decline  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIn 2010 Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), again devastated honey bee colonies in the USA, indicating that the problem is neither diminishing nor has it been resolved. Many CCD investigations, using sensitive genome-based methods, have found small RNA bee viruses and the microsporidia, Nosema apis and N. ceranae in healthy and collapsing colonies alike with no single pathogen firmly linked to

Jerry J. Bromenshenk; Colin B. Henderson; Charles H. Wick; Michael F. Stanford; Alan W. Zulich; Rabih E. Jabbour; Samir V. Deshpande; Patrick E. McCubbin; Robert A. Seccomb; Phillip M. Welch; Trevor Williams; David R. Firth; Evan Skowronski; Margaret M. Lehmann; Shan L. Bilimoria; Joanna Gress; Kevin W. Wanner; Robert A. Cramer

2010-01-01

100

Oversea Education and British Colonial Education 1929-63.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on an early twentieth century journal called "Oversea Education," designed to increase communication among British colonies, particularly for education, based on William Ormsby Gore's travels among the colonies. Describes Frank Ward's editorial work that championed the rights of colonial subjects to have better educational policy. (KDR)

Whitehead, Clive

2003-01-01

101

Reduced disease in offspring: A benefit of coloniality in sunfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Increased disease and parasitism are a well-documented cost of group living for colonial birds and mammals, but we now show that disease in offspring of fish may be reduced by nesting in colonies. The aquatic fungusSaprolegnia sp., which is a common cause of egg mortality among freshwater fishes, is more prevalent in the nests of solitary than colonial male

Isabelle M. Ct; Mart R. Gross

1993-01-01

102

Controlled Use Robot Colony Power Supply Gary Parker  

E-print Network

at a power station. onboard controller implemented to direct hexapod colony robot behavior according power sensor/source colony robots powered with capacitors. Keywords: hexapod, power supply, capacitors, colony with hexapod robots. power station was placed in middle inner wall The power station consists of metal plates

Parker, Gary B.

103

Thoughts on information and integration in honey bee colonies  

E-print Network

Review Thoughts on information and integration in honey bee colonies Thomas D. Seeley Section 1997) Abstract - Solving the puzzle of colony integration in honey bees requires understanding how this information, I share some thoughts about information flow within honey bee colonies. These thoughts are based

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

104

The University in Colonial Spanish America: A Historiographical Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cities and religious orders in colonial Latin America competed vigorously and often bitterly to acquire a university, but little is understood of the cultural impact of the university on cities, regions, or the colonial system. The university in the Spanish colonies derived its organization and traditions from the University of Salamanca, a

McKibben, Joyce

105

FY005 Accomplishments for Colony Project  

SciTech Connect

The Colony Project is developing operating system and runtime system technology to enable efficient general purpose environments on tens of thousands of processors. To accomplish this, we are investigating memory management techniques, fault management strategies, and parallel resource management schemes. Recent results show promising findings for scalable strategies based on processor virtualization, in-memory checkpointing, and parallel aware modifications to full featured operating systems.

Jones, T; Kale, L; Moreira, J; Mendes, C; Chakravorty, S; Inglett, T; Tauferner, A

2005-07-05

106

Swarming Ring Patterns in Bacterial Colonies Exposed to Ultraviolet Radiation  

SciTech Connect

We report a novel morphological transition in a Bacillus subtilis colony initially growing under ambient conditions, after ultraviolet radiation exposure. The bacteria in the central regions of the colonies are observed to migrate towards the colony edge forming a ring during uniform spatial exposure. When the radiation is switched off, the colonies were observed to grow both inward into the evacuated regions as well as outward indicating that the pattern is not formed due to depletion of nutrients at the center of the colony. We also propose a reaction-diffusion model in which waste-limited chemotaxis initiated by the UV radiation leads to the observed phenomenology.

Delprato, Anna M.; Samadani, Azadeh; Kudrolli, A.; Tsimring, L. S.

2001-10-08

107

Wading birds as biological indicators 1975 colony survey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The suitability of wading birds (herons and their allies) as biological indicators in the coastal environment were studied in 1975 by 8 teams of investigators which located and censused 198 colonies along the Atlantic coast from Maine to Florida [USA]. Over 1/4 million breeding birds [Ardea herodias, Butorides virescens, Florida caerulea, Bubulcus ibis, Dichromanassa rufescens, Casmerodius albus, Egretta thula, Hydranassa tricolor, Nycticorax nycticorax, Nyctanassa violacea, Mycteria americana, Plegadis falcinellus, Eudocimus albus and Ajaia ajaja] were censused. The number of species in colonies ranged from 1-11. The number of 1- and 2-spp. colonies increased from Florida to Maine. Colony size decreased from Florida to Maine. Wading bird colony sites are generally active each year and the number of colonies may have recently increased in some areas of the coast. Species composition and total population of colonies fluctuate from year to year. The breeding population of wading birds was correlated with the area of coastal wetlands by state. Five teams of investigators studied the reproductive biology of 9 spp. in 13 colonies. Mean clutch size, the percentage of nests in which 1 or more eggs hatched and the overall percentage of eggs that hatched differed among colonies for some species, but no latitudinal gradient was found in any of these characteristics for any species. The use of wading birds to their full potential as biological indicators requires further exploration: survey and reproductive success methods need to be tested, the survey of colonies repeated, available historical information assembled and habitat requirements measured.

Custer, T.W.; Osborn, R.G.

1977-01-01

108

Intercellular Genomics of Subsurface Microbial Colonies  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes progress in the second year of this project. The objective is to develop methods and software to predict the spatial configuration, properties and temporal evolution of microbial colonies in the subsurface. To accomplish this, we integrate models of intracellular processes, cell-host medium exchange and reaction-transport dynamics on the colony scale. At the conclusion of the project, we aim to have the foundations of a predictive mathematical model and software that captures the three scales of these systems the intracellular, pore, and colony wide spatial scales. In the second year of the project, we refined our transcriptional regulatory network discovery (TRND) approach that utilizes gene expression data along with phylogenic similarity and gene ontology analyses and applied it successfully to E.coli, human B cells, and Geobacter sulfurreducens. We have developed a new Web interface, GeoGen, which is tailored to the reconstruction of microbial TRNs and solely focuses on Geobacter as one of DOEs high priority microbes. Our developments are designed such that the frameworks for the TRND and GeoGen can readily be used for other microbes of interest to the DOE. In the context of modeling a single bacterium, we are actively pursuing both steady-state and kinetic approaches. The steady-state approach is based on a flux balance that uses maximizing biomass growth rate as its objective, subjected to various biochemical constraints, for the optimal values of reaction rates and uptake/release of metabolites. For the kinetic approach, we use Karyote, a rigorous cell model developed by us for an earlier DOE grant and the DARPA BioSPICE Project. We are also investigating the interplay between bacterial colonies and environment at both pore and macroscopic scales. The pore scale models use detailed representations for realistic porous media accounting for the distribution of grain size whereas the macroscopic models employ the Darcy-type flow equations and up-scaled advective-diffusive transport equations for chemical species. We are rigorously testing the relationship between these two scales by evaluating macroscopic parameters using the volume averaging methodology applied to pore scale model results.

Ortoleva, Peter; Tuncay, Kagan; Gannon, Dennis; Meile, Christof

2007-02-14

109

Josephine Baker: psychoanalysis and the colonial fetish.  

PubMed

This paper traces an intricate path connecting racial fantasy, aesthetic judgment, and the larger cultural problem of inter-subjective recognition. In particular, the author examines the theme of fetishism, both sexual and racial, in a Western historical, colonial context, in order to unravel a set of disturbances that cohere around the racial fetish then and now. Taking the figure of an entertainment icon of the 1920s, Josephine Baker, as a case study, the author shows how the imagination of the colonizing white male was both articulated and disrupted by Baker as a ready-made representation of the cultural, racial, and sexual other. PMID:16482962

Cheng, Anne Anlin

2006-01-01

110

Playback of colony sound alters the breeding schedule and clutch size in zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) colonies  

PubMed Central

The hypothesis that social stimulation, derived from the presence and activities of conspecifics, can hasten and synchronize breeding in colonies of birds was tested. A modified playback/recorder system was used to continuously exaggerate the amount of colony sound available to zebra finches throughout their courtship period. Males that heard sound supplements generated from their own colony sang more than males in control colonies that did not receive playback; males that heard samples from a different colony, sang at an intermediate level. Females that were exposed to the vocalizations of their mate and playback from a colony other than their own, laid eggs earlier and more synchronously than females in control colonies. Females that heard the vocalizations of their mate along with playback samples generated from their own colony, laid eggs more synchronously but not earlier than control females. Both acoustic treatments caused females to lay larger clutches. Social stimulation influences the breeding schedule and clutch size in zebra finch colonies. If there are advantages associated with these effects, social stimulation may contribute to the maintenance of colonial breeding systems. PMID:15734692

Waas, Joseph R.; Colgan, Patrick W.; Boag, Peter T.

2005-01-01

111

COVASIAM: an Image Analysis Method That Allows Detection of Confluent Microbial Colonies and Colonies of Various Sizes for Automated Counting  

PubMed Central

In this work we introduce the confluent and various sizes image analysis method (COVASIAM), an automated colony count technique that uses digital imaging technology for detection and separation of confluent microbial colonies and colonies of various sizes growing on petri dishes. The proposed method takes advantage of the optical properties of the surfaces of most microbial colonies. Colonies in the petri dish are epi-illuminated in order to direct the reflection of concentrated light coming from a halogen lamp towards an image-sensing device. In conjunction, a multilevel threshold algorithm is proposed for colony separation and counting. These procedures improved the quantification of colonies showing confluence or differences in size. We tested COVASIAM with a sample set of microorganisms that form colonies with contrasting physical properties: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus nidulans, Escherichia coli, Azotobacter vinelandii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Rhizobium etli. These physical properties range from smooth to hairy, from bright to opaque, and from high to low convexities. COVASIAM estimated an average of 95.47% (? = 8.55%) of the manually counted colonies, while an automated method based on a single-threshold segmentation procedure estimated an average of 76% (? = 16.27) of the manually counted colonies. This method can be easily transposed to almost every image-processing analyzer since the procedures to compile it are generically standard. PMID:9546177

Corkidi, G.; Diaz-Uribe, R.; Folch-Mallol, J. L.; Nieto-Sotelo, J.

1998-01-01

112

First Recorded Loss of an Emperor Penguin Colony in the Recent Period of Antarctic Regional Warming: Implications for Other Colonies  

PubMed Central

In 1948, a small colony of emperor penguins Aptenodytes forsteri was discovered breeding on Emperor Island (67 51? 52? S, 68 42? 20? W), in the Dion Islands, close to the West Antarctic Peninsula (Stonehouse 1952). When discovered, the colony comprised approximately 150 breeding pairs; these numbers were maintained until 1970, after which time the colony showed a continuous decline. By 1999 there were fewer than 20 pairs, and in 2009 high-resolution aerial photography revealed no remaining trace of the colony. Here we relate the decline and loss of the Emperor Island colony to a well-documented rise in local mean annual air temperature and coincident decline in seasonal sea ice duration. The loss of this colony provides empirical support for recent studies (Barbraud & Weimerskirch 2001; Jenouvrier et al 2005, 2009; Ainley et al 2010; Barber-Meyer et al 2005) that have highlighted the vulnerability of emperor penguins to changes in sea ice duration and distribution. These studies suggest that continued climate change is likely to impact upon future breeding success and colony viability for this species. Furthermore, a recent circumpolar study by Fretwell & Trathan (2009) highlighted those Antarctic coastal regions where colonies appear most vulnerable to such changes. Here we examine which other colonies might be at risk, discussing various ecological factors, some previously unexplored, that may also contribute to future declines. The implications of this are important for future modelling work and for understanding which colonies actually are most vulnerable. PMID:21386883

Trathan, Philip N.; Fretwell, Peter T.; Stonehouse, Bernard

2011-01-01

113

Pre-Colonial Systems of Writing and Post-Colonial Languages of Publication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous accounts of "europhone" status (anglophone, francophone, etc.) have inadequately addressed spoken-written differences as well as different post-colonial developments taken by Southeast Asia, South Asia, North Africa, and East Africa vis-a-vis those of West, Central, and Southern Africa. This article investigates the extent to which the

Riney, Timothy J.

1998-01-01

114

Disrupting the Coloniality of Being: Toward De-Colonial Ontologies in Philosophy of Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay works to bridge conversations in philosophy of education with decolonial theory. The author considers Margonis' (1999, 2011a, b) use of Rousseau (1979) and Heidegger (1962) in developing an ontological attitude that counters social hierarchies and promotes anti-colonial relations. While affirming this effort, the essay outlines a

Richardson, Troy A.

2012-01-01

115

A catalog of Louisiana's nesting seabird colonies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

collective habitats which comprise Louisiana's now fragile coastal zone have taken major hits from commercial/residential, oil & gas, and other industrial development, primarily in the form of coastal erosion exacerbated by these and other factors (Portnoy 1978, Spendelow and Patton 1988, Martin and Lester 1990, Green, et al. 2006). Moreover, during this same period, both geologic subsidence rates (Tornqvist et al. 2008) and mean sea-level (Tornqvist et al. 2002) have increased, along with significant tropical storm activity; all of which have combined to impact available marsh, barrier island, beach, and dredge spoil nesting habitat for waterbirds, especially seabirds, throughout the coastal zone of Louisiana. The primary objective of this publication is to detail those coastal Louisiana colonial seabird nesting sites for which we have reasonably accurate data, in a tabular, site-by-site format. All major survey (1976-2008) data of site-by-site seabird species counts, as well as several smaller data sets, referred to in the site history tables as miscellaneous observations obtained during the May-June seabird breeding period, are included. It is our hope that these data will provide a dependable foundation from which future colonial seabird nesting surveys might be planned and carried out, as well as showcase the importance of coastal Louisiana's seabird rookeries, and contribute to their conservation.

Fontenot, William R.; Cardiff, Steve W.; DeMay, Richard A.; Dittmann, Donna L.; Hartley, Stephen B.; Jeske, Clinton W.; Lorenz, Nicole; Michot, Thomas C.; Purrington, Robert Dan; Seymour, Michael; Vermillion, William G.

2012-01-01

116

Antennal cropping during colony foundation in termites  

PubMed Central

Abstract The literature on pairing and mating behavior in termites indicates that a number of distal antennal segments in dealates of both sexes are often removed during colony foundation, with terms such as amputation, mutilation and cannibalism typically employed to report the phenomenon. Here we propose the use of the phrase antennal cropping to describe the behavior, and assess naturally occurring levels of its occurrence by comparing the number of antennal segments in museum specimens of alates and dealates in 16 species of Australian termites (four families), supplemented by analyzing published data on Coptotermes gestroi. Dealates had significantly fewer antennal segments than alates in 14 of the 16 termite species, with both exceptions belonging to the family Termitidae. Levels of antennal cropping were not significantly different between the sexes but did vary by family. Dealates in the Kalotermitidae removed the most segments (41.3%) and those in the Termitidae removed the fewest (8.9%). We discuss the biological significance of this phylogenetically widespread termite behavior, and suggest that controlled antennal cropping is not only a normal part of their behavioral repertoire but also a key influence that changes the conduct and physiology of the royal pair during the initial stages of colony foundation. PMID:22287897

Nalepa, Christine A.; Evans, Theodore A.; Lenz, Michael

2011-01-01

117

Designing communicating colonies of biomimetic microcapsules  

PubMed Central

Using computational modeling, we design colonies of biomimetic microcapsules that exploit chemical mechanisms to communicate and alter their local environment. As a result, these synthetic objects can self-organize into various autonomously moving structures and exhibit ant-like tracking behavior. In the simulations, signaling microcapsules release agonist particles, whereas target microcapsules release antagonist particles and the permeabilities of both capsule types depend on the local particle concentration in the surrounding solution. Additionally, the released nanoscopic particles can bind to the underlying substrate and thereby create adhesion gradients that propel the microcapsules to move. Hydrodynamic interactions and the feedback mechanism provided by the dissolved particles are both necessary to achieve the collective dynamics exhibited by these colonies. Our model provides a platform for integrating both the spatial and temporal behavior of assemblies of artificial cells, and allows us to design a rich variety of structures capable of exhibiting complex, cooperative behavior. Due to the cell-like attributes of polymeric microcapsules and polymersomes, material systems are available for realizing our predictions. PMID:20616065

Kolmakov, German V.; Yashin, Victor V.; Levitan, Steven P.; Balazs, Anna C.

2010-01-01

118

Beyond the Visual: Considering the Archaeology of Colonial Sounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many historians and archaeologists have focused on trade goods in the French colonies, yet few have examined how these items\\u000a were animated in colonial contexts. Here, the issue of colonial performance as it related to trade goods (such as hawk bells,\\u000a brass tinklers, glass beads) is examined and it is argued that the power of these objects was more than

Diana DiPaolo Loren

2008-01-01

119

Global path planning approach based on ant colony optimization algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm was modified to optimize the global path. In order to simulate the real ant colonies,\\u000a according to the foraging behavior of ant colonies and the characteristic of food, conceptions of neighboring area and smell\\u000a area were presented. The former can ensure the diversity of paths and the latter ensures that each ant can reach the

Zhi-qiang Wen; Zi-xing Cai

2006-01-01

120

VIRULENCE-LINKED COLONIAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATION IN LEPTOSPIRA  

PubMed Central

Faine, S. (University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia), and J. van der Hoeden. Virulence-linked colonial and morphological variation in Leptospira. J. Bacteriol. 88:14931496. 1964.Large-colony typical hooked Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae was virulent for hamsters and guinea pigs. On cultivation, it was gradually replaced by a serologically identical small-colony avirulent straight mutant. The hooked virulent form was selected in vivo. Images PMID:14234810

Faine, S.; Hoeden, J. Van Der

1964-01-01

121

Giant eosinophil colonies from cultures of bone marrow cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryTo date, the small size and slow growth of eosinophil colonies in vitro has hampered study of cloned eosinophils. We found\\u000a enhanced eosinophil colony size and numbers in methylcellulose cultures of bone marrow cells utilizing defined supplemented\\u000a bovine calf serum (DSBCS) in combination with EL4 conditioned medium (EL4-CM). At days 9, 16 and 23 significantly more eosinophil\\u000a colonies and more

J. H. Butterfield; D. Weiler

1986-01-01

122

Laser-induced speckle scatter patterns in Bacillus colonies  

PubMed Central

Label-free bacterial colony phenotyping technology called BARDOT (Bacterial Rapid Detection using Optical scattering Technology) provided successful classification of several different bacteria at the genus, species, and serovar level. Recent experiments with colonies of Bacillus species provided strikingly different characteristics of elastic light scatter (ELS) patterns, which were comprised of random speckles compared to other bacteria, which are dominated by concentric rings and spokes. Since this laser-based optical sensor interrogates the whole volume of the colony, 3-D information of micro- and macro-structures are all encoded in the far-field scatter patterns. Here, we present a theoretical model explaining the underlying mechanism of the speckle formation by the colonies from Bacillus species. Except for Bacillus polymyxa, all Bacillus spp. produced random bright spots on the imaging plane, which presumably dependent on the cellular and molecular organization and content within the colony. Our scatter model-based analysis revealed that colony spread resulting in variable surface roughness can modify the wavefront of the scatter field. As the center diameter of the Bacillus spp. colony grew from 500 to 900 ?m, average speckles area decreased two-fold and the number of small speckles increased seven-fold. In conclusion, as Bacillus colony grows, the average speckle size in the scatter pattern decreases and the number of smaller speckle increases due to the swarming growth characteristics of bacteria within the colony. PMID:25352840

Kim, Huisung; Singh, Atul K.; Bhunia, Arun K.; Bae, Euiwon

2014-01-01

123

Efficient Division and Sampling of Cell Colonies Using Microcup Arrays  

PubMed Central

A microengineered array to sample clonal colonies is described. The cells were cultured on an array of individually releasable elements until the colonies expanded to cover multiple elements. Single elements were released using a laser-based system and collected to sample cells from individual colonies. A greater than an 85% rate in splitting and collecting colonies was achieved using a 3-dimensional cup-like design or microcup. Surface modification using patterned titanium deposition of the glass substrate improved the stability of microcup adhesion to the glass while enabling minimization of the laser energy for splitting the colonies. Smaller microcup dimensions and slotting the microcup walls reduced the time needed for colonies to expand into multiple microcups. The stem cell colony retained on the array and the collected fraction within released microcups remained undifferentiated and viable. The colony samples were characterized by both reporter gene expression and a destructive assay (PCR) to identify target colonies. The platform is envisioned as a means to rapidly establish cell lines using a destructive assay to identify desired clones. PMID:23099535

Pai, Jeng-Hao; Kluckman, Kimberly; Cowley, Dale O.; Bortner, Donna M.; Sims, Christopher E.; Allbritton, Nancy L.; Allbritton, Nancy L.

2012-01-01

124

Varroa-Virus Interaction in Collapsing Honey Bee Colonies  

PubMed Central

Varroa mites and viruses are the currently the high-profile suspects in collapsing bee colonies. Therefore, seasonal variation in varroa load and viruses (Acute-Kashmir-Israeli complex (AKI) and Deformed Wing Virus (DWV)) were monitored in a year-long study. We investigated the viral titres in honey bees and varroa mites from 23 colonies (15 apiaries) under three treatment conditions: Organic acids (11 colonies), pyrethroid (9 colonies) and untreated (3 colonies). Approximately 200 bees were sampled every month from April 2011 to October 2011, and April 2012. The 200 bees were split to 10 subsamples of 20 bees and analysed separately, which allows us to determine the prevalence of virus-infected bees. The treatment efficacy was often low for both treatments. In colonies where varroa treatment reduced the mite load, colonies overwintered successfully, allowing the mites and viruses to be carried over with the bees into the next season. In general, AKI and DWV titres did not show any notable response to the treatment and steadily increased over the season from April to October. In the untreated control group, titres increased most dramatically. Viral copies were correlated to number of varroa mites. Most colonies that collapsed over the winter had significantly higher AKI and DWV titres in October compared to survivors. Only treated colonies survived the winter. We discuss our results in relation to the varroa-virus model developed by Stephen Martin. PMID:23526946

Francis, Roy M.; Nielsen, Steen L.; Kryger, Per

2013-01-01

125

PREDATION AND COLONIALITY IN CLIFF SWALLOWS (PETR0 CHELIDON PYRRHONOTA)  

E-print Network

- perimentson the Cliff Swallow(Petrochelidon pyrrhonota)thattesttheeffectofcolonysizeon the time it takestoPREDATION AND COLONIALITY IN CLIFF SWALLOWS (PETR0 CHELIDON PYRRHONOTA) GERALDS. WILKINSON1AND

Wilkinson, Gerald S.

126

Dynamics of the presence of israeli acute paralysis virus in honey bee colonies with colony collapse disorder.  

PubMed

The determinants of Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), a particular case of collapse of honey bee colonies, are still unresolved. Viruses including the Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) were associated with CCD. We found an apiary with colonies showing typical CCD characteristics that bore high loads of IAPV, recovered some colonies from collapse and tested the hypothesis if IAPV was actively replicating in them and infectious to healthy bees. We found that IAPV was the dominant pathogen and it replicated actively in the colonies: viral titers decreased from April to September and increased from September to December. IAPV extracted from infected bees was highly infectious to healthy pupae: they showed several-fold amplification of the viral genome and synthesis of the virion protein VP3. The health of recovered colonies was seriously compromised. Interestingly, a rise of IAPV genomic copies in two colonies coincided with their subsequent collapse. Our results do not imply IAPV as the cause of CCD but indicate that once acquired and induced to replication it acts as an infectious factor that affects the health of the colonies and may determine their survival. This is the first follow up outside the US of CCD-colonies bearing IAPV under natural conditions. PMID:24800677

Hou, Chunsheng; Rivkin, Hadassah; Slabezki, Yossi; Chejanovsky, Nor

2014-05-01

127

Dynamics of the Presence of Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus in Honey Bee Colonies with Colony Collapse Disorder  

PubMed Central

The determinants of Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), a particular case of collapse of honey bee colonies, are still unresolved. Viruses including the Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) were associated with CCD. We found an apiary with colonies showing typical CCD characteristics that bore high loads of IAPV, recovered some colonies from collapse and tested the hypothesis if IAPV was actively replicating in them and infectious to healthy bees. We found that IAPV was the dominant pathogen and it replicated actively in the colonies: viral titers decreased from April to September and increased from September to December. IAPV extracted from infected bees was highly infectious to healthy pupae: they showed several-fold amplification of the viral genome and synthesis of the virion protein VP3. The health of recovered colonies was seriously compromised. Interestingly, a rise of IAPV genomic copies in two colonies coincided with their subsequent collapse. Our results do not imply IAPV as the cause of CCD but indicate that once acquired and induced to replication it acts as an infectious factor that affects the health of the colonies and may determine their survival. This is the first follow up outside the US of CCD-colonies bearing IAPV under natural conditions. PMID:24800677

Hou, Chunsheng; Rivkin, Hadassah; Slabezki, Yossi; Chejanovsky, Nor

2014-01-01

128

Dynamics of Concealment in French/Muslim Neo-Colonial Encounters: An Exploration of Colonial Discourses in Contemporary France.  

E-print Network

??This paper investigates the neo-colonial situation occurring within contemporary France, surrounding the tensions that have emerged concomitantly with increasing numbers of Muslim immigrants in the (more)

Koons, Casey Joseph

2008-01-01

129

Ant Colony Optimization and Hypergraph Covering Problems  

E-print Network

Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is a very popular metaheuristic for solving computationally hard combinatorial optimization problems. Runtime analysis of ACO with respect to various pseudo-boolean functions and different graph based combinatorial optimization problems has been taken up in recent years. In this paper, we investigate the runtime behavior of an MMAS*(Max-Min Ant System) ACO algorithm on some well known hypergraph covering problems that are NP-Hard. In particular, we have addressed the Minimum Edge Cover problem, the Minimum Vertex Cover problem and the Maximum Weak- Independent Set problem. The influence of pheromone values and heuristic information on the running time is analysed. The results indicate that the heuristic information has greater impact towards improving the expected optimization time as compared to pheromone values. For certain instances of hypergraphs, we show that the MMAS* algorithm gives a constant order expected optimization time when the dominance of heuristic information is ...

Pat, Ankit

2011-01-01

130

Concepts for an export oriented lunar colony  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model of a lunar domestic economy is presented which consists of 12 sectors, trading 21 goods and services. Material flow for operations and investments are balanced to minimize shortages and surpluses. Prices are formed by targeting a 15-35% return on assets for industry and a 15% after expenses income for labour. From this data, accounting statements, a 14 14 cash flow input/output matrix (consisting of 11 industrial sectors, labour, foreign trade and finance), and macroeconomic analyses are prepared which illuminate the most important links in the lunar economy. From this model conclusions are drawn regarding the matter of how best to lay the basis for sustainable colony growth and prosperity.

Miller, Kent L.

131

Modelling the morphology of migrating bacterial colonies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a model which aims at describing the morphology of colonies of Proteus mirabilis and Bacillus subtilis. Our model is based on a cellular automaton which is obtained by the adequate discretisation of a diffusion-like equation, describing the migration of the bacteria, to which we have added rules simulating the consolidation process. Our basic assumption, following the findings of the group of Chuo University, is that the migration and consolidation processes are controlled by the local density of the bacteria. We show that it is possible within our model to reproduce the morphological diagrams of both bacteria species. Moreover, we model some detailed experiments done by the Chuo University group, obtaining a fine agreement.

Nishiyama, A.; Tokihiro, T.; Badoual, M.; Grammaticos, B.

2010-08-01

132

The cultural dichotomy of colonial people.  

PubMed

We have presented a justification for the application of some of the principles of individual psychic development to the understanding of societal development. The interplay between the various systems of organization provides a circular and reciprocal interaction between the individual and the broader organizational levels of which he is a part. We have noted how individuals contribute to the characteristics of these organizational levels, as they contribute to his own. An illustration of this interplay has been provided by describing the impact of a societal condition such as colonialism on the colonized individual, as well as its force in shaping the character of the collectivity. Its effect on individual parameters of self-definition and self-esteem has been noted, and its possible relevance to psychotherapeutic processes pointed out. PMID:7085391

Bird, H R

1982-04-01

133

Optic disc detection using ant colony optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The retinal fundus images are used in the treatment and diagnosis of several eye diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma. This paper proposes a new method to detect the optic disc (OD) automatically, due to the fact that the knowledge of the OD location is essential to the automatic analysis of retinal images. Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is an optimization algorithm inspired by the foraging behaviour of some ant species that has been applied in image processing for edge detection. Recently, the ACO was used in fundus images to detect edges, and therefore, to segment the OD and other anatomical retinal structures. We present an algorithm for the detection of OD in the retina which takes advantage of the Gabor wavelet transform, entropy and ACO algorithm. Forty images of the retina from DRIVE database were used to evaluate the performance of our method.

Dias, Marcy A.; Monteiro, Fernando C.

2012-09-01

134

Medicine in colonial Australia, 1788-1900.  

PubMed

For the first five decades of European settlement in Australia, medical care for convicts and free settlers was provided by the Colonial Medical Service. After about 1850, as population and wealth grew markedly, there was significant professional development based on private practice. Except in Victoria, medical societies and journals did not become solidly established until late in the 19th century. The advent of local British Medical Association branches was an important factor in this consolidation. In the first few years of the colony, mortality was very high, but the common childhood infections were absent until the 1830s. From the 1880s, there was a sustained decline in mortality from communicable diseases, and therefore in aggregate mortality, while maternal mortality remained high. Australian practitioners quickly took up advances in practice from overseas, such as antisepsis and diphtheria antitoxin. They shared in the international growth in the status of medicine, which was conferred by the achievements of bacteriology in particular. From 1813, students were apprenticed in Sydney and Hobart and then travelled to Britain to obtain corporate qualifications. Medical schools were ultimately opened in the new universities in Melbourne (in 1862), Sydney (1883) and Adelaide (1885). The first female student was admitted to medicine in Sydney in 1885. Medical politics were intense. The outlawing of practice by unorthodox practitioners proved to be an unattainable goal. In the latter half of the 19th century, doctors saw chemists as unfair competitors for patients. The main medicopolitical struggle was with the mutual-aid friendly societies, which funded basic medical care for a significant proportion of the population until well into the 20th century. The organised profession set out to overcome the power of the lay-controlled societies in imposing an unacceptable contract system on doctors, even if, historically, the guaranteed income was a sine qua non of practice in poorer areas. PMID:25047777

Lewis, Milton J

2014-07-01

135

Evaluation of counting error due to colony masking in bioaerosol sampling.  

PubMed Central

Colony counting error due to indistinguishable colony overlap (i.e., masking) was evaluated theoretically and experimentally. A theoretical model to predict colony masking was used to determine colony counting efficiency by Monte Carlo computer simulation of microorganism collection and development into CFU. The computer simulation was verified experimentally by collecting aerosolized Bacillus subtilis spores and examining micro- and macroscopic colonies. Colony counting efficiency decreased (i) with increasing density of collected culturable microorganisms, (ii) with increasing colony size, and (iii) with decreasing ability of an observation system to distinguish adjacent colonies as separate units. Counting efficiency for 2-mm colonies, at optimal resolution, decreased from 98 to 85% when colony density increased from 1 to 10 microorganisms cm-2, in contrast to an efficiency decrease from 90 to 45% for 5-mm colonies. No statistically significant difference (alpha = 0.05) between experimental and theoretical results was found when colony shape was used to estimate the number of individual colonies in a CFU. Experimental colony counts were 1.2 times simulation estimates when colony shape was not considered, because of nonuniformity of actual colony size and the better discrimination ability of the human eye relative to the model. Colony surface densities associated with high counting accuracy were compared with recommended upper plate count limits and found to depend on colony size and an observation system's ability to identify overlapped colonies. Correction factors were developed to estimate the actual number of collected microorganisms from observed colony counts.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7986046

Chang, C W; Hwang, Y H; Grinshpun, S A; Macher, J M; Willeke, K

1994-01-01

136

Factors affecting the proportion of sterile soldiers in growing aphid colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proportion of sterile soldiers in an aphid colony is positively correlated with colony size. Assuming logistic growth of the aphid colony, Aoki and Kurosu (Insect Soc 50:256261, 2003) presented an inequality that determines, for any colony size, whether a soldier or a reproductive will be added to the colony. To put it in words, if the marginal defensive efficacy

Shigeyuki Aoki; Masaru Imai

2005-01-01

137

Estimating 3-dimensional colony surface area of field corals  

EPA Science Inventory

Colony surface area is a critical descriptor for biological and physical attributes of reef-building (scleractinian, stony) corals. The three-dimensional (3D) size and structure of corals are directly related to many ecosystem values and functions. Most methods to estimate colony...

138

Ant Colony Optimization with Immigrants Schemes in Dynamic Environments  

E-print Network

Ant Colony Optimization with Immigrants Schemes in Dynamic Environments Michalis Mavrovouniotis1 of the pop- ulation and enhance the performance of the algorithm for DOPs. Among these approaches, immigrants immigrants schemes are applied to ant colony optimization (ACO) for the dynamic travelling salesman problem

Yang, Shengxiang

139

Improved ant colony algorithm for solving assignment problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assignment problem is one of the fundamental combinatorial optimization problems, ant colony algorithm is a kind of bionic optimization algorithm. The method of applying improved ant colony algorithm to assignment problem is analyzed. Based on the definitions of migration matrix, cost matrix, pheromone matrix, the node selection strategy, local pheromone updating rules and global pheromone updating rules are introduced in

Chunhui Piao; Xufang Han; Yalan Wu

2010-01-01

140

The Transatlantic Constitution: Colonial Legal Culture and the Empire  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Transatlantic Constitution makes a major impact on the way we see the legacy of the colonial period and the later federal relationship that continues to affect us today. Mary Sarah Bilder presents an intensive examination of the structure and functioning of the legal relationship across the Atlantic, between the people of a colony and the legal metropolis in London.

Mary S Bilder

2004-01-01

141

Original article Observations on colony defense of Apis nuluensis  

E-print Network

Original article Observations on colony defense of Apis nuluensis Tingek, Koeniger and Koeniger; accepted 12 August 1996) Summary Colony defense and predatory behavior of Vespa multimaculata was observed at the entrance of a natural nest site of Apis nuluensis. When V multimaculata was present, guard

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

142

The paradoxical after-life of colonial governmentality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Employing the emergency number 911 as a device to open onto two continents of governance one hot the other cold, one binary, the other the disaggregation of the binary this paper shows that colonial governmentality is marked by a paradoxical combination of the two. Moreover, it argues that colonial governmentality is the progenitor of this form of governance

Michael Dutton

2010-01-01

143

36 CFR 7.1 - Colonial National Historical Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Colonial National Historical Park. 7.1 Section 7.1 Parks...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM 7.1 Colonial...

2010-07-01

144

Homosexuals and the Death Penalty in Colonial America  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article traces the legislative history of statutes prescribing the death penalty for sodomy in 17-th century New England and in the other American colonies. New England and some middle colonies broke with English legal tradition by adopting explicitly biblical language. After the Revolution, Pennsylvania took the lead, in 1786, in dropping the death penalty.

LOUIS CROMPTON

1976-01-01

145

Indigenous Knowledge in the Science Curriculum: Avoiding Neo-Colonialism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science education in Papua New Guinea has been influenced by neo-colonial practices that have significantly contributed to the silencing of the Papua New Guinea voice. This silencing has led to the production of science curriculum documents that are irrelevant to the students for whom they are written. To avoid being caught up in neo-colonial

Ryan, Ann

2008-01-01

146

Commentary: Responses from Colonial Williamsburg Staff to Stoddard (2009)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jeremey Stoddard's article in this issue, "Toward a Virtual Field Trip Model for the Social Studies," describes his analysis of the Colonial Williamsburg Electronic Field Trip and a conceptual model for developing meaningful and successful electronic or virtual field trips. In an effort to contextualize the Colonial Williamsburg Electronic Field

Lee, John K.; Hicks, David

2009-01-01

147

Land reform in South Africa and the colonial present  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops Derek Gregory's concept of the colonial present by demonstrating how the colonial present in rural South Africa in general and around land reform in particular has conditioned land reform outcomes. My development of the concept departs from Gregory's in two key respects. I argue first that, by viewing it in relation to the geopolitics of capitalism, it

Alistair Fraser

2007-01-01

148

Ant colony optimization with the characteristic of social work division  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to solve the continuous space optimization problems, an ant colony optimization with the characteristic of social work division is presented. The decimal coding rule of the variables in continuous space is explained. The paper presents six behaviors of artificial ant, the function of the promotion team ant colony and the three-dimensional coordinate pheromone system. Computer simulation results indicate

Li Xinxin; Luo Yi; Zhang Juntao

2008-01-01

149

Model Specification Searches Using Ant Colony Optimization Algorithms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ant colony optimization is a recently proposed heuristic procedure inspired by the behavior of real ants. This article applies the procedure to model specification searches in structural equation modeling and reports the results. The results demonstrate the capabilities of ant colony optimization algorithms for conducting automated searches.

Marcoulides, George A.; Drezner, Zvi

2003-01-01

150

Modeling cell-matrix traction forces in Keratinocyte colonies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crosstalk between cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions plays an essential role in the mechanical function of tissues. The traction forces exerted by cohesive keratinocyte colonies with strong cell-cell adhesions are mostly concentrated at the colony periphery. In contrast, for weak cadherin-based intercellular adhesions, individual cells in a colony interact with their matrix independently, with a disorganized distribution of traction forces extending throughout the colony. In this talk I will present a minimal physical model of the colony as contractile elastic media linked by springs and coupled to an elastic substrate. The model captures the spatial distribution of traction forces seen in experiments. For cell colonies with strong cell-cell adhesions, the total traction force of the colony measured in experiments is found to scale with the colony's geometrical size. This scaling suggests the emergence of an effective surface tension of magnitude comparable to that measured for non-adherent, three-dimensional cell aggregates. The physical model supports the scaling and indicates that the surface tension may be controlled by acto-myosin contractility.

Banerjee, Shiladitya

2013-03-01

151

Whose freedom? Whose memories? Commemorating Danish colonialism in St. Croix  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article addresses the issues of cultural and archival historical representations as they are presented in Danish journalism about historical events taking place in the former colonies of Denmark, the current United States' Virgin Islands (USVI). The (post)colonial relationship between Denmark and USVI has been overlooked by Danish and 'western'-based scholars for quite some time. The article presents the case

Bolette B. Blaagaard

2011-01-01

152

Discover for Yourself: An Optimal Control Model in Insect Colonies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We describe the enlightening path of self-discovery afforded to the teacher of undergraduate mathematics. This is demonstrated as we find and develop background material on an application of optimal control theory to model the evolutionary strategy of an insect colony to produce the maximum number of queen or reproducer insects in the colony at

Winkel, Brian

2013-01-01

153

Optimization of power electronic circuits using ant colony system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant colony optimization (ACO) is typically used to search paths through graphs. The concept is based on simulating the behavior of ants in finding paths from the colony to food. Its searching mechanism is applicable for optimizing electric circuits with components, like resistors and capacitors, available in discrete values. In this paper, an extended ACO (eACO) that can search the

Jun Zhang; H. S. H. Chung; A. W. L. Lo; Tao Huang

2008-01-01

154

Extended Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm for Power Electronic Circuit Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant colony optimization (ACO) is typically used to search paths through graphs. The concept is based on simulating the behavior of ants in finding paths from the colony to food. Its searching mechanism is applicable for optimizing electric circuits with components, like resistors and capacitors, available in discrete values. However, power electronic circuits (PECs) generally consist of components, like inductors,

Jun Zhang; Henry Shu-Hung Chung; Alan Wai-Lun Lo; Tao Huang

2009-01-01

155

Slave Advertising in the Colonial Newspaper: Mirror to the Dilemma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To explore racial attitudes from the colonial period of the United States, a study examined advertising practices regarding announcements dealing with black slaves in colonial newspapers in Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and South Carolina. Careful scrutiny revealed no relationship between the editorial stance of a

Bradley, Patricia

156

State and Social Christianity in Post-colonial Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of Christianity's rapid growth in post-colonial Singapore, why has Pentecostalism replaced liberal Christianity as the dominant form in the last few decades? Going beyond existing cultural explanations of Pentecostal affinity with Asian folk religions and the modernization thesis, I look at the Church as social movement, as social Christianity engaging, specifically in Singapore, the post-colonial developmental state.

Daniel P. S. Goh

2010-01-01

157

Nonrelatives inherit colony resources in a primitive termite  

PubMed Central

The evolution of eusociality, especially how selection would favor sterility or subfertility of most individuals within a highly social colony, is an unresolved paradox. Eusociality evolved independently in diverse taxa, including insects (all ants and termites; some bees, wasps, thrips, and beetles), snapping shrimp, and naked mole rats. Termites have received comparatively less focus than the haplodiploid Hymenoptera (ants, bees, and wasps); however, they are the only diploid group with highly complex colonies and an extraordinary diversity of castes. In this study we staged encounters between unrelated colonies of primitive dampwood termites, Zootermopsis nevadensis, mimicking natural meetings that occur under bark. During encounters, kings and/or queens were killed and surviving members merged into one colony. After encounters, members of both unrelated colonies cooperated as a single social unit. We determined the colony of origin of replacement reproductives that emerged after death of kings and/or queens. Here, we document that replacement reproductives developed from workers in either or both original colonies, inherited the merged resources of the colony, and sometimes interbred. Because this species shares many characteristics with ancestral termites, these findings demonstrate how ecological factors could have promoted the evolution of eusociality by accelerating and enhancing direct fitness opportunities of helper offspring, rendering relatedness favoring kin selection less critical. PMID:19805058

Johns, Philip M.; Howard, Kenneth J.; Breisch, Nancy L.; Rivera, Anahi; Thorne, Barbara L.

2009-01-01

158

PROBLEMS OF VIOLENCE, STATES OF TERROR: TORTURE IN COLONIAL INDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 'discovery' of torture and its prevalence in the extraction of confessions produced a dilemma for the colonial state in India. Especially with the publication of the two-volume Report of the Commissioners for the Investigation of Alleged Cases of Torture in the Madras Presidency in 1855, colonial administrators became uncomfortably aware of the contrived nature of the 'truth' produced before

Anupama Rao

2001-01-01

159

Application of LASCA technique for monitoring of bacterial colonies growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods of s-LASCA and t-LASCA have been adopted to problem of monitoring growth of colonies of bacteria E. coli culture B6. Set-up of LASCA-microscope is developed. Results of experimental investigations of influence of speckled biospeckles on results of monitoring of growth of bacterial colonies have been obtained.

Ulianova, Onega; Rebeza, Olga; Rebeza, Nadezhda; Ulyanov, Sergey

2013-02-01

160

Science and the "Civilizing Mission": France and the Colonial Enterprise  

E-print Network

Science and the "Civilizing Mission": France and the Colonial Enterprise Patrick Petitjean REHSEIS with a conference "20th Century Sciences: Beyond the Metropolis". 1 ORSTOM (Office de la Recherche Scientifique et," founded in 1943.2 This conference showed an evident acceptance of the colonial heritage in science

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

161

Colony integration and reproductive conflict in honey bees  

E-print Network

Review Colony integration and reproductive conflict in honey bees P.K. Visscher Department 1997) Abstract - Honey bee colonies, although highly cooperative, are composed of genetically dis production of males. Sex ratio conflict is expected to be minimal and hard to measure in honey bees

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

162

Colonial Mentality: A Review and Recommendation for Filipino American Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colonial mentality is a term used widely by ethnic studies scholars and by the Filipino American community to refer to a form of internalized oppression among Filipinos and Filipino Americans. The authors propose that colonial mentality is a construct that is central to the understanding of the psychology of contemporary Filipino Americans. Drawing on larger scholarship from postcolonial studies and

E. J. R. David; Sumie Okazaki

2006-01-01

163

Indian Education in the American Colonies, 1607-1783.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indian schooling in colonial America was continuously immersed in the exchange between cultures that involved religion, land ownership, disease, alcohol, and warfare, and was molded by trade in furs and hides, and Indian slaves. In the past two decades American scholars have begun to reinterpret colonial North American Indian history and the

Szasz, Margaret Connell

164

Nationalizing Shakespeare in Qubec: Theorizing Post\\/Neo\\/Colonial Adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qubec's political situation and multiple identities as a colonial, postcolonial, and neo-colonial nation make its adaptations of Shakespeare unique. By appropriating the canonical authority of Shakespeare's texts, Qubcois adapters legitimize their local struggle for national liberation; however, this appropriation requires that they negotiate a fine line between the enrichment of Qubcois culture and its possible contamination, assimilation, or effacement by

JENNIFER DROUIN

165

Ammonia Pulses and Metabolic Oscillations Guide Yeast Colony Development  

PubMed Central

On solid substrate, growing yeast colonies alternately acidify and alkalinize the medium. Using morphological, cytochemical, genetic, and DNA microarray approaches, we characterized six temporal steps in the acid-to-alkali colony transition. This transition is connected with the production of volatile ammonia acting as starvation signal between colonies. We present evidence that the three membrane proteins Ato1p, Ato2p, and Ato3p, members of the YaaH family, are involved in ammonia production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae colonies. The acid-to-alkali transition is connected with decrease of mitochondrial oxidative catabolism and by peroxisome activation, which in parallel with activation of biosynthetic pathways contribute to decrease the general stress level in colonies. These metabolic features characterize a novel survival strategy used by yeast under starvation conditions prevalent in nature. PMID:12429834

Palkov, Zdena; Devaux, Frdric; R?ic?icov, Markta; Minrikov, Lucie; Le Crom, Stphane; Jacq, Claude

2002-01-01

166

Leisure, economy and colonial urbanism: Darjeeling, 1835-1930  

PubMed Central

This article posits that the hill station of Darjeeling was a unique form of colonial urbanism. It shifts historiographical interest from major urban centres in colonial India (such as Bombay or Calcutta) and instead attempts a greater understanding of smaller urban centres. In the process, it also interrogates the category of hill stations, which have been understood as exotic and scenic sites rather than as towns that were integral to the colonial economy. In arguing that hill stations, particularly Darjeeling, were not merely the scenic and healthy other of the clamorous, dirty and diseased plains of India, it refutes suggestions that the despoiling or overcrowding of Darjeeling was incremental to the purposes of its establishment. Instead, it suggests that Darjeeling was part of the colonial mainstream; its urbanization and inclusion into the greater colonial economy was effected from the time of its establishment. Therefore, a constant tension between its exotic and its functional elements persisted throughout. PMID:24273391

BHATTACHARYA, NANDINI

2013-01-01

167

Growth Rate Consequences of Coloniality in a Harmful Phytoplankter  

PubMed Central

Background Allometric studies have shown that individual growth rate is inversely related to body size across a broad spectrum of organisms that vary greatly in size. Fewer studies have documented such patterns within species. No data exist directly documenting the influence of colony size on growth rate for microscopic, colonial organisms. Methodology/Principal Findings To determine if similar negative relationships between growth rate and size hold for colonial organisms, we developed a technique for measuring the growth of individual colonies of a bloom-forming, toxic cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa using microscopy and digital image analysis. For five out of six genotypes of M. aeruginosa isolated from lakes in Michigan and Alabama, we found significant negative relationships between colony size and growth rate. We found large intraspecific variation in both the slope of these relationships and in the growth rate of colonies at a standard size. In addition, growth rate estimates for individual colonies were generally consistent with population growth rates measured using standard batch culture. Conclusions/Significance Given that colony size varies widely within populations, our results imply that natural populations of colonial phytoplankton exist as a mosaic of individuals with widely varying ecological attributes (since size strongly affects growth rate, grazing mortality, and migration speed). Quantifying the influence of colony size on growth rate will permit development of more accurate, predictive models of ecological interactions (e.g., competition, herbivory) and their role in the proliferation of harmful algal blooms, in addition to increasing our understanding about why these interactions vary in strength within and across environments. PMID:20084114

Wilson, Alan E.; Kaul, RajReni B.; Sarnelle, Orlando

2010-01-01

168

Iridovirus and Microsporidian Linked to Honey Bee Colony Decline  

PubMed Central

Background In 2010 Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), again devastated honey bee colonies in the USA, indicating that the problem is neither diminishing nor has it been resolved. Many CCD investigations, using sensitive genome-based methods, have found small RNA bee viruses and the microsporidia, Nosema apis and N. ceranae in healthy and collapsing colonies alike with no single pathogen firmly linked to honey bee losses. Methodology/Principal Findings We used Mass spectrometry-based proteomics (MSP) to identify and quantify thousands of proteins from healthy and collapsing bee colonies. MSP revealed two unreported RNA viruses in North American honey bees, Varroa destructor-1 virus and Kakugo virus, and identified an invertebrate iridescent virus (IIV) (Iridoviridae) associated with CCD colonies. Prevalence of IIV significantly discriminated among strong, failing, and collapsed colonies. In addition, bees in failing colonies contained not only IIV, but also Nosema. Co-occurrence of these microbes consistently marked CCD in (1) bees from commercial apiaries sampled across the U.S. in 20062007, (2) bees sequentially sampled as the disorder progressed in an observation hive colony in 2008, and (3) bees from a recurrence of CCD in Florida in 2009. The pathogen pairing was not observed in samples from colonies with no history of CCD, namely bees from Australia and a large, non-migratory beekeeping business in Montana. Laboratory cage trials with a strain of IIV type 6 and Nosema ceranae confirmed that co-infection with these two pathogens was more lethal to bees than either pathogen alone. Conclusions/Significance These findings implicate co-infection by IIV and Nosema with honey bee colony decline, giving credence to older research pointing to IIV, interacting with Nosema and mites, as probable cause of bee losses in the USA, Europe, and Asia. We next need to characterize the IIV and Nosema that we detected and develop management practices to reduce honey bee losses. PMID:20949138

Bromenshenk, Jerry J.; Henderson, Colin B.; Wick, Charles H.; Stanford, Michael F.; Zulich, Alan W.; Jabbour, Rabih E.; Deshpande, Samir V.; McCubbin, Patrick E.; Seccomb, Robert A.; Welch, Phillip M.; Williams, Trevor; Firth, David R.; Skowronski, Evan; Lehmann, Margaret M.; Bilimoria, Shan L.; Gress, Joanna; Wanner, Kevin W.; Cramer, Robert A.

2010-01-01

169

Observations on colony formation by the cosmopolitan phytoplankton genus Phaeocystis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Few marine phytoplankton have heteromorphic life cycles and also often dominate the ecosystems in which they occur. The class Prymnesiophyceae contains a notable exception: the genus Phaeocystis includes three species that form gelatinous colonies but also occur within their ranges as solitary cells. Phaeocystis antarctica and P. pouchetii are exclusively high latitude taxa, and are notable for regionally tremendous blooms of the colony stage. P. globosa occurs circumglobally, yet its colony blooms primarily are confined to colder waters within its range. Three additional species are warm water forms that have been reported only as solitary cells or loose aggregations that bear little resemblance to the organized colonies of the other taxa. Interpretation of existing data indicates that resource availability (light, temperature and nutrients) by itself is not sufficient to explain this distinction between cold-water colony-forming taxa and warm water solitary cell taxa, nor why colony development in P. globosa is essentially a spatially restricted phenomenon within a much broader geographic range. Colony development by P. globosa in situ has been observed at temperatures ?20 C, but only rarely and generally under conditions of seasonally or anthropogenically elevated nutrient supply. Data presented here demonstrate colony development at 20-22 C in natural plankton communities from oligotrophic waters that were pre-screened through 63 ?m mesh (i.e. lacking mesozooplankton and large microzooplankton), but not in unscreened communities containing microzooplankton and >63 ?m zooplankton. Reduction of colony proliferation at higher temperatures by mesozooplankton grazing remains as an intriguing possibility that is consistent with available evidence to help explain differences in latitudinal extent of in situ colony development. These data are interpreted within a theoretical framework regarding the potential advantages and disadvantages of the two life cycle stages.

Verity, Peter G.; Medlin, Linda K.

2003-12-01

170

Declining thick-billed murre Uria lomvia colonies experience higher gull predation rates: an inter-colony comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Avian predators of colonial-nesting seabirds preferentially attack individuals nesting alone or on the edge of groups, apparently because they can forage without being struck by defending neighbours. If nesting densities of colonial seabirds declined, predators are predicted to have fewer foraging constraints and consequently a greater impact on seabird reproduction. Thus, avian predation could prevent the recovery of seabird populations

H. Grant Gilchrist

1999-01-01

171

Fault-lines of Tribal Sovereignty, Colonial In-roads and the Inevitable: Things Fall Apart as a Colonial Critique  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers a revision of the view that the disintegration of the Igbo society is exclusively co-terminous with colonial infiltration or that things have started falling the moment the whites have appeared - a view that overlooks the components of internal disintegration already in operation prior to catalytic colonial contact. The paper therefore offers a complementary analysis of how

Suresh Ranjan Basak

172

Contemporary health care and the colonial and neo-colonial experience: the case of the Dominican Republic.  

PubMed

This article traces the development of health care policies in the Dominican Republic from their colonial and neo-colonial roots to contemporary times. The Dominican case exemplifies the unique historical processes by which its health policies were created and maintained, and simultaneously, reflects the political and historical forces that shape the Caribbean as a whole. PMID:1439905

Whiteford, L M

1992-11-01

173

75 FR 28685 - Colonial Bankshares, MHC, Vineland, NJ; Approval of Conversion Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Nos. 04983, H-3879, and H-4714] Colonial Bankshares, MHC, Vineland, NJ; Approval of Conversion Application Notice is...Supervision approved the application of Colonial Bankshares, MHC, and Colonial Bank, Vineland, New Jersey, to convert to...

2010-05-21

174

Between stigmatisation and regulation: prostitution in colonial Northern Vietnam.  

PubMed

Colonisation was a masculine adventure which took place in a distorted world full of 'welcoming' native women. The colonial encounter therefore was both racial and gendered: boundaries between European men and Vietnamese women were obvious. On the other hand the intimacy that resulted from this encounter blurred the racial boundaries that were the foundation of the colonial order. These boundaries had to be redrawn or sharpened. Focusing on French colonial northern Vietnam (Tonkin) this paper examines how the whole colonial encounter was embodied in the sexual encounter between European men and native women and how prostitution was an integral part of the colonial order. This analysis of the regulation of prostitution and its ambivalence reveals that the definition of prostitution and its treatment by the French colonial authorities was political, racial and therefore connected to a specific period. The political definition of prostitution in today's Vietnam is different from the colonial one. This shift reveals that prostitution is a pertinent vantage point from which one can study how a society apprehends itself and its own future. PMID:20364443

Tracol-Huynh, Isabelle

2010-08-01

175

March/April 2007 ListProc Newsletter Food for Thought Colony Collapse Disorder  

E-print Network

______________________________________________________________________________ ListProc Newsletter Food for Thought Colony Collapse Disorder. Healthy winter bees have a life expectancy of about six months. Winter bees comprise the colony population

Ferrara, Katherine W.

176

Heritable choice of colony size in cliff swallows: does experience trump genetics in older birds?  

E-print Network

coloniality colony choice habitat selection heritability of social behaviour Petrochelidon pyrrhonota-fostering experiment in 1997e1998 on cliff swallows, Petrochelidon pyrrhonota, in southwestern Nebraska, U

Wisenden, Brian D.

177

Selective sweeps in growing microbial colonies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evolutionary experiments with microbes are a powerful tool to study mutations and natural selection. These experiments, however, are often limited to the well-mixed environments of a test tube or a chemostat. Since spatial organization can significantly affect evolutionary dynamics, the need is growing for evolutionary experiments in spatially structured environments. The surface of a Petri dish provides such an environment, but a more detailed understanding of microbial growth on Petri dishes is necessary to interpret such experiments. We formulate a simple deterministic reaction-diffusion model, which successfully predicts the spatial patterns created by two competing species during colony expansion. We also derive the shape of these patterns analytically without relying on microscopic details of the model. In particular, we find that the relative fitness of two microbial strains can be estimated from the logarithmic spirals created by selective sweeps. The theory is tested with strains of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for spatial competitions with different initial conditions and for a range of relative fitnesses. The reaction-diffusion model also connects the microscopic parameters like growth rates and diffusion constants with macroscopic spatial patterns and predicts the relationship between fitness in liquid cultures and on Petri dishes, which we confirmed experimentally. Spatial sector patterns therefore provide an alternative fitness assay to the commonly used liquid culture fitness assays.

Korolev, Kirill S.; Mller, Melanie J. I.; Karahan, Nilay; Murray, Andrew W.; Hallatschek, Oskar; Nelson, David R.

2012-04-01

178

Was Fundamental Education Another Form Of Colonialism?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A description of the work of Pedro Tamesis Orata provides an opportunity to investigate the conflicts that can occur when educators seek to reduce poverty while trying to respect indigenous cultures. A native of the Philippines, Orata completed his doctoral studies at the Ohio State University in 1927. During US President Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal, he accepted the position of school principal for the US Bureau of Indian Affairs. After World War II, he directed the spread of fundamental education through the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). In his final years, he returned to the Philippines where he began a movement to spread what were called self-help high schools. In these activities, Orata taught people to follow John Dewey's five steps of thinking while working to improve their standards of living. In the 1970s, educators, such as Paulo Freire, complained that problem-solving methods, similar to those Orata favored, reinforced the oppressive aspects of formerly colonial societies. While Freire may have been overly critical, conflicts among cultural orientations appear to be unavoidable. The hope behind this investigation is that the difficulties can be reduced when people understand the different forces that persist.

Watras, Joseph

2007-01-01

179

Solving Integer Programming Problems by Using Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a study that applies the Artificial Bee Colony algorithm to integer programming problems and compares its performance with those of Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm variants and Branch and Bound technique presented to the literature. In order to cope with integer programming problems, in neighbour solution production unit, solutions are truncated to the nearest integer values. The experimental results show that Artificial Bee Colony algorithm can handle integer programming problems efficiently and Artificial Bee Colony algorithm can be considered to be very robust by the statistics calculated such as mean, median, standard deviation.

Akay, Bahriye; Karaboga, Dervis

180

[Morphological diversity of Pandorina morum (Mull.) Vory (Volvocaceae) colonies].  

PubMed

Morphological variability of polyhedral colonies of green algae (Volvocaceae) were studied using some elements of combinative theory of polyhedron and the theory of diophantine equations. These colonies are considered as results of self-organization according to topological regularities of sphere dissection by convex polygons. It was shown that in three-dimensional Euclidean space for each colony of Pandorina morum (Mll.) Bory only three different forms are possible. One of them has no plane of symmetry and, thus, has two enantiomorphous varieties. It is suggested that frequency spectrum of forms can be used as potential indicator of environment pollution. PMID:11605552

Vo?tekhovski?, Iu L

2001-01-01

181

Increased inter-colony fusion rates are associated with reduced COI haplotype diversity in an invasive colonial ascidian Didemnum vexillum.  

PubMed

Considerable progress in our understanding of the population genetic changes associated with biological invasions has been made over the past decade. Using selectively neutral loci, it has been established that reductions in genetic diversity, reflecting founder effects, have occurred during the establishment of some invasive populations. However, some colonial organisms may actually gain an ecological advantage from reduced genetic diversity because of the associated reduction in inter-colony conflict. Here we report population genetic analyses, along with colony fusion experiments, for a highly invasive colonial ascidian, Didemnum vexillum. Analyses based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) partial coding sequences revealed two distinct D. vexillum clades. One COI clade appears to be restricted to the probable native region (i.e., north-west Pacific Ocean), while the other clade is present in widely dispersed temperate coastal waters around the world. This clade structure was supported by 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence data, which revealed a one base-pair difference between the two clades. Recently established populations of D. vexillum in New Zealand displayed greatly reduced COI genetic diversity when compared with D. vexillum in Japan. In association with this reduction in genetic diversity was a significantly higher inter-colony fusion rate between randomly paired New Zealand D. vexillum colonies (80%, standard deviation 18%) when compared with colonies found in Japan (27%, standard deviation 15%). The results of this study add to growing evidence that for colonial organisms reductions in population level genetic diversity may alter colony interaction dynamics and enhance the invasive potential of newly colonizing species. PMID:22303442

Smith, Kirsty F; Stefaniak, Lauren; Saito, Yasunori; Gemmill, Chrissen E C; Cary, S Craig; Fidler, Andrew E

2012-01-01

182

Colony size as a species character in massive reef corals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a study of seven massive, Caribbean corals, I have found major differences in reproductive behavior between species with large maximum colony sizes and species with smaller maximum colony sizes. Four species ( Diploria clivosa, D. strigosa, Montastrea cavernosa, Siderastrea siderea) which are large (<1000 cm2 in surface area) broadcast gametes during a short spawning season. Their puberty size is relatively large (>100 cm2, except M. cavernosa). In contrast, two small massive species (<100 cm2, Favia fragum and S. radians), and one medium-sized (100 1000 cm2, Porites astreoides) massive species, brood larvae during an extended season (year-round in Panama). The puberty size of the small species is only 2 4 cm2. Given these close associations between maximum colony sizes and a number of fundamental reproductive attributes, greater attention should be given to the colony size distributions of different species of reef corals in nature, since many important life history and population characters may be inferred.

Soong, Keryea

1993-07-01

183

A non-policing honey bee colony (Apis mellifera capensis).  

PubMed

In the Cape honey bee Apis mellifera capensis, workers lay female eggs without mating by thelytokous parthenogenesis. As a result, workers are as related to worker-laid eggs as they are to queen-laid eggs and therefore worker policing is expected to be lower, or even absent. This was tested by transferring worker- and queen-laid eggs into three queenright A. m. capensis discriminator colonies and monitoring their removal. Our results show that worker policing is variable in A. m. capensis and that in one colony worker-laid eggs were not removed. This is the first report of a non-policing queenright honey bee colony. DNA microsatellite and morphometric analysis suggests that the racial composition of the three discriminator colonies was different. The variation in policing rates could be explained by differences in degrees of hybridisation between A. m. capensis and A. m. scutellata, although a larger survey is needed to confirm this. PMID:12384725

Beekman, Madeleine; Good, Gregory; Allsopp, Mike H; Radloff, Sarah; Pirk, Chris W W; Ratnieks, Francis L W

2002-10-01

184

Salmonella enteriditis serotype Amsterdam in a commercial rat colony.  

PubMed

Salmonella enteriditis serotype Amsterdam was isolated from the feces of 10 of 25 barrier maintained Fischer 344 rats in a commercial colony of over 35,000 animals. During the subsequent 3-month period, a small percentage of asymptomatic rats remained culture-positive for Salmonella despite an extensive program of killing animals with positive fecal cultures. The failure of this procedure to eradicate Salmonella from the colony led to the eventual destruction of the entire colony. Salmonella enteriditis serotype Amsterdam was cultured from wild rodent feces on a cracked well head casing which covered the shaft to the well that provided water for the barrier facility; an identical Salmonella serotype was also isolated from an animal care technician working with animals in this barriered colony. The technician was asymptomatic, and the organism was cultured on only one occasion. This outbreak was retrospectively attributed to water-borne Salmonella which apparently survived treatment with a faulty chlorinator. PMID:6358699

Steffen, E K; Wagner, J E

1983-10-01

185

Educating multicultural citizens: Colonial nationalism, imperial citizenship and  

E-print Network

Educating multicultural citizens: Colonial nationalism, imperial citizenship and education in late World War ended in 1945. Even as popular nationalisms and political movements sprouted to challenge British rule after the war, the British embarked on an ambitious project of "nation

Chaudhuri, Sanjay

186

Colony fusion in Argentine ants is guided by worker and queen cuticular hydrocarbon profile similarity.  

PubMed

Introduced populations of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, have experienced moderate to severe losses of genetic diversity, which may have affected nestmate recognition to various degrees. We hypothesized that cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) serve as nestmate recognition cues, and facilitate colony fusion of unrelated L. humile colonies that share similar CHC profiles. In this study, we paired six southeastern U.S. L. humile colonies in a 6-month laboratory fusion assay, and determined if worker and queen CHC profile similarity between colonies was associated with colony fusion and intercolony genetic similarity. We also compared worker and queen CHC profiles between fused colony pairs and unpaired controls to determine if worker and queen chemical profiles changed after fusion. We found that colony fusion correlated with the CHC similarity of workers and queens, with the frequency of fusion increasing with greater CHC profile similarity between colonies. Worker and queen CHC profile similarity between colonies also was associated with genetic similarity between colonies. Queen CHC profiles in fused colonies appeared to be a mix of the two colony phenotypes. In contrast, when only one of the paired colonies survived, the CHC profile of the surviving queens did not diverge from that of the colony of origin. Similarly, workers in non-fused colonies maintained their colony-specific CHC, whereas in fused colonies the worker CHC profiles were intermediate between those of the two colonies. These results suggest a role for CHC in regulating interactions among mutually aggressive L. humile colonies, and demonstrate that colony fusion correlates with both genetic and CHC similarities. Further, changes in worker and queen chemical profiles in fused colonies suggest that CHC plasticity may sustain the cohesion of unrelated L. humile colonies that had fused. PMID:19609617

Vsquez, Gissella M; Schal, Coby; Silverman, Jules

2009-08-01

187

Hindu Responses to Darwinism: Assimilation and Rejection in a Colonial and Post-Colonial Context  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hindu responses to Darwinism, like Christian, have run the gamut from outright rejection to fairly robust but limited accommodations of the Darwinian perspective. Despite certain features of Hindu thought such as the enormous time-scales of traditional cosmogonies that may suggest considerable affinity with modern notions of organic evolution, more often than not traditional assumptions have worked against deep engagement with Darwinism, allowing only for superficial assimilation at best. Three fundamental factors have affected Hindu responses to Darwinism: the great diversity within the tradition spanning evolutionist and creationist perspectives, the encounter with Darwinism in the late nineteenth century as part of an alien culture, and the fact that this encounter occurred within a colonial context. This essay explores the complex interactions of these three factors, beginning with the diversity within the ancient and classical cosmological traditions, followed by consideration of colonial developments and the emergence of four representative Hindu approaches to Darwinism: Modern Vedic Evolutionism, Anthropic Vedic Evolutionism, Reactionary Vedic Evolutionism, and Modern Vedic Creationism. The essay concludes by discussing various epistemological issues in the attempts of modern Hindu apologists to legitimize Vedic world views. These issues include the appeal to modern science to confirm traditional ideals and values, while simultaneously subordinating scientific method to spiritual means of knowledge, or rejecting scientific methodology with its inbuilt skepticism entirely.

MacKenzie Brown, C.

2010-06-01

188

Colony stimulating factor-1 in the induction of lupus nephritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colony stimulating factor in the induction of lupus nephritis. In this study we examine the role of colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) in the induction of lupus nephritis. The purpose of the study was to establish the relationship of CSF-1 to the prominent influx of macrophages (M) in the glomeruli of MRL-lpr mice with autoimmune lupus nephritis. The kidneys of MRL-lpr

Roy D Bloom; Sandrine Florquin; Gary G Singer; Daniel C Brennan; Vicki Rubin Kelley

1993-01-01

189

Predation by invertebrate predators on the colonial rotifer Sinantherina socialis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colonies of the freshwater colonial rotifer Sinantherina socialis (Monogononta, Flosculariidae) have been shown to be unpalatable to a variety of small-mouthed, zooplanktivorous fishes. To test whether invertebrate predators ingest the rotifer S. socialis, we conducted two types of experiments: (1) Microcosm experimentsin separate experi- ments, four invertebrate predators (i.e., dragonfly nymphs, damselfly nymphs, notonectids, and Hydra) were offered prey either

Elizabeth J. Walsh; Michael Salazar; Juan Remirez; Orestes Moldes; Robert L. Wallace

2006-01-01

190

Video Bioinformatics Analysis of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Colony Growth  

PubMed Central

Because video data are complex and are comprised of many images, mining information from video material is difficult to do without the aid of computer software. Video bioinformatics is a powerful quantitative approach for extracting spatio-temporal data from video images using computer software to perform dating mining and analysis. In this article, we introduce a video bioinformatics method for quantifying the growth of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) by analyzing time-lapse videos collected in a Nikon BioStation CT incubator equipped with a camera for video imaging. In our experiments, hESC colonies that were attached to Matrigel were filmed for 48 hours in the BioStation CT. To determine the rate of growth of these colonies, recipes were developed using CL-Quant software which enables users to extract various types of data from video images. To accurately evaluate colony growth, three recipes were created. The first segmented the image into the colony and background, the second enhanced the image to define colonies throughout the video sequence accurately, and the third measured the number of pixels in the colony over time. The three recipes were run in sequence on video data collected in a BioStation CT to analyze the rate of growth of individual hESC colonies over 48 hours. To verify the truthfulness of the CL-Quant recipes, the same data were analyzed manually using Adobe Photoshop software. When the data obtained using the CL-Quant recipes and Photoshop were compared, results were virtually identical, indicating the CL-Quant recipes were truthful. The method described here could be applied to any video data to measure growth rates of hESC or other cells that grow in colonies. In addition, other video bioinformatics recipes can be developed in the future for other cell processes such as migration, apoptosis, and cell adhesion. PMID:20495527

Lin, Sabrina; Fonteno, Shawn; Satish, Shruthi; Bhanu, Bir; Talbot, Prue

2010-01-01

191

Mate fidelity and coloniality in waterbirds: a comparative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased opportunities for information are one potential benefit of sociality. We apply this idea to the advantages of colonial\\u000a breeding in bird species that are typically monogamous within a breeding season but often form new pair-bonds in subsequent\\u000a seasons. Individuals may benefit from nesting in colonies at high density by identifying good-quality potential alternative\\u000a mates among their neighbours. The opportunities

Frdrique Dubois; Frank Czilly; Mark Pagel

1998-01-01

192

Steps toward space colonization - Colony location and transfer trajectories  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of optimal location of a space colony (or manufacturing center) is treated by consideration of a baseline transfer trajectory from the mass-catching point at L2 to high Earth orbit. Locations treated include the 2:1, 5:2, 7:3, and 3:1 resonances; nominal candidate orbits are found as periodic orbits in the restricted three-body problem. Optimal colony inclination is estimated via

T. A. Heppenheimer

1978-01-01

193

Is kin cooperation going on undetected in marine bird colonies?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In multitudinous breeding colonies, kin interactions could go unnoticed because we are unaware of the kinship among adults\\u000a we observe. Evidence of cooperation and competition between close adult kin in a blue-footed booby colony was sought by analyzing\\u000a patterns of natal dispersal and proximity of nests. Male and female recruits nested closer to their own natal sites than to\\u000a their

Hugh Drummond; Roxana Torres; Cristina Rodrguez Juarez; Sin-Yeon Kim

2010-01-01

194

Growth Rate Consequences of Coloniality in a Harmful Phytoplankter  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAllometric studies have shown that individual growth rate is inversely related to body size across a broad spectrum of organisms that vary greatly in size. Fewer studies have documented such patterns within species. No data exist directly documenting the influence of colony size on growth rate for microscopic, colonial organisms.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsTo determine if similar negative relationships between growth rate and

Alan E. Wilson; Rajreni B. Kaul; Orlando Sarnelle; Zoe Finkel

2010-01-01

195

Acadian Settlement in Louisiana: Colonial Populations and Imperial Policy  

E-print Network

policy for the empire, including the safeguard of the colony itself. Even as the final French governments awaited the transfer of power to Spain, they considered the future defensive assets that the Acadians might provide to the colony through... and religion. This perception, as well as Acadian frontier religious practices, would come into conflict particularly with officials, priests, and other colonists in Louisiana. Catholicism played an important role in Acadian cultural identity and certainly...

Kolb, Frances Bailey

2007-08-03

196

The control of water collection in honey bee colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A honey bee (Apis mellifera) colony adaptively controls the collection of water by its foragers, increasing it when high temperatures necesssitate evaporative\\u000a cooling inside the hive and decreasing it when the danger of overheating passes. This study analyzes the mechanisms controlling\\u000a water collection once it has begun, that is, how a colony's water collectors know whether to continue or stop

Susanne Khnholz; Thomas D. Seeley

1997-01-01

197

Kinetic model of Proteus mirabilis swarm colony development  

Microsoft Academic Search

.?Proteus mirabilis colonies display striking symmetry and periodicity. Based on experimental observations of cellular differentiation and group\\u000a motility, a kinetic model has been developed to describe the swarmer cell differentiation-dedifferentiation cycle and the\\u000a spatial evolution of swimmer and swarmer cells during Proteus mirabilis swarm colony development. A key element of the model is the age dependence of swarmer cell behaviour,

Sergei E. Esipov; J. A. Shapiro

1998-01-01

198

Induction of megakaryocyte colonies with platelet formation in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

COLONY culture methods utilising semi-solid media which facilitate extensive cellular differentiation in vitro have proved invaluable for the quantitative investigation of granulocytic and erythrocytic progenitors and the effector substances to which they respond1,2. Colonies of megakaryocytes have been produced from suspensions of mouse bone marrow or spleen cells in agar containing lymphocyte-conditioned medium3. But these megakaryocytes did not reach the

D. L. McLeod; M. M. Shreeve; A. A. Axelrad

1976-01-01

199

Estimating 3-dimensional colony surface area of field corals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colony surface area is a critical descriptor for biological and physical attributes of reef-building (scleractinian, stony) corals. The three-dimensional (3D) size and structure of corals are directly related to many ecosystem values and functions. Most methods to estimate colony surface area have been limited to laboratory settings and cannot be used for field corals. Photographic methods for digital 3D reconstruction

Lee A. Courtney; William S. Fisher; Sandy Raimondo; Leah M. Oliver; William P. Davis

2007-01-01

200

The statistical physics of decision-making in insect colonies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply the stochastic methods of statistical physics to analyse collective-decision making in social insect colonies, allowing us to derive the colony-level behaviour from an individual-level model. This contrasts with the traditional approach where a differential equation model, with or without arbitrary noise terms, is assumed. Social insect colonies vary in size from on the order 100 to 10,000,000 individuals, and such a statistical physics approach allows us explicitly to derive equations for both the average behaviour and the noise in the system, across this entire scale. We develop such a framework by building upon an existing stochastic model of opinion formation to model the decision-making processes in emigrating ant colonies. This new model is both driven by and evaluated against results from experiments with rock ants. This allows us to elucidate rigorously the role played by the individual-level phenomena of direct switching in the colony-level decision-making process, which optimality theory has predicted to be of crucial importance, and which we compare with our experimental results. This illustrates the power of the stochastic methods of statistical physics for understanding social insect colonies as complex systems.

Hogan, Patrick M.; Schlegel, Thomas; Franks, Nigel R.; Marshall, James A. R.

2011-03-01

201

Characterization of Colony Morphology Variants Isolated from Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms  

PubMed Central

In this study, we report the isolation of small, rough, strongly cohesive colony morphology variants from aging Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms. Similar to many of the P. aeruginosa colony morphology variants previously described in the literature, these variants autoaggregate in liquid culture and hyperadhere to solid surfaces. They also exhibit increased hydrophobicity and reduced motility compared to the wild-type parent strain. Despite the similarities in appearance of our colony morphology variant isolates on solid medium, the isolates showed a range of responses in various phenotypic assays. These variants form biofilms with significant three-dimensional structure and more biomass than the wild-type parent. To further explore the nature of the variants, their transcriptional profiles were evaluated. The variants generally showed increased expression of the psl and pel loci, which have been previously implicated in the adherence of P. aeruginosa to solid surfaces. When a mutation in the psl locus was introduced into a colony morphology variant, the colony morphology was only partially affected, but hyperadherence and autoaggregation were lost. Finally, similar colony morphology variants were found in isolates from cystic fibrosis patients. These variants displayed many of the same characteristics as the laboratory variants, suggesting a link between laboratory and cystic fibrosis biofilms. PMID:16085879

Kirisits, Mary Jo; Prost, Lynne; Starkey, Melissa; Parsek, Matthew R.

2005-01-01

202

Model-based automated detection of mammalian cell colonies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manually counting cell colonies, especially those that originate from fibroblast cell lines, is a time-consuming, eye-straining and tedious task in which consistency of counting is difficult to maintain. In this paper we present a novel model-based image segmentation method, which employs prior knowledge about the shape of a colony with the aim to automatically detect isolated, touching and overlapping cell colonies of various sizes and intensities. First, a set of hypothetical model instances is generated by using a robust statistical approach to estimate the model parameters and a novel confidence measure to quantify the difference between a model instance and the underlying image. Second, the model instances matching the individual colonies in the image are selected from the set by a minimum description length principle. The procedure was applied to images of Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cell line DC3F, which forms poorly defined or 'fuzzy' colonies. The correlation with manual counting was determined and the cell survival curves obtained by automated and manual counting were compared. The results obtained show that the proposed automatic procedure was capable to correctly identify 91% of cell colonies typical of mammalian cell lines.

Bernard, Rok; Kanduser, Masa; Pernus, Franjo

2001-11-01

203

Fractal bird nest distribution produces scale-free colony sizes  

PubMed Central

The spatial distribution of organisms often differs across scales. For instance, colonial bird populations could be described, from large to small scale, as scattered clumps of otherwise regularly distributed breeding pairs. We analysed the distribution of nests of a large colonial population of white storks (Ciconia ciconia) and found a fractal pattern in each of the 4 study years. Moreover, we found that the often-observed, long-tailed frequency distribution of colony sizes was well described by a power law, regardless of the cut-off used to define colonies (from 16 to 1024?m). Thus, although storks were locally highly clumped even with tens of nests in a single tree, the population was not structured in colonies (a simple clustered distribution) as previously thought. Rather, they were distributed in a continuous hierarchical set of clusters within clusters across scales, clusters lacking the commonly assumed characteristic mean size. These quantitative solutions to previously perceived scaling problems will potentially improve our understanding of the ecology and evolution of bird coloniality and animal spacing patterns and group living in general. PMID:17666378

Jovani, Roger; Tella, Jose L

2007-01-01

204

Original article Virus infections in Nordic honey bee colonies with no,  

E-print Network

irrespective of mite infestation. Detection of CWV was not associated with colony collapse in this study. In one apiary where colonies collapsed, deformed wing virus (DWV) was detected. When certain mite be detected several weeks before colony death in some cases. In the second apiary with collapsing colonies

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

205

Infection of Red Imported Fire Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Colonies with the Entomopathogen Thelohania solenopsae (Microsporidia: Thelohaniidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thelohania solenopsae Knell, Allen, & Hazard is an entomopathogenic microsporidium that infects imported fire ants. We documented artificially initiated transmission of T. solenopsae among colonies of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren. Microsporidian transmission was initiated by providing colonies with brood (mixture of eggs, larvae, and pupae) from infected S. invicta colonies. Inoculated laboratory colonies of S. invicta

DAVID F. WILLIAMS; DAVID H. OI; GREGORY J. KNUE

206

Multistate estimates of survival and movement in relation to colony size in the sociable weaver  

Microsoft Academic Search

We estimated survival and movement probabilities in relation to breeding-colony size in the sociable weaver (Philetairus socius) by using multistate statistical methods, in which survival and movement to time t + 1 is conditional on an individual's colony size at time t. The sociable weaver is a colonial, cooperatively breeding species that builds a massive communal nest, with colony size

Charles R. Brown; Rita Covas; Mark D. Anderson; Mary Bomberger Browna

2003-01-01

207

Group size and ectoparasitism affect daily survival probability in a colonial bird  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known in general about how group size or ectoparasitism affect survival in colonial animals. We estimated daily within-season survival probabilities for nesting adult and recently fledged juvenile cliff swallows ( Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) at 239 colonies from 1983 to 2003 in southwestern Nebraska, USA. Some colonies had been fumigated to remove ectoparasites. We conducted mark-recapture at each colony site

Charles R. Brown; Mary Bomberger Brown

2004-01-01

208

Does foraging efficiency vary with colony size in the fairy martin Petrochelidon ariel?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colonial breeding occurs in a wide range of taxa, however the advantages promoting its evolution and maintenance remain poorly understood. In many avian species, breeding colonies vary by several orders of magnitude and one approach to investigating the evolution of coloniality has been to examine how potential costs and benefits vary with colony size. Several hypotheses predict that foraging efficiency

Peter Santema; Simon C. Griffith; Naomi E. Langmore; Jan Komdeur; Michael J. L. Magrath

2009-01-01

209

Division of labour in colony defence against vertebrate predators by the social wasp Polistes fuscatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study I examined how the paper wasp, Polistes fuscatus, defends a colony when faced with a vertebrate attack. I looked for a division of labour in defensive behaviour within a colony and examined whether this behaviour changes over the colony cycle. The colonies were presented with a model of an adult red-winged blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus, and a speaker

Timothy M. Judd

2000-01-01

210

A Metagenomic Survey of Microbes in Honey Bee Colony Collapse Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In colony collapse disorder (CCD), honey bee colonies inexplicably lose their workers. CCD has resulted in a loss of 50 to 90% of colonies in beekeeping operations across the United States. The observation that irradiated combs from affected colonies can be repopulated with naive bees suggests that infection may contribute to CCD. We used an unbiased metagenomic approach to survey

Diana L. Cox-Foster; Sean Conlan; Edward C. Holmes; Gustavo Palacios; Jay D. Evans; Nancy A. Moran; Phenix-Lan Quan; Thomas Briese; Mady Hornig; David M. Geiser; Vince Martinson; Dennis vanEngelsdorp; Abby L. Kalkstein; Andrew Drysdale; Jeffrey Hui; Junhui Zhai; Liwang Cui; Stephen K. Hutchison; Jan Fredrik Simons; Michael Egholm; Jeffery S. Pettis; W. Ian Lipkin

2007-01-01

211

California gull chicks raised near colony edges have elevated stress levels  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coloniality in nesting birds represents an important life history strategy for maximizing reproductive success. Birds nesting near the edge of colonies tend to have lower reproductive success than individuals nesting near colony centers, and offspring of edge-nesting parents may be impaired relative to those of central-nesting parents. We used fecal corticosterone metabolites in California gull chicks (Larus californicus) to examine whether colony size or location within the colony influenced a chick's physiological condition. We found that chicks being raised near colony edges had higher fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations than chicks raised near colony centers, but that colony size (ranging from 150 to 11,554 nests) had no influence on fecal corticosterone levels. Fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations also increased with chick age. Our results suggest that similarly aged California gull chicks raised near colony edges may be more physiologically stressed, as indicated by corticosterone metabolites, than chicks raised near colony centers.

Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.

2011-01-01

212

Changes in the patterning of a hydroid colony.  

PubMed

It is a widely held view that colonial hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydroidomedusae) are formed on the basis of a repetition of uniform elements. The dominant opinion is that the equal spatial organisation of the colony exists during all stages of its development except the primary polyp, which develops from the settled larva. However, the complex structure and large dimensions of shoots in certain thecate species (subcl. Leptomedusae) suggest that the organisation of the primary shoot differs strongly from that of established colonies. The present study based on a thorough collection and examination of the collected material allowed to describe the entire sequence of the colony ontogeny in Hydrallmania falcata (Sertulariidae). The established shoots of this species are characterised by relatively large size, spiral arrangement of pinnate branches over the shoot stem, and hydranths arranged in one row along the upper side of branches. We showed that the primary shoot developing from the larva has much smaller dimensions and an alternate arrangement of hydranths. During further colony development the shoot organisation undergoes a gradual transformation ending with the emergence of large shoots with 'characteristic' species-specific features. The discovered sequence of changes in shoot patterning shows certain correlations with alterations of the growing tip dimensions. The dimensions of the growing tip seem to determine the patterning in accordance with the particular spatial location of the tip. This finding implies the necessity of a detailed reinvestigation of the entire colony development in thecate hydroids, which would make a significant contribution to the understanding of the morphogenetic evolution and patterning mechanisms within this group of colonial organisms. PMID:16806866

Kosevich, Igor A

2006-01-01

213

Colony variation in Sinorhizobium meliloti inoculant strain U 45.  

PubMed

A culture of Sinorhizobium meliloti strain U 45, maintained on yeast extract-mannitol (YM) agar, produced a mixture of Congo red-absorbing (R1) and non-absorbing (W1) colonies when grown on YM medium containing Congo red. The original freeze-dried (FD) culture formed gummy (G), white (W2) and small red (R2) colony types on the above medium. All colonies were stable except G, which segregated into G and W2-like types. Immune diffusion patterns of all colony types were identical. The W1 colony type dominated R1 when a 1:1 combination was sub-cultured on YM agar. The parent cultures and their variants exhibited a range of N2-fixing effectiveness and competitiveness when inoculated onto two cultivars of Medicago sativa. Variant R2 from the FD culture was ineffective on both cultivars. Genomic DNA fingerprinting with insertion elements ISRm3 and ISRm2011-2 suggested that transposition of these elements was not a cause of variation, but a DNA band was absent in the profiles of two out of three W2-like colonies. Protein profile comparisons showed high similarity (r = 0.98) between the colony types when grown in YM broth. When grown on Tryptone-Yeast extract medium, variants from the FD and agar-maintained cultures formed separate clusters with r = 0.79. Polymerase chain reaction fingerprinting using repetitive, site-directed and arbitrary primers failed to differentiate the variants. The results emphasize the need to monitor culture variability to maintain the quality of legume inoculants. PMID:12501992

Bloem, J F; Botha, W J; Law, I J; Steyn, P L

2002-01-01

214

Variation in Symbiodinium ITS2 sequence assemblages among coral colonies.  

PubMed

Endosymbiotic dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium are fundamentally important to the biology of scleractinian corals, as well as to a variety of other marine organisms. The genus Symbiodinium is genetically and functionally diverse and the taxonomic nature of the union between Symbiodinium and corals is implicated as a key trait determining the environmental tolerance of the symbiosis. Surprisingly, the question of how Symbiodinium diversity partitions within a species across spatial scales of meters to kilometers has received little attention, but is important to understanding the intrinsic biological scope of a given coral population and adaptations to the local environment. Here we address this gap by describing the Symbiodinium ITS2 sequence assemblages recovered from colonies of the reef building coral Montipora capitata sampled across K?ne'ohe Bay, Hawai'i. A total of 52 corals were sampled in a nested design of Coral Colony(Site(Region)) reflecting spatial scales of meters to kilometers. A diversity of Symbiodinium ITS2 sequences was recovered with the majority of variance partitioning at the level of the Coral Colony. To confirm this result, the Symbiodinium ITS2 sequence diversity in six M. capitata colonies were analyzed in much greater depth with 35 to 55 clones per colony. The ITS2 sequences and quantitative composition recovered from these colonies varied significantly, indicating that each coral hosted a different assemblage of Symbiodinium. The diversity of Symbiodinium ITS2 sequence assemblages retrieved from individual colonies of M. capitata here highlights the problems inherent in interpreting multi-copy and intra-genomically variable molecular markers, and serves as a context for discussing the utility and biological relevance of assigning species names based on Symbiodinium ITS2 genotyping. PMID:21246044

Stat, Michael; Bird, Christopher E; Pochon, Xavier; Chasqui, Luis; Chauka, Leonard J; Concepcion, Gregory T; Logan, Dan; Takabayashi, Misaki; Toonen, Robert J; Gates, Ruth D

2011-01-01

215

Measurement of ammonia emissions from tropical seabird colonies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The excreta (guano) of seabirds at their breeding colonies represents a notable source of ammonia (NH3) emission to the atmosphere, with effects on surrounding ecosystems through nitrogen compounds being thereby transported from sea to land. Previous measurements in temperate UK conditions quantified emission hotspots and allowed preliminary global upscaling. However, thermodynamic processes and water availability limit NH3 formation from guano, which suggests that the proportion of excreted nitrogen that volatilizes as NH3 may potentially be higher at tropical seabird colonies than similar colonies in temperate or sub-polar regions. To investigate such differences, we measured NH3 concentrations and environmental conditions at two tropical seabird colonies during the breeding season: a colony of 20,000tern spp. and noddies on Michaelmas Cay, Great Barrier Reef, and a colony of 200,000Sooty terns on Ascension Island, Atlantic Ocean. At both sites time-integrated NH3 concentrations and meteorological parameters were measured. In addition, at Ascension Island, semi-continuous hourly NH3 concentrations and micrometeorological parameters were measured throughout the campaign. Ammonia emissions, quantified using a backwards Lagrangian atmospheric dispersion model, were estimated at 21.8?gm-2s-1 and 18.9?gm-2s-1 from Michaelmas Cay and Ascension Island, respectively. High temporal resolution NH3 data at Ascension Island estimated peak hourly emissions up to 377?gNH3m2s-1. The estimated percentage fraction of total guano nitrogen volatilized was 67% at Michaelmas Cay and 32% at Ascension Island, with the larger value at the former site attributed to higher water availability. These values are much larger than published data for sub-polar locations, pointing to a substantial climatic dependence on emission of atmospheric NH3 from seabird colonies.

Riddick, S. N.; Blackall, T. D.; Dragosits, U.; Daunt, F.; Braban, C. F.; Tang, Y. S.; MacFarlane, W.; Taylor, S.; Wanless, S.; Sutton, M. A.

2014-06-01

216

Colonie Interim Storage Site annual site environmental report for calendar year 1989, Colonie, New York  

SciTech Connect

IN 1984, Congress assigned the cleanup of the National Lead (NL) Industries site in Colonie, New York, to the Department of Energy (DOE) as part of a decontamination research and development project under the 1984 Energy and Water Appropriations Act. DOE then included the site in the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), an existing DOE program to decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain for the early years of the nation's atomic energy program. DOE instituted an environmental monitoring program at the site in 1984. Results are presented annually in reports such as this. Under FUSRAP, the first environmental monitoring report for this site presented data for calendar year 1984. This report presents the findings of the environmental monitoring program conducted during calendar year 1989. 16 refs., 17 figs., 14 tabs.

Not Available

1990-05-01

217

Individuals in an osprey colony discriminate between high and low quality information  

Microsoft Academic Search

A potential benefit of living in a colony is that animals may gain information about the location of good foraging sites from other colony members1-3. The role of information transfer as a major benefit favouring the evolution of coloniality is, however, very poorly understood4. Information transfer has been demonstrated for only a few colonial vertebrate species5-7, but not all colonial

Erick Greene

1987-01-01

218

Colony size predicts division of labour in attine ants  

PubMed Central

Division of labour is central to the ecological success of eusocial insects, yet the evolutionary factors driving increases in complexity in division of labour are little known. The sizecomplexity hypothesis proposes that, as larger colonies evolve, both non-reproductive and reproductive division of labour become more complex as workers and queens act to maximize inclusive fitness. Using a statistically robust phylogenetic comparative analysis of social and environmental traits of species within the ant tribe Attini, we show that colony size is positively related to both non-reproductive (worker size variation) and reproductive (queenworker dimorphism) division of labour. The results also suggested that colony size acts on non-reproductive and reproductive division of labour in different ways. Environmental factors, including measures of variation in temperature and precipitation, had no significant effects on any division of labour measure or colony size. Overall, these results support the sizecomplexity hypothesis for the evolution of social complexity and division of labour in eusocial insects. Determining the evolutionary drivers of colony size may help contribute to our understanding of the evolution of social complexity. PMID:25165765

Ferguson-Gow, Henry; Sumner, Seirian; Bourke, Andrew F. G.; Jones, Kate E.

2014-01-01

219

Predatory drill holes and partial mortality in Devonian colonial metazoans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elliptical holes 0.2 0.3 mm in diameter with beveled edges have been found penetrating the zooids of encrusting hederellids (colonial metazoans of uncertain affinity) from several localities in the Middle Devonian (Givetian) of North America. These are the first known predatory drill holes in pre-Cretaceous colonial animals and a key addition to the record of Paleozoic predation. Some drill holes were subsequently patched from within by new skeletal material, proving that the drilling occurred during the life of the colony. These drill holes are analogous to predatory drill holes in some modern cheilostome bryozoans, which can be similarly patched, in this case by the intramural budding of a new zooid into the empty chamber of the old zooid. A drilling predator of unknown affinity evidently consumed hederellid zooids one at a time, inflicting partial mortality on the colonies. The mode of drilling suggests that the predator specialized in this type of colonial prey, and the repaired drill holes show that the hederellids had a response to such damage. Reports of small circular holes interpreted as predatory drill holes are becoming more common in noncolonial shelled invertebrates from the Paleozoic, notably brachiopods, bivalves, and crinoids. These drill holes are far less frequent than in post-Paleozoic shells (where most are the work of gastropods), and many are of questionable origin, with some representing the traces of parasites and others postmortem domichnia.

Wilson, Mark A.; Taylor, Paul D.

2006-07-01

220

Food preparation in colonial America. A Bicentennial study.  

PubMed

Both regional and national influences have pervaded America's culinary arts from colonial times until the present. In the South, for instance, indigenous foods, such as sweet potatoes--as well as an abundance of fruits and fowl--were commonly served. In the North, maple sirup was a New England product, as was codfish. Throughout the colonies, corn was easily grown and became a staple. Immigrants from the Old World brought their recipes to meld or adapt to conditions they met here. Recounted also is the unfolding of an American cuisine, especially in the southern colonies as it evolved from European food preparation practices. Cooking was done in great fireplaces, with equipment designed to fit. Meat was generally boiled or stewed in pots hung in the fireplace, although it might be slow-roasted on a hand-turned spit. Hot breads, the hallmark of southern cooking, date from colonial days. In the Noth, the Dutch farmer's wife developed real skill in using flour from home-grown wheat and rye, creating pancakes, waffles, doughnuts, crullers, and so on. After the first hard winter, food in New England became more plentiful. Boston brown bread was made from corn, wheat, or rye and probably sweetened with maple sirup. Imports of coffee, tea, and spices from the Orient and fruit from the tropics were later added to the cuisine. Colonial Americans understood well the art of food preparation and appreciated the taste of well prepared, well seasoned dishes. PMID:777076

Bennion, M

1976-07-01

221

Ant Colonies Prefer Infected over Uninfected Nest Sites  

PubMed Central

During colony relocation, the selection of a new nest involves exploration and assessment of potential sites followed by colony movement on the basis of a collective decision making process. Hygiene and pathogen load of the potential nest sites are factors worker scouts might evaluate, given the high risk of epidemics in group-living animals. Choosing nest sites free of pathogens is hypothesized to be highly efficient in invasive ants as each of their introduced populations is often an open network of nests exchanging individuals (unicolonial) with frequent relocation into new nest sites and low genetic diversity, likely making these species particularly vulnerable to parasites and diseases. We investigated the nest site preference of the invasive pharaoh ant, Monomorium pharaonis, through binary choice tests between three nest types: nests containing dead nestmates overgrown with sporulating mycelium of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum (infected nests), nests containing nestmates killed by freezing (uninfected nests), and empty nests. In contrast to the expectation pharaoh ant colonies preferentially (84%) moved into the infected nest when presented with the choice of an infected and an uninfected nest. The ants had an intermediate preference for empty nests. Pharaoh ants display an overall preference for infected nests during colony relocation. While we cannot rule out that the ants are actually manipulated by the pathogen, we propose that this preference might be an adaptive strategy by the host to immunize the colony against future exposure to the same pathogenic fungus. PMID:25372856

Pontieri, Luigi; Vojvodic, Svjetlana; Graham, Riley; Pedersen, Jes Se; Linksvayer, Timothy A.

2014-01-01

222

Ant Colonies Prefer Infected over Uninfected Nest Sites.  

PubMed

During colony relocation, the selection of a new nest involves exploration and assessment of potential sites followed by colony movement on the basis of a collective decision making process. Hygiene and pathogen load of the potential nest sites are factors worker scouts might evaluate, given the high risk of epidemics in group-living animals. Choosing nest sites free of pathogens is hypothesized to be highly efficient in invasive ants as each of their introduced populations is often an open network of nests exchanging individuals (unicolonial) with frequent relocation into new nest sites and low genetic diversity, likely making these species particularly vulnerable to parasites and diseases. We investigated the nest site preference of the invasive pharaoh ant, Monomorium pharaonis, through binary choice tests between three nest types: nests containing dead nestmates overgrown with sporulating mycelium of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum (infected nests), nests containing nestmates killed by freezing (uninfected nests), and empty nests. In contrast to the expectation pharaoh ant colonies preferentially (84%) moved into the infected nest when presented with the choice of an infected and an uninfected nest. The ants had an intermediate preference for empty nests. Pharaoh ants display an overall preference for infected nests during colony relocation. While we cannot rule out that the ants are actually manipulated by the pathogen, we propose that this preference might be an adaptive strategy by the host to "immunize" the colony against future exposure to the same pathogenic fungus. PMID:25372856

Pontieri, Luigi; Vojvodic, Svjetlana; Graham, Riley; Pedersen, Jes Se; Linksvayer, Timothy A

2014-01-01

223

'Rejected' vs. 'rejecting' transcriptomes in allogeneic challenged colonial urochordates.  

PubMed

In botryllid ascidians, allogeneic contacts between histoincompatible colonies lead to inflammatory rejection responses, which eventually separate the interacting colonies. In order to elucidate the molecular background of allogeneic rejection in the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri, we performed microarray assays verified by qPCR, and employed bioinformatic analyses of the results, revealing disparate transcription profiles of the rejecting partners. While only minor expression changes were documented during rejection when both interacting genotypes were pooled together, analyses performed on each genotype separately portrayed disparate transcriptome responses. Allogeneic interacting genotypes that developed the morphological markers of rejection (points of rejection; PORs), termed 'rejected' genotypes, showed transcription inhibition of key functional gene groups, including protein biosynthesis, cell structure and motility and stress response genes. In contrast, the allogeneic partners that did not show PORs, termed 'rejecting' genotypes, showed minor expression changes that were different from those of the 'rejected' genotypes. This data demonstrates that the observed morphological changes in the 'rejected' genotypes are not due to active transcriptional response to the immune challenge but reflect transcription inhibition of response elements. Based on the morphological and molecular outcomes we suggest that the 'rejected' colony activates an injurious self-destructive mechanism in order to disconnect itself from its histoincompatible neighboring colony. PMID:20452026

Oren, Matan; Paz, Guy; Douek, Jacob; Rosner, Amalia; Fishelson, Zvi; Goulet, Tamar L; Henckel, Kolja; Rinkevich, Baruch

2010-07-01

224

Neonicotinoid pesticide reduces bumble bee colony growth and queen production.  

PubMed

Growing evidence for declines in bee populations has caused great concern because of the valuable ecosystem services they provide. Neonicotinoid insecticides have been implicated in these declines because they occur at trace levels in the nectar and pollen of crop plants. We exposed colonies of the bumble bee Bombus terrestris in the laboratory to field-realistic levels of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid, then allowed them to develop naturally under field conditions. Treated colonies had a significantly reduced growth rate and suffered an 85% reduction in production of new queens compared with control colonies. Given the scale of use of neonicotinoids, we suggest that they may be having a considerable negative impact on wild bumble bee populations across the developed world. PMID:22461500

Whitehorn, Penelope R; O'Connor, Stephanie; Wackers, Felix L; Goulson, Dave

2012-04-20

225

The American Colony in Jerusalem, 1870-2006  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tremendous collection from the Library of Congress brings together over 10,000 manuscripts, maps, and visual materials from about a hundred years of the American Colony in Jerusalem. These materials were gifted to the Library of Congress in 2004, and the collection consists of photographs, pamphlets, telegrams, letters, book manuscripts, diaries, and ephemera that talk about the colony, along with addressing the broader history of Palestine and the Middle East in the 19th and 20th centuries. One of the highlights of the site is a special feature on the Bertha Vester diaries. Vester was the principal leader of the American Colony from 1923 to 1968, and her 48 diaries make for fascinating reading. The site also includes a timeline of events, and essays like "The Vester Diaries" and "A Community in Jerusalem".

226

Amplification of Emerging Viruses in a Bat Colony  

PubMed Central

Bats host noteworthy viral pathogens, including coronaviruses, astroviruses, and adenoviruses. Knowledge on the ecology of reservoir-borne viruses is critical for preventive approaches against zoonotic epidemics. We studied a maternity colony of Myotis myotis bats in the attic of a private house in a suburban neighborhood in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, during 2008, 2009, and 2010. One coronavirus, 6 astroviruses, and 1 novel adenovirus were identified and monitored quantitatively. Strong and specific amplification of RNA viruses, but not of DNA viruses, occurred during colony formation and after parturition. The breeding success of the colony was significantly better in 2010 than in 2008, in spite of stronger amplification of coronaviruses and astroviruses in 2010, suggesting that these viruses had little pathogenic influence on bats. However, the general correlation of virus and bat population dynamics suggests that bats control infections similar to other mammals and that they may well experience epidemics of viruses under certain circumstances. PMID:21392436

Drexler, Jan Felix; Corman, Victor Max; Wegner, Tom; Tateno, Adriana Fumie; Zerbinati, Rodrigo Melim; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Seebens, Antje; Muller, Marcel A.

2011-01-01

227

Effects of introducing foxes and raccoons on herring gull colonies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Red foxes (Vulpes fulva) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) released at colonies of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) on islands off the Massachusetts coast effectively eliminated the production of young gulls. Annual predator introductions for 2-4 years caused major reductions in colony size and occasionally total abandonment of the island as a colony site. Observations of the experimental islands for 2 years after cessation of predator introductions showed slow repopulation of the islands and lower breeding success than on control islands. The size of the regional population was reduced largely because of the movements of gulls off the experimental islands. The introduced predators are, in most cases, difficult to maintain on the islands; this restricts their utility in population management.

Kadlec, J.A.

1971-01-01

228

Estimating reproductive success in colonial waterbirds: An evaluation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To estimate reproductive success in a population one ideally would like to determine the number of young fledged per nesting female. However, this is difficult because often (1) the adults are not individually marked, (2) the colony is not visited daily, and (3) the investigator is unable to monitor all young until they fledge. If adults are unmarked and successful renesting occurs, reproductive success will be underestimated. If a colony is not visited daily and nests are initiated and lost between visits, reproductive success will be overestimated. The Mayfield method is one approach to overcoming this latter problem. Finally, nestling colonial birds are often able to move away from the nest site well before fledging and thus avoid being detected. To overcome this problem capture-recapture methods and enclosures have been used. In this paper we discuss these limitations and evaluate methods of dealing with them.

Erwin, R.M.; Custer, T.W.

1982-01-01

229

Artificial Bee Colony Optimization for Short-Term Hydrothermal Scheduling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artificial bee colony optimization is applied to determine the optimal hourly schedule of power generation in a hydrothermal system. Artificial bee colony optimization is a swarm-based algorithm inspired by the food foraging behavior of honey bees. The algorithm is tested on a multi-reservoir cascaded hydroelectric system having prohibited operating zones and thermal units with valve point loading. The ramp-rate limits of thermal generators are taken into consideration. The transmission losses are also accounted for through the use of loss coefficients. The algorithm is tested on two hydrothermal multi-reservoir cascaded hydroelectric test systems. The results of the proposed approach are compared with those of differential evolution, evolutionary programming and particle swarm optimization. From numerical results, it is found that the proposed artificial bee colony optimization based approach is able to provide better solution.

Basu, M.

2014-07-01

230

Colony differences in response to trapping in roseate terns  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Both members of seabird pairs are normally required to fledge young. Seabirds that nest in sites accessible to predators usually have one parent in attendance during the egg/chick phase. Time devoted to foraging can vary with individual skill and age, prey availability and abundance (Seamy 1978), and distance to foraging grounds (Safina 1990). Although average skill of similar-aged individuals should not vary from colony to colony (Ryder 1980), prey availability and abundance, and spatial distribution of foraging grounds may vary. Thus, the percent of time both members of a pair are present at the nest site may vary in different colonies. In this paper, we examine parental behavior in response to trapping in Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii) nesting in three of the six major colonies in the northeastern United States: Cedar Beach, New York, Falkner Island, Connecticut; and Bird Island, Massachusetts. Roseate Terns were listed on the United States? Endangered Species List in 1987. We were interested in differences among colonies in how often both parents were present, how soon a mate returned to the nest if one parent was temporarily removed, how soon a trapped bird returned to the nest after release, and the time during which the nest was left unguarded. We feel it is important to recognize and make management decisions based on colony differences where they exist. Our study follows directly from earlier work at Cedar Beach on trapping vulnerability of Common Terns (Sterna hirundo) and Roseate Terns. Nisbet reported that Roseate Terns at Bird Island required about three hours to return to the nest after trapping.

Burger, J.; Nisbet, I.C.T.; Zingo, J.M.; Spendelow, J.A.; Safina, C.; Gochfeld, M.

1995-01-01

231

Division of labour in colony defence against vertebrate predators by the social wasp Polistes fuscatus.  

PubMed

In this study I examined how the paper wasp, Polistes fuscatus, defends a colony when faced with a vertebrate attack. I looked for a division of labour in defensive behaviour within a colony and examined whether this behaviour changes over the colony cycle. The colonies were presented with a model of an adult red-winged blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus, and a speaker that vibrated the comb. There was a pronounced division of labour in the defence against vertebrate predators within a colony. The queen was consistently the most aggressive individual in the colony. The subordinate foundresses and workers both became more aggressive towards a vertebrate predator as they aged. Gynes and males did not participate in colony defence. The level of aggression in colony members of P. fuscatus appears to be related to the reproductive investment of the colony. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10924203

Judd

2000-07-01

232

Dyes as fungal inhibitors: effect on colony diameter.  

PubMed Central

The effects of a wide range of concentrations of 13 dyes on the colony diameters of nine fungal strains (including members of the Deuteromycetes and Zygomycetes) were evaluated. Auramine at a concentration of 50 ppm (50 micrograms/ml), methylene blue at a concentration of 500 ppm, gentian violet at a concentration of 5 ppm, and phenol red at a concentration of 50 ppm performed as well as the commonly used dyes dichloran at a concentration of 2 ppm and rose bengal at a concentration of 50 ppm in that they allowed adequate colony development of the Deuteromycetes strains tested and controlled rapidly spreading fungi. PMID:1768153

Bragulat, M R; Abarca, M L; Bruguera, M T; Cabaes, F J

1991-01-01

233

How natural infection by Nosema ceranae causes honeybee colony collapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In recent years, honeybees (Apis mellifera) have been strangely disappearing from their hives, and strong colonies have suddenly become weak and died. The precise aetiology underlying the disappearance of the bees remains a mystery. However, during the same period, Nosema ceranae, a microsporidium of the Asian bee Apis cerana, seems to have colonized A. mellifera, and it's now frequently

Mariano Higes; Raquel Martn-Hernndez; Cristina Botas; Encarna Garrido Bailn; Amelia V. Gonzlez-Porto; Laura Barrios; M. Jess del Nozal; Jos L. Bernal; Juan J. Jimnez; Pilar Garca Palencia; Arnzazu Meana

2008-01-01

234

The impact of perennial cormorant colonies on soil phosphorus status  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decades, the population of cormorants in Northern Europe has grown rapidly due to protection. Their impact on vegetation has been recognized, as many trees containing cormorant colonies have collapsed, but their influence on the soil phosphorus (P) status and related ecological impacts have not been studied in details.In this study, total and plant available P (PTotal, POlsen)

Henrik Breuning-Madsen; Camilla Bloch Ehlers; Ole K. Borggaard

2008-01-01

235

A Study of Colonial Surrogates and Indigenous Others.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Carlos Montezuma, an Apache, was raised by whites, graduated from medical school, and worked as physician for the Indian Service and Carlisle Indian School. Montezuma's life as colonial surrogate advocating "civilization" of the Indians is compared to Kafka's story of the ape who studied to become a passable European because it was "a way out" of

Willard, William

1993-01-01

236

Distribution of Carnus hemapterus in a starling colony  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of the haematophagous fly Carnus hemapterus among starling (Sturnus vulgaris) broods was investigated in a nest-box colony. Prevalence of infection was 94% among broods and 69% among individual nestlings, while median abundance was 54 flies per brood (range 0-284 flies; n = 33) and 8 flies per individual nestling (range 0-117 flies; n = 140). Parasites exhibited an

Andrs Liker; Mrta Mrkus; gnes Vozr; Eszter Zemankovics; Lajos Rzsa

2001-01-01

237

Solving Symmetric and Asymmetric TSPs by Ant Colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present ACS, a distributed algorithm for the solution of combinatorial optimization problems which was inspired by the observation of real colonies of ants. We apply ACS to both symmetric and asymmetric traveling salesman problems. Results show that ACS is able to find good solutions to these problems.

Luca Maria Gambardella; Marco Dorigo

1996-01-01

238

Water in British India: The Making of a `Colonial Hydrology'  

E-print Network

Water in British India: The Making of a `Colonial Hydrology' Rohan D'Souza* Jawaharlal Nehru since the first studies of Indian forestry were published. This essay surveys studies on water an altogether distinct paradigm for hydraulic interventions. Water in British India can be discussed in three

Sussex, University of

239

EXPLOITATION OF COMB CELLS FOR BROOD REARING IN HONEYBEE COLONIES  

E-print Network

the fraction of diploid drone larvae eaten by the workers. This indicates, that the queens did not stop egg after diploid drone larvae were eaten. When compared to normal colonies less sealed brood was present, and #12;homozygosity - in diploid drones (WOYKE, 1963 a). Diploid drone larvae are eaten by the workers

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

240

Original article Reproduction of Varroa jacobsoni in colonies  

E-print Network

the infestation with Varroa jacobsoni of drone and worker brood in Apis cerana colonies was checked monthly. Natural reproduction of the mite was found to be restricted to drone brood and to springtime are lack- ing. Therefore the question of why Varroa reproduction succeeds only on drone brood in cerana

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

241

The honeybee queen influences the regulation of colony drone production  

E-print Network

The honeybee queen influences the regulation of colony drone production Katie E. Wharton,a Fred C and regu- lation of males (drones). We examined whether honeybee queens can influence drone regulation by either allowing or prevent- ing them from laying drone eggs for a period of time and then examining

Huang, Zachary

242

Education Economy and Class in Colonial Jamaica 1700-1944  

Microsoft Academic Search

This discussion of colonial education in Jamaica proceeds by means of the dialectical method to answer several questions. Why did schooling emerge in Jamaica? Why did it assume its characteristic forms? What social forces acted upon the educational system either as dynamic or conservative influences? The dialectical method, outlined in Chapter One, consists of a sociological account of reality on

Duncan James Jeffrey

1980-01-01

243

Original article Observations on Apis cerana colonies surviving from  

E-print Network

Virus disease, showed disease symptoms earlier, with more severity and with a greater reduction A cerana and A mellifera (virus fed) colonies. Apis cerana / Thai Sacbrood Virus / virus disease / sacbrood INTRODUCTION Sacbrood Virus disease in the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera L, has been known since 1964

Boyer, Edmond

244

The Primary School Curriculum in a Colonial Society  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A history of primary school curriculum in Guyana, a former British colony, points out social determinates of curriculum. Ruling groups emphasized agriculture and manual arts in public education to maintain class distinctions while the masses fought for academic education as a key to financial and social success. (JH)

Bacus, M. Kazim

1974-01-01

245

Existential Thoughts in Fanon's Post-Colonialism Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Frantz Fanon, a pioneer of post-colonial theory, attempted to seek some unbeknown possibilities through a Sartrean existentialism thought toward ethnic liberation and the fighting against imperialism. This article tries to enter Fanon's short life that was full of humanism and existentialist thought and to explore the hidden theoretical context

Yeh, Chuan-Rong

2013-01-01

246

INVESTIGATION OF ANT COLONY ALGORITHM IN MULTIPLE TRAFFIC FLOW ENVIRONMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conventional approaches to routing and bandwidth allocation, the two major components of traffic engineering, have proved insufficient to address QoS requirements of flows while optimizing utilization for complex communication networks. In this paper we consider ant colony algorithms to address this problem. Our studies show that the ant-based routing models are sensitive to initial parameters settings. Only careful adjustments

Ali Tizghadam; Massoud Hashemi; Alberto Leon-Garcia

2009-01-01

247

State Information-based Ant Colony Clustering Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

State information-based ant colony clustering algorithm is proposed in the paper. The data object is denoted as an ant which has behaviors such as moving or sleeping, the state information's influence on the ants' behaviors is paid more attention. The reference value of ants' information in the static and active state is increased or decreased respectively. State information is taken

Jie Shen; Kun He; Liu-hua Wei; Lei Bi; Rong-shuang Sun; Fa-yan Xu

2008-01-01

248

The Ant Colony Optimization Metaheuristic: Algorithms, Applications, and Advances  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of ACO algorithms is very lively, as testified, for example, by the successful biannual workshop (ANTSFrom Ant Colonies to Artificial Ants: A Series of International Workshops on Ant Algorithms; http:\\/\\/iridia.ulb.ac.be\\/~ants\\/) where researchers meet to discuss the properties of ACO and other ant algorithms, both theoretically and experimentally.

Marco Dorigo; Thomas Sttzle

249

Colony nutrition skews reproduction in a social spider  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cooperative breeding societies are characterized by alloparental care and unequal distribution of reproduction (skewed reproduction). Competition for resources among group members may determine the reproductive outcome of each individual. In a spider colony, females feed together on prey and therefore may compete over the extraction of specific nutrients required for reproduction. Here we examined the occurrence of skewed reproduction in

Mor Salomon; David Mayntz; Yael Lubin

2008-01-01

250

Virginia Ham: The Local and Global of Colonial Foodways  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Virginia ham, a regional delicacy, provides a unique opportunity to explore the local and global dynamics at play in the colonial foodways of the British North Atlantic. Moving beyond the simple question of origins, I ask why people ate this food with such gusto in this period and place and seek to explain the ham's development and rise to

Megan E. Edwards

2011-01-01

251

Problematic spaces, problematic races: defining Europeans in late colonial India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers how women and men acquired European status in gender-specific ways in colonial India between the late nineteenth century and independence in 1947. Being considered European in this setting required far more than ancestry and biological attributes, and depended heavily on class, culture, occupation and ongoing imperial border crossings that allowed individuals to maintain direct contact with Britain.

Elizabeth Buettner

2000-01-01

252

Original article How a honey bee colony mustered additional labor  

E-print Network

of pollen foragers (N) was increased (by recruiting and task switching) by a factor of 12.4, while-foragers to the task and to a smaller extent (27%) by the switching of non-pollen foragers to the task. foraging / pollen collection / recruitment / task switching / work tempo 1. INTRODUCTION In colonies of social

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

253

Retina Vessel Detection Using Fuzzy Ant Colony Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vessel extraction in retina images is a primary and important step in studying diseases including vasculature changes. In this paper, a fuzzy clustering method based on Ant Colony Algorithm, inspired by food-searching natural behavior of ants, is described. Features of color retina images are extracted by eigenvalues analysis of Hessian matrix and Gabor filter bank. Artificial ants in the image

Sina Hooshyar; Rasoul Khayati

2010-01-01

254

White settlers and the law in early colonial Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines settler attitudes toward the law and the legal system in early colonial Kenya. Settlers believed that English law was the culmination of centuries of evolution and was unsurpassed for its justice and logic. Nonetheless, they insisted English law and legal procedure were supremely ill-suited for the African context. When courts released Africans on technicalities it only encouraged

Brett Shadle

2010-01-01

255

Trophic Interactions in a High Arctic Snow Goose Colony  

Microsoft Academic Search

SYNOPSIS. We examined the role of trophic interactions in structuring a high arctic tundra community characterized by a large breeding colony of greater snow geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica). According to the exploitation ecosystem hypothesis of Oksanen et al. (1981), food chains are controlled by top-down interactions. However, because the arctic primary productivity is low, herbivore populations are too small to

GILLES GAUTHIER; J OEL BETY; J EAN-FRANCO ISGIROUX; LINE ROCHEFORT

2004-01-01

256

Across the Colonial Divide: Conversations about Evaluation in Indigenous Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay engages questions of evaluator role and indigenous peoples participation in evaluation within colonial and decolonization contexts. Specifically, I critique the Western emphasis on cultural competence and contrast the utility of "mainstream" evaluation approaches alongside three indigenous inquiry models (Te Kotahitanga,

Cavino, Hayley Marama

2013-01-01

257

Methods and reagents. Reducing background colonies with positive selection vectors.  

PubMed

Methods and reagents is a unique monthly column that highlights current discussions in the newsgroup bionet.molbio.methds-reagnts, available on the Internet. This month's column discusses the pros and cons of eliminating unwanted background colonies by using the positive selection vector pZErO. For details on how to partake in the newsgroup, see the accompanying box. PMID:9066262

Hengen, P N

1997-03-01

258

Testis size increases with colony size in cliff swallows  

Microsoft Academic Search

By using a sample of over 800 male cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) that died during a rare climatic event in our Nebraska study area in 1996, we investigated how testis size was related to body size, age, parasite load, a bird's past colony-size history, and spleen size. Testis volume increased with body size. After correcting for body size, testis volume

Charles R. Brown; Mary Bomberger Brown

2003-01-01

259

Radio Telemetry of Hawaiian Green Turtles at Their Breeding Colony  

E-print Network

Radio Telemetry of Hawaiian Green Turtles at Their Breeding Colony Andrew E. Dizon to copulate and nest. In order to investigate these behaviors, we developed radio telemetry techniques to avoid potentially damaging interactions. The purpose of our study was to develop radio telemetry

260

Improved ant colony algorithm for customization system into supply chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

To establish the configuration relations of complex product structure in the process of customization into supply chain, a new product structure configuration model based on polychromatic graph theory was put forward. Then the optimum product structure configuration mathematical model was got and the improved ant colony algorithm was employed to solve the problem. The results showed that the solution quality

Xingyu Jiang; Jiaqi Jin; Kai Zhao; Wanshan Wang

2010-01-01

261

Urban Economics, Conduit-Colonialism and Public Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considerable amounts of money already come into the cities and the black communities, but go right out as payments to absentee landlords, exploitative merchants, credit gougers, and loan sharks, as well as in support of the colonial management system. (Author/JM)

Hamilton, Charles V.

1972-01-01

262

Pattern Formation of Bacterial Colonies by Escherichia coli  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the morphological diversity and change in bacterial colonies, using the bacterial species Escherichia coli, as a function of both agar concentration Ca and nutrient concentration Cn. We observed various colony patterns, classified them into four types by pattern characteristics and established a morphological diagram by dividing it into four regions. They are regions A [diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA)-like], B (Eden-like), C (concentric-ring), and D (fluid-spreading). In particular, we have observed a concentric-ring colony growth for E. coli. We focused on the periodic growth in region C and obtained the following results: (i) A colony grows cyclically with the growing front repeating an advance (migration phase) and a momentary rest (consolidation phase) alternately. (ii) The growth width L and the bulge width W in one cycle decrease asymptotically to certain values, when Ca is increased. (iii) L does not depend on Cn, while W is an increasing function of Cn. Plausible mechanisms are proposed to explain the experimental results, by comparing them with those obtained for other bacterial species such as Proteus mirabilis and Bacillus subtilis.

Tokita, Rie; Katoh, Takaki; Maeda, Yusuke; Wakita, Jun-ichi; Sano, Masaki; Matsuyama, Tohey; Matsushita, Mitsugu

2009-07-01

263

Ant colony system for a dynamic vehicle routing problem  

E-print Network

Problem (VRP) a fleet of vehicles with limited capacity has to be routed in order to visit a setAnt colony system for a dynamic vehicle routing problem R. Montemanni , L.M. Gambardella, A-6928 Manno-Lugano, Switzerland Abstract An aboundant literature on vehicle routing problems

Gambardella, Luca Maria

264

Globalization, Multiculturalism and Other Fictions: Colonialism for the New Millennium?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we critically examine different discourses of globalization and explore how concepts of globalization have been represented in organizational theory. We argue that, despite its celebra- tory rhetoric of 'one world, many peoples', notions of globalization are inextricably linked with the continued development of First World eco- nomies, creating new forms of colonial control in the so-called 'post-

Subhabrata Bobby Banerjee; Stephen Linstead

2001-01-01

265

On the performance of artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm is an optimization algorithm based on a particular intelligent behaviour of honeybee swarms. This work compares the performance of ABC algorithm with that of differential evolution (DE), particle swarm optimization (PSO) and evolutionary algorithm (EA) for multi-dimensional numeric problems. The simulation results show that the performance of ABC algorithm is comparable to those of the

Dervis Karaboga; Bahriye Basturk

2008-01-01

266

An Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm for Shop Scheduling Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We deal with the application of ant colony optimization to group shop scheduling, which is a general shop scheduling problem that includes, among others, the open shop scheduling problem and the job shop scheduling problem as special cases. The contributions of this paper are twofold. First, we propose a neighborhood structure for this problem by extending the well-known neighborhood structure

Christian Blum; Michael Sampels

2004-01-01

267

Cruelty and Empathy, Animals and Race, in Colonial Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whites in colonial Kenya deeply held to what was among the most bourgeois of sentiments, that of preventing cruelty to animals. Settlers and administrators alike witnessed what they considered heartless cruelty to animals perpetrated by Africans. Through the 1920s and 1930s, whites insisted that only the infliction of physical violence on African bodies could teach Africans not to be cruel

Brett L. Shadle

2012-01-01

268

A quantitative study of worker reproduction in honey bee colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 11 Apis mellifera colonies with laying queens, about 0.12% of the males produced derived from eggs laid by workers. This result requires explanation both of why workers produce any males, and, since they do, why they produce so few. Workers may maximize their inclusive fitness by forgoing reproduction, or their sterility may be due to to enforcement of the

P. Kirk Visscher

1989-01-01

269

Massive diversification in aging colonies of Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

The evolutionary success of bacteria depends greatly on their capacity to continually generate phenotypic diversity. Structured environments are particularly favorable for diversification because of attenuated clonal interference, which renders selective sweeps nearly impossible and enhances opportunities for adaptive radiation. We examined at the microscale level the emergence and the spatial and temporal dynamics of phenotypic diversity and their underlying causes in Escherichia coli colonies. An important dynamic heterogeneity in the growth, metabolic activity, morphology, gene expression patterns, stress response induction, and death patterns among cells within colonies was observed. Genetic analysis indicated that the phenotypic variation resulted mostly from mutations and that indole production, oxidative stress, and the RpoS-regulated general stress response played an important role in the generation of diversity. We observed the emergence and persistence of phenotypic variants within single colonies that exhibited variable fitness compared to the parental strain. Some variants showed improved capacity to produce biofilms, whereas others were able to use different nutrients or to tolerate antibiotics or oxidative stress. Taken together, our data show that bacterial colonies provide an ecological opportunity for the generation and maintenance of vast phenotypic diversity, which may increase the probability of population survival in unpredictable environments. PMID:24982303

Saint-Ruf, Claude; Garfa-Traor, Meriem; Collin, Valrie; Cordier, Corinne; Franceschi, Christine; Matic, Ivan

2014-09-01

270

Fanon's politics of culture: the colonial situation and its extension  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea of cultural resistance has been taken up in combative analysis of metropolitan racist situations. It is a legacy from analyses by combatants in anti-colonial struggles. Fanon's were among the most searching of such analyses. His writings indicate an unusual concept of culture and of a people. The concept is at the same time of a political subject and

Stephan Feuchtwang

1985-01-01

271

Light induced larval release of a colonial ascidian  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larval release and photobehavior were studied in the colonial ascidian Polyandrocarpa zorritensis. The test hypothesis was that if larval release is induced by light, then larvae should be attracted to settlement areas where light is sufficient for larval release. Light induced larval release but the time course varied with light intensity. As the intensity of either sunlight or blue-green light

Richard B Forward; James M Welch; Craig M Young

2000-01-01

272

The View from the Veranda: Understanding Today's Colonial Student  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Like the steady stream of colonial families of decades past traveling to their country's dominions abroad, contemporary education abroad students are similar passengers on a powerful steamship bound for lands of new sounds, sights and wonders. Although their studies may be challenging and demanding, students are exhilarated with thoughts of new

Ogden, Anthony

2008-01-01

273

Complex Components of Habitat Suitability within a Butterfly Colony  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microdistribution of adult Euphydryas editha changes from year to year, and the colony is subdivided into three populations that fluctuate independently in size. These observations are attributed largely to fluctuations in time and space of three complex larval resources associated with the availability of food. This complexity also entails selection pressure favoring the observed low dispersal tendency of adults.

Michael C. Singer

1972-01-01

274

Complex Components of Habitat Suitability within a Butterfly Colony.  

PubMed

The microdistribution of adult Euphydryas editha changes from year to year, and the colony is subdivided into three populations that fluctuate independently in size. These observations are attributed largely to fluctuations in time and space of three complex larval resources associated with the availability of food. This cotnplexity also entails selection pressure favoring the observed low dispersal tendency of adults. PMID:17784423

Singer, M C

1972-04-01

275

ACS-TS: train scheduling using ant colony system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops an algorithm for the train scheduling problem using the ant colony system metaheuristic called ACS-TS. At first, a mathematical model for a kind of train scheduling problem is developed and then the algorithm based on ACS is presented to solve the problem. The problem is considered as a traveling salesman problem (TSP) wherein cities represent the trains.

Keivan Ghoseiri; Fahimeh Morshedsolouk

2006-01-01

276

Tackling Maori Masculinity: A Colonial Genealogy of Savagery and Sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contextualization In the nineteenth century Mori masculine physicality was, like the untamed countryside, something to be conquered and civilized; in the twentieth century it was something to be harnessed to provide manual labor for New Zealands developing colonial nation; in the twenty-first century it has become a spectacle played out by the overachievement of tne (Mori men) on the sports

Brendan Hokowhitu

2004-01-01

277

Dynamic Wavelength Routing in WDM Networks via Ant Colony Optimization  

E-print Network

Dynamic Wavelength Routing in WDM Networks via Ant Colony Optimization Ryan M. Garlick1 and Richard Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275 USA Abstract. This study considers the routing and wavelength assignment problem (RWA) in optical wavelength-division multiplexed networks. The focus is dynamic traffic

Barr, Richard

278

Research of the Image Segmentation Based on Ant Colony Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant colony algorithm, based on behavior of real ants, is a natural approach to establish from their nest to food source. An ant moves randomly and detects a previously laid pheromone on a path in order to find the shortest way between their nest and the food source. Ant system algorithm is an important methodology to apply on non-linear optimal

Zhe Yan; Han-ming Gu

2009-01-01

279

Science and Religion in Colonial America: The Early Days  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of science to validate biblical accounts or prove the existence of God began in the United States with the publication of Cotton Mather's The Christian Philosopher. Cotton Mather is generally remembered for his role in the Salem Witch Trials but his contribution in bringing science to Colonial America is not well known. Mather had an extensive library, was

Bruce Kirk Oldfield

280

Generic cabling with restrictions based on ant colony algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generic cabling is the key component and one of the basic foundations of intelligent buildings. According to the analysis of the theory and operation flow in generic cabling, generic cabling is a multiplex cable wiring problem and we have evolved the known conditions and the index constraints affecting generic cabling. A mathematical model was built based on ant the colony

Yunlong Wang; Guiming Luo

2010-01-01

281

Reliving Colonial Days in Your Classroom. Curriculum Boosters. Social Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article presents hands-on classroom projects to teach elementary students about colonial American history. Students make their own natural dyes, cook blueberry slump, and play cup-and-ball the way the colonists did. The activities integrate science, math, history, art, and language arts. (SM)

Hennessey, Gail Skroback

1994-01-01

282

Art Education in Colonial India: Implementation and Imposition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Historical inquiry in art education forms the basis of any research undertaken in the field. It is on this path that we discover ignored moments and personalities and clarify challenging ideas, thus approaching history from multiple perspectives. This historical study attempts to reframe the past of colonial Indian art education within the broader

Kantawala, Ami

2012-01-01

283

Making Colonial Subjects: Education in the Age of Empire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores two attempts to envisage a new global world, one created by the West, and to create new colonial subjects. One of these attempts was in Sierra Leone in the 1790s, the other in India in the 1830s. The two case studies are seen through the lens of a father and son, Zachary and Thomas Babington Macaulay, each a representative

Hall, Catherine

2008-01-01

284

Incidence of congenital abnormalities in a beagle colony  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The incidence and type of congenital abnormalities occurring in a closed beagle colony over a 7-year period is recorded. Examination included I 360 pups at birth, 758 of which were also autopsied at an age of about 20 months: 9 major abnormalities and 6 cases of cryptorchidism were found, an overall incidence of 1.1 %.

R. Marsboom; J. Spruyt; C. H. Van Ravestyn

1971-01-01

285

Rapidly Developing Yeast Microcolonies Differentiate in a Similar Way to Aging Giant Colonies  

PubMed Central

During their development and aging on solid substrates, yeast giant colonies produce ammonia, which acts as a quorum sensing molecule. Ammonia production is connected with alkalization of the surrounding medium and with extensive reprogramming of cell metabolism. In addition, ammonia signaling is important for both horizontal (colony centre versus colony margin) and vertical (upper versus lower cell layers) colony differentiations. The centre of an aging differentiated giant colony is thus composed of two major cell subpopulations, the subpopulation of long-living, metabolically active and stress-resistant cells that form the upper layers of the colony and the subpopulation of stress-sensitive starving cells in the colony interior. Here, we show that microcolonies originating from one cell pass through similar developmental phases as giant colonies. Microcolony differentiation is linked to ammonia signaling, and cells similar to the upper and lower cells of aged giant colonies are formed even in relatively young microcolonies. A comparison of the properties of these cells revealed a number of features that are similar in microcolonies and giant colonies as well as a few that are only typical of chronologically aged giant colonies. These findings show that colony age per se is not crucial for colony differentiation. PMID:23970946

Vachova, Libuse; Hatakova, Ladislava; Cap, Michal; Pokorna, Michaela; Palkova, Zdena

2013-01-01

286

Natural Law & Lawlessness: Modern Lessons from Pirates, Lepers, Eskimos, and Survivors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural experiments of history present an opportunity to test Hobbes' view of government and law as the wellspring of social order. Groups have found themselves in a wide variety of situations in which no governmental law existed, from shipwrecks to gold mining camps to failed states. Yet the wide variety of situations show common patterns among the groups in

Paul H Robinson

2012-01-01

287

Microsatellite genotyping of red imported fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) colonies reveals that most colonies persist in plowed pastures.  

PubMed

Our study focused on colony dynamics of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), in relation to the standard practice of planting rye grass (i.e., plowing) in the fall in Louisiana. Microsatellite molecular markers were used to determine genotypes of individuals from red imported fire ant colonies. These markers allowed us to monitor treatment effect by detecting changes in number and location of colonies in response to disking of pasture plots. Previous research on mound disturbance as a form of cultural control in pastures has produced mixed results. We found that the majority of colonies persisted on plots after plowing. Mound density and mound area, 5 mo after plowing, were not significantly different among treatments. In contrast, April measurements of mound volume were significantly smaller on plowed plots compared with control plots. A closer look at the rebuilding of mounds on plowed plots, during the 5 mo, showed that mound heights stayed below pretreatment measurements and they were significantly smaller than those of undisturbed mounds. Whether plowing has potential for use as a cultural control technique in reducing the impact of red imported fire ant mounds on agricultural practices in pastures remains to be seen. Conceivably, the best application of this technique will be in combination with other control measures in an integrated pest management approach to control red imported fire ants in pastures. PMID:18767710

Colby, D; Husseneder, C; Foil, L

2008-08-01

288

Varroa destructor Infestation in Untreated Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies Selected for Hygienic Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies bred for hygienic behavior were tested in a large field trial to determine if they were able to resist the parasitic mite Varroa destructor better than unselected colonies of \\

Marla Spivak; Gary S. Reuter

2001-01-01

289

Comparative studies on the characteristics of proliferation and differentiation of spleen colony-forming cells  

SciTech Connect

Using a single spleen colony transplantation technique and sex chromosome typing as a natural cytogenetic marker, most spleen colony-forming cells (CFC) in adult bone marrow or fetal livers of inbred LACA or C57 mice re-established hemopoiesis in lethally irradiated mice when the spleen colonies were sampled at 13 days after transplantation. However, most of the spleen colony-forming cells in the peripheral blood of normal mice possess little potential for proliferation and are less efficient in the re-establishment of hemopoiesis in lethally irradiated mice. The CFC population is heterogeneous in the mice. From the subsequent retransplantation of colonies from colony-forming cells in the peripheral blood, the simple assessment of spleen colony-forming units (CFU-s) content, based on the number of splenic colonies, does not reliably represent the content of hemopoietic stem cells.

Wu, C.T.; Liu, M.P.; Chu, J.P.

1985-11-01

290

Low-cost, high-throughput, automated counting of bacterial colonies.  

PubMed

Research involving bacterial pathogens often requires enumeration of bacteria colonies. Here, we present a low-cost, high-throughput colony counting system consisting of colony counting software and a consumer-grade digital camera or document scanner. We demonstrate that this software, called "NICE" (NIST's Integrated Colony Enumerator), can count bacterial colonies as part of a high-throughput multiplexed opsonophagocytic killing assay used to characterize pneumococcal vaccine efficacy. The results obtained with NICE correlate well with the results obtained from manual counting, with a mean difference of less than 3%. NICE is also rapid; it can count colonies from multiple reaction wells within minutes and export the results to a spreadsheet for data processing. As this program is freely available from NIST, NICE should be helpful in bacteria colony enumeration required in many microbiological studies, and in standardizing colony counting methods. PMID:20140968

Clarke, Matthew L; Burton, Robert L; Hill, A Nayo; Litorja, Maritoni; Nahm, Moon H; Hwang, Jeeseong

2010-08-01

291

Reproductive dynamics and colony structure of subterranean termites of the genus Reticulitermes  

E-print Network

Reproductive dynamics and colony structure of subterranean termites of the genus Reticulitermes structure, and possible modes of reproductive organization. (2) To infer colony structure, we simulate-derived parents to complex, intercon- nected nests containing numerous inbreeding neotenic reproductives. Patterns

Yorke, James

292

Controlled Use of a Robot Colony Power Supply Gary B. Parker  

E-print Network

controller was implemented to direct the hexapod colony robot behavior according to its power supply status: hexapod, power supply, capacitors, colony, robots, Analog-to-Digital converter, voltage sensor, photocell

Parker, Gary B.

293

CONTINUOUS POWER SUPPLY FOR A ROBOT COLONY GARY PARKER, CONNECTICUT COLLEGE, USA, parker@conncoll.edu  

E-print Network

of capacitors that would allow the hexapod robot to walk for 3 minutes without recharging. Recharging station. KEYWORDS: hexapod, power supply, capacitors, colony, robots 1. INTRODUCTION A robot colony allows

Parker, Gary B.

294

POPULATION CHANGE AND NOSEMA SPORE LEVELS IN COLONIES STARTED WITH PACKAGE BEES  

E-print Network

POPULATION CHANGE AND NOSEMA SPORE LEVELS IN COLONIES STARTED WITH PACKAGE BEES T. LEHNERT H. SHIMANUKI Bioenvironmental Bee Laboratory, Federal Research Science and Education Administration, USDA, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 SUMMARY Ten colonies with yellow bees and black queens were established

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

295

Geographic structure of ade??lie penguin populations: Overlap in colony-specific foraging areas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In an investigation of the factors leading to geographic structuring among Ade??lie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) populations, we studied the size and overlap of colony-specific foraging areas within an isolated cluster of colonies. The study area, in the southwestern Ross Sea, included one large and three smaller colonies, ranging in size from 3900 to 135000 nesting pairs, clustered on Ross and Beaufort Islands. We used triangulation of radio signals from transmitters attached to breeding penguins to determine foraging locations and to define colony-specific foraging areas during the chick-provisioning period of four breeding seasons, 1997-2000. Colony populations (nesting pairs) were determined using aerial photography just after egg-laying; reproductive success was estimated by comparing ground counts of chicks fledged to the number of breeding pairs apparent in aerial photos. Foraging-trip duration, meal size, and adult body mass were estimated using RFID (radio frequency identification) tags and an automated reader and weighbridge. Chick growth was assessed by weekly weighing. We related the following variables to colony size: foraging distance, area, and duration; reproductive success; chick meal size and growth rate; and seasonal variation in adult body mass. We found that penguins foraged closest to their respective colonies, particularly at the smaller colonies. However, as the season progressed, foraging distance, duration, and area increased noticeably, especially at the largest colony. The foraging areas of the smaller colonies overlapped broadly, but very little foraging area overlap existed between the large colony and the smaller colonies, even though the foraging area of the large colony was well within range of the smaller colonies. Instead, the foraging areas of the smaller colonies shifted as that of the large colony grew. Colony size was not related to chick meal size, chick growth, or parental body mass. This differed from the year previous to the study, when foraging trips of the large colony were very long, parents lost mass, and chick meals were smaller. In light of existing data on prey abundance in neritic waters in Antarctica suggesting that krill are relatively evenly distributed and in high abundance in the Southern Ross Sea, we conclude that penguins depleted or changed the availability of their prey, that the degree of alteration was a function of colony size, and that the large colony affected the location (and perhaps ultimately the size) of foraging areas for the smaller colonies. It appears, therefore, that foraging dynamics play a role in the geographic structuring of colonies in this species. ?? 2004 by the Ecological Society of America.

Ainley, D. G.; Ribic, C. A.; Ballard, G.; Heath, S.; Gaffney, I.; Karl, B. J.; Barton, K. J.; Wilson, P. R.; Webb, S.

2004-01-01

296

Variability of Trace-Metal Concentrations Within and Between Colonies of Pocillopora damicornis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variations of cadmium, lead, copper, nickel and chromium concentrations in tissues and skeletons of the scleractinian coral Pocillopora damicornis were measured to provide information for designing bio-assay surveys involving this organism. Intra-colony variations were measured using multiple portions from individual colonies, and inter-colony variations were measured using single portions from different colonies of a coral community. We found that specific

G. Esslemont; V. J. Harriott; D. M. McConchie

2000-01-01

297

The evolution of the British approach to colonial development policy 1929-1940  

E-print Network

to reevaluate current colonial policies. The Mandate System, which was initiated under the League of Nations after World War I, emphasized the responsibilities that colonial powers had to the inhabitants of their territories. The system, which was applied... to reevaluate current colonial policies. The Mandate System, which was initiated under the League of Nations after World War I, emphasized the responsibilities that colonial powers had to the inhabitants of their territories. The system, which was applied...

Murphy, Angela Batt

2012-06-07

298

Small hive beetle, Aethina tumida , populations I: Infestation levels of honeybee colonies, apiaries and regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small hive beetle (SHB) is a parasite and scavenger of honeybee colonies. Here we provide the first comprehensive systematic\\u000a data on colony infestation levels with adult SHB for 226 colonies at 31 apiaries in South Africa, Australia, Florida and Maryland.\\u000a Inside colonies, SHB distribution was influenced by the presence of bees with more SHB in the brood nest in

Sebastian Spiewok; Jeff S. Pettis; Michael Duncan; Robert Spooner-Hart; David Westervelt; Peter Neumann

2007-01-01

299

Nutritional stress due to habitat loss may explain recent honeybee colony collapses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of the tremendous public interest in the recent large honeybee losses attributed to colony collapse disorder, there is still no definitive explanation for the phenomenon. With the hypothesis that nutritional stress due to habitat loss has played an important role in honeybee colony collapse, I analyze the land use data in United States to show that the colony

Dhruba Naug

2009-01-01

300

Coastal Colonies and the Collapse of Tiwanaku: The Coastal Osmore Valley, Per  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the Tiwanaku state (500 AD-1000 AD) is often said to have planted colonies in the coastal valleys of southern Peru and northern Chile, recent systematic survey and excavation in three potential colony sites finds no evidence of Tiwanaku state colonies in the coastal Osmore valley, not even at Loreto Viejo, a frequently cited \\

Bruce Owen

1992-01-01

301

Metapopulation consequences of site fidelity for colonially breeding mammals and birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Many far-ranging bird and mammal species aggregate in colonies to breed, and most individuals remain faithful to one colony. Here, we use modelling to explore the con- sequences of this site fidelity for the metapopulation dynamics of such species. 2. We develop a spatially explicit model of the annual transfer process between colonies. We apply it to different

JASON MATTHIOPOULOS; JOHN HARWOOD; LEN THOMAS

2005-01-01

302

Deformed wing virus implicated in over-wintering honeybee colony losses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The worldwide decline in honeybee colonies during the past 50 years has often been linked to the spread of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and its interaction with certain honeybee viruses. Recently in the United States, dramatic honeybee losses (colony collapse disorder) have been reported; however, there remains no clear explanation for these colony losses, with parasitic mites, viruses, bacteria,

Andrea C. Highfield; Aliya El Nagar; Luke C. M. Mackinder; Laure M.-L. J. Noel; Matthew J. Hall; Stephen J. Martin; Declan C. Schroeder

2009-01-01

303

Changes in transcript abundance relating to colony collapse disorder in honey bees (Apis mellifera)  

E-print Network

Changes in transcript abundance relating to colony collapse disorder in honey bees (Apis mellifera R. Berenbaum, July 14, 2009 (sent for review February 18, 2009) Colony collapse disorder (CCD catastrophic losses of unknown origin. The phenomenon, called colony collapse dis- order (CCD), was identified

Robinson, Gene E.

304

January/February 2007 Colony Collapse Disorder Honey Bee Breeding Hivastan  

E-print Network

__________________________________________________________________________________________ Colony Collapse Disorder Honey Bee Breeding Hivastan® for Varroa Control Bumble Bees & Almonds 2 __________________________________________________________________________________________ Colony Collapse Disorder This is one way to bring our profession into the limelight, but not the best way the country taking samples of bees and combs (from collapsing and seemingly healthy colonies) and asking

Ferrara, Katherine W.

305

The Politics of Writing Tribal Identities in the Sudan: The Case of the Colonial Nuba Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Linguistics is implicated in the colonial project of the invention of "self-contained" "racial" and "tribal units" in the Sudan. This paper has two objectives. First, to historicise the notions of "language" in the postcolonial discourse of language planning in the Sudan by reviewing one of the significant colonial policies: the colonial Nuba

Abdelhay, Ashraf Kamal

2010-01-01

306

Honey bee primer pheromones and colony organization: gaps in our knowledge  

E-print Network

Review Honey bee primer pheromones and colony organization: gaps in our knowledge Mark L. Winstona knowledge concerning how honey bee primer pheromones mediate worker activities and colony functions. We/DIB/AGIB/Elsevier, Paris Apis mellifera / primer pheromones / queen pheromones / colony integration 1. INTRODUCTION

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

307

Genetic and morphological differentiation between the two largest breeding colonies of Audouin's Gull Larus audouinii  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the genetic and morphological differences between the two largest breeding colonies of Audouin's Gull Larus audouinii , an endemic seabird species of the Mediterranean region. The two colonies comprise c. 75% of the total world population and are 655 km apart. The Ebro Delta colony was formed recently and, after dramatic growth mainly due to high rates of

Meritxell Genovart; Daniel Oro; Francois Bonhomme

2003-01-01

308

Distribution species abundance and nesting site use of Atlantic coast colonies of herons and their allies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1975 and 1976, 8 teams of investigators located 262 colonies of nesting herons and their allies along the Atlantic coast from Florida to Maine [USA]. Fourteen species [Ajaia ajaja, Plegadis falcinellus, Nycticorax nycticorax, Ardea herodias, Eudocimus albus, Egretta thula, Hydranassa tricolor, Bubulcus ibis, Casmerodius albus, Butorides striatus, Florida caerulea, Dichromanassa rufescens, Nyctanassa violacea and Mycteria americana] were found in Florida, numbers decreasing to 7 in Maine. Colonies censused in the extreme south and north of the study area were lower in number of species and number of adults than those in the intermediate area. More than 90% of the colony sites surveyed in 1975 were active in 1976. The total number of nesting adults per colony, number of species per colony and number of nesting adults of each species per colony in 1976 were significantly correlated with their respective values for 1975. Abandoned and new colonies may be satellites of nearby reused colonies; they had fewer individuals and species than reused colonies and were closer to reused colonies than reused colonies were to each other. [This study was part of an attempt to examine colonially nesting herons as biological indicators of environmental quality.

Custer, T. W.; Osborn, R. G.; Stout, W. F.

1980-01-01

309

Original article The effect of drone comb on a honey bee colony's  

E-print Network

Original article The effect of drone comb on a honey bee colony's production of honey* Thomas D on a colony's honey production of providing it with a nat- ural amount (20%) of drone comb. Over 3 summers, for the period mid May to late August, I mea- sured the weight gains of 10 colonies, 5 with drone comb and 5

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

310

No actual conflict over colony inheritance despite high potential conflict in the social wasp Polistes dominulus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social insect societies are outstanding examples of cooperation and conflict. Individuals work together, yet seek to increase their inclusive fitness at each others' expense. One such conflict is over colony inheritance, when a queen inherits the colony following the death of the previous queen. Colony inheritance is common in the social wasp Polistes dominulus, and it can have dramatic fitness

Thibaud Monnin; Alessandro Cini; Vincent Lecat; Pierre Federici; Claudie Doums

2009-01-01

311

South Sudan: institutional legacy of colonialism and the making of a new state  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper argues that the post-colonial crisis of citizenship demands a rethinking of the paradigm of viewing colonialism simply as a system of economic exploitation to viewing colonialism as a political project that is anchored in law. The paper provides a historical and post-referendum analysis of the political division between North and South Sudan. As South Sudan seeks to build

Christopher Zambakari

2012-01-01

312

A survey of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in laboratory animal colonies in the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Of 38 animal colonies serologically examined for Encephalitozoon cuniculi, 1 mouse, 2 rat and 4 guineapig colonies were positive. A further survey showed that the prevalence within mouse, rat, guinea- pig and rabbit colonies varied between 25 and 95%. Guineapigs housed with infected rabbits are at a greater risk of being infected than those housed separately. Nephritis was a

J. Gannon

1980-01-01

313

Flow rate and vertical position influence ingestion rates of colonial zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. Zebra mussels aggregate to form dense colonies where, depending on the flow rate, individuals in different vertical locations within the colony may experience restricted food availability. 2. Using 32P-labelled Chlamydomonas angulosa, we found ingestion rates of individual mussels located at the surface to exceed those in the bottom of a 6 cm thick colony by up to 75%.

NANCY C. T UCHMAN; R OMI L. B URKS; C HRISTOPHER; J OHN S MARRELLI

2004-01-01

314

Optimisation par colonies de fourmis pour le problme du sac dos multidimensionnel  

E-print Network

Optimisation par colonies de fourmis pour le problème du sac à dos multidimensionnel Inès Alaya (Ant Colony Optimization / ACO) pour résoudre le problème du sac à dos multidimensionnel. L competitive results. MOTS-CL?S : Optimisation par colonies de fourmis, Problème du sac à dos multidimensionnel

Solnon, Christine

315

The Colonial Mentality Scale (CMS) for Filipino Americans: Scale Construction and Psychological Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colonial mentality, or internalized colonialism, has been discussed by scholars and by Filipino American community members as a significant factor in the experiences of contemporary Filipino Americans, yet this construct has not received empirical attention in psychology. The authors of the current study addressed this gap in the Asian American psychological literature by developing the Colonial Mentality Scale for Filipino

E. J. R. David; Sumie Okazaki

2006-01-01

316

Reduced availability of refuse and breeding output in a herring gull (Larus argentatus) colony  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the reproductive performance of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) in an old stable colony in SW Finland. Over the period 1993-1997, the colony decreased, and the garbage dumps the birds may have utilised have all closed. This had an effect on the breeding performance of the colony when comparing the year prior to the closing of the last garbage

Mikael Kilpi; Markus st

317

Journal of Theoretical Biology 225 (2003) 9197 Growth dynamics of Bacillus circulans colony  

E-print Network

Journal of Theoretical Biology 225 (2003) 91­97 Growth dynamics of Bacillus circulans colony investigated the growth dynamics of Bacillus circulans colony exhibiting the knotted-branching pattern rights reserved. Keywords: Growth dynamics; Bacillus circulans colony; Knotted-branching pattern

Wakano, Joe Yuichiro

318

Colony Hybridization: A Method for the Isolation of Cloned DNAs that Contain a Specific Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method has been developed whereby a very large number of colonies of Escherichia coli carrying different hybrid plasmids can be rapidly screened to determine which hybrid plasmids contain a specified DNA sequence or genes. The colonies to be screened are formed on nitrocellulose filters, and, after a reference set of these colonies has been prepared by replica plating, are

Michael Grunstein; David S. Hogness

1975-01-01

319

The culture of failure: racism, violence and white farming in colonial Swaziland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent geographical writing on colonial discourses, influenced by Said and his imitators, has tended to view colonial racism primarily as an imperial creation and projection. Racial discourses of the centre were, in fact, reworked and reformulated in local colonial settings, not just by officials, governors, missionaries and transient travellers, but by those who tried to put the native to work.

Jonathan Crush

1996-01-01

320

Testing the blank slate hypothesis: why honey bee colonies accept young bees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Special features facilitate the admission of new members, such as neonates, to otherwise closed animal societies. In eusocial insects, such as honeybees and paper wasps, young adults acquire a colony recognition phenotype from other colony members or nesting materials. Older adults must exempt them from expulsion during the acquisition period. Newly emerged adult honeybees gain tolerance in their colony

M. D. Breed; S. Perry; L. B. Bjostad

2004-01-01

321

Genetic variation in worker temporal polyethism and colony defensiveness in the honey bee, Apis mellifera  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the hypothesis that colonies of honey bees composed of workers with faster rates of adult behavioral development are more defensive than colonies composed of workers with slower behavioral development, we determined whether there is a correlation between genetic variation in worker temporal polyethism and colony defensiveness. There was a positive correlation for these two traits, both for European

Tugrul Giray; Ernesto Guzman-Novoa; Carol W. Aron; Benjamin Zelinsky; Susan E. Fahrbach; Gene E. Robinsona

2000-01-01

322

The Trojan hives: pollinator pathogens, imported and distributed in bumblebee colonies  

E-print Network

The Trojan hives: pollinator pathogens, imported and distributed in bumblebee colonies Peter of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QG, UK Summary 1. Over a million commercially produced bumblebee colonies produced bumblebee colonies are accordingly now often sold and imported as being parasite-free. 2. Here, we

323

The ontogeny of a dominance hierarchy in colonies of the Bumblebee Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera, Apidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We investigated the ontogeny of the social structure in relation to the reproductive success of its members in four colonies of the bumblebeeBombus terrestris L. In all four colonies, the time of colony development was divided into four periods. Only in the last period did worker-oviposition occur.

A. Doorn; J. Heringa

1986-01-01

324

Chemical basis for inter-colonial aggression in the stingless bee Scaptotrigona bipunctata (Hymenoptera: Apidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inter-colonial aggression was tested using three colonies of Scaptotrigona bipunctata in a natural setting when their nests were moved and by artificial contact between individuals. Examination of the cuticular lipids of individuals from two colonies kept under identical conditions showed clear differences in their cuticular hydrocarbon profiles. The cuticular lipids were a mixture of hydrocarbons (saturated and unsaturated alkanes and

H. Jungnickel; A. j. s. Da Costa; J. Tentschert; Eda Flvia L. R. A Patricio; V. L Imperatriz-Fonseca; F Drijfhout; E. D Morgan

2004-01-01

325

Nest spacing in relation to settlement time in colonial cliff swallows  

Microsoft Academic Search

How colonial animals space their nests in relation to conspecifics may provide clues as to whether coloniality provides net benefits or occurs only because breeding sites are limited. We examined how nearest-neighbour distance varied in relation to settlement time in the highly colonial cliff swallow, Petrochelidon pyrrhonota, comparing observed nearest-neighbour distances to those expected if birds spread out to maximize

Charles R. Brown; Mary Bomberger Brown

2000-01-01

326

A distance-dependent estimation of foraging ranges of neighbouring bird colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reliable estimation of foraging ranges is often an indispensable prerequisite of research in animal ecology and in species conservation. In colonial species, home ranges of members of one colony are frequently overlapping and for practical and theoretical reasons, it can be necessary to assess the foraging areas of whole colonies. Here, we show a method to calculate foraging areas

Erwin Nemeth; Peter Bossew; Christoph Plutzar

2005-01-01

327

Social foraging in honey bees: how nectar foragers assess their colony's nutritional status  

Microsoft Academic Search

A honey bee colony operates as a tightly integrated unit of behavioral action. One manifestation of this in the context of foraging is a colony's ability to adjust its selectivity among nectar sources in relation to its nutritional status. When a colony's food situation is good, it exploits only highly profitable patches of flowers, but when its situation is poor,

Thomas D. Seeley

1989-01-01

328

Collective decision-making in honey bees: how colonies choose among nectar sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

A honey bee colony can skillfully choose among nectar sources. It will selectively exploit the most profitable source in an array and will rapidly shift its foraging efforts following changes in the array. How does this colony-level ability emerge from the behavior of individual bees? The answer lies in understanding how bees modulate their colony's rates of recruitment and abandonment

Thomas D. Seeley; Scott Camazine; James Sneyd

1991-01-01

329

Motility in the colonial and multicellular Volvocales: structure, function, and evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The colonial Volvocales are often said to be composed of Chlamydomonas-like cells, but there are substantial differences in motility and flagellar apparatus construction between the unicellular forms and the individual members of a colony or spheroid. These changes appear to be required for effective organismal motion and might possibly limit the rate at which new colonial forms evolve from

H. J. Hoops

1997-01-01

330

Migration of bacteria to the edges of the colony under ultraviolet radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Living organisms exhibit remarkable cooperative behavior in response to environmental stress. Bacterial colonies growing on a nutrient-rich substrate have served as model systems for studying pattern formation and population dynamics in biological systems. We report a novel spatio-temporal response of a Bacillus subtilis colony initially growing under ambient conditions to ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure. The growth of the colonies decreased,

Anna M. Delprato; Azadeh Samadani; Arshad Kudrolli

2001-01-01

331

Effect of time on colony odour stability in the ant Formica exsecta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among social insects, maintaining a distinct colony profile allows individuals to distinguish easily between nest mates and non-nest mates. In ants, colony-specific profiles can be encoded within their cuticular hydrocarbons, and these are influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. Using nine monogynous Formica exsecta ant colonies, we studied the stability of their colony-specific profiles at eight time points over a 4-year period. We found no significant directional change in any colony profile, suggesting that genetic factors are maintaining this stability. However, there were significant short-term effects of season that affected all colony profiles in the same direction. Despite these temporal changes, no significant change in the profile variation within colonies was detected: each colony's profile responded in similar manner between seasons, with nest mates maintaining closely similar profiles, distinct from other colonies. These findings imply that genetic factors may help maintain the long-term stability of colony profile, but environmental factors can influence the profiles over shorter time periods. However, environmental factors do not contribute significantly to the maintenance of diversity among colonies, since all colonies were affected in a similar way.

Martin, S. J.; Shemilt, S.; Drijfhout, F. P.

2012-04-01

332

Isolation of colonial variants of Bacteroides gingivalis W50 with a reduced virulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The spontaneous appearance of unusual colony forms was observed during prolonged growth of Bacteroides gingivalis W50 in a chemostat. Two variants were selected for further study which could be distinguished from the parent strain by the rate and intensity of pigmentation of their colonies. For example, after anaerobic incubation for 14 days, variant WSO\\/BRl produced brown colonies whereas those

A. S. Mckee; A. S. Mcdermid; R. Wait; A. Baskerville; P. D. Marsh

1988-01-01

333

EFFECT OF HABITAT DECIMATION ON RING-BILLED GULL COLONY AND NEST-SITE TENACITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

FIDELITY to a previously used nesting area has been demonstrated or hypothesized for many bird species (see Greenwood 1980 for partial review). In colonially nesting birds, the area to which a bird returns from one breeding season to the next may be as large, and rela- tively imprecise, as a colony site (colony-site tenacity) or as precise as a specific

334

Long-term monitoring of a colony of Black-legged Kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla in Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Black-legged Kittwake Rissa tridactyla colony at Dunbar in East Lothian, Scotland, was monitored between 1990 and 2007 with colony size, productivity, and the body mass of adults and nestlings recorded for the duration of the study. The colony increased in size from 641 nests in 1991 to 1,155 nests in 2007. Productivity varied significantly between years but showed no

Jon T. Coleman; Albert E. Coleman; Andrew Rickeard; Robert Anderson

2011-01-01

335

Atlantic Puffin (Fratercula arctica) chick diet and reproductive performance at colonies with high  

E-print Network

(Fratercula arctica) between two seabird colonies adjacent to ocean habitat with presumed high and low capAtlantic Puffin (Fratercula arctica) chick diet and reproductive performance at colonies with high- elin (Mallotus villosus) abundance in 1996­1998. We hypothesized that puffins at their colony at Gannet

Jones, Ian L.

336

Behavioral signature of intraspecific competition and density dependence in colony-breeding marine predators  

E-print Network

Behavioral signature of intraspecific competition and density dependence in colony-breeding marine was supported by the Future of Marine Animal Populations program, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Dalhousie In populations of colony-breeding marine animals, foraging around colonies can lead to intraspecific competition

Breed, Greg A.

337

Random mitotic activities across human embryonic stem cell colonies.  

SciTech Connect

A systemic and quantitative study was performed to examine whether different levels of mitotic activities, assessed by the percentage of S-phase cells at any given time point, existed at different physical regions of human embryonic stem (hES) cell colonies at 2, 4, 6 days after cell passaging. Mitotically active cells were identified by the positive incorporation of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) within their newly synthesized DNA. Our data indicated that mitotically active cells were often distributed as clusters randomly across the colonies within the examined growth period, presumably resulting from local deposition of newly divided cells. This latter notion was further demonstrated by the confined growth of enhanced green florescence protein (EGFP) expressing cells amongst non-GFP expressing cells. Furthermore, the overall percentage of mitotically active cells remained constantly at about 50% throughout the 6-day culture period, indicating mitotic activities of hES cell cultures were time-independent under current growth conditions.

Jin, Q.; Duggan, R.; Dasa, S.; Li, F.; Chen, L. (Biosciences Division)

2010-08-01

338

Feeding flights of nesting wading birds at a Virginia colony  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Feeding flights of Snowy Egrets (Egretta thula), Tricolored Herons (E. tricolor), Little Blue Herons (E. caerulea), and Cattle Egrets (Bubulcus ibis) were monitored at a small nesting colony near Chincoteague, Virginia during late May and June 1979. All four species varied their flight directions over a series of days. Cattle Egrets oriented in a different direction (toward uplands) from the other three wetland-feeding species, which oriented toward Spartina marsh areas. None of the species showed a tendency to form groups while departing from or arriving at the colony. Tide level had little influence on flight directions used. Comparisons are made between these results and those from a similar study in coastal North Carolina.

Erwin, R.M.

1984-01-01

339

Enumerating stem cell frequency: neural colony forming cell assay.  

PubMed

Recent reports have highlighted several parameters of the neurosphere culture or assay system which render it unreliable as a quantitative in vitro assay for measuring neural stem cell (NSC) frequency. The single-step semi-solid based assay, the Neural Colony Forming Cell (NCFC) assay is an assay which was developed to overcome some of the limitations of the neurospheres assay in terms of accurately measuring NSC numbers. The NCFC assay allows the discrimination between NSCs and progenitors by the size of colonies they produce (i.e. their proliferative potential). The NCFC assay and other improved tissue culture tools offer further advances in the promising application of NSCs for therapeutic use. PMID:23934839

Louis, Sharon A; Mak, Carmen K H

2013-01-01

340

The Leslie Brock Center for the Study of Colonial Currency  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based at the University of Virginia Department of Economics, the Leslie Brock Center for the Study of Colonial Currency makes the controversial work of the late Leslie V. Brock (1903-1985), Professor of History, College of Idaho, available for study. Fundamental sources of Brock's inquiries into colonial paper money practices, such as Ben Franklin's "Modest Enquiry into the Nature and Necessity of a Paper Currency" (1729) and Douglass's "Discourse on the Currencies of the American Plantations" (1740), are included in full text, as are current articles on American monetary history. Useful links to other monetary history chronologies, sites, bibliographies, and currency calculators are maintained by Roy Davies, Science Librarian at the University of Exeter, England.

1997-01-01

341

Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Receptor Mutations in Myeloid Malignancy  

PubMed Central

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor is a cytokine able to stimulate both myelopoiesis and hematopoietic stem cell mobilization, which has seen it used extensively in the clinic to aid hematopoietic recovery. It acts specifically via the homodimeric granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor (G-CSFR), which is principally expressed on the surface of myeloid and hematopoietic progenitor cells. A number of pathogenic mutations have now been identified in CSF3R, the gene encoding G-CSFR. These fall into distinct classes, each of which is associated with a particular spectrum of myeloid disorders, including malignancy. This review details the various CSF3R mutations, their mechanisms of action, and contribution to disease, as well as discussing the clinical implications of such mutations. PMID:24822171

Liongue, Clifford; Ward, Alister Curtis

2014-01-01

342

A Hybrid Ant Colony Algorithm for Loading Pattern Optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electricit de France (EDF) operates 58 nuclear power plant (NPP), of the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) type. The loading pattern (LP) optimization of these NPP is currently done by EDF expert engineers. Within this framework, EDF R&D has developed automatic optimization tools that assist the experts. The latter can resort, for instance, to a loading pattern optimization software based on ant colony algorithm. This paper presents an analysis of the search space of a few realistic loading pattern optimization problems. This analysis leads us to introduce a hybrid algorithm based on ant colony and a local search method. We then show that this new algorithm is able to generate loading patterns of good quality.

Hoareau, F.

2014-06-01

343

Temporal variation in atmospheric ammonia concentrations above seabird colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have shown that seabirds are an important source of ammonia (NH3) emissions in remote coastal ecosystems. Nesting behaviour, which varies between seabird species, is likely to be a major factor in determining the proportion of excreted nitrogen (N) volatilised to the atmosphere as NH3. A long-term NH3 monitoring programme was implemented at a Scottish seabird colony with a

T. D. Blackall; L. J. Wilson; J. Bull; M. R. Theobald; P. J. Bacon; K. C. Hamer; S. Wanless; M. A. Sutton

2008-01-01

344

Space Colony from a Commercial Asteroid Mining Company Town  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commercial mining towns on Earth become cities. Company towns need commerce to drive the growth and economy of early space colonies. Water is an early resource for camp consumables plus propellant export sales from asteroid mining operations at proposed burned out comets with water methane ice cores for sustainable growth over 50 years, financed from profits and capable with affordable logistics to support resource recovery. One co-author's perspective includes remote resource recovery sites on Earth. Other co-authors' experiences include architecture, lunar habitation, and architectural space colony concepts. This paper combines these experiences to propose commercial opportunities possible as mankind moves beyond one planet. Alaska's North Slope commercial history indicates that different multiple logistics transportation systems are required to reduce the risk to humans and families moved in before the oil flowed. Commercial enterprises have risked $20 billion and spent hundreds of billions in private money after profits were created. The lessons learned are applied to a burned out comet designated Wilson-Harrington (1979) and explores the architecture for early living within the burned out comet disk created from ice recovery and later sealed with an expected methane ice interior. Considered is the recovery of the resources, the transport of water back to Earth orbit or L-1, plus later the development of more comfortable space colony living. Commercial markets produce cities on Earth and the same can happen on Space Colonies. The key is an ``in place'' affordable commercial logistics system that can service, stimulate and sustain a 50-year commercial propellant market.

Taylor, Thomas C.; Grandl, Werner; Pinni, Martina; Benaroya, Haym

2008-01-01

345

C. V. Raman and Colonial Physics: Acoustics and the Quantum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presenting the social and historical context of Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman, this paper clarifies the nature and development of his work in early twentieth-century colonial India. Raman's early fascination with acoustics became the basis of his later insights into the nature of the light quantum. His work on light scattering played an important role in the experimental verification of quantum mechanics. In general, Raman's worldview corrects certain Orientalist stereotypes about scientific practice in Asia.

Banerjee, Somaditya

2014-06-01

346

Cocktail-party effect in king penguin colonies  

PubMed Central

The king penguin, Aptenodytes patagonicus, breeds without a nest in colonies of several thousands of birds. To be fed, the chick must recognize the parents in a particularly noisy environment using only vocal cues. The call an adult makes when seeking the chick is emitted at a high amplitude level. Nevertheless, it is transmitted in a colonial context involving the noise generated by the colony and the screening effect of the bodies, both factors reducing the signal-to-noise ratio. In addition, the adult call is masked by a background noise with similar amplitude and spectral and temporal characteristics, enhancing the difficulty for the chick in finding its parents. We calculate that the maximum distance from the caller at which its signal can be differentiated from the background noise (signal-to-noise ratio equal to 1) should not exceed 8 to 9 m in a feeding area. But our tests show that, in fact, chicks can discriminate between the parental call and calls from other adults at a greater distance, even when call intensity is well below that of the noise of simultaneous calls produced by other adults. This capacity to perceive and extract the call of the parent from the ambient noise and particularly from the calls of other adults, termed the 'cocktail-party effect' in speech intelligibility tests, enhances the chick's ability to find its parents.

Aubin, T.; Jouventin, P.

1998-01-01

347

Communication and spatial relationships in a colony of common grackles.  

PubMed

Most communication among common grackles Quiscalus quiscula occurs at distances of less than a few metres in the noisy environment of a breeding colony. This report examines both the adaptations of communication to these conditions and the effects of communication in regulating individual's spatial relationships. For each of six vocalizations and five action patterns studied in one colony, I consider variation in the form of the display, the circumstances associated with its use, and the responses it elicits. Each individual, male or female, has one characteristic, stereotyped song pattern that would facilitate individual recognition between mates. Variation in the components of vocalizations and action patterns is of two kinds: unidimensional, with either covarying or nested components, or multidimensional, with independently varying components, alternatives that have different implications for communication. The wide-spectrum sounds made by common grackles offer advantages in close-range communication in colonies, because the ease of locating such signals would minimize the cocktail-party effect, although they would have disadvantages in long-range communication. Most vocalizations of common grackles lack assocations with specific responses or external contexts, a situation that should often characterize short-range communication between acquainted individuals. The responses to vocalizations vary with context, especially the initial spatial relationships and identities of the interactors. PMID:962193

Wiley, R H

1976-08-01

348

Colony disassociation following diet partitioning in a unicolonial ant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discriminating nestmates from alien conspecifics via chemical cues is recognized as a critical element in maintaining the integrity of insect societies. We determined, in laboratory experiments, that nestmate recognition in an introduced population of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, is modified by hydrocarbons acquired from insect prey, and that workers from spatially isolated colony fragments, each provided with prey that possessed distinct cuticular hydrocarbons, displayed aggressive behavior towards their former nestmates. Isolation for 28 days or more between colony fragments fed different prey was sufficient to prevent re-establishment of inter-nest communication for at least an additional 28 days through the introduction of a bridge between the nests. Ants possessed intrinsic cuticular hydrocarbons plus only those hydrocarbons from the prey they received during the isolation period. Colony fragments which were isolated for less than 28 days reunited with workers possessing both prey hydrocarbons. Therefore, L. humile nestmate recognition may be dynamic, being in part dependent on the spatio-temporal distribution of prey, along with physical factors permitting or restricting access of subcolony units to those prey.

Silverman, J.; Liang, D.

2001-01-01

349

Economic investment by ant colonies in searches for better homes.  

PubMed

Organisms should invest more in gathering information when the pay-off from finding a profitable resource is likely to be greater. Here, we ask whether animal societies put more effort in scouting for a new nest when their current one is of low quality. We measured the scouting behaviour of Temnothorax albipennis ant colonies when they inhabit nest-sites with different combinations of desirable attributes. We show that the average probability of an ant scouting decreases significantly with an increase in the quality of the nest in which the colony currently resides. This means that the greater the potential gain from finding a new nest, the more effort a colony puts into gathering information regarding new nest-sites. Our results show, for the first time to our knowledge, the ability of animal societies to respond collectively to the quality of a resource they currently have at their disposal (e.g. current nest-site) and regulate appropriately their information gathering efforts for finding an alternative (e.g. a potentially better nest-site). PMID:24088565

Doran, Carolina; Pearce, Tom; Connor, Aaron; Schlegel, Thomas; Franklin, Elizabeth; Sendova-Franks, Ana B; Franks, Nigel R

2013-10-23

350

Nerve growth factor promotes human hemopoietic colony growth and differentiation  

SciTech Connect

Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotropic polypeptide necessary for the survival and growth of some central neurons, as well as sensory afferent and sympathetic neurons. Much is now known of the structural and functional characteristics of NGF, whose gene has recently been clones. Since it is synthesized in largest amounts by the male mouse submandibular gland, its role exclusively in nerve growth is questionable. These experiments indicate that NGF causes a significant stimulation of granulocyte colonies grown from human peripheral blood in standard hemopoietic methylcellulose assays. Further, NGF appears to act in a relatively selective fashion to induce the differentiation of eosinophils and basophils/mast cells. Depletion experiments show that the NGF effect may be T-cell dependent and that NGF augments the colony-stimulating effect of supernatants from the leukemic T-cell (Mo) line. The hemopoietic activity of NGF is blocked by {sup 125}I-polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to NGF. The authors conclude that NGF may indirectly act as a local growth factor in tissues other than those of the nervous system by causing T cells to synthesize or secrete molecules with colony-stimulating activity. In view of the synthesis of NGF in tissue injury, the involvement of basophils/mast cells and eosinophils in allergic and other inflammatory processes, and the association of mast cells with fibrosis and tissue repair, they postulate that NGF plays an important biological role in a variety of repair processes.

Matsuda, H.; Coughlin, M.D.; Bienenstock, J.; Denburg, J.A. (McMaster Univ. Health Sciences Center, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada))

1988-09-01

351

Rationality in collective decision-making by ant colonies  

PubMed Central

Economic models of animal behaviour assume that decision-makers are rational, meaning that they assess options according to intrinsic fitness value and not by comparison with available alternatives. This expectation is frequently violated, but the significance of irrational behaviour remains controversial. One possibility is that irrationality arises from cognitive constraints that necessitate short cuts like comparative evaluation. If so, the study of whether and when irrationality occurs can illuminate cognitive mechanisms. We applied this logic in a novel setting: the collective decisions of insect societies. We tested for irrationality in colonies of Temnothorax ants choosing between two nest sites that varied in multiple attributes, such that neither site was clearly superior. In similar situations, individual animals show irrational changes in preference when a third relatively unattractive option is introduced. In contrast, we found no such effect in colonies. We suggest that immunity to irrationality in this case may result from the ants decentralized decision mechanism. A colony's choice does not depend on site comparison by individuals, but instead self-organizes from the interactions of multiple ants, most of which are aware of only a single site. This strategy may filter out comparative effects, preventing systematic errors that would otherwise arise from the cognitive limitations of individuals. PMID:19625319

Edwards, Susan C.; Pratt, Stephen C.

2009-01-01

352

Colony mapping: A new technique for monitoring crevice-nesting seabirds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Monitoring populations of auklets and other crevice-nesting seabirds remains problematic, although numerous methods have been attempted since the mid-1960s. Anecdotal evidence suggests several large auklet colonies have recently decreased in both abundance and extent, concurrently with vegetation encroachment and succession. Quantifying changes in the geographical extent of auklet colonies may be a useful alternative to monitoring population size directly. We propose a standardized method for colony mapping using a randomized systematic grid survey with two components: a simple presence/absence survey and an auklet evidence density survey. A quantitative auklet evidence density index was derived from the frequency of droppings and feathers. This new method was used to map the colony on St. George Island in the southeastern Bering Sea and results were compared to previous colony mapping efforts. Auklet presence was detected in 62 of 201 grid cells (each grid cell = 2500 m2) by sampling a randomly placed 16 m2 plot in each cell; estimated colony area = 155 000 m2. The auklet evidence density index varied by two orders of magnitude across the colony and was strongly correlated with means of replicated counts of birds socializing on the colony surface. Quantitatively mapping all large auklet colonies is logistically feasible using this method and would provide an important baseline for monitoring colony status. Regularly monitoring select colonies using this method may be the best means of detecting changes in distribution and population size of crevice-nesting seabirds. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2006.

Renner, H. M.; Renner, M.; Reynolds, J. H.; Harping, A. M. A.; Jones, I. L.; Irons, D. B.; Byrd, G. V.

2006-01-01

353

A critical number of workers in a honeybee colony triggers investment in reproduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social insect colonies, like individual organisms, must decide as they develop how to allocate optimally their resources among survival, growth, and reproduction. Only when colonies reach a certain state do they switch from investing purely in survival and growth to investing also in reproduction. But how do worker bees within a colony detect that their colony has reached the state where it is adaptive to begin investing in reproduction? Previous work has shown that larger honeybee colonies invest more in reproduction (i.e., the production of drones and queens), however, the term `larger' encompasses multiple colony parameters including number of adult workers, size of the nest, amount of brood, and size of the honey stores. These colony parameters were independently increased in this study to test which one(s) would increase a colony's investment in reproduction via males. This was assayed by measuring the construction of drone comb, the special type of comb in which drones are reared. Only an increase in the number of workers stimulated construction of drone comb. Colonies with over 4,000 workers began building drone comb, independent of the other colony parameters. These results show that attaining a critical number of workers is the key parameter for honeybee colonies to start to shift resources towards reproduction. These findings are relevant to other social systems in which a group's members must adjust their behavior as a function of the group's size.

Smith, Michael L.; Ostwald, Madeleine M.; Loftus, J. Carter; Seeley, Thomas D.

2014-10-01

354

A critical number of workers in a honeybee colony triggers investment in reproduction.  

PubMed

Social insect colonies, like individualorganisms, must decide as they develop how to allocate optimally their resources among survival, growth, and reproduction. Only when colonies reach a certain state do they switch from investing purely in survival and growth to investing also in reproduction. But how do worker bees within a colony detect that their colony has reached the state where it is adaptive to begin investing in reproduction? Previous work has shown that larger honeybee colonies invest more in reproduction (i.e., the production of drones and queens), however, the term 'larger' encompasses multiple colony parameters including number of adult workers, size of the nest, amount of brood, and size of the honey stores. These colony parameters were independently increased in this study to test which one(s) would increase a colony's investment in reproduction via males. This was assayed by measuring the construction of drone comb, the special type of comb in which drones are reared. Only an increase in the number of workers stimulated construction of drone comb. Colonies with over 4,000 workers began building drone comb, independent of the other colony parameters. These results show that attaining a critical number of workers is the key parameter for honeybee colonies to start to shift resources towards reproduction. These findings are relevant to other social systems in which a group's members must adjust their behavior as a function of the group's size. PMID:25142633

Smith, Michael L; Ostwald, Madeleine M; Loftus, J Carter; Seeley, Thomas D

2014-10-01

355

A critical number of workers in a honeybee colony triggers investment in reproduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social insect colonies, like individual organisms, must decide as they develop how to allocate optimally their resources among survival, growth, and reproduction. Only when colonies reach a certain state do they switch from investing purely in survival and growth to investing also in reproduction. But how do worker bees within a colony detect that their colony has reached the state where it is adaptive to begin investing in reproduction? Previous work has shown that larger honeybee colonies invest more in reproduction (i.e., the production of drones and queens), however, the term `larger' encompasses multiple colony parameters including number of adult workers, size of the nest, amount of brood, and size of the honey stores. These colony parameters were independently increased in this study to test which one(s) would increase a colony's investment in reproduction via males. This was assayed by measuring the construction of drone comb, the special type of comb in which drones are reared. Only an increase in the number of workers stimulated construction of drone comb. Colonies with over 4,000 workers began building drone comb, independent of the other colony parameters. These results show that attaining a critical number of workers is the key parameter for honeybee colonies to start to shift resources towards reproduction. These findings are relevant to other social systems in which a group's members must adjust their behavior as a function of the group's size.

Smith, Michael L.; Ostwald, Madeleine M.; Loftus, J. Carter; Seeley, Thomas D.

2014-08-01

356

Trade-offs limiting the evolution of coloniality: ecological displacement rates used to measure small costs  

PubMed Central

Multicellular organisms that benefit from division of labour are presumably descended from colonial species that initially derived benefits from larger colony size, before the evolution of specialization. Life in a colony can have costs as well as benefits, but these can be hard to measure. We measured physiological costs to life in a colony using a novel method based on population dynamics, comparing growth rates of unicells and kairomone-induced colonies of a green alga Desmodesmus subspicatus against a reference co-occurring species. Coloniality negatively affected growth during the initial log growth phase, while no adverse effect was detected under nutrient-limited competitive conditions. The results point to costs associated with traits involved in rapid growth rather than those associated with efficient growth under resource scarcity. Some benefits of coloniality (e.g. defence from herbivory) may be different from when this trait evolved, but our approach shows how costs would have depended on conditions. PMID:20739317

Yokota, Kiyoko; Sterner, Robert W.

2011-01-01

357

Simulation Studies on Harnessing of Artificial Ecosystems in Space Colonies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space Colonies are an artificial habitation built in space, an idea first proposed by Gerard K. O'Neill in 1969. He suggested they be placed at Lagrange points which are points in space that balance out the gravitational attraction of the Earth and Moon. There are three types of space colonies proposed: Bernard, Cylinder, and Stanford Torus. The cylinder type, designed by Gerard K. O'Neill, is the most popular in concept at 6 km diameter and 30 km length, corresponding to about 845 cubic km, ten thousand people would potentially be able to reside these. The habitation area would be rotated to generate a quasi-gravitation by centrifugal force. It would be rotated at 0.55 rpm to generate a gravitation equivalent to that of the earth. In the space colony, there would be six areas axially, consisting of flooring and windows alternately. Mobile mirrors would be located outside the windows to reflect sun light toward the habitation areas and generate day, night, and seasons within the space colony. Thus an artificial ecosystem would be created allowing people live in much the same way as they do on the earth. According to my former research on micro ecosystems, it is very difficult to keep the environment balanced at all points due to the large volume of the habitation area and the thermal input of the mobile mirrors. It is predicted that there will be differences in the environment at each point of the cylinder due to the mirror angle. Although controlling the whole artificial ecosystem balance is important, local environment control at each point is also important for people to live and work comfortably. Therefore, it is needed to develop simulation models which can study the whole ecosystem as well as local environments at each point at the same time. This model has to be able to simulate dynamics of the whole system as well as the local environments. In this study, I have developed a new model to simulate the whole and local dynamics in a space colony by using a cell automaton consisting of structure, thermal, air, water, and vegetation models.

Miyajima, Hiroyuki

358

Effects of coral colony morphologies on mass transfer and susceptibility to thermal stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study tested the hypothesis that corals of the same species, but of varying size and shape, may respond differently to thermal stress because of different mass transfer capacities. High mass transfer rates are an advantage under thermal stress, and mass transfer rates are assumed to scale with size. Yet large, corymbose Acropora colonies are more vulnerable to thermal stress than small corymbose Acropora colonies. We took a two-tiered approach to examine the differences in the susceptibility of different coral morphologies to thermal stress. Firstly, the response of several coral species of different sizes and shapes were measured in the field through a thermal stress event. Secondly, diffusion experiments were conducted using gypsum-coral models of different morphologies to estimate mass transfer rates, to test whether dissolution rates differed in accordance with colony morphology and colony size. Coral colonies with a high height to diameter ratio were subjected to more partial mortality than flat colonies. These results agree with mass transfer theory. The diffusion experiments showed that in a low-flow environment, small encrusting colonies had higher rates of dissolution than large flat or small branched colonies. These results, however, disagree with mass transfer theory. We show that the volume of space between colony branches predicts the response to thermal stress in the field. Small encrusting colonies were most likely to maintain mass transfer and were therefore more likely to survive thermal stress than large branched colonies. We predict that an increase in the frequency and intensity of thermal stresses may see a shift from large branched coral colonies to both small colonies, and flat-massive colonies with low aspect ratios.

van Woesik, R.; Irikawa, A.; Anzai, R.; Nakamura, T.

2012-09-01

359

Tumor cell heterogeneity: divided-colony assay for measuring drug response.  

PubMed

In vitro tests for predicting the response of tumors to chemotherapeutic agents might be improved if they were modified to take into account tumor-cell heterogeneity. We have studied the heterogeneity of cellular growth rate and drug response in mouse fibroblast NIH 3T3 cells and in NIH 3T3 cells transformed with the human HRAS gene (homologue of the Harvey sarcoma virus oncogene v-Ha-ras) from the EJ human bladder carcinoma cell line. Growth-rate heterogeneity was detected as a broad distribution of numbers of cells per colony. In spite of this heterogeneity, secondary colonies have numbers of cells per colony that resemble that of the primary colony from which they were derived. The variance between unrelated secondary colonies is increased by HRASEJ. Colony-size measurements are reliable because primary colonies divided in half formed two groups of secondary colonies (on two separate plates) that had indistinguishable mean colony sizes. Based on these observations, a divided-colony procedure was devised to detect the drug response of heterogeneous cell populations. Primary colonies are divided into two groups of cells, one of which is treated with a drug and the other is left untreated as a control. The size distribution of treated secondary colonies is then compared to that of the untreated control and to that of the primary colony from which it was derived. The divided-colony procedure is proposed as a modification of the human-tumor-cloning system to increase the sensitivity and reliability of in vitro procedures used to determine the drug response of heterogeneous tumor-cell populations. PMID:3299370

Kuczek, T; Axelrod, D E

1987-07-01

360

Differences in microcystin production and genotype composition among Microcystis colonies of different sizes in Lake Taihu.  

PubMed

The cyanobacterium Microcystis, which occurs as colonies of different sizes under natural conditions, can produce toxic microcystins (MCs). To monitor the toxicity and assess the risk of Microcystis blooms in Lake Taihu, it is important to investigate the relationship between MC production and Microcystis colony size. In this study, we classified Microcystis collected from Zhushan Bay of Lake Taihu during blooms into four classes with size of <50 ?m, 50-100 ?m, 100-270 ?m and >270 ?m and studied their differences in MC production and genetic structure. The results showed that colonies with size of <50, 50-100, 100-270 and >270 ?m produced 12.2 11.2%, 19.5 7.9%, 61.3 12.6%, and 7.0 9.6% of total MC, respectively. The proportion of cell density of colonies with size of 50-100, 100-270 and >270 ?m was positively correlated with MC concentration during blooms, while that of colonies with size of <50 ?m was negatively correlated. The MC cell quota tended to be higher during blooms in colonies with larger size except that of colonies with size of 100-270 ?m was higher than that of colonies with size of >270 ?m from June 11 to September 16. Colonies with size of <50 ?m showed the highest proportion of the less toxic MC congener MC-RR, and colonies with size of >100 ?m showed higher proportion of the most toxic MC congener MC-LR than colonies with size of <100 ?m. Real-time PCR indicated that larger colonies had higher proportion of potential toxic genotype. Principal component analysis of PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profile showed that cpcBA and mcyJ genotype compositions were different between colonies with size of <50 ?m and colonies with size of >50 ?m, and cpcBA genotype composition was also different among colonies with size of 50-100 ?m, 100-270 ?m and >270 ?m. These results indicated that MC cell quota and congener composition were different in Microcystis colonies with different sizes in Lake Taihu during blooms, and the differences in MC production in colonies with different size resulted chiefly from the difference in their genotype composition. Therefore, the authorities of water quality monitoring and drinking water supply service in Lake Taihu should be alert that the toxicity of Microcystis colony with different size was different during blooms, and the high abundance of colonies larger than 50 ?m could be an indicator of relatively high bloom toxicity. PMID:23863392

Wang, Xingyu; Sun, Mengjia; Xie, Meijuan; Liu, Min; Luo, Lan; Li, Pengfu; Kong, Fanxiang

2013-10-01

361

Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental assessment for the Colonie site, Colonie, New York  

SciTech Connect

This work plan has been prepared to document the scoping and planning process performed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to support remedial action activities at the Colonie site. The site is located in eastern New York State in the town of Colonie near the city of Albany. Remedial action of the Colonie site is being planned as part of DOE's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. The DOE is responsible for controlling the release of all radioactive and chemical contaminants from the site. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) must be prepared to support the decision-making process for evaluating remedial action alternatives. This work plan contains a summary of information known about the site as of January 1988, presents a conceptual site model that identifies potential routes of human exposure to site containments, identifies data gaps, and summarizes the process and proposed studies that will be used to fill the data gaps. In addition, DOE activities must be conducted in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which requires consideration of the environmental consequences of a proposed action as part of its decision-making process. This work also describes the approach that will be used to evaluate potential remedial action alternatives and includes a description of the organization, project controls, and task schedules that will be employed to fulfill the requirements of both CERCLA and NEPA. 48 refs., 18 figs., 25 tabs.

Not Available

1990-06-01

362

Plating Yeast Colonies 1. Swirl 1 colony (0.5 -2 mm diameter) into 1 ml sterile dH2O with toothpick (faintly turbid).  

E-print Network

78 Plating Yeast Colonies 1. Swirl 1 colony (0.5 - 2 mm diameter) into 1 ml sterile dH2O. Undiluted Cells (2nd column from left is best) Yeast Strain #1 Yeast Strain #2 Yeast Strain #3 Yeast Strain #4 Yeast Strain #5 Yeast Strain #6 10X Dilution Series Replica plating samples without serial

Aris, John P.

363

Studies on a colony of colour-ringed Herring Gulls Larus argentatus: II. Colony occupation and feeding outside the breeding season  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of colour-ringed Herring Gulls over 6 years at a colony in NE England has shown that many of the breeding birds are present in every month of the year. A majority of the adult females leave the colony for a month or more during the non-breeding season but this absence is not sychronized and some of the birds

J. C. Coulson; J. Butterfield

1986-01-01

364

Sexual Reproductive Biology of a Colonial Rotifer Sinantherina socialis (Rotifera: Monogononta): Do mating strategies vary between colonial and solitary rotifer species?  

PubMed Central

In many aquatic invertebrates including monogonont rotifers, sex provides genetic variation and dormant stages that allows dispersal in time and space. While the reproductive biology of some solitary monogonont rotifer species is known, little is known concerning mating behaviors in colonial rotifers. Coloniality poses unique challenges to the typical mating behavior of solitary rotifers. For instance, most species engage in circling behavior, where the male swims in close proximity to the female. In colonial forms, access to a particular female may be hindered by nearby colony mates. Here we provide descriptions of (1) male morphology, (2) mating behavior, and (3) types of eggs of the widespread colonial rotifer Sinantherina socialis, and discuss modifications in mating strategies as a consequence of coloniality. Two important differences from mating patterns documented in solitary rotifers were found in S. socialis. First, duration of circling phase of mating is protracted for males encountering small colonies of females as compared to solitary females. Males encountering single females removed from their colonies behave similarly to those of solitary species. Second, duration of copulation in S. socialis is the shortest reported for any rotifer species. Endogamy might occur in this species as sons copulate with their sisters and mothers, at least under laboratory conditions. Examples of behaviour in linked video clips. PMID:24932095

Rico-Martnez, Roberto; Walsh, Elizabeth J.

2014-01-01

365

Genetic Structure of Reticulitermes flavipes and R. virginicus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) Colonies in an Urban Habitat and Tracking of Colonies Following Treatment with Hexaflumuron Bait  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colony and population genetic structure was determined for Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) and Reticulitermes virginicus (Banks) collected from Sentricon Termite Colony Elimination System monitoring stations at an apartment complex in Raleigh, NC. Once in each of 2000, 2001, and 2002, samples of termites were collected from monitoring stations just before the installation of bait tubes containing 0.5% hexaumuron. Twenty workers from

Edward L. Vargo

2003-01-01

366

Assimilation and Segregation of Imperial Subjects: "Educating" the Colonised during the 1910-1945 Japanese Colonial Rule of Korea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study looks at how education policies in colonial Korea changed over time in order to accommodate the needs of the colonial authorities during the period of Japanese colonial rule in Korea (1910-1945). The colonial experience can be divided into four different periods according to the four Educational Ordinances issued in 1911, 1922, 1938,

Pak, Soon-Yong; Hwang, Keumjoong

2011-01-01

367

The effects of temperature and food on the growth of laboratory colonies of Aphaenogaster rudis Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Laboratory colonies of the scavenging ant,Aphaenogaster rudis Emery, were maintained for 150 days at different temperatures and food levels. While pupation was successful in all high temperature colonies (25 C), low temperature colonies (15 C) produced brood, but no new workers. Deaths of original workers were significantly greater in the high temperature colonies, suggesting that low temperatures may slow

M. T. Southerland

1988-01-01

368

Shar?`a and natural justice: the implementation of Islamic criminal law in British India and colonial Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whenever colonial powers took over Muslim territory, shar?`a criminal law was abolished and replaced by Western style penal codes, modified to fit the colonial situation. There are, however, two exceptions: British India (until 1861) and colonial Nigeria until independence. Here shar?`a criminal law was left in force with some adaptations and under the control of the colonial authorities. This article

R. Peters

2009-01-01

369

Characterization of viral siRNA populations in honey bee colony collapse disorder.  

PubMed

Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), a special case of collapse of honey bee colonies, has resulted in significant losses for beekeepers. CCD-colonies show abundance of pathogens which suggests that they have a weakened immune system. Since honey bee viruses are major players in colony collapse and given the important role of viral RNA interference (RNAi) in combating viral infections we investigated if CCD-colonies elicit an RNAi response. Deep-sequencing analysis of samples from CCD-colonies from US and Israel revealed abundant small interfering RNAs (siRNA) of 21-22 nucleotides perfectly matching the Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), Kashmir virus and Deformed wing virus genomes. Israeli colonies showed high titers of IAPV and a conserved RNAi-pattern of matching the viral genome. That was also observed in sample analysis from colonies experimentally infected with IAPV. Our results suggest that CCD-colonies set out a siRNA response that is specific against predominant viruses associated with colony losses. PMID:24725944

Chejanovsky, Nor; Ophir, Ron; Schwager, Michal Sharabi; Slabezki, Yossi; Grossman, Smadar; Cox-Foster, Diana

2014-04-01

370

Disturbance Driven Colony Fragmentation as a Driver of a Coral Disease Outbreak  

PubMed Central

In September of 2010, Brewer's Bay reef, located in St. Thomas (U.S. Virgin Islands), was simultaneously affected by abnormally high temperatures and the passage of a hurricane that resulted in the mass bleaching and fragmentation of its coral community. An outbreak of a rapid tissue loss disease among coral colonies was associated with these two disturbances. Gross lesion signs and lesion progression rates indicated that the disease was most similar to the Caribbean coral disease white plague type 1. Experiments indicated that the disease was transmissible through direct contact between colonies, and five-meter radial transects showed a clustered spatial distribution of disease, with diseased colonies being concentrated within the first meter of other diseased colonies. Disease prevalence and the extent to which colonies were bleached were both significantly higher on unattached colony fragments than on attached colonies, and disease occurred primarily on fragments found in direct contact with sediment. In contrast to other recent studies, disease presence was not related to the extent of bleaching on colonies. The results of this study suggest that colony fragmentation and contact with sediment played primary roles in the initial appearance of disease, but that the disease was capable of spreading among colonies, which suggests secondary transmission is possible through some other, unidentified mechanism. PMID:23437335

Brandt, Marilyn E.; Smith, Tyler B.; Correa, Adrienne M. S.; Vega-Thurber, Rebecca

2013-01-01

371

Mosquito abundance is correlated with cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) colony size.  

PubMed

We measured the abundance of mosquitoes [primarily Aedes vexans (Meigen) and Culex tarsalis Coquillett] at cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota Vieillot) colonies of different sizes in southwestern Nebraska in 1999. Using CO2 traps placed inside and outside of colonies, we found that total mosquito abundance increased significantly with the number of active cliff swallow nests at a colony site. We found no effect of date or weather conditions on the number of mosquitoes caught it the different sites. By classifying the landscape from aerial photographs within a 2-km-diameter circle centered on each colony site, we found no significant relationships between habitat type near a colony site and cliff swallow colony size or mosquito abundance. Proximity to livestock could not account for our results. Culex tarsalis was proportionately more likely to be caught inside a colony than at traps 30 in away, but the proportion of C. tarsalis inside a colony did not vary with colony size. Our results cannot be explained by date- or weather-related sampling artifacts or by differences in habitat between sites. Most likely, mosquitoes, especially A. vexans, are attracted to the vicinity of large cliff swallow colonies. PMID:11931242

Brown, Charles B; Sethi, Rajni A

2002-01-01

372

Nest spacing in relation to settlement time in colonial cliff swallows.  

PubMed

How colonial animals space their nests in relation to conspecifics may provide clues as to whether coloniality provides net benefits or occurs only because breeding sites are limited. We examined how nearest-neighbour distance varied in relation to settlement time in the highly colonial cliff swallow, Petrochelidon pyrrhonota, comparing observed nearest-neighbour distances to those expected if birds spread out to maximize nest spacing. Cliff swallows generally settled closer to each other than required by the available substrate, and clustered their nests closer in large colonies than in small ones. The first settlers at a colony site spaced themselves further apart than later arrivals but did not maximize nearest-neighbour distances. The first arrivals maintained greater nest spacing throughout the season than did birds that arrived later. Colony size and amount of nesting substrate had no effect on initial settlement distances of the first arrivals, but eventual nearest-neighbour distances declined with colony size. First arrivals may gain less from nesting with conspecifics and thus are less likely to cluster their nests than later arrivals, which may often be young or nave birds that gain more from the social benefits of colonial nesting. The results are consistent with the presumed social advantages cliff swallows receive from coloniality and do not support the hypothesis that colonies result from nesting site limitation. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10640366

Brown; Brown

2000-01-01

373

Geographic variation in caste ratio of trematode colonies with a division of labour reflect local adaptation.  

PubMed

Similarly to the division of labour in social insects, castes of morphologically distinct individuals exist within colonies of some species of parasitic trematodes. These colonies occur in the first intermediate host of the trematode's complex life cycle and are composed of clonal individuals. Individuals of the reproductive caste have significantly larger bodies while non-reproductive individuals are small and appear to be specialised for defence against co-infecting trematode colonies. In parallel with colony organisation of social insects, demographic traits such as the proportion of the small, non-reproducing individuals relative to the large, reproducing individuals and colony size are expected to vary and adjust to local conditions. In the case of colonies from geographically and potentially genetically distinct populations, this variation is hypothesised to become fixed by evolutionary divergence, as reported in social insect studies. In this study, the adaptive demography theory was further tested by looking at caste ratio and colony organisation of Philophthalmus sp. (a parasitic trematode with a recently discovered division of labour) colonies from geographically distinct populations. Results indicate that the caste ratio from geographically distinct Philophthalmus sp. colonies differs; the proportion of small, defensive individuals is higher in colonies from the location where the risk of competition is highest. This is suggestive of local adaptation, as caste ratios do not change over time under standardised laboratory conditions. This is the first evidence to support the adaptive demography theory in a species with a division of labour other than social insects. PMID:24770673

Lloyd, Melanie M; Poulin, Robert

2014-07-01

374

Disturbance driven colony fragmentation as a driver of a coral disease outbreak.  

PubMed

In September of 2010, Brewer's Bay reef, located in St. Thomas (U.S. Virgin Islands), was simultaneously affected by abnormally high temperatures and the passage of a hurricane that resulted in the mass bleaching and fragmentation of its coral community. An outbreak of a rapid tissue loss disease among coral colonies was associated with these two disturbances. Gross lesion signs and lesion progression rates indicated that the disease was most similar to the Caribbean coral disease white plague type 1. Experiments indicated that the disease was transmissible through direct contact between colonies, and five-meter radial transects showed a clustered spatial distribution of disease, with diseased colonies being concentrated within the first meter of other diseased colonies. Disease prevalence and the extent to which colonies were bleached were both significantly higher on unattached colony fragments than on attached colonies, and disease occurred primarily on fragments found in direct contact with sediment. In contrast to other recent studies, disease presence was not related to the extent of bleaching on colonies. The results of this study suggest that colony fragmentation and contact with sediment played primary roles in the initial appearance of disease, but that the disease was capable of spreading among colonies, which suggests secondary transmission is possible through some other, unidentified mechanism. PMID:23437335

Brandt, Marilyn E; Smith, Tyler B; Correa, Adrienne M S; Vega-Thurber, Rebecca

2013-01-01

375

Honeybee colony disorder in crop areas: the role of pesticides and viruses.  

PubMed

As in many other locations in the world, honeybee colony losses and disorders have increased in Belgium. Some of the symptoms observed rest unspecific and their causes remain unknown. The present study aims to determine the role of both pesticide exposure and virus load on the appraisal of unexplained honeybee colony disorders in field conditions. From July 2011 to May 2012, 330 colonies were monitored. Honeybees, wax, beebread and honey samples were collected. Morbidity and mortality information provided by beekeepers, colony clinical visits and availability of analytical matrix were used to form 2 groups: healthy colonies and colonies with disorders (n?=?29, n?=?25, respectively). Disorders included: (1) dead colonies or colonies in which part of the colony appeared dead, or had disappeared; (2) weak colonies; (3) queen loss; (4) problems linked to brood and not related to any known disease. Five common viruses and 99 pesticides (41 fungicides, 39 insecticides and synergist, 14 herbicides, 5 acaricides and metabolites) were quantified in the samples.The main symptoms observed in the group with disorders are linked to brood and queens. The viruses most frequently found are Black Queen Cell Virus, Sac Brood Virus, Deformed Wing Virus. No significant difference in virus load was observed between the two groups. Three acaricides, 5 insecticides and 13 fungicides were detected in the analysed samples. A significant correlation was found between the presence of fungicide residues and honeybee colony disorders. A significant positive link could also be established between the observation of disorder and the abundance of crop surface around the beehive. According to our results, the role of fungicides as a potential stressor for honeybee colonies should be further studied, either by their direct and/or indirect impacts on bees and bee colonies. PMID:25048715

Simon-Delso, Noa; San Martin, Gilles; Bruneau, Etienne; Minsart, Laure-Anne; Mouret, Coralie; Hautier, Louis

2014-01-01

376

Heritable choice of colony size in cliff swallows: does experience trump genetics in older birds?  

PubMed

The variation in breeding-colony size seen in populations of most colonial birds may reflect heritable choices made by individuals who are phenotypically specialized for particular social environments. Although a few studies have reported evidence for genetically based choice of group sizes in birds, we know relatively little about the extent to which animals potentially rely on experience versus innate preferences in deciding with how many conspecifics to settle at different times of their lives. We conducted a cross-fostering experiment in 1997-1998 on cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) in southwestern Nebraska, USA, in which some individuals were reared in colonies different in size from those in which they were born. Breeding-colony sizes chosen by this cohort of birds were monitored by mark-recapture throughout their lives. A multistate mark-recapture analysis revealed that birds in their first breeding year chose colony sizes similar to those of their birth, regardless of their rearing environment, confirming a previous analysis. Beyond the first breeding year, however, cliff swallows' colony choice was less dependent on where they were born. Birds born in small colonies and reared in large colonies showed evidence of a delayed rearing effect, with these birds overwhelmingly choosing large colonies in later years. Heritabilities suggested strong genetic effects on first-year colony choice but not in later years. Cliff swallows' genetically based colony-size preferences their first year could be a way to ensure matching of their phenotype to an appropriate social environment as yearlings. In later years, familiarity with particular colony sites and available information on site quality may override innate group-size preferences when birds choose colonies. PMID:22247565

Roche, Erin A; Brown, Charles R; Brown, Mary Bomberger

2011-12-01

377

Heritable choice of colony size in cliff swallows: does experience trump genetics in older birds?  

PubMed Central

The variation in breeding-colony size seen in populations of most colonial birds may reflect heritable choices made by individuals who are phenotypically specialized for particular social environments. Although a few studies have reported evidence for genetically based choice of group sizes in birds, we know relatively little about the extent to which animals potentially rely on experience versus innate preferences in deciding with how many conspecifics to settle at different times of their lives. We conducted a cross-fostering experiment in 19971998 on cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) in southwestern Nebraska, USA, in which some individuals were reared in colonies different in size from those in which they were born. Breeding-colony sizes chosen by this cohort of birds were monitored by mark-recapture throughout their lives. A multistate mark-recapture analysis revealed that birds in their first breeding year chose colony sizes similar to those of their birth, regardless of their rearing environment, confirming a previous analysis. Beyond the first breeding year, however, cliff swallows colony choice was less dependent on where they were born. Birds born in small colonies and reared in large colonies showed evidence of a delayed rearing effect, with these birds overwhelmingly choosing large colonies in later years. Heritabilities suggested strong genetic effects on first-year colony choice but not in later years. Cliff swallows genetically based colony-size preferences their first year could be a way to ensure matching of their phenotype to an appropriate social environment as yearlings. In later years, familiarity with particular colony sites and available information on site quality may override innate group-size preferences when birds choose colonies. PMID:22247565

Roche, Erin A.; Brown, Charles R.; Brown, Mary Bomberger

2011-01-01

378

Honeybee Colony Disorder in Crop Areas: The Role of Pesticides and Viruses  

PubMed Central

As in many other locations in the world, honeybee colony losses and disorders have increased in Belgium. Some of the symptoms observed rest unspecific and their causes remain unknown. The present study aims to determine the role of both pesticide exposure and virus load on the appraisal of unexplained honeybee colony disorders in field conditions. From July 2011 to May 2012, 330 colonies were monitored. Honeybees, wax, beebread and honey samples were collected. Morbidity and mortality information provided by beekeepers, colony clinical visits and availability of analytical matrix were used to form 2 groups: healthy colonies and colonies with disorders (n?=?29, n?=?25, respectively). Disorders included: (1) dead colonies or colonies in which part of the colony appeared dead, or had disappeared; (2) weak colonies; (3) queen loss; (4) problems linked to brood and not related to any known disease. Five common viruses and 99 pesticides (41 fungicides, 39 insecticides and synergist, 14 herbicides, 5 acaricides and metabolites) were quantified in the samples.The main symptoms observed in the group with disorders are linked to brood and queens. The viruses most frequently found are Black Queen Cell Virus, Sac Brood Virus, Deformed Wing Virus. No significant difference in virus load was observed between the two groups. Three acaricides, 5 insecticides and 13 fungicides were detected in the analysed samples. A significant correlation was found between the presence of fungicide residues and honeybee colony disorders. A significant positive link could also be established between the observation of disorder and the abundance of crop surface around the beehive. According to our results, the role of fungicides as a potential stressor for honeybee colonies should be further studied, either by their direct and/or indirect impacts on bees and bee colonies. PMID:25048715

Simon-Delso, Noa; San Martin, Gilles; Bruneau, Etienne; Minsart, Laure-Anne; Mouret, Coralie; Hautier, Louis

2014-01-01

379

Distribution, species abundance, and nesting-site use of Atlantic coast colonies of herons and their allies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1975 and 1976, eight teams of investigators located 262 colonies of nesting herons and their allies along the Atlantic coast from Florida to Maine. Fourteen species were found in Florida, numbers decreasing to seven in Maine. Colonies censused in the extreme south and north of the study area were lower in number of species and number of adults than those in the intermediate area. More than 90% of the colony sites surveyed in 1975 were active in 1976. The total number of nesting adults per colony, number of species per colony, and number of nestinga dults of each speciesp er colonyi n 1976 were significantlyc orrelatedw ith their respective values for 1975. Abandoned and new colonies appeared to be satellites of nearby reused colonies; they had fewer individuals and species than reused colonies and were closer to reused colonies than reused colonies were to each other.

Custer, T.W.; Osborn, R.G.; Stout, W.F.

1980-01-01

380

Nerve growth factor promotes human hemopoietic colony growth and differentiation.  

PubMed Central

Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotropic polypeptide necessary for the survival and growth of some central neurons, as well as sensory afferent and sympathetic neurons. Much is now known of the structural and functional characteristics of NGF, whose gene has recently been cloned. Since it is synthesized in largest amounts by the male mouse submandibular gland, its role exclusively in nerve growth is questionable. NGF also causes histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells in vitro, and we have shown elsewhere that it causes significant, dose-dependent, generalized mast cell proliferation in the rat in vivo when administered neonatally. Our experiments now indicate that NGF causes a significant stimulation of granulocyte colonies grown from human peripheral blood in standard hemopoietic methylcellulose assays. Further, NGF appears to act in a relatively selective fashion to induce the differentiation of eosinophils and basophils/mast cells. Depletion experiments show that the NGF effect may be T-cell dependent and that NGF augments the colony-stimulating effect of supernatants from the leukemic T-cell (Mo) line. The hemopoietic activity of NGF is blocked by polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to NGF. We conclude that NGF may indirectly act as a local growth factor in tissues other than those of the nervous system by causing T cells to synthesize or secrete molecules with colony-stimulating activity. In view of the synthesis of NGF in tissue injury, the involvement of basophils/mast cells and eosinophils in allergic and other inflammatory processes, and the association of mast cells with fibrosis and tissue repair, we postulate that NGF plays an important biological role in a variety of repair processes. PMID:3413109

Matsuda, H; Coughlin, M D; Bienenstock, J; Denburg, J A

1988-01-01

381

Temporal variation in atmospheric ammonia concentrations above seabird colonies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies have shown that seabirds are an important source of ammonia (NH 3) emissions in remote coastal ecosystems. Nesting behaviour, which varies between seabird species, is likely to be a major factor in determining the proportion of excreted nitrogen (N) volatilised to the atmosphere as NH 3. A long-term NH 3 monitoring programme was implemented at a Scottish seabird colony with a range of species and associated nesting behaviours. The average monthly NH 3 concentration was measured at 12 locations over a 14-month period, to infer spatial (i.e. species-specific) and temporal (seasonal) changes in NH 3 emissions from different seabird species. An emissions model of seabird NH 3, based on species-specific bioenergetics and behaviour, was applied to produce spatial estimates for input to a dispersion model. Atmospheric NH 3 concentrations demonstrated spatial variability as a result of differing local populations of breeding seabirds, with the highest concentrations measured above cliff nesting species such as Common guillemot Uria aalge, Razorbill Alca torda and Black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla. NH 3 concentrations above a colony of burrow nesting Atlantic puffin Fratercula arctica were low, considering the high number of birds. Emission of NH 3 from excreted N exhibits a time lag of approximately a month. It is likely that all excreted N is lost from the colony by volatilisation as NH 3 or surface run-off between breeding seasons. Modelled NH 3 emissions and concentrations correlated with measured concentrations, but were much higher, reflecting uncertainties in the local turbulent characteristics. The results allow multi-species seabird population data to be used for the calculation of regional and global NH 3 emission inventories, whilst improving understanding of N budgets of remote coastal ecosystems.

Blackall, T. D.; Wilson, L. J.; Bull, J.; Theobald, M. R.; Bacon, P. J.; Hamer, K. C.; Wanless, S.; Sutton, M. A.

382

Criminal sittings rape in the colony, New Zealand, 1862.  

PubMed

In 1862 His Honor, Justice Johnston, issued his instructions to the jury of the New Zealand Supreme Court for two simultaneous rape trials the alleged rape of a European woman by two M?ori men, and an alleged assault with intent to commit a rape of a M?ori woman by a European man. This article argues that those instructions should be read within an historiographical critique of British colonial expansion, print capitalism and violence. Drawing on feminist postcolonial theorizing the question posed here, is, What is the historical, ideological context for a newspaper reporting of the possible rape of a M?ori woman in 1862? PMID:22059253

Erai, Michelle

2011-01-01

383

Chaotic Artificial Bee Colony Used for Cluster Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new approach based on artificial bee colony (ABC) with chaotic theory was proposed to solve the partitional clustering problem. We first investigate the optimization model including both the encoding strategy and the variance ratio criterion (VRC). Second, a chaotic ABC algorithm was developed based on the Rossler attractor. Experiments on three types of artificial data of different degrees of overlapping all demonstrate the CABC is superior to both genetic algorithm (GA) and combinatorial particle swarm optimization (CPSO) in terms of robustness and computation time.

Zhang, Yudong; Wu, Lenan; Wang, Shuihua; Huo, Yuankai

384

The Colonie FUSRAP Site: CY2002 Situation Report  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a summary of accomplishments at the Colonie FUSRAP Site in Fiscal Year 2002. During this period several significant milestones were achieved and have set the stage for the project to be completed in a more comprehensive manner, ahead of schedule and at a lower cost than the original Remedial Plan inherited from the Dept of Energy in 1997. Discussion of the DOE and subsequent USACE remedial plans is included along with summary level discussions of the key site infrastructure and remedial elements.

Sheeran, A. R.; Dufek, K.; Moore, J.

2003-02-26

385

Improved Robustness through Population Variance in Ant Colony Optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ant Colony Optimization algorithms are population-based Stochastic Local Search algorithms that mimic the behavior of ants, simulating pheromone trails to search for solutions to combinatorial optimization problems. This paper introduces Population Variance, a novel approach to ACO algorithms that allows parameters to vary across the population over time, leading to solution construction differences that are not strictly stochastic. The increased exploration appears to help the search escape from local optima, significantly improving the robustness of the algorithm with respect to suboptimal parameter settings.

Matthews, David C.; Sutton, Andrew M.; Hains, Doug; Whitley, L. Darrell

386

Microsatellite loci for the invasive colonial hydrozoan Cordylophora caspia.  

PubMed

Cordylophora caspia, a colonial hydrozoan native to the Ponto-Caspian region, has become a common invader of both fresh and brackish water ecosystems of North America and Europe. We describe 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci for this species. Preliminary analyses indicate that population substructure may contribute to departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. In addition, new loci failed to consistently amplify Cordylophora samples known to be genetically distant from those utilized in this study, indicating the presence of cryptic diversity within the taxon. PMID:21585943

Schable, Nancy A; Kuenzi, Ashley M; Drake, Carrie A; Folino-Rorem, Nadine C; Darling, John A

2008-09-01

387

Design of broadband omnidirectional antireflection coatings using ant colony algorithm.  

PubMed

Optimization method which is based on the ant colony algorithm (ACA) is described to optimize antireflection (AR) coating system with broadband omnidirectional characteristics for silicon solar cells incorporated with the solar spectrum (AM1.5 radiation). It's the first time to use ACA method for optimizing the AR coating system. In this paper, for the wavelength range from 400 nm to 1100 nm, the optimized three-layer AR coating system could provide an average reflectance of 2.98% for incident angles from Rave?+ to 80 and 6.56% for incident angles from 0 to 90. PMID:24978076

Guo, X; Zhou, H Y; Guo, S; Luan, X X; Cui, W K; Ma, Y F; Shi, L

2014-06-30

388

Age and breeding success related to nest position in a White stork Ciconia ciconia colony  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coloniality is a breeding system that may produce benefits in terms of breeding success, although these advantages could vary according to factors such as colony size or nest position. We studied breeder's age in relation to nest position (peripheral or central) within the colony. In addition, we studied the relationship between breeding success and nest position, controlling for breeder's age, a highly correlated factor, in a White Stork Ciconia ciconia colony over a 7-year period. Our results show that central nests are mainly occupied by adult birds and had lower failure rates. However, controlling for breeder's age, nest position per se did not explain breeding success. The scarce predation and the lack of human disturbance in the study colony could explain the absence of differences in breeding success between different nest positions within the colony.

Vergara, Pablo; Aguirre, Jos I.

2006-11-01

389

Scaling of Traction Forces with the Size of Cohesive Cell Colonies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To understand how the mechanical properties of tissues emerge from interactions of multiple cells, we measure traction stresses of cohesive colonies of 1-27 cells adherent to soft substrates. We find that traction stresses are generally localized at the periphery of the colony and the total traction force scales with the colony radius. For large colony sizes, the scaling appears to approach linear, suggesting the emergence of an apparent surface tension of the order of 10-3N/m. A simple model of the cell colony as a contractile elastic medium coupled to the substrate captures the spatial distribution of traction forces and the scaling of traction forces with the colony size.

Mertz, Aaron F.; Banerjee, Shiladitya; Che, Yonglu; German, Guy K.; Xu, Ye; Hyland, Callen; Marchetti, M. Cristina; Horsley, Valerie; Dufresne, Eric R.

2012-05-01

390

Within-colony migration of symbionts during bleaching of octocorals.  

PubMed

Octocorals compose a major part of cnidarian diversity. As with other symbiont-containing cnidarians, octocorals are susceptible to a stress response and subsequent "bleaching," which typically involves the loss of photosynthetic dinoflagellate symbionts. Studies of bleaching often focus on hexacorals, including sea anemones and scleractinians. The extent to which these results can be generalized to octocorals remains unclear. Bleaching was examined using two representative species of the Holaxonia-Alcyoniina clade of alcyonacean octocorals, Phenganax parrini and Sarcothelia sp. Remarkably, colonies of both species showed the same pattern in response to perturbation: symbionts in the polyps detach or die, leaving the polyps entirely bleached, yet at the same time large numbers of symbionts accumulate in the stolons. These symbionts are contained in host cells, many of which appear to attach to the stolon tissue. A comparison of living and fixed specimens suggests that these cells are loosely bound to, but not actually in, the stolonal tissue. Since gastrovascular fluid in the stolons is driven by cilia, these accumulating cells may lower fluid velocities. The accumulation of symbionts in the stolons during perturbation may have considerable relevance to how octocoral colonies recover from bleaching. PMID:23111136

Parrin, Austin P; Harmata, Katherine L; Netherton, Sarah E; Yaeger, Mark A; Bross, Lori S; Blackstone, Neil W

2012-10-01

391

Ant Colony Optimization: A Swarm Intelligence based Technique  

E-print Network

The growing complexity of real-world problems has motivated computer scientists to search for efficient problemsolving methods. Divide and conquer techniques are one way to solve large and difficult problems. Division of large work into smaller parts and combining the solution of small problems to get the solution of large one has been a practice in computer research since long time. Swarm also exhibits the behavior of division of work and cooperation to achieve difficult tasks. Evolutionary computation and swarm intelligence meta-heuristics are outstanding examples which show that nature has been an unending source of inspiration. Artificial Swarm/Ant foraging utilizes various forms of indirect communication, involving the implicit transfer of information from agent to agent through modification of the environment. Using this approach, one can design efficient searching methods that can find solution to complex optimization problems. Over times, several algorithms have been designed and used that are inspired by the foraging behavior of real ants colonies to find solutions to difficult problems. In this paper the idea of Ant Colonies is presented with brief introduction to its applications in different areas of problem solving in computer science.

unknown authors

392

High fertility of Old Colony Mennonites in Mexico.  

PubMed

Old Colony Mennonites in Mexico appear to demonstrate natural fertility, using no form of artificial birth control and apparently not attempting to limit family size. The resulting fertility is nearly as high as that of the Hutterites, although the Mennonites lack the communal economic system of the latter. Most Mennonites in Mexico migrated from Canada in the 1920s, and the largest single settlement, called the Manitoba Colony, is one of four in the state of Chihuahua. A 1967 partial census obtained data from 38% of the Mennonite households. Family size in the sample was close to that in a local survey taken in the same year. Available church records matched with census forms permitted verification of and corrections to 560 female reproductive histories. The median number of live births to women over age 45 years was 9.5, compared with 10.4 in the Hutterites. Age-specific marital fertility rates and birth intervals closely resembled those of the Hutterites. PMID:2227913

Felt, J C; Ridley, J C; Allen, G; Redekop, C

1990-10-01

393

Species selection and the macroevolution of coral coloniality and photosymbiosis.  

PubMed

Differences in the relative diversification rates of species with variant traits are known as species selection. Species selection can produce a macroevolutionary change in the frequencies of traits by changing the relative number of species possessing each trait over time. But species selection is not the only process that can change the frequencies of traits, phyletic microevolution of traits within species and phylogenetic trait evolution among species, the tempo and mode of microevolution can also change trait frequencies. Species selection, phylogenetic, and phyletic processes can all contribute to large-scale trends, reinforcing or canceling each other out. Even more complex interactions among macroevolutionary processes are possible when multiple covarying traits are involved. Here I present a multilevel macroevolutionary framework that is useful for understanding how macroevolutionary processes interact. It is useful for empirical studies using fossils, molecular phylogenies, or both. I illustrate the framework with the macroevolution of coloniality and photosymbiosis in scleractinian corals using a time-calibrated molecular phylogeny. I find that standing phylogenetic variation in coloniality and photosymbiosis deflects the direction of macroevolution from the vector of species selection. Variation in these traits constrains species selection and results in a 200 million year macroevolutionary equilibrium. PMID:23730756

Simpson, Carl

2013-06-01

394

Mercury concentrations in seabirds from colonies in the northeast Atlantic.  

PubMed

Total mercury concentrations were determined in samples of body feathers from a range of common seabird species breeding at Ltrabjarg, northwest Iceland, St. Kilda, Foula and the Firth of Forth, Scotland and Bleiksy, Syltefjord, and Horny, Norway. Seabirds from Ltrabjarg generally exhibited the highest mercury concentrations, with a trend of decreasing mercury concentrations in a southwest to northeast direction in seabirds at the other colonies; seabirds at Horny were generally found to have the lowest mercury concentrations. Some species at the Firth of Forth exhibited relatively elevated mercury concentrations compared to those at Foula and Norwegian sites. Inter-colony differences in diet were thought to be relatively small for most species and unlikely to account for the range of mercury concentrations measured in the seabirds (Ltrabjarg: lowest arithmetic mean mercury concentration in common guillemots Uria aalge, 1.6 micrograms/g, s.d. = 0.6, n = 45; highest arithmetic mean mercury concentration in kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla, 5.5 micrograms/g, s.d. = 1.7, n = 36). The oceanic transport of mercury, together with the effects of anthropogenic inputs of mercury to the northeast Atlantic, and the removal of mercury from the water column via biological activity are discussed as influential factors determining the observed patterns of mercury concentration in seabirds. PMID:1456785

Thompson, D R; Furness, R W; Barrett, R T

1992-10-01

395

Hidden peasant women in colonial Awadh: some hypotheses.  

PubMed

This article proposes that it is necessary to understand the conditions governing the access of Indian women to productive resources as well as the nature of their involvement in production in order to analyze historical agrarian relationships as well as increasing differentiation between social classes in the colonial era. After an introduction, the article describes 1) how residential location allowed differentiation among peasant groups who cultivated their own village lands from those who cultivated lands of neighboring villages and 2) the crucial role of peasant women as agricultural laborers on the family holdings. The next section looks at caste differentiation among the peasants and points out that high-caste peasants paid a lower rent, perhaps in recognition of the fact that their position barred them and their women from certain agricultural chores and forced them to hire laborers. The article continues by describing the changes that occurred as a consequence of Colonial rule when peasants with land rights found themselves recast as tenants-at-will and, sometimes, evicted from land they had controlled for generations. This had an impact on caste relationships and led to a growth in "begar," the obligation of a peasant to work for the landlord. Women, especially, suffered harsh consequences when they refused to provide begar. In conclusion, it is hypothesized that increased differentiation among classes was based on the use of women's productivity, which also distinguished rank and status, but that women had no access to or control over resources. PMID:12321578

Jassal, S T

1998-01-01

396

Varroa mites and honey bee health: can Varroa explain part of the colony losses?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 2006, disastrous colony losses have been reported in Europe and North America. The causes of the losses were not readily\\u000a apparent and have been attributed to overwintering mortalities and to a new phenomenon called Colony Collapse Disorder. Most\\u000a scientists agree that there is no single explanation for the extensive colony losses but that interactions between different\\u000a stresses are involved.

Yves Le Conte; Marion Ellis; Wolfgang Ritter

2010-01-01

397

Colony interactions in Reticulitermes grassei population assessed by molecular genetic methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

.The cryptic habits of subterranean termites impair studies of colony delimitation and the organization of foraging. Whereas\\u000a feeding sites can be identified and the movements of foragers between them can be assessed using traditional mark-release\\u000a techniques, the assignment of the termites found at feeding sites to their parent colonies remains problematical. Thus the\\u000a extent and overlap of individual colony foraging

T. Nobre; L. Nunes; D. E. Bignell

2008-01-01

398

Kin structure and colony male reproduction in the hornet Vespa crabro (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We estimated queen mating frequency, genetic relatedness among workers, and worker reproduction in Vespa crabro flavofasciata using microsatellite DNA markers. Of 20 colonies examined, 15 contained queens inseminated by a single male, 3 colonies contained queens inseminated by two males, and 2 colonies contained queens inseminated by three males. The genetic relatedness among workers was estimated to be 0.730.003 (meanSE).

Jun-ichi Takahashi; Jun Nakamura; Shin-ichi Akimoto; Eisuke Hasegawa

2004-01-01

399

Comparison and Assessment of Aerial and Ground Estimates of Waterbird Colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerial surveys are often used to quantify sizes of waterbird colonies; however, these surveys would benefit from a better understanding of associated biases. We compared estimates of breeding pairs of waterbirds, in colonies across southern Louisiana, USA, made from the ground, fixed-wing aircraft, and a helicopter. We used a marked-subsample method for ground-counting colonies to obtain estimates of error and

M. Clay Green; Margaret C. Luent; Thomas C. Michot; Clinton W. Jeske; Paul L. Leberg

2008-01-01

400

Effect of Zinc Phosphide Rodenticide on Prairie Dog Colony Expansion as Determined From Aerial Photography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerial photography (1:16,000) was used to evaluate the effectiveness of zinc phosphide in reducing area expansion of black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies over a 5-year period in western South Dakota. Untreated prairie dog colonies increased 65 % in area, compared to a 1% increase on treated colonies (P = 0.11). Zinc phosphide, applied at 3-year intervals, was effective in

DANIEL W. URESK; GREG L. SCHENBECK

401

Growth dynamics of cancer cell colonies and their comparison with noncancerous cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two-dimensional (2D) growth dynamics of HeLa (cervix cancer) cell colonies was studied following both their growth front and the pattern morphology evolutions utilizing large population colonies exhibiting linearly and radially spreading fronts. In both cases, the colony profile fractal dimension was df=1.200.05 and the growth fronts displaced at the constant velocity 0.900.05 ?m min-1. Colonies showed changes in both cell morphology and average size. As time increased, the formation of large cells at the colony front was observed. Accordingly, the heterogeneity of the colony increased and local driving forces that set in began to influence the dynamics of the colony front. The dynamic scaling analysis of rough colony fronts resulted in a roughness exponent ? = 0.500.05, a growth exponent ? = 0.320.04, and a dynamic exponent z=1.50.2. The validity of this set of scaling exponents extended from a lower cutoff lc?60 ?m upward, and the exponents agreed with those predicted by the standard Kardar-Parisi-Zhang continuous equation. HeLa data were compared with those previously reported for Vero cell colonies. The value of df and the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang-type 2D front growth dynamics were similar for colonies of both cell lines. This indicates that the cell colony growth dynamics is independent of the genetic background and the tumorigenic nature of the cells. However, one can distinguish some differences between both cell lines during the growth of colonies that may result from specific cooperative effects and the nature of each biosystem.

Huergo, M. A. C.; Pasquale, M. A.; Gonzlez, P. H.; Bolzn, A. E.; Arvia, A. J.

2012-01-01

402

Promiscuous honeybee queens generate colonies with a critical minority of waggle-dancing foragers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Honeybees present a paradox that is unusual among the social Hymenoptera: extremely promiscuous queens generate colonies of\\u000a nonreproducing workers who cooperate to rear reproductives with whom they share limited kinship. Extreme polyandry, which\\u000a lowers relatedness but creates within-colony genetic diversity, produces substantial fitness benefits for honeybee queens\\u000a and their colonies because of increased disease resistance and workforce productivity. However, the

Heather R. Mattila; Thomas D. Seeley

2010-01-01

403

Predation of artificial ground nests on white-tailed prairie dog colonies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Prairie dog (Cynomys spp.) colonies are unique to prairie and shrub-steppe landscapes. However, widespread eradication, habitat loss, and sylvatic plague (Yersinia pestis) have reduced their numbers by 98% since historical times. Birds associated with prairie dogs also are declining. Potential nest predators, such as coyotes (Canis latrans), swift foxes (Vulpes velox), and badgers (Taxidea taxus), may be attracted to colonies where a high concentration of prairie dogs serve as available prey. Increased abundance of small mammals, including prairie dogs, also may increase the risk of predation for birds nesting on colonies. Finally, because grazing by prairie dogs may decrease vegetation height and canopy cover, bird nests may be easier for predators to locate. In this study, we placed 1,444 artificial ground nests on and off 74 white-tailed prairie dog (C. leucurus) colonies to test the hypothesis that nest predation rates are higher on colonies than at nearby off sites (i.e., uncolonized habitat). We sampled colonies from 27 May to 16 July 1997 at the following 3 complexes: Coyote Basin, Utah and Colorado; Moxa Arch, Wyoming; and Shirley Basin, Wyoming. Differences in daily predation rates between colonies and paired off sites averaged 1.0% (P = 0.060). When converted to a typical 14-day incubation period, predation rates averaged 14% higher on colonies (57.7 ?? 2.7%; ?? ?? SE) than at off sites (50.4 ?? 3.1%). Comparisons of habitat variables on colonies to off sites showed percent canopy cover of vegetation was similar (P = 0.114), percent bare ground was higher on colonies (P 0.288). Although we found the risk of nest predation was higher on white-tailed prairie dog colonies than at off sites, fitness of birds nesting on colonies might depend on other factors that influence foraging success, reproductive success, or nestling survival.

Baker, B.W.; Stanley, T.R.; Sedgwick, J.A.

1999-01-01

404

Potential host shift of the small hive beetle ( Aethina tumida ) to bumblebee colonies ( Bombus impatiens )  

Microsoft Academic Search

.Here we explored the potential for host shift from honeybee, Apis mellifera, colonies to bumblebee, Bombus impatiens, colonies by the small hive beetle, a nest parasite\\/scavenger native to sub-Saharan Africa. We investigated small hive beetle\\u000a host choice, bumblebee colony defence as well as individual defensive behaviour of honeybee and bumblebee workers. Our findings\\u000a show that in its new range in

D. Hoffmann; J. S. Pettis; P. Neumann

2008-01-01

405

Breeding dispersal patterns within a large Sand Martin ( Riparia riparia ) colony  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colonial birds when returning to breed to a previous location can face different settling options regarding their position\\u000a in the colony. The decision could be influenced by information gained from the conspecifics performance, known as habitat\\u000a copying. Colonial Sand Martins (Riparia riparia) cannot use evident physical cues when returning to breeding sites, as their nesting substrate is usually renewing completely.

Zoltn D. Szab; Tibor Szp

2010-01-01

406

Experimental test on public information use in the colonial Lesser Kestrel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of colonies and the evolution of coloniality have been suggested to be a by-product of the use of public information\\u000a to select breeding habitats. In this study we performed an experimental test to investigate whether the Lesser Kestrel (Falco naumanni) uses breeding success of conspecifics as a source of public information to select a breeding colony. We considered

Jos Miguel Aparicio; Ral Bonal; Alberto Muoz

2007-01-01

407

William Berthomire L'immigration d'ex-URSS et les colonies de Cisjordanie et de  

E-print Network

William Berthomière L'immigration d'ex-URSS et les colonies de Cisjordanie et de Gaza In: Revue : Berthomière William. L'immigration d'ex-URSS et les colonies de Cisjordanie et de Gaza. In: Revue européenne. 201-218 201 NOTE D'ACTUALIT? L'immigration d'ex-URSS et les colonies de Cisjordanie et de Gaza William

Boyer, Edmond

408

COLONY-SITE AND NEST-SITE USE BY COMMON GRACKLES IN NORTH DAKOTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

searched 638 quarter sections (0.8 X 0.8 km) for Common Grackle (Quiscalus quiscula) nesting sites in Benson County, North Dakota, in 1989 and 1990. We found 3596 active nests in 202 colonies on 177 quarter sections. Colonies in shelterbelts next to inhabited farmsteads were found at greater than expected frequencies (P 5 0.05), whereas colonies in vegetation associated with potholes

H. JEFFREY HOMAN; GEORGE M. LINZ; WILLIAM J. BLEIER; ROBERT B. CARLSON

1996-01-01

409

Growth or reproduction: Intrasexual competition in a colonial damselfish Stegastes nigricans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intrasexual competition within colonies of the damselfishStegastes nigricans was investigated. Both males and females held individual territories, and these territories were adjacently distributed,\\u000a forming distinct conspecific colonies with different size compositions. In both large and small colonies, only relatively\\u000a large individuals participated in reproduction. Breeding males and females left their territories to court, spawn and aggregate\\u000a more frequently than non-breeders

Kenji Karino

1999-01-01

410

Response of mountain plovers to plague-driven dynamics of black-tailed prairie dog colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sylvatic plague is a major factor influencing the dynamics of black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies in the western Great Plains. We studied the nesting response of the mountain plover (Charadrius montanus), a grassland bird that nests on prairie dog colonies, to plague-driven dynamics of prairie dog colonies at three sites in\\u000a the western Great Plains. First, we examined plover

David J. Augustine; Stephen J. Dinsmore; Michael B. Wunder; Victoria J. Dreitz; Fritz L. Knopf

2008-01-01

411

Alice, Holmes, and Ezeulu: Western Raionality in the Context of Colonialism and Modernity.  

E-print Network

??This thesis examines Western rationality, contextualizing that subject in British colonialism and Western modernity. Using Scott Lash’s description of academic characterizations of modernity, I explore (more)

Schultz, Andrew B 1979-

2007-01-01

412

Modeling light propagation through bacterial colonies and its correlation with forward scattering patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacterial colonies play an important role in the isolation and identification of bacterial species, and plating on a petri dish is still regarded as the gold standard for confirming the cause of an outbreak situation. A bacterial colony consists of millions of densely packed individual bacteria along with matrices such as extracellular materials. When a laser is directed through a colony, complicated structures encode their characteristic signatures, which results in unique forward scattering patterns. We investigate the connection between the morphological parameters of a bacterial colony and corresponding forward scattering patterns to understand bacterial growth morphology. A colony elevation is modeled with a Gaussian profile, which is defined with two critical parameters: center thickness and diameter. Then, applying the scalar diffraction theory, we compute an amplitude modulation via light attenuation from multiple layers of bacteria while a phase modulation is computed from the colony profile. Computational results indicate that center thickness plays a critical role in the total number of diffraction rings while the magnitude of the slope of a colony determines the maximum diffraction angle. Experimental validation is performed by capturing the scattering patterns, monitoring colony diameters via phase contrast microscope, and acquiring the colony profiles via confocal displacement meter.

Bae, Euiwon; Bai, Nan; Aroonnual, Amornrat; Robinson, J. Paul; Bhunia, Arun K.; Hirleman, E. Daniel

2010-07-01

413

Heritable basis for choice of group size in a colonial bird.  

PubMed

Sizes of most kinds of animal groups vary considerably within a population, with group size often causing direct effects on the fitness of group members. Although the consequences of varying group size have been well studied, the causes of variation in group size remain poorly known for most animals. Groups might vary in size because different individuals perform better in differently sized groups and thus have genetic predispositions to choose large or small groups. We examined whether heritable variation for choice of group size exists in the cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota), a colonial bird that nests in colonies ranging from 2 to 3,700 nests. Parent-offspring regressions showed significant heritabilities for choice of colony size under natural conditions. Partial cross-fostering experiments showed that individuals reared in colonies of sizes different from those of their birth returned to breed the next year in colonies that matched their birth colony in size and actively avoided those similar to their rearing colony, suggesting that choice of colony size is genetically based. Common environmental effects, maternal effects, and philopatry did not explain these results. Variation in group size probably results in part from a polymorphism in genetic preferences within the population, and the range in colony sizes is maintained by natural selection on the type of bird occupying each site. PMID:11121081

Brown, C R; Brown, M B

2000-12-19

414

Heritable basis for choice of group size in a colonial bird  

PubMed Central

Sizes of most kinds of animal groups vary considerably within a population, with group size often causing direct effects on the fitness of group members. Although the consequences of varying group size have been well studied, the causes of variation in group size remain poorly known for most animals. Groups might vary in size because different individuals perform better in differently sized groups and thus have genetic predispositions to choose large or small groups. We examined whether heritable variation for choice of group size exists in the cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota), a colonial bird that nests in colonies ranging from 2 to 3,700 nests. Parentoffspring regressions showed significant heritabilities for choice of colony size under natural conditions. Partial cross-fostering experiments showed that individuals reared in colonies of sizes different from those of their birth returned to breed the next year in colonies that matched their birth colony in size and actively avoided those similar to their rearing colony, suggesting that choice of colony size is genetically based. Common environmental effects, maternal effects, and philopatry did not explain these results. Variation in group size probably results in part from a polymorphism in genetic preferences within the population, and the range in colony sizes is maintained by natural selection on the type of bird occupying each site. PMID:11121081

Brown, Charles R.; Brown, Mary Bomberger

2000-01-01

415

The rewards of restraint in the collective regulation of foraging by harvester ant colonies.  

PubMed

Collective behaviour, arising from local interactions, allows groups to respond to changing conditions. Long-term studies have shown that the traits of individual mammals and birds are associated with their reproductive success, but little is known about the evolutionary ecology of collective behaviour in natural populations. An ant colony operates without central control, regulating its activity through a network of local interactions. This work shows that variation among harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex barbatus) colonies in collective response to changing conditions is related to variation in colony lifetime reproductive success in the production of offspring colonies. Desiccation costs are high for harvester ants foraging in the desert. More successful colonies tend to forage less when conditions are dry, and show relatively stable foraging activity when conditions are more humid. Restraint from foraging does not compromise a colony's long-term survival; colonies that fail to forage at all on many days survive as long, over the colony's 20-30-year lifespan, as those that forage more regularly. Sensitivity to conditions in which to reduce foraging activity may be transmissible from parent to offspring colony. These results indicate that natural selection is shaping the collective behaviour that regulates foraging activity, and that the selection pressure, related to climate, may grow stronger if the current drought in their habitat persists. PMID:23676676

Gordon, Deborah M

2013-06-01

416

Changes in Learning and Foraging Behaviour within Developing Bumble Bee (Bombus terrestris) Colonies  

PubMed Central

Organisation in eusocial insect colonies emerges from the decisions and actions of its individual members. In turn, these decisions and actions are influenced by the individual's behaviour (or temperament). Although there is variation in the behaviour of individuals within a colony, we know surprisingly little about how (or indeed if) the types of behaviour present in a colony change over time. Here, for the first time, we assessed potential changes in the behavioural type of foragers during colony development. Using an ecologically relevant foraging task, we measured the decision speed and learning ability of bumble bees (Bombus terrestris) at different stages of colony development. We determined whether individuals that forage early in the colony life cycle (the queen and early emerging workers) behaved differently from workers that emerge and forage at the end of colony development. Whilst we found no overall change in the foraging behaviour of workers with colony development, there were strong differences in foraging behaviour between queens and their workers. Queens appeared to forage more cautiously than their workers and were also quicker to learn. These behaviours could allow queens to maximise their nectar collecting efficiency whilst avoiding predation. Because the foundress queen is crucial to the survival and success of a bumble bee colony, more efficient foraging behaviour in queens may have strong adaptive value. PMID:24599144

Evans, Lisa J.; Raine, Nigel E.

2014-01-01

417

Estimated areal extent of colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs in the northern Great Plains  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1997-1998, we undertook an aerial survey, with an aerial line-intercept technique, to estimate the extent of colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) in the northern Great Plains states of Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming. We stratified the survey based on knowledge of colony locations, computed 2 types of estimates for each stratum, and combined ratio estimates for high-density strata with average density estimates for low-density strata. Estimates of colony areas for black-tailed prairie dogs were derived from the average percentages of lines intercepting prairie dog colonies and ratio estimators. We selected the best estimator based on the correlation between length of transect line and length of intercepted colonies. Active colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs occupied 2,377.8 km2 i?? 186.4 SE, whereas inactive colonies occupied 560.4 i?? 89.2 km2. These data represent the 1st quantitative assessment of prairie-dog colonies in the northern Great Plains. The survey dispels popular notions that millions of square kilometers of colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs exist in the northern Great Plains and can form the basis for future survey efforts

Sidle, J.G.; Johnson, D.H.; Euliss, B.R.

2001-01-01

418

Censusing wading bird colonies: An update on the 'flight-line' count method  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. Thirteen mixed-species heronries (10 in Florida, two in Virginia, one in North Carolina) were studied in 1980 as part of a project begun in 1979 aimed at evaluating the 'flight-line' census method..2. Standardized counts of Snowy and Cattle Egrets, Louisiana and Little Blue Herons flying to and from the nesting colony were made for three hr periods, followed by a nest count of the colony. 3.Significant differences were found in the flight rates (number of birds per nest x hour) of the four species at the Chincoteague colony. However, when Cattle Egrets and Louisiana Herons were compared at all 13 colonies, their respective flight rates were in opposite rank to those at Chincoteague. Colony differences, then, may mask species differences. 4. A linear regression model showed a strong fit (R2=0.92) between the hourly flight number (3 hr means) and the nest number, but point estimates (single colony) had very large confidence limits. A given colony might be over-or underestimated by a factor of 2, using the regression equation as a predictive model. 5. A more appropriate application of the method would be to determine regionwide (e.g., state), rather than colony-specific, population estimates. 'Total' estimates for all (n= 13) colonies were within 10% of the actual nest number.

Erwin, R.M.

1981-01-01

419

Epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease in Landhi Dairy Colony, Pakistan, the world largest Buffalo colony  

PubMed Central

Background Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Pakistan and causes huge economic losses. This work focus on the Landhi Dairy Colony (LDC), located in the suburbs of Karachi. LDC is the largest Buffalo colony in the world, with more than 300,000 animals (around 95% buffaloes and 5% cattle, as well as an unknown number of sheep and goats). Each month from April 2006 to April 2007 we collected mouth-swabs from apparently healthy buffaloes and cattle, applying a convenient sampling based on a two-stage random sampling scheme, in conjunction with participatory information from each selected farm. Furthermore, we also collected epithelium samples from animals with clinical disease, as well as mouth-swabs samples from those farms. In addition, we analysed a total of 180 serum samples randomly collecting 30 samples each month at the local slaughterhouse, from October 2006 to March 2007. Samples have been screened for FMDV by real-time RT-PCR and the partial or full 1D coding region of selected isolates has been sequenced. Serum samples have been analysed by applying serotype-specific antibody ELISA and non-structural proteins (NSP) antibody ELISA. Results FMDV infection prevalence at aggregate level shows an endemic occurrence of FMDV in the colony, with peaks in August 2006, December 2006 and February 2007 to March 2007. A significant association of prevalence peaks to the rainy seasons, which includes the coldest time of the year and the muslimic Eid-festival, has been demonstrated. Participatory information indicated that 88% of all questioned farmers vaccinate their animals. Analysis of the serum samples showed high levels of antibodies for serotypes O, A, Asia 1 and C. The median endpoint-titre for all tested serotypes, except serotype C, in VNT titration is at a serum dilution of equal or above 1/100. All 180 serum samples collected have been tested for antibodies against the non-structural proteins and all but four have been found positive. Out of the 106 swab-samples from apparently healthy and affected animals positive in real-time RT-PCR, we sequenced the partial or full 1D coding region from 58 samples. In addition we sequenced the full 1D coding region of 17 epithelium samples from animals with clinical signs of FMD. From all sequenced samples, swabs and epithelium, 19 belong to the regional PanAsia II lineage of serotype O and 56 to the A/Iran/2005 lineage of serotype A. Conclusion For an effective and realisable FMD control program in LDC, we suggest to introduce a twice annually mass vaccination of all buffaloes and cattle in the colony. These mass vaccinations should optimally take place shortly before the beginning of the two rainy periods, e.g. in June and September. Those vaccinations should, in our opinion, be in addition to the already individually performed vaccinations of single animals, as the latter usually targets only newly introduced animals. This suggested combination of mass vaccination of all large ruminants with the already performed individually vaccination should provide a continuous high level of herd immunity in the entire colony. Vaccines used for this purpose should contain the matching vaccine strains, i.e. as our results indicate antigens for A/Iran/2005 and the regional type of serotype O (PanAsia II), but also antigens of the, in this world region endemic, Asia 1 lineage should be included. In the long term it will be important to control the vaccine use, so that subclinical FMD will be avoided. PMID:18445264

Klein, Joern; Hussain, Manzoor; Ahmad, Munir; Afzal, Muhammad; Alexandersen, Soren

2008-01-01

420

Quantitative colony method for tumorigenic cells transformed by two distinct strains of Friend leukemia virus  

PubMed Central

An in vitro colony method capable of detecting spleen cells malignantly transformed by Friend leukemia virus is described. These colony-forming cells, which form large erythroid colonies (104-105 cells) in methylcellulose, can be detected late after infection with either the anemia-inducing (FV-A) or polycythemia-inducing (FV-P) isolates of Friend virus. Colony formation by these cells is dependent only on fetal calf serum as an exogeneous growth factor. The presence of these colony-forming cells in FV-P-infected spleens could not be detected until at least 3 weeks after virus infection, even though the most rapid increase in spleen weight occurred earlier, between 1 and 2 weeks after infection. Thereafter, the numbers of colony-forming cells increased sharply up to 5 weeks after infection with FV-P, beyond which time the mice generally did not survive. After infection with FV-A, colony-forming cells were detected only at 8-12 weeks and their numbers generally increased thereafter. Permanent cell lines were established from a significant fraction of FV-P and FV-A-induced colonies, and these cell lines could be chemically induced to synthesize hemoglobin. All individual colonies produced complete Friend virus complex. However, virus production appeared to decline in at least some cell lines. Both FV-P- and FV-A-induced colonies contained cells capable of forming spleen colonies in irradiated recipients and subcutaneous tumors in unirradiated mice. Thus, the assay method described here appears to detect a unique class of malignant Friend virus-transformed cells that can be detected only in the advanced stages of Friend virus-induced erythroleukemia. Images PMID:6940184

Mager, Dixie L.; Mak, Tak W.; Bernstein, Alan

1981-01-01

421

Influence of fire on black-tailed prairie dog colony expansion in shortgrass steppe  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Factors influencing the distribution and abundance of black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies are of interest to rangeland managers because of the significant influence prairie dogs can exert on both livestock and biodiversity. We examined the influence of 4 prescribed burns and one wildfire on the rate and direction of prairie dog colony expansion in shortgrass steppe of southeastern Colorado. Our study was conducted during 2 years with below-average precipitation, when prairie dog colonies were expanding throughout the study area. Under these dry conditions, the rate of black-tailed prairie dog colony expansion into burned grassland (X?? = 2.6 ha??100-m perimeter-1??y-1; range = 0.8-5.9 ha??100-m perimeter-1??y-1; N = 5 colonies) was marginally greater than the expansion rate into unburned grassland (X?? =1.3 ha??100-m perimeter-1??y-1; range = 0.2-4.9 ha??100-m perimeter-1??y-1; N = 23 colonies; P = 0.066). For 3 colonies that were burned on only a portion of their perimeter, we documented consistently high rates of expansion into the adjacent burned grassland (38%-42% of available burned habitat colonized) but variable expansion rates into the adjacent unburned grassland (2%-39% of available unburned habitat colonized). While our results provide evidence that burning can increase colony expansion rate even under conditions of low vegetative structure, this effect was minor at the scale of the overall colony complex because some unburned colonies were also able to expand at high rates. This result highlights the need to evaluate effects of fire on colony expansion during above-average rainfall years, when expansion into unburned grassland may be considerably lower.

Augustine, D.J.; Cully, J.F., Jr.; Johnson, T.L.

2007-01-01

422

A Multistrategy Optimization Improved Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm  

PubMed Central

Being prone to the shortcomings of premature and slow convergence rate of artificial bee colony algorithm, an improved algorithm was proposed. Chaotic reverse learning strategies were used to initialize swarm in order to improve the global search ability of the algorithm and keep the diversity of the algorithm; the similarity degree of individuals of the population was used to characterize the diversity of population; population diversity measure was set as an indicator to dynamically and adaptively adjust the nectar position; the premature and local convergence were avoided effectively; dual population search mechanism was introduced to the search stage of algorithm; the parallel search of dual population considerably improved the convergence rate. Through simulation experiments of 10 standard testing functions and compared with other algorithms, the results showed that the improved algorithm had faster convergence rate and the capacity of jumping out of local optimum faster. PMID:24982924

Liu, Wen

2014-01-01

423

Crystallization and melting of bacteria colonies and Brownian bugs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by the existence of remarkably ordered cluster arrays of bacteria colonies growing in Petri dishes and related problems, we study the spontaneous emergence of clustering and patterns in a simple nonequilibrium system: the individual-based interacting Brownian bug model. We map this discrete model into a continuous Langevin equation which is the starting point for our extensive numerical analyses. For the two-dimensional case we report on the spontaneous generation of localized clusters of activity as well as a melting-freezing transition from a disordered or isotropic phase to an ordered one characterized by hexagonal patterns. We study in detail the analogies and differences with the well-established Kosterlitz-Thouless-Halperin-Nelson-Young theory of equilibrium melting, as well as with another competing theory. For that, we study translational and orientational correlations and perform a careful defect analysis. We find a nonstandard one-stage, defect-mediated transition whose nature is only partially elucidated.

Ramos, Francisco; Lpez, Cristbal; Hernndez-Garca, Emilio; Muoz, Miguel A.

2008-02-01

424

A multistrategy optimization improved artificial bee colony algorithm.  

PubMed

Being prone to the shortcomings of premature and slow convergence rate of artificial bee colony algorithm, an improved algorithm was proposed. Chaotic reverse learning strategies were used to initialize swarm in order to improve the global search ability of the algorithm and keep the diversity of the algorithm; the similarity degree of individuals of the population was used to characterize the diversity of population; population diversity measure was set as an indicator to dynamically and adaptively adjust the nectar position; the premature and local convergence were avoided effectively; dual population search mechanism was introduced to the search stage of algorithm; the parallel search of dual population considerably improved the convergence rate. Through simulation experiments of 10 standard testing functions and compared with other algorithms, the results showed that the improved algorithm had faster convergence rate and the capacity of jumping out of local optimum faster. PMID:24982924

Liu, Wen

2014-01-01

425

An artificial bee colony algorithm for uncertain portfolio selection.  

PubMed

Portfolio selection is an important issue for researchers and practitioners. In this paper, under the assumption that security returns are given by experts' evaluations rather than historical data, we discuss the portfolio adjusting problem which takes transaction costs and diversification degree of portfolio into consideration. Uncertain variables are employed to describe the security returns. In the proposed mean-variance-entropy model, the uncertain mean value of the return is used to measure investment return, the uncertain variance of the return is used to measure investment risk, and the entropy is used to measure diversification degree of portfolio. In order to solve the proposed model, a modified artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm is designed. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the modelling idea and the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. PMID:25089292

Chen, Wei

2014-01-01

426

Automatic image enhancement by artificial bee colony algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With regard to the improvement of image quality, image enhancement is an important process to assist human with better perception. This paper presents an automatic image enhancement method based on Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm. In this method, ABC algorithm is applied to find the optimum parameters of a transformation function, which is used in the enhancement by utilizing the local and global information of the image. In order to solve the optimization problem by ABC algorithm, an objective criterion in terms of the entropy and edge information is introduced to measure the image quality to make the enhancement as an automatic process. Several images are utilized in experiments to make a comparison with other enhancement methods, which are genetic algorithm-based and particle swarm optimization algorithm-based image enhancement methods.

Yimit, Adiljan; Hagihara, Yoshihiro; Miyoshi, Tasuku; Hagihara, Yukari

2013-03-01

427

Termites: a Retinex implementation based on a colony of agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a novel implementation of the Retinex algorithm with the exploration of the image done by an ant swarm. In this case the purpose of the ant colony is not the optimization of some constraints but is an alternative way to explore the image content as diffused as possible, with the possibility of tuning the exploration parameters to the image content trying to better approach the Human Visual System behavior. For this reason, we used "termites", instead of ants, to underline the idea of the eager exploration of the image. The paper presents the spatial characteristics of locality and discusses differences in path exploration with other Retinex implementations. Furthermore a psychophysical experiment has been carried out on eight images with 20 observers and results indicate that a termite swarm should investigate a particular region of an image to find the local reference white.

Simone, Gabriele; Audino, Giuseppe; Farup, Ivar; Rizzi, Alessandro

2012-01-01

428

The colonial origins of comparative development: An empirical investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We exploit differences in European mortality rates to estimate the\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009effect of institutions on economic performance. Europeans adopted\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009very different colonization policies in different colonies, with\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009different associated institutions. In places where Europeans faced\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009high mortality rates, they, could not settle and were more likely\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009to set up extractive institutions. These institutions persisted to\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009the present. Exploiting differences in European

Daron Acemoglu; Simon Johnson; James A. Robinson

2001-01-01

429

Ant Colony Optimization for Markowitz Mean-Variance Portfolio Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), which was initially developed to be a meta-heuristic for combinatorial optimization, for solving the cardinality constraints Markowitz mean-variance portfolio model (nonlinear mixed quadratic programming problem). To our knowledge, an efficient algorithmic solution for this problem has not been proposed until now. Using heuristic algorithms in this case is imperative. Numerical solutions are obtained for five analyses of weekly price data for the following indices for the period March, 1992 to September, 1997: Hang Seng 31 in Hong Kong, DAX 100 in Germany, FTSE 100 in UK, S&P 100 in USA and Nikkei 225 in Japan. The test results indicate that the ACO is much more robust and effective than Particle swarm optimization (PSO), especially for low-risk investment portfolios.

Deng, Guang-Feng; Lin, Woo-Tsong

430

Regulation of colony-stimulating factor 1 during pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Pregnancy results in an elevation in serum and tissue concentrations of the mononuclear phagocytic growth factor, CSF-1 (colony-stimulating factor 1). These increases are associated with an increase in the number of monocytes in the circulation, and with increases in the number of splenic macrophage precursors. In contrast to the approximately 2-fold elevation of the CSF-1 concentrations in serum and most tissues, pregnancy results in a 1,000-fold increase in the concentration of uterine CSF-1. The roughly fivefold elevation in uterine CSF-1 concentration observed at day 5 of pregnancy could be mimicked by administration of chorionic gonadotrophin in intact but not ovariectomized mice. These dramatic changes in uterine CSF-1 concentrations may indicate a role for CSF-1 in the regulation of nonmononuclear phagocytic cell types. PMID:3489064

1986-01-01

431

Artificial bee colony algorithm for solving optimal power flow problem.  

PubMed

This paper proposes an artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm for solving optimal power flow (OPF) problem. The objective of the OPF problem is to minimize total cost of thermal units while satisfying the unit and system constraints such as generator capacity limits, power balance, line flow limits, bus voltages limits, and transformer tap settings limits. The ABC algorithm is an optimization method inspired from the foraging behavior of honey bees. The proposed algorithm has been tested on the IEEE 30-bus, 57-bus, and 118-bus systems. The numerical results have indicated that the proposed algorithm can find high quality solution for the problem in a fast manner via the result comparisons with other methods in the literature. Therefore, the proposed ABC algorithm can be a favorable method for solving the OPF problem. PMID:24470790

Le Dinh, Luong; Vo Ngoc, Dieu; Vasant, Pandian

2013-01-01

432

An Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for Uncertain Portfolio Selection  

PubMed Central

Portfolio selection is an important issue for researchers and practitioners. In this paper, under the assumption that security returns are given by experts' evaluations rather than historical data, we discuss the portfolio adjusting problem which takes transaction costs and diversification degree of portfolio into consideration. Uncertain variables are employed to describe the security returns. In the proposed mean-variance-entropy model, the uncertain mean value of the return is used to measure investment return, the uncertain variance of the return is used to measure investment risk, and the entropy is used to measure diversification degree of portfolio. In order to solve the proposed model, a modified artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm is designed. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the modelling idea and the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. PMID:25089292

Chen, Wei

2014-01-01

433

Orbiviruses and bunyaviruses from a seabird colony in Scotland.  

PubMed

Viruses isolated from ticks (Ixodes uriae) and a kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) from a seabird colony at St. Abb's Head, Scotland, were shown by complement fixation tests (CFT) to be antigenically related to the Uukuniemi and Kemerovo serogroups. Electron microscopic examination of cell cultures infected with the Kemerovo group viruses revealed particles characteristic of orbiviruses, 72 +/- 3 nm in diam., with an inner core 37 +/- 3 nm in diam., in association with intracytoplasmic, densely staining granular areas, and with fibrillar and tubular structures. Cell cultures infected with the Uukuniemi group viruses revealed characteristic bunyavirus particles, 94 +/- 7 nm in diam., with a closely adherent envelope. Both orbi- and bunyaviruses were isolated from two tick pools and the kittiwake. A third tick pool contained an orbivirus which cross-reacted with the other isolates in CFT and fluorescent antibody tests, but was distinguished from them by neutralization tests. PMID:7320703

Nuttall, P A; Carey, D; Reid, H W; Harrap, K A

1981-11-01

434

Improved Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm Based Gravity Matching Navigation Method  

PubMed Central

Gravity matching navigation algorithm is one of the key technologies for gravity aided inertial navigation systems. With the development of intelligent algorithms, the powerful search ability of the Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm makes it possible to be applied to the gravity matching navigation field. However, existing search mechanisms of basic ABC algorithms cannot meet the need for high accuracy in gravity aided navigation. Firstly, proper modifications are proposed to improve the performance of the basic ABC algorithm. Secondly, a new search mechanism is presented in this paper which is based on an improved ABC algorithm using external speed information. At last, modified Hausdorff distance is introduced to screen the possible matching results. Both simulations and ocean experiments verify the feasibility of the method, and results show that the matching rate of the method is high enough to obtain a precise matching position. PMID:25046019

Gao, Wei; Zhao, Bo; Zhou, Guang Tao; Wang, Qiu Ying; Yu, Chun Yang

2014-01-01

435

Improved artificial bee colony algorithm based gravity matching navigation method.  

PubMed

Gravity matching navigation algorithm is one of the key technologies for gravity aided inertial navigation systems. With the development of intelligent algorithms, the powerful search ability of the Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm makes it possible to be applied to the gravity matching navigation field. However, existing search mechanisms of basic ABC algorithms cannot meet the need for high accuracy in gravity aided navigation. Firstly, proper modifications are proposed to improve the performance of the basic ABC algorithm. Secondly, a new search mechanism is presented in this paper which is based on an improved ABC algorithm using external speed information. At last, modified Hausdorff distance is introduced to screen the possible matching results. Both simulations and ocean experiments verify the feasibility of the method, and results show that the matching rate of the method is high enough to obtain a precise matching position. PMID:25046019

Gao, Wei; Zhao, Bo; Zhou, Guang Tao; Wang, Qiu Ying; Yu, Chun Yang

2014-01-01

436

Microtable Arrays for Culture and Isolation of Cell Colonies  

PubMed Central

Cell microarrays with culture sites composed of individually removable microstructures or micropallets have proven benefits for isolation of cells from a mixed population. The laser energy required to selectively remove these micropallets with attached cells from the array depends on the microstructure surface area in contact with the substrate. Laser energies sufficient to release micropallets greater than 100 ?m resulted in loss of cell viability. A new 3-dimensional culture site similar in appearance to a table was designed and fabricated using a simple process that relied on a differential sensitivity of two photoresists to UV-mediated photopolymerization. With this design, the larger culture area rests on four small supports to minimize the surface area in contact with the substrate. Microtables up to 250 250 ?m were consistently released with single 10 ?J pulses to each of the 4 support structures. In contrast, microstructures with a 150 150 ?m surface area in contact with the substrate could not be reliably released at pulse energies up to 212 ?J. Cassie-Baxter wetting is required to provide a barrier of air to localize and sequester cells to the culture sites. A second asset of the design was an increased retention of this air barrier under conditions of decreased surface tension and after prolonged culture of cells. The improved air retention was due to the hydrophobic cavity created beneath the table and above the substrate which entrapped air when an aqueous solution was added to the array. The microtables proved an efficient method for isolating colonies from the array with 100% of selected colonies competent to expand following release from the array. PMID:20644916

Pai, Jeng-Hao; Xu, Wei; Sims, Christopher E.; Allbritton, Nancy L.

2010-01-01

437

Population structure of a colony of dog guides.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to describe changes in genetic diversity in a colony of dog guides since its founding. Two breeds, German Shepherds (GS) and Labrador Retrievers (LR), were evaluated. Data were pedigrees of 4,699 GS and 3,573 LR dogs bred for use as guides by The Seeing Eye, Inc., Morristown, NJ. Rapid increases in average pairwise numerator relationships occurred in both breeds, although the average was approximately one-third higher in the GS population than in the LR population. A similar trend was observed for average inbreeding. The rate of increase in inbreeding has slowed in recent generations. In the current generation, relationship and inbreeding for all animals averaged 25.3 and 26.2% in GS, and 15.5 and 22.0% in LR, respectively. Effective founder numbers initially decreased in GS until Generation 3, and then increased steadily. Effective founder number in LR constantly increased. There was a constant increase in effective founder number in LR. A similar pattern was noted for effective ancestor number as well. Founder genome equivalents were initially higher in GS but decreased over time in both breeds. Generation intervals averaged 23.7 mo in GS and 23.2 mo in LR. Sires had average service lives of 2.7 and 2.2 generations in GS and LR, respectively. Dams had average service lives of 2.1 generations in both breeds. Litter sizes averaged 5.1 and 7.4 pups per litter for GS and LR, respectively. Effective founder and ancestor numbers have slowly increased over time, and heterozygosity as measured by the number of founder genome equivalents in the population has increased. Limitations on the number of matings permitted for sires and service life of dams has led to a plateau for inbreeding and relationships. The importation of germplasm from other working dog colonies is desirable. PMID:15484941

Cole, J B; Franke, D E; Leighton, E A

2004-10-01

438

Synergistic Parasite-Pathogen Interactions Mediated by Host Immunity Can Drive the Collapse of Honeybee Colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The health of the honeybee and, indirectly, global crop production are threatened by several biotic and abiotic factors, which play a poorly defined role in the induction of widespread colony losses. Recent descriptive studies suggest that colony losses are often related to the interaction between pathogens and other stress factors, including parasites. Through an integrated analysis of the population and

Francesco Nazzi; Sam P. Brown; Desiderato Annoscia; Fabio Del Piccolo; Gennaro Di Prisco; Paola Varricchio; Giorgio Della Vedova; Federica Cattonaro; Emilio Caprio; Francesco Pennacchio

2012-01-01

439

Lack of Evidence for an Association between Iridovirus and Colony Collapse Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colony collapse disorder (CCD) is characterized by the unexplained losses of large numbers of adult worker bees (Apis mellifera) from apparently healthy colonies. Although infections, toxins, and other stressors have been associated with the onset of CCD, the pathogenesis of this disorder remains obscure. Recently, a proteomics study implicated a double-stranded DNA virus, invertebrate iridescent virus (Family Iridoviridae) along with

Rafal Tokarz; Cadhla Firth; Diana L. Cox-Foster; W. Ian Lipkin; Robin F. A. Moritz

2011-01-01

440

A survey of honey bee colony losses in the United States, fall 2008 to spring 2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This study records the third consecutive year of high winter losses in managed honey bee colonies in the USA. Over the winter of 2008-9 an estimated 29% of all US colonies died. Operations which pollinated Californian almond orchards over the survey period had lower average losses than those which did not. Beekeepers consider normal losses to be 17.6%, and

Dennis vanEngelsdorp; Jerry Hayes; Robyn Underwood; Jeff Pettis

2010-01-01

441

Steps toward a general theory of the colony cycle in social insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fundamental character of the colony cycle in social insects has long been recognized, and the basic pattern for most major groups has been known for roughly a century. Nonetheless, we are only at the beginning of an attempt at a theoretical understanding of how colony cycles are shaped by natural selection. It is proposed to initiate this process by

Christopher K. Starr

2006-01-01

442

Correlated evolution of colony defence and social structure: A comparative analysis in eusocial wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal societies depend on effective defence of group resources. Defensive mechanisms can be costly and may constrain the evolution of social structure. We analysed how exocrine mechanisms of colony defence were affected by the evolution of social complexity and of nest architecture in paper wasps (Vespidae). Eusocial paper wasp species exhibit two discrete grades of eusociality, with new colonies founded

Adam R. Smith; Sean O'Donnell; Robert L. Jeanne

2001-01-01

443

The Value of Post-Colonial Literature for Education Processes: Salman Rushdie's "Midnight's Children"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author Salman Rushdie's post-colonial essay, "Midnight's Children," highlights a different perspective on the problems created by the colonial power where place and displacement are central themes and migration is a painful but emancipating process; both are expressed through the life of the writer, Salman Rushdie. The primary aim of this

Schrottner, Barbara Theresia

2009-01-01

444

PUNISHMENT AND THE POLITICAL BODY Flogging and Colonialism in Northern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Criminal law in colonial Northern Nigeria was administrated through a system of 'native courts'. In the Muslim Hausa areas of Kano Emirate, these courts applied the Maliki school of Islamic law, or at least those portions of it the British deemed not 'repugnant'. Categories of crime that had flogging as their stipulated penalty presented the colonial regime with a series

Steven Pierce

2001-01-01

445

COLONY COLLAPSE DISORDER (CCD), FEDERAL FUNDING AND THE CHALLENGES OF BEE DECLINE RESEARCH: A BUREAUCRAT'S PERSPECTIVE  

E-print Network

, pesticides, nutrient deficiencies, and other management stresses imposed on bees such as transporting hivesCOLONY COLLAPSE DISORDER (CCD), FEDERAL FUNDING AND THE CHALLENGES OF BEE DECLINE RESEARCH either inside colonies or out in front of hives, where bees typically deposit corpses of dead nest mates

Delaplane, Keith S.

446

An Improved Ant Colony Optimization for Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved ant colony optimization (IACO) algorithm is proposed to the flexible job shop scheduling problem (FJSSP) in this paper. IACO algorithm provides an effective integration between ant colony optimization (ACO) model and knowledge model. In the IACO algorithm, knowledge model learns some available knowledge from the optimization of ACO, and then employs the existing knowledge to guide the current

Dong-sheng Xu; Xiao-yan Ai; Li-ning Xing

2009-01-01

447

A Knowledge-Based Ant Colony Optimization for Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Knowledge-Based Ant Colony Optimization (KBACO) algorithm is proposed in this paper for the Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem (FJSSP). KBACO algorithm provides an effective integration between Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) model and knowledge model. In the KBACO algorithm, knowledge model learns some available knowledge from the optimization of ACO, and then applies the existing knowledge to guide the current

Li-Ning Xing; Ying-Wu Chen; Peng Wang; Qing-Song Zhao; Jian Xiong

2010-01-01

448

Response of waterbird colonies in southern Louisiana to recent drought and hurricanes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although hurricanes have been implicated in causing shifts in waterbird use of individual colonies, little is known about whether or not these effects are consistent across broader areas affected by a storm. We examined the effects of Hurricane Rita, and to a lesser extent Katrina, and a subsequent drought, on the nesting activity of waterbirds across colonies located in southern

P. L. Leberg; M. C. Green; B. A. Adams; K. M. Purcell; M. C. Luent

2007-01-01

449

Cooperative wasp-killing by mixed-species colonies of honeybees, Apis cerana and Apis mellifera  

E-print Network

Cooperative wasp-killing by mixed-species colonies of honeybees, Apis cerana and Apis mellifera Ken-species colonies of honeybees, Apis cerana and Apis mellifera, were tested against a predatory wasp, Vespa velutina / defensive behaviour / mixed species / Apis cerana / Apis mellifera 1. INTRODUCTION Altruism and cooperation

450

Ant Colony Optimisation for Bin Packing and Cutting Stock Frederick Ducatelle  

E-print Network

Ant Colony Optimisation for Bin Packing and Cutting Stock Problems Frederick Ducatelle Division@aiai.ed.ac.uk Abstract The Bin Packing and Cutting Stock Problems are well- known NP-hard combinatorial optimisation of Dorigo's Ant Colony Optimisation meta-heuristic to solve Bin Packing and Cutting Stock Problems. We show

Levine, John

451

FACTORS AFFECTING THE ACCEPTANCE OF FOREIGN DRONES INTO HONEY BEE (APIS MELLIFERA L.) COLONIES  

E-print Network

FACTORS AFFECTING THE ACCEPTANCE OF FOREIGN DRONES INTO HONEY BEE (APIS MELLIFERA L.) COLONIES R SUMMARY Studies on drone management could aid in honey bee breeding programs by improving the efficiency and quality of mating. In this study the effects of introducing foreign drones into honey bee colonies were

Boyer, Edmond

452

DRONE PRODUCTION BY YOUNG VERSUS OLD WORKER HONEYBEES IN QUEENLESS COLONIES  

E-print Network

DRONE PRODUCTION BY YOUNG VERSUS OLD WORKER HONEYBEES IN QUEENLESS COLONIES Keith S. DELAPLANE John & Physiology Research 1157 Ben Hur Rd. Baton Rouge, LA 70820 USA SUMMARY Drone production between 2 groups workers produced a much higher proportion of drones in 3 of 6 the test colonies than did the old workers

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

453

absconding behaviour of colonies [7], as well as on drifting [unpublished data] and  

E-print Network

and debrooded. The ratio of worker/drone cell construction and the sex of laying worker offspring were drone cells. Hybrid colonies produced either both cell types or only worker cells according to the mode of laying worker reproduction. In all colonies where laying workers produced male offspring drone cell

Boyer, Edmond

454

RODENT COMMUNITIES IN ACTIVE AND INACTIVE COLONIES OF BLACK-TAILED PRAIRIE DOGS IN SHORTGRASS STEPPE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) alter shortgrass-steppe landscapes in ways that are expected to affect other mammals. I sampled rodent populations at 31 sites on the Pawnee National Grasslands, Colorado, including 18 active colonies, 6 colonies that had been unoccupied for .6 years (inactive), and 7 grassland sites without prairie dogs (controls). Rodents were livetrapped for 4 consecutive nights at

Paul Stapp

2007-01-01

455

Response of waterbird colonies in southern Louisiana to recent drought and hurricanes  

E-print Network

Response of waterbird colonies in southern Louisiana to recent drought and hurricanes P. L. Leberg1 colonial waterbirds; Hurricane Katrina; Hurricane Rita; climate change. Correspondence Paul L. Leberg-1795.2007.00141.x Abstract Although hurricanes have been implicated in causing shifts in waterbird use of individual

Green, Clay - Department of Biology, Texas State University

456

Teaching Morality and Religion in Nineteenth-Century Colonial Algeria: Gender and the Civilising Mission  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Historians have long presented France's "civilizing mission" within its colonies in secular terms ignoring women's presence as both actors and subjects. This is particularly true in Algeria where the colonial government's explicitly prohibited proselytism. This article emphasizes women's roles pursuing both secular and religious goals in Algeria.

Rogers, Rebecca

2011-01-01

457

Colony Size of Phaeocystis Antarctica (Prymnesiophyceae) as Influenced by Zooplankton Grazers  

EPA Science Inventory

The haptophyte Phaeocystis antarctica is a dominant phytoplankton species in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, and exists as solitary cells and mucilaginous colonies that differ by several orders of magnitude in size. Recent studies with P. globosa suggested that colony formation and enl...

458

Penguins from space: faecal stains reveal the location of emperor penguin colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim To map and assess the breeding distribution of emperor penguins ( Aptenodytes forsteri ) using remote sensing. Location Pan-Antarctic. Methods Using Landsat ETM satellite images downloaded from the Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA), we detect faecal staining of ice by emperor penguins associated with their colony locations. Emperor penguins breed on sea ice, and their colonies exist in

Peter T. Fretwell; Philip N. Trathan

2009-01-01

459

Barges as temporary breeding sites fo r Caspian terns: assessing potential site s for colony restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstrac tManagement proposals to reduce Caspian tern (Sterna caspia ) predation on juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchu sspp.) in the Columbia River estuary include relocating some terns from the large colony in the estuary to several smaller colonies outside the Colum - bia River basin. The welfare of other listed or beleaguered salmonid stocks has been a primary concern in areas considered

Ken Collis; Daniel D. Roby; Christopher W. Thompson; Donald E. Lyons; Michelle Tirh

2002-01-01

460

Evidence that tufted puffins Fratercula cirrhata use colony overflights to reduce kleptoparasitism risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predation, foraging and mating costs are critical factors shaping life histories. Among colonial seabirds, colony overflights may enhance foraging or mating success, or diminish the risk of predation and kleptoparasitism. The latter possibility is difficult to test because low predation or kleptoparasitism rates could be due either to low danger or to effective counter- tactics by prey. Tufted puffins Fratercula

Gwylim S. Blackburn; J. Mark Hipfner; Ronald C. Ydenberg

2009-01-01

461

Simulating the Effects of Predation and Egg-harvest at a Gull Colony  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed an individual-based simulation model to explore the effects of harvesting eggs from a glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens) colony that also experiences egg loss from avian predators. The model has direct application to Glacier Bay National Park, where resource managers are interested in the potential effects of traditional harvesting of gull eggs at colonies within the park. This model

Stephani Zador; John F. Piatt

462

Evidence that tufted puffins Fratercula cirrhata use colony overflights to reduce kleptoparasitism risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predation, foraging and mating costs are critical factors shaping life histories. Among colonial seabirds, colony overflights may enhance foraging or mating success, or diminish the risk of predation and kleptoparasitism. The latter possibility is difficult to test because low predation or kleptoparasitism rates could be due either to low danger or to effective counter-tactics by prey. Tufted puffins Fratercula cirrhata

G. S. Blackburn; J. M. Hipfner; R. Ydenberg

2009-01-01

463

Indigenous Australian Women's Leadership: Stayin' Strong against the Post-Colonial Tide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, I reflect on my experiences as an Indigenous woman researcher coming to grips with colonialism through a post-colonialism lens. I also discuss a study which examines the leadership journey of a group of Indigenous Australian women. The research, which includes an auto-ethnographic approach, was guided by an Indigenous worldview

White, Nereda

2010-01-01

464

Learning Abroad: The Colonial Educational Experiment in India, 1813-1919  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper contributes to the special issue by offering a new framework in time periods that demonstrates the changing nature of the intellectual transfer to and from colonial India and to posit the imperatives that drove these changes. It shows that the nature of educational exchange in India was transformed in elemental ways during the colonial

Allender, Tim

2009-01-01

465

Astrocyte cell lineage. III. The morphology of differentiating mouse astrocytes in colony culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Disaggregated cells of newborn DBA\\/1J mouse neopallium were grown in colony cultures, and colonies of cells at various stages of differentiation along the astrocyte cell lineage were examined after 3 days, 1, 2 and 4 weeks by electron microscopy and by NBD-phallacidin which demonstrates the distribution of microfilaments. The earliest astrocyte precursor cells or glioblasts are closely apposed epithelial

S. Fedoroff; J. Neal; M. Opas; V. I. Kalnins

1984-01-01

466

Survey of the Least and Crested Auklet colony near Sugarloaf Head,  

E-print Network

º 53'N 179º 37' E) is one of the largest among the nine auklet colonies in the Aleutian Islands (grasses), with evidence of ongoing encroachment of vegetation. Openings into underlying rock crevices were resembled burrows. There is apparently little opportunity for colony expansion, due to lack of suitable

Jones, Ian L.

467

From colonial policing to community policing in Bahrain: The historical persistence of sectarianism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the history of policing in the Kingdom of Bahrain, a small Arab, Muslim country. The historical discourse about Bahraini policing, though scant, has not adequately confronted the role the police have had in protecting Sunni hegemony in a majority Sh?' majority nation, a residual feature of colonialism. Through colonial records, press accounts, and Bahraini historical sources,

Staci Strobl

2011-01-01

468

Hot Deformation of Ti-6Al-4V Single-Colony Samples (Preprint).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The hot deformation response of lamellar colonies of Ti-6Al-4V was established via uniaxial compression testing. For this purpose, samples with a rectangular cross section were cut from single colonies grown using a float- zone technique and then tested a...

A. A. Salem, S. L. Semiatin

2008-01-01

469

Wives or Workers?: Negotiating the Social Contract between Female Teachers and the Colonial State in Zanzibar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the negotiated relationship between the Department of Education in colonial Zanzibar and its Muslim female teachers. In the 1930s and 1940s, elite Muslim women in Zanzibari society remained in the home to maintain their respectability (heshima). Aware of this, the colonial government drew up plans for recruiting, training, and employing women teachers modeled on the social contract

Elisabeth McMahon; Corrie Decker

2009-01-01

470

(Ad)ministering Angels: Colonial Nursing and the Extension of Empire in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay reviews recent feminist scholarship, autobiographical narrative and fiction which explores nurses' engagement with empire in Africa and elsewhere in this century. Such literature suggests that while nursing work may have improved native health in colonized regions, it also contributed significantly to the establishment and stabilization of the racialized order of colonial rule. Of particular significance was colonial nursing's

Sheryl Nestel

1998-01-01

471

Colonial Hangovers: Social Studies Curriculum Dilemmas for Zimbabwe--Implications for Indiana Social Studies Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper briefly examines the historical background to political independence in African nations, highlighting the control of the colonial masters on those nations. The "hangovers" describes how early colonial control has had serious influence on the development of social studies curriculum in Zimbabwe. The paper concludes by narrating the

Nziramasanga, Caiphas T.

472

Emergent organisation in colonies of simple automata I. W. Marshall and C. M. Roadknight  

E-print Network

a diverse genome that can metabolise large quantities of up to 100 different food types simultaneously. Group organisations that process short lived food types more rapidly than others readily emerge under a realistic colony. Instead we have taken the known interaction types from microbial colonies, and modeled

Marshall, Ian W.

473

An effective ant colony optimization-based algorithm for flow shop scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a modified scheme named local search ant colony optimization algorithm on the basis of alternative ant colony optimization algorithm for solving flow shop scheduling problems. The flow shop problem (FSP) is confirmed to be an NP-hard sequencing scheduling problem, which has been studied by many researchers and applied to plenty of applications. Restated, the flow shop problem

Ruey-Maw Chen; Shih-Tang Lo; Chung-Lun Wu; Tsung-Hung Lin

2008-01-01

474

OCCURRENCE AND HABITAT CHARACTERISTICS OF BURROWING OWL NESTS IN GUNNISON'S PRAIRIE DOG COLONIES  

E-print Network

OCCURRENCE AND HABITAT CHARACTERISTICS OF BURROWING OWL NESTS IN GUNNISON'S PRAIRIE DOG COLONIES Because Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia) often nest in colonies of prairie dogs (Cynomys sp.), recent declines of Gunnison's prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni) could adversely affect this owl, considered

Beier, Paul

475

On Colonizing "Colonialism": The Discourses of the History of English in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Numerous commentators argue that the worldwide use of English in education is an important outcome of colonialism. While accepting that there is much truth in this general conclusion, the present authors also recognize an irony. In too few cases do commentators base their arguments on historical evidence; in too many, they treat colonialism as an

Sweeting, Anthony; Vickers, Edward

2005-01-01

476

STEROID HORMONE LEVELS ARE RELATED TO CHOICE OF COLONY SIZE IN CLIFF SWALLOWS  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hypothesis to explain the extensive variation in colony size seen in most taxa is that individuals sort themselves among groups based on phenotypic characteristics that correlate with their performance in groups of different sizes. We investigated how baseline levels of the steroid hormones, corticosterone and testosterone, were associated with choice of colony size and the likelihood of moving to

Charles R. Brown; Mary Bomberger Brown; Samrrah A. Raouf; Linda C. Smith; John C. Wingfield

2005-01-01

477

Combining Lagrangian heuristic and Ant Colony System to solve the Single Source Capacitated Facility Location Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The facility location problems have been applied extensively in practice. We describe a Multiple Ant Colony System (MACS) to solve the Single Source Capacitated Facility Location Problem (SSCFLP). Lagrangian heuristics have been shown to produce good solutions for the SSCFLP. A hybrid algorithm, which combines Lagrangian heuristic and Ant Colony System (ACS), LHACS, is developed for the SSCFLP. The performance

Chia-Ho Chen; Ching-Jung Ting

2008-01-01

478

LANDSCAPE INFLUENCE ON THE QUALITY OF HERON AND EGRET COLONY SITES  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated landscape associations related to heron and egret colony site selection and the productivity of successful great blue heron (Ardea herodias) and great egret (Ardea alba) nests. The study was based on annual observations (1991-2005) at 45 colony sites known to be active within 10 km of historic tidal marshes of northern San Francisco Bay. The analyses focuse do

John P. Kelly; Diana Stralberg; Katie Etienne; Mark McCaustland

2008-01-01

479

Mapping the Field of Anti-Colonial Discourse to Understand Issues of Indigenous Knowledges: Decolonizing Praxis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, I examine some of the past and current issues in anti-colonial discourse by briefly reviewing the ideas of thirteen anti-colonial scholars from different regions of the world. I relate these ideas to the discussion of knowledge production and indigenous knowledges. I also examine some critical areas that require more attention from

Shahjahan, Riyad Ahmed

2005-01-01

480

Impacts of the Norway Rat on the auklet breeding colony at Sirius Point, Kiska  

E-print Network

). This colony, located on the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge (AMNWR) may be the largest auklet colony in these areas is in itself positive evidence that arctic fox are no longer on Kiska Island. Deines and Mc introduced rats, while both Kiska and Kasatochi had introduced foxes, which were removed in the 1980s. Arctic

Jones, Ian L.