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1

Challenges of waste management in a Nigerian leper colony  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantities and types of solid wastes generated at Ogbomosho leprosarium (Oyo State, Nigeria) have been investigated. Data collection, through waste sampling and analysis, interviews, questionnaire surveys and field observations, was conducted between August and November 2006. Results indicate a notably low mean waste generation rate of 241.5 g\\/h\\/d, which included bandages, paper, food waste, animal waste, wood ash, yard trimmings,

A. O. Coker; R. A. Adeshiyan; J. R. Oluremi; M. K. Sridhar; M. E. Coker; C. A. Booth; J. M. Khatib

2008-01-01

2

Colonial Williamsburg  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1926, at the urging of the Revered Dr. D.A.R. Goodwin, John D. Rockefeller Jr. began a complex and elaborate restoration project in the quiet town of Williamsburg that sought to preserve a few of the more important Revolutionary War-era buildings around the town. The project became increasingly ambitious, and eventually grew to encompass around 85 percent of the town's area from the 18th century. Today, Colonial Williamsburg is the world's largest living history museum, and is noted for its ability to incorporate and interpret diverse perspectives on America's colonial period. Those persons unable to visit Colonial Williamsburg in person may want to first peruse the "Explore & Learn" section of the site, where they can learn about the different social and ethnic groups that inhabited the town (such as African-American slaves and colonial children), and see the various buildings within the community. The archaeology section of the site is particularly compelling, as visitors can learn about the many ongoing projects underway, and younger users can learn about the practice of archaeology through various games, quizzes, and puzzles. Additionally, users can read selected articles from the organization's popular history magazine, "Colonial Williamsburg," dating back to 1992. [KMG

3

Colonial Landscape  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will identify manmade structures and the time periods in which they were created, learn how human endeavors affect the landscape, identify different types of plants that now grow wild as a result of colonial farming activity, and simulate colonial life by recreating foods that would have been produced at that time. First, they will go outside, examine the landscape, and imagine what would have been there three hundred years ago. They will be asked to examine the types of plants growing near the walls, plant some examples, and create recipes from the plants.

4

Spanish Colonial Settlement Development and colonial Latin  

E-print Network

struggle for independence · 1820s-1850s "balkanization" into smaller states #12;#12;#12;Neo-colonial (postLAST TIME · Spanish Colonial Settlement patterns #12;TODAY · Development and colonial Latin America -- development and colonial Latin America · The "wealth of the Indies" (i.e., colonial Latin America) was created

Lopez-Carr, David

5

Murre Colony, Inset Detail  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This inset of the associated murre colony photo shows evidence of nesting and chick-feeding in a California common murre colony on Prince Island off San Miguel Island off Southern California. Ecologists Josh Adams and Jonathan Felis of the USGS Western Ecological Research Center shot this and other ...

6

My Moon Colony  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the futuristic concept of the moon as a place people can inhabit. They brainstorm what people would need to live on the moon and then design a fantastic Moon colony and decide how to power it. Student use the engineering design process, which includes researching various types of energy sources and evaluating which would be best for their moon colonies.

2014-09-18

7

Build a Colony!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners consider the requirements for human life beyond Earth's protection: air to breathe, plentiful food, shielding from ultraviolet light, power, etc. They then work in teams to design and construct a model of a space colony out of craft materials that would allow humans to survive the harsh environments of the Moon or Mars. Teams present their modules and colonies to one another and create a display for the library. This activity is part of Explore! To the Moon and Beyond! - developed specifically for use in libraries.

2012-10-17

8

[Visiting the Amana Colonies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "The Goldfinch: Iowa History for Young People" focuses upon the Amana Colonies, which were home to many German immigrants in the 19th century, and which retain much of their ethnic heritage today. The articles and activities included in this issue are "Amana Today"; "No Black Buggies in Amana"; "Visiting Tante Marie and Onkel

Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

1992-01-01

9

Ant Colony Optimization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ant Colony Optimization project uses the behavior of ants as a model to solve optimization problems, such as how to minimize Internet traffic congestion. Several downloadable research papers are included on the project's homepage, as well as links to news stories, radio broadcasts, and conference proceedings about ant algorithms.

Dorigo, Marco

10

Colonialism, genocide, and Tibet  

Microsoft Academic Search

A central element of the narrative circulated by the Tibet Movement has been that China has carried out genocide and practised colonialism in Tibet. These notions are, for the most part, uncritically accepted by politicians and the media, especially in the West. This essay challenges such characterizations as inept and as obstacles to resolving the Tibet Question. It looks at

Barry Sautman

2006-01-01

11

Images of Colonialism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The history of colonialism is a compelling one, and it can be narrated through first-hand documents such as journals, drawings, or photographs. This particular digital collection from the Harvard College Library contains more than 700 images which offer insight into European perspectives on how popular perceptions of Asia and Africa were created and disseminated. The collection is primarily made up of late-19th and early-20th century trade cards and illustrated European newspapers. Visitors can use the collection to draw contrasts between colonial powers, such as the French, the British and the Dutch. First-time visitors will want to dive right into the collection, and the image viewer offered here allows visitors to zoom in for a closer look. While all of the items here are quite worthy, users shouldn't miss the cards created for the Liebig's Extract of Meat Company or the views of Bangkok.

12

Colonial House - PBS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Preview the newest installment in public television's hands-on history series, following Frontier House, Manor House, and 1900 House. Set in 1628, Colonial House will be broadcast in May. At the website, there are audio and video diaries in which the twenty-eight colonists from the UK and US give accounts of their experiences learning to live in 1628. Also provided is a map of the village and essays by the experts consulted for the show to insure historical authenticity. One such piece is _A Historian Awakens 1628_, by Emerson "Tad" Baker, a specialist on the early history of Maine, which is where Colonial House was filmed. There's also a Meet the Colonists gallery with photos and 21st and 17th century biographies of the settlers, lesson plans and activities for teachers, and a Resources section, with related Web sites and books.

13

Colony image acquisition and genetic segmentation algorithm and colony analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colony anaysis is used in a large number of engineerings such as food, dairy, beverages, hygiene, environmental monitoring, water, toxicology, sterility testing. In order to reduce laboring and increase analysis acuracy, many researchers and developers have made efforts for image analysis systems. The main problems in the systems are image acquisition, image segmentation and image analysis. In this paper, to acquire colony images with good quality, an illumination box was constructed. In the box, the distances between lights and dishe, camra lens and lights, and camera lens and dishe are adjusted optimally. In image segmentation, It is based on a genetic approach that allow one to consider the segmentation problem as a global optimization,. After image pre-processing and image segmentation, the colony analyses are perfomed. The colony image analysis consists of (1) basic colony parameter measurements; (2) colony size analysis; (3) colony shape analysis; and (4) colony surface measurements. All the above visual colony parameters can be selected and combined together, used to make a new engineeing parameters. The colony analysis can be applied into different applications.

Wang, W. X.

2012-01-01

14

Post-Colonial Theory and Action Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay explores connections between post-colonial theory and action research. Post-colonial theory is committed to addressing the plague of colonialism. Action research, at its core, promises to problematize uncontested "colonial" hegemonies of any form. Both post-colonial theory and action research engage dialogic, critically reflective and

Parsons, Jim B.; Harding, Kelly J.

2011-01-01

15

TEACHING RADICAL HISTORY Gender, Colonialism,  

E-print Network

TEACHING RADICAL HISTORY Gender, Colonialism, and Feminist Collaboration Antoinette Burton and Jean with colonialism might mean. Burton developed this course in the spring of 2001 in response to curricular scarcely come into view as an analytical approach, let alone as a methodological procedure, Burton can see

Subramanian, Venkat

16

Ant Colony Optimization From Scholarpedia  

E-print Network

Ant Colony Optimization From Scholarpedia From Scholarpedia, the free peer-reviewed encyclopedia p.18620 Curator: Marco Dorigo, IRIDIA, Universit Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium Ant colony to difficult optimization problems. In ACO, a set of software agents called artificial ants search for good

Libre de Bruxelles, Universit

17

Student Discipline in Colonial America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The basis for the severe discipline imposed on school children in colonial America, especially in the Puritan colonies, was the belief in original sin. The child was regarded as being born in sin and thus depraved and prone to sin. The purpose of education was to enable children to read the Bible and thus change the behavior which otherwise would

Petry, John R.

18

The Colonial Echo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The College of William & Mary is one of the oldest institutions of higher learning in the United States, and they have a rich history interwoven with the history of the U.S. and the state of Virginia. Recently, they have begun adding a wide range of institutional documents to their digital archive. This section of the site features The Colonial Echo, which has served as the student yearbook of the College since 1899. The yearbook includes information about student groups and activities, campus events, scenes of campus, and materials on university administrators. The digitization project was made possible via funds from Professor Emeriti Richard Sherman and Armand Galfo. These unique documents capture moments of college frivolity, seriousness of purpose, and gravitas.

2012-01-13

19

Genetic diversity affects colony survivorship in commercial honey bee colonies.  

PubMed

Honey bee (Apis mellifera) queens mate with unusually high numbers of males (average of approximately 12 drones), although there is much variation among queens. One main consequence of such extreme polyandry is an increased diversity of worker genotypes within a colony, which has been shown empirically to confer significant adaptive advantages that result in higher colony productivity and survival. Moreover, honey bees are the primary insect pollinators used in modern commercial production agriculture, and their populations have been in decline worldwide. Here, we compare the mating frequencies of queens, and therefore, intracolony genetic diversity, in three commercial beekeeping operations to determine how they correlate with various measures of colony health and productivity, particularly the likelihood of queen supersedure and colony survival in functional, intensively managed beehives. We found the average effective paternity frequency (m e ) of this population of honey bee queens to be 13.6??6.76, which was not significantly different between colonies that superseded their queen and those that did not. However, colonies that were less genetically diverse (headed by queens with m e ???7.0) were 2.86 times more likely to die by the end of the study when compared to colonies that were more genetically diverse (headed by queens with m e ?>?7.0). The stark contrast in colony survival based on increased genetic diversity suggests that there are important tangible benefits of increased queen mating number in managed honey bees, although the exact mechanism(s) that govern these benefits have not been fully elucidated. PMID:23728203

Tarpy, David R; Vanengelsdorp, Dennis; Pettis, Jeffrey S

2013-08-01

20

Genetic diversity affects colony survivorship in commercial honey bee colonies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Honey bee ( Apis mellifera) queens mate with unusually high numbers of males (average of approximately 12 drones), although there is much variation among queens. One main consequence of such extreme polyandry is an increased diversity of worker genotypes within a colony, which has been shown empirically to confer significant adaptive advantages that result in higher colony productivity and survival. Moreover, honey bees are the primary insect pollinators used in modern commercial production agriculture, and their populations have been in decline worldwide. Here, we compare the mating frequencies of queens, and therefore, intracolony genetic diversity, in three commercial beekeeping operations to determine how they correlate with various measures of colony health and productivity, particularly the likelihood of queen supersedure and colony survival in functional, intensively managed beehives. We found the average effective paternity frequency ( m e ) of this population of honey bee queens to be 13.6 6.76, which was not significantly different between colonies that superseded their queen and those that did not. However, colonies that were less genetically diverse (headed by queens with m e ? 7.0) were 2.86 times more likely to die by the end of the study when compared to colonies that were more genetically diverse (headed by queens with m e > 7.0). The stark contrast in colony survival based on increased genetic diversity suggests that there are important tangible benefits of increased queen mating number in managed honey bees, although the exact mechanism(s) that govern these benefits have not been fully elucidated.

Tarpy, David R.; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Pettis, Jeffrey S.

2013-08-01

21

Primary Health Care initiatives in colonial Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most contemporary development practitioners have only passing familiarity with development strategies employed by their predecessors, especially for programs that occurred during colonial periods. An examination of the colonial medical system of Kenya reveals that many of the strategies now employed in Primary Health Care programs were preceded by comparable programs administered by the colonial medical authorities. The colonial system did

Miriam S. Chaiken

1998-01-01

22

Zimbabwe Colonial and Post-Colonial Language Policy and Planning Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph focuses on the development of colonial and post-colonial language policies and practices in Zimbabwe, attributing changes to evolving philosophies and politics in colonial and post-colonial Zimbabwe. In colonial Zimbabwe, we argue that the language policies had as one of their key objectives the development of a bilingual white

Makoni, Sinfree B.; Dube, Busi; Mashiri, Pedzisai

2006-01-01

23

Castrating parasites and colonial hosts.  

PubMed

Trajectories of life-history traits such as growth and reproduction generally level off with age and increasing size. However, colonial animals may exhibit indefinite, exponential growth via modular iteration thus providing a long-lived host source for parasite exploitation. In addition, modular iteration entails a lack of germ line sequestration. Castration of such hosts by parasites may therefore be impermanent or precluded, unlike the general case for unitary animal hosts. Despite these intriguing correlates of coloniality, patterns of colonial host exploitation have not been well studied. We examined these patterns by characterizing the responses of a myxozoan endoparasite, Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, and its colonial bryozoan host, Fredericella sultana, to 3 different resource levels. We show that (1) the development of infectious stages nearly always castrates colonies regardless of host condition, (2) castration reduces partial mortality and (3) development of transmission stages is resource-mediated. Unlike familiar castrator-host systems, this system appears to be characterized by periodic rather than permanent castration. Periodic castration may be permitted by 2 key life history traits: developmental cycling of the parasite between quiescent (covert infections) and virulent infectious stages (overt infections) and the absence of germ line sequestration which allows host reproduction in between bouts of castration. PMID:22309795

Hartikainen, H; Okamura, B

2012-04-01

24

Chronic sublethal stress causes bee colony failure  

PubMed Central

Current bee population declines and colony failures are well documented yet poorly understood and no single factor has been identified as a leading cause. The evidence is equivocal and puzzling: for instance, many pathogens and parasites can be found in both failing and surviving colonies and field pesticide exposure is typically sublethal. Here, we investigate how these results can be due to sublethal stress impairing colony function. We mathematically modelled stress on individual bees which impairs colony function and found how positive density dependence can cause multiple dynamic outcomes: some colonies fail while others thrive. We then exposed bumblebee colonies to sublethal levels of a neonicotinoid pesticide. The dynamics of colony failure, which we observed, were most accurately described by our model. We argue that our model can explain the enigmatic aspects of bee colony failures, highlighting an important role for sublethal stress in colony declines. PMID:24112478

Bryden, John; Gill, Richard J; Mitton, Robert A A; Raine, Nigel E; Jansen, Vincent A A; Hodgson, David

2013-01-01

25

Genetic diversity affects colony survivorship in commercial honey bee colonies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Honey bee (Apis mellifera) queens mate with unusually high numbers of males (average of approximately 12 drones), although there is much variation among queens. One main consequence of such extreme polyandry is an increased diversity of worker genotypes within a colony, which has been shown empirica...

26

The Vine and Olive Colony.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the historical sources of "Some Plant Olive Trees," a utopian novel by Emma Gelders Sterne, which offers a fictional account of the Vine and Olive colony, one of the most colorful yet least known utopian communities of the nineteenth century. (AYC)

Albinski, Nan Bowman

1985-01-01

27

Murre Colony on Prince Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A breeding colony of California common murres (Uria aalge californica) on Prince Island off San Miguel Island off Southern California. Ecologists Josh Adams and Jonathan Felis of the USGS Western Ecological Research Center shot this and other high-resolution digital telephotos from a research vessel...

28

New colony formation in the \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

If the adaptive significance of sexual reproduction derives from genetic recombination, then sexual organisms that severely inbreed minimize the benefits of sexuality without fully escaping its costs. Local populations of the eusocial naked mole-rat are extremely genetically uniform, and colonies have the highest inbreeding coefficient known for wild mammals. Because non- breeding workers cooperate to rear the queen's offspring, researchers

Deborah Ciszek

2000-01-01

29

Meteorology in a Space Colony  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is pointed out that the weather in a space colony proposed by ONeill is considerably different from that on the earth. Atmospheric circulation is produced by a temperature difference between the land area and the window area, and it is restricted within the thermal boundary layer. On the window shore, strong window-wind blows in a day time.

Matsuda, Takuya

1983-06-01

30

"Unauthorised colonies" and the City of Delhi  

E-print Network

This research was undertaken, to understand the phenomenon of "unauthorised colonies" in relation to the city of Delhi, to which they belong. "Unauthorised Colonies" is the label given by the Delhi Development Authority ...

Mukherjee, Snehanshu

1988-01-01

31

Fractal scaling of microbial colonies affects growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growth dynamics of filamentary microbial colonies is investigated. Fractality of the fungal or actinomycetes colonies is shown both theoretically and in numerical experiments to play an important role. The growth observed in real colonies is described by the assumption of time-dependent fractality related to the different ages of various parts of the colony. The theoretical results are compared to a simulation based on branching random walks.

Krolyi, Gyrgy

2005-03-01

32

Colonialism in Asia: A Critical Look!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cartoons, text, questions, and activities encourage students to link the present with the past, to look at colonialism from the perspective of the colonized, and to see how the global economy perpetuates the trade structures begun during the colonial era. After exploring colonialism in the past, early contacts by Europeans with other cultures, the

Gage, Susan

33

British Models of Colonial Governance: Adam Smith and John Bruce on the Cape Colony  

Microsoft Academic Search

:The Scottish Enlightenment models of colonial governance produced for the Cape Colony by Adam Smith (1723-1790) and John Bruce (1744-1826) are examined. The article ranges between Smith and Bruce's views on Britain's colonial policy in general terms, and the specifics of their ideas on the Cape Colony. The comparison focuses on three aspects: one, how in political terms the relation

David Johnson

2010-01-01

34

British Models of Colonial Governance: Adam Smith and John Bruce on the Cape Colony  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Scottish Enlightenment models of colonial governance produced for the Cape Colony by Adam Smith (1723-1790) and John Bruce (1744-1826) are examined. The article ranges between Smith and Bruce's views on Britain's colonial policy in general terms, and the specifics of their ideas on the Cape Colony. The comparison focuses on three aspects: one, how in political terms the relation

David Johnson

2010-01-01

35

Intracolonial genetic variation affects reproductive skew and colony productivity during colony foundation in a parthenogenetic termite  

PubMed Central

Background In insect societies, intracolonial genetic variation is predicted to affect both colony efficiency and reproductive skew. However, because the effects of genetic variation on these two colony characteristics have been tested independently, it remains unclear whether they are affected by genetic variation independently or in a related manner. Here we test the effect of genetic variation on colony efficiency and reproductive skew in a rhinotermitid termite, Reticulitermes speratus, a species in which female-female pairs can facultatively found colonies. We established colonies using two types of female-female pairs: colonies founded by sisters (i.e., sister-pair colonies) and those founded by females from different colonies (i.e., unrelated-pair colonies). Colony growth and reproductive skew were then compared between the two types of incipient colonies. Results At 15months after colony foundation, unrelated-pair colonies were larger than sister-pair colonies, although the caste ratio between workers and nymphs, which were alternatively differentiated from young larvae, did not differ significantly. Microsatellite DNA analyses of both founders and their parthenogenetically produced offspring indicated that, in both sister-pair and unrelated-pair colonies, there was no significant skew in the production of eggs, larvae, workers and soldiers. Nymph production, however, was significantly more skewed in the sister-pair colonies than in unrelated-pair colonies. Because nymphs can develop into winged adults (alates) or nymphoid reproductives, they have a higher chance of direct reproduction than workers in this species. Conclusions Our results support the idea that higher genetic variation among colony members could provide an increase in colony productivity, as shown in hymenopteran social insects. Moreover, this study suggests that low genetic variation (high relatedness) between founding females increases reproductive skew via one female preferentially channeling her relatives along the reproductive track. This study thus demonstrated that, in social insects, intracolonial genetic variation can simultaneously affect both colony efficiency and reproductive skew. PMID:25123355

2014-01-01

36

The American Colony in Jerusalem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Colony in Jerusalem was founded in 1881 by two Midwesterners, Anna and Horatio Spafford, with the intent of beginning a Christian utopian society. Over the group's 60-year history, they were able to engage in a variety of philanthropic outreach efforts (such as running soup kitchens, hospitals, and orphanages) without proselytizing. Drawing on a number of pieces of historical ephemera donated by Mrs. Valentine Vester, the Library of Congress has created this online collection that documents the Colony's history and its work. Visitors can move through the different sections of the exhibit offered here, stopping to read brief descriptions of each featured item along the way. Overall, a very nice exhibit dedicated to one of the 20th centuries less well-known utopian communities.

37

Spatial patterns in ant colonies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origins of large-scale spatial patterns in biology have been an important source of theoretical speculation since the pioneering work by Turing (1952) on the chemical basis of morphogenesis. Knowing how these patterns emerge and their functional role is important to our understanding of the evolution of biocomplexity and the role played by self organization. However, so far, conclusive evidence for local activation-long-range inhibition mechanisms in real biological systems has been elusive. Here a well-defined experimental and theoretical analysis of the pattern formation dynamics exhibited by clustering behavior in ant colonies is presented. These experiments and a simple mathematical model show that these colonies do indeed use this type of mechanism. All microscopic variables have been measured and provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, for this type of self-organized behavior in complex biological systems, supporting early conjectures about its role in the organization of insect societies.

Theraulaz, Guy; Bonabeau, Eric; Nicolis, Stamatios C.; Sol, Ricard V.; Fourcassi, Vincent; Blanco, Stphane; Fournier, Richard; Joly, Jean-Louis; Fernndez, Pau; Grimal, Anne; Dalle, Patrice; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis

2002-07-01

38

One Kilogram Interstellar Colony Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small interstellar colony probes based on nanotechnology will become possible long before giant multi-generation ships become affordable. A beam generator and magnetic sail can accelerate a one kg probe to .1 c, braking via the interstellar field can decelerate it, and the field in a distant solar system can allow it to maneuver to an extrasolar planet. A heat shield is used for landing and nanobots emerge to build ever-larger robots and construct colony infrastructure. Humans can then be generated from genomes stored as data in computer memory. Technology is evolving towards these capabilities and should reach the required level in fifty years. The plan appears to be affordable, with the principal cost being the beam generator, estimated at $17 billion.

Mole, A.

39

Colony Defence and Natural Enemies  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter discusses in detail individual honeybees fending off an enemy and the effects that can be rendered when whole\\u000a colony defence is a coordinated, social effort. Enemies extend from viruses to bears. Whatever the predator, the nesting styles\\u000a and nests of the bees afford a first line of defence. These are supplemented by various weapons, including stings, mandibles,\\u000a legs

Stefan Fuchs; Jrgen Tautz

40

Anti?colonial Chicana feminism  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1980s and 1990s, a critical mass of Chicana feminist scholars established a space and a voice to express an identity of opposition. This paper is an overview of Chicana Studies writings since 1991, emphasizing the pain, recovery, and celebration expressed by Chicana writers. In addition, and perhaps most importantly, I discuss the anti?patriarchal, anti?colonial challenges posed by Chicana

Teresa Crdova

1998-01-01

41

Deadly competition between sibling bacterial colonies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a result of stress due to nutrient limitation or antibiotics, competing individual bacteria within a single colony may lyse sibling cells to release nutrients (cannibalism) or DNA (fratricide). However, we have recently shown that competition is not limited to individuals, but can occur at the colony level [A. Be'er et al., PNAS 106, 428 (2009); A. Be'er et al., PNAS 107, 6258 (2010).] In response to the presence of an encroaching sibling colony, Paenibacillus dendritiformis bacteria secrete a lethal protein, lysing cells at the interface between the colonies. Analysis of the proteins secreted by these competing sibling colonies, combined with a mathematical model, shows how colonies maintain their growth by self-regulating the secretion of two proteins: subtilisin (a well-known growth promoter), and Slf (a previously unknown protein, which is lethal). The results also explain why a single colony is not inhibited by its own secretions.

Be'Er, Avraham

2011-03-01

42

Colonial Landscape and Rock Origin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is designed to help students develop appreciation and ownership for the natural world around them with the hope of increasing their interest in exploring and questioning the processes that created land forms. Some familiarity with stone walls and with colonial New England is helpful; the students should learn to understand how human endeavors affect the landscape. After taking a nature walk (hopefully in an area where there are stone walls), they will participate in an activity in which they "build" a model wall using stones buried in a plastic tray.

43

Conceptual design of a lunar colony  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A systems engineering study is presented for a proposed lunar colony. The lunar colony was to grow from an existent, 12-man, earth-dependent lunar surface base and was to utilize lunar resources, becoming as earth-independent as possible. An in-depth treatment of some of the aspects of the lunar colony was given. We have found that the use of lunar resources is feasible for oxygen production (both for breathing and for space tug fuel), food production, and building materials. A program is outlined for recycling waste materials developed at the colony as well as a full program for growth and research activity of the colony to a level of 180 colonists. Recommendations for the lunar colony are given.

Dalton, C. (editor); Hohmann, E. (editor)

1972-01-01

44

Organizer regions in marine colonial hydrozoans.  

PubMed

Organizers are specific tissue regions of developing organisms that provide accuracy and robustness to the body plan formation. Hydrozoan cnidarians (both solitary and colonial) require organizer regions for maintaining the regular body patterning during continuous tissue dynamics during asexual reproduction and growth. While the hypostomal organizer of the solitary Hydra has been studied relatively well, our knowledge of organizers in colonial hydrozoans remains fragmentary and incomplete. As colonial hydrozoans demonstrate an amazing diversity of morphological and life history traits, it is of special interest to investigate the organizers specific for particular ontogenetic stages and particular types of colonies. In the present study we aimed to assess the inductive capacities of several candidate organizer regions in hydroids with different colony organization. We carried out grafting experiments on colonial hydrozoans belonging to Leptothecata and Anthoathecata. We confirmed that the hypostome tip is an organizer in the colonial Anthoathecata as it is in the solitary polyp Hydra. We also found that the posterior tip of the larva is an organizer in hydroids regardless of the peculiarities of their metamorphosis mode and colony structure. We show for the first time that the shoot growing tip, which can be considered a key evolutionary novelty of Leptothecata, is an organizer region. Taken together, our data demonstrate that organizers function throughout the larval and polypoid stages in colonial hydroids. PMID:25749284

Mayorova, Tatiana; Kosevich, Igor; Dulin, Nickolai; Savina, Elizaveta; Kraus, Yulia

2015-04-01

45

Recruitment Strategies and Colony Size in Ants  

PubMed Central

Ants use a great variety of recruitment methods to forage for food or find new nests, including tandem running, group recruitment and scent trails. It has been known for some time that there is a loose correlation across many taxa between species-specific mature colony size and recruitment method. Very small colonies tend to use solitary foraging; small to medium sized colonies use tandem running or group recruitment whereas larger colonies use pheromone recruitment trails. Until now, explanations for this correlation have focused on the ants' ecology, such as food resource distribution. However, many species have colonies with a single queen and workforces that grow over several orders of magnitude, and little is known about how a colony's organization, including recruitment methods, may change during its growth. After all, recruitment involves interactions between ants, and hence the size of the colony itself may influence which recruitment method is usedeven if the ants' behavioural repertoire remains unchanged. Here we show using mathematical models that the observed correlation can also be explained by recognizing that failure rates in recruitment depend differently on colony size in various recruitment strategies. Our models focus on the build up of recruiter numbers inside colonies and are not based on optimality arguments, such as maximizing food yield. We predict that ant colonies of a certain size should use only one recruitment method (and always the same one) rather than a mix of two or more. These results highlight the importance of the organization of recruitment and how it is affected by colony size. Hence these results should also expand our understanding of ant ecology. PMID:20694195

Planqu, Robert; van den Berg, Jan Bouwe; Franks, Nigel R.

2010-01-01

46

Modelling and Analysis of Phase Variation in Bacterial Colony Growth  

E-print Network

Modelling and Analysis of Phase Variation in Bacterial Colony Growth Ovidiu P^arvu1 , David Gilbert case study, namely phase variation patterning in bacterial colony growth, forming circular colonies phase variation patterning in bacterial colony growth, forming circular colonies on a flat medium

Gilbert, David

47

Hegemony and Accommodation in the History Curriculum in Colonial Botswana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A reanalysis of colonial education is necessary in order to highlight its multifaceted and hybrid nature in specific colonial contexts. Although in general, colonial education served the socio-political needs of the colonial machinery, the colonial government's hegemonic authority over the school curriculum did not operate as a totalising

Mafela, Lily

2014-01-01

48

Ant colony search algorithm for unit commitment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the ant colony search algorithm (ACSA) is proposed to solve the thermal unit commitment problem. ACSA is a new cooperative agents approach, which is inspired by the observation of the behaviors of real ant colonies on the topic of ant trial formation and foraging methods. In the ACSA, a set of cooperating agents called \\

T. Sum-im; W. Ongsakul

2003-01-01

49

Colonialism in Modern America: The Appalachian Case.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The essays in this book illustrate a conceptual model for analyzing the social and economic problems of the Appalachian region. The model is variously called Colonialism, Internal Colonialism, Exploitation, or External Oppression. It highlights the process through which dominant outside industrial interests establish control, exploit the region,

Lewis, Helen Matthews, Ed.; And Others

50

Managing Varroa Mites in Honey Bee Colonies  

E-print Network

Managing Varroa Mites in Honey Bee Colonies The varroa mite (Varroa destructor) is the most serious pest of honey bee colonies worldwide. This parasite was first detected in North Carolina in 1990, having been introduced to the U.S. just three years earlier. Virtually all feral (or "wild") honey bee

Tarpy, David R.

51

Education in Colonial Africa: The German Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the introduction and growth of state-supported schools in two German colonies in Africa, Kamerun and Deutsch Ostafrika, describes African reaction to and utilization of them, assesses, from the colonial perspective, why such schools were introduced and what they were intended to accomplish, and examines the reasons for their differential

vanderPloeg, Arie J.

1977-01-01

52

FEATURE ARTICLE 2 Midwifery in colonial India  

E-print Network

Chinese medicine Gender, hygiene and health FAREWELL TO BILL BYNUM 8 RESEARCH RESOURCES 15 Remedy booksFEATURE ARTICLE 2 Midwifery in colonial India WORK IN PROGRESS 4 Religion, medicine and gender of traditional birth attendants in colonial India. In 1902, the first Midwives Act was passed in England

Rambaut, Andrew

53

Colonial America: A Course of Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This illustrated unit of study can be incorporated into regular social studies courses in elementary classrooms. The unit focuses on life in the 13 original colonies from the settlement period to the Revolutionary War. Activities are provided to help students learn the names and locations of the colonies. A highlight of the unit is a study of the

Bennett, Sondra; Stephens, Mark

54

Colonial American Literature: A Guide to Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handout is a guide to library resources in the J. Murrey Atkins Library at the University of North Carolina-Charlotte for the study of colonial American literature. The guide is intended to help readers find sources of criticism on colonial and revolutionary literature. It explains important reference sources in the Atkins library reference

Van Noate, Judith, Comp.

55

Governmentality, congestion and calculation in colonial Delhi  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to explore a different way of examining the difference of European and colonial governments, showing how the Indian colonial state privileged investments in political, rather than civil, society. The former targeted the population and sought effects through policies that could be co-ordinated from a distance, at low cost. The latter targeted the social realm and necessarily involved

Stephen Legg

2006-01-01

56

Public health developments in colonial Malaya: colonialism and the politics of prevention.  

PubMed Central

In both African and Asian colonies until the late 19th century, colonial medicine operated pragmatically to meet the medical needs first of colonial officers and troops, immigrant settlers, and laborers responsible for economic development, then of indigenous populations when their ill health threatened the well-being of the expatriate population. Since the turn of the century, however, the consequences of colonial expansion and development for indigenous people's health had become increasingly apparent, and disease control and public health programs were expanded in this light. These programs increased government surveillance of populations at both community and household levels. As a consequence, colonial states extended institutional oversight and induced dependency through public health measures. Drawing on my own work on colonial Malaya, I illustrate developments in public health and their links to the moral logic of colonialism and its complementarity to the political economy. PMID:9987478

Manderson, L

1999-01-01

57

Form and metabolic scaling in colonial animals.  

PubMed

Benthic colonial organisms exhibit a wide variation in size and shape and provide excellent model systems for testing the predictions of models that describe the scaling of metabolic rate with organism size. We tested the hypothesis that colony form will influence metabolic scaling and its derivatives by characterising metabolic and propagule production rates in three species of freshwater bryozoans that vary in morphology and module organisation and which demonstrate two- and three-dimensional growth forms. The results were evaluated with respect to predictions from two models for metabolic scaling. Isometric metabolic scaling in two-dimensional colonies supported predictions of a model based on dynamic energy budget theory (DEB) and not those of a model based on fractally branching supply networks. This metabolic isometry appears to be achieved by equivalent energy budgets of edge and central modules, in one species (Cristatella mucedo) via linear growth and in a second species (Lophopus crystallinus) by colony fission. Allometric scaling characterised colonies of a three-dimensional species (Fredericella sultana), also providing support for the DEB model. Isometric scaling of propagule production rates for C. mucedo and F. sultana suggests that the number of propagules produced in colonies increases in direct proportion with the number of modules within colonies. Feeding currents generated by bryozoans function in both food capture and respiration, thus linking metabolic scaling with dynamics of self-shading and resource capture. Metabolic rates fundamentally dictate organismal performance (e.g. growth, reproduction) and, as we show here, are linked with colony form. Metabolic profiles and associated variation in colony form should therefore influence the outcome of biotic interactions in habitats dominated by colonial animals and may drive patterns of macroevolution. PMID:24265433

Hartikainen, Hanna; Humphries, Stuart; Okamura, Beth

2014-03-01

58

21 CFR 866.2180 - Manual colony counter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices 866.2180 Manual colony counter. (a) Identification. A manual colony...

2013-04-01

59

21 CFR 866.2180 - Manual colony counter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices 866.2180 Manual colony counter. (a) Identification. A manual colony...

2012-04-01

60

21 CFR 866.2180 - Manual colony counter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices 866.2180 Manual colony counter. (a) Identification. A manual colony...

2014-04-01

61

21 CFR 866.2180 - Manual colony counter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices 866.2180 Manual colony counter. (a) Identification. A manual colony...

2011-04-01

62

History: The Colonial Williamsburg Official History Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Colonial Williamsburg has been a popular destination for American history buffs for eight decades, and they continue to impress with their fine website dedicated to providing biographies, essays, and articles on "the everyday life of extraordinary Americans." Visitors can read biographies of people who inhabited colonial-era Williamsburg, listen to their fife and drums corps, and tour the town. One area that is definitely worth a look is the "Gardens" section of the site. Here visitors can learn about the landscape restoration work on the site, the history of the gardens, and read the gardener's blog. Further along, the "Clothing" area includes narrative descriptions of men's clothing, women's clothing, and African American clothing during colonial times. Also, visitors can dress a colonial person from head to toe in the interactive adventure, "Dressing the Part". The site is rounded out by a "Conferences, Forums, and Workshops" area that includes information about their scholarly activities and upcoming forums.

63

Identification of a Colonial Chordate Histocompatibility Gene  

PubMed Central

Histocompatibility is the basis by which multicellular organisms of the same species distinguish self from non-self. Relatively little is known about the mechanisms underlying histocompatibility reactions in lower organisms. Botryllus schlosseri is a colonial urochordate, a sister group of vertebrates, that exhibits a genetically determined natural transplantation reaction, whereby self-recognition between colonies leads to formation of parabionts with a common vasculature, whereas rejection occurs between incompatible colonies. Using genetically defined lines, whole-transcriptome sequencing, and genomics, we identified a single gene that encodes self/non-self and determines graft outcomes in this organism. This gene is significantly upregulated in colonies poised to undergo fusion or rejection, is highly expressed in the vasculature, and is functionally linked to histocompatibility outcomes. These findings establish a platform for advancing the science of allorecognition. PMID:23888037

Voskoboynik, Ayelet; Newman, Aaron M.; Corey, Daniel M.; Sahoo, Debashis; Pushkarev, Dmitry; Neff, Norma F.; Passarelli, Benedetto; Koh, Winston; Ishizuka, Katherine J.; Palmeri, Karla J.; Dimov, Ivan K.; Keasar, Chen; Fan, H. Christina; Mantalas, Gary L.; Sinha, Rahul; Penland, Lolita; Quake, Stephen R.; Weissman, Irving L.

2013-01-01

64

Underground Coal Gasification at Tennessee Colony  

E-print Network

The Tennessee Colony In Situ Coal Gasification Project conducted by Basic Resources Inc. is the most recent step in Texas Utilities Company's ongoing research into the utilization of Texas lignite. The project, an application of the Soviet...

Garrard, C. W.

1979-01-01

65

Application of continuous monitoring of honeybee colonies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Monitoring physical variables associated with honey bee colonies, including weight, temperature, humidity, respiratory gases, vibration, acoustics and forager traffic, in a continuous manner is becoming feasible for most researchers as the cost and size of electronic sensors and dataloggers decrease...

66

Establishment and maintenance of sand fly colonies.  

PubMed

Sand flies used to have a reputation for being difficult and labour-intensive to breed. Here we summarize our experience with establishment and maintenance of sand fly colonies and their use for infective experiments: techniques for collection and handling wild-caught females, rearing larvae and adults and experimental infections of sand flies by Leishmania using membrane feeding. In addition, we compare major life cycle parameters between various colonies maintained under standard laboratory conditions. The sand fly rearing is tricky but some species can be reared in large numbers with a minimum of space and equipment. Initiation of new colonies from endemic sites is a prerequisite for accurate studies on parasite-vector interaction but it is more difficult step than routine maintenance of colonies already established in laboratory for many generations. PMID:21366760

Volf, P; Volfova, V

2011-03-01

67

ColonyArea: An ImageJ Plugin to Automatically Quantify Colony Formation in Clonogenic Assays  

PubMed Central

The clonogenic or colony formation assay is a widely used method to study the number and size of cancer cell colonies that remain after irradiation or cytotoxic agent administration and serves as a measure for the anti-proliferative effect of these treatments. Alternatively, this assay is used to quantitate the transforming potential of cancer associated genes and chemical agents. Therefore, there is a need for a simplified and standardized analysis of colony formation assays for both routine laboratory use and for parallelized automated analysis. Here we describe the freely available ImageJ-plugin ColonyArea, which is optimized for rapid and quantitative analysis of focus formation assays conducted in 6- to 24-well dishes. ColonyArea processes image data of multi-well dishes, by separating, concentrically cropping and background correcting well images individually, before colony formation is quantitated. Instead of counting the number of colonies, ColonyArea determines the percentage of area covered by crystal violet stained cell colonies, also taking the intensity of the staining and therefore cell density into account. We demonstrate that these parameters alone or in combination allow for robust quantification of IC50 values of the cytotoxic effect of two staurosporines, UCN-01 and staurosporine (STS) on human glioblastoma cells (T98G). The relation between the potencies of the two compounds compared very well with that obtained from an absorbance based method to quantify colony growth and to published data. The ColonyArea ImageJ plugin provides a simple and efficient analysis routine to quantitate assay data of one of the most commonly used cellular assays. The bundle is freely available for download as supporting information. We expect that ColonyArea will be of broad utility for cancer biologists, as well as clinical radiation scientists. PMID:24647355

Kaur, Amanpreet; Westermarck, Jukka; Abankwa, Daniel

2014-01-01

68

Scientific and practical applications of molecular colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The review briefs the history of the invention of the molecular colony techique, also known as a polony technology; applications\\u000a of this method to studies of the reactions between single RNA molecules, ultrasensitive diagnosis, gene cloning, and in vitro\\u000a screening, as well as the concepts of the origin of life that regard molecular colonies as a prototype of living organisms.

A. B. Chetverin; E. V. Chetverina

2007-01-01

69

Development of a marmoset colony in Australia.  

PubMed

A breeding nucleus of 15 pairs of Callithrix jacchus jacchus was imported from an established colony in the United Kingdom in 1978, and these have now multiplied to 137 animals. Good reproductive efficiency and growth rates have occurred in this colony, with minimal problems from diseases of nutritional or infectious origin. One episode of cessation of breeding and abortions was attributed to excessive noise and disturbance of the normal routine. PMID:6819408

McIntosh, G H; Looker, J W

1982-12-01

70

DIFFERENTIAL DRONE PRODUCTION BY AFRICANIZED AND EUROPEAN HONEY BEE COLONIES  

E-print Network

DIFFERENTIAL DRONE PRODUCTION BY AFRICANIZED AND EUROPEAN HONEY BEE COLONIES Thomas E. RINDERER Road Baton Rouge, LA 7(1820, USA SUMMARY The numbers of mature drones leaving colonies of Africanizcd with 10 European and 10 Africanized colonies, were trapped for drones exiting individual colonies on 3

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

71

How Did Colonialism Dispossess? Comments from an Edge of Empire  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emphasis on culture in studies of colonialism tends to obscure other forms of colonial power while making it impossible to contextualize the cultural argument and assess its salience. Rather than focusing on texts, systems of signification, and procedures of knowledge generation, as the colonial discourse literature is wont to do, a fuller understanding of colonial powers is achieved by

Cole Harris

2004-01-01

72

Automated counting of bacterial colony forming units on agar plates.  

PubMed

Manual counting of bacterial colony forming units (CFUs) on agar plates is laborious and error-prone. We therefore implemented a colony counting system with a novel segmentation algorithm to discriminate bacterial colonies from blood and other agar plates.A colony counter hardware was designed and a novel segmentation algorithm was written in MATLAB. In brief, pre-processing with Top-Hat-filtering to obtain a uniform background was followed by the segmentation step, during which the colony images were extracted from the blood agar and individual colonies were separated. A Bayes classifier was then applied to count the final number of bacterial colonies as some of the colonies could still be concatenated to form larger groups. To assess accuracy and performance of the colony counter, we tested automated colony counting of different agar plates with known CFU numbers of S. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and M. catarrhalis and showed excellent performance. PMID:22448267

Brugger, Silvio D; Baumberger, Christian; Jost, Marcel; Jenni, Werner; Brugger, Urs; Mhlemann, Kathrin

2012-01-01

73

Collective personalities in honeybee colonies are linked to colony fitness Margaret K. Wray a,*, Heather R. Mattila b,1  

E-print Network

Collective personalities in honeybee colonies are linked to colony fitness Margaret K. Wray a behaviour colony fitness honeybee Personality differences (i.e. consistent between-individual differences the concept of collective personality to colonies of honeybees (Apis mellifera). We document the presence

Childress, Michael J.

74

Material Culture and Colonial Networks in the Cape Colony and the Indian Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review article considers four recent books published on the social and cultural history of the Cape Colony and Batavia, spanning a chronological period from the mid-seventeenth through to the mid-nineteenth centuries. The books address a wide range of topics and themes, but they all share an interest, to a greater or lesser extent, in the material culture of colonial

Wayne Dooling

2010-01-01

75

Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm for Continuous Domains Based on Position Distribution Model of Ant Colony Foraging  

PubMed Central

Ant colony optimization algorithm for continuous domains is a major research direction for ant colony optimization algorithm. In this paper, we propose a distribution model of ant colony foraging, through analysis of the relationship between the position distribution and food source in the process of ant colony foraging. We design a continuous domain optimization algorithm based on the model and give the form of solution for the algorithm, the distribution model of pheromone, the update rules of ant colony position, and the processing method of constraint condition. Algorithm performance against a set of test trials was unconstrained optimization test functions and a set of optimization test functions, and test results of other algorithms are compared and analyzed to verify the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. PMID:24955402

Liu, Liqiang; Dai, Yuntao

2014-01-01

76

OBSERVATIONS ON COLONY SIZE, BREEDING SUCCESS, RECRUITMENT AND INTER-COLONY DISPERSAL IN A TASMANIAN COLONY OF SHORT-TAILED SHEARWATERS PUFFINUS TENUIROSTRIS OVER A 30YEAR PERIOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY SERVENTY, D.L. and P.J. CURRY 1984. Observations on colony size, breeding success, recruitment and inter- colony dispersal in a Tasmanian colony of Short-tailed Shearwaters Puffinus tenurrostrrs over a 30-year period. Emu 84: 71-79. A programme to mark a small colony of Short-tailed Shearwaters, by means of monel leg-bands, was begun on Fisher Island during 1947-50 as part of a

D. L. SERVENTY; P. J. CURRY

77

Evangelists of Empire? Missionaries in Colonial History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The role of missionaries in the process of colonization has intrigued historians and others for decades, and this compilation of scholarly works on this subject is quite a find. This set of papers was published by the eScholarship Research Centre at The University of Melbourne in July 2008, and it contains fifteen works that look at "current concepts of gender, race and colonial governance." Drawing on a range of methodological and theoretical approaches, the works are divided into thematic sections such as "Consolidating the Missionary Project" and "A Global Mission". Within these sections, visitors will find papers that include "Imperial Critics: Moravian Missionaries in the British Colonial World" and "Missions, Colonialism and the Politics of Agency". For persons with an interest in these types of historical explorations, this site will prove quite indispensable.

78

The Sphere of Women in Colonial America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project is a unit of six lessons designed to study and understand the roles and expectations of women in the colonial period. The unit provides an historical perspective on those expectations, examines how both men and women viewed the sphere of women, and how enlightened thought on this topic began to emerge during this revolutionary time.

Cook, Robert

79

Economic Development of British Colonial America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through a close study of a rich set of demographic and economic statistics, students will see the development over 150 years of two similar yet divergent colonies (Virginia and Barbados). They will work through population, land use, and trade statistics with closely-guiding questions in order to find links between one set of numbers and another.

Serena Zabin

80

The Colonial Origins of the Industrial Revolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to provide a coherent general equilibrium explanation for the joint U.S-British evolution during the last thousand years. We typified this period by initial Malthusian stagnation (before 1500); discovery and colonization (between 1500 and 1750); independence of the colony and the outset of an industrial revolution in the Empire (between 1750 and 1800); sustained economic growth (after 1800);

Juan Carlos Cordoba

2006-01-01

81

Insights & Perspectives Colony Collapse Disorder in context  

E-print Network

% increase in world honey bee stocks over the last century, bee- keepers have not kept pace with the >300 worldwide. In many cases, these morbidities can be explained by known parasites or bee- keeper management sensu stricto [6]. In recent winters, colony mortality in Europe has averaged $20% (ranging from 1

Shutler, Dave

82

Gained horizons: Buddhism in Tibetan colonial travelogues  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay focuses on the earliest British travel narratives to Tibet and on colonial culture's reception of Tibetan Buddhism. It addresses the related discourses of commerce and religion to show how the interplay of free?market ideology and Buddhist culture, at work in these travelogues, enlarged the boundaries of Britain's imagined community, while complicating the Romantic hegemonic construction of Hinduism.

Elena Spandri

2009-01-01

83

Policing native pleasures: a colonial history.  

PubMed

The moral modality of colonial power is still with us when it comes to the recreation of sexual norms of traditional or feudal society. We can examine the emergent properties of colonial knowledge anew by exploring how the colonial regime's strategic attention of regulating brothels in India differed from the analytic of power Foucault described for sexuality in European society. It turns out that amongst other things, public anxieties about the failure of adaptation by South Asians are incapable of leaving sexuality aside as a key interpretive device for their culture. The British preoccupation with reproducing the dynamics of the bourgeois matrimonial market on foreign soil in the mid-nineteenth century similarly necessitated a sociological pretext for racial purity. However, the kind of knowledge a typical traveller and employee of the East India Company brought to the Victorian public from his own researches in the brothels and streets of colonial India, which revealed how popular prostitution was as a vice amongst the officer class, was also more than a welcome imaginary relief from Christian morality; it was an alternative vision of modernity. PMID:23240839

Jabbar, Naheem

2012-12-01

84

Project Final Report: HPC-Colony II  

SciTech Connect

This report recounts the HPC Colony II Project which was a computer science effort funded by DOE's Advanced Scientific Computing Research office. The project included researchers from ORNL, IBM, and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The topic of the effort was adaptive system software for extreme scale parallel machines. A description of findings is included.

Jones, Terry R [ORNL; Kale, Laxmikant V [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Moreira, Jose [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center

2013-11-01

85

A Bicentennial Without a Puerto Rican Colony  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The United States revolution of 1776 is said to lose validity in light of Puerto Rico's colonial situation under American rule. The plight of the Puerto Rican people is compared to that of the Euro-American settlers under the thumb-screw of British imperialism. (Author/AM)

Thomas, Piri

1975-01-01

86

Candidate Set Strategies for Ant Colony Optimisation  

E-print Network

Candidate Set Strategies for Ant Colony Optimisation Marcus Randall and James Montgomery School to overcome this is to limit the number of element choices to a sensible subset, or candidate set. This paper describes some novel generic candidate set strategies and tests these on the travelling salesman and car

Montgomery, James

87

Branching instability in expanding bacterial colonies.  

PubMed

Self-organization in developing living organisms relies on the capability of cells to duplicate and perform a collective motion inside the surrounding environment. Chemical and mechanical interactions coordinate such a cooperative behaviour, driving the dynamical evolution of the macroscopic system. In this work, we perform an analytical and computational analysis to study pattern formation during the spreading of an initially circular bacterial colony on a Petri dish. The continuous mathematical model addresses the growth and the chemotactic migration of the living monolayer, together with the diffusion and consumption of nutrients in the agar. The governing equations contain four dimensionless parameters, accounting for the interplay among the chemotactic response, the bacteria-substrate interaction and the experimental geometry. The spreading colony is found to be always linearly unstable to perturbations of the interface, whereas branching instability arises in finite-element numerical simulations. The typical length scales of such fingers, which align in the radial direction and later undergo further branching, are controlled by the size parameters of the problem, whereas the emergence of branching is favoured if the diffusion is dominant on the chemotaxis. The model is able to predict the experimental morphologies, confirming that compact (resp. branched) patterns arise for fast (resp. slow) expanding colonies. Such results, while providing new insights into pattern selection in bacterial colonies, may finally have important applications for designing controlled patterns. PMID:25652464

Giverso, Chiara; Verani, Marco; Ciarletta, Pasquale

2015-03-01

88

Education and Evangelism in the English Colonies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article considers two related educational endeavors of the Massachusetts colony. The first is the colonists' efforts to pass their religious traditions to their children. The second is the effort of missionaries to spread the Christian faith to Native Americans. In both cases, the colonists wanted their children and the American Indians to

Watras, Joseph

2008-01-01

89

Religion and Nationhood in Late Colonial India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay examines the relationship between religion and the concept of nationhood in late colonial India. Religion was a crucial element in the formation of modern states in the early 20th century in South Asia. Different religious groups had different opinions about nation: Hindus and Muslims had different ideas of nationhood; even within the Hindu tradition, the Hindus themselves had

Chao Ren

2011-01-01

90

Original article Lower performance in honeybee colonies  

E-print Network

queens copulate with about 10-20 drones. A possible explanation why polyandry has evolved in honey bees artificially inseminated with semen from one drone opposed to equal amounts of mixed semen from several drones. Six colonies with queens inseminated with 1 ?l semen of a single drone, each of a different father

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

91

Strange alliance: Pygmies in the colonial imaginary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pygmies have long served, both in Western imagination and in Western science, as a sheet anchor for racial hierarchies and for putative sequences of human physical and social evolution. In the course of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Western exploration in Africa, Asia and the Pacific generated what might broadly be termed a colonial Pygmy mythology, composed of

Chris Ballard

2006-01-01

92

Detection of Campylobacter Colonies using Hyperspectral Imaging  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Isolation and detection of Campylobacter in foods via direct plating involves lengthy laboratory procedures including enrichments and microaerobic incubations, which take several days to a week. The incubation time for growing Campylobacter colonies in agar media is typically 24 hours to 48 hours. F...

93

Considerations for lunar colony communications systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper addresses system aspects of communications for a lunar colony. Human factors are particularly noted. The practical aspects of communications infrastructure are emphasized rather than specific technologies. Communications needs for mission support and morale are discussed along with potential means of satisfying them. Problem areas are identified and some possible solutions are considered.

Dowling, Richard P.

1992-01-01

94

Radial and Spiral Stream Formation in Proteus mirabilis Colonies  

E-print Network

The enteric bacterium Proteus mirabilis, which is a pathogen that forms biofilms in vivo, can swarm over hard surfaces and form a variety of spatial patterns in colonies. Colony formation involves two distinct cell types: ...

Xue, Chuan

95

Thoughts on information and integration in honey bee colonies  

E-print Network

Review Thoughts on information and integration in honey bee colonies Thomas D. Seeley Section 1997) Abstract - Solving the puzzle of colony integration in honey bees requires understanding how this information, I share some thoughts about information flow within honey bee colonies. These thoughts are based

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

96

A Post-Colonial Reading of Affirmative Action in Fiji.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a post-colonial reading of affirmative action (AA) policies in Fiji, arguing that AA was a deliberate response by various predominantly indigenous Fijian post-colonial governments to counter the effects of a discriminatory colonial history that produced significant educational and employment inequality. Analyzes the mixed outcomes of AA

Puamau, Priscilla Qolisaya

2001-01-01

97

Taxing Colonial Africa: The Political Economy of British Imperialism  

Microsoft Academic Search

How much did the British Empire cost, and how did Britain pay for it? Taxing Colonial Africa explores a source of funds much neglected in research on the financial structure of the Empire, namely revenue raised in the colonies themselves. Requiring colonies to be financially self-sufficient was one of a range of strategies the British government used to lower the

Leigh A. Gardner

98

ORIGINAL ARTICLE The evolution of colony-level development  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE The evolution of colony-level development in the Siphonophora (Cnidaria. Siphonophores, a group of pelagic hydrozoans (Cnidaria), have the most complex colony-level organization of all specialization Introduction The siphonophores, a group of pelagic colonial hydrozoans (Cnidaria), include

Dunn, Casey

99

Higher Order Pheromone Models in Ant Colony Optimisation  

E-print Network

Higher Order Pheromone Models in Ant Colony Optimisation James Montgomery Faculty of Information problem-specific components. A pa- rameterised model known as pheromone--an analogue of the trail phero. Keywords: Ant colony optimisation, pheromone model, model-based search. 1 Introduction Ant colony

Montgomery, James

100

Oversea Education and British Colonial Education 1929-63.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on an early twentieth century journal called "Oversea Education," designed to increase communication among British colonies, particularly for education, based on William Ormsby Gore's travels among the colonies. Describes Frank Ward's editorial work that championed the rights of colonial subjects to have better educational policy. (KDR)

Whitehead, Clive

2003-01-01

101

Pareto Ant Colony Optimization with ILP preprocessing in multiobjective project  

E-print Network

Pareto Ant Colony Optimization with ILP preprocessing in multiobjective project portfolio selection the computational effort necessary and the quality of an approximated solution space, Pareto Ant Colony Optimization at a low cost. Key words: Ant Colony Optimization, Project Portfolio Selection, Multiobjective

Gutjahr, Walter

102

Negotiating white Icelandic identity: multiculturalism and colonial identity formations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-colonial scholars have emphasized the need to explore the ways in which colonial contact shaped both the colonized and colonizers; that is, how European identities were formulated in relation to imperial projects. Colonial Europe itself has to be deconstructed, looking at similarities and variability within different countries.This article explores the construction of white Icelandic identity in historical and contemporary discourses.

Kristn Loftsdttir

2011-01-01

103

Ant Colony Optimization and Data Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) technique was inspired by the ants behavior throughout their exploration for food. In nature,\\u000a ants wander randomly, seeking for food. After succeeding, they return to their nest. During their move, they lay down pheromone\\u000a that forms an evaporating chemical path. Other ants that locate this trail, follow it and reinforce it, since they also lay

Ioannis Michelakos; Nikolaos Mallios; Elpiniki Papageorgiou; Michael Vassilakopoulos

104

Developmental Instability in Incipient Colonies of Social Insects  

PubMed Central

Social insect colonies can provide homeostatic conditions that buffer the incidence of environmental fluctuations on individuals, which have contributed to their ecological success. Coptotermes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) is a highly invasive termite genus and several species have important economic impact in many areas of the world. Mature Coptotermes colonies with millions of individuals can provide optimal environmental condition and nurturing capacity for the developing brood. However, it was previously suggested that contrary to mature colonies, incipient colonies may be exposed to critical stress, which may explain for the low success rate of establishment within the first year of the life of a termite colony. We here investigated the stress imposed on individuals of incipient colonies by comparing the developmental instability of individuals between incipient and mature colonies of two Coptotermes species, C. formosanus Shiraki and C. gestroi (Wasmann). We assessed the developmental instability by measuring the asymmetry of morphological traits from the head capsule of the soldier caste. Soldiers from incipient colonies of both species displayed strong asymmetrical traits in comparison to soldiers from mature colonies. We suggest that homeostatic conditions for optimal development are reached as the colony matures, and confirmed that the incipient colony remains a critical bottleneck where individuals are exposed to high developmental stress. PMID:25423502

Chouvenc, Thomas; Basille, Mathieu; Li, Hou-Feng; Su, Nan-Yao

2014-01-01

105

Rapid behavioral maturation accelerates failure of stressed honey bee colonies.  

PubMed

Many complex factors have been linked to the recent marked increase in honey bee colony failure, including pests and pathogens, agrochemicals, and nutritional stressors. It remains unclear, however, why colonies frequently react to stressors by losing almost their entire adult bee population in a short time, resulting in a colony population collapse. Here we examine the social dynamics underlying such dramatic colony failure. Bees respond to many stressors by foraging earlier in life. We manipulated the demography of experimental colonies to induce precocious foraging in bees and used radio tag tracking to examine the consequences of precocious foraging for their performance. Precocious foragers completed far fewer foraging trips in their life, and had a higher risk of death in their first flights. We constructed a demographic model to explore how this individual reaction of bees to stress might impact colony performance. In the model, when forager death rates were chronically elevated, an increasingly younger forager force caused a positive feedback that dramatically accelerated terminal population decline in the colony. This resulted in a breakdown in division of labor and loss of the adult population, leaving only brood, food, and few adults in the hive. This study explains the social processes that drive rapid depopulation of a colony, and we explore possible strategies to prevent colony failure. Understanding the process of colony failure helps identify the most effective strategies to improve colony resilience. PMID:25675508

Perry, Clint J; Svik, Eirik; Myerscough, Mary R; Barron, Andrew B

2015-03-17

106

Excrement from Heron colonies for environmental assessment of toxic elements.  

PubMed

Excrement cast from Great Blue Heron nests was collected during the nesting period of 1978 from four colonies in Washington and Idaho. Cheesecloth strips placed on the ground beneath the nests served as excrement collecting devices. Chemical analysis for lead, mercury and cadmium were performed on dried samples. Lead was the most abundant trace metal found in heron debris. The Idaho colony at Lake Chatcolet had an average concentration of 46 ppm in the beneath-nest samples and 6 ppm in control samples. A heron colony near Tacoma, Washington had beneath-nest samples averaging 28 ppm and control samples averaging 20 ppm. Two colonies located in the interior region of Washington had substantially lower concentrations of lead. The difference observed between colonies was attributed to their associations with a polluted watershed (Chatcolet colony) an interstate highway (Tacoma colony) and an unpopulated largely agricultural area (inland Washington). PMID:24264121

Fitzner, R E; Rickard, W H; Hinds, W T

1982-12-01

107

Colony image segmentation based on kernel spatial FCM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To recognize the characteristics of coiony images, an important step is to segment colony images (delineate colonies). Therefore, an algorithm based on kernel spatial FCM (fuzzy c-means) is studied for colony images, presented in this paper. When conventional fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm is used to segment colony images, spatial information is not considered, and Euclidean distance calculation in such an algorithm is not robust. In this paper, we consider the spatial information when colony images are deal with, by using MCF. By using Mercer kernel functions, image pixels are mapped from the original space into a higher dimensional feature space. We can perform c-means clustering efficiently in the feature space for the kernel functions, which can induce robust distance measures while the computational complexity is low. We conduct some experiments on colony images by using the new algorithm. The results show that the studied algorithm is suitable and robust for colony images segmentation.

Wang, Weixing; Cui, Bing

2006-09-01

108

The Development of Politics in Extraterrestrial Colonies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existence of feudal or totalitarian interplanetary empires has been a favourite theme in Science Fiction. Although the vast distances between the stars make the emergence of an interstellar empire impossible without the creation of a faster than light drive, this is not necessarily true for the other worlds within our solar system. Environmental constraints on the off-world colonies themselves, and repressive, hierarchical and feudalistic social and commercial institutions and customs inherited from the parent cultures on Earth and a tradition of military rule descending from the foundation of these colonies may all work to bring about a new feudal or totalitarian social order on humanity's extraterrestrial colonies. There are encouraging signs that this may not be the case, however. Already the debate over the projected colonisation of Mars is a factor influencing present controversies over repressive institutions and customs. Nevertheless, those wishing for a free, democratic, and politically, socially and technologically innovative and vigorous human society spreading throughout the solar system should not become complacent.

Sivier, D. J.

109

First Recorded Loss of an Emperor Penguin Colony in the Recent Period of Antarctic Regional Warming: Implications for Other Colonies  

PubMed Central

In 1948, a small colony of emperor penguins Aptenodytes forsteri was discovered breeding on Emperor Island (67 51? 52? S, 68 42? 20? W), in the Dion Islands, close to the West Antarctic Peninsula (Stonehouse 1952). When discovered, the colony comprised approximately 150 breeding pairs; these numbers were maintained until 1970, after which time the colony showed a continuous decline. By 1999 there were fewer than 20 pairs, and in 2009 high-resolution aerial photography revealed no remaining trace of the colony. Here we relate the decline and loss of the Emperor Island colony to a well-documented rise in local mean annual air temperature and coincident decline in seasonal sea ice duration. The loss of this colony provides empirical support for recent studies (Barbraud & Weimerskirch 2001; Jenouvrier et al 2005, 2009; Ainley et al 2010; Barber-Meyer et al 2005) that have highlighted the vulnerability of emperor penguins to changes in sea ice duration and distribution. These studies suggest that continued climate change is likely to impact upon future breeding success and colony viability for this species. Furthermore, a recent circumpolar study by Fretwell & Trathan (2009) highlighted those Antarctic coastal regions where colonies appear most vulnerable to such changes. Here we examine which other colonies might be at risk, discussing various ecological factors, some previously unexplored, that may also contribute to future declines. The implications of this are important for future modelling work and for understanding which colonies actually are most vulnerable. PMID:21386883

Trathan, Philip N.; Fretwell, Peter T.; Stonehouse, Bernard

2011-01-01

110

COVASIAM: an image analysis method that allows detection of confluent microbial colonies and colonies of various sizes for automated counting.  

PubMed

In this work we introduce the confluent and various sizes image analysis method (COVASIAM), an automated colony count technique that uses digital imaging technology for detection and separation of confluent microbial colonies and colonies of various sizes growing on petri dishes. The proposed method takes advantage of the optical properties of the surfaces of most microbial colonies. Colonies in the petri dish are epi-illuminated in order to direct the reflection of concentrated light coming from a halogen lamp towards an image-sensing device. In conjunction, a multilevel threshold algorithm is proposed for colony separation and counting. These procedures improved the quantification of colonies showing confluence or differences in size. We tested COVASIAM with a sample set of microorganisms that form colonies with contrasting physical properties: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus nidulans, Escherichia coli, Azotobacter vinelandii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Rhizobium etli. These physical properties range from smooth to hairy, from bright to opaque, and from high to low convexities. COVASIAM estimated an average of 95.47% (sigma = 8.55%) of the manually counted colonies, while an automated method based on a single-threshold segmentation procedure estimated an average of 76% (sigma = 16.27) of the manually counted colonies. This method can be easily transposed to almost every image-processing analyzer since the procedures to compile it are generically standard. PMID:9546177

Corkidi, G; Diaz-Uribe, R; Folch-Mallol, J L; Nieto-Sotelo, J

1998-04-01

111

Playback of colony sound alters the breeding schedule and clutch size in zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) colonies  

PubMed Central

The hypothesis that social stimulation, derived from the presence and activities of conspecifics, can hasten and synchronize breeding in colonies of birds was tested. A modified playback/recorder system was used to continuously exaggerate the amount of colony sound available to zebra finches throughout their courtship period. Males that heard sound supplements generated from their own colony sang more than males in control colonies that did not receive playback; males that heard samples from a different colony, sang at an intermediate level. Females that were exposed to the vocalizations of their mate and playback from a colony other than their own, laid eggs earlier and more synchronously than females in control colonies. Females that heard the vocalizations of their mate along with playback samples generated from their own colony, laid eggs more synchronously but not earlier than control females. Both acoustic treatments caused females to lay larger clutches. Social stimulation influences the breeding schedule and clutch size in zebra finch colonies. If there are advantages associated with these effects, social stimulation may contribute to the maintenance of colonial breeding systems. PMID:15734692

Waas, Joseph R.; Colgan, Patrick W.; Boag, Peter T.

2005-01-01

112

First recorded loss of an emperor penguin colony in the recent period of Antarctic regional warming: implications for other colonies.  

PubMed

In 1948, a small colony of emperor penguins Aptenodytes forsteri was discovered breeding on Emperor Island (67 51' 52? S, 68 42' 20? W), in the Dion Islands, close to the West Antarctic Peninsula (Stonehouse 1952). When discovered, the colony comprised approximately 150 breeding pairs; these numbers were maintained until 1970, after which time the colony showed a continuous decline. By 1999 there were fewer than 20 pairs, and in 2009 high-resolution aerial photography revealed no remaining trace of the colony. Here we relate the decline and loss of the Emperor Island colony to a well-documented rise in local mean annual air temperature and coincident decline in seasonal sea ice duration. The loss of this colony provides empirical support for recent studies (Barbraud & Weimerskirch 2001; Jenouvrier et al 2005, 2009; Ainley et al 2010; Barber-Meyer et al 2005) that have highlighted the vulnerability of emperor penguins to changes in sea ice duration and distribution. These studies suggest that continued climate change is likely to impact upon future breeding success and colony viability for this species. Furthermore, a recent circumpolar study by Fretwell & Trathan (2009) highlighted those Antarctic coastal regions where colonies appear most vulnerable to such changes. Here we examine which other colonies might be at risk, discussing various ecological factors, some previously unexplored, that may also contribute to future declines. The implications of this are important for future modelling work and for understanding which colonies actually are most vulnerable. PMID:21386883

Trathan, Philip N; Fretwell, Peter T; Stonehouse, Bernard

2011-01-01

113

Combined Final Report for Colony II Project  

SciTech Connect

(This report was originally submmited by the lead PI (Terry Jones, ORNL) on October 22, 2013 to the program manager, Lucy Nowell. It is being submitted from University of Illinois in accordance with instructions). HPC Colony II seeks to provide portable performance for leadership class machines. Our strategy is based on adaptive system software that aims to make the intelligent decisions necessary to allow domain scientists to safely focus on their task at hand and allow the system software stack to adapt their application to the underlying architecture. This report describes the research undertaken towards these objectives and the results obtained over the performance period of the project.

Kale, Laxmikant [University of Illinois] [University of Illinois; Jones, Terry [Oak Ridge National Laboratory] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Moreira, Jose [IBM Corp.] [IBM Corp.

2013-10-23

114

Intercellular Genomics of Subsurface Microbial Colonies  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes progress in the second year of this project. The objective is to develop methods and software to predict the spatial configuration, properties and temporal evolution of microbial colonies in the subsurface. To accomplish this, we integrate models of intracellular processes, cell-host medium exchange and reaction-transport dynamics on the colony scale. At the conclusion of the project, we aim to have the foundations of a predictive mathematical model and software that captures the three scales of these systems the intracellular, pore, and colony wide spatial scales. In the second year of the project, we refined our transcriptional regulatory network discovery (TRND) approach that utilizes gene expression data along with phylogenic similarity and gene ontology analyses and applied it successfully to E.coli, human B cells, and Geobacter sulfurreducens. We have developed a new Web interface, GeoGen, which is tailored to the reconstruction of microbial TRNs and solely focuses on Geobacter as one of DOEs high priority microbes. Our developments are designed such that the frameworks for the TRND and GeoGen can readily be used for other microbes of interest to the DOE. In the context of modeling a single bacterium, we are actively pursuing both steady-state and kinetic approaches. The steady-state approach is based on a flux balance that uses maximizing biomass growth rate as its objective, subjected to various biochemical constraints, for the optimal values of reaction rates and uptake/release of metabolites. For the kinetic approach, we use Karyote, a rigorous cell model developed by us for an earlier DOE grant and the DARPA BioSPICE Project. We are also investigating the interplay between bacterial colonies and environment at both pore and macroscopic scales. The pore scale models use detailed representations for realistic porous media accounting for the distribution of grain size whereas the macroscopic models employ the Darcy-type flow equations and up-scaled advective-diffusive transport equations for chemical species. We are rigorously testing the relationship between these two scales by evaluating macroscopic parameters using the volume averaging methodology applied to pore scale model results.

Ortoleva, Peter; Tuncay, Kagan; Gannon, Dennis; Meile, Christof

2007-02-14

115

[Relay-ray way of hydroplasm movement in hydroid colonies].  

PubMed

In this study, we continued the investigation of the distribution system of colonial hydroids in the course of its development, starting with its emergence during the planula metamorphosis and ending with the formed colony. The hydroplasmic stream system of two species of colonial hydroids--Perigonimus abyssi G.O. Sars, 1874, and Stauridia producta Wright, 1858--was studied. W found that the main principle by which hydroplasma moves in these colonies, which form no shoots, is the relay-race from one hydranth to another through a stolon fragment connecting them or directly from one hydranth to the next one, etc. W show that the efficiency of the conducting (distribution) system does not depend on the level of complexity of the colonial structure. The results of this study confirm the absence of general colonial processes of integration and self-regulation in hydroid polyps. PMID:23785849

Burykin, Iu B

2013-01-01

116

Coupled oscillators and activity waves in ant colonies  

PubMed Central

We investigated the phenomenon of activity cycles in ants, taking into account the spatial structure of colonies. In our study species, Leptothorax acervorum, there are two spatially segregated groups in the nest. We developed a model that considers the two groups as coupled oscillators which can produce synchronized activity. By investigating the effects of noise on the model system we predicted how the return of foragers affects activity cycles in ant colonies. We tested these predictions empirically by comparing the activity of colonies under two conditions: when foragers are and are not allowed to return to the nest. The activity of the whole colony and of each group within the colony was studied using image analysis. This allowed us to reveal the spatial pattern of activity wave propagation in ant colonies for the first time.

Boi, S.; Couzin, I. D.; Buono, N. Del; Franks, N. R.; Britton, N. F.

1999-01-01

117

Entombed pollen: A new condition in honey bee colonies associated with increased risk of colony mortality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Here we describe a new phenomenon, entombed pollen, which is highly associated with increased colony mortality. Entombed pollen appears as sunken, wax-covered cells amidst normal, uncapped cells of stored pollen, and the pollen contained within these cells is brick red in color. There appears to b...

118

Genetic Diversity in Laboratory Colonies of Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) including a Nondiapause Colony  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Laboratory-reared western corn rootworms, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, from colonies maintained at the North Central Agricultural Research Laboratory (NCARL) in Brookings, SD, are used extensively by many researchers in studies of the biology, ecology, behavior, and genetics of this major insect ...

119

JAX Colony Management System (JCMS): an extensible colony and phenotype data management system.  

PubMed

The Jackson Laboratory Colony Management System (JCMS) is a software application for managing data and information related to research mouse colonies, associated biospecimens, and experimental protocols. JCMS runs directly on computers that run one of the PC Windows operating systems, but can be accessed via web browser interfaces from any computer running a Windows, Macintosh, or Linux operating system. JCMS can be configured for a single user or multiple users in small- to medium-size work groups. The target audience for JCMS includes laboratory technicians, animal colony managers, and principal investigators. The application provides operational support for colony management and experimental workflows, sample and data tracking through transaction-based data entry forms, and date-driven work reports. Flexible query forms allow researchers to retrieve database records based on user-defined criteria. Recent advances in handheld computers with integrated barcode readers, middleware technologies, web browsers, and wireless networks add to the utility of JCMS by allowing real-time access to the database from any networked computer. PMID:20140675

Donnelly, Chuck J; McFarland, Mike; Ames, Abigail; Sundberg, Beth; Springer, Dave; Blauth, Peter; Bult, Carol J

2010-04-01

120

Stable isotope enrichment in laboratory ant colonies: effects of colony age, metamorphosis, diet, and fat storage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ecologists use stable isotopes to infer diets and trophic levels of animals in food webs, yet some assumptions underlying these inferences have not been thoroughly tested. We used laboratory-reared colonies of Solenopsis invicta Buren (Formicidae: Solenopsidini) to test the effects of metamorphosis,...

121

Disrupting the Coloniality of Being: Toward De-Colonial Ontologies in Philosophy of Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay works to bridge conversations in philosophy of education with decolonial theory. The author considers Margonis' (1999, 2011a, b) use of Rousseau (1979) and Heidegger (1962) in developing an ontological attitude that counters social hierarchies and promotes anti-colonial relations. While affirming this effort, the essay outlines a

Richardson, Troy A.

2012-01-01

122

The Old Colony Mennonites of Bolivia: a case study  

E-print Network

and their colonization experience in Bolivia. These homogenous pilgrims, who number approximately 3, 000, are migrating from a parent colony in Mexico for the purpose of preserving their traditional religious-based subculture. Entry is encouraged by the Bolivian... government. Through comparative analysis, the writer determined that the new daughter colony in Bolivia is attempting to reflect in detail its larger parent colony in Mexico. This desire to cling to the old ways is in accord with the ideal of the sect...

Lanning, James Walter

1971-01-01

123

Impact of Flooding on Illinois River Wading Bird Colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of severe and protracted flooding on two mixed-species colonies of wading birds were assessed in central Illinois. Both colony sites have been monitored since 1962. Historically, Great Blue Herons, Ardea herodias, Great Egrets, Casmerodius albus (threatened in Illinois), and Black-crowned Night-Herons, Nycticorax nycticorax (endangered in Illinois), nested in each colony. Annual ground censuses revealed declines in breeding populations following

Richard G. Bjorklund; Daniel J. Holm

124

Aberrant Crypts: Putative Preneoplastic Foci in Human Colonie Mucosa1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aberrant crypts were identified for the first time in whole-mount preparations of normal-appearing human colonie mucosa after staining with méthylène blue. The foci of aberrant crypts varied from single altered glands to plaques of greater than 30 crypts. The mean proportion of colonie mucosa altered and the number of foci with aberrant crypts per cm2of colonie mucosa were (a) higher

Theresa P. Pretlow; Betty J. Barrow; Scott Ashton; Thomas G. Pretlow; Joseph A. Jurcisek; Thomas A. Stellato

125

Hierarchy length in orphaned colonies of the ant Temnothorax nylanderi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Workers of the ant Temnothorax nylanderi form dominance orders in orphaned colonies in which only one or a few top-ranking workers begin to produce males from unfertilized eggs. Between one and 11 individuals initiated 80% of all aggression in 14 queenless colonies. As predicted from inclusive fitness models (Molet M, van Baalen M, Monnin T, Insectes Soc 52:247 256, 2005), hierarchy length was found to first increase with colony size and then to level off at larger worker numbers. The frequency and skew of aggression decreased with increasing size, indicating that rank orders are less pronounced in larger colonies.

Heinze, J.

2008-08-01

126

Varroa-Virus Interaction in Collapsing Honey Bee Colonies  

PubMed Central

Varroa mites and viruses are the currently the high-profile suspects in collapsing bee colonies. Therefore, seasonal variation in varroa load and viruses (Acute-Kashmir-Israeli complex (AKI) and Deformed Wing Virus (DWV)) were monitored in a year-long study. We investigated the viral titres in honey bees and varroa mites from 23 colonies (15 apiaries) under three treatment conditions: Organic acids (11 colonies), pyrethroid (9 colonies) and untreated (3 colonies). Approximately 200 bees were sampled every month from April 2011 to October 2011, and April 2012. The 200 bees were split to 10 subsamples of 20 bees and analysed separately, which allows us to determine the prevalence of virus-infected bees. The treatment efficacy was often low for both treatments. In colonies where varroa treatment reduced the mite load, colonies overwintered successfully, allowing the mites and viruses to be carried over with the bees into the next season. In general, AKI and DWV titres did not show any notable response to the treatment and steadily increased over the season from April to October. In the untreated control group, titres increased most dramatically. Viral copies were correlated to number of varroa mites. Most colonies that collapsed over the winter had significantly higher AKI and DWV titres in October compared to survivors. Only treated colonies survived the winter. We discuss our results in relation to the varroa-virus model developed by Stephen Martin. PMID:23526946

Francis, Roy M.; Nielsen, Steen L.; Kryger, Per

2013-01-01

127

Laser-induced speckle scatter patterns in Bacillus colonies  

PubMed Central

Label-free bacterial colony phenotyping technology called BARDOT (Bacterial Rapid Detection using Optical scattering Technology) provided successful classification of several different bacteria at the genus, species, and serovar level. Recent experiments with colonies of Bacillus species provided strikingly different characteristics of elastic light scatter (ELS) patterns, which were comprised of random speckles compared to other bacteria, which are dominated by concentric rings and spokes. Since this laser-based optical sensor interrogates the whole volume of the colony, 3-D information of micro- and macro-structures are all encoded in the far-field scatter patterns. Here, we present a theoretical model explaining the underlying mechanism of the speckle formation by the colonies from Bacillus species. Except for Bacillus polymyxa, all Bacillus spp. produced random bright spots on the imaging plane, which presumably dependent on the cellular and molecular organization and content within the colony. Our scatter model-based analysis revealed that colony spread resulting in variable surface roughness can modify the wavefront of the scatter field. As the center diameter of the Bacillus spp. colony grew from 500 to 900 ?m, average speckles area decreased two-fold and the number of small speckles increased seven-fold. In conclusion, as Bacillus colony grows, the average speckle size in the scatter pattern decreases and the number of smaller speckle increases due to the swarming growth characteristics of bacteria within the colony. PMID:25352840

Kim, Huisung; Singh, Atul K.; Bhunia, Arun K.; Bae, Euiwon

2014-01-01

128

21 CFR 866.2170 - Automated colony counter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices 866.2170 Automated colony counter. (a) Identification. An automated...

2014-04-01

129

21 CFR 866.2170 - Automated colony counter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices 866.2170 Automated colony counter. (a) Identification. An automated...

2013-04-01

130

21 CFR 866.2170 - Automated colony counter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices 866.2170 Automated colony counter. (a) Identification. An automated...

2011-04-01

131

21 CFR 866.2170 - Automated colony counter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices 866.2170 Automated colony counter. (a) Identification. An automated...

2012-04-01

132

Designing communicating colonies of biomimetic microcapsules  

PubMed Central

Using computational modeling, we design colonies of biomimetic microcapsules that exploit chemical mechanisms to communicate and alter their local environment. As a result, these synthetic objects can self-organize into various autonomously moving structures and exhibit ant-like tracking behavior. In the simulations, signaling microcapsules release agonist particles, whereas target microcapsules release antagonist particles and the permeabilities of both capsule types depend on the local particle concentration in the surrounding solution. Additionally, the released nanoscopic particles can bind to the underlying substrate and thereby create adhesion gradients that propel the microcapsules to move. Hydrodynamic interactions and the feedback mechanism provided by the dissolved particles are both necessary to achieve the collective dynamics exhibited by these colonies. Our model provides a platform for integrating both the spatial and temporal behavior of assemblies of artificial cells, and allows us to design a rich variety of structures capable of exhibiting complex, cooperative behavior. Due to the cell-like attributes of polymeric microcapsules and polymersomes, material systems are available for realizing our predictions. PMID:20616065

Kolmakov, German V.; Yashin, Victor V.; Levitan, Steven P.; Balazs, Anna C.

2010-01-01

133

A catalog of Louisiana's nesting seabird colonies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

collective habitats which comprise Louisiana's now fragile coastal zone have taken major hits from commercial/residential, oil & gas, and other industrial development, primarily in the form of coastal erosion exacerbated by these and other factors (Portnoy 1978, Spendelow and Patton 1988, Martin and Lester 1990, Green, et al. 2006). Moreover, during this same period, both geologic subsidence rates (Tornqvist et al. 2008) and mean sea-level (Tornqvist et al. 2002) have increased, along with significant tropical storm activity; all of which have combined to impact available marsh, barrier island, beach, and dredge spoil nesting habitat for waterbirds, especially seabirds, throughout the coastal zone of Louisiana. The primary objective of this publication is to detail those coastal Louisiana colonial seabird nesting sites for which we have reasonably accurate data, in a tabular, site-by-site format. All major survey (1976-2008) data of site-by-site seabird species counts, as well as several smaller data sets, referred to in the site history tables as miscellaneous observations obtained during the May-June seabird breeding period, are included. It is our hope that these data will provide a dependable foundation from which future colonial seabird nesting surveys might be planned and carried out, as well as showcase the importance of coastal Louisiana's seabird rookeries, and contribute to their conservation.

Fontenot, William R.; Cardiff, Steve W.; DeMay, Richard A.; Dittmann, Donna L.; Hartley, Stephen B.; Jeske, Clinton W.; Lorenz, Nicole; Michot, Thomas C.; Purrington, Robert Dan; Seymour, Michael; Vermillion, William G.

2012-01-01

134

Dynamics of the Presence of Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus in Honey Bee Colonies with Colony Collapse Disorder  

PubMed Central

The determinants of Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), a particular case of collapse of honey bee colonies, are still unresolved. Viruses including the Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) were associated with CCD. We found an apiary with colonies showing typical CCD characteristics that bore high loads of IAPV, recovered some colonies from collapse and tested the hypothesis if IAPV was actively replicating in them and infectious to healthy bees. We found that IAPV was the dominant pathogen and it replicated actively in the colonies: viral titers decreased from April to September and increased from September to December. IAPV extracted from infected bees was highly infectious to healthy pupae: they showed several-fold amplification of the viral genome and synthesis of the virion protein VP3. The health of recovered colonies was seriously compromised. Interestingly, a rise of IAPV genomic copies in two colonies coincided with their subsequent collapse. Our results do not imply IAPV as the cause of CCD but indicate that once acquired and induced to replication it acts as an infectious factor that affects the health of the colonies and may determine their survival. This is the first follow up outside the US of CCD-colonies bearing IAPV under natural conditions. PMID:24800677

Hou, Chunsheng; Rivkin, Hadassah; Slabezki, Yossi; Chejanovsky, Nor

2014-01-01

135

Dynamics of the presence of israeli acute paralysis virus in honey bee colonies with colony collapse disorder.  

PubMed

The determinants of Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), a particular case of collapse of honey bee colonies, are still unresolved. Viruses including the Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) were associated with CCD. We found an apiary with colonies showing typical CCD characteristics that bore high loads of IAPV, recovered some colonies from collapse and tested the hypothesis if IAPV was actively replicating in them and infectious to healthy bees. We found that IAPV was the dominant pathogen and it replicated actively in the colonies: viral titers decreased from April to September and increased from September to December. IAPV extracted from infected bees was highly infectious to healthy pupae: they showed several-fold amplification of the viral genome and synthesis of the virion protein VP3. The health of recovered colonies was seriously compromised. Interestingly, a rise of IAPV genomic copies in two colonies coincided with their subsequent collapse. Our results do not imply IAPV as the cause of CCD but indicate that once acquired and induced to replication it acts as an infectious factor that affects the health of the colonies and may determine their survival. This is the first follow up outside the US of CCD-colonies bearing IAPV under natural conditions. PMID:24800677

Hou, Chunsheng; Rivkin, Hadassah; Slabezki, Yossi; Chejanovsky, Nor

2014-05-01

136

Effects of worker genotypic diversity on honey bee colony development and behavior ( Apis mellifera L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been numerous reports of genetic influences on division of labor in honey bee colonies, but the effects of worker genotypic diversity on colony behavior are unclear. We analyzed the effects of worker genotypic diversity on the phenotypes of honey bee colonies during a critical phase of colony development, the nest initiation phase. Five groups of colonies were studied

Robert E. Page Jr; Gene E. Robinson; M. Kim Fondrk; Medhat E. Nasr

1995-01-01

137

Can redistribution of breeding colonies on a landscape mitigate changing predation danger?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproductive success of colonially breeding species depends in part upon a trade-off between the benefit of a dilution effect against nestling predation within larger colonies and colony conspicuousness. However, there may be no net survivorship benefit of dilution if smaller colonies are sufficiently inconspicuous. This raises the question about how the size distribution of breeding colonies on a landscape

James K. Kenyon; Barry D. Smith; Robert W. Butler

2007-01-01

138

Discover for Yourself: An Optimal Control Model in Insect Colonies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We describe the enlightening path of self-discovery afforded to the teacher of undergraduate mathematics. This is demonstrated as we find and develop background material on an application of optimal control theory to model the evolutionary strategy of an insect colony to produce the maximum number of queen or reproducer insects in the colony at

Winkel, Brian

2013-01-01

139

Division of labor during honey bee colony defense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some worker honey bees respond to major disturbances of the colony by flying around the assailant and possibly stinging; they are a subset of the bees involved in colony defense. These defenders have an open-ended age distribution similar to that of foragers, but defensive behavior is initiated at a younger age than foraging is. Behavioral and genetic evidence shows that

Michael D. Breed; Gene E. Robinson; Robert E. Page

1990-01-01

140

Colony integration and reproductive conflict in honey bees  

E-print Network

Review Colony integration and reproductive conflict in honey bees P.K. Visscher Department 1997) Abstract - Honey bee colonies, although highly cooperative, are composed of genetically dis production of males. Sex ratio conflict is expected to be minimal and hard to measure in honey bees

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

141

Cocktail-party effect in king penguin colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The king penguin, Aptenodytes patagonicus, breeds without a nest in colonies of several thousands of birds. To be fed, the chick must recognize the parents in a particularly noisy environment using only vocal cues. The call an adult makes when seeking the chick is emitted at a high amplitude level. Nevertheless, it is transmitted in a colonial context involving the

Thierry Aubin; Pierre Jouventin

1998-01-01

142

Allee effects and colony collapse disorder in honey bees  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We propose a mathematical model to quantify the hypothesis that a major ultimate cause of Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) in honey bees is the presence of an Allee effect in the growth dynamics of honey bee colonies. In the model, both recruitment of adult bees as well as mortality of adult bees have...

143

DEACO: Hybrid Ant Colony Optimization with Differential Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm is a novel meta-heuristic algorithm for the approximate solution of combinatorial optimization problems that has been inspired by the foraging behavior of real ant colonies. ACO has strong robustness and easy to combine with other methods in optimization, but it has the shortcomings of stagnation that limits the wide application to the various areas. In

Xiangyin Zhang; Haibin Duan; Jiqiang Jin

2008-01-01

144

36 CFR 7.1 - Colonial National Historical Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Colonial National Historical Park. 7.1 Section 7.1 Parks...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM 7.1 Colonial...

2014-07-01

145

36 CFR 7.1 - Colonial National Historical Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Colonial National Historical Park. 7.1 Section 7.1 Parks...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM 7.1 Colonial...

2013-07-01

146

36 CFR 7.1 - Colonial National Historical Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Colonial National Historical Park. 7.1 Section 7.1 Parks...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM 7.1 Colonial...

2011-07-01

147

36 CFR 7.1 - Colonial National Historical Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Colonial National Historical Park. 7.1 Section 7.1 Parks...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM 7.1 Colonial...

2012-07-01

148

Original article How a honey bee colony mustered additional labor  

E-print Network

Original article How a honey bee colony mustered additional labor for the task of pollen foraging ­ This study examined how a honey bee colony supplied additional labor for a foraging task, pollen collection plasticity in worker behavior is exempli- fied by the task of pollen foraging in honey bee (Apis mellifera L

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

149

A hybrid discrete Artificial Bee Colony - GRASP algorithm for clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new hybrid algorithm, which is based on the concepts of the artificial bee colony (ABC) and greedy randomized adaptive search procedure (GRASP), for optimally clustering N objects into K clusters. The proposed algorithm is a two phase algorithm which combines an artificial bee colony optimization algorithm for the solution of the feature selection problem and a

Y. Marinakis; M. Marinaki; N. Matsatsinis

2009-01-01

150

Commentary: Responses from Colonial Williamsburg Staff to Stoddard (2009)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jeremey Stoddard's article in this issue, "Toward a Virtual Field Trip Model for the Social Studies," describes his analysis of the Colonial Williamsburg Electronic Field Trip and a conceptual model for developing meaningful and successful electronic or virtual field trips. In an effort to contextualize the Colonial Williamsburg Electronic Field

Lee, John K.; Hicks, David

2009-01-01

151

Colonial resettlement and cultural resistance: the mbira music of Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Across the colonial world, indigenous people were subjected to extensive resettlement projects that removed them from the lands of their ancestors, separating them from their economic foundations, disrupting their resource security and severing their cultural heritage. Many geographical studies have explored the ways in which indigenous communities, faced with resettlement, transgressed colonial space to express their resistance to the authority

Coralie Hancock-Barnett

2012-01-01

152

Colonial resettlement and cultural resistance: the mbira music of Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Across the colonial world, indigenous people were subjected to extensive resettlement projects that removed them from the lands of their ancestors, separating them from their economic foundations, disrupting their resource security and severing their cultural heritage. Many geographical studies have explored the ways in which indigenous communities, faced with resettlement, transgressed colonial space to express their resistance to the authority

Coralie Hancock-Barnett

2011-01-01

153

Colony Collapse Disorder: Many Suspects, No Smoking Gun  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although more has been learned since colony collapse disorder (CCD) was first identified in mid-November 2006, the mystery remains. Some possibilitiescontamination with pollen from plants genetically modified to carry an insecticidal gene, radiation from cell phones, and perhaps even stress itselfcan probably be ruled out as contributory causes of CCD, but the cause of the bee colony losses remains unknown.

Myrna E. Watanabe (Science Writer; )

2008-05-01

154

Communal Nursing in Mexican Free-Tailed Bat Maternity Colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examination of genotypes of female-pup nursing pairs taken from large maternity colonies of the Mexican free-tailed bat in Texas demonstrates that nursing is nonrandom and selective along genetic (kinship) lines. This is contrary to previous reports that nursing in these colonies is indiscriminate. Although nursing is nonrandom, an estimated 17 percent of the females sampled were nursing pups that could

Gary F. McCracken

1984-01-01

155

Estimating 3-dimensional colony surface area of field corals  

EPA Science Inventory

Colony surface area is a critical descriptor for biological and physical attributes of reef-building (scleractinian, stony) corals. The three-dimensional (3D) size and structure of corals are directly related to many ecosystem values and functions. Most methods to estimate colony...

156

Science and the "Civilizing Mission": France and the Colonial Enterprise  

E-print Network

Science and the "Civilizing Mission": France and the Colonial Enterprise Patrick Petitjean REHSEIS with a conference "20th Century Sciences: Beyond the Metropolis". 1 ORSTOM (Office de la Recherche Scientifique et," founded in 1943.2 This conference showed an evident acceptance of the colonial heritage in science

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

157

Using Ant Colony Optimization to guide a CP search  

E-print Network

Using Ant Colony Optimization to guide a CP search Madjid Khichane1, Patrick Albert1, and Christine;Introduction Ant-CP Car sequencing Results I/D study Conclusion Motivations Constraint Programming High level Describe the problem with Ilog solver Use Ilog solver to propagate and verify constraints Use Ant Colony

Solnon, Christine

158

Theoretical Passages and Boundaries: The Indigenous subject, colonialism, and governmentality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical paternalism and the convenience of working within 'accepted' frameworks have appropriated the Indigenous subject within the boundaries of colonial relations. The establishment of post-colonial theory as one of the only 'acceptable' frameworks for exploring the Indigenous subject has limited the subject's theoretical development within the binary of coloniser\\/colonised. Breaking from this tradition, the Foucauldian concepts of governmentality, ethics and

Claire Spivakovsky

159

Naked mole-rats recruit colony mates to food sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naked mole-rats,Heterocephalus glaber, are eusocial, subterranean rodents that inhabit arid regions of northeastern Africa. They feed on bulbs and tubers that are patchily distributed. Nests are often located far from the nearest food source through a labyrinth of tunnels. Two captive colonies were studied to determine whether successful foragers recruit colony mates and, if so, how. Individuals that found a

TIMOTHY M. JUDD; PAUL W. SHERMAN

1996-01-01

160

Original article Observations on Apis cerana colonies surviving from  

E-print Network

). In this way, 100 g of brood was converted into 25 ml of virus suspension in distilled water. This was fed. These daughter queens (1 st gen- eration) were allowed to mate with the drone bees of the surviving colonies queen from each colony) and the mat- ing of these queens was allowed to take place with the drones

Boyer, Edmond

161

Hb F Production in Endogenous Colonies of Polycythemia Vera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fetal hemoglobin was studied in endoge- contained Hb F. as indicated by the fluores- nous colonies produced in plasma clot and cent antibody probe. Since the endogenous methylcellulose cultures of circulating pro- colonies in PV cultures originate from the genitors from patients with polycythemia abnormal PV clone. the findings provide vera (PV). Analysis of globin chain synthe- direct evidence that

J. Buckley; B. Nakamoto; S. Kurachi; P. E. Nute; G. Stamatoyannopoulos

1979-01-01

162

Colonialism, Education and Rural Buddhist Communities in Bangladesh  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper will excavate pre-independence (British/Pakistan) and post-independence colonial education interventions into Buddhist culture and education with the view to expose the nature and shape of colonial domination and related Buddhist efforts at cultural and educational decolonization. This will be accomplished by (a) considering a brief

Barua, Bijoy

2007-01-01

163

Hybrid Continuous Interacting Ant Colony aimed at Enhanced Global Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant colony algorithms are a class of metaheuristics which ar e inspired from the behaviour of real ants. The original idea consisted in simulating the stigmergic communication , therefore these algorithms are considered as a form of adaptive memory programming. A new formalization was propo sed for the design of ant colony algorithms, introducing the biological notions of heterarchy and

Johann Dro; Patrick Siarry

2007-01-01

164

Continuous interacting ant colony algorithm based on dense heterarchy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant colony algorithms are a class of metaheuristics which are inspired from the behavior of real ants. The original idea consisted in simulating the stigmergic communication, therefore these algorithms are considered as a form of adaptive memory programming. A new formalization is proposed for the design of ant colony algorithms, introducing the biological notions of heterarchy and communication channels. We

Johann Dro; Patrick Siarry

2004-01-01

165

ORIGINAL PAPER Genetic diversity affects colony survivorship in commercial  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Genetic diversity affects colony survivorship in commercial honey bee colonies David drones), although there is much variation among queens. One main consequence of such extreme polyandry are the primary insect pollinators used in modern commercial production agricul- ture, and their populations have

Tarpy, David R.

166

36 CFR 7.1 - Colonial National Historical Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Colonial National Historical Park. 7.1 Section 7.1 Parks...Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM 7.1 Colonial...

2010-07-01

167

The control of disease in a closed cat breeding colony  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The disease problems encountered in an established cat breeding colony are described. The treatments, hygienic measures, vaccination procedures employed, and the change over from continuous to seasonal breeding are discussed. An improved production of animals resulted. 111 Reinert & Smith (1966) described the establishment of a cat breeding colony. They used a system of mating throughout the year and

D. A. Rutty; G. K. A. Smith

1967-01-01

168

Model Specification Searches Using Ant Colony Optimization Algorithms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ant colony optimization is a recently proposed heuristic procedure inspired by the behavior of real ants. This article applies the procedure to model specification searches in structural equation modeling and reports the results. The results demonstrate the capabilities of ant colony optimization algorithms for conducting automated searches.

Marcoulides, George A.; Drezner, Zvi

2003-01-01

169

Inhibition of human erythroid colony formation by ceramide  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous studies, we have demonstrated that the inhibitory effects of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin (IL)-1 on human erythroid colony formation are indirect and mediated by ? and ? interferon (IFN), respectively, which act directly upon erythroid colony forming units (CFU-E). The in vitro inhibitory effect of ?IFN but not ?IFN is reversed by exposure to high concentrations

Gail Dallalio; Melissa North; Bradley D Worden; Robert T Means

1999-01-01

170

Colonial Zapotec Calendars and Calendrical Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A great deal is known about colonial Zapotec calendar systems. Every pan-Mesoamerican system was in use: the divinatory/sacred calendar of 260 days, together with its partition into 13- and 20-day subdivisions; the civil year of 365 days and its subdivision into eighteen 20-day months plus a final period of 5 days; and the cycle of 52 years, a permutation of the divinatory and civil calendars. A surprising amount is known about the activities and professional tools and practices of the calendar specialists, and about the ways that calendrical knowledge was transmitted. We have scant information on Zapotec astronomical knowledge and practices, believed to have been in their hands, but an understanding of the timing of eclipses was among their applications of calendrical constructs.

Justeson, John

171

Holotransformations of bacterial colonies and genome cybernetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study of colony transformations during growth of Bacillus subtilis under adverse environmental conditions. It is a continuation of our pilot study of Adaptive self-organization during growth of bacterial colonies (Physica A 187 (1992) 378). First we identify and describe the transformations pathway, i.e. the excitation of the branching modes from Bacillus subtilis 168 (grown under diffusion limited conditions) and the phase transformations between the tip-splitting phase (phase T) and the chiral phase (phase C) which belong to the same mode. This pathway shows the evolution of complexity as the bacteria are exposed to adverse growth conditions. We present the morphology diagram of phases T and C as a function of agar concentration and pepton level. As expected, the growth of phase T is ramified (fractal-like or DLA-like) at low pepton level (about 1 g/1) and turns compact at high pepton level (about 10 g/1). The growth of phase C is also ramified at low pepton level and turns denser and finally compact as the pepton level increases. Generally speaking, the colonies develop more complex patterns and higher micro-level organization for more adverse environments. We use the growth velocity as a response function to describe the growth. At low agar concentration (and low pepton level) phase C grows faster than phase T, and for a high agar concentration (about 2%) phase T grows faster. We observe colony transformations between the two phases (phase transformations). They are found to be consistent with the fastest growing morphology selection principle adopted from azoic systems. The transformations are always from the slower phase to the faster one. Hence, we observe T? C transformations at low agar concentrations and C? T transformations at high agar concentrations. We have observed both localized and extended transformations. Usually, the transformations are localized for more adverse growth conditions, and extended for growth conditions close to the boundaries between morphologies. We have observed also transformations between different branching modes, as well as transformations via virtual states. Motivated by the contemporary knowledge about phages and plasmids, we postulate a theoretical framework to comply with our experimental findings. We explain our observations using these assumptions as well as our proposal of co-mutations and auto-catalytic mutations as presented in the above mentioned pilot paper. This theoretical framework is a part of the new evolving picture of genome cybernetics. We also discuss the concept of adaptive genome changes which are based on pre-existing knowledge as well as the concept of genetic learning. i.e. changes (in response to a new problem) which develop the potential for adaptive genome changes. These concepts follow naturally if the picture of genome cybernetics is accepted. We conclude with a discussion of the implications and with further predictions (to be tested experimentally) derived from our assumptions.

Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Tenenbaum, Adam; Shochet, Ofer; Avidan, Orna

1994-01-01

172

Optic disc detection using ant colony optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The retinal fundus images are used in the treatment and diagnosis of several eye diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma. This paper proposes a new method to detect the optic disc (OD) automatically, due to the fact that the knowledge of the OD location is essential to the automatic analysis of retinal images. Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is an optimization algorithm inspired by the foraging behaviour of some ant species that has been applied in image processing for edge detection. Recently, the ACO was used in fundus images to detect edges, and therefore, to segment the OD and other anatomical retinal structures. We present an algorithm for the detection of OD in the retina which takes advantage of the Gabor wavelet transform, entropy and ACO algorithm. Forty images of the retina from DRIVE database were used to evaluate the performance of our method.

Dias, Marcy A.; Monteiro, Fernando C.

2012-09-01

173

The Importance of Microbes in Nutrition and Health of Honey Bee Colonies Part-2: Factors Affecting the Microbial Community in Honey Bee Colonies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Honey bee colonies have innumerable symbiotic bacteria and fungi that are essential to the health of the colony. In the first part of this series, we discussed the importance of microbes in maintaining the health of honey bee colonies. The bacteria, yeasts and molds that live in a healthy colony a...

174

Medicine in colonial Australia, 1788-1900.  

PubMed

For the first five decades of European settlement in Australia, medical care for convicts and free settlers was provided by the Colonial Medical Service. After about 1850, as population and wealth grew markedly, there was significant professional development based on private practice. Except in Victoria, medical societies and journals did not become solidly established until late in the 19th century. The advent of local British Medical Association branches was an important factor in this consolidation. In the first few years of the colony, mortality was very high, but the common childhood infections were absent until the 1830s. From the 1880s, there was a sustained decline in mortality from communicable diseases, and therefore in aggregate mortality, while maternal mortality remained high. Australian practitioners quickly took up advances in practice from overseas, such as antisepsis and diphtheria antitoxin. They shared in the international growth in the status of medicine, which was conferred by the achievements of bacteriology in particular. From 1813, students were apprenticed in Sydney and Hobart and then travelled to Britain to obtain corporate qualifications. Medical schools were ultimately opened in the new universities in Melbourne (in 1862), Sydney (1883) and Adelaide (1885). The first female student was admitted to medicine in Sydney in 1885. Medical politics were intense. The outlawing of practice by unorthodox practitioners proved to be an unattainable goal. In the latter half of the 19th century, doctors saw chemists as unfair competitors for patients. The main medicopolitical struggle was with the mutual-aid friendly societies, which funded basic medical care for a significant proportion of the population until well into the 20th century. The organised profession set out to overcome the power of the lay-controlled societies in imposing an unacceptable contract system on doctors, even if, historically, the guaranteed income was a sine qua non of practice in poorer areas. PMID:25047777

Lewis, Milton J

2014-07-01

175

Growth Rate Consequences of Coloniality in a Harmful Phytoplankter  

PubMed Central

Background Allometric studies have shown that individual growth rate is inversely related to body size across a broad spectrum of organisms that vary greatly in size. Fewer studies have documented such patterns within species. No data exist directly documenting the influence of colony size on growth rate for microscopic, colonial organisms. Methodology/Principal Findings To determine if similar negative relationships between growth rate and size hold for colonial organisms, we developed a technique for measuring the growth of individual colonies of a bloom-forming, toxic cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa using microscopy and digital image analysis. For five out of six genotypes of M. aeruginosa isolated from lakes in Michigan and Alabama, we found significant negative relationships between colony size and growth rate. We found large intraspecific variation in both the slope of these relationships and in the growth rate of colonies at a standard size. In addition, growth rate estimates for individual colonies were generally consistent with population growth rates measured using standard batch culture. Conclusions/Significance Given that colony size varies widely within populations, our results imply that natural populations of colonial phytoplankton exist as a mosaic of individuals with widely varying ecological attributes (since size strongly affects growth rate, grazing mortality, and migration speed). Quantifying the influence of colony size on growth rate will permit development of more accurate, predictive models of ecological interactions (e.g., competition, herbivory) and their role in the proliferation of harmful algal blooms, in addition to increasing our understanding about why these interactions vary in strength within and across environments. PMID:20084114

Wilson, Alan E.; Kaul, RajReni B.; Sarnelle, Orlando

2010-01-01

176

Fault-lines of Tribal Sovereignty, Colonial In-roads and the Inevitable: Things Fall Apart as a Colonial Critique  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers a revision of the view that the disintegration of the Igbo society is exclusively co-terminous with colonial infiltration or that things have started falling the moment the whites have appeared - a view that overlooks the components of internal disintegration already in operation prior to catalytic colonial contact. The paper therefore offers a complementary analysis of how

Suresh Ranjan Basak

177

ARRIVAL AND DEPARTURE FREQUENCIES OF GREAT BLUE HERONS AT TWO OREGON ESTUARINE COLONIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

of low tide, and the largest average colony synchrony was then 23% of the breeding herons\\/h. The average time between arrivals per heron at a 36-39-nest and an 8-nest colony was 6.7 h, which indicates that herons infrequently returned to a colony. Most herons (64% at the larger colony, 95% at the smaller colony) departed the colony alone. The clumping

RANGE D. BAYER

178

Ecological Conditions Favoring Budding in Colonial Organisms under Environmental Disturbance  

PubMed Central

Dispersal is a topic of great interest in ecology. Many organisms adopt one of two distinct dispersal tactics at reproduction: the production of small offspring that can disperse over long distances (such as seeds and spawned eggs), or budding. The latter is observed in some colonial organisms, such as clonal plants, corals and ants, in which (super)organisms split their body into components of relatively large size that disperse to a short distance. Contrary to the common dispersal viewpoint, short-dispersal colonial organisms often flourish even in environments with frequent disturbances. In this paper, we investigate the conditions that favor budding over long-distance dispersal of small offspring, focusing on the life history of the colony growth and the colony division ratio. These conditions are the relatively high mortality of very small colonies, logistic growth, the ability of dispersers to peacefully seek and settle unoccupied spaces, and small spatial scale of environmental disturbance. If these conditions hold, budding is advantageous even when environmental disturbance is frequent. These results suggest that the demography or life history of the colony underlies the behaviors of the colonial organisms. PMID:24621824

Nakamaru, Mayuko; Takada, Takenori; Ohtsuki, Akiko; Suzuki, Sayaki U.; Miura, Kanan; Tsuji, Kazuki

2014-01-01

179

An improved method for staining cell colonies in clonogenic assays  

PubMed Central

Clonogenic assay is a widely used experimental approach to test for the effects of drugs/genes on the growth and proliferative characteristics of cells in vitro. Accurate quantitation of treatment effects in clonogeneic assays depends on the ability to visualize and count cell colonies precisely. We report a novel method (referred as ETeB) for staining cell colonies grown on plastic and specially coated substrates like collagen. Using colon cancer cell lines grown on plastic and collagen, we compared the colony staining efficiencies of the widely used methylene blue, and Ethidium bromide (ETeB) stains. Results show that the ETeB protocol works well on plastic and is extremely effective for staining colonies on collagen when compared to methylene blue. The key features and advantages of ETeB technique are; (a) reduction in background for colonies grown on collagen and possibly other substrates, (b) the whole procedure takes less than a minute, (c) no post-stain washing step is required which eliminates colony losses for cell lines that are loosely adherent, (d) colony visualization and counting can be done immediately following the staining procedure using a standard UV illuminator and software, and (e) the method works across a wide variety of cell lines. The simplicity and robustness of this procedure should warrant its usage in both small and large-scale clonogenic experiments. PMID:19003022

Natale, Leanna; Markowitz, Sanford D.

2007-01-01

180

Between stigmatisation and regulation: prostitution in colonial Northern Vietnam.  

PubMed

Colonisation was a masculine adventure which took place in a distorted world full of 'welcoming' native women. The colonial encounter therefore was both racial and gendered: boundaries between European men and Vietnamese women were obvious. On the other hand the intimacy that resulted from this encounter blurred the racial boundaries that were the foundation of the colonial order. These boundaries had to be redrawn or sharpened. Focusing on French colonial northern Vietnam (Tonkin) this paper examines how the whole colonial encounter was embodied in the sexual encounter between European men and native women and how prostitution was an integral part of the colonial order. This analysis of the regulation of prostitution and its ambivalence reveals that the definition of prostitution and its treatment by the French colonial authorities was political, racial and therefore connected to a specific period. The political definition of prostitution in today's Vietnam is different from the colonial one. This shift reveals that prostitution is a pertinent vantage point from which one can study how a society apprehends itself and its own future. PMID:20364443

Tracol-Huynh, Isabelle

2010-08-01

181

A View of Future Human Colonies on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a recent feasibility study, ORBITEC conceptualized systems and an evolving architecture for producing and utilizing Mars-based in-situ resources utilization (ISRU) propellant combinations. The propellants will be used to support the propulsion and power systems for ground and flight vehicles that would be part of Mars exploration and colonization. The key aspect of the study was to show the benefits of ISRU, develop an analysis methodology, as well as provide some guidance to future propellant system choices based upon what is known today about Mars. The study time frame included an early unmanned and manned exploration period (now to 2040) and a colonization period that occurs from 2040 to 2090. As part of this feasibility study, ORBITEC developed two different Mars colonization scenarios, namely a low case that ends with a 100-person colony and a high case that ends with a 10.000-person colony. A population growth model, mission traffic model, and infrastructure model was developed for each scenario to better understand the requirements of future Mars colonies. This paper outlines the characteristics of the Mars colonies that ORBITEC envisions under both colonization scenarios. This includes a discussion of the flow of people and materials between the Earth and Mars, the infrastructure requirements of the colonies, potential colony configurations, and the mission requirements of the colonies.

Gustafson, Robert J.; Rice, Eric E.; Gramer, Daniel J.; White, Brant C.

2003-01-01

182

Model for social interaction, competition and dominance in ant colonies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been known that characteristic of social life within ant colonies includes efficient class division, harmonious appearance, but also competition within nestmates. Conflict between queens, male and female labors frequently occurs due to different interest among class members. A mathematical model for interaction between queens, male and female workers in ant colonies is discussed here. Interesting phenomena such as male-male competition and queen dominance are analyzed and stable coexistence is shown. It is also shown that heavy competition is even necessary to maintain a certain level of coexistence in the colonies.

Anggriani, N.; Aryani, I.; Darmawati, Supriatna, A. K.

2014-02-01

183

Selective sweeps in growing microbial colonies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evolutionary experiments with microbes are a powerful tool to study mutations and natural selection. These experiments, however, are often limited to the well-mixed environments of a test tube or a chemostat. Since spatial organization can significantly affect evolutionary dynamics, the need is growing for evolutionary experiments in spatially structured environments. The surface of a Petri dish provides such an environment, but a more detailed understanding of microbial growth on Petri dishes is necessary to interpret such experiments. We formulate a simple deterministic reaction-diffusion model, which successfully predicts the spatial patterns created by two competing species during colony expansion. We also derive the shape of these patterns analytically without relying on microscopic details of the model. In particular, we find that the relative fitness of two microbial strains can be estimated from the logarithmic spirals created by selective sweeps. The theory is tested with strains of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for spatial competitions with different initial conditions and for a range of relative fitnesses. The reaction-diffusion model also connects the microscopic parameters like growth rates and diffusion constants with macroscopic spatial patterns and predicts the relationship between fitness in liquid cultures and on Petri dishes, which we confirmed experimentally. Spatial sector patterns therefore provide an alternative fitness assay to the commonly used liquid culture fitness assays.

Korolev, Kirill S.; Mller, Melanie J. I.; Karahan, Nilay; Murray, Andrew W.; Hallatschek, Oskar; Nelson, David R.

2012-04-01

184

Compositional analysis of Spanish Colonial ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Ceramic shards found in Spanish Colonial missions in Texas consist of broken remnants of wares either brought from Mexico or manufactured locally by 18th century Native Americans. A few are thought to be of European or Asian manufacture, but these consist of only a few percent of the ceramic assemblages available for study now. Certain types of ceramics are consistently found in these sites, including local Native American wares and Mexican slipped or glazed wares. In addition, undecorated lead-glazed coarse earthenwares occur in great frequency, but their place of origin is unknown. Speculation has been that these lead-glazed wares, which range in color from yellow to olive-green and occur in both coiled and wheel-thrown constructions, were locally made by Native Americans using Spanish technology or that they were imported from Mexico. Compositional analysis of these wares was undertaken to clarify their source of manufacture. The sample included 102 ceramics from four Texas mission sites: Mission San Lorenzo de la Santa Cruz in Real County, Mission San Juan Capistrano in Bexar County, Mission Rosario in Goliad County, and Mission Dolores de los Ais in San Augustine County. A larger goal of the study was to examine the supply system to these well-dispersed mission sites and how it was affected by Spain`s economic climate during the l8th century.

James, W.D.; Carlson, S.B.; Carlson, D.L.

1994-12-31

185

How Can Bee Colony Algorithm Serve Medicine?  

PubMed Central

Healthcare professionals usually should make complex decisions with far reaching consequences and associated risks in health care fields. As it was demonstrated in other industries, the ability to drill down into pertinent data to explore knowledge behind the data can greatly facilitate superior, informed decisions to ensue the facts. Nature has always inspired researchers to develop models of solving the problems. Bee colony algorithm (BCA), based on the self-organized behavior of social insects is one of the most popular member of the family of population oriented, nature inspired meta-heuristic swarm intelligence method which has been proved its superiority over some other nature inspired algorithms. The objective of this model was to identify valid novel, potentially useful, and understandable correlations and patterns in existing data. This review employs a thematic analysis of online series of academic papers to outline BCA in medical hive, reducing the response and computational time and optimizing the problems. To illustrate the benefits of this model, the cases of disease diagnose system are presented. PMID:25489530

Salehahmadi, Zeinab; Manafi, Amir

2014-01-01

186

Selective sweeps in growing microbial colonies  

PubMed Central

Evolutionary experiments with microbes are a powerful tool to study mutations and natural selection. These experiments, however, are often limited to the well-mixed environments of a test tube or a chemostat. Since spatial organization can significantly affect evolutionary dynamics, the need is growing for evolutionary experiments in spatially structured environments. The surface of a Petri dish provides such an environment, but a more detailed understanding of microbial growth on Petri dishes is necessary to interpret such experiments. We formulate a simple deterministic reaction-diffusion model, which successfully predicts the spatial patterns created by two competing species during colony expansion. We also derive the shape of these patterns analytically without relying on microscopic details of the model. In particular, we find that the relative fitness of two microbial strains can be estimated from the logarithmic spirals created by selective sweeps. The theory is tested with strains of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, for spatial competitions with different initial conditions and for a range of relative fitnesses. The reaction-diffusion model also connects the microscopic parameters like growth rates and diffusion constants with macroscopic spatial patterns and predicts the relationship between fitness in liquid cultures and on Petri dishes, which we confirmed experimentally. Spatial sector patterns therefore provide an alternative fitness assay to the commonly used liquid culture fitness assays. PMID:22476106

Korolev, Kirill S; Mller, Melanie J I; Karahan, Nilay; Murray, Andrew W; Hallatschek, Oskar; Nelson, David R

2012-01-01

187

Colony evaluation is not affected by drifting of drone and worker honeybees ( Apis mellifera L.) at a performance testing apiary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of drifting workers and drones on evaluating performance data of honeybee (Apis mellifera carnica) colonies was studied using DNA microsatellites. Colony size, honey yield and colony level of infestation with Varroa jacobsoniwere evaluated from 30 queenright colonies. Individuals (n = 1359 workers from 38 colonies, n = 449 drones from 14 colonies) were genotyped using four DNA microsatellite

Peter Neumann; Robin F. A. Moritz; Dieter Mautz

2000-01-01

188

A non-policing honey bee colony (Apis mellifera capensis)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Cape honey bee Apis mellifera capensis, workers lay female eggs without mating by thelytokous parthenogenesis. As a result, workers are as related to worker-laid eggs as they are to queen-laid eggs and therefore worker policing is expected to be lower, or even absent. This was tested by transferring worker- and queen-laid eggs into three queenright A. m. capensis discriminator colonies and monitoring their removal. Our results show that worker policing is variable in A. m. capensis and that in one colony worker-laid eggs were not removed. This is the first report of a non-policing queenright honey bee colony. DNA microsatellite and morphometric analysis suggests that the racial composition of the three discriminator colonies was different. The variation in policing rates could be explained by differences in degrees of hybridisation between A. m. capensis and A. m. scutellata, although a larger survey is needed to confirm this.

Beekman, Madeleine; Good, Gregory; Allsopp, Mike; Radloff, Sarah; Pirk, Chris; Ratnieks, Francis

2002-09-01

189

Taverns and Coffee Houses: Adult Educational Institutions In Colonial America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the concept of colonial taverns and coffee houses as adult education institutions. They were of great importance in the development of impressions, opinions, attitudes, and knowledge about agriculture, business, shipping, economics, community and world affairs, and recreation. (CT)

Long, Huey B.

1981-01-01

190

Automated Selection of Appropriate Pheromone Representations in Ant Colony Optimisation  

E-print Network

Automated Selection of Appropriate Pheromone Representations in Ant Colony Optimisation James an analogue of ant trail pheromones to learn about good features of solutions. ACO implementations. In this paper, we present a novel system for automatically generating appropriate parsimonious pheromone

Montgomery, James

191

Automated Selection of Appropriate Pheromone Representations in Ant Colony Optimisation  

E-print Network

Automated Selection of Appropriate Pheromone Representations in Ant Colony Optimisation James of ant trail pheromones to learn about good features of solutions. Critically, the phero- mone solutions. In this article, we present a novel system for automatically generating appropriate pheromone

Montgomery, James

192

Pre-colonial Ethnic Institutions and Contemporary African Development*  

PubMed Central

We investigate the role of deeply-rooted pre-colonial ethnic institutions in shaping comparative regional development within African countries. We combine information on the spatial distribution of ethnicities before colonization with regional variation in contemporary economic performance, as proxied by satellite images of light density at night. We document a strong association between pre-colonial ethnic political centralization and regional development. This pattern is not driven by differences in local geographic features or by other observable ethnic-specific cultural and economic variables. The strong positive association between pre-colonial political complexity and contemporary development obtains also within pairs of adjacent ethnic homelands with different legacies of pre-colonial political institutions. PMID:25089052

Michalopoulos, Stelios; Papaioannou, Elias

2013-01-01

193

"Chineseness" and Tongzhi in (Post)colonial Diasporic Hong Kong  

E-print Network

Kong also signifies ?sexual freedom? to mainland tongzhi (pp.109). This ?foreignness? of Hong Kong, of course, is closely related to its colonial history. This colonial history also troubles the ?foreignness? of 8 Hong Kong tongzhi subjectivity... meaning of cosmopolitanism and mainland Chinese tongzhi describe Hong Kong as foreign and a place of sexual freedom, there is ambivalence about whether a mainland Chinese tongzhi subjectivity is indeed located within a western gay modernity discourse...

Wat, Chi Ch'eng

2012-02-14

194

An improved method for staining cell colonies in clonogenic assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clonogenic assay is a widely used experimental approach to test for the effects of drugs\\/genes on the growth and proliferative\\u000a characteristics of cells in vitro. Accurate quantitation of treatment effects in clonogeneic assays depends on the ability\\u000a to visualize and count cell colonies precisely. We report a novel method (referred as ETeB) for staining cell colonies grown\\u000a on plastic and

Kishore Guda; Leanna Natale; Sanford D. Markowitz

2007-01-01

195

Remarks of Elliptic Curves Derived from Ant Colony Routing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We deal with an ant colony based routing model for wireless multi-hop networks. Our model adopts an elliptic curve equation, which is beneficial to design pheromone dynamics for load balancing and packet delivery robustness. Due to the attribute of an elliptic curve equation, our model prevents the over-utilization of a specific node, distinctively from conventional ant colony based schemes. Numerical simulations exhibit the characteristics of our model with respect to various parameters.

Jung, Sangsu; Kim, Daeyeoul; Singh, Dhananjay

2011-09-01

196

Binary-Coding-Based Ant Colony Optimization and Its Convergence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant colony optimization (ACO for short) is a meta-heuristics for hard combinatorial optimization problems. It is a population-based\\u000a approach that uses exploitation of positive feedback as well as greedy search. In this paper, genetic algorithm's (GA for\\u000a short) ideas are introduced into ACO to present a new binary-coding based ant colony optimization. Compared with the typical\\u000a ACO, the algorithm is

Tian-ming Bu; Song-Nian Yu I; Hui-wei Guan

2004-01-01

197

Decentralized control of drone comb construction in honey bee colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Honey bee colonies furnish their nests with two types of comb distinguished by cell size: large cells for rearing males (drone\\u000a comb) and small cells for rearing workers (worker comb). The bees actively regulate the relative quantity of each type, a\\u000a behavior likely to be important in setting a colony's sex ratio. Experimental analysis of the information pathways and control

Stephen C. Pratt

1998-01-01

198

Views of Older Native American Adults in Colonial New England  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the perceptions and treatment of older Native American adults in colonial New England (16201783). Social\\u000a scientists have found that varying degrees of persistence and change have historically characterized Indian attitudes toward\\u000a older adults in communities located in the central and western United States. In regards to northeastern North America, historians\\u000a have learned that, during the colonial period,

Jason Eden; Naomi Eden

2010-01-01

199

Acadian Settlement in Louisiana: Colonial Populations and Imperial Policy  

E-print Network

when the British forcibly expelled them from their homes in Nova Scotia. Between approximately 1765 and 1785 Several thousand eventually immigrated to Louisiana in an attempt to settle together in a single colony. During Acadian immigration... developed as an ethnic group out of an isolated frontier population in the French colony of Acadia, in present-day Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, over the course of the seventeenth century and into the eighteenth. The most important tenets of Acadian...

Kolb, Frances Bailey

2007-08-03

200

Hindu Responses to Darwinism: Assimilation and Rejection in a Colonial and Post-Colonial Context  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hindu responses to Darwinism, like Christian, have run the gamut from outright rejection to fairly robust but limited accommodations of the Darwinian perspective. Despite certain features of Hindu thought such as the enormous time-scales of traditional cosmogonies that may suggest considerable affinity with modern notions of organic evolution, more often than not traditional assumptions have worked against deep engagement with Darwinism, allowing only for superficial assimilation at best. Three fundamental factors have affected Hindu responses to Darwinism: the great diversity within the tradition spanning evolutionist and creationist perspectives, the encounter with Darwinism in the late nineteenth century as part of an alien culture, and the fact that this encounter occurred within a colonial context. This essay explores the complex interactions of these three factors, beginning with the diversity within the ancient and classical cosmological traditions, followed by consideration of colonial developments and the emergence of four representative Hindu approaches to Darwinism: Modern Vedic Evolutionism, Anthropic Vedic Evolutionism, Reactionary Vedic Evolutionism, and Modern Vedic Creationism. The essay concludes by discussing various epistemological issues in the attempts of modern Hindu apologists to legitimize Vedic world views. These issues include the appeal to modern science to confirm traditional ideals and values, while simultaneously subordinating scientific method to spiritual means of knowledge, or rejecting scientific methodology with its inbuilt skepticism entirely.

MacKenzie Brown, C.

2010-06-01

201

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and leukemogenesis.  

PubMed

The granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) plays an important role in normal granulopoiesis. Its functions are mediated by specific receptors on the surface of responsive cells and, upon ligand binding, several cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases are activated. The cytoplasmic region proximal to the membrane of the G-CSF receptor (G-CSF-R) transduces proliferative and survival signals, whereas the distal carboxy-terminal region transduces maturation signals and suppresses the receptor's proliferative signals. Mutations in the G-CSF-R gene resulting in truncation of the carboxy-terminal region have been detected in a subset of patients with severe congenital neutropenia who developed acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). In addition, the AML1-ETO fusion protein, expressed in leukemic cells harboring the t(8;21), disrupt the physiological function of transcription factors such as C/EBPalpha and C/EBPepsilon, which in turn deregulate G-CSF-R expression. The resulting high levels of G-CSF-R and G-CSF-dependent cell proliferation may be associated with pathogenesis of AML with t(8;21). Moreover, in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that G-CSF may act as a co-stimulus augmenting the response of PML-RARalpha acute promyelocytic leukemia cells to all-trans-retinoic acid treatment. Finally, in the PLZF-RARalpha acute promyelocytic leukemia transgenic model, G-CSF deficiency suppressed leukemia development. Altogether, these data suggest that the G-CSF signaling pathway may play a role in leukemogenesis. PMID:15223604

de Figueiredo, Lorena Lobo; de Abreu e Lima, Rodrigo Siqueira; Rego, Eduardo Magalhes

2004-06-01

202

Transits of Venus and Colonial India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomical expeditions during the colonial period had a political and national significance also. Measuring the earth and mapping the sky were activities worthy of powerful and power- seeking nations. Such was the sanctity of global astronomical activity that many other agendas could be hidden under it. An early astronomy-related expedition turned out to be extremely beneficial, to botany. The expedition sent by the French Government in 1735 to South America under the leadership of Charles Marie de la Condamine (1701--1774) ostensibly for the measurement of an arc of the meridian at Quito in Ecuador surreptitiously collected data that enabled Linnaeus to describe the genus cinchona in 1742. When the pair of transits of Venus occurred in 1761 and 1769, France and England were engaged in a bitter rivalry for control of India. The observation of the transits became a part of the rivalry. A telescope presented by the British to a South Indian King as a decorative toy was borrowed back for actual use. Scientifically the transit observations were a wash out, but the exercise introduced Europe to details of living Indian tradition of eclipse calculations. More significantly, it led to the institutionalization of modern astronomy in India under the auspices of the English East India Company (1787). The transits of Venus of 1874 and 1882 were important not so much for the study of the events as for initiating systematic photography of the Sun. By this, Britain owned most of the world's sunshine, and was expected to help European solar physicists get data from its vast Empire on a regular basis. This and the then genuinely held belief that a study of the sun would help predict failure of monsoons led to the institutionalization of solar physics studies in India (1899). Of course, when the solar physicists learnt that solar activity did not quite determine rainfall in India, they forgot to inform the Government.

Kochhar, Rajesh

2012-09-01

203

Metatranscriptomic analyses of honey bee colonies  

PubMed Central

Honey bees face numerous biotic threats from viruses to bacteria, fungi, protists, and mites. Here we describe a thorough analysis of microbes harbored by worker honey bees collected from field colonies in geographically distinct regions of Turkey. Turkey is one of the World's most important centers of apiculture, harboring five subspecies of Apis mellifera L., approximately 20% of the honey bee subspecies in the world. We use deep ILLUMINA-based RNA sequencing to capture RNA species for the honey bee and a sampling of all non-endogenous species carried by bees. After trimming and mapping these reads to the honey bee genome, approximately 10% of the sequences (910 million reads per library) remained. These were then mapped to a curated set of public sequences containing ca. Sixty megabase-pairs of sequence representing known microbial species associated with honey bees. Levels of key honey bee pathogens were confirmed using quantitative PCR screens. We contrast microbial matches across different sites in Turkey, showing new country recordings of Lake Sinai virus, two Spiroplasma bacterium species, symbionts Candidatus Schmidhempelia bombi, Frischella perrara, Snodgrassella alvi, Gilliamella apicola, Lactobacillus spp.), neogregarines, and a trypanosome species. By using metagenomic analysis, this study also reveals deep molecular evidence for the presence of bacterial pathogens (Melissococcus plutonius, Paenibacillus larvae), Varroa destructor-1 virus, Sacbrood virus, and fungi. Despite this effort we did not detect KBV, SBPV, Tobacco ringspot virus, VdMLV (Varroa Macula like virus), Acarapis spp., Tropilaeleps spp. and Apocephalus (phorid fly). We discuss possible impacts of management practices and honey bee subspecies on microbial retinues. The described workflow and curated microbial database will be generally useful for microbial surveys of healthy and declining honey bees. PMID:25852743

Tozkar, Cansu .; Kence, Meral; Kence, Aykut; Huang, Qiang; Evans, Jay D.

2015-01-01

204

Metatranscriptomic analyses of honey bee colonies.  

PubMed

Honey bees face numerous biotic threats from viruses to bacteria, fungi, protists, and mites. Here we describe a thorough analysis of microbes harbored by worker honey bees collected from field colonies in geographically distinct regions of Turkey. Turkey is one of the World's most important centers of apiculture, harboring five subspecies of Apis mellifera L., approximately 20% of the honey bee subspecies in the world. We use deep ILLUMINA-based RNA sequencing to capture RNA species for the honey bee and a sampling of all non-endogenous species carried by bees. After trimming and mapping these reads to the honey bee genome, approximately 10% of the sequences (9-10 million reads per library) remained. These were then mapped to a curated set of public sequences containing ca. Sixty megabase-pairs of sequence representing known microbial species associated with honey bees. Levels of key honey bee pathogens were confirmed using quantitative PCR screens. We contrast microbial matches across different sites in Turkey, showing new country recordings of Lake Sinai virus, two Spiroplasma bacterium species, symbionts Candidatus Schmidhempelia bombi, Frischella perrara, Snodgrassella alvi, Gilliamella apicola, Lactobacillus spp.), neogregarines, and a trypanosome species. By using metagenomic analysis, this study also reveals deep molecular evidence for the presence of bacterial pathogens (Melissococcus plutonius, Paenibacillus larvae), Varroa destructor-1 virus, Sacbrood virus, and fungi. Despite this effort we did not detect KBV, SBPV, Tobacco ringspot virus, VdMLV (Varroa Macula like virus), Acarapis spp., Tropilaeleps spp. and Apocephalus (phorid fly). We discuss possible impacts of management practices and honey bee subspecies on microbial retinues. The described workflow and curated microbial database will be generally useful for microbial surveys of healthy and declining honey bees. PMID:25852743

Tozkar, Cansu ; Kence, Meral; Kence, Aykut; Huang, Qiang; Evans, Jay D

2015-01-01

205

Improved microbioassay for plasma erythropoietin based on CFU-E colony formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We examined the conditions necessary for performing a reliable erythropoietin (EPO) assay based on CFU-E colony formation in fetal mouse liver cell (FMLC) microcultures using 96-well microtiter plates. Both linearity of colony numbers with the number of cells plated and comparison among the colony ratios at various densities of seeding cells indicated that the colonies originated from a single

S. Sakata; Y. Enoki

1992-01-01

206

A Metagenomic Survey of Microbes in Honey Bee Colony Collapse Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In colony collapse disorder (CCD), honey bee colonies inexplicably lose their workers. CCD has resulted in a loss of 50 to 90% of colonies in beekeeping operations across the United States. The observation that irradiated combs from affected colonies can be repopulated with naive bees suggests that infection may contribute to CCD. We used an unbiased metagenomic approach to survey

Diana L. Cox-Foster; Sean Conlan; Edward C. Holmes; Gustavo Palacios; Jay D. Evans; Nancy A. Moran; Phenix-Lan Quan; Thomas Briese; Mady Hornig; David M. Geiser; Vince Martinson; Dennis vanEngelsdorp; Abby L. Kalkstein; Andrew Drysdale; Jeffrey Hui; Junhui Zhai; Liwang Cui; Stephen K. Hutchison; Jan Fredrik Simons; Michael Egholm; Jeffery S. Pettis; W. Ian Lipkin

2007-01-01

207

Clustering of related workers in the honeybee colony ( Apis mellifera L.): adaptive process orinevitable pattern?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individually labeled freshly emerged honeybee workers (Apis mellifera) from three unre- lated source colonies were introduced into five host colonies. The location of the workers during their first eight days of life was monitored. Workers from the same source colony tended to be found more often in the same area of the comb than workers from a different source colony.

Robin F. A. Moritz; Robin M. Crewe; H. Randall Hepburn

2000-01-01

208

Division of labour in colony defence against vertebrate predators by the social wasp Polistes fuscatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study I examined how the paper wasp, Polistes fuscatus, defends a colony when faced with a vertebrate attack. I looked for a division of labour in defensive behaviour within a colony and examined whether this behaviour changes over the colony cycle. The colonies were presented with a model of an adult red-winged blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus, and a speaker

Timothy M. Judd

2000-01-01

209

A metagenomic survey of microbes in honey bee colony collapse disorder  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), honey bee colonies inexplicably lose all of their workers. CCD has resulted in a loss of 50-90% of colonies in beekeeping operations across the United States. The observation that irradiated combs from affected colonies can be repopulated with nave bees suggests a...

210

Factors influencing seasonal absconding in colonies of the African honey bee, Apis mellifera scutellata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This study investigated the effects of colony growth and development, food storage, foraging activity and weather on the migration behavior of African honey bees in the Okavango River Delta, Botswana. Four observation colonies were studied during the honey bee migration season (NovemberMay), at which time the availability of blooming species was reduced. Two of the colonies (colonies 1 &

S. S. Schneider; L. C. McNally

1992-01-01

211

Spread of plague among black-tailed prairie dogs is associated with colony spatial characteristics  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sylvatic plague (Yersinia pestis) is an exotic pathogen that is highly virulent in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) and causes widespread colony losses and individual mortality rates >95%. We investigated colony spatial characteristics that may influence inter-colony transmission of plague at 3 prairie dog colony complexes in the Great Plains. The 4 spatial characteristics we considered include: colony size, Euclidean distance to nearest neighboring colony, colony proximity index, and distance to nearest drainage (dispersal) corridor. We used multi-state mark-recapture models to determine the relationship between these colony characteristics and probability of plague transmission among prairie dog colonies. Annual mapping of colonies and mark-recapture analyses of disease dynamics in natural colonies led to 4 main results: 1) plague outbreaks exhibited high spatial and temporal variation, 2) the site of initiation of epizootic plague may have substantially influenced the subsequent inter-colony spread of plague, 3) the long-term effect of plague on individual colonies differed among sites because of how individuals and colonies were distributed, and 4) colony spatial characteristics were related to the probability of infection at all sites although the relative importance and direction of relationships varied among sites. Our findings suggest that conventional prairie dog conservation management strategies, including promoting large, highly connected colonies, may need to be altered in the presence of plague. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

Johnson, T.L.; Cully, J.F., Jr.; Collinge, S.K.; Ray, C.; Frey, C.M.; Sandercock, B.K.

2011-01-01

212

Endogenous Erythroid Colony Formation by Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from Patients with Myelofibrosis and Polycythemia Vera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with polycythemia vera or myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia were studied for their erythroid colony growth characteristics in plasma clot cultures. In both diseases, erythroid colonies formed early in culture in the absence of added erythropoietin (endogenous colonies). In no instance did early, endogenous colony formation occur with peripheral blood cells from normals or patients

John D. Lutton; Richard D. Levere

1979-01-01

213

Colonial legacies, post-colonial (in)securities, and gender(ed) representations in South Asia's nuclear policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through a comparative study of India and Pakistan's national security discourses, this article explores the linkages between post-colonial India and Pakistan's nationalist\\/communalist identities, configurations of masculinities, and gendered representations underpinning their nuclear (in)securities. This paper contends that the colonial politics of place-making in the sub-continent has not only inscribed a process of othering between these states but has also facilitated

Runa Das

2010-01-01

214

Colony-level selection effects on individual and colony foraging task performance in honeybees, Apis mellifera L  

Microsoft Academic Search

In honeybees, as in other highly eusocial species, tasks are performed by individual workers, but selection for worker task\\u000a phenotypes occurs at the colony level. We investigated the effect of colony-level selection for pollen storage levels on the\\u000a foraging behavior of individual honeybee foragers to determine (1) the relationship between genotype and phenotypic expression\\u000a of foraging traits at the individual

Jennifer H. Fewell; Robert E. Page Jr

2000-01-01

215

Epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease in Landhi Dairy Colony, Pakistan, the world largest Buffalo colony  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Pakistan and causes huge economic losses. This work focus on the Landhi Dairy Colony (LDC), located in the suburbs of Karachi. LDC is the largest Buffalo colony in the world, with more than 300,000 animals (around 95% buffaloes and 5% cattle, as well as an unknown number of sheep and goats). Each month

Joern Klein; Manzoor Hussain; Munir Ahmad; Muhammad Afzal; Soren Alexandersen

2008-01-01

216

California gull chicks raised near colony edges have elevated stress levels.  

PubMed

Coloniality in nesting birds represents an important life history strategy for maximizing reproductive success. Birds nesting near the edge of colonies tend to have lower reproductive success than individuals nesting near colony centers, and offspring of edge-nesting parents may be impaired relative to those of central-nesting parents. We used fecal corticosterone metabolites in California gull chicks (Larus californicus) to examine whether colony size or location within the colony influenced a chick's physiological condition. We found that chicks being raised near colony edges had higher fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations than chicks raised near colony centers, but that colony size (ranging from 150 to 11,554 nests) had no influence on fecal corticosterone levels. Fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations also increased with chick age. Our results suggest that similarly aged California gull chicks raised near colony edges may be more physiologically stressed, as indicated by corticosterone metabolites, than chicks raised near colony centers. PMID:21596043

Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T

2011-08-01

217

California gull chicks raised near colony edges have elevated stress levels  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coloniality in nesting birds represents an important life history strategy for maximizing reproductive success. Birds nesting near the edge of colonies tend to have lower reproductive success than individuals nesting near colony centers, and offspring of edge-nesting parents may be impaired relative to those of central-nesting parents. We used fecal corticosterone metabolites in California gull chicks (Larus californicus) to examine whether colony size or location within the colony influenced a chick's physiological condition. We found that chicks being raised near colony edges had higher fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations than chicks raised near colony centers, but that colony size (ranging from 150 to 11,554 nests) had no influence on fecal corticosterone levels. Fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations also increased with chick age. Our results suggest that similarly aged California gull chicks raised near colony edges may be more physiologically stressed, as indicated by corticosterone metabolites, than chicks raised near colony centers.

Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.

2011-01-01

218

Plating Yeast Colonies 1. Swirl 1 colony (0.5 -2 mm diameter) into 1 ml sterile dH2O with toothpick (faintly turbid).  

E-print Network

to include a 6th final well. Innoculate the right-hand well with a colony using a sterile toothpick (twirl dilution: Innoculate each well with a colony using a sterile toothpick, or with 20 µl of liquid culture

Aris, John P.

219

Identification in Culture of a Class of Hemopoietic Colony-Forming Units with Extensive Capability to Self-Renew and Generate Multipotential Hemopoietic Colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mouse marrow and spleen cells formed colonies consisting of 40-1,000 blast cells after 16 days of incubation in methylcellulose culture in the presence of medium conditioned by pokeweed mitogen-stimulated mouse spleen cells. These colonies could be distinguished from other hemopoietic colonies in situ by the complete absence of signs of terminal differentiation. Replating of these colonies (tentatively named stem cell

Tatsutoshi Nakahata; Makio Ogawa

1982-01-01

220

Colonie Interim Storage Site: Annual environmental report for calendar year 1990, Colonie, New York  

SciTech Connect

Environmental monitoring of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS) and surrounding area began in 1984. CISS is part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), a DOE program to decontaminate or otherwise control sties where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. The routine environmental monitoring program at CISS includes sampling networks for external gamma radiation exposures and for radium-226, throium-232, an total uranium concentrations in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Additionally, the nonradiological parameters volatile and semivolatile organics, pesticides/polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), metals, total organic carbon (TOC), total organic halides (TOX), specific conductivity, and pH are measured in groundwater. 14 refs., 20 figs., 25 tabs.

Not Available

1991-09-01

221

Colonie Interim Storage Site annual site environmental report for calendar year 1989, Colonie, New York  

SciTech Connect

IN 1984, Congress assigned the cleanup of the National Lead (NL) Industries site in Colonie, New York, to the Department of Energy (DOE) as part of a decontamination research and development project under the 1984 Energy and Water Appropriations Act. DOE then included the site in the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), an existing DOE program to decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain for the early years of the nation's atomic energy program. DOE instituted an environmental monitoring program at the site in 1984. Results are presented annually in reports such as this. Under FUSRAP, the first environmental monitoring report for this site presented data for calendar year 1984. This report presents the findings of the environmental monitoring program conducted during calendar year 1989. 16 refs., 17 figs., 14 tabs.

Not Available

1990-05-01

222

Telomere shortening in the colonial coral Acropora digitifera during development.  

PubMed

To test whether telomere length can be used in estimating the age of colonial corals, we used terminal restriction fragment (TRF) length analysis to compare the telomere lengths of the coral Acropora digitifera at three developmental stages: sperm, planula larvae, and polyps of adult colonies. We also compared the mean TRF lengths between branches at the center and periphery of tabular colonies of A. digitifera. A significant difference was observed in the mean TRF lengths in sperm, planulae, and polyps. The mean TRF length was longest in sperm and shortest in polyps from adult colonies. These results suggest that telomere length decreases during coral development and may be useful for estimating coral age. However, the mean TRF length of branches at the center of a table-form colony tended to be longer than that of peripheral branches, although this difference was not statistically significant. This suggests that both the chronological age of polyps and cell proliferation rate influence telomere length in polyps, and that estimating coral age based on telomere length is not a simple endeavor. PMID:24601774

Tsuta, Hiroki; Shinzato, Chuya; Satoh, Nori; Hidaka, Michio

2014-03-01

223

Colony size predicts division of labour in attine ants  

PubMed Central

Division of labour is central to the ecological success of eusocial insects, yet the evolutionary factors driving increases in complexity in division of labour are little known. The sizecomplexity hypothesis proposes that, as larger colonies evolve, both non-reproductive and reproductive division of labour become more complex as workers and queens act to maximize inclusive fitness. Using a statistically robust phylogenetic comparative analysis of social and environmental traits of species within the ant tribe Attini, we show that colony size is positively related to both non-reproductive (worker size variation) and reproductive (queenworker dimorphism) division of labour. The results also suggested that colony size acts on non-reproductive and reproductive division of labour in different ways. Environmental factors, including measures of variation in temperature and precipitation, had no significant effects on any division of labour measure or colony size. Overall, these results support the sizecomplexity hypothesis for the evolution of social complexity and division of labour in eusocial insects. Determining the evolutionary drivers of colony size may help contribute to our understanding of the evolution of social complexity. PMID:25165765

Ferguson-Gow, Henry; Sumner, Seirian; Bourke, Andrew F. G.; Jones, Kate E.

2014-01-01

224

Ant colonies prefer infected over uninfected nest sites.  

PubMed

During colony relocation, the selection of a new nest involves exploration and assessment of potential sites followed by colony movement on the basis of a collective decision making process. Hygiene and pathogen load of the potential nest sites are factors worker scouts might evaluate, given the high risk of epidemics in group-living animals. Choosing nest sites free of pathogens is hypothesized to be highly efficient in invasive ants as each of their introduced populations is often an open network of nests exchanging individuals (unicolonial) with frequent relocation into new nest sites and low genetic diversity, likely making these species particularly vulnerable to parasites and diseases. We investigated the nest site preference of the invasive pharaoh ant, Monomorium pharaonis, through binary choice tests between three nest types: nests containing dead nestmates overgrown with sporulating mycelium of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum (infected nests), nests containing nestmates killed by freezing (uninfected nests), and empty nests. In contrast to the expectation pharaoh ant colonies preferentially (84%) moved into the infected nest when presented with the choice of an infected and an uninfected nest. The ants had an intermediate preference for empty nests. Pharaoh ants display an overall preference for infected nests during colony relocation. While we cannot rule out that the ants are actually manipulated by the pathogen, we propose that this preference might be an adaptive strategy by the host to "immunize" the colony against future exposure to the same pathogenic fungus. PMID:25372856

Pontieri, Luigi; Vojvodic, Svjetlana; Graham, Riley; Pedersen, Jes Se; Linksvayer, Timothy A

2014-01-01

225

Analysis of time-resolved scattering from macroscale bacterial colonies.  

PubMed

We investigate the relationship of incubation time and forward-scattering signature for bacterial colonies grown on solid nutrient surfaces. The aim of this research is to understand the colony growth characteristics and the corresponding evolution of the scattering patterns for a variety of pathogenic bacteria relevant to food safety. In particular, we characterized time-varying macroscopic and microscopic morphological properties of the growing colonies and modeled their optical properties in terms of two-dimensional (2-D) amplitude and phase modulation distributions. These distributions, in turn, serve as input to scalar diffraction theory, which is, in turn, used to predict forward-scattering signatures. For the present work, three different species of Listeria were considered: Listeria innocua, Listeria ivanovii, and Listeria monocytogenes. The baseline experiments involved the growth of cultures on brain heart infusion (BHI) agar and the capture of scatter images every 6 h over a total incubation period of 42 h. The micro- and macroscopic morphologies of the colonies were studied by phase contrast microscopy. Growth curves, represented by colony diameter as a function of time, were compared with the measured time-evolution of the scattering signatures. PMID:18315368

Bae, Euiwon; Banada, Padmapriya P; Huff, Karleigh; Bhunia, Arun K; Robinson, J Paul; Hirleman, E Daniel

2008-01-01

226

Ant Colonies Prefer Infected over Uninfected Nest Sites  

PubMed Central

During colony relocation, the selection of a new nest involves exploration and assessment of potential sites followed by colony movement on the basis of a collective decision making process. Hygiene and pathogen load of the potential nest sites are factors worker scouts might evaluate, given the high risk of epidemics in group-living animals. Choosing nest sites free of pathogens is hypothesized to be highly efficient in invasive ants as each of their introduced populations is often an open network of nests exchanging individuals (unicolonial) with frequent relocation into new nest sites and low genetic diversity, likely making these species particularly vulnerable to parasites and diseases. We investigated the nest site preference of the invasive pharaoh ant, Monomorium pharaonis, through binary choice tests between three nest types: nests containing dead nestmates overgrown with sporulating mycelium of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum (infected nests), nests containing nestmates killed by freezing (uninfected nests), and empty nests. In contrast to the expectation pharaoh ant colonies preferentially (84%) moved into the infected nest when presented with the choice of an infected and an uninfected nest. The ants had an intermediate preference for empty nests. Pharaoh ants display an overall preference for infected nests during colony relocation. While we cannot rule out that the ants are actually manipulated by the pathogen, we propose that this preference might be an adaptive strategy by the host to immunize the colony against future exposure to the same pathogenic fungus. PMID:25372856

Pontieri, Luigi; Vojvodic, Svjetlana; Graham, Riley; Pedersen, Jes Se; Linksvayer, Timothy A.

2014-01-01

227

Division of labour in colony defence against vertebrate predators by the social wasp Polistes fuscatus.  

PubMed

In this study I examined how the paper wasp, Polistes fuscatus, defends a colony when faced with a vertebrate attack. I looked for a division of labour in defensive behaviour within a colony and examined whether this behaviour changes over the colony cycle. The colonies were presented with a model of an adult red-winged blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus, and a speaker that vibrated the comb. There was a pronounced division of labour in the defence against vertebrate predators within a colony. The queen was consistently the most aggressive individual in the colony. The subordinate foundresses and workers both became more aggressive towards a vertebrate predator as they aged. Gynes and males did not participate in colony defence. The level of aggression in colony members of P. fuscatus appears to be related to the reproductive investment of the colony. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10924203

Judd

2000-07-01

228

Artificial Bee Colony Optimization for Short-Term Hydrothermal Scheduling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artificial bee colony optimization is applied to determine the optimal hourly schedule of power generation in a hydrothermal system. Artificial bee colony optimization is a swarm-based algorithm inspired by the food foraging behavior of honey bees. The algorithm is tested on a multi-reservoir cascaded hydroelectric system having prohibited operating zones and thermal units with valve point loading. The ramp-rate limits of thermal generators are taken into consideration. The transmission losses are also accounted for through the use of loss coefficients. The algorithm is tested on two hydrothermal multi-reservoir cascaded hydroelectric test systems. The results of the proposed approach are compared with those of differential evolution, evolutionary programming and particle swarm optimization. From numerical results, it is found that the proposed artificial bee colony optimization based approach is able to provide better solution.

Basu, M.

2014-12-01

229

Effects of introducing foxes and raccoons on herring gull colonies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Red foxes (Vulpes fulva) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) released at colonies of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) on islands off the Massachusetts coast effectively eliminated the production of young gulls. Annual predator introductions for 2-4 years caused major reductions in colony size and occasionally total abandonment of the island as a colony site. Observations of the experimental islands for 2 years after cessation of predator introductions showed slow repopulation of the islands and lower breeding success than on control islands. The size of the regional population was reduced largely because of the movements of gulls off the experimental islands. The introduced predators are, in most cases, difficult to maintain on the islands; this restricts their utility in population management.

Kadlec, J.A.

1971-01-01

230

Modeling colony collapse disorder in honeybees as a contagion.  

PubMed

Honeybee pollination accounts annually for over $14 billion in United States agriculture alone. Within the past decade there has been a mysterious mass die-off of honeybees, an estimated 10 million beehives and sometimes as much as 90% of an apiary. There is still no consensus on what causes this phenomenon, called Colony Collapse Disorder, or CCD. Several mathematical models have studied CCD by only focusing on infection dynamics. We created a model to account for both healthy hive dynamics and hive extinction due to CCD, modeling CCD via a transmissible infection brought to the hive by foragers. The system of three ordinary differential equations accounts for multiple hive population behaviors including Allee effects and colony collapse. Numerical analysis leads to critical hive sizes for multiple scenarios and highlights the role of accelerated forager recruitment in emptying hives during colony collapse. PMID:25365602

Kribs-Zaleta, Christopher M; Mitchell, Christopher

2014-12-01

231

The American Colony in Jerusalem, 1870-2006  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tremendous collection from the Library of Congress brings together over 10,000 manuscripts, maps, and visual materials from about a hundred years of the American Colony in Jerusalem. These materials were gifted to the Library of Congress in 2004, and the collection consists of photographs, pamphlets, telegrams, letters, book manuscripts, diaries, and ephemera that talk about the colony, along with addressing the broader history of Palestine and the Middle East in the 19th and 20th centuries. One of the highlights of the site is a special feature on the Bertha Vester diaries. Vester was the principal leader of the American Colony from 1923 to 1968, and her 48 diaries make for fascinating reading. The site also includes a timeline of events, and essays like "The Vester Diaries" and "A Community in Jerusalem".

232

Alexander von Humboldt's perceptions of colonial Spanish America.  

PubMed

This study presents an in-depth analysis of Alexander von Humboldt's descriptions and critical comments on the colonial society of the different regions he visited during his well-known expedition through the Americas (1799-1804). The criticisms of colonialism that he expressed, reflecting his personal convictions, have already been the focal point of many studies, but Humboldt also was able to offer a more differentiated assessment through comparisons of regional and local traditions and developments. This essay focuses on his personal diaries, which offer many interesting comments on colonial societies. These considerations and impressions made during the expedition are of particular scholarly value since they were not subject to censorship of any kind. PMID:19852391

Rebok, Sandra

2009-01-01

233

Trichuris trichiura in a post-Colonial Brazilian mummy  

PubMed Central

Trichuris trichiura is a soil-transmitted helminth which is prevalent in warm, moist, tropical and subtropical regions of the world with poor sanitation. Heavy whipworm can result either in Trichuris dysenteric syndrome - especially in children - or in a chronic colitis. In heavy infections, worms can spread proximally and may cause ileitis. Here we provide first microscopic evidence for a T. trichiura adult worm embedded in the rectum of a post-Colonial Brazilian adult mummy. During Colonial and post-Colonial times, many European chroniclers described a parasitic disease named Maculo whose symptomatology coincides with heavy helminthiasis. Based on our findings and on comparison of ancient textual evidence with modern description of heavy whipworm, we feel confident in considering that the two syndromes are expressions of the same pathological condition. PMID:25742276

Bianucci, Rafaella; Torres, Eduardo J Lopes; Santiago, Juliana MF Dutra; Ferreira, Luis F; Nerlich, Andreas G; de Souza, Sheila Maria Mendona; Giuffra, Valentina; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo; Bastos, Otilio Machado; Travassos, Renata; de Souza, Wanderley; Arajo, Adauto

2015-01-01

234

Tour the Town: The Colonial Williamsburg Official History & Citizenship Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Are you eager to see Colonial Williamsburg but find yourself many miles from Hampton Roads? You can take a most edifying interactive tour of this most famous site, courtesy of The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. Visitors just need to Launch Tour the Town and they will be whisked away to the world of 18th century Virginia. It's fun to just click on random buildings (such as the coffeehouse) to get background information for each location. Users can follow suggested tours or create their own along the way, which is quite handy. The site also includes links to additional information about the gardens, clothing, and people that were part of this tightly-knit colonial community.

235

Space colonies and the philosophy of space exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many space enthusiasts believe that the possibilities offered by space colonies clinch the case in favor of space exploration. Such possibilities, however, cannot by themselves surmount the central social and ideological objections against space exploration. Moreover, to justify the process by which we can determine whether space colonies are a good idea requires that we meet those objections first. This task is often attemped by pointing to the many unintended good results of previous exploration (the serendipity of science) and then extrapolating to the future. But social and ideologial critics need not be impressed by a purely historical case for serendipity. Fortunately, a philosophical analysis of scientific exploration reveals that serendipity is an essential aspect of it. This result provides a justification for exploring space. And in light of that justification, we can begin to evaluate the proposals for space colonies.

Munvar, Gonzalo

1986-08-01

236

Female immigrants and labor in colonial Malaya: 1860-1947.  

PubMed

"The role of Chinese and Indian women as immigrants and workers in colonial Malaya is examined using data from censuses, immigration records, official reports and secondary sources. The article discusses the main types of work of female immigrants and their contribution to the economic development of colonial Malaya during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in an attempt to redress the neglect of female immigrants' economic role in Malaya's history. Comparisons between male and female immigrants' labor and between Chinese and Indian immigrants, are drawn to highlight the different conditions of migration and labor for the different groups of immigrants." PMID:12315959

Lee, S M

1989-01-01

237

Detection of fungi colony growth on bones by dynamic speckle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we have studied the dynamic speckle patterns of mucor fungi colonies, which were inoculated on different samples. We were interested in analyzing the development of fungi colonies in bones, since during the last two years, a series of infections by mucor fungi have been reported on patients from different hospitals in Argentina. Coincidentally, all of these infections appeared on patients that were subjected to a surgical intervention for implantation of a titanium prosthesis. Apparently, the reason of the infection was a deficient sterilization process in conjunction with an accidental contamination. We observed that fungi growth, activity and death can be distinguished by means of the dynamic speckle technique.

Vincitorio, F. M.; Budini, N.; Mulone, C.; Spector, M.; Freyre, C.; Lpez Daz, A. J.; Ramil, A.

2013-11-01

238

Ecological effects on gut bacterial communities in wild bumblebee colonies.  

PubMed

1. Animal hosts harbour diverse and often specific bacterial communities (microbiota) in their gut. These microbiota can provide crucial services to the host such as aiding in digestion of food and immune defence. However, the ecological factors correlating with and eventually shaping these microbiota under natural conditions are poorly understood. 2. Bumblebees have recently been shown to possess simple and highly specific microbiota. We here examine the dynamics of these microbiota in field colonies of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris over one season. The gut bacteria were assessed with culture-independent methods, that is, with terminal restriction fragment length profiles of the 16S rRNA gene. 3. To further understand the factors that affect the microbiota, we experimentally manipulated field-placed colonies in a fully factorial experiment by providing additional food or by priming the workers' immune system by injecting heat-killed bacteria. We furthermore looked at possible correlates of diversity and composition of the microbiota for (i) natural infections with the microbial parasites Crithidia bombi and Nosema bombi, (ii) bumblebee worker size, (iii) colony identity, and (iv) colony age. 4. We found an increase in diversity of the microbiota in individuals naturally infected with either C. bombi or N. bombi. Crithidia bombi infections, however, appear to be only indirectly linked with higher microbial diversity when comparing colonies. The treatments of priming the immune system with heat-killed bacteria and additional food supply, as well as host body size, had no effect on the diversity or composition of the microbiota. Host colony identity had only a weak effect on the composition of the microbiota at the level of resolution of our method. We found both significant increases and decreases in the relative abundance of selected bacterial taxa over the season. 5. We present the first study on the ecological dynamics of gut microbiota in bumblebees and identify parasite infections, colony identity and colony age as important factors influencing the diversity and composition of the bacterial communities. The absence of an effect of our otherwise effective experimental treatments suggests a remarkable ability of the host to maintain a homoeostasis in this community under widely different environments. PMID:22708631

Koch, Hauke; Cisarovsky, Gabriel; Schmid-Hempel, Paul

2012-11-01

239

The role of queen mandibular pheromone and colony congestion in honey bee ( Apis mellifera L.) reproductive swarming (Hymenoptera: Apidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The roles of honey bee queen mandibular pheromone and colony congestion in the inhibition of swarming were investigated. Two colony siz.es were used: small, congested colonies and large, uncongested colonies. Both groups of colonies were treated with various dosages of the five-component, synthetic queen mandibular pheromone in the spring, and the extent and timing of swarming were followed. Most treatment

Mark L. Winston; Heather A. Higo; Simon J. Colley; Tanya Pankiw; Keith N. Slessor

1991-01-01

240

Inhibition of Colony-spreading Activity of Staphylococcus aureus by Secretion of ?-Hemolysin*  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus aureus spreads on the surface of soft agar, a phenomenon we termed colony spreading. Here, we found that S. aureus culture supernatant inhibited colony spreading. We purified ?-hemolysin (Hld, ?-toxin), a major protein secreted from S. aureus, as a compound that inhibits colony spreading. The culture supernatants of hld-disrupted mutants had 30-fold lower colony-spreading inhibitory activity than those of the parent strain. Furthermore, hld-disrupted mutants had higher colony-spreading ability than the parent strain. These results suggest that S. aureus negatively regulates colony spreading by secreting ?-hemolysin. PMID:22411996

Omae, Yosuke; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kaito, Chikara

2012-01-01

241

Atlas of wading bird and seabird nesting colonies in coastal Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama: 1983  

SciTech Connect

Aerial surveys of waterbird colonies in coastal Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama were conducted in May and June of 1983. The major objective of these surveys was to provide up-to-date locations of active colony sites. Historic colony sites reported in 1976 and 1978 were checked and additional areas were searched for new colonies. The location, species composition, habitat and an overall estimate of colony size were recorded for each of the 188 active colonies observed in 1983. Locations were mapped on both 1:250,000 and 1:24,000 scale maps.

Keller, C.E.; Spendelow, J.A.; Greer, R.D.

1984-07-01

242

BEEHAVE: a systems model of honeybee colony dynamics and foraging to explore multifactorial causes of colony failure  

PubMed Central

A notable increase in failure of managed European honeybee Apis mellifera L. colonies has been reported in various regions in recent years. Although the underlying causes remain unclear, it is likely that a combination of stressors act together, particularly varroa mites and other pathogens, forage availability and potentially pesticides. It is experimentally challenging to address causality at the colony scale when multiple factors interact. In silico experiments offer a fast and cost-effective way to begin to address these challenges and inform experiments. However, none of the published bee models combine colony dynamics with foraging patterns and varroa dynamics. We have developed a honeybee model, BEEHAVE, which integrates colony dynamics, population dynamics of the varroa mite, epidemiology of varroa-transmitted viruses and allows foragers in an agent-based foraging model to collect food from a representation of a spatially explicit landscape. We describe the model, which is freely available online (www.beehave-model.net). Extensive sensitivity analyses and tests illustrate the model's robustness and realism. Simulation experiments with various combinations of stressors demonstrate, in simplified landscape settings, the model's potential: predicting colony dynamics and potential losses with and without varroa mites under different foraging conditions and under pesticide application. We also show how mitigation measures can be tested. Synthesis and applications. BEEHAVE offers a valuable tool for researchers to design and focus field experiments, for regulators to explore the relative importance of stressors to devise management and policy advice and for beekeepers to understand and predict varroa dynamics and effects of management interventions. We expect that scientists and stakeholders will find a variety of applications for BEEHAVE, stimulating further model development and the possible inclusion of other stressors of potential importance to honeybee colony dynamics. PMID:25598549

Becher, Matthias A; Grimm, Volker; Thorbek, Pernille; Horn, Juliane; Kennedy, Peter J; Osborne, Juliet L

2014-01-01

243

The Transatlantic Slave Trade and Colonial Chesapeake Slavery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the slave trade system that brought slaves to the Chesapeake Bay area during the eighteenth century colonial United States. Uses information from the "Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade: A Database on CD-ROM" to examine slave routes. Provides information on the origins and distribution of slaves in the Chesapeake Bay region and the experiences of

Walsh, Lorena S.

2003-01-01

244

Morphological characteristics of colony development in Micromonospora chalcea.  

PubMed Central

Colonies of Micromonospora chalcea display two types of mycelia. Vegetative mycelia are nonbranched, have a propensity for parallel disposition, and possess infrequent septa. The reproductive mycelia develop on their apical portion and are characterized by branching, frequent septation, and bearing of spores that are either sessile or at the end of small sporophores. Images PMID:3997781

Suarez, J E; Hardisson, C

1985-01-01

245

Morphological characteristics of colony development in Micromonospora chalcea.  

PubMed

Colonies of Micromonospora chalcea display two types of mycelia. Vegetative mycelia are nonbranched, have a propensity for parallel disposition, and possess infrequent septa. The reproductive mycelia develop on their apical portion and are characterized by branching, frequent septation, and bearing of spores that are either sessile or at the end of small sporophores. PMID:3997781

Suarez, J E; Hardisson, C

1985-06-01

246

Spinning reserve scheduling of power systems: An ant colony approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an Ant Colony System (ACS) based optimization approach to solve the optimal spinning reserve problem for a power system. Unit commitment risk is used as an index to evaluate the level of spinning reserve. The outage cost and the fuel cost of thermal units were considered in the unit commitment program. The optimal spinning reserve and unit

2006-01-01

247

Combining Immune with Ant Colony Algorithm for Geometric Constraint Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geometric constraint problem can be transformed to an optimization problem which the objective function and constraints are non-convex functions. In this paper an evolutionary algorithm based on ant colony optimization algorithm and the immune system model is proposed to provide solution to the geometric constraints problem. In the new algorithm, affinity calculation process and pheromone trail lying is embedded to

Hua Yuan; Yi Li; Wenhui Li; Kong Zhao; Duo Wang; Rongqin Yi

2008-01-01

248

Massive Diversification in Aging Colonies of Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

The evolutionary success of bacteria depends greatly on their capacity to continually generate phenotypic diversity. Structured environments are particularly favorable for diversification because of attenuated clonal interference, which renders selective sweeps nearly impossible and enhances opportunities for adaptive radiation. We examined at the microscale level the emergence and the spatial and temporal dynamics of phenotypic diversity and their underlying causes in Escherichia coli colonies. An important dynamic heterogeneity in the growth, metabolic activity, morphology, gene expression patterns, stress response induction, and death patterns among cells within colonies was observed. Genetic analysis indicated that the phenotypic variation resulted mostly from mutations and that indole production, oxidative stress, and the RpoS-regulated general stress response played an important role in the generation of diversity. We observed the emergence and persistence of phenotypic variants within single colonies that exhibited variable fitness compared to the parental strain. Some variants showed improved capacity to produce biofilms, whereas others were able to use different nutrients or to tolerate antibiotics or oxidative stress. Taken together, our data show that bacterial colonies provide an ecological opportunity for the generation and maintenance of vast phenotypic diversity, which may increase the probability of population survival in unpredictable environments. PMID:24982303

Saint-Ruf, Claude; Garfa-Traor, Meriem; Collin, Valrie; Cordier, Corinne; Franceschi, Christine

2014-01-01

249

Clonal colony formation from spiral ganglion stem cells.  

PubMed

Neural stem cells from the central nervous system have the distinct capacity to give rise to clonal neurospheres. These clonal spheres are derived from a single clone-forming cell and represent homogenous, pure cell colonies. Recently, stem/progenitor cells have been isolated from the spiral ganglion of the inner ear using sphere-forming assays. However, the clonality of spiral ganglion-derived spheres has not yet been addressed in detail. Here, we report the isolation of clonal colonies from the spiral ganglion of early postnatal mice. We analyze sphere clonality using coculture experiments with transgenic cells, a semisolid assay, and culture of single cells in isolation. Our data show that sphere clonality differs in primary and secondary cultures and indicate that clonal sphere formation is dependent on specific culture parameters. We also show that the initiation of clonal colony formation does not require cell-to-cell interactions or paracrine signaling from surrounding cells. Generation of clonal colonies from spiral ganglion stem/progenitor cells might be crucial for future clinical applications because pure cell populations are considered to be more efficient and safe for therapeutic use than chimeric, heterogeneous spheres. PMID:25089801

Diensthuber, Marc; Zecha, Veronika; Wagenblast, Jens; Arnhold, Stefan; Stver, Timo

2014-10-01

250

Calpain Inhibition Decreases the Growth Rate of Mammalian Cell Colonies*  

E-print Network

of proliferative growth of mouse stem cells under routine culture conditions. To address the reasons of calpastatin in these cell lines resulted in a de- creased growth of isolated colonies adhering to tissue culture plates. However, when cells were plated at higher density, calpastatin overexpression had no influ

Abraham, Nader G.

251

A quantitative study of worker reproduction in honey bee colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 11 Apis mellifera colonies with laying queens, about 0.12% of the males produced derived from eggs laid by workers. This result requires explanation both of why workers produce any males, and, since they do, why they produce so few. Workers may maximize their inclusive fitness by forgoing reproduction, or their sterility may be due to to enforcement of the

P. Kirk Visscher

1989-01-01

252

Survey and Census of Colonial Nesting Seabirds in South Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

(Pelecanus occidentalis) are often associated with the coast and are frequently the focus of tourism posters, souvenirs, and crafts. The well-being of colonial seabirds and other waterbirds is synonymous with the health of the coast. Their variety of feeding mechanisms, broad prey base, wide range of salinity preferences, and a place near the top of the food chain all suggest

Philip M. Wilkinson

253

The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: An Empirical Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We exploit differences in European mortality rates to estimate the effect of institu- tions on economic performance. Europeans adopted very different colonization policies in different colonies, with different associated institutions. In places where Europeans faced high mortality rates, they could not settle and were more likely to set up extractive institutions. These institutions persisted to the present. Exploiting differences in

DARON ACEMOGLU; S IMON JOHNSON; JAMES A. ROBINSON

2002-01-01

254

Experimentally induced helper dispersal in colonially breeding cooperative cichlids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 'benefits of philopatry' hypothesis states that helpers in cooperatively breeding species derive higher benefits from remaining home, instead of dispersing and attempting to breed independently. We tested experimentally whether dispersal options influence dispersal propensity in the cooperatively breeding Lake Tanganyika cichlids Neolamprologus pulcher and N. savoryi. Cooperative groups of these fishes breed in densely packed colonies, surrounded by unoccupied,

D. Heg; Z. Heg-Bachar; L. Brouwer; M. Taborsky

2007-01-01

255

Host specificity and colony impacts of Solenopsis invicta virus 3  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A thorough understanding of host specificity is essential before pathogens can be used as biopesticides or self-sustaining biocontrol agents. In order to define the host range of the recently discovered Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3), we exposed colonies of 19 species of ants in 14 different g...

256

Ant Colony Optimization and the minimum spanning tree problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is a kind of metaheuristic that has become very popular for solving problems from combinatorial optimization. Solutions for a given problem are constructed by a random walk on a so-called construction graph. This random walk can be influenced by heuristic information about the problem. In contrast to many successful applications, the theoretical foundation of this kind

Frank Neumann; Carsten Witt

2010-01-01

257

Solving the light up with Ant Colony Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of single-player games have been proven to be computationally difficult, including the Light Up. Although, recently, such single-player games have received considerable attention from the scientific community, only a few papers address the Light Up. This paper presents a two phase Ant Colony Optimization algorithm to solve this puzzle. In the first phase, logical rules are applied to

Igor Rosberg; Elizabeth Goldbarg; Marco Goldbarg

2011-01-01

258

Excrement from Heron colonies for environmental assessment of toxic elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excrement cast from Great Blue Heron nests was collected during the nesting period of 1978 from four colonies in Washington and Idaho. Cheesecloth strips placed on the ground beneath the nests served as excrement collecting devices. Chemical analysis for lead, mercury and cadmium were performed on dried samples. Lead was the most abundant trace metal found in heron debris. The

R. E. Fitzner; W. H. Rickard; W. T. Hinds

1982-01-01

259

RESEARCH ARTICLE Colony pollen reserves affect body size, sperm production  

E-print Network

of large size variation in males of stingless bees that is related with the amount of pollen reservesRESEARCH ARTICLE Colony pollen reserves affect body size, sperm production and sexual development in males of the stingless bee Melipona beecheii F. G. Pech-May · L. Medina-Medina · W. de J. May-Itza´ · R

Paxton, Robert

260

The colony environment modulates sleep in honey bee workers.  

PubMed

One of the most important and evolutionarily conserved roles of sleep is the processing and consolidation of information acquired during wakefulness. In both insects and mammals, environmental and social stimuli can modify sleep physiology and behavior, yet relatively little is known about the specifics of the wake experiences and their relative contribution to experience-dependent modulation of sleep. Honey bees provide an excellent model system in this regard because their behavioral repertoire is well characterized and the environment they experience during the day can be manipulated while keeping an ecologically and sociobiologically relevant context. We examined whether social experience modulates sleep in honey bees, and evaluated the relative contribution of different social signals. We exposed newly emerged bees to different components of their natural social environment and then monitored their sleep behavior in individual cages in a constant lab environment. We found that rich waking experience modulates subsequent sleep. Bees that experienced the colony environment for 1 or 2 days slept more than same-age sister bees that were caged individually or in small groups in the lab. Furthermore, bees placed in mesh-enclosures in the colony, that prevented direct contact with nestmates, slept similarly to bees freely moving in the colony. These results suggest that social signals that do not require direct or close distance interactions between bees are sufficiently rich to encompass almost the entire effect of the colony on sleep. Our findings provide a remarkable example of social experience-dependent modulation of an essential biological process. PMID:25524987

Eban-Rothschild, Ada; Bloch, Guy

2015-02-01

261

Slavery and Insurrections in the Colonial Province of New York.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that, although slavery is a major topic in U.S. history, the geographical focus is primarily on the South. Discusses slavery and two slave revolts in colonial New York in the early 1700s. Includes descriptions of the slave revolts and two information tables. (CFR)

Newman, Marc

1995-01-01

262

Fanon's politics of culture: the colonial situation and its extension  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea of cultural resistance has been taken up in combative analysis of metropolitan racist situations. It is a legacy from analyses by combatants in anti-colonial struggles. Fanon's were among the most searching of such analyses. His writings indicate an unusual concept of culture and of a people. The concept is at the same time of a political subject and

Stephan Feuchtwang

1985-01-01

263

Existential Thoughts in Fanon's Post-Colonialism Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Frantz Fanon, a pioneer of post-colonial theory, attempted to seek some unbeknown possibilities through a Sartrean existentialism thought toward ethnic liberation and the fighting against imperialism. This article tries to enter Fanon's short life that was full of humanism and existentialist thought and to explore the hidden theoretical context

Yeh, Chuan-Rong

2013-01-01

264

Microsatellite loci for the invasive colonial hydrozoan Cordylophora caspia  

EPA Science Inventory

Cordylophora caspia, a colonial hydrozoan native to the Ponto-Caspian region, has become a common invader of both fresh and brackish water ecosystems of North America and Europe. Here we describe 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci for this species. Preliminary analyses indicate ...

265

Reconstructing Amino Acid Interaction Networks by an Ant Colony Approach  

E-print Network

Reconstructing Amino Acid Interaction Networks by an Ant Colony Approach Omar GACI and Stefan BALEV are the proteins amino acids and whose edges are the interactions between them. We consider the problem of reconstructing protein's interaction network from its amino acid sequence. We rely on a probability that two

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

266

Urban Economics, Conduit-Colonialism and Public Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considerable amounts of money already come into the cities and the black communities, but go right out as payments to absentee landlords, exploitative merchants, credit gougers, and loan sharks, as well as in support of the colonial management system. (Author/JM)

Hamilton, Charles V.

1972-01-01

267

Colonial Ambivalence in R. K. Narayan's Waiting for the Mahatma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gandhian phase of the anti-colonial movement for India's freedom finds frequent expression in literary representations of the period. There was large-scale support among Indians for Gandhi's intervention in the civil disobedience and Quit India movements. However, R. K. Narayan's novel Waiting for the Mahatma (1955) reflects a certain ambivalence towards the freedom movement. There were many who were impressed

Satish C. Aikant

2007-01-01

268

The View from the Veranda: Understanding Today's Colonial Student  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Like the steady stream of colonial families of decades past traveling to their country's dominions abroad, contemporary education abroad students are similar passengers on a powerful steamship bound for lands of new sounds, sights and wonders. Although their studies may be challenging and demanding, students are exhilarated with thoughts of new

Ogden, Anthony

2008-01-01

269

White settlers and the law in early colonial Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines settler attitudes toward the law and the legal system in early colonial Kenya. Settlers believed that English law was the culmination of centuries of evolution and was unsurpassed for its justice and logic. Nonetheless, they insisted English law and legal procedure were supremely ill-suited for the African context. When courts released Africans on technicalities it only encouraged

Brett Shadle

2010-01-01

270

152. 1932 MEMORIAL PLAQUE FROM THE NATIONAL COLONIAL DAMES OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

152. 1932 MEMORIAL PLAQUE FROM THE NATIONAL COLONIAL DAMES OF AMERICA, DISTRICT CHAPTER, AND MEMORIAL PLANTING OF TWO SPECIMEN WILLOW OAKS AT FT. WASHINGTON OVERLOOK LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

271

Contributed Paper Estimating the Density of Honeybee Colonies across  

E-print Network

Contributed Paper Estimating the Density of Honeybee Colonies across Their Natural Range to Fill, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa Honeybee Research Section, ARC-Plant Protection Research, the demography of the western honeybee (Apis mellifera) has not been considered by conservationists because

Paxton, Robert

272

The Primary School Curriculum in a Colonial Society  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A history of primary school curriculum in Guyana, a former British colony, points out social determinates of curriculum. Ruling groups emphasized agriculture and manual arts in public education to maintain class distinctions while the masses fought for academic education as a key to financial and social success. (JH)

Bacus, M. Kazim

1974-01-01

273

RESEARCH ARTICLE Complex Colony-Level Organization of the  

E-print Network

(Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) Is Directionally Asymmetric and Arises by the Subdivision of Pro-Buds Casey W. Dunn* Siphonophores are free-swimming colonial hydrozoans (Cnidaria) composed of asexually produced multicellular-Liss, Inc. Key words: Bargmannia; siphonophore; Hydrozoa; Cnidaria; directional asymmetry; major transitions

Dunn, Casey

274

Understanding the Pheromone System within Ant Colony Optimization  

E-print Network

Understanding the Pheromone System within Ant Colony Optimization Stephen Gilmour and Mark Dras are good parameters for ACO algorithms, little research has been done as to how the ACO pheromone system) pheromone system in this direction. It is difficult to apply ACS to new problems when the variables within

Dras, Mark

275

Art Education in Colonial India: Implementation and Imposition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Historical inquiry in art education forms the basis of any research undertaken in the field. It is on this path that we discover ignored moments and personalities and clarify challenging ideas, thus approaching history from multiple perspectives. This historical study attempts to reframe the past of colonial Indian art education within the broader

Kantawala, Ami

2012-01-01

276

Ant Colony Optimization and Data Mining: Techniques and Trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) technique was inspired by the ants' behaviour throughout their exploration for food. The use of this technique has been very successful for several problems. Besides, Data Mining (DM) has emerged as an important technology with numerous practical applications, due to the wide availability of a vast amount of data. The collaborative use of ACO and

Ioannis Michelakos; Nikolaos Mallios; Elpiniki Papageorgiou; Michael Vassilakopoulos

2010-01-01

277

Converting insect colony waste into a potting susbstrate.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rearing insect generates both a solid and semisolid waste that is generally discarded in landfills. A study was initiated to determine if the semi-solid insect colony waste product and vermiculite used in insect rearing could be combined and used as a growth substrate for plants. The semi-solid larv...

278

Across the Colonial Divide: Conversations about Evaluation in Indigenous Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay engages questions of evaluator role and indigenous peoples participation in evaluation within colonial and decolonization contexts. Specifically, I critique the Western emphasis on cultural competence and contrast the utility of "mainstream" evaluation approaches alongside three indigenous inquiry models (Te Kotahitanga,

Cavino, Hayley Marama

2013-01-01

279

Colonial Broadsides: A Student-Created Play. [Lesson Plan].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Broadsides" are notices written on disposable, single sheets of paper printed on one side only, intended to have an immediate impact on readers. Broadsides had an impact in colonial America--they delivered the latest news and much more: government proclamations, public service announcements, opinion papers, advertisements, and entertainment

2002

280

[Significance of the colony formation test in ovarian carcinoma].  

PubMed

Methods and evaluation of the human tumor stem cell assay (HTSCA) are described. Advantages and disadvantages of the test system are elaborated. The in vitro/in vivo correlation in the drug screening of human ovarian carcinomas shows that the prediction of sensitivity to a cytotoxic agent is only possible in 64%. Prediction of drug resistance, however, seems to be possible in 95%. The number of patients that profit from the HTSCA seems to be only less than 10%. Our investigations describe the influence of various hormones and antiestrogens on the colony formation of human ovarian carcinoma cells. Tamoxifen and his major metabolite 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen were the most active agents. Both compounds inhibit the colony survival (70% at pharmacological concentrations) of 60% of the screened ovarian carcinomas. A significant correlation to the quantitative level of estrogen or progesterone receptors could not be proved. Colony formation of ovarian carcinoma cells was compared in the HTSCA as described by Hamburger and Salmon and in a methylcellulose-monolayer system. Our results show that the colony formation corresponds to the results of the original HTSCA: Cloning ovarian carcinoma cells in the methylcellulose-monolayer, however, seems to be technically easier and faster. PMID:6235468

Runge, H M; Bcke, W; Neumann, H A

1984-05-01

281

DNA Codewords Design Using Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before performing the DNA computation, a set of specific DNA sequences are required. However, this is a burdensome task as too many constraints need to be satisfied. In this paper, ant colony algorithm is applied to solve the problem of DNA codewords design. Inspired by the traveling salesman problem, first a city matrix with T rows and S columns is

Xinjin Wang; Yongpeng Shen; Xuncai Zhang; Guangzhao Cui; Yanfeng Wang

2010-01-01

282

Colonial America and Service Learning in the Fifth Grade  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a unit of study about Colonial America given in Lubbock, Texas, in which fifth grade students learn about the crafts system by becoming apprentices for a time. The students apply to apprentice with a master crafts person, a mentor, and learn some basic methods of a craft. Mentors are typically students' relatives, friends of

Morris, Ronald Vaughan

2008-01-01

283

The honeybee queen influences the regulation of colony drone production  

E-print Network

The honeybee queen influences the regulation of colony drone production Katie E. Wharton,a Fred C and regu- lation of males (drones). We examined whether honeybee queens can influence drone regulation by either allowing or prevent- ing them from laying drone eggs for a period of time and then examining

Huang, Zachary

284

Original article Reproduction of Varroa jacobsoni in colonies  

E-print Network

the infestation with Varroa jacobsoni of drone and worker brood in Apis cerana colonies was checked monthly. Natural reproduction of the mite was found to be restricted to drone brood and to springtime are lack- ing. Therefore the question of why Varroa reproduction succeeds only on drone brood in cerana

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

285

EXPLOITATION OF COMB CELLS FOR BROOD REARING IN HONEYBEE COLONIES  

E-print Network

the fraction of diploid drone larvae eaten by the workers. This indicates, that the queens did not stop egg after diploid drone larvae were eaten. When compared to normal colonies less sealed brood was present, and #12;homozygosity - in diploid drones (WOYKE, 1963 a). Diploid drone larvae are eaten by the workers

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

286

V.S. Naipaul and the Colonial Image  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The work of this Trinidadian novelist is an example of a body of literature with much to say to the analyst of social systems. The key concept underlying his work, 'the colonial' is analyzed here through non-fiction, novels, stories, and journal material. (Author/AM)

Angrosino, Michael V.

1975-01-01

287

Problematic spaces, problematic races: defining Europeans in late colonial India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers how women and men acquired European status in gender-specific ways in colonial India between the late nineteenth century and independence in 1947. Being considered European in this setting required far more than ancestry and biological attributes, and depended heavily on class, culture, occupation and ongoing imperial border crossings that allowed individuals to maintain direct contact with Britain.

Elizabeth Buettner

2000-01-01

288

Ant Colony Optimisation1 12.1 Introduction  

E-print Network

Chapter 12 Ant Colony Optimisation1 12.1 Introduction Real ants can find a shortest path from the old one is no longer feasible due to a new obstacle. In Figure (12.1 A) ants are moving on a straight line that connects a food source to their nest. An ant: · deposits pheromone while walking

Grant, P. W.

289

Applying Ant Colony Optimization Methods in an Artificial Chemistry  

E-print Network

Applying Ant Colony Optimization Methods in an Artificial Chemistry Context to Routing Problems.traumfisch.ch . #12;Abstract The foraging task of ants show several similarities with the task of packet routing in networks. This thesis describes the implementation of a combina- tion of existing ant inspired routing

Vetter, Thomas

290

TWO ANT COLONY ALGORITHMS FOR BESTEFFORT ROUTING IN DATAGRAM NETWORKS  

E-print Network

TWO ANT COLONY ALGORITHMS FOR BEST­EFFORT ROUTING IN DATAGRAM NETWORKS GIANNI DI CARO and MARCO, Belgium fgdicaro,mdorigog@ulb.ac.be ABSTRACT In this paper we present two versions of AntNet, a novel approach to adaptive learning of routing tables in wide area best­effort datagram networks. Ant

Ducatelle, Frederick

291

Surrendering a Colonial Domain: Educating North India, 1854-1890  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Postcolonial research has often assumed that colonial education fell victim to the forces of nationalism, like other areas of Raj governance in the early twentieth century. However, European-led education that aspired to reach the general population had already failed a generation earlier, at least in north India. This was after highly imaginative

Allender, Tim

2007-01-01

292

Ornithonyssus bacoti infestation and elimination from a mouse colony.  

PubMed

Skin lesions, consisting of nonspecific bites with intense pruritus and excoriation of the skin, were found on personnel working in an animal colony primarily housing mice. The tropical rat mite, Ornithonyssus bacoti, was diagnosed from mites trapped on insect-monitoring sticky traps and collected from mouse cages in the colony. Because these mites do not live on mice but only come to feed when the animals are in their nest, an initial attempt was made to eliminate the mites with a thorough cleaning of the facility. Clidox foam was applied to the entire room with a foaming machine. Then the mice were transferred into the sanitized cages in the cleaned room. The numbers of mites were reduced to the point that they were no longer noticed in the colony, but the mites returned within 2 weeks. The mites were successfully eliminated with the use of permethrin-impregnated cotton balls in the mouse cages for 8 weeks and treatment of the premises. Treatment of the premises included spraying floors and walls of all rooms housing mice and adjacent hallways in the colony with pyrethrin spray by a commercial pest control company. To prevent one room of rabbits from maintaining the infestation, they were treated weekly with an organic pyrethrin dust. Insect sticky traps have remained negative for mites for more than 3 years after treatment. PMID:16138778

Cole, Joan S; Sabol-Jones, Michelle; Karolewski, Brian; Byford, Tracylea

2005-09-01

293

Pattern Formation of Bacterial Colonies by Escherichia coli  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the morphological diversity and change in bacterial colonies, using the bacterial species Escherichia coli, as a function of both agar concentration Ca and nutrient concentration Cn. We observed various colony patterns, classified them into four types by pattern characteristics and established a morphological diagram by dividing it into four regions. They are regions A [diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA)-like], B (Eden-like), C (concentric-ring), and D (fluid-spreading). In particular, we have observed a concentric-ring colony growth for E. coli. We focused on the periodic growth in region C and obtained the following results: (i) A colony grows cyclically with the growing front repeating an advance (migration phase) and a momentary rest (consolidation phase) alternately. (ii) The growth width L and the bulge width W in one cycle decrease asymptotically to certain values, when Ca is increased. (iii) L does not depend on Cn, while W is an increasing function of Cn. Plausible mechanisms are proposed to explain the experimental results, by comparing them with those obtained for other bacterial species such as Proteus mirabilis and Bacillus subtilis.

Tokita, Rie; Katoh, Takaki; Maeda, Yusuke; Wakita, Jun-ichi; Sano, Masaki; Matsuyama, Tohey; Matsushita, Mitsugu

2009-07-01

294

Aspects of modeling biofilm colonies: Florida State University  

E-print Network

Aspects of modeling biofilm colonies: Part 1 Nick Cogan Florida State University June 11, 2014 #12;Biofilm Models and Modelers What is a model(er)? Some biofilm models Common observations, particular is generalizeable. #12;Biofilm Conceptual Models Have changed substantially. And so have the models! #12;Biofilm

Ribot, Magali

295

Missionary Education in Colonial Africa: The Critique of Mary Kingsley.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussing missionary education in colonial Africa, Pearce examines the ideas of Mary Kingsley, one of the major influences on British thinking towards Africa from the late 1890's. Focusing attention on her educational views, Pearce states that she had influence on all areas of British policy in Africa, and especially West Africa. (GEA)

Pearce, Robert

1988-01-01

296

From Savage to Citizen: Education, Colonialism and Idiocy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In constructing a framework for the participation and inclusion in political life of subjects, the Enlightenment also produced a series of systematic exclusions for those who did not qualify: including "idiots" and "primitive races". "Idiocy" emerged as part of wider strategies of governance in Europe and its colonies. This opened up the

Simpson, Murray K.

2007-01-01

297

Recent Literature on Slavery in Colonial North America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a review of literature published on slavery in colonial North America, focusing on how this literature has changed over the years. Includes literature in topical areas, such as the Atlantic slave trade, African American culture, and race. Includes a bibliography. (CMK)

Wright, Donald R.

2003-01-01

298

Genetic Stock Identification Of Production Colonies Of Russian Honey Bees  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The prevalence of Nosema ceranae in managed honey bee colonies has increased dramatically in the past 10 20 years worldwide. A variety of genetic testing methods for species identification and prevalence are now available. However sample size and preservation method of samples prior to testing hav...

299

Ant system: optimization by a colony of cooperating agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analogy with the way ant colonies function has suggested the definition of a new computational paradigm, which we call ant system (AS). We propose it as a viable new approach to stochastic combinatorial optimization. The main characteristics of this model are positive feedback, distributed computation, and the use of a constructive greedy heuristic. Positive feedback accounts for rapid discovery

Marco Dorigo; Vittorio Maniezzo; Alberto Colorni

1996-01-01

300

Environmental and Genetic Determinants of Colony Morphology in Yeast  

PubMed Central

Nutrient stresses trigger a variety of developmental switches in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. One of the least understood of such responses is the development of complex colony morphology, characterized by intricate, organized, and strain-specific patterns of colony growth and architecture. The genetic bases of this phenotype and the key environmental signals involved in its induction have heretofore remained poorly understood. By surveying multiple strain backgrounds and a large number of growth conditions, we show that limitation for fermentable carbon sources coupled with a rich nitrogen source is the primary trigger for the colony morphology response in budding yeast. Using knockout mutants and transposon-mediated mutagenesis, we demonstrate that two key signaling networks regulating this response are the filamentous growth MAP kinase cascade and the Ras-cAMP-PKA pathway. We further show synergistic epistasis between Rim15, a kinase involved in integration of nutrient signals, and other genes in these pathways. Ploidy, mating-type, and genotype-by-environment interactions also appear to play a role in the controlling colony morphology. Our study highlights the high degree of network reuse in this model eukaryote; yeast use the same core signaling pathways in multiple contexts to integrate information about environmental and physiological states and generate diverse developmental outputs. PMID:20107600

Granek, Joshua A.; Magwene, Paul M.

2010-01-01

301

Trophic Interactions in a High Arctic Snow Goose Colony  

Microsoft Academic Search

SYNOPSIS. We examined the role of trophic interactions in structuring a high arctic tundra community characterized by a large breeding colony of greater snow geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica). According to the exploitation ecosystem hypothesis of Oksanen et al. (1981), food chains are controlled by top-down interactions. However, because the arctic primary productivity is low, herbivore populations are too small to

GILLES GAUTHIER; J OEL BETY; J EAN-FRANCO ISGIROUX; LINE ROCHEFORT

2004-01-01

302

From savage to citizen: education, colonialism and idiocy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In constructing a framework for the participation and inclusion in political life of subjects, the Enlightenment also produced a series of systematic exclusions for those who did not qualify: including idiots and primitive races. Idiocy emerged as part of wider strategies of governance in Europe and its colonies. This opened up the possibility for pedagogy to become a key technology

Murray K. Simpson

2007-01-01

303

Space Colony from a Commercial Asteroid Mining Company Town  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial mining towns on Earth become cities. Company towns need commerce to drive the growth and economy of early space colonies. Water is an early resource for camp consumables plus propellant export sales from asteroid mining operations at proposed burned out comets with water methane ice cores for sustainable growth over 50 years, financed from profits and capable with affordable

Thomas C. Taylor; Werner Grandl; Martina Pinni; Haym Benaroya

2008-01-01

304

Mass Spectral Molecular Networking of Living Microbial Colonies  

SciTech Connect

Integrating the governing chemistry with the genomics and phenotypes of microbial colonies has been a "holy grail" in microbiology. This work describes a highly sensitive, broadly applicable, and costeffective approach that allows metabolic profiling of live microbial colonies directly from a Petri dish without any sample preparation. Nanospray desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (MS), combined with alignment of MS data and molecular networking, enabled monitoring of metabolite production from live microbial colonies from diverse bacterial genera, including Bacillus subtilis, Streptomyces coelicolor, Mycobacterium smegmatis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This work demonstrates that, by using these tools to visualize small molecular changes within bacterial interactions, insights can be gained into bacterial developmental processes as a result of the improved organization of MS/MS data. To validate this experimental platform, metabolic profiling was performed on Pseudomonas sp. SH-C52, which protects sugar beet plants from infections by specific soil-borne fungi [R. Mendes et al. (2011) Science 332:10971100]. The antifungal effect of strain SHC52 was attributed to thanamycin, a predicted lipopeptide encoded by a nonribosomal peptide synthetase gene cluster. Our technology, in combination with our recently developed peptidogenomics strategy, enabled the detection and partial characterization of thanamycin and showed that it is amonochlorinated lipopeptide that belongs to the syringomycin family of antifungal agents. In conclusion, the platform presented here provides a significant advancement in our ability to understand the spatiotemporal dynamics of metabolite production in live microbial colonies and communities.

Watrous, Jeramie D.; Roach, Patrick J.; Alexandrov, Theodore; Heath, Brandi S.; Yang, Jane Y.; Kersten, Roland; vander Voort, Menno; Pogliano, Kit; Gross, Harald; Raaijmakers, Jos M.; Moore, Bradley S.; Laskin, Julia; Bandeira, Nuno; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

2012-06-26

305

DISSECTING COLONY DEVELOPMENT OF NEUROSPORA CRASSA USING mRNA PROFILING AND COMPARTATIVE GENOMICS APPROACHES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Colony development, which includes hyphal extension, branching, anastomosis and asexual sporulation are fundamental aspects of the lifecycle of filamentous fungi; genetic mechanisms underlying these phenomena are poorly understood. We conducted transcriptional profiling during colony development of...

306

Comparative studies on the characteristics of proliferation and differentiation of spleen colony-forming cells  

SciTech Connect

Using a single spleen colony transplantation technique and sex chromosome typing as a natural cytogenetic marker, most spleen colony-forming cells (CFC) in adult bone marrow or fetal livers of inbred LACA or C57 mice re-established hemopoiesis in lethally irradiated mice when the spleen colonies were sampled at 13 days after transplantation. However, most of the spleen colony-forming cells in the peripheral blood of normal mice possess little potential for proliferation and are less efficient in the re-establishment of hemopoiesis in lethally irradiated mice. The CFC population is heterogeneous in the mice. From the subsequent retransplantation of colonies from colony-forming cells in the peripheral blood, the simple assessment of spleen colony-forming units (CFU-s) content, based on the number of splenic colonies, does not reliably represent the content of hemopoietic stem cells.

Wu, C.T.; Liu, M.P.; Chu, J.P.

1985-11-01

307

Breeding colonies of least terns (Sternula antillarum) in northern Sonora, Mexico, 2006-2008  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We document distribution of breeding least terns (Sternula antillarum) in northern Sonora, Mexico, 2006-2008. We report breeding activity at six sites with active colonies, including three previously undocumented colonies.

Rosemartin, Alyssa; van Riper, Charles, III

2012-01-01

308

Number of honeybee colonies in areas with high and low beekeeping activity in Southern Mexico  

E-print Network

of surrounding secondary forest. The number of colonies was determined by genotyping drones caught on drone congregation areas and assigning the drone genotypes to mother queens each heading a colony. We used three sets

Chittka, Lars

309

Hydrodynamic Synchronization and Metachronal Waves on the Surface of the Colonial Alga Volvox carteri  

E-print Network

Hydrodynamic Synchronization and Metachronal Waves on the Surface of the Colonial Alga Volvox of the colonial alga Volvox carteri, whose large size and ease of visualization make it an ideal model organism

Goldstein, Raymond E.

310

Varroa destructor Infestation in Untreated Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies Selected for Hygienic Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies bred for hygienic behavior were tested in a large field trial to determine if they were able to resist the parasitic mite Varroa destructor better than unselected colonies of \\

Marla Spivak; Gary S. Reuter

2001-01-01

311

POPULATION CHANGE AND NOSEMA SPORE LEVELS IN COLONIES STARTED WITH PACKAGE BEES  

E-print Network

POPULATION CHANGE AND NOSEMA SPORE LEVELS IN COLONIES STARTED WITH PACKAGE BEES T. LEHNERT H. SHIMANUKI Bioenvironmental Bee Laboratory, Federal Research Science and Education Administration, USDA, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 SUMMARY Ten colonies with yellow bees and black queens were established

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

312

Pictured Politics: Visualizing Colonial History in South American Civic Portrait Collections  

E-print Network

Pictured Politics: Visualizing Colonial History in South American Civic Portrait Collections Emily America. In viceregal South America, political changes inspired adjustments to pictorial convention, authority, and political relationships. My study of the material remains of colonial history suggests

Zhou, Yaoqi

313

The global distribution of ammonia emissions from seabird colonies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seabird colonies represent a significant source of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) in remote maritime systems, producing a source of nitrogen that may encourage plant growth, alter terrestrial plant community composition and affect the surrounding marine ecosystem. To investigate seabird NH3 emissions on a global scale, we developed a contemporary seabird database including a total seabird population of 261 million breeding pairs. We used this in conjunction with a bioenergetics model to estimate the mass of nitrogen excreted by all seabirds at each breeding colony. The results combined with the findings of mid-latitude field studies of volatilization rates estimate the global distribution of NH3 emissions from seabird colonies on an annual basis. The largest uncertainty in our emission estimate concerns the potential temperature dependence of NH3 emission. To investigate this we calculated and compared temperature independent emission estimates with a maximum feasible temperature dependent emission, based on the thermodynamic dissociation and solubility equilibria. Using the temperature independent approach, we estimate global NH3 emissions from seabird colonies at 404 Gg NH3 per year. By comparison, since most seabirds are located in relatively cold circumpolar locations, the thermodynamically dependent estimate is 136 Gg NH3 per year. Actual global emissions are expected to be within these bounds, as other factors, such as non-linear interactions with water availability and surface infiltration, moderate the theoretical temperature response. Combining sources of error from temperature (49%), seabird population estimates (36%), variation in diet composition (23%) and non-breeder attendance (13%), gives a mid estimate with an overall uncertainty range of NH3 emission from seabird colonies of 270 [97-442] Gg NH3 per year. These emissions are environmentally relevant as they primarily occur as "hot-spots" in otherwise pristine environments with low anthropogenic emissions.

Riddick, S. N.; Dragosits, U.; Blackall, T. D.; Daunt, F.; Wanless, S.; Sutton, M. A.

2012-08-01

314

FluG affects secretion in colonies of Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Colonies of Aspergillus niger are characterized by zonal heterogeneity in growth, sporulation, gene expression and secretion. For instance, the glucoamylase gene glaA is more highly expressed at the periphery of colonies when compared to the center. As a consequence, its encoded protein GlaA is mainly secreted at the outer part of the colony. Here, multiple copies of amyR were introduced in A. niger. Most transformants over-expressing this regulatory gene of amylolytic genes still displayed heterogeneous glaA expression and GlaA secretion. However, heterogeneity was abolished in transformant UU-A001.13 by expressing glaA and secreting GlaA throughout the mycelium. Sequencing the genome of UU-A001.13 revealed that transformation had been accompanied by deletion of part of the fluG gene and disrupting its 3' end by integration of a transformation vector. Inactivation of fluG in the wild-type background of A. niger also resulted in breakdown of starch under the whole colony. Asexual development of the ?fluG strain was not affected, unlike what was previously shown in Aspergillus nidulans. Genes encoding proteins with a signal sequence for secretion, including part of the amylolytic genes, were more often downregulated in the central zone of maltose-grown ?fluG colonies and upregulated in the intermediate part and periphery when compared to the wild-type. Together, these data indicate that FluG of A. niger is a repressor of secretion. PMID:25370014

Wang, Fengfeng; Krijgsheld, Pauline; Hulsman, Marc; de Bekker, Charissa; Mller, Wally H; Reinders, Marcel; de Vries, Ronald P; Wsten, Han A B

2015-01-01

315

Bait distribution among multiple colonies of Pharaoh ants (hymenoptera: Formicidae).  

PubMed

Pharaoh ant, Monomorium pharaonis (L.), infestations often consist of several colonies located at different nest sites. To achieve control, it is desirable to suppress or eliminate the populations of a majority of these colonies. We compared the trophallactic distribution and efficacy of two ant baits, with different modes of action, among groups of four colonies of Pharaoh ants. Baits contained either the metabolic-inhibiting active ingredient hydramethylnon or the insect growth regulator (IGR) pyriproxyfen. Within 3 wk, the hydramethylnon bait reduced worker and brood populations by at least 80%, and queen reductions ranged between 73 and 100%, when nests were in proximity (within 132 cm) to the bait source. However, these nest sites were reoccupied by ants from other colonies located further from the bait source. The pyriproxyfen bait was distributed more thoroughly to all nest locations with worker populations gradually declining by 73% at all nest sites after 8 wk. Average queen reductions ranged from 31 to 49% for all nest sites throughout the study. Even though some queens survived, brood reductions were rapid in the pyriproxyfen treatment, with reductions of 95% at all locations by week 3. Unlike the metabolic inhibitor, the IGR did not kill adult worker ants quickly, thus, more surviving worker ants were available to distribute the bait to all colonies located at different nest sites. Thus, from a single bait source, the slow-acting bait toxicant provided gradual, but long-term control, whereas the fast-acting bait toxicant provided rapid, localized control for a shorter duration. PMID:10985038

Oi, D H; Vail, K M; Williams, D F

2000-08-01

316

Ultrastructural morphology of three-dimensional colonies of cells derived from a hepatocellular carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultured hepatocellular carcinoma cells were studied during anchorage-independent growth in semi solid medium (Methocel). The regular occurrence of mitotic figures both at the surface and within the colonies precludes the possibility of such colonies being formed by re-aggregation. The estimated population doubling time in the three-dimensional (3-D) colonies is consistent with those two-dimensional of (2-D) colonies. Structures resembling bile canaliculi

T. D. Allen; P. T. Iype

1979-01-01

317

Absence of Within-Colony Kin Discrimination in Behavioural Interactions of Swarm-Founding Wasps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within-colony kin discrimination has not been demonstrated conclusively for any social insect, perhaps partly because highly polymorphic genetic markers necessary to assess within-colony relatednesses have only recently become available. We use microsatellite loci to investigate within-colony kin discrimination in behavioural interactions in the neotropical multiple-queen wasp, Parachartergus colobopterus. Within-colony kin discrimination would be particularly advantageous in this species since average

Joan E. Strassmann; Ceal J. Klingler; Elisabeth Arevalo; Francesca Zacchi; Amina Husain; Jessica Williams; Perttu Seppa; David C. Queller

1997-01-01

318

The role of queens in colonies of the swarm-founding wasp Parachartergus colobopterus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social insect queens reproduce while workers generally do not. Queens may also have other behavioural roles in the colony. In small, independent-founding colonies of social wasps, the dominant queen physically enforces her interests over those of the workers and serves as a pacemaker of the colony, stimulating workers to forage and engage in other tasks. By contrast, in large-colony, swarm-founding

Rebecca A. Herman; David C. Queller; Joan E. Strassmann

2000-01-01

319

Derivation of guidelines for uranium residual radioactive material in soil at the Colonie Site, Colonie, New York  

SciTech Connect

Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil were derived for the Colonie site located in Colonie, New York. This site has been designated for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The site became contaminated with radioactive material as a result of operations conducted by National Lead (NL) Industries from 1958 to 1984; these activities included brass foundry operations, electroplating of metal products, machining of various components using depleted uranium, and limited work with small amounts of enriched uranium and thorium. The Colonie site comprises the former NL Industries property, now designated the Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS), and 56 vicinity properties contaminated by fallout from airborne emissions; 53 of the vicinity properties were previously remediated between 1984 and 1988. In 1984, DOE accepted ownership of the CISS property from NL Industries. Residual radioactive material guidelines for individual radionuclides and total uranium were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the site should not exceed a dose of 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current use and likely future use scenarios or a dose of 100 mrem/yr for less likely future use scenarios. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation; RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines.

Dunning, D.

1996-05-01

320

Colonie Interim Storage Site annual environmental report for calendar year 1991, Colonie, New York  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the environmental monitoring program at the Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS) and surrounding area, implementation of the program, and monitoring results for 1991. Environmental monitoring at CISS began in 1984 when Congress added the site to the US Department of Energy's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. CISS property and surrounding areas were radioactively contaminated by operations conducted by National Lead Industries, which manufactured various components from uranium and thorium from 1958 to 1984. The environmental monitoring program at CISS includes sampling networks for external gamma radiation exposure and for radium-226, thorium-232, and total uranium concentrations in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Additionally, several nonradiological parameters are measured in groundwater. In 1992 the program will also include sampling networks for radioactive and chemical contaminants in stormwater to meet permit application requirements under the Clean Water Act. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other requirements in DOE.orders. Environmental standards are established to protect public health and the environment. Results of environmental monitoring during 1991 indicate that average concentrations of radioactive contaminants of concern were well below applicable standards and DCGS. Concentrations of some chemical contaminants in groundwater were above-the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (Class GA) and EPA guidelines for drinking water. The potential annual radiation exposure (excluding background) calculated for a hypothetical maximally exposed individual is 0.23 mrem (milliroentgen equivalent man), which is less than an individual would receive while traveling in an airplane at 12,000 meters (39,000 feet) for one hour.

Not Available

1992-09-01

321

Lethal protein produced in response to competition between sibling bacterial colonies  

E-print Network

-regulation of colony growth might not be limited to P. dendritiformis. bacterial competition bacterial growthLethal protein produced in response to competition between sibling bacterial colonies Avraham Be 24, 2009) Sibling Paenibacillus dendritiformis bacterial colonies grown on low-nutrient agar medium

Ariel, Gil

322

California gull chicks raised near colony edges have elevated stress levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coloniality in nesting birds represents an important life history strategy for maximizing reproductive success. Birds nesting near the edge of colonies tend to have lower reproductive success than individuals nesting near colony centers, and offspring of edge-nesting parents may be impaired relative to those of central-nesting parents. We used fecal corticosterone metabolites in California gull chicks (Larus californicus) to examine

Garth Herring; Joshua T. Ackerman

2011-01-01

323

Extraordinary starvation resistance in Temnothorax rugatulus (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) colonies: Demography and adaptive behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Ant colony mortality has not been sufficiently studied, even though it is crucial for understanding social insect population biology and can serve as an important model for general aging and mortality processes. Particularly, studies on proximate mechanisms on mortality and stress resistance of ant colonies are lacking. This study explores the long-term colony starvation resistance of the small myrmecine

O. Rueppell; R. W. Kirkman

2005-01-01

324

Reduced availability of refuse and breeding output in a herring gull (Larus argentatus) colony  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the reproductive performance of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) in an old stable colony in SW Finland. Over the period 1993-1997, the colony decreased, and the garbage dumps the birds may have utilised have all closed. This had an effect on the breeding performance of the colony when comparing the year prior to the closing of the last garbage

Mikael Kilpi; Markus st

325

Social foraging in honey bees: how nectar foragers assess their colony's nutritional status  

Microsoft Academic Search

A honey bee colony operates as a tightly integrated unit of behavioral action. One manifestation of this in the context of foraging is a colony's ability to adjust its selectivity among nectar sources in relation to its nutritional status. When a colony's food situation is good, it exploits only highly profitable patches of flowers, but when its situation is poor,

Thomas D. Seeley

1989-01-01

326

Original article Virus infections in Nordic honey bee colonies with no,  

E-print Network

Original article Virus infections in Nordic honey bee colonies with no, low or severe Varroa that the devastating effect of the parasitic mite Varroa jacobsoni in colonies of the European honey bee Apis mellifera is closely linked to virus infections [2]. At present, we know of no honey bee colonies in Europe where

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

327

Reforming the Curriculum in a Post-Colonial Society: The Case of Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current curriculum reform agenda in Hong Kong is enmeshed in the politics of a post-colonial society. Yet, there is not a single view of what post-coloniality means for Hong Kong's school curriculum. This article focuses on analyzing the curriculum reform agenda that has emerged in post-colonial Hong Kong. This agenda was not only

Kennedy, Kerry J.; Fok, Ping Kwan; Chan, Kin Sang Jacqueline

2006-01-01

328

Collective decision-making in honey bees: how colonies choose among nectar sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

A honey bee colony can skillfully choose among nectar sources. It will selectively exploit the most profitable source in an array and will rapidly shift its foraging efforts following changes in the array. How does this colony-level ability emerge from the behavior of individual bees? The answer lies in understanding how bees modulate their colony's rates of recruitment and abandonment

Thomas D. Seeley; Scott Camazine; James Sneyd

1991-01-01

329

Kinship and incompatibility between colonies of the acacia ant Pseudomyrmex ferruginea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of kinship on incompatibility between colonies of the acacia-ant Pseudomyrmex ferruginea was examined. Colonies were reared on a clone of Acacia hindsii in a standard environment. A slight but significant reduction in intercolony incompatibility was obtained within two inbred lineages, compared with the observed frequency of rejection for unrelated colonies. These results indicate that the relevant odor differences

Alex Mintzer; S. B. Vinson

1985-01-01

330

Heavy metal residues in prefledgling black-crowned night-herons from three Atlantic coast colonies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aquatic birds may serve as indicators of regional metal contamination. Because the food of prefledgling herons (Nycticorax nycticorax ) comes only from areas near the colony, their tissues should reflect local metal contamination. The authors' hypothesis was that prefledgling herons from the Rhode Island colony should have higher concentrations of metals than do those from either the North Carolina or Massachusetts colonies.

Custer, T.W.; Mulhern, B.L.

1983-01-01

331

Genetic variation in worker temporal polyethism and colony defensiveness in the honey bee, Apis mellifera  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the hypothesis that colonies of honey bees composed of workers with faster rates of adult behavioral development are more defensive than colonies composed of workers with slower behavioral development, we determined whether there is a correlation between genetic variation in worker temporal polyethism and colony defensiveness. There was a positive correlation for these two traits, both for European

Tugrul Giray; Ernesto Guzman-Novoa; Carol W. Aron; Benjamin Zelinsky; Susan E. Fahrbach; Gene E. Robinsona

2000-01-01

332

Assessment of pollen stores by foragers in colonies of the honey bee, Apis mellifera L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Colonies of social insects coordinate many activities in response to changing colony needs. One example is the maintenance of pollen stores in the nest by honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). To adjust pollen intake in an appropriate manner, individual foragers must assess the colony's need for pollen. This assessment could be done either directly, through physical contact with larvae

D. M. Vaughan; N. W. Calderone

2002-01-01

333

Qur'anic and "Ajami" Literacies in Pre-Colonial West Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional African literacy practices have often been ignored in the wake of European colonialism and the educational policies of colonial governments. Nonetheless, literacy had been established in parts of Africa following the introduction of Islam. This paper will examine the developments of literacy in pre-colonial West Africa. In this region,

Diallo, Ibrahima

2012-01-01

334

Socially induced Synchronization of every-other-day egg laying in a Seabird colony  

E-print Network

Socially induced Synchronization of every-other-day egg laying in a Seabird colony Resumen every-other-day clutch-initiation and egg-laying synchrony in a breeding colony of Glaucous-winged Gulls suggest a procedure for identifying synchronous egg laying in other colonies and species. Received 14

Cushing, Jim. M.

335

COLONY INSULARITY THROUGH QUEEN CONTROL ON WORKER SOCIAL MOTIVATION IN ANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We investigated the relative contribution of the queen and workers to colony nestmate recognition cues and on colony territoriality in the ant Camponotus fellah. Workers were either individually isolated, preventing contact with both queen and workers (Colony Deprived, CD), kept in queenless groups,...

336

THE POPULATION DYNAMICS OF VARROA MITES IN HONEY BEE COLONIES: PART 1 - THE VARROA POP PROGRAM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A mathematical model of population interactions between Varroa destructor and a honey bee colony is described. The program bases colony population growth on weather conditions, time of year, initial colony population size, queen fecundity, and worker longevity. Varroa population growth is predicte...

337

Population dynamics of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in commercial honey bee colonies and implications for control  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Treatment schedules to maintain low levels of Varroa mites in honey bee colonies were tested in hives started from either package bees or splits of larger colonies. The schedules were developed based on predictions of Varroa population growth generated from a mathematical model of honey bee colony ...

338

The effect of drone comb on a honey bee colony'sproduction of honey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the impact on a colony's honey production of providing it with a nat- ural amount (20%) of drone comb. Over 3 summers, for the period mid May to late August, I mea- sured the weight gains of 10 colonies, 5 with drone comb and 5 without it. Colonies with drone comb gained only 25.2 16.0 kg

Thomas D. Seeley

2002-01-01

339

Original article The effect of drone comb on a honey bee colony's  

E-print Network

Original article The effect of drone comb on a honey bee colony's production of honey* Thomas D on a colony's honey production of providing it with a nat- ural amount (20%) of drone comb. Over 3 summers, for the period mid May to late August, I mea- sured the weight gains of 10 colonies, 5 with drone comb and 5

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

340

An Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm for the Optimization of the Keyboard Arrangement  

E-print Network

An Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm for the Optimization of the Keyboard Arrangement Problem Jan account of ergonomic criteria is proposed. Based on the generic framework of Ant Colony Optimiza- tion computations, ant colony optimization, key- board arrangement 1 Introduction A computer user or typist

Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

341

The Ant Colony Paradigm for Reliable Systems Yun-Chia Liang  

E-print Network

The Ant Colony Paradigm for Reliable Systems Design Yun-Chia Liang Department of Industrial- rial optimization, the ant colony. The ant colony algorithm is a multiple solution global optimizer annealing, it is in- spired by observation of natural systems, in this case, the behavior of ants

Smith, Alice E.

342

Dominance and Queen Succession in Captive Colonies of the Eusocial Naked Mole-Rat, Heterocephalus glaber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naked mole-rat colonies exhibit a high reproductive skew, breeding being typically restricted to one female (the 'queen') and one to three males. Other colony members are reproductively suppressed, although this suppression can be reversed following the removal or death of the queen. We examined dominance and queen succession within captive colonies to investigate the relationship between urinary testosterone and cortisol,

F. M. Clarke; C. G. Faulkes

1997-01-01

343

Variation in patriline reproductive success during queen production in orphaned colonies of the thelytokous ant  

E-print Network

Variation in patriline reproductive success during queen production in orphaned colonies and highly polyandrous ant Cataglyphis cursor. Workers produce new queens by thelytoky in orphaned colonies. The reproductive success of each patriline was assessed in 13 orphaned colonies using genetic analysis of 433

Federici, Pierre

344

Colony Hybridization: A Method for the Isolation of Cloned DNAs that Contain a Specific Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method has been developed whereby a very large number of colonies of Escherichia coli carrying different hybrid plasmids can be rapidly screened to determine which hybrid plasmids contain a specified DNA sequence or genes. The colonies to be screened are formed on nitrocellulose filters, and, after a reference set of these colonies has been prepared by replica plating, are

Michael Grunstein; David S. Hogness

1975-01-01

345

Political Life in Eighteenth-Century Virginia. Essays from Colonial Williamsburg. The Foundations of America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book explores the history of the Virginia colony from the early 18th century to the time of the signing of the Declaration of Independence. Virginia, the oldest and most prosperous of Great Britain's North American colonies, assumed a leading role in the political life of the colonies. Some in 17th century Virginia had seen political

Greene, Jack P.

346

Creating Germans Abroad: White Education and the Colonial Condition in German Southwest Africa, 1894-1914  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From the perspective of German colonial supporters and authorities, appropriate white education in the settler colony of Southwest Africa (SWA) was essential for maintaining German hegemony in the territory. In order to reach this objective, the German colonial administration in SWA, with assistance from pedagogues and institutions in Germany,

Walther, Daniel Joseph

2013-01-01

347

Metapopulation consequences of site fidelity for colonially breeding mammals and birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Many far-ranging bird and mammal species aggregate in colonies to breed, and most individuals remain faithful to one colony. Here, we use modelling to explore the con- sequences of this site fidelity for the metapopulation dynamics of such species. 2. We develop a spatially explicit model of the annual transfer process between colonies. We apply it to different

JASON MATTHIOPOULOS; JOHN HARWOOD; LEN THOMAS

2005-01-01

348

Flight activity of 4-lb Australian package bee colonies used for almond pollination.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increasing acreage of almonds in California has increased the demand for honey bee colonies for pollination. Since 2005, domestic U.S. colonies have been supplemented with colonies started from package bees imported from Australia. The need for almond pollination in late winter in California fits we...

349

Assessment of Chronic Sublethal Effects of Imidacloprid on Honey Bee Colony Health  

PubMed Central

Here we present results of a three-year study to determine the fate of imidacloprid residues in hive matrices and to assess chronic sublethal effects on whole honey bee colonies fed supplemental pollen diet containing imidacloprid at 5, 20 and 100 ?g/kg over multiple brood cycles. Various endpoints of colony performance and foraging behavior were measured during and after exposure, including winter survival. Imidacloprid residues became diluted or non-detectable within colonies due to the processing of beebread and honey and the rapid metabolism of the chemical. Imidacloprid exposure doses up to 100 ?g/kg had no significant effects on foraging activity or other colony performance indicators during and shortly after exposure. Diseases and pest species did not affect colony health but infestations of Varroa mites were significantly higher in exposed colonies. Honey stores indicated that exposed colonies may have avoided the contaminated food. Imidacloprid dose effects was delayed later in the summer, when colonies exposed to 20 and 100 ?g/kg experienced higher rates of queen failure and broodless periods, which led to weaker colonies going into the winter. Pooled over two years, winter survival of colonies averaged 85.7, 72.4, 61.2 and 59.2% in the control, 5, 20 and 100 ?g/kg treatment groups, respectively. Analysis of colony survival data showed a significant dose effect, and all contrast tests comparing survival between control and treatment groups were significant, except for colonies exposed to 5 ?g/kg. Given the weight of evidence, chronic exposure to imidacloprid at the higher range of field doses (20 to 100 ?g/kg) in pollen of certain treated crops could cause negative impacts on honey bee colony health and reduced overwintering success, but the most likely encountered high range of field doses relevant for seed-treated crops (5 ?g/kg) had negligible effects on colony health and are unlikely a sole cause of colony declines. PMID:25786127

Dively, Galen P.; Embrey, Michael S.; Kamel, Alaa; Hawthorne, David J.; Pettis, Jeffery S.

2015-01-01

350

Assessment of chronic sublethal effects of imidacloprid on honey bee colony health.  

PubMed

Here we present results of a three-year study to determine the fate of imidacloprid residues in hive matrices and to assess chronic sublethal effects on whole honey bee colonies fed supplemental pollen diet containing imidacloprid at 5, 20 and 100 ?g/kg over multiple brood cycles. Various endpoints of colony performance and foraging behavior were measured during and after exposure, including winter survival. Imidacloprid residues became diluted or non-detectable within colonies due to the processing of beebread and honey and the rapid metabolism of the chemical. Imidacloprid exposure doses up to 100 ?g/kg had no significant effects on foraging activity or other colony performance indicators during and shortly after exposure. Diseases and pest species did not affect colony health but infestations of Varroa mites were significantly higher in exposed colonies. Honey stores indicated that exposed colonies may have avoided the contaminated food. Imidacloprid dose effects was delayed later in the summer, when colonies exposed to 20 and 100 ?g/kg experienced higher rates of queen failure and broodless periods, which led to weaker colonies going into the winter. Pooled over two years, winter survival of colonies averaged 85.7, 72.4, 61.2 and 59.2% in the control, 5, 20 and 100 ?g/kg treatment groups, respectively. Analysis of colony survival data showed a significant dose effect, and all contrast tests comparing survival between control and treatment groups were significant, except for colonies exposed to 5 ?g/kg. Given the weight of evidence, chronic exposure to imidacloprid at the higher range of field doses (20 to 100 ?g/kg) in pollen of certain treated crops could cause negative impacts on honey bee colony health and reduced overwintering success, but the most likely encountered high range of field doses relevant for seed-treated crops (5 ?g/kg) had negligible effects on colony health and are unlikely a sole cause of colony declines. PMID:25786127

Dively, Galen P; Embrey, Michael S; Kamel, Alaa; Hawthorne, David J; Pettis, Jeffery S

2015-01-01

351

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor mutations in myeloid malignancy.  

PubMed

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor is a cytokine able to stimulate both myelopoiesis and hematopoietic stem cell mobilization, which has seen it used extensively in the clinic to aid hematopoietic recovery. It acts specifically via the homodimeric granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor (G-CSFR), which is principally expressed on the surface of myeloid and hematopoietic progenitor cells. A number of pathogenic mutations have now been identified in CSF3R, the gene encoding G-CSFR. These fall into distinct classes, each of which is associated with a particular spectrum of myeloid disorders, including malignancy. This review details the various CSF3R mutations, their mechanisms of action, and contribution to disease, as well as discussing the clinical implications of such mutations. PMID:24822171

Liongue, Clifford; Ward, Alister Curtis

2014-01-01

352

Improved Clonal Selection Algorithm Combined with Ant Colony Optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both the clonal selection algorithm (CSA) and the ant colony optimization (ACO) are inspired by natural phenomena and are effective tools for solving complex problems. CSA can exploit and explore the solution space parallely and effectively. However, it can not use enough environment feedback information and thus has to do a large redundancy repeat during search. On the other hand, ACO is based on the concept of indirect cooperative foraging process via secreting pheromones. Its positive feedback ability is nice but its convergence speed is slow because of the little initial pheromones. In this paper, we propose a pheromone-linker to combine these two algorithms. The proposed hybrid clonal selection and ant colony optimization (CSA-ACO) reasonably utilizes the superiorities of both algorithms and also overcomes their inherent disadvantages. Simulation results based on the traveling salesman problems have demonstrated the merit of the proposed algorithm over some traditional techniques.

Gao, Shangce; Wang, Wei; Dai, Hongwei; Li, Fangjia; Tang, Zheng

353

Feeding flights of nesting wading birds at a Virginia colony  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Feeding flights of Snowy Egrets (Egretta thula), Tricolored Herons (E. tricolor), Little Blue Herons (E. caerulea), and Cattle Egrets (Bubulcus ibis) were monitored at a small nesting colony near Chincoteague, Virginia during late May and June 1979. All four species varied their flight directions over a series of days. Cattle Egrets oriented in a different direction (toward uplands) from the other three wetland-feeding species, which oriented toward Spartina marsh areas. None of the species showed a tendency to form groups while departing from or arriving at the colony. Tide level had little influence on flight directions used. Comparisons are made between these results and those from a similar study in coastal North Carolina.

Erwin, R.M.

1984-01-01

354

A Hybrid Ant Colony Algorithm for Loading Pattern Optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electricit de France (EDF) operates 58 nuclear power plant (NPP), of the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) type. The loading pattern (LP) optimization of these NPP is currently done by EDF expert engineers. Within this framework, EDF R&D has developed automatic optimization tools that assist the experts. The latter can resort, for instance, to a loading pattern optimization software based on ant colony algorithm. This paper presents an analysis of the search space of a few realistic loading pattern optimization problems. This analysis leads us to introduce a hybrid algorithm based on ant colony and a local search method. We then show that this new algorithm is able to generate loading patterns of good quality.

Hoareau, F.

2014-06-01

355

Random mitotic activities across human embryonic stem cell colonies.  

SciTech Connect

A systemic and quantitative study was performed to examine whether different levels of mitotic activities, assessed by the percentage of S-phase cells at any given time point, existed at different physical regions of human embryonic stem (hES) cell colonies at 2, 4, 6 days after cell passaging. Mitotically active cells were identified by the positive incorporation of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) within their newly synthesized DNA. Our data indicated that mitotically active cells were often distributed as clusters randomly across the colonies within the examined growth period, presumably resulting from local deposition of newly divided cells. This latter notion was further demonstrated by the confined growth of enhanced green florescence protein (EGFP) expressing cells amongst non-GFP expressing cells. Furthermore, the overall percentage of mitotically active cells remained constantly at about 50% throughout the 6-day culture period, indicating mitotic activities of hES cell cultures were time-independent under current growth conditions.

Jin, Q.; Duggan, R.; Dasa, S.; Li, F.; Chen, L. (Biosciences Division)

2010-08-01

356

Transatlantic abundance of the N2-fixing colonial cyanobacterium Trichodesmium.  

PubMed

Colonial diazotrophic cyanobacteria of the genus Trichodesmium are thought to play a significant role in the input of new nitrogen to upper layers of the tropical and subtropical oceanic ecosystems that cover nearly half of Earth's surface. Here we describe results of a transatlantic survey in which a noninvasive underwater digital microscope (the video plankton recorder), was towed across the North Atlantic at 6 meters per second while undulating between the surface and 130 meters. Colony abundance had a basin-scale trend, a clear association with anticyclonic eddies, and was not affected by hurricane-forced mixing. Subsurface abundance was higher than previously reported, which has important implications for the global ocean nitrogen cycle. PMID:16763148

Davis, Cabell S; McGillicuddy, Dennis J

2006-06-01

357

Experimentally induced helper dispersal in colonially breeding cooperative cichlids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The benefits of philopatry hypothesis states that helpers in cooperatively breeding species derive higher benefits from\\u000a remaining home, instead of dispersing and attempting to breed independently. We tested experimentally whether dispersal options\\u000a influence dispersal propensity in the cooperatively breeding Lake Tanganyika cichlids Neolamprologus pulcher and N. savoryi. Cooperative groups of these fishes breed in densely packed colonies, surrounded by unoccupied,

D. Heg; Z. Heg-Bachar; L. Brouwer; M. Taborsky

2008-01-01

358

Ant Colony Optimization and the Minimum Spanning Tree Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is a kind of metaheuristic that has become very popular for solving problems from combinatorial\\u000a optimization. Solutions for a given problem are constructed by a random walk on a so-called construction graph. This random\\u000a walk can be influenced by heuristic information about the problem. In contrast to many successful applications, the theoretical\\u000a foundation of this kind

Frank Neumann; Carsten Witt

2007-01-01

359

Generation of a Specific-PathogenFree Baboon Colony  

PubMed Central

We undertook establishing an SPF baboon colony in response to requests from researchers. To enable the widest possible future use of SPF baboons, our aim was to develop an SPF colony of baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis) free of 12 target viruses: 5 herpesviruses, 4 retroviruses, simian virus 40, measles, and monkeypox. Infant baboons were removed from their mothers within 24 h of birth and nursery-reared. Groups of 3 to 8 age-matched conspecifics were isolated in separate rooms for 1 y while undergoing repeated testing for target viruses. During the initial 7 y of the SPF program, 171 infants were enrolled, of which 76 (44.4%) subsequently were removed from the program. Of those removed, 54 (71.0%) were culled due to breaks in virus-free status, 12 (15.8%) died of various causes, 4 (5.3%) developed seizures, and 6 (7.9%) were removed for other reasons. The most problematic viruses were baboon cytomegalovirus (25.9% of culls), Herpesvirus papio 1 (51.9%), and simian foamy virus (7.4%). Using conspecific groups of 3 to 4 infants reduced first-year program losses as compared with groups of 6 to 8. There have been 17 births in the SPF colony, and all these infants have been free of all target viruses since birth. On the basis of these results, early removal of infants from their dams, housing in small peer groups, frequent virus testing, and aggressive culling of virus-positive animals is an effective approach for development of a baboon colony free of multiple viruses. PMID:21205446

Wolf, Roman F; Eberle, Richard; White, Gary L

2010-01-01

360

Space Colony from a Commercial Asteroid Mining Company Town  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commercial mining towns on Earth become cities. Company towns need commerce to drive the growth and economy of early space colonies. Water is an early resource for camp consumables plus propellant export sales from asteroid mining operations at proposed burned out comets with water methane ice cores for sustainable growth over 50 years, financed from profits and capable with affordable logistics to support resource recovery. One co-author's perspective includes remote resource recovery sites on Earth. Other co-authors' experiences include architecture, lunar habitation, and architectural space colony concepts. This paper combines these experiences to propose commercial opportunities possible as mankind moves beyond one planet. Alaska's North Slope commercial history indicates that different multiple logistics transportation systems are required to reduce the risk to humans and families moved in before the oil flowed. Commercial enterprises have risked $20 billion and spent hundreds of billions in private money after profits were created. The lessons learned are applied to a burned out comet designated Wilson-Harrington (1979) and explores the architecture for early living within the burned out comet disk created from ice recovery and later sealed with an expected methane ice interior. Considered is the recovery of the resources, the transport of water back to Earth orbit or L-1, plus later the development of more comfortable space colony living. Commercial markets produce cities on Earth and the same can happen on Space Colonies. The key is an ``in place'' affordable commercial logistics system that can service, stimulate and sustain a 50-year commercial propellant market.

Taylor, Thomas C.; Grandl, Werner; Pinni, Martina; Benaroya, Haym

2008-01-01

361

Disease control during the colonial period in Australia.  

PubMed

The first permanent European settlers of Australia arrived in 1788 to establish a penal colony at Sydney, New South Wales (NSW). As the colony grew and wool production increased, more free settlers and emancipists developed farming in inland Australia. During the 1840s veterinarians commenced arriving in small numbers but they were not closely associated with the development and execution of disease control programs, which was left to lay inspectors of stock. The arrival of William Tyson Kendall and coordinated action with Graham Mitchell led to the establishment of a private veterinary college following the passage of veterinary surgeons legislation in Victoria. From this time, veterinarians came to be appointed to positions formerly occupied by lay inspectors and the veterinary profession was able to take up the role of planning and executing government-led disease control programs. From a colony relying on wool for export to the UK, technical advancements in meat freezing and pasture improvement widened the range and increased the quantity of exported products. Before the advent of veterinary advances, sheep scab was eradicated, a vaccine was developed for anthrax and glanders infection of horses was prevented entry to Australia. Graduates from the Melbourne Veterinary College spread across Australia and in this period a conservative quarantine policy was developed following inaction to control an outbreak of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) and the escape of rabbits to form a plague across the continent. Coordinated control of CBPP had to await the next century and advancement of technology increased our understanding of bacteriology and immunity of infectious diseases. Veterinary services were provided to the militia sent by the colonies to the Boer Wars in South Africa 1987-1901 and the veterinarians from Victoria were led by an Australian trained veterinarian. PMID:21696369

Turner, A J

2011-07-01

362

Protein structure optimization with a "Lamarckian" ant colony algorithm.  

PubMed

We describe the LamarckiAnt algorithm: a search algorithm that combines the features of a "Lamarckian" genetic algorithm and ant colony optimization. We have implemented this algorithm for the optimization of BLN model proteins, which have frustrated energy landscapes and represent a challenge for global optimization algorithms. We demonstrate that LamarckiAnt performs competitively with other state-of-the-art optimization algorithms. PMID:24407312

Oakley, Mark T; Richardson, E Grace; Carr, Harriet; Johnston, Roy L

2013-01-01

363

Improved ant colony algorithm and its simulation study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ant colony algorithm is development a new heuristic algorithm through simulation ant foraging. For its convergence rate slow, easy to fall into local optimal solution proposed for the adjustment of key parameters, pheromone update to improve the way and through the issue of TSP experiments, results showed that the improved algorithm has better overall search capabilities and demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of this method.

Wang, Zongjiang

2013-03-01

364

Parallel Approaches for the Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This work investigates the parallelization of the Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm. Besides a sequential version enhanced with\\u000a local search, we compare three parallel models: master-slave, multi-hive with migrations, and hybrid hierarchical. Extensive\\u000a experiments were done using three numerical benchmark functions with a high number of variables. Statistical results indicate\\u000a that intensive local search improves the quality of solutions found and,

Rafael Stubs Parpinelli; Csar Manuel Vargas Benitez; Heitor Silvrio Lopes

365

Interadult feeding of jelly in honeybee ( Apis mellifera L.) colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Honeybee nurses (8 days old) were injected with 14C-phenylalanine. These bees then dispensed the 14C-labelled protein-rich products of their hypopharyngeal glands to the queen and the brood, and also to young drones and workers of all age classes. In small colonies containing 400800 bees, nearly one-quarter of the radioactivity which could not be recovered in the nurses was fed by

Karl Crailsheim

1991-01-01

366

Colony mapping: A new technique for monitoring crevice-nesting seabirds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Monitoring populations of auklets and other crevice-nesting seabirds remains problematic, although numerous methods have been attempted since the mid-1960s. Anecdotal evidence suggests several large auklet colonies have recently decreased in both abundance and extent, concurrently with vegetation encroachment and succession. Quantifying changes in the geographical extent of auklet colonies may be a useful alternative to monitoring population size directly. We propose a standardized method for colony mapping using a randomized systematic grid survey with two components: a simple presence/absence survey and an auklet evidence density survey. A quantitative auklet evidence density index was derived from the frequency of droppings and feathers. This new method was used to map the colony on St. George Island in the southeastern Bering Sea and results were compared to previous colony mapping efforts. Auklet presence was detected in 62 of 201 grid cells (each grid cell = 2500 m2) by sampling a randomly placed 16 m2 plot in each cell; estimated colony area = 155 000 m2. The auklet evidence density index varied by two orders of magnitude across the colony and was strongly correlated with means of replicated counts of birds socializing on the colony surface. Quantitatively mapping all large auklet colonies is logistically feasible using this method and would provide an important baseline for monitoring colony status. Regularly monitoring select colonies using this method may be the best means of detecting changes in distribution and population size of crevice-nesting seabirds. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2006.

Renner, H.M.; Renner, M.; Reynolds, J.H.; Harping, A.M.A.; Jones, I.L.; Irons, D.B.; Byrd, G.V.

2006-01-01

367

A critical number of workers in a honeybee colony triggers investment in reproduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social insect colonies, like individual organisms, must decide as they develop how to allocate optimally their resources among survival, growth, and reproduction. Only when colonies reach a certain state do they switch from investing purely in survival and growth to investing also in reproduction. But how do worker bees within a colony detect that their colony has reached the state where it is adaptive to begin investing in reproduction? Previous work has shown that larger honeybee colonies invest more in reproduction (i.e., the production of drones and queens), however, the term `larger' encompasses multiple colony parameters including number of adult workers, size of the nest, amount of brood, and size of the honey stores. These colony parameters were independently increased in this study to test which one(s) would increase a colony's investment in reproduction via males. This was assayed by measuring the construction of drone comb, the special type of comb in which drones are reared. Only an increase in the number of workers stimulated construction of drone comb. Colonies with over 4,000 workers began building drone comb, independent of the other colony parameters. These results show that attaining a critical number of workers is the key parameter for honeybee colonies to start to shift resources towards reproduction. These findings are relevant to other social systems in which a group's members must adjust their behavior as a function of the group's size.

Smith, Michael L.; Ostwald, Madeleine M.; Loftus, J. Carter; Seeley, Thomas D.

2014-10-01

368

A critical number of workers in a honeybee colony triggers investment in reproduction.  

PubMed

Social insect colonies, like individualorganisms, must decide as they develop how to allocate optimally their resources among survival, growth, and reproduction. Only when colonies reach a certain state do they switch from investing purely in survival and growth to investing also in reproduction. But how do worker bees within a colony detect that their colony has reached the state where it is adaptive to begin investing in reproduction? Previous work has shown that larger honeybee colonies invest more in reproduction (i.e., the production of drones and queens), however, the term 'larger' encompasses multiple colony parameters including number of adult workers, size of the nest, amount of brood, and size of the honey stores. These colony parameters were independently increased in this study to test which one(s) would increase a colony's investment in reproduction via males. This was assayed by measuring the construction of drone comb, the special type of comb in which drones are reared. Only an increase in the number of workers stimulated construction of drone comb. Colonies with over 4,000 workers began building drone comb, independent of the other colony parameters. These results show that attaining a critical number of workers is the key parameter for honeybee colonies to start to shift resources towards reproduction. These findings are relevant to other social systems in which a group's members must adjust their behavior as a function of the group's size. PMID:25142633

Smith, Michael L; Ostwald, Madeleine M; Loftus, J Carter; Seeley, Thomas D

2014-10-01

369

FMRF-amide immunoreactivity pattern in the planula and colony of the hydroid Gonothyraea loveni.  

PubMed

Gonothyraea loveni (Allman, 1859) is a colonial thecate hydrozoan with a life cycle that lacks a free-swimming medusa stage. The development from zygote to planula occurs within meconidia attached to the female colony. The planula metamorphosis results in the formation of a primary hydranth. The colony then grows by development of new colony elements. In the present work, we studied the temporal pattern of the formation of FMRF-amide-positive cells during embryogenesis, in larvae and during early colony ontogeny. FMRF-amide-positive cells appear in the planula only after its maturation. However, they disappear after planula settlement. For the first time, we show that neural cells are present in the coenosarc of the hydroid colony. We also trace the process of neural net formation during the development of a new shoot internode of the G. loveni colony. PMID:23218960

Mayorova, Tatiana; Kosevich, Igor

2013-02-01

370

Rationality in collective decision-making by ant colonies  

PubMed Central

Economic models of animal behaviour assume that decision-makers are rational, meaning that they assess options according to intrinsic fitness value and not by comparison with available alternatives. This expectation is frequently violated, but the significance of irrational behaviour remains controversial. One possibility is that irrationality arises from cognitive constraints that necessitate short cuts like comparative evaluation. If so, the study of whether and when irrationality occurs can illuminate cognitive mechanisms. We applied this logic in a novel setting: the collective decisions of insect societies. We tested for irrationality in colonies of Temnothorax ants choosing between two nest sites that varied in multiple attributes, such that neither site was clearly superior. In similar situations, individual animals show irrational changes in preference when a third relatively unattractive option is introduced. In contrast, we found no such effect in colonies. We suggest that immunity to irrationality in this case may result from the ants decentralized decision mechanism. A colony's choice does not depend on site comparison by individuals, but instead self-organizes from the interactions of multiple ants, most of which are aware of only a single site. This strategy may filter out comparative effects, preventing systematic errors that would otherwise arise from the cognitive limitations of individuals. PMID:19625319

Edwards, Susan C.; Pratt, Stephen C.

2009-01-01

371

Sexual and asexual reproduction in the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri.  

PubMed

The colonial tunicate Botryllus schlosseri is a widespread filter-feeding ascidian that lives in shallow waters and is easily reared in aquaria. Its peculiar blastogenetic cycle, characterized by the presence of three blastogenetic generations (filtering adults, buds, and budlets) and by recurrent generation changes, has resulted in over 60 years of studies aimed at understanding how sexual and asexual reproduction are coordinated and regulated in the colony. The possibility of using different methodological approaches, from classical genetics to cell transplantation, contributed to the development of this species as a valuable model organism for the study of a variety of biological processes. Here, we review the main studies detailing rearing, staging methods, reproduction and colony growth of this species, emphasizing the asymmetry in sexual and asexual reproduction potential, sexual reproduction in the field and the laboratory, and self- and cross-fertilization. These data, opportunely matched with recent tanscriptomic and genomic outcomes, can give a valuable help to the elucidation of some important steps in chordate evolution. PMID:25044771

Gasparini, Fabio; Manni, Lucia; Cima, Francesca; Zaniolo, Giovanna; Burighel, Paolo; Caicci, Federico; Franchi, Nicola; Schiavon, Filippo; Rigon, Francesca; Campagna, Davide; Ballarin, Loriano

2015-01-01

372

Communication and spatial relationships in a colony of common grackles.  

PubMed

Most communication among common grackles Quiscalus quiscula occurs at distances of less than a few metres in the noisy environment of a breeding colony. This report examines both the adaptations of communication to these conditions and the effects of communication in regulating individual's spatial relationships. For each of six vocalizations and five action patterns studied in one colony, I consider variation in the form of the display, the circumstances associated with its use, and the responses it elicits. Each individual, male or female, has one characteristic, stereotyped song pattern that would facilitate individual recognition between mates. Variation in the components of vocalizations and action patterns is of two kinds: unidimensional, with either covarying or nested components, or multidimensional, with independently varying components, alternatives that have different implications for communication. The wide-spectrum sounds made by common grackles offer advantages in close-range communication in colonies, because the ease of locating such signals would minimize the cocktail-party effect, although they would have disadvantages in long-range communication. Most vocalizations of common grackles lack assocations with specific responses or external contexts, a situation that should often characterize short-range communication between acquainted individuals. The responses to vocalizations vary with context, especially the initial spatial relationships and identities of the interactors. PMID:962193

Wiley, R H

1976-08-01

373

Towards a colony counting system using hyperspectral imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colony counting is a procedure used in microbiology laboratories for food quality monitoring, environmental management, etc. Its purpose is to detect the level of contamination due to the presence and growth of bacteria, yeasts and molds in a given product. Current automated counters require a tedious training and setup procedure per product and bacteria type and do not cope well with diversity. This contrasts with the setting at microbiology laboratories, where a wide variety of food and bacteria types have to be screened on a daily basis. To overcome the limitations of current systems, we propose the use of hyperspectral imaging technology and examine the spectral variations induced by factors such as illumination, bacteria type, food source and age and type of the agar. To this end, we perform experiments making use of two alternative hyperspectral processing pipelines and compare our classification results to those yielded by color imagery. Our results show that colony counting may be automated through the automatic recovery of the illuminant power spectrum and reflectance. This is consistent with the notion that the recovery of the illuminant should minimize the variations in the spectra due to reflections, shadows and other photometric artifacts. We also illustrate how, with the reflectance at hand, the colonies can be counted making use of classical segmentation and classification algorithms.

Masschelein, B.; Robles-Kelly, A.; Blanch, C.; Tack, N.; Simpson-Young, B.; Lambrechts, A.

2012-03-01

374

A Burkholderia pseudomallei Colony Variant Necessary for Gastric Colonization  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT? Diverse colony morphologies are a hallmark of Burkholderia pseudomallei recovered from infected patients. We observed that stresses that inhibit aerobic respiration shifted populations of B.pseudomallei from the canonical white colony morphotype toward two distinct, reversible, yet relatively stable yellow colony variants (YA and YB). As accumulating evidence supports the importance of B.pseudomallei enteric infection and gastric colonization, we tested the response of yellow variants to hypoxia, acidity, and stomach colonization. Yellow variants exhibited a competitive advantage under hypoxic and acidic conditions and alkalized culture media. The YB variant, although highly attenuated in acute virulence, was the only form capable of colonization and persistence in the murine stomach. The accumulation of extracellular DNA (eDNA) was a characteristic of YB as observed by 4?,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining of gastric tissues, as well as in an in vitro stomach model where large amounts of eDNA were produced without cell lysis. Transposon mutagenesis identified a transcriptional regulator (BPSL1887, designated YelR) that when overexpressed produced the yellow phenotype. Deletion of yelR blocked a shift from white to the yellow forms. These data demonstrate that YB is a unique B.pseudomallei pathovariant controlled by YelR that is specifically adapted to the harsh gastric environment and necessary for persistent stomach colonization. PMID:25650400

Austin, C. R.; Goodyear, A. W.; Bartek, I. L.; Stewart, A.; Sutherland, M. D.; Silva, E. B.; Zweifel, A.; Vitko, N. P.; Tuanyok, A.; Highnam, G.; Mittelman, D.; Keim, P.; Schweizer, H. P.; Vzquez-Torres, A.; Dow, S. W. C.

2015-01-01

375

Radial and Spiral Stream Formation in Proteus mirabilis Colonies  

PubMed Central

The enteric bacterium Proteus mirabilis, which is a pathogen that forms biofilms in vivo, can swarm over hard surfaces and form a variety of spatial patterns in colonies. Colony formation involves two distinct cell types: swarmer cells that dominate near the surface and the leading edge, and swimmer cells that prefer a less viscous medium, but the mechanisms underlying pattern formation are not understood. New experimental investigations reported here show that swimmer cells in the center of the colony stream inward toward the inoculation site and in the process form many complex patterns, including radial and spiral streams, in addition to previously-reported concentric rings. These new observations suggest that swimmers are motile and that indirect interactions between them are essential in the pattern formation. To explain these observations we develop a hybrid model comprising cell-based and continuum components that incorporates a chemotactic response of swimmers to a chemical they produce. The model predicts that formation of radial streams can be explained as the modulation of the local attractant concentration by the cells, and that the chirality of the spiral streams results from a swimming bias of the cells near the surface of the substrate. The spatial patterns generated from the model are in qualitative agreement with the experimental observations. PMID:22219724

Xue, Chuan; Budrene, Elena O.; Othmer, Hans G.

2011-01-01

376

A mixed colony of Scaptotrigona depilis and Nannotrigona testaceicornis (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponina).  

PubMed

We describe a case of a spontaneously established mixed colony of two species of stingless bees. The host colony of Scaptotrigona depilis, an aggressive bee that forms large colonies, was invaded by workers of Nannotrigona testaceicornis, a smaller bee that forms small colonies. The host colony and the invading species colony were maintained in next boxes about 1.5 m apart. The N. testaceicornis colony had been recently divided. Observations were made daily for 10 min, and every two weeks the colony was opened for observations within the nest. Initially the host colony bees repulsed the invading species, but as their numbers built up, they were no longer able to defend the entrance. An estimated 60-90 N. testaceicornis workers lived integrated into the colony of S. depilis for 58 days. During this period, they reconstructed and maintained the entrance tube, changing it to an entrance typical of N. testaceicornis. They also collected food and building material for the host colony. Nannotrigona testaceicornis tolerated transit of S. depilis through the entrance, but did not allow the host species to remain within the tube, though the attacks never resulted in bee mortality. Aggression was limited to biting the wings; when the bees fell to the ground they immediately separated and flew back. There have been very few reports of spontaneously occurring mixed stingless bee colonies. It is difficult to determine what caused the association that we found; probably workers of N. testaceicornis got lost when we split their colony, and then they invaded the colony of S. depilis. PMID:19551639

Menezes, C; Hrncir, M; Kerr, W E

2009-01-01

377

Effects of coral colony morphologies on mass transfer and susceptibility to thermal stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study tested the hypothesis that corals of the same species, but of varying size and shape, may respond differently to thermal stress because of different mass transfer capacities. High mass transfer rates are an advantage under thermal stress, and mass transfer rates are assumed to scale with size. Yet large, corymbose Acropora colonies are more vulnerable to thermal stress than small corymbose Acropora colonies. We took a two-tiered approach to examine the differences in the susceptibility of different coral morphologies to thermal stress. Firstly, the response of several coral species of different sizes and shapes were measured in the field through a thermal stress event. Secondly, diffusion experiments were conducted using gypsum-coral models of different morphologies to estimate mass transfer rates, to test whether dissolution rates differed in accordance with colony morphology and colony size. Coral colonies with a high height to diameter ratio were subjected to more partial mortality than flat colonies. These results agree with mass transfer theory. The diffusion experiments showed that in a low-flow environment, small encrusting colonies had higher rates of dissolution than large flat or small branched colonies. These results, however, disagree with mass transfer theory. We show that the volume of space between colony branches predicts the response to thermal stress in the field. Small encrusting colonies were most likely to maintain mass transfer and were therefore more likely to survive thermal stress than large branched colonies. We predict that an increase in the frequency and intensity of thermal stresses may see a shift from large branched coral colonies to both small colonies, and flat-massive colonies with low aspect ratios.

van Woesik, R.; Irikawa, A.; Anzai, R.; Nakamura, T.

2012-09-01

378

Simulation Studies on Harnessing of Artificial Ecosystems in Space Colonies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space Colonies are an artificial habitation built in space, an idea first proposed by Gerard K. O'Neill in 1969. He suggested they be placed at Lagrange points which are points in space that balance out the gravitational attraction of the Earth and Moon. There are three types of space colonies proposed: Bernard, Cylinder, and Stanford Torus. The cylinder type, designed by Gerard K. O'Neill, is the most popular in concept at 6 km diameter and 30 km length, corresponding to about 845 cubic km, ten thousand people would potentially be able to reside these. The habitation area would be rotated to generate a quasi-gravitation by centrifugal force. It would be rotated at 0.55 rpm to generate a gravitation equivalent to that of the earth. In the space colony, there would be six areas axially, consisting of flooring and windows alternately. Mobile mirrors would be located outside the windows to reflect sun light toward the habitation areas and generate day, night, and seasons within the space colony. Thus an artificial ecosystem would be created allowing people live in much the same way as they do on the earth. According to my former research on micro ecosystems, it is very difficult to keep the environment balanced at all points due to the large volume of the habitation area and the thermal input of the mobile mirrors. It is predicted that there will be differences in the environment at each point of the cylinder due to the mirror angle. Although controlling the whole artificial ecosystem balance is important, local environment control at each point is also important for people to live and work comfortably. Therefore, it is needed to develop simulation models which can study the whole ecosystem as well as local environments at each point at the same time. This model has to be able to simulate dynamics of the whole system as well as the local environments. In this study, I have developed a new model to simulate the whole and local dynamics in a space colony by using a cell automaton consisting of structure, thermal, air, water, and vegetation models.

Miyajima, Hiroyuki

379

Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental assessment for the Colonie site, Colonie, New York  

SciTech Connect

This work plan has been prepared to document the scoping and planning process performed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to support remedial action activities at the Colonie site. The site is located in eastern New York State in the town of Colonie near the city of Albany. Remedial action of the Colonie site is being planned as part of DOE's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. The DOE is responsible for controlling the release of all radioactive and chemical contaminants from the site. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) must be prepared to support the decision-making process for evaluating remedial action alternatives. This work plan contains a summary of information known about the site as of January 1988, presents a conceptual site model that identifies potential routes of human exposure to site containments, identifies data gaps, and summarizes the process and proposed studies that will be used to fill the data gaps. In addition, DOE activities must be conducted in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which requires consideration of the environmental consequences of a proposed action as part of its decision-making process. This work also describes the approach that will be used to evaluate potential remedial action alternatives and includes a description of the organization, project controls, and task schedules that will be employed to fulfill the requirements of both CERCLA and NEPA. 48 refs., 18 figs., 25 tabs.

Not Available

1990-06-01

380

Bulletin of Entomological Research (2003) 93, 439445 DOI: 10.1079/BER2003258 Termite colony ontogeny: a long-term  

E-print Network

ontogeny: a long-term assessment of reproductive lifespan, caste ratios and colony size in Reticulitermes in other termites and social insects are discussed. Introduction Eusocial insect colony ontogeny includes on colony growth and survivorship (Arcila et al., 2002). Similar termite colony ontogeny research has

Yorke, James

381

Assimilation and Segregation of Imperial Subjects: "Educating" the Colonised during the 1910-1945 Japanese Colonial Rule of Korea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study looks at how education policies in colonial Korea changed over time in order to accommodate the needs of the colonial authorities during the period of Japanese colonial rule in Korea (1910-1945). The colonial experience can be divided into four different periods according to the four Educational Ordinances issued in 1911, 1922, 1938,

Pak, Soon-Yong; Hwang, Keumjoong

2011-01-01

382

Dispersal and new colony formation in wild naked mole-rats: evidence against inbreeding as the system of mating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early field work on naked mole-rats, Heterocephalus glaber, suggested that small colonies are rare and that colonies can only form by fissioning of existing colonies. Many researchers expected that this would result in extreme inbreeding and high relatedness within colonies and would thus explain the evolution of eusociality in naked mole-rats. Here I report evidence of dispersers and outbreeding in

Stanton Braude

2000-01-01

383

Studies on a colony of colour-ringed Herring Gulls Larus argentatus: II. Colony occupation and feeding outside the breeding season  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of colour-ringed Herring Gulls over 6 years at a colony in NE England has shown that many of the breeding birds are present in every month of the year. A majority of the adult females leave the colony for a month or more during the non-breeding season but this absence is not sychronized and some of the birds

J. C. Coulson; J. Butterfield

1986-01-01

384

Geographic variation in caste ratio of trematode colonies with a division of labour reflect local adaptation.  

PubMed

Similarly to the division of labour in social insects, castes of morphologically distinct individuals exist within colonies of some species of parasitic trematodes. These colonies occur in the first intermediate host of the trematode's complex life cycle and are composed of clonal individuals. Individuals of the reproductive caste have significantly larger bodies while non-reproductive individuals are small and appear to be specialised for defence against co-infecting trematode colonies. In parallel with colony organisation of social insects, demographic traits such as the proportion of the small, non-reproducing individuals relative to the large, reproducing individuals and colony size are expected to vary and adjust to local conditions. In the case of colonies from geographically and potentially genetically distinct populations, this variation is hypothesised to become fixed by evolutionary divergence, as reported in social insect studies. In this study, the adaptive demography theory was further tested by looking at caste ratio and colony organisation of Philophthalmus sp. (a parasitic trematode with a recently discovered division of labour) colonies from geographically distinct populations. Results indicate that the caste ratio from geographically distinct Philophthalmus sp. colonies differs; the proportion of small, defensive individuals is higher in colonies from the location where the risk of competition is highest. This is suggestive of local adaptation, as caste ratios do not change over time under standardised laboratory conditions. This is the first evidence to support the adaptive demography theory in a species with a division of labour other than social insects. PMID:24770673

Lloyd, Melanie M; Poulin, Robert

2014-07-01

385

Queen movement during colony emigration in the facultatively polygynous ant Pachycondyla obscuricornis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In ants, nest relocations are frequent but nevertheless perilous, especially for the reproductive caste. During emigrations, queens are exposed to predation and face the risk of becoming lost. Therefore the optimal strategy should be to move the queen(s) swiftly to a better location, while maintaining maximum worker protection at all times in the new and old nests. The timing of that event is a crucial strategic issue for the colony and may depend on queen number. In monogynous colonies, the queen is vital for colony survival, whereas in polygynous colonies a queen is less essential, if not dispensable. We tested the null hypothesis that queen movement occurs at random within the sequence of emigration events in both monogynous and polygynous colonies of the ponerine ant Pachycondyla obscuricornis. Our study, based on 16 monogynous and 16 polygynous colony emigrations, demonstrates for the first time that regardless of the number of queens per colony, the emigration serial number of a queen occurs in the middle of all emigration events and adult ant emigration events, but not during brood transport events. It therefore appears that the number of workers in both nests plays an essential role in the timing of queen movement. Our results correspond to a robust colony-level strategy since queen emigration is related neither to colony size nor to queen number. Such an optimal strategy is characteristic of ant societies working as highly integrated units and represents a new instance of group-level adaptive behaviors in social insect colonies.

Pezon, Antoine; Denis, Damien; Cerdan, Philippe; Valenzuela, Jorge; Fresneau, Dominique

2005-01-01

386

Disturbance Driven Colony Fragmentation as a Driver of a Coral Disease Outbreak  

PubMed Central

In September of 2010, Brewer's Bay reef, located in St. Thomas (U.S. Virgin Islands), was simultaneously affected by abnormally high temperatures and the passage of a hurricane that resulted in the mass bleaching and fragmentation of its coral community. An outbreak of a rapid tissue loss disease among coral colonies was associated with these two disturbances. Gross lesion signs and lesion progression rates indicated that the disease was most similar to the Caribbean coral disease white plague type 1. Experiments indicated that the disease was transmissible through direct contact between colonies, and five-meter radial transects showed a clustered spatial distribution of disease, with diseased colonies being concentrated within the first meter of other diseased colonies. Disease prevalence and the extent to which colonies were bleached were both significantly higher on unattached colony fragments than on attached colonies, and disease occurred primarily on fragments found in direct contact with sediment. In contrast to other recent studies, disease presence was not related to the extent of bleaching on colonies. The results of this study suggest that colony fragmentation and contact with sediment played primary roles in the initial appearance of disease, but that the disease was capable of spreading among colonies, which suggests secondary transmission is possible through some other, unidentified mechanism. PMID:23437335

Brandt, Marilyn E.; Smith, Tyler B.; Correa, Adrienne M. S.; Vega-Thurber, Rebecca

2013-01-01

387

Our women must return home: institutionalized patriarchy in colonial central Nyanza district, 1945-1963.  

PubMed

Colonial policies and practices were very instrumental in the creation of the Luo Diaspora. This Diaspora extended far beyond the physical and cultural boundaries of Central Nyanza as was constituted by the colonial administration. To colonial officials, this Diaspora represented "detribalized natives" responsible for social decay and immorality in the colonial townships. Similarly, to the male elders in the rural areas, this Diaspora was an affront towards destabilizing tribal authority and sanctions, which governed Luo moral order, Luo marriage, and Luo identity as it existed prior to colonialism. This article uses patriarchy as an analytical framework to understand how male elders and colonial officials collaborated to assert control over young women under suspicion of prostitution. The article argues that the Ramogi African Welfare Association (RAWA) was a post-war patriarchal institution which was used by male elders, with the encouragement of the colonial officials, to intimidate, harass and repatriate young women seeking wage employment within the emerging colonial townships. In this article, I use archival and field data gathered from Central Nyanza between 1999 and 2002 to illustrate how institutionalized patriarchy threatened many women and young girls seeking to migrate to colonial towns in order to exploit the limited economic and social opportunities that colonialism provided. PMID:20976983

Okuro, Samwel Ong'wen

2010-01-01

388

Effects of juvenile hormone analogs on new reproductives and colony growth of Pharaoh ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).  

PubMed

Two juvenile hormone analogs (JHAs), pyriproxyfen and S-methoprene, were impregnated into dried tuna fish and fed to colonies of Monomorium pharaonis (L.) at very low concentrations (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 microg/ml). Its effects on the production of sexuals and colonial growth were observed. Colonies treated with pyriproxyfen yielded sexuals with physical abnormalities. Both female and male sexuals developed bulbous wings, decreased melanization, and died shortly after emergence. Sexuals emerged from colonies treated with S-methoprene did not possess anomalous characteristics. Both pyriproxyfen and S-methoprene did not have significant effects on colonial growth because of the low concentrations of the baits. A commercial bait containing 0.3% S-methoprene (Bioprene-BM) also was evaluated for its efficacy on Pharaoh's ant colonies. Results showed that Pharaoh's ant colonies succumbed to the lethal effects of S-methoprene. Colony members were reduced significantly. Production of queens also decreased significantly in treated colonies and treated queens were unable to lay eggs. JHAs are slow acting and eliminate ant colonies at a relatively slow rate. At low concentrations, pyriproxyfen recorded baffling results, i.e., bulbous wings and demelanized exoskeleton, and it is vital that further studies are initiated to solidify these findings. PMID:16539147

Lim, S P; Lee, C Y

2005-12-01

389

Characterization of viral siRNA populations in honey bee colony collapse disorder.  

PubMed

Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), a special case of collapse of honey bee colonies, has resulted in significant losses for beekeepers. CCD-colonies show abundance of pathogens which suggests that they have a weakened immune system. Since honey bee viruses are major players in colony collapse and given the important role of viral RNA interference (RNAi) in combating viral infections we investigated if CCD-colonies elicit an RNAi response. Deep-sequencing analysis of samples from CCD-colonies from US and Israel revealed abundant small interfering RNAs (siRNA) of 21-22 nucleotides perfectly matching the Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), Kashmir virus and Deformed wing virus genomes. Israeli colonies showed high titers of IAPV and a conserved RNAi-pattern of matching the viral genome. That was also observed in sample analysis from colonies experimentally infected with IAPV. Our results suggest that CCD-colonies set out a siRNA response that is specific against predominant viruses associated with colony losses. PMID:24725944

Chejanovsky, Nor; Ophir, Ron; Schwager, Michal Sharabi; Slabezki, Yossi; Grossman, Smadar; Cox-Foster, Diana

2014-04-01

390

Varroa destructor infestation in untreated honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies selected for hygienic behavior.  

PubMed

Honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies bred for hygienic behavior were tested in a large field trial to determine if they were able to resist the parasitic mite Varroa destructor better than unselected colonies of"Starline" stock. Colonies bred for hygienic behavior are able to detect, uncap, and remove experimentally infested brood from the nest, although the extent to which the behavior actually reduces the overall mite-load in untreated, naturally infested colonies needed further verification. The results indicate that hygienic colonies with queens mated naturally to unselected drones had significantly fewer mites on adult bees and within worker brood cells than Starline colonies for up to 1 yr without treatment in a commercial, migratory beekeeping operation. Hygienic colonies actively defended themselves against the mites when mite levels were relatively low. At high mite infestations (>15% of worker brood and of adult bees), the majority of hygienic colonies required treatment to prevent collapse. Overall, the hygienic colonies had similar adult populations and brood areas, produced as much honey, and had less brood disease than the Starline colonies. Thus, honey bees bred for hygienic behavior performed as well if not better than other commercial lines of bees and maintained lower mite loads for up to one year without treatment. PMID:11332821

Spivak, M; Reuter, G S

2001-04-01

391

Impaired T lymphocyte colony formation in infectious mononucleosis: evidence for both monocyte and lymphocyte defects.  

PubMed Central

PHA-induced T lymphocyte colony formation in semi-solid agar culture was studied in mononuclear cells (MC) and non-adherent cells (NAC) from the blood of patients with infectious mononucleosis (IM). Colony formation expressed as number of colonies per 10(6) E-RFC or as number of colonies per ml of blood was depressed by about 90% during the first weeks of disease, but returned to normal levels during the convalescence period. Addition to the agar culture of conditioned medium prepared from adherent blood MC or normal donors partly restored colony formation by both MC andNAC from patients with IM in the acute stages, suggesting a subnormal production of conditioning factors by cocultured adherent cells. In line with this finding adherent cells from patients with acute disease failed to produce a conditioned medium which optimally supported the growth of T lymphocyte colonies from NAC of normal donors. When mononuclear cells from patients with IM were mixed with normal donor lymphocytes prior to agar seeding, colony formation by the normal cells was reduced by 10--65%. It is concluded that mononuclear cells from patients with IM have a reduced capacity to form T lymphocyte colonies in agar medium. This reduction possibly reflects a lack of production of colony stimulating factors from monocytes, but also increased activity of T lymphocyte colony suppressor cells. PMID:317032

Classon, M H; Andersen, V

1979-01-01

392

Disturbance driven colony fragmentation as a driver of a coral disease outbreak.  

PubMed

In September of 2010, Brewer's Bay reef, located in St. Thomas (U.S. Virgin Islands), was simultaneously affected by abnormally high temperatures and the passage of a hurricane that resulted in the mass bleaching and fragmentation of its coral community. An outbreak of a rapid tissue loss disease among coral colonies was associated with these two disturbances. Gross lesion signs and lesion progression rates indicated that the disease was most similar to the Caribbean coral disease white plague type 1. Experiments indicated that the disease was transmissible through direct contact between colonies, and five-meter radial transects showed a clustered spatial distribution of disease, with diseased colonies being concentrated within the first meter of other diseased colonies. Disease prevalence and the extent to which colonies were bleached were both significantly higher on unattached colony fragments than on attached colonies, and disease occurred primarily on fragments found in direct contact with sediment. In contrast to other recent studies, disease presence was not related to the extent of bleaching on colonies. The results of this study suggest that colony fragmentation and contact with sediment played primary roles in the initial appearance of disease, but that the disease was capable of spreading among colonies, which suggests secondary transmission is possible through some other, unidentified mechanism. PMID:23437335

Brandt, Marilyn E; Smith, Tyler B; Correa, Adrienne M S; Vega-Thurber, Rebecca

2013-01-01

393

Honeybee colony disorder in crop areas: the role of pesticides and viruses.  

PubMed

As in many other locations in the world, honeybee colony losses and disorders have increased in Belgium. Some of the symptoms observed rest unspecific and their causes remain unknown. The present study aims to determine the role of both pesticide exposure and virus load on the appraisal of unexplained honeybee colony disorders in field conditions. From July 2011 to May 2012, 330 colonies were monitored. Honeybees, wax, beebread and honey samples were collected. Morbidity and mortality information provided by beekeepers, colony clinical visits and availability of analytical matrix were used to form 2 groups: healthy colonies and colonies with disorders (n?=?29, n?=?25, respectively). Disorders included: (1) dead colonies or colonies in which part of the colony appeared dead, or had disappeared; (2) weak colonies; (3) queen loss; (4) problems linked to brood and not related to any known disease. Five common viruses and 99 pesticides (41 fungicides, 39 insecticides and synergist, 14 herbicides, 5 acaricides and metabolites) were quantified in the samples.The main symptoms observed in the group with disorders are linked to brood and queens. The viruses most frequently found are Black Queen Cell Virus, Sac Brood Virus, Deformed Wing Virus. No significant difference in virus load was observed between the two groups. Three acaricides, 5 insecticides and 13 fungicides were detected in the analysed samples. A significant correlation was found between the presence of fungicide residues and honeybee colony disorders. A significant positive link could also be established between the observation of disorder and the abundance of crop surface around the beehive. According to our results, the role of fungicides as a potential stressor for honeybee colonies should be further studied, either by their direct and/or indirect impacts on bees and bee colonies. PMID:25048715

Simon-Delso, Noa; San Martin, Gilles; Bruneau, Etienne; Minsart, Laure-Anne; Mouret, Coralie; Hautier, Louis

2014-01-01

394

Honeybee Colony Disorder in Crop Areas: The Role of Pesticides and Viruses  

PubMed Central

As in many other locations in the world, honeybee colony losses and disorders have increased in Belgium. Some of the symptoms observed rest unspecific and their causes remain unknown. The present study aims to determine the role of both pesticide exposure and virus load on the appraisal of unexplained honeybee colony disorders in field conditions. From July 2011 to May 2012, 330 colonies were monitored. Honeybees, wax, beebread and honey samples were collected. Morbidity and mortality information provided by beekeepers, colony clinical visits and availability of analytical matrix were used to form 2 groups: healthy colonies and colonies with disorders (n?=?29, n?=?25, respectively). Disorders included: (1) dead colonies or colonies in which part of the colony appeared dead, or had disappeared; (2) weak colonies; (3) queen loss; (4) problems linked to brood and not related to any known disease. Five common viruses and 99 pesticides (41 fungicides, 39 insecticides and synergist, 14 herbicides, 5 acaricides and metabolites) were quantified in the samples.The main symptoms observed in the group with disorders are linked to brood and queens. The viruses most frequently found are Black Queen Cell Virus, Sac Brood Virus, Deformed Wing Virus. No significant difference in virus load was observed between the two groups. Three acaricides, 5 insecticides and 13 fungicides were detected in the analysed samples. A significant correlation was found between the presence of fungicide residues and honeybee colony disorders. A significant positive link could also be established between the observation of disorder and the abundance of crop surface around the beehive. According to our results, the role of fungicides as a potential stressor for honeybee colonies should be further studied, either by their direct and/or indirect impacts on bees and bee colonies. PMID:25048715

Simon-Delso, Noa; San Martin, Gilles; Bruneau, Etienne; Minsart, Laure-Anne; Mouret, Coralie; Hautier, Louis

2014-01-01

395

Population Regulation in Magellanic Penguins: What Determines Changes in Colony Size?  

PubMed Central

Seabirds are often studied at individual colonies, but the confounding effects of emigration and mortality processes in open populations may lead to inappropriate conclusions on the mechanisms underlying population changes. Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) colonies of variable population sizes are distributed along the Argentine coastline. In recent decades, several population and distributional changes have occurred, with some colonies declining and others newly established or increasing. We integrated data of eight colonies scattered along ? 600 km in Northern Patagonia (from 4126S, 6501W to 4511S, 6630W, Rio Negro and Chubut provinces) and conducted analysis in terms of their growth rates, production of young and of the dependence of those vital rates on colony age, size, and location. We contrasted population trends estimated from abundance data with those derived from population modeling to understand if observed growth rates were attainable under closed population scenarios. Population trends were inversely related to colony size, suggesting a density dependent growth pattern. All colonies located in the northwhich were established during the last decadesincreased at high rates, with the smallest, recently established colonies growing at the fastest rate. In central-southern Chubut, where colonies are the oldest, the largest breeding aggregations declined, but smaller colonies remained relatively stable. Results provided strong evidence that dispersal played a major role in driving local trends. Breeding success was higher in northern colonies, likely mediated by favorable oceanographic conditions. However, mean foraging distance and body condition of chicks at fledging were influenced by colony size. Recruitment of penguins in the northern area may have been triggered by a combination of density dependence, likely exacerbated by less favorable oceanographic conditions in the southern sector. Our results reaffirm the idea that individual colony trends do not provide confident indicators of population health, highlighting the need to redefine the scale for the study of population changes. PMID:25786254

Pozzi, Luciana M.; Borboroglu, Pablo Garca; Boersma, P. Dee; Pascual, Miguel A.

2015-01-01

396

Heritable choice of colony size in cliff swallows: does experience trump genetics in older birds?  

PubMed Central

The variation in breeding-colony size seen in populations of most colonial birds may reflect heritable choices made by individuals who are phenotypically specialized for particular social environments. Although a few studies have reported evidence for genetically based choice of group sizes in birds, we know relatively little about the extent to which animals potentially rely on experience versus innate preferences in deciding with how many conspecifics to settle at different times of their lives. We conducted a cross-fostering experiment in 19971998 on cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) in southwestern Nebraska, USA, in which some individuals were reared in colonies different in size from those in which they were born. Breeding-colony sizes chosen by this cohort of birds were monitored by mark-recapture throughout their lives. A multistate mark-recapture analysis revealed that birds in their first breeding year chose colony sizes similar to those of their birth, regardless of their rearing environment, confirming a previous analysis. Beyond the first breeding year, however, cliff swallows colony choice was less dependent on where they were born. Birds born in small colonies and reared in large colonies showed evidence of a delayed rearing effect, with these birds overwhelmingly choosing large colonies in later years. Heritabilities suggested strong genetic effects on first-year colony choice but not in later years. Cliff swallows genetically based colony-size preferences their first year could be a way to ensure matching of their phenotype to an appropriate social environment as yearlings. In later years, familiarity with particular colony sites and available information on site quality may override innate group-size preferences when birds choose colonies. PMID:22247565

Roche, Erin A.; Brown, Charles R.; Brown, Mary Bomberger

2011-01-01

397

Population regulation in magellanic penguins: what determines changes in colony size?  

PubMed

Seabirds are often studied at individual colonies, but the confounding effects of emigration and mortality processes in open populations may lead to inappropriate conclusions on the mechanisms underlying population changes. Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) colonies of variable population sizes are distributed along the Argentine coastline. In recent decades, several population and distributional changes have occurred, with some colonies declining and others newly established or increasing. We integrated data of eight colonies scattered along ? 600 km in Northern Patagonia (from 4126S, 6501W to 4511S, 6630W, Rio Negro and Chubut provinces) and conducted analysis in terms of their growth rates, production of young and of the dependence of those vital rates on colony age, size, and location. We contrasted population trends estimated from abundance data with those derived from population modeling to understand if observed growth rates were attainable under closed population scenarios. Population trends were inversely related to colony size, suggesting a density dependent growth pattern. All colonies located in the north-which were established during the last decades-increased at high rates, with the smallest, recently established colonies growing at the fastest rate. In central-southern Chubut, where colonies are the oldest, the largest breeding aggregations declined, but smaller colonies remained relatively stable. Results provided strong evidence that dispersal played a major role in driving local trends. Breeding success was higher in northern colonies, likely mediated by favorable oceanographic conditions. However, mean foraging distance and body condition of chicks at fledging were influenced by colony size. Recruitment of penguins in the northern area may have been triggered by a combination of density dependence, likely exacerbated by less favorable oceanographic conditions in the southern sector. Our results reaffirm the idea that individual colony trends do not provide confident indicators of population health, highlighting the need to redefine the scale for the study of population changes. PMID:25786254

Pozzi, Luciana M; Borboroglu, Pablo Garca; Boersma, P Dee; Pascual, Miguel A

2015-01-01

398

Design of broadband omnidirectional antireflection coatings using ant colony algorithm.  

PubMed

Optimization method which is based on the ant colony algorithm (ACA) is described to optimize antireflection (AR) coating system with broadband omnidirectional characteristics for silicon solar cells incorporated with the solar spectrum (AM1.5 radiation). It's the first time to use ACA method for optimizing the AR coating system. In this paper, for the wavelength range from 400 nm to 1100 nm, the optimized three-layer AR coating system could provide an average reflectance of 2.98% for incident angles from Rave?+ to 80 and 6.56% for incident angles from 0 to 90. PMID:24978076

Guo, X; Zhou, H Y; Guo, S; Luan, X X; Cui, W K; Ma, Y F; Shi, L

2014-06-30

399

Improved Robustness through Population Variance in Ant Colony Optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ant Colony Optimization algorithms are population-based Stochastic Local Search algorithms that mimic the behavior of ants, simulating pheromone trails to search for solutions to combinatorial optimization problems. This paper introduces Population Variance, a novel approach to ACO algorithms that allows parameters to vary across the population over time, leading to solution construction differences that are not strictly stochastic. The increased exploration appears to help the search escape from local optima, significantly improving the robustness of the algorithm with respect to suboptimal parameter settings.

Matthews, David C.; Sutton, Andrew M.; Hains, Doug; Whitley, L. Darrell

400

Multi-Megawatt Gas Turbine Power Systems for Lunar Colonies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A concept for development of second generation 10 MWe prototype lunar power plant utilizing a gas cooled fission reactor supplying heated helium working fluid to two parallel 5 MWe closed cycle gas turbines is presented. Such a power system is expected to supply the energy needs for an initial lunar colony with a crew of up to 50 persons engaged in mining and manufacturing activities. System performance and mass details were generated by an author developed code (BRMAPS). The proposed pilot power plant can be a model for future plants of the same capacity that could be tied to an evolutionary lunar power grid.

Juhasz, Albert J.

2006-01-01

401

Comamonas testosteroni colony phenotype influences exopolysaccharide production and coaggregation with yeast cells.  

PubMed Central

A Comamonas testosteroni strain was isolated from activated sludge on the basis of its ability to coaggregate with yeast cells. On agar plates the following two types of colonies were formed: colonies with a mucoid appearance and colonies with a nonmucoid appearance. On plates this strain alternated between the two forms, making sectored colonies. In liquid medium with constant agitation no such change was observed. In the absence of agitation and in contact with a glass surface a culture with predominantly nonmucoid-colony-forming cells very rapidly shifted to a culture dominated by mucoid-colony-forming cells. In liquid medium the reverse was observed under stress conditions imposed by hydrogen peroxide, sodium dodecyl sulfate, or starvation. Nonmucoid cells formed very rapidly settling flocs with yeast cells, while coaggregation of mucoid cells with yeast cells did not occur. These findings may be relevant to the behavior of activated sludge microbial communities. PMID:8702260

Bossier, P; Verstraete, W

1996-01-01

402

Lower disease infections in honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies headed by polyandrous vs monandrous queens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the relationship between genetic diversity and disease susceptibility in honeybee colonies living under natural conditions. To do so, we created colonies in which each queen was artificially inseminated with sperm from either one or ten drones. Of the 20 colonies studied, 80% showed at least one brood disease. We found strong differences between the two types of colonies in the infection intensity of chalkbrood and in the total intensity of all brood diseases (chalkbrood, sacbrood, American foulbrood, and European foulbrood) with both variables lower for the colonies with higher genetic diversity. Our findings demonstrate that disease can be an important factor in the ecology of honeybee colonies and they provide strong support for the disease hypothesis for the evolution of polyandry by social insect queens.

Tarpy, David R.; Seeley, Thomas D.

2006-04-01

403

Quantifying Two-Dimensional Filamentous and Invasive Growth Spatial Patterns in Yeast Colonies  

PubMed Central

The top-view, two-dimensional spatial patterning of non-uniform growth in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast colony is considered. Experimental images are processed to obtain data sets that provide spatial information on the cell-area that is occupied by the colony. A method is developed that allows for the analysis of the spatial distribution with three metrics. The growth of the colony is quantified in both the radial direction from the centre of the colony and in the angular direction in a prescribed outer region of the colony. It is shown that during the period of 100200 hours from the start of the growth of the colony there is an increasing amount of non-uniform growth. The statistical framework outlined in this work provides a platform for comparative quantitative assays of strain-specific mechanisms, with potential implementation in inferencing algorithms used for parameter-rate estimation. PMID:25719406

Binder, Benjamin J.; Sundstrom, Joanna F.; Gardner, Jennifer M.; Jiranek, Vladimir; Oliver, Stephen G.

2015-01-01

404

Age and breeding success related to nest position in a White stork Ciconia ciconia colony  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coloniality is a breeding system that may produce benefits in terms of breeding success, although these advantages could vary according to factors such as colony size or nest position. We studied breeder's age in relation to nest position (peripheral or central) within the colony. In addition, we studied the relationship between breeding success and nest position, controlling for breeder's age, a highly correlated factor, in a White Stork Ciconia ciconia colony over a 7-year period. Our results show that central nests are mainly occupied by adult birds and had lower failure rates. However, controlling for breeder's age, nest position per se did not explain breeding success. The scarce predation and the lack of human disturbance in the study colony could explain the absence of differences in breeding success between different nest positions within the colony.

Vergara, Pablo; Aguirre, Jos I.

2006-11-01

405

Daughters inherit colonies from mothers in the 'living-fossil' ant Nothomyrmecia macrops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Newly mated queens of monogynous (single queen) ants usually found their colonies independently, without the assistance of workers. In polygynous (multiple queen) species queens are often adopted back into their natal nest and new colonies are established by budding. We report that the Australian 'living-fossil' ant, Nothomyrmecia macrops, is exceptional in that its single queen can be replaced by one of the colony's daughters. This type of colony founding is an interesting alternative reproductive strategy in monogynous ants, which maximizes fitness under kin selection. Successive queen replacement results in a series of reproductives over time (serial polygyny), making these colonies potentially immortal. Workers raise nieces and nephews (relatedness ? 0.375) the year after queen replacement. Although N. macrops is 'primitive' in many other respects, colony inheritance is likely to be a derived specialization resulting from ecological constraints on solitary founding.

Sanetra, Matthias; Crozier, Ross H.

2002-02-01

406

Nestmate recognition and incompatibility between colonies of the acacia-ant Pseudomyrmex ferruginea  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Compatibility between workers of 21 different colonies of the acacia-ant Pseudomyrmex ferruginea was examined. The colonies were reared from foundress queens in the greenhouse, on a clone of Acacia hindsii. Widespread incompatibility between colonies was encountered in these tests. Since diet and nesting environment are uniform, these results strongly suggest that the ants are producing recognition pheromones.2.Worker brood from a

Alex Mintzer

1982-01-01

407

Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Enhances Interleukin 3Dependent Proliferation of Multipotential Hemopoietic Progenitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In cultures of spleen cells from normal mice, recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) supported the formation of multipotential blast cell colonies. Serial replating of the blast cell colonies in the presence of G-CSF, however, failed to demonstrate any direct effect of G-CSF on murine multipotential progenitors. We therefore examined the effects of G-CSF in combination with murine interleukin 3

Kenji Ikebuchi; Steven C. Clark; James N. Ihle; Lawrence M. Souza; Makio Ogawa

1988-01-01

408

Mathematical modeling of colony formation in algal blooms: phenotypic plasticity in cyanobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we analyzed a mathematical model of algal-grazer dynamics, including the effect of colony formation, which\\u000a is an example of phenotypic plasticity. The model consists of three variables, which correspond to the biomasses of unicellular\\u000a algae, colonial algae, and herbivorous zooplankton. Among these organisms, colonial algae are the main components of algal\\u000a blooms. This aquatic system has two

Hiroshi Serizawa; Takashi Amemiya; Takatoshi Enomoto; Axel G. Rossberg; Kiminori Itoh

2008-01-01

409

Growth dynamics of cancer cell colonies and their comparison with noncancerous cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two-dimensional (2D) growth dynamics of HeLa (cervix cancer) cell colonies was studied following both their growth front and the pattern morphology evolutions utilizing large population colonies exhibiting linearly and radially spreading fronts. In both cases, the colony profile fractal dimension was df=1.200.05 and the growth fronts displaced at the constant velocity 0.900.05 ?m min-1. Colonies showed changes in both cell morphology and average size. As time increased, the formation of large cells at the colony front was observed. Accordingly, the heterogeneity of the colony increased and local driving forces that set in began to influence the dynamics of the colony front. The dynamic scaling analysis of rough colony fronts resulted in a roughness exponent ? = 0.500.05, a growth exponent ? = 0.320.04, and a dynamic exponent z=1.50.2. The validity of this set of scaling exponents extended from a lower cutoff lc?60 ?m upward, and the exponents agreed with those predicted by the standard Kardar-Parisi-Zhang continuous equation. HeLa data were compared with those previously reported for Vero cell colonies. The value of df and the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang-type 2D front growth dynamics were similar for colonies of both cell lines. This indicates that the cell colony growth dynamics is independent of the genetic background and the tumorigenic nature of the cells. However, one can distinguish some differences between both cell lines during the growth of colonies that may result from specific cooperative effects and the nature of each biosystem.

Huergo, M. A. C.; Pasquale, M. A.; Gonzlez, P. H.; Bolzn, A. E.; Arvia, A. J.

2012-01-01

410

A Smarter Look to Nature: GENetically Adapted VErsatile Heterogonous Ant Colony System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ACS algorithms have been used in solving NP-hard and optimization problems in recent years. ACS ant colonies are homogeneous, but natural colonies are not. In this paper, a new ACS algorithm is proposed. It uses heterogeneous ant colonies which are evolved using a new type of genetic algorithm. Experimental results obtained from solving TSP problem, show the superiority of proposed algorithm over classical ACS.

Zaeri, Ahmad; Zamanifar, Kamran; Nematbakhsh, Mohammad Ali; Fatemi, Afsaneh

2009-04-01

411

Biography and Homoeopathy in Bengal: Colonial Lives of a European Heterodoxy  

E-print Network

science and medicine thrives upon local power hierarchies and dominant class, caste and other prejudices see Gyan Prakash (Autumn 1992), Science Gone Native in Colonial India, Representations, 40, Special Issue: Seeing Science, pp. 153-178. Also see... Medicine in Colonial Punjab, 1850-1945, (Hyderabad: Orient Longman), pp. 104-157; Rachel Berger (2013), Ayuveda Made Modern, pp. 75-105; Charu Gupta (2001), Sexuality, Obscenity, and Community: Women, Muslims and the Hindu Public in Colonial India, (Delhi...

Das, S.

2014-01-01

412

Breeding dispersal patterns within a large Sand Martin ( Riparia riparia ) colony  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colonial birds when returning to breed to a previous location can face different settling options regarding their position\\u000a in the colony. The decision could be influenced by information gained from the conspecifics performance, known as habitat\\u000a copying. Colonial Sand Martins (Riparia riparia) cannot use evident physical cues when returning to breeding sites, as their nesting substrate is usually renewing completely.

Zoltn D. Szab; Tibor Szp

2010-01-01

413

COLONY-SITE AND NEST-SITE USE BY COMMON GRACKLES IN NORTH DAKOTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

searched 638 quarter sections (0.8 X 0.8 km) for Common Grackle (Quiscalus quiscula) nesting sites in Benson County, North Dakota, in 1989 and 1990. We found 3596 active nests in 202 colonies on 177 quarter sections. Colonies in shelterbelts next to inhabited farmsteads were found at greater than expected frequencies (P 5 0.05), whereas colonies in vegetation associated with potholes

H. JEFFREY HOMAN; GEORGE M. LINZ; WILLIAM J. BLEIER; ROBERT B. CARLSON

1996-01-01

414

A review of "Colonial Women: Race and Culture in Stuart Drama." by Heidi Hutner  

E-print Network

48 SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY NEWS Heidi Hutner. Colonial Women: Race and Culture in Stuart Drama. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. ix + 141 pp. $35.00. Review by CHLOE WHEATLEY, TRINITY COLLEGE, HARTFORD CONNECTICUT. Heidi Hutner?s Colonial... Women: Race and Culture in Stuart Drama provides valuable insight into just how deeply discourses of gen- der and colonialism were entwined in the literature of the seven- teenth century. An in-depth study of drama by John Dryden, Thomas Duffet, Thomas...

Chloe Wheatley

2003-01-01

415

Impact of Chronic Neonicotinoid Exposure on Honeybee Colony Performance and Queen Supersedure  

PubMed Central

Background Honeybees provide economically and ecologically vital pollination services to crops and wild plants. During the last decade elevated colony losses have been documented in Europe and North America. Despite growing consensus on the involvement of multiple causal factors, the underlying interactions impacting on honeybee health and colony failure are not fully resolved. Parasites and pathogens are among the main candidates, but sublethal exposure to widespread agricultural pesticides may also affect bees. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate effects of sublethal dietary neonicotinoid exposure on honeybee colony performance, a fully crossed experimental design was implemented using 24 colonies, including sister-queens from two different strains, and experimental in-hive pollen feeding with or without environmentally relevant concentrations of thiamethoxam and clothianidin. Honeybee colonies chronically exposed to both neonicotinoids over two brood cycles exhibited decreased performance in the short-term resulting in declining numbers of adult bees (?28%) and brood (?13%), as well as a reduction in honey production (?29%) and pollen collections (?19%), but colonies recovered in the medium-term and overwintered successfully. However, significantly decelerated growth of neonicotinoid-exposed colonies during the following spring was associated with queen failure, revealing previously undocumented long-term impacts of neonicotinoids: queen supersedure was observed for 60% of the neonicotinoid-exposed colonies within a one year period, but not for control colonies. Linked to this, neonicotinoid exposure was significantly associated with a reduced propensity to swarm during the next spring. Both short-term and long-term effects of neonicotinoids on colony performance were significantly influenced by the honeybees genetic background. Conclusions/Significance Sublethal neonicotinoid exposure did not provoke increased winter losses. Yet, significant detrimental short and long-term impacts on colony performance and queen fate suggest that neonicotinoids may contribute to colony weakening in a complex manner. Further, we highlight the importance of the genetic basis of neonicotinoid susceptibility in honeybees which can vary substantially. PMID:25084279

Sandrock, Christoph; Tanadini, Matteo; Tanadini, Lorenzo G.; Fauser-Misslin, Aline; Potts, Simon G.; Neumann, Peter

2014-01-01

416

Induction of Erythropoietic Colonies in a Human Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Cell Line  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of cells derived from the K562 dine-positive colonies (19.5 1 hO4 cells) cell line to generate erythropoietic colonies formed. while the combination of sodium was studied. The K562 cell line was derived butyrate plus erythropoietin exerted a from a patient with chronic myelogenous synergistic effect on erythropoietic colony leukemia 8 yr ago by Lozzio and Lozzio. formation

Ronald Hoffman; Mary Jo Murnane; Edward J. Benz; Rainer Prohaska; Victoria Floyd; Nicholas Dainiak; Bernard G. Forget; Heinz Furthmayr

1979-01-01

417

Queen replacement in orphaned colonies of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.When field colonies of Solenopsis invicta Buren were orphaned by removing the functioning queen, re-collection 810 weeks later showed that 61% had replacement queens that were physogastric and attractive to workers. The weight of the original colony queens increases with the colony mound volume. The weight of replacement queens is inversely related to the number of such queens in the

Walter R. Tschinkel; Dennis F. Howard

1978-01-01

418

Life History Plasticity in Chimaeras of the Colonial Ascidian Botryllus schlosseri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colonies of the ascidian Botryllus schlosseri may fuse with kin to form chimaeras which vary their life histories depending on environmental conditions. We placed chimaeric colonies of this species in Monterey Bay, California, U.S.A., where they received planktonic food continuously. In the field, chimaeras grew rapidly, attained large sizes, and produced many eggs. They formed compact disc-shaped colonies in which

Nanette E. Chadwick-Furman; Irving L. Weissman

1995-01-01

419

Some alternatives in the sociology of space colonization: The kibbutz as a space colony  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper critiques the scanty sociological examination on future space colonies. It suggests that the sociology of space colonies has not been examined with due attention to the relationship between the physical problems of surviving in space and the social form of the colony. The Israeli kibbutz form is examined as one example of a viable and logical alternative form of settlement for space colonization.

Ashkenazi, Michael

420

Response of mountain plovers to plague-driven dynamics of black-tailed prairie dog colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sylvatic plague is a major factor influencing the dynamics of black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies in the western Great Plains. We studied the nesting response of the mountain plover (Charadrius montanus), a grassland bird that nests on prairie dog colonies, to plague-driven dynamics of prairie dog colonies at three sites in\\u000a the western Great Plains. First, we examined plover

David J. Augustine; Stephen J. Dinsmore; Michael B. Wunder; Victoria J. Dreitz; Fritz L. Knopf

2008-01-01

421

Predation of artificial ground nests on white-tailed prairie dog colonies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Prairie dog (Cynomys spp.) colonies are unique to prairie and shrub-steppe landscapes. However, widespread eradication, habitat loss, and sylvatic plague (Yersinia pestis) have reduced their numbers by 98% since historical times. Birds associated with prairie dogs also are declining. Potential nest predators, such as coyotes (Canis latrans), swift foxes (Vulpes velox), and badgers (Taxidea taxus), may be attracted to colonies where a high concentration of prairie dogs serve as available prey. Increased abundance of small mammals, including prairie dogs, also may increase the risk of predation for birds nesting on colonies. Finally, because grazing by prairie dogs may decrease vegetation height and canopy cover, bird nests may be easier for predators to locate. In this study, we placed 1,444 artificial ground nests on and off 74 white-tailed prairie dog (C. leucurus) colonies to test the hypothesis that nest predation rates are higher on colonies than at nearby off sites (i.e., uncolonized habitat). We sampled colonies from 27 May to 16 July 1997 at the following 3 complexes: Coyote Basin, Utah and Colorado; Moxa Arch, Wyoming; and Shirley Basin, Wyoming. Differences in daily predation rates between colonies and paired off sites averaged 1.0% (P = 0.060). When converted to a typical 14-day incubation period, predation rates averaged 14% higher on colonies (57.7 ?? 2.7%; ?? ?? SE) than at off sites (50.4 ?? 3.1%). Comparisons of habitat variables on colonies to off sites showed percent canopy cover of vegetation was similar (P = 0.114), percent bare ground was higher on colonies (P 0.288). Although we found the risk of nest predation was higher on white-tailed prairie dog colonies than at off sites, fitness of birds nesting on colonies might depend on other factors that influence foraging success, reproductive success, or nestling survival.

Baker, B.W.; Stanley, T.R.; Sedgwick, J.A.

1999-01-01

422

Recruiting juvenile damselfish: the process of recruiting into adult colonies in the damselfish Stegastes nigricans  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Juveniles of Stegastes nigricans occur in adult colonies, solitarily, and occasionally in juvenile colonies. We concentrated on solitary juveniles and those\\u000a in adult colonies. We examined the costs and benefits of different settlement strategies, quantified the territory requirements\\u000a of adults, and investigated the process of how juveniles make the transition to adult territorial fish. An adequate adult\\u000a territory lies

Jonathan Sau-Fung Lee; George W. Barlow

2001-01-01

423

Role of gravity in the formation of bacterial colonies with a hydrophobic surface layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple technique for determining hydrophobic-hydrophilic properties of bacterial colonies surface, which involves putting a drop of liquid with known properties (e.g. water, oil) on their surface, has been described. This technique allows quick estimate of wettability of bacterial colony surface, i.e. its hydrophobic-hydrophilic properties. The behaviour of water drops on colonies of bacteria Bacillus five strains (of different types)

A. P. Puzyr; L. K. Tirranen; T. Y. Krylova; E. V. Borodina

2004-01-01

424

The rewards of restraint in the collective regulation of foraging by harvester ant colonies.  

PubMed

Collective behaviour, arising from local interactions, allows groups to respond to changing conditions. Long-term studies have shown that the traits of individual mammals and birds are associated with their reproductive success, but little is known about the evolutionary ecology of collective behaviour in natural populations. An ant colony operates without central control, regulating its activity through a network of local interactions. This work shows that variation among harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex barbatus) colonies in collective response to changing conditions is related to variation in colony lifetime reproductive success in the production of offspring colonies. Desiccation costs are high for harvester ants foraging in the desert. More successful colonies tend to forage less when conditions are dry, and show relatively stable foraging activity when conditions are more humid. Restraint from foraging does not compromise a colony's long-term survival; colonies that fail to forage at all on many days survive as long, over the colony's 20-30-year lifespan, as those that forage more regularly. Sensitivity to conditions in which to reduce foraging activity may be transmissible from parent to offspring colony. These results indicate that natural selection is shaping the collective behaviour that regulates foraging activity, and that the selection pressure, related to climate, may grow stronger if the current drought in their habitat persists. PMID:23676676

Gordon, Deborah M

2013-06-01

425

Impact of Varroa destructor on honeybee (Apis mellifera scutellata) colony development in South Africa.  

PubMed

The devastating effects of Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman on European honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera L.) have been well documented. Not only do these mites cause physical damage to parasitised individuals when they feed on them, they also transmit viruses and other pathogens, weaken colonies and can ultimately cause their death. Nevertheless, not all honeybee colonies are doomed once Varroa mites become established. Some populations, such as the savannah honeybee, A. m. scutellata, have become tolerant after the introduction of the parasite and are able to withstand the presence of these mites without the need for acaricides. In this study, we measured daily Varroa mite fall, Varroa infestation rates of adult honeybees and worker brood, and total Varroa population size in acaricide treated and untreated honeybee colonies. In addition, honeybee colony development was compared between these groups in order to measure the cost incurred by Varroa mites to their hosts. Daily Varroa mite fall decreased over the experimental period with different dynamics in treated and untreated colonies. Varroa infestation rates in treated adult honeybees and brood were lower than in untreated colonies, but not significantly so. Thus, indicating a minimal benefit of treatment thereby suggesting that A. m. scutellata have the ability to maintain mite populations at low levels. We obtained baseline data on Varroa population dynamics in a tolerant honeybee over the winter period. Varroa mites appeared to have a low impact on this honeybee population, given that colony development was similar in the treated and untreated colonies. PMID:25037745

Strauss, Ursula; Pirk, Christian W W; Crewe, Robin M; Human, Hannelie; Dietemann, Vincent

2015-01-01

426

Cooperatively Generated Stresslet Flows Supply Fresh Fluid to Multicellular Choanoflagellate Colonies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flagellated protozoan Salpingoeca rosetta is one of the closest relatives of multicellular animals. Unicellular S. rosetta can be induced to form multicellular colonies, but colonies swim more slowly than individual cells so the advantages conferred by colony formation are uncertain. Here we use theoretical models to show that hydrodynamic cooperation between cells can increase the fluid supply to the colony, an important predictor of feeding rate. Our results suggest that hydrodynamic benefits may have been an important selective factor in the evolution of early multicellular animals.

Roper, Marcus; Dayel, Mark J.; Pepper, Rachel E.; Koehl, M. A. R.

2013-05-01

427

Cooperatively generated stresslet flows supply fresh fluid to multicellular choanoflagellate colonies.  

PubMed

The flagellated protozoan Salpingoeca rosetta is one of the closest relatives of multicellular animals. Unicellular S. rosetta can be induced to form multicellular colonies, but colonies swim more slowly than individual cells so the advantages conferred by colony formation are uncertain. Here we use theoretical models to show that hydrodynamic cooperation between cells can increase the fluid supply to the colony, an important predictor of feeding rate. Our results suggest that hydrodynamic benefits may have been an important selective factor in the evolution of early multicellular animals. PMID:23767751

Roper, Marcus; Dayel, Mark J; Pepper, Rachel E; Koehl, M A R

2013-05-31

428

Changes in Learning and Foraging Behaviour within Developing Bumble Bee (Bombus terrestris) Colonies  

PubMed Central

Organisation in eusocial insect colonies emerges from the decisions and actions of its individual members. In turn, these decisions and actions are influenced by the individual's behaviour (or temperament). Although there is variation in the behaviour of individuals within a colony, we know surprisingly little about how (or indeed if) the types of behaviour present in a colony change over time. Here, for the first time, we assessed potential changes in the behavioural type of foragers during colony development. Using an ecologically relevant foraging task, we measured the decision speed and learning ability of bumble bees (Bombus terrestris) at different stages of colony development. We determined whether individuals that forage early in the colony life cycle (the queen and early emerging workers) behaved differently from workers that emerge and forage at the end of colony development. Whilst we found no overall change in the foraging behaviour of workers with colony development, there were strong differences in foraging behaviour between queens and their workers. Queens appeared to forage more cautiously than their workers and were also quicker to learn. These behaviours could allow queens to maximise their nectar collecting efficiency whilst avoiding predation. Because the foundress queen is crucial to the survival and success of a bumble bee colony, more efficient foraging behaviour in queens may have strong adaptive value. PMID:24599144

Evans, Lisa J.; Raine, Nigel E.

2014-01-01

429

A novel mode of colony formation in a hydrozoan through fusion of sexually generated individuals.  

PubMed

Coloniality, as displayed by most hydrozoans, is thought to confer a size advantage in substrate-limited benthic marine environments and affects nearly every aspect of a species' ecology and evolution. Hydrozoan colonies normally develop through asexual budding of polyps that remain interconnected by continuous epithelia. The clade Aplanulata is unique in that it comprises mostly solitary species, including the model organism Hydra, with only a few colonial species. We reconstruct a multigene phylogeny to trace the evolution of coloniality in Aplanulata, revealing that the ancestor of Aplanulata was solitary and that coloniality was regained in the genus Ectopleura. Examination of Ectopleura larynx development reveals a unique type of colony formation never before described in Hydrozoa, in that colonies form through sexual reproduction followed by epithelial fusion of offspring polyps to adults. We characterize the expression of manacle, a gene involved in foot development in Hydra, to determine polyp-colony boundaries. Our results suggest that stalks beneath the neck do not have polyp identity and instead are specialized structures that interconnect polyps. Epithelial fusion, brooding behavior, and the presence of a skeleton were all key factors behind the evolution of this novel pathway to coloniality in Ectopleura. PMID:22521789

Nawrocki, Annalise M; Cartwright, Paulyn

2012-05-01

430

Characterization of a human hematopoietic progenitor cell capable of forming blast cell containing colonies in vitro.  

PubMed Central

A hematopoietic cell (CFU-B1) capable of producing blast cell containing colonies in vitro was detected using a semisolid culture system. The CFU-B1 has the capacity for self-renewal and commitment to a number of hematopoietic lineages. Monoclonal antibody to the human progenitor cell antigen-1 (HPCA-1) and a monoclonal antibody against the major histocompatibility class II antigen (HLA-DR) were used with fluorescence activated cell sorting to phenotype the CFU-B1. The CFU-B1 was found to express My10 but not HLA-DR antigen; experiments using complement-dependent cytotoxicity to eliminate DR positive cells confirmed this finding. Pretreatment of marrow cells with two chemotherapeutic agents, 5-fluorouracil and 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide facilitated detection of CFU-B1 derived colonies, while diminishing or totally inhibiting colony formation by other hematopoietic progenitor cells. CFU-B1-derived colony formation was dependent upon the addition of exogenous hematopoietic growth factors. Media conditioned either by the human bladder carcinoma cell line 5637 or lectin stimulated leukocytes, as well as recombinant granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor, interleukin 3 or interleukin 1 alpha promoted blast cell colony formation. By contrast, neither recombinant erythropoietin, recombinant interleukin 4, purified macrophage colony stimulating factor or recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor alone promoted blast cell colony formation. Images PMID:3047166

Brandt, J; Baird, N; Lu, L; Srour, E; Hoffman, R

1988-01-01

431

Censusing wading bird colonies: An update on the 'flight-line' count method  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. Thirteen mixed-species heronries (10 in Florida, two in Virginia, one in North Carolina) were studied in 1980 as part of a project begun in 1979 aimed at evaluating the 'flight-line' census method..2. Standardized counts of Snowy and Cattle Egrets, Louisiana and Little Blue Herons flying to and from the nesting colony were made for three hr periods, followed by a nest count of the colony. 3.Significant differences were found in the flight rates (number of birds per nest x hour) of the four species at the Chincoteague colony. However, when Cattle Egrets and Louisiana Herons were compared at all 13 colonies, their respective flight rates were in opposite rank to those at Chincoteague. Colony differences, then, may mask species differences. 4. A linear regression model showed a strong fit (R2=0.92) between the hourly flight number (3 hr means) and the nest number, but point estimates (single colony) had very large confidence limits. A given colony might be over-or underestimated by a factor of 2, using the regression equation as a predictive model. 5. A more appropriate application of the method would be to determine regionwide (e.g., state), rather than colony-specific, population estimates. 'Total' estimates for all (n= 13) colonies were within 10% of the actual nest number.

Erwin, R.M.

1981-01-01

432

Interleukin 6 is a permissive factor for monocytic colony formation by human hematopoietic progenitor cells  

PubMed Central

Since monocytes and macrophages that arise during the culture of bone marrow progenitor cells are potential sources of interleukin 6 (IL-6), we investigated whether auto- or paracrine production of this factor is involved in colony formation by normal hematopoietic progenitor cells. We added a polyclonal anti-IL-6 antiserum and a monoclonal anti-IL-6 antibody to cultures of monocyte- and T cell-depleted bone marrow cells. Colony formation was stimulated with granulocyte/monocyte-colony- stimulating factor (GM-CSF), monocyte-CSF, or IL-3. Addition of anti-IL- 6 antibody resulted in decreased numbers of monocytic colonies to 40- 50% of control values, whereas the numbers of granulocytic colonies were not altered. The inhibitory effect was preserved in cultures of CD34(+)-enriched bone marrow cells. As a second approach, we added a monoclonal antibody directed against the IL-6 receptor to cultures of monocyte- and T cell-depleted bone marrow cells. This antibody almost completely inhibited the growth of monocytic colonies, again without decreasing the number of granulocytic colonies. Finally, the importance of IL-6 in monocytopoiesis was demonstrated in serum-deprived bone marrow cultures: addition of exogenous IL-6 to cultures stimulated with GM-CSF resulted in increased numbers of monocytic colonies. Our results indicate that the permissive presence of IL-6 is required for optimal monocytic colony formation by bone marrow progenitor cells. PMID:1552286

1992-01-01

433

Modeling light propagation through bacterial colonies and its correlation with forward scattering patterns.  

PubMed

Bacterial colonies play an important role in the isolation and identification of bacterial species, and plating on a petri dish is still regarded as the gold standard for confirming the cause of an outbreak situation. A bacterial colony consists of millions of densely packed individual bacteria along with matrices such as extracellular materials. When a laser is directed through a colony, complicated structures encode their characteristic signatures, which results in unique forward scattering patterns. We investigate the connection between the morphological parameters of a bacterial colony and corresponding forward scattering patterns to understand bacterial growth morphology. A colony elevation is modeled with a Gaussian profile, which is defined with two critical parameters: center thickness and diameter. Then, applying the scalar diffraction theory, we compute an amplitude modulation via light attenuation from multiple layers of bacteria while a phase modulation is computed from the colony profile. Computational results indicate that center thickness plays a critical role in the total number of diffraction rings while the magnitude of the slope of a colony determines the maximum diffraction angle. Experimental validation is performed by capturing the scattering patterns, monitoring colony diameters via phase contrast microscope, and acquiring the colony profiles via confocal displacement meter. PMID:20799796

Bae, Euiwon; Bai, Nan; Aroonnual, Amornrat; Robinson, J Paul; Bhunia, Arun K; Hirleman, E Daniel

2010-01-01

434

Estimated areal extent of colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs in the northern Great Plains  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1997-1998, we undertook an aerial survey, with an aerial line-intercept technique, to estimate the extent of colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) in the northern Great Plains states of Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming. We stratified the survey based on knowledge of colony locations, computed 2 types of estimates for each stratum, and combined ratio estimates for high-density strata with average density estimates for low-density strata. Estimates of colony areas for black-tailed prairie dogs were derived from the average percentages of lines intercepting prairie dog colonies and ratio estimators. We selected the best estimator based on the correlation between length of transect line and length of intercepted colonies. Active colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs occupied 2,377.8 km2 i?? 186.4 SE, whereas inactive colonies occupied 560.4 i?? 89.2 km2. These data represent the 1st quantitative assessment of prairie-dog colonies in the northern Great Plains. The survey dispels popular notions that millions of square kilometers of colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs exist in the northern Great Plains and can form the basis for future survey efforts

Sidle, J.G.; Johnson, D.H.; Euliss, B.R.

2001-01-01

435

One Giant Leap: How Insects Achieved Altruism and Colonial Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer reviewed article from the January 2008 issue of BioScience examines the origin of altruism leading to eusociality in Hymenoptera. The advanced colonial state of eusociality has evolved in insects as a defense of nest sites within foraging distance of persistent food sources. In the Hymenoptera, the final step in the approach to eusociality is through a suite of preadaptations comprising simultaneous provisioning, fidelity to the nest, and a preexisting propensity toward dominance behavior and the selection of tasks according to opportunity. The only genetic change needed to cross the threshold to the eusocial grade is the foundress's possession of an allele that holds the foundress and her offspring to the nest. The preadaptations provide the phenotypic flexibility required for eusociality, as well as the key emergent traits arising from interactions of the group members. Group (colony-level) selection then immediately acts on both of these traits. The rarity of the origin of eusociality is evidently due to the rarity of the combination of progressive provisioning with environments of the kind that give an edge to group selection over individual direct selection, causing offspring to stay at the natal nest rather than disperse. Several lines of evidence, examined here, suggest that collateral kin selection does not play a significant role.

Edward O. Wilson (Harvard University; )

2008-01-01

436

Opinions from the Front Lines of Cat Colony Management Conflict  

PubMed Central

Outdoor cats represent a global threat to terrestrial vertebrate conservation, but management has been rife with conflict due to differences in views of the problem and appropriate responses to it. To evaluate these differences we conducted a survey of opinions about outdoor cats and their management with two contrasting stakeholder groups, cat colony caretakers (CCCs) and bird conservation professionals (BCPs) across the United States. Group opinions were polarized, for both normative statements (CCCs supported treating feral cats as protected wildlife and using trap neuter and release [TNR] and BCPs supported treating feral cats as pests and using euthanasia) and empirical statements. Opinions also were related to gender, age, and education, with females and older respondents being less likely than their counterparts to support treating feral cats as pests, and females being less likely than males to support euthanasia. Most CCCs held false beliefs about the impacts of feral cats on wildlife and the impacts of TNR (e.g., 9% believed feral cats harmed bird populations, 70% believed TNR eliminates cat colonies, and 18% disagreed with the statement that feral cats filled the role of native predators). Only 6% of CCCs believed feral cats carried diseases. To the extent the beliefs held by CCCs are rooted in lack of knowledge and mistrust, rather than denial of directly observable phenomenon, the conservation community can manage these conflicts more productively by bringing CCCs into the process of defining data collection methods, defining study/management locations, and identifying common goals related to caring for animals. PMID:22970269

Peterson, M. Nils; Hartis, Brett; Rodriguez, Shari; Green, Matthew; Lepczyk, Christopher A.

2012-01-01

437

Visual Navigation during Colony Emigration by the Ant Temnothorax rugatulus  

PubMed Central

Many ants rely on both visual cues and self-generated chemical signals for navigation, but their relative importance varies across species and context. We evaluated the roles of both modalities during colony emigration by Temnothorax rugatulus. Colonies were induced to move from an old nest in the center of an arena to a new nest at the arena edge. In the midst of the emigration the arena floor was rotated 60around the old nest entrance, thus displacing any substrate-bound odor cues while leaving visual cues unchanged. This manipulation had no effect on orientation, suggesting little influence of substrate cues on navigation. When this rotation was accompanied by the blocking of most visual cues, the ants became highly disoriented, suggesting that they did not fall back on substrate cues even when deprived of visual information. Finally, when the substrate was left in place but the visual surround was rotated, the ants' subsequent headings were strongly rotated in the same direction, showing a clear role for visual navigation. Combined with earlier studies, these results suggest that chemical signals deposited by Temnothorax ants serve more for marking of familiar territory than for orientation. The ants instead navigate visually, showing the importance of this modality even for species with small eyes and coarse visual acuity. PMID:23671713

Bowens, Sean R.; Glatt, Daniel P.; Pratt, Stephen C.

2013-01-01

438

Clonal Expression of the Tn Antigen in Erythroid and Granulocyte Colonies and Its Application to Determination of the Clonality of the Human Megakaryocyte Colony Assay  

PubMed Central

To evaluate whether exposure of Tn determinants at the surface of human erythrocytes, platelets, and granulocytes could arise from a somatic mutation in a hemopoietic stem cell, burst-forming unit erythroid (BFU-E) colonies, colony-forming unit granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM), and colony-forming unit-eosinophil (CFU-Eo) were grown from a blood group O patient with a typical Tn syndrome displaying two distinct populations (Tn+ and Tn-) of platelets, granulocytes, and erythrocytes. A large number of colonies was observed. Individual colonies were studied with a fluorescent conjugate of Helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA). A sizeable fraction of each of the erythroid and granulocytic colonies appeared to consist exclusively of either HPA-positive or HPA-negative cells, thereby demonstrating the clonal origin of those exhibiting the Tn marker. Similar results were obtained from a second patient. These findings establish that the HPA labeling of Tn cells is an accurate marker permitting assessment of the clonality of the human megakaryocyte (MK) colony assay. For the study of MK cultures a double-staining procedure using the HPA lectin and a monoclonal antiplatelet antibody (J-15) was applied in situ to identify all MK constituting a colony. Our results, obtained in studies of 133 MK colonies, provide definitive evidence that the human MK colony assay is clonal because all MK colonies were exclusively composed of Tn+ and Tn- MK. Furthermore, the distribution of MK within a single colony was shown to be seminormal with a mean at 6 MK, isolated MK typically being absent in culture. Comparison of the proportion of mature Tn+ cells in blood with their respective Tn+ progenitors has also shown that no proliferative advantage occurs after the commitment; because Tn polyagglutinability is an acquired disorder, then the expansion of the Tn+ clone must occur either during the proliferative stage of the pluripotent stem cell or during the commitment itself. This study therefore affords evidence that a blood group antigen plays a role in the differentiation of a pluripotent stem cell. Images PMID:6175663

Vainchenker, William; Testa, Ugo; Deschamps, Jeanne Franoise; Henri, Annie; Titeux, Monique; Breton-Gorius, Janine; Rochant, Henri; Lee, Douglas; Cartron, Jean-Pierre

1982-01-01

439

The Alternative Role of Enterobactin as an Oxidative Stress Protector Allows Escherichia coli Colony Development  

PubMed Central

Numerous bacteria have evolved different iron uptake systems with the ability to make use of their own and heterologous siderophores. However, there is growing evidence attributing alternative roles for siderophores that might explain the potential adaptive advantages of microorganisms having multiple siderophore systems. In this work, we show the requirement of the siderophore enterobactin for Escherichia coli colony development in minimal media. We observed that a strain impaired in enterobactin production (entE mutant) was unable to form colonies on M9 agar medium meanwhile its growth was normal on LB agar medium. Given that, neither iron nor citrate supplementation restored colony growth, the role of enterobactin as an iron uptake-facilitator would not explain its requirement for colony development. The absence of colony development was reverted either by addition of enterobactin, the reducing agent ascorbic acid or by incubating in anaerobic culture conditions with no additives. Then, we associated the enterobactin requirement for colony development with its ability to reduce oxidative stress, which we found to be higher in media where the colony development was impaired (M9) compared with media where the strain was able to form colonies (LB). Since oxyR and soxS mutants (two major stress response regulators) formed colonies in M9 agar medium, we hypothesize that enterobactin could be an important piece in the oxidative stress response repertoire, particularly required in the context of colony formation. In addition, we show that enterobactin has to be hydrolyzed after reaching the cell cytoplasm in order to enable colony development. By favoring iron release, hydrolysis of the enterobactin-iron complex, not only would assure covering iron needs, but would also provide the cell with a molecule with exposed hydroxyl groups (hydrolyzed enterobactin). This molecule would be able to scavenge radicals and therefore reduce oxidative stress. PMID:24392154

Peralta, Daiana R.; Pomares, Mara Fernanda; de Cristbal, Ricardo E.; Vincent, Paula A.

2014-01-01

440

Influence of fire on black-tailed prairie dog colony expansion in shortgrass steppe  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Factors influencing the distribution and abundance of black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies are of interest to rangeland managers because of the significant influence prairie dogs can exert on both livestock and biodiversity. We examined the influence of 4 prescribed burns and one wildfire on the rate and direction of prairie dog colony expansion in shortgrass steppe of southeastern Colorado. Our study was conducted during 2 years with below-average precipitation, when prairie dog colonies were expanding throughout the study area. Under these dry conditions, the rate of black-tailed prairie dog colony expansion into burned grassland (X?? = 2.6 ha??100-m perimeter-1??y-1; range = 0.8-5.9 ha??100-m perimeter-1??y-1; N = 5 colonies) was marginally greater than the expansion rate into unburned grassland (X?? =1.3 ha??100-m perimeter-1??y-1; range = 0.2-4.9 ha??100-m perimeter-1??y-1; N = 23 colonies; P = 0.066). For 3 colonies that were burned on only a portion of their perimeter, we documented consistently high rates of expansion into the adjacent burned grassland (38%-42% of available burned habitat colonized) but variable expansion rates into the adjacent unburned grassland (2%-39% of available unburned habitat colonized). While our results provide evidence that burning can increase colony expansion rate even under conditions of low vegetative structure, this effect was minor at the scale of the overall colony complex because some unburned colonies were also able to expand at high rates. This result highlights the need to evaluate effects of fire on colony expansion during above-average rainfall years, when expansion into unburned grassland may be considerably lower.

Augustine, D.J.; Cully, J.F., Jr.; Johnson, T.L.

2007-01-01

441

Epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease in Landhi Dairy Colony, Pakistan, the world largest Buffalo colony  

PubMed Central

Background Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Pakistan and causes huge economic losses. This work focus on the Landhi Dairy Colony (LDC), located in the suburbs of Karachi. LDC is the largest Buffalo colony in the world, with more than 300,000 animals (around 95% buffaloes and 5% cattle, as well as an unknown number of sheep and goats). Each month from April 2006 to April 2007 we collected mouth-swabs from apparently healthy buffaloes and cattle, applying a convenient sampling based on a two-stage random sampling scheme, in conjunction with participatory information from each selected farm. Furthermore, we also collected epithelium samples from animals with clinical disease, as well as mouth-swabs samples from those farms. In addition, we analysed a total of 180 serum samples randomly collecting 30 samples each month at the local slaughterhouse, from October 2006 to March 2007. Samples have been screened for FMDV by real-time RT-PCR and the partial or full 1D coding region of selected isolates has been sequenced. Serum samples have been analysed by applying serotype-specific antibody ELISA and non-structural proteins (NSP) antibody ELISA. Results FMDV infection prevalence at aggregate level shows an endemic occurrence of FMDV in the colony, with peaks in August 2006, December 2006 and February 2007 to March 2007. A significant association of prevalence peaks to the rainy seasons, which includes the coldest time of the year and the muslimic Eid-festival, has been demonstrated. Participatory information indicated that 88% of all questioned farmers vaccinate their animals. Analysis of the serum samples showed high levels of antibodies for serotypes O, A, Asia 1 and C. The median endpoint-titre for all tested serotypes, except serotype C, in VNT titration is at a serum dilution of equal or above 1/100. All 180 serum samples collected have been tested for antibodies against the non-structural proteins and all but four have been found positive. Out of the 106 swab-samples from apparently healthy and affected animals positive in real-time RT-PCR, we sequenced the partial or full 1D coding region from 58 samples. In addition we sequenced the full 1D coding region of 17 epithelium samples from animals with clinical signs of FMD. From all sequenced samples, swabs and epithelium, 19 belong to the regional PanAsia II lineage of serotype O and 56 to the A/Iran/2005 lineage of serotype A. Conclusion For an effective and realisable FMD control program in LDC, we suggest to introduce a twice annually mass vaccination of all buffaloes and cattle in the colony. These mass vaccinations should optimally take place shortly before the beginning of the two rainy periods, e.g. in June and September. Those vaccinations should, in our opinion, be in addition to the already individually performed vaccinations of single animals, as the latter usually targets only newly introduced animals. This suggested combination of mass vaccination of all large ruminants with the already performed individually vaccination should provide a continuous high level of herd immunity in the entire colony. Vaccines used for this purpose should contain the matching vaccine strains, i.e. as our results indicate antigens for A/Iran/2005 and the regional type of serotype O (PanAsia II), but also antigens of the, in this world region endemic, Asia 1 lineage should be included. In the long term it will be important to control the vaccine use, so that subclinical FMD will be avoided. PMID:18445264

Klein, Joern; Hussain, Manzoor; Ahmad, Munir; Afzal, Muhammad; Alexandersen, Soren

2008-01-01

442

The relevance of the Mediterranean Region to colonial waterbird conservation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Mediterranean Sea is the largest partially enclosed sea in the world and provides habitat to more than 100 species of waterbirds from the Palearctic-North African-Middle Eastern regions. Even though the Mediterranean suffers from pollution, has little tidal influence, and is oligotrophic, more than half of the western Palearctic populations of numerous waterfowl species winter in the region. Thirty-three species of colonial waterbirds breed along the 46,000 km Mediterranean coastline with nine species considered threatened or endangered, mostly because of wetland loss and degradation. The long history of human activity and scientific investigations in the region has taught some valuable lessons. In the area of colonial waterbird biology and conservation, we have learned important lessons about the value of long-term monitoring and research on selected populations. From marking studies of Greater Flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber roseus) and Little Egrets (Egretta garzetta) results have been used to derive useful information about metapopulation dynamics. Involvement of both African and European biologists allowed year-round Studies of these species that yielded valuable spin-offs for training in avian and wetland conservation. We have also learned the value of man-made wetlands as feeding and nesting sites for some colonial waterbirds. Careful evaluations of the habitat quality of different types of wetlands are required, as in contaminant levels such as lead shot and pesticides. Wetland conservationists have also learned from some instructive mistakes. Dam construction and agricultural incentive programs sponsored by the European Community, the World Bank, and others from the past have largely ignored impacts on wetlands and wildlife. In some areas, economic ventures such as aquaculture operations and salt mining have not involved waterbird habitat needs in their planning. Research and conservation needs include: (1) establishing regional monitoring programs and data banks for seabirds, wading birds, ducks, and geese; (2) implementing a wetland inventory for many Countries with little quantitative data on wetlands; (3) improving habitat quality assessments; (4) improving relationships with industry, the private citizenry, and government officials to further an appreciation for the value of wetlands and waterbirds; (5) enhancing training efforts, especially in underdeveloped Countries; (6) evaluating the effects of hunting and other disturbances to nesting and feeding waterbirds in different regions; (7) setting up 'sister-reserve' (twinned) sites in Europe and Africa to foster international linkages and training; and (8) fostering local-regional conservation programs to preserve reed beds, wet woodlots, and other key habitats.

Erwin, R.M.

1996-01-01

443

Changes in peasant food production and food supply in relation to the historical development of commodity production in pre?colonial and colonial Tanganyika  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the dynamic interaction between peasant food production and commodity production under conditions of the increasing penetration of capital and consequent erosion of pre?capitalist modes of production in pre?colonial and colonial Tanganyika (Tanzania). It is argued that while the law of value inherent in commodity production definitely served to effect more specialisation of labour in peasant production, nevertheless,it

Deborah Fahy Bryceson

1980-01-01

444

Direct and indirect effects of recombinant human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor on in vitro colony formation of human bladder cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the present experimental use of recombinant human granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (rG-CSF) has been proven to alleviate the myelosuppression induced by antitumor chemotherapy, it is also believed to stimulate growth of some nonhematopoietic tumor cells. We investigated both the direct and indirect effects of rG-CSF on in vitro colony formation of human bladder cancer cell lines using a modified human tumor

Isteaq Ahmed Shameem; Hiroaki Kurisu; Hideyasu Matsuyama; Tomoyuki Shimabukuro; Katsusuke Naito

1994-01-01

445

Lubricating bacteria model for the growth of bacterial colonies exposed to ultraviolet radiation  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we study the morphological transition of bacterial colonies exposed to ultraviolet radiation by modifying the bacteria model proposed by Delprato et al. Our model considers four factors: the lubricant fluid generated by bacterial colonies, a chemotaxis initiated by the ultraviolet radiation, the intensity of the ultraviolet radiation, and the bacteria's two-stage destruction rate with given radiation intensities. Using this modified model, we simulate the ringlike pattern formation of the bacterial colony exposed to uniform ultraviolet radiation. The following is shown. (1) Without the UV radiation the colony forms a disklike pattern and reaches a constant front velocity. (2) After the radiation is switched on, the bacterial population migrates to the edge of the colony and forms a ringlike pattern. As the intensity of the UV radiation is increased the ring forms faster and the outer velocity of the colony decreases. (3) For higher radiation intensities the total population decreases, while for lower intensities the total population increases initially at a small rate and then decreases. (4) After the UV radiation is switched off, the bacterial population grows both outward as well as into the inner region, and the colony's outer front velocity recovers to a constant value. All these results agree well with the experimental observations [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 158102 (2001)]. Along with the chemotaxis, we find that lubricant fluid and the two-stage destruction rate are critical to the dynamics of the growth of the bacterial colony when exposed to UV radiation, and these were not previously considered.

Zhang Shengli; Zhang Lei; Liang Run; Zhang Erhu; Liu Yachao; Zhao Shumin [Department of Applied Physics, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)

2005-11-01

446

Determinants of local recruitment in a growing colony of Audouin's gull  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Local recruitment of Audouin's gull (Larus audouinii Payraudeau) was studied between 1988 and 1997 at the Ebro Delta colony (north-western Mediterranean). Since its establishment in 1981, the colony has dramatically grown to include, in 1997, 65% of the total world population. Several hypotheses were tested, involving the eects of a badger predatory event in 1994, and sex, age

Daniel Oro; Roger Pradel

2000-01-01

447

Colony structure and reproduction in the thelytokous parthenogenetic ant Platythyrea punctata (F. Smith) (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: An important evolutionary characteristic of the formicine subfamily Ponerinae is the occurrence of various alternative reproductive tactics within single species. In Platythyrea punctata Smith, 1858, queens, gamergates and parthenogenetic workers co-occur in the same species. Morphological queens, both alate and dealate, were present in only 29 percent of the colonies collected in Florida, but absent from colonies collected in

K. Schilder; J. Heinze; B. Hlldobler

1999-01-01

448

Global energy gradients and size in colonial organisms: Worker mass and worker number  

E-print Network

may thus mold gradients of ectotherm size, with consequences for the structure and function (family Formicidae) are colonial ectotherms that are important players in every terrestrial biome from a Colonial Ectotherm One limit to size is the rate at which an organism can harvest resources. Solar energy

Kaspari, Mike

449

Colony site selection and abandonment by least terns Sterna antillarum in New Jersey, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To develop habitat and management procedures to protect declining populations of least terns, colony site selection and abandonment by this species was investigated at 26 sites in New Jersey. Multivariate analysis was used to compare (1) colony sites to adjacent unused areas, (2) those located on beaches to dredge spoil sites and (3) abandoned to occupied colony sites. The presence of shells or pebbles in a sandy substrate, and short, sparse vegetation, were the habitat characteristics of New Jersey least tern colony sites most strongly correlated with colony site selection. Dredge spoil sites had significantly greater evidence of human disturbance, distance to water, and proportion of coarse particles in the substrate than beach sites. These differences may have contributed to the smaller colonines and greater colony turnover rates at spoil sites relative to beach sites. Overall, abandoned colony site characteristics did not differ significantly from occupied sites. However, human disturbance, over-growth of vegetation, predation, and flooding were all prevalent at colonies prior to abandonment. The results of this study suggest techniques for habitat management of both least and little terns.

Kotliar, Natasha B.; Burger, Joanna

1986-01-01

450

COLONY INVASION OF SMALL HIVE BEETLES: THE EFFECTS OF HONEY BEE TYPE AND ENTRANCE REDUCERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Frake, A. M. & L. I. de Guzman COLONY INVASION OF SMALL HIVE BEETLES: THE EFFECTS OF HONEY BEE TYPE AND ENTRANCE REDUCERS - First detected in Florida in 1998, small hive beetles (SHB) are now found in at least 30 states. Although SHB can kill colonies (Elzen et al., 1999, Apidologie 30: 361-366...

451

Self-organizing pattern formation on the combs of honey bee colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A characteristic pattern of brood, pollen, and honey develops on the combs of a honey bee colony, consisting of three distinct concentric regions a central brood area, a surrounding rim of pollen, and a large peripheral region of honey. That the pattern is consistent and well-organized suggests its adaptive value for the colony, yet the mechanism of pattern

Scott Camazine

1991-01-01

452

Egg-laying, egg-removal, and ovary development by workers in queenright honey bee colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The study investigates whether worker policing via the selective removal of worker-laid male eggs occurs in normal honey bee colonies with a queen. Queenright honey bee colonies were set up with the queen below a queen excluder. Frames of worker brood and drone comb were placed above the queen excluder. Daily inspections of the drone frames revealed the presence

Francis L. W. Ratnieks

1993-01-01

453

Colony state and regulation of pollen foraging in the honey bee, Apis mellifera L  

Microsoft Academic Search

To place social insect foraging behavior within an evolutionary context, it is necessary to establish relationships between individual foraging decisions and parameters influencing colony fitness. To address this problem, we examined interactions between individual foraging behavior and pollen storage levels in the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. Colonies responded to low pollen storage conditions by increasing pollen intake rates 54%

Jennifer H. Fewell; Mark L. Winston

1992-01-01

454

Hydrocarbons emitted by waggle-dancing honey bees stimulate colony foraging activity by causing experienced  

E-print Network

Hydrocarbons emitted by waggle-dancing honey bees stimulate colony foraging activity by causing. INTRODUCTION The waggle dance is a pattern of movement performed by successful honey bee foragers within the nest to recruit colony mates to forage on a profitable food source. This honey bee "dance language

455

Conflictos culturales y estrategias discursivas en dos textos de la Amrica colonial hispana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nueva crnica by Guamn Poma de Ayala and Rethorica Christiana by Diego de Valads constitute politically opposite texts, while remaining both very representative of the cultural interactions and conflicts characteristic of the colonial context from which western universalism emerged. In Ayala numerous forms of discursive subversion can be recognized, as well as a protest defying both colonial wisdom and power

Gonzalo Abril

456

Making Settler Cinemas Film and Colonial Encounters in the United States, Australia, and New Zealand  

E-print Network

Making Settler Cinemas Film and Colonial Encounters in the United States, Australia, and New Zealand Peter Limbrick In Making Settler Cinemas, Peter Limbrick argues that the United States, Australia, and New Zealand share histories of colonial encounters that have shaped their cinemas in distinctive ways

Lee, Herbie

457

An Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm for the 2D HP Protein Folding Problem  

E-print Network

An Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm for the 2D HP Protein Folding Problem Alena Shmygelska, Rosal, the two dimensional hydrophobic-polar (2D HP) protein folding problem. We introduce an ant colony algorithm closely approaches that of specialised, state-of-the methods for 2D HP protein folding. 1

Hoos, Holger H.

458

Wars of attrition: colony size determines competitive outcomes in a guild of African acacia ants  

E-print Network

Wars of attrition: colony size determines competitive outcomes in a guild of African acacia ants competition for nest sites in a guild of acacia ants residing on Acacia drepanolobium. I show that (1 differences in estimated average colony size among the four acacia ant species, and (3) experimental

Palmer, Todd M.

459

RODENT COMMUNITIES IN ACTIVE AND INACTIVE COLONIES OF BLACK-TAILED PRAIRIE DOGS IN SHORTGRASS STEPPE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) alter shortgrass-steppe landscapes in ways that are expected to affect other mammals. I sampled rodent populations at 31 sites on the Pawnee National Grasslands, Colorado, including 18 active colonies, 6 colonies that had been unoccupied for .6 years (inactive), and 7 grassland sites without prairie dogs (controls). Rodents were livetrapped for 4 consecutive nights at

Paul Stapp

2007-01-01

460

Inadvertent Propagation of Factor VII Deficiency in a Canine Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I Research Breeding Colony  

PubMed Central

Issues of cost and genetics can result in inbreeding of canine genetic disease colonies. Beagles often are used to maintain such colonies, providing stock for outcrosses. Factor VII (FVII) deficiency is a hemostatic disorder found at increased frequency in beagles and has been characterized at the DNA level. Deficiency of FVII presents obstacles in colonies founded with beagles. An initial finding of a FVII-deficient pup from a longstanding colony prompted us to evaluate FVII deficiency fully in this colony. Current and archival records and tissues were used to reconstruct the colony pedigree, assess the contribution from beagles, and test samples to document the source and frequency of the mutant FVII allele. As part of this study we developed a PCR-based diagnostic assay that was simpler than what was previously available. Pedigree analysis revealed a founder effect implicating beagles that led to high frequency (55%) of the mutant allele. In addition, affected animals were identified. The complete picture of the clinical effect within the colony remains unclear, but unusual neonatal presentations, including hemoabdomen, have occurred in pups affected with FVII deficiency. Use of a PCR-based diagnostic assay to screen all potential beagle breeding stock will prevent similar occurrences of FVII deficiency in future canine research colonies. PMID:19712579

Carlstrom, Lucas P; Jens, Jackie K; Dobyns, Marley E; Passage, Merry; Dickson, Patricia I; Ellinwood, N Matthew

2009-01-01

461

Synergistic Parasite-Pathogen Interactions Mediated by Host Immunity Can Drive the Collapse of Honeybee Colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The health of the honeybee and, indirectly, global crop production are threatened by several biotic and abiotic factors, which play a poorly defined role in the induction of widespread colony losses. Recent descriptive studies suggest that colony losses are often related to the interaction between pathogens and other stress factors, including parasites. Through an integrated analysis of the population and

Francesco Nazzi; Sam P. Brown; Desiderato Annoscia; Fabio Del Piccolo; Gennaro Di Prisco; Paola Varricchio; Giorgio Della Vedova; Federica Cattonaro; Emilio Caprio; Francesco Pennacchio

2012-01-01

462

Genetically engineered termite gut bacteria ( Enterobacter cloacae ) deliver and spread foreign genes in termite colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indigenous gut bacteria of the Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) were used as shuttle systems to deliver, express and spread foreign genes in termite colonies. The gut bacterium Enterobacter cloacae was transformed with a recombinant plasmid (pEGFP) containing genes encoding ampicillin resistance and green fluorescent protein (GFP). In laboratory experiments, termite workers and soldiers from three colonies

Claudia Husseneder; J. Kenneth Grace

2005-01-01

463

Spatial foraging patterns and colony energy status in the African honey bee, Apis mellifera scutellata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between changes in foraging patterns (inferred from waggle dance activity) and colony energy status (inferred from brood rearing activity, food storage, and colony weight) was examined for the African honey bee during a period of relative resource abundance and resource dearth. When resources were more abundant mean foraging distances (about 400 m) and foraging areas (45 km2) were

Stanley S. Schneider; Linda C. McNally

1993-01-01

464

A survey of managed honey bee colony losses in the USA, fall 2009 to winter 2010  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study records the fourth consecutive year of high winter losses in managed honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies in the USA. Over the winter of 2009-2010, US beekeepers responding to this survey lost an average of 42.2% of their colonies, for a total loss of 34.4%. Commercial beekeepers (those op...

465

Colony social structure in native and invasive populations of the social wasp Vespula pensylvanica  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Social insects rank among the most invasive of terrestrial species. The success of invasive social insects stems, in part, from the flexibility derived from their social behaviors. We used genetic markers to investigate if the social system of the invasive wasp,Vespula pensylvanica, differed in its introduced and native habitats in order to better understand variation in social phenotype in invasive social species. We found that (1) nestmate workers showed lower levels of relatedness in introduced populations than native populations, (2) introduced colonies contained workers produced by multiple queens whereas native colonies contained workers produced by only a single queen, (3) queen mate number did not differ significantly between introduced and native colonies, and (4) workers from introduced colonies were frequently produced by queens that originated from foreign nests. Thus, overall, native and introduced colonies differed substantially in social phenotype because introduced colonies more frequently contained workers produced by multiple, foreign queens. In addition, the similarity in levels of genetic variation in introduced and native habitats, as well as observed variation in colony social phenotype in native populations, suggest that colony structure in invasive populations may be partially associated with social plasticity. Overall, the differences in social structure observed in invasiveV. pensylvanicaparallel those in other, distantly related invasive social insects, suggesting that insect societies often develop similar social phenotypes upon introduction into new habitats.

Hanna, Cause; Cook, Erin D.; Thompson, Ariel R.; Dare, Lyndzey E.; Palaski, Amanda L.; Foote, David; Goodisman, Michael A. D.

2014-01-01

466

Pseudacteon decapitating fly parasitism rates in fire ant colonies around Gainesville, Florida  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In order to assess the impacts of phorid flies on fire ants in the Gainesville area, we collected 3 g of worker ants from 36 colonies. A total of 672 parasitized workers were recovered from the 36 colony samples. Confirmed parasitism rates ranged from 0-5% with an average of about 0.5%. Including c...

467

Colonial cyanobacteria of the genus ostiana (microcystis) from the upper vendian of Arkhangelsk region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of organic films from Zimnie Gory Beds, Ust'-Pinega Formation (Upper Vendian) permits to identify numerous colonial coccoid cyanobacteria of genus Ostiana Hermann (O. microcystis and O. aphanotece sp. nov.). Spheroid acritarchs of genus Leiospheridia Eis. (L. tenuissima and L. ternata) are occasionally found together with the colonial microfossils. Pyritized organic films with filamentous Leiotrichoides tipicus were found in

A. L. Ragozina; A. F. Weis; S. A. Afonin

2003-01-01

468

Ant Colony Approach to Predict Amino Acid Interaction Networks Le Havre University  

E-print Network

Ant Colony Approach to Predict Amino Acid Interaction Networks Omar GACI Le Havre University LITIS the notion of protein interaction network. This is a graph whose vertices are the proteins amino acids's interaction network from its amino acid sequence. An ant colony approach is used to solve this problem. 1

Boyer, Edmond

469

Indigenous Australian Women's Leadership: Stayin' Strong against the Post-Colonial Tide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, I reflect on my experiences as an Indigenous woman researcher coming to grips with colonialism through a post-colonialism lens. I also discuss a study which examines the leadership journey of a group of Indigenous Australian women. The research, which includes an auto-ethnographic approach, was guided by an Indigenous worldview

White, Nereda

2010-01-01

470

Effects of a Fipronil Spot-Treatment on field colonies of Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This field study investigated the colony effect of a Fipronil spot-treatment applied to active infestations of Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Spot-treatments were applied to a single active independent monitor from each of four colonies in which multiple independent m...

471

An Improved Ant Colony Optimisation Algorithm for the 2D HP Protein Folding Problem  

E-print Network

of a protein's structure from its amino-acid sequence is one of the most important problems in computational Colony Optimisation (ACO) algorithm for this £¥¤ -hard combinatorial problem and demonstrate its ability Colony Optimisation (ACO) is a population-based approach for solving combi- natorial optimisation

Hoos, Holger H.

472

FattyAcid-stimulated Oxidationof Methylazoxymethanol by RatColonie Mucosa1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined fatty acid-initiated metabolism of methylazoxymethanol (MAM) to formaldehyde (HCHO) by the 10,000 x g soluble fraction of rat colonie mucosa, and the role of prostaglandin synthase and lipoxygenase activities in mediat ing this process. Incubation of MAM with soluble fractions of rat colonie mucosa, in the absence of arachidonate, resulted in significant HCHO production compared to

Patricia A. Craven; Martin Neidig; Frederick R. DeRubertis

473

A Knowledge-Based Ant Colony Optimization for Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Knowledge-Based Ant Colony Optimization (KBACO) algorithm is proposed in this paper for the Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem (FJSSP). KBACO algorithm provides an effective integration between Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) model and knowledge model. In the KBACO algorithm, knowledge model learns some available knowledge from the optimization of ACO, and then applies the existing knowledge to guide the current

Li-Ning Xing; Ying-Wu Chen; Peng Wang; Qing-Song Zhao; Jian Xiong

2010-01-01

474

Multi-objective flexible job shop schedule based on improved ant colony algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flexible job shop scheduling problem is a very important research in the field of combinatorial optimization. It is also important for practical production. A method for solving multi-objective flexible job shop scheduling problem based on ant colony algorithm is presented in this paper. Ant colony algorithm is improved from the following aspects in this paper: The number of subsets is

Li Li; Keqi Wang

2009-01-01

475

Effects of duration of larval swimming period on early colony development in Bugula stolonifera (Bryozoa: Cheilostomata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory experiments with larvae of the cheilostome bryozoan Bugula stolonifera Ryland, 1960 assessed the time to settlement in the presence of a constantly available polystryrene substrate, the development of competence for metamorphosis, and the effects of the duration of swimming period on early colony development. Sexually mature colonies of B. stolonifera were collected on 11 and 18 September 1987; 2

R. M. Woollacott; J. A. Pechenik; K. M. Imbalzano

1989-01-01

476

Honeybee Colony Integration: Worker-Worker Interactions Mediate Hormonally Regulated Plasticity in Division of Labor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult workers in honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies exhibit plasticity in hormonally regulated, age-based division of labor by altering their pattern of behavioral development in response to changes in colony conditions. One form of this plasticity is precocious development: levels of juvenile hormone increase prematurely and bees begin foraging as much as 2 weeks earlier than average. We used two experimental

Zhi-Yong Huang; Gene E. Robinson

1992-01-01

477

Organization of honeybee colonies: characteristics and consequences of a superorganism concept  

E-print Network

Review Organization of honeybee colonies: characteristics and consequences of a superorganism-The colonial organization of honeybees reveals numerous analogies to multicellular organisms which makes-organized processes which are regulated through worker threshold response variability. In honeybees this is enhanced

Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

478

Differential Proteomics in Dequeened Honeybee Colonies Reveals Lower Viral Load in Hemolymph of  

E-print Network

Differential Proteomics in Dequeened Honeybee Colonies Reveals Lower Viral Load in Hemolymph of honeybees, where the queen is the only fertile female among tens of thousands sterile worker bees, have in Dequeened Honeybee Colonies Reveals Lower Viral Load in Hemolymph of Fertile Worker Bees. PLoS ONE 6(6): e

Wenseleers, Tom

479

Social foraging by honeybees: how colonies allocate foragers among patches of flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand how a colony of honeybees keeps its forager force focussed on rich sources of food, and analysis was made of how the individual foragers within a colony decide to abandon or continue working (and perhaps even recruit to) patches of flowers. A nectar forager grades her behavior toward a patch in response to both the nectar intake rate

Thomas D. Seeley

1986-01-01

480

Precise Assessment of the Number of Patrilines and of Genetic Relatedness in Honeybee Colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sociobiologists have long sought to estimate precisely the relatedness among members of social insect colonies because of the central significance of kinship in evolutionary and behavioural studies. By using microsatellites, we directly identified the 7-20 subfamilies (patrilines) present in five honeybee colonies belonging to three different subspecies (Apis mellifera mellifera, A. m. carnica and A. m. ligustica). By focusing further

Arnaud Estoup; Michel Solignac; Jean-Marie Cornuet

1994-01-01

481

Breeding for hygienic behaviour in honeybees (Apis mellifera) using free-mated nucleus colonies  

E-print Network

Breeding for hygienic behaviour in honeybees (Apis mellifera) using free-mated nucleus colonies-to-year comparisons of breeding colonies may not be an accurate predictor of selection gains within honeybee / Varroa destructor 1. INTRODUCTION American foulbrood (AFB) is a disease of honeybees (Apis mellifera L

482

GROWTH OF YOUNG COLONIES OF COPTOTERMES FORMOSANUS (ISOPTERA: RHINOTERMITIDAE) FEEDING ON SINGLE VERSUS MULTIPLE WOOD SPECIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The impact of diet diversity on growth of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) colonies was studied. Groups of 22 one-year-old colonies of C. formosanus were fed different combinations of 3 wood species or one of 5 single species of wood including loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.)...

483

RECRUITMENT AT A BLACK-BILLED GULL COLONY: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE INFORMATION CENTER HYPOTHESIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent to which a flock leader advertises its departure from a colony and recruits flock mates is an important issue of the Information Center hypothesis. At a colony of Black-billed Gulls (Larus bulleri), I found that attractive calls were given by some leaders, that leaders called more often than followers, and that calling leaders recruited followers more often than

ROGER M. EVANS

484

Language Legislation in the Belgian Colonial Charter of 1908: A Textual-Historical Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When in 1908 the Belgian government took over the Congo from King Leopold II, a charter was drafted that would serve as a constitution-like statutory code for the new colony. Article 3 in this "Colonial Charter" dealt with language and linguistic rights. It epitomized the duality of language questions with which Belgium remained faced

Meeuwis, Michael

2015-01-01

485

Teaching Morality and Religion in Nineteenth-Century Colonial Algeria: Gender and the Civilising Mission  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Historians have long presented France's "civilizing mission" within its colonies in secular terms ignoring women's presence as both actors and subjects. This is particularly true in Algeria where the colonial government's explicitly prohibited proselytism. This article emphasizes women's roles pursuing both secular and religious goals in Algeria.

Rogers, Rebecca

2011-01-01

486

Honey bee primer pheromones and colony organization: gaps in our knowledge  

E-print Network

Review Honey bee primer pheromones and colony organization: gaps in our knowledge Mark L. Winstona knowledge concerning how honey bee primer pheromones mediate worker activities and colony functions. We first review the chemical structure and functions of queen mandibular pheromone (QMP), but then focus

Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

487

Latitudinal gradients in sea ice and primary production determine Arctic seabird colony  

E-print Network

Latitudinal gradients in sea ice and primary production determine Arctic seabird colony size of the trophic cascade at high latitudes determines the carrying capacity for Arctic seabirds during the breeding in the world. The thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia) is an Arctic seabird species that breeds in colonies

Laidre, Kristin L.

488

Distribution of Paenibacillus larvae spores inside honey bee colonies and its relevance for diagnosis.  

PubMed

One of the most important factors affecting the development of honey bee colonies is infectious diseases such as American foulbrood (AFB) caused by the spore forming Gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. Colony inspections for AFB clinical symptoms are time consuming. Moreover, diseased cells in the early stages of the infection may easily be overlooked. In this study, we investigated whether it is possible to determine the sanitary status of a colony based on analyses of different materials collected from the hive. We analysed 237 bee samples and 67 honey samples originating from 71 colonies situated in 13 apiaries with clinical AFB occurrences. We tested whether a difference in spore load among bees inside the whole hive exists and which sample material related to its location inside the hive was the most appropriate for an early AFB diagnosis based on the culture method. Results indicated that diagnostics based on analysis of honey samples and bees collected at the hive entrance are of limited value as only 86% and 83%, respectively, of samples from AFB-symptomatic colonies were positive. Analysis of bee samples collected from the brood nest, honey chamber, and edge frame allowed the detection of all colonies showing AFB clinical symptoms. Microbiological analysis showed that more than one quarter of samples collected from colonies without AFB clinical symptoms were positive for P. larvae. Based on these results, we recommend investigating colonies by testing bee samples from the brood nest, edge frame or honey chamber for P. larvae spores. PMID:18573258

Gillard, M; Charriere, J D; Belloy, L

2008-09-01

489

Dissecting Colony Development of Neurospora crassa Using mRNA Profiling and Comparative Genomics Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colony development, which includes hyphal extension, branching, anastomosis, and asexual sporulation, is a fundamental aspect of the life cycle of filamentous fungi; genetic mechanisms underlying these phenomena are poorly understood. We conducted transcriptional profiling during colony development of the model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, using 70-mer oligonucleotide microarrays. Relative mRNA expression levels were determined for six sections of defined age

Takao Kasuga; N. Louise Glass

2008-01-01

490

[The principles of functioning of the distribution system in colonial hydroids].  

PubMed

Experimental study of the hydroplasmic flows in Gonothyraea loveni (Allm., 1859) uncovers a hydraulic principle determining the functioning of a pulsatory-type distribution system in colonial hydroids during metamorphosis of the planula, formation of the primary shoot, and colony growth. The absence of regulation of the hydroplasmic movement cycle is demonstrated. PMID:20873147

Burykin, Iu B

2010-01-01

491

Rounding up Spinsters: Gender Chaos and Unmarried Women in Colonial Asante Author(s): Jean Allman  

E-print Network

Rounding up Spinsters: Gender Chaos and Unmarried Women in Colonial Asante Author(s): Jean Allman CHAOS AND UNMARRIED WOMEN IN COLONIAL ASANTE* BY JEAN ALLMAN University of Minnesota IN March of I933 and against advertising the frailties of his maidens.' Although the District Officer cast this so

Subramanian, Venkat

492

Extraordinary starvation resistance in Temnothorax rugatulus (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) colonies: Demography and adaptive behavior  

PubMed Central

Summary Ant colony mortality has not been sufficiently studied, even though it is crucial for understanding social insect population biology and can serve as an important model for general aging and mortality processes. Particularly, studies on proximate mechanisms on mortality and stress resistance of ant colonies are lacking. This study explores the long-term colony starvation resistance of the small myrmecine ant Temnothorax rugatulus. We report extraordinary starvation resistance in the 21 colonies investigated, as most survived the eight months of total starvation. Furthermore, we studied demographic and behavioral changes over the experimental period. Brood decline began first (after two months) and mortality was highest, worker decline was intermediate, and queen mortality started latest and remained lowest. We found brood (its relative change during the first four months and the level of brood relative to colony size) to be the only significant predictor of colony starvation resistance, but not the degree of polygyny. As expected, rates of trophallaxis increased during the starvation period while colony activity bouts occurred more frequently but were much shorter, leading to an overall decrease in activity levels. This study is the first to comprehensively study mechanisms of starvation resistance in ant colonies, linking demography and behavior. PMID:18521192

Rueppell, O.; Kirkman, R. W.

2008-01-01

493

Large colonies and striking sexual investment in the African stink ant, Paltothyreus tarsatus (subfamily Ponerinae)  

E-print Network

in the Ivory Coast. Colonies were monogynous in Como (forest and savanna), but polygynous in Ta (rainforest al. 1994). We collected over 40 complete colonies in savanna and forest habitats in the Ivory Coast field work at two localities (northern and coastal) in the Ivory Coast, West Africa. The southern part

Danchin, Etienne

494

Demonstrating effective RNAi product line to control honeybee colony collapse factors  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) phenomenon affecting honey bees is still not fully understood, but there is a strong consensus that some specific pathogens and pests are major contributing factors to colony losses. Viruses, microsporidia, and the Varroa mite are considered the top three contribut...

495

Deadly competition between sibling bacterial colonies Avraham Be'era,1  

E-print Network

Deadly competition between sibling bacterial colonies Avraham Be'era,1 , H. P. Zhanga , E sibling cells that belong to the same colony. Here, we present experimental observations of competition be competition bacterial growth growth inhibition Paenibacillus dendritiformis Bacteria are not the simple

Texas at Austin. University of

496

First analysis of risk factors associated with bee colony collapse disorder by classification and regression trees  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sudden losses of managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies are considered an important problem worldwide but the underlying cause or causes of these losses are currently unknown. In the United States, this syndrome was termed Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), since the defining trait was a rapid ...

497

Small Colony Variant of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius ST71 Presenting as a Sticky Phenotype  

PubMed Central

We first observed the phenomenon of small colony variants (SCVs) in a Staphylococcus pseudintermedius sequence type 71 (ST71) strain, isolated from a non-pet owner. Although we found that small-sized colonies share main features with Staphylococcus aureus SCVs, they nevertheless show a novel, particular, and sticky phenotype, whose expression was extremely stable, even after subcultivation. PMID:24452163

Carretto, Edoardo; Polilli, Ennio; Marrollo, Roberta; Santarone, Stella; Fazii, Paolo; D'Antonio, Domenico; Rossano, Alexandra; Perreten, Vincent

2014-01-01

498

Polygynous supercolonies of the acacia-ant Pseudomyrmex peperi, an inferior colony founder.  

PubMed

In ant-plant protection mutualisms, plants provide nesting space and nutrition to defending ants. Several plant-ants are polygynous. Possessing more than one queen per colony can reduce nestmate relatedness and consequently the inclusive fitness of workers. Here, we investigated the colony structure of the obligate acacia-ant Pseudomyrmex peperi, which competes for nesting space with several congeneric and sympatric species. Pseudomyrmex peperi had a lower colony founding success than its congeners and thus, appears to be competitively inferior during the early stages of colony development. Aggression assays showed that P. peperi establishes distinct, but highly polygynous supercolonies, which can inhabit large clusters of host trees. Analysing queens, workers, males and virgin queens from two supercolonies with eight polymorphic microsatellite markers revealed a maximum of three alleles per locus within a colony and, thus, high relatedness among nestmates. Colonies had probably been founded by one singly mated queen and supercolonies resulted from intranidal mating among colony-derived males and daughter queens. This strategy allows colonies to grow by budding and to occupy individual plant clusters for time spans that are longer than an individual queen's life. Ancestral states reconstruction indicated that polygyny represents the derived state within obligate acacia-ants. We suggest that the extreme polygyny of Pseudomyrmex peperi, which is achieved by intranidal mating and thereby maintains high nestmate relatedness, might play an important role for species coexistence in a dynamic and competitive habitat. PMID:19878453

Kautz, S; Pauls, S U; Ballhorn, D J; Lumbsch, H T; Heil, M

2009-12-01

499

Use of Vanishing Bearings to Locate New Wading Bird Colonies JAMES K. KENYON  

E-print Network

Herons (Ardea herodias) as they depart coastal foraging sites to determine the number and location.--vanishing bearings, colony location, Great Blue Heron, Ardea herodias, wading birds, colonial nesting. Waterbirds 29 Blue Herons (Ardea herodias) using vanishing bearings observed from coastal foraging sites in British

500

LANDSCAPE INFLUENCE ON THE QUALITY OF HERON AND EGRET COLONY SITES  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated landscape associations related to heron and egret colony site selection and the productivity of successful great blue heron (Ardea herodias) and great egret (Ardea alba) nests. The study was based on annual observations (1991-2005) at 45 colony sites known to be active within 10 km of historic tidal marshes of northern San Francisco Bay. The analyses focuse do

John P. Kelly; Diana Stralberg; Katie Etienne; Mark McCaustland

2008-01-01