Sample records for leper colonies

  1. Colonial Williamsburg

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In 1926, at the urging of the Revered Dr. D.A.R. Goodwin, John D. Rockefeller Jr. began a complex and elaborate restoration project in the quiet town of Williamsburg that sought to preserve a few of the more important Revolutionary War-era buildings around the town. The project became increasingly ambitious, and eventually grew to encompass around 85 percent of the town's area from the 18th century. Today, Colonial Williamsburg is the world's largest living history museum, and is noted for its ability to incorporate and interpret diverse perspectives on America's colonial period. Those persons unable to visit Colonial Williamsburg in person may want to first peruse the "Explore & Learn" section of the site, where they can learn about the different social and ethnic groups that inhabited the town (such as African-American slaves and colonial children), and see the various buildings within the community. The archaeology section of the site is particularly compelling, as visitors can learn about the many ongoing projects underway, and younger users can learn about the practice of archaeology through various games, quizzes, and puzzles. Additionally, users can read selected articles from the organization's popular history magazine, "Colonial Williamsburg," dating back to 1992. [KMG

  2. Colonial Invasions, Colonial Lives History 302

    E-print Network

    Abolmaesumi, Purang

    , and printed collections of these documents published at a later date. #12;2 1. Use QCAT A. Search by Subject or Keyword You can locate items in the library by searching QCAT by doing a keyword search and then adding of Mexico Check QCAT for call numbers and location. Colonial Spanish America: a Documentary History Colonial

  3. LEPTOSPIRAL COLONIAL MORPHOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Stalheim, O. H. V.; Wilson, J. B.

    1963-01-01

    Stalheim, O. H. V. (University of Wisconsin, Madison) and J. B. Wilson. Leptospiral colonial morphology. J. Bacteriol. 86:482–489. 1963.—A sequence of apparent colonial types was observed with colonies of Leptospira pomona, L. canicola, L. icterohaemorrhagiae, and L. grippotyphosa in agar medium. Although some colonies of these serotypes had a different appearance initially, they eventually developed the mature or final appearance characteristic of the serotype. Colonies of freshly isolated, virulent cultures of L. pomona, L. canicola, and L. icterohaemorrhagiae were similar in appearance to colonies of avirulent strains of the same serotype. Additional studies of three stable and distinct colonial types of a laboratory strain of L. autumnalis revealed no differences in antigenicity, catalase activity, or mouse infectivity; however, differences in susceptibility to lysis by oleic acid were found. Although the colonial variants were stable during several in vitro variations, including growth in the presence of homologous antiserum and mutation to growth in a chemically characterized medium, rapid dissociation in vivo was found. Images PMID:14066425

  4. Explore Colonial Boston

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-18

    Explore the town of Boston and its natural and human-made features in colonial times in this interactive activity produced by WGBH and featuring materials from the Norman B. Leventhal Map Center at the Boston Public Library.

  5. Growth of Bacterial Colonies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Mya; Hwa, Terence

    2013-03-01

    On hard agar gel, there is insufficient surface hydration for bacteria to swim or swarm. Instead, growth occurs in colonies of close-packed cells, which expand purely due to repulsive interactions: individual bacteria push each other out of the way through the force of their growth. In this way, bacterial colonies represent a new type of ``active'' granular matter. In this study, we investigate the physical, biochemical, and genetic elements that determine the static and dynamic aspects of this mode of bacterial growth for E. coli. We characterize the process of colony expansion empirically, and use discrete and continuum models to examine the extent to which our observations can be explained by the growth characteristics of non-communicating cells, coupled together by physical forces, nutrients, and waste products. Our results challenge the commonly accepted modes of bacterial colony growth and provide insight into sources of growth limitation in crowded bacterial communities.

  6. Ant Colony Optimization

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dorigo, Marco

    The Ant Colony Optimization project uses the behavior of ants as a model to solve optimization problems, such as how to minimize Internet traffic congestion. Several downloadable research papers are included on the project's homepage, as well as links to news stories, radio broadcasts, and conference proceedings about ant algorithms.

  7. Ant Colony Optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Dorigo; Mauro Birattari

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT IN THIS PAPER, WE STUDY THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE TWO TECHNIQUES KNOWN AS ANT COLONY OPTIMIZATION (ACO) AND STOCHASTIC GRADIENT DESCENT. MORE PRECISELY, WE SHOW THAT SOME EMPIRICAL ACO ALGORITHMS APPROXIMATE STOCHASTIC GRADIENT DESCENT IN THE SPACE OF PHEROMONES, AND WE PROPOSE AN IMPLEMENTATION OF STOCHASTIC GRADIENT DESCENT THAT BELONGS TO THE FAM-ILY OF ACO ALGORITHMS. WE THEN USE

  8. Images of Colonialism

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The history of colonialism is a compelling one, and it can be narrated through first-hand documents such as journals, drawings, or photographs. This particular digital collection from the Harvard College Library contains more than 700 images which offer insight into European perspectives on how popular perceptions of Asia and Africa were created and disseminated. The collection is primarily made up of late-19th and early-20th century trade cards and illustrated European newspapers. Visitors can use the collection to draw contrasts between colonial powers, such as the French, the British and the Dutch. First-time visitors will want to dive right into the collection, and the image viewer offered here allows visitors to zoom in for a closer look. While all of the items here are quite worthy, users shouldn't miss the cards created for the Liebig's Extract of Meat Company or the views of Bangkok.

  9. Colony image acquisition and genetic segmentation algorithm and colony analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W. X.

    2012-01-01

    Colony anaysis is used in a large number of engineerings such as food, dairy, beverages, hygiene, environmental monitoring, water, toxicology, sterility testing. In order to reduce laboring and increase analysis acuracy, many researchers and developers have made efforts for image analysis systems. The main problems in the systems are image acquisition, image segmentation and image analysis. In this paper, to acquire colony images with good quality, an illumination box was constructed. In the box, the distances between lights and dishe, camra lens and lights, and camera lens and dishe are adjusted optimally. In image segmentation, It is based on a genetic approach that allow one to consider the segmentation problem as a global optimization,. After image pre-processing and image segmentation, the colony analyses are perfomed. The colony image analysis consists of (1) basic colony parameter measurements; (2) colony size analysis; (3) colony shape analysis; and (4) colony surface measurements. All the above visual colony parameters can be selected and combined together, used to make a new engineeing parameters. The colony analysis can be applied into different applications.

  10. The Colony of Jamestown

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Shaul

    2009-06-10

    Learn who came over to Jamestown and why they came in the first place! First watch a video about why people came to the Americas: A video that explains why people came to the Americas in the first place Then once they got there, lets find out who was in Jamestown (click on Jamestown on the left hand side): Early American colonization Make sure you read up about the history of Jamestown: History of Jamestown and if thats confusion for you, here's another video: Video about the colony of Jamestown Once ...

  11. Colony image acquisition and segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W. X.

    2007-12-01

    For counting of both colonies and plaques, there is a large number of applications including food, dairy, beverages, hygiene, environmental monitoring, water, toxicology, sterility testing, AMES testing, pharmaceuticals, paints, sterile fluids and fungal contamination. Recently, many researchers and developers have made efforts for this kind of systems. By investigation, some existing systems have some problems. The main problems are image acquisition and image segmentation. In order to acquire colony images with good quality, an illumination box was constructed as: the box includes front lightning and back lightning, which can be selected by users based on properties of colony dishes. With the illumination box, lightning can be uniform; colony dish can be put in the same place every time, which make image processing easy. The developed colony image segmentation algorithm consists of the sub-algorithms: (1) image classification; (2) image processing; and (3) colony delineation. The colony delineation algorithm main contain: the procedures based on grey level similarity, on boundary tracing, on shape information and colony excluding. In addition, a number of algorithms are developed for colony analysis. The system has been tested and satisfactory.

  12. Ant Colony Optimization From Scholarpedia

    E-print Network

    Libre de Bruxelles, Université

    Ant Colony Optimization From Scholarpedia From Scholarpedia, the free peer-reviewed encyclopedia p.18620 Curator: Marco Dorigo, IRIDIA, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium Ant colony to difficult optimization problems. In ACO, a set of software agents called artificial ants search for good

  13. TEACHING RADICAL HISTORY Gender, Colonialism,

    E-print Network

    Subramanian, Venkat

    TEACHING RADICAL HISTORY Gender, Colonialism, and Feminist Collaboration Antoinette Burton and Jean capitalism, race, and the Radical History Review Issue 101 (Spring 2008) doi 10.1215/01636545-2007-046 © 2008 by MARHO: The Radical Historians' Organization, Inc. 198 #12;Burton and Allman | Gender, Colonialism

  14. Student Discipline in Colonial America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, John R.

    The basis for the severe discipline imposed on school children in colonial America, especially in the Puritan colonies, was the belief in original sin. The child was regarded as being born in sin and thus depraved and prone to sin. The purpose of education was to enable children to read the Bible and thus change the behavior which otherwise would…

  15. Classics of American Colonial History

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Presented by Dinsmore Documentation, Classics of American Colonial History is a research database consisting of scholarly books and articles on American colonial history that, according to the creators, "appear to be of continuing interest." The collection currently offers 22 source materials by 15 different authors. Browseable by author or subject, the collection contains subject categories including Administration, African Americans and Slavery, Economics and Trade, Immigration from Europe, Law, Native Americans, Politics, Religion, and Wars.

  16. Growing Yeast into Cylindrical Colonies Clement Vulin,

    E-print Network

    Murray, Andrew W.

    , metabolic yield, and nutrient diffusion within a freely growing colony remains a chal- lenge. Most available-to-capture morphogenetic process (1­ 4). Growth morphologies range from the smooth, flat, conical colonies formed nutrients can diffuse into the colony. Also, the presence of surrounding microbial colonies can add another

  17. Ant colony optimization: Introduction and recent trends

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Blum

    2005-01-01

    Ant colony optimization is a technique for optimization that was introduced in the early 1990's. The inspiring source of ant colony optimization is the foraging behavior of real ant colonies. This behavior is exploited in artificial ant colonies for the search of approximate solutions to discrete optimization problems, to continuous optimization problems, and to important problems in telecommunications, such as

  18. “They Treated Me Like a Leper

    PubMed Central

    Zickmund, Susan; Ho, Evelyn Y; Masuda, Masahiro; Ippolito, Laura; LaBrecque, Douglas R

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Hepatitis C virus is the most prevalent chronic blood-borne infection in the United States, typically acquired through contaminated blood products or needle sharing. We hypothesized that patients with chronic hepatitis C infection experience stigmatization independent of mode of acquisition and that it negatively affects quality of life. DESIGN Cross-sectional observation study. SETTING Specialty clinic in a tertiary referral hospital. PATIENTS Two hundred and ninety outpatients diagnosed with chronic hepatitis C infection and seen in a hepatology clinic. Thirty participants were excluded because of missing data. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Patients were asked to complete a demographic profile, a semistructured interview, the Sickness Impact Profile, and the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale. A team of two blinded coders analyzed the interviews. A total of 147 of the 257 study patients experienced stigmatization that they attributed to the disease. Women were more likely to report perceived stigmatization than men (P < .05). Age, education, professional status, and mode of infection did not influence the likelihood of stigmatization. Stigmatization was associated with higher anxiety (P < .01) and depression (P < .01), worsened quality of life (P < .01), loss of control (P < .01), and difficulty coping (P < .01). Individuals who experienced stigmatization also mentioned problems in their health care (P < .01) and work environment (P < .01) as well as with family members (P < .01). CONCLUSION Stigmatization is a very common emotionally burdensome experience for patients with hepatitis C, which can erode social support. As it penetrates even into the health care environment, physicians and other care providers should be aware of the existence and impact of such negative stereotyping. PMID:14521647

  19. Castrating parasites and colonial hosts.

    PubMed

    Hartikainen, H; Okamura, B

    2012-04-01

    Trajectories of life-history traits such as growth and reproduction generally level off with age and increasing size. However, colonial animals may exhibit indefinite, exponential growth via modular iteration thus providing a long-lived host source for parasite exploitation. In addition, modular iteration entails a lack of germ line sequestration. Castration of such hosts by parasites may therefore be impermanent or precluded, unlike the general case for unitary animal hosts. Despite these intriguing correlates of coloniality, patterns of colonial host exploitation have not been well studied. We examined these patterns by characterizing the responses of a myxozoan endoparasite, Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, and its colonial bryozoan host, Fredericella sultana, to 3 different resource levels. We show that (1) the development of infectious stages nearly always castrates colonies regardless of host condition, (2) castration reduces partial mortality and (3) development of transmission stages is resource-mediated. Unlike familiar castrator-host systems, this system appears to be characterized by periodic rather than permanent castration. Periodic castration may be permitted by 2 key life history traits: developmental cycling of the parasite between quiescent (covert infections) and virulent infectious stages (overt infections) and the absence of germ line sequestration which allows host reproduction in between bouts of castration. PMID:22309795

  20. Chronic sublethal stress causes bee colony failure

    PubMed Central

    Bryden, John; Gill, Richard J; Mitton, Robert A A; Raine, Nigel E; Jansen, Vincent A A; Hodgson, David

    2013-01-01

    Current bee population declines and colony failures are well documented yet poorly understood and no single factor has been identified as a leading cause. The evidence is equivocal and puzzling: for instance, many pathogens and parasites can be found in both failing and surviving colonies and field pesticide exposure is typically sublethal. Here, we investigate how these results can be due to sublethal stress impairing colony function. We mathematically modelled stress on individual bees which impairs colony function and found how positive density dependence can cause multiple dynamic outcomes: some colonies fail while others thrive. We then exposed bumblebee colonies to sublethal levels of a neonicotinoid pesticide. The dynamics of colony failure, which we observed, were most accurately described by our model. We argue that our model can explain the enigmatic aspects of bee colony failures, highlighting an important role for sublethal stress in colony declines. PMID:24112478

  1. Colonial heterogeneity of Thiobacillus versutus.

    PubMed Central

    Claassen, P A; Kortstee, G J; Oosterveld-van Vliet, W M; van Neerven, A R

    1986-01-01

    In acetate-limited chemostat cultures started with single-colony cultures of Thiobacillus versutus, a mutant appeared after approximately 85 volume changes. The inhomogeneity of the culture was detected by the development of two different types of colonies on agar plates. When a pure culture of the mutant was grown in a chemostat, parent colonies appeared after almost the same period of time. Electron micrographs of the mutant grown on butyrate showed the presence of fibrils surrounding the cells. The cells of the parent strain were bald when grown under the same conditions. The growth kinetics of the parent and the mutant were investigated in batch cultures with a variety of substrates and were found to be identical. Major differences between the two strains were observed during growth on mannitol; the mutant attained a lower yield and excreted large amounts of extracellular polysaccharides. Images PMID:3096960

  2. Genetic diversity affects colony survivorship in commercial honey bee colonies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) queens mate with unusually high numbers of males (average of approximately 12 drones), although there is much variation among queens. One main consequence of such extreme polyandry is an increased diversity of worker genotypes within a colony, which has been shown empirica...

  3. Multiple Ant Colonies Algorithm Based on Colony Level Interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hidenori KAWAMURA; Masahito YAMAMOTO; Keiji SUZUKI; Azuma OHUCHI

    2000-01-01

    SUMMARY Recently, researchers in various fields have shown interest in the behavior of creatures from the viewpoint of adaptiveness and flexibility. Ants, known as social insects, exhibit collective behavior in performingtasks that can not be carried out by an individual ant. In ant colonies, chemical sub- stances, called pheromones, are used as a way to communicate important information on global

  4. Queen promiscuity lowers disease within honeybee colonies

    PubMed Central

    Seeley, Thomas D; Tarpy, David R

    2006-01-01

    Most species of social insects have singly mated queens, but in some species each queen mates with numerous males to create a colony with a genetically diverse worker force. The adaptive significance of polyandry by social insect queens remains an evolutionary puzzle. Using the honeybee (Apis mellifera), we tested the hypothesis that polyandry improves a colony's resistance to disease. We established colonies headed by queens that had been artificially inseminated by either one or 10 drones. Later, we inoculated these colonies with spores of Paenibacillus larvae, the bacterium that causes a highly virulent disease of honeybee larvae (American foulbrood). We found that, on average, colonies headed by multiple-drone inseminated queens had markedly lower disease intensity and higher colony strength at the end of the summer relative to colonies headed by single-drone inseminated queens. These findings support the hypothesis that polyandry by social insect queens is an adaptation to counter disease within their colonies. PMID:17015336

  5. "Unauthorised colonies" and the City of Delhi

    E-print Network

    Mukherjee, Snehanshu

    1988-01-01

    This research was undertaken, to understand the phenomenon of "unauthorised colonies" in relation to the city of Delhi, to which they belong. "Unauthorised Colonies" is the label given by the Delhi Development Authority ...

  6. Ant Colony Optimization for Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Van Ast

    2010-01-01

    The very basis of this thesis is the collective behavior of ants in colonies. Ants are an excellent example of how rather simple behavior on a local level can lead to complex behavior on a global level that is beneficial for the individuals. The key in the self-organization of ants is communication through pheromones. When an ant forages for food,

  7. Fractal scaling of microbial colonies affects growth.

    PubMed

    Károlyi, György

    2005-03-01

    The growth dynamics of filamentary microbial colonies is investigated. Fractality of the fungal or actinomycetes colonies is shown both theoretically and in numerical experiments to play an important role. The growth observed in real colonies is described by the assumption of time-dependent fractality related to the different ages of various parts of the colony. The theoretical results are compared to a simulation based on branching random walks. PMID:15903467

  8. Understanding Long-Run African Growth: Colonial Institutions or Colonial Education?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jutta Bolt; Dirk Bezemer

    2009-01-01

    Long-term growth in developing countries has been explained in four frameworks: ‘extractive colonial institutions’ (Acemoglu et al., 2001), ‘colonial legal origin’ (La Porta et al., 2004), ‘geography’ (Gallup et al., 1998) and ‘colonial human capital’ (Glaeser et al., 2004). In this paper we test the ‘colonial human capital’ explanation for sub-Saharan Africa, controlling for legal origin and geography. Utilising data

  9. Ant Colony Optimization for Constraint Satisfaction

    E-print Network

    Solnon, Christine

    Ant Colony Optimization for Constraint Satisfaction Christine Solnon LIRIS, UMR 5205 CNRS / University of Lyon Tutorial at CP'2007 #12;Ant Colony Optimization Application to car sequencing Application to CSPs Conclusion Table of contents 1 Basic principles of Ant Colony Optimization 2 Application

  10. Ant Colonies for the Traveling Salesman Problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luca Maria Gambardella; Marco Dorigo

    1997-01-01

    We describe an artificial ant colony capable of solving the traveling salesman problem (TSP).Ants of the artificial colony are able to generate successively shorter feasible tours by usinginformation accumulated in the form of a pheromone trail deposited on the edges of the TSPgraph. Computer simulations demonstrate that the artificial ant colony is capable of generatinggood solutions to both symmetric and

  11. Ant colonies for the travelling salesman problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Dorigo; Luca Maria Gambardella

    1997-01-01

    We describe an artificial ant colony capable of solving the travelling salesman problem (TSP). Ants of the artificial colony are able to generate successively shorter feasible tours by using information accumulated in the form of a pheromone trail deposited on the edges of the TSP graph. Computer simulations demonstrate that the artificial ant colony is capable of generating good solutions

  12. Original article Heritabilities for several colony traits

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Heritabilities for several colony traits in the honeybee (Apis mellifera carnica the heritability of queen and worker ef- fects, observed covariances of related colonies are expressed as functions, and therefore tends to stabilize it at a particular value. heritability / colony trait / genetic correlation

  13. Architecture, ecology and biogeochemistry of Phaeocystis colonies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. Hamm

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses structure and function of the Phaeocystis colony skin, and relates them to the specific impact of Phaeocystis colonies on ecology and biogeochemistry. The potential advantage of the recently discovered tough skin around the colonies of Phaeocystis globosa is discussed in context with the metabolic costs of this structure, and compared to potential functions of structures around other

  14. Intracolonial genetic variation affects reproductive skew and colony productivity during colony foundation in a parthenogenetic termite

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In insect societies, intracolonial genetic variation is predicted to affect both colony efficiency and reproductive skew. However, because the effects of genetic variation on these two colony characteristics have been tested independently, it remains unclear whether they are affected by genetic variation independently or in a related manner. Here we test the effect of genetic variation on colony efficiency and reproductive skew in a rhinotermitid termite, Reticulitermes speratus, a species in which female-female pairs can facultatively found colonies. We established colonies using two types of female-female pairs: colonies founded by sisters (i.e., sister-pair colonies) and those founded by females from different colonies (i.e., unrelated-pair colonies). Colony growth and reproductive skew were then compared between the two types of incipient colonies. Results At 15 months after colony foundation, unrelated-pair colonies were larger than sister-pair colonies, although the caste ratio between workers and nymphs, which were alternatively differentiated from young larvae, did not differ significantly. Microsatellite DNA analyses of both founders and their parthenogenetically produced offspring indicated that, in both sister-pair and unrelated-pair colonies, there was no significant skew in the production of eggs, larvae, workers and soldiers. Nymph production, however, was significantly more skewed in the sister-pair colonies than in unrelated-pair colonies. Because nymphs can develop into winged adults (alates) or nymphoid reproductives, they have a higher chance of direct reproduction than workers in this species. Conclusions Our results support the idea that higher genetic variation among colony members could provide an increase in colony productivity, as shown in hymenopteran social insects. Moreover, this study suggests that low genetic variation (high relatedness) between founding females increases reproductive skew via one female preferentially channeling her relatives along the reproductive track. This study thus demonstrated that, in social insects, intracolonial genetic variation can simultaneously affect both colony efficiency and reproductive skew. PMID:25123355

  15. Ant Colonies for the QAP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Gambardella; É. D. Taillard; M. Dorigo

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents HAS-QAP, an hybrid ant colony system coupled with a local search, applied to thequadratic assignment problem. HAS-QAP uses pheromone trail information to perform modifications onQAP solutions, differently from more traditional ant systems that use pheromone trail information toconstruct complete solutions. HAS-QAP is analysed and compared with some of the best heuristics availablefor the QAP: two taboo search

  16. Binary artificial bee colony optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Pampara; A P Engelbrecht

    2011-01-01

    Artificial bee colony (ABC) optimization is a rela- tively new population-based, stochastic optimization technique. ABC was developed to optimize unconstrained problems within continuous-valued domains. This paper proposes three versions of ABC that enable it to be applied to optimization problems with binary-valued domains. The performances of these binary ABC algorithms are compared on a benchmark of unconstrained optimization problems. The

  17. Classification With Ant Colony Optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Martens; Manu De Backer; Raf Haesen; Jan Vanthienen; Monique Snoeck; Bart Baesens

    2007-01-01

    Ant colony optimization (ACO) can be applied to the data mining field to extract rule-based classifiers. The aim of this paper is twofold. On the one hand, we provide an overview of previous ant-based approaches to the classification task and compare them with state-of-the-art classification techniques, such as C4.5, RIPPER, and support vector machines in a benchmark study. On the

  18. Colony Defence and Natural Enemies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Fuchs; Jürgen Tautz

    \\u000a This chapter discusses in detail individual honeybees fending off an enemy and the effects that can be rendered when whole\\u000a colony defence is a coordinated, social effort. Enemies extend from viruses to bears. Whatever the predator, the nesting styles\\u000a and nests of the bees afford a first line of defence. These are supplemented by various weapons, including stings, mandibles,\\u000a legs

  19. Conceptual design of a lunar colony

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, C. (editor); Hohmann, E. (editor)

    1972-01-01

    A systems engineering study is presented for a proposed lunar colony. The lunar colony was to grow from an existent, 12-man, earth-dependent lunar surface base and was to utilize lunar resources, becoming as earth-independent as possible. An in-depth treatment of some of the aspects of the lunar colony was given. We have found that the use of lunar resources is feasible for oxygen production (both for breathing and for space tug fuel), food production, and building materials. A program is outlined for recycling waste materials developed at the colony as well as a full program for growth and research activity of the colony to a level of 180 colonists. Recommendations for the lunar colony are given.

  20. The MacDowell Colony Exhibition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Artist colonies have always fascinated the American public, and whether they have been informally organized or not, they seem to provide great opportunities for a variety of collaborations. One of the oldest of these colonies is the MacDowell Colony in Peterborough, New Hampshire. The colony was started in 1907 by the composer Edward MacDowell and his wife Marian, and over the past century it has been host to the likes of Willa Cather, Leonard Bernstein, Thorntown Wilder, and James Baldwin. This site was created in conjunction with an in situ exhibit at the Thomas Jefferson Building at the Library of Congress, and visitors to the site will be able to learn about the history of the colony through first-hand accounts, video clips featuring the curators of the exhibit, and objects that have been part of the colony's history. Some of these digitized objects include photographs, manuscripts, and musical scores.

  1. Colonial Landscape and Rock Origin

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity is designed to help students develop appreciation and ownership for the natural world around them with the hope of increasing their interest in exploring and questioning the processes that created land forms. Some familiarity with stone walls and with colonial New England is helpful; the students should learn to understand how human endeavors affect the landscape. After taking a nature walk (hopefully in an area where there are stone walls), they will participate in an activity in which they "build" a model wall using stones buried in a plastic tray.

  2. Formation and Dissolution of Bacterial Colonies

    E-print Network

    Christoph Weber; Yen Ting Lin; Nicolas Biais; Vasily Zaburdaev

    2015-06-03

    Many organisms form colonies for a transient period of time to withstand environmental pressure. Bacterial biofilms are a prototypical example of such behavior. Despite significant interest across disciplines, physical mechanisms governing the formation and dissolution of bacterial colonies are still poorly understood. Starting from a kinetic description of motile and interacting cells we derive a hydrodynamic equation for their density on a surface. We use it to describe formation of multiple colonies with sizes consistent with experimental data and to discuss their dissolution.

  3. Organizer regions in marine colonial hydrozoans.

    PubMed

    Mayorova, Tatiana; Kosevich, Igor; Dulin, Nickolai; Savina, Elizaveta; Kraus, Yulia

    2015-04-01

    Organizers are specific tissue regions of developing organisms that provide accuracy and robustness to the body plan formation. Hydrozoan cnidarians (both solitary and colonial) require organizer regions for maintaining the regular body patterning during continuous tissue dynamics during asexual reproduction and growth. While the hypostomal organizer of the solitary Hydra has been studied relatively well, our knowledge of organizers in colonial hydrozoans remains fragmentary and incomplete. As colonial hydrozoans demonstrate an amazing diversity of morphological and life history traits, it is of special interest to investigate the organizers specific for particular ontogenetic stages and particular types of colonies. In the present study we aimed to assess the inductive capacities of several candidate organizer regions in hydroids with different colony organization. We carried out grafting experiments on colonial hydrozoans belonging to Leptothecata and Anthoathecata. We confirmed that the hypostome tip is an organizer in the colonial Anthoathecata as it is in the solitary polyp Hydra. We also found that the posterior tip of the larva is an organizer in hydroids regardless of the peculiarities of their metamorphosis mode and colony structure. We show for the first time that the shoot growing tip, which can be considered a key evolutionary novelty of Leptothecata, is an organizer region. Taken together, our data demonstrate that organizers function throughout the larval and polypoid stages in colonial hydroids. PMID:25749284

  4. Mouse Breeding and Colony Management.

    PubMed

    Ayadi, Abdelkader; Ferrand, Gisèle; Cruz, Isabelle Goncalves da; Warot, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    The possibility to genetically modify the mouse genome has enabled the creation of numerous lines of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs). As a result, the demand for housing space in research facilities is increasing. Knowledge of the basis of mouse reproduction and of the methods to handle colonies of GEMMs is therefore mandatory to efficiently populate facilities. The mouse has a short generation period, produces large progenies, and can breed all year round. However, environmental parameters (bedding, diet, cage type, temperature, hygrometry, light, noise, and sanitary status) strongly influence the breeding efficiency and experimental data, and must be tightly controlled. Efficient GEMM colony management requires adequate recording of breeding and proper identification and genotyping of animals. Various mating types and breeding schemes can be used, depending on the type of studies conducted. The recent development of assisted reproduction methods helps circumvent some of the issues faced with those lines especially difficult to breed. Curr. Protoc. Mouse Biol. 1:239-264. © 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:26068995

  5. Education in Colonial Africa: The German Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    vanderPloeg, Arie J.

    1977-01-01

    Examines the introduction and growth of state-supported schools in two German colonies in Africa, Kamerun and Deutsch Ostafrika, describes African reaction to and utilization of them, assesses, from the colonial perspective, why such schools were introduced and what they were intended to accomplish, and examines the reasons for their differential…

  6. Post-Colonial Recovering and Healing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weenie, Angelina

    Notions of white supremacy, racism, sexism, and patriarchy constitute the power relationships and hierarchical structures of colonialism. Power is accessed when certain cultural forms are made to prevail over others, thus producing racialized and marginalized identities. The will to control what is different is the main tenet of colonialism.…

  7. Continuing Education of Adults in Colonial America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Huey B.

    Designed to consolidate information about adult educational activities in colonial America, the publication covers self-directed learning, public lectures, apprenticeships and evening schools, education of women and girls, and leisure education. Advertisements and announcements from colonial newspapers published from 1765-1776 constituted the…

  8. Deadly competition between sibling bacterial colonies

    PubMed Central

    Be'er, Avraham; Zhang, H. P.; Florin, E.-L.; Payne, Shelley M.; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Swinney, Harry L.

    2009-01-01

    Bacteria can secrete a wide array of antibacterial compounds when competing with other bacteria for the same resources. Some of these compounds, such as bacteriocins, can affect bacteria of similar or closely related strains. In some cases, these secretions have been found to kill sibling cells that belong to the same colony. Here, we present experimental observations of competition between 2 sibling colonies of Paenibacillus dendritiformis grown on a low-nutrient agar gel. We find that neighboring colonies (growing from droplet inoculation) mutually inhibit growth through secretions that become lethal if the level exceeds a well-defined threshold. In contrast, within a single colony developing from a droplet inoculation, no growth inhibition is observed. However, growth inhibition and cell death are observed if material extracted from the agar between 2 growing colonies is introduced outside a growing single colony. To interpret the observations, we devised a simple mathematical model for the secretion of an antibacterial compound. Simulations of this model illustrate how secretions from neighboring colonies can be deadly, whereas secretions from a single colony growing from a droplet are not. PMID:19129489

  9. Artificial Bee Colony Training of Neural Networks

    E-print Network

    Bullinaria, John

    led to the introduction of many nature inspired optimization algorithms [6]. Such swarm intelligence.bham.ac.uk Abstract. The Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) is a recently introduced swarm intelligence algorithm. A more recent, and less well studied, swarm intelligence algorithm is the Artificial Bee Colony (ABC

  10. Public health developments in colonial Malaya: colonialism and the politics of prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Manderson, L

    1999-01-01

    In both African and Asian colonies until the late 19th century, colonial medicine operated pragmatically to meet the medical needs first of colonial officers and troops, immigrant settlers, and laborers responsible for economic development, then of indigenous populations when their ill health threatened the well-being of the expatriate population. Since the turn of the century, however, the consequences of colonial expansion and development for indigenous people's health had become increasingly apparent, and disease control and public health programs were expanded in this light. These programs increased government surveillance of populations at both community and household levels. As a consequence, colonial states extended institutional oversight and induced dependency through public health measures. Drawing on my own work on colonial Malaya, I illustrate developments in public health and their links to the moral logic of colonialism and its complementarity to the political economy. PMID:9987478

  11. Form and metabolic scaling in colonial animals.

    PubMed

    Hartikainen, Hanna; Humphries, Stuart; Okamura, Beth

    2014-03-01

    Benthic colonial organisms exhibit a wide variation in size and shape and provide excellent model systems for testing the predictions of models that describe the scaling of metabolic rate with organism size. We tested the hypothesis that colony form will influence metabolic scaling and its derivatives by characterising metabolic and propagule production rates in three species of freshwater bryozoans that vary in morphology and module organisation and which demonstrate two- and three-dimensional growth forms. The results were evaluated with respect to predictions from two models for metabolic scaling. Isometric metabolic scaling in two-dimensional colonies supported predictions of a model based on dynamic energy budget theory (DEB) and not those of a model based on fractally branching supply networks. This metabolic isometry appears to be achieved by equivalent energy budgets of edge and central modules, in one species (Cristatella mucedo) via linear growth and in a second species (Lophopus crystallinus) by colony fission. Allometric scaling characterised colonies of a three-dimensional species (Fredericella sultana), also providing support for the DEB model. Isometric scaling of propagule production rates for C. mucedo and F. sultana suggests that the number of propagules produced in colonies increases in direct proportion with the number of modules within colonies. Feeding currents generated by bryozoans function in both food capture and respiration, thus linking metabolic scaling with dynamics of self-shading and resource capture. Metabolic rates fundamentally dictate organismal performance (e.g. growth, reproduction) and, as we show here, are linked with colony form. Metabolic profiles and associated variation in colony form should therefore influence the outcome of biotic interactions in habitats dominated by colonial animals and may drive patterns of macroevolution. PMID:24265433

  12. Characterization of developmental colony formation in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideaki Takano; Akiko Shimizu; Rina Shibosawa; Rie Sasaki; Shino Iwagaki; Osamu Minagawa; Kazuki Yamanaka; Kiyoshi Miwa; Teruhiko Beppu; Kenji Ueda

    2008-01-01

    We report that Corynebacterium glutamicum colonies exhibit a developmental transition in culture. When cultured on a routinely used complete medium (CM2B), this bacterium\\u000a first formed a flat translucent colony. Subsequently, some parts of this colony expanded to form small spherical yellow colonies\\u000a that finally developed into a single large yellow colony. The small flat colony consisted of long thick cells,

  13. 21 CFR 866.2180 - Manual colony counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2180 Manual colony counter. (a) Identification. A manual colony...

  14. 21 CFR 866.2180 - Manual colony counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2180 Manual colony counter. (a) Identification. A manual colony...

  15. 21 CFR 866.2180 - Manual colony counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2180 Manual colony counter. (a) Identification. A manual colony...

  16. 21 CFR 866.2180 - Manual colony counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2180 Manual colony counter. (a) Identification. A manual colony...

  17. 21 CFR 866.2180 - Manual colony counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2180 Manual colony counter. (a) Identification. A manual colony...

  18. Ant Colonies Shed Light on Metabolism

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

    2010-08-26

    Press Release. Ants are usually regarded as the unwanted guests at a picnic. But a recent study of California seed harvester ants (Pogonomyrmex californicus) examining their metabolic rate in relation to colony size may lead to a better appreciation for the social, six-legged insects, whose colonies researchers say provide a theoretical framework for understanding cellular networks. Mr. Waters presented his paper, Scaling of Metabolism, Growth and Network Organization in Colonies of the Seed Harvester Ant, Pogonomyrmex californicus, at the American Physiological SocietyÂ?s Intersociety Meeting Global Science: Comparative Physiology in a Changing World. The program is located at http://the-aps.org/meetings/aps/comparative/preprogram.htm.

  19. ColonyArea: An ImageJ Plugin to Automatically Quantify Colony Formation in Clonogenic Assays

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Amanpreet; Westermarck, Jukka; Abankwa, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The clonogenic or colony formation assay is a widely used method to study the number and size of cancer cell colonies that remain after irradiation or cytotoxic agent administration and serves as a measure for the anti-proliferative effect of these treatments. Alternatively, this assay is used to quantitate the transforming potential of cancer associated genes and chemical agents. Therefore, there is a need for a simplified and standardized analysis of colony formation assays for both routine laboratory use and for parallelized automated analysis. Here we describe the freely available ImageJ-plugin “ColonyArea”, which is optimized for rapid and quantitative analysis of focus formation assays conducted in 6- to 24-well dishes. ColonyArea processes image data of multi-well dishes, by separating, concentrically cropping and background correcting well images individually, before colony formation is quantitated. Instead of counting the number of colonies, ColonyArea determines the percentage of area covered by crystal violet stained cell colonies, also taking the intensity of the staining and therefore cell density into account. We demonstrate that these parameters alone or in combination allow for robust quantification of IC50 values of the cytotoxic effect of two staurosporines, UCN-01 and staurosporine (STS) on human glioblastoma cells (T98G). The relation between the potencies of the two compounds compared very well with that obtained from an absorbance based method to quantify colony growth and to published data. The ColonyArea ImageJ plugin provides a simple and efficient analysis routine to quantitate assay data of one of the most commonly used cellular assays. The bundle is freely available for download as supporting information. We expect that ColonyArea will be of broad utility for cancer biologists, as well as clinical radiation scientists. PMID:24647355

  20. ColonyArea: an ImageJ plugin to automatically quantify colony formation in clonogenic assays.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Camilo; Bagga, Manish; Kaur, Amanpreet; Westermarck, Jukka; Abankwa, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The clonogenic or colony formation assay is a widely used method to study the number and size of cancer cell colonies that remain after irradiation or cytotoxic agent administration and serves as a measure for the anti-proliferative effect of these treatments. Alternatively, this assay is used to quantitate the transforming potential of cancer associated genes and chemical agents. Therefore, there is a need for a simplified and standardized analysis of colony formation assays for both routine laboratory use and for parallelized automated analysis. Here we describe the freely available ImageJ-plugin "ColonyArea", which is optimized for rapid and quantitative analysis of focus formation assays conducted in 6- to 24-well dishes. ColonyArea processes image data of multi-well dishes, by separating, concentrically cropping and background correcting well images individually, before colony formation is quantitated. Instead of counting the number of colonies, ColonyArea determines the percentage of area covered by crystal violet stained cell colonies, also taking the intensity of the staining and therefore cell density into account. We demonstrate that these parameters alone or in combination allow for robust quantification of IC50 values of the cytotoxic effect of two staurosporines, UCN-01 and staurosporine (STS) on human glioblastoma cells (T98G). The relation between the potencies of the two compounds compared very well with that obtained from an absorbance based method to quantify colony growth and to published data. The ColonyArea ImageJ plugin provides a simple and efficient analysis routine to quantitate assay data of one of the most commonly used cellular assays. The bundle is freely available for download as supporting information. We expect that ColonyArea will be of broad utility for cancer biologists, as well as clinical radiation scientists. PMID:24647355

  1. Underground Coal Gasification at Tennessee Colony 

    E-print Network

    Garrard, C. W.

    1979-01-01

    The Tennessee Colony In Situ Coal Gasification Project conducted by Basic Resources Inc. is the most recent step in Texas Utilities Company's ongoing research into the utilization of Texas lignite. The project, an application of the Soviet...

  2. Application of continuous monitoring of honeybee colonies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monitoring physical variables associated with honey bee colonies, including weight, temperature, humidity, respiratory gases, vibration, acoustics and forager traffic, in a continuous manner is becoming feasible for most researchers as the cost and size of electronic sensors and dataloggers decrease...

  3. Underground Coal Gasification at Tennessee Colony

    E-print Network

    Garrard, C. W.

    1979-01-01

    The Tennessee Colony In Situ Coal Gasification Project conducted by Basic Resources Inc. is the most recent step in Texas Utilities Company's ongoing research into the utilization of Texas lignite. The project, an application of the Soviet...

  4. History: The Colonial Williamsburg Official History Site

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Colonial Williamsburg has been a popular destination for American history buffs for eight decades, and they continue to impress with their fine website dedicated to providing biographies, essays, and articles on "the everyday life of extraordinary Americans." Visitors can read biographies of people who inhabited colonial-era Williamsburg, listen to their fife and drums corps, and tour the town. One area that is definitely worth a look is the "Gardens" section of the site. Here visitors can learn about the landscape restoration work on the site, the history of the gardens, and read the gardener's blog. Further along, the "Clothing" area includes narrative descriptions of men's clothing, women's clothing, and African American clothing during colonial times. Also, visitors can dress a colonial person from head to toe in the interactive adventure, "Dressing the Part". The site is rounded out by a "Conferences, Forums, and Workshops" area that includes information about their scholarly activities and upcoming forums.

  5. Adult Basic Education in Colonial America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Huey B.

    1983-01-01

    Describes the role of private teachers in colonial America, including evening schools and literacy education, costs of instruction, basic writing and arithmetic curriculum, evening schoolhouses, and schoolmasters' characteristics. Newspaper advertisements served as primary sources for the study. (SK)

  6. Mechanically driven branching of bacterial colonies.

    PubMed

    Giverso, Chiara; Verani, Marco; Ciarletta, Pasquale

    2015-07-01

    A continuum mathematical model with sharp interface is proposed for describing the occurrence of patterns in initially circular and homogeneous bacterial colonies. The mathematical model encapsulates the evolution of the chemical field characterized by a Monod-like uptake term, the chemotactic response of bacteria, the viscous interaction between the colony and the underlying culture medium and the effects of the surface tension at the boundary. The analytical analysis demonstrates that the front of the colony is linearly unstable for a proper choice of the parameters. The simulation of the model in the nonlinear regime confirms the development of fingers with typical wavelength controlled by the size parameters of the problem, whilst the emergence of branches is favored if the diffusion is dominant on the chemotaxis or for high values of the friction parameter. Such results provide new insights on pattern selection in bacterial colonies and may be applied for designing engineered patterns. PMID:25806474

  7. Optical image acquisition system for colony analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weixing; Jin, Wenbiao

    2006-02-01

    For counting of both colonies and plaques, there is a large number of applications including food, dairy, beverages, hygiene, environmental monitoring, water, toxicology, sterility testing, AMES testing, pharmaceuticals, paints, sterile fluids and fungal contamination. Recently, many researchers and developers have made efforts for this kind of systems. By investigation, some existing systems have some problems since they belong to a new technology product. One of the main problems is image acquisition. In order to acquire colony images with good quality, an illumination box was constructed as: the box includes front lightning and back lightning, which can be selected by users based on properties of colony dishes. With the illumination box, lightning can be uniform; colony dish can be put in the same place every time, which make image processing easy. A digital camera in the top of the box connected to a PC computer with a USB cable, all the camera functions are controlled by the computer.

  8. Wise Mining Method through Ant Colony Optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianxiong Yang; Junzo Watada

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an algorithm for data mining named Pheromone-Miner (ant-colony-based data miner). The algorithm is inspired by both researches on the behavior of real ant colonies and data mining concepts as well as principles. The goal of Pheromone-Miner is to extract more exact knowledge from a database. Pheromone-based mining breaks through limitations of other mining approaches. We compare the

  9. Biomimicry: Further Insights from Ant Colonies?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francis L. W. Ratnieks

    2007-01-01

    Biomimicry means learning from nature. Well known examples include physical structures such as the Velcro fastener. But natural\\u000a selection has also “engineered” mechanisms by which the components of adaptive biological systems are organized. For example,\\u000a natural selection has caused the foragers in an ant colony to cooperate and communicate in order to increase the total foraging\\u000a success of the colony.

  10. Scientific and practical applications of molecular colonies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. B. Chetverin; E. V. Chetverina

    2007-01-01

    The review briefs the history of the invention of the molecular colony techique, also known as a polony technology; applications\\u000a of this method to studies of the reactions between single RNA molecules, ultrasensitive diagnosis, gene cloning, and in vitro\\u000a screening, as well as the concepts of the origin of life that regard molecular colonies as a prototype of living organisms.

  11. Post-structuralism's colonial roots: Michel Foucault

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pal Ahluwalia

    2010-01-01

    Post-colonial theory is many different things to many different people. It serves many different purposes. It is drawn from the unique conditions which its adherents inhabit and from the unique experiences upon which they draw. For many commentators, Michel Foucault is at the heart of post-colonial thinking or, at the very least, his work contributes the embedding of the post-structural

  12. DIFFERENTIAL DRONE PRODUCTION BY AFRICANIZED AND EUROPEAN HONEY BEE COLONIES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    DIFFERENTIAL DRONE PRODUCTION BY AFRICANIZED AND EUROPEAN HONEY BEE COLONIES Thomas E. RINDERER Road Baton Rouge, LA 7(1820, USA SUMMARY The numbers of mature drones leaving colonies of Africanizcd with 10 European and 10 Africanized colonies, were trapped for drones exiting individual colonies on 3

  13. 'Developmental' Divergences And Continuities Between Colonial And Pre-Colonial Regimes: The Case Of Asante, Ghana, 1701-1957

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gareth Austin

    This paper is intended to contribute to the debate, dating from the colonial era itself, about the effects of colonial rule on the economic development of the colonized territories. Specifically, I adopt an approach suggested by the organizers of this workshop: of systematically comparing colonial and post-colonial regimes in the same physical space. This method has the merit of countering

  14. Collective personalities in honeybee colonies are linked to colony fitness Margaret K. Wray a,*, Heather R. Mattila b,1

    E-print Network

    Childress, Michael J.

    Collective personalities in honeybee colonies are linked to colony fitness Margaret K. Wray a behaviour colony fitness honeybee Personality differences (i.e. consistent between-individual differences the concept of collective personality to colonies of honeybees (Apis mellifera). We document the presence

  15. Understanding Long-Run African Growth: Colonial Institutions or Colonial Education? Evidence from a New Data Set

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jutta Bolt; Dirk Bezemer

    2008-01-01

    Long-term growth in developing countries has been explained in four frameworks: ‘extractive colonial institutions’ (Acemoglu et al., 2001), ‘colonial legal origin’ (La Porta et al., 2004) ‘geography’ (Gallup et al., 1998) and ‘colonial human capital’ (Glaeser et al., 2004). In this paper we test the ‘colonial human capital’ explanation for sub-Saharan Africa, controlling for legal origins and geography. Utilizing freshly

  16. Abundance Distribution and Colony Size Estimates for Reticulitermes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RALPH W. HOWARD; SUSAN C. JONES; JOE K. MAULDIN; RAYMOND H. BEAL

    ABSTRACT Enviton. Entomol. 11: 1290-1293 (1982) A census of 24 1-ha plots indicated .an average abundance per ha of 4.42 colonies of Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) and 2.38 colonies of R. virginicus (Banks). Nearest neighbor analysis indicated the mean distance between colonies of R. f2avipes to be 22.48 m, between colonies of R. virginicus to be 26.19 m, and between colonies,

  17. Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm for Continuous Domains Based on Position Distribution Model of Ant Colony Foraging

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liqiang; Dai, Yuntao

    2014-01-01

    Ant colony optimization algorithm for continuous domains is a major research direction for ant colony optimization algorithm. In this paper, we propose a distribution model of ant colony foraging, through analysis of the relationship between the position distribution and food source in the process of ant colony foraging. We design a continuous domain optimization algorithm based on the model and give the form of solution for the algorithm, the distribution model of pheromone, the update rules of ant colony position, and the processing method of constraint condition. Algorithm performance against a set of test trials was unconstrained optimization test functions and a set of optimization test functions, and test results of other algorithms are compared and analyzed to verify the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. PMID:24955402

  18. Parasitism and phenotypic change in colonial hosts.

    PubMed

    Hartikainen, Hanna; Fontes, Inês; Okamura, Beth

    2013-09-01

    Changes in host phenotype are often attributed to manipulation that enables parasites to complete trophic transmission cycles. We characterized changes in host phenotype in a colonial host–endoparasite system that lacks trophic transmission (the freshwater bryozoan Fredericella sultana and myxozoan parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae). We show that parasitism exerts opposing phenotypic effects at the colony and module levels. Thus, overt infection (the development of infectious spores in the host body cavity) was linked to a reduction in colony size and growth rate, while colony modules exhibited a form of gigantism. Larger modules may support larger parasite sacs and increase metabolite availability to the parasite. Host metabolic rates were lower in overtly infected relative to uninfected hosts that were not investing in propagule production. This suggests a role for direct resource competition and active parasite manipulation (castration) in driving the expression of the infected phenotype. The malformed offspring (statoblasts) of infected colonies had greatly reduced hatching success. Coupled with the severe reduction in statoblast production this suggests that vertical transmission is rare in overtly infected modules. We show that although the parasite can occasionally infect statoblasts during overt infections, no infections were detected in the surviving mature offspring, suggesting that during overt infections, horizontal transmission incurs a trade-off with vertical transmission. PMID:23965820

  19. [Colony defence of Asian honey bees].

    PubMed

    Koeniger, V N; Fuchs, S

    1975-02-01

    Colony Defence in Asian Honey Bees. 1. In Ais cerana, Apis dorsata and Apis florea a defence behaviour (Körperschütteln) can be released by the approach of flying insects. Films of Apis cerana colonies exhibiting this behaviour were made and anaylysed. 2. Körperschütteln "could not be released by various mechanical and chemical" stimuli. Only the movement of a dark object before light background was effective in releasing this behaviour. 3. The optimal angular velocity of the dark object when moved on a moving disk was between 80 degrees to 250 degrees per sec. The optimal size for stimulation was between 5 degrees and 12 degrees (visual angle). 4. The stimulatory effect was not greatly influenced by the shape of the dark object. 5. Continued stimulation over a 90 min period resulted in 80% reduction in the number of responding bees. 6. The colony's ability to discriminate between returning forager bees and other flying insects is discussed. PMID:1172342

  20. Controlled Use Robot Colony Power Supply Gary Parker

    E-print Network

    Parker, Gary B.

    at a power station. onboard controller implemented to direct hexapod colony robot behavior according power University's Field Robotics Center a robot, Rosie, specifically created operate nuclear environments Environment walled established Connecticut College Robotics Lab colony robotics research will populated

  1. Influence of task switching costs on colony homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Jeanson, Raphaël; Lachaud, Jean-Paul

    2015-06-01

    In social insects, division of labour allows colonies to optimise the allocation of workers across all available tasks to satisfy colony requirements. The maintenance of stable conditions within colonies (homeostasis) requires that some individuals move inside the nest to monitor colony needs and execute unattended tasks. We developed a simple theoretical model to explore how worker mobility inside the nest and task switching costs influence the maintenance of stable levels of task-associated stimuli. Our results indicate that worker mobility in large colonies generates important task switching costs and is detrimental to colony homeostasis. Our study suggests that the balance between benefits and costs associated with the mobility of workers patrolling inside the nest depends on colony size. We propose that several species of ants with diverse life-history traits should be appropriate to test the prediction that the proportion of mobile workers should vary during colony ontogeny. PMID:26040241

  2. Influence of task switching costs on colony homeostasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanson, Raphaël; Lachaud, Jean-Paul

    2015-06-01

    In social insects, division of labour allows colonies to optimise the allocation of workers across all available tasks to satisfy colony requirements. The maintenance of stable conditions within colonies (homeostasis) requires that some individuals move inside the nest to monitor colony needs and execute unattended tasks. We developed a simple theoretical model to explore how worker mobility inside the nest and task switching costs influence the maintenance of stable levels of task-associated stimuli. Our results indicate that worker mobility in large colonies generates important task switching costs and is detrimental to colony homeostasis. Our study suggests that the balance between benefits and costs associated with the mobility of workers patrolling inside the nest depends on colony size. We propose that several species of ants with diverse life-history traits should be appropriate to test the prediction that the proportion of mobile workers should vary during colony ontogeny.

  3. Economic Development of British Colonial America

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Serena Zabin

    Through a close study of a rich set of demographic and economic statistics, students will see the development over 150 years of two similar yet divergent colonies (Virginia and Barbados). They will work through population, land use, and trade statistics with closely-guiding questions in order to find links between one set of numbers and another.

  4. Fire protection for a Martian colony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beattie, Robert M., Jr.

    The fire prevention failures that occurred in Apollo 1 and Challenger accidents are reviewed and used to discuss fire protection measures that should be taken in a Martian colony. Fire detection systems, classes of fire, and suppression agents are described. The organization of fire fighting personnel appropriate for Mars is addressed.

  5. The Adaptation Concept in British Colonial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bude, Udo

    1983-01-01

    The history of British colonial educational policies, particularly the adaptation concept in Black Africa, is discussed. "Adaptation" refers to an educational scheme, supposedly adapted to the needs of Black people, completely oriented toward family and community life, and based on recommendations by the 1920-21 and 1924 Phelps-Stokes Commission…

  6. A DISTRIBUTED APPROACH TO ANT COLONY OPTIMIZATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Costin B?dic?

    2010-01-01

    Swarm Intelligence(SI) is the emergent collective intelligence of groups of simple agents. Economy is an example of SI. Simulating an economy using Ant Colony algorithms would allow prediction and control of fluctuations in the complex emergent behavior of the simulated system. Such a simulation is far beyond SI's capabilities, which is still in its infancy. This paper presents a distributed

  7. ANT COLONY ROUTE OPTIMIZATION FOR MUNICIPAL SERVICES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikolaos V. Karadimas; Georgios Kouzas; Ioannis Anagnostopoulos; Vassili Loumos; Elefterios Kayafas

    In the present paper the Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) Algorithm is introduced for best routing identification applied in urban solid waste collection. The proposed solid waste management system is based on a geo-referenced Spatial Database supported by a Geographic Information System (GIS). The GIS takes account of all the required parameters for solid waste collection. These parameters involve static and

  8. Classification Rule Discovery with Ant Colony Optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo Liu; Hussein A. Abbass; Bob Mckay

    2003-01-01

    Abstract, Ant-based algorithms or ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithms have been applied successfully to combinatorial optimization problems. More recently, Parpinelli and colleagues applied ACO to data mining classification problems, where they introduced a classification algorithm called Ant _ Miner. In this paper, we present an improvement to Ant _ Miner (we call it Ant _ Miner3). The proposed version was

  9. Reservoir Operation by Ant Colony Optimization Algorithms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Jalali

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithms are proposed for reservoir operation. Through a collection of cooperative agents called ants, the near optimum solution to the reservoir operation can be effectively achieved. To apply ACO algorithms, the problem is approached by considering a finite horizon with a time series of inflow, classifying the reservoir volume to several intervals, and

  10. Exchange strategies for multiple Ant Colony System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Issmail Ellabib; Paul H. Calamai; Otman A. Basir

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we apply the concept of parallel processing to enhance the performance of the Ant Colony System algo- rithm. New exchange strategies based on a weighting scheme are introduced under three different types of interactions. A search assessment technique based on a team consensus methodology is developed to study the influence of these strategies on the search behavior.

  11. Branching instability in expanding bacterial colonies.

    PubMed

    Giverso, Chiara; Verani, Marco; Ciarletta, Pasquale

    2015-03-01

    Self-organization in developing living organisms relies on the capability of cells to duplicate and perform a collective motion inside the surrounding environment. Chemical and mechanical interactions coordinate such a cooperative behaviour, driving the dynamical evolution of the macroscopic system. In this work, we perform an analytical and computational analysis to study pattern formation during the spreading of an initially circular bacterial colony on a Petri dish. The continuous mathematical model addresses the growth and the chemotactic migration of the living monolayer, together with the diffusion and consumption of nutrients in the agar. The governing equations contain four dimensionless parameters, accounting for the interplay among the chemotactic response, the bacteria-substrate interaction and the experimental geometry. The spreading colony is found to be always linearly unstable to perturbations of the interface, whereas branching instability arises in finite-element numerical simulations. The typical length scales of such fingers, which align in the radial direction and later undergo further branching, are controlled by the size parameters of the problem, whereas the emergence of branching is favoured if the diffusion is dominant on the chemotaxis. The model is able to predict the experimental morphologies, confirming that compact (resp. branched) patterns arise for fast (resp. slow) expanding colonies. Such results, while providing new insights into pattern selection in bacterial colonies, may finally have important applications for designing controlled patterns. PMID:25652464

  12. Project Final Report: HPC-Colony II

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Terry R [ORNL; Kale, Laxmikant V [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Moreira, Jose [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center

    2013-11-01

    This report recounts the HPC Colony II Project which was a computer science effort funded by DOE's Advanced Scientific Computing Research office. The project included researchers from ORNL, IBM, and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The topic of the effort was adaptive system software for extreme scale parallel machines. A description of findings is included.

  13. Pioneer medical missions in colonial Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles M. Good

    1991-01-01

    Protestant and Roman Catholic missions pioneered Western medicine and public health in much of Africa decades in advance of health services provided by colonial governments. A century later church-based hospitals and health care programs continue to account for 25% to 50% of available services in most African countries. In view of the important historical and continuing role of medical missions

  14. Revisiting Elitism in Ant Colony Optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony White; Simon Kaegi; Terri Oda

    2003-01-01

    Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) has been applied successfully in solving the Traveling Salesman Problem. Marco Dorigo et al. used Ant System (AS) to explore the Symmetric Traveling Salesman Problem and found that the use of a small number of elitist ants can improve algorithm performance. The elitist ants take advantage of global knowledge of the best tour found to date

  15. STATUS OF GREAT BLUE HERON COLONIES IN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARTY MURPHY

    1988-01-01

    colonies. Many of the herons' feeding grounds are threatened also. The largest lakes in King County are Lake Washington and Lake Sammamish. Around the former only six wetlands remain, and some of these are threatened by development. The two wetlands on Lake Sammamish are both within parks. According to the Puget Sound Water Quality Authority (1987), approximately 14,000 acres of

  16. The hyper-cube framework for ant colony optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Blum; Marco Dorigo

    2004-01-01

    Ant colony optimization is a metaheuristic approach belonging to the class of model-based search algorithms. In this paper, we propose a new framework for implementing ant colony optimization algorithms called the hyper-cube framework for ant colony optimization. In contrast to the usual way of implementing ant colony optimization algorithms, this framework limits the pheromone values to the interval [0,1]. This

  17. ORIGINAL PAPER Geographic variation in caste ratio of trematode colonies

    E-print Network

    Poulin, Robert

    of colony members, for example, this idea is formulated as the optimal caste ratio theory, which predicts to the division of labour in social insects, castes of morphologically distinct individuals exist within colonies conditions. In the case of colonies from geographically and potentially genetically distinct populations

  18. A Post-Colonial Reading of Affirmative Action in Fiji.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puamau, Priscilla Qolisaya

    2001-01-01

    Presents a post-colonial reading of affirmative action (AA) policies in Fiji, arguing that AA was a deliberate response by various predominantly indigenous Fijian post-colonial governments to counter the effects of a discriminatory colonial history that produced significant educational and employment inequality. Analyzes the mixed outcomes of AA…

  19. Australia and France on Fire: An Anti-Colonial Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dei, George Sefa; Kempf, Arlo

    2006-01-01

    Professor George Sefa Dei has written and taught extensively in the fields of anti-colonialism and anti-racism. His latest work on the subject is "Anti-Colonialism and Education: The Politics of Resistance," co-edited with Arlo Kempf for Sense Publishers (2006). Dei and Kempf are also co-authoring a forthcoming volume on anti-colonial theory. Arlo…

  20. Pareto Ant Colony Optimization with ILP preprocessing in multiobjective project

    E-print Network

    Gutjahr, Walter

    Pareto Ant Colony Optimization with ILP preprocessing in multiobjective project portfolio selection the computational effort necessary and the quality of an approximated solution space, Pareto Ant Colony Optimization at a low cost. Key words: Ant Colony Optimization, Project Portfolio Selection, Multiobjective

  1. The Ant Colony Metaphor for Searching Continuous Design Spaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Bilchev; Ian C. Parmee

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a form of dynamical computational system—the ant colony—and presents an ant colony model for continuous space optimisation problems. The ant colony metaphor is applied to a real world heavily constrained engineering design problem. It is capable of accelerating the search process and finding acceptable solutions which otherwise could not be discovered by a GA. By integrating the

  2. Ant colony optimization for wireless sensor networks routing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian-Feng Yan; Yang Gao; Lu Yang

    2011-01-01

    Due to energy limitation of sensors, maximization of lifetime is the key to performance of WSN routing protocol. In this paper, we introduce a heuristic way to reduce energy consumption in WSNs routing process using Ant Colony Optimization. We introduce three Ant Colony Optimization algorithms, the Ant System, Ant Colony System and improved AS and their application in WSN routing

  3. ORIGINAL ARTICLE The evolution of colony-level development

    E-print Network

    Dunn, Casey

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE The evolution of colony-level development in the Siphonophora (Cnidaria. Siphonophores, a group of pelagic hydrozoans (Cnidaria), have the most complex colony-level organization of all specialization Introduction The siphonophores, a group of pelagic colonial hydrozoans (Cnidaria), include

  4. Colonial life versus solitary life in Cyrtophora citricola (Araneae, Araneidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Leborgne; T. Cantarella; A. Pasquet

    1998-01-01

    Summary: Among spiders, some species could be qualified as colonial. Individuals may live alone or in colonies where each spider exploits its own capture web in a communal network. We compared solitary with colonial life in Cyrtophora female populations from South-East Sicily in 1992 and 1993. We used 6 parameters to describe and compare the populations: spider size, web size,

  5. Extractive Institutions and Gains From Trade: Evidence from Colonial Africa

    E-print Network

    Faraon, Andrei

    Extractive Institutions and Gains From Trade: Evidence from Colonial Africa Federico Tadei A common to agricultural producers in French Africa, I show that (1) the monopsonistic character of colonial trade implied underlined how colonial rule relegated Africa to exporter of primary commodities (Rodney, 1972), more recent

  6. Deformed wing virus implicated in overwintering honeybee colony losses.

    PubMed

    Highfield, Andrea C; El Nagar, Aliya; Mackinder, Luke C M; Noël, Laure M-L J; Hall, Matthew J; Martin, Stephen J; Schroeder, Declan C

    2009-11-01

    The worldwide decline in honeybee colonies during the past 50 years has often been linked to the spread of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and its interaction with certain honeybee viruses. Recently in the United States, dramatic honeybee losses (colony collapse disorder) have been reported; however, there remains no clear explanation for these colony losses, with parasitic mites, viruses, bacteria, and fungal diseases all being proposed as possible candidates. Common characteristics that most failing colonies share is a lack of overt disease symptoms and the disappearance of workers from what appears to be normally functioning colonies. In this study, we used quantitative PCR to monitor the presence of three honeybee viruses, deformed wing virus (DWV), acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), and black queen cell virus (BQCV), during a 1-year period in 15 asymptomatic, varroa mite-positive honeybee colonies in Southern England, and 3 asymptomatic colonies confirmed to be varroa mite free. All colonies with varroa mites underwent control treatments to ensure that mite populations remained low throughout the study. Despite this, multiple virus infections were detected, yet a significant correlation was observed only between DWV viral load and overwintering colony losses. The long-held view has been that DWV is relatively harmless to the overall health status of honeybee colonies unless it is in association with severe varroa mite infestations. Our findings suggest that DWV can potentially act independently of varroa mites to bring about colony losses. Therefore, DWV may be a major factor in overwintering colony losses. PMID:19783750

  7. Original article Selection for high and low, colony weight gain

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    weight loss were not correlated with seasonal colony weight gain and do not appear to be useful aidsOriginal article Selection for high and low, colony weight gain in the honey bee, Apis mellifera; Seasonal colony weight gain (honey production) in the honey bee, Apis mellifera, can be modified

  8. An Improved Ant Colony Algorithm for VRP Problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geng-Sheng Wang; Yun-Xin Yu

    2010-01-01

    Vehicle routing problem(VRP) is an NP-hard problem, Ant colony algorithm is an effective tool for solving combinatorial optimization problems like VRP. On the base of understanding VRP problem and Ant Colony Algorithm (ACA), analysis ACA's application in VRP, for its shortcomings, reference MMAS thought, introduce dynamic negative feedback mechanism and appropriate increase the visibility mechanism, to improve the ant colony

  9. Before 1776: The Massachusetts Bay Colony from Founding to Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruenbaum, Thelma

    Designed for use at 4th-through-10th-grade level, this short history of the Massachusetts Bay Colony provides a view of colonial life style and culture prior to the American Revolution. The first sections discuss the Puritan migration and early settlement around Boston. Descriptions of colonial housing, furniture, food, clothing, clothing styles,…

  10. Brazilian Higher Education from a Post-Colonial Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leite, Denise

    2010-01-01

    This article examines Brazilian higher education (HE) politics from a post-colonial perspective. The term "post-colonial" originally referred to a historical period of colonial empires established by European nations. Nowadays, the term commonly distinguishes a field of contemporary studies of "defamiliarisation of the imperial North" made up of…

  11. Developmental Instability in Incipient Colonies of Social Insects

    PubMed Central

    Chouvenc, Thomas; Basille, Mathieu; Li, Hou-Feng; Su, Nan-Yao

    2014-01-01

    Social insect colonies can provide homeostatic conditions that buffer the incidence of environmental fluctuations on individuals, which have contributed to their ecological success. Coptotermes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) is a highly invasive termite genus and several species have important economic impact in many areas of the world. Mature Coptotermes colonies with millions of individuals can provide optimal environmental condition and nurturing capacity for the developing brood. However, it was previously suggested that contrary to mature colonies, incipient colonies may be exposed to critical stress, which may explain for the low success rate of establishment within the first year of the life of a termite colony. We here investigated the stress imposed on individuals of incipient colonies by comparing the developmental instability of individuals between incipient and mature colonies of two Coptotermes species, C. formosanus Shiraki and C. gestroi (Wasmann). We assessed the developmental instability by measuring the asymmetry of morphological traits from the head capsule of the soldier caste. Soldiers from incipient colonies of both species displayed strong asymmetrical traits in comparison to soldiers from mature colonies. We suggest that homeostatic conditions for optimal development are reached as the colony matures, and confirmed that the incipient colony remains a critical bottleneck where individuals are exposed to high developmental stress. PMID:25423502

  12. Scanning electron microscope study of Pseudomonas putida colonies.

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, J A

    1985-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida colonies were examined by scanning electron microscope. A variety of cell morphologies, multicellular arrangements, and extracellular materials were observed in the fixed material. Different regions of a single colony showed characteristic organizations of these architectural elements. In some cases, the detailed microstructure of the fixed colony surfaces observed by scanning electron microscopy could be correlated with macroscopic patterns visualized by histochemical staining and surface relief photography of live colonies. Extracellular materials were seen to extend onto the agar surface beyond the boundaries of the cell mass, and the final structures of these materials, after fixation and desiccation, were colony specific. The significance of these features of colony microstructure for formulating hypotheses about the control of colony morphogenesis is discussed. Images PMID:4066611

  13. Colony Rheology: Active Arthropods Generate Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, Karen; Mann, Michael; Charbonneau, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    Hydrodynamic-like flows are observed in biological systems as varied as bacteria, insects, birds, fish, and mammals. Both the phenomenology (e.g. front instabilities, milling motions) and the interaction types (hydrodynamic, direct contact, psychological, excluded-volume) strongly vary between systems, but a question common to all of them is to understand the role of particle-scale fluctuations in controlling large-scale rheological behaviors. We will address these questions through experiments on a new system, Tyrolichus casei (cheese mites), which live in dense, self-mixing colonies composed of a mixture of living mites and inert flour/detritus. In experiments performed in a Hele-Shaw geometry, we observe that the rheology of a colony is strongly dependent on the relative concentration of active and inactive particles. In addition to spreading flows, we also observe that the system can generate convective circulation and auto-compaction.

  14. Ant Colony Optimization and Data Mining

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ioannis Michelakos; Nikolaos Mallios; Elpiniki Papageorgiou; Michael Vassilakopoulos

    \\u000a The Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) technique was inspired by the ants’ behavior throughout their exploration for food. In nature,\\u000a ants wander randomly, seeking for food. After succeeding, they return to their nest. During their move, they lay down pheromone\\u000a that forms an evaporating chemical path. Other ants that locate this trail, follow it and reinforce it, since they also lay

  15. Motif Finding Using Ant Colony Optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salim Bouamama; Abdellah Boukerram; Amer F. Al-Badarneh

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a A challenging problem in molecular biology is the identification of the specific binding sites of transcription factors in\\u000a the promoter regions of genes referred to as motifs. This paper presents an Ant Colony Optimization approach that can be used\\u000a to provide the motif finding problem with promising solutions. The proposed approach incorporates a modified form of the Gibbs\\u000a sampling technique

  16. Ant Colony Learning Algorithm for Optimal Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jelmer Marinus van Ast; Robert Babuska; Bart De Schutter

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a Ant colony optimization (ACO) is an optimization heuristic for solving combinatorial optimization problems and is inspired\\u000a by the swarming behavior of foraging ants. ACO has been successfully applied in various domains, such as routing and scheduling.\\u000a In particular, the agents, called ants here, are very efficient at sampling the problem space and quickly finding good solutions.\\u000a Motivated by the advantages

  17. Near Parameter Free Ant Colony Optimisation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcus Randall

    2004-01-01

    \\u000a Ant colony optimisation, like all other meta-heuristic search processes, requires a set of parameters in order to solve combinatorial\\u000a problems. These parameters are often tuned by hand by the researcher to a set that seems to work well for the problem under\\u000a study or a standard set from the literature. However, it is possible to integrate a parameter search process

  18. Aging in the colonial chordate, Botryllus schlosseri

    PubMed Central

    Munday, Roma; Rodriguez, Delany; Di Maio, Alessandro; Kassmer, Susannah; Braden, Brian; Taketa, Daryl A.; Langenbacher, Adam; De Tomaso, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    What mechanisms underlie aging? One theory, the wear-and-tear model, attributes aging to progressive deterioration in the molecular and cellular machinery which eventually lead to death through the disruption of physiological homeostasis. The second suggests that life span is genetically programmed, and aging may be derived from intrinsic processes which enforce a non-random, terminal time interval for the survivability of the organism. We are studying an organism that demonstrates both properties: the colonial ascidian, Botryllus schlosseri. Botryllus is a member of the Tunicata, the sister group to the vertebrates, and has a number of life history traits which make it an excellent model for studies on aging. First, Botryllus has a colonial life history, and grows by a process of asexual reproduction during which entire bodies, including all somatic and germline lineages, regenerate every week, resulting in a colony of genetically identical individuals. Second, previous studies of lifespan in genetically distinct Botryllus lineages suggest that a direct, heritable basis underlying mortality exists that is unlinked to reproductive effort and other life history traits. Here we will review recent efforts to take advantage of the unique life history traits of B. schlosseri and develop it into a robust model for aging research.

  19. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor induces neutrophils to secrete macrophage colony-stimulating factor.

    PubMed

    Santiago, E; Mora, L; Bautista, M; Montesinos, J J; Martinez, I; Ramos, G; Zambrano, I R; Manrique, B; Weiss-Steider, B

    2001-09-21

    In this work we provide evidence showing that granulocytes produce macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) from the band cell stage and secrete this factor when induced to differentiate into polymorphonuclear cells by recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF). Using an enriched population of myeloid band cells from murine bone marrow, we identified the presence of M-CSF with a chromophore-labelled monoclonal anti-M-CSF antibody. Using ELISA we detected the secretion of M-CSF in the supernatants of cultures of enriched band cells when induced with rhG-CSF to differentiate into mature neutrophils. We also found that M-CSF is the only factor responsible for the colony forming activity in the supernatants and lysates of band cells treated with rhG-CSF. PMID:11594796

  20. Characterization of developmental colony formation in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Takano, Hideaki; Shimizu, Akiko; Shibosawa, Rina; Sasaki, Rie; Iwagaki, Shino; Minagawa, Osamu; Yamanaka, Kazuki; Miwa, Kiyoshi; Beppu, Teruhiko; Ueda, Kenji

    2008-11-01

    We report that Corynebacterium glutamicum colonies exhibit a developmental transition in culture. When cultured on a routinely used complete medium (CM2B), this bacterium first formed a flat translucent colony. Subsequently, some parts of this colony expanded to form small spherical yellow colonies that finally developed into a single large yellow colony. The small flat colony consisted of long thick cells, which were occasionally V or Y shaped, while the large yellow colony consisted of short small rods. A similar colony development pattern was observed in Corynebacterium ammoniagenes and Corynebacterium callunae. Analysis following shotgun cloning revealed that the introduction of a multi-copy-number plasmid carrying amtR, a global transcriptional regulator for nitrogen metabolism, into C. glutamicum cells induced precocious colony development. An amtR-null C. glutamicum mutant exhibited delayed development. Detailed observations of C. glutamicum cells cultured on CM2B medium containing buffers at various pH values revealed that the colony growth was rapid at a pH value of 6.4 or higher and slow but distinct at a pH of less than 6.4. This pH threshold increased to 6.8 following the addition of 0.1% glucose into the medium. PMID:18696061

  1. MICROBIOLOGY: Subversion of Schwann Cells and the Leper's Bell

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Peter J. Brophy (University of Edinburgh; Department of Preclinical Veterinary Sciences)

    2002-05-03

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Leprosy has been the scourge of humanity for thousands of years, yet we still know very little about the pathogenesis of this tragic disease. In his Perspective, Brophy explains exciting new findings (Rambukkana et al.) that reveal how the bacterium causing this disease, M. leprae, instigates demyelination of peripheral nerves without the help of the immune system, and subverts the attempts of myelinating Schwann cells to repair the damage.

  2. First recorded loss of an emperor penguin colony in the recent period of Antarctic regional warming: implications for other colonies.

    PubMed

    Trathan, Philip N; Fretwell, Peter T; Stonehouse, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    In 1948, a small colony of emperor penguins Aptenodytes forsteri was discovered breeding on Emperor Island (67° 51' 52? S, 68° 42' 20? W), in the Dion Islands, close to the West Antarctic Peninsula (Stonehouse 1952). When discovered, the colony comprised approximately 150 breeding pairs; these numbers were maintained until 1970, after which time the colony showed a continuous decline. By 1999 there were fewer than 20 pairs, and in 2009 high-resolution aerial photography revealed no remaining trace of the colony. Here we relate the decline and loss of the Emperor Island colony to a well-documented rise in local mean annual air temperature and coincident decline in seasonal sea ice duration. The loss of this colony provides empirical support for recent studies (Barbraud & Weimerskirch 2001; Jenouvrier et al 2005, 2009; Ainley et al 2010; Barber-Meyer et al 2005) that have highlighted the vulnerability of emperor penguins to changes in sea ice duration and distribution. These studies suggest that continued climate change is likely to impact upon future breeding success and colony viability for this species. Furthermore, a recent circumpolar study by Fretwell & Trathan (2009) highlighted those Antarctic coastal regions where colonies appear most vulnerable to such changes. Here we examine which other colonies might be at risk, discussing various ecological factors, some previously unexplored, that may also contribute to future declines. The implications of this are important for future modelling work and for understanding which colonies actually are most vulnerable. PMID:21386883

  3. First Recorded Loss of an Emperor Penguin Colony in the Recent Period of Antarctic Regional Warming: Implications for Other Colonies

    PubMed Central

    Trathan, Philip N.; Fretwell, Peter T.; Stonehouse, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    In 1948, a small colony of emperor penguins Aptenodytes forsteri was discovered breeding on Emperor Island (67° 51? 52? S, 68° 42? 20? W), in the Dion Islands, close to the West Antarctic Peninsula (Stonehouse 1952). When discovered, the colony comprised approximately 150 breeding pairs; these numbers were maintained until 1970, after which time the colony showed a continuous decline. By 1999 there were fewer than 20 pairs, and in 2009 high-resolution aerial photography revealed no remaining trace of the colony. Here we relate the decline and loss of the Emperor Island colony to a well-documented rise in local mean annual air temperature and coincident decline in seasonal sea ice duration. The loss of this colony provides empirical support for recent studies (Barbraud & Weimerskirch 2001; Jenouvrier et al 2005, 2009; Ainley et al 2010; Barber-Meyer et al 2005) that have highlighted the vulnerability of emperor penguins to changes in sea ice duration and distribution. These studies suggest that continued climate change is likely to impact upon future breeding success and colony viability for this species. Furthermore, a recent circumpolar study by Fretwell & Trathan (2009) highlighted those Antarctic coastal regions where colonies appear most vulnerable to such changes. Here we examine which other colonies might be at risk, discussing various ecological factors, some previously unexplored, that may also contribute to future declines. The implications of this are important for future modelling work and for understanding which colonies actually are most vulnerable. PMID:21386883

  4. Josephine Baker: psychoanalysis and the colonial fetish.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Anne Anlin

    2006-01-01

    This paper traces an intricate path connecting racial fantasy, aesthetic judgment, and the larger cultural problem of inter-subjective recognition. In particular, the author examines the theme of fetishism, both sexual and racial, in a Western historical, colonial context, in order to unravel a set of disturbances that cohere around the racial fetish then and now. Taking the figure of an entertainment icon of the 1920s, Josephine Baker, as a case study, the author shows how the imagination of the colonizing white male was both articulated and disrupted by Baker as a ready-made representation of the cultural, racial, and sexual other. PMID:16482962

  5. Intercellular Genomics of Subsurface Microbial Colonies

    SciTech Connect

    Ortoleva, Peter; Tuncay, Kagan; Gannon, Dennis; Meile, Christof

    2007-02-14

    This report summarizes progress in the second year of this project. The objective is to develop methods and software to predict the spatial configuration, properties and temporal evolution of microbial colonies in the subsurface. To accomplish this, we integrate models of intracellular processes, cell-host medium exchange and reaction-transport dynamics on the colony scale. At the conclusion of the project, we aim to have the foundations of a predictive mathematical model and software that captures the three scales of these systems – the intracellular, pore, and colony wide spatial scales. In the second year of the project, we refined our transcriptional regulatory network discovery (TRND) approach that utilizes gene expression data along with phylogenic similarity and gene ontology analyses and applied it successfully to E.coli, human B cells, and Geobacter sulfurreducens. We have developed a new Web interface, GeoGen, which is tailored to the reconstruction of microbial TRNs and solely focuses on Geobacter as one of DOE’s high priority microbes. Our developments are designed such that the frameworks for the TRND and GeoGen can readily be used for other microbes of interest to the DOE. In the context of modeling a single bacterium, we are actively pursuing both steady-state and kinetic approaches. The steady-state approach is based on a flux balance that uses maximizing biomass growth rate as its objective, subjected to various biochemical constraints, for the optimal values of reaction rates and uptake/release of metabolites. For the kinetic approach, we use Karyote, a rigorous cell model developed by us for an earlier DOE grant and the DARPA BioSPICE Project. We are also investigating the interplay between bacterial colonies and environment at both pore and macroscopic scales. The pore scale models use detailed representations for realistic porous media accounting for the distribution of grain size whereas the macroscopic models employ the Darcy-type flow equations and up-scaled advective-diffusive transport equations for chemical species. We are rigorously testing the relationship between these two scales by evaluating macroscopic parameters using the volume averaging methodology applied to pore scale model results.

  6. Combined Final Report for Colony II Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kale, Laxmikant [University of Illinois] [University of Illinois; Jones, Terry [Oak Ridge National Laboratory] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Moreira, Jose [IBM Corp.] [IBM Corp.

    2013-10-23

    (This report was originally submmited by the lead PI (Terry Jones, ORNL) on October 22, 2013 to the program manager, Lucy Nowell. It is being submitted from University of Illinois in accordance with instructions). HPC Colony II seeks to provide portable performance for leadership class machines. Our strategy is based on adaptive system software that aims to make the intelligent decisions necessary to allow domain scientists to safely focus on their task at hand and allow the system software stack to adapt their application to the underlying architecture. This report describes the research undertaken towards these objectives and the results obtained over the performance period of the project.

  7. Impact of Flooding on Illinois River Wading Bird Colonies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard G. Bjorklund; Daniel J. Holm

    Effects of severe and protracted flooding on two mixed-species colonies of wading birds were assessed in central Illinois. Both colony sites have been monitored since 1962. Historically, Great Blue Herons, Ardea herodias, Great Egrets, Casmerodius albus (threatened in Illinois), and Black-crowned Night-Herons, Nycticorax nycticorax (endangered in Illinois), nested in each colony. Annual ground censuses revealed declines in breeding populations following

  8. Autonomous Bee Colony Optimization for multi-objective function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fanchao Zeng; James Decraene; Malcolm Yoke-Hean Low; Philip Hingston; Wentong Cai; Suiping Zhou; Mahinthan Chandramohan

    2010-01-01

    An Autonomous Bee Colony Optimization (A-BCO) algorithm for solving multi-objective numerical problems is proposed. In contrast with previous Bee Colony algorithms, A-BCO utilizes a diversity-based performance metric to dynamically assess the archive set. This assessment is employed to adapt the bee colony structures and flying patterns. This self-adaptation feature is introduced to optimize the balance between exploration and exploitation during

  9. Effective paternity in natural colonies of Japanese native bumble bees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nozomu Kokuvo; Yukihiko Toquenaga; Koichi Goka

    2009-01-01

    Kin selection theory predicts a high coefficient of genetic relatedness among nestmates, explaining the frequent evolution\\u000a of eusociality in a social hymenopteran colony. The bumble bee is a primitively eusocial hymenoptera whose colonies are founded\\u000a by a single queen. In such a monogynous colony, mating frequency of the queen is the sole factor that affects genetic relatedness\\u000a among nestmates. Although

  10. The Contemporary Reality of Canadian Imperialism: Settler Colonialism and the Hybrid Colonial State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Adam J.

    2009-01-01

    The author's fundamental contention is this: Canadian society remains driven by the logic of imperialism and engages in concerted colonial action against Indigenous peoples whose claims to land and self-determination continue to undermine the legitimacy of Canadian authority and hegemony. The imperial ambitions of the Canadian state and its…

  11. Disrupting the Coloniality of Being: Toward De-Colonial Ontologies in Philosophy of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Troy A.

    2012-01-01

    This essay works to bridge conversations in philosophy of education with decolonial theory. The author considers Margonis' (1999, 2011a, b) use of Rousseau (1979) and Heidegger (1962) in developing an ontological attitude that counters social hierarchies and promotes anti-colonial relations. While affirming this effort, the essay outlines a…

  12. Pre-Colonial Systems of Writing and Post-Colonial Languages of Publication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riney, Timothy J.

    1998-01-01

    Previous accounts of "europhone" status (anglophone, francophone, etc.) have inadequately addressed spoken-written differences as well as different post-colonial developments taken by Southeast Asia, South Asia, North Africa, and East Africa vis-a-vis those of West, Central, and Southern Africa. This article investigates the extent to which the…

  13. The regulation of British colonial lunatic asylums and the origins of colonial psychiatry, 1860-1864.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Sally

    2010-05-01

    In this paper I outline a brief period in the history of the British Empire, during which colonial lunatic asylum policy began to be formulated. I begin with a scandal that erupted in Jamaica and suggest that this set in motion processes that led to critical changes in asylum administration. The first of these processes was an audit of hospitals and asylums in the colonies. The results of the audit and the policy that emerged from it marked the beginning of systematic regulation of lunatic asylum practice across the British Empire. It revealed a formulation of policy that was intended to cut across the self-governing regimes that had up to this point been allowed to evolve. Drawing on the work of Michel Foucault and Nikolas Rose, I argue that the policy and the practices associated with it contribute to an understanding of the emergence of the psy-sciences in colonial settings. They illustrate the establishment of a panoptic gaze on previously neglected insane spaces. Systematic surveillance constituted government at a distance and made colonial lunacy administration a governable discursive space. The regulation of the medical officers, lunatic attendants, and hospital boards began the process of creating a professional psychiatric workforce. I conclude with a discussion of the implications and the mixed impact of this policy change for the mentally ill across the empire, over the ensuing decades. PMID:20533769

  14. Genetic Diversity in Laboratory Colonies of Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) including a Nondiapause Colony

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory-reared western corn rootworms, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, from colonies maintained at the North Central Agricultural Research Laboratory (NCARL) in Brookings, SD, are used extensively by many researchers in studies of the biology, ecology, behavior, and genetics of this major insect ...

  15. Efficient Division and Sampling of Cell Colonies Using Microcup Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Jeng-Hao; Kluckman, Kimberly; Cowley, Dale O.; Bortner, Donna M.; Sims, Christopher E.; Allbritton, Nancy L.; Allbritton, Nancy L.

    2012-01-01

    A microengineered array to sample clonal colonies is described. The cells were cultured on an array of individually releasable elements until the colonies expanded to cover multiple elements. Single elements were released using a laser-based system and collected to sample cells from individual colonies. A greater than an 85% rate in splitting and collecting colonies was achieved using a 3-dimensional cup-like design or “microcup”. Surface modification using patterned titanium deposition of the glass substrate improved the stability of microcup adhesion to the glass while enabling minimization of the laser energy for splitting the colonies. Smaller microcup dimensions and slotting the microcup walls reduced the time needed for colonies to expand into multiple microcups. The stem cell colony retained on the array and the collected fraction within released microcups remained undifferentiated and viable. The colony samples were characterized by both reporter gene expression and a destructive assay (PCR) to identify target colonies. The platform is envisioned as a means to rapidly establish cell lines using a destructive assay to identify desired clones. PMID:23099535

  16. Laser-induced speckle scatter patterns in Bacillus colonies

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Huisung; Singh, Atul K.; Bhunia, Arun K.; Bae, Euiwon

    2014-01-01

    Label-free bacterial colony phenotyping technology called BARDOT (Bacterial Rapid Detection using Optical scattering Technology) provided successful classification of several different bacteria at the genus, species, and serovar level. Recent experiments with colonies of Bacillus species provided strikingly different characteristics of elastic light scatter (ELS) patterns, which were comprised of random speckles compared to other bacteria, which are dominated by concentric rings and spokes. Since this laser-based optical sensor interrogates the whole volume of the colony, 3-D information of micro- and macro-structures are all encoded in the far-field scatter patterns. Here, we present a theoretical model explaining the underlying mechanism of the speckle formation by the colonies from Bacillus species. Except for Bacillus polymyxa, all Bacillus spp. produced random bright spots on the imaging plane, which presumably dependent on the cellular and molecular organization and content within the colony. Our scatter model-based analysis revealed that colony spread resulting in variable surface roughness can modify the wavefront of the scatter field. As the center diameter of the Bacillus spp. colony grew from 500 to 900 ?m, average speckles area decreased two-fold and the number of small speckles increased seven-fold. In conclusion, as Bacillus colony grows, the average speckle size in the scatter pattern decreases and the number of smaller speckle increases due to the swarming growth characteristics of bacteria within the colony. PMID:25352840

  17. 21 CFR 866.2170 - Automated colony counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2170 Automated colony counter. (a) Identification. An automated...

  18. 21 CFR 866.2170 - Automated colony counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2170 Automated colony counter. (a) Identification. An automated...

  19. Colony site dynamics and habitat use in Atlantic coast seabirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.; Galli, J.; Burger, J.

    1981-01-01

    Seabird colony sizes and movements were documented in the DelMarVa coastal region in 1976-1977 and in New Jersey in 1978-1979. Most colonies were found on marsh and dredge deposition islands and on barrier island beaches. For the 'traditionally' beach-nesting Herring Gull, Common Tern, and Black Skimmer, larger, more stable colonies were found on barrier beaches than on marsh islands. In marsh habitats, rates of colony-site change of marshnesting Forster's Tern and Laughing Gulls were similar to those of the former beach nesters. Several adaptations have evolved in marsh specialists to cope with a high risk of reproductive failure due to flooding, but both Herring Gulls and Common Terns also appear to be very adaptable in nesting under various habitat conditions. New colonies and those abandoned between years may be pioneering attempts by younger or inexperienced birds, because they are often smaller than persistent colonies, although patterns differ among areas and habitats. Colony-site dynamics are complex and result from many selective factors including competition, predation, physical changes in site structure, and flooding. The invasion of Herring Gulls into marshes along the mid-Atlantic coast has had an impact on new colony-site choice by associated seabirds. Calculating colony-site turnover rates allows for comparisons among species, habitats, and regions and may give useful insights into habitat quality and change and alternative nesting strategies

  20. Laser-induced speckle scatter patterns in Bacillus colonies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Huisung; Singh, Atul K; Bhunia, Arun K; Bae, Euiwon

    2014-01-01

    Label-free bacterial colony phenotyping technology called BARDOT (Bacterial Rapid Detection using Optical scattering Technology) provided successful classification of several different bacteria at the genus, species, and serovar level. Recent experiments with colonies of Bacillus species provided strikingly different characteristics of elastic light scatter (ELS) patterns, which were comprised of random speckles compared to other bacteria, which are dominated by concentric rings and spokes. Since this laser-based optical sensor interrogates the whole volume of the colony, 3-D information of micro- and macro-structures are all encoded in the far-field scatter patterns. Here, we present a theoretical model explaining the underlying mechanism of the speckle formation by the colonies from Bacillus species. Except for Bacillus polymyxa, all Bacillus spp. produced random bright spots on the imaging plane, which presumably dependent on the cellular and molecular organization and content within the colony. Our scatter model-based analysis revealed that colony spread resulting in variable surface roughness can modify the wavefront of the scatter field. As the center diameter of the Bacillus spp. colony grew from 500 to 900 ?m, average speckles area decreased two-fold and the number of small speckles increased seven-fold. In conclusion, as Bacillus colony grows, the average speckle size in the scatter pattern decreases and the number of smaller speckle increases due to the swarming growth characteristics of bacteria within the colony. PMID:25352840

  1. 21 CFR 866.2170 - Automated colony counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2170 Automated colony counter. (a) Identification. An automated...

  2. 21 CFR 866.2170 - Automated colony counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2170 Automated colony counter. (a) Identification. An automated...

  3. FACTORS INFLUENCING HEMATOPOIETIC SPLEEN COLONY FORMATION IN IRRADIATED MICE

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, John C.; Boggs, Dane R.; Bishop, Carter R.; Chervenick, Paul A.; Cartwright, George E.; Wintrobe, Maxwell M.

    1967-01-01

    Data pertaining to the endogenous mouse spleen colony system, 10 days postirradiation, are presented. The Do for visible colonies is 78 R, while that for 6 hr iron uptake over a range of 600–800 R is 50 R. The Do for spleen weight is 196 R and that for IUdR uptake is 193 R. These measurements increase with the age of the mouse. Hypertransfusion decreases spleen iron uptake and colony number. DF-32P and sodium sulfate-35S are not useful indicators of splenic hematopoiesis in this system. Visible hematopoietic colonies in the spleen are not produced by vinblastine, nitrogen mustard, methotrexate, or cyclophosphamide. PMID:6062002

  4. Modeling cell-matrix traction forces in Keratinocyte colonies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Shiladitya

    2013-03-01

    Crosstalk between cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions plays an essential role in the mechanical function of tissues. The traction forces exerted by cohesive keratinocyte colonies with strong cell-cell adhesions are mostly concentrated at the colony periphery. In contrast, for weak cadherin-based intercellular adhesions, individual cells in a colony interact with their matrix independently, with a disorganized distribution of traction forces extending throughout the colony. In this talk I will present a minimal physical model of the colony as contractile elastic media linked by springs and coupled to an elastic substrate. The model captures the spatial distribution of traction forces seen in experiments. For cell colonies with strong cell-cell adhesions, the total traction force of the colony measured in experiments is found to scale with the colony's geometrical size. This scaling suggests the emergence of an effective surface tension of magnitude comparable to that measured for non-adherent, three-dimensional cell aggregates. The physical model supports the scaling and indicates that the surface tension may be controlled by acto-myosin contractility. Crosstalk between cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions plays an essential role in the mechanical function of tissues. The traction forces exerted by cohesive keratinocyte colonies with strong cell-cell adhesions are mostly concentrated at the colony periphery. In contrast, for weak cadherin-based intercellular adhesions, individual cells in a colony interact with their matrix independently, with a disorganized distribution of traction forces extending throughout the colony. In this talk I will present a minimal physical model of the colony as contractile elastic media linked by springs and coupled to an elastic substrate. The model captures the spatial distribution of traction forces seen in experiments. For cell colonies with strong cell-cell adhesions, the total traction force of the colony measured in experiments is found to scale with the colony's geometrical size. This scaling suggests the emergence of an effective surface tension of magnitude comparable to that measured for non-adherent, three-dimensional cell aggregates. The physical model supports the scaling and indicates that the surface tension may be controlled by acto-myosin contractility. Supported by the NSF through grant DMR-1004789. This work was done in collaboration with Aaron F. Mertz, Eric R. Dufresne and Valerie Horsley (Yale University) and M. Cristina Marchetti (Syracuse University).

  5. 21 CFR 866.2170 - Automated colony counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2170 Automated colony counter. (a) Identification. An automated...

  6. Pioneer medical missions in colonial Africa.

    PubMed

    Good, C M

    1991-01-01

    Protestant and Roman Catholic missions pioneered Western medicine and public health in much of Africa decades in advance of health services provided by colonial governments. A century later church-based hospitals and health care programs continue to account for 25% to 50% of available services in most African countries. In view of the important historical and continuing role of medical missions it is remarkable that there have been no systematic scholarly studies of the impacts of these pioneer institutions on the geography of health and social change in colonial Africa. How, for example, was the health of African populations and the areas they inhabited changed by the activities of medical missions? And how did Africans respond to Western medicine and its alien institutional social and technological structures and relations? This paper develops the historical context and conceptual framework for investigating such topics. It presents a detailed research agenda organized around nine themes, each of which suggests a series of interrelated questions. The methodology employs the techniques of medical and historical geography, and is based on comparative, longitudinal case-studies of medical missions at the local level coupled with archival study. PMID:2008614

  7. A catalog of Louisiana's nesting seabird colonies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fontenot, William R.; Cardiff, Steve W.; DeMay, Richard A.; Dittmann, Donna L.; Hartley, Stephen B.; Jeske, Clinton W.; Lorenz, Nicole; Michot, Thomas C.; Purrington, Robert Dan; Seymour, Michael; Vermillion, William G.

    2012-01-01

    collective habitats which comprise Louisiana's now fragile coastal zone have taken major hits from commercial/residential, oil & gas, and other industrial development, primarily in the form of coastal erosion exacerbated by these and other factors (Portnoy 1978, Spendelow and Patton 1988, Martin and Lester 1990, Green, et al. 2006). Moreover, during this same period, both geologic subsidence rates (Tornqvist et al. 2008) and mean sea-level (Tornqvist et al. 2002) have increased, along with significant tropical storm activity; all of which have combined to impact available marsh, barrier island, beach, and dredge spoil nesting habitat for waterbirds, especially seabirds, throughout the coastal zone of Louisiana. The primary objective of this publication is to detail those coastal Louisiana colonial seabird nesting sites for which we have reasonably accurate data, in a tabular, site-by-site format. All major survey (1976-2008) data of site-by-site seabird species counts, as well as several smaller data sets, referred to in the site history tables as “miscellaneous observations” obtained during the May-June seabird breeding period, are included. It is our hope that these data will provide a dependable foundation from which future colonial seabird nesting surveys might be planned and carried out, as well as showcase the importance of coastal Louisiana's seabird rookeries, and contribute to their conservation.

  8. Antennal cropping during colony foundation in termites

    PubMed Central

    Nalepa, Christine A.; Evans, Theodore A.; Lenz, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The literature on pairing and mating behavior in termites indicates that a number of distal antennal segments in dealates of both sexes are often removed during colony foundation, with terms such as amputation, mutilation and cannibalism typically employed to report the phenomenon. Here we propose the use of the phrase ‘antennal cropping’ to describe the behavior, and assess naturally occurring levels of its occurrence by comparing the number of antennal segments in museum specimens of alates and dealates in 16 species of Australian termites (four families), supplemented by analyzing published data on Coptotermes gestroi. Dealates had significantly fewer antennal segments than alates in 14 of the 16 termite species, with both exceptions belonging to the family Termitidae. Levels of antennal cropping were not significantly different between the sexes but did vary by family. Dealates in the Kalotermitidae removed the most segments (41.3%) and those in the Termitidae removed the fewest (8.9%). We discuss the biological significance of this phylogenetically widespread termite behavior, and suggest that controlled antennal cropping is not only a normal part of their behavioral repertoire but also a key influence that changes the conduct and physiology of the royal pair during the initial stages of colony foundation. PMID:22287897

  9. Can redistribution of breeding colonies on a landscape mitigate changing predation danger?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James K. Kenyon; Barry D. Smith; Robert W. Butler

    2007-01-01

    The reproductive success of colonially breeding species depends in part upon a trade-off between the benefit of a dilution effect against nestling predation within larger colonies and colony conspicuousness. However, there may be no net survivorship benefit of dilution if smaller colonies are sufficiently inconspicuous. This raises the question about how the size distribution of breeding colonies on a landscape

  10. MACS-VRPTW: A MULTIPLE ANT COLONY SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE ROUTING PROBLEMS WITH TIME WINDOWS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luca Maria Gambardella; E. Taillard; Giovanni Agazzi

    1999-01-01

    MACS-VRPTW, an Ant Colony Optimization based approach useful to solve vehicle routing problems with time windows is presented. MACS-VRPTW is organized with a hierarchy of artificial ant colonies designed to successively optimize a multiple objective function: the first colony minimizes the number of vehicles while the second colony minimizes the traveled distances. Cooperation between colonies is performed by exchanging information

  11. Analysis of two genetic models for the innate components of colony odor in social Hymenoptera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Crozier; M. W. Dix

    1979-01-01

    We propose two models for the inheritance of the innate components of colony odor in social Hymenoptera. Under the Individualistic model, individuals are hostile unless they share at least one allele at all colony-odor loci. Under the Gestalt model, colony-odor pheromones are transferred between individuals, resulting in a ‘gestalt’ colony odor; colonies will not fuse unless they have the same

  12. Effects of worker genotypic diversity on honey bee colony development and behavior ( Apis mellifera L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. Page Jr; Gene E. Robinson; M. Kim Fondrk; Medhat E. Nasr

    1995-01-01

    There have been numerous reports of genetic influences on division of labor in honey bee colonies, but the effects of worker genotypic diversity on colony behavior are unclear. We analyzed the effects of worker genotypic diversity on the phenotypes of honey bee colonies during a critical phase of colony development, the “nest initiation” phase. Five groups of colonies were studied

  13. Evaluation of counting error due to colony masking in bioaerosol sampling.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, C W; Hwang, Y H; Grinshpun, S A; Macher, J M; Willeke, K

    1994-01-01

    Colony counting error due to indistinguishable colony overlap (i.e., masking) was evaluated theoretically and experimentally. A theoretical model to predict colony masking was used to determine colony counting efficiency by Monte Carlo computer simulation of microorganism collection and development into CFU. The computer simulation was verified experimentally by collecting aerosolized Bacillus subtilis spores and examining micro- and macroscopic colonies. Colony counting efficiency decreased (i) with increasing density of collected culturable microorganisms, (ii) with increasing colony size, and (iii) with decreasing ability of an observation system to distinguish adjacent colonies as separate units. Counting efficiency for 2-mm colonies, at optimal resolution, decreased from 98 to 85% when colony density increased from 1 to 10 microorganisms cm-2, in contrast to an efficiency decrease from 90 to 45% for 5-mm colonies. No statistically significant difference (alpha = 0.05) between experimental and theoretical results was found when colony shape was used to estimate the number of individual colonies in a CFU. Experimental colony counts were 1.2 times simulation estimates when colony shape was not considered, because of nonuniformity of actual colony size and the better discrimination ability of the human eye relative to the model. Colony surface densities associated with high counting accuracy were compared with recommended upper plate count limits and found to depend on colony size and an observation system's ability to identify overlapped colonies. Correction factors were developed to estimate the actual number of collected microorganisms from observed colony counts.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7986046

  14. The Importance of Microbes in Nutrition and Health of Honey Bee Colonies Part-2: Factors Affecting the Microbial Community in Honey Bee Colonies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Honey bee colonies have innumerable symbiotic bacteria and fungi that are essential to the health of the colony. In the first part of this series, we discussed the importance of microbes in maintaining the health of honey bee colonies. The bacteria, yeasts and molds that live in a healthy colony a...

  15. Colony integration and reproductive conflict in honey bees

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Review Colony integration and reproductive conflict in honey bees P.K. Visscher Department 1997) Abstract - Honey bee colonies, although highly cooperative, are composed of genetically dis production of males. Sex ratio conflict is expected to be minimal and hard to measure in honey bees

  16. Combating Varroa destructor in Honeybee Colonies Using Flumethrin or Fluvalinate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Gregorc; M. I. Smodiš Škerl

    2007-01-01

    Gregorc A., M. I. Smodi‰ ·kerl: Combating Varroa destructor in Honeybee Colonies Using Flumethrin or Fluvalinate. Acta Vet. Brno 2007, 76: 309-314. Mite mortality in two apiaries, one with 32 and the other with 15 honeybee (Apis mellifera carnica) colonies, was recorded prior to and after flumethrin or fluvalinate treatments and after a control, oxalic-acid application. During the 42- and

  17. PROBLEMS OF VIOLENCE, STATES OF TERROR: TORTURE IN COLONIAL INDIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anupama Rao

    2001-01-01

    The 'discovery' of torture and its prevalence in the extraction of confessions produced a dilemma for the colonial state in India. Especially with the publication of the two-volume Report of the Commissioners for the Investigation of Alleged Cases of Torture in the Madras Presidency in 1855, colonial administrators became uncomfortably aware of the contrived nature of the 'truth' produced before

  18. Using Ant Colony Optimization to guide a CP search

    E-print Network

    Solnon, Christine

    Using Ant Colony Optimization to guide a CP search Madjid Khichane1, Patrick Albert1, and Christine;Introduction Ant-CP Car sequencing Results I/D study Conclusion Motivations Constraint Programming High level Describe the problem with Ilog solver Use Ilog solver to propagate and verify constraints Use Ant Colony

  19. Using Ant Colony Optimization algorithm for solving project management problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hazem Abdallah; Hassan M. Emara; Hassan T. Dorrah; Ahmed Bahgat

    2009-01-01

    Network analysis provides an effective practical system for planning and controlling large projects in construction and many other fields. Ant Colony System is a recent approach used for solving path minimization problems. This paper presents the use of Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) system for solving and calculating both deterministic and probabilistic CPM\\/PERT networks. The proposed method is investigated for a

  20. Model Specification Searches Using Ant Colony Optimization Algorithms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcoulides, George A.; Drezner, Zvi

    2003-01-01

    Ant colony optimization is a recently proposed heuristic procedure inspired by the behavior of real ants. This article applies the procedure to model specification searches in structural equation modeling and reports the results. The results demonstrate the capabilities of ant colony optimization algorithms for conducting automated searches.

  1. An Ant Colony Optimization Approach to Disassembly Planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. LUl; H. Z. Huang; B. Zheng; J. Y. H. FUHl; Y. S. Wong

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes an ant colony optimization approach to disassembly planning. The mechanism of ant colony optimization in disassembly planning is discussed, and the objectives to be optimized in disassembly planning are introduced. For more effective search for feasible non-dominated solutions, a multi-objective searching algorithm with uniform design is investigated to guide the ants searching the routes along the uniformly

  2. Thoughts on information and integration in honey bee colonies

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Review Thoughts on information and integration in honey bee colonies Thomas D. Seeley Section 1997) Abstract - Solving the puzzle of colony integration in honey bees requires understanding how a worker bee acquires the information that she needs to decide correctly, moment-by-moment, what task

  3. Colony Collapse Disorder: Many Suspects, No Smoking Gun

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Myrna E. Watanabe (Science Writer; )

    2008-05-01

    Although more has been learned since colony collapse disorder (CCD) was first identified in mid-November 2006, the mystery remains. Some possibilitiescontamination with pollen from plants genetically modified to carry an insecticidal gene, radiation from cell phones, and perhaps even stress itselfcan probably be ruled out as contributory causes of CCD, but the cause of the bee colony losses remains unknown.

  4. 'Administering the Medicine': Progressive Education, Colonialism, and the State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote, Joost

    2001-01-01

    Draws comparisons between the Australian education directors, Frank Tate and Jacques Henry Abendanon. Discusses educational reform issues based on racial contexts and social, political, and cultural aspects in the British colony of Victoria and the Dutch colony of Java. Concludes that, though their politcal contexts are different, their views are…

  5. Whose freedom? Whose memories? Commemorating Danish colonialism in St. Croix

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bolette B. Blaagaard

    2011-01-01

    The article addresses the issues of cultural and archival historical representations as they are presented in Danish journalism about historical events taking place in the former colonies of Denmark, the current United States' Virgin Islands (USVI). The (post)colonial relationship between Denmark and USVI has been overlooked by Danish and 'western'-based scholars for quite some time. The article presents the case

  6. MRF-based image segmentation using Ant Colony System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ouadfel Salima; Batouche Mohamed

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel method for image segmentation that we call ACS-MRF method. ACS-MRF is a hybrid ant colony system coupled with a local search. We show how a colony of cooperating ants are able to estimate the labels field and minimize the MAP estimate. Cooperation between ants is performed by exchanging information through pheromone updating. The

  7. Ant Colony Algorithms in Diverse Combinational Optimization Problems -A Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Thangavel; M. Karnan; P. Jeganathan; R. Sivakumar; G. Geetharamani

    Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) metaheuristic is a recent population-based approach inspired by the observation of real ants colony and based upon their collective foraging behavior. In ACO, solutions of the problem are constructed within a stochastic iterative process, by adding solution components to partial solutions. Each individual ant constructs a part of the solution using an artificial pheromone, which reflects

  8. Multiple Ant Colonies Optimization for Load Balancing in Distributed Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Al-Dahoud Ali; Mohamed A. Belal

    Ant colony optimization (ACO) has proved its success as a meta-heuristic optimization in several network applications such as routing and load balancing. In this paper, a proposed ACO al gorithm for load balancing in distributed systems will be presented. This algorithm is fully distributed in which information is dynamically updated at each ant movement. Multiple colonies paradigm will be adopted

  9. Articulated Robot Motion Planning Using Ant Colony Optimisation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MohdMurtadha Mohamad; N. K. Taylor; M. W. Dunnigan

    2006-01-01

    A new approach to robot motion planning is proposed by applying ant colony optimization (ACO) with the probabilistic roadmap planner (PRM). The aim of this approach is to apply ACO to 3-dimensional robot motion planning which is complicated when involving mobile 6-dof or multiple articulated robots. An ant colony robot motion planning (ACRMP) method is proposed that has the benefit

  10. Load Balancing of Nodes in Cloud Using Ant Colony Optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kumar Nishant; Pratik Sharma; Vishal Krishna; Chhavi Gupta; Kuwar Pratap Singh; Nitin; Ravi Rastogi

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we proposed an algorithm for load distribution of workloads among nodes of a cloud by the use of Ant Colony Optimization (ACO). This is a modified approach of ant colony optimization that has been applied from the perspective of cloud or grid network systems with the main aim of load balancing of nodes. This modified algorithm has

  11. Understanding the Pheromone System Within Ant Colony Optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Gilmour; Mark Dras

    2005-01-01

    Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is a collection of meta- heuristics inspired by foraging in ant colonies, whose aim is to solve combinatorial optimization problems. We identify some principles behind the metaheuristics' rules; and we show that ensuring their application, as a correction to a published algorithm for the vertex cover problem, leads to a statistically signican t improvement in empirical

  12. A fast Ant Colony Optimization for traveling salesman problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shih-Pang Tseng; Chun-Wei Tsai; Ming-Chao Chiang; Chu-Sing Yang

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present an efficient method for speeding up Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), called Pattern Reduction Enhanced Ant Colony Optimization (PREACO). The proposed algorithm is motivated by the observation that many of the computations of ACO on its convergence process are essentially redundant and thus can be eliminated to reduce its computation time. To evaluate the performance of

  13. Social life: the paradox of multiple-queen colonies

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Nadir

    questionof why young queens join estab lished colonies and why resident queensand workers acceptthem second set of issuesrelates to the mechanisms maintainingreproductivealtruism by workers when several insect workers are hlghly related to the brood they rear when colonies are headed by a single queen

  14. Controlled use of a robot colony power supply

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary B. Parker; Richard S. Zbeda

    2005-01-01

    The controlled use of a continuous power supply for robots of a colony is presented. This work builds on previous work where capacitors were used as an onboard power supply, and where robots with metallic probes were charged at a power station. An onboard controller was implemented to direct the hexapod colony robot behavior according to its power supply status.

  15. Estimating Transport Energy Demand Using Ant Colony Optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. BASKAN; S. HALDENBILEN; Halim Ceylan; H. CEYLAN

    2012-01-01

    This study proposesa heuristic algorithm based on ant colony optimization for estimating the transport energy demand (TED) of Turkey using gross domestic product, population, and vehicle-km. Three forms of the improved ant colony optimiza- tion transport energy demand estimation (IACOTEDE) models are used for improving estimating capabilities of TED models. Performance of IACOTEDE is compared with the Ministry of Energyand

  16. Automatic counting and classification of bacterial colonies using hyperspectral imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detection and counting of bacterial colonies on agar plates is a routine microbiology practice to get a rough estimate of the number of viable cells in a sample. There have been a variety of different automatic colony counting systems and software algorithms mainly based on color or gray-scale pictu...

  17. DROWNED AND DAMMED Colonial Capitalism and Flood Control

    E-print Network

    Sussex, University of

    DROWNED AND DAMMED Colonial Capitalism and Flood Control in Eastern India ROHAN D on the colonial environmental watershed and its hydraulic legacy. It also questions the enthusiasm for flood and practice of flood control in order to anchor their presence in the Orissa Delta. It was principally

  18. Structural inverse analysis by hybrid simplex artificial bee colony algorithms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fei Kang; Junjie Li; Qing Xu

    2009-01-01

    A hybrid simplex artificial bee colony algorithm (HSABCA) which combines Nelder–Mead simplex method with artificial bee colony algorithm (ABCA) is proposed for inverse analysis problems. The proposed algorithm is applied to parameter identification of concrete dam-foundation systems. To verify the performance of HSABCA, it is compared with the basic ABCA and a real coded genetic algorithm (RCGA) on two examples:

  19. Indigenous Knowledge in the Science Curriculum: Avoiding Neo-Colonialism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Science education in Papua New Guinea has been influenced by neo-colonial practices that have significantly contributed to the silencing of the Papua New Guinea voice. This silencing has led to the production of science curriculum documents that are irrelevant to the students for whom they are written. To avoid being caught up in neo-colonial

  20. How natural infection by Nosema ceranae causes honeybee colony collapse.

    PubMed

    Higes, Mariano; Martín-Hernández, Raquel; Botías, Cristina; Bailón, Encarna Garrido; González-Porto, Amelia V; Barrios, Laura; Del Nozal, M Jesús; Bernal, José L; Jiménez, Juan J; Palencia, Pilar García; Meana, Aránzazu

    2008-10-01

    In recent years, honeybees (Apis mellifera) have been strangely disappearing from their hives, and strong colonies have suddenly become weak and died. The precise aetiology underlying the disappearance of the bees remains a mystery. However, during the same period, Nosema ceranae, a microsporidium of the Asian bee Apis cerana, seems to have colonized A. mellifera, and it's now frequently detected all over the world in both healthy and weak honeybee colonies. For first time, we show that natural N. ceranae infection can cause the sudden collapse of bee colonies, establishing a direct correlation between N. ceranae infection and the death of honeybee colonies under field conditions. Signs of colony weakness were not evident until the queen could no longer replace the loss of the infected bees. The long asymptomatic incubation period can explain the absence of evident symptoms prior to colony collapse. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that healthy colonies near to an infected one can also become infected, and that N. ceranae infection can be controlled with a specific antibiotic, fumagillin. Moreover, the administration of 120 mg of fumagillin has proven to eliminate the infection, but it cannot avoid reinfection after 6 months. We provide Koch's postulates between N. ceranae infection and a syndrome with a long incubation period involving continuous death of adult bees, non-stop brood rearing by the bees and colony loss in winter or early spring despite the presence of sufficient remaining pollen and honey. PMID:18647336

  1. The paradoxical after-life of colonial governmentality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Dutton

    2010-01-01

    Employing the emergency number 911 as a device to open onto two continents of governance – one ‘hot’ the other ‘cold’, one binary, the other the disaggregation of the binary – this paper shows that colonial governmentality is marked by a paradoxical combination of the two. Moreover, it argues that colonial governmentality is the progenitor of this form of governance

  2. The Spanish Philippines: Archaeological Perspectives on Colonial Economics and Society

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russell K. Skowronek

    1998-01-01

    When scholars consider Spanish colonialism in the Philippines their impressions are based largely on documentary evidence of their 377-year colonial presence and on romanticized impressions of the larger Spanish empire. In the New World, wherever Europeans settled, there is a clear break in the archaeological sequence of pre-Columbian cultural traditions. In the systemic context these changes continue to be evidenced

  3. Culture of a Colonial Hydroid under Controlled Conditions.

    PubMed

    Fulton, C

    1960-08-19

    A simple method has been developed for the cultivation of colonies of Cordylophora lacustris. The colonies, attached to microscope slides slanted in beakers, are grown in a culture solution containing five required ions. Artemia larvae are supplied as food. Increase in hydranth number is exponential with a doubling time of about 3 days. PMID:17816030

  4. 75 FR 28685 - Colonial Bankshares, MHC, Vineland, NJ; Approval of Conversion Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ...Nos. 04983, H-3879, and H-4714] Colonial Bankshares, MHC, Vineland, NJ; Approval of Conversion Application Notice is...Supervision approved the application of Colonial Bankshares, MHC, and Colonial Bank, Vineland, New Jersey, to convert to...

  5. Characteristics of rat megakaryocyte colonies and their progenitors in agar culture

    SciTech Connect

    Kellar, K.L.; Rolovic, Z.; Evatt, B.L.; Sewell, E.T.

    1985-11-01

    The characteristics of megakaryocyte colonies that develop from megakaryocyte progenitors of rat bone marrow stimulated by rat spleen-conditioned medium (SCM) in agar culture were investigated. Colony frequency was optimal on day 7 and increased relative to both the number of cells plated and the concentration of SCM used. Colonies were categorized as small cell and big cell. Small-cell colonies had a greater proliferative potential, with a mean of 25 cells/colony. Big-cell colonies averaged 15 cells/colony. The ratio of big-cell to small-cell colonies was 0.69 +/- 0.29. Granulocyte-macrophage colonies, which were also stimulated by SCM, accounted for 70% +/- 15% of the total colonies in the cultures. Cytocidal experiments with tritiated thymidine reduced megakaryocyte colony formation by 45% and granulocyte-macrophage colony formation by 21%. The properties of rat, mouse, and human megakaryocyte progenitors as assayed in vitro are compared.

  6. Colonial Zapotec Calendars and Calendrical Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Justeson, John

    A great deal is known about colonial Zapotec calendar systems. Every pan-Mesoamerican system was in use: the divinatory/sacred calendar of 260 days, together with its partition into 13- and 20-day subdivisions; the civil year of 365 days and its subdivision into eighteen 20-day months plus a final period of 5 days; and the cycle of 52 years, a permutation of the divinatory and civil calendars. A surprising amount is known about the activities and professional tools and practices of the calendar specialists, and about the ways that calendrical knowledge was transmitted. We have scant information on Zapotec astronomical knowledge and practices, believed to have been in their hands, but an understanding of the timing of eclipses was among their applications of calendrical constructs.

  7. ARRIVAL AND DEPARTURE FREQUENCIES OF GREAT BLUE HERONS AT TWO OREGON ESTUARINE COLONIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RANGE D. BAYER

    of low tide, and the largest average colony synchrony was then 23% of the breeding herons\\/h. The average time between arrivals per heron at a 36-39-nest and an 8-nest colony was 6.7 h, which indicates that herons infrequently returned to a colony. Most herons (64% at the larger colony, 95% at the smaller colony) departed the colony alone. The clumping

  8. Derivation of guidelines for uranium residual radioactive material in soil at the Colonie Site, Colonie, New York

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1996-01-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil were derived for the Colonie site located in Colonie, New York. This site has been designated for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The site became contaminated with radioactive material as a result of operations conducted by National Lead (NL)

  9. Declining thick-billed murre Uria lomvia colonies experience higher gull predation rates: an inter-colony comparison

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Grant Gilchrist

    1999-01-01

    Avian predators of colonial-nesting seabirds preferentially attack individuals nesting alone or on the edge of groups, apparently because they can forage without being struck by defending neighbours. If nesting densities of colonial seabirds declined, predators are predicted to have fewer foraging constraints and consequently a greater impact on seabird reproduction. Thus, avian predation could prevent the recovery of seabird populations

  10. Effects of queen ages on Varroa (Varroa destructor) infestation level in honey bee (Apis mellifera caucasica) colonies and colony performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ethem Akyol; Halil Yeninar; Mustafa Karatepe; Bilge Karatepe; Duran Özkök

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of queen age on varroa population levels in hives and performance of honey bee (A. mellifera caucasica) colonies. Levels of varroa infestation and performances of the colonies which had 0, 1- and 2-year-old queens were compared in mild climate conditions. Varroa numbers on adults and drone brood, number of frames covered with

  11. Modulation of tumour colony growth by irradiated accessory cells.

    PubMed Central

    Hamburger, A. W.; White, C. P.; Dunn, F. E.

    1983-01-01

    The ability of human tumour cells to form colonies in soft agar is enhanced by the presence of autologous phagocytic/adherent cells. We investigated the effect of irradiation on the ability of the adherent cells to support human tumour colony formation. Relatively low doses of irradiation significantly increased the growth enhancing ability of adherent cells in 17/19 cases. The possibility that the enhancement was mediated by inactivation of radiosensitive contaminating lymphocytes was explored. Depletion of T lymphocytes from unirradiated adherent cells by a monoclonal antibody and complement resulted in little overall change in tumour colony growth. However, elimination of only the suppressor subset (OKT8+) of T lymphocytes resulted in increased colony growth relative to control values obtained with unirradiated adherent cells. In contrast, depletion of T lymphocytes from irradiated adherent cells by a pan T monoclonal antibody and complement decreased colony formation. Thus, the ability of irradiated macrophages to enhance tumour colony growth appeared to be mediated by a T lymphocyte. The effect of irradiation on isolated populations of macrophages and T lymphocytes was also examined. The enhanced ability of irradiated adherent cells to support tumor colony growth appeared to have been due to treatment of T lymphocytes alone. The results indicate that both adherent macrophages and lymphocytes may influence the growth of clonogenic human tumour cells. PMID:6605760

  12. Between stigmatisation and regulation: prostitution in colonial Northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Tracol-Huynh, Isabelle

    2010-08-01

    Colonisation was a masculine adventure which took place in a distorted world full of 'welcoming' native women. The colonial encounter therefore was both racial and gendered: boundaries between European men and Vietnamese women were obvious. On the other hand the intimacy that resulted from this encounter blurred the racial boundaries that were the foundation of the colonial order. These boundaries had to be redrawn or sharpened. Focusing on French colonial northern Vietnam (Tonkin) this paper examines how the whole colonial encounter was embodied in the sexual encounter between European men and native women and how prostitution was an integral part of the colonial order. This analysis of the regulation of prostitution and its ambivalence reveals that the definition of prostitution and its treatment by the French colonial authorities was political, racial and therefore connected to a specific period. The political definition of prostitution in today's Vietnam is different from the colonial one. This shift reveals that prostitution is a pertinent vantage point from which one can study how a society apprehends itself and its own future. PMID:20364443

  13. Quantifying the colony shape of the Montastraea annularis species complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, J. P.

    2006-08-01

    The reef coral Montastraea annularis has been used in a wide range of investigations. Recently, it has been recognized as a complex of three species based on field observations of the variation in colony shape. These observations have also been confirmed by molecular methods as well as morphometrics on individual corallites in the colonies. This paper presents a new quantitative method for measuring overall colony shape based on geostatistics. Seventeen colonies collected from San Blas, Panama in 1995 and 1996 were examined using the Polhemus 3SPACE FASTRAK system to construct three-dimensional coordinates of the center of several hundred corallites in each colony. This method measures the larger bumps or “ridges” as well as the smaller bumps or “lumps” of the colonies. Variograms were then calculated for all the specimens and the lag distances and the values of the variogram were used in a multivariate statistical analysis. Overall, this method indicated that M. annularis and Montastaea faveolata overlap in their relative amount of bumpiness in colony shape while Montastraea franksi is distinct from the other two species. This method has implications for both the modern and fossil record of Montastraea as well as other organisms with similar shapes.

  14. The colonial context of Filipino American immigrants' psychological experiences.

    PubMed

    David, E J R; Nadal, Kevin L

    2013-07-01

    Because of the long colonial history of Filipinos and the highly Americanized climate of postcolonial Philippines, many scholars from various disciplines have speculated that colonialism and its legacies may play major roles in Filipino emigration to the United States. However, there are no known empirical studies in psychology that specifically investigate whether colonialism and its effects have influenced the psychological experiences of Filipino American immigrants prior to their arrival in the United States. Further, there is no existing empirical study that specifically investigates the extent to which colonialism and its legacies continue to influence Filipino American immigrants' mental health. Thus, using interviews (N = 6) and surveys (N = 219) with Filipino American immigrants, two studies found that colonialism and its consequences are important factors to consider when conceptualizing the psychological experiences of Filipino American immigrants. Specifically, the findings suggest that (a) Filipino American immigrants experienced ethnic and cultural denigration in the Philippines prior to their U.S. arrival, (b) ethnic and cultural denigration in the Philippines and in the United States may lead to the development of colonial mentality (CM), and (c) that CM may have negative mental health consequences among Filipino American immigrants. The two studies' findings suggest that the Filipino American immigration experience cannot be completely captured by the voluntary immigrant narrative, as they provide empirical support to the notion that the Filipino American immigration experience needs to be understood in the context of colonialism and its most insidious psychological legacy- CM. PMID:23875854

  15. The hyper-cube framework for ant colony optimization.

    PubMed

    Blum, Christian; Dorigo, Marco

    2004-04-01

    Ant colony optimization is a metaheuristic approach belonging to the class of model-based search algorithms. In this paper, we propose a new framework for implementing ant colony optimization algorithms called the hyper-cube framework for ant colony optimization. In contrast to the usual way of implementing ant colony optimization algorithms, this framework limits the pheromone values to the interval [0,1]. This is obtained by introducing changes in the pheromone value update rule. These changes can in general be applied to any pheromone value update rule used in ant colony optimization. We discuss the benefits coming with this new framework. The benefits are twofold. On the theoretical side, the new framework allows us to prove that in Ant System, the ancestor of all ant colony optimization algorithms, the average quality of the solutions produced increases in expectation over time when applied to unconstrained problems. On the practical side, the new framework automatically handles the scaling of the objective function values. We experimentally show that this leads on average to a more robust behavior of ant colony optimization algorithms. PMID:15376861

  16. Impacts of inbreeding on bumblebee colony fitness under field conditions

    PubMed Central

    Whitehorn, Penelope R; Tinsley, Matthew C; Brown, Mark JF; Darvill, Ben; Goulson, Dave

    2009-01-01

    Background Inbreeding and the loss of genetic diversity are known to be significant threats to small, isolated populations. Hymenoptera represent a special case regarding the impact of inbreeding. Haplodiploidy may permit purging of deleterious recessive alleles in haploid males, meaning inbreeding depression is reduced relative to diploid species. In contrast, the impact of inbreeding may be exacerbated in Hymenopteran species that have a single-locus complementary sex determination system, due to the production of sterile or inviable diploid males. We investigated the costs of brother-sister mating in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris. We compared inbred colonies that produced diploid males and inbred colonies that did not produce diploid males with outbred colonies. Mating, hibernation and colony founding took place in the laboratory. Once colonies had produced 15 offspring they were placed in the field and left to forage under natural conditions. Results The diploid male colonies had a significantly reduced fitness compared to regular inbred and outbred colonies; they had slower growth rates in the laboratory, survived for a shorter time period under field conditions and produced significantly fewer offspring overall. No differences in success were found between non-diploid male inbred colonies and outbred colonies. Conclusion Our data illustrate that inbreeding exacts a considerable cost in Bombus terrestris through the production of diploid males. We suggest that diploid males may act as indicators of the genetic health of populations, and that their detection could be used as an informative tool in hymenopteran conservation. We conclude that whilst haplodiploids may suffer less inbreeding depression than diploid species, they are still highly vulnerable to population fragmentation and reduced genetic diversity due to the extreme costs imposed by the production of diploid males. PMID:19573223

  17. Colony evaluation is not affected by drifting of drone and worker honeybees ( Apis mellifera L.) at a performance testing apiary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Neumann; Robin F. A. Moritz; Dieter Mautz

    2000-01-01

    The impact of drifting workers and drones on evaluating performance data of honeybee (Apis mellifera carnica) colonies was studied using DNA microsatellites. Colony size, honey yield and colony level of infestation with Varroa jacobsoniwere evaluated from 30 queenright colonies. Individuals (n = 1359 workers from 38 colonies, n = 449 drones from 14 colonies) were genotyped using four DNA microsatellite

  18. Model for social interaction, competition and dominance in ant colonies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anggriani, N.; Aryani, I.; Darmawati, Supriatna, A. K.

    2014-02-01

    It has been known that characteristic of social life within ant colonies includes efficient class division, harmonious appearance, but also competition within nestmates. Conflict between queens, male and female labors frequently occurs due to different interest among class members. A mathematical model for interaction between queens, male and female workers in ant colonies is discussed here. Interesting phenomena such as male-male competition and queen dominance are analyzed and stable coexistence is shown. It is also shown that heavy competition is even necessary to maintain a certain level of coexistence in the colonies.

  19. The Old Colony Mennonites of Bolivia: a case study 

    E-print Network

    Lanning, James Walter

    1971-01-01

    TNE OLD COLONY MENNONITES OF BOLIVIA: A CASE STUDY A Thesis by JAILS WALTER LANNING Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1971 Major...) December 1971 ABSTRACT The Old Colony Mennonites of Bolivia: A Case Study. (December 1971) James W. Lanning, B. S. , Texas A&M University Directed by: Bardin H. Melson The major objective of the thesis was to describe the Old Colony Mennonites...

  20. [Japan's Oriental medicine policy in colonial Korea].

    PubMed

    Park, Yunjae

    2008-06-01

    During its colonization of Korea, the Japanese Empire used the Western medicine as a tool for advertising its advanced culture. However, the medical workforce available in Korea was insufficient. The Rule for Uisaeng (Oriental medicine practitioner) was an ordinance decreed in 1913 with a purpose of supplementing the medical workforce. As the Oriental medicine practitioners became official medical workforce, the Japanese Empire could mobilize them in a hygienic administration such as prevention of epidemics. The Uisaengs also tried to adapt themselves to the colonial environment by studying Western medicines. However, the distrust of the Japanese Empire in Oriental medicine continued until 1920s. Manchurian Incident in 1931 brought a change. As the relationship with China aggravated, the provision of medical herb became unstable and the Japanese Empire began to encourage using Oriental medical herb following the Movement for Improving Rural Region Economy. An attempt of the Japanese Empire to utilize the medical herb resulted in a plan to make the Oriental medical herb officinal. The goal was to organize and standardize the Oriental medical herb through a research by the Medical Herb Investigation Committee. However, the medical herb on the table was the one verified by the Western medicine. That is, it was not a traditional medical herb that uses the original theory of Oriental medicine. There was a minority opinion arguing that they should study the Oriental medicine itself. However, that argument was also based on the theory and principles of the Western medicine. Even though an attempt to make full use of Uisaengs expanded as the war continued, the major medical workforce that the Japanese Empire relied on was those trained in Western medicine. In other words, the Japanese Empire did not give a full credit to the Oriental medicine during the colonial era. During the colonization, Japanese Empire used Oriental medicine under the nominal reason of lack of medical workforces. In early 1930s, a policy supporting usage of Oriental medical herb was selected. However, it does not mean that the change in policy encouraged Oriental medicine since the medical herb that the Japanese Empire supported was those that were organized and categorized according to the principles in Western medicine. PMID:19008655

  1. Was Fundamental Education Another Form Of Colonialism?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watras, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    A description of the work of Pedro Tamesis Orata provides an opportunity to investigate the conflicts that can occur when educators seek to reduce poverty while trying to respect indigenous cultures. A native of the Philippines, Orata completed his doctoral studies at the Ohio State University in 1927. During US President Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal, he accepted the position of school principal for the US Bureau of Indian Affairs. After World War II, he directed the spread of fundamental education through the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). In his final years, he returned to the Philippines where he began a movement to spread what were called self-help high schools. In these activities, Orata taught people to follow John Dewey's five steps of thinking while working to improve their standards of living. In the 1970s, educators, such as Paulo Freire, complained that problem-solving methods, similar to those Orata favored, reinforced the oppressive aspects of formerly colonial societies. While Freire may have been overly critical, conflicts among cultural orientations appear to be unavoidable. The hope behind this investigation is that the difficulties can be reduced when people understand the different forces that persist.

  2. Selective sweeps in growing microbial colonies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolev, Kirill S.; Müller, Melanie J. I.; Karahan, Nilay; Murray, Andrew W.; Hallatschek, Oskar; Nelson, David R.

    2012-04-01

    Evolutionary experiments with microbes are a powerful tool to study mutations and natural selection. These experiments, however, are often limited to the well-mixed environments of a test tube or a chemostat. Since spatial organization can significantly affect evolutionary dynamics, the need is growing for evolutionary experiments in spatially structured environments. The surface of a Petri dish provides such an environment, but a more detailed understanding of microbial growth on Petri dishes is necessary to interpret such experiments. We formulate a simple deterministic reaction-diffusion model, which successfully predicts the spatial patterns created by two competing species during colony expansion. We also derive the shape of these patterns analytically without relying on microscopic details of the model. In particular, we find that the relative fitness of two microbial strains can be estimated from the logarithmic spirals created by selective sweeps. The theory is tested with strains of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for spatial competitions with different initial conditions and for a range of relative fitnesses. The reaction-diffusion model also connects the microscopic parameters like growth rates and diffusion constants with macroscopic spatial patterns and predicts the relationship between fitness in liquid cultures and on Petri dishes, which we confirmed experimentally. Spatial sector patterns therefore provide an alternative fitness assay to the commonly used liquid culture fitness assays.

  3. Compositional analysis of Spanish Colonial ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    James, W.D.; Carlson, S.B.; Carlson, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    Ceramic shards found in Spanish Colonial missions in Texas consist of broken remnants of wares either brought from Mexico or manufactured locally by 18th century Native Americans. A few are thought to be of European or Asian manufacture, but these consist of only a few percent of the ceramic assemblages available for study now. Certain types of ceramics are consistently found in these sites, including local Native American wares and Mexican slipped or glazed wares. In addition, undecorated lead-glazed coarse earthenwares occur in great frequency, but their place of origin is unknown. Speculation has been that these lead-glazed wares, which range in color from yellow to olive-green and occur in both coiled and wheel-thrown constructions, were locally made by Native Americans using Spanish technology or that they were imported from Mexico. Compositional analysis of these wares was undertaken to clarify their source of manufacture. The sample included 102 ceramics from four Texas mission sites: Mission San Lorenzo de la Santa Cruz in Real County, Mission San Juan Capistrano in Bexar County, Mission Rosario in Goliad County, and Mission Dolores de los Ais in San Augustine County. A larger goal of the study was to examine the supply system to these well-dispersed mission sites and how it was affected by Spain`s economic climate during the l8th century.

  4. Nurse during the Japanese Colonial Period.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sook Young

    2015-04-01

    This article examines the life of Lee Jungsook, a Korean nurse, as a independence activist during the Japanese colonial period. Lee Jungsook(1896-1950) was born in Bukchung in Hamnam province. She studied at Chungshin girl's high school and worked at Severance hospital. The characteristics and culture of her educational background and work place were very important factors which influenced greatly the life of Lee Jungsook. She learned independent spirit and nationalism from Chungshin girls' high school and worked as nurse at the Severance hospital which were full of intense aspiration for Korea's independence. Many of doctors, professors and medical students were participated in the 3.1 Independence Movement. Lee Jungsook was a founding member of Hyulsungdan who tried to help the independence activists in prison and their families and worked as a main member of Korean Women's Association for Korean Independece and Kyungsung branch of the Korean Red Cross. She was sent to jail by the Japanese government for her independence activism. After being released after serving two years confinement, she worked for the Union for Women's Liberation as a founding member. Lee Joungsook was a great independence activist who had a nursing care spirit as a nurse. PMID:25985776

  5. Modeling the dynamics of ant colony optimization.

    PubMed

    Merkle, Daniel; Middendorf, Martin

    2002-01-01

    The dynamics of Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithms is studied using a deterministic model that assumes an average expected behavior of the algorithms. The ACO optimization metaheuristic is an iterative approach, where in every iteration, artificial ants construct solutions randomly but guided by pheromone information stemming from former ants that found good solutions. The behavior of ACO algorithms and the ACO model are analyzed for certain types of permutation problems. It is shown analytically that the decisions of an ant are influenced in an intriguing way by the use of the pheromone information and the properties of the pheromone matrix. This explains why ACO algorithms can show a complex dynamic behavior even when there is only one ant per iteration and no competition occurs. The ACO model is used to describe the algorithm behavior as a combination of situations with different degrees of competition between the ants. This helps to better understand the dynamics of the algorithm when there are several ants per iteration as is always the case when using ACO algorithms for optimization. Simulations are done to compare the behavior of the ACO model with the ACO algorithm. Results show that the deterministic model describes essential features of the dynamics of ACO algorithms quite accurately, while other aspects of the algorithms behavior cannot be found in the model. PMID:12227995

  6. Multi-Goal Feasible Path Planning Using Ant Colony Optimization

    E-print Network

    Englot, Brendan J.

    A new algorithm for solving multi-goal planning problems in the presence of obstacles is introduced. We extend ant colony optimization (ACO) from its well-known application, the traveling salesman problem (TSP), to that ...

  7. Honeybee colony collapse due to Nosema ceranae in professional apiaries.

    PubMed

    Higes, Mariano; Martín-Hernández, Raquel; Garrido-Bailón, Encarna; González-Porto, Amelia V; García-Palencia, Pilar; Meana, Aranzazu; Del Nozal, María J; Mayo, R; Bernal, José L

    2009-04-01

    Honeybee colony collapse is a sanitary and ecological worldwide problem. The features of this syndrome are an unexplained disappearance of adult bees, a lack of brood attention, reduced colony strength, and heavy winter mortality without any previous evident pathological disturbances. To date there has not been a consensus about its origins. This report describes the clinical features of two professional bee-keepers affecting by this syndrome. Anamnesis, clinical examination and analyses support that the depopulation in both cases was due to the infection by Nosema ceranae (Microsporidia), an emerging pathogen of Apis mellifera. No other significant pathogens or pesticides (neonicotinoids) were detected and the bees had not been foraging in corn or sunflower crops. The treatment with fumagillin avoided the loss of surviving weak colonies. This is the first case report of honeybee colony collapse due to N. ceranae in professional apiaries in field conditions reported worldwide. PMID:23765741

  8. Colony stimulating factor-1 in the induction of lupus nephritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy D Bloom; Sandrine Florquin; Gary G Singer; Daniel C Brennan; Vicki Rubin Kelley

    1993-01-01

    Colony stimulating factor in the induction of lupus nephritis. In this study we examine the role of colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) in the induction of lupus nephritis. The purpose of the study was to establish the relationship of CSF-1 to the prominent influx of macrophages (Mø) in the glomeruli of MRL-lpr mice with autoimmune lupus nephritis. The kidneys of MRL-lpr

  9. Data mining with an ant colony optimization algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rafael S. Parpinelli; Heitor S. Lopes; Alex Alves Freitas

    2002-01-01

    This work proposes an algorithm for data mining called Ant-Miner (Ant Colony-based Data Miner). The goal of Ant-Miner is to extract classification rules from data. The algorithm is inspired by both research on the behavior of real ant colonies and some data mining concepts and principles. We compare the performance of Ant-Miner with CN2, a well-known data mining algorithm for

  10. Modelling Food and Population Dynamics in Honey Bee Colonies

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, David S.; Barron, Andrew B.; Myerscough, Mary R.

    2013-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are increasingly in demand as pollinators for various key agricultural food crops, but globally honey bee populations are in decline, and honey bee colony failure rates have increased. This scenario highlights a need to understand the conditions in which colonies flourish and in which colonies fail. To aid this investigation we present a compartment model of bee population dynamics to explore how food availability and bee death rates interact to determine colony growth and development. Our model uses simple differential equations to represent the transitions of eggs laid by the queen to brood, then hive bees and finally forager bees, and the process of social inhibition that regulates the rate at which hive bees begin to forage. We assume that food availability can influence both the number of brood successfully reared to adulthood and the rate at which bees transition from hive duties to foraging. The model predicts complex interactions between food availability and forager death rates in shaping colony fate. Low death rates and high food availability results in stable bee populations at equilibrium (with population size strongly determined by forager death rate) but consistently increasing food reserves. At higher death rates food stores in a colony settle at a finite equilibrium reflecting the balance of food collection and food use. When forager death rates exceed a critical threshold the colony fails but residual food remains. Our model presents a simple mathematical framework for exploring the interactions of food and forager mortality on colony fate, and provides the mathematical basis for more involved simulation models of hive performance. PMID:23667418

  11. Quantum computing-based Ant Colony Optimization algorithm for TSP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoming You; Xingwai Miao; Sheng Liu

    2009-01-01

    A novel self-adaptive Ant Colony Optimization algorithm based on Quantum mechanism for Traveling salesman problem(TQACO) is proposed. Firstly, initializing the population of the ant colony with superposition of Q-bit, Secondly, using self-adaptive operator, namely in prophase we use higher probability to explore more search space and to collect useful global information; otherwise in anaphase we use higher probability to accelerate

  12. An Ant Colony System Hybridized with Randomized Algorithm for TSP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chengming Qi

    2007-01-01

    Ant algorithms are a recently developed, population- based approach which has been successfully applied to several NP-hard combinatorial optimization problems. In this paper, through an analysis of the constructive procedure of the solution in the ant colony system (ACS),we present an ant colony system hybridized with randomized algorithm(RAACS). In RAACS, only partial cities are randomly chosen to compute the state

  13. Growth Rate Consequences of Coloniality in a Harmful Phytoplankter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan E. Wilson; Rajreni B. Kaul; Orlando Sarnelle; Zoe Finkel

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundAllometric studies have shown that individual growth rate is inversely related to body size across a broad spectrum of organisms that vary greatly in size. Fewer studies have documented such patterns within species. No data exist directly documenting the influence of colony size on growth rate for microscopic, colonial organisms.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsTo determine if similar negative relationships between growth rate and

  14. Decentralized control of drone comb construction in honey bee colonies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen C. Pratt

    1998-01-01

    Honey bee colonies furnish their nests with two types of comb distinguished by cell size: large cells for rearing males (drone\\u000a comb) and small cells for rearing workers (worker comb). The bees actively regulate the relative quantity of each type, a\\u000a behavior likely to be important in setting a colony's sex ratio. Experimental analysis of the information pathways and control

  15. Acadian Settlement in Louisiana: Colonial Populations and Imperial Policy

    E-print Network

    Kolb, Frances Bailey

    2007-08-03

    exiles with a kind eye, contributing to disputes ranging in topic from the destruction of property and trespassing to contests over religious etiquette. Acadian 5 colonial and exile experiences combined with contact of colonial populations.... Doughty, The Acadian Exiles: A Chronicle of the Land of Evangeline (Toronto: Glasgow Books and Co., 1920), 139. 46 Dormon, “The Cajuns: Ethnogenesis and the Shaping of Group Consciousness,” 235. 47 Griffiths, “Acadian Identity,” 337; Dorman The People...

  16. Experimental study for automatic colony counting system based on image processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shen Wei-zheng; Zhao Jie; Wu Ya-chun; Zheng Hui

    2010-01-01

    Colony number in many colony calculating experiments is counted by manual method at present, therefore it is difficult to get the result quickly and accurately when the number of experimental sample is large. A new automatic colony counting system was developed, which makes use of image-processing technology to feasibly count white bacterial colonies in clear plates according to the RGB

  17. Factors influencing seasonal absconding in colonies of the African honey bee, Apis mellifera scutellata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. Schneider; L. C. McNally

    1992-01-01

    Summary This study investigated the effects of colony growth and development, food storage, foraging activity and weather on the migration behavior of African honey bees in the Okavango River Delta, Botswana. Four observation colonies were studied during the honey bee migration season (November–May), at which time the availability of blooming species was reduced. Two of the colonies (colonies 1 &

  18. Division of labour in colony defence against vertebrate predators by the social wasp Polistes fuscatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy M. Judd

    2000-01-01

    In this study I examined how the paper wasp, Polistes fuscatus, defends a colony when faced with a vertebrate attack. I looked for a division of labour in defensive behaviour within a colony and examined whether this behaviour changes over the colony cycle. The colonies were presented with a model of an adult red-winged blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus, and a speaker

  19. The Marriage Core of the Elite Network of Colonial Guatemala Narda Alcntara Valverde*

    E-print Network

    White, Douglas R.

    The Marriage Core of the Elite Network of Colonial Guatemala Narda Alcántara Valverde* Silvia of Colonial Guatemala 1 The Marriage Core of the Elite Network of Colonial Guatemala1 Abstract The problem the core of the elite network of colonial Guatemala in the period 1640 and 1820 in structural terms

  20. Small colony variants: a pathogenic form of bacteria that facilitates persistent and recurrent infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christof von Eiff; Barbara C. Kahl; Karsten Becker; Peter McNamara; Mathias Herrmann; Georg Peters; Richard A. Proctor

    2006-01-01

    Small colony variants constitute a slow-growing subpopulation of bacteria with distinctive phenotypic and pathogenic traits. Phenotypically, small colony variants have a slow growth rate, atypical colony morphology and unusual biochemical characteristics, making them a challenge for clinical microbiologists to identify. Clinically, small colony variants are better able to persist in mammalian cells and are less susceptible to antibiotics than their

  1. Colony growth and the ontogeny of worker polymorphism in the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter R. Tschinkel

    1988-01-01

    Colony size and worker polymorphism (headwidth) were determined for fire ant colonies ranging from incipient to 12 years of age. Colonies grew approximately logistically, reaching half size between 21\\/2 and 31\\/2 yr and reaching their maximum size of about 220000 workers after 4 to 6 yr. Colony size showed strong seasonal variation. There was some evidence that growth rate may

  2. Endogenous Erythroid Colony Formation by Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from Patients with Myelofibrosis and Polycythemia Vera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Lutton; Richard D. Levere

    1979-01-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with polycythemia vera or myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia were studied for their erythroid colony growth characteristics in plasma clot cultures. In both diseases, erythroid colonies formed early in culture in the absence of added erythropoietin (endogenous colonies). In no instance did early, endogenous colony formation occur with peripheral blood cells from normals or patients

  3. Model-based automated detection of mammalian cell colonies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Rok; Kanduser, Masa; Pernus, Franjo

    2001-11-01

    Manually counting cell colonies, especially those that originate from fibroblast cell lines, is a time-consuming, eye-straining and tedious task in which consistency of counting is difficult to maintain. In this paper we present a novel model-based image segmentation method, which employs prior knowledge about the shape of a colony with the aim to automatically detect isolated, touching and overlapping cell colonies of various sizes and intensities. First, a set of hypothetical model instances is generated by using a robust statistical approach to estimate the model parameters and a novel confidence measure to quantify the difference between a model instance and the underlying image. Second, the model instances matching the individual colonies in the image are selected from the set by a minimum description length principle. The procedure was applied to images of Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cell line DC3F, which forms poorly defined or 'fuzzy' colonies. The correlation with manual counting was determined and the cell survival curves obtained by automated and manual counting were compared. The results obtained show that the proposed automatic procedure was capable to correctly identify 91% of cell colonies typical of mammalian cell lines.

  4. Model-based automated detection of mammalian cell colonies.

    PubMed

    Bernard, R; Kanduser, M; Pernus, F

    2001-11-01

    Manually counting cell colonies, especially those that originate from fibroblast cell lines, is a time-consuming, eye-straining and tedious task in which consistency of counting is difficult to maintain. In this paper we present a novel model-based image segmentation method, which employs prior knowledge about the shape of a colony with the aim to automatically detect isolated, touching and overlapping cell colonies of various sizes and intensities. First, a set of hypothetical model instances is generated by using a robust statistical approach to estimate the model parameters and a novel confidence measure to quantify the difference between a model instance and the underlying image. Second, the model instances matching the individual colonies in the image are selected from the set by a minimum description length principle. The procedure was applied to images of Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cell line DC3F, which forms poorly defined or 'fuzzy' colonies. The correlation with manual counting was determined and the cell survival curves obtained by automated and manual counting were compared. The results obtained show that the proposed automatic procedure was capable to correctly identify 91% of cell colonies typical of mammalian cell lines. PMID:11720364

  5. Wax lipids signal nest identity in bumblebee colonies.

    PubMed

    Rottler, Ann-Marie; Schulz, Stefan; Ayasse, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    The signalling functions of cuticular lipids, particularly cuticular hydrocarbons, have gained considerable attention in social insect communication. Information transfer between individuals by means of these substances has been examined extensively. However, communication with cuticular lipids is not limited to inter-individual recognition. Cuticular compounds can also have a signalling function in the nest environment. Workers of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris leave cuticular lipid traces, so-called footprints, that mark their nest entrance. In addition, there is evidence that bumblebees sense nesting material to identify their colony. In this study, we examined the signalling potential of bumblebee wax, and tested if bumblebee workers are able to identify their colony with the help of wax scent. Chemical analyses of wax extracts using coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that wax from colonies of the bumblebee B. terrestris contained a complex blend of cuticular lipids, dominated by hydrocarbons and wax esters. Comparing the relative compound amounts of wax samples from different colonies, we found that wax scent patterns varied with nest identity. Olfactometer bioassays showed that bumblebees were able to discriminate between wax scents from their own and a foreign colony. Our findings suggest that wax emits characteristic olfactory profiles that are used by workers to recognize their colony. PMID:23288373

  6. Infestation by Pyemotes tritici (Acari, Pyemotidae) causes death of stingless bee colonies (Hymenoptera: Meliponina).

    PubMed

    Menezes, C; Coletto-Silva, A; Gazeta, G S; Kerr, W E

    2009-01-01

    We report the infestation of stingless bee nests by the mite Pyemotes tritici, which killed four colonies of Tetragonisca angustula and one colony of Frieseomelitta varia in Brazil. The first infected colony, a colony of T. angustula, came from an area between Uberlândia and Araguari, Minas Gerais. The transfer of the mites to the other colonies occurred through the transfer of infected combs and subsequent manipulations. Other colonies in the same meliponary, which had not been manipulated, were not infected. The infestation was terminated by isolating the dead colonies from the meliponary. PMID:19554756

  7. California gull chicks raised near colony edges have elevated stress levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2011-01-01

    Coloniality in nesting birds represents an important life history strategy for maximizing reproductive success. Birds nesting near the edge of colonies tend to have lower reproductive success than individuals nesting near colony centers, and offspring of edge-nesting parents may be impaired relative to those of central-nesting parents. We used fecal corticosterone metabolites in California gull chicks (Larus californicus) to examine whether colony size or location within the colony influenced a chick's physiological condition. We found that chicks being raised near colony edges had higher fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations than chicks raised near colony centers, but that colony size (ranging from 150 to 11,554 nests) had no influence on fecal corticosterone levels. Fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations also increased with chick age. Our results suggest that similarly aged California gull chicks raised near colony edges may be more physiologically stressed, as indicated by corticosterone metabolites, than chicks raised near colony centers.

  8. California gull chicks raised near colony edges have elevated stress levels.

    PubMed

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T

    2011-08-01

    Coloniality in nesting birds represents an important life history strategy for maximizing reproductive success. Birds nesting near the edge of colonies tend to have lower reproductive success than individuals nesting near colony centers, and offspring of edge-nesting parents may be impaired relative to those of central-nesting parents. We used fecal corticosterone metabolites in California gull chicks (Larus californicus) to examine whether colony size or location within the colony influenced a chick's physiological condition. We found that chicks being raised near colony edges had higher fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations than chicks raised near colony centers, but that colony size (ranging from 150 to 11,554 nests) had no influence on fecal corticosterone levels. Fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations also increased with chick age. Our results suggest that similarly aged California gull chicks raised near colony edges may be more physiologically stressed, as indicated by corticosterone metabolites, than chicks raised near colony centers. PMID:21596043

  9. Transits of Venus and Colonial India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochhar, Rajesh

    2012-09-01

    Astronomical expeditions during the colonial period had a political and national significance also. Measuring the earth and mapping the sky were activities worthy of powerful and power- seeking nations. Such was the sanctity of global astronomical activity that many other agendas could be hidden under it. An early astronomy-related expedition turned out to be extremely beneficial, to botany. The expedition sent by the French Government in 1735 to South America under the leadership of Charles Marie de la Condamine (1701--1774) ostensibly for the measurement of an arc of the meridian at Quito in Ecuador surreptitiously collected data that enabled Linnaeus to describe the genus cinchona in 1742. When the pair of transits of Venus occurred in 1761 and 1769, France and England were engaged in a bitter rivalry for control of India. The observation of the transits became a part of the rivalry. A telescope presented by the British to a South Indian King as a decorative toy was borrowed back for actual use. Scientifically the transit observations were a wash out, but the exercise introduced Europe to details of living Indian tradition of eclipse calculations. More significantly, it led to the institutionalization of modern astronomy in India under the auspices of the English East India Company (1787). The transits of Venus of 1874 and 1882 were important not so much for the study of the events as for initiating systematic photography of the Sun. By this, Britain owned most of the world's sunshine, and was expected to help European solar physicists get data from its vast Empire on a regular basis. This and the then genuinely held belief that a study of the sun would help predict failure of monsoons led to the institutionalization of solar physics studies in India (1899). Of course, when the solar physicists learnt that solar activity did not quite determine rainfall in India, they forgot to inform the Government.

  10. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and leukemogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    de Figueiredo, Lorena Lobo; de Abreu e Lima, Rodrigo Siqueira; Rego, Eduardo Magalhães

    2004-01-01

    The granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) plays an important role in normal granulopoiesis. Its functions are mediated by specific receptors on the surface of responsive cells and, upon ligand binding, several cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases are activated. The cytoplasmic region proximal to the membrane of the G-CSF receptor (G-CSF-R) transduces proliferative and survival signals, whereas the distal carboxy-terminal region transduces maturation signals and suppresses the receptor's proliferative signals. Mutations in the G-CSF-R gene resulting in truncation of the carboxy-terminal region have been detected in a subset of patients with severe congenital neutropenia who developed acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). In addition, the AML1-ETO fusion protein, expressed in leukemic cells harboring the t(8;21), disrupt the physiological function of transcription factors such as C/EBPalpha and C/EBPepsilon, which in turn deregulate G-CSF-R expression. The resulting high levels of G-CSF-R and G-CSF-dependent cell proliferation may be associated with pathogenesis of AML with t(8;21). Moreover, in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that G-CSF may act as a co-stimulus augmenting the response of PML-RARalpha acute promyelocytic leukemia cells to all-trans-retinoic acid treatment. Finally, in the PLZF-RARalpha acute promyelocytic leukemia transgenic model, G-CSF deficiency suppressed leukemia development. Altogether, these data suggest that the G-CSF signaling pathway may play a role in leukemogenesis. PMID:15223604

  11. Relationship of Colony-stimulating Activity to Apparent Kill of Human Colony-forming Cells by Irradiation and Hydroxyurea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hal E. Broxmeyer; Peter R. Galbraith; Fraser L. Baker

    1976-01-01

    Suspensions of human bone marrow cells were subjected to '37Cs Irradiation in vitro and then cultured in semisolid agar me- dium. Cultures of irradiated cells were stimulated with colony-stimulating activ- ity (CSA) of different potencies, and it was found that the amount of stimulation ap- plied to cultures influenced the apparent kill of colony-forming cells (CFC). It was also found

  12. Individuals in an osprey colony discriminate between high and low quality information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erick Greene

    1987-01-01

    A potential benefit of living in a colony is that animals may gain information about the location of good foraging sites from other colony members1-3. The role of information transfer as a major benefit favouring the evolution of coloniality is, however, very poorly understood4. Information transfer has been demonstrated for only a few colonial vertebrate species5-7, but not all colonial

  13. Identification in Culture of a Class of Hemopoietic Colony-Forming Units with Extensive Capability to Self-Renew and Generate Multipotential Hemopoietic Colonies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatsutoshi Nakahata; Makio Ogawa

    1982-01-01

    Mouse marrow and spleen cells formed colonies consisting of 40-1,000 blast cells after 16 days of incubation in methylcellulose culture in the presence of medium conditioned by pokeweed mitogen-stimulated mouse spleen cells. These colonies could be distinguished from other hemopoietic colonies in situ by the complete absence of signs of terminal differentiation. Replating of these colonies (tentatively named stem cell

  14. Measurement of ammonia emissions from tropical seabird colonies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddick, S. N.; Blackall, T. D.; Dragosits, U.; Daunt, F.; Braban, C. F.; Tang, Y. S.; MacFarlane, W.; Taylor, S.; Wanless, S.; Sutton, M. A.

    2014-06-01

    The excreta (guano) of seabirds at their breeding colonies represents a notable source of ammonia (NH3) emission to the atmosphere, with effects on surrounding ecosystems through nitrogen compounds being thereby transported from sea to land. Previous measurements in temperate UK conditions quantified emission hotspots and allowed preliminary global upscaling. However, thermodynamic processes and water availability limit NH3 formation from guano, which suggests that the proportion of excreted nitrogen that volatilizes as NH3 may potentially be higher at tropical seabird colonies than similar colonies in temperate or sub-polar regions. To investigate such differences, we measured NH3 concentrations and environmental conditions at two tropical seabird colonies during the breeding season: a colony of 20,000 tern spp. and noddies on Michaelmas Cay, Great Barrier Reef, and a colony of 200,000 Sooty terns on Ascension Island, Atlantic Ocean. At both sites time-integrated NH3 concentrations and meteorological parameters were measured. In addition, at Ascension Island, semi-continuous hourly NH3 concentrations and micrometeorological parameters were measured throughout the campaign. Ammonia emissions, quantified using a backwards Lagrangian atmospheric dispersion model, were estimated at 21.8 ?g m-2 s-1 and 18.9 ?g m-2 s-1 from Michaelmas Cay and Ascension Island, respectively. High temporal resolution NH3 data at Ascension Island estimated peak hourly emissions up to 377 ?g NH3 m2 s-1. The estimated percentage fraction of total guano nitrogen volatilized was 67% at Michaelmas Cay and 32% at Ascension Island, with the larger value at the former site attributed to higher water availability. These values are much larger than published data for sub-polar locations, pointing to a substantial climatic dependence on emission of atmospheric NH3 from seabird colonies.

  15. Electroclinical phenotypes in a pedigreed baboon colony

    PubMed Central

    Szabó, C. Ákos; Knape, Koyle D.; Leland, M. Michelle; Williams, Jeff T.

    2013-01-01

    Summary This is the first large-scale epidemiological study evaluating the prevalence of interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs) and photosensitivity (PS) recorded by scalp EEG in a natural nonhuman-primate model of photosensitive, generalized epilepsy. Scalp EEG was used to characterize electroclinical phenotypes in a large baboon pedigree housed at the Southwest National Primate Research Center at the Texas Biomedical Research Institute (Texas Biomed) based upon IEDs and photosensitivity. Scalp EEG studies including intermittent light stimulation (ILS) were performed in 671 baboons. Clinical histories were available for 531 (79%) of the animals. The EEG studies lasted 53 (±11) min, during which the baboons were lightly sedated with intramuscular ketamine doses of 5.6 (±0.8) mg. The animals were further classified according to electroclinical phenotypes recorded by scalp EEG: presence or absence of IEDs, seizures and photoparoxysmal or photoconvulsive responses. Effects of age, gender, and species on EEG phenotypes were compared using (Chi-square, two-sided, ? < 0.05). Sensitivity and specificity of IEDs and photosensitivity to detect a history of seizures was calculated. Generalized IEDs and photosensitivity were identified in 324 (49%) and 156 (23%) pedigreed baboons, respectively. Only photosensitivity was associated with gender, significantly increased in males. Otherwise, while IEDs were marginally more prevalent among males, there were no other significant associations of IEDs or photosensitivity with age or subspecies. Photosensitivity was significantly associated with IEDs, with demonstrating a possible association with gender and subspecies. Of 531 baboons with histories of clinical events, 91 (17%) had witnessed seizures and 269 (51%) were asymptomatic. IEDs demonstrated sensitivity and specificity of 62% and 57%, and photosensitivity of 40% and 83%, for prediction of seizures, respectively. While these EEG findings mirror the high prevalence of seizures in the colony, the sensitivity and specificity of scalp EEG may have been affected by ketamine’s ability to lower the threshold for IEDs and seizures, particularly in animals predisposed to epilepsy. Photosensitivity provides a specific biological marker for epilepsy in future epidemiological, genetic, behavioral and histopathological studies. PMID:23499213

  16. Colonie Interim Storage Site annual site environmental report for calendar year 1989, Colonie, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    IN 1984, Congress assigned the cleanup of the National Lead (NL) Industries site in Colonie, New York, to the Department of Energy (DOE) as part of a decontamination research and development project under the 1984 Energy and Water Appropriations Act. DOE then included the site in the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), an existing DOE program to decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain for the early years of the nation's atomic energy program. DOE instituted an environmental monitoring program at the site in 1984. Results are presented annually in reports such as this. Under FUSRAP, the first environmental monitoring report for this site presented data for calendar year 1984. This report presents the findings of the environmental monitoring program conducted during calendar year 1989. 16 refs., 17 figs., 14 tabs.

  17. Colonie Interim Storage Site: Annual environmental report for calendar year 1990, Colonie, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Environmental monitoring of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS) and surrounding area began in 1984. CISS is part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), a DOE program to decontaminate or otherwise control sties where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. The routine environmental monitoring program at CISS includes sampling networks for external gamma radiation exposures and for radium-226, throium-232, an total uranium concentrations in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Additionally, the nonradiological parameters volatile and semivolatile organics, pesticides/polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), metals, total organic carbon (TOC), total organic halides (TOX), specific conductivity, and pH are measured in groundwater. 14 refs., 20 figs., 25 tabs.

  18. Food preparation in colonial America. A Bicentennial study.

    PubMed

    Bennion, M

    1976-07-01

    Both regional and national influences have pervaded America's culinary arts from colonial times until the present. In the South, for instance, indigenous foods, such as sweet potatoes--as well as an abundance of fruits and fowl--were commonly served. In the North, maple sirup was a New England product, as was codfish. Throughout the colonies, corn was easily grown and became a staple. Immigrants from the Old World brought their recipes to meld or adapt to conditions they met here. Recounted also is the unfolding of an American cuisine, especially in the southern colonies as it evolved from European food preparation practices. Cooking was done in great fireplaces, with equipment designed to fit. Meat was generally boiled or stewed in pots hung in the fireplace, although it might be slow-roasted on a hand-turned spit. Hot breads, the hallmark of southern cooking, date from colonial days. In the Noth, the Dutch farmer's wife developed real skill in using flour from home-grown wheat and rye, creating pancakes, waffles, doughnuts, crullers, and so on. After the first hard winter, food in New England became more plentiful. Boston brown bread was made from corn, wheat, or rye and probably sweetened with maple sirup. Imports of coffee, tea, and spices from the Orient and fruit from the tropics were later added to the cuisine. Colonial Americans understood well the art of food preparation and appreciated the taste of well prepared, well seasoned dishes. PMID:777076

  19. Remedial action work plan for the Colonie site. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    The Colonie site is a DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) site located in the Town of Colonie, New York, and consisting of an interim storage site and several vicinity properties. The Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS) is the former National Lead (NL) Industries plant located at 1130 Central Avenue. There are 11 vicinity properties that received remedial action in 1984: 7 located south of the site on Yardboro and Palmer Avenues just across the Colonie-Albany town limits in Albany, and 4 located northwest of the site along Central Avenue in Colonie. Of these properties, nine are residences and two are commercial properties. This document describes the engineering design, construction, and associated plans for remedial action on the vicinity properties and the interim storage site. These plans include both radiological and chemical work. Radiological work includes: excavating the above-guideline radioactive wastes on the vicinity properties; designing required facilities for the interim storage site; preparing the interim storage site to receive these contaminated materials; transporting the contaminated materials to the interim waste storage stockpile; and preparing necessary schedules for accomplishing the remedial actions. Chemical work involves: developing the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) closure plans; neutralizing chemical hazards associated with plating solutions; inventorying on-site chemicals; and disposal of chemicals and/or residues. 17 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Ant Colonies Prefer Infected over Uninfected Nest Sites

    PubMed Central

    Pontieri, Luigi; Vojvodic, Svjetlana; Graham, Riley; Pedersen, Jes Søe; Linksvayer, Timothy A.

    2014-01-01

    During colony relocation, the selection of a new nest involves exploration and assessment of potential sites followed by colony movement on the basis of a collective decision making process. Hygiene and pathogen load of the potential nest sites are factors worker scouts might evaluate, given the high risk of epidemics in group-living animals. Choosing nest sites free of pathogens is hypothesized to be highly efficient in invasive ants as each of their introduced populations is often an open network of nests exchanging individuals (unicolonial) with frequent relocation into new nest sites and low genetic diversity, likely making these species particularly vulnerable to parasites and diseases. We investigated the nest site preference of the invasive pharaoh ant, Monomorium pharaonis, through binary choice tests between three nest types: nests containing dead nestmates overgrown with sporulating mycelium of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum (infected nests), nests containing nestmates killed by freezing (uninfected nests), and empty nests. In contrast to the expectation pharaoh ant colonies preferentially (84%) moved into the infected nest when presented with the choice of an infected and an uninfected nest. The ants had an intermediate preference for empty nests. Pharaoh ants display an overall preference for infected nests during colony relocation. While we cannot rule out that the ants are actually manipulated by the pathogen, we propose that this preference might be an adaptive strategy by the host to “immunize” the colony against future exposure to the same pathogenic fungus. PMID:25372856

  1. Ant colonies prefer infected over uninfected nest sites.

    PubMed

    Pontieri, Luigi; Vojvodic, Svjetlana; Graham, Riley; Pedersen, Jes Søe; Linksvayer, Timothy A

    2014-01-01

    During colony relocation, the selection of a new nest involves exploration and assessment of potential sites followed by colony movement on the basis of a collective decision making process. Hygiene and pathogen load of the potential nest sites are factors worker scouts might evaluate, given the high risk of epidemics in group-living animals. Choosing nest sites free of pathogens is hypothesized to be highly efficient in invasive ants as each of their introduced populations is often an open network of nests exchanging individuals (unicolonial) with frequent relocation into new nest sites and low genetic diversity, likely making these species particularly vulnerable to parasites and diseases. We investigated the nest site preference of the invasive pharaoh ant, Monomorium pharaonis, through binary choice tests between three nest types: nests containing dead nestmates overgrown with sporulating mycelium of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum (infected nests), nests containing nestmates killed by freezing (uninfected nests), and empty nests. In contrast to the expectation pharaoh ant colonies preferentially (84%) moved into the infected nest when presented with the choice of an infected and an uninfected nest. The ants had an intermediate preference for empty nests. Pharaoh ants display an overall preference for infected nests during colony relocation. While we cannot rule out that the ants are actually manipulated by the pathogen, we propose that this preference might be an adaptive strategy by the host to "immunize" the colony against future exposure to the same pathogenic fungus. PMID:25372856

  2. Active mechanics and geometry of adherent cells and cell colonies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Shiladitya

    2014-03-01

    Measurements of traction stresses exerted by adherent cells or cell colonies on elastic substrates have yielded new insight on how the mechanical and geometrical properties of the substrate regulate cellular force distribution, mechanical energy, spreading, morphology or stress ber architecture. We have developed a generic mechanical model of adherent cells as an active contractile gel mechanically coupled to an elastic substrate and to neighboring cells in a tissue. The contractile gel model accurately predicts the distribution of cellular and traction stresses as observed in single cell experiments, and captures the dependence of cell shape, traction stresses and stress ber polarization on the substrate's mechanical and geometrical properties. The model further predicts that the total strain energy of an adherent cell is solely regulated by its spread area, in agreement with recent experiments on micropatterned substrates with controlled geometry. When used to describe the behavior of colonies of adherent epithelial cells, the model demonstrates the crucial role of the mechanical cross-talk between intercellular and extracellular adhesion in regulating traction force distribution. Strong intercellular mechanical coupling organizes traction forces to the colony periphery, whereas weaker intercellular coupling leads to the build up of traction stresses at intercellular junctions. Furthermore, in agreement with experiments on large cohesive keratinocyte colonies, the model predicts a linear scaling of traction forces with the colony size. This scaling suggests the emergence of an effective surface tension as a scale-free material property of the adherent tissue, originating from actomyosin contractility.

  3. Experimental conversion of colony social organization by manipulation of worker genotype composition in fire ants ( Solenopsis invicta )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. G. Ross; L. Keller

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that colony social organization in Solenopsis invicta is under strong genetic control. Colonies containing some proportion of workers with the Bb or bb genotypes at the gene Gp-9 display polygyne social organization (multiple reproductive queens per colony), whereas colonies with only BB workers express monogyne organization (single reproductive queen per colony). The hypothesis that the presence

  4. The Plymouth Colony Archive Project at the University of Virginia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Deetz, James F.

    1998-01-01

    This valuable Website offers a wealth of documentary materials from the original Plymouth Colony settlement. The archive presents an extensive collection of searchable, online texts, including "court records, Colony laws, biographical profiles of selected colonists, probate inventories, wills," and analyses of these primary materials. The Website also has photographs and a description of the ongoing archaeological and reconstruction work at the settlement site, historical illustrations from the 1911 text by Albert Christopher Addison, The Romantic Story of the Mayflower Pilgrims, a walking tour of the colony courtesy of a link to ArchNet at the University of Connecticut, and a list of links to a number of related Websites. Researchers will be happy to know the Archive is searchable.

  5. Neonicotinoid pesticide reduces bumble bee colony growth and queen production.

    PubMed

    Whitehorn, Penelope R; O'Connor, Stephanie; Wackers, Felix L; Goulson, Dave

    2012-04-20

    Growing evidence for declines in bee populations has caused great concern because of the valuable ecosystem services they provide. Neonicotinoid insecticides have been implicated in these declines because they occur at trace levels in the nectar and pollen of crop plants. We exposed colonies of the bumble bee Bombus terrestris in the laboratory to field-realistic levels of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid, then allowed them to develop naturally under field conditions. Treated colonies had a significantly reduced growth rate and suffered an 85% reduction in production of new queens compared with control colonies. Given the scale of use of neonicotinoids, we suggest that they may be having a considerable negative impact on wild bumble bee populations across the developed world. PMID:22461500

  6. Trichuris trichiura in a post-Colonial Brazilian mummy

    PubMed Central

    Bianucci, Rafaella; Torres, Eduardo J Lopes; Santiago, Juliana MF Dutra; Ferreira, Luis F; Nerlich, Andreas G; de Souza, Sheila Maria Mendonça; Giuffra, Valentina; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo; Bastos, Otilio Machado; Travassos, Renata; de Souza, Wanderley; Araújo, Adauto

    2015-01-01

    Trichuris trichiura is a soil-transmitted helminth which is prevalent in warm, moist, tropical and subtropical regions of the world with poor sanitation. Heavy whipworm can result either in Trichuris dysenteric syndrome - especially in children - or in a chronic colitis. In heavy infections, worms can spread proximally and may cause ileitis. Here we provide first microscopic evidence for a T. trichiura adult worm embedded in the rectum of a post-Colonial Brazilian adult mummy. During Colonial and post-Colonial times, many European chroniclers described a parasitic disease named Maculo whose symptomatology coincides with heavy helminthiasis. Based on our findings and on comparison of ancient textual evidence with modern description of heavy whipworm, we feel confident in considering that the two syndromes are expressions of the same pathological condition. PMID:25742276

  7. Effects of introducing foxes and raccoons on herring gull colonies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kadlec, J.A.

    1971-01-01

    Red foxes (Vulpes fulva) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) released at colonies of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) on islands off the Massachusetts coast effectively eliminated the production of young gulls. Annual predator introductions for 2-4 years caused major reductions in colony size and occasionally total abandonment of the island as a colony site. Observations of the experimental islands for 2 years after cessation of predator introductions showed slow repopulation of the islands and lower breeding success than on control islands. The size of the regional population was reduced largely because of the movements of gulls off the experimental islands. The introduced predators are, in most cases, difficult to maintain on the islands; this restricts their utility in population management.

  8. Artificial Bee Colony Optimization for Short-Term Hydrothermal Scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, M.

    2014-12-01

    Artificial bee colony optimization is applied to determine the optimal hourly schedule of power generation in a hydrothermal system. Artificial bee colony optimization is a swarm-based algorithm inspired by the food foraging behavior of honey bees. The algorithm is tested on a multi-reservoir cascaded hydroelectric system having prohibited operating zones and thermal units with valve point loading. The ramp-rate limits of thermal generators are taken into consideration. The transmission losses are also accounted for through the use of loss coefficients. The algorithm is tested on two hydrothermal multi-reservoir cascaded hydroelectric test systems. The results of the proposed approach are compared with those of differential evolution, evolutionary programming and particle swarm optimization. From numerical results, it is found that the proposed artificial bee colony optimization based approach is able to provide better solution.

  9. Tour the Town: The Colonial Williamsburg Official History & Citizenship Site

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Are you eager to see Colonial Williamsburg but find yourself many miles from Hampton Roads? You can take a most edifying interactive tour of this most famous site, courtesy of The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. Visitors just need to Launch Tour the Town and they will be whisked away to the world of 18th century Virginia. It's fun to just click on random buildings (such as the coffeehouse) to get background information for each location. Users can follow suggested tours or create their own along the way, which is quite handy. The site also includes links to additional information about the gardens, clothing, and people that were part of this tightly-knit colonial community.

  10. Gonococcal pilus subunit size heterogeneity correlates with transitions in colony piliation phenotype, not with changes in colony opacity

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    The apparent subunit sizes for pili of gonococci (Gc) have been visualized by using either Iodogen 125I-labeled whole Gc or immunoblotting with antipilus antiserum. These methods permitted definition of pilus subunit sizes for Gc of a given strain that had undergone changes either in piliation phenotype or in colonial opacity/protein II phenotype. The results indicate that pilus subunit size does not change coincident with changes in colony opacity/protein II phenotypes; but change in pilus subunit size is seen after a change in piliation phenotype (P+ leads to P++, and vice versa). Marked diversity in pilus subunit sizes is found for Gc of individual strains when P+ derivatives of P- colonies are compared. This diversity extends to pilus subunits of Gc found in single colonies; two distinct pilus forms were demonstrated for Gc residing in several single colonies. These findings show that Gc of a given strain are able to express any of a number of different pilus subunit size forms. PMID:6138388

  11. Colony differences in response to trapping in roseate terns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burger, J.; Nisbet, I.C.T.; Zingo, J.M.; Spendelow, J.A.; Safina, C.; Gochfeld, M.

    1995-01-01

    Both members of seabird pairs are normally required to fledge young. Seabirds that nest in sites accessible to predators usually have one parent in attendance during the egg/chick phase. Time devoted to foraging can vary with individual skill and age, prey availability and abundance (Seamy 1978), and distance to foraging grounds (Safina 1990). Although average skill of similar-aged individuals should not vary from colony to colony (Ryder 1980), prey availability and abundance, and spatial distribution of foraging grounds may vary. Thus, the percent of time both members of a pair are present at the nest site may vary in different colonies. In this paper, we examine parental behavior in response to trapping in Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii) nesting in three of the six major colonies in the northeastern United States: Cedar Beach, New York, Falkner Island, Connecticut; and Bird Island, Massachusetts. Roseate Terns were listed on the United States? Endangered Species List in 1987. We were interested in differences among colonies in how often both parents were present, how soon a mate returned to the nest if one parent was temporarily removed, how soon a trapped bird returned to the nest after release, and the time during which the nest was left unguarded. We feel it is important to recognize and make management decisions based on colony differences where they exist. Our study follows directly from earlier work at Cedar Beach on trapping vulnerability of Common Terns (Sterna hirundo) and Roseate Terns. Nisbet reported that Roseate Terns at Bird Island required about three hours to return to the nest after trapping.

  12. Ecological effects on gut bacterial communities in wild bumblebee colonies.

    PubMed

    Koch, Hauke; Cisarovsky, Gabriel; Schmid-Hempel, Paul

    2012-11-01

    1. Animal hosts harbour diverse and often specific bacterial communities (microbiota) in their gut. These microbiota can provide crucial services to the host such as aiding in digestion of food and immune defence. However, the ecological factors correlating with and eventually shaping these microbiota under natural conditions are poorly understood. 2. Bumblebees have recently been shown to possess simple and highly specific microbiota. We here examine the dynamics of these microbiota in field colonies of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris over one season. The gut bacteria were assessed with culture-independent methods, that is, with terminal restriction fragment length profiles of the 16S rRNA gene. 3. To further understand the factors that affect the microbiota, we experimentally manipulated field-placed colonies in a fully factorial experiment by providing additional food or by priming the workers' immune system by injecting heat-killed bacteria. We furthermore looked at possible correlates of diversity and composition of the microbiota for (i) natural infections with the microbial parasites Crithidia bombi and Nosema bombi, (ii) bumblebee worker size, (iii) colony identity, and (iv) colony age. 4. We found an increase in diversity of the microbiota in individuals naturally infected with either C. bombi or N. bombi. Crithidia bombi infections, however, appear to be only indirectly linked with higher microbial diversity when comparing colonies. The treatments of priming the immune system with heat-killed bacteria and additional food supply, as well as host body size, had no effect on the diversity or composition of the microbiota. Host colony identity had only a weak effect on the composition of the microbiota at the level of resolution of our method. We found both significant increases and decreases in the relative abundance of selected bacterial taxa over the season. 5. We present the first study on the ecological dynamics of gut microbiota in bumblebees and identify parasite infections, colony identity and colony age as important factors influencing the diversity and composition of the bacterial communities. The absence of an effect of our otherwise effective experimental treatments suggests a remarkable ability of the host to maintain a homoeostasis in this community under widely different environments. PMID:22708631

  13. Toxoplasmosis in a colony of New World monkeys.

    PubMed

    Dietz, H H; Henriksen, P; Bille-Hansen, V; Henriksen, S A

    1997-03-01

    In a colony of New World monkeys five tamarins (Saguinus oedipus, Saguinus labiatus and Leontopithecus rosal. rosal.), three marmosets (Callithrix jacchus and Callithrix pygmaea) and one saki (Pithecia pithecia) died suddenly. The colony comprised 16 marmosets, 10 tamarins and three sakis. The main pathological findings were necrotic lesions in the lung, the intestine, and the liver. Histopathologically T. gondii parasites were observed in organs from the tamarins and the marmosets but not in the saki. Some considerations on epidemiology are presented. Preventive measures were directed against the bottom layer of the cages, on cockroach extermination, and on freezing of raw meat. PMID:9106950

  14. Granulocyte colony stimulating factor in neutropenic patients with infective endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Borgbjerg, B. M.; Hovgaard, D.; Laursen, J. B.; Aldershvile, J.

    1998-01-01

    A well known complication in the treatment of infectious endocarditis is development of neutropenia caused by treatment with antibiotics in high concentrations over long periods. Neutropenia often necessitates discontinuation of antibiotic treatment. Three patients with infectious endocarditis who developed neutropenia are reported. The patients were treated with granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), a haematopoietic growth factor that stimulates neutrophils. G-CSF induced an immediate increase in white blood cell count, primarily neutrophils. G-CSF may be effective in ameliorating neutropenia in patients who receive antibiotics for treatment of infectious endocarditis.?? Keywords: granulocyte colony stimulating factor;  neutropenia;  endocarditis PMID:9505928

  15. BEEHAVE: a systems model of honeybee colony dynamics and foraging to explore multifactorial causes of colony failure

    PubMed Central

    Becher, Matthias A; Grimm, Volker; Thorbek, Pernille; Horn, Juliane; Kennedy, Peter J; Osborne, Juliet L

    2014-01-01

    A notable increase in failure of managed European honeybee Apis mellifera L. colonies has been reported in various regions in recent years. Although the underlying causes remain unclear, it is likely that a combination of stressors act together, particularly varroa mites and other pathogens, forage availability and potentially pesticides. It is experimentally challenging to address causality at the colony scale when multiple factors interact. In silico experiments offer a fast and cost-effective way to begin to address these challenges and inform experiments. However, none of the published bee models combine colony dynamics with foraging patterns and varroa dynamics. We have developed a honeybee model, BEEHAVE, which integrates colony dynamics, population dynamics of the varroa mite, epidemiology of varroa-transmitted viruses and allows foragers in an agent-based foraging model to collect food from a representation of a spatially explicit landscape. We describe the model, which is freely available online (www.beehave-model.net). Extensive sensitivity analyses and tests illustrate the model's robustness and realism. Simulation experiments with various combinations of stressors demonstrate, in simplified landscape settings, the model's potential: predicting colony dynamics and potential losses with and without varroa mites under different foraging conditions and under pesticide application. We also show how mitigation measures can be tested. Synthesis and applications. BEEHAVE offers a valuable tool for researchers to design and focus field experiments, for regulators to explore the relative importance of stressors to devise management and policy advice and for beekeepers to understand and predict varroa dynamics and effects of management interventions. We expect that scientists and stakeholders will find a variety of applications for BEEHAVE, stimulating further model development and the possible inclusion of other stressors of potential importance to honeybee colony dynamics. PMID:25598549

  16. Residential cattle egret colonies in Texas: geography, reproductive success and management 

    E-print Network

    Parkes, Michael Lawrence

    2009-05-15

    in residential, urban, island, and flooded tree and shrub habitat. Nests were found in 12 different tree and shrub species. Residential colonies had more breeding pairs, greater nest survival, and were less productive than non-residential colonies on average...

  17. Hydrodynamic Synchronization and Metachronal Waves on the Surface of the Colonial Alga Volvox carteri

    E-print Network

    Goldstein, Raymond E.

    Hydrodynamic Synchronization and Metachronal Waves on the Surface of the Colonial Alga Volvox of the colonial alga Volvox carteri, whose large size and ease of visualization make it an ideal model organism

  18. Breeding colonies of least terns (Sternula antillarum) in northern Sonora, Mexico, 2006-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosemartin, Alyssa; van Riper, Charles, III

    2012-01-01

    We document distribution of breeding least terns (Sternula antillarum) in northern Sonora, Mexico, 2006-2008. We report breeding activity at six sites with active colonies, including three previously undocumented colonies.

  19. Breeding for hygienic behaviour in honeybees (Apis mellifera) using free-mated nucleus colonies

    E-print Network

    Breeding for hygienic behaviour in honeybees (Apis mellifera) using free-mated nucleus colonies generations. While the proportion of breeding colonies expressing the trait increased with each subsequent generation, levels of hygienic behaviour among progeny remained relatively unchanged. Estimated breeding

  20. Survey and Census of Colonial Nesting Seabirds in South Carolina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip M. Wilkinson

    (Pelecanus occidentalis) are often associated with the coast and are frequently the focus of tourism posters, souvenirs, and crafts. The well-being of colonial seabirds and other waterbirds is synonymous with the health of the coast. Their variety of feeding mechanisms, broad prey base, wide range of salinity preferences, and a place near the top of the food chain all suggest

  1. A quantitative study of worker reproduction in honey bee colonies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Kirk Visscher

    1989-01-01

    In 11 Apis mellifera colonies with laying queens, about 0.12% of the males produced derived from eggs laid by workers. This result requires explanation both of why workers produce any males, and, since they do, why they produce so few. Workers may maximize their inclusive fitness by forgoing reproduction, or their sterility may be due to to enforcement of the

  2. ORIGINAL PAPER Colony social structure in native and invasive populations

    E-print Network

    Goodisman, Michael

    the most inva- sive of terrestrial species. The success of invasive social insects stems, in part, from understand variation in social phenotype in invasive social species. We found that (1) nestmate workersORIGINAL PAPER Colony social structure in native and invasive populations of the social wasp

  3. A DISTRIBUTED MULTILEVEL ANT COLONIES APPROACH FOR GRAPH PARTITIONING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katerina Taÿskova

    The paper presents a distributed implementations of an ant colony opti- mization metaheuristic for the solution of a mesh partitioning problem. The usefulness and efficiency of the algorithm, in its sequential form, to solve that particular optimization problem has already been shown in previous work. In this paper a straightforward implementations on a distributed architecture is presented and the main

  4. Ant Colony Optimization for Design of Water Distribution Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Holger R. Maier; Angus R. Simpson; Aaron C. Zecchin; Wai Kuan Foong; Kuang Yeow Phang; Hsin Yeow Seah; Chan Lim Tan

    2003-01-01

    During the last decade, evolutionary methods such as genetic algorithms have been used extensively for the optimal design and operation of water distribution systems. More recently, ant colony optimization algorithms ~ACOAs!, which are evolutionary methods based on the foraging behavior of ants, have been successfully applied to a number of benchmark combinatorial optimization problems. In this paper, a formulation is

  5. EXPLOITATION OF COMB CELLS FOR BROOD REARING IN HONEYBEE COLONIES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    the fraction of diploid drone larvae eaten by the workers. This indicates, that the queens did not stop egg after diploid drone larvae were eaten. When compared to normal colonies less sealed brood was present, and #12;homozygosity - in diploid drones (WOYKE, 1963 a). Diploid drone larvae are eaten by the workers

  6. Globalization, Multiculturalism and Other Fictions: Colonialism for the New Millennium?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Subhabrata Bobby Banerjee; Stephen Linstead

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we critically examine different discourses of globalization and explore how concepts of globalization have been represented in organizational theory. We argue that, despite its celebra- tory rhetoric of 'one world, many peoples', notions of globalization are inextricably linked with the continued development of First World eco- nomies, creating new forms of colonial control in the so-called 'post-

  7. The Colonie FUSRAP Site: CY2002 Situation Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. Sheeran; K. Dufek; J. Moore

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of accomplishments at the Colonie FUSRAP Site in Fiscal Year 2002. During this period several significant milestones were achieved and have set the stage for the project to be completed in a more comprehensive manner, ahead of schedule and at a lower cost than the original Remedial Plan inherited from the Dept of Energy in

  8. Ectoparasitism shortens the breeding season in a colonial bird.

    PubMed

    Brown, Charles R; Brown, Mary Bomberger

    2015-02-01

    When blood-feeding parasites increase seasonally, their deleterious effects may prevent some host species, especially those living in large groups where parasites are numerous, from reproducing later in the summer. Yet the role of parasites in regulating the length of a host's breeding season-and thus the host's opportunity for multiple brooding-has not been systematically investigated. The highly colonial cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota), a temperate-latitude migratory songbird in the western Great Plains, USA, typically has a relatively short (eight to nine week) breeding season, with birds rarely nesting late in the summer. Colonies at which ectoparasitic swallow bugs (Oeciacus vicarius) were experimentally removed by fumigation were over 45 times more likely to have birds undertake a second round of nesting than were colonies exposed to parasites. Late nesting approximately doubled the length of the breeding season, with some birds raising two broods. Over a 27 year period the percentage of birds engaging in late nesting each year increased at a colony site where parasites were removed annually. This trend could not be explained by changes in group size, climate or nesting phenology during the study. The results suggest that ectoparasitism shortens the cliff swallow's breeding season and probably prevents many individuals from multiple brooding. When this constraint is removed, selection may rapidly favour late nesting. PMID:26064606

  9. TWO ANT COLONY ALGORITHMS FOR BESTEFFORT ROUTING IN DATAGRAM NETWORKS

    E-print Network

    Ducatelle, Frederick

    TWO ANT COLONY ALGORITHMS FOR BEST­EFFORT ROUTING IN DATAGRAM NETWORKS GIANNI DI CARO and MARCO, Belgium fgdicaro,mdorigog@ulb.ac.be ABSTRACT In this paper we present two versions of AntNet, a novel approach to adaptive learning of routing tables in wide area best­effort datagram networks. Ant

  10. Ant Colony Optimisation1 12.1 Introduction

    E-print Network

    Grant, P. W.

    Chapter 12 Ant Colony Optimisation1 12.1 Introduction Real ants can find a shortest path from the old one is no longer feasible due to a new obstacle. In Figure (12.1 A) ants are moving on a straight line that connects a food source to their nest. An ant: · deposits pheromone while walking

  11. Self-Regulated Artificial Ant Colonies on Digital Image Habitats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Fernandes; Vitorino Ramos; Agostinho C. Rosa

    2005-01-01

    Artificial life models, swarm intelligent and evolutionary computation algorithms are usually built on fixed size populations. Some studies indicate however that varying the population size can increase the adaptability of these systems and their capability to react to changing environments. In this paper we present an extended model of an artificial ant colony system designed to evolve on digital image

  12. Colony morphology of Xylella fastidiosa almond leaf scorch strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianchi Chen; Russell Groves; Edwin L. Civerolo; Yiwei Zheng; Mario Viveros; Mark Freeman

    2007-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is the causal agent of almond leaf scorch disease (ALSD), which is currently reemerging in California as a potential threat to almond (Prunus dulcis) production. We previously reported the presence of different colony morphotypes of X. fastidiosa ALSD strains on periwinkle wilt medium solidified with Gelrite and their association with genotypes or pathotypes after a low number of

  13. Ant colony optimization for resource-constrained project scheduling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Merkle; Martin Middendorf; Hartmut Schmeck

    2002-01-01

    An ant colony optimization approach (ACO) for the resource-constrained project schedul- ing problem (RCPSP) is presented. Combi- nations of two pheromone evaluation meth- ods are used by the ants to find new solutions. We tested our ACO algorithm on a set of large benchmark problems from the PSPLIB. Compared to several other heuristics for the RCPSP including genetic algorithms, simu-

  14. Solving Symmetric and Asymmetric TSPs by Ant Colonies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luca Maria Gambardella; Marco Dorigo

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we present ACS, a distributed algorithm for the solution of combinatorial optimization problems which was inspired by the observation of real colonies of ants. We apply ACS to both symmetric and asymmetric traveling salesman problems. Results show that ACS is able to find good solutions to these problems.

  15. Ant system: optimization by a colony of cooperating agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Dorigo; Vittorio Maniezzo; Alberto Colorni

    1996-01-01

    An analogy with the way ant colonies function has suggested the definition of a new computational paradigm, which we call ant system (AS). We propose it as a viable new approach to stochastic combinatorial optimization. The main characteristics of this model are positive feedback, distributed computation, and the use of a constructive greedy heuristic. Positive feedback accounts for rapid discovery

  16. The Ant Colony Optimization Metaheuristic: Algorithms, Applications, and Advances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Dorigo; Thomas Stützle

    The field of ACO algorithms is very lively, as testified, for example, by the successful biannual workshop (ANTS—From Ant Colonies to Artificial Ants: A Series of International Workshops on Ant Algorithms; http:\\/\\/iridia.ulb.ac.be\\/~ants\\/) where researchers meet to discuss the properties of ACO and other ant algorithms, both theoretically and experimentally.

  17. The Ant System: Optimization by a colony of cooperating agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Dorigo; Vittorio Maniezzo; Alberto Colorni

    1995-01-01

    An analogy with the way ant colonies function has suggested the definition of a new computational paradigm, which we call Ant System. We propose it as a viable new approach to stochastic combinatorial optimization. The main characteristics of this model are positive feedback, distributed computation, and the use of a constructive greedy heuristic. Positive feedback accounts for rapid discovery of

  18. Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Ant Colony Optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Selcuk Okdem; Dervis Karaboga

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces a new approach to routing operations in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We have developed a routing scheme and adapted ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm to this scheme to get a dynamic and reliable routing protocol. We have also implemented our approach to a small sized hardware component as a router chip to propose sensor node designers an

  19. Landscape effects on black-tailed prairie dog colonies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Whitney C. Johnson; Sharon K. Collinge

    2004-01-01

    Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) increasingly compete for available habitat with human development in the Colorado Front Range. Because the effects of increased urbanization on prairie dog colonies are unknown, we studied how landscape context affects prairie dog density in Boulder County, Colorado, USA. We used burrow density as a proxy for prairie dog density because these variables were correlated

  20. Bee Colony Optimization with local search for traveling salesman problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li-Pei Wong; M. Y. H. Low; Chin Soon Chong

    2008-01-01

    Many real world industrial applications involve finding a Hamiltonian path with minimum cost. Some instances that belong to this category are transportation routing problem, scan chain optimization and drilling problem in integrated circuit testing and production. This paper presents a bee colony optimization (BCO) algorithm for traveling salesman problem (TSP). The BCO model is constructed algorithmically based on the collective

  1. A Generic Bee Colony Optimization Framework for Combinatorial Optimization Problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li-Pei Wong; Malcolm Yoke Hean Low; Chin Soon Chong

    2010-01-01

    Combinatorial Optimization Problems (COPs) appear in various types of industrial applications. Finding an optimum solution for COPs with large scale of data, constraints and variables is NP-hard. This paper proposed a generic Bee Colony Optimization (BCO) framework for COPs that mimics the foraging process and waggle dance performed by bees. The framework is designed and organized such that it is

  2. Bee Colony Optimization with Local Search for Traveling Salesman Problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li-Pei Wong; Malcolm Yoke-Hean Low; Chin Soon Chong

    2010-01-01

    Abstract- Many real world industrial applications involve finding a Hamiltonian path with minimum cost. Some instances that belong to this category are transportation routing problem, scan chain optimization and drilling problem in integrated circuit testing and production. This paper presents a Bee Colony Optimization (BCO) algorithm for Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP). The BCO model is constructed algorithmically based on the

  3. A Bee Colony Optimization Algorithm for Traveling Salesman Problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li-pei Wong; Malcolm Yoke-hean Low; Chin Soon Chong

    2008-01-01

    A bee colony optimization (BCO) algorithm for traveling salesman problem (TSP) is presented in this paper. The BCO model is constructed algorithmically based on the collective intelligence shown in bee foraging behaviour. Experimental results comparing the proposed BCO model with some existing approaches on a set of benchmark problems are presented.

  4. Multi-domain topology optimization with ant colony systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucas S. Batista; Felipe Campelo; Frederico G. Guimarães; Jaime A. Ramírez

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a graph representation of the design space that is suitable for the ant colony optimization (ACO) method in topology optimization (TO) problems. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The ACO is employed to obtain optimal routes in an equivalent graph representation of the discretized design space, with each route corresponding to a given distribution

  5. Resistance to Colonialism as the Heart of Family Therapy Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken Dolan-Del Vecchio; Judith Lockard

    2004-01-01

    This article identifies social justice as an essential foundation for family and community health, positing that much of what therapists assume to be family and individual pathology can be more justly understood as attempts by clients to comply with the demands of an increasingly dehumanizing social context. Identifying colonialism as the organizing paradigm for life in our society, as well

  6. The View from the Veranda: Understanding Today's Colonial Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogden, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Like the steady stream of colonial families of decades past traveling to their country's dominions abroad, contemporary education abroad students are similar passengers on a powerful steamship bound for lands of new sounds, sights and wonders. Although their studies may be challenging and demanding, students are exhilarated with thoughts of new…

  7. Foraging Behaviours of Wolverines at a Large Arctic Goose Colony

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GUSTAF SAMELIUS; RAY T. ALISAUSKAS; SERGE LARIVIÈRE; CHRISTOFFER BERGMAN; CHRISTOPHER J. HENDRICKSON; KIMBERLY PHIPPS

    2002-01-01

    At the large Ross's goose and lesser snow goose colony at Karrak Lake, Nunavut, Canada, we saw wolverines kill two geese, take 13 eggs from 12 goose nests, and take three goose carcasses from two fox dens. Wolverines also made unsuccessfu l attempts to capture geese and frequently ignored eggs from nests where geese had fled the approaching wolverine. Most

  8. On the performance of artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dervis Karaboga; Bahriye Basturk

    2008-01-01

    Artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm is an optimization algorithm based on a particular intelligent behaviour of honeybee swarms. This work compares the performance of ABC algorithm with that of differential evolution (DE), particle swarm optimization (PSO) and evolutionary algorithm (EA) for multi-dimensional numeric problems. The simulation results show that the performance of ABC algorithm is comparable to those of the

  9. Mass Spectral Molecular Networking of Living Microbial Colonies

    SciTech Connect

    Watrous, Jeramie D.; Roach, Patrick J.; Alexandrov, Theodore; Heath, Brandi S.; Yang, Jane Y.; Kersten, Roland; vander Voort, Menno; Pogliano, Kit; Gross, Harald; Raaijmakers, Jos M.; Moore, Bradley S.; Laskin, Julia; Bandeira, Nuno; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

    2012-06-26

    Integrating the governing chemistry with the genomics and phenotypes of microbial colonies has been a "holy grail" in microbiology. This work describes a highly sensitive, broadly applicable, and costeffective approach that allows metabolic profiling of live microbial colonies directly from a Petri dish without any sample preparation. Nanospray desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (MS), combined with alignment of MS data and molecular networking, enabled monitoring of metabolite production from live microbial colonies from diverse bacterial genera, including Bacillus subtilis, Streptomyces coelicolor, Mycobacterium smegmatis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This work demonstrates that, by using these tools to visualize small molecular changes within bacterial interactions, insights can be gained into bacterial developmental processes as a result of the improved organization of MS/MS data. To validate this experimental platform, metabolic profiling was performed on Pseudomonas sp. SH-C52, which protects sugar beet plants from infections by specific soil-borne fungi [R. Mendes et al. (2011) Science 332:1097–1100]. The antifungal effect of strain SHC52 was attributed to thanamycin, a predicted lipopeptide encoded by a nonribosomal peptide synthetase gene cluster. Our technology, in combination with our recently developed peptidogenomics strategy, enabled the detection and partial characterization of thanamycin and showed that it is amonochlorinated lipopeptide that belongs to the syringomycin family of antifungal agents. In conclusion, the platform presented here provides a significant advancement in our ability to understand the spatiotemporal dynamics of metabolite production in live microbial colonies and communities.

  10. The honeybee queen influences the regulation of colony drone production

    E-print Network

    Huang, Zachary

    The honeybee queen influences the regulation of colony drone production Katie E. Wharton,a Fred C and regu- lation of males (drones). We examined whether honeybee queens can influence drone regulation by either allowing or prevent- ing them from laying drone eggs for a period of time and then examining

  11. Deaf Colonials: Evidence Suggests that Some Were Literate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Cathryn

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the literacy of early Americans with deafness. Two colonials are profiled: Jonathan Lambert, who was taught reading and writing in a rural area of England noted for its number of deaf inhabitants and who founded a signing community on Martha's Vineyard; and John Edge, who attended a neighborhood school prior to the advent of formal deaf…

  12. Dynamic Wavelength Routing in WDM Networks via Ant Colony Optimization

    E-print Network

    Barr, Richard

    of all-optical networks is accomplished, in part, by send- ing multiple signals simultaneously through the same fiber-optic cable. This is achieved through wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM), whichDynamic Wavelength Routing in WDM Networks via Ant Colony Optimization Ryan M. Garlick1 and Richard

  13. Improved Ant Colony Algorithm and its Applications in TSP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xuemei Song; Bing Li; Hongmei Yang

    2006-01-01

    In the fields of ant colony optimization (ACO), models of collective intelligence of ants are transformed into useful optimization techniques. A kind of improved ACO (named PMACO) approach for traveling salesman problems (TSP) is presented. Aimed at the disadvantages existed in ACO, several new betterments are proposed and evaluated. In particular, the option that an ant hunts for the next

  14. Image Feature Extraction with the Artificial Ant Colony

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jipeng Du; Ling Zhou; Xiaowei Xu; Lifen Yang; Zhen Shi

    2010-01-01

    The swarm intelligence technique is applied in image processing for feature extraction. The perceptual graph is proposed to represent the relationship between adjacent image points. The ant colony system is applied to build the perceptual graph. In the experiments, edge extraction and image segmentation are implemented with the proposed method, which show that the artificial ant swarm can effectively perform

  15. DNA fragment assembly using an ant colony system algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prakit Meksangsouy; N. Chaiyaratana

    2003-01-01

    This work presents the use of an ant colony system algorithm in a DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) fragment assembly. The assembly problem is a combinatorial optimisation problem where the aim of the search is to find the right order and orientation of each fragment in the fragment ordering sequence that leads to the formation of a consensus sequence. In this paper,

  16. RECONFIGURABLE PARALLEL PROCESSOR SYSTEM BASED ON ANT COLONY ALGORITHM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. SAAD; M. EL ADAWY; H. A. KESHK; SHAHIRA M. HABASHY

    2005-01-01

    Ant colony optimization is an evolutionary approach where a number of ants search for good solutions. Every ant builds up a solution step by step going through several decisions. Ants that found a good solution mark their paths through the decision space by putting some amount of pheromone on the edges of the path. The following ants of the next

  17. Using LDA and Ant Colony Algorithm for Spam Mail Filtering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui Yin; Fengjuan Cheng; Dexian Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Spam mails are extremely inconvenient, annoying and wasteful to most users since they waste time and bandwidth. To efficiently resolve this problem, a new spam mail filtering algorithm is proposed by using linear discriminant analysis(LDA) and ant colony optimization(ACO) algorithm. The experimental results show that this algorithm is feasible and performs much better than other typical spam filtering algorithms.

  18. Recent Literature on Slavery in Colonial North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Donald R.

    2003-01-01

    Provides a review of literature published on slavery in colonial North America, focusing on how this literature has changed over the years. Includes literature in topical areas, such as the Atlantic slave trade, African American culture, and race. Includes a bibliography. (CMK)

  19. The Transatlantic Slave Trade and Colonial Chesapeake Slavery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Lorena S.

    2003-01-01

    Explores the slave trade system that brought slaves to the Chesapeake Bay area during the eighteenth century colonial United States. Uses information from the "Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade: A Database on CD-ROM" to examine slave routes. Provides information on the origins and distribution of slaves in the Chesapeake Bay region and the experiences of…

  20. RESEARCH ARTICLE Complex Colony-Level Organization of the

    E-print Network

    Dunn, Casey

    (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) Is Directionally Asymmetric and Arises by the Subdivision of Pro-Buds Casey W. Dunn* Siphonophores are free-swimming colonial hydrozoans (Cnidaria) composed of asexually produced multicellular-Liss, Inc. Key words: Bargmannia; siphonophore; Hydrozoa; Cnidaria; directional asymmetry; major transitions

  1. Colony nutrition skews reproduction in a social spider

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mor Salomon; David Mayntz; Yael Lubin

    2008-01-01

    Cooperative breeding societies are characterized by alloparental care and unequal distribution of reproduction (skewed reproduction). Competition for resources among group members may determine the reproductive outcome of each individual. In a spider colony, females feed together on prey and therefore may compete over the extraction of specific nutrients required for reproduction. Here we examined the occurrence of skewed reproduction in

  2. A comparative study of Artificial Bee Colony algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dervis Karaboga; Bahriye Akay

    2009-01-01

    Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm is one of the most recently introduced swarm-based algorithms. ABC simulates the intelligent foraging behaviour of a honeybee swarm. In this work, ABC is used for optimizing a large set of numerical test functions and the results produced by ABC algorithm are compared with the results obtained by genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization algorithm, differential

  3. Genetic Stock Identification Of Production Colonies Of Russian Honey Bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of Nosema ceranae in managed honey bee colonies has increased dramatically in the past 10 – 20 years worldwide. A variety of genetic testing methods for species identification and prevalence are now available. However sample size and preservation method of samples prior to testing hav...

  4. Outbreaks of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in colonies of immunodeficient mice.

    PubMed Central

    Walzer, P D; Kim, C K; Linke, M J; Pogue, C L; Huerkamp, M J; Chrisp, C E; Lerro, A V; Wixson, S K; Hall, E; Shultz, L D

    1989-01-01

    Outbreaks of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia occurred in colonies of nu/nu and scid/scid mice at four different institutions. The disease, which was characterized by chronic wasting and respiratory insufficiency, was more severe in older mice and in animals housed in cages with special protective tops. Histopathologic features included alveolar filling with the typical foamy honeycomb material and a mild, nonspecific host inflammatory response. Immunofluorescence and immunoblotting studies suggested the P. carinii isolate was of mouse rather than of rat or human origin, and the outbreaks could be related to each other by common vendor or source of breeding animals. Once P. carinii became established in a mouse colony, the organism tended to persist for long periods of time. The principal control measure was depopulation of the colony, although limited experience with the administration of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was encouraging. Thus, outbreaks of pneumocystosis are a serious problem among colonies of immunodeficient mice, with important implications for the use of these animals in biomedical research. Data obtained by studying these outbreaks should enhance understanding of the pathogenesis of P. carinii pneumonia and be helpful in formulating improved methods of detection and control. Images PMID:2642471

  5. A Study of Colonial Surrogates and Indigenous Others.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willard, William

    1993-01-01

    Carlos Montezuma, an Apache, was raised by whites, graduated from medical school, and worked as physician for the Indian Service and Carlisle Indian School. Montezuma's life as colonial surrogate advocating "civilization" of the Indians is compared to Kafka's story of the ape who studied to become a passable European because it was "a way out" of…

  6. Existential Thoughts in Fanon's Post-Colonialism Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Chuan-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Frantz Fanon, a pioneer of post-colonial theory, attempted to seek some unbeknown possibilities through a Sartrean existentialism thought toward ethnic liberation and the fighting against imperialism. This article tries to enter Fanon's short life that was full of humanism and existentialist thought and to explore the hidden theoretical context…

  7. THE EFFECTS OF NECTARNICOTINE ON COLONY FITNESS OF CAGED HONEYBEES

    E-print Network

    Inbar, Moshe

    THE EFFECTS OF NECTAR­NICOTINE ON COLONY FITNESS OF CAGED HONEYBEES NATARAJAN SINGARAVELAN,1 contains secondary compounds, which are considered toxic for honeybees on repeated exposure. Although many the extent of toxicity at different honeybee ages, especially at the larval stages. Honeybees encounter

  8. Ectoparasitism shortens the breeding season in a colonial bird

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Charles R.; Brown, Mary Bomberger

    2015-01-01

    When blood-feeding parasites increase seasonally, their deleterious effects may prevent some host species, especially those living in large groups where parasites are numerous, from reproducing later in the summer. Yet the role of parasites in regulating the length of a host's breeding season—and thus the host's opportunity for multiple brooding—has not been systematically investigated. The highly colonial cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota), a temperate-latitude migratory songbird in the western Great Plains, USA, typically has a relatively short (eight to nine week) breeding season, with birds rarely nesting late in the summer. Colonies at which ectoparasitic swallow bugs (Oeciacus vicarius) were experimentally removed by fumigation were over 45 times more likely to have birds undertake a second round of nesting than were colonies exposed to parasites. Late nesting approximately doubled the length of the breeding season, with some birds raising two broods. Over a 27 year period the percentage of birds engaging in late nesting each year increased at a colony site where parasites were removed annually. This trend could not be explained by changes in group size, climate or nesting phenology during the study. The results suggest that ectoparasitism shortens the cliff swallow's breeding season and probably prevents many individuals from multiple brooding. When this constraint is removed, selection may rapidly favour late nesting.

  9. Aspects of modeling biofilm colonies: Florida State University

    E-print Network

    Ribot, Magali

    Aspects of modeling biofilm colonies: Part 1 Nick Cogan Florida State University June 11, 2014 #12;Biofilm Models and Modelers What is a model(er)? Some biofilm models Common observations, particular is generalizeable. #12;Biofilm Conceptual Models Have changed substantially. And so have the models! #12;Biofilm

  10. Mapping Some Landscapes of Colonial-Global Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Helen

    2001-01-01

    Examines some historical "maps" of the child institutions in Aotearoa, New Zealand. Finds a dynamic process of accommodation and resistance by early childhood constituencies to shifting political and pedagogical agendas. These maps were multi-layered and set against a backdrop of colonial values, which are described. (Author)

  11. Urban Economics, Conduit-Colonialism and Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Charles V.

    1972-01-01

    Considerable amounts of money already come into the cities and the black communities, but go right out as payments to absentee landlords, exploitative merchants, credit gougers, and loan sharks, as well as in support of the colonial management system. (Author/JM)

  12. Host specificity and colony impacts of Solenopsis invicta virus 3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A thorough understanding of host specificity is essential before pathogens can be used as biopesticides or self-sustaining biocontrol agents. In order to define the host range of the recently discovered Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3), we exposed colonies of 19 species of ants in 14 different g...

  13. The Primary School Curriculum in a Colonial Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacus, M. Kazim

    1974-01-01

    A history of primary school curriculum in Guyana, a former British colony, points out social determinates of curriculum. Ruling groups emphasized agriculture and manual arts in public education to maintain class distinctions while the masses fought for academic education as a key to financial and social success. (JH)

  14. Reproductive competition in queenless honey bee colonies ( Apis mellifera L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. Page; Gene E. Robinson

    1994-01-01

    Previously we reported that there are subfamily differences in drone production in queenless honey bee colonies, but these biases are not always explained by subfamily differences in oviposition behavior. Here we determine whether these puzzling results are best explained by either inadequate sampling of the laying worker population or reproductive conflict among workers resulting in differential treatment of eggs and

  15. Colonial Broadsides: A Student-Created Play. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    "Broadsides" are notices written on disposable, single sheets of paper printed on one side only, intended to have an immediate impact on readers. Broadsides had an impact in colonial America--they delivered the latest news and much more: government proclamations, public service announcements, opinion papers, advertisements, and entertainment…

  16. Art Education in Colonial India: Implementation and Imposition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantawala, Ami

    2012-01-01

    Historical inquiry in art education forms the basis of any research undertaken in the field. It is on this path that we discover ignored moments and personalities and clarify challenging ideas, thus approaching history from multiple perspectives. This historical study attempts to reframe the past of colonial Indian art education within the broader…

  17. Massive Diversification in Aging Colonies of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Saint-Ruf, Claude; Garfa-Traoré, Meriem; Collin, Valérie; Cordier, Corinne; Franceschi, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionary success of bacteria depends greatly on their capacity to continually generate phenotypic diversity. Structured environments are particularly favorable for diversification because of attenuated clonal interference, which renders selective sweeps nearly impossible and enhances opportunities for adaptive radiation. We examined at the microscale level the emergence and the spatial and temporal dynamics of phenotypic diversity and their underlying causes in Escherichia coli colonies. An important dynamic heterogeneity in the growth, metabolic activity, morphology, gene expression patterns, stress response induction, and death patterns among cells within colonies was observed. Genetic analysis indicated that the phenotypic variation resulted mostly from mutations and that indole production, oxidative stress, and the RpoS-regulated general stress response played an important role in the generation of diversity. We observed the emergence and persistence of phenotypic variants within single colonies that exhibited variable fitness compared to the parental strain. Some variants showed improved capacity to produce biofilms, whereas others were able to use different nutrients or to tolerate antibiotics or oxidative stress. Taken together, our data show that bacterial colonies provide an ecological opportunity for the generation and maintenance of vast phenotypic diversity, which may increase the probability of population survival in unpredictable environments. PMID:24982303

  18. Radio Telemetry of Hawaiian Green Turtles at Their Breeding Colony

    E-print Network

    Radio Telemetry of Hawaiian Green Turtles at Their Breeding Colony Andrew E. Dizon _TRIG ~~,-- , \\ - WHALE-SKATE ~'" Figure I. - French Frigate Shoals, site of 90 percent of the breeding percent of the breeding activity of the Hawaiian green turtle, Chelonia mydas, occurs at a small atoll

  19. Female First Nations Chiefs and the Colonial Legacy in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voyageur, Cora J.

    2011-01-01

    The social, economic, and political regulation of Canada's First Nations was codified in the Indian Act. Rooted in colonialism and paternalism, the Indian Act was created by the government of Canada to fulfill three functions: (1) to define who was and was not an Indian; (2) to civilize the Indian; and (3) to manage the Indian people and their…

  20. Colony-Forming Progenitor Cells in the Postnatal Mouse Liver and Pancreas Give Rise to Morphologically Distinct Insulin-Expressing Colonies in 3D Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Liang; Feng, Tao; Chai, Jing; Ghazalli, Nadiah; Gao, Dan; Zerda, Ricardo; Li, Zhuo; Hsu, Jasper; Mahdavi, Alborz; Tirrell, David A.; Riggs, Arthur D.; Ku, Hsun Teresa

    2014-01-01

    In our previous studies, colony-forming progenitor cells isolated from murine embryonic stem cell-derived cultures were differentiated into morphologically distinct insulin-expressing colonies. These colonies were small and not light-reflective when observed by phase-contrast microscopy (therefore termed “Dark” colonies). A single progenitor cell capable of giving rise to a Dark colony was termed a Dark colony-forming unit (CFU-Dark). The goal of the current study was to test whether endogenous pancreas, and its developmentally related liver, harbored CFU-Dark. Here we show that dissociated single cells from liver and pancreas of one-week-old mice give rise to Dark colonies in methylcellulose-based semisolid culture media containing either Matrigel or laminin hydrogel (an artificial extracellular matrix protein). CFU-Dark comprise approximately 0.1% and 0.03% of the postnatal hepatic and pancreatic cells, respectively. Adult liver also contains CFU-Dark, but at a much lower frequency (~0.003%). Microfluidic qRT-PCR, immunostaining, and electron microscopy analyses of individually handpicked colonies reveal the expression of insulin in many, but not all, Dark colonies. Most pancreatic insulin-positive Dark colonies also express glucagon, whereas liver colonies do not. Liver CFU-Dark require Matrigel, but not laminin hydrogel, to become insulin-positive. In contrast, laminin hydrogel is sufficient to support the development of pancreatic Dark colonies that express insulin. Postnatal liver CFU-Dark display a cell surface marker CD133+CD49flowCD107blow phenotype, while pancreatic CFU-Dark are CD133-. Together, these results demonstrate that specific progenitor cells in the postnatal liver and pancreas are capable of developing into insulin-expressing colonies, but they differ in frequency, marker expression, and matrix protein requirements for growth. PMID:25148366

  1. Polygynous colony formation in the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) 

    E-print Network

    Stamps, William Terrell

    1989-01-01

    , pleometrosis, and the effects of certain environmental factors were studied in the laboratory to attempt to determine the method of choice for polygynous colony formation. Small colonies fuse, leading rarely to polygyny. Workers adopt queens, reducing... queen number over time. Polygyne workers continue to adopt queens over time. Flooding and mixing of workers increases adopted queen survival in polygyne queenless colonies. Small groups of founding queens increase initial colony growth with a minimal...

  2. Colony founding in Myrmecocystus mimicus wheeler (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and the evolution of foundress associations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen H. Bartz; Bert Hölldobler

    1982-01-01

    1.Field studies of the honey ant Myrmecocystus mimicus have revealed that colonies are often founded by groups of foundresses ranging in size from 2–9 females, with groups of 2–4 females being most common. Founding nests are also aggregated together in patches which are distant from existing M. minicus colonies.2.Laboratory experiments have shown that colony founding involves inter-colony raiding: the brood

  3. Bait distribution among multiple colonies of Pharaoh ants (hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Oi, D H; Vail, K M; Williams, D F

    2000-08-01

    Pharaoh ant, Monomorium pharaonis (L.), infestations often consist of several colonies located at different nest sites. To achieve control, it is desirable to suppress or eliminate the populations of a majority of these colonies. We compared the trophallactic distribution and efficacy of two ant baits, with different modes of action, among groups of four colonies of Pharaoh ants. Baits contained either the metabolic-inhibiting active ingredient hydramethylnon or the insect growth regulator (IGR) pyriproxyfen. Within 3 wk, the hydramethylnon bait reduced worker and brood populations by at least 80%, and queen reductions ranged between 73 and 100%, when nests were in proximity (within 132 cm) to the bait source. However, these nest sites were reoccupied by ants from other colonies located further from the bait source. The pyriproxyfen bait was distributed more thoroughly to all nest locations with worker populations gradually declining by 73% at all nest sites after 8 wk. Average queen reductions ranged from 31 to 49% for all nest sites throughout the study. Even though some queens survived, brood reductions were rapid in the pyriproxyfen treatment, with reductions of 95% at all locations by week 3. Unlike the metabolic inhibitor, the IGR did not kill adult worker ants quickly, thus, more surviving worker ants were available to distribute the bait to all colonies located at different nest sites. Thus, from a single bait source, the slow-acting bait toxicant provided gradual, but long-term control, whereas the fast-acting bait toxicant provided rapid, localized control for a shorter duration. PMID:10985038

  4. FluG affects secretion in colonies of Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengfeng; Krijgsheld, Pauline; Hulsman, Marc; de Bekker, Charissa; Müller, Wally H; Reinders, Marcel; de Vries, Ronald P; Wösten, Han A B

    2015-01-01

    Colonies of Aspergillus niger are characterized by zonal heterogeneity in growth, sporulation, gene expression and secretion. For instance, the glucoamylase gene glaA is more highly expressed at the periphery of colonies when compared to the center. As a consequence, its encoded protein GlaA is mainly secreted at the outer part of the colony. Here, multiple copies of amyR were introduced in A. niger. Most transformants over-expressing this regulatory gene of amylolytic genes still displayed heterogeneous glaA expression and GlaA secretion. However, heterogeneity was abolished in transformant UU-A001.13 by expressing glaA and secreting GlaA throughout the mycelium. Sequencing the genome of UU-A001.13 revealed that transformation had been accompanied by deletion of part of the fluG gene and disrupting its 3' end by integration of a transformation vector. Inactivation of fluG in the wild-type background of A. niger also resulted in breakdown of starch under the whole colony. Asexual development of the ?fluG strain was not affected, unlike what was previously shown in Aspergillus nidulans. Genes encoding proteins with a signal sequence for secretion, including part of the amylolytic genes, were more often downregulated in the central zone of maltose-grown ?fluG colonies and upregulated in the intermediate part and periphery when compared to the wild-type. Together, these data indicate that FluG of A. niger is a repressor of secretion. PMID:25370014

  5. Collective decision-making in honey bees: how colonies choose among nectar sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas D. Seeley; Scott Camazine; James Sneyd

    1991-01-01

    A honey bee colony can skillfully choose among nectar sources. It will selectively exploit the most profitable source in an array and will rapidly shift its foraging efforts following changes in the array. How does this colony-level ability emerge from the behavior of individual bees? The answer lies in understanding how bees modulate their colony's rates of recruitment and abandonment

  6. Social foraging in honey bees: how nectar foragers assess their colony's nutritional status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas D. Seeley

    1989-01-01

    A honey bee colony operates as a tightly integrated unit of behavioral action. One manifestation of this in the context of foraging is a colony's ability to adjust its selectivity among nectar sources in relation to its nutritional status. When a colony's food situation is good, it exploits only highly profitable patches of flowers, but when its situation is poor,

  7. California gull chicks raised near colony edges have elevated stress levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Garth Herring; Joshua T. Ackerman

    2011-01-01

    Coloniality in nesting birds represents an important life history strategy for maximizing reproductive success. Birds nesting near the edge of colonies tend to have lower reproductive success than individuals nesting near colony centers, and offspring of edge-nesting parents may be impaired relative to those of central-nesting parents. We used fecal corticosterone metabolites in California gull chicks (Larus californicus) to examine

  8. The Ant Colony Paradigm for Reliable Systems Yun-Chia Liang

    E-print Network

    Smith, Alice E.

    The Ant Colony Paradigm for Reliable Systems Design Yun-Chia Liang Department of Industrial- rial optimization, the ant colony. The ant colony algorithm is a multiple solution global optimizer annealing, it is in- spired by observation of natural systems, in this case, the behavior of ants

  9. Long-term monitoring of a colony of Black-legged Kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla in Scotland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon T. Coleman; Albert E. Coleman; Andrew Rickeard; Robert Anderson

    2011-01-01

    A Black-legged Kittwake Rissa tridactyla colony at Dunbar in East Lothian, Scotland, was monitored between 1990 and 2007 with colony size, productivity, and the body mass of adults and nestlings recorded for the duration of the study. The colony increased in size from 641 nests in 1991 to 1,155 nests in 2007. Productivity varied significantly between years but showed no

  10. Horizontal transmission of Paenibacillus larvae spores between honey bee ( Apis mellifera ) colonies through robbing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders Lindström; Seppo Korpela; Ingemar Fries

    2008-01-01

    Surprisingly little is known about transmission rates between honey bee colonies of Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent American foulbrood. We studied the rate of horizontal transmission of P. larvae spores between colonies as a function of physical distance between colonies by culturing for the spores from sequential samples\\u000a of adult bees. The results demonstrate a direct effect of distance to

  11. The effect of drone comb on a honey bee colony'sproduction of honey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas D. Seeley

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the impact on a colony's honey production of providing it with a nat- ural amount (20%) of drone comb. Over 3 summers, for the period mid May to late August, I mea- sured the weight gains of 10 colonies, 5 with drone comb and 5 without it. Colonies with drone comb gained only 25.2 ± 16.0 kg

  12. Original article The effect of drone comb on a honey bee colony's

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article The effect of drone comb on a honey bee colony's production of honey* Thomas D on a colony's honey production of providing it with a nat- ural amount (20%) of drone comb. Over 3 summers, for the period mid May to late August, I mea- sured the weight gains of 10 colonies, 5 with drone comb and 5

  13. Response of mountain plovers to plague-driven dynamics of black-tailed prairie dog colonies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sylvatic plague is a major factor influencing prairie dog colony dynamics in the western Great Plains. We studied the nesting response of the mountain plover (Charadrius montanus), a grassland bird that nests on prairie dog colonies, to plague-driven dynamics of prairie dog colonies at three sites i...

  14. Colony Hybridization: A Method for the Isolation of Cloned DNAs that Contain a Specific Gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Grunstein; David S. Hogness

    1975-01-01

    A method has been developed whereby a very large number of colonies of Escherichia coli carrying different hybrid plasmids can be rapidly screened to determine which hybrid plasmids contain a specified DNA sequence or genes. The colonies to be screened are formed on nitrocellulose filters, and, after a reference set of these colonies has been prepared by replica plating, are

  15. Overwintering colonies of the common wasp (Vespula vulgaris) in Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Leathwick; P. L. Godfrey

    1996-01-01

    Three overwintered colonies of the common wasp (Vespula vulgaris) were collected in Palmerston North, New Zealand, during December 1993 and January 1994. Nest size ranged from 12–14 combs and 14 930–24 321 cells, making them larger than annual colonies at that time of year. Although one of the colonies was producing drones, none of the nests contained any queen cells,

  16. Modelling the Effects of Colony Age on the Foraging Behaviour of Harvester Ants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Diethe; Peter J. Bentley

    2007-01-01

    The colonies of certain species of ants, for example Pogono- myrmex barbatus, exhibit changes in behaviour as the colonies grow older, despite nearly all of the individual ants being replaced each year (1). The behaviour of older colonies is more stable, and they are more likely to avoid intraspecific conflict (2). Gordon hypothesised that the reason for this is that

  17. Qur'anic and "Ajami" Literacies in Pre-Colonial West Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diallo, Ibrahima

    2012-01-01

    Traditional African literacy practices have often been ignored in the wake of European colonialism and the educational policies of colonial governments. Nonetheless, literacy had been established in parts of Africa following the introduction of Islam. This paper will examine the developments of literacy in pre-colonial West Africa. In this region,…

  18. The Politics of Writing Tribal Identities in the Sudan: The Case of the Colonial Nuba Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelhay, Ashraf Kamal

    2010-01-01

    Linguistics is implicated in the colonial project of the invention of "self-contained" "racial" and "tribal units" in the Sudan. This paper has two objectives. First, to historicise the notions of "language" in the postcolonial discourse of language planning in the Sudan by reviewing one of the significant colonial policies: the colonial Nuba…

  19. EFFECT OF HABITAT DECIMATION ON RING-BILLED GULL COLONY AND NEST-SITE TENACITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FIDELITY to a previously used nesting area has been demonstrated or hypothesized for many bird species (see Greenwood 1980 for partial review). In colonially nesting birds, the area to which a bird returns from one breeding season to the next may be as large, and rela- tively imprecise, as a colony site (colony-site tenacity) or as precise as a specific

  20. Life cycle of the tick Ixodes uriae in penguin colonies: relationships with host breeding activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Frenot; E. de Oliveira; M. Gauthier-Clerc; J. Deunff; A. Bellido; P. Vernon

    2001-01-01

    A survey of the temporal pattern of population structure and feeding activity of the seabird tick Ixodesuriae was conducted for the first time in two host species colonies: King penguin (Aptenodytespatagonicushalli) and Macaroni penguin (Eudypteschrysolophuschrysolophus). The life cycle of the tick was investigated over 3 years in a King penguin colony and 2 years in a Macaroni penguin colony at

  1. Rates of brood development in a social wasp: effects of colony size and parasite infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. Howard; R. L. Jeanne

    2004-01-01

    Summary Colonies of eusocial insect species are most vulnerable during the founding stage. Many species have evolved means to minimize the length of the founding, or pre-emergence, stage by accelerating the rate of development of the first worker offspring. Other things being equal, the sooner a colony can begin producing workers, the less the risk of colony failure, the steeper

  2. Results of the radiological survey at 1155-57 Central Avenue, Colonie, New York (AL216)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Marley; R. F. Carrier

    1988-01-01

    A number of properties in the Albany\\/Colonie area have been identified as being potentially contaminated with uranium originating from the former National Lead Company's uranium forming plant in Colonie, New York. The property at 1155-57 Central Avenue in Colonie, New York was the subject of a radiological investigation initiated May 7, 1987. This commercial property consists of two separate buildings

  3. Derivation of guidelines for uranium residual radioactive material in soil at the Colonie Site, Colonie, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Dunning, D.

    1996-05-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil were derived for the Colonie site located in Colonie, New York. This site has been designated for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The site became contaminated with radioactive material as a result of operations conducted by National Lead (NL) Industries from 1958 to 1984; these activities included brass foundry operations, electroplating of metal products, machining of various components using depleted uranium, and limited work with small amounts of enriched uranium and thorium. The Colonie site comprises the former NL Industries property, now designated the Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS), and 56 vicinity properties contaminated by fallout from airborne emissions; 53 of the vicinity properties were previously remediated between 1984 and 1988. In 1984, DOE accepted ownership of the CISS property from NL Industries. Residual radioactive material guidelines for individual radionuclides and total uranium were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the site should not exceed a dose of 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current use and likely future use scenarios or a dose of 100 mrem/yr for less likely future use scenarios. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation; RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines.

  4. Increased Inter-Colony Fusion Rates Are Associated with Reduced COI Haplotype Diversity in an Invasive Colonial Ascidian Didemnum vexillum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirsty F. Smith; Lauren Stefaniak; Yasunori Saito; Chrissen E. C. Gemmill; S. Craig Cary; Andrew E. Fidler

    2012-01-01

    Considerable progress in our understanding of the population genetic changes associated with biological invasions has been made over the past decade. Using selectively neutral loci, it has been established that reductions in genetic diversity, reflecting founder effects, have occurred during the establishment of some invasive populations. However, some colonial organisms may actually gain an ecological advantage from reduced genetic diversity

  5. Colonie Interim Storage Site annual environmental report for calendar year 1991, Colonie, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    This document describes the environmental monitoring program at the Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS) and surrounding area, implementation of the program, and monitoring results for 1991. Environmental monitoring at CISS began in 1984 when Congress added the site to the US Department of Energy's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. CISS property and surrounding areas were radioactively contaminated by operations conducted by National Lead Industries, which manufactured various components from uranium and thorium from 1958 to 1984. The environmental monitoring program at CISS includes sampling networks for external gamma radiation exposure and for radium-226, thorium-232, and total uranium concentrations in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Additionally, several nonradiological parameters are measured in groundwater. In 1992 the program will also include sampling networks for radioactive and chemical contaminants in stormwater to meet permit application requirements under the Clean Water Act. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other requirements in DOE.orders. Environmental standards are established to protect public health and the environment. Results of environmental monitoring during 1991 indicate that average concentrations of radioactive contaminants of concern were well below applicable standards and DCGS. Concentrations of some chemical contaminants in groundwater were above-the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (Class GA) and EPA guidelines for drinking water. The potential annual radiation exposure (excluding background) calculated for a hypothetical maximally exposed individual is 0.23 mrem (milliroentgen equivalent man), which is less than an individual would receive while traveling in an airplane at 12,000 meters (39,000 feet) for one hour.

  6. Colony structure and parentage in wild colonies of co-operatively breeding Damaraland mole-rats suggest incest avoidance alone may not maintain reproductive skew.

    PubMed

    Burland, Tamsin M; Bennett, Nigel C; Jarvis, Jennifer U M; Faulkes, Christopher G

    2004-08-01

    Colonies of co-operatively breeding African mole-rats have traditionally been thought to be composed of a single breeding female, one or two breeding males, and their offspring. In the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber), the occurrence of facultative inbreeding means incest avoidance cannot prevent reproduction in subordinate group members, and physiological suppression of reproductive function by the breeding female occurs in both sexes. In contrast, previous studies of captive colonies of the Damaraland mole-rat (Cryptomys damarensis) suggest that breeding within a colony is restricted to a single breeding pair, simply because all other colony members are highly related (first- or second-order relatives) and this species is an obligate outbreeder. Using microsatellite markers, we investigated parentage and colony composition in 18 wild Damaraland mole-rat colonies to determine whether inbreeding avoidance alone can explain the high levels of reproductive skew in this species. Multiple and unidentified paternity was widespread within colonies and immigrants of both sexes were regularly identified. Unrelated, opposite-sex nonbreeders were found coexisting in two colonies. These results suggest that, in the wild, conditions exist where nonreproductive females can come into contact with unrelated males, even when they do not disperse from their natal colony. Inbreeding avoidance alone is therefore insufficient to maintain the high levels of reproductive skew identified in this species suggesting that the breeding female somehow suppresses the reproductive function in nonbreeding females. PMID:15245409

  7. Bird colonies cause seagrass enrichment in a subtropical estuary: Observational and experimental evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, George V. N.; Fourqurean, James W.; Kenworthy, W. Judson; Zieman, Joseph C.

    1991-06-01

    Colonies/roosts of piscivorous birds in Florida Bay, a subtropical estuary, concentrate nutrients by feeding away from their colonies/roosts and returning with food for young and to defaecate. Seagrass beds surrounding the colony islands were markedly different from those around similar islands that did not contain colonies. Seagrass standing crop was enhanced up to 200 m from bird colony islands compared with islands without colonies. The species of seagrass were also different at colonies, where Halodule wrightii and Ruppia maritima predominated in zones close to the colony islands. Around islands without colonies, only Thalassia testudinum was present. Experimental bird perches placed to stimulate concentrated bird presence produced changes in adjacent seagrass meadows that were similar to differences between islands with colonies and those without. Over 5 years, seagrass standing crop increased around the experimental perches, and species dominance shifted from T. testudinum to H. wrightii. No similar changes occurred at control locations. These experimental results indicate that the bird concentrations are responsible for the observed differences in seagrass communities surrounding islands that contain colonies. These enriched areas are significant to the seagrass ecosystem because many seagrasses in Florida Bay appear to be nutrient-limited. Demersal fish and invertebrate density and species richness have been shown to be a function of the seagrass standing crop and species composition, so the changes in seagrasses stimulated by localized bird concentrations have the capacity to alter the entire community structure.

  8. Comparative studies on growth and physiological responses of unicellular and colonial Microcystis aeruginosa to Acorus calamus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S-H; Chang, J-J; Cao, J-Y; Yang, C-L

    2015-02-01

    In order to explore the growth inhibition and physiological responses of unicellular and colonial Microcystis aeruginosa during coexistence with Acorus calamus, algal densities, chlorophyll a contents, exopolysaccharide (EPS) concentrations, malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, catalase (CAT) activities, and peroxidase (POD) activities of the two algae strains were analyzed. Although the unicellular and colonial strains of M. aeruginosa were both inhibited by A. calamus, unicellular algae were more sensitive than the colonial algae. The measurement results for EPS, MDA, CAT, and POD showed that unicellular M. aeruginosa had higher levels of stress related damage than colonial strains when they were exposed to the same density of A. calamus, and the cellular defense system of colonial M. aeruginosa was stronger than that of unicellular M. aeruginosa. Natural blooms of Microcystis are typically composed of colonial forms of M. aeruginosa, therefore future efforts to control such blooms, possibly through the development of new algicides, should focus on the unique characteristics of colonial M. aeruginosa strains. PMID:25416545

  9. Effects of boric acid, fipronil, hydramethylnon, and diflubenzuron baits on colonies of ghost ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Ulloa-Chacón, Patricia; Jaramillo, Gloria Isabel

    2003-06-01

    Laboratory colonies of the ghost ant, Tapinoma melanocephalum (F.) were administered sugar solution (10%) baits containing the insecticides boric acid, fipronil (REGENT), hydramethylnon (SIEGE), or diflubenzuron (DIMILN). Colonies were exposed to the baits for 21 d, and development of workers, queens, and brood (larvae and pupae) was observed for 4 wk. Fipronil (0.05%) caused 100% mortality in all colonies the first week. With boric acid (0.5%), 100% mortality of workers, queens, and brood was reached at the end of the third week. With hydramethylnon (2%), 83% of the colonies disappeared at the end of the fourth week, but some queens were still alive 9 wk after the trial started. Diflubenzuron (1%) behaved similarly to the control, although in some colonies, the brood production increased, whereas in other colonies, the queens disappeared. In the control colonies, workers, queens, and brood were always observed even up to 9 wk. PMID:12852627

  10. Response Ant Colony Optimization of End Milling Surface Roughness

    PubMed Central

    Kadirgama, K.; Noor, M. M.; Abd Alla, Ahmed N.

    2010-01-01

    Metal cutting processes are important due to increased consumer demands for quality metal cutting related products (more precise tolerances and better product surface roughness) that has driven the metal cutting industry to continuously improve quality control of metal cutting processes. This paper presents optimum surface roughness by using milling mould aluminium alloys (AA6061-T6) with Response Ant Colony Optimization (RACO). The approach is based on Response Surface Method (RSM) and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO). The main objectives to find the optimized parameters and the most dominant variables (cutting speed, feedrate, axial depth and radial depth). The first order model indicates that the feedrate is the most significant factor affecting surface roughness. PMID:22294914

  11. Random mitotic activities across human embryonic stem cell colonies.

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Q.; Duggan, R.; Dasa, S.; Li, F.; Chen, L. (Biosciences Division)

    2010-08-01

    A systemic and quantitative study was performed to examine whether different levels of mitotic activities, assessed by the percentage of S-phase cells at any given time point, existed at different physical regions of human embryonic stem (hES) cell colonies at 2, 4, 6 days after cell passaging. Mitotically active cells were identified by the positive incorporation of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) within their newly synthesized DNA. Our data indicated that mitotically active cells were often distributed as clusters randomly across the colonies within the examined growth period, presumably resulting from local deposition of newly divided cells. This latter notion was further demonstrated by the confined growth of enhanced green florescence protein (EGFP) expressing cells amongst non-GFP expressing cells. Furthermore, the overall percentage of mitotically active cells remained constantly at about 50% throughout the 6-day culture period, indicating mitotic activities of hES cell cultures were time-independent under current growth conditions.

  12. Quantifying Spatiotemporal Patterns in the Expansion of Twitching Bacterial Colonies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelton, Erin; Giuliani, Maximiliano; Burrows, Lori; Dutcher, John

    2015-03-01

    Type IV pili (T4P) are very thin (5-8 nm in diameter) protein filaments that can be extended and retracted by certain classes of Gram-negative bacteria including P. aeruginosa. These bacteria use T4P to move across viscous interfaces, referred to twitching motility. Twitching can occur for isolated cells or in a collective manner. We have developed experimental and data analysis techniques to quantify the expansion of P. aeruginosa PAO1 bacterial colonies at the glass-agar interface under well-controlled environmental conditions. By using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and Fourier analysis techniques, we have characterized the evolution of the advancing front of expanding colonies for a range of agar concentrations. This has allowed us to observe a transition in the collective motion of the bacterial cells as the agar concentration is increased.

  13. Factors affecting aerobic colony counts for bottled water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. J Parrington; A. N Sharpe

    1998-01-01

    The Canadian Official Method MFO-15 for aerobic colony counts of bottled waters and ice requires pour plating with plate count agar (PCA) tempered to 40–45°C and incubating 48 h at 35°C. The performance of hydrophobic grid membrane filters (HGMF), counted by computerized counter after 48 h incubation on various media, was compared against MFO-15 for 31 water samples collected across

  14. Rural Drag: Settler Colonialism and the Queer Rhetorics of Rurality 

    E-print Network

    Nichols, Garrett Wedekind

    2013-07-16

    ? do and don?t do in Muskogee ..................................................... 155 1 CHAPTER I ?THE AMERICANS THAT I KNOW?: THE RURAL IMAGINARY AND SETTLER COLONIAL DISCOURSE boy, y?all were gonna get rain but you done... that uncritically assumes a traditionally white, male, middle-classed non-heterosexual subjectivity as the basis for its analysis. (Think, for example, of the shows Queer Eye for the Straight Guy and Will and Grace as the supposedly ?authentic? depictions of gay...

  15. Ant colony optimized planning for unmanned surface marine vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Benítez; Juan F. Jiménez; Jose M. Girón-Sierra

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents some results achieved from a preliminary study on the use\\u000aof the Ant Colony Algorithm to plan feasible optimal or suboptimal trajectories\\u000afor an autonomous ship manoeuvring. The scenario, for this preliminary work,\\u000acomprises only open sea manoeuvres. The goal involves obtaining the least\\u000atime consuming ship trajectory between to points, departing from the start\\u000apoint with

  16. Acadian Settlement in Louisiana: Colonial Populations and Imperial Policy 

    E-print Network

    Kolb, Frances Bailey

    2007-08-03

    the Mississippi, changed several times from solely French to a Spanish and British juxtaposition, and then to a Spanish and American one. In the development of their settlement, the Acadians, as settlers in the context of transition of both colony and people...; however, the first Spanish governor did not arrive until 1766. With the close of the Seven Years War, the Mississippi became an imperial boundary, separating British and Spanish North America. Throughout the period of Acadian immigration...

  17. Parameter Tuning for the Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bahriye Akay; Dervis Karaboga

    2009-01-01

    While solving a problem by an optimization algorithm, adjusting algorithm parameters have significant importance on the performance\\u000a of the algorithm. A fine tuning of control parameters is required for most of the algorithms to obtain desired solutions.\\u000a In this study, performance of the Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm, which simulates the foraging behaviour of a honey\\u000a bee swarm, was investigated

  18. An improved ant colony algorithm to solve knapsack problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuang; Wang, Shuliang; Zhang, Qiuming

    2006-10-01

    Ant colony optimization algorithm is a novel simulated evolutionary algorithm, which provides a new method for complicated combinatorial optimization problems. In this paper the algorithm is used for solving the knapsack problem. It is improved in selection strategy and information modification, so that it can not easily run into the local optimum and can converge at the global optimum. The experiments show the robustness and the potential power of this kind of meta-heuristic algorithm.

  19. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor: biology and clinical potential

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MaryAnn Foote; George Morstyn

    \\u000a The study of hematopoiesis was greatly facilitated in the mid-1960s when techniques for studying hematopoietic cells in clonal\\u000a culture were developed. Initially, serum or conditioned medium was added to cultures as a source of growth factors, i.e.,\\u000a the colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) [56, 57, 85]. One of the factors that was isolated, purified, cloned, and produced in\\u000a commercial quantities was granulocyte

  20. Automated counting of bacterial colonies by image analysis.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Pei-Ju; Tseng, Min-Jen; He, Zong-Sian; Li, Chia-Hsun

    2015-01-01

    Research on microorganisms often involves culturing as a means to determine the survival and proliferation of bacteria. The number of colonies in a culture is counted to calculate the concentration of bacteria in the original broth; however, manual counting can be time-consuming and imprecise. To save time and prevent inconsistencies, this study proposes a fully automated counting system using image processing methods. To accurately estimate the number of viable bacteria in a known volume of suspension, colonies distributing over the whole surface area of a plate, including the central and rim areas of a Petri dish are taken into account. The performance of the proposed system is compared with verified manual counts, as well as with two freely available counting software programs. Comparisons show that the proposed system is an effective method with excellent accuracy with mean value of absolute percentage error of 3.37%. A user-friendly graphical user interface is also developed and freely available for download, providing researchers in biomedicine with a more convenient instrument for the enumeration of bacterial colonies. PMID:25451456

  1. Sexual and asexual reproduction in the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri.

    PubMed

    Gasparini, Fabio; Manni, Lucia; Cima, Francesca; Zaniolo, Giovanna; Burighel, Paolo; Caicci, Federico; Franchi, Nicola; Schiavon, Filippo; Rigon, Francesca; Campagna, Davide; Ballarin, Loriano

    2015-01-01

    The colonial tunicate Botryllus schlosseri is a widespread filter-feeding ascidian that lives in shallow waters and is easily reared in aquaria. Its peculiar blastogenetic cycle, characterized by the presence of three blastogenetic generations (filtering adults, buds, and budlets) and by recurrent generation changes, has resulted in over 60 years of studies aimed at understanding how sexual and asexual reproduction are coordinated and regulated in the colony. The possibility of using different methodological approaches, from classical genetics to cell transplantation, contributed to the development of this species as a valuable model organism for the study of a variety of biological processes. Here, we review the main studies detailing rearing, staging methods, reproduction and colony growth of this species, emphasizing the asymmetry in sexual and asexual reproduction potential, sexual reproduction in the field and the laboratory, and self- and cross-fertilization. These data, opportunely matched with recent tanscriptomic and genomic outcomes, can give a valuable help to the elucidation of some important steps in chordate evolution. PMID:25044771

  2. Cocktail-party effect in king penguin colonies

    PubMed Central

    Aubin, T.; Jouventin, P.

    1998-01-01

    The king penguin, Aptenodytes patagonicus, breeds without a nest in colonies of several thousands of birds. To be fed, the chick must recognize the parents in a particularly noisy environment using only vocal cues. The call an adult makes when seeking the chick is emitted at a high amplitude level. Nevertheless, it is transmitted in a colonial context involving the noise generated by the colony and the screening effect of the bodies, both factors reducing the signal-to-noise ratio. In addition, the adult call is masked by a background noise with similar amplitude and spectral and temporal characteristics, enhancing the difficulty for the chick in finding its parents. We calculate that the maximum distance from the caller at which its signal can be differentiated from the background noise (signal-to-noise ratio equal to 1) should not exceed 8 to 9 m in a feeding area. But our tests show that, in fact, chicks can discriminate between the parental call and calls from other adults at a greater distance, even when call intensity is well below that of the noise of simultaneous calls produced by other adults. This capacity to perceive and extract the call of the parent from the ambient noise and particularly from the calls of other adults, termed the 'cocktail-party effect' in speech intelligibility tests, enhances the chick's ability to find its parents.

  3. Rationality in collective decision-making by ant colonies.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Susan C; Pratt, Stephen C

    2009-10-22

    Economic models of animal behaviour assume that decision-makers are rational, meaning that they assess options according to intrinsic fitness value and not by comparison with available alternatives. This expectation is frequently violated, but the significance of irrational behaviour remains controversial. One possibility is that irrationality arises from cognitive constraints that necessitate short cuts like comparative evaluation. If so, the study of whether and when irrationality occurs can illuminate cognitive mechanisms. We applied this logic in a novel setting: the collective decisions of insect societies. We tested for irrationality in colonies of Temnothorax ants choosing between two nest sites that varied in multiple attributes, such that neither site was clearly superior. In similar situations, individual animals show irrational changes in preference when a third relatively unattractive option is introduced. In contrast, we found no such effect in colonies. We suggest that immunity to irrationality in this case may result from the ants' decentralized decision mechanism. A colony's choice does not depend on site comparison by individuals, but instead self-organizes from the interactions of multiple ants, most of which are aware of only a single site. This strategy may filter out comparative effects, preventing systematic errors that would otherwise arise from the cognitive limitations of individuals. PMID:19625319

  4. Towards a colony counting system using hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masschelein, B.; Robles-Kelly, A.; Blanch, C.; Tack, N.; Simpson-Young, B.; Lambrechts, A.

    2012-03-01

    Colony counting is a procedure used in microbiology laboratories for food quality monitoring, environmental management, etc. Its purpose is to detect the level of contamination due to the presence and growth of bacteria, yeasts and molds in a given product. Current automated counters require a tedious training and setup procedure per product and bacteria type and do not cope well with diversity. This contrasts with the setting at microbiology laboratories, where a wide variety of food and bacteria types have to be screened on a daily basis. To overcome the limitations of current systems, we propose the use of hyperspectral imaging technology and examine the spectral variations induced by factors such as illumination, bacteria type, food source and age and type of the agar. To this end, we perform experiments making use of two alternative hyperspectral processing pipelines and compare our classification results to those yielded by color imagery. Our results show that colony counting may be automated through the automatic recovery of the illuminant power spectrum and reflectance. This is consistent with the notion that the recovery of the illuminant should minimize the variations in the spectra due to reflections, shadows and other photometric artifacts. We also illustrate how, with the reflectance at hand, the colonies can be counted making use of classical segmentation and classification algorithms.

  5. An Investigation of Techniques for Using Oxalic Acid to Reduce Varroa Mite Populations in Honey Bee Colonies and Package Bees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas Aliano

    2008-01-01

    I investigated strategies for reducing Varroa mite populations (Varroa destructor) in honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera) using oxalic acid (OA). I examined the efficacy of OA in both broodless colonies and colonies that contain brood. My data indicate that OA is most effective at reducing Varroa populations when colonies are broodless because repeated applications of OA did not significantly reduce

  6. Plating Yeast Colonies 1. Swirl 1 colony (0.5 -2 mm diameter) into 1 ml sterile dH2O with toothpick (faintly turbid).

    E-print Network

    Aris, John P.

    78 Plating Yeast Colonies 1. Swirl 1 colony (0.5 - 2 mm diameter) into 1 ml sterile dH2O. Undiluted Cells (2nd column from left is best) Yeast Strain #1 Yeast Strain #2 Yeast Strain #3 Yeast Strain #4 Yeast Strain #5 Yeast Strain #6 10X Dilution Series Replica plating samples without serial

  7. Internal skeletal analysis of the colonial azooxanthellate scleractinian Dendrophyllia cribrosa using microfocus X-ray CT images: underlying basis for its rigid and highly adaptive colony structure.

    PubMed

    Sentoku, Asuka; Morisaki, Hitomi; Masumoto, Shinji; Ohno, Rie; Tomiyama, Takayuki; Ezaki, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Dendrophyllid Scleractinia exhibit a variety of colonial morphologies, formed under the strict constraints on (1) budding sites, (2) orientations of the directive septa of offsets, (3) inclination of budding direction, and (4) those constraints in every generation. Dendrophyllia cribrosa exhibits a sympodial dendroid form, characteristically large coralla, and occasional fusions of adjacent branches within the same colony. Adjacent corallites are bound and supported by coenosteum skeleton. This study examined the inner skeletal structures at the junctions of fused branches using a non-destructive microfocus X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging approach, and considered the reasons for the large colonial sizes and their adaptive significance. Three-dimensional reconstructions of two-dimensional X-ray CT images reveal that individual corallites are not directly connected in fused parts. Additionally, no completely buried individuals were found within fused skeleton. When adjacent branches approach one another, constituent corallites change their growth directions to avoid collisions between the branches. The adjacent branches fuse without a reduction in the number of constituent corallites, leading to the establishment of reticular and rigid colonial structures. In addition, a nearly even distribution of individuals on the colony surface facilitates efficient intake of nutrients. Thus, the growth of large D. cribrosa colonies involves avoidance of collision between constituent individuals, the reinforcement of colonial structure, and efficient uptake of nutrients. These observations provide insights on the dynamics of interrelationships between colony-making mechanisms and the adaptive strategies required under habitat conditions such as specific current activities. PMID:25463019

  8. Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental assessment for the Colonie site, Colonie, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    This work plan has been prepared to document the scoping and planning process performed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to support remedial action activities at the Colonie site. The site is located in eastern New York State in the town of Colonie near the city of Albany. Remedial action of the Colonie site is being planned as part of DOE's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. The DOE is responsible for controlling the release of all radioactive and chemical contaminants from the site. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) must be prepared to support the decision-making process for evaluating remedial action alternatives. This work plan contains a summary of information known about the site as of January 1988, presents a conceptual site model that identifies potential routes of human exposure to site containments, identifies data gaps, and summarizes the process and proposed studies that will be used to fill the data gaps. In addition, DOE activities must be conducted in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which requires consideration of the environmental consequences of a proposed action as part of its decision-making process. This work also describes the approach that will be used to evaluate potential remedial action alternatives and includes a description of the organization, project controls, and task schedules that will be employed to fulfill the requirements of both CERCLA and NEPA. 48 refs., 18 figs., 25 tabs.

  9. Habitat-related microgeographic variation of worker size and colony size in the ant Cataglyphis cursor.

    PubMed

    Clémencet, Johanna; Doums, Claudie

    2007-05-01

    In social insects, colony size is a crucial life-history trait thought to have major implications for the evolution of social complexity, especially in relation to worker size polymorphism. Yet, little is known about how ecological factors can affect and constrain colony. Here, we explored the pattern of colony-size and worker-size variation in the Mediterranean ant Cataglyphis cursor, in relation to the type of habitats colonized (seaside vs. vineyard). The high level of the water table in the seaside habitat could constrain the depth of C. cursor underground nests and directly constrain its colony size. If worker size increases with colony size, as observed in other ant species, larger colony size and larger workers should be found in the vineyard populations. By comparing worker size among 16 populations, we verified that workers were significantly larger in the vineyard populations. We further determined that the morphological similarities detected among populations from the same habitat type were not due to geographic or genetic proximity. In two populations from each habitat type, the depth of nests was positively correlated with colony size and colony size with worker size. Using a type II regression approach, we further showed that the difference between the two populations in the depth of nest was sufficient to explain the difference in colony size, and similarly, variation in colony size was sufficient to explain variation in worker size. Our results suggest that a single proximate ecological factor could lead to significant variation in major life-history parameters. PMID:17245588

  10. Influence of individual cell motility on the 2D front roughness dynamics of tumour cell colonies.

    PubMed

    Muzzio, N E; Pasquale, M A; González, P H; Arvia, A J

    2014-06-01

    The dynamics of in situ 2D HeLa cell quasi-linear and quasi-radial colony fronts in a standard culture medium is investigated. For quasi-radial colonies, as the cell population increased, a kinetic transition from an exponential to a constant front average velocity regime was observed. Special attention was paid to individual cell motility evolution under constant average colony front velocity looking for its impact on the dynamics of the 2D colony front roughness. From the directionalities and velocity components of cell trajectories in colonies with different cell populations, the influence of both local cell density and cell crowding effects on individual cell motility was determined. The average dynamic behaviour of individual cells in the colony and its dependence on both local spatio-temporal heterogeneities and growth geometry suggested that cell motion undergoes under a concerted cell migration mechanism, in which both a limiting random walk-like and a limiting ballistic-like contribution were involved. These results were interesting to infer how biased cell trajectories influenced both the 2D colony spreading dynamics and the front roughness characteristics by local biased contributions to individual cell motion. These data are consistent with previous experimental and theoretical cell colony spreading data and provide additional evidence of the validity of the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation, within a certain range of time and colony front size, for describing the dynamics of 2D colony front roughness. PMID:24893945

  11. Queen movement during colony emigration in the facultatively polygynous ant Pachycondyla obscuricornis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezon, Antoine; Denis, Damien; Cerdan, Philippe; Valenzuela, Jorge; Fresneau, Dominique

    2005-01-01

    In ants, nest relocations are frequent but nevertheless perilous, especially for the reproductive caste. During emigrations, queens are exposed to predation and face the risk of becoming lost. Therefore the optimal strategy should be to move the queen(s) swiftly to a better location, while maintaining maximum worker protection at all times in the new and old nests. The timing of that event is a crucial strategic issue for the colony and may depend on queen number. In monogynous colonies, the queen is vital for colony survival, whereas in polygynous colonies a queen is less essential, if not dispensable. We tested the null hypothesis that queen movement occurs at random within the sequence of emigration events in both monogynous and polygynous colonies of the ponerine ant Pachycondyla obscuricornis. Our study, based on 16 monogynous and 16 polygynous colony emigrations, demonstrates for the first time that regardless of the number of queens per colony, the emigration serial number of a queen occurs in the middle of all emigration events and adult ant emigration events, but not during brood transport events. It therefore appears that the number of workers in both nests plays an essential role in the timing of queen movement. Our results correspond to a robust colony-level strategy since queen emigration is related neither to colony size nor to queen number. Such an optimal strategy is characteristic of ant societies working as highly integrated units and represents a new instance of group-level adaptive behaviors in social insect colonies.

  12. Role of gravity in the formation of bacterial colonies with a hydrophobic surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puzyr, A. P.; Tirranen, L. K.; Krylova, T. Y.; Borodina, E. V.

    A simple technique for determining hydrophobic-hydrophilic properties of bacterial colonies surface, which involves putting a drop of liquid with known properties (e.g. water, oil) on their surface, has been described. This technique allows quick estimate of wettability of bacterial colony surface, i.e. its hydrophobic-hydrophilic properties. The behaviour of water drops on colonies of bacteria Bacillus five strains (of different types) has been studied. It was revealed that 1) orientation in the Earth gravity field during bacterial growth can define the form of colonies with hydrophobic surface; 2) the form and size of the colony are dependent on the extention ability, most probably, of the hydrophobic layer; 3) the Earth gravity field (gravity) serves as a 'pump' providing and keeping water within the colony. We suppose that at growing colonies on agar media the inflow of water-soluble nutrient materials takes place both due to diffusion processes and directed water current produced by the gravity. The revealed effect probably should be taken into consideration while constructing the models of colonies growing on dense nutrient media. The easily determined hydrophobic properties of colonies surface can become a systematic feature after collecting more extensive data on the surface hydrophobic-hydrophilic properties of microorganism colonies of other types and species.

  13. Geographic variation in caste ratio of trematode colonies with a division of labour reflect local adaptation.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Melanie M; Poulin, Robert

    2014-07-01

    Similarly to the division of labour in social insects, castes of morphologically distinct individuals exist within colonies of some species of parasitic trematodes. These colonies occur in the first intermediate host of the trematode's complex life cycle and are composed of clonal individuals. Individuals of the reproductive caste have significantly larger bodies while non-reproductive individuals are small and appear to be specialised for defence against co-infecting trematode colonies. In parallel with colony organisation of social insects, demographic traits such as the proportion of the small, non-reproducing individuals relative to the large, reproducing individuals and colony size are expected to vary and adjust to local conditions. In the case of colonies from geographically and potentially genetically distinct populations, this variation is hypothesised to become fixed by evolutionary divergence, as reported in social insect studies. In this study, the adaptive demography theory was further tested by looking at caste ratio and colony organisation of Philophthalmus sp. (a parasitic trematode with a recently discovered division of labour) colonies from geographically distinct populations. Results indicate that the caste ratio from geographically distinct Philophthalmus sp. colonies differs; the proportion of small, defensive individuals is higher in colonies from the location where the risk of competition is highest. This is suggestive of local adaptation, as caste ratios do not change over time under standardised laboratory conditions. This is the first evidence to support the adaptive demography theory in a species with a division of labour other than social insects. PMID:24770673

  14. Population regulation in Magellanic penguins: what determines changes in colony size?

    PubMed

    Pozzi, Luciana M; García Borboroglu, Pablo; Boersma, P Dee; Pascual, Miguel A

    2015-01-01

    Seabirds are often studied at individual colonies, but the confounding effects of emigration and mortality processes in open populations may lead to inappropriate conclusions on the mechanisms underlying population changes. Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) colonies of variable population sizes are distributed along the Argentine coastline. In recent decades, several population and distributional changes have occurred, with some colonies declining and others newly established or increasing. We integrated data of eight colonies scattered along ?600 km in Northern Patagonia (from 41°26´S, 65°01´W to 45°11´S, 66°30´W, Rio Negro and Chubut provinces) and conducted analysis in terms of their growth rates, production of young and of the dependence of those vital rates on colony age, size, and location. We contrasted population trends estimated from abundance data with those derived from population modeling to understand if observed growth rates were attainable under closed population scenarios. Population trends were inversely related to colony size, suggesting a density dependent growth pattern. All colonies located in the north--which were established during the last decades--increased at high rates, with the smallest, recently established colonies growing at the fastest rate. In central-southern Chubut, where colonies are the oldest, the largest breeding aggregations declined, but smaller colonies remained relatively stable. Results provided strong evidence that dispersal played a major role in driving local trends. Breeding success was higher in northern colonies, likely mediated by favorable oceanographic conditions. However, mean foraging distance and body condition of chicks at fledging were influenced by colony size. Recruitment of penguins in the northern area may have been triggered by a combination of density dependence, likely exacerbated by less favorable oceanographic conditions in the southern sector. Our results reaffirm the idea that individual colony trends do not provide confident indicators of population health, highlighting the need to redefine the scale for the study of population changes. PMID:25786254

  15. Extreme genetic mixing within colonies of the wood-dwelling termite Kalotermes flavicollis (Isoptera, Kalotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Luchetti, A; Dedeine, F; Velonà, A; Mantovani, B

    2013-06-01

    The existence of altruism in social insects is commonly attributed to altruistic individuals gaining indirect fitness through kin selection. However, recent studies suggest that such individuals might also gain direct fitness through reproduction. Experimental studies on primitive wood-dwelling termites revealed that colony fusion often causes the death of primary reproductives (queen and king), allowing opportunities for workers to inherit the nest by developing into replacement reproductives (neotenics). Therefore, colony fusion has been proposed as an important factor that may have favoured sociality in termites. However, whether colony fusion occurs frequently in natural populations of wood-dwelling termites remains an open question. We analysed eleven colonies of the wood-dwelling termite Kalotermes flavicollis (Kalotermitidae), using two mitochondrial and five nuclear microsatellite markers. Nine of eleven colonies (82%) were mixed families, with offspring of three or more primary reproductives. To our knowledge, this result represents the highest frequency of mixed-family colonies ever reported in termites. Moreover, genetic mixing of colonies appeared extreme in two ways. First, the number of haplotypes per colony was exceptionally high (up to nine), indicating that colonies were composed of multiple queens' offspring. Second, some mixed-family colonies included individuals belonging to two highly divergent genetic lineages. F-statistics and relatedness values suggest that mixed-family colonies most likely result from colony fusion, giving support to the accelerated nest inheritance theory. These findings raise important questions about the mode of foundation of mixed-family colonies and the evolutionary forces that maintain them within populations. PMID:23710754

  16. Colony-forming cells in the adult mouse pancreas are expandable in Matrigel and form endocrine/acinar colonies in laminin hydrogel

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Liang; Feng, Tao; Shih, Hung Ping; Zerda, Ricardo; Luo, Angela; Hsu, Jasper; Mahdavi, Alborz; Sander, Maike; Tirrell, David A.; Riggs, Arthur D.; Ku, Hsun Teresa

    2013-01-01

    The study of hematopoietic colony-forming units using semisolid culture media has greatly advanced the knowledge of hematopoiesis. Here we report that similar methods can be used to study pancreatic colony-forming units. We have developed two pancreatic colony assays that enable quantitative and functional analyses of progenitor-like cells isolated from dissociated adult (2–4 mo old) murine pancreas. We find that a methylcellulose-based semisolid medium containing Matrigel allows growth of duct-like “Ring/Dense” colonies from a rare (?1%) population of total pancreatic single cells. With the addition of roof plate-specific spondin 1, a wingless-int agonist, Ring/Dense colony-forming cells can be expanded more than 100,000-fold when serially dissociated and replated in the presence of Matrigel. When cells grown in Matrigel are then transferred to a Matrigel-free semisolid medium with a unique laminin-based hydrogel, some cells grow and differentiate into another type of colony, which we name “Endocrine/Acinar.” These Endocrine/Acinar colonies are comprised mostly of endocrine- and acinar-like cells, as ascertained by RNA expression analysis, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy. Most Endocrine/Acinar colonies contain beta-like cells that secrete insulin/C-peptide in response to D-glucose and theophylline. These results demonstrate robust self-renewal and differentiation of adult Ring/Dense colony-forming units in vitro and suggest an approach to producing beta-like cells for cell replacement of type 1 diabetes. The methods described, which include microfluidic expression analysis of single cells and colonies, should also advance study of pancreas development and pancreatic progenitor cells. PMID:23431132

  17. Scaling of Traction Forces with the Size of Cohesive Cell Colonies

    PubMed Central

    Mertz, Aaron F.; Banerjee, Shiladitya; Che, Yonglu; German, Guy K.; Xu, Ye; Hyland, Callen; Marchetti, M. Cristina; Horsley, Valerie; Dufresne, Eric R.

    2014-01-01

    To understand how the mechanical properties of tissues emerge from interactions of multiple cells, we measure traction stresses of cohesive colonies of 1–27 cells adherent to soft substrates. We find that traction stresses are generally localized at the periphery of the colony and the total traction force scales with the colony radius. For large colony sizes, the scaling appears to approach linear, suggesting the emergence of an apparent surface tension of the order of 10?3 N/m. A simple model of the cell colony as a contractile elastic medium coupled to the substrate captures the spatial distribution of traction forces and the scaling of traction forces with the colony size. PMID:23003091

  18. Daughters inherit colonies from mothers in the 'living-fossil' ant Nothomyrmecia macrops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanetra, Matthias; Crozier, Ross H.

    2002-02-01

    Newly mated queens of monogynous (single queen) ants usually found their colonies independently, without the assistance of workers. In polygynous (multiple queen) species queens are often adopted back into their natal nest and new colonies are established by budding. We report that the Australian 'living-fossil' ant, Nothomyrmecia macrops, is exceptional in that its single queen can be replaced by one of the colony's daughters. This type of colony founding is an interesting alternative reproductive strategy in monogynous ants, which maximizes fitness under kin selection. Successive queen replacement results in a series of reproductives over time (serial polygyny), making these colonies potentially immortal. Workers raise nieces and nephews (relatedness ? 0.375) the year after queen replacement. Although N. macrops is 'primitive' in many other respects, colony inheritance is likely to be a derived specialization resulting from ecological constraints on solitary founding.

  19. Quantifying Two-Dimensional Filamentous and Invasive Growth Spatial Patterns in Yeast Colonies

    PubMed Central

    Binder, Benjamin J.; Sundstrom, Joanna F.; Gardner, Jennifer M.; Jiranek, Vladimir; Oliver, Stephen G.

    2015-01-01

    The top-view, two-dimensional spatial patterning of non-uniform growth in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast colony is considered. Experimental images are processed to obtain data sets that provide spatial information on the cell-area that is occupied by the colony. A method is developed that allows for the analysis of the spatial distribution with three metrics. The growth of the colony is quantified in both the radial direction from the centre of the colony and in the angular direction in a prescribed outer region of the colony. It is shown that during the period of 100–200 hours from the start of the growth of the colony there is an increasing amount of non-uniform growth. The statistical framework outlined in this work provides a platform for comparative quantitative assays of strain-specific mechanisms, with potential implementation in inferencing algorithms used for parameter-rate estimation. PMID:25719406

  20. Age and breeding success related to nest position in a White stork Ciconia ciconia colony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergara, Pablo; Aguirre, José I.

    2006-11-01

    Coloniality is a breeding system that may produce benefits in terms of breeding success, although these advantages could vary according to factors such as colony size or nest position. We studied breeder's age in relation to nest position (peripheral or central) within the colony. In addition, we studied the relationship between breeding success and nest position, controlling for breeder's age, a highly correlated factor, in a White Stork Ciconia ciconia colony over a 7-year period. Our results show that central nests are mainly occupied by adult birds and had lower failure rates. However, controlling for breeder's age, nest position per se did not explain breeding success. The scarce predation and the lack of human disturbance in the study colony could explain the absence of differences in breeding success between different nest positions within the colony.

  1. Small colony variants of Staphylococcus aureus--review.

    PubMed

    Melter, O; Radojevi?, B

    2010-11-01

    Bacterial variants of Staphylococcus aureus called small colony variants (SCVs) originate by mutations in metabolic genes, resulting in emergence of auxotrophic bacterial subpopulations. These variants are not particularly virulent but are able to persist viable inside host cells. SCVs show their characteristic auxotrophic growth deficiency and depressed ?-cytotoxin activity. Environmental pressure such as antibiotics, select for isogenic SCV cells that are frequently found coexisting with their parent wild-type strains in a mixed bacterial culture. SCV strains often grow on blood agar as non-pigmented or pinpoint pigmented colonies and their key biochemical tests are often non-reactive. Their altered metabolism or auxotrophism can result in long generation time and thus SCV phenotype, more often than not SCV can be overgrown by their wild-type counterparts and other competitive respiratory flora. This could affect laboratory detection. Thus, molecular methods, such as 16S rRNA partial sequencing or amplification of species-specific DNA targets (e.g. coagulase, nuclease) directly from clinical material or isolated bacterial colonies, become the method of choice. Patients at risk of infection by S. aureus SCVs include cystic fibrosis patients (CF), patients with skin and foreign-body related infections and osteomyelitis, as they suffer from chronic staphylococcal infections and are subject to long-term antibiotic therapy. Molecular evidence of SCV development has not been found except for some random mutations of the thymidylate synthase gene (thyA) described in SCV S. aureus strains of CF patients. These variants are able to bypass the antibiotic effect of folic acid antagonists such as sulfonamides and trimethoprim. Resistance to gentamicin and aminoglycosides in the hemin or menadione auxotrophic SCVs was hypothesized as being due to decreased influx of the drugs into cells as a result of decreased ATP production and decreased electrochemical gradient on cell membranes. PMID:21253898

  2. Temporal variation in atmospheric ammonia concentrations above seabird colonies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackall, T. D.; Wilson, L. J.; Bull, J.; Theobald, M. R.; Bacon, P. J.; Hamer, K. C.; Wanless, S.; Sutton, M. A.

    Recent studies have shown that seabirds are an important source of ammonia (NH 3) emissions in remote coastal ecosystems. Nesting behaviour, which varies between seabird species, is likely to be a major factor in determining the proportion of excreted nitrogen (N) volatilised to the atmosphere as NH 3. A long-term NH 3 monitoring programme was implemented at a Scottish seabird colony with a range of species and associated nesting behaviours. The average monthly NH 3 concentration was measured at 12 locations over a 14-month period, to infer spatial (i.e. species-specific) and temporal (seasonal) changes in NH 3 emissions from different seabird species. An emissions model of seabird NH 3, based on species-specific bioenergetics and behaviour, was applied to produce spatial estimates for input to a dispersion model. Atmospheric NH 3 concentrations demonstrated spatial variability as a result of differing local populations of breeding seabirds, with the highest concentrations measured above cliff nesting species such as Common guillemot Uria aalge, Razorbill Alca torda and Black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla. NH 3 concentrations above a colony of burrow nesting Atlantic puffin Fratercula arctica were low, considering the high number of birds. Emission of NH 3 from excreted N exhibits a time lag of approximately a month. It is likely that all excreted N is lost from the colony by volatilisation as NH 3 or surface run-off between breeding seasons. Modelled NH 3 emissions and concentrations correlated with measured concentrations, but were much higher, reflecting uncertainties in the local turbulent characteristics. The results allow multi-species seabird population data to be used for the calculation of regional and global NH 3 emission inventories, whilst improving understanding of N budgets of remote coastal ecosystems.

  3. Aerial estimation of the size of gull breeding colonies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kadlec, J.A.; Drury, W.H.

    1968-01-01

    Counts on photographs and visual estimates of the numbers of territorial gulls are usually reliable indicators of the number of gull nests, but single visual estimates are not adequate to measure the number of nests in individual colonies. To properly interpret gull counts requires that several islands with known numbers of nests be photographed to establish the ratio of gulls to nests applicable for a given local census. Visual estimates are adequate to determine total breeding gull numbers by regions. Neither visual estimates nor photography will reliably detect annual changes of less than about 2.5 percent.

  4. Artificial bee colony algorithm for constrained possibilistic portfolio optimization problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we discuss the portfolio optimization problem with real-world constraints under the assumption that the returns of risky assets are fuzzy numbers. A new possibilistic mean-semiabsolute deviation model is proposed, in which transaction costs, cardinality and quantity constraints are considered. Due to such constraints the proposed model becomes a mixed integer nonlinear programming problem and traditional optimization methods fail to find the optimal solution efficiently. Thus, a modified artificial bee colony (MABC) algorithm is developed to solve the corresponding optimization problem. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed model and the corresponding algorithm.

  5. The Colonie FUSRAP Site: CY2002 Situation Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sheeran, A. R.; Dufek, K.; Moore, J.

    2003-02-26

    This paper presents a summary of accomplishments at the Colonie FUSRAP Site in Fiscal Year 2002. During this period several significant milestones were achieved and have set the stage for the project to be completed in a more comprehensive manner, ahead of schedule and at a lower cost than the original Remedial Plan inherited from the Dept of Energy in 1997. Discussion of the DOE and subsequent USACE remedial plans is included along with summary level discussions of the key site infrastructure and remedial elements.

  6. Clinical disorders observed in a beagle breeding colony.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, S; Iida, H; Oghiso, Y; Matsuoka, O

    1985-01-01

    Disorders in a beagle breeding colony were discussed, based on 472 clinical charts made in 1974-1983. In 201 neonates less than a week old, hypothermia associated with pneumonia was mostly seen. In 31 puppies from one week to two months old and in 46 young dogs from two months to a year old, pneumonia, canine parvovirus infection, dermal abscess and dermatosis were mostly found. In 91 dogs aged from one to five, trauma, intervertebral disc protrusion, dermal abscess, dystocia, claudication and otohematoma were frequently noted. In 103 animals over five years old, intervertebral disc protrusion, tumors, abscess, trauma and otohematoma were observed most often. PMID:3987822

  7. Habitat-related microgeographic variation of worker size and colony size in the ant Cataglyphis cursor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johanna Clémencet; Claudie Doums

    2007-01-01

    In social insects, colony size is a crucial life-history trait thought to have major implications for the evolution of social\\u000a complexity, especially in relation to worker size polymorphism. Yet, little is known about how ecological factors can affect\\u000a and constrain colony. Here, we explored the pattern of colony-size and worker-size variation in the Mediterranean ant Cataglyphis cursor, in relation to

  8. Response of mountain plovers to plague-driven dynamics of black-tailed prairie dog colonies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Augustine; Stephen J. Dinsmore; Michael B. Wunder; Victoria J. Dreitz; Fritz L. Knopf

    2008-01-01

    Sylvatic plague is a major factor influencing the dynamics of black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies in the western Great Plains. We studied the nesting response of the mountain plover (Charadrius montanus), a grassland bird that nests on prairie dog colonies, to plague-driven dynamics of prairie dog colonies at three sites in\\u000a the western Great Plains. First, we examined plover

  9. Predation of artificial ground nests on white-tailed prairie dog colonies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, B.W.; Stanley, T.R.; Sedgwick, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    Prairie dog (Cynomys spp.) colonies are unique to prairie and shrub-steppe landscapes. However, widespread eradication, habitat loss, and sylvatic plague (Yersinia pestis) have reduced their numbers by 98% since historical times. Birds associated with prairie dogs also are declining. Potential nest predators, such as coyotes (Canis latrans), swift foxes (Vulpes velox), and badgers (Taxidea taxus), may be attracted to colonies where a high concentration of prairie dogs serve as available prey. Increased abundance of small mammals, including prairie dogs, also may increase the risk of predation for birds nesting on colonies. Finally, because grazing by prairie dogs may decrease vegetation height and canopy cover, bird nests may be easier for predators to locate. In this study, we placed 1,444 artificial ground nests on and off 74 white-tailed prairie dog (C. leucurus) colonies to test the hypothesis that nest predation rates are higher on colonies than at nearby off sites (i.e., uncolonized habitat). We sampled colonies from 27 May to 16 July 1997 at the following 3 complexes: Coyote Basin, Utah and Colorado; Moxa Arch, Wyoming; and Shirley Basin, Wyoming. Differences in daily predation rates between colonies and paired off sites averaged 1.0% (P = 0.060). When converted to a typical 14-day incubation period, predation rates averaged 14% higher on colonies (57.7 ?? 2.7%; ?? ?? SE) than at off sites (50.4 ?? 3.1%). Comparisons of habitat variables on colonies to off sites showed percent canopy cover of vegetation was similar (P = 0.114), percent bare ground was higher on colonies (P 0.288). Although we found the risk of nest predation was higher on white-tailed prairie dog colonies than at off sites, fitness of birds nesting on colonies might depend on other factors that influence foraging success, reproductive success, or nestling survival.

  10. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Enhances Interleukin 3Dependent Proliferation of Multipotential Hemopoietic Progenitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenji Ikebuchi; Steven C. Clark; James N. Ihle; Lawrence M. Souza; Makio Ogawa

    1988-01-01

    In cultures of spleen cells from normal mice, recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) supported the formation of multipotential blast cell colonies. Serial replating of the blast cell colonies in the presence of G-CSF, however, failed to demonstrate any direct effect of G-CSF on murine multipotential progenitors. We therefore examined the effects of G-CSF in combination with murine interleukin 3

  11. Effect of Zinc Phosphide Rodenticide on Prairie Dog Colony Expansion as Determined From Aerial Photography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DANIEL W. URESK; GREG L. SCHENBECK

    Aerial photography (1:16,000) was used to evaluate the effectiveness of zinc phosphide in reducing area expansion of black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies over a 5-year period in western South Dakota. Untreated prairie dog colonies increased 65 % in area, compared to a 1% increase on treated colonies (P = 0.11). Zinc phosphide, applied at 3-year intervals, was effective in

  12. Acquired amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenic purpura with humoral inhibitory factor for megakaryocyte colony formation.

    PubMed

    Katai, M; Aizawa, T; Ohara, N; Hiramatsu, K; Hashizume, K; Yamada, T; Kitano, K; Saito, H; Shinoda, T; Wakata, S

    1994-03-01

    A 67-year-old man with thrombocytopenia, and amegakaryocytic but otherwise normal bone marrow, was evaluated. Antibody against thrombocytes was negative and the half-life of thrombocytes was normal. In vitro clonal culture of the patient's bone marrow cells yielded no megakaryocyte colony with normal granulocyte-macrophage and erythroid colony formation. Megakaryocyte colony formation of the control bone marrow cells was significantly suppressed by the addition of the patient's serum to the culture, suggesting the existence of humoral inhibitory factor(s) for megakaryocyte colony formation. Therapeutic trials with plasma exchange, cyclosporine, prednisolone, and cyclosporine plus prednisolone were all unsuccessful, but serious bleeding has been absent. PMID:8061390

  13. Purification and partial characterization of a megakaryocyte colony-stimulating factor from human plasma.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, R; Yang, H H; Bruno, E; Straneva, J E

    1985-01-01

    Human plasma obtained from patients with hypomegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia contains a factor that promotes megakaryocyte colony formation by normal human marrow cells. This megakaryocyte colony-stimulating factor was purified from such a plasma specimen. A four-step purification scheme which included ammonium sulfate precipitation, diethylaminoethyl-Sepharose chromatography, affinity chromatography on wheat germ lectin-Sepharose 6MB, and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography resulted in a recovery of 16.6% of the initial biological activity and an increase in specific activity by 3,489-fold. The purified protein produced a single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Purified megakaryocyte colony-stimulating factor was capable of promoting megakaryocyte colony formation at a concentration of 7.6 X 10(-8) M. Megakaryocyte colony-stimulating factor was shown to be a glycoprotein and had an apparent 46,000 mol wt. Deglycosylation of megakaryocyte colony-stimulating factor by treatment with trifluoromethane-sulfonate resulted in the loss of its ability to promote megakaryocyte colony formation. Megakaryocyte colony-stimulating factor appears to be an important regulator of in vitro human megakaryocytopoiesis at the level of the colony-forming unit megakaryocyte and may be of importance physiologically. Images PMID:3872884

  14. Cooperatively Generated Stresslet Flows Supply Fresh Fluid to Multicellular Choanoflagellate Colonies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roper, Marcus; Dayel, Mark J.; Pepper, Rachel E.; Koehl, M. A. R.

    2013-05-01

    The flagellated protozoan Salpingoeca rosetta is one of the closest relatives of multicellular animals. Unicellular S. rosetta can be induced to form multicellular colonies, but colonies swim more slowly than individual cells so the advantages conferred by colony formation are uncertain. Here we use theoretical models to show that hydrodynamic cooperation between cells can increase the fluid supply to the colony, an important predictor of feeding rate. Our results suggest that hydrodynamic benefits may have been an important selective factor in the evolution of early multicellular animals.

  15. Detection of a new type of mouse eosinophil colony by Luxol-fast-blue staining.

    PubMed

    Johnson, G R; Metcalf, D

    1980-05-01

    Staining with Luxol-fast-blue was shown to be a satisfactory method for identifying mouse eosinophils. IN agar cultures of mouse marrow stimulated by pokeweed mitogen-stimulated spleen conditioned medium (SCM), 2-10 compact Luxol-fast-blue positive eosinophil colonies varied according to the batch of human plasma used in the culture medium. Similar colony-forming cells were detected in the spleen and peripheral blood but not in the thymus or lymph nodes. Some Luxol-fast-blue positive eosinophil colonies were stimulated to develop by crude mouse lung conditioned medium and by high concentrations of GM-CSF purified from this source. The cells forming Luxol-fast-blue positive eosinophil colonies sedimented more rapidly (5.5-6.5 mm/h) than the cells forming dispersed-eosinophil colonies 94.5 mm/h). Transfer studies using intact colonies or redispersed colony cells failed to demonstrate an interrelationship between the two types of eosinophil colonies and the cells forming Luxol-fast-blue positive eosinophil colonies appear to be a distinct subset of eosinophil percursors. PMID:6161833

  16. Ecosystem engineering by a colonial mammal: how prairie dogs structure rodent communities.

    PubMed

    VanNimwegen, Ron E; Kretzer, Justin; Cully, Jack F

    2008-12-01

    As ecosystem engineers, prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) physically alter their environment, but the mechanism by which these alterations affect associated faunal composition is not well known. We examined how rodent and vegetation communities responded to prairie dog colonies and landcover at the Cimarron National Grassland in southwest Kansas, USA. We trapped rodents and measured vegetation structure on and off colonies in 2000 and 2003. We plotted two separate ordinations of trapping grids: one based on rodent counts and a second based on vegetation variables. We regressed three factors on each ordination: (1) colony (on-colony and off-colony), (2) cover (shortgrass and sandsage), and (3) habitat (factorial cross of colony x cover). Rodent communities differed by colony but not cover. Vegetation differed across both gradients. Rodent responses to habitat reflected those of colony and cover, but vegetation was found to differ across cover only in the sandsage prairie. This interaction suggested that rodent composition responded to prairie dog colonies, but independently of vegetation differences. We conclude that burrowing and soil disturbance are more important than vegetation cropping in structuring rodent communities. PMID:19137937

  17. Estimated areal extent of colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs in the northern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sidle, J.G.; Johnson, D.H.; Euliss, B.R.

    2001-01-01

    During 1997-1998, we undertook an aerial survey, with an aerial line-intercept technique, to estimate the extent of colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) in the northern Great Plains states of Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming. We stratified the survey based on knowledge of colony locations, computed 2 types of estimates for each stratum, and combined ratio estimates for high-density strata with average density estimates for low-density strata. Estimates of colony areas for black-tailed prairie dogs were derived from the average percentages of lines intercepting prairie dog colonies and ratio estimators. We selected the best estimator based on the correlation between length of transect line and length of intercepted colonies. Active colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs occupied 2,377.8 km2 i?? 186.4 SE, whereas inactive colonies occupied 560.4 i?? 89.2 km2. These data represent the 1st quantitative assessment of prairie-dog colonies in the northern Great Plains. The survey dispels popular notions that millions of square kilometers of colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs exist in the northern Great Plains and can form the basis for future survey efforts

  18. Impact of Varroa destructor on honeybee (Apis mellifera scutellata) colony development in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Ursula; Pirk, Christian W W; Crewe, Robin M; Human, Hannelie; Dietemann, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    The devastating effects of Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman on European honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera L.) have been well documented. Not only do these mites cause physical damage to parasitised individuals when they feed on them, they also transmit viruses and other pathogens, weaken colonies and can ultimately cause their death. Nevertheless, not all honeybee colonies are doomed once Varroa mites become established. Some populations, such as the savannah honeybee, A. m. scutellata, have become tolerant after the introduction of the parasite and are able to withstand the presence of these mites without the need for acaricides. In this study, we measured daily Varroa mite fall, Varroa infestation rates of adult honeybees and worker brood, and total Varroa population size in acaricide treated and untreated honeybee colonies. In addition, honeybee colony development was compared between these groups in order to measure the cost incurred by Varroa mites to their hosts. Daily Varroa mite fall decreased over the experimental period with different dynamics in treated and untreated colonies. Varroa infestation rates in treated adult honeybees and brood were lower than in untreated colonies, but not significantly so. Thus, indicating a minimal benefit of treatment thereby suggesting that A. m. scutellata have the ability to maintain mite populations at low levels. We obtained baseline data on Varroa population dynamics in a tolerant honeybee over the winter period. Varroa mites appeared to have a low impact on this honeybee population, given that colony development was similar in the treated and untreated colonies. PMID:25037745

  19. Breeding ecology of Caspian terns at colonies on the Columbia Plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Antolos, M.; Roby, D.D.; Collis, K.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the breeding ecology and diet of Caspian terns on the Columbia Plateau in southeastern Washington and northeastern Oregon. We examined trends in colony size and area during 1996-2001, and estimated number of breeding pairs, nesting density, fledging success, and diet composition at selected colony sites in 2000 and 2001. We found six tern colonies totaling ???1,000 breeding pairs, ranging in size from < 50 to nearly 700 pairs. Predation by mink caused complete abandonment of one of these colonies in 2000 and 2001. The relocation of ???9,000 Caspian tern breeding pairs from Rice Island to East Sand Island in the Columbia River estuary did not result in an obvious increase in the number of tern breeding pairs on the Columbia Plateau during the study period. The majority of Caspian tern prey items at colonies on the mid-Columbia River consisted of juvenile salmonids. At a colony in Potholes Reservoir, Washington, Caspian terns commuted over 100 km round-trip to the Columbia River to forage on juvenile salmonids, suggesting that locally abundant food may be limiting. High nesting densities at other mid-Columbia River colonies suggest that availability of breeding habitat may limit colony size. The small size of Caspian tern colonies on the Columbia Plateau, and possible constraints on availability of suitable nesting habitat within the study area, suggest that the level of predation on ESA-listed juvenile salmonids in this region will likely remain well below that currently observed in the Columbia River estuary.

  20. Colony-live —a high-throughput method for measuring microbial colony growth kinetics— reveals diverse growth effects of gene knockouts in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Precise quantitative growth measurements and detection of small growth changes in high-throughput manner is essential for fundamental studies of bacterial cell. However, an inherent tradeoff for measurement quality in high-throughput methods sacrifices some measurement quality. A key challenge has been how to enhance measurement quality without sacrificing throughput. Results We developed a new high-throughput measurement system, termed Colony-live. Here we show that Colony-live provides accurate measurement of three growth values (lag time of growth (LTG), maximum growth rate (MGR), and saturation point growth (SPG)) by visualizing colony growth over time. By using a new normalization method for colony growth, Colony-live gives more precise and accurate growth values than the conventional method. We demonstrated the utility of Colony-live by measuring growth values for the entire Keio collection of Escherichia coli single-gene knockout mutants. By using Colony-live, we were able to identify subtle growth defects of single-gene knockout mutants that were undetectable by the conventional method quantified by fixed time-point camera imaging. Further, Colony-live can reveal genes that influence the length of the lag-phase and the saturation point of growth. Conclusions Measurement quality is critical to achieving the resolution required to identify unique phenotypes among a diverse range of phenotypes. Sharing high-quality genome-wide datasets should benefit many researchers who are interested in specific gene functions or the architecture of cellular systems. Our Colony-live system provides a new powerful tool to accelerate accumulation of knowledge of microbial growth phenotypes. PMID:24964927

  1. Evidence for protection of nitrogenase from O(2) by colony structure in the aerobic diazotroph Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus.

    PubMed

    Dong, Z; Zelmer, C D; Canny, M J; McCully, M E; Luit, B; Pan, B; Faustino, R S; Pierce, G N; Vessey, J K

    2002-08-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is an endophytic diazotroph of sugarcane which exhibits nitrogenase activity when growing in colonies on solid media. Nitrogenase activity of G. diazotrophicus colonies can adapt to changes in atmospheric partial pressure of oxygen (pO(2)). This paper investigates whether colony structure and the position of G. diazotrophicus cells in the colonies are components of the bacterium's ability to maintain nitrogenase activity at a variety of atmospheric pO(2) values. Colonies of G. diazotrophicus were grown on solid medium at atmospheric pO(2) of 2 and 20 kPa. Imaging of live, intact colonies by confocal laser scanning microscopy and of fixed, sectioned colonies by light microscopy revealed that at 2 kPa O(2) the uppermost bacteria in the colony were very near the upper surface of the colony, while the uppermost bacteria of colonies cultured at 20 kPa O(2) were positioned deeper in the mucilaginous matrix of the colony. Disruption of colony structure by physical manipulation or due to 'slumping' associated with colony development resulted in significant declines in nitrogenase activity. These results support the hypothesis that G. diazotrophicus utilizes the path-length of colony mucilage between the atmosphere and the bacteria to achieve a flux of O(2) that maintains aerobic respiration while not inhibiting nitrogenase activity. PMID:12177323

  2. Nutritional ecology of the Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): growth and survival of incipient colonies feeding on preferred wood species.

    PubMed

    Morales-Ramos, Juan A; Rojas, M Guadalupe

    2003-02-01

    The wood of 11 plant species was evaluated as a food source significantly impacting the growth and survival of incipient colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Colonies of C. formosanus feeding on pecan, Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.), and red gum, Liquidambar styraciflua L., produced significantly more progeny than colonies feeding on other wood species tested. Progeny of colonies feeding on pecan and American ash, Fraxinus americana L., had significantly greater survival than progeny of colonies feeding on other wood species. Colonies feeding on a nutritionally supplemented cellulose based matrix showed similar fitness characteristics as colonies feeding on the best wood treatments. These results indicate that differences observed in colony fitness can be partially explained by nutritional value of the food treatment, raising the possibility that wood from different tree species have different nutritional values to the Formosan subterranean termites. Colonies feeding on loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., and ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Laws., had significantly lower survival and produced significantly fewer workers and soldiers than colonies feeding on other wood species. Colony survival from 90 to 180 d of age and from 90 to 360 d of age was significantly correlated with the number of workers present at 90 d of colony age, indicating that colony survival depends on the presence of workers. Wood consumption in a multiple-choice study was significantly correlated with colony fitness value. This suggests that feeding preference of C. formosanus is at least partially influenced by the nutritional value of the food source. PMID:12650352

  3. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and reproductive medicine: A review

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcante, Marcelo Borges; Costa, Fabrício DA Silva; Barini, Ricardo; Júnior, Edward Araujo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recently, the use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been proposed to improve pregnancy outcomes in reproductive medicine. Objective: A systematic review of the current use of G-CSF in patients who have difficulty conceiving and maintaining pregnancy was performed. Materials and Methods: Two electronic databases (PubMed/ Medline and Scopus) were searched. Study selection, data extraction and quality assessment were performed in duplicate. The subject codes used were granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, G-CSF, recurrent miscarriage, IVF failure, and endometrium. Results: The search of electronic databases resulted in 215 citations (PubMed/ Medline: 139 and Scopus: 76), of which 38 were present in both databases. Of the remaining 177 publications, seven studies were included in the present review. Conclusion: Treatment with G-CSF is a novel proposal for immune therapy in patients with recurrent miscarriage and implantation failure following cycles of IVF. However, a larger number of well-designed studies are required for this treatment to be established.

  4. Modeling the role of water in Bacillus subtilis colonies.

    PubMed

    Mezanges, X; Regeard, C; Gerin, C; Deroulers, C; Grammaticos, B; Badoual, M

    2012-04-01

    We propose a simple cellular automaton model for the description of the evolution of a colony of Bacillus subtilis. The originality of our model lies in the fact that the bacteria can move in a pool of liquid. We assume that each migrating bacterium is surrounded by an individual pool, and the overlap of the latter gives rise to a collective pool with a higher water level. The bacteria migrate collectively when the level of water is high enough. When the bacteria are far enough from each other, the level of water becomes locally too low to allow migration, and the bacteria switch to a proliferating state. The proliferation-to-migration switch is triggered by high levels of a substance produced by proliferating bacteria. We show that it is possible to reproduce in a fairly satisfactory way the various forms that make up the experimentally observed morphological diagram of B. subtilis. We propose a phenomenological relation between the size of the water pool used in our model and the agar concentration of the substrate on which the bacteria migrate. We also compare experimental results from cutting the central part of the colony with the results of our simulations. PMID:22680504

  5. Opinions from the front lines of cat colony management conflict.

    PubMed

    Peterson, M Nils; Hartis, Brett; Rodriguez, Shari; Green, Matthew; Lepczyk, Christopher A

    2012-01-01

    Outdoor cats represent a global threat to terrestrial vertebrate conservation, but management has been rife with conflict due to differences in views of the problem and appropriate responses to it. To evaluate these differences we conducted a survey of opinions about outdoor cats and their management with two contrasting stakeholder groups, cat colony caretakers (CCCs) and bird conservation professionals (BCPs) across the United States. Group opinions were polarized, for both normative statements (CCCs supported treating feral cats as protected wildlife and using trap neuter and release [TNR] and BCPs supported treating feral cats as pests and using euthanasia) and empirical statements. Opinions also were related to gender, age, and education, with females and older respondents being less likely than their counterparts to support treating feral cats as pests, and females being less likely than males to support euthanasia. Most CCCs held false beliefs about the impacts of feral cats on wildlife and the impacts of TNR (e.g., 9% believed feral cats harmed bird populations, 70% believed TNR eliminates cat colonies, and 18% disagreed with the statement that feral cats filled the role of native predators). Only 6% of CCCs believed feral cats carried diseases. To the extent the beliefs held by CCCs are rooted in lack of knowledge and mistrust, rather than denial of directly observable phenomenon, the conservation community can manage these conflicts more productively by bringing CCCs into the process of defining data collection methods, defining study/management locations, and identifying common goals related to caring for animals. PMID:22970269

  6. One Giant Leap: How Insects Achieved Altruism and Colonial Life

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Edward O. Wilson (Harvard University; )

    2008-01-01

    This peer reviewed article from the January 2008 issue of BioScience examines the origin of altruism leading to eusociality in Hymenoptera. The advanced colonial state of eusociality has evolved in insects as a defense of nest sites within foraging distance of persistent food sources. In the Hymenoptera, the final step in the approach to eusociality is through a suite of preadaptations comprising simultaneous provisioning, fidelity to the nest, and a preexisting propensity toward dominance behavior and the selection of tasks according to opportunity. The only genetic change needed to cross the threshold to the eusocial grade is the foundress's possession of an allele that holds the foundress and her offspring to the nest. The preadaptations provide the phenotypic flexibility required for eusociality, as well as the key emergent traits arising from interactions of the group members. Group (colony-level) selection then immediately acts on both of these traits. The rarity of the origin of eusociality is evidently due to the rarity of the combination of progressive provisioning with environments of the kind that give an edge to group selection over individual direct selection, causing offspring to stay at the natal nest rather than disperse. Several lines of evidence, examined here, suggest that collateral kin selection does not play a significant role.

  7. Crystal violet staining of Bordetella bronchiseptica colonies for differentiation of phase-I strains from variant strains in degraded phases.

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, H; Isayama, Y

    1997-01-01

    After 2 days of growth on Brain heart infusion agar (BHIA) at 38 degrees C, phase-I colonies and degraded-phase colonies of Bordetella bronchiseptica could be differentiated by their ability to take up crystal violet (CV). Phase-I colonies in X mode, but not colonies in degraded phases (phases II, III, and rough) bound CV. Phenotypically-altered C-mode colonies (grown at 32 degrees C or lower temperatures) also lacked this ability. CV staining offers an easy method for the recognition of different colony types that appear identical when observed on BHIA. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:9243005

  8. Influence of fire on black-tailed prairie dog colony expansion in shortgrass steppe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Augustine, D.J.; Cully, J.F., Jr.; Johnson, T.L.

    2007-01-01

    Factors influencing the distribution and abundance of black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies are of interest to rangeland managers because of the significant influence prairie dogs can exert on both livestock and biodiversity. We examined the influence of 4 prescribed burns and one wildfire on the rate and direction of prairie dog colony expansion in shortgrass steppe of southeastern Colorado. Our study was conducted during 2 years with below-average precipitation, when prairie dog colonies were expanding throughout the study area. Under these dry conditions, the rate of black-tailed prairie dog colony expansion into burned grassland (X?? = 2.6 ha??100-m perimeter-1??y-1; range = 0.8-5.9 ha??100-m perimeter-1??y-1; N = 5 colonies) was marginally greater than the expansion rate into unburned grassland (X?? =1.3 ha??100-m perimeter-1??y-1; range = 0.2-4.9 ha??100-m perimeter-1??y-1; N = 23 colonies; P = 0.066). For 3 colonies that were burned on only a portion of their perimeter, we documented consistently high rates of expansion into the adjacent burned grassland (38%-42% of available burned habitat colonized) but variable expansion rates into the adjacent unburned grassland (2%-39% of available unburned habitat colonized). While our results provide evidence that burning can increase colony expansion rate even under conditions of low vegetative structure, this effect was minor at the scale of the overall colony complex because some unburned colonies were also able to expand at high rates. This result highlights the need to evaluate effects of fire on colony expansion during above-average rainfall years, when expansion into unburned grassland may be considerably lower.

  9. Quantitative colony method for tumorigenic cells transformed by two distinct strains of Friend leukemia virus

    PubMed Central

    Mager, Dixie L.; Mak, Tak W.; Bernstein, Alan

    1981-01-01

    An in vitro colony method capable of detecting spleen cells malignantly transformed by Friend leukemia virus is described. These colony-forming cells, which form large erythroid colonies (104-105 cells) in methylcellulose, can be detected late after infection with either the anemia-inducing (FV-A) or polycythemia-inducing (FV-P) isolates of Friend virus. Colony formation by these cells is dependent only on fetal calf serum as an exogeneous growth factor. The presence of these colony-forming cells in FV-P-infected spleens could not be detected until at least 3 weeks after virus infection, even though the most rapid increase in spleen weight occurred earlier, between 1 and 2 weeks after infection. Thereafter, the numbers of colony-forming cells increased sharply up to 5 weeks after infection with FV-P, beyond which time the mice generally did not survive. After infection with FV-A, colony-forming cells were detected only at 8-12 weeks and their numbers generally increased thereafter. Permanent cell lines were established from a significant fraction of FV-P and FV-A-induced colonies, and these cell lines could be chemically induced to synthesize hemoglobin. All individual colonies produced complete Friend virus complex. However, virus production appeared to decline in at least some cell lines. Both FV-P- and FV-A-induced colonies contained cells capable of forming spleen colonies in irradiated recipients and subcutaneous tumors in unirradiated mice. Thus, the assay method described here appears to detect a unique class of malignant Friend virus-transformed cells that can be detected only in the advanced stages of Friend virus-induced erythroleukemia. Images PMID:6940184

  10. Prophet, Priest and King in Colonial Africa: Anglican and Colonial Political Responses to African Independent Churches in Nigeria and Kenya, 1918-1960 

    E-print Network

    Higgins, Thomas Winfield

    2010-11-26

    Many African Independent Churches emerged during the colonial era in central Kenya and western Nigeria. At times they were opposed by government officials and missionaries. Most scholars have limited the field of enquiry to the flash...

  11. The relevance of the Mediterranean Region to colonial waterbird conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is the largest partially enclosed sea in the world and provides habitat to more than 100 species of waterbirds from the Palearctic-North African-Middle Eastern regions. Even though the Mediterranean suffers from pollution, has little tidal influence, and is oligotrophic, more than half of the western Palearctic populations of numerous waterfowl species winter in the region. Thirty-three species of colonial waterbirds breed along the 46,000 km Mediterranean coastline with nine species considered threatened or endangered, mostly because of wetland loss and degradation. The long history of human activity and scientific investigations in the region has taught some valuable lessons. In the area of colonial waterbird biology and conservation, we have learned important lessons about the value of long-term monitoring and research on selected populations. From marking studies of Greater Flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber roseus) and Little Egrets (Egretta garzetta) results have been used to derive useful information about metapopulation dynamics. Involvement of both African and European biologists allowed year-round Studies of these species that yielded valuable spin-offs for training in avian and wetland conservation. We have also learned the value of man-made wetlands as feeding and nesting sites for some colonial waterbirds. Careful evaluations of the habitat quality of different types of wetlands are required, as in contaminant levels such as lead shot and pesticides. Wetland conservationists have also learned from some instructive mistakes. Dam construction and agricultural incentive programs sponsored by the European Community, the World Bank, and others from the past have largely ignored impacts on wetlands and wildlife. In some areas, economic ventures such as aquaculture operations and salt mining have not involved waterbird habitat needs in their planning. Research and conservation needs include: (1) establishing regional monitoring programs and data banks for seabirds, wading birds, ducks, and geese; (2) implementing a wetland inventory for many Countries with little quantitative data on wetlands; (3) improving habitat quality assessments; (4) improving relationships with industry, the private citizenry, and government officials to further an appreciation for the value of wetlands and waterbirds; (5) enhancing training efforts, especially in underdeveloped Countries; (6) evaluating the effects of hunting and other disturbances to nesting and feeding waterbirds in different regions; (7) setting up 'sister-reserve' (twinned) sites in Europe and Africa to foster international linkages and training; and (8) fostering local-regional conservation programs to preserve reed beds, wet woodlots, and other key habitats.

  12. Self-organizing pattern formation on the combs of honey bee colonies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott Camazine

    1991-01-01

    Summary A characteristic pattern of brood, pollen, and honey develops on the combs of a honey bee colony, consisting of three distinct concentric regions — a central brood area, a surrounding rim of pollen, and a large peripheral region of honey. That the pattern is consistent and well-organized suggests its adaptive value for the colony, yet the mechanism of pattern

  13. Insulin signaling is involved in the regulation of worker division of labor in honey bee colonies

    E-print Network

    Robinson, Gene E.

    Insulin signaling is involved in the regulation of worker division of labor in honey bee colonies novel regulation of conserved genes. Age-related division of labor in honey bee colonies, a highly), but this idea has only recently begun to be tested for behavior (3, 4). Age-related division of labor in honey

  14. Hydrocarbons emitted by waggle-dancing honey bees stimulate colony foraging activity by causing experienced

    E-print Network

    Hydrocarbons emitted by waggle-dancing honey bees stimulate colony foraging activity by causing. INTRODUCTION The waggle dance is a pattern of movement performed by successful honey bee foragers within the nest to recruit colony mates to forage on a profitable food source. This honey bee "dance language

  15. Colony state and regulation of pollen foraging in the honey bee, Apis mellifera L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer H. Fewell; Mark L. Winston

    1992-01-01

    To place social insect foraging behavior within an evolutionary context, it is necessary to establish relationships between individual foraging decisions and parameters influencing colony fitness. To address this problem, we examined interactions between individual foraging behavior and pollen storage levels in the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. Colonies responded to low pollen storage conditions by increasing pollen intake rates 54%

  16. Egg-laying, egg-removal, and ovary development by workers in queenright honey bee colonies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francis L. W. Ratnieks

    1993-01-01

    Summary The study investigates whether worker policing via the selective removal of worker-laid male eggs occurs in normal honey bee colonies with a queen. Queenright honey bee colonies were set up with the queen below a queen excluder. Frames of worker brood and drone comb were placed above the queen excluder. Daily inspections of the drone frames revealed the presence

  17. Colony social structure in native and invasive populations of the social wasp Vespula pensylvanica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanna, Cause; Cook, Erin D.; Thompson, Ariel R.; Dare, Lyndzey E.; Palaski, Amanda L.; Foote, David; Goodisman, Michael A. D.

    2014-01-01

    Social insects rank among the most invasive of terrestrial species. The success of invasive social insects stems, in part, from the flexibility derived from their social behaviors. We used genetic markers to investigate if the social system of the invasive wasp, Vespula pensylvanica, differed in its introduced and native habitats in order to better understand variation in social phenotype in invasive social species. We found that (1) nestmate workers showed lower levels of relatedness in introduced populations than native populations, (2) introduced colonies contained workers produced by multiple queens whereas native colonies contained workers produced by only a single queen, (3) queen mate number did not differ significantly between introduced and native colonies, and (4) workers from introduced colonies were frequently produced by queens that originated from foreign nests. Thus, overall, native and introduced colonies differed substantially in social phenotype because introduced colonies more frequently contained workers produced by multiple, foreign queens. In addition, the similarity in levels of genetic variation in introduced and native habitats, as well as observed variation in colony social phenotype in native populations, suggest that colony structure in invasive populations may be partially associated with social plasticity. Overall, the differences in social structure observed in invasive V. pensylvanica parallel those in other, distantly related invasive social insects, suggesting that insect societies often develop similar social phenotypes upon introduction into new habitats.

  18. Musical Acculturation through Primary School Activities during Japanese Colonial Rule of Korea (1910-1945)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jeong Ha

    2014-01-01

    Global colonialism and continuing post-colonial influences caused widespread cultural change at the interface of different cultures. Musical acculturation can be observed in most colonised countries. Some pro-colonialists apologetically allege that through colonisation the colonised territories would receive developmental aid and economical…

  19. Affirmative Action and Education in Fiji: Legitimation, Contestation, and Colonial Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Carmen M.

    2001-01-01

    As in the United States, affirmative action policies in Fiji were intended to correct past injustices. However, their proponents' use of colonial discourse fails to acknowledge the historical roots of the lower educational attainment of Fijians, which is a legacy of colonial policies. (SK)

  20. absconding behaviour of colonies [7], as well as on drifting [unpublished data] and

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    and debrooded. The ratio of worker/drone cell construction and the sex of laying worker offspring were drone cells. Hybrid colonies produced either both cell types or only worker cells according to the mode of laying worker reproduction. In all colonies where laying workers produced male offspring drone cell

  1. Colony composition and specialized predation on millipedes in the enigmatic ponerine ant genus Probolomyrmex (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Ito

    1998-01-01

    Summary: Colonies of Probolomyrmex dammermani Wheeler were collected in West Java, Indonesia. The nests contained a few millipedes of the family Polyxenidae, all of which were completely divested of their covering setae. Laboratory experiments showed that the ants fed only on polyxenids. The following bionomic characteristics were also noted: colony size was small (14 workers on average; range 8-21) with

  2. The Power of Social Theory: The Anti-Colonial Discursive Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sefa Dei, George J.; Asgharzadeh, Alireza

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the anti-colonial discourse as a guiding framework for forming alliances and partnerships among anti-oppression activists in academia and the larger society. Asserts that the anti-colonial discourse seeks to reclaim a new independent space strongly connected to other theories, such as Marxist, feminist, and deconstructionist. Describes…

  3. An Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm for the 2D HP Protein Folding Problem

    E-print Network

    Hoos, Holger H.

    An Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm for the 2D HP Protein Folding Problem Alena Shmygelska, Rosal, the two dimensional hydrophobic-polar (2D HP) protein folding problem. We introduce an ant colony algorithm closely approaches that of specialised, state-of-the methods for 2D HP protein folding. 1

  4. Use of Vanishing Bearings to Locate New Wading Bird Colonies JAMES K. KENYON

    E-print Network

    Herons (Ardea herodias) as they depart coastal foraging sites to determine the number and location.--vanishing bearings, colony location, Great Blue Heron, Ardea herodias, wading birds, colonial nesting. Waterbirds 29 Blue Herons (Ardea herodias) using vanishing bearings observed from coastal foraging sites in British

  5. LANDSCAPE INFLUENCE ON THE QUALITY OF HERON AND EGRET COLONY SITES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John P. Kelly; Diana Stralberg; Katie Etienne; Mark McCaustland

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated landscape associations related to heron and egret colony site selection and the productivity of successful great blue heron (Ardea herodias) and great egret (Ardea alba) nests. The study was based on annual observations (1991-2005) at 45 colony sites known to be active within 10 km of historic tidal marshes of northern San Francisco Bay. The analyses focuse do

  6. Determinants of local recruitment in a growing colony of Audouin's gull

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Oro; Roger Pradel

    2000-01-01

    Summary 1. Local recruitment of Audouin's gull (Larus audouinii Payraudeau) was studied between 1988 and 1997 at the Ebro Delta colony (north-western Mediterranean). Since its establishment in 1981, the colony has dramatically grown to include, in 1997, 65% of the total world population. Several hypotheses were tested, involving the eÄects of a badger predatory event in 1994, and sex, age

  7. Benjamin Franklin's Pictorial Representations of the British Colonies in America: A Study in Rhetorical Iconology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lester C.

    1987-01-01

    Investigates the underlying reasons for the fundamental shift in Benjamin Franklin's portrayals of the British colonies in America. Explores the hypothesis that "Magna Britannia" was both a deliberative work directed toward the British Parliament and an apologetic work directed toward conservatives in the colonial public. Also discusses Franklin's…

  8. Responses to human intruders by birds nesting in colonies: Experimental results and management guidelines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    Colonies of nesting wading birds and seabirds were studied at coastal sites in Virginia and North Carolina to determine distances at which birds flushed in response to human intrusion. There were few statistically significant relationships between flushing distances and colony size. Similarly, there were few differences between responses during incubation compared to post-hatching periods.

  9. Effects of duration of larval swimming period on early colony development in Bugula stolonifera (Bryozoa: Cheilostomata)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Woollacott; J. A. Pechenik; K. M. Imbalzano

    1989-01-01

    Laboratory experiments with larvae of the cheilostome bryozoan Bugula stolonifera Ryland, 1960 assessed the time to settlement in the presence of a constantly available polystryrene substrate, the development of competence for metamorphosis, and the effects of the duration of swimming period on early colony development. Sexually mature colonies of B. stolonifera were collected on 11 and 18 September 1987; 2

  10. Colonialism, imprisonment, and contamination in French Guyana: Leon-Gontran Damas's \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillermo Antonio Rivera

    2006-01-01

    Cultural identity in French Guyana rests on an amalgam of racial and social issues shaped by colonialism. The prison established there by the colonial government serves as a locus for reflection and contestation of these complexities. Drawing on postcolonial approaches to slavery, race, and history, I analyze how Damas (1937) and Chamoiseau (1994) each represent and interrogate the prison along

  11. P Colonies Working in the Maximally Parallel and in the Sequential Mode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rudolf Freund; Marion Oswald

    2005-01-01

    We consider P colonies as introduced in (4) and investigate their computational power when working in the maximally parallel and in the sequential mode. It turns out that there is a trade-obetween max- imal parallelism and checking programs: Using checking programs (i.e., priorities on the communicaton rules in the programs of the agents), P colonies working in the sequential mode

  12. Ant Colony Optimization and its Application to Boolean Satisfiability for Digital VLSI Circuits

    E-print Network

    Parashar, Manish

    Ant Colony Optimization and its Application to Boolean Satisfiability for Digital VLSI Circuits and Computer Engineering Dept., Rutgers University Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA Abstract Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) [8] is a non- deterministic algorithm framework that mimics the forag- ing behavior of ants

  13. OUTBREAK OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM FELIS AND GIARDIA DUODENALIS ASSEMBLAGE F IN A CAT COLONY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eighteen cats, 3 to 6 mo of age, bred and housed in a closed colony, were transferred from that colony and placed in separate stainless steel cages in a building designed for housing animals. At daily intervals, feces were collected from the litter pans in each cage, cages were cleaned, and fresh fo...

  14. Colonial Psychiatry, Magic and Religion. The Case of Mesmerism in British India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Waltraud Ernst

    2004-01-01

    This article is concerned with the development of early nineteenth-century Western medicine and psychiatry in relation to religion and magic during British colonial rule in India. The case of mesmerism is taken to illustrate that ‘colonial medicine\\/psychiatry in India’ itself was plural in nature, being made up of a variety of different, at times competing, strands. Religious connotations and references

  15. Landscape effects on black-tailed prairie dog colonies Whitney C. Johnsona,

    E-print Network

    Collinge, Sharon K.

    Landscape effects on black-tailed prairie dog colonies Whitney C. Johnsona, *, Sharon K. Collingeb 2003 Abstract Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) increasingly compete for available on prairie dog colonies are unknown, we studied how land- scape context affects prairie dog density

  16. An efficient Bee Colony Optimization algorithm for Traveling Salesman Problem using frequency-based pruning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li-Pei Wong; Malcolm Yoke Hean Low; Chin Soon Chong

    2009-01-01

    In a bee colony, bees perform waggle dance in order to communicate the information of food source to their hive mates. This foraging behaviour has been adapted in a bee colony optimization (BCO) algorithm together with 2-opt local search to solve the traveling salesman problem (TSP). To reduce the high overhead incurred by 2-opt in the BCO algorithm proposed previously,

  17. Seasonal inconsistencies in the relationship between honey bee longevity in field colonies and laboratory cages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Honey bee longevity during winter might be improved through selective breeding. Measuring winter longevity in field colonies is difficult and might be accomplished using laboratory cages. Hence, The relationship between honey bee longevity in field colonies and laboratory cages was investigated. T...

  18. Simulating the Effects of Predation and Egg-harvest at a Gull Colony

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephani Zador; John F. Piatt

    We developed an individual-based simulation model to explore the effects of harvesting eggs from a glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens) colony that also experiences egg loss from avian predators. The model has direct application to Glacier Bay National Park, where resource managers are interested in the potential effects of traditional harvesting of gull eggs at colonies within the park. This model

  19. Cooperative wasp-killing by mixed-species colonies of honeybees, Apis cerana and Apis mellifera

    E-print Network

    Cooperative wasp-killing by mixed-species colonies of honeybees, Apis cerana and Apis mellifera Ken-species colonies of honeybees, Apis cerana and Apis mellifera, were tested against a predatory wasp, Vespa velutina. When vespine wasps hawk honeybees at their nest entrances, the difference in the numbers of bees

  20. vol. 152, no. 3 the american naturalist september 1998 Colony Size and Individual Fitness in the

    E-print Network

    Avilés, Leticia

    vol. 152, no. 3 the american naturalist september 1998 Colony Size and Individual Fitness should result in higher individual fitness among social thanabstract: The effects of colony size on individual fitness and its components were investigated in artificially established and natural among

  1. DRONE PRODUCTION BY YOUNG VERSUS OLD WORKER HONEYBEES IN QUEENLESS COLONIES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    DRONE PRODUCTION BY YOUNG VERSUS OLD WORKER HONEYBEES IN QUEENLESS COLONIES Keith S. DELAPLANE John & Physiology Research 1157 Ben Hur Rd. Baton Rouge, LA 70820 USA SUMMARY Drone production between 2 groups workers produced a much higher proportion of drones in 3 of 6 the test colonies than did the old workers

  2. FACTORS AFFECTING THE ACCEPTANCE OF FOREIGN DRONES INTO HONEY BEE (APIS MELLIFERA L.) COLONIES

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    FACTORS AFFECTING THE ACCEPTANCE OF FOREIGN DRONES INTO HONEY BEE (APIS MELLIFERA L.) COLONIES R SUMMARY Studies on drone management could aid in honey bee breeding programs by improving the efficiency and quality of mating. In this study the effects of introducing foreign drones into honey bee colonies were

  3. Improved implementation of brain MRI image segmentation using Ant Colony System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Karnan; T. Logheshwari

    2010-01-01

    Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) metaheuristic is a recent population-based approach inspired by the observation of real ants colony and based upon their collective foraging behavior. In This paper, the proposed technique ACO hybrid with Fuzzy segmentation. In the first step, the MRI brain image is Segmented Aco Hybrid with Fuzzy method to extract the suspicious region. In the second step

  4. Hybrid Ant Colony Optimization Using Memetic Algorithm for Traveling Salesman Problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haibin Duan; Xiufen Yu

    2007-01-01

    Ant colony optimization was originally presented under the inspiration during collective behavior study results on real ant system, and it has strong robustness and easy to combine with other methods in optimization. Although ant colony optimization for the heuristic solution of hard combinational optimization problems enjoy a rapidly growing popularity, but little research is conducted on the optimum configuration strategy

  5. Optimal Capacitor Placement in Distribution Systems Employing Ant Colony Search Algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ching-Tzong Su; Chung-Fu Chang; Ji-Pyng Chiou

    2005-01-01

    This article introduces an ant colony search algorithm (ACSA) to solve the optimal capacitor placement problem. This ACSA is a relatively new meta-heuristic for solving hard combinational optimization problems. It is a population-based approach that uses exploration of positive feedback as well as greedy search. The ACSA was inspired from the natural behavior of the ant colonies on how they

  6. Reconfigurable Parallel Processing System Based on A Modified Ant Colony Algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. Saad; M. El Adawy; H. A. Keshk; S. M. Habashy

    2006-01-01

    Ant colony optimization is an evolutionary approach where a number of ants search for good solutions. Ant Algorithms often show good optimization results. This paper, discusses number of algorithms built using modified ant colony algorithm which are used to solve the problem of assigning each task in a given task graph to a processor in a reconfigurable multi processor architecture

  7. Generalized pheromone update for Ant Colony Learning in continuous state spaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jelmer van Ast; Robert Babuska; Bart De Schutter

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the Ant Colony Learning (ACL) paradigm for non-linear systems with continuous state spaces. ACL is a novel control policy learning methodology, based on Ant Colony Optimization. In ACL, a collection of agents, called ants, jointly interact with the system at hand in order to find the optimal mapping between states and actions. Through the stigmergic

  8. Ant colony optimization for routing and load-balancing: survey and new directions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kwang Mong Sim; Weng Hong Sun

    2003-01-01

    Although an ant is a simple creature, collectively a colony of ants performs useful tasks such as finding the shortest path to a food source and sharing this information with other ants by depositing pheromone. In the field of ant colony optimization (ACO), models of collective intelligence of ants are transformed into useful optimization techniques that find applications in computer

  9. Biological constraints and colony founding in the polygynous invasive ant Lasius neglectus (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Espadaler; S. Rey

    2001-01-01

    Summary. The polygynous invasive ant Lasius neglectus was described from Budapest, Hungary, as an unicolonial species, with no apparent colony barriers, and inferred intra-nidal mating without a nuptial flight. Here we analyze additional morphological characteristics of gynes, their physiological condition at emergence and at the time of mating and we describe the productivity of different types of colony founding in

  10. OCCURRENCE AND HABITAT CHARACTERISTICS OF BURROWING OWL NESTS IN GUNNISON'S PRAIRIE DOG COLONIES

    E-print Network

    Beier, Paul

    OCCURRENCE AND HABITAT CHARACTERISTICS OF BURROWING OWL NESTS IN GUNNISON'S PRAIRIE DOG COLONIES Because Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia) often nest in colonies of prairie dogs (Cynomys sp.), recent declines of Gunnison's prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni) could adversely affect this owl, considered

  11. A modified Artificial Bee Colony algorithm for real-parameter optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bahriye Akay; Dervis Karaboga

    2010-01-01

    Swarm intelligence is a research field that models the collective intelligence in swarms of insects or animals. Many algorithms that simulates these models have been proposed in order to solve a wide range of problems. The Artificial Bee Colony algorithm is one of the most recent swarm intelligence based algorithms which simulates the foraging behaviour of honey bee colonies. In

  12. On the Analysis of Performance of the Improved Artificial-Bee-Colony Algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haiyan Quan; Xinling Shi

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces an improved artificial colony algorithm. In the algorithm, a new search iteration operator based on the fixed point theorem of Contractive Mapping in Banach Spaces is proposed. In this work, the improved artificial colony algorithm is used to 10 multivariable benchmark functions. The simulation results show that the algorithm possesses an excellent performance in the global optimization,

  13. Cephalodella edax. sp. nov. A rotifer parasitic in the motile colonial alga Uroglena volvox Ehrenberg

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric D. Hollowday

    1993-01-01

    A monogonont rotifer found parasitizing colonies of the motile alga Uroglena volvox Ehrenberg in two north English lakes is described as a new species. Diagnostic taxonomic details are given together with remarks on other rotifers known to occur in motile colonies of algae.

  14. Ant colony algorithm in MANET-local link repairing of AODV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jyoti Jain; Roopam Gupta; T. K. Bandhopadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is the latest application of telecommunication. This is one of the most innovative and challenging area of wireless networking. Ant Colony Algorithm has been used in Mobile Network since long because of isomorphism between them. Pheromone graph and stigmergic architecture of ant colony algorithm are comparable with structure & constraints of communication network. Most of

  15. Colony site selection and abandonment by least terns Sterna antillarum in New Jersey, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kotliar, Natasha B.; Burger, Joanna

    1986-01-01

    To develop habitat and management procedures to protect declining populations of least terns, colony site selection and abandonment by this species was investigated at 26 sites in New Jersey. Multivariate analysis was used to compare (1) colony sites to adjacent unused areas, (2) those located on beaches to dredge spoil sites and (3) abandoned to occupied colony sites. The presence of shells or pebbles in a sandy substrate, and short, sparse vegetation, were the habitat characteristics of New Jersey least tern colony sites most strongly correlated with colony site selection. Dredge spoil sites had significantly greater evidence of human disturbance, distance to water, and proportion of coarse particles in the substrate than beach sites. These differences may have contributed to the smaller colonines and greater colony turnover rates at spoil sites relative to beach sites. Overall, abandoned colony site characteristics did not differ significantly from occupied sites. However, human disturbance, over-growth of vegetation, predation, and flooding were all prevalent at colonies prior to abandonment. The results of this study suggest techniques for habitat management of both least and little terns.

  16. Papillation in Bacillus anthracis colonies: a tool for finding new mutatorsmmi_7519 1..18

    E-print Network

    Nizet, Victor

    Papillation in Bacillus anthracis colonies: a tool for finding new mutatorsmmi_7519 1..18 Hanjing and Pharmaceutical Sciences, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA. Summary Colonies of Bacillus anthracis Sterne allow the growth as a new muta- tional analysis system for B. anthracis. The muta- tional specificity of the new mutator yyc

  17. The origins and relatedness of multiple reproductives in colonies of the termite Nasutitermes corniger

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, L.; Adams, E. S.

    1997-01-01

    Colonies of the termite Nasutitermes corniger often contain multiple reproductive queens and kings. We used double-strand conformation polymorphism (DSCP) analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to determine the probable origins of co-occurring reproductives. Colonies differed in queen and king number, in the number of nests containing reproductives, and in the genetic relationships among reproductives. Most of the 44 colonies contained a single pair of maternally unrelated reproductives. In the two single-nest colonies with a pair of queens, the two queens differed in mtDNA haplotype, suggesting nest-founding by unrelated queens. In the seven single-nest colonies with larger numbers of reproductives (11–49), all reproductives shared the same haplotype, a pattern consistent with replacement of a single pair by several offspring. As predicted by theory, the number of coexisting queens was greater for replacement reproductives than for co-foundresses. Several complex colonies contained multiple queens of two or more haplotypes distributed among several interconnected nests. This indicates that several matrilines can persist within a colony through one or more generations of budding and replacement, a hypothesis confirmed by orphaning experiments. The various modes of termite colony formation rival the diversity seen in ant species and demonstrate the remarkable convergence of behaviours between the two groups.

  18. Queen Replacement in African and European Honey Bee Colonies with and without Afterswarms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the dynamics of the queen replacement process in African and European colonies that did and did not produce afterswarms. If colonies did not produce afterswarms, the queen replacement process was completed in 24-48 hours, the first-emerging virgin queen (VQ) typically inherited the nata...

  19. Engaging Diversity in Teaching Religion and Theology: An Intercultural, De-Colonial Epistemic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andraos, Michel Elias

    2012-01-01

    This essay explores new ways of engaging diversity in the production of knowledge in the classroom using coloniality as an analytical lens. After briefly engaging some of the recent literature on coloniality, focusing on the epistemic dimension, the author uses the example of teaching a course on religion, culture, and theology, where he employs…

  20. Identity and Sense of Belonging in Post-Colonial Education in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuah-Pearce, Khun Eng; Fong, Yiu-Chak

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the construction of local and national identities among secondary school students in post-colonial Hong Kong. As a Chinese society that has undergone a prolonged period of British colonial rule, the reunification of capitalist Hong Kong with the motherland under socialism in 1997 has set the context for a negotiation of…

  1. Number of honeybee colonies in areas with high and low beekeeping activity in Southern Mexico

    E-print Network

    Chittka, Lars

    Number of honeybee colonies in areas with high and low beekeeping activity in Southern Mexico Robin ­ The number of colonies in feral and managed honeybee populations (Apis mellifera) was determined for various sampling locations in Chiapas and Yucatan (Mexico) to assess the impact of apiculture on feral honeybee

  2. Honeybee Colony Integration: Worker-Worker Interactions Mediate Hormonally Regulated Plasticity in Division of Labor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhi-Yong Huang; Gene E. Robinson

    1992-01-01

    Adult workers in honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies exhibit plasticity in hormonally regulated, age-based division of labor by altering their pattern of behavioral development in response to changes in colony conditions. One form of this plasticity is precocious development: levels of juvenile hormone increase prematurely and bees begin foraging as much as 2 weeks earlier than average. We used two experimental

  3. Precise Assessment of the Number of Patrilines and of Genetic Relatedness in Honeybee Colonies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnaud Estoup; Michel Solignac; Jean-Marie Cornuet

    1994-01-01

    Sociobiologists have long sought to estimate precisely the relatedness among members of social insect colonies because of the central significance of kinship in evolutionary and behavioural studies. By using microsatellites, we directly identified the 7-20 subfamilies (patrilines) present in five honeybee colonies belonging to three different subspecies (Apis mellifera mellifera, A. m. carnica and A. m. ligustica). By focusing further

  4. Social foraging by honeybees: how colonies allocate foragers among patches of flowers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas D. Seeley

    1986-01-01

    To understand how a colony of honeybees keeps its forager force focussed on rich sources of food, and analysis was made of how the individual foragers within a colony decide to abandon or continue working (and perhaps even recruit to) patches of flowers. A nectar forager grades her behavior toward a patch in response to both the nectar intake rate

  5. Institutionalising the Colonial Imagination: Chinese Middlemen and the Transnational Corporate Office in Jakarta, Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William H. Leggett

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork among transnational corporate employees—both expatriate and national—working in Jakarta, Indonesia, I examine the processes through which imagined markers of identity and difference, informed by Indonesia's colonial past, influenced corporate practices. In particular, I explore the persistence of colonial hierarchies within the corporate structure of a company (fictitiously) named TIMBER. I argue that TIMBER is not unique

  6. Colony Size of Phaeocystis Antarctica (Prymnesiophyceae) as Influenced by Zooplankton Grazers

    EPA Science Inventory

    The haptophyte Phaeocystis antarctica is a dominant phytoplankton species in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, and exists as solitary cells and mucilaginous colonies that differ by several orders of magnitude in size. Recent studies with P. globosa suggested that colony formation and enl...

  7. Fluorescent in situ sequencing on polymerase colonies Robi D. Mitra,a,1

    E-print Network

    Church, George M.

    of enzyme during sequencing cycles. Next, we present two novel types of reversibly dye-labeled nucleotideFluorescent in situ sequencing on polymerase colonies Robi D. Mitra,a,1 Jay Shendure,a Jerzy isolation, amplification, and sequencing can be achieved by the use of polymerase colonies (polonies

  8. Research of Blocking Factor Combined with Improved Ant Colony Algorithm in VRP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liang Zhenqiu

    2011-01-01

    Traffic jams is a crucial factor that affect logistics costs and transportation time, therefore, this paper give the improved ant colony algorithm strategy in selection next node, comprehensive the length of the road and block coefficient when calculate, so that take into account the actual path length and time costs during transport. The results show that the improved ant colony

  9. Concentric spatial extension based particle swarm optimization inspired by brood sorting in ant colonies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junqi Zhang; Ying Tan; Xingui He

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a concentric spatial extension based particle swarm optimization (CSE-PSO) is proposed by combining the spatial extension with the brood sorting in ant colonies, which leads to a concentric spatial extension scheme for the PSO. The brood sorting in ant colonies endows the particles in PSO with different radii adaptively according their distances to the best position of

  10. Conflictos culturales y estrategias discursivas en dos textos de la América colonial hispana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gonzalo Abril

    Nueva crónica by Guamán Poma de Ayala and Rethorica Christiana by Diego de Valadés constitute politically opposite texts, while remaining both very representative of the cultural interactions and conflicts characteristic of the colonial context from which western universalism emerged. In Ayala numerous forms of discursive subversion can be recognized, as well as a protest defying both colonial wisdom and power

  11. Migration Trends in the Kansas Ogallala Region and the Internal Colonial Dependency Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Stephen E.

    1998-01-01

    Examines population change in the High Plains of western Kansas in terms of an internal colonialism-dependency model. Identifies a wide range of colonial dependent characteristics, including long-term population decline, high median age, highly channelized migration flows, and continuing outmigration of the region's most educated inhabitants.…

  12. Michel foucault and the coloniality of power Michel foucault e a colonialidade do poder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Santiago CaStro-gómez

    Contrary to most of the statements associated with postcolonial studies and to some versions of the modernity\\/coloniality perspective, this article argues for the relevance of a hierarchic theory of power, inspired by Foucault's lesser commonly read Lessons in the College of France, to understand the articulations along different planes of the modern\\/colonial world system.

  13. Overwintering colonies of German (Vespula germanica) and common wasps (Vespula vulgaris) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) in New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. Plunkett; H. Moller; B. K. Clapperton; C. D. Thomas

    1989-01-01

    Nests of both common (Vespula vulgaris) and German wasps (V. germanica) sometimes overwinter in New Zealand. Three overwintering common wasp colonies were found in low-altitude honeydew beech forest; about 2% of the colonies initiated there in 1988 survived the winter. Wasp traffic rates from nests in Nelson city and a nation wide survey of wasp abundance, showed that more German

  14. Effects of Colony Creation Method and Beekeeper Education on Honeybee ("Apis mellifera") Mortality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlay, J. Reed; Eborn, Benjamin; Jones, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    The two-part study reported here analyzed the effects of beekeeper education and colony creation methods on colony mortality. The first study examined the difference in hive mortality between hives managed by beekeepers who had received formal training in beekeeping with beekeepers who had not. The second study examined the effect on hive…

  15. Extrapulmonary colony formation after intravenous injection of tumour cells into heparin-treated animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Maat

    1978-01-01

    Recent data on extrapulmonary colony formation after heparin administration are inconclusive. A systematic study of this topic was undertaken with 4 experimental tumour systems and 2 distinct periods of reduced clotting capacity in rats and mice. I.v. injection of various numbers of tumour cells into i.p. heparinized animals leads to: (1) Significant reduction in the number of lung colonies. The

  16. Ant colony optimization combined with taboo search for the job shop scheduling problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuo-ling Huang; Ching-jong Liao

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a hybrid algorithm combining ant colony optimization algorithm with the taboo search algorithm for the classical job shop scheduling problem. Instead of using the conventional construction approach to construct feasible schedules, the proposed ant colony optimization algorithm employs a novel decomposition method inspired by the shifting bottleneck procedure, and a mechanism of occasional reoptimizations of

  17. Intra-colonial response to Acroporid ``white syndrome'' lesions in tabular Acropora spp. (Scleractinia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roff, G.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Fine, M.

    2006-05-01

    ‘White syndrome’ is considered to be the most prevalent coral disease on the Great Barrier Reef, characterised by rapid rates of lesion progression and high levels of colony mortality. This study investigated the production and translocation of photoassimilates towards white syndrome lesions (WSLs) and artificially inflicted lesions in healthy and diseased colonies of tabular Acropora spp. to determine the intra-colonial response to white syndrome using 14C labelling. Translocation of 14C labelled photoassimilates was preferentially orientated away from active WSLs, with minimal 14C activity observed in the lesion borders, whilst artificial lesions (ALs) created directly opposite WSL borders showed significantly higher 14C activity, suggesting active translocation of photoassimilates for tissue regeneration. Transport of photoassimilates in healthy coral colonies was preferentially oriented towards ALs with a higher perimeter-area ratio, although translocation towards WSL boundaries was minimal even though the lesion perimeter was often the width of the colony (>200 cm). We suggest that the preferential orientation of photoassimilates away from WSLs may represent a deliberate strategy by the colony to induce a ‘shutdown reaction’ in order to preserve intra-colonial resources within areas of the colony that are more likely to survive and recover.

  18. Factors affecting colony attendance by Ancient Murrelets (Synthliboramphus antiquus) IANL. JONES'

    E-print Network

    Jones, Ian L.

    Factors affecting colony attendance by Ancient Murrelets (Synthliboramphus antiquus) IANL. JONES., and FALLS,J. B. 1990. Factors affecting colony attendance by Ancient Murrelets (Synthliboram- phus antiquus- phus antiquus). Can. J. Zool. 68 : 433-441. Nous avons CtudiC les facteurs de variation de I

  19. How a ponerine ant acquired the most evolved mode of colony foundation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Dejean

    1998-01-01

    Summary: Founding queens of the ponerine ant Discothyrea oculata always install themselves in spider nests where both shelter and ample food permit their entire first brood to develop, while other Ponerinae repeatedly forage for prey. This evolved mode of founding colonies is nevertheless different from that of subfamilies with claustral colony founding (first generation nanitic workers developing from larvae fed

  20. Response of waterbird colonies in southern Louisiana to recent drought and hurricanes

    E-print Network

    Green, Clay - Department of Biology, Texas State University

    Response of waterbird colonies in southern Louisiana to recent drought and hurricanes P. L. Leberg1 colonial waterbirds; Hurricane Katrina; Hurricane Rita; climate change. Correspondence Paul L. Leberg-1795.2007.00141.x Abstract Although hurricanes have been implicated in causing shifts in waterbird use of individual

  1. RECRUITMENT AT A BLACK-BILLED GULL COLONY: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE INFORMATION CENTER HYPOTHESIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROGER M. EVANS

    The extent to which a flock leader advertises its departure from a colony and recruits flock mates is an important issue of the Information Center hypothesis. At a colony of Black-billed Gulls (Larus bulleri), I found that attractive calls were given by some leaders, that leaders called more often than followers, and that calling leaders recruited followers more often than

  2. A survey of managed honey bee colony losses in the USA, fall 2009 to winter 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study records the fourth consecutive year of high winter losses in managed honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies in the USA. Over the winter of 2009-2010, US beekeepers responding to this survey lost an average of 42.2% of their colonies, for a total loss of 34.4%. Commercial beekeepers (those op...

  3. Weight Watching and the Effect of Landscape on Honeybee Colony Productivity: Investigating the Value of Colony Weight Monitoring for the Beekeeping Industry

    PubMed Central

    Lecocq, Antoine; Kryger, Per; Vejsnæs, Flemming; Bruun Jensen, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few decades, a gradual departure away from traditional agricultural practices has resulted in alterations to the composition of the countryside and landscapes across Europe. In the face of such changes, monitoring the development and productivity of honey bee colonies from different sites can give valuable insight on the influence of landscape on their productivity and might point towards future directions for modernized beekeeping practices. Using data on honeybee colony weights provided by electronic scales spread across Denmark, we investigated the effect of the immediate landscape on colony productivity. In order to extract meaningful information, data manipulation was necessary prior to analysis as a result of different management regimes or scales malfunction. Once this was carried out, we were able to show that colonies situated in landscapes composed of more than 50% urban areas were significantly more productive than colonies situated in those with more than 50% agricultural areas or those in mixed areas. As well as exploring some of the potential reasons for the observed differences, we discuss the value of weight monitoring of colonies on a large scale. PMID:26147392

  4. Weight Watching and the Effect of Landscape on Honeybee Colony Productivity: Investigating the Value of Colony Weight Monitoring for the Beekeeping Industry.

    PubMed

    Lecocq, Antoine; Kryger, Per; Vejsnæs, Flemming; Bruun Jensen, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few decades, a gradual departure away from traditional agricultural practices has resulted in alterations to the composition of the countryside and landscapes across Europe. In the face of such changes, monitoring the development and productivity of honey bee colonies from different sites can give valuable insight on the influence of landscape on their productivity and might point towards future directions for modernized beekeeping practices. Using data on honeybee colony weights provided by electronic scales spread across Denmark, we investigated the effect of the immediate landscape on colony productivity. In order to extract meaningful information, data manipulation was necessary prior to analysis as a result of different management regimes or scales malfunction. Once this was carried out, we were able to show that colonies situated in landscapes composed of more than 50% urban areas were significantly more productive than colonies situated in those with more than 50% agricultural areas or those in mixed areas. As well as exploring some of the potential reasons for the observed differences, we discuss the value of weight monitoring of colonies on a large scale. PMID:26147392

  5. Characterisation of metachronal waves on the surface of the spherical colonial alga Volvox carteri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumley, Douglas; Polin, Marco; Morez, Constant; Goldstein, Raymond; Pedley, Timothy

    2012-02-01

    Volvox carteri is a spherical colonial alga, consisting of thousands of biflagellate cells. The somatic cells embedded on the surface of the colony beat their flagella in a coordinated fashion, producing a net fluid motion. Using high-speed imaging and particle image velocimetry (PIV) we have been able to accurately analyse the time-dependent flow fields around such colonies. The somatic cells on the colony surface may beat their flagella in a perfectly synchronised fashion, or may exhibit metachronal waves travelling on the surface. We analyse the dependence of this synchronisation on fundamental parameters in the system such as colony radius, characterise the speed and wavelength of the observed metachronal waves, and investigate possible models to account for the exhibited behaviour.

  6. Colony size as a buffer against seasonality: Bergmann's rule in social insects

    SciTech Connect

    Kaspari, M.; Vargo, E. (Lawrence Livermore Laboratories, CA (United States))

    1994-06-01

    In eusocial species, the size of the superorganism is the summed sizes of its component individuals. Bergmann's rule, the cline of decreasing size with decreasing latitude, applies to colony size in ants. Using data from the literature and our own collections, we show that colony sizes of tropical ant species are on average 1/10th the size of temperate species. The patterns holds for 5 of 6 subfamilies and 15 of 16 genera tested. What causes this trend Larger colonies of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, are better able to protect the queen (the colony's reproductive tissue) against food shortage, likely by sacrificing workers (it's somatic tissue). Days of queen survival follows the allometry M[sup 0.25]. We propose that the shorter growing seasons in temperate latitudes cull small-colony species through over-wintering starvation.

  7. Lack of Evidence for an Association between Iridovirus and Colony Collapse Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Street, Craig; Cox-Foster, Diana L.; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2011-01-01

    Colony collapse disorder (CCD) is characterized by the unexplained losses of large numbers of adult worker bees (Apis mellifera) from apparently healthy colonies. Although infections, toxins, and other stressors have been associated with the onset of CCD, the pathogenesis of this disorder remains obscure. Recently, a proteomics study implicated a double-stranded DNA virus, invertebrate iridescent virus (Family Iridoviridae) along with a microsporidium (Nosema sp.) as the cause of CCD. We tested the validity of this relationship using two independent methods: (i) we surveyed healthy and CCD colonies from the United States and Israel for the presence of members of the Iridovirus genus and (ii) we reanalyzed metagenomics data previously generated from RNA pools of CCD colonies for the presence of Iridovirus-like sequences. Neither analysis revealed any evidence to suggest the presence of an Iridovirus in healthy or CCD colonies. PMID:21738798

  8. Pathogens, pests, and economics: drivers of honey bee colony declines and losses.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kristine M; Loh, Elizabeth H; Rostal, Melinda K; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos M; Mendiola, Luciana; Daszak, Peter

    2013-12-01

    The Western honey bee (Apis mellifera) is responsible for ecosystem services (pollination) worth US$215 billion annually worldwide and the number of managed colonies has increased 45% since 1961. However, in Europe and the U.S., two distinct phenomena; long-term declines in colony numbers and increasing annual colony losses, have led to significant interest in their causes and environmental implications. The most important drivers of a long-term decline in colony numbers appear to be socioeconomic and political pressure on honey production. In contrast, annual colony losses seem to be driven mainly by the spread of introduced pathogens and pests, and management problems due to a long-term intensification of production and the transition from large numbers of small apiaries to fewer, larger operations. We conclude that, while other causal hypotheses have received substantial interest, the role of pests, pathogens, and management issues requires increased attention. PMID:24496582

  9. Chronic exposure of a honey bee colony to 2. 45 GHz continuous wave microwaves

    SciTech Connect

    Westerdahl, B.B.; Gary, N.E.

    1981-01-01

    A honey bee colony (Apis mellifera L.) was exposed 28 days to 2.45 GHz continuous wave microwaves at a power density (1 mW/sq cm) expected to be associated with rectennae in the solar power satellite power transmission system. Differences found between the control and microwave-treated colonies were not large, and were in the range of normal variation among similar colonies. Thus, there is an indication that microwave treatment had little, if any, effect on (1) flight and pollen foraging activity, (2) maintenance of internal colony temperature, (3) brood rearing activity, (4) food collection and storage, (5) colony weight, and (6) adult populations. Additional experiments are necessary before firm conclusions can be made.

  10. Characterization of stroma-dependent blast colony-forming cells in human marrow

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, M.Y.; Dowding, C.R.; Riley, G.P.; Greaves, M.F.

    1987-01-01

    Human bone marrow contains a population of haemopoietic progenitor cells that can be distinguished by their ability to adhere to preformed stromal layers (cultured in the presence of methylprednisolone (MP/sup +/) and form blast cell colonies. The stromal layers function in the colony assay after they have been heavily irradiated but not after they have been passaged. The binding of the progenitor cells to the stromal cells is complete after 2 hours of coincubation, and stromal layers of 9.6 cm/sup 2/ can provide adhesion sites for at least 2000 blast colony-forming cells. The blast colony-forming cells were shown by micromanipulation to self-renew as well as the give rise to multipotential and lineage-committed colony-forming progenitor cells.

  11. Harvester Ant Colony Variation in Foraging Activity and Response to Humidity

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Deborah M.; Dektar, Katherine N.; Pinter-Wollman, Noa

    2013-01-01

    Collective behavior is produced by interactions among individuals. Differences among groups in individual response to interactions can lead to ecologically important variation among groups in collective behavior. Here we examine variation among colonies in the foraging behavior of the harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex barbatus. Previous work shows how colonies regulate foraging in response to food availability and desiccation costs: the rate at which outgoing foragers leave the nest depends on the rate at which foragers return with food. To examine how colonies vary in response to humidity and in foraging rate, we performed field experiments that manipulated forager return rate in 94 trials with 17 colonies over 3 years. We found that the effect of returning foragers on the rate of outgoing foragers increases with humidity. There are consistent differences among colonies in foraging activity that persist from year to year. PMID:23717415

  12. A colony-forming assay for human tumour xenografts using agar in diffusion chambers.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, I. E.; Courtenay, V. D.; Gordon, M. Y.

    1976-01-01

    A technique for growing colonies from single-cell suspensions of human tumour xenografts using agar in diffusion chambers is described. Modified Millipore diffusion chambers containing tumour cells in semi-solid agar-medium were implanted into the peritoneal cavity of pre-irradiated mice and provided standard culture conditions for the study of colony-forming cells. All 11 xenograft tumours so far studied produced colonies. The incubation period for colony growth ranged from 12 to 28 days and the plating efficiency ranged from 0-3% to 16% for different tumours, but both parameters were constant for each individual tumour. The reproducibility of the system provides a colony-forming assay which can be used to study the effects of irradiation and cytotoxic drugs on human tumour clonogenic cells and may therefore have some advantages over similar assays based on experimental animal tumours. Images Fig. 1(b) Fig. 1(c) Fig. 1(a) PMID:999782

  13. Large Scale Bacterial Colony Screening of Diversified FRET Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Litzlbauer, Julia; Schifferer, Martina; Ng, David; Fabritius, Arne; Thestrup, Thomas; Griesbeck, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Biosensors based on Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) between fluorescent protein mutants have started to revolutionize physiology and biochemistry. However, many types of FRET biosensors show relatively small FRET changes, making measurements with these probes challenging when used under sub-optimal experimental conditions. Thus, a major effort in the field currently lies in designing new optimization strategies for these types of sensors. Here we describe procedures for optimizing FRET changes by large scale screening of mutant biosensor libraries in bacterial colonies. We describe optimization of biosensor expression, permeabilization of bacteria, software tools for analysis, and screening conditions. The procedures reported here may help in improving FRET changes in multiple suitable classes of biosensors. PMID:26061878

  14. [Advance in study on endothelial colony-forming cells].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoxin; Zhou, Jianda

    2015-05-01

    Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs), diff erent from classical endothelial progenitor cells, are late endothelial progenitor cells with the capability to promote angiogenesis. Recent studies showed that ECFCs have a huge angiogenesis potential in the restoration of ischemic hearts, lungs or brains. Th ey are also able to induce the expression of vascular related factor to promote angiogenesis in repair of limb ischemia or bone injury. Furthermore, ECFCs possess a strong homing effect for tumor, which is closely related to tumor occurrence, development and prognosis. Th us, ECFCs are a novel direction for vascular regeneration study, and may lead to ground-breaking progresses in fi elds of tissue regeneration and tumor. PMID:26032084

  15. Power Efficient Resource Allocation for Clouds Using Ant Colony Framework

    E-print Network

    Chimakurthi, Lskrao

    2011-01-01

    Cloud computing is one of the rapidly improving technologies. It provides scalable resources needed for the ap- plications hosted on it. As cloud-based services become more dynamic, resource provisioning becomes more challenging. The QoS constrained resource allocation problem is considered in this paper, in which customers are willing to host their applications on the provider's cloud with a given SLA requirements for performance such as throughput and response time. Since, the data centers hosting the applications consume huge amounts of energy and cause huge operational costs, solutions that reduce energy consumption as well as operational costs are gaining importance. In this work, we propose an energy efficient mechanism that allocates the cloud resources to the applications without violating the given service level agreements(SLA) using Ant colony framework.

  16. Modified artificial bee colony algorithm for reactive power optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulaiman, Noorazliza; Mohamad-Saleh, Junita; Abro, Abdul Ghani

    2015-05-01

    Bio-inspired algorithms (BIAs) implemented to solve various optimization problems have shown promising results which are very important in this severely complex real-world. Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm, a kind of BIAs has demonstrated tremendous results as compared to other optimization algorithms. This paper presents a new modified ABC algorithm referred to as JA-ABC3 with the aim to enhance convergence speed and avoid premature convergence. The proposed algorithm has been simulated on ten commonly used benchmarks functions. Its performance has also been compared with other existing ABC variants. To justify its robust applicability, the proposed algorithm has been tested to solve Reactive Power Optimization problem. The results have shown that the proposed algorithm has superior performance to other existing ABC variants e.g. GABC, BABC1, BABC2, BsfABC dan IABC in terms of convergence speed. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm has also demonstrated excellence performance in solving Reactive Power Optimization problem.

  17. The colonial origins of comparative development: An empirical investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daron Acemoglu; Simon Johnson; James A. Robinson

    2001-01-01

    We exploit differences in European mortality rates to estimate the\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009effect of institutions on economic performance. Europeans adopted\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009very different colonization policies in different colonies, with\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009different associated institutions. In places where Europeans faced\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009high mortality rates, they, could not settle and were more likely\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009to set up extractive institutions. These institutions persisted to\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009the present. Exploiting differences in European

  18. Early African Diaspora in colonial Campeche, Mexico: strontium isotopic evidence.

    PubMed

    Price, T Douglas; Tiesler, Vera; Burton, James H

    2006-08-01

    Construction activities around Campeche's central park led to the discovery of an early colonial church and an associated burial ground, in use from the mid-16th century AD to the late 17th century. Remains of some individuals revealed dental mutilations characteristic of West Africa. Analyses of strontium isotopes of dental enamel from these individuals yielded unusually high (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios, inconsistent with an origin in Mesoamerica, but consistent with an origin in West Africa in terrain underlain by the West Africa Craton, perhaps near the port of Elmina, a principal source of slaves for the New World during the 16th century. These individuals likely represent some of the earliest representatives of the African Diaspora in the Americas. PMID:16444728

  19. Mate choice and genetic monogamy in a biparental, colonial fish

    PubMed Central

    van Dongen, Wouter F.D.; Wagner, Richard H.

    2015-01-01

    In socially monogamous species, in which both sexes provide essential parental care, males as well as females are expected to be choosy. Whereas hundreds of studies have examined monogamy in biparental birds, only several such studies exist in fish. We examined mate choice in the biparental, colonial cichlid fish Neolamprologus caudopunctatus in Lake Tanganyika, Zambia. We genotyped more than 350 individuals at 11 microsatellite loci to investigate their mating system. We found no extrapair paternity, identifying this biparental fish as genetically monogamous. Breeders paired randomly according to their genetic similarity, suggesting a lack of selection against inbreeding avoidance. We further found that breeders paired assortatively by body size, a criterion of quality in fish, suggesting mutual mate choice. In a subsequent mate preference test in an aquarium setup, females showed a strong preference for male size by laying eggs near the larger of 2 males in 13 of 14 trials. PMID:26023276

  20. A Multistrategy Optimization Improved Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Being prone to the shortcomings of premature and slow convergence rate of artificial bee colony algorithm, an improved algorithm was proposed. Chaotic reverse learning strategies were used to initialize swarm in order to improve the global search ability of the algorithm and keep the diversity of the algorithm; the similarity degree of individuals of the population was used to characterize the diversity of population; population diversity measure was set as an indicator to dynamically and adaptively adjust the nectar position; the premature and local convergence were avoided effectively; dual population search mechanism was introduced to the search stage of algorithm; the parallel search of dual population considerably improved the convergence rate. Through simulation experiments of 10 standard testing functions and compared with other algorithms, the results showed that the improved algorithm had faster convergence rate and the capacity of jumping out of local optimum faster. PMID:24982924