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Sample records for lepidoptera noctuidae populations

  1. First microsatellites from Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and their potential use for population genetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report of sequence-specific microsatellite markers (SSRs) of Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an economically important pest of the American continent. We developed 178 microsatellite markers using pyrosequencing, and screened 15 individuals from 8 isofamili...

  2. Regional Assessment of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Populations on Cotton and Non-Cotton Crop Hosts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selection pressure on bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), by cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.) (Malvaceae), that produces one or more Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner proteins is reduced by plantings of non-Bt refuge cotton that produce non-selected individuals. However, ...

  3. Using haplotypes to monitor the migration of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) corn-strain populations from Texas and Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith; Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) or fall armyworm is an important agricultural pest of a number of crops in the western hemisphere. Two morphologically identical host strains of fall armyworm exist, the rice-strain and corn-strain, with the latter inflicting substantial eco...

  4. Mitochondrial DNA Variation and Range Expansion in Western Bean Cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): No Evidence for a Recent Population Bottleneck

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a pest of both corn and dry bean crops. At the beginning of the 21st century, the species began to extend its range out of the Great Plains, eastward through the Corn Belt. This rapid range expansion is remarkable bec...

  5. Frequency of Cry1F Non-Recessive Resistance Alleles in North Carolina Field Populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Guoping; Reisig, Dominic; Miao, Jin; Gould, Fred; Huang, Fangneng; Feng, Hongqiang

    2016-01-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target species of transgenic corn (Zea mays L.) that expresses single and pyramided Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin. In 2014, S. frugiperda were collected from a light trap in North Carolina, and a total of 212 F1/F2 isofemale lines of S. frugiperda were screened for resistance to Bt and non-Bt corn. All of the 212 isolines were susceptible to corn tissue expressing Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab, Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab, and Cry1F + Cry1Ab + Vip3Aa20. Growth rate bioassays were performed to isolate non-recessive Bt resistance alleles. Seven individuals out of the 212 isofemale lines carried major non-recessive alleles conferring resistance to Cry1F. A pooled colony was created from the seven individuals. This colony was 151.21 times more resistant to Cry1F than a known-susceptible population and was also resistant to Cry1A.105, but was not resistant to Cry2Ab and Vip3Aa20. The results demonstrate that field populations of S. frugiperda collected from North Carolina are generally susceptible to Cry1F, but that some individuals carry resistant alleles. The data generated in this study can be used as baseline data for resistance monitoring. PMID:27119741

  6. Frequency of Cry1F Non-Recessive Resistance Alleles in North Carolina Field Populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guoping; Reisig, Dominic; Miao, Jin; Gould, Fred; Huang, Fangneng; Feng, Hongqiang

    2016-01-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target species of transgenic corn (Zea mays L.) that expresses single and pyramided Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin. In 2014, S. frugiperda were collected from a light trap in North Carolina, and a total of 212 F1/F2 isofemale lines of S. frugiperda were screened for resistance to Bt and non-Bt corn. All of the 212 isolines were susceptible to corn tissue expressing Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab, Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab, and Cry1F + Cry1Ab + Vip3Aa20. Growth rate bioassays were performed to isolate non-recessive Bt resistance alleles. Seven individuals out of the 212 isofemale lines carried major non-recessive alleles conferring resistance to Cry1F. A pooled colony was created from the seven individuals. This colony was 151.21 times more resistant to Cry1F than a known-susceptible population and was also resistant to Cry1A.105, but was not resistant to Cry2Ab and Vip3Aa20. The results demonstrate that field populations of S. frugiperda collected from North Carolina are generally susceptible to Cry1F, but that some individuals carry resistant alleles. The data generated in this study can be used as baseline data for resistance monitoring. PMID:27119741

  7. Gut microbiota of Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Snyman, Maxi; Gupta, Arvind Kumar; Bezuidenhout, Cornelius Carlos; Claassens, Sarina; van den Berg, Johnnie

    2016-07-01

    Busseola fusca (Fuller) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a stemborer pest that attacks maize (Zea mays) throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Genetically modified maize has been shown to be effective against B. fusca. However, resistance of B. fusca against Bt-maize has developed and spread throughout South Africa. Previous studies suggested that gut microbiota contribute to mortality across a range of Lepidoptera. To fully assess the role of microbiota within the gut, it is essential to understand the microbiota harboured by natural B. fusca populations. This study aimed to identify the gut-associated bacteria by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A total of 78 bacterial strains were characterised from the midgut of B. fusca larvae that were collected from 30 sites across the maize producing region of South Africa. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed bacteria affiliated to Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. Taxonomic distribution placed these isolates into 15 different genera representing 20 species. The majority of bacteria identified belong to the genera Bacillus, Enterococcus, and Klebsiella. The B. fusca gut represents an intriguing and unexplored niche for analysing microbial ecology. The study could provide opportunities for developing new targets for pest management and contribute to understanding the phenomenon of resistance evolution of this species. PMID:27263010

  8. Cry2Ab tolerance response of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) populations from CrylAc cotton planting region.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yulin; Wu, Kongming; Gould, Fred; Shen, Zhicheng

    2009-06-01

    Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an important lepidopteran pest of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., in Asia. Transgenic cotton expressing the cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been widely planted for control of this pest. For managing the potential risk from resistance evolution in this pest, a new transgenic Bt cotton containing cry1Ac and cry2Ab genes (gene pyramided strategy) was designed as a successor of cry1Ac cotton. This article reports on levels of Cry2Ab tolerance in H. armigera populations from CrylAc cotton planting region in China based on bioassays of F1 and F2 offspring of isofemale lines. In total, 572 isofemale families of H. armigera from Xiajin County of Shandong Province (an intensive Bt cotton-planting area) and 124 families from Anci County of Hebei Province [a multiple-crop system, including corn (Zea mays L.), soybean (Gycine max (L.) Merr., peanut (Arachis spp.), and Bt cotton] were screened with both Cry1Ac- and Cry2Ab-containing diets in 2008. The bioassays results indicated that relative average development rates (RADR) of F1 full-sib families from field-collected female moths on Cry1Ac- and Cry2Ab-containing diet were positively correlated. The same correlation was found in the F2 generation, indicating cross-tolerance between Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab in field populations of H. armigera in Yellow River cotton-farming region of China. This cross-tolerance must be considered in evaluating the utility of pyramiding Bt genes in cotton for delaying evolution of resistance. PMID:19610441

  9. F2 screen for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab2-maize in field populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from the southern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target of transgenic maize and cotton expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in both North and South America. In 2013 and 2014, a total of 215 F2 two-parent families of S. frugiperda were established usin...

  10. Susceptibilities of Helicoverpa zea and Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) populations to Cry1Ac insecticidal protein.

    PubMed

    Ali, M I; Luttrell, R G; Young, S Y

    2006-02-01

    Susceptibilities of bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (F.) to Cry1Ac were measured via a diet-incorporated assay with MPV II at the University of Arkansas during 2002-2004. Lethal concentration-mortality (LC50) estimates of five laboratory, seven laboratory-cross, and 10 field populations of H. virescens varied 12-fold. Pooled susceptibilities of H. virescens across all laboratory and field populations varied five-fold. The LC50 estimates for H. virescens were higher than those reported by previous research before the introduction of transgenic crops. However, the ratio of susceptibility of laboratory and field populations was similar, suggesting no change in overall species susceptibility. Individual LC50 estimates of five laboratory, nine laboratory-cross, and 57 field populations of H. zea varied over 130-fold. Pooled susceptibilities across laboratory and field populations varied widely. Among the field populations, colonies from non-Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops were generally more susceptible than those from Bt crops. Across the Bt crops expressing Cry protein, colonies from Bollgard (Monsanto Company) cotton had lower susceptibility to CrylAc than those from Bt corn and those from non-Bt crops. PMID:16573337

  11. Effects of Wolbachia on mitochondrial DNA variation in populations of Athetis lepigone (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wolbachia are endosymbiotic bacteria that infect arthropods and incompatibility among strains can affect gene flow within host insect populations, that can result in significant host mitochondrial DNA (MtD) variation. The effects of Wolbachia infection on mtDNA variation was studied in Athetis lepi...

  12. Genetic structure and gene flow among Brazilian populations of Heliothis virescens (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Population genetic studies are essential to the better application of pest management strategies, including the monitoring of the evolution of resistance to insecticides and genetically modified plants. Bt-crops have been instrumental in controlling Heliothis virescens (F.), a pest that has develop...

  13. Effects of green manure cover crops on Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) populations.

    PubMed

    Tuan, Shu-Jen; Li, Nian-Jhen; Yeh, Chih-Chun; Tang, Li-Cheng; Chi, Hsin

    2014-06-01

    Spodoptera litura (F.) is an important pest of numerous agro-economic crops, including green manure cover crops. In Taiwan, sesbania (Sesbanin roxburghii Merr.), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), and rapeseed (Brassicae campestris L. variety chinensis) are the most popular green manure crops; sesbania and sunn hemp are commonly planted in warm seasons, whereas rapeseed is grown in the winter. In this study, life-table data for S. litura reared on these three green manures were collected to evaluate their roles as refuges of this pest. The net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of increase, and finite rate of increase of S. litura were the highest when reared on sesbania (1428.1 offspring, 0.2327 d(-1), 1.2621 d(-1)), followed by sunn hemp (778.4 offspring, 0.2070 d(-1), 1.2300 d(-1)) and rapeseed (737.6 offspring, 0.2040 d(-1), 1.2263 d(-1)). The high growth rates on these green manure crops show that they can serve as potential breeding sites for S. litura. Population projection demonstrated the rapid growth of S. litura on sesbania, sunn hemp, and rapeseed as well. Because most growers have traditionally ignored pest management in green manure fields, the mass emergence of S. litura in these fields may cause unexpected infestations in nearby vegetable, corn, and peanut crops. This study shows that the use of green manures as sources of nutrients should be critically reassessed and an area-wide pest management program should be instituted by taking the population of S. litura in green manure fields into consideration. PMID:25026645

  14. Field Evaluation of Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Pheromone Blends and Their Application to Monitoring Moth Populations in China.

    PubMed

    Du, Yongjun; Feng, Bo; Li, Hongguang; Liu, Chunming; Zeng, Juan; Pan, Lieming; Yu, Qing

    2015-06-01

    The attractiveness of a series of mixtures of (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate (Z7-12:Ac), (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14:Ac), and (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate (Z11-16:Ac), the Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) pheromone, were evaluated in four locations in China. The ternary blend of Z7-12:Ac, Z9-14:Ac, and Z11-16:Ac was the complete pheromone blend for A. ipsilon and the ratio of Z7-12:Ac and Z9-14:Ac was optimal at 3:1. The most attractive ratio of Z11-16:Ac to the other components depended on geographic location. The optimal ratio was 3:1:6 in Yunnan and Shanxi, 3:1:2 in Sichuan and ranged from 3:1:2 to 3:1:12 in Shanghai, which differs significantly from the ratio of 3:1:16 in Japan. The dose of the blend in the pheromone lure influenced attractiveness to male moths and was related to the temperature in the test locations. Attractiveness of sugar-acetic acid-baited and pheromone-baited traps to male and female moths was different before and after the start of flowering of the oilseed rape crop; large numbers of female moths were attracted to sugar-acetic acid traps before flowering but none after flowering had started. This was similar for male moths and there was no synergistic effect when sugar-acetic acid solutions and pheromone were used together. These studies suggest that pheromone trapping based on the blends of three components can be an effective tool to improve the efficiency of monitoring of this pest in China. PMID:26313979

  15. Frequency of alleles conferring resistance to the Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab in Australian populations of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Mahon, R J; Olsen, K M; Downes, S; Addison, S

    2007-12-01

    Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an important lepidopteran pest of cotton (Gossypium spp.) in Australia and the Old World. From 2002, F2 screens were used to examine the frequency of resistance alleles in Australian populations of H. armigera to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) CrylAc and Cry2Ab, the two insecticidal proteins present in the transgenic cotton Bollgard II. At that time, Ingard (expressing Cry1Ac) cotton had been grown in Australia for seven seasons, and Bollgard II was about to be commercially released. The principal objective of our study was to determine whether sustained exposure caused an elevated frequency of alleles conferring resistance to Cry1Ac in a species with a track record of evolving resistance to conventional insecticides. No major alleles conferring resistance to Cry1Ac were found. The frequency of resistance alleles for Cry1Ac was <0.0003, with a 95% credibility interval between 0 and 0.0009. In contrast, alleles conferring resistance to Cry2Ab were found at a frequency of 0.0033 (0.0017, 0.0055). The first isolation of this allele was found before the widespread deployment of Bollgard II. For both toxins the experiment-wise detection probability was 94.4%. Our results suggest that alleles conferring resistance to Cry1Ac are rare and that a relatively high baseline frequency of alleles conferring resistance to Cry2Ab existed before the introduction of Bt cotton containing this toxin. PMID:18232402

  16. Effect of temperature on the fitness of a Vip3A resistant population of Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Gulzar, Asim; Pickett, Brian; Sayyed, Ali H; Wright, Denis J

    2012-06-01

    Microbial insecticides derived from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have become increasingly important for pest management. In addition to crystal (Cry) insecticidal protein toxins formed during sporulation, vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip) toxins can be produced during the vegetative phase. Resistance to Cry toxins has been reported in laboratory- and field-selected populations of various Lepidoptera species and several studies have identified fitness costs associated with Cry toxin resistance. Here, fitness costs are examined in the first insect population to be reported with resistance to a Vip toxin, a laboratory-selected Vip3A-resistant subpopulation of the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (L.) (Vip-Sel). The Vip-Sel population showed reduced survival to adult eclosion compared with an unselected subpopulation at all test temperatures, including the culture temperature (25 degrees C). Vip3A resistance was also associated with reduced egg viability and mating success and a lower intrinsic rate of population increase (r(m)) at temperatures below (20 degrees C) and above (30 degrees C) the optimal laboratory culture temperature. The latter findings agree with previous studies, that fitness costs associated with resistance are usually greater under stressful conditions. Such data can help predict the impact of fitness costs on the rate of development of resistance in the field and in the development of resistance management strategies that more fully exploit fitness costs. PMID:22812137

  17. F2 screen for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab2-maize in field populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from the southern United States.

    PubMed

    Niu, Ying; Qureshi, Jawwad A; Ni, Xinzhi; Head, Graham P; Price, Paula A; Meagher, Robert L; Kerns, David; Levy, Ronnie; Yang, Xiangbing; Huang, Fangneng

    2016-07-01

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target pest of transgenic maize and cotton expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in both North and South America. In 2013 and 2014, a total of 215 F2 two-parent families of S. frugiperda were established using single-pair mating of field individuals collected from seven locations in four states of the southern U.S.: Texas, Louisiana, Georgia, and Florida. The objective of the investigation was to detect resistance alleles in field populations to Cry2Ab2, a common Bt protein produced in transgenic maize and cotton. For each F2 family, 128 F2 neonates were screened on leaf tissue of Cry2Ab2 maize plants in the laboratory. A conservative estimate of the frequency of major Cry2Ab2 resistance alleles in S. frugiperda from the four states was 0.0023 with a 95% credibility interval of 0.0003-0.0064. In addition, six families were considered to likely possess minor resistance alleles at a frequency of 0.0082 with a 95% credibility interval of 0.0033-0.0152. One F2 family from Georgia (GA-15) was confirmed to possess a major resistance allele to the Cry2Ab2 protein. Larvae from this family survived well on whole maize plants expressing Cry2Ab2 protein and demonstrated a significant level (>15-fold) of resistance when fed with the same protein incorporated in a meridic diet. The detection of the major resistance allele along with the relatively abundant minor resistance alleles revealed in this study may have important implications for resistance management. PMID:27311896

  18. Using haplotypes to monitor the migration of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) corn-strain populations from Texas and Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall armyworm infestations in most of North America north of Mexico arise from annual migrations of populations that overwinter in southern Texas and Florida. Mapping the pattern of migration and the relative contributions of the Texas and Florida populations would contribute both to our understandi...

  19. Comparison of haplotype frequencies can differentiate fall armyworm (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) corn-strain populations from Florida and Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall armyworm is a major economic pest throughout the Western Hemisphere. Populations can be subdivided into two morphologically identical but genetically distinct strains (corn-strain and rice-strain) that differ in their host plant preferences. These can be distinguished by using polymorphisms in ...

  20. Physiological and population responses of armyworm Mythimna separata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to a sublethal dose of cantharidin-AC.

    PubMed

    Rashid, M; Khan, Rashid A; Zhang, Yalin

    2013-10-01

    The oriental armyworm Mythimna separata Walker is a serious threat to the production of cereals. Its control has largely relied on synthetic insecticides, which led to the decrease in their effectiveness. In China, cantharidin, a natural compound of insect origin with a mode of action different from a conventional insecticide, is being developed as a bio-insecticide for the control of lepidopteran pests. Its toxicological effects have already been studied in M. separata. However, its sublethal effects on physiological and population parameters have not yet been studied. The leaf dip bioassay results showed that cantharidin-AC (cantharidin acetone solution) had a high level of toxicity against M. separata and the 96 h LC50 value was 223 microg/ml. The sublethal effects of cantharidin exposure for 72 h at LC10 (77 microg/ml) on physiological and population parameters of M. sepatata were also investigated, and data were subjected to an age-stage two-sex life-table. The sublethal effects of cantharidin indicated reduction in survival rates of larval, pupal, and adult stages. In addition, both male and female moths were observed with crippled wings in the cantharidin-treated cohort. The mean values of the finite rate of increase (lambda), the intrinsic rate of increase (gamma), and the net reproductive rate (R(o)) were significantly lower in the treatment than in the control. The fecundity was also strongly affected by a sublethal cantharidin concentration. A sublethal concentration of cantharidin may reduce the population growth of M. separata by decreasing its survival and reproduction and by increasing its generation time. PMID:24224262

  1. Mortality Dynamics of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Immatures in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Varella, Andrea Corrêa; Menezes-Netto, Alexandre Carlos; Alonso, Juliana Duarte de Souza; Caixeta, Daniel Ferreira; Peterson, Robert K. D.; Fernandes, Odair Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    We characterized the dynamics of mortality factors affecting immature developmental stages of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Multiple decrement life tables for egg and early larval stages of S. frugiperda in maize (Zea mays L.) fields were developed with and without augmentative releases of Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) from 2009 to 2011. Total egg mortality ranged from 73 to 81% and the greatest egg mortality was due to inviability, dislodgement, and predation. Parasitoids did not cause significant mortality in egg or early larval stages and the releases of T. remus did not increase egg mortality. Greater than 95% of early larvae died from predation, drowning, and dislodgment by rainfall. Total mortality due to these factors was largely irreplaceable. Results indicate that a greater effect in reducing generational survival may be achieved by adding mortality to the early larval stage of S. frugiperda. PMID:26098422

  2. Mortality Dynamics of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Immatures in Maize.

    PubMed

    Varella, Andrea Corrêa; Menezes-Netto, Alexandre Carlos; Alonso, Juliana Duarte de Souza; Caixeta, Daniel Ferreira; Peterson, Robert K D; Fernandes, Odair Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    We characterized the dynamics of mortality factors affecting immature developmental stages of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Multiple decrement life tables for egg and early larval stages of S. frugiperda in maize (Zea mays L.) fields were developed with and without augmentative releases of Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) from 2009 to 2011. Total egg mortality ranged from 73 to 81% and the greatest egg mortality was due to inviability, dislodgement, and predation. Parasitoids did not cause significant mortality in egg or early larval stages and the releases of T. remus did not increase egg mortality. Greater than 95% of early larvae died from predation, drowning, and dislodgment by rainfall. Total mortality due to these factors was largely irreplaceable. Results indicate that a greater effect in reducing generational survival may be achieved by adding mortality to the early larval stage of S. frugiperda. PMID:26098422

  3. Baseline susceptibility and monitoring of Brazilian populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to Vip3Aa20 insecticidal protein.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Oderlei; Amado, Douglas; Sousa, Renan S; Segatti, Fabiana; Fatoretto, Julio; Burd, Anthony D; Omoto, Celso

    2014-04-01

    The genetically modified maize expressing Vip3Aa20 insecticidal protein from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner is abiotechnological option for the control of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) and Diatraea saccharalis (F.) in Brazil. To support an Insect Resistance Management program, we conducted studies of baseline susceptibility and monitoring of Brazilian populations of S. frugiperda and D. saccharalis to the Vip3Aa20 insecticidal protein. Neonates were exposed to Vip3Aa20 applied on artificial diet surface. Mortality and growth inhibition were assessed after 7 d. All populations were susceptible to Vip3Aa20. The LC50 ranged from 92.38 to 611.65 ng Vip3Aa20/cm2 for 16 populations of S. frugiperda (6.6-fold variation), and between 61.18 and 367.86 ng Vip3Aa20/cm2 for 6 populations of D. saccharalis (sixfold variation). The EC50 ranged from 21.76 to 70.09 and 48.65 to 163.60 ng Vip3Aa20/cm2 for S. frugiperda and D. saccharalis, respectively. There was a low interpopulation variation in susceptibility to Vip3Aa20, which represents the natural geographic variation in the response, and not the variation caused by previous exposure to selection pressure. For these two pests, the diagnostic concentrations of 2,000 and 3,600 ng of Vip3Aa20/cm2 caused high mortality. These diagnostic concentrations will be used in resistance monitoring programs in Brazil. PMID:24772561

  4. The mitochondrial genome of the western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complete 15,553 bp mitochondrial genome of the western bean cutworm, Stricosta albicosta, (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was assembled from next generation sequencing data. Annotation showed that 13 predicted protein coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNAs, and 2 rRNAs have an order and orientation typical of ...

  5. Seasonal response of Noctua pronuba L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to traps in Washington state

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blacklight traps at multiple sites in eastern Washington state yielded numbers of yellow underwing moths, Noctua pronuba L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Noctua pronumba is recently introduced into western North America. Summaries of the seasonal patterns of N. pronumba moths captured in those blackligh...

  6. Lespesia melloi sp. nov. (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Brazil, a Parasitoid of Xanthopastis timais (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Santana, Hélcio R.; Nihei, Silvio Shigueo; Nunez, Enio

    2014-01-01

    A new species of the New World genus Lespesia, Lespesia melloi sp. nov. (Diptera: Tachinidae), is described from southeastern Brazil. The species is reported here as a parasitoid of Xanthopastis timais (Cramer, 1782) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The caterpillars of this noctuid feed on leaves and bulbs of amaryllis (Amaryllidaceae) in Brazil. PMID:25368065

  7. Lespesia melloi sp. nov. (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Brazil, a parasitoid of Xanthopastis timais(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Gil-Santana, Hélcio R; Nihei, Silvio Shigueo; Nunez, Enio

    2014-01-01

    A new species of the New World genus Lespesia, Lespesia melloi SP NOV: (Diptera: Tachinidae), is described from southeastern Brazil. The species is reported here as a parasitoid of Xanthopastis timais (Cramer, 1782) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The caterpillars of this noctuid feed on leaves and bulbs of amaryllis (Amaryllidaceae) in Brazil. PMID:25368065

  8. Effect of Hexaflumuron on feeding response and reproduction of bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hexaflumuron (Consult® 100 EC, Dow AgroSciences) is an insect growth regulator that inhibits chitin synthesis. The efficacy of hexaflumuron mixed with 2.5 M sucrose (ppm) was evaluated in the laboratory against bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) for toxicity, proboscis exten...

  9. Development of the cursorial spider, Cheiracanthium inclusum (Araneae: Miturgidae), on eggs of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of the cursorial spider Cheiricanthium inclusum (Hentz) (Araneae: Miturgidae) from emergence to maturity on a diet of eggs of the lepidopteran pest Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was characterized. C. inclusum developed to adulthood with no mortality while feeding on ...

  10. Frequency of alleles conferring resistance to the Bacillus thuringiensis toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab in Australian populations of Helicoverpa punctigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from 2002 to 2006.

    PubMed

    Downes, S; Parker, T L; Mahon, R J

    2009-04-01

    Helicoverpa punctigera and Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) are important pests of field and horticultural crops in Australia. The former is endemic to the continent, whereas the latter is also distributed in Africa and Asia. Although H. armigera rapidly developed resistance to virtually every group of insecticide used against it, there is only one report of resistance to an insecticide in H. punctigera. In 1996 the Australian cotton industry adopted Ingard, which expresses the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin gene cry1Ac. In 2004/2005, Bollgard II (which expresses Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab) replaced Ingard and has subsequently been grown on 80% of the area planted to cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. From 2002/2003 to 2006/2007, F2 screens were used to detect resistance to Cry1Ac or Cry2Ab. We detected no alleles conferring resistance to Cry1Ac; the frequency was < 0.0005 (n = 2,180 alleles), with a 95% credibility interval between 0 and 0.0014. However, during the same period, we detected alleles that confer resistance to Cry2Ab at a frequency of 0.0018 (n = 2,192 alleles), with a 95% credibility interval between 0.0005 and 0.0040. For both toxins, the experiment-wise detection probability was 94%, i.e., if there actually was a resistance allele in any tested lines, we would have detected it 94% of the time. The first isolation of Cry2Ab resistance in H. punctigera was before the widespread deployment of Bollgard II. This finding supports our published notion for H. armigera that alleles conferring resistance to Cry2Ab may be present at detectable frequencies in populations before selection by transgenic crops. PMID:19449655

  11. Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Responses to Sorghum bicolor (Poales: Poaceae) Tissues From Lowered Lignin Lines.

    PubMed

    Dowd, Patrick F; Sattler, Scott E

    2015-01-01

    The presence of lignin within biomass impedes the production of liquid fuels. Plants with altered lignin content and composition are more amenable to lignocellulosic conversion to ethanol and other biofuels but may be more susceptible to insect damage where lignin is an important resistance factor. However, reduced lignin lines of switchgrasses still retained insect resistance in prior studies. Therefore, we hypothesized that sorghum lines with lowered lignin content will also retain insect resistance. Sorghum excised leaves and stalk pith Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Poales: Poaceae) from near isogenic brown midrib (bmr) 6 and 12 mutants lines, which have lowered lignin content and increased lignocellulosic ethanol conversion efficiency, were examined for insect resistance relative to wild-type (normal BTx623). Greenhouse and growth chamber grown plant tissues were fed to first-instar larvae of corn earworms, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and fall armyworms Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), two sorghum major pests. Younger bmr leaves had significantly greater feeding damage in some assays than wild-type leaves, but older bmr6 leaves generally had significantly less damage than wild-type leaves. Caterpillars feeding on the bmr6 leaves often weighed significantly less than those feeding on wild-type leaves, especially in the S. frugiperda assays. Larvae fed the pith from bmr stalks had significantly higher mortality compared with those larvae fed on wild-type pith, which suggested that bmr pith was more toxic. Thus, reducing lignin content or changing subunit composition of bioenergy grasses does not necessarily increase their susceptibility to insects and may result in increased resistance, which would contribute to sustainable production. PMID:25601946

  12. Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Responses to Sorghum bicolor (Poales: Poaceae) Tissues From Lowered Lignin Lines

    PubMed Central

    Dowd, Patrick F.; Sattler, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of lignin within biomass impedes the production of liquid fuels. Plants with altered lignin content and composition are more amenable to lignocellulosic conversion to ethanol and other biofuels but may be more susceptible to insect damage where lignin is an important resistance factor. However, reduced lignin lines of switchgrasses still retained insect resistance in prior studies. Therefore, we hypothesized that sorghum lines with lowered lignin content will also retain insect resistance. Sorghum excised leaves and stalk pith Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Poales: Poaceae) from near isogenic brown midrib (bmr) 6 and 12 mutants lines, which have lowered lignin content and increased lignocellulosic ethanol conversion efficiency, were examined for insect resistance relative to wild-type (normal BTx623). Greenhouse and growth chamber grown plant tissues were fed to first-instar larvae of corn earworms, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and fall armyworms Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), two sorghum major pests. Younger bmr leaves had significantly greater feeding damage in some assays than wild-type leaves, but older bmr6 leaves generally had significantly less damage than wild-type leaves. Caterpillars feeding on the bmr6 leaves often weighed significantly less than those feeding on wild-type leaves, especially in the S. frugiperda assays. Larvae fed the pith from bmr stalks had significantly higher mortality compared with those larvae fed on wild-type pith, which suggested that bmr pith was more toxic. Thus, reducing lignin content or changing subunit composition of bioenergy grasses does not necessarily increase their susceptibility to insects and may result in increased resistance, which would contribute to sustainable production. PMID:25601946

  13. Risk Assessment Studies: Detailed Host Range Testing of Wild-Type Cabbage Moth, Mamestra brassicae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Cathy J.; Hirst, Mark L.; Cory, Jenny S.; Entwistle, Philip F.

    1990-01-01

    The host range of a multiply enveloped nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) (Baculoviridae) isolated from the cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was determined by challenging a wide range of insect species with high (106 polyhedral inclusion bodies) and low (103 polyhedral inclusion bodies) doses of the virus. The identity of the progeny virus was confirmed by dot blotting. Analysis of 50% lethal dose was carried out on selected species, and the progeny virus was identified by using restriction enzyme analysis and Southern blotting. Other than the Lepidoptera, none of the species tested was susceptible to M. brassicae NPV. Within the Lepidoptera, M. brassicae NPV was infective to members of four families (Noctuidae, Geometridae, Yponomeutidae, and Nymphalidae). Of 66 lepidopterous species tested, M. brassicae NPV was cross-infective to 32 of them; however, 91% of the susceptible species were in the Noctuidae. The relevance of host range data in risk assessment studies is discussed. Images PMID:16348279

  14. Annual Migration of Agrotis segetum (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): Observed on a Small Isolated Island in Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jianglong; Fu, Xiaowei; Wu, Xiao; Zhao, Xincheng; Wu, Kongming

    2015-01-01

    Migration behavior of the turnip moth, Agrotis segetum (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is not well known by far. Here, we present the data from an 11-year study on A. segetum by means of searchlight trapping and ovarian dissection on Beihuang (BH) Island, which located in the center of the Bohai Strait in northern China. The data showed a large number of A. segetum flight across the strait each year, which provides direct evidence that A. segetum is a long-distance migrant, migrating at least 40 - 60 km to reach the trapping site. The migration period during 2003-2013 ranged from 115 to 172 d. Among the catches, the proportion of females was significantly higher than that of males in each month from May to September. Ovarian dissection showed that the proportion of mated females and the proportion of sexually mature females was significantly higher than that of unmated females and sexually immature females in early summer, respectively, but conversely in autumn. The early summer populations migrate in a south-north direction, which might undertake a long-distance flight on several successive nights. The autumn populations migrate in a north-south direction, which might originate not far from the trapping site. Based on these findings, the migratory physiology of A. segetum was discussed. PMID:26114576

  15. Resistance to selected organochlorin, organophosphate, carbamate and pyrethroid, in Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Mushtaq A; Ahmad, Munir; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Aslam, Muhammad; Sayyed, Ali H

    2008-10-01

    The toxicity of the most commonly used insecticides of organochlorine, organophosphate, pyrethroid, and carbamate groups were investigated against Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) populations collected for three consecutive years (2004-2006). For a chlorocyclodiene and pyrethroids tested, the resistance ratios compared with Lab-PK were in the range of 10- to 92-fold for endosulfan, 5- to 111-fold for cypermethrin, 2- to 98-fold for deltamethrin, and 7- to 86-fold for beta-cyfluthrin. For organophosphates and carbamates, resistance ratios were in the range of 3- to 169-fold for profenofos, 18- to 421-fold for chlorpyrifos, 3- to 160-fold for quinalphos, 6- to 126-fold for phoxim, 7- to 463-fold for triazophos, and 10- to 389-fold for methomyl and 16- to 200-fold for thiodicarb. Resistance ratios were generally low to medium for deltamethrin and beta-cyfluthrin and high to very high for endosulfan, cypermethrin, profenofos, chlorpyrifos, quinalphos, phoxim, triazophos, methomyl, or thiodicarb. Pairwise comparisons of the log LC50 values of insecticides tested for all the populations showed correlations among several insecticides, suggesting a cross-resistance mechanism. Integration of timely judgment of pest problem, delimiting growing of alternate crops such as arum, rotation of insecticides with new chemicals, and insect growth regulators in relation to integrated pest management could help in manageable control of this important pest. PMID:18950050

  16. Susceptibility of bollworm and tobacco budworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to Cry2Ab2 insecticidal protein.

    PubMed

    Ali, M I; Luttrell, R G

    2007-06-01

    Susceptibilities of 82 bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and 44 tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), populations to Cry2Ab2 protein were measured in diet incorporated assays at the University of Arkansas from 2002 to 2005. Resulting data were used to calculate overall (pooled data) estimates of species susceptibility for future benchmarks of resistance. Variabilities among populations also were studied by comparing regressions for individual populations and calculating mean susceptibilities for different subgroups of the colonies studied. Individual lethal concentration (LC50) estimates for nine laboratory, seven laboratory-cross, and 28 field populations of H. virescens varied up to 48-fold when adjusted for the response of the most susceptible laboratory colony studied. Mean susceptibilities of all laboratory, laboratory-cross, or field colonies varied only two-fold. When grouped by host plants, populations collected on tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum (L.), seemed to be less susceptible than those collected on other host plants. Individual LC50 values for 82 laboratory, laboratory-cross and field populations of H. zea varied up to 37-fold. Mean LC50 values of all laboratory, laboratory-cross, or field populations varied only three-fold. Susceptibilities of populations from Bollgard cotton were up to four-fold less than those from Bacillus thuringiensis corn, Zea mays L. Field populations collected during late season were generally less susceptible than those collected early in the season. Across the two species, H. zea was less sensitive to Cry2Ab2 than H. virescens. Both species seem to be less sensitive to Cry2Ab2 than to CrylAc. PMID:17598557

  17. Partial Life History of Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Summer Hosts.

    PubMed

    Moonga, M N; Davis, J A

    2016-08-01

    The soybean looper, Chrysodeixis includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a major defoliating pest of soybeans, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, in Louisiana. However, other alternate host crops in the agroecosystem have the potential to impact C. includens populations. Life table statistics of C. includens on four host plants were evaluated. C. includens larvae were fed leaves of three cotton Gossypium hirsutum L. cultivars 'DP 143 B2RF,' 'DP 174 RF,' and 'PHY 485 WRF'; cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers 'California Blackeye'; three soybean cultivars 'Lyon,' 'PI 227687,' and 'RC 4955'; and sweetpotato Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lamarck 'Evangeline.' All C. includens larvae reared on cotton cultivars DP 143 B2RF and PHY 485 WRF experienced 100% mortality during the first instar. Total developmental period of preadult C. includens was significantly shorter on cotton DP 174 RF and cowpea California Blackeye but longer on sweetpotato Evangeline. Sweetpotato Evangeline had the highest amount of leaf tissue consumed and soybean Lyon had the least. Pupal weight was highest when insects fed on cotton DP 174 RF and lowest on soybean PI 227687. Life table statistics showed that the highest intrinsic rate of increase and net reproductive rate were attained when insects were reared on cotton DP 174 RF and cowpea California Blackeye whilst the lowest were recorded on soybean PI 227687. This study provides valuable information on the role of alternative host crops on the partial life history of C. includens in Louisiana agroecosystems. PMID:27375294

  18. Ecological Genetics and Host Range Expansion by Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Assefa, Y; Conlong, D E; Van Den Berg, J; Martin, L A

    2015-08-01

    The host plant range of pests can have important consequences for its evolution, and plays a critical role in the emergence and spread of a new pest outbreak. This study addresses the ecological genetics of the indigenous African maize stem borer, Busseola fusca (Fuller) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), in an attempt to investigate the evolutionary forces that may be involved in the recent host range expansion and establishment of this species in Ethiopian and southern African sugarcane. We used populations from Ethiopia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa to examine whether the host range expansion patterns shared by the Ethiopian and the southern African populations of B. fusca have evolved independently. Base-pair differences in the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene were used to characterize haplotype diversity and phylogenetic relationships. There were seven haplotypes among the 30 sequenced individuals collected on four host plant species from 17 localities in the four countries. Of the seven COI haplotypes identified, the two major ones occurred in both sugarcane and maize. Genetic analyses revealed no detectable genetic differentiation between southern African B. fusca populations from maize and sugarcane (FST = 0.019; P = 0.24). However, there was strong evidence of variation in genetic composition between populations of the pest from different geographic regions (FST = 0.948; P < 0.001). The main implication of these findings is that the B. fusca populations in maize in southern Africa are more likely to shift to sugarcane, suggesting that ecological opportunity is an important factor in host plant range expansion by a pest. PMID:26314073

  19. Evaluation of whorl damage by fall armyworm (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) on field and greenhouse grown sweet sorghum plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)] is an economically important pest of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench]. However, resistance to fall armyworm in sweet sorghum has not been extensively studied. A collection of primarily sweet sorghum accessions were evaluated in t...

  20. Spatial genetic variation among Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) sampled from the United States, Puerto Rico, Panama, and Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a migratory and polyphagous pest of both cultivated and uncultivated plant species in the Western Hemisphere. Understanding the genetic diversity and gene flow of this economically important pest can help to de...

  1. Using stable isotope analysis to examine the fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) host strains in a cotton habitat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith; Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) or fall armyworm is an important agricultural pest of a number of crops in the western hemisphere, including cotton. Two genetically distinct but morphologically identical strains (R-strain and C-strain) exist that differ physiologically and...

  2. Use of benzimidazole agar plates to assess fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) feeding on excised maize and sorghum leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an economically significant pest of sorghum and maize. To screen sorghum and maize germplasm for resistance to fall armyworm feeding, field, greenhouse, or lab bioassays are often utilized individually or in combinatio...

  3. Physiological, nutritional and biochemical bases of corn resistance to foliage-feeding fall armyworm (Lepidoptera:noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three corn (Zea mays) germplasm lines, Ab24E (susceptible control), Mp708 (resistant control), and a locally selected partial inbred line FAW7050 (resistant), were examined for Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) resistance. Nutritional [i.e., total protein, amino acids, gl...

  4. Complete mitochondrial genome of the common cutworm Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Feng-Bo; Zhang, Hui-Xian; Shen, Wei-Feng; Xu, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Wei; Chen, Jin-E; He, Li-Hua; Meng, Zhi-Qi

    2015-01-01

    We determined the complete mitochondrial genome of the common cutworm Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), which is one of the most destructive polyphagous insect pests worldwide. The genome is 15,383 bp in length (GenBank accession number: KF701043) with an A+T content of 81.08%, and contains 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes (13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes and 22 tRNA genes) with the typical arrangement found in Lepidoptera. All the protein-coding genes (PCGs) start with ATN start codon except for cox1, which begins with CGA. Eight PCGs stop with complete termination codons (TAA or TAG), whereas five PCGs use incomplete stop codon T. The A+T-rich region is located between rrnS and trnM with a length of 326 bp and an A+T content of 93.87%, and harbors three tandem repeat elements. PMID:24409845

  5. Population Genetic Structure of the Cotton Bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in India as Inferred from EPIC-PCR DNA Markers

    PubMed Central

    Behere, Gajanan Tryambak; Tay, Wee Tek; Russell, Derek Alan; Kranthi, Keshav Raj; Batterham, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Helicoverpa armigera is an important pest of cotton and other agricultural crops in the Old World. Its wide host range, high mobility and fecundity, and the ability to adapt and develop resistance against all common groups of insecticides used for its management have exacerbated its pest status. An understanding of the population genetic structure in H. armigera under Indian agricultural conditions will help ascertain gene flow patterns across different agricultural zones. This study inferred the population genetic structure of Indian H. armigera using five Exon-Primed Intron-Crossing (EPIC)-PCR markers. Nested alternative EPIC markers detected moderate null allele frequencies (4.3% to 9.4%) in loci used to infer population genetic structure but the apparently genome-wide heterozygote deficit suggests in-breeding or a Wahlund effect rather than a null allele effect. Population genetic analysis of the 26 populations suggested significant genetic differentiation within India but especially in cotton-feeding populations in the 2006–07 cropping season. In contrast, overall pair-wise FST estimates from populations feeding on food crops indicated no significant population substructure irrespective of cropping seasons. A Baysian cluster analysis was used to assign the genetic make-up of individuals to likely membership of population clusters. Some evidence was found for four major clusters with individuals in two populations from cotton in one year (from two populations in northern India) showing especially high homogeneity. Taken as a whole, this study found evidence of population substructure at host crop, temporal and spatial levels in Indian H. armigera, without, however, a clear biological rationale for these structures being evident. PMID:23326431

  6. Bollgard cotton and resistance of tobacco budworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to conventional insecticides in southern Tamaulipas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Terán-Vargas, A P; Rodríguez, J C; Blanco, C A; Martínez-Carrillo, J L; Cibrián-Tovar, J; Sánchez-Arroyo, H; Rodríguez-del-Bosque, L A; Stanley, D

    2005-12-01

    Insecticide susceptibility in tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was determined for 8 yr (1991-2001) with larvae sampled from cotton in southern Tamaulipas, Mexico. Before 1996, when Bollgard cotton expressing the Cry1A(c) delta-endotoxin was introduced into the region, two important patterns were documented. The first was economically significant increases in resistance to certain insecticide groups. The second was occurrence of virtually complete control failures in the field during 1994 and 1995. The largest resistance changes were recorded for the type II pyrethroids cypermethrin and deltamethrin. These products are the most widely used products in the region. Resistance ratios for these products increased up to > 100-fold from 1991 to 1995. After 1996, the resistance levels declined. These findings did not occur with other products of scant use (e.g., permethrin, profenofos, and endosulfan) or low tobacco budworm efficacy coupled to a high use pattern (e.g., methyl parathion). This clear trend toward reversal of resistance to type II pyrethroids can be understood, in part, with respect to two factors: 1) the high adoption rate of transgenic cotton in the region, from 31.2% in the beginning (1996) to approximately 90% in 1998; this has considerably curbed the use of synthetic insecticides, with the attending loss of selection pressure on this pest; and 2) the potential immigration to the region of susceptible tobacco budworms from cultivated and wild suitable hosts as well as from transgenic cotton might have influenced the pest population as a whole. The influence of transgenic cotton on southern Tamaulipas can be more clearly seen by the drastic reduction of insecticide use to control this important pest. Now tobacco budworms in this region are susceptible to type II pyrethroids. Two effective and fundamentally different pest management tools are now available to cotton growers in southern Tamaulipas: transgenic cotton

  7. Interactions among insect-resistant soybean genotypes extracts with populations of Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) susceptible and resistant to its nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    PubMed

    Piubelli, Giorla C; Moscardi, Flávio; Hoffmann-Campo, Clara B

    2009-12-01

    Anticarsia gemmatalis nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV) is being used in Brazil as a biological insecticide. Host plant resistance of soybean to insects is been searched for and some authors have mentioned the interference of plant chemistry in virus efficiency. Interactions among soybean extracts of genotypes used as a source of resistance (PI 274454 and PI 227687) with different AgMNPV concentrations in populations of A. geatalis susceptible (S) and resistant (R) to the virus were studied at laboratory condition. Higher mortality was observed when larvae fed on diets with extracts of the soybean genotypes compared with those fed on a plain diet (control). The mean lethal concentration (LC50) was reduced about 10 ties in the S-population fed on diets containing PI 274454 extracts and different concentrations of AgMNPV, compared to control diet. Additive effect was predominantly observed when larvae fed on diets with extracts of soybean genotypes (PI 274454 and PI 227687) and AgMNPV for both larval populations. The pupal weight was negatively influenced by the extracts incorporated to the diets compared to control, for both larval populations, notably for R-population. The results suggest that, in general, leaf extracts of soybean resistant genotype did not cause any harmful effect on virus efficiency. PMID:19893908

  8. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Busseola segeta Bowden (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae): A Case Study of Host Use Diversification in Guineo-Congolian Rainforest Relic Area, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Ong'amo, George O; Ru, Bruno P Le; Campagne, Pascal; Branca, Antoine; Calatayud, Paul-Andre; Capdevielle-Dulac, Claire; Silvain, Jean-Francois

    2012-01-01

    Habitat modification and fragmentation are considered as some of the factors that drive organism distribution and host use diversification. Indigenous African stem borer pests are thought to have diversified their host ranges to include maize [Zea mays L.] and sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] in response to their increased availability through extensive cultivation. However, management efforts have been geared towards reducing pest populations in the cultivated fields with few attempts to understand possible evolution of "new" pest species. Recovery and growing persistence of Busseola segeta Bowden on maize (Zea mays L.) in Kakamega called for studies on the role of wild host plants on the invasion of crops by wild borer species. A two-year survey was carried out in a small agricultural landscape along the edge of Kakamega forest (Kenya) to assess host range and population genetic structure of B. segeta. The larvae of B. segeta were found on nine different plant species with the majority occurring on maize and sorghum. Of forty cytochrome b haplotypes identified, twenty-three occurred in both wild and cultivated habitats. The moths appear to fly long distances across the habitats with genetic analyses revealing weak differentiation between hosts in different habitats (FST = 0.016; p = 0.015). However, there was strong evidence of variation in genetic composition between growing seasons in the wild habitat (FST = 0.060; p < 0.001) with emergence or disappearance of haplotypes between habitats. Busseola segeta is an example of a phytophagous insect that utilizes plants with a human induced distribution range, maize, but does not show evidence of host race formation or reduction of gene flow among populations using different hosts. However, B. segeta is capable of becoming an important pest in the area and the current low densities may be attributed to the general low infestation levels and presence of a wide range of alternative hosts in the area. PMID:26466732

  9. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Busseola segeta Bowden (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae): A Case Study of Host Use Diversification in Guineo-Congolian Rainforest Relic Area, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Ong’amo, George O.; Le Ru, Bruno P.; Campagne, Pascal; Branca, Antoine; Calatayud, Paul-Andre; Capdevielle-Dulac, Claire;  Silvain, Jean-Francois

    2012-01-01

    Habitat modification and fragmentation are considered as some of the factors that drive organism distribution and host use diversification. Indigenous African stem borer pests are thought to have diversified their host ranges to include maize [Zea mays L.] and sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] in response to their increased availability through extensive cultivation. However, management efforts have been geared towards reducing pest populations in the cultivated fields with few attempts to understand possible evolution of "new" pest species. Recovery and growing persistence of Busseola segeta Bowden on maize (Zea mays L.) in Kakamega called for studies on the role of wild host plants on the invasion of crops by wild borer species. A two-year survey was carried out in a small agricultural landscape along the edge of Kakamega forest (Kenya) to assess host range and population genetic structure of B. segeta. The larvae of B. segeta were found on nine different plant species with the majority occurring on maize and sorghum. Of forty cytochrome b haplotypes identified, twenty-three occurred in both wild and cultivated habitats. The moths appear to fly long distances across the habitats with genetic analyses revealing weak differentiation between hosts in different habitats (FST = 0.016; p = 0.015). However, there was strong evidence of variation in genetic composition between growing seasons in the wild habitat (FST = 0.060; p < 0.001) with emergence or disappearance of haplotypes between habitats. Busseola segeta is an example of a phytophagous insect that utilizes plants with a human induced distribution range, maize, but does not show evidence of host race formation or reduction of gene flow among populations using different hosts. However, B. segeta is capable of becoming an important pest in the area and the current low densities may be attributed to the general low infestation levels and presence of a wide range of alternative hosts in the area. PMID:26466732

  10. Characteristics of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cry2Ab in a strain of Helicoverpa punctigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) isolated from a field population.

    PubMed

    Downes, S; Parker, T L; Mahon, R J

    2010-12-01

    In 1996, the Australian cotton industry adopted Ingard that expresses the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin gene cry1Ac and was planted at a cap of 30%. In 2004-2005, Bollgard II, which expresses cry1Ac and cry2Ab, replaced Ingard in Australia, and subsequently has made up >80% of the area planted to cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. The Australian target species Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) and Helicoverpa punctigera (Wallengren) are innately moderately tolerant to Bt toxins, but the absence of a history of insecticide resistance indicates that the latter species is less likely to develop resistance to Bt cotton. From 2002-2003 to 2006-2007, F2 screens were deployed to detect resistance to CrylAc or Cry2Ab in natural populations of H. punctigera. Alleles that conferred an advantage against CrylAc were not detected, but those that conferred resistance to Cry2Ab were present at a frequency of 0.0018 (n = 2,192 alleles). Importantly, the first isolation of Cry2Ab resistance in H. punctigera occurred before significant opportunities to develop resistance in response to Bollgard II. We established a colony (designated Hp4-13) consisting of homozygous resistant individuals and examined their characteristics through comparison with individuals from a Bt-susceptible laboratory colony. Through specific crosses and bioassays, we established that the resistance present in Hp4-13 is due to a single autosomal gene. The resistance is fully recessive. Homozygotes are able to survive a dose of Cry2Ab toxin that is 15 times the reported concentration in field grown Bollgard II in Australia (500 microg/ml) and are fully susceptible to Cry1Ac and to the Bt product DiPel. These characteristics are the same as those described for the first Cry2Ab resistant strain of H. armigera isolated from a field population in Australia. PMID:21309238

  11. New restriction fragment length polymorphisms in the cytochrome oxidase I gene facilitate host strain identification of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) populations in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Nagoshi, Rod N; Meagher, Robert L; Adamczyk, John J; Braman, S Kristine; Brandenburg, Rick L; Nuessly, Gregg

    2006-06-01

    Several restriction sites in the cytochrome oxidase I gene of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), were identified by sequence analysis as potentially being specific to one of the two host strains. Strain specificity was demonstrated for populations in Florida, Texas, Mississippi, Georgia, and North Carolina, with an AciI and SacI site specific to the rice (Oryjza spp.)-strain and a BsmI and HinfI site joining an already characterized MspI site as diagnostic of the corn (Zea mays L.)-strain. All four of these sites can be detected by digestion of a single 568-bp polymerase chain reaction-amplified fragment, but the use of two enzymes in separate digests was found to provide accurate and rapid determination of strain identity. The effectiveness of this method was demonstrated by the analysis of almost 200 adult and larval specimens from the Mississippi delta region. The results indicated that the corn-strain is likely to be the primary strain infesting cotton (Gossypium spp.) and that an unexpected outbreak of fall armyworm on the ornamental tree Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Sieb. & Zucc. ex Steud. was due almost entirely to the rice-strain. PMID:16813297

  12. A new Mniotype Franclemont (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) species from China.

    PubMed

    Gyulai, Peter; Saldaitis, Aidas

    2016-01-01

    The Blepharita Hampson - Mniotype Franclemont-Polymixis Hübner - Mniopamea Hacker & Peks, generic complex is a favourite of Noctuidae researchers due to its richness in evolutional lineages, the debatable taxonomic placement of certain species among the first three genera and the taxonomic interpretation of the genera themselves. This rich and diverse complex includes some fairly separable species of which the taxonomic placement has been changed during the last decades, particularly as a result of the very similar basic configuration of the genitalia. The most relevant comprehensive studies on the generic complex are given by Boursin (1964), Varga (1979), Hacker (1990), Hacker & Peks (1990), Hacker (1992), Hacker & Ronkay (1992), Hreblay & Ronkay (1997, 1998), Hreblay et al. (1998), Hreblay & Ronkay (1999), Ronkay et al. (2001), Benedek & Ronkay (2002). The most recent study on the Mniotype adusta species graup is given by Volynkin et al. (2014), whereas on the Polymixis by Saldaitis et al. (2015). The fourth member of the complex namely Mniopamea, is the latest erected genera, of which the two described species by Hacker (1992) are close relatives of the formerly known Mniotype timida (Staudinger, 1888). PMID:27394572

  13. Identification and localization of two sensory neuron membrane proteins from Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Liu, Yang; Walker, William B; Dong, Shuang-Lin; Wang, Gui-Rong

    2015-03-01

    Sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), which are located on the dendritic membrane of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), are proposed to be associated with odor reception in insects. Recent studies have demonstrated that SNMP1 is essential for electrophysiological responses of OSNs to the sex pheromone, cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA) in Drosophila melanogaster. To investigate the function of Lepidoptera SNMPs, we cloned two SNMP genes, SlituSNMP1 and SltiuSNMP2, from Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that both genes bear the general characteristics of SNMPs, including six conserved cysteine residues and two transmembrane domains. Further expression profile experiments showed that SlituSNMP1 is mainly expressed in the antenna, while SlituSNMP2 is broadly expressed in various tissues. By in situ hybridization experiments, it was found that SlituSNMP1 expressing cells are surrounded by the SlituSNMP2 expressing cells in the pheromone sensitive sensilla, suggesting different functions of the two SNMPs in insect olfaction. PMID:24757100

  14. Sublethal Effects of Essential Oils From Eucalyptus staigeriana (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiales: Laminaceae), and Foeniculum vulgare (Apiales: Apiaceae) on the Biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Cruz, G S; Wanderley-Teixeira, V; Oliveira, J V; Lopes, F S C; Barbosa, D R S; Breda, M O; Dutra, K A; Guedes, C A; Navarro, D M A F; Teixeira, A A C

    2016-04-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a major pest of maize, Zea mays L. Its control is often achieved through repeated applications per season of insecticides, which may lead to adverse effects on the ecosystem. Thus, the study of alternative methods with less environmental impact has expanded to include the use of essential oils. These oils are products of the secondary metabolism in plants, and their insecticidal activity has been widely demonstrated in populations of many pest insects. This study evaluated the insecticidal activities of essential oils from Eucalyptus staigeriana, Ocimum gratissimum, and Foeniculum vulgare on Spodoptera frugiperda. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry profiles and contact toxicity of these oils as well as their sublethal effects on larvae and reproductive parameters in adults were evaluated. All three oils had sublethal effects on S. frugiperda; however, the oil of O. gratissimum showed the best results at all doses tested. These essential oils may have promise for control of S. frugiperda. PMID:26868417

  15. A review of five species, and descriptions of three new species, in the genus Ogdoconta Butler (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Condicinae, Condicini) from North America north of Mexcio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The species of the genus Ogdoconta Butler, 1891 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Condicinae, Condicini) from North America north of Mexico are reviewed, and a description of the genus is given. Ogdoconta satana Metzler, Knudson, & Poole, new species, is described from New Mexico and Texas, Ogdoconta rufipen...

  16. Acrapex azumai Sugi (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) as a possible biological control agent of the invasive weed Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. (Poaceae) in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lepidopteran larvae were discovered boring in the basal stems of Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. (Poaceae) in Itoshima city, Fukuoka Prefecture, Kyushu, Japan. Adults reared from these larvae were identified as Acrapex azumai Sugi (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Sequencing of the CO1 (cytochrome oxidase 1...

  17. Ecology of the African Maize Stalk Borer, Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) with Special Reference to Insect-Plant Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Calatayud, Paul-André; Le Ru, Bruno P.; van den Berg, Johnnie; Schulthess, Fritz

    2014-01-01

    Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an important pest of maize and sorghum in sub-Saharan Africa. One century after its first description by Fuller in 1901, inaccurate information based on earlier reports are still propagated on its distribution (e.g., absent from the lower altitudes in East Africa) and host plant range (e.g., feeding on a large range of wild grass species). This review provides updated information on the biology, distribution and genetics of B. fusca with emphasis on insect-plant interactions. Related to this, new avenues of stem borer management are proposed. PMID:26462824

  18. Digestive Physiology and Nutritional Responses of Autographa gamma (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Different Sugar Beet Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Naseri, Bahram; Golikhajeh, Neshat; Rahimi Namin, Foroogh

    2016-01-01

    Digestive enzymatic activity and nutritional responses of Autographa gamma (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an important insect pest of sugar beet, on nine sugar beet cultivars (Peritra, Karolina, Paolita, Lenzier, Tiller, Ardabili, Persia, Rozier, and Dorothea) were studied. The highest proteolytic activity of fourth and fifth instar of A. gamma was in larvae fed on cultivar Persia. The highest amylolytic activity of fourth and fifth instar was observed in larvae fed on cultivars Rozier and Dorothea, respectively. The lowest proteolytic and amylolytic activities in fourth instar were observed on cultivar Tiller; whereas the lowest activities in fifth instar were detected on cultivars Karolina and Tiller, respectively. Larval weight in both larval instars (fourth and fifth) was the heaviest on cultivar Persia and the lightest on cultivar Karolina. Furthermore, weight gain of larvae was the highest on cultivar Persia and the lowest on cultivar Karolina. The results of this study suggest that cultivar Tiller was the most unsuitable host plant for feeding of A. gamma. PMID:27324581

  19. Annual Migration of Cabbage Moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), over the Sea in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao; Fu, Xiaowei; Guo, Jianglong; Zhao, Xincheng; Wu, Kongming

    2015-01-01

    The cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a serious pest of vegetable crops throughout the world. In order to determine whether or not M. brassicae is a migrant, and if yes, what is the pattern of M. brassicae seasonal migration, a long-term study on M. brassicae from April to October in 2003-2014 was carried out by means of a searchlight trap on a small island located in the center of the Bohai Strait. The results show that a large number of M. brassicae were trapped every year on the island, which indicates that M. brassicae is a migrant and migrated at least 40-60 km across the Bohai Strait. The mean migration period of M. brassicae over the sea within one year is 151 ± 8 d in 2003-2014, with the shortest time span 78 d in 2003 and the longest 189 d in 2014, respectively. The number of M. brassicae captured, however, varies considerably between months or years. The majority of captures were female, with different levels of ovarian development and mating status. Most of the females trapped in May-July during 2010-2014 had a high mating rate and advanced level of ovarian development, suggesting that the migration of this species does not conform to the hypothesis of 'oogenesis-flight syndrome'. The findings of the present study are beneficial to the development of forecasting systems and management strategies of M. brassicae. PMID:26176951

  20. The molecular and physiological impact of bisphenol A in Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Kontogiannatos, Dimitris; Swevers, Luc; Zakasis, Giannis; Kourti, Anna

    2015-03-01

    In the present study we investigated the potential relative effects of bisphenol A (BPA) and RH-5992 (tebufenozide) on the development and metamorphosis of the corn stalk borer, Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). A number of morphological and molecular factors were examined in order to identify the toxic and the endocrine-relative action of these two chemicals. We observed that BPA, RH-5992 and the combination of BPA/RH-5992 caused a developmental delay by extending the transition period between larval and pupal instars. These chemicals also reduced adult emergence and caused molting malformations during development and metamorphosis. In the corn stalk borer, BPA exhibits ecdysteroid activities in a fashion similar to that of the ecdysone agonist RH-5992. These results suggest that exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of BPA during the early stages of the corn borer's life cycle can result in various disorders that may be a consequence of endocrine disruption. The molecular mechanism by which BPA interferes with the physiological processes was also investigated. A significant induction was observed in the expression levels of the ecdysone-induced genes SnEcR and SnUSP, after injection of BPA and RH-5992. Additionally, we found that BPA acts as a very weak agonist of ecdysteroids in Bombyx mori derived Bm5 cell lines. From these cellular and molecular assays, our results brought evidence that BPA, like RH-5992, interferes with the ecdysteroidal pathways of the lepidopteran insect species. PMID:25492584

  1. Suitability of Creeping Bentgrass and Bermudagrass Cultivars for Black Cutworms and Fall Armyworms (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Hong, Seung Cheon; Obear, Glen R; Liesch, Patrick J; Held, David W; Williamson, R Chris

    2015-08-01

    The black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon Hufnagel, and fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are common turfgrass pests of golf courses in the southeastern United States. Heat-tolerant bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) cultivars are expanding the range of bentgrass further south, but these cultivars have not been studied for their potential host plant resistance to black cutworm or fall armyworm. The goals of the study were to investigate feeding response of black cutworm and fall armyworm to these newer heat-tolerant creeping bentgrass cultivars, as well as commonly used cultivars of bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (Loppers.)]. Choice and no-choice feeding assays and fecundity tests were conducted in the laboratory and greenhouse to evaluate performance and preference of the two insects. When given a choice, neither black cutworm nor fall armyworm showed a preference for the majority of new cultivars tested. There were no differences in leaf area consumption or insect development for either pest in no-choice feeding assays. Black cutworm females preferred laying eggs in bentgrass compared with bermudagrass, but will oviposit onto bermudagrass, suggesting that both turf species are suitable hosts of this pest. The broad host ranges of generalist caterpillar pests of turfgrass hinder the application of host plant resistance in integrated pest management on golf courses. PMID:26470340

  2. Development and Leaf Consumption by Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Reared on Leaves of Agroenergy Crops.

    PubMed

    Cabezas, M F; Nava, D E; Geissler, L O; Melo, M; Garcia, M S; Krüger, R

    2013-12-01

    Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a polyphagous pest that threatens more than 24 species of crop plants including those used for biodiesel production such as Ricinus communis (castor bean), Jatropha curcas (Barbados nut), and Aleurites fordii (tung oil tree). The development and leaf consumption by S. cosmioides reared on leaves of these three species were studied under controlled laboratory conditions. The egg-to-adult development time of S. cosmioides was shortest when reared on castor bean leaves and longest when reared on tung oil tree leaves. Larvae reared on castor bean and Barbados nut leaves had seven instars, whereas those reared on tung oil tree leaves had eight. Females originating from larvae reared on castor bean and Barbados nut leaves showed greater fecundity than did females originating from larvae reared on tung oil tree leaves. Insects fed on castor bean leaves had shorter life spans than those fed on tung oil tree and Barbados nut leaves although the oviposition period did not differ significantly. The intrinsic and finite rates of increase were highest for females reared on castor bean leaves. Total leaf consumption was highest for larvae reared on tung oil tree leaves and lowest for those reared on Barbados nut leaves. We conclude that castor bean is a more appropriate host plant for the development of S. cosmioides than are Barbados nut and tung oil tree. PMID:27193276

  3. Evolution of Resistance by Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Infesting Insecticidal Crops in the Southern United States

    PubMed Central

    Onstad, David; Crain, Philip; Crespo, Andre; Hutchison, William; Buntin, David; Porter, Pat; Catchot, Angus; Cook, Don; Pilcher, Clint; Flexner, Lindsey; Higgins, Laura

    2016-01-01

    We created a deterministic, frequency-based model of the evolution of resistance by corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), to insecticidal traits expressed in crops planted in the heterogeneous landscapes of the southern United States. The model accounts for four generations of selection by insecticidal traits each year. We used the model results to investigate the influence of three factors on insect resistance management (IRM): 1) how does adding a third insecticidal trait to both corn and cotton affect durability of the products, 2) how does unstructured corn refuge influence IRM, and 3) how do block refuges (50% compliance) and blended refuges compare with regard to IRM? When Bt cotton expresses the same number of insecticidal traits, Bt corn with three insecticidal traits provides longer durability than Bt corn with two pyramided traits. Blended refuge provides similar durability for corn products compared with the same level of required block refuge when the rate of refuge compliance by farmers is 50%. Results for Mississippi and Texas are similar, but durabilities for corn traits are surprisingly lower in Georgia, where unstructured corn refuge is the highest of the three states, but refuge for Bt cotton is the lowest of the three states. Thus, unstructured corn refuge can be valuable for IRM but its influence is determined by selection for resistance by Bt cotton. PMID:26637533

  4. Toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry proteins to Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Bouwer, Gustav

    2012-01-01

    The susceptibility of one of the most important pests in southern Africa, Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry proteins was evaluated by bioassay. Cry proteins were produced in Escherichia coli BL21 cells that were transformed with plasmids containing one of six cry genes. The toxicity of each Cry protein to H. armigera larvae was determined by the diet contamination method for second instar larvae and the droplet feeding method for neonate larvae. For each of the proteins, dose-mortality and dose-growth inhibition responses were analyzed and the median lethal dose (LD(50)) and median inhibitory dose (ID(50)) determined. Second instar larvae were consistently less susceptible to the evaluated Cry proteins than neonate larvae. The relative toxicity of Cry proteins ranked differently between neonate larvae and second instar larvae. On the basis of the LD(50) and ID(50) values, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and Cry2Aa were the most toxic of the evaluated proteins to H. armigera larvae. The study provides an initial benchmark of the toxicity of individual Cry proteins to H. armigera in South Africa. PMID:22019386

  5. [Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of male Apamea apameoides (Draudt) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to sex pheromone components].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ai-Liang; Zhou, Zhang-Ting; Zhang, Ya-Bo; Zhou, Zhi-Feng; Shen, Zhi-Lian; Wang, Hao-Jie; Shu, Jin-Ping

    2014-10-01

    The sex pheromone gland extracts collected from calling females of Apamea apameoides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were analyzed with GC-MS, the electrophysiological and behavioral responses of the male adults to serial dilutions of sex pheromone components and their synthetic blends were investigated with Y-tube olfactometer in laboratory and in bamboo forest field. The results indicated that (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate and (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol were the functional components in the sex pheromone gland extracts. Electroantennogram (EAG) recordings showed that sex pheromone gland extracts, (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate, (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol and the mixture of (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate and (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol all could elicit strong EAG responses, and the average EAG values increased with the increasing concentration of the sex pheromone. The blends of (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate and (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol at the ratio of 57:43 elicited a higher EAG value than each singular component did. The results of behavioral assay by Y-tube olfactometer accorded with those of EAG responses on the whole, and the mixture of (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate and (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol at the ratio of 57:43 was more attractive than each component alone. In field tests with silicone rubber as pheromone dispensers (concentration = 10(4) ng · uL(-1)), the average number of male adults captured per trap by the mixture was (48.5 ± 6.7). PMID:25796914

  6. Digestive Physiology and Nutritional Responses of Autographa gamma (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Different Sugar Beet Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Naseri, Bahram; Golikhajeh, Neshat; Rahimi Namin, Foroogh

    2016-01-01

    Digestive enzymatic activity and nutritional responses of Autographa gamma (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an important insect pest of sugar beet, on nine sugar beet cultivars (Peritra, Karolina, Paolita, Lenzier, Tiller, Ardabili, Persia, Rozier, and Dorothea) were studied. The highest proteolytic activity of fourth and fifth instar of A. gamma was in larvae fed on cultivar Persia. The highest amylolytic activity of fourth and fifth instar was observed in larvae fed on cultivars Rozier and Dorothea, respectively. The lowest proteolytic and amylolytic activities in fourth instar were observed on cultivar Tiller; whereas the lowest activities in fifth instar were detected on cultivars Karolina and Tiller, respectively. Larval weight in both larval instars (fourth and fifth) was the heaviest on cultivar Persia and the lightest on cultivar Karolina. Furthermore, weight gain of larvae was the highest on cultivar Persia and the lowest on cultivar Karolina. The results of this study suggest that cultivar Tiller was the most unsuitable host plant for feeding of A. gamma. PMID:27324581

  7. Identification and Characterization of Pathogen-Response Genes (repat) in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Machado, Vilmar; Serrano, Jose; Galián, Jose

    2016-01-01

    The fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda, Noctuidae, Lepidoptera) is one of the most important crop pests in the Americas, causing significant damage to maize, rice and sorghum. The mechanisms that determine its defences against pathogens are particularly relevant for the development of management and control strategies. We used an in silico approach to identify and characterize pathogen response genes (repat) present in different tissue libraries of S. fugiperda. The analyses revealed complete cDNA for nine repat genes; of these, repat15 and repat39 were found in libraries from a specific tissue--the midgut of larvae fed with xenobiotic substances. High expression levels of some genes were found in different libraries: 39 hits in repat30 in challenged hemocytes, 16 hits in repat31 in fat body, 10 hits in repat32 in fat body and 10 in challenged hemocytes, and 10 hits in repat38 in midgut of non-treated larvae and midgut of larvae fed with natural and xenobiotic substances. The genes corresponded to two ontology categories, stress response and immune response, and their phylogenetic relationships, nucleotide similarity, number of amino acid residues and molecular weights agree with what has been described for repat genes. It is noteworthy that proteins encoded by the repat genes of S. frugiperda have important defence functions in other tissues beyond midgut and that their functional categories are likely diverse, as they are related to cell envelope structure, energy metabolism, transport and binding. PMID:27172709

  8. Estimate of Alabama argillacea (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) development with nonlinear models.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, R S; Ramalho, F S; Zanuncio, J C; Serrão, J E

    2003-11-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate which nonlinear model [Davidson (1942, 1944), Stinner et al. (1974), Sharpe & DeMichele (1977), and Lactin et al. (1995)] best describes the relationship between developmental rates of the different instars and stages of Alabama argillacea (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and temperature. A. argillacea larvae were fed with cotton leaves (Gossypium hirsutum L., race latifolium Hutch., cultivar CNPA 7H) at constant temperatures of 20, 23, 25, 28, 30, 33, and 35 masculine C; relative humidity of 60 +/- 10%; and photoperiod of 14:10 L:D. Low R(2) values obtained with Davidson (0.0001 to 0.1179) and Stinner et al. (0.0099 to 0.8296) models indicated a poor fit of their data for A. argillacea. However, high R(2) values of Sharpe & DeMichele (0.9677 to 0.9997) and Lactin et al. (0.9684 to 0.9997) models indicated a better fit for estimating A. argillacea development. PMID:15029370

  9. Genetic variation for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins in Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in eastern North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Jackson, R E; Gould, F; Bradley, J R; Van Duyn, J W

    2006-10-01

    To evaluate resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) toxins, adult female bollworms, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), were collected from four light trap locations in two eastern North Carolina counties from August to October during 2001 and 2002. Females were allowed to oviposit, and upon hatching, 24 neonates from each female (F1 lines) were screened for survival and growth rate on each of three diets: non-Bt diet, diet containing 5.0 microg/ml Cry1Ac toxin, or diet containing 5.0 microg/ml Cry2Ab toxin. These screens were designed to identify nonrecessive Bt resistance alleles present in field populations of bollworm. Of 561 and 691 families screened with both Cry1Ac- and Cry2Ab-containing diets in 2001 and 2002, respectively, no F1 lines were identified that seemed to carry a gene conferring substantial resistance to either Cry1Ac or Cry2Ab. Adults from F1 lines with growth scores in the highest (R) and lowest (S) quartiles were mated in four combinations, RxR, SxR, RxS, and SxS. Differences in growth rates of larvae from these crosses demonstrated that there is substantial quantitative genetic variation in eastern North Carolina populations for resistance to both Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab toxins. These findings, in addition to results suggesting partially dominant inheritance of resistance to Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab, are critically important for determining appropriate resistance management strategies that impact the sustainability of transgenic cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.). PMID:17066814

  10. Toxicity of natural insecticides on the larvae of wheat head armyworm, Dargida diffusa (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Reddy, Gadi V P; Antwi, Frank B

    2016-03-01

    The wheat head armyworm, Dargida (previously Faronta) diffusa (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is widely distributed in North American grasslands and is most common on the Great Plains, where it is often a serious pest of corn and cereal crops. Six commercially available botanical or microbial insecticides used against D. diffusa were tested in the laboratory: Entrust(®) WP (spinosad 80%), Mycotrol(®) ESO (Beauveria bassiana GHA), Aza-Direct(®) (azadirachtin), Met52(®) EC (Metarhizium brunneum F52), Xpectro(®) OD (Beauveria bassiana GHA+pyrethrins), and Xpulse(®) OD (Beauveria bassiana GHA+azadirachtin). Concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 fold the lowest labelled rates of formulated products were tested for all products, while for Entrust WP additional concentrations of 0.001 and 0.01 fold the label rates were also assessed. Survival rates were determined from larval mortality at 1-9 days post treatment application. We found that among the tested chemicals, Entrust(®) (spinosad) was the most effective, causing 83-100% mortality (0-17% survival rate) at day 3 across all concentrations. The others, in order of efficacy from most to least, were Xpectro(®) (B. bassiana GHA+pyrethrins), Xpulse(®)OD (B. bassiana GHA+azadirachtin), Aza-Direct(®) (azadirachtin), Met52(®) EC (M. brunneum F52), and Mycotrol(®) ESO (B. bassiana GHA). These products and entomopathogenic fungi caused 70-100% mortality (0-30% survivability) from days 7 to 9. The tested products and entomopathogenic fungi can be used in management of D. diffusa. PMID:26855414

  11. Characterization of a single-nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus of Thysanoplusia orichalcea L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Cheng, X W; Carner, G R

    2000-05-01

    A single-nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) isolated from Thysanoplusia orichalcea L. (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) (ThorNPV) in Indonesia has tetrahedral occlusion bodies (OBs) with a width of 1. 22 microm (range = 0.803-1.931 microm). The length of the virion with an envelope averaged 0.29 and 0.23 microm without an envelope. ThorNPV was propagated in Pseudoplusia includens (Walker) and its authenticity was confirmed by sequence analysis of the polyhedrin gene of the ThorNPV produced in T. orichalcea and P. includens. Polyhedrin amino acid sequence analysis revealed that ThorNPV belongs to Group II of baculoviruses and is closely related to Trichoplusia ni single nucleocapsid NPV, sharing 97.6% sequence identity. Infectivity of ThorNPV against third instar P. includens was low, with a LD(50) value of 65,636 OBs/larva. Electron microscopy of infected tissues showed many polyhedra without virions embedded, which might explain the low virulence against P. includens. Differences in virion occlusion rates between individual cells in the same tissue suggested that the inoculum consisted of at least two variants that differed in the gene(s) controlling virion occlusion. In a host range test using the LD(50) value to P. includens against Spodoptera exigua, S. frugiperda, S. eridania, Anticarsia gemmatalis, Helicoverpa zea, Trichoplusia ni, and P. includens, P. includens was the only species infected. The virus infected primarily the fat body, tracheal epithelium, and hypodermis. The genomic size of the ThorNPV is 135 kb. PMID:10843835

  12. Seasonal migration of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) over the Bohai Sea.

    PubMed

    Feng, Hongqiang; Wu, Xianfu; Wu, Bo; Wu, Kongming

    2009-02-01

    The seasonal migration of the Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) over the Bohai Sea was observed with a searchlight trap and an entomological radar located on a small island in the center of the sea, and through a network of light-traps around the Bohai region. The H. armigera moths were observed to migrate over the sea at least as early as May and light trapping through a network suggested migration might start as early as April, as soon as the moths had emerged from overwintering pupae. H. armigera moths migrated toward the north in southerly winds during spring and summer, and returned south on nights with northerly winds, or at altitudes where the wind was northerly, during fall. The passage of a weather front (cold or warm) or trough at approximately 1700 hours provokes migration of H. armigera over the sea. The H. armigera generally flew at altitudes of below 1,500 m above sea level (asl) with layer concentrations at 200-500 m asl, where the wind direction, wind speed, and temperature were optimum. During fall migration, H. armigera tended to orient toward the southwest and was able to compensate for the wind drift by turning clockwise when the downwind direction was < 225 degrees but counterclockwise when it was > 225 degrees. The displacement speed measured with the radar was 24-41 km/h, the duration of flight was 8-11 h and the maximum migration rate was 1,894 moths per km per h. PMID:19253623

  13. Effects of bacillus thuringiensis transgenic corn on corn earworm and fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) densities.

    PubMed

    Chilcutt, Charles F; Odvody, Gary N; Correa, J Carlos; Remmers, Jeff

    2007-04-01

    We examined 17 pairs of near-isogenic hybrids of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) (176, Mon810, and Bt11) and non-Bt corn, Zea mays L., to examine the effects of Bt on larval densities of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) during 2 yr. During ear formation, instar densities of H. zea and S. frugiperda were recorded for each hybrid. We found that H. zea first, second, and fifth instar densities were each affected by Mon810 and Bt11 Bt corn but not by 176 corn. Surprisingly, first and second instars were found in higher numbers on ears of Mon810 and Bt11 corn than on non-Bt corn. Densities of third and fourth instars were equal on Bt and non-Bt hybrids, whereas densities of fifth instars were lower on Bt plants. S. frugiperda larval densities were only affected during 1 yr when second, and fourth to sixth instars were lower on ears of Mon810 and Bt11 hybrids compared with their non-Bt counterparts. Two likely explanations for early instar H. zea densities being higher on Bt corn than non-Bt corn are that (1) Bt toxins delay development, creating a greater abundance of early instars that eventually die, and (2) reduced survival of H. zea to later instars on Bt corn decreased the normal asymmetric cannibalism or H. zea-S. frugiperda intraguild predation of late instars on early instars. Either explanation could explain why differences between Bt and non-Bt plants were greater for H. zea than S. frugiperda, because H. zea is more strongly affected by Bt toxins and more cannibalistic. PMID:17461054

  14. Effect of electron beam irradiation on developmental stages of Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Junheon; Chung, Soon-Oh; Jang, Sin Ae; Jang, Miyeon; Park, Chung Gyoo

    2015-07-01

    Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an economically important and polyphagous pest, which harms various kinds of food crops and important agricultural plants, such as cotton and paprika. Effects of electron beam irradiation at six dose levels between 50 and 350 Gy on the egg (24-48 h old), the larval (4-5th instar), and the pupal (7-d old for female, 5-d old for male) development, and on the adult (1-d old) reproduction were tested to identify a potential quarantine treatment dose. Increased doses of irradiation on eggs decreased egg hatchability, pupation and adult emergence and increased larval period. ED99 values for inhibition of hatching, pupation and emergence were 460.6, 236.9 and 197.8 Gy, respectively. When larvae were irradiated with more than 280 Gy, no larvae could develop into pupae. ED99 values for inhibition of pupation and adult emergence were 265.6 and 189.6 Gy, respectively. Even though the irradiation on pupa did not completely inhibit adult emergence, most of the pupae emerged to deformed adults. When adults were irradiated, fecundity was not affected. However, F1 egg hatching was completely inhibited at the dose of 350 Gy. ED99 value for inhibition of adult emergence was estimated at 366.5 Gy. Our results suggest that electron beam irradiation could be recommendable as an alternative to MB and as a phytosanitary treatment for quarantine. A treatment dose of less than or equal to 220 Gy is suggested as a potential quarantine treatment to H. armigera egg for prevention of pupation and to larva for prevention of adult emerge.

  15. Heritability of Wing Size and Shape of the Rice and Corn Strains of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Cañas-Hoyos, N; Márquez, E J; Saldamando-Benjumea, C I

    2016-08-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) represents a pest of economic importance in all Western Hemisphere. This polyphagous species has diverged into two populations that have been mainly recognized with various mitochondrial and nuclear molecular markers and named "the rice" and "the corn" strains. In Colombia, both strains have evolved prezygotic and postzygotic isolation. They differ in tolerance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Cry1Ac and Cry1Ab endotoxins) and the insecticides lambda-cyhalothrin and methomyl. In 2014, a wing morphometric analysis made in 159 individuals from a colony showed that both strains significantly differ in wing shape. The species also exhibits sexual dimorphism in the rice strain as in females wing size is larger than in males. Here, we continued this work with another wing morphometric approach in laboratory-reared strains to calculate wing size and shape heritabilities using a full-sib design and in wild populations to determine if this method distinguishes these strains. Our results show that male heritabilities of both traits were higher than female ones. Wild populations were significantly different in wing shape and size. These results suggest that wing morphometrics can be used as an alternative method to molecular markers to differentiate adults from laboratory-reared populations and wild populations of this pest, particularly in males of this species. Finally, Q ST values obtained for wing size and shape further demonstrated that both strains are genetically differentiated in nature. PMID:27044394

  16. Temperature- and CO2-dependent life table parameters of Spodoptera litura (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) on sunflower and prediction of pest scenarios.

    PubMed

    Manimanjari, D; Srinivasa Rao, M; Swathi, P; Rama Rao, C A; Vanaja, M; Maheswari, M

    2014-01-01

    Predicted increase in temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration will influence the growth of crop plants and phytophagous insects. The present study, conducted at the Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad, India, aimed at (1) construction of life tables at six constant temperatures viz., 20, 25, 27, 30, 33, and 35 ± 0.5 °C for Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) reared on sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) grown under ambient and elevated CO2 (eCO2) (550 ppm) concentration in open top chambers and (2) prediction of the pest status in near future (NF) and distant future (DF) climate change scenarios at major sunflower growing locations of India. Significantly lower leaf nitrogen, higher carbon and higher relative proportion of carbon to nitrogen (C:N) were observed in sunflower foliage grown under eCO2 over ambient. Feeding trials conducted on sunflower foliage obtained from two CO2 conditions showed that the developmental time of S. litura (Egg to adult) declined with increase in temperature and was more evident at eCO2. Finite (λ) and intrinsic rates of increase (r(m)), net reproductive rate (Ro), mean generation time, (T) and doubling time (DT) of S. litura increased significantly with temperature up to 27-30 °C and declined with further increase in temperature. Reduction of 'T' was observed from maximum value of 58 d at 20 °C to minimum of 24.9 d at 35 °C. The DT of population was higher (5.88 d) at 20 °C and lower (3.05 d) at 30 °C temperature of eCO2. The data on these life table parameters were plotted against temperature and two nonlinear models were developed separately for each of the CO2 conditions for predicting the pest scenarios. The NF and DF scenarios temperature data of four sunflower growing locations in India is based on PRECIS A1B emission scenario. It was predicted that increased 'rm', 'λ', and 'Ro' and reduced 'T' would occur during NF and DF scenario over present period at all

  17. Effect of antibiotic on survival and development of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its gut microbial diversity.

    PubMed

    Thakur, A; Dhammi, P; Saini, H S; Kaur, S

    2016-06-01

    Addition of antibiotics to artificial diets of insects is a key component in the rearing of insects in the laboratory. In the present study an antimicrobial agent, streptomycin sulphate was tested for its influence on survival and fitness of Spodoptera litura (Fabricus) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) as well as its gut microbial diversity. The antibiotic did not adversely affect the survival of S. litura. Faster growth of larvae was recorded on diet amended with different concentrations of streptomycin sulphate (0.03, 0.07 and 0.15%) as compared to diet without streptomycin sulphate. The overall activity of various digestives enzymes increased on S+ diet while the activity of detoxifying enzymes significantly decreased. In addition, alteration in microbial diversity was found in the gut of S. litura larvae fed on diet supplemented with antibiotic (S+) and without antibiotic (S-). PMID:26907537

  18. Effects of climate change on overwintering pupae of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jian; Li, Jing

    2015-07-01

    Climate change significantly affects insects' behaviors. Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is one of the most serious insect pests in the world. Much is known about the survival of the overwintering population and spring emergence of H. armigera. However, little is known about the effects of climate change on overwintering and spring emergence of H. armigera. This study investigated the effects of changes of air and soil temperatures and precipitation on overwintering pupae of H. armigera by analyzing historical data from Magaiti County in northwest China using statistical methods. The results showed that during the period of 1989-2006, the climate warming advanced the first-appearance date of overwintering pupae eclosion (FD) and end date of overwintering pupae eclosion (ED) by 1.276 and 0.193 days per year, respectively; the duration between the FD and ED (DFEPE) was prolonged by 1.09 days per year, which resulted in more eclosion of overwintering pupae. For a 1 °C increase in the maximum air temperature ( T max) in winter, the FD became earlier by 3.234 days. Precipitation in winter delayed the FD and ED and produced little relative influence on DFEPE. A 1-mm increase of precipitation in winter delayed the FD and ED by 0.850 and 0.494 days, respectively. Mean air temperature ( T mean) in March, with a 41.3 % relative influence, precipitation in winter, with a 49.0 % relative influence, and T mean in March, with a 37.5 % relative influence, were the major affecting factors on FD, ED, and DFEPE, respectively. T max in February with a 53.0 % relative influence was the major affecting factor on the mortality of overwintering pupae (MOP). Increased soil temperatures in October and November and autumn and air temperatures in winter could decrease the MOP, though the relative influences were lower than T max in February. Increased precipitation in winter increased the MOP, but the relative influence was only 4.2 % because of little precipitation

  19. Efficacy of transgenic cotton expressing Cry1Ac and Cry1F insecticidal protein against heliothines (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Siebert, M Willrich; Nolting, S; Leonard, B R; Braxton, L B; All, J N; Van Duyn, J W; Bradley, J R; Bacheler, J; Huckaba, R M

    2008-12-01

    Cotton, Cossypium hirsutum L, plants expressing Cry1Ac and Cry1F (Phytogen 440W) insecticidal crystal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner, were evaluated against natural populations of tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (F.), and bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), across 13 southern U.S. locations that sustained low, moderate, and high infestations. The intrinsic activity of Phytogen 440W was compared with nontreated non-Bt cotton (PSC355) and with management strategies in which supplemental insecticides targeting heliothines were applied to Phytogen 440W and to PSC355 cotton. Infestations were composed primarily of bollworm, which is the least sensitive of the heliothine complex to Cry toxins. Therefore, damage recorded in these studies was primarily due to bollworm. Greater than 75% of all test sites sustained heliothine infestations categorized as moderate to high (10.6-64.0% peak damaged bolls in nontreated PSC355). Phytogen 440W, alone or managed with supplemental insecticide applications, reduced heliothine-damaged plant terminals, squares (flower buds), flowers, and bolls equal to or better (1.0-79.0-fold) than managing a non-Bt cotton variety with foliar insecticides across all infestation environments. Rarely (frequency of < or = 11% averaged across structures), sprayed Phytogen 440W reduced damaged structures compared with nontreated Phytogen 440W. Protection against heliothine-induced plant damage was similar across the three levels of infestation for each viable management strategy, with exception to damaged squares for nontreated Phytogen 440W. In situations of moderate to high heliothine infestations, cotton plants expressing Cry1Ac and Cry1F may sustain higher levels of damage compared with that same variety in low infestations. No significant difference in yield was observed among heliothine management strategies within each infestation level, indicating cotton plants may compensate for those levels of plant

  20. Seven invasive owlet moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Israel and their potential parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over a 10 year period, collections from light traps placed at 88 locations throughout Israel were examined for tropical species of noctuid pest species and associated parasitoids. Tropical noctuidae pest species collected included Spodoptera mauritia (Boisduval), Trichoplusia vittata (Wallengren), A...

  1. Effects of Sublethal Concentrations of Cyantraniliprole on the Development, Fecundity and Nutritional Physiology of the Black Cutworm Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chunmei; Zhang, Zhengqun; Cui, Kaidi; Zhao, Yunhe; Han, Jingkun; Liu, Feng; Mu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    To better understand the sublethal effects of cyantraniliprole on the black cutworm Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), several studies were carried out to investigate sublethal effects on development stages, population parameters, feeding indices and nutrient content of A. ipsilon. The result of a bioassay showed that cyantraniliprole had high toxicity against A. ipsilon fourth-instar larvae with an LC50 of 0.354 μg.g−1 using an artificial diet. Compared with controls, sublethal doses of cyantraniliprole at LC5, LC20 and LC40 levels prolonged larval and pupal duration and extended mean generation time and total preovipositional period. In addition, survival rate, reproductive value, intrinsic and finite rates of increase and net reproduction rate declined significantly. Meanwhile, cyantraniliprole had markedly antifeedant effects; decreased the relative growth rate (RGR), the relative consumption rate (RCR), the efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), the efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD); and increased the approximate digestibility (AD) significantly. This phenomenon contributed to the decrease of nutrient contents, including lipids, protein and carbohydrates, to the point that insufficient energy was available for normal growth. Therefore, sublethal concentrations of cyantraniliprole decreased growth speed and reduced population reproduction of A. ipsilon. This result provides information useful in integrated pest management (IPM) programs for A. ipsilon. PMID:27249654

  2. Effects of Sublethal Concentrations of Cyantraniliprole on the Development, Fecundity and Nutritional Physiology of the Black Cutworm Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Xu, Chunmei; Zhang, Zhengqun; Cui, Kaidi; Zhao, Yunhe; Han, Jingkun; Liu, Feng; Mu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    To better understand the sublethal effects of cyantraniliprole on the black cutworm Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), several studies were carried out to investigate sublethal effects on development stages, population parameters, feeding indices and nutrient content of A. ipsilon. The result of a bioassay showed that cyantraniliprole had high toxicity against A. ipsilon fourth-instar larvae with an LC50 of 0.354 μg.g-1 using an artificial diet. Compared with controls, sublethal doses of cyantraniliprole at LC5, LC20 and LC40 levels prolonged larval and pupal duration and extended mean generation time and total preovipositional period. In addition, survival rate, reproductive value, intrinsic and finite rates of increase and net reproduction rate declined significantly. Meanwhile, cyantraniliprole had markedly antifeedant effects; decreased the relative growth rate (RGR), the relative consumption rate (RCR), the efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), the efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD); and increased the approximate digestibility (AD) significantly. This phenomenon contributed to the decrease of nutrient contents, including lipids, protein and carbohydrates, to the point that insufficient energy was available for normal growth. Therefore, sublethal concentrations of cyantraniliprole decreased growth speed and reduced population reproduction of A. ipsilon. This result provides information useful in integrated pest management (IPM) programs for A. ipsilon. PMID:27249654

  3. Agrotis Ochsenheimer (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae): a systematic analysis of South American species.

    PubMed

    San Blas, Germán

    2014-01-01

    The genus Agrotis Ochsenheimer, 1816 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) contains about 300 described species distributed worldwide, excepting the Poles. For South America 93 species have been described. Different diagnostic characters have been proposed for species from the northern Hemisphere, mostly from male genitalia. Recently, numerous South American species of the genus have been transferred to other genera. In this work, a systematic revision was undertaken of the South American species of Agrotis, restricting to 20 the number of species of this genus for the region and transferring the other species to different genera and/or synonymizing with other species.Based on a detailed study of the external morphology and genitalia of both sexes, several nomen clatural changes are proposed. New generic synonymy: Mesembreuxoa Hampson = Feltia Walker. New Agrotis synonymies include: Scotia forsteri Köhler = A. propriens (Dyar); Agrotis peruviana hampsoni Draudt, Rhizagrotis triclava Draudt, and Euxoa andina Köhler = A. peruviana (Hampson); Lycophotia achromatica Hampson, Feltia malefida patagiata Aurivillius, Prout and Meyrick, Agrotis psammophila Köhler, and Scotia (Feltia) canietensis Köhler = A. malefida Guenée; Chorizagrotis benefida Draudt = A. experta (Walker); Agrotis livens Köhler and Agrotis capayana Köhler = A. araucaria (Hampson). Species transferred to Feltia Walker tent. include: Scotia aspersula Köhler, n. comb.; Porosagrotis brachystria Hampson, n. comb.; Agrotis carrascoi Köhler, n. comb.; Mesembreuxoa chilensis Hampson, n. comb.; Euxoa clavisigna Dognin, n. comb.; Euxoa conifrons Draudt, n. comb.; Agrotis consternans Hayes, n. comb.; Euxoa coquimbensis Hampson, n. comb.; Mesembreuxoa fasicola Dyar, n. comb.; Chorizagrotis forasmicans Köhler, n. comb.; Agrotis giselae León, n. comb.; Agrotis gypaetina Guenée, n. comb.; Agrotis hispidula Guenée, n. comb.; Euxoa incarum Cockerell, n. comb.; Agrotis india Köhler, n. comb.; Scotia mansa Köhler, n

  4. Attraction of pest moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Crambidae) to floral lures on the island of Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traps baited with floral chemicals on the island of Hawaii captured several pest moth species. Chrysodeixis eriosoma (Doubleday)(green garden looper), Autographa biloba (Doubleday)(bi-lobed looper), and Mythimna unipuncta (Haworth)(true armyworm), all Noctuidae, as well as Hymenia recurvalis (L.)(be...

  5. New Geographic Records for Tobacco Budworm, Heliothis virescens (Fabricius)(Lepidoptera:Noctuidae), in the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of moths in the cutworm family, Noctuidae, are pests of vegetable crops throughout the U.S., including potato. Researchers at the USDA-ARS laboratory in Wapato, Washington, monitor for the presence of numerous pest species of moths that may damage potato and other vegetable crops. They dete...

  6. Ecology, Behavior and Bionomics: First Genotyping of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith)(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Progeny from Crosses between Bt-Resistant and Bt-Susceptible Populations, and 65-Locus Discrimination of Isofami

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) were analyzed in crosses of this species between Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) (Bt) resistant and susceptible populations to determine a possible association between markers and Bt resistance....

  7. Oral Administration of TAT-PTD-Diapause Hormone Fusion Protein Interferes With Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Development.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhou; Li, Yongli; Yuan, Chunyan; Zhang, Yongan; Qu, Liangjian

    2015-01-01

    Diapause hormone (DH), which can terminate diapause in Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), has shown promise as a pest control method. However, the main challenge in using DH as an insecticide lies in achieving effective oral delivery, since the peptide may be degraded by digestive enzymes in the gut. To improve the efficacy of oral DH application, the Clostera anastomosis (L.) (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae) diapause hormone (caDH) was fused to the Protein Transduction Domain (PTD) of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 transactivator of transcription (TAT). Cellular transduction of TAT-caDH was verified with the use of a green fluorescent protein fusion, and its ability to terminate diapause was verified by injection into diapausing H. armigera pupae. Orally administered TAT-caDH resulted in larval growth inhibition. In TAT-caDH-treated insects, larval duration was delayed and the pupation rates were decreased at both development promoting conditions [27 °C, a photoperiod of 14:10(L:D) h] and diapause inducing conditions [20 °C, a photoperiod of 10:14(L:D) h]. No significant difference in diapause rate was observed between the TAT-caDH-treated and caDH-treated or control pupae maintained at diapause inducing conditions. Our results show that treatment with a recombinant TAT-caDH protein can affect larval development in H. armigera, and it suggest that TAT-DH treatment may be useful for controlling pests. This study is the first record of oral DH application in insect. PMID:26320262

  8. Susceptibility of field populations of the fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Florida and Puerto Rico to purified Cry1F protein and corn leaf tissue containing single and pyramided Bt genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Larval survival of Cry1F-susceptible (FL), -resistant (PR and Cry1F-RR), and -heterozygous (FL x PR and Cry1F-RS) populations of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) to purified Cry1F protein and corn leaf tissue of seven Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn hybrids and five non-Bt corn...

  9. [Characterization of the damage of Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) and Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to structures of cotton plants].

    PubMed

    Santos, Karen B Dos; Meneguim, Ana M; Santos, Walter J Dos; Neves, Pedro M O J; Santos, Rachel B Dos

    2010-01-01

    The cotton plant, Gossypium hirsutum, hosts various pests that damage different structures. Among these pests, Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) and Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) are considered important. The objectives of this study were to characterize and to quantify the potential damage of S. eridania and S. cosmioides feeding on different structures of cotton plants. For this purpose, newly-hatched larvae were reared on the following plant parts: leaf and flower bud; leaf and boll; flower bud or boll; and leaf, flower bud and boll. The survival of S. cosmioides and S. eridania was greater than 80% and 70% for larvae fed on cotton plant parts offered separately or together, respectively. One larva of S. eridania damaged 1.7 flower buds, but did not damage bolls, while one larva of S. cosmioides damaged 5.2 flower buds and 3.0 cotton bolls. Spodoptera eridania and S. cosmioides can be considered species with potential to cause economic damage to cotton plants because they can occur throughout cotton developmental stages causing defoliation and losses of reproductive structures. Therefore, the results validate field observations that these two species of Spodoptera are potential pests for cotton. PMID:20878002

  10. Temperature Effects on the Development and Reproduction of Three Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) Species Reared on Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Krechemer, F. S.; Foerster, L. A.

    2015-01-01

    The cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a generalist species and an important pest of Brassicaceae worldwide. Egg parasitoids are a feasible alternative for the control of this species. We evaluated the suitability of T. ni eggs as hosts for three Trichogramma Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) species and their tolerance to survive and develop within a range of temperatures between 15 and 30°C under laboratory conditions. The species evaluated were Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman and Platner, and Trichogramma acacioi Brun, Moraes and Soares. Parasitism rate was affected by temperature, parasitoid species, and by the interaction between these two factors. Parasitoids developed and reproduced in the range of temperatures evaluated, but Trichog. acacioi failed to parasitize T. ni eggs at 30°C. The highest parasitism rates of Trichog. atopovirilia and Trichog. pretiosum occurred at 20 and 25°C and Trichog. acacioi at 25°C, with parasitism rate above 70% in the three species. Parasitoid emergence was not affected by temperature or species. The estimated thermal constant and lower temperature threshold were 134.6 DD and 10.6°C for Trichog. pretiosum and 130.1 DD and 11.2°C for Trichog. atopovirilia. The results demonstrated that Trichog. pretiosum and Trichog. atopovirilia are the most suitable species for the control of T. ni, as they can remain active throughout the year in subtropical regions. PMID:26160802

  11. Insecticide Efficacy and Timing for Control of Western Bean Cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Dry and Snap Beans.

    PubMed

    Goudis, L A; Trueman, C L; Baute, T S; Hallett, R H; Gillard, C L

    2016-02-01

    The western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a recent pest of corn, dry,and snap beans, in the Great Lakes region, and best practices for its management in beans need to be established.Insecticide efficacy and application timing field studies, conducted in 2011–2013, determined that lambda-cyhalothrin and chlorantraniliprole were capable of reducing western bean cutworm feeding damage in dry beans from 2.3 to 0.4% in preharvest samples, and in snap beans from 4.8 to 0.1% of marketable pods, respectively. The best application timing in dry beans was determined to be 4–18 d after 50% egg hatch. No economic benefit was found when products were applied to dry beans, and despite high artificial inoculation rates, damage to marketable yield was relatively low. Thiamethoxam, methoxyfenozide, and spinetoram were also found to be effective at reducing western bean cutworm damage in dry bean to as low as 0.3% compared to an untreated control with 2.5% damaged pods. In snap beans, increased return on investment between CAD$400 and CAD$600 was seen with multiple applications of lambda-cyhalothrin, and with chlorantraniliprole applied 4 d after egg mass infestation. PMID:26476558

  12. Copitarsia decolora (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae escaping from discarded asparagus: data in support of a pathway risk analysis.

    PubMed

    Gould, J R; Maldonado, M Huamán

    2006-10-01

    This research was undertaken to gather data in support of an assessment of the likelihood that Copitarsia decolora (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a pest of asparagus, Asparagus officinalis L., and other crops, could escape from the pathway followed by asparagus from the field to the consumer. Asparagus that is destroyed by cooking and consumption, being run through a trash compactor or garbage disposal, or being buried in a landfill probably cannot support development of C. decolora larvae. Much asparagus is discarded in dumpsters, however, and the time between disposal and removal to the landfill provides an opportunity for C. decolora to escape into the environment. Results of this study indicate that C. decolora cannot survive to the pupal stage on rotten asparagus, and survival on dried asparagus is low. However, larvae can survive at least 1 wk on both types of deteriorating asparagus held at 23.5 degrees C. In field trials, a small percentage of C. decolora larvae crawled out of a dumpster filled with asparagus after 1 wk. PMID:17066789

  13. Relative Fitness of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Seven Host Plants: A Perspective for IPM in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Reigada, C; Guimarães, K F; Parra, J R P

    2016-01-01

    The cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a widespread pest of many cultivated and wild plants in Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia. In 2013, this species was reported in Brazil, attacking various host crops in the midwestern and northeastern regions of the country and is now found countrywide. Aiming to understand the effects of different host plants on the life cycle of H. armigera, we selected seven species of host plants that mature in different seasons and are commonly grown in these regions: cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, "FM993"), corn (Zea mays, "2B587"), soybean (Glycine max, "99R01"), rattlepods (Crotalaria spectabilis), millet (Pennisetum glaucum, "ADR300"), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, "AGROMEN70G35"), and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, "SEMPRE VERDE"). The development time of immatures, body weight, survivorship, and fecundity of H. armigera were evaluated on each host plant under laboratory conditions. The bollworms did not survive on corn, millet, or sorghum and showed very low survival rates on rattlepods. Survival rates were highest on soybean, followed by cotton and cowpea. The values for relative fitness found on soybean, cotton, cowpea, and rattlepods were 1, 0.5, 0.43, and 0.03, respectively. Survivorship, faster development time, and fecundity on soybean, cotton, and cowpea were positively correlated. Larger pupae and greater fecundity were found on soybean and cotton. The results indicated that soybean, cotton, and cowpea are the most suitable plants to support the reproduction of H. armigera in the field. PMID:26798139

  14. Bird predation on cutworms (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in wheat fields and chlorpyrifos effects on brain cholinesterase activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEwen, L.C.; DeWeese, L.R.; Schladweiler, P.

    1986-01-01

    Horned larks, Eremophila alpestris (L.), and McCown's longspurs, Calcarius mccownii (Lawrence), were collected at intervals from two winter wheat fields in Montana [USA] after aerial application of chlorpyrifos to control cutworms. Both bird species had a high (95-100%) incidence of Lepidoptera, mostly pale western cutworms, Agrotis orthogonia Morrison, in their stomachs at 3 days postspray. Incidence of cutworms and other insects in stomachs of birds from sprayed fields was lower at 9 and 16 days postspray than in control birds, presumably due to insecticide-caused reduction of insects. Effects of birds on population dynamics of insect pests in wheat are unknown, but birds do contribute to cutworm mortality. Predation is one of the limiting factors to cutworm increase and can supplement insecticidal control. Brain cholinesterase activity in horned larks collected from the sprayed fields at 3 and 9 days postspray was significantly lower than in unexposed larks, but at 16 days the difference was not significant. Although nontarget birds clearly were exposed to chlorpyrifos and manifested a sublethal physiological response, toxic effects were less severe than those resulting from endrin application for cutworm control in wheat. More study is needed of larger chlorpyrifos-treated fields under a variety of conditions to fully assess effects on nontarget life.

  15. Feeding and Dispersal Behavior of the Cotton Leafworm, Alabama argillacea (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), on Bt and Non-Bt Cotton: Implications for Evolution and Resistance Management

    PubMed Central

    Ramalho, Francisco S.; Pachú, Jéssica K. S.; Lira, Aline C. S.; Malaquias, José B.; Zanuncio, José C.; Fernandes, Francisco S.

    2014-01-01

    The host acceptance of neonate Alabama argillacea (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae to Bt cotton plants exerts a strong influence on the potential risk that this pest will develop resistance to Bt cotton. This will also determine the efficiency of management strategies to prevent its resistance such as the “refuge-in-the-bag” strategy. In this study, we assessed the acceptance of neonate A. argillacea larvae to Bt and non-Bt cotton plants at different temperatures during the first 24 h after hatching. Two cotton cultivars were used in the study, one a Bt DP 404 BG (Bollgard) cultivar, and the other, an untransformed isoline, DP 4049 cultivar. There was a greater acceptance by live neonate A. argillacea larvae for the non-Bt cotton plants compared with the Bt cotton plants, especially in the time interval between 18 and 24 h. The percentages of neonate A. argillacea larvae found on Bt or non-Bt plants were lower when exposed to temperatures of 31 and 34°C. The low acceptance of A. argillacea larvae for Bt cotton plants at high temperatures stimulated the dispersion of A. argillacea larvae. Our results support the hypothesis that the dispersion and/or feeding behavior of neonate A. argillacea larvae is different between Bt and non-Bt cotton. The presence of the Cry1Ac toxin in Bt cotton plants, and its probable detection by the A. argillacea larvae tasting or eating it, increases the probability of dispersion from the plant where the larvae began. These findings may help to understand how the A. argillacea larvae detect the Cry1Ac toxin in Bt cotton and how the toxin affects the dispersion behavior of the larvae over time. Therefore, our results are extremely important for the management of resistance in populations of A. argillacea on Bt cotton. PMID:25369211

  16. Feeding and dispersal behavior of the cotton leafworm, Alabama argillacea (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), on Bt and non-Bt cotton: implications for evolution and resistance management.

    PubMed

    Ramalho, Francisco S; Pachú, Jéssica K S; Lira, Aline C S; Malaquias, José B; Zanuncio, José C; Fernandes, Francisco S

    2014-01-01

    The host acceptance of neonate Alabama argillacea (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae to Bt cotton plants exerts a strong influence on the potential risk that this pest will develop resistance to Bt cotton. This will also determine the efficiency of management strategies to prevent its resistance such as the "refuge-in-the-bag" strategy. In this study, we assessed the acceptance of neonate A. argillacea larvae to Bt and non-Bt cotton plants at different temperatures during the first 24 h after hatching. Two cotton cultivars were used in the study, one a Bt DP 404 BG (Bollgard) cultivar, and the other, an untransformed isoline, DP 4049 cultivar. There was a greater acceptance by live neonate A. argillacea larvae for the non-Bt cotton plants compared with the Bt cotton plants, especially in the time interval between 18 and 24 h. The percentages of neonate A. argillacea larvae found on Bt or non-Bt plants were lower when exposed to temperatures of 31 and 34 °C. The low acceptance of A. argillacea larvae for Bt cotton plants at high temperatures stimulated the dispersion of A. argillacea larvae. Our results support the hypothesis that the dispersion and/or feeding behavior of neonate A. argillacea larvae is different between Bt and non-Bt cotton. The presence of the Cry1Ac toxin in Bt cotton plants, and its probable detection by the A. argillacea larvae tasting or eating it, increases the probability of dispersion from the plant where the larvae began. These findings may help to understand how the A. argillacea larvae detect the Cry1Ac toxin in Bt cotton and how the toxin affects the dispersion behavior of the larvae over time. Therefore, our results are extremely important for the management of resistance in populations of A. argillacea on Bt cotton. PMID:25369211

  17. Lepidoptera (Crambidae, Noctuidae, and Pyralidae) Injury to Corn Containing Single and Pyramided Bt Traits, and Blended or Block Refuge, in the Southern United States.

    PubMed

    Reisig, D D; Akin, D S; All, J N; Bessin, R T; Brewer, M J; Buntin, D G; Catchot, A L; Cook, D; Flanders, K L; Huang, F-N; Johnson, D W; Leonard, B R; Mcleod, P J; Porter, R P; Reay-Jones, F P F; Tindall, K V; Stewart, S D; Troxclair, N N; Youngman, R R; Rice, M E

    2015-02-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea Boddie (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar (Lepidoptera: Crambidae); sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae); and lesser cornstalk borer, Elasmopalpus lignosellus Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), are lepidopteran pests of corn, Zea mays L., in the southern United States. Blended refuge for transgenic plants expressing the insecticidal protein derivative from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has recently been approved as an alternative resistance management strategy in the northern United States. We conducted a two-year study with 39 experiments across 12 states in the southern United States to evaluate plant injury from these five species of Lepidoptera to corn expressing Cry1F and Cry1Ab, as both single and pyramided traits, a pyramid of Cry1Ab×Vip3Aa20, and a pyramid of Cry1F×Cry1Ab plus non-Bt in a blended refuge. Leaf injury and kernel damage from corn earworm and fall armyworm, and stalking tunneling by southwestern corn borer, were similar in Cry1F×Cry1Ab plants compared with the Cry1F×Cry1Ab plus non-Bt blended refuge averaged across five-plant clusters. When measured on an individual plant basis, leaf injury, kernel damage, stalk tunneling (southwestern corn borer), and dead or injured plants (lesser cornstalk borer) were greater in the blended non-Bt refuge plants compared to Cry1F×Cry1Ab plants in the non-Bt and pyramided Cry1F×Cry1Ab blended refuge treatment. When non-Bt blended refuge plants were compared to a structured refuge of non-Bt plants, no significant difference was detected in leaf injury, kernel damage, or stalk tunneling (southwestern corn borer). Plant stands in the non-Bt and pyramided Cry1F×Cry1Ab blended refuge treatment had more stalk tunneling from sugarcane borer and plant death from lesser cornstalk borer compared to a pyramided Cry1F×Cry1Ab structured refuge

  18. Host plant resistance in romaine lettuce affects feeding behavior and biology of Trichoplusia ni and Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Sethi, Amit; McAuslane, Heather J; Nagata, Russell T; Nuessly, Gregg S

    2006-12-01

    Lettuce quality and yield can be reduced by feeding of several lepidopterous pests, particularly cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hübner), and beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Host plant resistance to these insects is an environmentally sound adjunct to conventional chemical control. In this study we compared the survival, development, and feeding behavior of cabbage looper and beet armyworm on two romaine lettuce cultivars, resistant 'Valmaine' and susceptible 'Tall Guzmaine'. Larval mortality of both species was significantly higher on resistant Valmaine than on susceptible Tall Guzmaine. The average weight per larva after feeding for 1 wk on Tall Guzmaine plants was 6 times (beet armyworm) and 2 times (cabbage looper) greater than that of larvae feeding on Valmaine plants. Significant reduction in larval growth on Valmaine compared with that on Tall Guzmaine resulted in a 5.9- (beet armyworm) and 2.6-d (cabbage looper) increase in larval duration and almost a 1-d increase in pupal duration. Average pupal and adult weights and successful pupation of cabbage looper and beet armyworm were reduced on Valmaine compared with Tall Guzmaine. The sex ratio of progeny did not deviate from 1:1 when larvae were reared on either Valmaine or Tall Guzmaine. The fecundity of cabbage looper and beet armyworm adults that developed from larvae reared on Valmaine was about one-third that of adults from Tall Guzmaine, but adult longevity did not significantly differ on the two lettuce cultivars. The two insect species showed different feeding preferences for leaves of different age groups on Valmaine and Tall Guzmaine. Cabbage loopers cut narrow trenches on the leaf before actual feeding to block the flow of latex to the intended site of feeding. In contrast, beet armyworms did not trench. The different feeding behavior of the two species on Valmaine may explain the superior performance of cabbage looper compared with beet armyworm. PMID:17195688

  19. Optimizing Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) insecticidal efficacy in Minnesota sweet corn: a logistic regression to assess timing parameters.

    PubMed

    Burkness, Eric C; Galvan, Tederson L; Hutchison, W D

    2009-04-01

    Late-season plantings of sweet corn in Minnesota result in an abundant supply of silking corn, Zea mays L., throughout August to early September that is highly attractive to the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). During a 10-yr period, 1997-2006, insecticide efficacy trials were conducted in late-planted sweet corn in Minnesota for management of H. zea. These data were used to develop a logistic regression model to identify the variables and interactions that most influenced efficacy (proportion control) of late-instar H. zea. The pyrethroid lambdacyhalothrin (0.028 kg [AI]/ha) is a commonly used insecticide in sweet corn and was therefore chosen for use in parameter evaluation. Three variables were found to be significant (alpha = 0.05), the percentage of plants silking at the time of the first insecticide application, the interval between the first and second insecticide applications, and the interval between the last insecticide application and harvest. Odds ratio estimates indicated that as the percentage of plants silking at the time of first application increased, control of H. zea increased. As the interval between the first and second insecticide application increased, control of H. zea decreased. Finally, as the interval between the last insecticide application and harvest increased, control of H. zea increased. An additional timing trial was conducted in 2007 by using lambda-cyhalothrin, to evaluate the impact of the percentage of plants silking at the first application. The results indicated no significant differences in efficacy against late-instar H. zea at 0, 50, 90, and 100% of plants silking at the first application (regimes of five or more sprays). The implications of these effects are discussed within the context of current integrated pest management programs for late-planted sweet corn in the upper midwestern United States. PMID:19449649

  20. Impact of Western Bean Cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Infestation and Insecticide Treatments on Damage and Marketable Yield of Michigan Dry Beans.

    PubMed

    Difonzo, C D; Chludzinski, M M; Jewett, M R; Springborn, F

    2015-04-01

    The western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), recently expanded its range from the western United States into the Great Lakes region of the United States and Canada, threatening eastern dry bean production. Our objectives were to better understand the relationship between cutworm infestation and damage in dry beans, and to determine the best method and timing of insecticide application to reduce pick. Infesting with at least one egg mass per 1.5 m, or as few as two larvae per 0.3 m, of row resulted in significantly more pod damage and pick than in uninfested plots. By 14 d after hatch, larvae were no longer on plants during the daytime; direct observations revealed that fifth instars climbed plants to feed between 2100 and 0600 hours, illustrating the impractically of using larval counts to make management decisions. There was a strong linear relationship between pod damage and percent pick, making scouting for pod damage a viable alternative to egg or larval scouting. Aldicarb soil insecticide or thiamethoxam-treated seed did not reduce cutworm damage. Instead, plots treated with these insecticides had significantly more pick than control plots, perhaps related to increased canopy growth or fewer natural enemies. The pyrethroid λ-cyhalothrin provided excellent control of cutworm when sprayed up to 18 d after infestation. Pick was similar among plots sprayed once up to 18 d after infestation or sprayed four separate times. In a field study, λ-cyhalothrin residue on field-treated foliage was 100% effective at controlling caterpillars up to 14 d after application. PMID:26470169

  1. Relative Fitness of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Seven Host Plants: A Perspective for IPM in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Reigada, C.; Guimarães, K. F.; Parra, J. R. P.

    2016-01-01

    The cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a widespread pest of many cultivated and wild plants in Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia. In 2013, this species was reported in Brazil, attacking various host crops in the midwestern and northeastern regions of the country and is now found countrywide. Aiming to understand the effects of different host plants on the life cycle of H. armigera, we selected seven species of host plants that mature in different seasons and are commonly grown in these regions: cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, “FM993”), corn (Zea mays, “2B587”), soybean (Glycine max, “99R01”), rattlepods (Crotalaria spectabilis), millet (Pennisetum glaucum, “ADR300”), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, “AGROMEN70G35”), and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, “SEMPRE VERDE”). The development time of immatures, body weight, survivorship, and fecundity of H. armigera were evaluated on each host plant under laboratory conditions. The bollworms did not survive on corn, millet, or sorghum and showed very low survival rates on rattlepods. Survival rates were highest on soybean, followed by cotton and cowpea. The values for relative fitness found on soybean, cotton, cowpea, and rattlepods were 1, 0.5, 0.43, and 0.03, respectively. Survivorship, faster development time, and fecundity on soybean, cotton, and cowpea were positively correlated. Larger pupae and greater fecundity were found on soybean and cotton. The results indicated that soybean, cotton, and cowpea are the most suitable plants to support the reproduction of H. armigera in the field. PMID:26798139

  2. Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cry2Ab in a strain of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Australia.

    PubMed

    Mahon, R J; Olsen, K M; Garsia, K A; Young, S R

    2007-06-01

    Transgenic cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., expressing the crylAc and cry2Ab genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner variety kurstaki in a pyramid (Bollgard II) was widely planted for the first time in Australia during the 2004-2005 growing season. Before the first commercial Bollgard II crops, limited amounts of cotton expressing only the crylAc gene (Ingard) was grown for seven seasons. No field failures due to resistance to CrylAc toxin were observed during that period and a monitoring program indicated that the frequency of genes conferring high level resistance to the CrylAc toxin were rare in the major pest of cotton, Helicoverpa armigera (Htibner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Before the deployment of Bollgard II, an allele conferring resistance to Cry2Ab toxin was detected in field-collected H. armigera. We established a colony (designated SP15) consisting of homozygous resistant individuals and examined their characteristics through comparison with individuals from a Bt-susceptible laboratory colony (GR). Through specific crosses and bioassays, we established that the resistance present in SP15 was due to a single autosomal gene. The resistance was recessive. Homozygotes were highly resistant to Cry2Ab toxin, so much so, that we were unable to induce significant mortality at the maximum concentration of toxin available. Homozygotes also were unaffected when fed leaves of a cotton variety expressing the cry2Ab gene. Although cross-resistant to Cry2Aa toxin, SP15 was susceptible to CrylAc and to the Bt product DiPel. PMID:17598553

  3. Phylogenetic molecular species delimitations unravel potential new species in the pest genus Spodoptera Guenée, 1852 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Dumas, Pascaline; Barbut, Jérôme; Le Ru, Bruno; Silvain, Jean-François; Clamens, Anne-Laure; d'Alençon, Emmanuelle; Kergoat, Gael J

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays molecular species delimitation methods promote the identification of species boundaries within complex taxonomic groups by adopting innovative species concepts and theories (e.g. branching patterns, coalescence). As some of them can efficiently deal with large single-locus datasets, they could speed up the process of species discovery compared to more time consuming molecular methods, and benefit from the existence of large public datasets; these methods can also particularly favour scientific research and actions dealing with threatened or economically important taxa. In this study we aim to investigate and clarify the status of economically important moths species belonging to the genus Spodoptera (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), a complex group in which previous phylogenetic analyses and integrative approaches already suggested the possible occurrence of cryptic species and taxonomic ambiguities. In this work, the effectiveness of innovative (and faster) species delimitation approaches to infer putative species boundaries has been successfully tested in Spodoptera, by processing the most comprehensive dataset (in terms of number of species and specimens) ever achieved; results are congruent and reliable, irrespective of the set of parameters and phylogenetic models applied. Our analyses confirm the existence of three potential new species clusters (for S. exigua (Hübner, 1808), S. frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) and S. mauritia (Boisduval, 1833)) and support the synonymy of S. marima (Schaus, 1904) with S. ornithogalli (Guenée, 1852). They also highlight the ambiguity of the status of S. cosmiodes (Walker, 1858) and S. descoinsi Lalanne-Cassou & Silvain, 1994. This case study highlights the interest of molecular species delimitation methods as valuable tools for species discovery and to emphasize taxonomic ambiguities. PMID:25853412

  4. Phylogenetic Molecular Species Delimitations Unravel Potential New Species in the Pest Genus Spodoptera Guenée, 1852 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Dumas, Pascaline; Barbut, Jérôme; Le Ru, Bruno; Silvain, Jean-François; Clamens, Anne-Laure; d’Alençon, Emmanuelle; Kergoat, Gael J.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays molecular species delimitation methods promote the identification of species boundaries within complex taxonomic groups by adopting innovative species concepts and theories (e.g. branching patterns, coalescence). As some of them can efficiently deal with large single-locus datasets, they could speed up the process of species discovery compared to more time consuming molecular methods, and benefit from the existence of large public datasets; these methods can also particularly favour scientific research and actions dealing with threatened or economically important taxa. In this study we aim to investigate and clarify the status of economically important moths species belonging to the genus Spodoptera (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), a complex group in which previous phylogenetic analyses and integrative approaches already suggested the possible occurrence of cryptic species and taxonomic ambiguities. In this work, the effectiveness of innovative (and faster) species delimitation approaches to infer putative species boundaries has been successfully tested in Spodoptera, by processing the most comprehensive dataset (in terms of number of species and specimens) ever achieved; results are congruent and reliable, irrespective of the set of parameters and phylogenetic models applied. Our analyses confirm the existence of three potential new species clusters (for S. exigua (Hübner, 1808), S. frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) and S. mauritia (Boisduval, 1833)) and support the synonymy of S. marima (Schaus, 1904) with S. ornithogalli (Guenée, 1852). They also highlight the ambiguity of the status of S. cosmiodes (Walker, 1858) and S. descoinsi Lalanne-Cassou & Silvain, 1994. This case study highlights the interest of molecular species delimitation methods as valuable tools for species discovery and to emphasize taxonomic ambiguities. PMID:25853412

  5. Palaeoenvironmental Shifts Drove the Adaptive Radiation of a Noctuid Stemborer Tribe (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Apameini) in the Miocene

    PubMed Central

    Toussaint, Emmanuel F. A.; Condamine, Fabien L.; Kergoat, Gael J.; Capdevielle-Dulac, Claire; Barbut, Jérôme; Silvain, Jean-François; Le Ru, Bruno P.

    2012-01-01

    Between the late Oligocene and the early Miocene, climatic changes have shattered the faunal and floral communities and drove the apparition of new ecological niches. Grassland biomes began to supplant forestlands, thus favouring a large-scale ecosystem turnover. The independent adaptive radiations of several mammal lineages through the evolution of key innovations are classic examples of these changes. However, little is known concerning the evolutionary history of other herbivorous groups in relation with this modified environment. It is especially the case in phytophagous insect communities, which have been rarely studied in this context despite their ecological importance. Here, we investigate the phylogenetic and evolutionary patterns of grass-specialist moths from the species-rich tribe Apameini (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). The molecular dating analyses carried out over the corresponding phylogenetic framework reveal an origin around 29 million years ago for the Apameini. Ancestral state reconstructions indicate (i) a potential Palaearctic origin of the tribe Apameini associated with a major dispersal event in Afrotropics for the subtribe Sesamiina; (ii) a recent colonization from Palaearctic of the New World and Oriental regions by several independent lineages; and (iii) an ancestral association of the tribe Apameini over grasses (Poaceae). Diversification analyses indicate that diversification rates have not remained constant during the evolution of the group, as underlined by a significant shift in diversification rates during the early Miocene. Interestingly, this age estimate is congruent with the development of grasslands at this time. Rather than clade ages, variations in diversification rates among genera better explain the current differences in species diversity. Our results underpin a potential adaptive radiation of these phytophagous moths with the family Poaceae in relation with the major environmental shifts that have occurred in the Miocene. PMID

  6. Comparative Effectiveness of Potential Elicitors of Plant Resistance against Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Four Crop Plants

    PubMed Central

    Gordy, John W.; Leonard, B. Rogers; Blouin, David; Davis, Jeffrey A.; Stout, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Feeding by insect herbivores activates plant signaling pathways, resulting in the enhanced production of secondary metabolites and other resistance-related traits by injured plants. These traits can reduce insect fitness, deter feeding, and attract beneficial insects. Organic and inorganic chemicals applied as a foliar spray, seed treatment, or soil drench can activate these plant responses. Azelaic acid (AA), benzothiadiazole (BTH), gibberellic acid (GA), harpin, and jasmonic acid (JA) are thought to directly mediate plant responses to pathogens and herbivores or to mimic compounds that do. The effects of these potential elicitors on the induction of plant defenses were determined by measuring the weight gains of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (FAW) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on four crop plants, cotton, corn, rice, and soybean, treated with the compounds under greenhouse conditions. Treatment with JA consistently reduced growth of FAW reared on treated cotton and soybean. In contrast, FAW fed BTH- and harpin-treated cotton and soybean tissue gained more weight than those fed control leaf tissue, consistent with negative crosstalk between the salicylic acid and JA signaling pathways. No induction or inconsistent induction of resistance was observed in corn and rice. Follow-up experiments showed that the co-application of adjuvants with JA failed to increase the effectiveness of induction by JA and that soybean looper [Chrysodeixis includens (Walker)], a relative specialist on legumes, was less affected by JA-induced responses in soybean than was the polyphagous FAW. Overall, the results of these experiments demonstrate that the effectiveness of elicitors as a management tactic will depend strongly on the identities of the crop, the pest, and the elicitor involved. PMID:26332833

  7. Application of molecular techniques to identification of three plusiine species, Autographa nigrisigna, Macdunnoughia confusa, and Thysanoplusia intermixta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), found in integrated pest management lettuce fields in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hashiyama, Aoi; Nomura, Masashi; Kurihara, Jun; Toyoshima, Goro

    2011-08-01

    Three plusiine species, Autographa nigrisigna, Macdunnoughia confusa, and Thysanoplusia intermixta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are commonly found together in lettuce, Lactuca sativa L., fields in Japan. Given the marked morphological similarities between these species and the difficulty associated with discriminating between them using only visual cues, we used multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to distinguish between the three target species. Multiplex PCR uses four primers to simultaneously amplify a specific region of the mitochondrial DNA and produce species-specific banding patterns. The stringency of the method was tested using specimens of different sex, location, and developmental stage, and consistent results were obtained for all samples. Indeed, our method has the potential to clarify the species structure of plusiine species in lettuce fields. PMID:21882693

  8. A review of the genus Ogdoconta Butler (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Condicinae, Condicini) from North America north of Mexico with descriptions of three new species

    PubMed Central

    Metzler, Eric H.; Knudson, Edward C.; Poole, Robert W.; J. Donald Lafontaine; Pogue, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The species of the genus Ogdoconta Butler, 1891 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Condicinae, Condicini) from North America north of Mexico are reviewed, and a description of the genus is given. Ogdoconta satana Metzler, Knudson & Poole, sp. n., is described from New Mexico and Texas, Ogdoconta rufipenna Metzler, Knudson & Poole, sp. n., is described from Arizona, and Ogdoconta fergusoni Metzler & Lafontaine, sp. n., is described from Florida, Mississippi, and Louisiana. A key to the species of Ogdoconta of North America north of Mexico is provided. Adult moths and male and female genitalia of Ogdoconta satana, Ogdoconta rufipenna, Ogdoconta fergusoni, Ogdoconta cinereola (Guenée, 1852), Ogdoconta moreno Barnes, 1907, Ogdoconta sexta Barnes & McDunnough, 1913, Ogdoconta altura Barnes, 1904, and Ogdoconta tacna (Barnes, 1904) are illustrated. PMID:23717183

  9. Revision of the genus Aseptis McDunnough (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Xylenini) with a description of two new genera, Paraseptis and Viridiseptis

    PubMed Central

    Mustelin, Tomas; Crabo, Lars G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The genus Aseptis McDunnough (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Xylenini, Xylenina) is revised to include 15 species based on morphological and molecular data. Several new synonymies are introduced. In addition, two genera are described because of significant morphological differences from Aseptis: Paraseptis gen. n., and Viridiseptis gen. n., resulting in the new combinations Paraseptis adnixa (Grote), comb. n., and Viridiseptis marina (Grote), comb. n. Although this work is primarily based on morphological data, DNA sequence data for the 658-base pair “barcode” segment of the mitochondrial gene for subunit 1 of cytochrome c oxidase was used as a secondary support for taxonomic changes within Aseptis and for the two new genera. Our work should provide clarity and stability in a previously difficult genus. PMID:26692788

  10. Redescription of Campoletis sonorensis (Cameron, 1886) (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Campopleginae), parasitoid of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Camargo, L F; Brito, R A; Penteado-Dias, A M

    2015-11-01

    The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae) is a voracious pest of numerous crops of economic importance throughout the New World. In Brazil, its larvae are attacked by several species of parasitoid wasps, making them potential candidate as biological control agents against this pest. A survey of the parasitoid fauna on S. frugiperda in maize crops throughout Brazil reveals two species of Campoletis, which are morphologicaly very similar species. In this paper we combine these data with pictures from the type material of C. sonorensis and C. flavicincta, as well as their descriptions to provide a redescription to Campoletis sonorensis (Cameron, 1886) using for this both morphological characters and DNA Barcoding (Hebert et al., 2003) information, in an attempt to help with the correct identification of the taxa to improve biological control studies. PMID:26675917

  11. Biological and molecular characterization of a multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus from Thysanoplusia orichalcea (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiao-Wen; Carner, Gerald R; Lange, Martin; Jehle, Johannes A; Arif, Basil M

    2005-02-01

    A multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (ThorMNPV) that was co-isolated with a single nucleocapid ThorSNPV from mixed infected larvae of Thysanoplusia orichalcea L. (Lepidoptea: Noctuidae) is characterized. Scanning electron microscopy of ThorMNPV showed a dodecahedral-shaped occlusion body (OB). The occluded virions contained one to as many as eight nucleocapsids/virion. Virion band profiles in gradient centrifugation were consistent in at least 10 rounds of centrifugation from different virion sample preparations. The ThorMNPV had high virulence to third instar Trichoplusia ni and Pseudoplusia includens with LD50 values of 17 and 242OBs per larva, respectively. However, ThorMNPV did not cause mortality in Spodoptera exigua, Spodoptera frugiperda, Spodoptera eridania, Anticarsia gemmatalis, and Helicoverpa zea. ThorMNPV replicates in cells of various tissues such as the fat body and tracheal epithelium cells. T. ni High 5 cells were permissive to ThorMNPV in terms of infection and viral DNA transfection, but SF-21 was less permissive and the infection process was slower. Production of OBs by ThorMNPV in the nuclei of SF-21 was not well pronounced. The genome size of ThorMNPV was estimated to be 136 kb. The polyhedrin gene open reading frame (ORF) was cloned and completely sequenced. The promoter sequence is identical to that of Autographa californica MNPV. Phylogenetic analyses using partial sequences of the polh, lef-8, and lef-9 revealed that ThorMNPV is a member of the Group I NPVs and is related but distinct from the AcMNPV/Rachiplusia ou NPV/Bombyx mori NPV cluster. PMID:15766929

  12. First report of Dolichozele koebelei Viereck, 1911 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in maize (Zea mays L.) under different cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Silva, R B; Cruz, I; Penteado-Dias, A M

    2014-08-01

    In the context of the modern agriculture, pest control is important in order to increase productivity in maize (Zea mays L.). However, this control should be done rationally, prioritising environmentally safer methods such as biological control. This paper aims to report the occurrence of Dolichozele koebelei Viereck, 1911 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae collected in maize subjected to different cropping systems. The experiment was conducted at the Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Milho e Sorgo (CNPMS) in Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, using organic and conventional production. Ten plants were sampled from each of the 24 plots and for each production system, three times a week during the entire cycle of maize (variety BR 106). In the laboratory, larvae were distributed in individual rearing containers with artificial diet until the end of the biological cycle. An increased number of S. frugiperda larvae was observed in organic single crop maize; hence a higher percentage of S. frugiperda larvae parasitised by Hymenoptera and Diptera also occurred in the maize under this production system. Dolichozele koebelei had not yet been described in association with larvae of S. frugiperda. The percentage of parasitism of S. frugiperda larvae was high in both experiments, indicating the importance of natural control agents in reducing the population density of S. frugiperda, and especially the importance of an appropriate crop management. PMID:25627388

  13. Genetic analysis of cabbage loopers, Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a seasonal migrant in western North America.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Michelle T; Ritland, Carol E; Myers, Judith H

    2011-01-01

    Long-range migrations of many wind-borne noctuid moths will have been influenced by the expansion of agriculture that provides greater availability of food plants along the migratory route. The migratory, agricultural pest, Trichoplusia ni (cabbage looper) over-winters in southern California and each summer migrates as far north as British Columbia. We explored the degree of genetic connectivity of populations over this migratory range. Preliminary investigation of seven mitochondrial gene regions found little to no variation among 13 populations, while partial regions of the NADH dehydrogenase subunits 1 and 4 in 42 individuals revealed eight and six haplotypes, respectively. The pattern of haplotype distribution indicated genetic homogeneity of persistent populations in California but weak differentiation among populations further north. Four highly variable amplified fragment length polymorphism primer combinations generated 167 polymorphic bands, with heterozygosity levels ranging from 0.250 to 0.302. Pairwise F ST values and clustering analyses also showed similarty among populations in California with some differentiation among populations initiated from the annual migration. Overall, some differentiation occurs among temporary, annual migratory populations but no pattern occurs with distance from the source population. Population subdivision in British Columbia associated with greenhouses has the greatest impact on genetic differentiation. PMID:25567955

  14. Genetic analysis of cabbage loopers, Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a seasonal migrant in western North America

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Michelle T; Ritland, Carol E; Myers, Judith H

    2011-01-01

    Long-range migrations of many wind-borne noctuid moths will have been influenced by the expansion of agriculture that provides greater availability of food plants along the migratory route. The migratory, agricultural pest, Trichoplusia ni (cabbage looper) over-winters in southern California and each summer migrates as far north as British Columbia. We explored the degree of genetic connectivity of populations over this migratory range. Preliminary investigation of seven mitochondrial gene regions found little to no variation among 13 populations, while partial regions of the NADH dehydrogenase subunits 1 and 4 in 42 individuals revealed eight and six haplotypes, respectively. The pattern of haplotype distribution indicated genetic homogeneity of persistent populations in California but weak differentiation among populations further north. Four highly variable amplified fragment length polymorphism primer combinations generated 167 polymorphic bands, with heterozygosity levels ranging from 0.250 to 0.302. Pairwise FST values and clustering analyses also showed similarty among populations in California with some differentiation among populations initiated from the annual migration. Overall, some differentiation occurs among temporary, annual migratory populations but no pattern occurs with distance from the source population. Population subdivision in British Columbia associated with greenhouses has the greatest impact on genetic differentiation. PMID:25567955

  15. COMPARISON OF SAMPLING TECHNIQUES USED IN STUDYING LEPIDOPTERA POPULATION DYNAMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four methods (light traps, foliage samples, canvas bands, and gypsy moth egg mass surveys) that are used to study the population dynamics of foliage-feeding Lepidoptera were compared for 10 species, including gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. Samples were collected weekly at 12 sit...

  16. Molecular characterization of host strains of Spodoptera frugiperda(Lepidoptera:Noctuidae)in southern Brazil :

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall armyworm infestations in most of North America north of Mexico arise from annual migrations of populations that overwinter in southern Texas and Florida. Mapping the pattern of migration and the relative contributions of the Texas and Florida populations would contribute both to our understandi...

  17. Identification and comparison of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) host strains in Brazil, Texas, and Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall armyworm is a major economic pest throughout the western hemisphere. Studies of populations in the southern United States and the Caribbean demonstrated the existence of two morphologically identical but genetically distinct host strains. Fall armyworm populations in Brazil are geographically d...

  18. Assessing the resolution of haplotype distributions to delineate fall armyworm (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) migratory behaviors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Regions of southern Florida and southern Texas (extending into Mexico) provide the overwintering source populations for virtually all fall armyworm infestations affecting the continental U.S. Understanding how these migratory populations annually disperse is important to predict and control infestat...

  19. Female sex pheromone of oriental tobacco budworm,Helicoverpa assulta (Guenee) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): Identification and field testing.

    PubMed

    Cork, A; Boo, K S; Dunkelblum, E; Hall, D R; Jee-Rajunga, K; Kehat, M; Kong Jie, E; Park, K C; Tepgidagarn, P; Xun, L

    1992-03-01

    Analysis of ovipositor washings from virgin femaleHelicoverpa assulta (Guenée) (Lepidoptere: Noctuidae) from Korea by gas chromatography (GC) linked to electroantennography and GC linked to mass spectrometry resulted in the identification of nine compounds, hexadecanal, (Z)-9-hexadecenal, (Z)-11-hexadecenal, hexadecyl acetate, (Z)-9-hexadecenyl acetate, (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate, hexadecan-l-ol, (Z)-9-hexadecen-l-ol, and (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol. However, ovipositor washings from females from Thailand contained mainly the 16-carbon aldehydes with very small amounts of (Z)-9-hexadecenyl acetate. Field tests conducted in Korea, China, and Thailand indicated that a binary blend of (Z)-9-hexadecenal and (Z)-11-hexadecenal was sufficient for attraction, although the most attractive ratio of compounds varied with location. In Korea a 20∶1 blend of compounds was the most attractive, while in Thailand a 7.5∶1 blend was most attractive. In China both blends of hexadecenal isomers were equally attractive. Addition of the hexadecenyl acetates to the 20∶1 blend of hexadecenals in the ratio of 1∶3.3 increased the trap catch of maleH. assulta compared to lures containing the aldehydes alone in Korea but reduced trap catch in China. Addition of the hexadecenyl acetates to the 7.5∶1 blend of hexadecenals had no significant effect on trap catch in Thailand or China compared to the aldehydes alone. The addition of the 16-carbon alcohols to the aldehydes had a significantly inhibitory effect in all three countries, suggesting they are not pheromone components. Taken together these results indicate thatH. assulta is polymorphic with at least two populations responding to different sex pheromones. PMID:24254945

  20. A review of the genus Palaeagrotis with description of a new species from South Mongolia (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Volynkin, Anton V; Gyulai, Péter; Behounek, Gottfried

    2015-01-01

    A small Central Asian Noctuidae genus Palaeagrotis Hampson, 1907 is revised. One new species, P. adrienneae Volynkin, Gyulai & Behounek, sp. n. is described from South Mongolia. The lectotypes of Hadena inops Lederer, 1853 and Heterographa sibirica Staudinger, 1896 are designated. The adults, and the male and female genitalia are illustrated. PMID:26248907

  1. Assessing the resolution of haplotype distributions to delineate fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) migratory behaviors.

    PubMed

    Nagoshi, Rodney N; Meagher, Robert L; Hay-Roe, Mirian

    2014-08-01

    Regions of southern Florida and southern Texas (extending into Mexico) provide the overwintering source populations for virtually all fall armyworm infestations affecting the continental United States. Understanding how these migratory populations annually disperse is important to predict and control infestations by this specific pest and to more generally investigate the environmental factors that influence the long-distance movements of flying insects. The two overwintering locations are associated with differences in the distribution of certain mitochondrial haplotypes that overlap in the region near the border separating the states of Alabama and Georgia. This provided an opportunity to test the resolution of the haplotype method by comparisons between smaller geographical areas and shorter time frames than previously examined. Correspondences were found between trap-capture numbers, fall armyworm strain proportions, and haplotype ratios calculated for individual counties and within season time periods that were generally consistent with expectations, providing confidence that those population movements could be accurately inferred. The comparison of haplotype distributions identified a migratory boundary separating the Texas and Florida populations coincident with the eastern edge of the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River basin. Calculations of strain numbers based on genetic markers revealed similarities and differences in strain population dynamics that can be applied to study the migratory behavior of fall armyworm subpopulations. The use of this methodology for the detailed mapping of migratory pathways and the identification of factors that influence the direction and extent of pest migration are discussed. PMID:25195437

  2. A new species of Chaetaglaea (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Xylenini), from eastern North America

    PubMed Central

    Stead, Ken H.; Troubridge, Jim T.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Chaetaglaea tremula (Harvey) occurs through the Gulf States, from southern Florida, west to eastern Texas. Coastal populations, previously referred to Chaetaglaea tremula occurring from the Carolinas, at least as far north as Massachusetts and shoreline dunes in southwestern Ontario are recognized as distinct and described here as Chaetaglaea rhonda. Adults and genitalia are illustrated for Chaetaglaea rhonda and Chaetaglaea tremula. PMID:27006600

  3. Chararacteristics of Thirteen Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers in the Corn Earworm, Helicovepa zea (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn earworm, Helicovepa zea, is an important pest of cotton in the United States. Lack of suitable genetic markers have hindered population genetic studies of this species. Although a number of simple sequence repeat (SSR or microsatellite) markers developed for other species had been evaluated on...

  4. A new species of Chaetaglaea (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Xylenini), from eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Stead, Ken H; Troubridge, Jim T

    2016-01-01

    Chaetaglaea tremula (Harvey) occurs through the Gulf States, from southern Florida, west to eastern Texas. Coastal populations, previously referred to Chaetaglaea tremula occurring from the Carolinas, at least as far north as Massachusetts and shoreline dunes in southwestern Ontario are recognized as distinct and described here as Chaetaglaea rhonda. Adults and genitalia are illustrated for Chaetaglaea rhonda and Chaetaglaea tremula. PMID:27006600

  5. Genetic Characterization of Fall Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Host Strains in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall armyworm is a major economic pest throughout the Western Hemisphere. Previous studies of populations in the southern United States, Brazil, and the Caribbean demonstrated the existence of two morphologically identical but genetically distinct host strains that can only be distinguished using ge...

  6. A brave new world for an old world pest: Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tay, Wee Tek; Soria, Miguel F; Walsh, Thomas; Thomazoni, Danielle; Silvie, Pierre; Behere, Gajanan T; Anderson, Craig; Downes, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    The highly polyphagous Old World cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera is a quarantine agricultural pest for the American continents. Historically H. armigera is thought to have colonised the American continents around 1.5 to 2 million years ago, leading to the current H. zea populations on the American continents. The relatively recent species divergence history is evident in mating compatibility between H. zea and H. armigera under laboratory conditions. Despite periodic interceptions of H. armigera into North America, this pest species is not believed to have successfully established significant populations on either continent. In this study, we provide molecular evidence via mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and cytochrome b (Cyt b) partial gene sequences for the successful recent incursion of H. armigera into the New World, with individuals being detected at two sites (Primavera do Leste, Pedra Preta) within the State of Mato Grosso in Brazil. The mtDNA COI and Cyt b haplotypes detected in the Brazilian H. armigera individuals are common throughout the Old World, thus precluding identification of the founder populations. Combining the two partial mtDNA gene sequences showed that at least two matrilines are present in Brazil, while the inclusion of three nuclear DNA Exon-Primed Intron-Crossing (EPIC) markers identified a further two possible matrilines in our samples. The economic, biosecurity, resistance management, ecological and evolutionary implications of this incursion are discussed in relation to the current agricultural practices in the Americas. PMID:24260345

  7. A Brave New World for an Old World Pest: Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Thomas; Thomazoni, Danielle; Silvie, Pierre; Behere, Gajanan T.; Anderson, Craig; Downes, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    The highly polyphagous Old World cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera is a quarantine agricultural pest for the American continents. Historically H. armigera is thought to have colonised the American continents around 1.5 to 2 million years ago, leading to the current H. zea populations on the American continents. The relatively recent species divergence history is evident in mating compatibility between H. zea and H. armigera under laboratory conditions. Despite periodic interceptions of H. armigera into North America, this pest species is not believed to have successfully established significant populations on either continent. In this study, we provide molecular evidence via mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and cytochrome b (Cyt b) partial gene sequences for the successful recent incursion of H. armigera into the New World, with individuals being detected at two sites (Primavera do Leste, Pedra Preta) within the State of Mato Grosso in Brazil. The mtDNA COI and Cyt b haplotypes detected in the Brazilian H. armigera individuals are common throughout the Old World, thus precluding identification of the founder populations. Combining the two partial mtDNA gene sequences showed that at least two matrilines are present in Brazil, while the inclusion of three nuclear DNA Exon-Primed Intron-Crossing (EPIC) markers identified a further two possible matrilines in our samples. The economic, biosecurity, resistance management, ecological and evolutionary implications of this incursion are discussed in relation to the current agricultural practices in the Americas. PMID:24260345

  8. Resistance selection, mechanism and stability of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to methoxyfenozide.

    PubMed

    Rehan, Adeel; Freed, Shoaib

    2014-03-01

    Methoxyfenozide belongs to a group of biorational insecticides known as insect growth regulators which is used in the control lepidopteran insect pests. Here we report a field collected population of Spodoptera litura selected with methoxyfenozide for thirteen consecutive generations resulted in the development of 83.24 and 2358.6-fold resistance to methoxyfenozide as compared to parental field population and susceptible laboratory population, respectively. The outcomes of synergism studies revealed methoxyfenozide resistance in S. litura to be monooxygenases (MO) mediated with high synergistic ratio (4.83) with piperonyl butoxide (PBO), while S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF) showed no synergism with methoxyfenozide (SR=1). This methoxyfenozide resistant strain showed a high cross resistance to deltamethrin (28.82), abamectin (12.87) and little to emamectin benzoate (2.36), however no cross resistance of methoxyfenozide and other tested insecticides was recorded. The results depicted the methoxyfenozide resistance in S. litura to be unstable with high reversion rate which decreased from 2358.6 to 163.9-fold (as compared to susceptible strain) when reared for five generations without any insecticidal exposure. The present research supports the significance of MO-mediated metabolism in resistance to methoxyfenozide, which demands some tactics to tackle this problem. The resistance against methoxyfenozide in S. litura can be overcome by switching off its use for few generations or insecticides rotation having different mode of action. PMID:24759045

  9. Resistance to Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Euxesta stigmatias (Diptera: Ulidiidae) in sweet corn derived from exogenous and endogenous genetic systems.

    PubMed

    Nuessly, G S; Scully, B T; Hentz, M G; Beiriger, R; Snook, M E; Widstrom, N W

    2007-12-01

    Field trials using Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Euxesta stigmatias Loew (Diptera: Ulidiidae) were conducted to evaluate resistance and potential damage interactions between these two primary corn, Zea mays L., pests against Lepidoptera-resistant corn varieties derived from both endogenous and exogenous sources. The endogenous source of resistance was maysin, a C-glycosyl flavone produced in high concentrations in varieties 'Zapalote Chico 2451' and 'Zapalote Chico sh2'. The exogenous resistance source was the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)11 gene that expresses Cry1A(b) insecticidal protein found in 'Attribute GSS-0966'. Damage by the two pests was compared among these resistant varieties and the susceptible 'Primetime'. Single-species tests determined that the Zapalote Chico varieties and GSS-0966 effectively reduced S. frugiperda larval damage compared with Primetime. E. stigmatias larval damage was less in the Zapalote Chico varieties than the other varieties in single-species tests. E. stigmatias damage was greater on S. frugiperda-infested versus S. frugiperda-excluded ears. Ears with S. frugiperda damage to husk, silk and kernels had greater E. stigmatias damage than ears with less S. frugiperda damage. Reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of nonpollinated corn silk collected from field plots determined that isoorientin, maysin, and apimaysin plus 3'-methoxymaysin concentrations followed the order Zapalote Chico sh2 > Zapalote Chico 2451 > Attribute GSS-0966 = Primetime. Chlorogenic acid concentrations were greatest in Zapalote Chico 2451. The two high maysin Zapalote Chico varieties did as well against fall armyworm as the Bt-enhanced GSS-0966, and they outperformed GSS-0966 against E. stigmatias. PMID:18232407

  10. Demography and Consumption of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Reared on Cabbage and Taro.

    PubMed

    Tuan, Shu-Jen; Yeh, Chih-Chun; Atlihan, Remzi; Chi, Hsin; Tang, Li-Cheng

    2016-04-01

    Spodoptera litura (F.) causes considerable economic damage to multiple agro-crops annually in many countries. In this study, the demography of S. litura reared on cabbage and taro was investigated using the age-stage, two-sex life table at 25±1°C, 60±10% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 12: 12 (L:D) h. Our results showed that the net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate, and finite rate of population increase on cabbage (1893.1 offspring, 0.2374 d(−1), and 1.2679 d(−1)) were all not significantly different from those on taro (1361.0 offspring, 0.2298 d(−1), and 1.2584 d(−1)). The net consumption rate on cabbage (439.1 cm2) was, however, three times higher than that on taro (141.7 cm2). According to the population parameters, both cabbage and taro are suitable host plants for S. litura. When both the population growth rate and the consumption rate were taken into consideration, the finite consumption rate on cabbage (ω=3.8054) was significantly higher than that on taro (ω=1.3184). In Taiwan, taro and cabbage are commonly planted in adjacent farm plots, with taro being grown from March to November and cabbage from October to April. Because of the overlapping growth periods of the two crops, S. litura can easily propagate throughout the year by switching between the adjacent crops during the overlap periods. Pest management strategies for controlling S. litura must be thoroughly reevaluated based on ecological characteristics, including its life table and consumption rate on its major host plants. PMID:26578628

  11. Use of Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins for Control of the Cotton Pest Earias insulana (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ibargutxi, María A.; Estela, Anna; Ferré, Juan; Caballero, Primitivo

    2006-01-01

    Thirteen of the most common lepidopteran-specific Cry proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis have been tested for their efficacy against newly hatched larvae of two populations of the spiny bollworm, Earias insulana. At a concentration of 100 μg of toxin per milliliter of artificial diet, six Cry toxins (Cry1Ca, Cry1Ea, Cry1Fa, Cry1Ja, Cry2Aa, and Cry2Ab) were not toxic at all. Cry1Aa, Cry1Ja, and Cry2Aa did not cause mortality but caused significant inhibition of growth. The other Cry toxins (Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1Ba, Cry1Da, Cry1Ia, and Cry9Ca) were toxic to E. insulana larvae. The 50% lethal concentration values of these toxins ranged from 0.39 to 21.13 μg/ml (for Cry9Ca and Cry1Ia, respectively) for an E. insulana laboratory colony originating from Egypt and from 0.20 to 4.25 μg/ml (for Cry9Ca and Cry1Da, respectively) for a laboratory colony originating from Spain. The relative potencies of the toxins in the population from Egypt were highest for Cry9Ca and Cry1Ab, and they were both significantly more toxic than Cry1Ac and Cry1Ba, followed by Cry1Da and finally Cry1Ia. In the population from Spain, Cry9Ca was the most toxic, followed in decreasing order by Cry1Ac and Cry1Ba, and the least toxic was Cry1Da. Binding experiments were performed to test whether the toxic Cry proteins shared binding sites in this insect. 125I-labeled Cry1Ac and Cry1Ab and biotinylated Cry1Ba, Cry1Ia, and Cry9Ca showed specific binding to the brush border membrane vesicles from E. insulana. Competition binding experiments among these toxins showed that only Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac competed for the same binding sites, indicating a high possibility that this insect may develop cross-resistance to Cry1Ab upon exposure to Cry1Ac transgenic cotton but not to the other toxins tested. PMID:16391075

  12. Antibiosis in Soybean Genotypes and the Resistance Levels to Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Souza, B H S; Silva, A G; Janini, J C; Boica Júnior, A L

    2014-12-01

    The southern armyworm (SAW) Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) is one of the most common armyworm species defoliating soybeans. Preliminary screening trials have indicated that some soybean genotypes exhibit resistance to SAW. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the development of SAW larvae fed on ten soybean genotypes in order to identify genotypes with antibiosis-type resistance. Neonate SAW larvae were daily fed with young leaves collected from plants at the vegetative growth stages V4-V5. Larval development and survival were recorded. Genotypes PI 227687 and PI 227682 delayed larval, pupal, and larva-adult development and yielded larvae with the lowest weight and survival and pupae with the lowest weight. Genotypes IAC 100 and DM 339 also negatively affected larval and pupal development and larval survival but at a lower level. Based on our results, the soybean lines PI 227687 and PI 227682 could be used as sources of genes for soybean breeding programs aiming to develop high yield, SAW-resistant cultivars. Moreover, further trials must be carried out under field conditions to validate if the commercial cultivars IAC 100 and DM 339, which expressed moderate levels of antibiosis-type resistance in the laboratory, are effective in suppressing SAW larvae populations. PMID:27194067

  13. Toxic effects of Citrus aurantium and C. limon essential oils on Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Villafañe, Emilio; Tolosa, Diego; Bardón, Alicia; Neske, Adriana

    2011-09-01

    Citrus aurantium and C. limon were selected in the search for natural plant insecticides. The essential oils of C. aurantium and C. limon and ethanol extracts of the seeds, pulp, albedo, and peel of C. aurantium were incorporated into the larval diet of the lepidopteran pest Spodoptera frugiperda. Larval and pupal mortality were quantified and adult malformation was observed. C aurantium essential oil had antifeedant action and the mixture of albedo ethanol extract and C aurantium essential oil had toxic effects on S. frugiperda larvae at early stages, when they had not yet produced major damage to the crop. Our results indicated that a mixture of ethanol extract of albedo and C. aurantium essential oil (250 microg of extract mix per g of diet) deterred feeding by 46% and had the highest larval mortality (100%) of the materials tested. The peel extract (250 microg per g of diet) produced an increment in growth rate and diet consumption. However, 40% of the larval and 45% of the pupal populations died after 96 h of treatment. The blend of essential oil and C. aurantium albedo ethanol extract showed the lowest consumption and a poor nutrient conversion into biomass. Finally, the presence of D-limonene and nootkatone in the peel ethanol extract, and C. limon and C. aurantium essential oils, may be the cause of the response in the feeding behavior and toxic effects found on S. frugiperda. PMID:21941921

  14. Bioactivity of Piper hispidinervum (Piperales: Piperaceae) and Syzygium aromaticum (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) oils, with or without formulated Bta on the biology and immunology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Cruz, G S; Wanderley-Teixeira, V; Oliveira, J V; Correia, A A; Breda, M O; Alves, T J S; Cunha, F M; Teixeira, A A C; Dutra, K A; Navarro, D M A F

    2014-02-01

    The combination of essential oils and Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner may represent an interesting control strategy. Thus, the study tested the following hypothesis: the combination of long pepper oil (Piper hispidinervum L.) and clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) oils in two concentrations with Xentari WG (Bta) yields a more effective control of Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) affecting biological and reproductive parameters and leading to changes in the levels of phenoloxidase and nitric oxide in the hemolymph of the pest. The results demonstrate that only long pepper oil, at the highest concentration with Xentari WG (Bta), promotes reduced larval survival. However, both oils with or without the insecticide interfere in the biology and humoral immunity of S.frugiperda. All treatments caused a decrease in the amount of eggs, except for the clove oil at both concentrations without Bta. Therefore, the use of these oils is a promising alternative for the integrated management of S. frugiperda; however, its association with Bta demonstrated no significant increase in their efficiency. PMID:24665696

  15. Bacillus subtillis RTSBA6 6.00, a new strain isolated from gut of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) produces chymotrypsin-like proteases

    PubMed Central

    Shinde, Ashok A.; Shaikh, Faiyaz K.; Padul, Manohar V.; Kachole, Manvendra S.

    2012-01-01

    Exploring bacterial communities with proteolytic activity from the gut of the Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) insect pests was the purpose of this study. As initial efforts to achieve this goal here we report the isolation of new Bacillus subtillis RTSBA6 6.00 strain from the gut of H. armigera and demonstrated as proteases producer. Zymographic analysis revealed 12 proteolytic bands with apparent molecular weights ranging from 20 to 185 kDa. Although some activity was detected at acidic pH, the major activity was observed at slight alkaline pH (7.8). The optimum temperature was found to be 35 °C with complete loss of activity at 70 °C. All proteases were completely inactivated by PMSF (phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride) and TPCK (N-tosyl-l-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone), suggesting that proteases secreted by B. subtillis RTSBA6 6.00 belong to serine proteases class with chymotrypsin-like activity. The occurrence of protease producing bacterial community in the gut of the H. armigera advocates its probable assistance to insect in proteinaceous food digestion and adaptation to protease inhibitors of host plants. PMID:23961192

  16. Effects of Methanolic Extracts of Annona Species on the Development and Reproduction of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Freitas, A F; Pereira, F F; Formagio, A S N; Lucchetta, J T; Vieira, M C; Mussury, R M

    2014-10-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) causes significant losses in corn crops and necessitates the use of alternative control strategies, such as the application of bioinsecticides. We report the effect of methanolic leaf extracts of Annona dioica, Annona cacans, and Annona coriacea on the development and reproduction of S. frugiperda. A quantitative analysis was carried out to determine the total concentration of phenolics, flavonoids, and condensed tannin (CT) in leaf extracts. Corn leaves were immersed in a 1% methanolic leaf extract solution and fed to second instars of S. frugiperda. Leaf disks dipped in the synthetic insecticide Connect® (Bayer CropScience Ltda) composed of a neonicotinoid (imidacloprid) and a pyrethroid (β-cyfluthrin), which are harmful to S. frugiperda, was used as positive control. Distilled water was used as a negative control treatment. The leaf extract of A. coriacea decreased larval survivorship, arrested pupal development, and affected the weight gain of S. frugiperda. A. dioica also affected larval survivorship, but its effects were more pronounced for the adult stage, as fecundity, fertility, egg hatchability, and embryonic development were severely affected. Leaf extracts from A. cacans had no effect on S. frugiperda. The leaf extracts of A. dioica and A. coriacea showed a higher content of flavonoids and phenols, respectively. Our results indicated that both A. dioica and A. coriacea have the potential for development as botanical insecticides. PMID:27193955

  17. Selective effects of natural and synthetic insecticides on mortality of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its predator Eriopis connexa (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Tavares, Wagner S; Costa, Mariana A; Cruz, Ivan; Silveira, Rodrigo D; Serrao, Jose E; Zanuncio, Jose C

    2010-08-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a serious pest of corn in several American countries. It is mainly controlled with synthetic insecticides. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of the natural products, neem oil and pyroligneous extract, and the synthetic insecticide, lufenuron, at 2.50 mL water (0.25%) on the mortality of 2-, 4- and 6-day-old caterpillars of S. frugiperda, and their selectivities against fourth instar larvae of Eriopis connnexa Germar (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Four- and 6-day-old S. frugiperda caterpillars showed higher mortality after exposure to neem oil (83.33 +/- 0.83 and 89.58 +/- 0.90%, respectively) and lufenuron (95.83 +/- 0.96 and 85.41 +/- 0.83%), compared to pyroligneous extract (68.75 +/- 0.69 and 31.25 +/- 0.31%). The deleterious effect of pyroligneous extract was higher in 2- (83.33 +/- 0.83% mortality) and 4-day-old (68.75 +/- 0.69%) S. frugiperda caterpillars than in 6-day-old caterpillars (31.25 +/- 0.31%). Larval mortality of the predator E. connexa was lower with neem oil and pyroligneous extract (25.00 +/- 0.33%) than with lufenuron (91.66 +/- 1.22%). Neem oil is thus recommended for control of S. frugiperda because of its high toxicity, combined with its relatively low toxicity to larvae of the natural enemy E. connexa. PMID:20603748

  18. Establishment and characterization of three embryonic cell lines of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Su, Rui; Zheng, Gui-Ling; Wan, Fang-Hao; Li, Chang-You

    2016-08-01

    Three cell lines (QAU-Se-E-1, -2 and -3, or Se-1, -2 and -3 for short) were established from eggs of beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) that have been passaged stably for more than 60 times in TNM-FH medium supplemented with 10 % fetal bovine serum. The cell lines consisted of round and spindle-shaped cells. The round cells accounted for 96.82, 84.34 and 83.16 % of the cells in the three cell lines, respectively, with cell diameters of 16.21 ± 0.72, 15.63 ± 0.58 and 13.06 ± 0.44 μm. Random amplified polymorphic DNA and analysis of the CO I gene showed that the three cell lines were all derived from S. exigua. Growth curves at passage 30 were determined and the results showed that the cell population doubling times were 59.03, 49.08 and 49.91 h, respectively. The three cell lines can be infected by S. exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV). Se-3 was extremely susceptible to the virus with an infection rate of 97.52 % 4 days after the inoculation and produced 2.02 × 10(6) OBs per mL of culture. Flow cytometry analysis showed that some of Se-1 and Se-2 cells had apoptosis after infection, whereas Se-3 cells did not. Bioassays showed that the virulence of the SeMNPV proliferated from Se-3 was similar to that from the insect with LC50 of 5.55 × 10(5) and 2.64 × 10(5) OBs/mL. Therefore, the cell lines can be used to study the SeMNPV-host interactions and mechanisms underlying the interactions. PMID:25999173

  19. Growth Performance and Biometric Characteristics of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Reared on Different Host Plants.

    PubMed

    Tuan, Shu-Jen; Li, Nian-Jhen; Yeh, Chih-Chun

    2015-10-01

    Spodoptera litura (F.), an important polyphagous insect pest, attacks ca. 300 economic crops in dozens of countries. Investigations into its growth and development performance on different host plants can provide an understanding of the potential for increase of S. litura population in the field. We measured the development time, body weight, and head capsule width of S. litura larvae reared on cabbage, taro, peanut, and sesbania, a green manure. Larvae reared on cabbage ingested a significantly higher amount of protein and completed the immature stages in a shorter period than those reared on the other three plants. The relationship between head capsule width and larval instars on these four crops fitted well with Dyar's rule, and the Dyar's ratios ranged from 1.4554 to 1.6786, although a few supernumerary instar individuals on sesbania, peanut, and taro showed lower ratios (1.0103 to 1.1330). The head capsule width among cohorts fed on different host plants varied significantly and overlapped between late instars, which could lead to a misjudgment of instar stage in the field. The growth index of S. litura on cabbage was significantly higher than on the other host plants. Larvae fed on sesbania showed the highest feeding index and a better growth index than on taro and peanut. We therefore suggest that the area-wide pest management against S. litura should take into consideration its occurrence on sesbania in intercropping seasons. Additionally, the effective management of this pest during cropping windows between all these four plants should not be ignored. PMID:26453712

  20. Cross-resistance and Inheritance of Resistance to Emamectin Benzoate in Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Che, Wunan; Huang, Jianlei; Guan, Fang; Wu, Yidong; Yang, Yihua

    2015-08-01

    Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), is a worldwide pest of many crops. Chemical insecticides are heavily used for its control in China, and serious resistance has been evolved in the field to a variety of insecticides including emamectin benzoate. Through repeated backcrossing to a susceptible strain (WH-S) and selection with emamectin benzoate, the trait conferring resistance to emamectin benzoate in a field-collected population of S. exigua (moderately resistant to emamectin benzoate and strongly resistant to pyrethroids and indoxacarb) was introgressed into WH-S to generate a near-isogenic resistant strain (WH-EB). Compared with WH-S, the WH-EB strain developed a 1,110-fold resistance to emamectin benzoate and a high level of cross-resistance to abamectin (202-fold), with low levels of cross-resistance to cypermethrin (10-fold) and chlorfluazuron (7-fold), but no cross-resistance to representatives of another six different classes of insecticides (chlorantraniliprole, chlorfenapyr, indoxacarb, spinosad, tebufenozide, and chlorpyrifos). Resistance to emamectin benzoate in WH-EB was autosomal, incompletely dominant, and polygenic. Limited cross-resistance in WH-EB indicates that emamectin benzoate can be rotated with other classes of insecticides to which it does not show cross-resistance to delay the evolution of resistance in S. exigua. The incompletely dominant nature of resistance in S. exigua may explain the rapid evolution of resistance to emamectin benzoate in the field, and careful deployment of this chemical within a resistance management program should be considered. PMID:26470348

  1. First Record of Steinernema kraussei (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) from Turkey and Its Virulence against Agrotis segetum (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Gokce, Cihan; Yilmaz, Huseyin; Erbas, Zeynep; Demirbag, Zihni; Demir, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    During a survey of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey in 2009–2012, a steinernematid species was recorded and isolated using the Galleria-baiting method. The isolate was identified as Steinernema kraussei based on its morphological and molecular properties. The analysis of the ITS rDNA sequence placed the Turkish population of S. kraussei in the “feltiae-kraussei” group in the clade that contains different isolates of the species. This is the first record of S. kraussei from Turkey. The efficacy of S. kraussei was tested on Agrotis segetum (Lepidoptera: Noctuidea) larvae at different densities (100, 300, and 500 infective juveniles (IJs) g−1 dry sand ) in laboratory conditions at 25 °C. The highest mortality (98%) was obtained with 500 IJs g−1 dry sand within 7 d after inoculation. Our results indicate that the new isolate is a highly promising biological control agent against A. segetum, one of the most serious soil pests of agricultural area and fruits worldwide. PMID:24379483

  2. Impact of Lepidoptera (Crambidae, Noctuidae, and Pyralidae) Pests on Corn Containing Pyramided Bt Traits and a Blended Refuge in the Southern United States.

    PubMed

    Reay-Jones, F P F; Bessin, R T; Brewer, M J; Buntin, D G; Catchot, A L; Cook, D R; Flanders, K L; Kerns, D L; Porter, R P; Reisig, D D; Stewart, S D; Rice, M E

    2016-08-01

    Blended refuge for transgenic plants expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins has been approved in the northern United States as a resistance management strategy alternative to a structured refuge. A three-year study (2012-2014) was conducted with 54 trials across nine states in the southern United States to evaluate plant injury from lepidopteran pests of corn and yield in a corn hybrid expressing Cry1F × Cry1Ab × Vip3Aa20 (Pioneer Brand Optimum Leptra) planted as a pure stand and in refuge blends of 5, 10, and 20% in both early and late plantings. Injury by corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea Boddie (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was generally proportional to the percentage of non-Bt corn within each refuge blend. Across locations, ear injury in plots with 100% Cry1F × Cry1Ab × Vip3Aa20 (Optimum Leptra) corn ranged from no injury to a maximum of 0.42 cm(2) per ear in Mississippi in 2013. Leaf injury ratings in 100% non-Bt plots in early and late planted trials in 2014 were 86- and 70-fold greater than in 100% Cry1F × Cry1Ab × Vip3Aa20 (Optimum Leptra) plots. Plants in plots with blended refuges had significantly greater leaf injury in 2012 (5, 10, and 20% refuge blends), in the early-planted corn in 2013 (10 and 20% only), and in both early- and late-planted corn in 2014 (20% only) as compared with leaf injury in a pure stand of Cry1F × Cry1Ab × Vip3Aa20 (Optimum Leptra) seen during these years. Corn ears in plots with blended refuges also had significantly greater area of kernels injured in 2012 (5, 10, and 20%), in early- and late-planted corn in 2013 (5, 10, and 20%), and in early (10 and 20% only)- and late-planted corn (5, 10, and 20%) in 2014 as compared with ear injury in a pure stand of Cry1F × Cry1Ab × Vip3Aa20 (Optimum Leptra) seen during these years. Infestations of southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar (Lepidoptera

  3. Effects of soil temperature and snow cover on the mortality of overwintering pupae of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jian

    2015-10-01

    Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is one of the most damaging insect pests in the world. However, little is known about the effects of snow cover and soil temperature on the overwintering pupae of H. armigera. A field experiment was conducted from November 2, 2012 to April 24, 2013 at the agrometeorological experimental station in Wulanwusu, China. Overwintering pupae were embedded into the soil at depths of 5, 10, and 15 cm in the following four treatments: without snow cover, snow cover, and increased temperatures from 600 and 1200 W infrared lights. The results showed that snow cover and rising temperatures could all markedly increase soil temperatures, which was helpful in improving the survival of the overwintering pupae of H. armigera. The mortality of overwintering pupae (MOP) at a depth of 15 cm was the highest, and the MOP at a depth of 5 cm followed. The lower accumulated temperature (≤0 °C) (AT ≤ °C) led to the higher MOP, and the lower diurnal soil temperature range (DSTR) likely led to the lower MOP. After snowmelt, the MOPs at the depths of 5 and 10 cm increased as the soil temperature increased, especially in April. The AT of the soil (≤0 °C) was the factor with the strongest effect on MOP. The soil moisture content was not a major factor affecting the MOP in this semiarid region because precipitation was 45 mm over the entire experimental period. With climate warming, the MOP will likely decrease, and the overwintering boundary air temperatures of H. armigera should be expanded due to higher soil temperatures and increased snow cover.

  4. Functional response of the tiger beetle Megacephala carolina carolina (Coleoptera: Carabidae) on twolined spittlebug (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) and fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Nachappa, Punya; Braman, S K; Guillebeau, L P; All, J N

    2006-10-01

    The functional response of the tiger beetle Megacephala carolina carolina L. (Coleoptera: Carabidae) was determined on adult twolined spittlebug, Prosapia bicincta (Say) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae), and fourth instars of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), in single-prey and two-prey systems. In the laboratory, M. carolina carolina demonstrated a type II functional response for P. bicincta and S. frugiperda in both single- and two-prey systems. Search efficiency of M. carolina declined for both prey as the initial number of prey increased. Of the total prey consumed, M. carolina carolina killed significantly more S. frugiperda than P. bicincta in the single-prey system (8.0 and 4.5, respectively) and the two-prey system (5.0 and 2.0, respectively). Estimates of attack coefficient, a, were not significantly different for P. bicincta and S. frugiperda in the single-prey (0.07 and 0.02) and two-prey systems (0.04 and 0.06), respectively. The handling time, T(h), was significantly greater for P. bicincta (5.02 and 10.64 h) than for S. frugiperda (2.66 and 4.41 h) in single- and two-prey systems, respectively. Estimations of attack coefficient and handling time in the single-prey system were used to predict prey preference of M. carolina carolina. No strong prey switching response was observed. M. carolina carolina showed no preference for either prey. However, in the presence of S. frugiperda, the functional response of the predator for P. bicincta was reduced. M. carolina carolina is a potential predator of one or more turfgrass pests and should be considered in conservation efforts. PMID:17066786

  5. Effects of soil temperature and snow cover on the mortality of overwintering pupae of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian

    2016-07-01

    Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is one of the most damaging insect pests in the world. However, little is known about the effects of snow cover and soil temperature on the overwintering pupae of H. armigera. A field experiment was conducted from November 2, 2012 to April 24, 2013 at the agrometeorological experimental station in Wulanwusu, China. Overwintering pupae were embedded into the soil at depths of 5, 10, and 15 cm in the following four treatments: without snow cover, snow cover, and increased temperatures from 600 and 1200 W infrared lights. The results showed that snow cover and rising temperatures could all markedly increase soil temperatures, which was helpful in improving the survival of the overwintering pupae of H. armigera. The mortality of overwintering pupae (MOP) at a depth of 15 cm was the highest, and the MOP at a depth of 5 cm followed. The lower accumulated temperature (≤0 °C) (AT ≤ °C) led to the higher MOP, and the lower diurnal soil temperature range (DSTR) likely led to the lower MOP. After snowmelt, the MOPs at the depths of 5 and 10 cm increased as the soil temperature increased, especially in April. The AT of the soil (≤0 °C) was the factor with the strongest effect on MOP. The soil moisture content was not a major factor affecting the MOP in this semiarid region because precipitation was 45 mm over the entire experimental period. With climate warming, the MOP will likely decrease, and the overwintering boundary air temperatures of H. armigera should be expanded due to higher soil temperatures and increased snow cover. PMID:26514355

  6. Effects of soil temperature and snow cover on the mortality of overwintering pupae of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jian

    2016-07-01

    Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is one of the most damaging insect pests in the world. However, little is known about the effects of snow cover and soil temperature on the overwintering pupae of H. armigera. A field experiment was conducted from November 2, 2012 to April 24, 2013 at the agrometeorological experimental station in Wulanwusu, China. Overwintering pupae were embedded into the soil at depths of 5, 10, and 15 cm in the following four treatments: without snow cover, snow cover, and increased temperatures from 600 and 1200 W infrared lights. The results showed that snow cover and rising temperatures could all markedly increase soil temperatures, which was helpful in improving the survival of the overwintering pupae of H. armigera. The mortality of overwintering pupae (MOP) at a depth of 15 cm was the highest, and the MOP at a depth of 5 cm followed. The lower accumulated temperature (≤0 °C) (AT ≤ °C) led to the higher MOP, and the lower diurnal soil temperature range (DSTR) likely led to the lower MOP. After snowmelt, the MOPs at the depths of 5 and 10 cm increased as the soil temperature increased, especially in April. The AT of the soil (≤0 °C) was the factor with the strongest effect on MOP. The soil moisture content was not a major factor affecting the MOP in this semiarid region because precipitation was 45 mm over the entire experimental period. With climate warming, the MOP will likely decrease, and the overwintering boundary air temperatures of H. armigera should be expanded due to higher soil temperatures and increased snow cover.

  7. Cloning and Tissue-Specific Expression of a Chitin Deacetylase Gene from Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Its Response to Bacillus thuringiensis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Guoying; Li, Xiumin; Zhang, Ting; Zhu, Xiaoting

    2015-01-01

    Chitin deacetylases (CDAs) convert chitin into chitosan, the N-deacetylated form of chitin, which influences the mechanical and permeability properties of structures such as the cuticle and peritrophic matrices. In this article, a new CDA encoding gene, Hacda2, was cloned by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction method in Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), with an open reading frame of 1,611 bp. The deduced protein composed of 536 amino acid residues with a signal peptide, a chitin-binding domain, a low-density lipoprotein receptor class A domain, and a polysaccharide deacetylase-like catalytic domain. The highest expression level of Hacda2 was detected in fat body among tissues tested in the fifth-instar larvae using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction method. Feeding of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) diet changed the expression level of Hacda1, Hacda2, Hacda5a, and Hacda5b significantly and differentially in the third-instar larvae. Hacda5a and Hacda5b expression were initially down-regulated and then up-regulated, whereas, the expression level of Hacda1 and Hacda2 was suppressed constantly postfeeding on Bt diet. These results suggested that HaCDAs may be involved in the response of H. armigera larvae to Bt and may be helpful to elucidate the roles of HaCDAs in the action of Bt cry toxin. The potential of HaCDAs to be used as synergists of Bt insecticidal protein needs to be further tested. PMID:26163665

  8. Fauna of Noctuidae (Lepidoptera: Noctuoidea) in a pasture area in Altamira, Eastern Amazon, Pará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, L P; Specht, A; Teston, J A

    2014-11-01

    This study evaluated the nocturnal fauna of Noctuidae in a pasture area in Altamira, Pará. Samples were collected monthly for two nights at the new moon period, from August 2007 to July 2008. We collected a total of 345 specimens (N) of 66 species (S). The most abundant species were Ptichodes basilans (Guenée) (n = 87), Leucania jaliscana (Schaus), Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith) (n = 28) and Argidia palmipes Guenée (n = 21). For the entire period, the following indexes were found: Shannon diversity H'= 3.20 and Brillouin H = 2.94, evenness of Shannon E'= 0.76 and Brillouin E= 0.76, and Berger-Parker dominance BP= 0.252. The greatest diversity was found in the dry season. According to the estimates of species richness, it is possible that between 14 to 72 more species exist in the region. PMID:25627612

  9. POPULATION SYNCHRONY WITHIN AND AMONG LEPIDOPTERA SPECIES IN RELATION TO WEATHER, PHYLOGENY, AND LARVEL PHENOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. The population dynamics of native herbivore species in central Appalachian deciduous forests were studied by analysing patterns of synchrony among intra- and interspecific populations and weather. 2. Spatial synchrony of 10 Lepidoptera species and three weather variables (min...

  10. Exploitation of mitochondrial nad6 as a complementary marker for studying population variability in Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Brandão, Karina L.; Lyra, Mariana L.; Santos, Thiago V.; Seraphim, Noemy; Albernaz, Karina C.; Pavinato, Vitor A.C.; Martinelli, Samuel; Cônsoli, Fernando L.; Omoto, Celso

    2011-01-01

    The applicability of mitochondrial nad6 sequences to studies of DNA and population variability in Lepidoptera was tested in four species of economically important moths and one of wild butterflies. The genetic information so obtained was compared to that of cox1 sequences for two species of Lepidoptera. nad6 primers appropriately amplified all the tested DNA targets, the generated data proving to be as informative and suitable in recovering population structures as that of cox1. The proposal is that, to obtain more robust results, this mitochondrial region can be complementarily used with other molecular sequences in studies of low level phylogeny and population genetics in Lepidoptera. PMID:22215980

  11. TOXIC ACTIVITY AND DELAYED EFFECTS OF FIVE BOTANICAL OILS ON THE FOLLOWING GENERATIONS OF AGROTIS IPSILON (HUFNAGEL) (INSECTA: LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE) AFTER PARENTS TREATMENT.

    PubMed

    Mesbah, H A; El-Sayed, N A; El-Kady, M B; Mourad, A K; Kordy, A M; Henaidy, Z M

    2014-01-01

    The present study is carried out to evaluate the toxic efficiency and delayed effects of five botanical oils on the greasy cut worm Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), as a trial for the attainment of a possible use of an alternative safe and effective phytochemicals against the insect-pest. So as to minimize or prevent the repeated usage of conventional insecticides, then reduce the environmental pollution as well as the occurring hazards to man and domestic animal due to the use of the pesticides alone. Four tested concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.5% v/v) from each of camphor, red basil, menthol, rose and anise oils, were bioassayed by treating the offered castor oil bean leaves, to the 4th instar larvae along 48h, under the laboratory higrothermic conditions of 25±2 °C and 65±5% R.H. The obtained results showed that the five tested oils were found to have more or less toxic activity and drastic effects on the inspected parameters of fitness components of the treated parent generation of the insect, in particular, pupae, emerged adult moths and laid eggs/female. In this respect camphor and red basil oils were highly effective, followed by menthol oil, anise oil and the least effective one was rose oil. Moreover, the assessed unprofitable delayed effects on the going on of the biological performance within the treated insects showed the adverse effects on the fitness components of the consequent generations (fs) post (p) one treatment with each of the bioassyed oils. The prevalence of adverse effects and disturbance in the going on biological performance through the period of (p) generation; which is followed by the distinct failure of insect development in (f1) generation were recorded for each of the tested menthol oil at 0.5 and 1.5% (v/v); camphor oil at 1.5 and 2.5% and red basil oil at 2.5% (v/v). While anise and rose oils were somewhat less efficient causing the distinct failure of the following generations up to the 3rd and/or the 6th ones

  12. [Approach to Spodoptera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) phylogeny based on the sequence of the cytocrhome oxydase I (COI) mitochondrial gene].

    PubMed

    Saldamando, Clara Inés; Marquez, Edna Judith

    2012-09-01

    The genus Spodoptera includes 30 species of moths considered important pests worldwide, with a great representation in the Western Hemisphere. In general, Noctuidae species have morphological similarities that have caused some difficulties for assertive species identification by conventional methods. The purpose of this work was to generate an approach to the genus phylogeny from several species of the genus Spodoptera and the species Bombyx mori as an out group, with the use of molecular tools. For this, a total of 102 S. frugiperda larvae were obtained at random in corn, cotton, rice, grass and sorghum, during late 2006 and early 2009, from Colombia. We took ADN samples from the larval posterior part and we analyzed a fragment of 451 base pairs of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxydase I (COI), to produce a maximum likelihood (ML) tree by using 62 sequences (29 Colombian haplotypes were used). Our results showed a great genetic differentiation (K2 distances) amongst S. frugiperda haplotypes from Colombia and the United States, condition supported by the estimators obtained for haplotype diversity and polymorphism. The obtained ML tree clustered most of the species with bootstrapping values from 73-99% in the interior branches; with low values also observed in some of the branches. In addition, this tree clustered two species of the Eastern hemisphere (S littoralis and S. litura) and eight species of the Western hemisphere (S. androgea, S. dolichos, S. eridania, S. exigua, S. frugiperda, S. latifascia, S. ornithogalli and S. pulchella). In Colombia, S. frugiperda, S. ornithogalli and S. albula represent a group of species referred as "the Spodoptera complex" of cotton crops, and our work demonstrated that sequencing a fragment of the COI gene, allows researchers to differentiate the first two species, and thus it can be used as an alternative method to taxonomic keys based on morphology. Finally, the ML tree did not cluster S. frugiperda with S. ornithogalli

  13. Identification and RNA Interference of the Pheromone Biosynthesis Activating Neuropeptide (PBAN) in the Common Cutworm Moth Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Lu, Qin; Huang, Ling-Yan; Chen, Peng; Yu, Jin-Feng; Xu, Jin; Deng, Jian-Yu; Ye, Hui

    2015-06-01

    Spodoptera litura F. is one of the most destructive insect pests of many agricultural crops and notorious for developing insecticide resistance. Developing environmental friendly control methods such as novel pheromone and RNAi-related control strategies is imperative to control this pest. In the present study, the full-length cDNA encoding the diapause hormone and pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (DH-PBAN) was identified and characterized in S. litura. This 809-bp transcript contains a 573-nucleotide ORF encoding a 191-amino acid protein, from which five putative neuropeptides, including PBAN, DH, and α-, β-, and γ-subesophageal ganglion neuropeptides, were derived. Phylogenetic analysis showed that both the whole protein and each of the five neuropeptides have high similarities to those of DH-PBANs from other insect orders particularly Lepidoptera. Females treated with TKYFSPRLamide (the active core fragment of PBAN) produced significantly more four types of pheromone compounds (A; B; C; D) than controls. RNA interference by injection of PBAN dsRNA significantly reduced the relative expression levels of this gene in adult females (approximately reduced by 60%). As a consequence, females treated with PBAN dsRNA produced significantly less four types of pheromone compounds (A; B; C; D) than controls. These results suggest that PBAN function in activating sex pheromone biosynthesis and the RNAi of DH-PBAN gene can be induced by the injection of dsRNA into the body cavity in S. litura. This study suggests the possibility of novel pheromone-related pest control strategies based on RNAi techniques. PMID:26470263

  14. Survival of Corn Earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Bt Maize and Cross-Pollinated Refuge Ears From Seed Blends.

    PubMed

    Crespo, André Luiz Barreto; Alves, Analiza Piovesan; Wang, Yiwei; Hong, Bonnie; Flexner, John Lindsey; Catchot, Angus; Buntin, David; Cook, Donald

    2016-02-01

    Refuge is mandated in the United States where genetically modified maize (Zea mays L.) expressing insecticidal proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) are cultivated. Currently, refuge is deployed in different ways including blocks, field strips, or seed blends containing Bt and non-Bt maize. Seed blends provide practical advantages for refuge implementation. However, concerns related to the movement of insect larvae, potential differential survival of heterozygous resistant larvae, reduction in insect production, and cross-pollination of ears resulting in sublethal selection, have delayed seed blend use for Lepidoptera in the southern United States, where maize plantings are used as refuge for Helicoverpa zea (Boddie). In this study, we evaluated the relative survival of H. zea in Bt events and in seed blends compared with pure stand refuge and the relative survival of H. zea on the individual components of the pyramid 1507xMON810xMIR162. The results showed variation on the production of H. zea in refuge plants from seed blends compared with pure stand refuge plants. The relative survival of H. zea on the events 1507, MON810, MIR162, and 1507xMON810xMIR162 ranked similarly across the three locations tested. These results can be used in computer simulation modeling efforts to evaluate the feasibility of seed blends as a refuge deployment strategy with the pyramid 1507xMON810xMIR162. Because the reduction on survival of H. zea due to blending was variable, a sensitivity analysis that includes all possible scenarios of reduction in survival should be considered. PMID:26357846

  15. Secretion of Na(+), K(+) and fluid by the Malpighian (renal) tubule of the larval cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Sanchez, Esau; O'Donnell, Michael J; Donini, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    The Malpighian (renal) tubules play important roles in ionic and osmotic homeostasis in insects. In Lepidoptera, the Malpighian tubules are structurally regionalized and the concentration of Na(+) and K(+) in the secreted fluid varies depending on the segment of tubule analyzed. In this work, we have characterized fluid and ion (Na(+), K(+), H(+)) transport by tubules of the larval stage of the cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni; we have also evaluated the effects of fluid secretion inhibitors and stimulants on fluid and ion transport. Ramsay assays showed that fluid was secreted by the iliac plexus but not by the yellow and white regions of the tubule. K(+) and Na(+) were secreted by the distal iliac plexus (DIP) and K(+) was reabsorbed in downstream regions. The fluid secretion rate decreased>50% after 25μM bafilomycin A1, 500μM amiloride or 50μM bumetanide was added to the bath. The concentration of K(+) in the secreted fluid did not change, whereas the concentration of Na(+) in the secreted fluid decreased significantly when tubules were exposed to bafilomycin A1 or amiloride. Addition of 500μM cAMP or 1μM 5-HT to the bath stimulated fluid secretion and resulted in a decrease in K(+) concentration in the secreted fluid. An increase in Na(+) concentration in the secreted fluid was observed only in cAMP-stimulated tubules. Secreted fluid pH and the transepithelial electrical potential (TEP) did not change when tubules were stimulated. Taken together, our results show that the secretion of fluid is carried out by the upper regions (DIP) in T. ni Malpighian tubules. Upper regions of the tubules secrete K(+), whereas lower regions reabsorb it. Stimulation of fluid secretion is correlated with a decrease in the K(+)/Na(+) ratio. PMID:26432549

  16. Molecular Characterization and Function Analysis of the Vitellogenin Receptor from the Cotton Bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Haijun; Xie, Bingtang; Smagghe, Guy; Guo, Yuyuan; Liang, Gemei

    2016-01-01

    Developing oocytes accumulate plentiful yolk protein during oogenesis through receptor-mediated endocytosis. The vitellogenin receptor (VgR), belonging to the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family, regulates the absorption of yolk protein. In this work, the full-length vitellogenin receptor (HaVgR) in the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera was identified, encoding a 1817 residue protein. Sequence alignment revealed that the sequence of HaVgR contained all of the conservative structural motifs of LDLR family members, and phylogenetic analysis indicated that HaVgR had a high identity among Lepidoptera and was distinct from that of other insects. Consistent with other insects, HaVgR was specifically expressed in ovarian tissue. The developmental expression pattern showed that HaVgR was first transcribed in the newly metamorphosed female adults, reached a peak in 2-day-old adults and then declined. Western blot analysis also revealed an ovarian-specific and developing expression pattern, which was consistent with the HaVgR mRNA transcription. Moreover, RNAi-mediated HaVgR knockdown strongly reduced the VgR expression in both the mRNA and protein levels, which inhibited the yolk protein deposition in the ovaries, led to the dramatic accumulation of vitellogenin and the up-regulation of HaVg expression in hemolymph, and eventually resulted in a declined fecundity. Together, all of these findings demonstrate that HaVgR is a specific receptor in uptake and transportation of yolk protein for the maturation of oocytes and that it plays a critical role in female reproduction. PMID:27192057

  17. Five new species and three new subspecies of Erebidae and Noctuidae (Insecta, Lepidoptera) from Northwestern North America, with notes on Chytolita Grote (Erebidae) and Hydraecia Guenée (Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Crabo, Lars G.; Davis, Melanie; Hammond, Paul; Tomas Mustelin;  Jon Shepard

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Several taxonomic issues in the moth families Erebidae and Noctuidae are addressed for Northwestern North America. Drasteria parallelaCrabo & Mustelin andCycnia oregonensis tristisCrabo in the Erebidae and Eudryas brevipennis bonneville Shepard & Crabo, Resapamea diluvius Crabo, Resapamea angelika Crabo, Resapamea mammuthus Crabo, Fishia nigrescens Hammond & Crabo, and Xestia perquiritata orca Crabo & Hammond in the Noctuidae are described as new. The following new synonyms are proposed: Chytolita petrealis Grote with Herminea morbidalis Guenée; Gortyna columbia Barnes & Benjamin and Gortyna ximena Barnes & Benjamin with Gortyna obliqua Harvey; and Hydroecia pallescens Smith with Hydroecia medialis Smith. The type locality of Gortyna intermedia Barnes & Benjamin is restricted to Lundbreck, Municipality of Crowsnest Pass, Alberta, Canada. PMID:23730179

  18. Inferring the annual migration patterns of fall armyworm(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the United States from mitochondrial haplotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. Regions of southern Florida, USA and southern Texas, USA (extending into Mexico)provide the source populations for virtually all fall armyworm infestations affecting the continental USA. Understanding how these overwintering populations annually disperse is important to efforts to predict and con...

  19. Artificial selection for developmental rates in fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its implications on the design of feeding studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding of fall armyworm biology has frequently suffered from disagreements in the findings from different laboratories. One potential source of error is the assumption that laboratory colonies are sufficiently representative of wild populations that their biological parameters can be generali...

  20. Soybean Flour and Wheat Germ Proportions in Insect Artificial Diet and Their Effect on the Growth Rates of Heliothis virescens (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean (nutrisoy) flour and wheat germ are the two most important protein components of wheat germ-based insect artificial diets. The effect of the proportion of these two ingredients in a Noctuidae-specific diet was investigated utilizing Heliothis virescens (F.) to develop a suboptimal diet that,...

  1. Baculovirus infection of the armyworm (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) feeding on spiny- or smooth-edged grass (Festuca spp.) leaf blades

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Susceptibility of the armyworm, Mythimna unipuncta (Haworth), to infection by a baculovirus isolated from a Kentucky armyworm population was compared on two suspected progenitors of tall fescue, Festuca mairei and Festuca arundinacea subsp. fenas, with spiny leaf margins intact or removed to test wh...

  2. Detection and Evolution of Resistance to the Pyrethroid Cypermethrin in Bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bollworm Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) is a key pest of cotton in Texas. Bollworm populations are widely controlled with pyrethroid insecticides in cotton and exposed to pyrethroids in other major crops such as grain sorghum, corn and soybeans. A statewide program that evaluated cypermethrin resist...

  3. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in a Cotton Production Area.

    PubMed

    Milonas, P; Gogou, C; Papadopoulou, A; Fountas, S; Liakos, V; Papadopoulos, N T

    2016-06-01

    Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) and Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) are major pests of cotton in Greece and elsewhere. Analysing male captures in pheromone traps over two seasons, in two cotton producing sites in central Greece, the spatial and temporal variation in population dynamics were examined. In 2007, captures of male H. armigera increased in late July and maintained at high levels for 1 month and declined at the end of August. For P. gossypiella, male captures remained at low levels during summer, increased late in August, peaked at mid of September and declined toward the end of the season. In 2008, trap captures of both species increased sharply by the end of June and remained at relatively high levels until August and September for P. gossypiella and H. armigera, respectively. Spatial analysis produced a spatial trend map over space, a temporal stability map over time and a spatial and temporal trend map for both species, which could lead in separating the field into management zones, and direct control to areas that exhibit high densities of the pest population and are stable over time. PMID:27008478

  4. Population genetics of the western bean cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) across the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith), is a secondary pest of maize (Zea mays L.) and dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the western United States. Recently, this insect has undergone a major territory expansion into the eastern US and has become a pest throughout much of the Corn...

  5. Field Evolved Resistance in Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin Cry1Ac in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Alvi, Anwaar H. K.; Sayyed, Ali H.; Naeem, Muhammad; Ali, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) is one of the most destructive pests of several field and vegetable crops, with indiscriminate use of insecticides contributing to multiple instances of resistance. In the present study we assessed whether H. armigera had developed resistance to Bt cotton and compared the results with several conventional insecticides. Furthermore, the genetics of resistance was also investigated to determine the inheritance to Cry1Ac resistance. To investigate the development of resistance to Bt cotton, and selected foliar insecticides, H. armigera populations were sampled in 2010 and 2011 in several cotton production regions in Pakistan. The resistance ratios (RR) for Cry1Ac, chlorpyrifos, profenofos, cypermethrin, spinosad, indoxacarb, abamectin and deltamethrin were 580-fold, 320-, 1110-, 1950-, 200-, 380, 690, and 40-fold, respectively, compared with the laboratory susceptible (Lab-PK) population. Selection of the field collected population with Cry1Ac in 2010 for five generations increased RR to 5440-fold. The selection also increased RR for deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos, profenofos, cypermethrin, spinosad, indoxacarb, abamectin to 125-folds, 650-, 2840-, 9830-, 370-, 3090-, 1330-fold. The estimated LC50s for reciprocal crosses were 105 µg/ml (Cry1Ac-SEL female × Lab-PK male) and 81 g µg/ml (Lab-PK female × Cry1Ac-SEL male) suggesting that the resistance to Cry1Ac was autosomal; the degree of dominance (DLC) was 0.60 and 0.57 respectively. Mixing of enzyme inhibitors significantly decreased resistance to Cry1Ac suggesting that the resistance to Cry1Ac and other insecticides tested in the present study was primarily metabolic. Resistance to Cry1Ac was probably due to a single but unstable factor suggesting that crop rotation with non-Bt cotton or other crops could reduce the selection pressure for H. armigera and improve the sustainability of Bt cotton. PMID:23077589

  6. Field evolved resistance in Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cry1Ac in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Alvi, Anwaar H K; Sayyed, Ali H; Naeem, Muhammad; Ali, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) is one of the most destructive pests of several field and vegetable crops, with indiscriminate use of insecticides contributing to multiple instances of resistance. In the present study we assessed whether H. armigera had developed resistance to Bt cotton and compared the results with several conventional insecticides. Furthermore, the genetics of resistance was also investigated to determine the inheritance to Cry1Ac resistance. To investigate the development of resistance to Bt cotton, and selected foliar insecticides, H. armigera populations were sampled in 2010 and 2011 in several cotton production regions in Pakistan. The resistance ratios (RR) for Cry1Ac, chlorpyrifos, profenofos, cypermethrin, spinosad, indoxacarb, abamectin and deltamethrin were 580-fold, 320-, 1110-, 1950-, 200-, 380, 690, and 40-fold, respectively, compared with the laboratory susceptible (Lab-PK) population. Selection of the field collected population with Cry1Ac in 2010 for five generations increased RR to 5440-fold. The selection also increased RR for deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos, profenofos, cypermethrin, spinosad, indoxacarb, abamectin to 125-folds, 650-, 2840-, 9830-, 370-, 3090-, 1330-fold. The estimated LC(50s) for reciprocal crosses were 105 µg/ml (Cry1Ac-SEL female × Lab-PK male) and 81 g µg/ml (Lab-PK female × Cry1Ac-SEL male) suggesting that the resistance to Cry1Ac was autosomal; the degree of dominance (D(LC)) was 0.60 and 0.57 respectively. Mixing of enzyme inhibitors significantly decreased resistance to Cry1Ac suggesting that the resistance to Cry1Ac and other insecticides tested in the present study was primarily metabolic. Resistance to Cry1Ac was probably due to a single but unstable factor suggesting that crop rotation with non-Bt cotton or other crops could reduce the selection pressure for H. armigera and improve the sustainability of Bt cotton. PMID:23077589

  7. Identification and validation of reference genes for gene expression analysis using quantitative PCR in Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Lu, Yanhui; Yuan, Miao; Gao, Xiwu; Kang, Tinghao; Zhan, Sha; Wan, Hu; Li, Jianhong

    2013-01-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) has rapidly become the most sensitive and accurate method for the quantification of gene expression. To facilitate gene expression studies and obtain more accurate qRT-PCR data, normalization relative to stable housekeeping genes is required. These housekeeping genes need to show stable expression under the given experimental conditions for the qRT-PCR results to be accurate. Unfortunately, there are no studies on the stability of housekeeping genes used in Spodoptera litura. In this study, eight candidate reference genes, elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ribosomal protein L10 (RPL10), ribosomal protein S3 (RPS3), beta actin (ACTB), beta FTZ-F1 (FTZF1), ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase (UCCR), and arginine kinase (AK), were evaluated for their suitability as normalization genes under different experimental conditions using the statistical software programs, BestKeeper, geNorm and Normfinder, and the comparative ΔCt method. We determined the expression levels of the candidate reference genes for three biotic factors (developmental stage, tissue and population), and four abiotic treatments (temperature, insecticide, food and starvation). The results indicated that the best sets of candidates as reference genes were as follows: GAPDH and UCCR for developmental stages; RPL10, AK and EF1 for different tissues; RPL10 and EF1 for different populations in China; GAPDH and EF1 for temperature-stressed larvae; AK and ACTB for larvae treated with different insecticides; RPL10, GAPDH and UCCR for larvae fed different diets; RPS3 and ACTB for starved larvae. We believe that these results make an important contribution to gene analysis studies in S. litura and form the basis of further research on stable reference genes in S. litura and other organisms. PMID:23874494

  8. Identification and Validation of Reference Genes for Gene Expression Analysis Using Quantitative PCR in Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiwu; Kang, Tinghao; Zhan, Sha; Wan, Hu; Li, Jianhong

    2013-01-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) has rapidly become the most sensitive and accurate method for the quantification of gene expression. To facilitate gene expression studies and obtain more accurate qRT-PCR data, normalization relative to stable housekeeping genes is required. These housekeeping genes need to show stable expression under the given experimental conditions for the qRT-PCR results to be accurate. Unfortunately, there are no studies on the stability of housekeeping genes used in Spodoptera litura. In this study, eight candidate reference genes, elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ribosomal protein L10 (RPL10), ribosomal protein S3 (RPS3), beta actin (ACTB), beta FTZ-F1 (FTZF1), ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase (UCCR), and arginine kinase (AK), were evaluated for their suitability as normalization genes under different experimental conditions using the statistical software programs, BestKeeper, geNorm and Normfinder, and the comparative ΔCt method. We determined the expression levels of the candidate reference genes for three biotic factors (developmental stage, tissue and population), and four abiotic treatments (temperature, insecticide, food and starvation). The results indicated that the best sets of candidates as reference genes were as follows: GAPDH and UCCR for developmental stages; RPL10, AK and EF1 for different tissues; RPL10 and EF1 for different populations in China; GAPDH and EF1 for temperature-stressed larvae; AK and ACTB for larvae treated with different insecticides; RPL10, GAPDH and UCCR for larvae fed different diets; RPS3 and ACTB for starved larvae. We believe that these results make an important contribution to gene analysis studies in S. litura and form the basis of further research on stable reference genes in S. litura and other organisms. PMID:23874494

  9. Spatial variability of western bean cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) pheromone trap captures in sprinkler irrigated corn in eastern Colorado.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Scott C; Walter, Shawn M; Peairs, Frank B; Hoeting, Jennifer A

    2011-06-01

    Strategies for controlling pests are an integral part of any agricultural management plan. Most field crops, such as wheat (Triticum spp.) and corn (Zea mays L.) are managed as if they are homogeneous units. However, pests within fields are rarely homogenous. Development of plans that use targeted pest control tactics requires knowledge of the ecological drivers of the pest species. That is, by understanding the spatio-temporal factors influencing pest populations, we can develop management strategy to prevent or reduce pest damage. This study was conducted to quantify variables influencing the spatial variability of adult male western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith). Striacosta albicosta moths were collected in pheromone traps in two center pivot, irrigated corn fields near Wiggins, CO. We hypothesized that moth abundance would be influenced by the distance from the edge of the field, distance to nearest alternative corn crop and affected by anisotropic effects, such as prevailing wind direction. Greater trap catches of S. albicosta in each of the fields were found with increased proximity to the edge of the field, if the nearest neighboring crop was corn. Prevailing wind direction and directional effects were found to influence abundance. Results serve as a first step toward building a precision pest management system for controlling S. albicosta. PMID:22251644

  10. The cutworm Peridroma saucia (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) supports growth and transport of pBR322-bearing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, J L; Porteous, L A; Wood, N D

    1989-09-01

    Variegated cutworms were exposed to bean plants in microcosms sprayed with pBR322-carrying strains of Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella planticola, and Erwinia herbicola. The three bacterial species exhibited differential survival on leaves, in soil, and in guts and fecal pellets (frass) of the insects. High numbers of Enterobacter cloacae(pBR322) were detected in all samples, while the other species were unable to establish residence in the insect. To assess the impact of this colonization on site-to-site transport of microorganisms, larvae were fed plants that had been sprayed with the bacteria and then were transferred to uninoculated plants. Cutworms were efficient carriers of Enterobacter cloacae(pBR322), as indicated by its rapid appearance on uninoculated leaves and continued persistence in the insects for 3 days after transfer. Few Erwinia herbicola(pBR322) and K. planticola(pBR322) were obtained from larvae after transfer, although up to 10(3) CFU/g were detected in soil and on plants. Differences in bacterial survival and growth were confirmed by incubating frass overnight and observing the change in population numbers. The proportion of total samples showing at least a 25-fold increase during incubation was 68% for Enterobacter cloacae(pBR322), 39% for K. planticola(pBR322), and 0% for Erwinia herbicola(pBR322). Our results emphasize the role that cutworms and possibly other insects have in persistence and growth of microorganisms in the environment. PMID:2802606

  11. The cutworm Peridroma saucia (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) supports growth and transport of pBR322-bearing bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, J L; Porteous, L A; Wood, N D

    1989-01-01

    Variegated cutworms were exposed to bean plants in microcosms sprayed with pBR322-carrying strains of Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella planticola, and Erwinia herbicola. The three bacterial species exhibited differential survival on leaves, in soil, and in guts and fecal pellets (frass) of the insects. High numbers of Enterobacter cloacae(pBR322) were detected in all samples, while the other species were unable to establish residence in the insect. To assess the impact of this colonization on site-to-site transport of microorganisms, larvae were fed plants that had been sprayed with the bacteria and then were transferred to uninoculated plants. Cutworms were efficient carriers of Enterobacter cloacae(pBR322), as indicated by its rapid appearance on uninoculated leaves and continued persistence in the insects for 3 days after transfer. Few Erwinia herbicola(pBR322) and K. planticola(pBR322) were obtained from larvae after transfer, although up to 10(3) CFU/g were detected in soil and on plants. Differences in bacterial survival and growth were confirmed by incubating frass overnight and observing the change in population numbers. The proportion of total samples showing at least a 25-fold increase during incubation was 68% for Enterobacter cloacae(pBR322), 39% for K. planticola(pBR322), and 0% for Erwinia herbicola(pBR322). Our results emphasize the role that cutworms and possibly other insects have in persistence and growth of microorganisms in the environment. PMID:2802606

  12. Characterization of a new Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus variant causing epizootic on a previously unreported host, Helicoverpa gelotopoeon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Ferrelli, M L; Taibo, C; Fichetti, P; Sciocco-Cap, A; Arneodo, J D

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports the first biological and molecular characterization of a nucleopolyhedrovirus isolated from the soybean and cotton pest Helicoverpa gelotopoeon. Studies were performed following a virus outbreak in a rearing facility and in wild H. gelotopoeon populations in Córdoba, Argentina. Host identity was corroborated by partial sequencing of the COI gene. Scanning electron microscope observations of purified OBs revealed their polyhedral morphology and an average diameter of 0.89±0.14μm. Ultrathin sections of infected larvae examined by transmission electron microscopy showed the intranuclear occurrence of polyhedra and virus particles in fat body cells. Nucleocapsids were singly enveloped. Phylogenetic analysis of lef-8, lef-9, polh, orf5/5b and hr3-orf62 viral sequences identified this new NPV isolate (hereafter HegeSNPV) as a variant of Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearNPV). Furthermore, HegeSNPV was closely related to the so-called "HzSNPV Group" within HearNPV, although having particular characteristics. PMID:26296927

  13. Influence of life history differences of two tachinid parasitoids ofHelicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on their interactions with glandular trichome/methyl ketone-based insect resistance in tomato.

    PubMed

    Farrar, R R; Kennedy, G G; Kashyap, R K

    1992-03-01

    The effects of glandular trichome/methyl ketone (2-tridecanone and 2-undecanone) -based insect resistance in the wild tomato,Lycopersicon hirsutum f.glabratum C.H. Mull, accession PI 134417, onArchytas marmoratus (Townsend) andEucelatoria bryani (Sabrosky) (Diptera: Tachinidae), both parasitoids ofHelicoverpa (=Heliothis)zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), were investigated in the laboratory.A. marmoratus deposits larvae (planidia) on the foliage of its host's food plant; planidia attach to passing hosts, penetrate the cuticle, and develop in the host pupae.E. bryani larviposits directly into its host; its larvae develop in the host larva.A. marmoratus planidia are killed by glandular trichomes of PI 134417 and also by trichomes of hybrid lines with no methyl ketones. The methyl ketones are toxic to planidia, but at least part of the effect is due to other factors, possibly physical entanglement. Both species can be affected indirectly by methyl ketones in the diet of the host. 2-Undecanone reduces the percentage ofA. marmoratus larvae that reach pupation. This effect is evidently due to premature death and desiccation of the host pupa caused by 2-undecanone. 2-Tridecanone in host diets had no effect onA. marmoratus. InE. bryani, 2-tridecanone in the diet of the host reduced the number of parasitoids yielded by each parasitized host, although not the overall percentage of hosts parasitized. 2-Undecanone in the diet of the host had no effect onE. bryani. PMID:24254953

  14. A computer model for simulating population development of the Indianmeal Moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in stored corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a common pest of stored corn, Zea mays L. We developed a computer model to simulate population development of the Indianmeal moth in stored corn using previously published data describing immature development times and ...

  15. Population genetics of ecological communities with DNA barcodes: An example from New Guinea Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Craft, Kathleen J.; Pauls, Steffen U.; Darrow, Karolyn; Miller, Scott E.; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Helgen, Lauren E.; Novotny, Vojtech; Weiblen, George D.

    2010-01-01

    Comparative population genetics of ecological guilds can reveal generalities in patterns of differentiation bearing on hypotheses regarding the origin and maintenance of community diversity. Contradictory estimates of host specificity and beta diversity in tropical Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) from New Guinea and the Americas have sparked debate on the role of host-associated divergence and geographic isolation in explaining latitudinal diversity gradients. We sampled haplotypes of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I from 28 Lepidoptera species and 1,359 individuals across four host plant genera and eight sites in New Guinea to estimate population divergence in relation to host specificity and geography. Analyses of molecular variance and haplotype networks indicate varying patterns of genetic structure among ecologically similar sympatric species. One-quarter lacked evidence of isolation by distance or host-associated differentiation, whereas 21% exhibited both. Fourteen percent of the species exhibited host-associated differentiation without geographic isolation, 18% showed the opposite, and 21% were equivocal, insofar as analyses of molecular variance and haplotype networks yielded incongruent patterns. Variation in dietary breadth among community members suggests that speciation by specialization is an important, but not universal, mechanism for diversification of tropical Lepidoptera. Geographically widespread haplotypes challenge predictions of vicariance biogeography. Dispersal is important, and Lepidoptera communities appear to be highly dynamic according to the various phylogeographic histories of component species. Population genetic comparisons among herbivores of major tropical and temperate regions are needed to test predictions of ecological theory and evaluate global patterns of biodiversity. PMID:20202924

  16. Evaluating the non-rice host plant species of Sesamia inferens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) as natural refuges: resistance management of Bt rice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhuorong; Gao, Yulin; Luo, Ju; Lai, Fengxiang; Li, Yunhe; Fu, Qiang; Peng, Yufa

    2011-06-01

    Although rice (Oryza sativa L.) lines that express Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins have shown great potential for managing the major Lepidoptera pests of rice in southern China, including Sesamia inferens, their long-term use is dependent on managing resistance development to Bt toxins in pest populations. The maintenance of "natural" refuges, non-Bt expressing plants that are hosts for a target pest, has been proposed as a means to minimize the evolution of resistance to Bt toxins in transgenic plants. In the current study, field surveys and greenhouse experiments were conducted to identify host plants of S. inferens that could serve as "natural" refuges in rice growing areas of southern China. A field survey showed that 34 plant species in four families can be alternative host plants of S. inferens. Based on injury level under field conditions, rice (Oryza sativa L.); water oat (Zizania latifolia Griseb.); corn (Zea mays L.); tidalmarsh flatsedge (Cyperus serotinus Rottb.); and narrow-leaved cat-tail (Typha angustifolia Linn.) were identified as the primary host plant species of S. inferens. Greenhouse experiments further demonstrated that water oat, corn, and narrow-leaved cat-tail could support the survival and development of S. inferens. Interestingly, greenhouse experiments showed that S. inferens preferred to lay eggs on tidalmarsh flatsedge compared with the other three nonrice host species, although no pupae were found in the plants examined in field surveys. Few larvae were found to survive on tidalmarsh flatsedge in greenhouse bioassays, suggesting that tidalmarsh flatsedge could serve as a "dead-end" trap crop for S. inferens, but is not a candidate to serve as natural refuge to maintain susceptible S. inferens. Overall, these results suggest that water-oat, corn, and narrow-leaved cat-tail might serve as "natural refuge" for S. inferens in rice planting area of southern China when Bt rice varieties are planted. PMID:22251655

  17. An Empirical Test of the F2 Screen for Detection of Bacillus thuringiensis-Resistance Alleles in Tobacco Budworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insects exposed to genetically-modified crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins are under intense selection pressure that could result in widespread Bt resistance. Screening for early indications of Bt resistance developing in targeted Lepidoptera is conducted in many of the regions wher...

  18. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 2. Rediscovery and description of Sparkia immacula (Grote, 1883) (Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Hadenini).

    PubMed

    Metzler, Eric H; Forbes, Gregory S

    2011-01-01

    In 2006 the U.S. National Park Service initiated a long term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Sparkia immacula (Grote, 1883), previously known only from historical specimens collected in Arizona and New Mexico, was discovered in the Monument in 2007 during the second year of the study. The adult moths and male and female genitalia are illustrated for the first time. PMID:22207799

  19. A revision of the genus Conicofrontia Hampson (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae,
    Apameini, Sesamiina), with description of a new species: new insights from morphological, ecological and molecular data.

    PubMed

    Ru, Bruno Le; Capdevielle-Dulac, Claire; Conlong, Desmond; Pallangyo, Beatrice; Van Den Berg, Johnnie; Ong'amo, George; Kergoat, Gael J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review                the species of Conicofrontia Hampson, a small genus of noctuid stem borers (Noctuidae, Apameini) that is distributed in East and Southeastern Africa. We review the morphology of species in this group and provide new diagnoses and ecological data for five species. The following taxonomic changes are proposed: Hygrostola dallolmoi (Berio, 1973) (= Conicofrontia dallolmoi Berio, 1973) comb. n. and Conicofrontia bipartita (Hampson, 1910) (= Phragmatiphila bipartita Hampson, 1910) comb. n., stat. rev. One new species is also described: C. lilomwa, sp. n. from Tanzania. Wing patterns as well as male and female genitalia of the five species are described and illustrated. Finally we carried out molecular phylogenetic and molecular species delimitation analyses on a multi-marker dataset of 31 specimens and 15 species, including the five mentioned species. The results of molecular analyses provide a clear support for the proposed taxonomical changes. PMID:25781730

  20. Population genetic structure of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from apple orchards in central Chile.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Contreras, Eduardo; Espinoza, Juan L; Lavandero, Blas; Ramírez, Claudio C

    2008-02-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the main pest of pome fruits worldwide. Despite its economic importance, little is known about the genetic structure and patterns of dispersal at the local and regional scale, which are important aspects for establishing a control strategy for this pest. An analysis of genetic variability using microsatellites was performed for 11 codling moth populations in the two major apple (Malus domestica Borkh) cropping regions in central Chile. Despite the geographical distances between some populations (approximately 185 km), there was low genetic differentiation among populations (F(ST) = 0.002176), with only slight isolation by distance. Only approximately 0.2% of the genetic variability was found among the populations. Geographically structured genetic variation was independent of apple orchard management (production or abandoned). These results suggest a high genetic exchange of codling moth between orchards, possibly mediated by human activities related to fruit production. PMID:18330135

  1. The Application and Performance of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers for Population Genetic Analyses of Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Coates, Brad Steven; Bayles, Darrell O.; Wanner, Kevin W.; Robertson, Hugh M.; Hellmich, Richard L.; Sappington, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    Microsatellite markers are difficult to apply within lepidopteran studies due to the lack of locus-specific PCR amplification and the high proportion of “null” alleles, such that erroneous estimations of population genetic parameters often result. Herein single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers are developed from Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) using next generation expressed sequence tag (EST) data. A total of 2742 SNPs were predicted within a reference assembly of 7414 EST contigs, and a subset of 763 were incorporated into 24 multiplex PCR reactions. To validate this pipeline, 5 European and North American sample sites were genotyped at 178 SNP loci, which indicated 84 (47.2%) were in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. Locus-by-locus FST, analysis of molecular variance, and STRUCTURE analyses indicate significant genetic differentiation may exist between European and North American O. nubilalis. The observed genetic diversity was significantly lower among European sites, which may result from genetic drift, natural selection, a genetic bottleneck, or ascertainment bias due to North American origin of EST sequence data. SNPs are an abundant source of mutation data for molecular genetic marker development in non-model species, with shared ancestral SNPs showing application within closely related species. These markers offer advantages over microsatellite markers for genetic and genomic analyses of Lepidoptera, but the source of mutation data may affect the estimation of population parameters and likely need to be considered in the interpretation of empirical data. PMID:22303334

  2. Ecology and evolution of pathogens in natural populations of Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Myers, Judith H; Cory, Jenny S

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens are ubiquitous in insect populations and yet few studies examine their dynamics and impacts on host populations. We discuss four lepidopteran systems and explore their contributions to disease ecology and evolution. More specifically, we elucidate the role of pathogens in insect population dynamics. For three species, western tent caterpillars, African armyworm and introduced populations of gypsy moth, infection by nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) clearly regulates host populations or reduces their outbreaks. Transmission of NPV is largely horizontal although low levels of vertical transmission occur, and high levels of covert infection in some cases suggest that the virus can persist in a nonsymptomatic form. The prevalence of a mostly vertically transmitted protozoan parasite, Ophryocystis elektroscirrha, in monarch butterflies is intimately related to their migratory behaviour that culls highly infected individuals. Virulence and transmission are positively related among genotypes of this parasite. These systems clearly demonstrate that the interactions between insects and pathogens are highly context dependent. Not only is the outcome a consequence of changes in density and genetic diversity: environmental factors, particularly diet, can have strong impacts on virulence, transmission and host resistance or tolerance. What maintains the high level of host and pathogen diversity in these systems, however, remains a question. PMID:27087850

  3. Gene flow among Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) geographic and host populations in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Timm, A E; Geertsema, H; Warnich, L

    2006-04-01

    Information on gene flow among geographic and host populations of C. pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in South Africa is lacking, despite the importance of these measures for the success of control practices such as chemical control and sterile insect release, which are affected by the amount of gene flow among populations. Therefore, populations collected from nine geographically distant regions in South Africa from apples, pears, and stone fruit were compared using amplified fragment length polymorphism with five selective primer pairs. Results showed that although populations from different hosts were not genetically differentiated, significant evidence for population substructure was apparent between geographic populations. Over local scales, it was possible to distinguish between populations collected from orchards situated <1 km apart. These results suggest that although extensive gene flow occurs among populations from different hosts, gene flow among local geographic C. pomonella populations may be limited and is explained in terms of limited moth flight, the relative isolation of pome fruit production areas, and the absence of wild hosts. PMID:16686131

  4. Labeling Feral Spruce Budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Populations With Rubidium.

    PubMed

    MacKinnon, Wayne; Eveleigh, Eldon; Silk, Peter; Forbes, Glen

    2016-04-01

    Rubidium (Rb) is a trace element that occurs naturally in low concentrations and is easily absorbed by plants, making it a useful tool for labeling insect defoliators, such as spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana Clemens). Balsam fir trees (Abies balsamea (L.) Miller) injected with either 8 or 16 g per tree of rubidium chloride (RbCl) showed quick uptake and distribution throughout the crown, with no negative effects on tree shoot growth or spruce budworm survival and development. Adult spruce budworm that fed as larvae on trees injected with RbCl were clearly labeled, with significantly higher Rb concentrations than the background levels found in adults that fed as larvae on control trees. Rb concentrations in feral spruce budworm adults for both the 8 g (9 µg/g) and 16 g (25 µg/g) per tree treatments were at least five times lower than those in laboratory-reared adults on 1,000 µg/g RbCl diet (125 µg/g); survival, development, pupal weight, sex ratio, and mating status of spruce budworm were not adversely affected by Rb treatment. Egg masses laid by feral females that fed as larvae on Rb-labeled trees were also labeled with Rb. Injecting trees with RbCl is a viable technique for labeling feral spruce budworm populations to help distinguish local populations from immigrants to better evaluate the success of early intervention strategies such as mating disruption. PMID:26920559

  5. Cross-species amplification and polymorphism of microsatellite loci in Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Brazilian cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Leite, N A; Corrêa, A S; Alves-Pereira, A; Campos, J B; Zucchi, M I; Omoto, C

    2016-01-01

    The Old World bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) was recently discovered in Brazil. This species is closely related to the New World bollworm H. zea (Boddie), and mating between these species has already been reported under laboratory conditions. Here, we tested the cross-species amplification of 20 microsatellite (SSR) loci in field populations of H. armigera and H. zea collected from Brazilian cropping systems. Seven SSR loci were successfully amplified and polymorphic in both species except for the locus HaC14, which was monomorphic for H. zea. All SSR loci were in linkage equilibrium, and deviations from Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium were only observed for the locus HarSSR1 in the HaRS-2 population, where null alleles were present. A moderate level of polymorphism was detected in H. armigera and H. zea populations with a mean allele number of 4.14, and 2.24, respectively. Interestingly, most of the populations of the recent invader H. armigera showed higher genetic diversity and inbreeding coefficients than H. zea populations. The genetic identity of each species was recovered using a STRUCTURE analysis, where the populations formed two clusters (K = 2) according to their species. STRUCTURE also suggested the occurrence of potential hybrid offspring between H. armigera and H. zea individuals in natural conditions. These SSR loci will be valuable in characterizing population differentiation, invasion routes, adaptation, reproductive behavior, and intra- and interspecific gene flow in H. armigera and H. zea populations in Brazil, the USA, and other areas where these two pests occur. PMID:27173200

  6. Temperature niche shift observed in a Lepidoptera population under allochronic divergence.

    PubMed

    Santos, H; Paiva, M R; Tavares, C; Kerdelhué, C; Branco, M

    2011-09-01

    A process of adaptive divergence for tolerance to high temperatures was identified using a rare model system, consisting of two sympatric populations of a Lepidoptera (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) with different life cycle timings, a 'mutant' population with summer larval development, Leiria SP, and the founder natural population, having winter larval development, Leiria WP. A third, allopatric population (Bordeaux WP) was also studied. First and second instar larvae were experimentally exposed to daily-cycles of heat treatment reaching maximum values of 36, 38, 40 and 42 °C; control groups placed at 25 °C. A lethal temperature effect was only significant at 42 °C, for Leiria SP, whereas all temperatures tested had a significant negative effect upon Leiria WP, thus indicating an upper threshold of survival c.a. 6 °C above that of the WP. Cox regression model, for pooled heat treatments, predicted mortality hazard to increase for Leiria WP (+108%) and Bordeaux WP (+78%) in contrast to Leiria SP; to increase by 24% for each additional °C; and to decrease by 53% from first to second instar larvae. High variability among individuals was observed, a population characteristic that may favour selection and consequent adaptation. Present findings provide an example of ecological differentiation, following a process of allochronic divergence. Results further contribute to a better understanding of the implications of climate change for ecological genetics. PMID:21635606

  7. Species From the Heliothinae Complex (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Tucumán, Argentina, an Update of Geographical Distribution of Helicoverpa armigera

    PubMed Central

    Murúa, M. Gabriela; Cazado, Lucas E.; Casmuz, Augusto; Herrero, M. Inés; Villagrán, M. Elvira; Vera, Alejandro; Sosa-Gómez, Daniel R.; Gastaminza, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    The Heliothinae complex in Argentina encompasses Helicoverpa gelotopoeon (Dyar), Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), and Chloridea virescens (Fabricius). In Tucumán, the native species H. gelotopoeon is one of the most voracious soybean pests and also affects cotton and chickpea, even more in soybean-chickpea succession cropping systems. Differentiation of the Heliothinae complex in the egg, larva, and pupa stages is difficult. Therefore, the observation of the adult wing pattern design and male genitalia is useful to differentiate species. The objective of this study was to identify the species of the Heliothinae complex, determine population fluctuations of the Heliothinae complex in soybean and chickpea crops using male moths collected in pheromone traps in Tucuman province, and update the geographical distribution of H. armigera in Argentina. The species found were H. gelotopoeon, H. armigera, H. zea, and C. virescens. Regardless of province, county, crop, and year, the predominant species was H. gelotopoeon. Considering the population dynamics of H. gelotopoeon and H. armigera in chickpea and soybean crops, H. gelotopoeon was the most abundant species in both crops, in all years sampled, and the differences registered were significant. On the other hand, according to the Sistema Nacional Argentino de Vigilancia y Monitoreo de Plagas (SINAVIMO) database and our collections, H. armigera was recorded in eight provinces and 20 counties of Argentina, and its larvae were found on soybean, chickpea, sunflower crops and spiny plumeless thistle (Carduus acanthoides). This is the first report of H. armigera in sunflower and spiny plumeless thistle in Argentina. PMID:27324588

  8. Species From the Heliothinae Complex (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Tucumán, Argentina, an Update of Geographical Distribution of Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Murúa, M Gabriela; Cazado, Lucas E; Casmuz, Augusto; Herrero, M Inés; Villagrán, M Elvira; Vera, Alejandro; Sosa-Gómez, Daniel R; Gastaminza, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    The Heliothinae complex in Argentina encompasses Helicoverpa gelotopoeon (Dyar), Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), and Chloridea virescens (Fabricius). In Tucumán, the native species H. gelotopoeon is one of the most voracious soybean pests and also affects cotton and chickpea, even more in soybean-chickpea succession cropping systems. Differentiation of the Heliothinae complex in the egg, larva, and pupa stages is difficult. Therefore, the observation of the adult wing pattern design and male genitalia is useful to differentiate species. The objective of this study was to identify the species of the Heliothinae complex, determine population fluctuations of the Heliothinae complex in soybean and chickpea crops using male moths collected in pheromone traps in Tucuman province, and update the geographical distribution of H. armigera in Argentina. The species found were H. gelotopoeon, H. armigera, H. zea, and C. virescens. Regardless of province, county, crop, and year, the predominant species was H. gelotopoeon Considering the population dynamics of H. gelotopoeon and H. armigera in chickpea and soybean crops, H. gelotopoeon was the most abundant species in both crops, in all years sampled, and the differences registered were significant. On the other hand, according to the Sistema Nacional Argentino de Vigilancia y Monitoreo de Plagas (SINAVIMO) database and our collections, H. armigera was recorded in eight provinces and 20 counties of Argentina, and its larvae were found on soybean, chickpea, sunflower crops and spiny plumeless thistle (Carduus acanthoides). This is the first report of H. armigera in sunflower and spiny plumeless thistle in Argentina. PMID:27324588

  9. Spatial Distribution of Eggs of Alabama argillacea Hübner and Heliothis virescens Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Bt and non-Bt Cotton.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Tatiana R; Fernandes, Marcos G; Degrande, Paulo E; Mota, Thiago A

    2015-01-01

    Among the options to control Alabama argillacea (Hübner, 1818) and Heliothis virescens (Fabricius, 1781) on cotton, insecticide spraying and biological control have been extensively used. The GM'Bt' cotton has been introduced as an extremely viable alternative, but it is yet not known how transgenic plants affect populations of organisms that are interrelated in an agroecosystem. For this reason, it is important to know how the spatial arrangement of pests and beneficial insect are affected, which may call for changes in the methods used for sampling these species. This study was conducted with the goal to investigate the pattern of spatial distribution of eggs of A. argillacea and H. virescens in DeltaOpal™ (non-Bt) and DP90B™ Bt cotton cultivars. Data were collected during the agricultural year 2006/2007 in two areas of 5,000 m2, located in in the district of Nova América, Caarapó municipality. In each sampling area, comprising 100 plots of 50 m2, 15 evaluations were performed on two plants per plot. The sampling consisted in counting the eggs. The aggregation index (variance/mean ratio, Morisita index and exponent k of the negative binomial distribution) and chi-square fit of the observed and expected values to the theoretical frequency distribution (Poisson, Binomial and Negative Binomial Positive), showed that in both cultivars, the eggs of these species are distributed according to the aggregate distribution model, fitting the pattern of negative binomial distribution. PMID:26628025

  10. A comparison of artificial diet and hybrid sweet corn for the rearing of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) based on life table characteristics.

    PubMed

    Jha, Ratna K; Chi, Hsin; Tang, Li- Cheng

    2012-02-01

    The demographic characteristics of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) reared on hybrid sweet corn (Zea mays L. variety saccharata) (hybrid super sweet corn KY bright jean) and on an artificial diet were compared by using the age-stage, two-sex life table. Because the hatch rate of eggs varies with maternal age, age-specific fecundity was calculated based on the numbers of hatched eggs to reveal the biological characteristics of H. armigera accurately. The intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate (λ) and mean generation time (T) of H. armigera were 0.0853 d(-1), 1.0890 d(-1), and 46.6 d, respectively, on Z. mays and 0.1015 d(-1), 1.1068 d(-1), and 46.3 d, respectively, on the artificial diet. There were significant differences in the intrinsic rate of increase and finite rate between two treatments. The age-stage life expectancy and reproductive value also were calculated. The relationships among the net reproductive rate, the mean female fecundity, the number of emerged females, and the total number of individuals used in the life table study are consistent with theoretical expectations. We recommend the age-stage, two-sex life table for use in insect demographic studies to incorporate both sexes and the variation in developmental rate among individuals and to obtain accurate population parameters. The artificial diet is more suitable for the mass rearing of H. armigera. PMID:22525057

  11. Ovipositional response of tobacco budworm moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to cuticular labdanes and sucrose esters from the green leaves ofNicotiana glutinosa L. (Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Jackson, D M; Severson, R F; Sisson, V A; Stephenson, M G

    1991-12-01

    Field plots of three accessions ofNicotiana glutinosa L. (Nicotiana species accessions 24, 24A, and 24B) at Oxford, North Carolina and Tifton, Georgia were heavily damaged by natural populations of tobacco budworms,Heliothis virescens (F.), during 1985-1989. Experiments in outdoor screen cages demonstrated that all accessions ofN. glutinosa were as prone to oviposition byH. virescens moths as was NC 2326, a commercial cultivar of flue-cured tobacco,N. tabacum L. However, in greenhouse experiments, tobacco budworm larvae did not survive or grow as well when placed on plants ofN. glutinosa as they did when placed on plants of NC 2326. Four labdane diterpenes (manool, 2-hydroxymanool, a mixture of sclareols, and labda-13-ene-8α,15-diol [labdenediol]) and two sucrose ester fractions (2,3,4-tri-O-acyl-3'-O-acetyl-sucrose [G-SE-I] and 2,3,4,-tri-O-acyl-sucrose [G-SE-II]) were isolated from green leaves of the three accessions ofN. glutinosa. These components were bioassayed for their effects on the ovipositional behavior of tobacco budworm moths using small screen cages in a greenhouse at Oxford, North Carolina. Labdenediol, manool, and both sucrose ester fractions stimulated tobacco budworm moths to oviposit on a tobacco budworm-resistant Tobacco Introduction, TI 1112 (PI 124166), when these materials were sprayed onto a leaf. PMID:24258642

  12. Evaluating legume species as alternative trap crops to chickpea for management of Helicoverpa spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in central Queensland cotton cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Grundy, P R; Sequeira, R V; Short, K S

    2004-12-01

    Mounting levels of insecticide resistance within Australian Helicoverpa spp. populations have resulted in the adoption of non-chemical IPM control practices such as trap cropping with chickpea, Cicer arietinum (L.). However, a new leaf blight disease affecting chickpea in Australia has the potential to limit its use as a trap crop. Therefore this paper evaluates the potential of a variety of winter-active legume crops for use as an alternative spring trap crop to chickpea as part of an effort to improve the area-wide management strategy for Helicoverpa spp. in central Queensland's cotton production region. The densities of Helicoverpa eggs and larvae were compared over three seasons on replicated plantings of chickpea, Cicer arietinum (L.), field pea Pisum sativum (L), vetch, Vicia sativa (L.) and faba bean, Vicia faba (L.). Of these treatments, field pea was found to harbour the highest densities of eggs. A partial life table study of the fate of eggs oviposited on field pea and chickpea suggested that large proportions of the eggs laid on field pea suffered mortality due to dislodgment from the plants after oviposition. Plantings of field pea as a replacement trap crop for chickpea under commercial conditions confirmed the high level of attractiveness of this crop to ovipositing moths. The use of field pea as a trap crop as part of an area-wide management programme for Helicoverpa spp. is discussed. PMID:15541187

  13. Effects of Interplanting Flowering Plants on the Biological Control of Corn Earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Sweet Corn.

    PubMed

    Manandhar, Roshan; Wright, Mark G

    2016-02-01

    Natural enemy exploitation of food resources and alternative hosts in noncrop vegetation has been shown to be an effective means of enhancing natural enemy populations in diversified agro-ecosystem. Field trials were conducted in Hawaii to examine effects of interplanting flowering plants on 1) parasitism of corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) eggs by Trichogramma spp., and 2) abundance of Orius spp. in relation to prey (H. zea eggs and thrips [primarily, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and Frankliniella williamsi Hood]). Sweet corn (maize), Zea mays L., was interplanted with three flowering plants, buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.), and sunn hemp, Crotolaria juncea L., at 2:1 and 4:1 (corn: flowering plant) ratios in 2009 and 2010, respectively. In 2009, the abundance of Orius spp. was significantly greater in the buckwheat-interplanted treatment compared to the monocrop control at similar levels of prey availability, indicating buckwheat flowers might have provided both prey and nectar resources. In 2010, cowpea and sunn hemp flowering plants provided a source of an alternate host insect's eggs for Trichogramma spp. oviposition, resulting in significantly higher parasitism of H. zea eggs in the cowpea- and sunn hemp-interplanted treatments compared to the monocrop control. Despite of differences in pest and natural enemy interactions in two field trials, our findings suggested that provisioning of an alternate host insect's eggs through flowering plants is an effective means for enhancing Trichogramma spp. and provisioning of both nectar and prey resources through flowering plants is important for enhancing predation by Orius spp. PMID:26500338

  14. Restriction fragment length polymorphism markers associated with silk maysin, antibiosis to corn earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae, in a dent and sweet corn cross.

    PubMed

    Guo, B Z; Zhang, Z J; Li, R G; Widstrom, N W; Snook, M E; Lynch, R E; Plaisted, D

    2001-04-01

    Maysin, a C-glycosylflavone in maize silk, has insecticidal activity against corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), larvae. Sweet corn, Zea mays L., is a vulnerable crop to ear-feeding insects and requires pesticide protection from ear damage. This study was conducted to identify maize chromosome regions associated with silk maysin concentration and eventually to transfer and develop high silk maysin sweet corn lines with marker-assisted selection (MAS). Using an F2 population derived from SC102 (high maysin dent corn) and B31857 (low maysin sh2 sweet corn), we detected two major quantitative trait loci (QTL). It was estimated that 25.6% of the silk maysin variance was associated with segregation in the genomic region of npi286 (flanking to p1) on chromosome 1S. We also demonstrated that a1 on chromosome 3L had major contribution to silk maysin (accounted for 15.7% of the variance). Locus a1 has a recessive gene action for high maysin with the presence of functional p1 allele. Markers umc66a (near c2) and umc105a on chromosome 9S also were detected in this analysis with minor contribution. A multiple-locus model, which included npi286, a1, csu3 (Bin 1.05), umc245 (Bin 7.05), agrr21 (Bin 8.09), umc105a, and the epistatic interactions npi286 x a1, a1 x agrr21, csu3 x umc245, and umc105a x umc245, accounted for 76.3% of the total silk maysin variance. Tester crosses showed that at the a1 locus, SC102 has functional A1 alleles and B31857 has homozygous recessive a1 alleles. Individuals of (SC102 x B31857) x B31857 were examined with MAS and plants with p1 allele from SC102 and homozygous a1 alleles from B31857 had consistent high silk maysin. Marker-assisted selection seems to be a suitable method to transfer silk maysin to sweet corn lines to reduce pesticide application. PMID:11332855

  15. An endemic population of western poplar clearwing moths (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) invades a monoculture of hybrid poplar.

    PubMed

    Brown, John J; Kittelson, Neal T; Hannon, Eugene R; Walsh, Douglas B

    2006-06-01

    Western poplar clearwing, Paranthrene robiniae (Hy. Edwards) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), is endemic in Pacific Northwest riparian habitats at low population densities. These moths have colonized commercial hybrid poplar (Populus spp.) plantings. Moth populations increased rapidly and became a major pest. Trap catches of male moths in mid-season surveys increased 190-fold from 95 in 2001 to >18,500 in 2002 across 6597 ha of poplars monitored. The outbreak of western poplar clearwings was widespread in 2002. Pheromone-baited traps placed one trap per 81.75 ha over 13,274 ha of commercial poplars captured >108,000 male moths in 2002. Damage to commercial poplars included girdling of saplings and burrows in limbs and trunks of trees. Repeated applications of chlorpyrifos failed to reduce the abundance of moths in 2002. Two management strategies over two separate plantations of approximately 6500 ha each were contrasted. Future control strategies recommend a halt to the use of contact insecticides that target adult moths. Short-term (3-5 yr) control should involve a pheromone-based mating disruption strategy followed eventually by selection of a clone that is less susceptible to P. robiniae attack. PMID:16813311

  16. Marking cabbage looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) with cesium

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, J.I.; Van Steenwyk, R.A.

    1984-04-01

    Cabbage loopers (CL), Trichoplusia ni (Huebner), adults reared on artificial diet containing 1 x 10/sup -2/ M and 1 x 10/sup -3/ M CsCl were marked with cesium (Cs) which could be detected by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The cesium marks from the 10/sup -2/ M CsCl diet were sufficient to last the expected lifetime of the insects. CL reared on diet containing 1 x 10/sup -1/ M CsCl did not survive. Unmarked females mated to males reared on artificial diet containing 1 x 10/sup -2/ M and 1 x 10/sup -3/ M CsCl were marked. CL reared on cotton plants sprayed with Cs solutions of 1000, 5000, and 10,000 ..mu..g/ml were marked sufficiently to last the expected lifetime of the insect. CL adults exposed for 72 h to cotton plants sprayed with Cs solutions of 1000, 5000, and 10,000 ..mu..g/ml were marked sufficiently to last the expected lifetime of the insect. CL adults reared from field cotton plants sprayed with CsCl solutions at rates of 1.24, 2.47, and 4.94 kg of CsCl per ha were marked. 12 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

  17. First microsatellites developed from Spodoptera frugiperda and their potential use for population genetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report of sequence-specific microsatellite markers (SSRs) of Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an economically important pest of the American continent. We developed 178 microsatellite markers using pyrosequencing, and screened 15 individuals from 8 colonies ...

  18. Host Specificity of Microsporidia (Protista: Microspora) from European Populations of Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) to Indigenous North American Lepidoptera

    PubMed

    Solter; Maddox; McManus

    1997-03-01

    Results of traditional laboratory bioassays may not accurately represent ecological (field) host specificity of entomopathogens but, if carefully interpreted, may be used to predict the ecological host specificity of pathogens being considered for release as classical biological control agents. We conducted laboratory studies designed to evaluate the physiological host specificity of microsporidia, which are common protozoan pathogens of insects. In these studies, 49 nontarget lepidopteran species indigenous to North America were fed five biotypes of microsporidia that occur in European populations of Lymantria dispar but are not found in North American populations of L. dispar. These microsporidia, Microsporidium sp. from Portugal, Microsporidium sp. from Romania, Microsporidium sp. from Slovakia, Nosema lymantriae, and Endoreticulatus sp. from Portugal, are candidates for release as classical biological control agents into L. dispar populations in the United States. The microsporidia produced a variety of responses in the nontarget hosts and, based on these responses, the nontarget hosts were placed in the following categories: (1) no infection (refractory), (2) atypical infections, and (3) heavy infections. Endoreticulatus sp. produced patent, host-like infections in nearly two-thirds of the nontarget hosts to which it was fed. Such generalist species should not be recommended for release. Infections comparable to those produced in L. dispar were produced in 2% of the nontarget hosts fed Microsporidium sp. from Portugal, 19% of nontarget hosts fed Microsporidium sp. from Romania, 13% fed spores of Microsporidium sp. from Slovakia, and 11% of nontarget species fed N. lymantriae. The remaining nontarget species developed infections that, despite production of mature spores, were not typical of infection in L. dispar. We believe it is very unlikely that these atypical infections would be horizontally transmitted within nontarget insect populations in the United

  19. Edible Lepidoptera in Mexico: Geographic distribution, ethnicity, economic and nutritional importance for rural people

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we reported the butterflies and moths that are consumed in Mexico. We identified 67 species of Lepidoptera that are eaten principally in their larval stage in 17 states of Mexico. These species belong to 16 families: Arctiidae, Bombycidae, Castniidae, Cossidae, Geometridae, Hepialidae, Hesperiidae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Pyralidae, Saturniidae, Sesiidae, and Sphingidae. Saturniidae, Pieridae, Noctuidae and Nymphalidae were the more species consumed with 16, 11, 9, and 8 species, respectively. The genera with the largest numbers of species were: Phassus, Phoebis, Hylesia and Spodoptera, with three species. Their local distribution, corresponding to each state of Mexico, is also presented. PMID:21211040

  20. Edible Lepidoptera in Mexico: Geographic distribution, ethnicity, economic and nutritional importance for rural people.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Elorduy, Julieta; Moreno, José M P; Vázquez, Adolfo I; Landero, Ivonne; Oliva-Rivera, Héctor; Camacho, Víctor H M

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we reported the butterflies and moths that are consumed in Mexico. We identified 67 species of Lepidoptera that are eaten principally in their larval stage in 17 states of Mexico. These species belong to 16 families: Arctiidae, Bombycidae, Castniidae, Cossidae, Geometridae, Hepialidae, Hesperiidae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Pyralidae, Saturniidae, Sesiidae, and Sphingidae.Saturniidae, Pieridae, Noctuidae and Nymphalidae were the more species consumed with 16, 11, 9, and 8 species, respectively. The genera with the largest numbers of species were: Phassus, Phoebis, Hylesia and Spodoptera, with three species.Their local distribution, corresponding to each state of Mexico, is also presented. PMID:21211040

  1. Structure and distribution of a strain-biased tandem repeat element in fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) populations in Florida, Texas, and Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall armyworm is a major economic pest throughout the Western Hemisphere. There exist two morphologically identical but genetically distinct strains (corn-strain and rice-strain) that differ in their host plant preferences. These can be distinguished by polymorphisms in the mitochondrial Cytochrome ...

  2. Genetic Diversity and Structure of Brazilian Populations of Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): Implications for Pest Management.

    PubMed

    Silva-Brandão, Karina L; Santos, Thiago V; Cônsoli, Fernando L; Omoto, Celso

    2015-02-01

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), is the main pest of sugarcane in Brazil. Genetic variability and gene flow among 13 Brazilian populations of the species were evaluated based on mitochondrial DNA sequences to estimate the exchange of genetic information within and among populations. We found high genetic structure among sampled localities (ΦST=0.50923), and pairwise genetic distances were significantly correlated to geographic distances. Demographic analysis and genealogical network of mitochondrial sequences indicate population growth and admixture of D. saccharalis populations, events likely related to the sequential expansion of the corn and sugarcane crops in Brazil. The implications of these findings for pest management are discussed. PMID:26470135

  3. Population genetic structure of economically important Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) in South Africa: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Timm, A E; Geertsema, H; Warnich, L

    2010-08-01

    Comparative studies of the population genetic structures of agricultural pests can elucidate the factors by which their population levels are affected, which is useful for designing pest management programs. This approach was used to provide insight into the six Tortricidae of major economic importance in South Africa. The population genetic structure of the carnation worm E. acerbella and the false codling moth T. leucotreta, analyzed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, is presented here for the first time. These results were compared with those obtained previously for the codling moth Cydia pomonella, the oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta, the litchi moth Cryptophlebia peltastica and the macadamia nut borer T. batrachopa. Locally adapted populations were detected over local geographic areas for all species. No significant differences were found among population genetic structures as result of population history (whether native or introduced) although host range (whether oligophagous or polyphagous) had a small but significant effect. It is concluded that factors such as dispersal ability and agricultural practices have the most important effects on genetically structuring populations of the economically important Tortricidae in South Africa. PMID:19941674

  4. Comparisons of genetic diversity in captive versus wild populations of the federally endangered Quino checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas editha quino Behr; Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Mark P.; Pratt, Gordon F.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Haig, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Captive populations can play a significant role in threatened and endangered species management. An important consideration when developing and managing captive populations, however, is the maintenance of genetic diversity to ensure that adequate variation exists to avoid the negative consequences of inbreeding. In this investigation, we compared genetic diversity patterns within captive and wild populations of the federally endangered Quino checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas editha quino Behr [Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae]), a taxon with a restricted distribution to chaparral and sage shrublands within Riverside and San Diego counties, California. Our analyses revealed that medium to high-frequency alleles from the wild populations were also present in the captive populations. While there was no significant difference in genetic diversity as quantified by expected heterozygosity, the captive populations showed tendencies toward significantly lower allelic richness than their wild counterparts. Given that alleles from the wild populations were occasionally not detected in captive populations, periodic incorporation of new wild specimens into the captive population would help ensure that allelic diversity is maintained to the extent possible. If performed in advance, genetic surveys of wild populations may provide the clearest insights regarding the number of individuals needed in captivity to adequately reflect wild populations.

  5. Population genetic structure and Wolbachia infection in an endangered butterfly, Zizina emelina (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae), in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Y; Hirai, N; Tanikawa, T; Yago, M; Ishii, M

    2015-04-01

    Zizina emelina (de l'Orza) is listed on Japan's Red Data List as an endangered species because of loss of its principal food plant and habitat. We compared parts of the mitochondrial and nuclear genes of this species to investigate the level of genetic differentiation among the 14 extant populations. We also examined infection of the butterfly with the bacterium Wolbachia to clarify the bacterium's effects on the host population's genetic structure. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analyses revealed that haplotype composition differed significantly among most of the populations, and the fixation index F ST was positively correlated with geographic distance. In addition, we found three strains of Wolbachia, one of which was a male killer; these strains were prevalent in several populations. There was linkage between some host mitochondrial haplotypes and the three Wolbachia strains, although no significant differences were found in a comparison of host mitochondrial genetic diversity with nuclear genetic diversity in Wolbachia-infected or -uninfected populations. These genetic analyses and Wolbachia infection findings show that Z. emelina has little migratory activity and that little gene flow occurs among the current populations. PMID:25499047

  6. Organophosphate Resistance and its Main Mechanism in Populations of Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from Central Chile.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Maritza; Barros-Parada, Wilson; Ramírez, Claudio C; Fuentes-Contreras, Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is the key pest of apple production worldwide. Insecticide resistance has been reported in all producing countries, based on five different mechanisms. Codling moth in Chile has resistance to azinphos-methyl and tebufenozide in post-diapausing larvae. However, there are no studies about the susceptibility of these populations to insecticides from other chemical groups. Therefore, the efficacy of azinphos-methyl, chlorpyrifos-ethyl, esfenvalerate, methoxyfenozide, tebufenozide, and thiacloprid on neonate and post-diapausing larvae from six field populations was investigated, and identified resistance mechanisms in this species were evaluated. Neonate larvae were susceptible to all insecticides studied, but post-diapausing larvae from four populations were resistant to chlorpyrifos, one of them was also resistant to azinphos-methyl, and another one was resistant to tebufenozide. The acetylcholinesterase insensitivity mutation was not detected, and the sodium channel knockdown resistance mutation was present in a low frequency in one population. Detoxifying enzymatic activity of glutathione S-transferases, esterases, and cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases in adults differed among populations, but chlorpyrifos resistance was associated only with a decreased esterase activity as shown by a significant negative correlation between chlorpyrifos mortality and esterase activity. PMID:26470131

  7. The application and performance of single nucleotide polymorphism markers for population genetic analyses of Lepidoptera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are nucleotide substitution mutations that tend to be at high densities within eukaryotic genomes. The development of assays that detect allelic variation at SNP loci is attractive for genome mapping, population genetics, and phylogeographic applications. A p...

  8. Distribution of /sup 32/P in laboratory colonies of Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) after feeding on labeled Heliothis zeal (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) eggs: an explanation of discrepancies encountered in field predation experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Nuessly, G.S.; Sterling, W.L.

    1986-12-01

    Factors responsible for low recovery rates of radioactive Solenopsis invicta Buren following placement of /sup 32/P-labeled Heliothis zea (Boddie) eggs on cotton in field predation tests were investigated using laboratory colonies of the ants. S. invicta workers became radioactive while handling labeled eggs by rupturing the egg chorion or by picking up labeled substances present on the surface of eggs. Foragers that removed the eggs from the plants picked up significantly more of the label than did workers that were sampled from the colonies between 12 and 72 h after egg introduction. Percentage of workers that became labeled over time was much lower with the solid live food than in other studies that used powdered food sources. Problems in finding labeled ants in the field may have been associated with low mean levels of /sup 32/P per ant, together with difficulty in locating and isolating labeled ants from the population. Results indicate that egg predation rates estimated from counts per minute per predator have high variability, and suggest fairly large errors in estimates of eggs consumed per ant. Use of recovery rates of labeled predators to improve estimation of predation rates is discussed.

  9. The effect of parasitism on the population dynamics of the macadamia nutborer Gymnandrosoma aurantianum (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Blanco-Metzler, Helga; Watt, Allan D; Cosens, Derek

    2009-12-01

    Biological control on crop infesting insects represent an useful method in modem agriculture. A search for parasitoids of the macadamia nutborer was carried out during a three year study, and their effect on the population fluctuation of the borer was determined. An egg parasitoid belonging to the family Trichogrammatidae and four larval parasitoids, Microgastrine I, Microgastrine II, Ascogaster sp. (Hymeoptera: Braconidae) and Pristomerus sp. (Hymeoptera: Ichneumonidae) were recovered. Parasitism percentage by Microgastrine I was 15% in 1991, 16% in 1992 and 4% in 1993; Microgastrine II was not collected in 1991, but accounted for a 4.3% of parasitism in 1992 and 3.7% in 1993; Ascogaster sp. was registered since 1992 with 3% parasitism (29% in 1993). We found an inverse relationship between total parasitism and the mean of damaged nuts. Parasitoids play an important role in the reduction of the G. aurantianum population. PMID:20073349

  10. Population Development of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) under Simulated UK Glasshouse Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Cuthbertson, Andrew G.S.; Mathers, James J.; Blackburn, Lisa F.; Korycinska, Anastasia; Luo, Weiqi; Jacobson, Robert J.; Northing, Phil

    2013-01-01

    Tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) is a major pest of tomato plants in South America. It was first recorded in the UK in 2009 where it has been subjected to eradication policies. The current work outlines T. absoluta development under various UK glasshouse temperatures. The optimum temperature for Tuta development ranged from 19–23 °C. At 19 °C, there was 52% survival of T. absoluta from egg to adult. As temperature increased (23 °C and above) development time of the moth would appear to decrease. Population development ceases between 7 and 10 °C. Only 17% of eggs hatched at 10 °C but no larvae developed through to adult moths. No eggs hatched when maintained at 7 °C. Under laboratory conditions the total lifespan of the moth was longest (72 days) at 13 °C and shortest (35 days) at both 23 and 25 °C. Development from egg to adult took 58 days at 13 °C; 37 days at 19 °C and 23 days at 25 °C. High mortality of larvae occurred under all temperatures tested. First instar larvae were exposed on the leaf surface for approximately 82 minutes before fully tunnelling into the leaf. Adult longevity was longest at 10 °C with moths living for 40 days and shortest at 19 °C where they survived for 16 days. Generally more males than females were produced. The potential of Tuta absoluta to establish populations within UK protected horticulture is discussed. PMID:26464384

  11. Larval description of Copitarsia incommoda (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The last-instar larva of Copitarsia incommoda (Walker) is described for the first time. Specimens in this study were reared from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., Chenopodiaceae), Bolivia, La Paz, 4 km S Viacha, Quipaquipani, 3880 m. The larva of Copitarsia incommoda is compared with larvae of Copi...

  12. Revision of the Genus Psectrotarsia Dognin 1907 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Heliothinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on characters of the male and female genitalia the genus Erythroecia Hampson 1910 is a new synonym of Psectrotarsia Dognin 1907. Psectrotarsia now includes 5 species: the type species is P. flava Dognin, P. suavis (H. Edwards) new combination, P. hebardi (Skinner), new combination, P. euposis ...

  13. Monitoring for exotic Spodoptera species (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trapping studies were conducted in two Florida locations to determine if three Old World Spodoptera Guenée species were present. Commercially-produced lures for S. exempta (Walker), S. littoralis (Boisduval), and S. litura (F.), plus a S. litura lure made by the USDA-APHIS-CPHST laboratory at Otis ...

  14. Immature Development of Spodoptera dolichos (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Montezano, D G; Sosa-Gómez, D R; Paula-Moraes, S V; Roque-Specht, V F; Fronza, E; Barros, N M; Specht, A

    2016-02-01

    We provide detailed temporal and morphological parameters of the immature stages of Spodoptera dolichos (Fabricius) larvae fed on artificial diet under controlled conditions (25 ± 1 °C, 70 ± 10% RH, and 14 h photophase). The viability of the egg, larval, pupal, and prepupal stages was 97.5%, 97.0%, 93.1%, and 98.9%, respectively. The average duration of the egg, larval, prepupal, and pupal stages was 5.0, 23.4, 3.2, and 21.5 days, respectively. Females took longer at the larval stage than males, with 10.5% of them having seven instars. The growth rate of female larvae that developed through six and seven instars was 1.72 and 1.54, respectively. Female pupae were significantly larger, exhibiting slower development than males. PMID:26429580

  15. Parasitoids attacking fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in sweet corn habitats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall armyworm larvae, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), were collected from sweet corn plants (Zea mays L.) in fields located in three south Florida counties. Fields were sampled from 2010 – 2015 during the fall and spring seasons. Larvae were brought back to the laboratory to complete developme...

  16. A new Perigrapha Lederer, 1857 from South Kazakhstan (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Volynkin, Anton V; Titov, Sergey V; Knyazev, Svyatoslav A

    2014-01-01

    A new species of the genus Perigrapha, P. yasawii sp. n. is described from Syrdarya river valley, South Kazakhstan. The adults and male genitalia of the new and related species are illustrated. PMID:25284659

  17. Behavior of bollworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on genetically engineered cotton.

    PubMed

    Gore, J; Leonard, B R; Church, G E; Cook, D R

    2002-08-01

    Reports of bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), larvae feeding in white flowers of Bollgard cotton have been relatively common since the commercialization of this technology in 1996. Field studies were conducted in Louisiana to determine if differences in bollworm larval behavior occuron non-Bollgard (cultivar 'Deltapine 5415') and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), Bollgard ('NuCOTN 33B') cottons. Larvae were placed on the terminal foliage of either single cotton plants or on all plants within 1-m row micro-plots. On preflowering cotton plants, significantly more bollworms moved from the site of infestation (terminal) on Bollgard plants compared with that on non-Bollgard plants. On individual flowering plants, the number of nodes larvae moved from the terminal and the number of infested bolls was greater on Bollgard cotton plants. Similar differences between Bollgard and non-Bollgard plants in the percentage of infested terminals and squares were observed at 48-h after infestation when 1-m rows were infested. These data will be used to refine scouting protocols for bollworm larvae on Bollgard cotton. PMID:12216818

  18. Size and Chemical Composition of Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Spermatophores

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heliothis virescens is a polyandrous species of economic importance in the American Continent. This sexual behavior allows for the presence of multiple spermatophores inside a female and the possibility of different males fertilizing the female’s offspring, a conduct that can make insecticide resist...

  19. Review of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) genetic complexity and migration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) is a significant economic pest in the western hemisphere, causing substantial losses in corn, sorghum, forage and turf grasses (Luginbill 1928, Sparks 1979). Although fall armyworm does not survive severe winters, it infests most of the central...

  20. Anagnorisma chamrani sp. n. (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Gyulai, Peter; Rabieh, Mohammad Mahdi; Seraj, Ali Asghar; Ronkay, Laslo; Esfandiari, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new Anagnorisma species, Anagnorisma chamrani sp. n., is described from Binaloud Mountains of Khorasan-e-Razavi province in north-eastern Iran, and compared with its sister species, Anagnorisma eucratides (Boursin, 1960). The adults, and male and female genitalia of both species are illustrated in 11 figures. The genus Anagnorisma is recorded for the first time for the fauna of Iran. PMID:23950668

  1. Sequential sampling for panicle caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum panicle worm is an economically important insect pest complex of sorghum throughout the Great Plains of the United States, particularly in Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas. The sorghum panicle worm complex consists of larvae of two highly polyphagous lepidopteran species: the corn earworm, Heli...

  2. Binary floral lure attractive to velvetbean caterpillar adults (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation of combinations of flower odor compounds in northern Florida, revealed that linalool was synergistic in attractiveness with phenylacetaldehyde (PAA) to the migratory moth velvetbean caterpillar (Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner). This noctuid was the most common species collected from traps w...

  3. Binary floral lure attractive to velvetbean caterpillar adults (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of moth species responded positively to phenylacetaldehyde (PAA) and to the binary blend of PAA + linalool in tests conducted in peanut fields in northern Florida, USA. Velvetbean caterpillar moths (Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner) were the most commonly collected species, with almost 13,000 ...

  4. Systematics of the Copitarsia Incommoda (Walker) pest complex (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phylogenetic relationships of four pest species in the noctuid genus Copitarsia were investigated using adult morphology and mitochondrial DNA (COI). Separate analyses of morphological and COI data provide the same topology of relationships. Adult morphology provides useful characters for separating...

  5. Suppression of Hop Looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) by the fungicide Pyraclostrobin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hop looper, Hypena humuli Harris, is a reemergent pest of hop that often requires treatment to mitigate crop damage. In four years of field trials, plots treated with fungicides were observed to sustain less hop looper defoliation as compared to nontreated plots. Further investigation revealed...

  6. Population variation of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, in the Western Hemisphere

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), the fall armyworm is the most economically important maize pest in the western hemisphere. This research focused on the genetic variability of the maize host strain because there is a lack of information in this area of S. frugiperda rese...

  7. Laboratory Population Parameters and Field Impact of the Larval Endoparasitoid Pseudapanteles dignus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on its Host Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Tomato Crops in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Nieves, Eliana L; Pereyra, Patricia C; Luna, María G; Medone, Paula; Sánchez, Norma E

    2015-08-01

    The tomato moth, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a key pest of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum L., crops in Central and South America. At present it is dispersing rapidly in Africa and Eurasian continents as an invasive pest, threatening worldwide tomato production. Pseudapanteles dignus (Muesebeck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is an American endoparasitoid reported as the main natural enemy of T. absoluta in commercial tomato. To gain knowledge of the potential role of P. dignus in the biological control of this pest, we determined its population parameters in laboratory and the parasitoid's impact on T. absoluta in the field. In laboratory, lifetime fecundity was 193 eggs per female, and longevity was 24 and 26 d for female and male, respectively. The finite rate of increase (λ) was 1.15 per female per day and the intrinsic rate of natural increase (r(m)) was 0.14. The net reproductive rate (R(0)) was found to be 51.2, and generation time (T) 28.8 d. The time for doubling the population (DT) was 5 d. Furthermore, field parasitism of T. absoluta varied between 33 and 64% in the different years studied. Population parameters estimated in this study can be considered baseline information for a mass-rearing protocol of this parasitoid. Moreover, growth rates of P. dignus, particularly r(m), and its impact on field populations of T. absoluta indicated that this parasitoid is a valuable candidate for biological control of this pest. PMID:26470295

  8. Lesions in the wingless gene of the Apollo butterfly (Parnassius apollo, Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) individuals with deformed or reduced wings, coming from the isolated population in Pieniny (Poland).

    PubMed

    Łukasiewicz, Kinga; Sanak, Marek; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz

    2016-02-01

    Parnassius apollo (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) is a butterfly species which was common in Europe in 19th century, but now it is considered as near threatened. Various programs devoted to protect and save P. apollo have been established, between others the one in Pieniny National Park (Poland). An isolated population of this butterfly has been restored there from a small group of 20-30 individuals in early 1990s. However, deformations or reductions of wings occur in this population in a relatively large number of insects, and the cause of this phenomenon is not known. In this report, the occurrence of lesions in the wingless (wg) gene is demonstrated in most of tested butterflies with deformed or reduced wings, but not in normal insects. Although the analyses indicated that wg lesion(s) cannot be the sole cause of the deformed or reduced wings in the population of P. apollo from Pieniny, the discovery that this genetic defect occurs in most of malformed individuals, can be considered as an important step in understanding this phenomenon. PMID:26581509

  9. Reaction norm variants for male calling song in populations of Achroia grisella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): toward a resolution of the lek paradox.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yihong; Kuster, Heidi K; Pettis, Jeffrey S; Danka, Robert G; Gleason, Jennifer M; Greenfield, Michael D

    2008-06-01

    Significant additive genetic variance often occurs for male advertisement traits in spite of the directional selection imposed by female choice, a problem generally known in evolutionary biology as the lek paradox. One hypothesis, which has limited support from recent studies, for the resolution of this paradox is the role of genotype x environment interaction in which no one genotype exhibits the superior performance in all environments--a crossover of reaction norms. However, these studies have not characterized the actual variation of reaction norms present in natural populations, and the extent to which crossover maintains genetic variance remains unknown. Here, we present a study of genotype x environment interaction for the male calling song in populations of Achroia grisella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae; lesser waxmoth). We report significant variance among reaction norms for male calling song in two North American populations of A. grisella as measured along temperature, food availability, and density gradients, and there is a relatively high incidence of crossover of the temperature reaction norms. This range of reaction norm variants and their crossover may reflect the co-occurrence of plastic and canalized genotypes, and we argue that the different responses of these variants along environmental gradients may contribute toward the maintenance of genetic variance for male song. PMID:18346222

  10. Population variation of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, in the Western Hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Clark, Pete L; Molina-Ochoa, Jaime; Martinelli, Samuel; Skoda, Steven R; Isenhour, David J; Lee, Donald J; Krumm, Jeffrey T; Foster, John E

    2007-01-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), the fall armyworm is the most economically important maize pest in the western hemisphere. This research focused on the genetic variability of the maize host strain because there is a lack of information in this area of S. frugiperda research. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was used to assess the genetic variability of S. frugiperda over a large geographic area. Twenty populations were collected from the maize, one population was collected from princess tree, one population was collected from lemon tree, and one population was collected from bermudagrass. The 23 populations were from Mexico, the continental United States, Puerto Rico, Brazil, and Argentina. The objective of this research was to evaluate whether the majority of genetic variability was within populations or between populations. The AFLP results showed that the majority of the genetic variability is within populations and not between populations, indicating minor gene flow and suggesting that S. frugiperda in the Western Hemisphere are an interbreeding population. PMID:20334595

  11. Population Variation of the Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, in the Western Hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Pete L.; Molina-Ochoa, Jaime; Martinelli, Samuel; Skoda, Steven R.; Isenhour, David J.; Lee, Donald J.; Krumm, Jeffrey T.; Foster, John E.

    2007-01-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), the fall armyworm is the most economically important maize pest in the western hemisphere. This research focused on the genetic variability of the maize host strain because there is a lack of information in this area of S. frugiperda research. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was used to assess the genetic variability of S. frugiperda over a large geographic area. Twenty populations were collected from the maize, one population was collected from princess tree, one population was collected from lemon tree, and one population was collected from bermudagrass. The 23 populations were from Mexico, the continental United States, Puerto Rico, Brazil, and Argentina. The objective of this research was to evaluate whether the majority of genetic variability was within populations or between populations. The AFLP results showed that the majority of the genetic variability is within populations and not between populations, indicating minor gene flow and suggesting that S. frugiperda in the Western Hemisphere are an interbreeding population. PMID:20334595

  12. Effect of learning on the oviposition preference of field-collected and laboratory-reared Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) populations.

    PubMed

    Glas, J J; van den Berg, J; Potting, R P J

    2007-08-01

    Recent studies show that Vetiver grass, (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash), may have potential as a dead-end trap crop in an overall habitat management strategy for the spotted stem borer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). Vetiver grass is highly preferred for oviposition, in spite of the fact that larval survival is extremely low on this grass. The oviposition behaviour of female Chilo partellus moths was investigated by determining the amount and size of egg batches allocated to maize and Vetiver plants and studying the effect of rearing conditions and oviposition experience on host plant selection. Two-choice preference tests were used to examine the effect of experience of maize (a suitable host plant) and Vetiver plants on the oviposition choice of C. partellus. For both field-collected and laboratory-reared moths, no significant differences were found in the preference distributions between the experienced groups. It is concluded that females do not learn, i.e. that they do not change their preference for Vetiver grass after having experienced oviposition on either maize or this grass, which supports the idea that trap cropping could have potential as a control method for C. partellus. Differences observed between field-collected and laboratory-reared moths in the amount and size of egg batches laid on maize and Vetiver grass indicate that data obtained from experiments with laboratory-reared insects should be treated with caution. PMID:17645823

  13. Spatial and temporal dynamics of Aroga moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) populations and damage to sagebrush in shrub steppe across varying elevation.

    PubMed

    Bolshakova, Virginia L J; Evans, Edward W

    2014-12-01

    Spatial and temporal variation in the density of the Aroga moth, Aroga websteri Clarke (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and in its damage to its host plant, big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nuttall), were examined at 38 sites across a shrub steppe landscape in mountain foothills of northern Utah. Sites were sampled from 2008 to 2012 during and after an outbreak of the moth, to assess whether and how local variation in moth abundance, survivorship, and damage to the host plant was accounted for by sagebrush cover, elevation, slope, aspect, or incident solar radiation. As moth numbers declined from a peak in 2009, individual sites had a consistent tendency in subsequent years to support more or fewer defoliator larvae. Local moth abundance was not correlated with sagebrush cover, which declined with elevation, and moth survivorship was highest at intermediate elevations (1,800-2,000 m). North-facing stands of sagebrush, characterized by lower values of incident solar radiation, were found to be especially suitable local habitats for the Aroga moth, as reflected in measures of both abundance and feeding damage. This high habitat suitability may result from favorable microclimate, both in its direct effects on the Aroga moth and in indirect effects through associated vegetative responses. North-facing sites also supported taller and more voluminous sagebrush plants in comparison to south-facing sites. Thus, the moth is reasonably predictable in the sites at which it is likely to occur in greatest numbers, and such sites may be those that in fact have most potential to recover from feeding damage. PMID:25314103

  14. New threshold temperatures for the development of a North American diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) population and its larval parasitoid, Diadegma insulare (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae).

    PubMed

    Bahar, M H; Soroka, J J; Grenkow, L; Dosdall, L M

    2014-10-01

    The currently accepted lower threshold temperature for the development of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), the world's most destructive insect pest of cruciferous crops, is around 6.0°C, and there is no known upper threshold temperature. Neither are there established threshold temperatures for diamondback moth's major natural enemy, Diadegma insulare (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Laboratory studies were undertaken to determine the survival and development of a North American diamondback moth population and its parasitoid D. insulare at 20 constant temperatures ranging from 2.0 to 38.0°C. Diamondback moth completed development from second instar to adult within a temperature range of 4.0-37°C, and D. insulare completed its life cycle from egg to adult within a temperature range of 4.0-33°C. The developmental data were fitted into one linear and four nonlinear models. Using goodness-of-fit and the ability to estimate parameters of biological significance as selection criteria, the Wang model was the most acceptable among the nonlinear models to describe the relationship between temperature and development of both species. According to this model, the lower and upper threshold temperatures for diamondback moth were 2.1 and 38.0°C, respectively, and for D. insulare they were 2.1 and 34.0°C, respectively. Based on the Degree Day model, diamondback moth required 143 d above the lower threshold of 4.23°C to complete the life cycle, while D. insulare required 286 d above the lower threshold of 2.57°C. This study suggests that temperatures during the crop-growing seasons in North America are not limiting factors for development of either diamondback moth or D. insulare. PMID:25259698

  15. Cyanogenesis-a general phenomenon in the lepidoptera?

    PubMed

    Witthohn, K; Naumann, C M

    1987-08-01

    There are two different pathways known to be used for the detoxification of hydrocyanic acid in insects, viz., rhodanese and β-cyano-L-ala-nine synthase. We consider the latter to be indicative for cyanogenesis, while rhodanese might, in general, play a more important role in sulfur transfer for protein synthesis. This paper reports on the distribution of β-cyano-L-alanine (BCA) in the Lepidoptera. First reports of cyanogenesis are presented for the following families: Papilionidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae, Hesperiidae, Lymantriidae, Arctiidae, Notodontidae, Megalopygidae, Limacodidae, Cymatophoridae, Noctuidae, Geometridae, and Yponomeutidae. New and old records for three other families, the Nymphalidae, Zygaenidae, and Heterogynidae, are included to complete the present state of knowledge. Special emphasis has been laid on the Nymphalidae, where BCA has been detected in eight subfamilies. Taxonomic, geographic, and seasonal variation has been found in a number of cases. In all cases observed so far, the source of cyanogenesis in the Lepidoptera is most probably the cyanoglucosides linamarin and lotaustralin, although cyanogenesis based on mustard oil glucosides and cyclopentenoid glucosides might occur as well. BCA has been found in both cryptic and aposematic species, including taxa such as the Pieridae, Danainae, Ithomiinae, and Arctiidae, where the defensive biology is believed to be linked with other compounds, like mustard oil glucosides, cardenolides, or pyrrolizidine alkaloids. The ecological interaction and significance of such secondary compounds is not yet understood. PMID:24302389

  16. Mechanisms of resistance to organophosphorus insecticides in populations of the obliquebanded leafroller Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from southern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Pree, David J; Whitty, Karen J; Bittner, Lori A; Pogoda, Mitchell K

    2003-01-01

    Populations of Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) from orchards in Ontario were shown to be resistant to azinphos-methyl and to other types of organophosphorus insecticides. Resistance extended to methyl carbamates and to methomyl. The laboratory population used for these assays and selected with azinphosmethyl was also resistant to the pyrethroid, cypermethrin. Resistance was associated with increased esterase activity and was reduced by the addition of the synergist DEF. IEF studies of esterases also indicated increased activity in resistant populations, but did not identify any unique esterases associated with the resistance. Resistance was highly correlated (r = 0.78) with elevated esterases but not with increased glutathione-S transferase activity (r = 0.13). Other mechanisms did not appear to be related. PMID:12558102

  17. Population Dynamics of the Swallowtail Butterfly Battus polystictus polystictus (Butler) (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) with Notes on Its Natural History.

    PubMed

    Scalco, V W; de Morais, A B B; Romanowski, H P; Mega, N O

    2016-02-01

    Battus polystictus (Butler) is a butterfly from the Neotropical region, occurring in the Atlantic Forest and Pampa biomes. It is commonly found in forest fragments surrounded by meadow formations, subjected to marked seasonal changes. Here, we report the population dynamics of B. polystictus at a high latitude environment and provide notes on its natural history. Population parameters were estimated on a 12-month mark-recapture program and the seasonality of resources investigated by exhaustive mapping of host-plants and flowers. The number of butterflies per day was not stable during the year, ranging from zero (winter) to 22 (summer); the sex ratio was always male biased (3M:1F). The age structure was not constant, with an increase of older individuals toward summer. The population density was positively correlated with temperature, relative humidity, and day length. The residence time was lower for males, while the vagility was lower for females; the increment of resources at forest edges seems to increase the likelihood of occurrence of both sexes. The results shown here suggest that South Brazilian populations of B. polystictus have high ecological demands for spring and summer conditions, avoiding winter in diapause. PMID:26590142

  18. The spatial genetic differentiation of the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) populations in West Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata, is an endemic insect pest that causes significant yield loss to the cowpea crop in West Africa, and contributes to food shortages and malnutrition in native human populations. The genetic structure of Maruca vitrata was investigated among five sites from Burkin...

  19. Investigating dormant season application of pheromone in citrus to control overwintering and spring populations of Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, reproduces on leaf flush during winter. Deployment of pheromone during winter could suppress moth populations in spring and summer more than a spring application alone. We tested the primary pheromone component of Phyllocnistis (P. citrella), (Z,Z,E)-7...

  20. Haplotype profile comparisons between Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) populations from Mexico with those from Puerto Rico, South America, and the United States and their implications for migratory behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall armyworm is a major economic pest throughout the Western Hemisphere of maize, cotton, sorghum, and a variety of agricultural grasses and vegetable crops. Previous studies demonstrated extensive annual migrations occurring as far north as Canada from overwintering locations in southern Florida a...

  1. Analysis of resistance to Cry1Ac in field-collected pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae), populations.

    PubMed

    Ojha, Abhishek; Sree, K Sowjanya; Sachdev, Bindiya; Rashmi, M A; Ravi, K C; Suresh, P J; Mohan, Komarlingam S; Bhatnagar, Raj K

    2014-01-01

    High survivorship of pink bollworrm, Pectinophora gossypiella in bolls of Bollgard® cotton hybrids and resistance to Cry1Ac protein, expressed in Bollgard cotton were reported in field-populations collected from the state of Gujarat (western India) in 2010. We have found Cry1Ac-resistance in pink bollworm populations sourced from Bollgard and non-Bt cotton fields in the adjoining states of Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh in Central India. Further, we observed reduced binding of labeled Cry1Ac protein to receptors localized on the brush-border membrane of pink bollworm larval strains with high tolerance to Cry1Ac. These strains were sourced from Bollgard and conventional cotton fields. A pooled Cry1Ac-resistant strain, further selected on Cry1Ac diet also showed significantly reduced binding to Cry1Ac protein. The reduced binding of Cry1Ac to receptors could be an underlying mechanism for the observed resistance in pink bollworm populations feeding on Bollgard hybrids. PMID:25523173

  2. Geographic population structure of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), in the southern United States.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Andrea L; White, William H; Nuessly, Gregg S; Solis, M Alma; Scheffer, Sonja J; Lewis, Matthew L; Medina, Raul F

    2014-01-01

    The sugarcane borer moth, Diatraea saccharalis, is widespread throughout the Western Hemisphere, and is considered an introduced species in the southern United States. Although this moth has a wide distribution and is a pest of many crop plants including sugarcane, corn, sorghum and rice, it is considered one species. The objective was to investigate whether more than one introduction of D. saccharalis had occurred in the southern United States and whether any cryptic species were present. We field collected D. saccharalis in Texas, Louisiana and Florida in the southern United States. Two molecular markers, AFLPs and mitochondrial COI, were used to examine genetic variation among these regional populations and to compare the sequences with those available in GenBank and BOLD. We found geographic population structure in the southern United States which suggests two introductions and the presence of a previously unknown cryptic species. Management of D. saccharalis would likely benefit from further investigation of population genetics throughout the range of this species. PMID:25337705

  3. Geographic Population Structure of the Sugarcane Borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), in the Southern United States

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Andrea L.; White, William H.; Nuessly, Gregg S.; Solis, M. Alma; Scheffer, Sonja J.; Lewis, Matthew L.; Medina, Raul F.

    2014-01-01

    The sugarcane borer moth, Diatraea saccharalis, is widespread throughout the Western Hemisphere, and is considered an introduced species in the southern United States. Although this moth has a wide distribution and is a pest of many crop plants including sugarcane, corn, sorghum and rice, it is considered one species. The objective was to investigate whether more than one introduction of D. saccharalis had occurred in the southern United States and whether any cryptic species were present. We field collected D. saccharalis in Texas, Louisiana and Florida in the southern United States. Two molecular markers, AFLPs and mitochondrial COI, were used to examine genetic variation among these regional populations and to compare the sequences with those available in GenBank and BOLD. We found geographic population structure in the southern United States which suggests two introductions and the presence of a previously unknown cryptic species. Management of D. saccharalis would likely benefit from further investigation of population genetics throughout the range of this species. PMID:25337705

  4. Measuring local genetic variability in populations of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) across an unmanaged and commercial orchard interface.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Contreras, Eduardo; Basoalto, Esteban; Franck, Pierre; Lavandero, Blas; Knight, Alan L; Ramírez, Claudio C

    2014-04-01

    The genetic structure of adult codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), populations was characterized both inside a managed apple, Malus domestica Borkdhausen, orchard and in surrounding unmanaged hosts and nonhost trees in central Chile during 2006-2007. Adult males were collected using an array of sex pheromone-baited traps. Five microsatellite genetic markers were used to study the population genetic structure across both spatial (1-100 ha) and temporal (generations within a season) gradients. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) found a significant, but weak, association in both the spatial and temporal genetic structures. Discriminant analysis also found significant differentiation between the first and second generation for traps located either inside or outside the managed orchard. The Bayesian assignment test detected three genetic clusters during each of the two generations, which corresponded to different areas within the unmanaged and managed apple orchard interface. The lack of a strong spatial structure at a local scale was hypothesized to be because of active adult movement between the managed and unmanaged hosts and the asymmetry in the insecticide selection pressure inside and outside the managed habitats. These data highlight the importance of developing area-wide management programs that incorporate management tactics effective at the landscape level for successful codling moth control. PMID:24763103

  5. Impact of Entomophaga maimaiga (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae) on outbreak gypsy moth populations (Lepidoptera: Erebidae): the role of weather.

    PubMed

    Reilly, James R; Hajek, Ann E; Liebhold, Andrew M; Plymale, Ruth

    2014-06-01

    The fungal pathogen Entomophaga maimaiga Humber, Shimazu, and Soper is prevalent in gypsy moth [Lymantria dispar (L.)] populations throughout North America. To understand how weather-related variables influence gypsy moth-E. maimaiga interactions in the field, we measured fungal infection rates at 12 sites in central Pennsylvania over 3 yr, concurrently measuring rainfall, soil moisture, humidity, and temperature. Fungal mortality was assessed using both field-collected larvae and laboratory-reared larvae caged on the forest floor. We found significant positive effects of moisture-related variables (rainfall, soil moisture, and relative humidity) on mortality due to fungal infection in both data sets, and significant negative effects of temperature on the mortality of field-collected larvae. Lack of a clear temperature relationship with the mortality of caged larvae may be attributable to differential initiation of infection by resting spores and conidia or to microclimate effects. These relationships may be helpful in understanding how gypsy moth dynamics vary across space and time, and in forecasting how the gypsy moth and fungus will interact as they move into warmer or drier areas, or new weather conditions occur due to climate change. PMID:24805137

  6. Complex Population Patterns of Eunica tatila Herrich-Schäffer (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), with Special Emphasis on Sexual Dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Cavanzón-Medrano, L; Pozo, C; Hénaut, Y; Legal, L; Salas-Suárez, N; Machkour-M'Rabet, S

    2016-04-01

    The species Eunica tatila (Herrich-Schäffer) is present in the Neotropical region and comprises three subspecies. In Mexico, only one subspecies is reported: E. t. tatila (Herrich-Schäffer). The Yucatan Peninsula, in southeastern Mexico, is located in a transitional geographical position, between southern Florida, the West Indies and Central America. It is part of a transitional region, important for the dispersion of insects from southern Florida via Cuba and the Yucatan Peninsula. Considering the possibility of the overlapping and delimitation of described subspecies, we sampled different populations in the Yucatan Peninsula to possibly assign a subspecies name and evaluate the magnitude of sexual dimorphism. We collected 591 individuals (♀284, ♂307) in conserved areas. The study of male genitalia led to the identification of Eunica tatila tatilista (Kaye) as a subspecies; however, hypandrium structure and wing pattern analysis suggest a mix of E. t. tatila and E. t. tatilista characteristics. The analysis of sexual dimorphism provided evidence of more complex wing morphs for females, with 12 patterns instead of four as previously described. Our results demonstrate the complexity of characterizing E. tatila and suggest that the Yucatan Peninsula is a transitional zone for subspecies of some butterflies. PMID:26677083

  7. Spatial analysis of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) male population in a mediterranean agricultural landscape in central Italy.

    PubMed

    Sciarretta, A; Zinni, A; Mazzocchetti, A; Trematerra, P

    2008-04-01

    The results obtained from the spatial analysis of pheromone-baited trap catch data of Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermüller) males are reported. The research was undertaken in the Abruzzo region of central Italy. In the study area, vineyards (of Vitis vinifera L.) are the predominant cultivation, surrounded by hedgerows and small woodlots, and interspersed with cereal crops and olive groves. The main purpose of the study was to investigate the spatio-temporal dynamics of L. botrana, inside and outside vineyards, and to evaluate the effect of the landscape elements on pest distribution. A trend orientation over the experimental area was observed along the direction from northwest to southeast. Correlograms fitted using a spherical model showed in all cases an aggregated distribution and an estimated range having a mean of 174 m in 2005 and 116 m in 2006. Contour maps highlighted that spatial distribution of L. botrana was not limited to vineyards, but its presence is high particularly inside olive groves. The adult distribution on the experimental area changed during the season: hot spots of flight I were positioned inside olive groves; during flights II and III, they were concentrated in vineyards. L. botrana males were also captured in uncultivated fields, but never in high densities. Our results showed that a large proportion of the adult population of L. botrana inhabits areas outside those usually targeted by pest management programs. Thus, in Mediterranean agro-ecosystems, it is highly recommended to consider the whole landscape, with particular attention to olive crops. PMID:18419910

  8. Order Lepidoptera Linnaeus, 1758.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on two recent molecular analyses, augmented by the discovery of several published or unpublished novel morphological synapomorphies, a new classification is proposed for the order Lepidoptera. The new classification is more consistent with our growing knowledge of the phylogeny of the group an...

  9. Changes is genes coding for laccases 1 and 2 may contribute to deformation and reduction of wings in apollo butterfly (Parnassius apollo, Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) from the isolated population in Pieniny National Park (Poland).

    PubMed

    Łukasiewicz, Kinga; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    An isolated population of apollo butterfly (Parnassius apollo, Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) occurs in Pieniny National Park (Poland). Deformations and reductions of wings in a relatively large number of individuals from this population is found, yet the reasons for these defects are unknown. During studies devoted to identify cause(s) of this phenomenon, we found that specific regions of genes coding of enzymes laccases 1 and 2 could not be amplified from DNA samples isolated from large fractions of malformed insects while expected PCR products were detected in almost all (with one exception) normal butterflies. Laccases (p-diphenol:dioxygen oxidoreductases) are oxidases containing several copper atoms. They catalyse single-electron oxidations of phenolic or other compounds with concomitant reduction of oxygen to water. In insects, their enzymatic activities were found previously in epidermis, midgut, Malpighian tubules, salivary glands, and reproductive tissues. Therefore, we suggest that defects in genes coding for laccases might contribute to deformation and reduction of wings in apollo butterflies, though it seems obvious that deficiency in these enzymes could not be the sole cause of these developmental improperties in P. apollo from Pieniny National Park. PMID:26523407

  10. Adaptation of Habrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) to Rearing on Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Borzoui, Ehsan; Naseri, Bahram; Mohammadzadeh-Bidarani, Mozhgan

    2016-01-01

    Food characteristics strongly regulate digestive enzymatic activity of insects through direct influences on their midgut mechanisms. Insect performance is better on diets that contain nutrients in proportions that fit its digestive enzymes. Little is known about the influences of rearing history on parasitism success of Habrobracon hebetor Say. This research focused on the effect of nutrient regulation on survival, development, and parasitism of H. hebetor. Life history and digestive enzyme activity of fourth-stage larvae of H. hebetor were studied when reared on Ephestia kuehniella Zeller. This parasitoid was then introduced to Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), and above-mentioned parameters were also studied in the first and fourth generations after transfer. In term of parasitism success, H. hebetor preferred E. kuehniella over He. armigera. When the first and fourth generations of He. armigera-reared H. hebetor were compared, the rearing history affected the life history and enzymatic activity of the parasitoid. A better performance of H. hebetor was achieved after it was reared on He. armigera for the four generations. Because, digestive α-amylase and general protease of the parasitoid were matched with the new host, it used reserve energy for a better performance. Thus, a better performance of H. hebetor could be obtained when the parasitoid was reared on its original host for at least four generations. PMID:26839317

  11. Adaptation of Habrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) to Rearing on Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Naseri, Bahram; Mohammadzadeh-Bidarani, Mozhgan

    2016-01-01

    Food characteristics strongly regulate digestive enzymatic activity of insects through direct influences on their midgut mechanisms. Insect performance is better on diets that contain nutrients in proportions that fit its digestive enzymes. Little is known about the influences of rearing history on parasitism success of Habrobracon hebetor Say. This research focused on the effect of nutrient regulation on survival, development, and parasitism of H. hebetor. Life history and digestive enzyme activity of fourth-stage larvae of H. hebetor were studied when reared on Ephestia kuehniella Zeller. This parasitoid was then introduced to Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), and above-mentioned parameters were also studied in the first and fourth generations after transfer. In term of parasitism success, H. hebetor preferred E. kuehniella over He. armigera. When the first and fourth generations of He. armigera-reared H. hebetor were compared, the rearing history affected the life history and enzymatic activity of the parasitoid. A better performance of H. hebetor was achieved after it was reared on He. armigera for the four generations. Because, digestive α-amylase and general protease of the parasitoid were matched with the new host, it used reserve energy for a better performance. Thus, a better performance of H. hebetor could be obtained when the parasitoid was reared on its original host for at least four generations. PMID:26839317

  12. Comparative embryogenesis of Mecoptera and Lepidoptera with special reference to the abdominal prolegs.

    PubMed

    Kou, Li-Xuan; Hua, Bao-Zhen

    2016-05-01

    The eruciform larvae of holometabolous insects are primarily characterized by bearing a varying number of abdominal prolegs in addition to three pairs of thoracic legs. However, whether the prolegs are evolutionarily homologous among different insect orders is still a disputable issue. We examined the embryonic features and histological structure of the prolegs of the scorpionfly Panorpa byersi Hua and Huang (Mecoptera: Panorpidae) and the Oriental armyworm Mythimna separata (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to investigate whether the prolegs are homologous between these two holometabolous insect orders. In the scorpionfly, paired lateral process primordia arise on abdominal segments I-VIII (A1-A8) in line with the thoracic legs in early embryonic stages, but degenerate into triangular protuberances in later stages, and paired medial processes appear along the midventral line before dorsal closure and eventually develop into unjointed, cone-shaped prolegs. Histological observation showed that the lumina of the prolegs are not continuous with the hemocoel, differing distinctly from that of the basic appendicular plan of thoracic legs. These results suggest that the prolegs are likely secondary outgrowths in Mecoptera. In the armyworm, lateral process primordia appear on A1-A10 in alignment with the thoracic legs in the early embryonic stages, although only the rudiments on A3-A6 and A10 develop into segmented prolegs with the lumina continuous with the hemocoel and others degenerate eventually, suggesting that the prolegs are true segmental appendages serially homologous with the thoracic legs in Lepidoptera. Therefore, we conclude that the larval prolegs are likely not evolutionarily homologous between Mecoptera and Lepidoptera. J. Morphol. 277:585-593, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26891764

  13. Cross-Resistance Between Azinphos-methyl and Acetamiprid in Populations of Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L.)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), from Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult and neonate larval assays were conducted to assess the response of field-collected codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), populations from apple. Male codling moth populations exhibited a range of responses to a discriminating concentration of azinphos-methyl in a survey of 20 populations. Popula...

  14. Influence of CO2 and Temperature on Metabolism and Development of Helicoverpa armigera (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Akbar, S Md; Pavani, T; Nagaraja, T; Sharma, H C

    2016-02-01

    Climate change will have a major bearing on survival and development of insects as a result of increase in CO2 and temperature. Therefore, we studied the direct effects of CO2 and temperature on larval development and metabolism in cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner). The larvae were reared under a range of CO2 (350, 550, and 750 ppm) and temperature (15, 25, 35, and 45°C) regimes on artificial diet. Elevated CO2 negatively affected the larval survival, larval weight, larval period, pupation, and adult emergence, but showed a positive effect on pupal weight, pupal period, and fecundity. Increase in temperature exhibited a negative effect on larval survival, larval period, pupal weights, and pupal period, but a positive effect on larval growth. Pupation and adult emergence were optimum at 25°C. Elevated CO2 and temperature increased food consumption and metabolism of larvae by enhancing the activity of midgut proteases, carbohydrases (amylase and cellulase), and mitochondrial enzymes and therefore may cause more damage to crop production. Elevated CO2 and global warming will affect insect growth and development, which will change the interactions between the insect pests and their crop hosts. Therefore, there is need to gain an understanding of these interactions to develop strategies for mitigating the effects of climate change. PMID:26363173

  15. Effect of abamectin on feeding response, mortality, and reproduction of adult bollworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newly eclosed adult bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) feeds on carbohydrate sources from plants and other exudates prior to dispersal and reproduction. The objective of this study was to determine whether or not this nocturnal behavior could be exploited for pest management by presenting the insect...

  16. PLusiinae (Excl. Abrostolini) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) of Ethiopia. A faunistical survey with biogeographical comments.

    PubMed

    Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Ronkay, Laszlo; Behounek, Gottfried; Müller, Günter C

    2015-01-01

    The extensive survey in different regions of Ethiopia between 1987-1990 and 2005-2011 resulted in the recognition of 39 species of Plusiinae. The majority of the species belong to two large genera, Ctenoplusia (15 species) and Thysanoplusia (16 species). A new synonymy is established, Plusiotricha gorilla (Holland, 1894) is proved to represent the female sex of Plusiotricha livida Holland, 1894 (syn. nov.). The present paper does not include the records of the species of the tribe Abrostolini. Eighteen species are recorded for the first time from Ethiopia. Twenty species of the identified taxa are known only from tropical and subtropical Africa, while the areas of ten species extend from Africa to the Arabian Peninsula or even further to the north. Eight species are widespread not only in Africa but also in the Palearctic and Oriental regions. One species-Autographa gamma, a well-known Palearctic pest of different vegetables-is found in the Afrotropical region only in Ethiopia, at medium and high mountain elevations but not in the tropical lowlands. PMID:26623895

  17. Antibiosis among selected paspalum taxa to the fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty six accessions of the warm-season perennial grass, Paspalum spp., were evaluated for response to the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), an important pest of turfgrass. In growth chamber, excised clipping studies, P. vaginatum 03-539-31 and P. vaginatum 03-525-22 were the most ...

  18. Identification of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) host strains using male-derived spermatophores

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory experiments were designed to identify the host strain paternity of fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith)] mated females. In no-choice tests, corn or rice strain females were placed in cages with males of the opposite strain. After 48 h, females were dissected and spermatoph...

  19. Attraction of fall armyworm males (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to host strain females

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Attraction of wild male fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), was compared in trapping experiments during 2005 – 2009 in Florida. Traps were baited either with a commercial sex pheromone lure or corn and rice strain females obtained from laboratory colonies. Over 7400 male moths were...

  20. Response to conspecific and heterospecific semiochemicals by Sesamia nonagrioides (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) gravid females.

    PubMed

    Cruz, D; Eizaguirre, M

    2015-06-01

    The Mediterranean corn borer, Sesamia nonagrioides, occurs sympatrically in the northeast of Spain with other lepidopteran pests such as Ostrinia nubilalis and Mythimna unipuncta. In this study, we evaluated the electrophysiological and behavioural response of mated and unmated females and males of S. nonagrioides to their own complete pheromone blend, to its own four components separately, and to the pheromone components of the sympatric species O. nubilalis and M. unipuncta. Results of the electroantennogram recordings revealed that females of S. nonagrioides can detect their own pheromone blend and its individual components. Moreover, our results show that unmated females and males of S. nonagrioides are more sensitive to the female pheromone, showing higher electrophysiological response than the mated females and males. Electroantennogram recordings showed that males and females can detect the major sexual pheromone component of O. nubilalis (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate and the minor component of the pheromone of M. unipuncta (Z)-9-hexadecenyl acetate. When the sex pheromone stimulus was presented in the dual-choice assays, gravid females of S. nonagrioides were attracted to both their own complete pheromone blend and one of their own minor pheromone components, (Z)-11-hexadecenal, but the major sexual pheromone component of O. nubilalis acts as a behavioural antagonist to the females. PMID:25809646

  1. Ovicidal activity of Atalantia monophylla (L) Correa against Spodoptera litura Fab. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Baskar, Kathirvelu; Muthu, Chellaiah; Raj, Gnanaprakasam Antony; Kingsley, Selvadurai; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of Atalantia monophylla (A. monophylla) leaf in different solvent crude extracts and fractions against eggs of Spodoptera litura (S. litura). Methods Hexane, ethyl acetate and chloroform solvent extracts of A. monophylla leaf and 12 fractions from hexane extract were screened at 5.0%, 2.5%, 1.0% and 0.5% for crude extracts and 1 000, 500, 250 and 125 mg/kg for fractions against the eggs of S. litura for the ovicidal activity. LC50 and LC90 were calculated using probit analysis. Results Hexane crude extract showed maximum ovicidal activity of 61.94% at 5.0% concentration with a correlation value of r2=0.81, and least LC50 value of 3.06%. Hexane extract was fractionated using silica gel column chromatography and 12 fractions were obtained. Fraction 9 was active which showed maximum ovicidal activity of 75.61% at 1 000 mg/kg with the LC50 value of 318.65 mg/kg and LC90 value of 1 473.31 mg/kg. In linear regression analysis, significant and high correlation (r2=0.81%) was seen between concentration and ovicidal activity of hexane crude extracts and its active fraction. Conclusions As per our knowledge, this is the first report for ovicidal activity of A. monophylla against S. litura, A. monophylla could be used for the management of S. litura and other insect pests. PMID:23593580

  2. Revised status of Schinia Unimacula Smith including morphological comaprisons with Schinia Obliqua Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Heliothinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The revised status of Schinia unimacula is defended, based on differences in maculation and male and female genitalic structures. Schinia coolidgei Hill remains a synonym of S. unimacula. Genitalia of both sexes of S. unimacula and S. obliqua are described and illustrated for the first time....

  3. A new species of Catocala Schrank, 1802 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Primorsky Krai, Russia.

    PubMed

    Kons, Hugo L; Borth, Robert J; Saldaitis, Aidas

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe Catocala didenko sp. n. as new for the noctuid genus Catocala Shrank, differing from Catocala duplicata Butler, 1885 and Catocala gansan Ishizuka & Wang, 2013 on wing pattern, male genitalia, and COI 5' mitochondrial DNA. These three species, along with Catocala dissimilis Bremer, 1861, comprise a small and distinctive species group within the genus. Exemplary uncommon morphological characters for this group include: extensive area of ventral side of claspers unsclerotized (Fig. 17); claspers with a subapical ventral bulging projection (Fig. 17); sclerotized apex of claspers greatly expanded laterally (Fig. 17); diaphragma posterior to anellus lightly pigmented (Fig. 22); distinctive anellus shape (Fig. 22); uncus setae longest and densest at base (Fig. 21); and approximately 17-20 coils on the receptacle duct (Fig. 56). PMID:27394787

  4. Spotted cutworm, Xestia c-nigrum (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) responses to sex pheromone and blacklight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traps baited with the sex pheromone blend of (Z7)- and (Z5)-tetradecenyl acetate captured significant numbers of male spotted cutworm moths, Xestia c-nigrum (L.). Nearly no males were captured in traps baited with (Z7)-tetradecenyl acetate, the major pheromone component. Antennae of spotted cutworm ...

  5. Taxonomy and biogeography of the Nearctic Raphia Hübner (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Raphiinae)

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, B. Christian; Anweiler, Gary G.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The taxonomic status and biogeography of the North American Raphia species is reviewed using adult morphology, larval host plants, geographic phenotypic variation, and variation of mtDNA COI barcode sequences. Lack of diagnostic morphological differences, combined with relatively low mtDNA barcode divergences and clinal phenotypic variation in key geographic regions indicate that the six previously recognized species of North American Raphia are best interpreted as parapatric subspecies. Raphia frater abrupta Grote, stat. n., R. f. coloradensis Putnam-Cramer, stat. r., R. f. piazzi Hill, stat. n., and R. f. elbea Smith, stat. n., are accordingly revised to subspecies of R. frater Grote. Type locality restrictions are provided for Raphia abrupta and Raphia frater and a neotype is designated for Raphia frater var. coloradensis. PMID:25061381

  6. Aflatoxin Accumulation in Corn Hybrids in Relation to Whorl Damage by the Fall Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin is produced by Aspergillus flavus Link ex Fries and is one of the most potent toxins found in nature. Contamination of corn grain with aflatoxin causes significant losses to farmers each year and is a major impediment to corn production in the southern U.S. Infection of corn grain by A. f...

  7. Immature stages of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): developmental parameters and host plants.

    PubMed

    Montezano, Débora Goulart; Specht, Alexandre; Sosa-Gómez, Daniel Ricardo; Roque-Specht, Vânia Ferreira; de Barros, Neiva Monteiro

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to detail the temporal and morphological parameters of the immature stages of southern armyworm Spodoptera eridania (Stoll, 1782) with larvae feed on artificial diet, under controlled conditions (25 ± 1°C, 70 ± 10% relative humidity and 14-h photophase) and gather information about their larval host plants. The viability of the egg, larval, pupal, and prepupal stages was 97.82, 93.62, 96.42, and 97.03%, respectively. The average duration of the egg, larval, pupal, and pre-pupal stages was 4.00, 16.18, 1.58, and 9.17 d, respectively. During the larval stage, 43.44% of females passed through seven instars, observing that the female's development was significant slower than males. The female larvae that developed through six and seven instars exhibited a mean growth rate of 1.52 and 1.44, respectively. Female pupae were significantly larger, exhibiting faster development than males. The rearing method proved to be adequate, providing more detailed observations of the biological cycle, especially at the larval stage, and resulting in an overall survival of almost 85%. Two hundred two plant species belonging to 58 families are listed as natural hosts for S. eridania, mainly including Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae, Poaceae, Amaranthaceae, and Malvaceae. PMID:25525103

  8. Three new cryptic species within the Dargida procinctus (Grote) complex (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Hadeninae) from the Neotropics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dargida procinctus (Grote) was found to include three new species: Dargida spinicassida, n. sp., from Mexico; Dargida juxta, n. sp., from Mexico and Costa Rica; and Dargida lilium, n. sp., from Bolivia. Adults and male and female genitalia are illustrated. Dargida grammivora Walker and Dargida mer...

  9. Genetic variation in neonate behavior of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioassays were developed to test plant selection of fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith)] host strains to corn and stargrass. Neonate larvae from 3 corn strain and 3 rice strain colonies preferentially selected corn sections over stargrass sections in petri dish choice tests. However...

  10. CUTWORM PERIDROMA SAUCIA (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE) SUPPORTS GROWTH AND TRANSPORT OF PBR322-BEARING BACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Variegated cutworms were exposed to bean plants in microcosms sprayed with pBR322-carrying strains of Enterobacter cloecae. lebsiella planticola. and Erwinia herbicola. he three bacterial species exhibited differential survival on leaves in soil, and in guts and fecal pellets (fr...

  11. Genetic variability of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the Western Hemisphere

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) is a migratory and polyphagous pest of both cultivated and uncultivated plant species in the Western Hemisphere. We investigated the genetic diversity of FAW by collecting 31 representative samples from the United States, Argentina, Panama...

  12. Induction of antimicrobial peptides in infected tissues of larval Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance of Heliothine pests to microbial entomopathogens and to parasitoids is one barrier to effective control by biological control agents. In order to better understand the immune response of budworms against microbial entomopathogens several orthologs of antibacterial response proteins were ...

  13. Insight Into the Ultrastructure of Antennal Sensilla of Mythimna separata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Xiang-Qian; Zhang, Shu; Lv, Liang; Wang, Man-Qun

    2015-01-01

    The oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walk), is one of the most serious pests of cereals in Asia and Australasia. The structure and distribution of the antennal sensilla of M. separata were studied by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that antennae of both female and male M. separata are filiform in shape. Three groups and seven morphological sensillum types were recorded in both sexes, including uniporous sensilla (sensilla chaetica), multiporous sensilla (sensilla trichodea, basiconica, coeloconica, and styloconica), and aporous sensilla (sensilla squamiformia and Böhm bristles). S. trichodea, which were the most abundant sensilla, was made of three subtypes (ST I, ST II, and ST III) according to external features and two subtypes of s. basiconica (SB I and SB II) and s. coeloconica (SCo I and SCo II) were identified, respectively. Sexual dimorphisms in sensilla of M. separata were mainly perceived as the variations in the numbers of several sensilla subtypes. Also, the possible functions of the antennal sensilla were discussed. These results contribute to our understanding of the function of antennae in the behavior of M. separata. PMID:26363060

  14. RNA-seq study of microbially induced hemocyte transcripts from larval Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Larvae of the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens, are major polyphagous pests throughout the Americas. Development of effective microbial biopesticides for this and related noctuid pests has been stymied by the natural resistance mediated innate immune response. Disruption or immunosuppression ma...

  15. Resistance of early maturing sweet corn varieties to damage caused by Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Velasco, P; Revilla, P; Cartea, M E; Ordás, A; Malvar, R A

    2004-08-01

    In Mediterranean countries, the principal pest of maize, Zea mays L., is Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre. The objective of this work was to study the resistance of the four early maturing varieties of sweet corn, Baby Orchard, Orchard Baby, Dorinny Sweet, and Golden Early Market, and to check the relationship among resistance to S. nonagrioides and infestation dates. In a previous study, these varieties had showed a confusing behavior, being the most resistant varieties to S. nonagrioides attack in some environments and the most susceptible in others. These varieties were again evaluated along with three medium maturing varieties, used as testers because they were more stable in both environments, by using two infestation dates. Plants were more damaged in the late infestation, but the effect of the infestation depends on the variety studied. Orchard Baby and Baby Orchard were the most resistant varieties under two infestation dates. These two varieties are closely related. Therefore, we can use either one as a source of precocity and resistance for modern sweet corn. Although many studies showed that early maturing inbreds had greater damage caused by S. nonagrioides and European corn borer than late maturing inbreds and hybrids, our results showed that the earliest maturing varieties were the most resistant. PMID:15384357

  16. Plant Phenolics as Radiation Protectants For The Beet Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Nucleopolyhedrovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirteen phenolics were tested as ultraviolet (UV) protectants for the nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner). After 30 minute exposure to UVB/UVB radiation, eleven SeMNPV/phenolic combinations provided good to excellent UV protection when used at a concentra...

  17. Insecticide susceptibility of three species of cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) pests of grapes.

    PubMed

    Smirle, Michael J; Zurowski, Cheryl L; Lowery, D Thomas; Mostafa, Ayman M

    2013-10-01

    Climbing cutworms in the genus Abagrotis are economically important pests of grapes in the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia (BC). Grapes are recently introduced into many areas of the region, and the association between crop and pest is new and still evolving. This has led to limited information being available on pest management strategies, including the evaluation of chemical controls compatible with local production practices. Few insecticides are currently registered in Canada for cutworm control on grapes, and our study was initiated to provide information on the efficacy of potential control materials. We were also interested in the relative susceptibilities of the three most common cutworm species attacking grape buds in BC--Abagrotis orbis (Grote), Abagrotis reedi Buckett, and Abagrotis nefascia (Smith). Dose-response bioassays with nine insecticides were conducted on neonate larvae using Bok Choy leaf disks, and on fourth-instar larvae using diet incorporation. There were considerable differences in the toxicity of insecticides within species for neonates and fourth instars. For some materials, the relative toxicity to neonates and fourth instars were not correlated. Response to insecticides among the three species showed variation as well, and correct identification of the species complex present in individual locations is important in choosing the best available control material. PMID:24224256

  18. A new species of Schinia Hübner from the Southeastern United States (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Heliothinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Schinia psamathea, new species is described from the Southern Coastal Plain in Georgia and the East Gulf Coastal Plain in Florida and Alabama in habitats associated with sandy soil or dunes. Adult males and females and their genitalia are described and illustrated. Schinia psamathea is compared to S...

  19. Comparative Feeding and Development of Pseudoplusia includens (Lepidoptera Noctuidae) on Kudzu and Soybean Foliage

    SciTech Connect

    Kidd, K.A.; Orr, D.B.

    2000-04-10

    Kudzu is a close relative of soybean and is a widely distributed exotic weed in the southern U.S. The biology of the soybean looper was studied to better understand the foraging behavior of this species on kudzu. Insects feeding on kudzu had higher mortality, longer development and lower pupal weights than those fed on soybean. Foliage consumption did not differ between treatments and nutritional quality between soybean and kudzu did not differ. In an oviposition test, females readily used kudzu if it was the only species available, but when soybean was provided more eggs were deposited on soybean.

  20. Bollworm (Lepidoptera: noctuidae) behavior on transgenic cotton expressing Cry1Ac and Cry1F proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), larvae are known to move away from Bollgard cotton terminals. Bollworm larvae are also found more frequently on flower buds (squares) and bolls of Bollgard as compared to those of non-transgenic cotton. However, data are not available for bollworm behavior on co...

  1. Evaluations of Bollgard, Bollgard II, and Widestrike technologies against beet and fall armyworm larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic cottons containing the Bollgard®, Bollgard II® and WideStrike® traits were grown in 2005 and 2007 to examine the efficacy against beet [Spodoptera exigua (Hübner)] and fall armyworms [S. frugiperda (J. E. Smith)]. Results suggest that both dual-gene traits are more efficacious against th...

  2. Bollworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) survival on 'Bollgard' and 'Bollgard II' cotton flower bud and flower components.

    PubMed

    Gore, J; Leonard, B R; Adamczyk, J J

    2001-12-01

    Genetically modified cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., cultivars ('Bollgard') that produce crystalline proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) are valuable tools for managing lepidopteran insect pests in the United States. However, high numbers of bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), larvae have been observed feeding in white flowers of these cultivars. Fresh tissue bioassays were conducted to investigate bollworm survival on Bollgard and 'Bollgard II' cottons. Bollworm survival was higher on square and flower anthers than on other floral structures on 'Deltapine 5415' (conventional cotton) and 'NuCOTN 33B' (Bollgard). Bollworm survival at 72 h was higher on all floral structures from Deltapine 5415 than on corresponding structures from NuCOTN 33B. ELISA tests indicated that CryIA(c) expression varied among plant parts; however, bollworm survival did not correlate with protein expression levels. Trends in bollworm survival on Bollgard II were similar to those on Bollgard and conventional cotton; however, survival was lower on all structures of Bollgard II than on corresponding structures of Bollgard and conventional cotton. These data support field observations of bollworm injury to white flowers and small bolls and provide a better understanding of larval behavior on Bollgard cotton. PMID:11777047

  3. Inheritance, Fitness Cost, and Mechanism of Resistance to Tebufenozide in Spodoptera exigua (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: The efficacy of tebufenozide against the beet armyworm, Spotoptera exigua (Hübner), apparently decreased in recent years. To develop better resistance management strategy, this study was focused on the inheritance and fitness cost of tebufenozide resistance in S. exigua. RESULTS: After ...

  4. TTAGG-repeat telomeres and characterization of telomerase in the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Gong, H; Zhu, W; Zhang, J; Li, X; Meng, Q; Zhou, G; Wang, M; Wang, H; Miao, L; Qin, Q; Zhang, H

    2015-06-01

    Telomeres are maintained usually by telomerase, a specialized reverse transcriptase that adds this sequence to chromosome ends. In this study, telomerase activity was detected in the in different somatic tissues, such as midgut and fat bodies, by the telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) in Spodoptera exigua. The structure of the telomeres of S. exigua was evaluated by sequence analysis of the TRAP products, revealing that the telomerase synthesized a (TTAGG)n repeat. The presence of a telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) subunit coding gene has been cloned, sequenced and expressed in vitro successively. Notably, the S. exigua telomerase (SpexTERT) gene structure lacks the N-terminal GQ motif. Telomerase contains a large RNA subunit, TER, and a protein catalytic subunit, TERT. Here we report an in vitro system that was reconstructed by all components of the telomerase complex, a purified recombinant SpexTERT without a N-terminal GQ motif and a mutant human telomerase RNA (TER), showed telomerase activity. Together, these results suggest the GQ motif is not essential for telomerase catalysis. PMID:25689229

  5. Life history of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on various host plants.

    PubMed

    Azidah, A A; Sofian-Azirun, M

    2006-12-01

    The incubation period of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) was not influenced by the host plant, whereas larval development time and pupal period were affected. Larval development time was longest on shallot and lady's finger, followed by cabbage and long bean. Larvae did not develop beyond the first instar when fed on chilli. The pupal period was longer on lady's finger than on cabbage, shallot and long bean. Overall, adult longevity was not influenced by the host plant but there was a difference between female and male longevity among the host plants. Survival of S. exigua was affected by the host plant at the larval stage. The number of larval instars varied between 5 and 8 within and between the studied host plants. Long bean was found to be the most suitable host plant and provide the best food quality for S. exigua compared to the other host plants, as it allowed faster development, fewer larval instars and a higher survival rate. PMID:17201979

  6. Bioefficacy of Aristolochia tagala Cham. against Spodoptera litura Fab. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Baskar, K.; Sasikumar, S.; Muthu, C.; Kingsley, S.; Ignacimuthu, S.

    2010-01-01

    Bioefficacy of leaf and root extracts of Aristolochia tagala Cham. at different concentrations was evaluated at room temperature against Spodoptera litura Fab. Effects on feeding, larvicidal and pupicidal activities and larval–pupal duration were studied. Higher antifeedant activity (56.06%), lethal concentration for feeding inhibition (3.69%), larvicidal (40.66%), pupicidal (28%), total mortality (68.66%) and prolonged larval–pupal duration (12.04–13.08 days) were observed in ethyl acetate leaf extract at 5.0% concentration. Dose dependant effect of test extracts was observed. This plant could be used to isolate active principles and to develop a new botanical formulation in pest management programmes. PMID:23961100

  7. Effects of Pyriproxyfen on Female Reproduction in the Common Cutworm, Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qi; Tang, Bin; Zou, Qi; Zheng, Huizhen; Liu, Xiaojun; Wang, Shigui

    2015-01-01

    The common cutworm, Spodoptera litura, is a rapidly reproducing pest of numerous agricultural ecosystems worldwide. The use of pesticides remains the primary means for controlling S. litura, despite their negative ecological impact and potential threat to human health. The use of exogenous hormone analogs may represent an alternative to insecticides. Juvenile hormones (JHs) play an important role in the reproductive systems of female insects, but the effects of pyriproxyfen, a JH analog, on reproduction in S. litura were poorly understood. In this paper, we topically treated the newly emerged females with 20, 60, or 100 μg of pyriproxyfen to determine its effects on reproduction. Then, we examined the expression of vitellogenin (Vg) and three hormone receptors, USP, HR3, and EcR, using quantitative reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and found that pyriproxyfen up-regulated the expression of Vg, USP, and HR3, whereas the expression of EcR was unaffected. An analysis of fecundity showed that the peak oviposition day, lifespan, and oviposition period were progressively shortened as the pyriproxyfen dosage increased. We also found that pyriproxyfen decreased egg laying amount, whereas the number of mature eggs that remained in the ovarioles of dead females increased as the pyriproxyfen dosage increased. We examined oocytes using transmission electron microscopy and found that treatment with 100 μg of pyriproxyfen increased the metabolism by increasing the amount of rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria in the primary oocytes. Our results suggest that the topical application of pyriproxyfen on newly emerged females can efficiently reduce reproduction in S. litura and may represent an alternative to the use of insecticides for controlling the agricultural pest. PMID:26444432

  8. Species Composition of Cutworm Larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in South Central Washington Vineyards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The major grape growing areas of Washington were surveyed during 2003-2007 to determine the cutworm species present as larvae in vineyards during spring. We sampled vineyard floors, vines at night, and vines during the day. A total of 1,003 larvae was collected and 650 were reared to adults and iden...

  9. Phylogeny, Systematics and Biogeography of the Genus Panolis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Based on Morphological and Molecular Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Houshuai; Fan, Xiaoling; Owada, Mamoru; Wang, Min; Nylin, Sören

    2014-01-01

    The genus Panolis is a small group of noctuid moths with six recognized species distributed from Europe to East Asia, and best known for containing the widespread Palearctic pest species P. flammea, the pine beauty moth. However, a reliable classification and robust phylogenetic framework for this group of potentially economic importance are currently lacking. Here, we use morphological and molecular data (mitochondrial genes cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 16S ribosomal RNA, nuclear gene elongation factor-1 alpha) to reconstruct the phylogeny of this genus, with a comprehensive systematic revision of all recognized species and a new one, P. ningshan sp. nov. The analysis results of maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inferring methods for the combined morphological and molecular data sets are highly congruent, resulting in a robust phylogeny and identification of two clear species groups, i.e., the P. flammea species group and the P. exquisita species group. We also estimate the divergence times of Panolis moths using two conventional mutation rates for the arthropod mitochondrial COI gene with a comparison of two molecular clock models, as well as reconstruct their ancestral areas. Our results suggest that 1) Panolis is a young clade, originating from the Oriental region in China in the Late Miocene (6–10Mya), with an ancestral species in the P. flammea group extending northward to the Palearctic region some 3–6 Mya; 2) there is a clear possibility for a representative of the Palearctic clade to become established as an invasive species in the Nearctic taiga. PMID:24603596

  10. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac Resistance Frequency in Tobacco Budworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens F.) is one of the most important pests of cotton and has become resistant to a wide range of synthetic insecticides. Cry1Ac-expressing cotton has proven its effectiveness against this insect since its introduction in North America in 1996. However, the consta...

  11. Survey for hymenopteran and dipteran parasitoids of the fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Chiapas, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey of hymenopteran and dipteran parasitoids of the fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) larvae was conducted to determine their occurrence and parasitism rates in Western Chiapas, Mexico. FAW larvae were collected from whorl-stage cornfields in Chiapas in the region called ...

  12. Review of the genus Hypobarathra Hampson, 1905 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Hadeninae) with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Saldaitis, Aidas; Benedek, Balázs; Behounek, Gottfried

    2016-01-01

    The present study was initiated upon finding an unknown Hypobarathra species during a collecting expedition to the higher regions of western Sichuan Province in China in 2015. The genus previously contained only two Palaearctic species with remarkably different external appearance and distribution pattern. Interestingly, all three species of Hypobarathra are adapted to completely different eco zones and habitats, which are discussed under each species. According to Hacker et al. (2002), the closest relatives of the genus are Melanchra Hübner, [1820] 1816 and Odontestra Hampson, 1905. This statement should be corrected, since Hypobarathra is forming a common clade with Melanchra, Ceramica Guenée, 1852 and Ebertidia Boursin, 1968, while Odontestra representing another lineage within the tribus Hadeninae. PMID:27394793

  13. A new Polia Ochsenheimer, 1816 species from China (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Hadenini).

    PubMed

    Saldaitis, Aidas; Benedek, Balázs; Behounek, Gottfried

    2016-01-01

    The genus Polia Ochsenheimer, 1816 includes 26 species in the Palaearctic region, with the familiar European species being properly classified (Hacker et al., 2002), while most species from the more diverse Himalayan-region still require a comprehensive revision. Most recently, a new Polia species from China was described by Saldaitis et al. (2013). The sino-tibetian species Polia costirufa (Draudt, 1950) is one of the most interesting members of the complex as it is separable from its relatives at least on the subgeneric level. Certain elements of its forewing pattern resemble those of the genus Heliophobus Boisduval, but P. costirufa is much larger with more elongate forewings. While the P. costirufa male genital capsule shows typical Polia conservative features, the broad, sack-like vesica and the huge terminal cornutus are unique in the male and the large, elliptical and strongly sclerotised appendix bursae are unique female characters. The collective of the mentioned external and genital characters are suggesting the justifiable separation of P. costirufa from any other relatives, certainly on subgeneric level, but this would be better to integrate into a study incorporate the complete overview of the Polia-complex in the Himalayan region. P. costirufa male and female genitalia are described here for the first time but further study integrating this species into a complete overview of the Polia complex in the Himalayan region is recommended. PMID:27394516

  14. Characterization and Expression of Genes Encoding Three Small Heat Shock Proteins in Sesamia inferens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Meng; Lu, Ming-Xing; Tang, Xiao-Tian; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2014-01-01

    The pink stem borer, Sesamia inferens (Walker), is a major pest of rice and is endemic in China and other parts of Asia. Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) encompass a diverse, widespread class of stress proteins that have not been characterized in S. inferens. In the present study, we isolated and characterized three S. inferens genes that encode members of the α-crystallin/sHSP family, namely, Sihsp21.4, Sihsp20.6, and Sihsp19.6. The three cDNAs encoded proteins of 187, 183 and 174 amino acids with calculated molecular weights of 21.4, 20.6 and 19.6 kDa, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences of the three genes showed strong similarity to sHSPs identified in other lepidopteran insects. Sihsp21.4 contained an intron, but Sihsp20.6 and Sihsp19.6 lacked introns. Real-time quantitative PCR analyses revealed that Sihsp21.4 was most strongly expressed in S. inferens heads; Whereas expression of Sihsp20.6 and Sihsp19.6 was highest in eggs. The three S. inferens sHSP genes were up-regulated during low temperature stress. In summary, our results show that S. inferens sHSP genes have distinct regulatory roles in the physiology of S. inferens. PMID:25514417

  15. Cryopreservation of the late stage embryos of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Luo, Li; Pang, Yi; Chen, Qijin; Li, Guanghong

    2006-01-01

    Genetic devolution, genetic drift and contamination are all threats to maintain germplasm stability during mass rearing of many insects. Cryopreservation of beet armworm (Spodoptera exigua) embryos was studied to provide information to improve mass rearing. A series of experiments was conducted on late-stage embryos (45-48 h at 27 degree C) of the beet armyworm, which included evaluation of cryoprotectants (CPAs), their toxicity and glass-forming tendency and optimization of experimental procedures. The results showed that ethylene glycol (EG) was the best CPA with comparatively low toxicity compared to the other six CPAs tested (methanol, 1,3-propanediol, glycerol, 2-amino-1-ethanol, 3-amino-1-propanol 3-methoxy-1 and 2-propanediol). The highest hatching rate of 8.8 degree was attained after freezing with a 3-step loading procedure and a 1-step unloading procedure, but the hatched larvae from frozen-thawed embryos did not actively feed and could not develop to a later stage. This was attributed to injuries from freezing in late stage embryos of S. exigua which had formed midguts. PMID:17256068

  16. The Acontiinae and Eublemminae of Great Smoky Mountains National Park (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five species of Acontiinae, 13 species of Eustrotiinae, and eight species of Eublemminae are known to occur in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Each species is documented with an adult image, description/diagnosis, flight period, park distribution, abundance, elevational range, general distribut...

  17. Phylogeny, systematics and biogeography of the genus panolis (lepidoptera: noctuidae) based on morphological and molecular evidence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Houshuai; Fan, Xiaoling; Owada, Mamoru; Wang, Min; Nylin, Sören

    2014-01-01

    The genus Panolis is a small group of noctuid moths with six recognized species distributed from Europe to East Asia, and best known for containing the widespread Palearctic pest species P. flammea, the pine beauty moth. However, a reliable classification and robust phylogenetic framework for this group of potentially economic importance are currently lacking. Here, we use morphological and molecular data (mitochondrial genes cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 16S ribosomal RNA, nuclear gene elongation factor-1 alpha) to reconstruct the phylogeny of this genus, with a comprehensive systematic revision of all recognized species and a new one, P. ningshan sp. nov. The analysis results of maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inferring methods for the combined morphological and molecular data sets are highly congruent, resulting in a robust phylogeny and identification of two clear species groups, i.e., the P. flammea species group and the P. exquisita species group. We also estimate the divergence times of Panolis moths using two conventional mutation rates for the arthropod mitochondrial COI gene with a comparison of two molecular clock models, as well as reconstruct their ancestral areas. Our results suggest that 1) Panolis is a young clade, originating from the Oriental region in China in the Late Miocene (6-10Mya), with an ancestral species in the P. flammea group extending northward to the Palearctic region some 3-6 Mya; 2) there is a clear possibility for a representative of the Palearctic clade to become established as an invasive species in the Nearctic taiga. PMID:24603596

  18. ANALYSIS OF MIDGUT PROTEINASES FROM BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS-SUSCEPTIBLE AND -RESISTANT HELIOTHIS VIRESCENS (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insects with altered proteinases can avoid intoxication by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins. Therefore, proteinase activities from gut extracts of Bt-susceptible (YDK) and -resistant (YHD2-B, CXC and KCBhyb) H. virescens strains were compared. The overall pH of gut extracts from YDK and CXC were...

  19. X-ray radiation and development inhibition of Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Junheon; Jung, Soon-Oh; Jang, Sin Ae; Kim, Jeongmin; Park, Chung Gyoo

    2015-10-01

    Effect of X-ray radiation on the development inhibition was evaluated for all stages of the life cycle of Helicoverpa armigera to determine a radiation dose for potential quarantine treatment against the insect. ED99 values for inhibition of hatching, pupation, and adult emergence from irradiated eggs were 413, 210, and 154 Gy, respectively. ED99 values for inhibition of pupation and adult emergence from irradiated larvae were 221 and 167 Gy, respectively. Pupa was the most tolerant to X-ray radiation. ED99 value for inhibition of adult emergence from irradiated pupae was as high as 2310 Gy, whereas that for inhibition of F1 egg hatching was only 66 Gy. ED99 value for inhibition of hatching of F1 eggs which were laid by irradiated adults was estimated to 194 Gy. X-ray irradiation against H. armigera is recommended as an alternative method to methyl bromide fumigation for phytosanitary treatments during quarantine. X-ray radiation dose of 200 Gy is proposed as a potential quarantine treatment dose for H. armigera eggs and larvae.

  20. Revisiting macronutrient regulation in the polyphagous herbivore Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): New insights via nutritional geometry.

    PubMed

    Deans, Carrie A; Sword, Gregory A; Behmer, Spencer T

    2015-10-01

    Insect herbivores that ingest protein and carbohydrates in physiologically-optimal proportions and concentrations show superior performance and fitness. The first-ever study of protein-carbohydrate regulation in an insect herbivore was performed using the polyphagous agricultural pest Helicoverpa zea. In that study, experimental final instar caterpillars were presented two diets - one containing protein but no carbohydrates, the other containing carbohydrates but no protein - and allowed to self-select their protein-carbohydrate intake. The results showed that H. zea selected a diet with a protein-to-carbohydrate (p:c) ratio of 4:1. At about this same time, the geometric framework (GF) for the study of nutrition was introduced. The GF is now established as the most rigorous means to study nutrient regulation (in any animal). It has been used to study protein-carbohydrate regulation in several lepidopteran species, which exhibit a range of self-selected p:c ratios between 0.8 and 1.5. Given the economic importance of H. zea, and it is extremely protein-biased p:c ratio of 4:1 relative to those reported for other lepidopterans, we decided to revisit its protein-carbohydrate regulation. Our results, using the experimental approach of the GF, show that H. zea larvae self-select a p:c ratio of 1.6:1. This p:c ratio strongly matches that of its close relative, Heliothis virescens, and is more consistent with self-selected p:c ratios reported for other lepidopterans. Having accurate protein and carbohydrate regulation information for an insect herbivore pest such as H. zea is valuable for two reasons. First, it can be used to better understand feeding patterns in the field, which might lead to enhanced management. Second, it will allow researchers to develop rearing diets that more accurately reflect larval nutritional needs, which has important implications for resistance bioassays and other measures of physiological stress. PMID:26141409

  1. Interaction of acetic acid and phenylacetaldehyde as attractants for trapping pest species of moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenylacetaldehyde is a flower volatile and attractant for many nectar-seeking moths. Acetic acid is a microbial fermentation product that is present in insect sweet baits. It is weakly attractive to some moths and other insects, but can be additive or synergistic with other compounds to make more p...

  2. A new subspecies of Xestia ashworthii (Doublebay, 1855) from Russian Altai (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Volynkin, Anton V; Dvořák, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Xestia Hübner, [1818] is a large noctuine genus with an almost worldwide distribution. In the Palaearctic region the genus represented by about 190 described species (Kononenko 2003; Gyulai & Ronkay 2006; Fibiger et al. 2010; Gyulai et al. 2011; Kononenko et al. 2012; Gyulai et al. 2013a; 2013b). The genus subdivided into four described subgenera (Lafontaine et al. 1998, in Lafontaine 1998; Kononenko et al. 2012): Xestia, Megasema Hübner, [1821], Pachnobia Guenée, 1852 (= Schoyenia Aurivillius, 1883; Anomogyna Staudinger, 1871) and Raddea Alphéraky, 1892 (= Estimata I. Kozhanchikov, 1928; Erebophasma Boursin, 1963). Schoyenia and Anomogyna have been synonymised with Pachnobia by Lafontaine et al. (1998, in Lafontaine 1998). On the status of Raddea and synonymy of Estimata and Erebophasma see Lafontaine (1998). The genus is most diverse in the mountains of South Siberia, West China and the Himalayas. The Holarctic taxa of Pachnobia were revised by Mikkola et al. (1983, as Schoyenia), Lafontaine et al. (1987, as Pachnobia), and Lafontaine et al. (1998, in Lafontaine 1998); European taxa of the genus have been reviewed by Fibiger (1992; 1997), and the Nearctic fauna has been revised by Lafontaine (1998). The Asiatic fauna of the genus needs revision. PMID:27395117

  3. [Last instar larva and pupa of Melipotis cellaris (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)].

    PubMed

    Vargas, Héctor A

    2010-01-01

    The last instar larva and pupa of Melipotis cellaris (Guenée) are described and illustrated, based on specimens collected in northern Chile, associated with Acacia macracantha (Fabaceae). PMID:21120382

  4. Effect of storage temperature and duration on viability of eggs of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Dhillon, M K; Sharma, H C

    2007-02-01

    The ability to store different insect stadia for prolonged periods provides considerable flexibility and ability to conduct experiments properly. Therefore, studies were undertaken to determine the effect of storage temperature and duration on viability of eggs of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner). The percentage egg hatch and incubation period were significantly (P=0.01) influenced by egg age, storage temperature, and storage duration. Egg hatch ranged from 0.0 to 96.8% across temperatures and storage durations. None of the eggs hatched when stored at -20 and 0 degrees C. The regression model with the optimum Mallow Cp statistic for any of the identified linear and quadratic terms did not improve the precision of prediction in egg hatch beyond 67.0%. Forecasting of incubation period based on egg age, storage duration, and durationxtemperature was quite effective (R2=84.2%). Day degrees required for egg hatching decreased with an increase in temperature from 10 to 27 degrees C, and egg age from 0 to 3 days. The day degree requirements were highest for 0-day-old eggs at 10 degrees C, and lowest at 27 degrees C. Although the incubation period was higher, the hatchability was lower for 0- and 1-day-old eggs stored at constant 10 degrees C, these eggs can be stored for 10 days at 10 degrees C, with a hatchability of >75.0%. It was safer to store the H. armigera eggs for 10 days at 10 degrees C, which will hatch within 1.6 to 2.0 days after restoration at 27 degrees C with a hatchability of >75.0%. This information will be useful in planning and execution of experiments involving H. armigera on various aspects of research in entomology. PMID:17298682

  5. Intact mariner-like element in tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Ren, X; Park, Y; Miller, T A

    2006-12-01

    An intact mariner-like element was isolated from the genome of tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens. This is the first report of an intact mariner element after the initial identification of Mos1 from Drosophila mauritiana. The full-length Hvmar1 has 30 bp inverted terminal repeats and a complete 1065 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding the transposase with a 'D,D(34)D' motif in the catalytic domain. Polymerase chain reaction results show that at least one insertion of the Hvmar1 element is conserved in this Heliothis strain. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that Hvmar1 belongs to the irritans subfamily. PMID:17201767

  6. A revision of the Schinia Volupia (Fitch) species complex Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Heliothinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA barcode analysis of cytochrome oxidase I (COI) could not differentiate between the species of the Schinia volupia (Fitch) complex including, S. volupia, S. masoni Smith, S. fulleri (McElvare), S. sanrafaeli (Opler), S. miniana (Grote), and S. biforma Smith. Genitalic characters could only differ...

  7. Stage-specific quercetin sulfation in the gut of Mythimna separata larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Aboshi, Takako; Ishida, Masahiro; Matsushita, Kaori; Hirano, Yunosuke; Nishida, Ritsuo; Mori, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    The metabolism of quercetin was investigated in Mythimna separata larvae. Quercetin 4'-O-sulfate was mainly identified in the frass when 6th instar larvae were fed artificial diets containing 1% quercetin. In the case of the 3rd instar larvae, a larger amount of quercetin was detected in the frass. M. separata larvae had different metabolic strategies for quercetin at different developmental stages. PMID:25036481

  8. Evaluation of tolerance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins among laboratory-reared western bean cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Western bean cutworm (WBC), Striacosta albicosta, is a destructive insect pest of dry beans within its native range of western Nebraska and eastern Colorado. However, starting in the early 1990s, a range expansion of S. albicosta has resulted in damage to corn crops through the Midwest and more...

  9. The Hadeninae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) of Great Smoky Mountains National Park, U.S.A.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifty-one species of Hadeninae are recorded from Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee and North Carolina, U.S.A. Of the six hadenine tribes, five are present in the Park. They include 12 species of Orthosiini, one species of Tholerini, eight species of Hadenini, nine species of Leucaniini,...

  10. RNA-Seq Study of Microbially Induced Hemocyte Transcripts from Larval Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Shelby, Kent S.; Popham, Holly J. R.

    2012-01-01

    Larvae of the tobacco budworm are major polyphagous pests throughout the Americas. Development of effective microbial biopesticides for this and related noctuid pests has been stymied by the natural resistance mediated innate immune response. Hemocytes play an early and central role in activating and coordinating immune responses to entomopathogens. To approach this problem we completed RNA-seq expression profiling of hemocytes collected from larvae following an in vivo challenge with bacterial and fungal cell wall components to elicit an immune response. A de novo exome assembly was constructed by combination of sequence tags from all treatments. Sequence tags from each treatment were aligned separately with the assembly to measure expression. The resulting table of differential expression had >22,000 assemblies each with a distinct combination of annotation and expression. Within these assemblies >1,400 were upregulated and >1,500 downregulated by immune activation with bacteria or fungi. Orthologs to innate immune components of other insects were identified including pattern recognition, signal transduction pathways, antimicrobial peptides and enzymes, melanization and coagulation. Additionally orthologs of components regulating hemocytic functions such as autophagy, apoptosis, phagocytosis and nodulation were identified. Associated cellular oxidative defenses and detoxification responses were identified providing a comprehensive snapshot of the early response to elicitation. PMID:26466627

  11. A review of the Tripudia quadrifera (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) species complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Specimens comprising the species Tripudia quadrifera (Zeller) and Tripudia grapholithoides (Möschler) were discovered to contain six new species: Tripudia rectangula, n. sp., from the eastern US; Tripudia paraplesia, n. sp., from eastern Mexico; Tripudia flavibrunnea, n. sp., from Mexico, Guatemala,...

  12. Genetic Differentiation, Structure, and a Transition Zone among Populations of the Pitcher Plant Moth Exyra semicrocea: Implications for Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Jessica D.; Santos, Scott R.; Folkerts, Debbie R.

    2011-01-01

    Pitcher plant bogs, or carnivorous plant wetlands, have experienced extensive habitat loss and fragmentation throughout the southeastern United States Coastal Plain, resulting in an estimated reduction to <3% of their former range. This situation has lead to increased management attention of these habitats and their carnivorous plant species. However, conservation priorities focus primarily on the plants since little information currently exists on other community members, such as their endemic arthropod biota. Here, we investigated the population structure of one of these, the obligate pitcher plant moth Exyra semicrocea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences. Examination of 221 individuals from 11 populations across eight southeastern US states identified 51 unique haplotypes. These haplotypes belonged to one of two divergent (∼1.9–3.0%) lineages separated by the Mississippi alluvial plain. Populations of the West Gulf Coastal Plain exhibited significant genetic structure, contrasting with similarly distanced populations east of the Mississippi alluvial plain. In the eastern portion of the Coastal Plain, an apparent transition zone exists between two regionally distinct population groups, with a well-established genetic discontinuity for other organisms coinciding with this zone. The structure of E. semicrocea appears to have been influenced by patchy pitcher plant bog habitats in the West Gulf Coastal Plain as well as impacts of Pleistocene interglacials on the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin. These findings, along with potential extirpation of E. semicrocea at four visited, but isolated, sites highlight the need to consider other endemic or associated community members when managing and restoring pitcher plant bog habitats. PMID:21829473

  13. Genetic differentiation, structure, and a transition zone among populations of the pitcher plant moth Exyra semicrocea: implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Jessica D; Santos, Scott R; Folkerts, Debbie R

    2011-01-01

    Pitcher plant bogs, or carnivorous plant wetlands, have experienced extensive habitat loss and fragmentation throughout the southeastern United States Coastal Plain, resulting in an estimated reduction to <3% of their former range. This situation has lead to increased management attention of these habitats and their carnivorous plant species. However, conservation priorities focus primarily on the plants since little information currently exists on other community members, such as their endemic arthropod biota. Here, we investigated the population structure of one of these, the obligate pitcher plant moth Exyra semicrocea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences. Examination of 221 individuals from 11 populations across eight southeastern US states identified 51 unique haplotypes. These haplotypes belonged to one of two divergent (∼1.9-3.0%) lineages separated by the Mississippi alluvial plain. Populations of the West Gulf Coastal Plain exhibited significant genetic structure, contrasting with similarly distanced populations east of the Mississippi alluvial plain. In the eastern portion of the Coastal Plain, an apparent transition zone exists between two regionally distinct population groups, with a well-established genetic discontinuity for other organisms coinciding with this zone. The structure of E. semicrocea appears to have been influenced by patchy pitcher plant bog habitats in the West Gulf Coastal Plain as well as impacts of Pleistocene interglacials on the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin. These findings, along with potential extirpation of E. semicrocea at four visited, but isolated, sites highlight the need to consider other endemic or associated community members when managing and restoring pitcher plant bog habitats. PMID:21829473

  14. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of tea tussock moth, Euproctis pseudoconspersa (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) and its phylogenetic implications.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wan-Wei; Dong, Si-Yu; Jiang, Guo-Fang; Huang, Guo-Hua

    2016-02-10

    In present work, we described the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the tea tussock moth Euproctis pseudoconspersa (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). The complete mitogenome of E. pseudoconspersa is a circular genome 15,461 bp in size. It contains 37 genes and an A+T-rich region usually presented in lepidopteran mitogenomes, which genes share a lot of features with other known lepidopteran mitogenomes. Nucleotide composition of A+T in this mitogenome is 79.92%, and the AT skew is slightly positive. Both codon distribution and relative synonymous codon usage of the 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) are consistent with those published lepidopteran sequences. All tRNA genes have typical cloverleaf secondary structures, except for the tRNA(Ser(AGN)), in which the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm is simplified down to a loop. The A+T-rich region of E. pseudoconspersa mitogenome possess the motif 'ATAGA' and poly-T stretch as the formerly identified conserved elements of Lepidoptera mitogenomes. The phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed by using maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) methods based on nucleotide sequences of 13 PCGs of 38 moths. The results were very consistent with the traditional relationships within Noctuoidea from morphological data, and showed that Lymantriidae is more closely related to Erebidae than to Noctuidae. PMID:26611527

  15. Effects of ultraviolet-B exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana on herbivory by two crucifer-feeding insects (Lepidoptera)

    SciTech Connect

    Grant-Petersson, J.; Renwick, J.A.A.

    1996-02-01

    Larvae of Pieris rapae (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) and Trichoplusia ni (Huebner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were fed foliage from Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. plants that had received a high dose of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) or from control plants. Treatments were compared using the Student independent t-test. P. rapae larvae consumed less of the foliage exposed to UV-B than control foliage. This difference as significant in older but not younger larvae, and the older P. rapae larvae fed foliage exposed to UV-B weighed significantly less. For T. ni, however, consumption and larval weights were approximately equal for UV-exposed and control foliage. No significant differences in growth rates per unit consumption on UV-exposed versus control foliage were found for either species. Chemical analysis showed that flavonoid levels increased in response to UV-B. Results suggested that UV-inducible flavonoids may act as feeding deterrents to P. rapae but not to T. ni. 56 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Population genetic structure of two primary parasitoids of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera), Chelonus insularis and Campoletis sonorensis (Hymenoptera): to what extent is the host plant important?

    PubMed

    Jourdie, Violaine; Alvarez, Nadir; Molina-Ochoa, Jaime; Williams, Trevor; Bergvinson, David; Benrey, Betty; Turlings, Ted C J; Franck, Pierre

    2010-05-01

    Plant chemistry can strongly influence interactions between herbivores and their natural enemies, either by providing volatile compounds that serve as foraging cues for parasitoids or predators, or by affecting the quality of herbivores as hosts or prey. Through these effects plants may influence parasitoid population genetic structure. We tested for a possible specialization on specific crop plants in Chelonus insularis and Campoletis sonorensis, two primary parasitoids of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda. Throughout Mexico, S. frugiperda larvae were collected from their main host plants, maize and sorghum and parasitoids that emerged from the larvae were used for subsequent comparison by molecular analysis. Genetic variation at eight and 11 microsatellites were respectively assayed for C. insularis and C. sonorensis to examine isolation by distance, host plant and regional effects. Kinship analyses were also performed to assess female migration among host-plants. The analyses showed considerable within population variation and revealed a significant regional effect. No effect of host plant on population structure of either of the two parasitoid species was found. Isolation by distance was observed at the individual level, but not at the population level. Kinship analyses revealed significantly more genetically related--or kin--individuals on the same plant species than on different plant species, suggesting that locally, mothers preferentially stay on the same plant species. Although the standard population genetics parameters showed no effect of plant species on population structure, the kinship analyses revealed that mothers exhibit plant species fidelity, which may speed up divergence if adaptation were to occur. PMID:20406384

  17. Genotyping-by-sequencing approach indicates geographic distance as the main factor affecting genetic structure and gene flow in Brazilian populations of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Silva-Brandão, Karina Lucas; Silva, Oscar Arnaldo Batista Neto E; Brandão, Marcelo Mendes; Omoto, Celso; Sperling, Felix A H

    2015-06-01

    The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta is one of the major pests of stone and pome fruit species in Brazil. Here, we applied 1226 SNPs obtained by genotyping-by-sequencing to test whether host species associations or other factors such as geographic distance structured populations of this pest. Populations from the main areas of occurrence of G. molesta were sampled principally from peach and apple orchards. Three main clusters were recovered by neighbor-joining analysis, all defined by geographic proximity between sampling localities. Overall genetic structure inferred by a nonhierarchical amova resulted in a significant ΦST value = 0.19109. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that SNPs gathered by genotyping-by-sequencing can be used to infer genetic structure of a pest insect in Brazil; moreover, our results indicate that those markers are very informative even over a restricted geographic scale. We also demonstrate that host plant association has little effect on genetic structure among Brazilian populations of G. molesta; on the other hand, reduced gene flow promoted by geographic isolation has a stronger impact on population differentiation. PMID:26029261

  18. Genetic differentiation among Maruca vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) populations on cultivated cowpea and wild host plants: implications for insect resistance management and biological control strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maruca vitrata is a polyphagous insect pest on a wide variety of leguminous plants in the tropics and subtropics. The contribution of host-associated genetic variation on population structure was investigated using analysis mitochondrial cox1 sequence and microsatellite marker data from M. vitrata c...

  19. Genotyping-by-sequencing approach indicates geographic distance as the main factor affecting genetic structure and gene flow in Brazilian populations of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae)

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Brandão, Karina Lucas; Silva, Oscar Arnaldo Batista Neto e; Brandão, Marcelo Mendes; Omoto, Celso; Sperling, Felix A H

    2015-01-01

    The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta is one of the major pests of stone and pome fruit species in Brazil. Here, we applied 1226 SNPs obtained by genotyping-by-sequencing to test whether host species associations or other factors such as geographic distance structured populations of this pest. Populations from the main areas of occurrence of G. molesta were sampled principally from peach and apple orchards. Three main clusters were recovered by neighbor-joining analysis, all defined by geographic proximity between sampling localities. Overall genetic structure inferred by a nonhierarchical amova resulted in a significant ΦST value = 0.19109. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that SNPs gathered by genotyping-by-sequencing can be used to infer genetic structure of a pest insect in Brazil; moreover, our results indicate that those markers are very informative even over a restricted geographic scale. We also demonstrate that host plant association has little effect on genetic structure among Brazilian populations of G. molesta; on the other hand, reduced gene flow promoted by geographic isolation has a stronger impact on population differentiation. PMID:26029261

  20. Genetics and evidence for an esterase-associated mechanism of resistance to indoxacarb in a field population of diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Sayyed, Ali H; Wright, Denis J

    2006-11-01

    Bioassays (at generation G2) with a newly collected field population (designated CH3) of Plutella xylostella L. from farmers' fields in the Cameron Highlands, Malaysia, indicated resistance ratios of 813-, 79-, 171-, 498- and 1285-fold for indoxacarb, fipronil, spinosad, deltamethrin and Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cry1Ac respectively compared with a laboratory susceptible population (Lab-UK). At G2 the field-derived population was divided into two subpopulations: one was selected (G2 to G7) with indoxacarb (indoxa-SEL), while the second was left unselected (UNSEL). A significant reduction in the resistance ratio for each compound was observed in UNSEL at G8. For indoxa-SEL, bioassays at G8 found that selection with indoxacarb gave a resistance ratio of 2594 compared with Lab-UK and of 90 compared with UNSEL. The toxicity of fipronil, spinosad and deltamethrin was not significantly different in indoxa-SEL at G8 compared with G2 but was significantly greater than UNSEL at G8. The toxicity of Cry1Ac was significantly reduced in indoxa-SEL at G8 compared with G2 but was also significantly greater than UNSEL at G8. This suggests that indoxacarb selection maintained resistance to these compounds in the indoxa-SEL population. Synergist studies indicated that resistance to indoxacarb in indoxa-SEL was esterase associated. Logit regression analysis of F1 reciprocal crosses between indoxa-SEL and Lab-UK indicated that resistance to indoxacarb was inherited as an autosomal, incompletely recessive (D(LC) = 0.35) trait. Tests of monogenic inheritance suggested that resistance to indoxacarb was controlled by a single locus. PMID:16886171

  1. Toxicity of Porella chilensis sesqui- and diterpenoids against larvae of the corn pest Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidotera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Corzo, F L; Gilabert, M; Alcaide, M F; Bardón, A

    2012-10-01

    Porella, the largest genus of the family Porellaceae (Hepaticae) is widespread in the tropical and subtropical regions of South America. Most Porella species are rich sources of sesqui- and diterpenoids, many of which show interesting biological activities. Secondary metabolites produced by plants can interact with insects and act as antifeedants and growth regulators affecting hormone and nervous systems as well as stomach and muscle tissues. A previous chemical investigation of a Patagonian collection of Porella chilensis yielded sesqui- and diterpenoids that were now evaluated for their effects against Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a serious pest affecting corn crops mainly in the Americas. Four pinguisanes (1-4), three fusicoccanes (5-7), and one aromadendrane (8) from P. chilensis displayed larvicidal activity against S. frugiperda when incorporated to the larval diet at 100 and 200 μg/g of diet with a significant decrease in the larval growing rate. The observed effects were in part produced by severe alterations of the epithelial cells of the midgut as indicated by our histological studies. PMID:23950093

  2. Engineered female-specific lethality for control of pest Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Jin, Li; Walker, Adam S; Fu, Guoliang; Harvey-Samuel, Timothy; Dafa'alla, Tarig; Miles, Andrea; Marubbi, Thea; Granville, Deborah; Humphrey-Jones, Nerys; O'Connell, Sinead; Morrison, Neil I; Alphey, Luke

    2013-03-15

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a pest control strategy involving the mass release of radiation-sterilized insects, which reduce the target population through nonviable matings. In Lepidoptera, SIT could be more broadly applicable if the deleterious effects of sterilization by irradiation could be avoided. Moreover, male-only release can improve the efficacy of SIT. Adequate methods of male-only production in Lepidoptera are currently lacking, in contrast to some Diptera. We describe a synthetic genetic system that allows male-only moth production for SIT and also replaces radiation sterilization with inherited female-specific lethality. We sequenced and characterized the doublesex (dsx) gene from the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella). Sex-alternate splicing from dsx was used to develop a conditional lethal genetic sexing system in two pest moths: the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) and pink bollworm. This system shows promise for enhancing existing pink bollworm SIT, as well as broadening SIT-type control to diamondback moth and other Lepidoptera. PMID:23802263

  3. First record of Ectomyelois muriscis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on physic nut (Jatropha curcas), a biofuel plant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The natural infestation of fruits and stems of Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) by larvae of the pyralid moth Ectomyelois muriscis (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is reported for the first time. Populations of E. muriscis on J. curcas were observed in various parts of the state of Chiapas, souther...

  4. Disruption of Darna pallivitta (Lepidoptera:Limacodidae) by conventional and mobile pheromone deployment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nettle caterpillar, Darna pallivitta (Moore) (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), is an invasive pest with established populations on three Hawai’ian islands. Indigenous to Southeast Asia, D. pallivitta caterpillars defoliate ornamentals and pose a human health hazard due to urticating hairs that can cause p...

  5. Resistance in Cultivated Sunflower to the Sunflower Moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in the Central Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 5-year field study evaluated 42 sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) accessions, 25 breeding lines, and 40 interspecific crosses for resistance to infestation by naturally occurring populations of the sunflower moth, Homeosoma electellum (Hulst) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Germplasm with resistance to i...

  6. Timing Spring Insecticide Applications to Target both Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Anarsia lineatella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Almond Orchards.

    PubMed

    Hamby, Kelly A; Nicola, Nicole L; Niederholzer, Franz J A; Zalom, Frank G

    2015-04-01

    Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Anarsia lineatella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) are key Lepidoptera pests of almonds in California. Spring insecticide applications (early to mid-May) targeting either insect were not usually recommended because of the potential to disrupt natural enemies when broad-spectrum organophosphates and pyrethroids were applied. The registration of reduced risk compounds such as chlorantraniliprole, methoxyfenozide, and spinetoram, which have a higher margin of safety for natural enemies, makes spring (early to mid-May) application an acceptable control approach. We examined the efficacy of methoxyfenozide, spinetoram, and chlorantraniliprole at three spring application timings including the optimum spring timing for both A. lineatella and A. transitella in California almonds. Our study also examined the possibility of reducing larval populations of A. lineatella and A. transitella simultaneously with a single spring insecticide application. There were no significant differences in the field efficacy of insecticides targeting either A. lineatella or A. transitella, depending on application timing for the three spring timings examined in this study. In most years (2009-2011), all three timings for each compound resulted in significantly less A. transitella and A. lineatella damage when compared with an untreated control, though there was some variation in efficacy between the two species. Early to mid-May applications of the reduced-risk insecticides chlorantraniliprole and spinetoram can be used to simultaneously target A. transitella and A. lineatella with similar results across the potential timings. PMID:26470179

  7. Resistance Among Cultivated Sunflower Germplasm to the Banded Sunflower Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in the Northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A five year field trial evaluated 71 oilseed sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., accessions, 32 breeding lines, and 25 interspecific crosses for resistance to infestation by naturally occurring populations of the banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in North Dak...

  8. Egg hatch and survival and development of beet webworm (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larvae at different combinations of temperature and relative humidity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To understand the role that temperature and humidity play in the population dynamics of the beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis L. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), egg hatchability, survival of 1st - 5th instars, survival of the complete larval stage, survival curves, and larval development rates were inve...

  9. A Review of the McMorran Diet for Rearing Lepidoptera Species With Addition of a Further 39 Species

    PubMed Central

    Hervet, V. A. D.; Laird, R. A.; Floate, K. D.

    2016-01-01

    Research on cutworms led us to explore the use of the McMorran diet to rear lepidopteran species, mainly Noctuidae, under laboratory conditions. We documented the development of 103 lepidopteran species, including 39 species not previously reported in the literature, to be reared on this diet. Given its low cost, ease of preparation, and wide species’ acceptance, this diet provides a powerful tool for facilitating Lepidoptera and other insects rearing and research in the laboratory. Résumé Une recherche sur les noctuelles nous a permis d’élever des larves de nombreuses espèces de lépidoptères, principalement des noctuelles, sur un substrat artificiel du nom de «McMorran diet» en laboratoire. Nous reportons le développement de 103 espèces de lépidoptères, dont 39 espèces qui n’ont pas encore été documentées, comme pouvant se développer sur ce substrat artificiel. Étant donné son faible coût, facilité de préparation, et large champ d’action, ce substrat artificiel peut grandement faciliter la recherche sur les lépidoptères et autres insectes en laboratoire. PMID:26851296

  10. Resistance Risk Assessment of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to Vip3Aa20 Insecticidal Protein Expressed in Corn.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Oderlei; Bernardi, Daniel; Amado, Douglas; Sousa, Renan S; Fatoretto, Julio; Medeiros, Fernanda C L; Conville, Jared; Burd, Tony; Omoto, Celso

    2015-12-01

    Transgenic Agrisure Viptera 3 corn that expresses Cry1Ab, Vip3Aa20, and EPSPS proteins and Agrisure Viptera expressing Vip3Aa20 are used for control of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) and Diatraea saccharalis (F.) in Brazil. To support a resistance management program, resistance risk assessment studies were conducted to characterize the dose expression of Vip3Aa20 protein and level of control against these species. The Vip3Aa20 expression in Agrisure Viptera 3 and Agrisure Viptera decreased from V6 to V10 stage of growth. However, Vip3Aa20 expression in Agrisure Viptera 3 at V6 and V10 stages was 13- and 16-fold greater than Cry1Ab, respectively. The Vip3Aa20 expression in lyophilized tissue of Agrisure Viptera 3 and Agrisure Viptera diluted 25-fold in an artificial diet caused complete larval mortality of S. frugiperda and D. saccharalis. In contrast, lyophilized tissue of Bt11 at the same dilution does not provide complete mortality of these species. Agrisure Viptera 3 and Agrisure Viptera also caused a high level of mortality against S. frugiperda and D. saccharalis. Moreover, 100% mortality was observed for S. frugiperda larvae (neonates through fifth-instar larvae) when fed in corn with the Vip trait technology. Viptera corn achieves a high level of control against S. frugiperda and D. saccharalis providing a high dose, which is an important determination to support the refuge strategy for an effective resistance management program. PMID:26470366

  11. Mean generation analysis of the damage caused by Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in sweet corn ears.

    PubMed

    Velasco, P; Soengas, P; Revilla, P; Ordas, A; Malvar, R A

    2004-02-01

    Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefebvre) and Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) are the main maize (Zea mays L.) pests in Mediterranean countries. To develop insect-resistant cultivars, it is helpful to know the genetic control of the resistance. Our objective was to determine the genetic control of the resistance to both borers. For each of two crosses (EP59 x P51 and 15125 x EP61), six generations were evaluated (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1, and BC2). Genetic effects x environment interactions were not significant. For the O. nubilalis resistance traits; both crosses fitted an additive-dominance model. EP59 x P51 had important dominance and additive effects, whereas for 15125 x EP61 we did not detect significant genetic effects, but significant year effects were detected. For S. nonagrioides infestation, both crosses fitted to an additive-dominance model. There were additive effects for most traits in EP59 x P51. The cross I5125 x EP61 showed significant dominance effects for several traits. Resistance to both corn borers fit an additive-dominance model, but genetic effects depend on the cross evaluated. In the resistance to S. nonagrioides, additive effects were important for shank resistance, which is a useful trait for avoiding S. nonagrioides damage on the ear. Early sowings are recommended to make good use of the resistance to both corn borers. In the late sowings, damage is so high that resistant plants are not able to control the pest. PMID:14998135

  12. Field efficacy of sweet corn hybrids expressing a Bacillus thuringiensis toxin for management of Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Burkness, E C; Hutchison, W D; Bolin, P C; Bartels, D W; Warnock, D F; Davis, D W

    2001-02-01

    Field studies were done in 1995-1996 to assess the efficacy of three sweet corn hybrids that express the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin, CrylAb, against two lepidopteran pests, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) and Helicoverpa zea (Boddie). The Bt hybrids tested were developed by Novartis Seeds, using the event BT-11, which expresses Bt toxin in green tissue as well as reproductive tissues including the tassel, silk, and kernel. Bt hybrids were compared with a standard non-Bt control or the non-Bt isoline for each hybrid; none of the hybrids were treated with insecticides during the study. Hybrid efficacy was based on larval control of each pest, as well as plant or ear damage associated with each pest. In both years, control of O. nubilalis larvae in primary ears of all Bt hybrids was 99-100% compared with the appropriate non-Bt check. Plant damage was also significantly reduced in all Bt hybrids. In 1996, control of H. zea in Bt hybrids ranged from 85 to 88% when compared with the appropriate non-Bt control. In 1996, a University of Minnesota experimental non-Bt hybrid (MN2 x MN3) performed as well as the Bt hybrids for control of O. nubilalis. Also, in 1996, two additional University of Minnesota experimental non-Bt hybrids (A684su X MN94 and MN2 X MN3) performed as well as Bt hybrids for percent marketable ears (ears with no damage or larvae). In addition, compared with the non-Bt hybrids, percent marketable ears were significantly higher for all Bt hybrids and in most cases ranged from 98 to 100%. By comparison, percent marketable ears for the non-Bt hybrids averaged 45.5 and 37.4% in 1995 and 1996, respectively. Results from the 2-yr study strongly suggest that Bt sweet corn hybrids will provide high levels of larval control for growers in both fresh and processing markets. Specifically, Bt sweet corn hybrids, in the absence of conventional insecticide use, provided excellent control of O. nubilalis, and very good control of H. zea. However, depending on location of specific production regions, and the associated insect pests of sweet corn in each area, some insecticide applications may still be necessary. PMID:11233113

  13. Binomial sequential sampling plans for late instars of European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), corn earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and damaged kernels in sweet corn ears.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Patrick K; Hutchison, W D

    2004-06-01

    Late-season infestations of European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), and corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), were sampled to develop binomial sequential sampling plans for larval infestations and damaged kernels in sweet corn, Zea mays L., ears, near harvest. Fields were sampled to obtain a range of larval densities likely to be encountered over a range of infestation levels and field conditions. Binomial sampling plans were developed for O. nubilalis larvae, H. zea larvae, O. nubilalis, and H. zea larvae combined, and for damaged sweet corn kernels. Observed densities ranged from 0.01 to 4.40 larvae per ear for O. nubilalis, 0.005-1.62 larvae per ear for H. zea, and 0.004-36.12 damaged kernels per ear. Results of resampling analyses, based on the proportion of ears infested with one or more larvae, or damaged kernels, indicated an average sample size of 34-37 ears was necessary to classify whether larval infestations, or the incidence of damaged kernels, exceeded 5%. Two operating characteristic curves are presented for each of the four sampling plans. Initial results, with upper bounds of 0.10, and alpha (type I) and beta (type II) error rates at 0.10 and 0.05, respectively, resulted in a 90% probability of making the correct management decision at infestation levels >10%. To improve performance of the sampling plans, we modified the binomial plans by reducing the upper bound to 0.075, while maintaining the same error rates. This plan resulted in a higher probability (>95%) of making the correct management decision to reject a sweet corn load when infestation levels are >10%. PMID:15279284

  14. Cloning, expression and purification of subunit H of vacuolar H⁺-ATPase from Mythimna separata Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Lu, Lina; Qi, Zhijun; Wu, Wenjun

    2014-01-01

    The vacuolar (H+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) of insect, which is composed of membrane-bound V0 complex and peripheral V1 complex, participates in lots of important physiological process. Subunit H, as a subunit of V1 complex, plays a vital role in bridging the communication between V1 and V0 complexes and interaction with other proteins. Yeast subunit H has been successfully crystallized through expression in E. coli, but little is known about the structure of insect subunit H. In this study, we cloned, expressed and purified the subunit H from midgut of Mythimna separata Walker. Through RACE (rapidly amplification of cDNA ends) technique, we got 1807 bp full length of subunit H, and to keep the nature structure of subunit H, we constructed Baculovirus expression vector with His-tag in the C-terminal and expressed the recombinant protein in insect sf9 cells, thereafter, purified the recombinant protein by Ni-NTA columns. Results of SDS-PAGE, western blotting and mass spectrometry showed that the recombinant protein was successfully expressed. The method of expressing and purifying M. separata subunit H will provide a foundation for obtaining the crystal of subunit H and further study of the design of novel insecticides based on its structure and function. PMID:25257524

  15. Rapid identification of Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) using ribosomal RNA internal transcribed spacer 1.

    PubMed

    Perera, Omaththage P; Allen, Kerry C; Jain, Devendra; Purcell, Matthew; Little, Nathan S; Luttrell, Randall G

    2015-01-01

    Rapid identification of invasive species is crucial for deploying management strategies to prevent establishment. Recent Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) invasions and subsequent establishment in South America has increased the risk of this species invading North America. Morphological similarities make differentiation of H. armigera from the native Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) difficult. Characteristics of adult male genitalia and nucleotide sequence differences in mitochondrial DNA are two of the currently available methods to differentiate these two species. However, current methods are likely too slow to be employed as rapid detection methods. In this study, conserved differences in the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) of the ribosomal RNA genes were used to develop species-specific oligonucleotide primers that amplified ITS1 fragments of 147 and 334 bp from H. armigera and H. zea, respectively. An amplicon (83 bp) from a conserved region of 18S ribosomal RNA subunit served as a positive control. Melting temperature differences in ITS1 amplicons yielded species-specific dissociation curves that could be used in high resolution melt analysis to differentiate the two Helicoverpa species. In addition, a rapid and inexpensive procedure for obtaining amplifiable genomic DNA from a small amount of tissue was identified. Under optimal conditions, the process was able to detect DNA from one H. armigera leg in a pool of 25 legs. The high resolution melt analysis combined with rapid DNA extraction could be used as an inexpensive method to genetically differentiate large numbers of H. armigera and H. zea using readily available reagents. PMID:26516166

  16. Prevalence of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on late season volunteer corn in Mississippi: implications on Bt resistance management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The southern United States has a long growing period between corn harvest and first winter frost, so volunteer corn which germinates after corn harvest has a growing period sufficient for corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) to feed on these plants. However, lower air temperatures can limit larval...

  17. Growth and feeding response of Pseudoplusia includens (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) to host plants grown in controlled carbon dioxide atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, D.E.; Sionit, N.; Strain, B.R.

    1984-12-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide may alter plant/herbivore interactions. The projected rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide is expected to increase plant productivity, but little evidence is available regarding effects on insect feeding or growth. Leaves of soybean plants grown under three carbon dioxide regimes (350, 500, and 650 ..mu..l/liter) were fed to soybean looper larvae. Larvae fed at increasingly higher rates on plants from elevated carbon dioxide atmospheres: 80% greater rates on leaves from the 650 ..mu..l/liter treatment than on leaves from the 350 ..mu..l/litter treatment. Variation in larval feeding was related to the leaf content of nitrogen and water and to the leaf-specific weight, each of which was altered by the carbon dioxide growth regime of the soybean plants. This study suggests that the impact of herbivores may increase as the level of atmospheric carbon dioxide rises.

  18. Do Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae) gravid females discriminate between Bt or multivitamin corn varieties? Role of olfactory and visual cues.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Diego; Eizaguirre, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean corn borer, Sesamia nonagrioides Lefèbvre, is a key pest of corn and a main target of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn in Northeast Spain. Trends for future biotechnology crops indicate that Bt, non-Bt, and stacked corn varieties with metabolic pathways for vitamin-increased traits could coexist in same region. Knowledge of the oviposition response of gravid females of S. nonagrioides to these different varieties could be extremely important for managing strategies aimed for delaying resistance development. In dual-choice assays, we examined the host preference of gravid females of S. nonagrioides for four corn varieties: a new transgenic corn with increased vitamin levels, its near isogenic counterpart (M37W), a Bt corn plant, and its near isogenic counterpart. Olfactory cues were the predominant ones when gravid females looked for a suitable host to lay eggs, and no synergistic effects were observed when both visual and olfactory cues were present. When the plant was visible, the females preferred the odors emitted by the nontransgenic to its multivitamin transgenic counterpart and when they only could detect the volatiles they also preferred the nontransgenic M37W variety to the Bt corn variety. If gravid females are less attracted to corn with an increased level of vitamins, this could impact insect resistance management and the value of refuge plants, if such traits are stacked with an insect resistance trait. PMID:25843586

  19. Susceptibility and aversion of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to Cry1F Bt maize and considerations for insect resistance management.

    PubMed

    Binning, Rachel R; Coats, Joel; Kong, Xiaoxiao; Hellmich, Richard L

    2014-02-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize was developed primarily for North American pests such as European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner)). However, most Bt maize products are also cultivated outside of North America, where the primary pests may be different and may have lower susceptibility to Bt toxins. Fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda JE Smith) is an important pest and primary target of Bt maize in Central and South America. S. frugiperda susceptibility to Cry1F (expressed in event TC1507) is an example of a pest-by-toxin interaction that does not meet the high-dose definition. In this study, the behavioral and toxic response of S. frugiperda to Cry1F maize was investigated by measuring the percentage of time naive third instars spent feeding during a 3-min exposure. S. frugiperda also were exposed as third instars to Cry1F maize for 14 d to measure weight gain and survival. S. frugiperda demonstrated an initial, postingestive aversive response to Cry1F maize, and few larvae survived the 14 d exposure. The role of susceptibility and avoidance are discussed in the context of global IRM refuge strategy development for Bt products. PMID:24665722

  20. Morphological and molecular characterization of a new microsporidian (Protozoa: Microsporidia) isolated from Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Johny, S; Kanginakudru, S; Muralirangan, M C; Nagaraju, J

    2006-06-01

    A microsporidium was isolated from larvae of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) collected from Tamil Nadu, India. This microsporidian species is monomorphic, disporous and develops in direct contact with the cytoplasm of the host cell. The nuclear configuration of merogonic and sporogonic stages was diplokaryotic. The merogonic proliferative stage was unusual that normal development with 1, 2 and 4 binucleated forms were common, while large multinucleate meronts containing 8 and 12 small compact horseshoe-like diplokaryotic nuclei were also observed. The fresh spores were typically ovocylindrical in shape, with a mean size of 3.91 x 1.91 microm and the polar filament length was approximately 90 microm. Infection was systemic with mature spores produced in the midgut, nervous tissue, muscles, labial glands, gonads, tracheae, epidermis, Malpighian tubules and, most extensively, fat body tissues. The new isolate was highly pathogenic to S. litura larvae. Host specificity tests performed on 37 non-target hosts of 5 different insect orders revealed that the new isolate is pathogenic only to lepidopteran insects. We sequenced the 16S small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene of the isolate and compared it with 72 non-redundant microsporidian sequences from the GenBank. Based on the light microscopic studies and phylogenetic analyses, the new isolate is assigned to the genus Nosema. Significant differences in the SSU rRNA sequence were identified when compared with the type species Nosema bombycis and other closely related species viz., Nosema spodopterae. Structural differences were also observed in the 16S SSU rRNA between the new isolate and the two above-mentioned microsporidian pathogens. We conclude that the microsporidian isolate reported here is distinctly different from the other known species and is likely to be a new species. PMID:16469201

  1. DNA Barcoding the Heliothinae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) of Australia and Utility of DNA Barcodes for Pest Identification in Helicoverpa and Relatives.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Andrew; Gopurenko, David

    2016-01-01

    Helicoverpa and Heliothis species include some of the world's most significant crop pests, causing billions of dollars of losses globally. As such, a number are regulated quarantine species. For quarantine agencies, the most crucial issue is distinguishing native species from exotics, yet even this task is often not feasible because of poorly known local faunas and the difficulties of identifying closely related species, especially the immature stages. DNA barcoding is a scalable molecular diagnostic method that could provide the solution to this problem, however there has been no large-scale test of the efficacy of DNA barcodes for identifying the Heliothinae of any region of the world to date. This study fills that gap by DNA barcoding the entire heliothine moth fauna of Australia, bar one rare species, and comparing results with existing public domain resources. We find that DNA barcodes provide robust discrimination of all of the major pest species sampled, but poor discrimination of Australian Heliocheilus species, and we discuss ways to improve the use of DNA barcodes for identification of pests. PMID:27509042

  2. A new pest species of Copitarsia Hampson from the Neotropical Region feeding on Asparagus and cut flowers (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The egg, first- and last- instar larva, and adult of Copitarsia corruda, n. sp. from Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru are described and illustrated. Larval host-plant genera include Asparagus (Liliaceae) (Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador), Iris (Iridaceae) (Ecuador), Ammi (Apiaceae) (Ecuador), Lysimachi...

  3. Rapid Identification of Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Using Ribosomal RNA Internal Transcribed Spacer 1

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Omaththage P.; Allen, Kerry C.; Jain, Devendra; Purcell, Matthew; Little, Nathan S.; Luttrell, Randall G.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid identification of invasive species is crucial for deploying management strategies to prevent establishment. Recent Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) invasions and subsequent establishment in South America has increased the risk of this species invading North America. Morphological similarities make differentiation of H. armigera from the native Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) difficult. Characteristics of adult male genitalia and nucleotide sequence differences in mitochondrial DNA are two of the currently available methods to differentiate these two species. However, current methods are likely too slow to be employed as rapid detection methods. In this study, conserved differences in the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) of the ribosomal RNA genes were used to develop species-specific oligonucleotide primers that amplified ITS1 fragments of 147 and 334 bp from H. armigera and H. zea, respectively. An amplicon (83 bp) from a conserved region of 18S ribosomal RNA subunit served as a positive control. Melting temperature differences in ITS1 amplicons yielded species-specific dissociation curves that could be used in high resolution melt analysis to differentiate the two Helicoverpa species. In addition, a rapid and inexpensive procedure for obtaining amplifiable genomic DNA from a small amount of tissue was identified. Under optimal conditions, the process was able to detect DNA from one H. armigera leg in a pool of 25 legs. The high resolution melt analysis combined with rapid DNA extraction could be used as an inexpensive method to genetically differentiate large numbers of H. armigera and H. zea using readily available reagents. PMID:26516166

  4. Reproductive potential of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the laboratory: effect of multiple couples and the size.

    PubMed

    Specht, A; Montezano, D G; Sosa-Gómez, D R; Paula-Moraes, S V; Roque-Specht, V F; Barros, N M

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of keeping three couples in the same cage, and the size of adults emerged from small, medium-sized and large pupae (278.67 mg; 333.20 mg and 381.58 mg, respectively), on the reproductive potential of S. eridania (Stoll, 1782) adults, under controlled conditions (25 ± 1 °C, 70% RH and 14 hour photophase). We evaluated the survival, number of copulations, fecundity and fertility of the adult females. The survival of females from these different pupal sizes did not differ statistically, but the survival of males from large pupae was statistically shorter than from small pupae. Fecundity differed significantly and correlated positively with size. The number of effective copulations (espematophores) and fertility did not vary significantly with pupal size. Our results emphasize the importance of indicating the number of copulations and the size of the insects when reproductive parameters are compared. PMID:26959952

  5. Efficacy of insecticides of different chemistries against Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis and conventional cotton.

    PubMed

    Brickle, D S; Turnipseed, S G; Sullivan, M J

    2001-02-01

    Six insecticides of different chemistries were evaluated against the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), in non-B.t. (Deltapine 'DP 5415', Deltapine 'DP 5415RR') and transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (B.t.) (Deltapine 'NuCOTN 33B', Deltapine 'DP 458 B/RR') cotton. In 1998, treatments consisted of three rates each of a pyrethroid (lambda-cyhalothrin), spinosyn (spinosad), carbamate (thiodicarb), pyrrole (chlorfenapyr), oxadiazine (indoxacarb), and avermectin (emamectin benzoate) in a nonirrigated field. In 1999, treatments consisted of three rates each of lambda-cyhalothrin, spinosad, thiodicarb, and indoxacarb in an irrigated and a nonirrigated (dryland) field. The highest rate of each insecticide corresponded to normal grower-use rates. Spinosad and thiodicarb controlled H. zea in non-B.t. cotton, whereas other materials were less effective. Even though H. zea is becoming increasingly resistant to pyrethroid insecticides, lambda-cyhalothrin was highly effective in dryland B. thuringiensis cotton. Spinosad and thiodicarb were equally effective. Data indicated that reduced rates of lambda-cyhalothrin, spinosad, and thiodicarb could be used for control of H. zea in dryland B.t. cotton systems. However, reduced rates of these insecticides in a heavily irrigated B.t. cotton system did not provide adequate control. PMID:11233138

  6. Preparation of monoclonal antibody against celangulin V and immunolocalization of receptor in the oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Qi, Zhijun; Xue, Xiaoping; Wu, Wenjun; Zhang, Jiwen; Yang, Runya

    2006-10-01

    The botanical insecticide celangulin V (CA-V) is an insect digestive poison acting on midgut tissue of the target insect larvae. With the aim of localizing the receptor enacted by CA-V, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to the compound were developed. A hapten was synthesized by introducing a succinoyl into the CA-V structure and conjugated with three carrier proteins. From mice immunized with one conjugate, three MAbs were obtained with a potential capacity of detecting protein-bound residue forms of CA-V in the biological tissues. The oriental armyworm larvae ingested CA-V were examined by the technique of immuno-electron-microscopy (IEM) using the anti-CA-V MAb as the primary antibody and goat anti-mouse/IgG labeled with colloidal gold as the secondary antibody. Electron micrographs of the armyworm midgut tissues showed that the CA-V was associated with the midgut epithelia of the insects. These results demonstrated the existence of a receptor enacted by CA-V on the midgut cells of the oriental armyworm larvae. PMID:17002428

  7. Abrostola clarissa (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), a new potential biocontrol agent for invasive swallow-worts, Vincetoxicum rossicum and V. nigrum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pale and black swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum rossicum and V. nigrum; Apocynaceae, subfamily Asclepiadoideae), perennial vines native to Eurasia, are now invading natural and anthropogenic habitats in the northeastern U.S.A. and southeastern Canada, threatening natural biodiversity and increasing contr...

  8. Evaluation of anonymous and expressed sequence tag derived polymorphic microsatellite markers in the tobacco budworm Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polymorphic genetic markers were identified and characterized using a partial genomic library of Heliothis virescens enriched for simple sequence repeats (SSR) and nucleotide sequences of expressed sequence tags (EST). Nucleotide sequences of 192 clones from the partial genomic library yielded 147 u...

  9. Efficacies of four pheromone-baited traps in capturing male Helicoverpa (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) moths in northern Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) is a serious pest of grain, row, and vegetable crops throughout much of the world, although it is currently not established in the United States. USDA-APHIS and the Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey program are charged with the responsibility to monitor for this ins...

  10. Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Exhibits No Preference between Bt and Non-Bt Maize Fed Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Dutra, Carla C.; Koch, Robert L.; Burkness, Eric C.; Meissle, Michael; Romeis, Joerg; Hutchison, William D.; Fernandes, Marcos G.

    2012-01-01

    A recent shift in managing insect resistance to genetically engineered (GE) maize consists of mixing non-GE seed with GE seed known as “refuge in a bag”, which increases the likelihood of predators encountering both prey fed Bt and prey fed non-Bt maize. We therefore conducted laboratory choice-test feeding studies to determine if a predator, Harmonia axyridis, shows any preference between prey fed Bt and non-Bt maize leaves. The prey species was Spodoptera frugiperda, which were fed Bt maize (MON-810), expressing the single Cry1Ab protein, or non-Bt maize. The predators were third instar larvae and female adults of H. axyridis. Individual predators were offered Bt and non-Bt fed prey larvae that had fed for 24, 48 or 72 h. Ten and 15 larvae of each prey type were offered to third instar and adult predators, respectively. Observations of arenas were conducted at 1, 2, 3, 6, 15 and 24 h after the start of the experiment to determine the number and type of prey eaten by each individual predator. Prey larvae that fed on non-Bt leaves were significantly larger than larvae fed Bt leaves. Both predator stages had eaten nearly all the prey by the end of the experiment. However, in all combinations of predator stage and prey age, the number of each prey type consumed did not differ significantly. ELISA measurements confirmed the presence of Cry1Ab in leaf tissue (23–33 µg/g dry weight) and S. frugiperda (2.1–2.2 µg/g), while mean concentrations in H. axyridis were very low (0.01–0.2 µg/g). These results confirm the predatory status of H. axyridis on S. frugiperda and that both H. axyridis adults and larvae show no preference between prey types. The lack of preference between Bt-fed and non-Bt-fed prey should act in favor of insect resistance management strategies using mixtures of GE and non-GE maize seed. PMID:23024772

  11. Influence ofAmaranthus hybridus L. allelochemics on oviposition behavior ofSpodoptera exigua andS. eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Mitchell, E R; Heath, R R

    1985-05-01

    Common pigweed,Amaranthus hybridus L., is a favorite host of the beet army worm (BAW),Spodoptera exigua L. Chemicals extracted from homogenized pigweed with distilled water, ethanol, or dichloromethane and sprayed back on pigweed deterred oviposition by the BAW. Similarly, water extracts of frass from conspecific larvae or southern armyworm (SAW) larvae,S. eridania (Cramer), fed pigweed leaves and sprayed back on pigweed plants also deterred BAW oviposition, thus confirming that deterrence was due to plant allelochemics rather than specific compounds associated with the metabolic or excretory products of the larvae. Confirmation of the presence of oviposition-deterring chemicals in pigweed was used to explain a previously observed seasonal displacement of BAW by SAW on pigweed in the field. PMID:24310126

  12. Assessment of electron beam-induced abnormal development and DNA damage in Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Seon-Woo; Koo, Hyun-Na; Kim, Gil-Hah

    2014-03-01

    The armyworm, Spodoptera litura (F.) is a polyphagous and important agricultural pest worldwide. In this study, we examined the effect of electron beam irradiation on developmental stages, reproduction, and DNA damage of S. litura. Eggs (0-24 h old), larvae (3rd instar), pupae (3 days old after pupation), and adults (24 h after emergence) were irradiated with electron beam irradiation of six levels between 30 and 250 Gy. When eggs were irradiated with 100 Gy, egg hatching was completely inhibited. When the larvae were irradiated, the larval period was significantly delayed, depending on the doses applied. At 150 Gy, the fecundity of adults that developed from irradiated pupae was entirely inhibited. However, electron beam irradiation did not induce the instantaneous death of S. litura adults. Reciprocal crosses between irradiated and unirradiated moths demonstrated that females were more radiosensitive than males. We also conducted the comet assay immediately after irradiation and over the following 5 days period. Severe DNA fragmentation in S. litura cells was observed just after irradiation and the damage was repaired during the post-irradiation period in a time-dependent manner. However, at more than 100 Gy, DNA damage was not fully recovered.

  13. Relationship of Flight and Reproduction in Beet Armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a Migrant Lacking the Oogenesis-flight Syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, undertakes long-distance migration. We used flight mills to investigate the interaction between flight and reproduction in this species given the apparent absence of the oogenesis-flight syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by a suite of traits common in man...

  14. Inferring the annual migration patterns of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the U.S. from mitochondrial haplotypes.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) or fall armyworm is an important agricultural pest of a number of crops in the Western Hemisphere. In the U.S., infestations in corn acreages extend from the Mexican to the Canadian border. Because fall armyworm does not survive prolonged ground freezing the infe...

  15. Some Changes in Gut Bacterial Flora of Field-Grown Peridroma saucia (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) When Brought into the Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Lighthart, B

    1988-07-01

    Removal of Peridroma saucia from the field to the laboratory caused little change in the quantity of facultative and aerobic bacteria in the gut but produced significant qualitative and quantitative changes in distinguishable groups of the family Enterobacteriaceae in the gut. PMID:16347703

  16. Diterpene resin acids: Major active principles in tall oil against Variegated cutworm,Peridroma saucia (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Xie, Y; Isman, M B; Feng, Y; Wong, A

    1993-06-01

    Tall oil, a by-product of the kraft process for pulping softwood, has been shown to have insecticidal properties. In the present study, the active principles in tall oil against the variegated cutworm,Peridroma saucia Hübner, were investigated. GC-MS analysis showed that abietic, dehydroabietic, and isopimaric acids were major resin acid components of crude tall oil and depitched tall oil. When crude tall oil samples of differing resin acid composition were incorporated into artificial diet at a concentration of 2.0% fresh weight, they suppressed larval growth by 45-60% compared to controls. This suppression was significantly (P≤0.05) correlated with the equivalent contents of abietic, dehydroabietic, isopimaric, and total resin acids. These results were also evident from a diet choice test, showing that the second-instar larvae obviously selected diets with low levels of resin acids when different diets were randomly arranged in a Petri dish. Bioassays with pure resin acids (abietic, dehydroabietic, and isopimaric acids) demonstrated that all individual chemicals have similar bioactivity against this insect. Comparison of the bioactivities of depitched tall oil and an equivalent mixture of pure resin acids in thePeridroma chronic growth bioassay indicated that pure resin acids and depitched tall oil share a common mode of action to this insect. This study confirms that resin acids are major active principles in tall oil against the variegated cutworm, but other chemicals likely also contribute to the bioactivity of tall oil. PMID:24249127

  17. Some Changes in Gut Bacterial Flora of Field-Grown Peridroma saucia (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) When Brought into the Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Lighthart, Bruce

    1988-01-01

    Removal of Peridroma saucia from the field to the laboratory caused little change in the quantity of facultative and aerobic bacteria in the gut but produced significant qualitative and quantitative changes in distinguishable groups of the family Enterobacteriaceae in the gut. PMID:16347703

  18. Radar observations of the autumn migration of the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and other moths in northern China.

    PubMed

    Feng, H-Q; Wu, K-M; Cheng, D-F; Guo, Y-Y

    2003-04-01

    The autumn return migration of the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua Hübner and other insects in northern China was observed with radar and with a simultaneously-operated searchlight trap and ground light-trap at a site in Langfang, near Beijing. The searchlight trap was found to be an efficient tool for trapping migrants and, operated alongside a ground light-trap, could distinguish migrant from locally-flying species. It was confirmed that S. exigua and some other species were high-altitude nocturnal windborne migrants during September and October in northern China. Maximum density of moths typically occurred below 500 m, and strong layering was often observed at about 200 m above ground level in airflows that would carry the moths towards the south. Descent of S. exigua in the vicinity of the radar site in late September was often associated with rain. PMID:12699532

  19. Biology, Ecology, and Evolving Management of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Sweet Corn in the United States.

    PubMed

    Olmstead, Daniel L; Nault, Brian A; Shelton, Anthony M

    2016-08-01

    The corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), is a polyphagous pest found throughout the United States, where it attacks many field and vegetable crops. Although H. zea has long been a traditional pest of sweet corn, its importance to this crop has increased dramatically over the past two decades. In this review, we summarize information critical for current and future management of H. zea in sweet corn production in the United States. First, we discuss the pest status of H. zea and its life history, including migration, infestation and larval development, diapause, overwintering, and abiotic factors that affect its biology. Next we describe monitoring methods, crop protection decision-making processes, chemical control options, and the use of genetic technologies for control of H. zea Alternative H. zea management options including biological control, cultural controls, host plant resistance, and pheromone disruption are also reviewed. The role of climate change and its effects on H. zea and its ecology are discussed, as well as the recent invasion of its relative, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), which is a major pest of corn in other parts of the world. To conclude, we suggest future research opportunities for H. zea and H. armigera management in sweet corn. PMID:27329622

  20. Major Pesticide Receptors, Detoxification Enzymes, and Transcriptional Profile in Midgut of the Tobacco Budworm, Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insecticide resistance mechanisms, including those for Cry proteins (Bt) in the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens, are not well understood. Sequencing of midgut transcriptomes may facilitate the discovery of the genes responsible for resistance development which could then be targeted by new bio-...

  1. Multi-state trials of Bt sweet corn varieties for control of the corn earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Shelton, A M; Olmstead, D L; Burkness, E C; Hutchison, W D; Dively, G; Welty, C; Sparks, A N

    2013-10-01

    Field tests in 2010-2011 were performed in New York, Minnesota, Maryland, Ohio, and Georgia to compare Bt sweet corn lines expressing Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 and Cry1Ab with their non-Bt isolines, with and without the use of foliar insecticides. The primary insect pest in all locations during the trial years was Heliocoverpa zea (Boddie), which is becoming the most serious insect pest of sweet corn in the United States. At harvest, the ears were measured for marketability according to fresh market and processing standards. For fresh market and processing, least squares regression showed significant effects of protein expression, state, and insecticide frequency. There was a significant effect of year for fresh market but not for processing. The model also showed significant effects of H. zea per ear by protein expression. Sweet corn containing two genes (Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2) and a single gene (Cry1Ab) provided high marketability, and both Bt varieties significantly outperformed the traditional non-Bt isolines in nearly all cases regardless of insecticide application frequency. For pest suppression of H. zea, plants expressing Bt proteins consistently performed better than non-Bt isoline plants, even those sprayed at conventional insecticide frequencies. Where comparisons in the same state were made between Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 and Cry1Ab plants for fresh market, the product expressing Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 provided better protection and resulted in less variability in control. Overall, these results indicate Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 and Cry1Ab plants are suitable for fresh market and processing corn production across a diversity of growing regions and years. Our results demonstrate that Bt sweet corn has the potential to significantly reduce the use of conventional insecticides against lepidopteran pests and, in turn, reduce occupational and environmental risks that arise from intensive insecticide use. PMID:24224259

  2. Larval and pupal stage of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in sweet and field corn genotypes.

    PubMed

    Santos, L M; Redaelli, L R; Diefenbach, L M G; Efrom, C F S

    2003-11-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda, the fall armyworm, is a very significant polyphagous pest due to the damages it causes, and control difficulties. Lack of information about its impact on sweet corn motivated a comparison of its biology, with respect to the larval and pupal stages, among the genotypes ELISA, BR 400 (sweet corns), and BR PAMPA (field corn). In laboratory conditions (25 +/- 1 masculine C; 70 +/- 10% RH; photophase 12 hours), 35 caterpillars were individualized and fed daily with 3.14 cm(2) sections of corn leaves from the referred-to genotypes, cultivated in plots in the experimental area of the Departament of Fitossanidade, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS from October to November 2000. The caterpillars were weighed daily; after each molt, the cephalic capsules were collected and measured (in width), to establish growth rate; pupae were weighed and sexed when 24 hours old. The duration of the larval instars, the pupal sex ratio, and the mortality of larvae and pupae were evaluated. In the first three instars there were no differences registered in capsule width. In the fourth and fifth instars, capsules of caterpillars kept in BR 400 were smaller. The weight of caterpillars and pupae, instar duration and sex ratio did not differ among the genotypes. Pupal phase duration was less in females kept in BR 400. Mortality was greater in the larval phase in ELISA and in the pupal phase in BR PAMPA. PMID:15029373

  3. Occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi and parasitic nematodes on Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae collected in Central Chiapas, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall armyworm larvae (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) were collected from whorl-stage cornfields, between the V2 and V4 stages, in 22 localities of Central, Chiapas, México, called "La Frailesca" during late June 2009 to determine the occurrence of native entomopathogens and parasitic nema...

  4. Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration affects interactions between Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae and two host plant species outdoors

    SciTech Connect

    Caulfield, F.; Bunce, J.A. )

    1994-08-01

    Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Huebner), larvae were placed on sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) and pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus L.) plants in outdoor chambers in which the plants were growing at either the ambient ([approximately] 350 [mu]l liter[sup [minus]1]) or ambient plus 350 [mu]l liter[sup [minus]1] ([approximately] 700 [mu]l liter[sup [minus]1]) carbon dioxide concentration. A series of experiments was performed to determine if larvae reduced plant growth differently at the two carbon dioxide concentrations in either species and if the insect growth or survival differed with carbon dioxide concentration. Leaf nitrogen, water, starch, and soluble carbohydrate contents were measured to assess carbon dioxide concentration effects on leaf quality. Insect feeding significantly reduced plant growth in sugarbeet plants at 350 [mu]l liter[sup [minus]1] but not at 700 [mu]l liter[sup [minus]1] nor in pigweed at either carbon dioxide concentration. Larval survival was greater on sugarbeet plants at the elevated carbon dioxide concentration. Increased survival occurred only if the insects were at the elevated carbon dioxide concentration and consumed leaf material grown at the elevated concentration. Leaf quality was only marginally affected by growth at elevated carbon dioxide concentration in these experiments. The results indicate that in designing experiments to predict effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations on plant-insect interactions, both plants and insects should be exposed to the experimental carbon dioxide concentrations, as well as to as realistic environmental conditions as possible.

  5. DNA Barcoding the Heliothinae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) of Australia and Utility of DNA Barcodes for Pest Identification in Helicoverpa and Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Gopurenko, David

    2016-01-01

    Helicoverpa and Heliothis species include some of the world’s most significant crop pests, causing billions of dollars of losses globally. As such, a number are regulated quarantine species. For quarantine agencies, the most crucial issue is distinguishing native species from exotics, yet even this task is often not feasible because of poorly known local faunas and the difficulties of identifying closely related species, especially the immature stages. DNA barcoding is a scalable molecular diagnostic method that could provide the solution to this problem, however there has been no large-scale test of the efficacy of DNA barcodes for identifying the Heliothinae of any region of the world to date. This study fills that gap by DNA barcoding the entire heliothine moth fauna of Australia, bar one rare species, and comparing results with existing public domain resources. We find that DNA barcodes provide robust discrimination of all of the major pest species sampled, but poor discrimination of Australian Heliocheilus species, and we discuss ways to improve the use of DNA barcodes for identification of pests. PMID:27509042

  6. Silene latifolia temporal patterns of volatile induction and suppression after floral interaction by the nursery pollinator, Hadena bicruris (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. Plant VOC emission can be induced or suppressed after herbivory, oviposition, or pollination, which may influence other trophic levels. Sometimes, a single insect species has multiple roles when interacting with a plant, e.g. as pollinator and herbivore. 2. Two experiments tested whether 14 selec...

  7. Limited survival of a Cry2Ab-resistant strain of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Bollgard II.

    PubMed

    Mahon, R J; Olsen, K M

    2009-04-01

    Bollgard II cotton (which expresses two Bt insecticidal genes cry1Ac/cry2Ab) and conventional cotton, grown in the laboratory or field and sampled at different stages, was exposed to Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) larvae of three genotypes: homozygous for resistance to Cry2Ab; homozygous for susceptibility to Cry2Ab, and heterozygous for resistance. Survival of all genotypes was limited on Bollgard II but increased as plants aged. This was particularly the case for homozygous resistant individuals, with 8.5% of this genotype surviving to pupation on mature cotton. The increasing survival is assumed to be caused by the decline in the titer of Cry1Ac toxin after flowering in Bollgard II because Cry2Ab homozygous resistant larvae can tolerate high levels of Cry2Ab toxin. Larvae heterozygous for resistance performed no better on Bollgard II than homozygous susceptible larvae. Survivors on Bollgard II grew more slowly and produced smaller pupae that yielded adults with reduced longevity and fecundity. When reared on conventional cotton, all genotypes generally performed equally, indicating an absence of fitness costs associated with Cry2Ab resistance under the conditions examined. PMID:19449653

  8. Artificial infestations of transgenic cotton with beet armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and evaluation of insect mortality and damage under field conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic cottons containing Bollgard(R), Bollgard II(R), and Widestrike(TM) traits along with nonBt cotton were grown during 2005-2009, to examine efficacy against beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hubner), and (BAW) in field performance using natural and artificial infestations. Damage and morta...

  9. Selective feeding of tobacco budworm and bollworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on meridic diet with different concentrations of Bacillus thuringiensis proteins.

    PubMed

    Gore, J; Adamczyk, J J; Blanco, C A

    2005-02-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the behavior of bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (F.), larvae on meridic diet with different concentrations of the Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki Berliner. The proteins used in these experiments are the ones in commercially available Bollgard and Bollgard II cotton. Both bollworms and tobacco budworms selectively fed on nontreated diet compared with diet treated with Cry1Ac. In addition, bollworms exhibited a concentration response with Cry1Ac. In general, bollworms selected diet with low concentrations of Cry1Ac compared with diet with higher concentrations of Cry1Ac. For Cry2Ab, the avoidance was not as prominent as that observed for Cry1Ac. Based on results from no-choice assays, the Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab concentrations used in choice assays represented a wide range of biological activity on both species. The lower concentrations provided low levels of mortality, whereas the higher concentrations provided high levels of mortality. Also, the developmental times of larvae were longer at higher concentrations of both proteins. These data provide important information about the behavioral response of key cotton pests to the B. thuringiensis proteins found in commercially available transgenic cotton. This information will be important to develop accurate scouting and management procedures for Bollgard and Bollgard II cotton. PMID:15765669

  10. Fall Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Development, Survivorship, and Damage on Cotton Plants Expressing Insecticidal Plant-Incorporated Protectants.

    PubMed

    Hardke, Jarrod T; Jackson, Ryan E; Leonard, B Rogers; Temple, Joshua H

    2015-06-01

    Cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), plants expressing insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner are planted on significant acreage across the southern region of the United States. Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), can be a significant cotton pest in some years, but this species has not been a primary target of Bt cotton technologies. The objective of this study was to quantify fall armyworm larval survivorship and fruiting form injury on transgenic cotton lines expressing Cry1Ac (Bollgard), Cry1Ac+Cry2Ab (Bollgard II), and Cry1Ac+Cry1F (WideStrike) Bt proteins. Larval survivorship and fruiting form damage of fall armyworm on Bollgard, Bollgard II, WideStrike, and non-Bt (control) cotton lines were evaluated in no-choice field studies. Fall armyworm (third instars) were placed on flower buds (squares), white flowers, and bolls, enclosed within a nylon mesh exclusion cage, and evaluated at selected intervals after infestation. Exposure of fall armyworm larvae to Bollgard cotton lines generally resulted in no significant effects on survivorship compared with larvae exposed to the non-Bt cotton line. Survivorship and plant injury by fall armyworm on Bollgard II cotton lines was variable compared with that on non-Bt cotton lines, and significant differences between treatments were inconsistent. Fall armyworm had significantly lower survivorship and caused less plant injury on WideStrike cotton lines than on non-Bt cotton lines across all plant structures. Development and survivorship of fall armyworm larvae on these cotton lines also were evaluated in no-choice laboratory assays by offering the previously described fruiting forms to third instars. Bollgard II and WideStrike cotton lines significantly reduced fall armyworm development and survivorship compared with those larvae offered non-Bt tissue. These results suggest that differences exist among selected Bt cotton technologies in their performance against fall armyworm. PMID:26470233

  11. Rapid Identification of Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Using Ribosomal RNA Internal Transcribed Spacer 1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid identification of invasive species is crucial for deploying management strategies to prevent establishment. Recent Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) invasions and subsequent establishment in some countries of South America has increased the risk of this species invading North America. Differentiat...

  12. Damage and survivorship of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: noctuidae) on transgenic field corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis cry proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field corn, Zea mays L. plants expressing Cry1Ab and Cry1F insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner are planted on considerable acreage across the Southern region of the United States. The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), is an economically impo...

  13. Efficacy of Cry1F insecticidal protein in maize and cotton for control of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efficacy of maize, Zea mays L., hybrids and cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), varieties expressing Cry1F insecticidal crystal protein of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) var. aizawai Berliner (transformation event TC1507 in corn and event DAS-24236-5 in cotton) was evaluated for control of fall armyworm, ...

  14. Genetic Variation for Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins in Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Eastern North Carolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to evaluate resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner toxins, female bollworm moths, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), were collected from four light trap locations in two eastern North Carolina counties from August-October during 2001 and 2002. Moths were allowed to oviposit, and upon hatch, ...

  15. Fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) development survivorship and damage on cotton plants expressing insecticidal plant-incorporated protectants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), plants expressing insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner are planted on significant acreage across the Southern region of the United States. Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), can be a significant cotton pest in ...

  16. In vitro propagation of Nosema locustae using fat body cell line derived from Mythimna convecta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Khurad, A M; Raina, S K; Pandharipande, T N

    1991-01-01

    Nosema locustae, a microsporidian parasite of locusts and grasshoppers, was successfully propagated in a fat body cell line from Mythimna convecta (BPMNU-MyCo-1). The fat body cells were grown in MGM-448 medium supplemented with 5% fetal bovine serum and 3% Bombyx mori serum at 25 degrees C. Cultures were inoculated with Nosema spores and agitated for 2 min. Infection appeared 3 days post-inoculation and by 7th day, some cells were filled with spores. At the 15th day post-inoculation, 32% of the fat body cells were infected. After isolation, the spore yield ranged from 1.4 x 10(6) spores/ml. Infected cells were subcultured and by the 4th passage spore production decreased. Harvested spores were found infectious to Locusta migratoria. PMID:1818221

  17. Using DNA barcoding and genitalia to place “Leucochlaena” hipparis (Druce) in Spodoptera Guenee (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using the 658 bp ‘barcode’ region of cytochrome oxidase (COI) gene, the species “Leucochlaena” hipparis (Druce) was placed in the genus Spodoptera. A neighbor-joining tree placing “Leucochlaena” hipparis within Spodoptera is illustrated. Adult and male and female genitalia are illustrated....

  18. Do Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae) Gravid Females Discriminate Between Bt or Multivitamin Corn Varieties? Role of Olfactory and Visual Cues

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Diego; Eizaguirre, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean corn borer, Sesamia nonagrioides Lefèbvre, is a key pest of corn and a main target of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn in Northeast Spain. Trends for future biotechnology crops indicate that Bt, non-Bt, and stacked corn varieties with metabolic pathways for vitamin-increased traits could coexist in same region. Knowledge of the oviposition response of gravid females of S. nonagrioides to these different varieties could be extremely important for managing strategies aimed for delaying resistance development. In dual-choice assays, we examined the host preference of gravid females of S. nonagrioides for four corn varieties: a new transgenic corn with increased vitamin levels, its near isogenic counterpart (M37W), a Bt corn plant, and its near isogenic counterpart. Olfactory cues were the predominant ones when gravid females looked for a suitable host to lay eggs, and no synergistic effects were observed when both visual and olfactory cues were present. When the plant was visible, the females preferred the odors emitted by the nontransgenic to its multivitamin transgenic counterpart and when they only could detect the volatiles they also preferred the nontransgenic M37W variety to the Bt corn variety. If gravid females are less attracted to corn with an increased level of vitamins, this could impact insect resistance management and the value of refuge plants, if such traits are stacked with an insect resistance trait. PMID:25843586

  19. Laboratory evaluations of Lepidopteran-active soybean seed treatments on survivorship of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two anthranilic diamide insecticides, chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole, were evaluated as soybean, Glycine max L., seed treatments for control of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith). Bioassays were conducted using 2nd instar larvae and plants from both field and greenhouse gr...

  20. Trap Response of Abagrotis orbis (Grote) Cutworm Moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to a Sex Attractant Lure in Grape Vineyards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Larvae of Abagrotis orbis (Grote) are climbing cutworms and can damage grapevines (Vitis sp.) in early spring when they consume the expanding buds. A sex attractant would likely be useful for monitoring this insect in commercial grape vineyards. (Z)-7-tetradecenyl acetate and (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acet...

  1. Risk assessment for Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) resistance on dual-gene versus single-gene corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent changes in EPA regulations have prompted concern in some experts that transgenic corn expressing two lepidopteran-active genes from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) (dual-gene) may result in more rapid selection for resistance in Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) than corn expressing a s...

  2. Toxicity and feeding response of adult corn earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to an organic spinosad formulation in sucrose solution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), feeds on plant exudates soon after emergence from pupa in their natural habitat, and thereafter disperses to suitable host plants for reproduction. The intent of this study was to determine if Entrust™, an organic formulation of spinosad, could be used i...

  3. Offspring from Sequential Matings between Bacillus thuringiensis-Resistant and Bacillus thuringiensis-Susceptible Heliothis virescens Moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The moth, Heliothis virescens is an economically-important pest of the American Continent. The females of this species copulate multiples times during their lifetimes. The presence of sperm from multiple males inside a female could allow for a diversity of paternal genotypes in the offspring unless ...

  4. Response of Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) strains to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac incorporated into different insect artificial diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Susceptibility to the Cry1Ac toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis in Heliothis virescens is usually measured by performing bioassays under laboratory conditions. Currently there is great interest and research devoted to this insect because it is one of the main targets of B. thuringiensis-expressing tr...

  5. [The moth Copitarsia decolora: a review of the species complex based on egg and male genital morphology (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)].

    PubMed

    Angulo, Andrés O; Olivares, Tania S

    2010-06-01

    Copitarsia decolora is a widely distributed polyphagous species with a large number of nominal changes due to phenotypic plasticity. We reviewed 14 males from Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela, Peru and Chile and the literature produced between 2003 and 2008. An analysis of the clasper complex of C. decolora male genitalia was performed by standard dissection. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) photographs of eggs structures were used as taxonomic characters. The genus Copitarsia comprises 23 species. C. corruda is considered a synonym of C. decolora. PMID:20527474

  6. Two new genera and one new species of Pantheinae from East Asia (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae: Pantheinae). Revision of Pantheinae, contribution XI.

    PubMed

    Behounek, G; Han, H L; Kononenko, V S

    2015-01-01

    Two new genera, Pantheaforma gen. n. (Type-species Pantheaforma ihlei sp. n.) and Chrisotea gen. n. (Type-species Trichosea zhangi Chen, 1990) from East Asia and a new species Pantheaforma ihlei sp. n. from Thailand and Myanmar are described. New combination Chrisotea zhangi (Chen, 1990), comb. n. is proposed. New taxa are illustrated with imagines in colour and male and female genitalia. The little-known species Pantheana yangzisherpana Hreblay, 1998, formerly only known from Nepal is reported for China for the first time.  PMID:25661947

  7. Lyophilization of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae yields high-quality DNA for use in AFLP genetic studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural research in the 21st century has become a collaborative effort. Research on crop pests like Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), commonly known as the fall armyworm (FAW), can involve international collaboration because it is a pest not only in the southern United States, but also in La...

  8. Toxicity and differential protein analysis following destruxin A treatment of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) SL-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiang; Xu, Xiaoxia; Hu, Junjie; Jin, Fengliang; Hu, Qiongbo; Sun, Qiang; Yu, Xiaoqiang; Ren, Shunxiang

    2011-09-15

    The cytotoxicity of a destruxin A (DA) treatment of Spodoptera litura SL-1 cells was investigated. An MTT assay showed that DA was highly toxic to SL-1 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The IC(50) values of DA, after 24 h and 48 h of treatment, were 17.86 μg/mL and 7.80 μg/mL, respectively. Under inverted phase contrast microscopy (IPCM), it was found that prolonged treatment with DA could induce cell rounding, cellular membrane shrinking, formation of apoptotic bodies, vacuole appearance and cytoplasm leak out. Apoptosis induced by DA was further confirmed by fluorescence microscopy (FM) and flow cytometry (FCM) studies. SL-1 cells entered early apoptosis following a treatment with 2.5 μg/mL DA and entered late apoptosis following a treatment with increasing concentrations of DA. Furthermore, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis was used to identify 22 proteins which were differentially expressed (≥2-fold difference) between control cells and DA-treated cells, and the expression level of these proteins was significantly different between the treated and untreated cells. Our results suggest that these differentially expressed proteins may help explain the diverse biological effects caused by the destruxin A treatment of cells; additionally, some of the identified proteins may have roles in SL-1 cellular proliferation and apoptosis. PMID:21718714

  9. Dietary effects of cotton tissue expressing germin like protein on beet armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) growth, survival and pupation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic cotton lines that ectopically express a cotton germin-like protein (ABP) were screened for resistance/tolerance factors to the beet armyworm (BAW) Spodoptera exigua (Hubner) via feeding assays. The number of BAW eggs that successfully hatched was not statistically different at 72 h observ...

  10. Molecular and biochemical characterization of the effects of insecticidal toxin from Meloidae beetles on Helicoverpa armigera (Hub.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Khan, R A; Rashid, M; Wang, D; Zhang, Y L

    2013-01-01

    The molecular and biochemical effects of an insecticidal toxin extracted from Meloidae beetles were investigated on Helicoverpa armigera. The toxin was identified as cantharidin, a well-known natural compound produced by beetles of family Meloidae and Oedemeridae. Furthermore, the effect of the toxin on the metabolic enzymes alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), responsible for the metabolism of insecticides, was also investigated. Results of a diet incorporation bioassay performed under laboratory conditions showed that the LC50 value of cantharidin was 0.068 mg/g. The body weight of the insect was also significantly reduced by cantharidin treatment. The LC10 concentration of cantharidin, 0.01 mg/g, was also tested to determine its effect on ALP and GST. Our results showed that cantharidin significantly inhibited ALP activity after 48 h, whereas GST activity was significantly inhibited after 24 h. The decline of ALP and GST transcript levels was also validated by semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis. It may be concluded from the results that ALPs and GSTs may be targets of the cantharidin intoxication mechanism. Moreover, the inability of ALP and GST to metabolize cantharidin shows that the mechanism of detoxification for cantharidin is different from that for conventional insecticides. On the basis of our investigations, the chemical structure of insecticides may be modified using a model structure of cantharidin, to avoid metabolism by metabolic enzymes. PMID:24222219

  11. First report of Hecatera Dysodea (Denis and Schiffermuller) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the Pacific Northwest of the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New geographic records are reported for the noctuid moth Hecatera dysodea (Denis & Schiffermuller). It is a Paleartic species, but is now found in a broadly contiguous area of Oregon and Washington in the United States. This area is comprised of 7 counties across much of the north of Oregon and into...

  12. Bt Maize Seed Mixtures for Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): Larval Movement, Development, and Survival on Non-transgenic Maize.

    PubMed

    Burkness, Eric C; Cira, T M; Moser, S E; Hutchison, W D

    2015-12-01

    In 2012 and 2013, field trials were conducted near Rosemount, MN, to assess the movement and development of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) larvae on non-Bt refuge corn plants within a seed mixture of non-Bt and Bt corn. The Bt corn hybrid expressed three Bt toxins-Cry1Ab, Cry1F, and Vip3A. As the use of seed mixtures for insect resistance management (IRM) continues to be implemented, it is necessary to further characterize how this IRM approach impacts resistance development in ear-feeding Lepidopteran pests. The potential for Bt pollen movement and cross pollination of the non-Bt ears in a seed mixture may lead to Bt toxin exposure to larvae developing on those refuge ears. Larval movement and development by H. zea, feeding on non-Bt refuge plants adjacent to either transgenic Bt or non-Bt plants, were measured to investigate the potential for unintended Bt exposure. Non-Bt plants were infested with H. zea eggs and subplots were destructively sampled twice per week within each treatment to assess larval development, location, and kernel injury. Results indicate that H. zea larval movement between plants is relatively low, ranging from 2-16% of larvae, and occurs mainly after reaching the second instar. Refuge plants in seed mixtures did not produce equivalent numbers of H. zea larvae, kernel injury, and larval development differed as compared with a pure stand of non-Bt plants. This suggests that there may be costs to larvae developing on refuge plants within seed mixtures and additional studies are warranted to define potential impacts. PMID:26318006

  13. A tale of two trapping methods: Helicoverpa spp. (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in pheromone and light traps in Australian cotton production systems.

    PubMed

    Baker, G H; Tann, C R; Fitt, G P

    2011-02-01

    Pheromone and light traps have often been used in ecological studies of two major noctuid pests of agriculture in Australia, Helicoverpa armigera and H. punctigera. However, results from these two methods have rarely been compared directly. We set pheromone and light traps adjacent to or amongst cotton and various other crops for 10-11 years in the Namoi Valley, in northern New South Wales, Australia. Catches in pheromone traps suggested a major peak in (male) numbers of H. punctigera in early spring, with relatively few moths caught later in the summer cropping season. In contrast, (male) H. armigera were most abundant in late summer. Similar trends were apparent for catches of both male and female H. armigera in light traps, but both sexes of H. punctigera were mostly caught in mid-summer. For both species, males were more commonly caught than females. These catch patterns differed from some previous reports. At least three generations of both species were apparent in the catches. There was some evidence that the abundance of later generations could be predicted from the size of earlier generations; but, unlike previous authors, we found no positive relationships between local winter rainfall and subsequent catches of moths, nor did we find persuasive evidence of correlations between autumn and winter rainfall in central Australia and the abundance of subsequent 1st generation H. punctigera moths. Female H. punctigera were consistently more mature (gravid) and more frequently mated than those of H. armigera. Overall, our results highlight the variability in trap catches of these two species and question the use of trap catches and weather as predictors of future abundance in cropping regions. PMID:20504387

  14. Effect of the red imported fire ant on cotton aphid population density and predation of bollworm and beet armyworm eggs.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Rodrigo; Knutson, Allen; Bernal, Julio S

    2004-04-01

    The effects of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), on cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, populations and its predation of bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), (both Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) eggs were evaluated in cotton under field conditions during 2001 and 2002 in central and northern Texas. In central Texas, cotton aphid populations were approximately 5.5 times greater and predation of sentinel bollworm eggs 2 times greater in the presence of S. invicta versus in its absence, although aphid populations did not reach economic levels. Most predation of beet armyworm egg masses, measured via direct nocturnal observations, was due to S. invicta (68%) and cotton fleahopper, Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter) (21%), where S. invicta was present, and by the mite Abrolophus sp. (52%), spiders (13%), and minute pirate bug (Orius sp.) (13%) where S. invicta was absent. Predation of sentinel bollworm eggs and beet armyworm egg masses was approximately 1.5 and 4.1 times greater, respectively, in the presence of S. invicta versus in their absence. In the presence of S. invicta, the relative frequencies of minute pirate bug and cotton fleahopper were higher, and of S. invicta and native ants lower in beat bucket samples compared with their relative frequencies in nocturnal observations of predation upon beet armyworm egg masses. In the absence of S. invicta seven of eight predators sampled were similarly represented in beat bucket samples and nocturnal observations of beet armyworm egg mass predation, whereas minute pirate bug occurred at a higher frequency in beat bucket samples relative to nocturnal observations. These observations suggested that the relative frequencies of minute pirate bug, cotton fleahopper, S. invicta and native ants in beat bucket samples do not closely reflect the frequency with which these predators prey on noctuid eggs. Overall, the results of this study show

  15. Baseline Susceptibility of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) to the Novel Insecticide Spinetoram in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Weidi; Zhang, Jingming; Zhang, Pengjun; Lin, Wencai; Lin, Qingsheng; Li, Zhenyu; Hang, Fang; Zhang, Zhijun; Lu, Yaobin

    2015-04-01

    Spinetoram is a spinosyn, which is a unique class of natural insecticide. Because of its novel mode of action, spinetoram is more potent and faster acting than other insecticides, even the older spinosyn product, spinosad. On account of being efficient on insect order Lepidoptera, spinetoram provides a new alternative for control of Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), which are resistant to other chemicals. To determine the current situation of resistance of P. xylostella to spinetoram, the susceptibility of 16 P. xylostella populations from different regions of China or different time in addition to the population from laboratory was assessed using a leaf dip bioassay. The variation in spinetoram susceptibility among the 16 field populations was narrow, with median lethal concentrations (LC50 values) ranging from 0.131 to 1.001 mg/liter. Toxicity ratios (TRs) ranged from 1.5 to 7.6 and were 5.6 and 7.6 for populations SY-2 and FX-1, respectively, indicating some low level of tolerance in these populations. A discriminating concentration (a concentration that can detect the occurrence of resistance in a population) of 10 mg/liter, which was identified based on the pooled toxicological data, caused 100% mortality in all nine tested populations. The baseline susceptibility data reflect the natural variation of the P. xylostella populations to spinetoram rather than variation caused by previous exposure. PMID:26470185

  16. Identification of a novel cytochrome P450 CYP321B1 gene from tobacco cutworm moth (Spodoptera litura) and RNA interference to evaluate its role in commonly used insecticides.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Insect cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs or P450s) play an important role in detoxifying insecticides leading to resistance in insect populations. A polyphagous pest, Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) has been shown to be resistant to a wide range of insecticides. In this stu...

  17. Texas is the overwintering source of fall armyworm in central Pennsylvainia: implications for migration into the northeastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), infestations in most of North America arise from annual migrations of populations that overwinter in southern Texas and Florida. Cytochrome Oxidase I haplotype profiles within the fall armyworm corn-strain, the subgroup tha...

  18. Fall armyworm migration patterns.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), infestations in most of North America arise from annual migrations of populations that overwinter in southern Texas and Florida. Cytochrome Oxidase I haplotype profiles within the fall armyworm corn-strain, the subgroup tha...

  19. Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Pat; Landahl, John

    This pamphlet has been prepared in response to a new problem, a rapidly increasing population, and a new need, population education. It is designed to help teachers provide their students with some basic population concepts with stress placed on the elements of decision making. In the first section of the pamphlet, some of the basic concepts of…

  20. Comparison of reproductive and flight capacity of beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), developing from diapause and non-diapause larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis L (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), employs both diapause and migration as life history strategies. To determine the role diapause plays in the population dynamics of L. sticticalis, the reproductive and flight potentials of adults originating from diapause and non-d...

  1. New source of genetic polymorphisms in Lepidoptera?

    PubMed

    Hundsdoerfer, Anna K; Wink, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The variability level of the ISSR (inter-simple sequences repeat) primer (GACA)4 was examined in the three Lepidoptera families Pyralidae, Sphingidae and Pieridae. Our study shows that the tetra-repeat (GACA)n is evidently present in sufficient numbers in these butterflies to provide informative DNA fingerprints. The variability is mostly rather high, but within a comparable range to other ISSR studies. Although less polymorphisms may be encountered in some butterfly families, this study indicates that high variability of this marker may be a common characteristic of Lepidoptera genomes. An appeal for a minimal level of standardization of ISSR-PCR data analysis is formulated to enable an exact comparison between the groups of organisms studied with this fingerprint technique. PMID:16163839

  2. Chromosome number evolution in skippers (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae).

    PubMed

    Lukhtanov, Vladimir A

    2014-01-01

    Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), as many other groups of animals and plants, simultaneously represent preservation of ancestral karyotype in the majority of families with a high degree of chromosome number instability in numerous independently evolved phylogenetic lineages. However, the pattern and trends of karyotype evolution in some Lepidoptera families are poorly studied. Here I provide a survey of chromosome numbers in skippers (family Hesperiidae) based on intensive search and analysis of published data. I demonstrate that the majority of skippers preserve the haploid chromosome number n=31 that seems to be an ancestral number for the Hesperiidae and the order Lepidoptera at whole. However, in the tribe Baorini the derived number n=16 is the most typical state which can be used as a (syn)apomorphic character in further phylogenetic investigations. Several groups of skippers display extreme chromosome number variations on within-species (e.g. the representatives of the genus Carcharodus Hübner, [1819]) and between-species (e.g. the genus Agathymus Freeman, 1959) levels. Thus, these groups can be used as model systems for future analysis of the phenomenon of chromosome instability. Interspecific chromosomal differences are also shown to be useful for discovering and describing new cryptic species of Hesperiidae representing in such a way a powerful tool in biodiversity research. Generally, the skipper butterflies promise to be an exciting group that will significantly contribute to the growing knowledge of patterns and processes of chromosome evolution. PMID:25610542

  3. Patterns of postzygotic isolation in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Presgraves, Daven C

    2002-06-01

    I present patterns characterizing the evolution of intrinsic postzygotic isolation in Lepidoptera by analyzing data from the literature on genetic distance, strength of hybrid sterility and inviability, biogeography, and natural hybridization. Using genetic distance as a proxy for time, I investigate the time-course of the evolution of postzygotic isolation and the waiting times to particular hybrid fitness problems. The results show that postzygotic isolation increases gradually as species diverge, but that hybrid sterility evolves faster than hybrid inviability. The overwhelming preponderance of female-specific hybrid problems in Lepidoptera shows that Haldane's rule (the preferential sterility or inviability of the heterogametic sex) is well obeyed. Together the rates and patterns characterizing the accumulation of postzygotic isolation allow several tests of the composite theory of Haldane's rule. Interestingly, comparing these data with those from Drosophila reveals that Haldane's rule for sterility evolves as fast (if not faster) in Lepidoptera. Finally, I show that a substantial fraction of sympatric species hybridizes in nature and that the majority of these suffer some level of hybrid sterility or inviability. PMID:12144018

  4. Chromosome number evolution in skippers (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Lukhtanov, Vladimir A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), as many other groups of animals and plants, simultaneously represent preservation of ancestral karyotype in the majority of families with a high degree of chromosome number instability in numerous independently evolved phylogenetic lineages. However, the pattern and trends of karyotype evolution in some Lepidoptera families are poorly studied. Here I provide a survey of chromosome numbers in skippers (family Hesperiidae) based on intensive search and analysis of published data. I demonstrate that the majority of skippers preserve the haploid chromosome number n=31 that seems to be an ancestral number for the Hesperiidae and the order Lepidoptera at whole. However, in the tribe Baorini the derived number n=16 is the most typical state which can be used as a (syn)apomorphic character in further phylogenetic investigations. Several groups of skippers display extreme chromosome number variations on within-species (e.g. the representatives of the genus Carcharodus Hübner, [1819]) and between-species (e.g. the genus Agathymus Freeman, 1959) levels. Thus, these groups can be used as model systems for future analysis of the phenomenon of chromosome instability. Interspecific chromosomal differences are also shown to be useful for discovering and describing new cryptic species of Hesperiidae representing in such a way a powerful tool in biodiversity research. Generally, the skipper butterflies promise to be an exciting group that will significantly contribute to the growing knowledge of patterns and processes of chromosome evolution. PMID:25610542

  5. [Origin of Lepidoptera fauna of the Southern Transural region].

    PubMed

    Utkin, N A

    2000-01-01

    The butterfly fauna of the Southern Transural region began mainly through the migration of insects from the Urals and Kazakhstan, since the end of the Cretaceous Period to the end of Paleogen, the Transural region was covered by an epiplatform sea. As this sea was retreating, the first regions of dry land appeared, which had boundaries with Kazakhstan and the Urals. They were the first to be populated by Lepidoptera. During the Pleocene and then after the Pleistocene cooling events, insects settled generally along the valley of the Tobol River and the Turgai depression, because these territories belong to intrazonal elements. At the present time, the greatest species diversity among insects in the southern Transural area is observed specifically in the Turgai depression and in areas directly adjacent to it. This territory is mainly occupied by populations unique to the Transural regions and belonging to the following species: Mantis religiosa (praying mantis), Saga pedo, Parnassius apollo (apollo), Neolycaena rhymnus, Hyponephele lupina (oriental meadow brown), Chazara persephone (dark rockbrown), Epicallia villica (cream-spot tiger), etc. PMID:11042964

  6. Insecticide susceptibility of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xuesong; Ren, Xiubei; Su, Jianya

    2011-04-01

    Insecticide control is the major measure for suppression of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) damage, and a few insecticides used for long time have proved to fail to control this pest in China. Several new chemicals have been introduced for control of C. medinalis. However, there was no baseline susceptibility data of C. medinalis to insecticides used or will be in use. In this study, a seedling dipping method was developed for bioassay of insecticide susceptibility of C. medinalis. Dose responses of C. medinalis to 11 insecticides were tested. Interpopulation sensitivity to insecticides was compared. Based on LC50 values, C. medinalis was most susceptible to antibiotic insecticides (abamectin, emamectin benzoate, and spinosad) and least sensitive to monosultap and a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) product. Chlorantraniliprole and insect growth regulator (IGR) insecticides (tebufenozide and hexaflumuron) exhibited great efficacy against C. medinalis. No susceptibility difference was observed for antibiotic insecticide and IGR insecticides among three populations. Narrow variation in tolerant level was detected for organophosphates insecticides, chlorantraniliprole, monosultap, and Bt. The results in this study provided baseline susceptibility data of C. medinalis to 11 insecticides and also offered useful information for choice of alternative insecticide and for integrated resistance management of C. medinalis. PMID:21510218

  7. Gustatory receptors in Lepidoptera: chemosensation and beyond.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, A R; Roy, A A; Joshi, R S

    2016-10-01

    Lepidoptera is one of the most widespread insect orders and includes several agriculturally important insect species. Ecological success of the lepidopteran insects partly depends on their adaptive chemoreception tactics, which play an important role in the selection of hosts, egg-laying sites and mates. Members of the G-protein coupled receptor family, gustatory receptors (GRs), are an integral part of the Lepidoptera chemosensory machinery. They are expressed in chemosensory neurones and are known to detect different environmental stimuli. Here, we discuss various aspects of the lepidopteran GRs with an emphasis on their roles in different processes such as chemosensation, host selection and adaptation. Phylogenetic analyses have shown that the large diversity of GR genes may have been generated through gene duplication and positive selection events, which also show lineage- and tissue-specific expression. Moreover, lepidopteran GR proteins are diverse and demonstrate broad ligand selectivity for several molecules including sugars, deterrents, salts and CO2 . Binding of ligands to GRs generates multiple downstream changes at the cellular level, which are followed by changes in behaviour. GRs play a critical role in chemosensation and influence the insect's behaviour. Overall, insect GRs are potential targets in the design of effective insect control strategies. PMID:27228010

  8. A new pheromone race of Acrobasis nuxvorella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Harris, Marvin K; Fu, A A Agustin; Nunez, Humberto; Aranda-Herrera, Enrique; Moreira, Jardel A; McElfresh, J Steven; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2008-06-01

    The sex pheromone of the monophagous Acrobasis nuxvorella Neunzig (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was reported as (9E,11Z)-hexadecadienal (9E,11Z-16:Ald) (Biorg. Med. Chem. 4: 331-339, 1996), and it has since been an effective integrated pest management (IPM) tool for monitoring this pest in the United States, but not in Mexico. Field and laboratory studies were conducted to confirm that the species in Mexico was indeed A. nuxvorella and to investigate the pheromone chemistry of the Mexican populations of this species. Initial field trials testing compounds structurally related to the known pheromone component, and blends thereof, indicated that a 100 microg:100 microg blend of (9E,11Z)-hexadecadien-1-yl acetate (9E,11Z-16:Ac):9E,11Z-16:Ald in rubber septa was effective in attracting male moths in Mexico. Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram analyses confirmed the presence of these compounds in extracts of pheromone glands of females, and antennae of male moths also responded to the alcohol analog (9E,11Z)-hexadecadien-1-ol (9E,11Z-16:OH). Subsequent field trials of various blends of these three compounds in Mexico showed that 1) both the acetate and aldehyde components were required for optimal attraction of male moths of the Mexican populations, and 2) addition of the alcohol suppressed attraction of males in a dose-dependent manner. Tests with the 1:1 9E,11Z-16:Ac:9E,11Z-16:Ald blend at various sites in the United States showed that this blend attracted some moths, but that moths attracted to 9E,11Z-16:Ald alone were predominant in the population. Furthermore, in preliminary studies the latter seemed not to respond to the blend. These findings indicate that there are two pheromone types of the pecan nut casebearer, and they have major implications for the direct use of these pheromones in pecan IPM. PMID:18613577

  9. Adaptation of indigenous larval parasitoids to Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Italy.

    PubMed

    Ferracini, Chiara; Ingegno, Barbara Letizia; Navone, Paolo; Ferrari, Ester; Mosti, Marco; Tavella, Luciana; Alma, Alberto

    2012-08-01

    Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is a serious threat to tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) crops in South America. In Europe, after its first detection in Spain in 2006, it rapidly spread through the Mediterranean basin, reaching Italy 2 yr later. The aim of our work was to find indigenous effective biological control agents and to evaluate their potential role in the control of larval populations of T. absoluta in controlled conditions. Nine species of larval parasitoids emerged from field-collected tomato leaves infested by T. absoluta. The most abundant, Necremnus near artynes (Walker) and Necremnus near tidius (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), were tested in laboratory parasitism trials. Furthermore, because the species N. artynes and N. tidius are each reported in literature as an ectoparasitoid of Cosmopterix pulchrimella Chambers (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae) on upright pellitory plants, olfactometer bioassays were performed to assess the response of our parasitoids to the odors of tomato and pellitory leaves infested by T absoluta and C. pulchrimella, respectively, compared with healthy ones. Both Necremnus species showed good adaptation to the invasive pest, and we observed a high larval mortality of T. absoluta because of host feeding and parasitism. Even olfactory responses highlighted a preference of both wasps for tomato plants infested by the exotic pest. These preliminary results demonstrated a high suitability of these indigenous natural enemies for controlling T. absoluta. Further investigations are needed to confirm their role as potential biological agents in commercial tomato plantations. PMID:22928311

  10. Comparative analysis of expression profiling of the trypsin and chymotrypsin genes from Lepidoptera species with different levels of sensitivity to soybean peptidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Souza, Thais P; Dias, Renata O; Castelhano, Elaine C; Brandão, Marcelo M; Moura, Daniel S; Silva-Filho, Marcio C

    2016-01-01

    Peptidase inhibitors (PIs) are essential proteins involved in plant resistance to herbivorous insects, yet many insect species are able to escape the negative effects of these molecules. We compared the effects of acute and chronic ingestion of soybean peptidase inhibitors (SPIs) on Spodoptera frugiperda and Diatraea saccharalis, two Lepidoptera species with different sensitivities to SPI ingestion. We analyzed the trypsin and chymotrypsin gene expression profiles in both species. Acute exposure of S. frugiperda to the inhibitors activated seven genes (SfChy5, SfChy9, SfChy19, SfChy22, SfTry6, SfTry8, and SfTry10), whereas chronic exposure activated 16 genes (SfChy2, SfChy4, SfChy5, SfChy8, SfChy9, SfChy11, SfChy12, SfChy15, SfChy17, SfChy21, SfChy22, SfTry6, SfTry8, SfTry9, SfTry10, and SfTry12). By contrast, the challenge of D. saccharalis with SPIs did not differentially induce the expression of trypsin- or chymotrypsin-encoding genes, with the exception of DsChy7. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of S. frugiperda trypsin protein sequences revealed two gene clades: one composed of genes responsive to the SPIs and a second composed of the unresponsive genes. D. saccharalis trypsin proteins were clustered nearest to the S. frugiperda unresponsive genes. Overall, our findings support a hypothesized mechanism of resistance of Noctuidae moths to SPIs, involving gene number expansion of trypsin and chymotrypsin families and regulation of gene expression, which could also explain the variable susceptibility between S. frugiperda and D. saccharalis to these plant inhibitors. PMID:26944308

  11. Changes in insecticide resistance of the rice striped stem borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Su, Jianya; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Wu, Min; Gao, Congfen

    2014-02-01

    Application of insecticides is the most important method to control Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), and continuous use of individual insecticides has driven the rapid development of insecticide resistance in C. suppressalis during the past 30 yr. Monitoring insecticide resistance provides information essential for integrated pest management. Insecticide resistance of field populations to monosultap, triazophos, chlorpyrifos, and abamectin in China was examined in 2010 and 2011. The results indicated that the resistance levels of 14 field populations to four insecticides were significantly different. Four populations showed moderate resistance, and other populations possessed low-level resistance or were susceptible to monosultap. Nine populations displayed an extremely high or a high level of resistance to triazophos, whereas four populations were sensitive to this agent. Five populations exhibited a low level of resistance to abamectin, while the others remained sensitive. When compared with historical data, resistance to monosultap and triazophos decreased significantly, and the percentage of populations with high-level or extremely high-level resistance was obviously reduced. By contrast, the resistance to abamectin increased slightly. The increasing and decreasing resistance levels reported in this study highlight the different evolutionary patterns of insecticide resistance in C. suppressalis. An overreliance on one or two insecticides may promote rapid development of resistance. Slow development of resistance to abamectin, which was used mainly in mixtures with other insecticides, implies that the use of insecticide mixtures may be an effective method to delay the evolution of resistance to insecticides. PMID:24665718

  12. Pathology and Epizootiology of Entomophaga maimaiga Infections in Forest Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Hajek, Ann E.

    1999-01-01

    The insect-pathogenic fungal pathogen Entomophaga maimaiga is endemic to northeastern Asia and was first found in North America in 1989. Due to repeated epizootics and spread within populations of the major forest defoliator in northeastern North America, the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar), this pathogen has gained much notoriety. Although this pathogen was purposely introduced to North America for biological control of L. dispar in 1910 to 1911, it is questionable whether it became established at the time of release and then remained at innocuous levels until relatively recently. Alternatively, the fungal strain present in North America today could be a more recent accidental introduction. DNA analysis demonstrates that this pathogen differs significantly from North American members of the same species complex (the Lepidoptera-specific Entomophaga aulicae species complex), and, to date, isolates of this introduced pathogen display little heterogeneity in North America. Nonsusceptible lepidopteran larvae have been identified, and either E. maimaiga is unable to penetrate the cuticle or the fungus cannot survive within the hemocoel. In the latter case, although E. maimaiga grows as protoplasts lacking cell walls in the host hemolymph, glycoproteins on plasma membranes of the protoplasts could lead to host recognition. Epizootiological studies demonstrate a clear association between fungal activity and environmental moisture but little association with host density under hypothesized conditions of high fungal density. Prediction of the occurrence of epizootics is not yet possible. E. maimaiga is easily established in new areas by releasing azygospores, but the ability to use this pathogen further for biological control will depend, in large part, on the development of mass production systems. PMID:10585966

  13. Sex Pheromone of the Baldcypress Leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Brian T; Allison, Jeremy D; Goyer, Richard A; Shepherd, William P

    2015-02-01

    The baldcypress leafroller, Archips goyerana Kruse (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a specialist on Taxodium distichum (L.) Richard and has caused serious defoliation in swamps of southeastern Louisiana, accelerating decline of baldcypress forests concurrently suffering from nutrient depletion, prolonged flooding, and saltwater intrusion. We investigated the composition of the sex pheromone of this species. Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses indicated that male antennae were sensitive to four compounds [(Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (Z11-14:OAc), (E)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (E11-14:OAc), (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14:OAc), and (Z)-11-tetradecen-1-ol (Z11-14:OH)] present in female abdominal tip extracts in an approximately 100:1.5:0.6:10 ratio. In trapping trials performed in a cypress-tupelo swamp in southeastern Louisiana, moths were attracted to blends of these four components presented in approximately the female-produced ratios. Elimination of Z11-14:OH had no impact on moth response, whereas elimination of any of the three acetates strongly reduced or eliminated attraction. A blend in which the E11:Z11 ratio of 14:OAc was 5:100 was much less attractive than the same blend with the female produced ratio of 1.5:100. A. goyerana is closely related to the sympatric species Archips argyrospilus (Walker) with which it was previously synonymous. Our data revealed differences between the pheromone composition of A. goyerana and that reported for A. argyrospilus, which could account for the apparent absence of cross-attraction between these species. We conclude that a lure containing a 100:1.5:0.6 ratio of Z11-14:OAc, E11-14:OAc, and Z9-14:OAc has the potential to be used in traps to detect and measure A. goyerana populations and thereby monitor an important biotic factor contributing to the loss of coastal baldcypress forests. PMID:26470117

  14. Determining thermotolerance of fifth-instar Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) by three different methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermotolerance of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were studied using two water immersion methods and one dry heat method. The two water immersion methods were: 1) directly immersing in hot w...

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of the bag-shelter moth Ochrogaster lunifer (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae)

    PubMed Central

    Salvato, Paola; Simonato, Mauro; Battisti, Andrea; Negrisolo, Enrico

    2008-01-01

    Background Knowledge of animal mitochondrial genomes is very important to understand their molecular evolution as well as for phylogenetic and population genetic studies. The Lepidoptera encompasses more than 160,000 described species and is one of the largest insect orders. To date only nine lepidopteran mitochondrial DNAs have been fully and two others partly sequenced. Furthermore the taxon sampling is very scant. Thus advance of lepidopteran mitogenomics deeply requires new genomes derived from a broad taxon sampling. In present work we describe the mitochondrial genome of the moth Ochrogaster lunifer. Results The mitochondrial genome of O. lunifer is a circular molecule 15593 bp long. It includes the entire set of 37 genes usually present in animal mitochondrial genomes. It contains also 7 intergenic spacers. The gene order of the newly sequenced genome is that typical for Lepidoptera and differs from the insect ancestral type for the placement of trnM. The 77.84% A+T content of its α strand is the lowest among known lepidopteran genomes. The mitochondrial genome of O. lunifer exhibits one of the most marked C-skew among available insect Pterygota genomes. The protein-coding genes have typical mitochondrial start codons except for cox1 that present an unusual CGA. The O. lunifer genome exhibits the less biased synonymous codon usage among lepidopterans. Comparative genomics analysis study identified atp6, cox1, cox2 as cox3, cob, nad1, nad2, nad4, and nad5 as potential markers for population genetics/phylogenetics studies. A peculiar feature of O. lunifer mitochondrial genome it that the intergenic spacers are mostly made by repetitive sequences. Conclusion The mitochondrial genome of O. lunifer is the first representative of superfamily Noctuoidea that account for about 40% of all described Lepidoptera. New genome shares many features with other known lepidopteran genomes. It differs however for its low A+T content and marked C-skew. Compared to other

  16. Origin of Ecdysosteroid UDP-glycosyltransferases of Baculoviruses through Horizontal Gene Transfer from Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Austin L.

    2014-01-01

    Baculoviruses infecting Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) encodes an enzyme known as ecdysosteroid UDP-glycosyltransferase (EGT), which inactivates insect host ecdysosteroid hormones, thereby preventing molt and pupation and permitting a build-up of the viral population within the host. Baculovirus EGT shows evidence of homology to insect UDP-glycosyltransferases, and a phylogenetic analysis supported the closest relative of baculovirus EGT are the UGT33 and UGT34 families of lepidopteran UDP-glycosyltransferases. The phylogenetic analysis thus supported that baculovirus EGT arose by horizontal gene transfer of a UDP-glycosyltransferase from a lepidopteran host, an event that occurred 70 million years ago at the earliest but possibly much more recently. Three amino acid replacements unique to baculovirus EGTs and conserved in all available baculovirus sequences were identified in the N-terminal region of the molecule. Because of their conservation, these amino acids are candidates for playing an important functional role in baculovirus EGT function. PMID:24834437

  17. Establishment and characterization of a new cell line of Chilo suppressalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralididae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Guangfu; Xu, Yipeng; Yu, Xiaoping

    2015-03-01

    A new cell line, designated as ZJBIQ-Chsu-I, was initiated from the fat body of larval Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralididae) in TNM-FH insect medium containing 15% fetal bovine serum. The polygonal cells (65.6%) were predominant among various cell types, and the diameter range was from 12.63 to 22.50 μm. The cell line showed a typical lepidopteran chromosome pattern ranging from 108 to 136 chromosomes in the majority of the cells. The population doubling time (PDT) of the cell line at the 15th passage was 62 h. This cell line was found to be susceptible to Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus (SeNPV). By the DNA amplification fingerprinting polymerase chain reaction (DAF-PCR) technique, it was confirmed that cell line ZJBIQ-Chsu-I really originated from C. suppressalis. PMID:25381037

  18. Assessment of insecticide resistance of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Emilia-Romagna region.

    PubMed

    Civolani, Stefano; Boselli, Mauro; Butturini, Alda; Chicca, Milvia; Fano, Elisa Anna; Cassanelli, Stefano

    2014-06-01

    The European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the key pest of vineyard, Vitis vinifera L. In Italy, failures in field chemical pest control have been recently reported. The susceptibility to insecticides indoxacarb, methoxyfenozide, and emamectin benzoate was then evaluated in a L. botrana population collected from a vineyard in Emilia-Romagna (northeastern Italy) where pest management programs achieved unsatisfactory results. The field trial showed that the indoxacarb efficacy toward L. botrana was very low in the two timings of application (7.9 and -1.5%) in comparison with untreated control, while the efficacy of methoxyfenozide (76.1%) and emamectin benzoate (88.8%) was high. The decreased efficacy of indoxacarb was also supported by the results of the laboratory bioassay on neonate L. botrana larvae, in which the resistance ratio was 72-fold in comparison with that of the susceptible strain. PMID:25026689

  19. Parasitoid complex associated with the overwintering generation of Swammerdamia pyrella (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) in Poland.

    PubMed

    Górska-Drabik, Edyta; Kot, Izabela; Golan, Katarzyna; Kmieć, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted on fruit trees where bands of corrugated cardboard were attached around the trunks of the trees, which were used to catch the larvae of overwintering generation of the rufous-tipped swammerdamia moth, Swammerdamia pyrella (Villers) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae). Twenty-five species of parasitic Hymenoptera have been described from S. pyrella in Poland including the report in this article of seven species belonging to the family of Ichneumonidae (three species) and superfamily Chalcidoidea (four species). The parasitoids Gelis agilis F. (Ichneumonidae), Chrysocharis aquilegiae (Erdös) (Eulophidae), Catolaccus ater (Ratzeburg) (Pteromalidae), and Eupelmus urozonus (Dalman) (Eupelmidae) had not been reported from the host before. Triclistus pallipes Holmgren (Ichneumonidae), Dibrachys cavus Walker (Pteromalidae) had the greatest effect on the natural regulation of S. pyrella population. Parasitization for the wintering cocoons of S. pyrella changed each year, but it was high throughout the study. The contribution of secondary parasitoids was much higher than primary parasitoids. PMID:25480977

  20. The Impact of Inter-Kernel Movement in the Evolution of Resistance to Dual-Toxin Bt-Corn Varieties in Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Caprio, Michael A; Martinez, Jeannette C; Porter, Patrick A; Bynum, Ed

    2016-02-01

    Seeds or kernels on hybrid plants are primarily F(2) tissue and will segregate for heterozygous alleles present in the parental F(1) hybrids. In the case of plants expressing Bt-toxins, the F(2) tissue in the kernels will express toxins as they would segregate in any F(2) tissue. In the case of plants expressing two unlinked toxins, the kernels on a Bt plant fertilized by another Bt plant would express anywhere from 0 to 2 toxins. Larvae of corn earworm [Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)] feed on a number of kernels during development and would therefore be exposed to local habitats (kernels) that varied in their toxin expression. Three models were developed for plants expressing two Bt-toxins, one where the traits are unlinked, a second where the traits were linked and a third model assuming that maternal traits were expressed in all kernels as well as paternally inherited traits. Results suggest that increasing larval movement rates off of expressing kernels tended to increase durability while increasing movement rates off of nonexpressing kernels always decreased durability. An ideal block refuge (no pollen flow between blocks and refuges) was more durable than a seed blend because the refuge expressed no toxins, while pollen contamination from plants expressing toxins in a seed blend reduced durability. A linked-trait model in an ideal refuge model predicted the longest durability. The results suggest that using a seed-blend strategy for a kernel feeding insect on a hybrid crop could dramatically reduce durability through the loss of refuge due to extensive cross-pollination. PMID:26527792

  1. Survival and Development of Spodoptera frugiperda and Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Bt Cotton and Implications for Resistance Management Strategies in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sorgatto, Rodrigo J; Bernardi, Oderlei; Omoto, Celso

    2015-02-01

    In Brazil, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) and Chrysodeixis includens (Walker) are important cotton pests and target of control of Bollgard II (Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab2) and WideStrike (Cry1Ac/Cry1F) cotton technologies. To subsidize an insect resistance management program, we conducted laboratory studies to evaluate the toxicity of these Bt cotton plants throughout larval development of S. frugiperda and C. includens. In bioassays with leaf disc, the efficacy of both Bt cotton plants against neonates was >80% for S. frugiperda and 100% for C. includens. However, S. frugiperda larvae that survived on Bt cotton had >76% of growth inhibition and stunting. In bioassays with S. frugiperda and C. includens larvae fed on non-Bt near-isoline during different time period (from 3 to 18 d) and then transferred to Bollgard II or WideStrike leaves showed that larval susceptibility decreased as larval age increased. For Bollgard II cotton, in all S. frugiperda instars, there were larvae that reached the pupal and adult stages. In contrast, on WideStrike cotton, a few larvae in fifth and sixth instar completed the biological cycle. For C. includens, some larvae in sixth instar originated adults in both Bt cotton plants. In conclusion, Bollgard II and WideStrike cotton technologies showed high efficacy against neonates of S. frugiperda and C. includens. However, the mortality of these species decreases as larval age increase, allowing insect survival in a possible seed mixture environment and favoring the resistance evolution. PMID:26308821

  2. A Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assay to Diagnose and Separate Helicoverpa armigera and H. zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the New World

    PubMed Central

    Gilligan, Todd M.; Tembrock, Luke R.; Farris, Roxanne E.; Barr, Norman B.; van der Straten, Marja J.; van de Vossenberg, Bart T. L. H.; Metz-Verschure, Eveline

    2015-01-01

    The Old World bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), and the corn earworm, H. zea (Boddie), are two of the most important agricultural pests in the world. Diagnosing these two species is difficult—adults can only be separated with a complex dissection, and larvae cannot be identified to species using morphology, necessitating the use of geographic origin for identification in most instances. With the discovery of H. armigera in the New World, identification of immature Helicoverpa based on origin is no longer possible because H. zea also occurs in all of the geographic regions where H. armigera has been discovered. DNA barcoding and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses have been reported in publications to distinguish these species, but these methods both require post-PCR processing (i.e., DNA sequencing or restriction digestion) to complete. We report the first real-time PCR assay to distinguish these pests based on two hydrolysis probes that bind to a segment of the internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) amplified using a single primer pair. One probe targets H. armigera, the second probe targets H. zea, and a third probe that targets a conserved segment of 18S rDNA is used as a control of DNA quality. The assay can be completed in 50 minutes when using isolated DNA and is successfully tested on larvae intercepted at ports of entry and adults captured during domestic surveys. We demonstrate that the assay can be run in triplex with no negative effects on sensitivity, can be run using alternative real-time PCR reagents and instruments, and does not cross react with other New World Heliothinae. PMID:26558366

  3. A novel cytochrome P450 CYP6AB14 gene in Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its potential role in plant allelochemical detoxification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450) play a prominent role in the adaptation of insects to host plant chemical defenses. To investigate the potential role of P450s in adaptation of the lepidopteran pest Spodoptera litura to host plant allelochemicals, an expressed sequence data set derived from 6th...

  4. A new cell line from the fat body of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) and detection of lysozyme activity release upon immune stimulation.

    PubMed

    Tateishi, Ken; Kasahara, Yuichi; Watanabe, Kazuyo; Hosokawa, Nobuo; Doi, Hiroyasu; Nakajima, Kaori; Adachi, Hayamitsu; Nomoto, Akio

    2015-01-01

    A new cell line, designated NIAS-SL64, was established from the fat body of the fifth instar larvae of the common cutworm Spodoptera litura. NIAS-SL64 cells grew as spindle-shaped and non-adherent cells in the insect-specific cell culture medium MGM-450 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. Criterions for the establishment of the NIAS-SL64 cell line is spindle shape and length (30~90 μm) stabilized after 100 passages. The doubling time of the cells was 24 h at 25°C. Lipopolysaccharide significantly stimulated the release of lysozyme activity by NIAS-SL64 cells. Lysozyme is one of the components of the innate immunity and plays important role as lytic enzyme in infection. Lysozyme activity released from NIAS-SL64 would be a marker for immune response. The released lysozyme activity critically depends on morphology of the cells and would be a criterion of the establishment of the cell line. Lysozyme activity was suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by the immunosuppressive agent cyclosporin A. PMID:25172011

  5. The Homologous Regions of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Nucleopolyhedrovirus II Have Both the Function as Origin of DNA Replication and Enhancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huifen; Gao, Huiju; Guo, Guang; Li, Yunzhi; Li, Yinü; Wang, Jinhui; Zhang, Zhifang; Yu, Zhencheng

    2015-01-01

    In the genome sequence of the Spodoptera litura nucleopolyhedrovirus II (SpltNPVII), seven homologous regions (hrs), Sphr1-7, were identified. Each of them composed of three to eight 64-bp highly conserved sequences, and each contained a 24-bp imperfect palindrome. A transient expression assay demonstrated that the expression of SpltNPVII-ie1 promoter-driven luciferase gene was enhanced between 3- and 13-fold by infection of SpltNPVII in Spli221 cells. Real-time polymerase chain reaction confirmed each of seven hrs could function as origin (ori) of viral DNA replication. This suggests that these hrs are bifunctional, having both ori and enhancer activities for transcription. In addition, the potential of seven hrs as origins had a significantly positive correlation with the number of their palindromes (r = 0.847, Sig: 0.016 < 0.05), and enhancer efficiency had a significantly positive correlation with the number of characteristic motifs (r = 0.893, Sig: 0.007 < 0.01). The efficiency of replication and enhancement of each hr both increased with increasing total numbers of palindromes, repeat sequences, and characteristic motifs. In addition, a single 64-bp highly conserved consensus sequence cannot very good support to the function as origin and enhancer, and require the assistance of other cis-elements in hrs.

  6. Effects of dietary sodium on performance, flight and compensation strategies in the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sodium is critical for many physiological functions in insects. Herbivorous insects should expend considerable energy to compensate for sodium deficiency due to low sodium concentration in most inland plants upon which they feed. However, sodium compensation behaviors such as mud-puddling have been observed in some species but not in others. We expect that there may be other sodium compensation strategies in insects. Here, we select a rarely mud-puddling insect species, the cotton boll worm, Helicoverpa armigera, and determine the effects of dietary sodium on performance and flight, and examine their means of sodium compensation. Results When freshly hatched H. armigera neonates were cultured on one of three diets differing in sodium contents (diet A, B and C with a high, middle and low sodium concentrations, respectively), the larvae on diet C grew larger, had a higher mortality rate and a shorter development period than those on diet A and B. The larvae previously fed from 1st to 3rd instar on diet C consumed more subsequent diet when they were transferred to diet A or C at 4th instar, comparing to those previously fed on diet A. Moreover, any 4th-instar larvae on diet C consumed a greater amount of food than those on diet A, no matter which diet the larvae had previously ingested from 1st to 3rd instar. Moths from diet A and B flew more rapidly than those from diet C, with similar sugar and lipid utilization rates among the three test groups. When a 5th-instar cannibal from diet A, B or C and a 5th-instar victim from diet A were housed together, many more cannibals from diet C ate their victims. When a victim from diet A, B or C was provided, a cannibal from diet C was more likely to eat the victim from diet A. When newly emerged moths had been exposed to 3% sodium chloride solution for all scotophase period, the average weight increase (proxy for sodium solution intake) for moths from diet A was lower than those from diet B or C. Conclusion Sodium-deficient diet resulted in rapid growth and development of H. armigera larvae, decreased larvae survival, and reduced flight speed of H. armigera adults. To compensate for sodium deficiency, H. armigera ingested a large quantity of larval food, increased larval cannibalism incidence and harvested sodium during the adult stage. PMID:20385025

  7. The impact of the Bacillus subtilis SPB1 biosurfactant on the midgut histology of Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and determination of its putative receptor.

    PubMed

    Ghribi, Dhouha; Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna; Boukedi, Hanen; Elleuch, Mouna; Ellouze-Chaabouni, Semia; Tounsi, Slim

    2012-02-01

    SPB1 is a Bacillus subtilis strain producing a lipopeptide biosurfactant. The insecticidal activity of this biosurfactant was evaluated against the Egyptian cotton leaf worm (Spodoptera littoralis). It displayed toxicity with an LC(50) of 251 ng/cm(2). The histopathological changes occurred in the larval midgut of S. littoralis treated with B. subtilis SPB1 biosurfactant were vesicle formation in the apical region, cellular vacuolization and destruction of epithelial cells and their boundaries. Ligand-blotting experiments with S. littoralis brush border membrane vesicles showed binding of SPB1 biosurfactant to a protein of 45 kDa corresponding to its putative receptor. The latter differs in molecular size from those recognized by Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3A and Cry1C toxins, commonly known by their activity against S. littoralis. This result wires the application of B. subtilis biosurfactant for effective control of S. littoralis larvae, particularly in the cases where S. littoralis will develop resistance against B. thuringiensis toxins. PMID:22079884

  8. Revised status of Chloridea Westwood and [Duncan], 1841 for the Heliothis virescens species group and the monophyly of Schinia Hubner [1818] using total evidence data (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Heliothinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Heliothinae comprise some of the world’s most injurious agricultural pests. This study reanalyses a subsample of the Heliothis group of Cho et al. (2008) to determine the monophyly of Chloridea (Heliothis virescens and H. subflexa). Two nuclear gene regions, elongation factor-1a (EF-1a; 1240 bp)...

  9. Efficacy of some plant oils alone and/or combined with different insecticides on the cotton leaf-worm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mesbah, H A; Mourad, A K; Rokaia, A Z M

    2006-01-01

    The present work was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of two essential oils ((Flax or "Linseed" and Sesame ), five volatile plant oils ( Camphor, Red basil, Rose, Menthol and Clove ), four pesticides (Methoxyfenozide; Permethrin; Profenofos and Spinosad) and their mixtures on the cotton leaf-worm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.). This study was also devoted to minimize the usage of conventional insecticides, reduce the environmental pollution, and protect human-beings and domestic animals from hazards due to pesticides applications. In the meantime, the delayed effect of these tested plant oils on the developing immatures and moths of the cotton leaf-worm, Spodoptera littoralis was determined. Most of the evaluated plant oils were found to have an insecticidal effect on the 4th instar larvae of the cotton leaf-worm, S. littoralis. Both the essential Sesame oil and Clove volatile oil showed rather weak toxic effect corresponding to the same concentrations and periods of the bioassay tests. Comparing the toxicity of the tested plant oils, it was affirmed that both Rose and Red basil volatile oils were the highest efficient natural phytocompounds against the treated larvae and alternatively ranked either the 1st and/or the 2nd rank, throughout the different periods of the bioassay tests, followed by the other three tested oils which were more or less efficient phytocompounds. According to the toxicity index, all the tested oils were less toxic than the superior Red basil volatile oil after 48 h. post treatment followed by the gradual decrease in toxicity of Rose, Flax and Menthol, respectively. The development of the treated 4th larval instar was blocked due to treatment with the tested plant oils. With no exception, all the efficiently tested essential and/or volatile oils acted principally as Insect Growth Inhibitors (IGIs) rather than antifeedants causing disruption of the insect development, abnormal larvae, pupae and adults that were lead finally to death. The tested mixtures of Clove and Sesame oils increased the percentage of larval mortality in comparison to their use alone against the treated 4th larval instar.Contrarily, antagonism was revealed for the mixture of Sesame/Flax oils, the calculated value of LC50 greatly increased compared to the corresponding values of their individual evaluation after 48 h. from initiating the treatment. The delayed effect of tested plant oils was inspected on certain parameters of the fitness components of the subject insect and was mainly determined for the rates of hatched eggs and emerged moths. Remarkably, the Methoxyfenozide treated 4th larval instar became passive, or ceased feeding on the treated leaves and were unable to complete normally the moulting process, which partially took place in most'of the other treated individuals. The treated larvae with the tested lower concentrations, hardly succeeded in completing moulting process. The survived larvae failed to complete the next moulting at the end of the treatments. The toxic effect of Spinosad was more apparent against the treated larvae after 72 h from application. The calculated LC50 values indicated the gradual increase of its toxic effect in the subsequent prolonged intervals of the test. Spinosad showed its activity either by contact or ingestion and caused larval characteristic symptoms. Permethrin exhibited superior toxic efficacy overall the other tested chemicals, during the period from 72 up to 96 h post treatment. The gradual increase of the toxic effect of Permethrin indicated an efficient continuous persistence of nervous toxicity. According to the specific properties of Profenofos, results revealed that the toxicity by ingestion was more potential than by contact and explained the reason of developing toxicity with the increase of bioassay inspection period. The comparative toxic efficiency of the tested insecticides proved that Permethrin was the most effective one, giving LC50 values of 2.92 and 1.53 ppm after 72 and 96 h. bioassay, respectively, followed by Profenofos, Methoxyfenozide and Spin

  10. Development and reproduction of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its egg parasitoid Telenomus remus (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) on the genetically modified soybean (Bt) MON 87701×MON 89788.

    PubMed

    Bortolotto, O C; Silva, G V; de Freitas Bueno, A; Pomari, A F; Martinelli, S; Head, G P; Carvalho, R A; Barbosa, G C

    2014-12-01

    Genetically modified crops with insect resistance genes from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt-plants) are increasingly being cultivated worldwide. Therefore, it is critical to improve our knowledge of their direct or indirect impact not only on target pests but also on non-target arthropods. Hence, this study evaluates comparative leaf consumption and performance of Spodoptera eridania (Cramer), a species that is tolerant of the Cry1Ac protein, fed with Bt soybean, MON 87701×MON 89788 or its near [corrected] non-Bt isoline. Using this species as a model, we assessed [corrected] the comparative performance of the egg parasitoid Telenomus remus Nixon on eggs of S. eridania produced from individuals that fed on these two soybean genotypes [corrected] as larvae. Results showed that Bt soybean did not affect pest foliage consumption, but did reduce larvel duration by two days despite larvae in both treatments having six instars. Nevertheless, survival of S. eridania larvae, pupal weight, sex ratio, fecundity and longevity of female moths, and egg viability did not differ between Bt and non-Bt soybeans. Adult longevity of S. eridania males was increased when caterpillars were fed with Bt soybean versus the near isoline. No adverse effects of this technology were observed for the egg parasitoid T. remus. [corrected]. PMID:25248849

  11. Development and validation of real-time PCR tests for the identification of four Spodoptera species: Spodoptera eridania, Spodoptera frugiperda, Spodoptera littoralis, and Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Van de Vossenberg, B T L H; Van der Straten, M J

    2014-08-01

    The genus Spodoptera comprises 31 species, 4 of which are listed as quarantine pests for the European Union: Spodoptera eridania (Cramer), Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith), Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval), and Spodoptera litura (F.). In international trade, the earlier life stages (eggs and larvae) are being intercepted at point of inspection most frequently, challenging the possibilities of morphological identification. To realize a rapid and reliable identification for all stages, we developed and validated four simplex real-time polymerase chain reaction identification tests based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene using dual-labeled hydrolysis probes. Method validation on dilutions of extracted DNA of the target organisms showed that low levels of template (up to 0.2-100 pg) can reliably be identified. No cross-reactivity was observed with 14 nontarget Spodoptera and 5 non-Spodoptera species in the specific Spodoptera tests. The tests showed to be repeatable, reproducible (both 100%), and robust. The new Spodoptera tests have proven to be suitable tools for routine identification of all life stages of S. eridania, S. frugiperda, S. littoralis, and S. litura. PMID:25195458

  12. The influence of a 21 kDa Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor from nonhost madras thorn, Pithecellobium dulce, seeds on H. armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Pandey, Prabhash K; Singh, Dushyant; Jamal, Farrukh

    2015-05-01

    A trypsin inhibitor purified from the seeds of the Manila tamarind, Pithecellobium dulce (PDTI), was studied for its effects on growth parameters and developmental stages of Helicoverpa armigera. PDTI exhibited inhibitory activity against bovine trypsin (∼86%; ∼1.33 ug/ml IC50). The inhibitory activity of PDTI was unaltered over a wide range of temperature, pH, and in the presence of dithiothreitol. Larval midgut proteases were unable to digest PDTI for up to 12 h of incubation. Dixon and Lineweaver-Burk double reciprocal plots analysis revealed a competitive inhibition mechanism and a Ki of ∼3.9 × 10(-8) M. Lethal dose (0.50% w/w) and dosage for weight reduction by 50% (0.25% w/w) were determined. PDTI showed a dose-dependent effect on mean larval weight and a series of nutritional disturbances. In artificial diet at 0.25% w/w PDTI, the efficiency of conversion of ingested food, of digested food, relative growth rate, and growth index declined, whereas approximate digestibility, relative consumption rate, metabolic cost, consumption index, and total developmental period were increased in larvae. This is the first report of antifeedant and antimetabolic activities of PDTI on midgut proteases of H. armigera. PMID:25580830

  13. Induced resistance in groundnut by jasmonic acid and salicylic acid through alteration of trichome density and oviposition by Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    War, Abdul Rashid; Hussain, Barkat; Sharma, Hari C.

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are important phytohormones involved in plant resistance against insect herbivory and pathogen infection. Application of JA and SA induces several defensive traits in plants. Here we investigated the effect of JA and SA on trichome density in five groundnut genotypes [ICGV 86699, ICGV 86031, ICG 2271, ICG 1697 (resistant) and JL 24 (susceptible)]. The effect of JA- and SA-induced resistance on the oviposition behaviour of Helicoverpa armigera on different groundnut genotypes was also studied. Pre-treatment with JA increased numbers of trichomes in the insect-resistant genotypes, ICGV 86699, ICGV 86031, ICG 2271, and ICG 1697. The induction was greater at 10 days after treatment. Jasmonic acid- and SA-treated plants showed a substantial effect on the oviposition behaviour of H. armigera. Jasmonic acid application and herbivory reduced the number of eggs laid by H. armigera in all the groundnut genotypes tested. However, a greater reduction was recorded on plants pre-treated with JA. More egg laying was recorded in JL 24 in all the treatments as compared to the insect-resistant genotypes. These results suggested that pre-treatment with JA increased trichome density in groundnut plants, which conferred antixenosis for oviposition by H. armigera.

  14. Effects of some botanical extracts on the midgut, integument and fat body of the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Khatter, Najat A

    2010-08-01

    Botanical extracts (8%) of four plants (Artemisia monosperma, Zygophyllum cocccineum, Lupinus termis and Brassica tournifortii) fed to the 4th larval instars of Spodoptera littoralis induced histopathological changes in the structure of the midgut, integument and fat body of the 5th instars. Zygophyllum cocci-neum and Lupinus termis induced severe damages in the midgut. The integument of treated larvae showed degeneration in the cuticle and epidermal cells which were also detached from each other. Water extracts of A. monosperma, Z. coccinieum and L. termis were the most promising in inducing shrinkage in the fat body cells and detachment of midgut muscle layers. Also, the degeneration of the midgut membrane and epithelial layer occurs in different degrees with the tested plants. This study supports the use of botanical extracts in pest control programs of lepidopterous insects. PMID:21246948

  15. A revision of the genus Protorthodes McDunnough with descriptions of a new genus and four new species (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Eriopygini)

    PubMed Central

    Lafontaine, J. Donald; Walsh, J. Bruce; Ferris, Clifford D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Protorthodes McDunnough is revised to include 15 species including P. ustulata Lafontaine, Walsh & Ferris, sp. n., from southwestern United States, P. texicana Lafontaine, sp. n., from Texas and Mexico, and P. mexicana Lafontaine, sp. n., from Mexico. A new genus, Nudorthodes Lafontaine, Walsh & Ferris, is proposed for two species formerly included in Protorthodes, P. texana (Smith, 1900), comb. n., and P. variabilis (Barnes & McDunnough, 1912), comb. n., and N. molino Lafontaine, Walsh & Ferris, sp. n., described from southern Arizona. A key to species, descriptions, illustrations of adults and genitalia, and distribution maps are included. PMID:25061383

  16. Expression Profiles of the Heat Shock Protein 70 Gene in Response to Heat Stress in Agrotis c-nigrum (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ling; Yang, Shuai; Zhao, Kuijun; Han, Lanlan

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are molecular chaperones, and their overexpression enhances the survivability and stress tolerance of the cell. To understand the characteristics of HSP70 in Agrotis c-nigrum Linnaeus larvae, the coding sequence of this protein was cloned, and the effect of heat stress on transcription and protein properties was assessed. The obtained cDNA sequence of HSP70 was 2,213 bp, which contained an ORF of 1,965 bp and encoded 654 amino acid residues. Isolated HSP70 cDNA demonstrated more than 80% identity with the sequences of other known insect HSP70s. Next, HSP70 was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells and identified using SDS-PAGE and western blotting analyses. In addition, anti-HSP70-specific antisera were prepared using a recombinant HSP70 protein, and the results showed that this antisera was very specific to AcHSP70. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction detected the relative transcription of the HSP70 gene in larvae and the transcription of A. c-nigrum in response to high temperatures. Induction of HSP70 was up-regulated to peak expression at 36°C. PMID:25688087

  17. A review of the Copitarsia decolora (Guenée) species complex with a description of a new species of Copitarsia (Hampson) from Chile (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species, Copitarsia gibberosa n. sp. from Chile and Argentina is described and illustrated. Morphological characters are discussed to differentiate it from C. decolora (Guenée), C. incommoda (Walker), and C. corruda (Pogue and Simmons). Copitarsia corruda has its status revised based on CO1 an...

  18. Cloning eleven midgut trypsin cDNAs and evaluating the interaction of proteinase inhibitors with Cry1Ac against the tobacco budworm Heliothis virescens (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Midgut trypsins are associated with Bt protoxin activation and toxin degradation. Proteinase inhibitors have potential insecticidal toxicity against a wide range of insect species. Proactive action to examine trypsin gene profiles and proteinase inhibitors for interaction with Bt toxin is necessary ...

  19. Evaluation of transgenic sweet corn hybrids expressing CryIA (b) toxin for resistance to corn earworm and fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Lynch, R E; Wiseman, B R; Plaisted, D; Warnick, D

    1999-02-01

    Many of the lepidopterous insects which attack sweet corn, Zea mays L., are susceptible to insecticidal proteins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki (Berliner) (Btk). Transgenic sweet corn expressing a synthetic cry gene for production of a Btk-insecticidal protein may provide a more environmentally acceptable means of sweet corn production. Eight transgenic sweet corn hybrids containing a synthetic gene for CryIA(b) protein production (BT11 event) were evaluated for resistance to the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith). Laboratory tests revealed that all Btk sweet corn hybrids were highly resistant to leaf and silk feeding by neonate 3 and 6 d old corn earworm larvae. Ear damage in the field to the Btk sweet corn hybrids caused by corn earworm was negligible. All Btk sweet corn hybrids, except Btk 95-0901, were moderately resistant to leaf and silk feeding by the fall armyworm. Survival and weight gain were reduced when neonates were fed excised whorl leaves of the Btk plants. Weight gain, but not survival, was reduced when 3- and 6-d-old fall armyworm larvae were fed excised whorl leaves of the Btk plants. Btk sweet corn hybrids appear to be ideal candidates for use in integrated pest management (IPM) programs for both the fresh and processing sweet corn markets, and their use should drastically reduce the quantity of insecticides currently used to control these pests in sweet corn. With appropriate cultural practices, it is highly unlikely that Btk sweet corn will contribute to the development of resistance to Btk proteins in these insects because of the high toxicity of the Cry proteins expressed in these sweet corn hybrids and the harvest of sweet corn ears from fields before larvae can complete development. PMID:10036986

  20. The ectoparasitic wasp Eulophus pennicornis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) uses instar-specific endocrine disruption strategies to suppress the development of its host Lacanobia oleracea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Edwards, John P; Bell, Howard A; Audsley, Neil; Marris, Gay C; Kirkbride-Smith, Anne; Bryning, Gareth; Frisco, Caroline; Cusson, Michel

    2006-01-01

    To successfully complete its development, the gregarious ectoparasitoid Eulophus pennicornis must inhibit the moult of its host, Lacanobia oleracea. In the present study, we examined the possibility that moult- and metamorphosis-associated endocrine events may be disrupted in caterpillars parasitized as newly moulted last (sixth) instars. Juvenile hormone (JH) titres on days 2 and 5 of the final stadium were significantly higher (> 100 fold) in parasitized than in non-parasitized hosts, in which JH was essentially absent. Elevated JH levels were associated with reduced haemolymph JH esterase (JHE) activity (down by 99.8%) and enhanced in vitro JH biosynthesis by the corpora allata (CA) (up to 4.5 fold). Wasp adults and/or larvae, in which we measured high levels of JH III (up to 2.7 ng/g), but little or no JH I or JH II, were not seen as likely sources of JH in parasitized hosts, in which we found mostly JH I and JH II. In addition, removal of parasitoid eggs or larvae after oviposition did not prevent the rise in JH titres seen in parasitoid-laden hosts, suggesting that wasp venom may be responsible for the observed hormonal dysfunction. Host haemolymph 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-E) levels were largely unaffected by parasitism during the final stadium although they were observed to increase earlier and decrease more rapidly in parasitized insects. We compare these results with those reported earlier for L. oleracea larvae parasitized by E. pennicornis as penultimate (fifth) instars, which display significantly depressed 20-E titres relative to control larvae. We conclude that E. pennicornis employs host endocrine-disruption strategies that differ according to whether the host is parasitized as a penultimate or final-stadium larva. PMID:17064726

  1. Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Expression Profiles of Mitochondrial-Encoded Genes in Early and Late Embryos.

    PubMed

    Perera, Omaththage P; Walsh, Thomas K; Luttrell, Randall G

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), was assembled using paired-end nucleotide sequence reads generated with a next-generation sequencing platform. Assembly resulted in a mitogenome of 15,348 bp with greater than 17,000-fold average coverage. Organization of the H. zea mitogenome (gene order and orientation) was identical to other known lepidopteran mitogenome sequences. Compared with Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) mitogenome, there were a few differences in the lengths of gaps between genes, but the lengths of nucleotide overlaps were essentially conserved between the two species. Nucleotide composition of the H. zea mitochondrial genome was very similar to those of the related species H. armigera and Helicoverpa punctigera Wallengren. Mapping of RNA-Seq reads obtained from 2-h eggs and 48-h embryos to protein coding genes (PCG) revealed that all H. zea PCGs were processed as single mature gene transcripts except for the bicistronic atp8 + atp6 transcript. A tRNA-like sequence predicted to form a hammer-head-like secondary structure that may play a role in transcription start and mitogenome replication was identified within the control region of the H. zea mitogenome. Similar structures were also found within the control regions of several other lepidopteran species. Expression analysis revealed significant differences in levels of expression of PCGs within each developmental stage, but the pattern of variation was similar in both developmental stages analyzed in this study. Mapping of RNA-Seq reads to PCG transcripts also identified transcription termination and polyadenylation sites that differed from the sites described in other lepidopteran species. PMID:27126963

  2. Orientation behavior, development and survival of Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on cotton expressing Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab and conventional cotton.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of Bt cotton (Bollgard II) or a mixture of Bt+non-Bt cotton leaves on larval orientation behavior, survival and development of Trichoplusia ni in the laboratory. Results indicate that in a no-choice test, more first and fifth instars remained on Bt...

  3. Comparative production of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from transgenic cotton expressing either one or two Bacillus thuringiensis proteins with and without insecticide oversprays.

    PubMed

    Jackson, R E; Bradley, J R; Van Duyn, J W; Gould, F

    2004-10-01

    Transgenic cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), expressing either one or two Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki Berliner (Bt) proteins was compared with the conventional sister line in field experiments with regard to production of bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and bolls damaged by bollworm. The relative numbers of bollworms that developed on Bollgard (Monsanto Co., St. Louis, MO), Bollgard II (Monsanto Co.), and conventional cotton were estimated under nontreated conditions in 2000 and both insecticide-treated and nontreated conditions in 2001-2002 in North Carolina tests. Averaged across seven field studies under nontreated conditions, Bollgard cotton generated statistically similar numbers of large (L4-L5) bollworm larvae compared with the conventional variety; however, Bollgard cotton produced significantly fewer damaged bolls and bollworm adults than the conventional variety. Production of large larvae, damaged bolls, and adults was decreased dramatically by Bollgard II cotton as compared with Bollgard and conventional varieties. When comparing insecticide-treated and nontreated cotton genotypes, both Bt cotton sustained less boll damage than the conventional variety averaged across insecticide regimes; furthermore, Bollgard II cotton had fewer damaged bolls than the Bollgard variety. When averaged across cotton genotypes, pyrethroid oversprays reduced the numbers of damaged bolls compared with the nontreated cotton. Insecticide-treated Bollgard cotton, along with insecticide-treated and nontreated Bollgard II cotton reduced production of bollworm larvae, pupae, and adults. However, the addition of pyrethroid oversprays to Bollgard II cotton seemed to be the best resistance management strategy available for bollworm because no bollworms were capable of completing development under these conditions. PMID:15568364

  4. Effect of Bt cotton expressing Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab, non-Bt cotton and starvation on survival and development of Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan-Xi; Greenberg, Shoil M; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2007-05-01

    Effects of Bollgard II cotton containing two Bacillus thuringensis var. kurstaki Berliner (Bt) toxin proteins (Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab), non-Bt cotton (DPL 491) and starvation on survival and development of cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hübner), were determined in the laboratory. Larvae of the first four larval instars died when they fed on the terminal leaves of Bt cotton plants at 50 days after planting (DAP). However, 51.3% of fifth instars that fed on 50 DAP Bt cotton leaves pupated, and 87.1% of the pupae successfully developed into adults. Of the unfed fifth instars (starved), 55.6% pupated and 88.1% of the pupae emerged. Pupae that developed from larvae fed on Bt cotton leaves and unfed were significantly smaller, being 89.7 and 73.2% of the weight of the pupae that developed from larvae fed on non-Bt cotton leaves. Leaves of 120 DAP Bt cotton were less toxic to T. ni larvae. When the first instars continuously fed on 120 DAP Bt cotton leaves, 75.9, 60.6, 56.4 and 38.4% of larvae survived to second, third, fourth and fifth instars respectively, and 20.9% pupated and 17.9% successfully became adults. However, it took the surviving first instars 37.1 days to become adults, which was 7.2 and 8.9 days longer than those fed on 50 and 120 DAP non-Bt cottons respectively. Pupae that developed from larvae that fed on 120 DAP Bt cotton leaves were only 50.9 and 52.6% of the weight of those developed from larvae that fed on 50 and 120 DAP non-Bt cotton respectively. Non-Bt cotton, both 50 and 120 DAP, did not exhibit significant effects on larval survival and development, except that the pupae in the 50 DAP non-Bt cotton treatments developed over a significantly longer time than those in the 120 DAP non-Bt cotton treatment. PMID:17421053

  5. Development of a Microbial-Based Integrated Pest Management Program for Helicoverpa spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Beneficial Insects on Conventional Cotton Crops in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Mensah, Robert K.; Young, Alison; Rood-England, Leah

    2015-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi, when used as a microbial control agent against cotton pests, such as Helicoverpa spp., may have the potential to establish and spread in the environment and to have an impact on both pests and beneficial insects. Information on the effect of entomopathogenic fungi on pests and beneficial insects is crucial for a product to be registered as a biopesticide. The effect of the entomopathogenic fungus BC 639 (Aspergillus sp.) against Helicoverpa spp. and beneficial insects (mostly predatory insects) was studied in the laboratory and in cotton field trials. The results show that when Helicoverpa spp. second instar larvae were exposed to increasing concentrations (from 102 to 109) of the entomopathogenic fungus BC 639, the optimum dose required to kill over 50% of the insects was 1.0 × 107 spores/mL. In the field trials, the number of Helicoverpa spp. per metre on plots treated with 1.0 or 0.50 L/ha of BC 639 was the same as on plots treated with the recommended rate of the commercial insecticide, Indoxacarb. However, when plots were treated with 0.25 L/ha of BC 639, this was not as effective at controlling Helicoverpa spp. as 1.0 or 0.5 L/ha BC 639 or Indoxacarb. BC 639 had less effect on predatory insects when applied at lower rates (0.50 and 0.25 L/ha) than at higher rates (1.0 L/ha). Thus, BC 639 was more selective against predators when applied at lower rates than at the higher rate, but was also more selective than Indoxacarb. Thus, the ability of BC 639 to control Helicoverpa spp. effectively with a minimal effect on predatory insects indicates its potential for enhancing integrated pest management programs and to sustain cotton production. PMID:26463189

  6. Inhibition of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Growth by Transgenic Corn Expressing Bt Toxins and Development of Resistance to Cry1Ab.

    PubMed

    Reisig, Dominic D; Reay-Jones, Francis P F

    2015-08-01

    Transgenic corn, Zea mays L., that expresses the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin Cry1Ab is only moderately toxic to Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and has been planted commercially since 1996. Growth and development of H. zea was monitored to determine potential changes in susceptibility to this toxin over time. Small plots of corn hybrids expressing Cry1F, Cry1F × Cry1Ab, Cry1Ab × Cry3Bb1, Cry1A.105 × Cry2Ab2 × Cry3Bb1, Cry1A.105 × Cry2Ab2, and Vip3Aa20 × Cry1Ab × mCry3A were planted in both 2012 and 2013 inNorth and South Carolina with paired non-Bt hybrids from the same genetic background. H. zea larvae were sampled on three time periods from ears and the following factors were measured: kernel area injured (cm(2)) by H. zea larvae, larval number per ear, larval weight, larval length, and larval head width. Pupae were sampled on a single time period and the following factors recorded: number per ear, weight, time to eclosion, and the number that eclosed. There was no reduction in larval weight, number of insect entering the pupal stadium, pupal weight, time to eclosion, and number of pupae able to successfully eclose to adulthood in the hybrid expressing Cry1Ab compared with a non-Bt paired hybrid. As Cry1Ab affected these in 1996, H. zea may be developing resistance to Cry1Ab in corn, although these results are not comprehensive, given the limited sampling period, size, and geography. We also found that the negative impacts on larval growth and development were greater in corn hybrids with pyramided traits compared with single traits. PMID:26314074

  7. Isolation and Expression Analysis of CYP9A11 and Cytochrome P450 Reductase Gene in the Beet Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunqing; Feng, Xiaoyun; Tang, Tao; Qiu, Lihong

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs), as an enzyme superfamily, is widely distributed in organisms and plays a vital function in the metabolism of exogenous and endogenous compounds by interacting with its obligatory redox partner, CYP reductase (CPR). A novel CYP gene (CYP9A11) and CPR gene from the agricultural pest insect Spodoptera exigua were cloned and characterized. The complete cDNA sequences of SeCYP9A11 and SeCPR are 1,931 and 3,919 bp in length, respectively, and contain open reading frames of 1,593 and 2,070 nucleotides, respectively. Analysis of the putative protein sequences indicated that SeCYP9A11 contains a heme-binding domain and the unique characteristic sequence (SRFALCE) of the CYP9 family, in addition to a signal peptide and transmembrane segment at the N-terminal. Alignment analysis revealed that SeCYP9A11 shares the highest sequence similarity with CYP9A13 from Mamestra brassicae, which is 66.54%. The putative protein sequence of SeCPR has all of the classical CPR features, such as an N-terminal membrane anchor; three conserved domain flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), flavin mononucleotide (FMN), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) domain; and characteristic binding motifs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that SeCPR shares the highest identity with HaCPR, which is 95.21%. The SeCYP9A11 and SeCPR genes were detected in the midgut, fat body, and cuticle tissues, and throughout all of the developmental stages of S. exigua. The mRNA levels of SeCYP9A11 and SeCPR decreased remarkably after exposure to plant secondary metabolites quercetin and tannin. The results regarding SeCYP9A11 and SeCPR genes in the current study provide foundation for the further study of S. exigua P450 system. PMID:26320261

  8. Effects of Celangulin IV and V From Celastrus angulatus Maxim on Na+/K+-ATPase Activities of the Oriental Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Dan; Feng, Mingxing; Ji, Yufei; Wu, Wenjun; Hu, Zhaonong

    2016-01-01

    Na+/K+-ATPase (sodium pump) is an important target for the development of botanical pesticide as it is responsible for transforming chemical energy in ATP to osmotic work and maintaining electrochemical Na+ and K+ gradients across the cell membrane of most animal cells. Celangulin IV (C-IV) and V (C-V), which are isolated from the root bark of Celastrus angulatus, are the major active ingredients of this insecticidal plant. The activities of C-IV and C-V on Na+/K+-ATPase were investigated by ultramicro measuring method to evaluate the effects of C-IV and C-V on Na+/K+-ATPase activities of the brain from the fifth Mythimna separata larvae and to discuss the insecticidal mechanism of C-IV and C-V. Results indicate that inhibitory activities of Na+/K+-ATPase by C-IV and C-V possess an obvious concentration-dependent in vitro. Compared with C-IV, the inhibition of C-V on Na+/K+-ATPase was not striking. In vivo, at a concentration of 25 mg/liter, the inhibition ratio of C-IV on Na+/K+-ATPase activity from the brain in narcosis and recovery period was more remarkable than that of C-V. Furthermore, the insects were fed with different mixture ratios of C-IV and C-V. The inhibition extent of Na+/K+-ATPase activity was corresponded with the dose of C-IV. However, C-V had no notable effects. This finding may mean that the mechanism of action of C-IV and C-V on Na+/K+-ATPase were different. Na+/K -ATPase may be an action target of C-IV and C-V. PMID:27324586

  9. Diapause, cold-hardiness and flight ability of Cry1Ac-resistant and -susceptible strains of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diapause inducement condition, cold hardiness, and flight ability in Cry1Ac-resistant (BtR) and Cry1Ac-susceptible (96S) strains of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) were compared in the laboratory. The BtR strain was derived from the 96S strain and shows 1375-fold resistance to the Cry1Ac toxin aft...

  10. TRANSMISSION OF ASCOVIRUS FROM HELIOTHIS VIRESCENS (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE) BY THREE PARASITOIDS AND EFFECTS OF VIRUS ON SURVIVAL OF PARASITOID CARDIOCHILES NIGRICEPS (HYMENOPTERA: BRACONIDAE).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We demonstrated that a TBW ascovirus was vectored by the parasitoid Cardiochiles nigriceps (CN) Viereck to healthy TBW larval hosts in the field, and laboratory females of the braconids CN and Microplitis croceipes (MC) Cresson and the ichneumonid Campoletis sonorensis (CS) Cameron can transmit the ...

  11. Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Expression Profiles of Mitochondrial-Encoded Genes in Early and Late Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Omaththage P.; Walsh, Thomas K.; Luttrell, Randall G.

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), was assembled using paired-end nucleotide sequence reads generated with a next-generation sequencing platform. Assembly resulted in a mitogenome of 15,348 bp with greater than 17,000-fold average coverage. Organization of the H. zea mitogenome (gene order and orientation) was identical to other known lepidopteran mitogenome sequences. Compared with Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) mitogenome, there were a few differences in the lengths of gaps between genes, but the lengths of nucleotide overlaps were essentially conserved between the two species. Nucleotide composition of the H. zea mitochondrial genome was very similar to those of the related species H. armigera and Helicoverpa punctigera Wallengren. Mapping of RNA-Seq reads obtained from 2-h eggs and 48-h embryos to protein coding genes (PCG) revealed that all H. zea PCGs were processed as single mature gene transcripts except for the bicistronic atp8 + atp6 transcript. A tRNA-like sequence predicted to form a hammer-head-like secondary structure that may play a role in transcription start and mitogenome replication was identified within the control region of the H. zea mitogenome. Similar structures were also found within the control regions of several other lepidopteran species. Expression analysis revealed significant differences in levels of expression of PCGs within each developmental stage, but the pattern of variation was similar in both developmental stages analyzed in this study. Mapping of RNA-Seq reads to PCG transcripts also identified transcription termination and polyadenylation sites that differed from the sites described in other lepidopteran species. PMID:27126963

  12. Developmental Response of Euplectrus comstockii (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) to Ascorbic Acid in the Diet of the Larval Host, Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent developments in genetic engineering has paved the way for researchers to produce crops of high nutritional and yield value, in addition to being resistant to diseases and pests. Ascorbic acid is one of the nutrients that researchers are trying to enhance in plants. Studies have shown that th...

  13. Genetic basis of sex pheromone blend difference between Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) and Helicoverpa assulta (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Lei; Ming, Qing-Lei; Zhao, Cheng-Hua; Wang, Chen-Zhu

    2008-05-01

    The two closely related moth species, Helicoverpa armigera and H. assulta, are sympatric in China. Both species use a mixture of (Z)-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald) and (Z)-9-hexadecenal (Z9-16:Ald) as their sex pheromones but in widely different ratios. Hybridization and backcrossing experiments between H. armigera and H. assulta were conducted and sex pheromone compositions of the parent species, their F(1) hybrids and backcrosses were compared to study the genetic basis of the production of their sex pheromone blend composition. Results show that the difference in sex pheromone blend ratios of these Helicoverpa species is mainly controlled by an autosomal locus with two alleles, with the allele from H. armigera being almost completely dominant over that derived from H. assulta. PMID:18405915

  14. Effect of fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) strain and diet on oviposition and development in the parasitoid Euplectrus platyhypenae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oviposition tendency and subsequent development of the parasitoid wasp Euplectrus platyhypenae Howard was compared using the corn and rice host strains of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) fed corn (Zea mays, ‘Truckers Favorite’) or stargrass (Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst var. nlemfuensis, ‘Floro...

  15. Male Fishia yosemitae (Grote)(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) captured in traps baited with (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate and (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traps baited with sex pheromone lures for the noctuid moths Chrysodeixis eriosoma (Doubleday) and Feltia jaculifera (Guenee) captured males of another noctuid moth Fishia yosemitae (Grote). These lures included both (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate (Z7-12Ac) and (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14AC). When the...

  16. Seasonal patterns of capture of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and Heliothis phloxiphaga (Grote and Robinson)(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in pheromone traps in Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In each of the 6 years of this study in south central Washington state, male corn earworm moths, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), first appeared in pheromone traps in late May to early June, and were present continuously until mid to late October. Maximum numbers of corn earworm moths captured in pheromon...

  17. The Expression of Three Opsin Genes from the Compound Eye of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Is Regulated by a Circadian Clock, Light Conditions and Nutritional Status

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Shuo; Zhu, Jialin; Zhu, Weilong; Zhang, Xinfang; Li, Zhen; Liu, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Qingwen

    2014-01-01

    Visual genes may become inactive in species that inhabit poor light environments, and the function and regulation of opsin components in nocturnal moths are interesting topics. In this study, we cloned the ultraviolet (UV), blue (BL) and long-wavelength-sensitive (LW) opsin genes from the compound eye of the cotton bollworm and then measured their mRNA levels using quantitative real-time PCR. The mRNA levels fluctuated over a daily cycle, which might be an adaptation of a nocturnal lifestyle, and were dependent on a circadian clock. Cycling of opsin mRNA levels was disturbed by constant light or constant darkness, and the UV opsin gene was up-regulated after light exposure. Furthermore, the opsin genes tended to be down-regulated upon starvation. Thus, this study illustrates that opsin gene expression is determined by multiple endogenous and exogenous factors and is adapted to the need for nocturnal vision, suggesting that color vision may play an important role in the sensory ecology of nocturnal moths. PMID:25353953

  18. Subcellular localization of the fatty acyl reductase involved in pheromone biosynthesis in the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Hagström, Asa K; Walther, Andrea; Wendland, Jürgen; Löfstedt, Christer

    2013-06-01

    Sex pheromone components are produced in specialized glands of female moths via well-characterized biosynthetic pathways, where a Fatty Acyl Reductase (FAR) is often essential for producing the specific ratio of the different pheromone components. The subcellular localization and membrane topology of FARs is important for understanding how pheromones are synthesized and exported to the exterior for release. We investigated the subcellular localization of HvFAR from the noctuid moth Heliothis virescens by producing recombinant fusion proteins with green fluorescent protein (GFP) in yeast. A C-terminally tagged construct was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and retained full reductive activity on a broad range of saturated and unsaturated fatty acyl precursors. In contrast, an N-terminally-tagged construct was poorly expressed in the cytoplasm and was not enzymatically active, indicating that HvFAR requires a free N-terminal for both proper targeting and catalytic activity. A series of truncations of the N-and C-termini of HvFAR was conducted based on in silico-predicted hydrophobic domains and transmembrane regions. The N-terminally truncated protein was found in the cytoplasm and did not retain activity, emphasizing the importance of the N-terminal for FAR function. In addition, the orientation in the membrane of the C-terminus-tagged HvFAR-GFP construct was analyzed using a fluorescence protease protection (FPP) assay, implying that the C-terminal of HvFAR is orientated towards the cytoplasm. These results, together with previous data on the localization of desaturases, confirm the importance of the ER as a subcellular site of pheromone production. PMID:23537692

  19. Isolation and identification of the cDNA encoding the pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide and additional neuropeptides in the oriental tobacco budworm, Helicoverpa assulta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Choi, M Y; Tanaka, M; Kataoka, H; Boo, K S; Tatsuki, S

    1998-10-01

    The present study is concerned with cloning and characterizing Has-PBAN cDNA which is 756 nucleotides long, isolated from the brain and suboesophageal ganglion complex (Br-Sg) of Helicoverpa assulta adults. The 194-amino acid sequence deduced from this cDNA possessed the proteolytic endocleavage sites to generate multiple peptides. From the processing of the prepro-hormone, it can be predicted that the cDNA has a PBAN domain with 33 amino acids and four additional peptide domains: 24 amino acid-, 7 amino acid-, 18 amino acid- and 8 amino acid-long sequences, with FXPR (or K) L (X = G, T or S) amidated at their C-termini. The amino acid sequence of all five predicted peptides, including the PBAN, are identical to that of Helicoverpa zea (Raina, A.K., Jaffe, H., Kempe, T.G., Keim, P., Blacher, R.W., Fales, H.M., Riley, C.T., Klun, J.A., Ridgway, R.L., Hayes, D.K., 1989. Identification of a neuropeptide hormone that regulates sex pheromone production in female moths. Science 244, 796-798 and Ma, P.W.K., Knipple, D.C., Roelofs, W.L., 1994. Structural organization of the Helicoverpa zea gene encoding the precursor protein for pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide and other neuropeptides. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., U.S.A. 91, 506-510). A single mRNA species corresponding to the size of Has-PBAN cDNA was detected from the Br-Sg of 1-3-day old female and male adults, and their expression was also at a similar level. Pheromone production was induced upon injection of female or male Br-Sg extracts or synthetic PBAN into the haemocoel of decapitated 1-3-day old female adults during the photophase when they are not supposed to produce pheromone. From these results, H. assulta adult females seem to use their own PBAN for regulating sex pheromone biosynthesis. Functions of the four other peptides ending with FXPR (or K) L in the Has-PBAN cDNA and of the male PBAN remain to be elucidated. PMID:9807222

  20. Isolation of the Binding Protein of Periplocoside E from BBMVs in Midgut of the Oriental Amyworm Mythimna separata Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) through Affinity Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Mingxing; He, Zhenyu; Wang, Yuanyuan; Yan, Xiufang; Zhang, Jiwen; Hu, Zhaonong; Wu, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    Periplocosides, which are insecticidal compounds isolated from the root bark of Periploca sepium Bunge, can affect the digestive system of insects. However, the mechanism though which periplocosides induces a series of symptoms remains unknown. In this study, affinity chromatography was conducted by coupling periplocoside E-semi-succinic acid ester with epoxy amino hexyl (EAH) sepharose 4B. Sodium dodecyl sulfonate-polyacrylamide gelelectrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was performed to analyze the fraction eluted by periplocoside E. Eight binding proteins (luciferin 4-monooxygenase, aminopeptidase N, aminopeptidase N3, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide health (NADH) dehydrogenase subunit 5, phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate 3-phosphatase myotubularin, actin, uncharacterized family 31 glucosidase KIAA1161, and 2OG-Fe(2) oxygenase superfamily protein) were obtained and identified through liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry (LC/Q-TOF-MS) analysis of the midgut epithelium cells of Mythimna separata larvae. Aminopeptidase N and N3 are potential putative targets of periplocosides. This study establishes the foundation for further research on the mechanism of action and target localization of periplocosides in agricultural pests. PMID:27153092

  1. Isolation of the Binding Protein of Periplocoside E from BBMVs in Midgut of the Oriental Amyworm Mythimna separata Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) through Affinity Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Feng, Mingxing; He, Zhenyu; Wang, Yuanyuan; Yan, Xiufang; Zhang, Jiwen; Hu, Zhaonong; Wu, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    Periplocosides, which are insecticidal compounds isolated from the root bark of Periploca sepium Bunge, can affect the digestive system of insects. However, the mechanism though which periplocosides induces a series of symptoms remains unknown. In this study, affinity chromatography was conducted by coupling periplocoside E-semi-succinic acid ester with epoxy amino hexyl (EAH) sepharose 4B. Sodium dodecyl sulfonate-polyacrylamide gelelectrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was performed to analyze the fraction eluted by periplocoside E. Eight binding proteins (luciferin 4-monooxygenase, aminopeptidase N, aminopeptidase N3, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide health (NADH) dehydrogenase subunit 5, phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate 3-phosphatase myotubularin, actin, uncharacterized family 31 glucosidase KIAA1161, and 2OG-Fe(2) oxygenase superfamily protein) were obtained and identified through liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry (LC/Q-TOF-MS) analysis of the midgut epithelium cells of Mythimna separata larvae. Aminopeptidase N and N3 are potential putative targets of periplocosides. This study establishes the foundation for further research on the mechanism of action and target localization of periplocosides in agricultural pests. PMID:27153092

  2. Isolation and Expression Analysis of CYP9A11 and Cytochrome P450 Reductase Gene in the Beet Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chunqing; Feng, Xiaoyun; Tang, Tao; Qiu, Lihong

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs), as an enzyme superfamily, is widely distributed in organisms and plays a vital function in the metabolism of exogenous and endogenous compounds by interacting with its obligatory redox partner, CYP reductase (CPR). A novel CYP gene (CYP9A11) and CPR gene from the agricultural pest insect Spodoptera exigua were cloned and characterized. The complete cDNA sequences of SeCYP9A11 and SeCPR are 1,931 and 3,919 bp in length, respectively, and contain open reading frames of 1,593 and 2,070 nucleotides, respectively. Analysis of the putative protein sequences indicated that SeCYP9A11 contains a heme-binding domain and the unique characteristic sequence (SRFALCE) of the CYP9 family, in addition to a signal peptide and transmembrane segment at the N-terminal. Alignment analysis revealed that SeCYP9A11 shares the highest sequence similarity with CYP9A13 from Mamestra brassicae, which is 66.54%. The putative protein sequence of SeCPR has all of the classical CPR features, such as an N-terminal membrane anchor; three conserved domain flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), flavin mononucleotide (FMN), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) domain; and characteristic binding motifs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that SeCPR shares the highest identity with HaCPR, which is 95.21%. The SeCYP9A11 and SeCPR genes were detected in the midgut, fat body, and cuticle tissues, and throughout all of the developmental stages of S. exigua. The mRNA levels of SeCYP9A11 and SeCPR decreased remarkably after exposure to plant secondary metabolites quercetin and tannin. The results regarding SeCYP9A11 and SeCPR genes in the current study provide foundation for the further study of S. exigua P450 system. PMID:26320261

  3. A review of the Palaearctic Mniotype adusta (Esper, 1790) species-group with description of a new species and six new subspecies (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Volynkin, Anton V; Matov, Alexei Yu; Behounek, Gottfried; Han, Hui-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Eighteen Palaearctic taxa of the Mniotype adusta species-group are reviewed. One new species (M. kobyakovi Volynkin, Matov & Behounek, sp. n.) and six new subspecies (M. lama kortka Volynkin, Matov & Behounek, ssp. n., M. lama etugen Volynkin, Matov & Behounek, ssp. n., M. lama ayubaevorum Volynkin, Matov & Behounek, ssp. n., M. adusta poltavskyi Volynkin, Matov & Behounek, ssp. n., M. adjuncta cineritia Volynkin, Matov & Behounek, ssp. n. and M. dubiosa amitayus Volynkin & Han, ssp. n.) are described. Two taxa, previously regarded as subspecies are restored to specific status: M. adjuncta (Moore, 1881) stat. n. and M. dubiosa (A. Bang-Haas, 1912) stat. n. A taxon previously regarded as a junior synonym is restored to specific status: M. juldussica (Draudt, 1934) stat. n. A new synonymy is introduced: M. bathensis (Lutzau, 1900) = Hadena adusta var. moesta Staudinger, 1897 syn. n. The synonymy of M. bathensis and Crino adusta subsp. urupino Bryk, 1942 syn. rev. is revised. The lectotypes for Hadena? lama Staudinger, 1900, Mamestra vicina Alphéraky, 1882, Hadena adusta var. moesta Staudinger, 1897 and Hadena lama var. dubiosa A. Bang-Haas, 1912 are designated. The neotype for Crino adusta juldussica Draudt, 1934 is designated. The adults, male and female genitalia of all reviewed species and subspecies are illustrated. PMID:24870663

  4. Revision of the genus Ortopla Walker, [1859] with description of two new species from Southeast Asia (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Pantheinae). Revision of Pantheinae, contribution X.

    PubMed

    Behounek, G; Han, H L; Kononenko, V S

    2013-01-01

    The pantheine genus Ortopla Walker, [1859] 1858 is revised. Two new species, Ortopla witti sp. n. from the Philippines and O. longiuncus sp. n. from Nepal, Vietnam, Thailand, Myanmar and South China are described. The name O. commutanda Warren, 1891 (syn. n.) is synonymised with O. iarbasalis Walker, [1859] 1858. The distribution of species in East Asia is clarified. A checklist of the genus Ortopla is presented. Imagines, male and female genitalia of all species are illustrated. PMID:25113477

  5. A new species and two new combinations in the genus Strotihypera Kononenko & Han, 2011 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Noctuinae: Elaphriini). A postscript to the description of the genus Strotihypera.

    PubMed

    Han, H L; Kononenko, V S

    2015-01-01

    Elaphriini is a small tribe of the subfamily Noctuinae with predominantly New World distribution. Only three genera, Elaphria Hübner, 1818 with four species, Galgula Guenée, 1852 with one species (Fibiger & Hacker 2010) and Strotihypera Kononenko & Han, 2011 with one species are known from the Eurasia. The majority of species occurs in tropical and subtropical regions. The review of Eurasian Elaphriini with description of the new genus Strotihypera has recently been published by Kononenko & Han (2011). In the subsequent years in the result of intensive collecting in South West China we found a new species allied to Strotihypera flavipuncta (Leech, 1889) and two related species Strotihypera ochreipuncta (Wileman, 1914), comb. n. and "Hyperstrotia" macroplaga (Hampson, 1907), comb. n. The description of a new species and the review of two of its allies are presented here as a postscript to the description of the genus Strotihypera (Kononenko & Han 2011). PMID:26624461

  6. A revision of the genus Belciana Walker, 1862 with description of three new species (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae: Pantheinae) from East and South East Asia. Revision of Pantheinae, contribution XII.

    PubMed

    Behounek, G; Han, H L; Kononenko, V S

    2015-01-01

    The Oriental Pantheinae genus Belciana Walker, 1862 is revised. Three new species, B. hreblayi sp. n., B. sulawesiana sp. n., B. pinratanai sp. n., from Taiwan, Indonesia and Thailand, are described. Five new combinations in the genus Diphteroides Bethune-Baker, 1906 are proposed: Diphteroides caerulea (Hampson, 1926) comb. n., D. habroscia (Prout, 1924) comb. n., D. patricolor (Prout, 1924) comb. n., D. serrata Bethune-Baker, 1906, D. subserrata (Prout, 1924) comb. n. and D. sophronia (Prout, 1924) comb. n. The extensive diagnoses of known species of Belciana are given. The imagines, male and female genitalia are illustrated. The checklist of the genus Belciana in East Asia is presented. PMID:26624184

  7. Temporal and spatial distribution of Helicoverpa zea and Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: noctuidae) moths in pheromone traps across agricultural landscapes in Arkansas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pheromone trap captures of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and Heliothis virescens (F.) from 2002-2005 were used to examine the distribution of these species across a multiple crop environment in southeast Arkansas. The greatest number of H. virescens moths was collected during 2003, but densities were lo...

  8. Cross-Resistance Responses of Cry1Ac-Selected Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to the Bacillus thuringiensis Protein Vip3A

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One susceptible and three Cry1Ac-resistant strains of tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (F.), were used in laboratory studies to determine the level of cross-resistance between the Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) toxins Cry1Ac and Vip3A using concentration-mortality and leaf tissue experiments....

  9. Polyphyly of Lichen-cryptic Dagger Moths: synonymy of Agriopodes Hampson and description of a new basal acronictine genus, Chloronycta, gen. n. (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, B. Christian; Wagner, David L.; Zacharczenko, Brigette V.; Zahiri, Reza; Anweiler, Gary G.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The taxonomic composition and systematic position of Agriopodes Hampson is examined through an integrated approach using adult and larval morphology, biology, and molecular sequence data. The type-species of Agriopodes, Moma fallax Herrich-Schäffer is shown to be derived within the Acronicta grisea Walker species-group; accordingly, Agriopodes is relegated to synonymy under Acronicta Ochsenheimer, syn. n. (Acronictinae). Additionally, molecular markers and morphology show that Agriopodes is not monophyletic: Agriopodes tybo (Barnes) is not closely related to A. fallax nor to Acronicta, and is transferred to a new genus, Chloronycta Schmidt & Anweiler, gen. n. The immature stages of Chloronycta tybo comb. n. are described and illustrated for the first time. Although previously treated as a valid species, we show that Agriopodes geminata (Smith) represents the northern terminus of clinal variation in wing pattern of A. fallax and synonymize A. geminata under A. fallax (syn. n.). The history and identity of Agriopodes corticosa (Boisduval), a nomen dubium, is discussed. PMID:25061382

  10. Effects of Celangulin IV and V From Celastrus angulatus Maxim on Na+/K+-ATPase Activities of the Oriental Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Dan; Feng, Mingxing; Ji, Yufei; Wu, Wenjun; Hu, Zhaonong

    2016-01-01

    Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (sodium pump) is an important target for the development of botanical pesticide as it is responsible for transforming chemical energy in ATP to osmotic work and maintaining electrochemical Na(+ )and K(+ )gradients across the cell membrane of most animal cells. Celangulin IV (C-IV) and V (C-V), which are isolated from the root bark of Celastrus angulatus, are the major active ingredients of this insecticidal plant. The activities of C-IV and C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase were investigated by ultramicro measuring method to evaluate the effects of C-IV and C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities of the brain from the fifth Mythimna separata larvae and to discuss the insecticidal mechanism of C-IV and C-V. Results indicate that inhibitory activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase by C-IV and C-V possess an obvious concentration-dependent in vitro. Compared with C-IV, the inhibition of C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase was not striking. In vivo, at a concentration of 25 mg/liter, the inhibition ratio of C-IV on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity from the brain in narcosis and recovery period was more remarkable than that of C-V. Furthermore, the insects were fed with different mixture ratios of C-IV and C-V. The inhibition extent of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity was corresponded with the dose of C-IV. However, C-V had no notable effects. This finding may mean that the mechanism of action of C-IV and C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase were different. Na(+)/K -ATPase may be an action target of C-IV and C-V. PMID:27324586

  11. A lepidopteran aminoacylase (L-ACY-1) in Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) gut lumen hydrolyzes fatty acid-amino acid conjugates, elicitors of plant defense.

    PubMed

    Kuhns, Emily H; Seidl-Adams, Irmgard; Tumlinson, James H

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acid-amino acid conjugates (FACs) have been identified in Lepidopteran larvae as elicitors of plant defenses. Plant responses include the production of primary defense compounds and induction of secondary defense strategies including attraction of parasitoid wasps. These elicitors are present despite fitness costs, suggesting that they are important for the larvae's survival. In order to exploit FAC-mediated plant defense responses in agricultural settings, an understanding of FAC purpose and metabolism is crucial. To clarify their role, enzymes involved in this metabolism are being investigated. In this work a previously undiscovered FAC hydrolase was purified from Heliothis virescens frass by liquid chromatography and PAGE techniques and was identified as an aminoacylase-like protein (L-ACY-1) using MALDI-ToF/ToF and Edman sequencing. The full length gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and a polyclonal antibody against L-ACY-1 was made. L-ACY-1 was confirmed to be responsible for FAC hydrolysis activity through inhibition of N-linolenoyl-l-glutamine hydrolysis by titration with the polyclonal anti-L-ACY-1 antibody. L-ACY-1 activity is dependent on a divalent cation. This is the first time an aminoacylase has been described from an insect. L-ACY-1 appears to play a vastly different role in insects than ACYs do in mammals and may be involved in maintaining glutamine supplies for gut tissue metabolism. Identification of L-ACY-1, a FAC hydrolase, clarifies a previously uncharacterized portion of FAC metabolism. PMID:22056272

  12. Frequency and severity of western bean cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) ear damage in transgenic corn hybrids expressing different Bacillus thuringiensis cry toxins.

    PubMed

    Eichenseer, Herbert; Strohbehn, Robert; Burks, June

    2008-04-01

    The frequency and severity of corn ear damage caused by western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith), were measured on transgenic corn, Zea mays L., hybrids expressing two different insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) (Berliner) Cry toxins (Bt) selected to protect against damage caused by larval European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner). A field cage experiment deliberately infested with western bean cutworm egg masses resulted in less damage in the hybrid expressing the Cry1F protein and supported fewer western bean cutworm larvae than its non-Bt isoline. Corn hybrids expressing Cry1F, grown in small plot field experiments at three locations over two separate years and exposed to natural western bean cutworm infestations suffered less damage than non-Bt or Bt-hybrids expressing a Cry1Ab protein. Later maturing hybrids suffered more damage than shorter-season hybrids. Finally, corn ears observed in strip trials for several years in diverse agronomic conditions in farmer-cooperator fields corroborated the in-plant protection conferred by corn hybrids expressing the Cry1F protein in small plot field trials. PMID:18459424

  13. Interaction of proteinase inhibitors with Cry1Ac toxicity and presence of fifteen chymotrypsin cDNAs in midgut of the tobacco budworm Heliothis virescens (F.) (Lepidoptera: noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive adoption of Bt cotton places heavy selection pressure on lepidopteran insects. The potential development of Bt resistance is a major risk in the durability of Bt plant technology. Another concern is the surging of non-lepidopteran pests not controlled by Bt toxins. Intensive cloning and se...

  14. A provisional annotated list of the Lepidoptera of Honduras

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A biodiversity inventory of the Lepidoptera of Pico Bonito National Park and vicinity, in the Department of Atlantida of northern Honduras, has been initiated and will be conducted to obtain baseline data. We present a revised checklist of Honduran butterfly species (updated from the initial 1967 l...

  15. Lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) oviposition on Prunus germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was used as an oviposition surrogate for the congeneric S. exitiosa (Say) to examine possible preference for Prunus germplasm. We assayed limbs of a peach cultivar (Prunus persica), peach rootstocks, plum-peach hybrid rootstocks, the...

  16. Phenology of blue cactus moth Melitara prodenialis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Native cactus plants (Opuntia stricta Haw. [Cactaceae]) were sampled weekly at St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, St. Marks, Florida (30.16 - 30° 1' N, -84.21 - 84° 1' W) from September 2006 to September 2007 for the native blue cactus moth, Melitara prodenialis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Meli...

  17. Molecular analysis of the muscle protein projectin in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Ayme-Southgate, A J; Turner, L; Southgate, R J

    2013-01-01

    Striated muscles of both vertebrates and insects contain a third filament composed of the giant proteins, namely kettin and projectin (insects) and titin (vertebrates). All three proteins have been shown to contain several domains implicated in conferring elasticity, in particular a PEVK segment. In this study, the characterization of the projectin protein in the silkmoth, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), and the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), as well as a partial characterization in the Carolina sphinx, Manduca sexta L. (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), are presented. This study showed that, similar to other insects, projectin's overall modular organization was conserved, but in contrast, the PEVK region had a highly divergent sequence. The analysis of alternative splicing in the PEVK region revealed a small number of possible isoforms and the lack of a flight-muscle specific variant, both characteristics being in sharp contrast with findings from other insects. The possible correlation with difference in flight muscle stiffness and physiology between Lepidoptera and other insect orders is discussed. PMID:24206568

  18. Phylogenetic Studies and Modern Classification of the Pyraloidea (Lepidoptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pyraloidea, the third largest superfamily of the Lepidoptera, is comprised of two families - Pyralidae and Crambidae. The history of families previously placed in the Pyraloidea is discussed. The group now includes about 16,000 species worldwide. Morphologically, the superfamily is defined by a b...

  19. Lonomia obliqua Walker (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae): hemostasis implications.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Silviane; Faulhaber, Gustavo Adolpho Moreira

    2015-01-01

    In southern Brazil, since 1989, several cases of accidents produced by unwilling contact with the body of poisonous caterpillars of the moth species Lonomia obliqua Walker, 1855 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), were described. L. obliqua caterpillars have gregarious behavior and feed on leaves of host trees during the night, staying grouped in the trunk during the day, which favors the occurrence of accidents with the species. This caterpillar has the body covered with bristles that on contact with the skin of individuals, breaks and release their contents, inoculating the venom into the victim. The basic constitution of the venom is protein and its components produce physiological changes in the victim, which include disturbances in hemostasis. Hemorrhagic syndrome associated with consumption coagulopathy, intravascular hemolysis and acute renal failure are some of the possible clinical manifestations related to poisoning by L. obliqua. Specific laboratory tests for diagnosis of poisoning have not been described previously. The diagnosis of poisoning is made based on the patient's medical history, clinical manifestations, erythrocyte levels, and, primarily, parameters that evaluate blood coagulation. Treatment is performed with the use of supportive care and the administration of specific hyperimmune antivenom. Poisoning can be serious and even fatal. PMID:26248250

  20. Microencapsulated Pear Ester Enhances Insecticide Efficacy in Walnuts for Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Navel Orangeworm (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of combining insecticides with a microencapsulated formulation of ethyl (2E, 4Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester, PE-MEC) was evaluated in walnuts, Juglans regia L., for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella Walker (Lepido...

  1. Susceptibility of Choristoneura rosaceana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to two new reduced-risk insecticides.

    PubMed

    Sial, Ashfaq A; Brunner, Jay F; Doerr, Michael D

    2010-02-01

    The response of field-collected populations of the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to chlorantraniliprole, spinetoram, spinosad, and azinphosmethyl was assessed using a diet incorporation bioassay. Populations of obliquebanded leafroller were collected from nine orchards in Chelan, Douglas, Grant, and Okanogan counties of Washington. The neonates of the F1 or F2 generation were used in all assays. The parameters of probit regression lines were estimated and lethal concentration ratios were calculated for all populations compared with a susceptible laboratory population. Significant variation was detected in response to all four insecticides including chlorantraniliprole and spinetoram, which had never been used in the field, lethal concentration ratios were 3.9-39.7 for azinphosmethyl, 0.5-3.6 for spinosad, 1.2-5.3 for chlorantraniliprole, and 0.5-4.1 for spinetoram. Correlation analysis indicated possibility of cross-resistance between spinosad and spinetoram, which are both members of spinosyn class. The occurrence of low but significant levels of resistance against chlorantraniliprole and spinetoram in field-collected populations of C. rosaceana before their first field application indicates that the risk of resistance evolution against these two new reduced-risk insecticides exists. However, it is likely that these low levels of resistance can be managed if the insecticides are used judiciously in conjunction with sound resistance management programs. Implications of these results for developing and implementing resistance management strategies are discussed. PMID:20214379

  2. Unique synteny and alternate splicing of the chitin synthases in closely related heliothine moths

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two chitin synthase genes were characterized in the genomes of two heliothine moths: the corn earworm/cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). In both moths, the coding sequences for the two ge...

  3. Field evaluation of soybean engineered with a synthetic cry1Ac transgene for resistance to corn earworm, soybean looper, velvetbean caterpillar (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and lesser cornstalk borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Walker, D R; All, J N; McPherson, R M; Boerma, H R; Parrott, W A

    2000-06-01

    A transgenic line of the soybean 'Jack', Glycine max (L.) Merrill, expressing a synthetic cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki (Jack-Bt), was evaluated for resistance to four lepidopteran pests in the field. Jack-Bt and genotypes serving as susceptible and resistant controls were planted in field cages and artificially infested with larvae of corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner), in 1996, 1997, and 1998, and also with soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker), in 1996. Susceptible controls included Jack (1996-1998), 'Cobb' (1996), and Jack-HPH (1996). GatIR 81-296 was used as the resistant control in all 3 yr. Compared with untransformed Jack, Jack-Bt showed three to five times less defoliation from corn earworm and eight to nine times less damage from velvetbean caterpillar. Defoliation of GatIR 81-296 was intermediate between that of Jack and Jack-Bt for corn earworm, and similar to that of Jack for velveltbean caterpillar. Jack-Bt exhibited significant, but lower resistance to soybean looper. Jack-Bt also showed four times greater resistance than Jack to natural infestations of lesser cornstalk borer, Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller), in conventional field plots at two locations in 1998. Data from these experiments suggest that expression of this cry1Ac construct in soybean should provide adequate levels of resistance to several lepidopteran pests under field conditions. PMID:10902306

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of Choristoneura longicellana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and phylogenetic analysis of Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Peng; Zhao, Jin-Liang; Su, Tian-Juan; Luo, A-Rong; Zhu, Chao-Dong

    2016-10-10

    To better understand the diversity and phylogeny of Lepidoptera, the complete mitochondrial genome of Choristoneura longicellana (=Hoshinoa longicellana) was determined. It is a typical circular duplex molecule with 15,759bp in length, containing the standard metazoan set of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and an A+T-rich region. All of the inferred tRNA secondary structures show the common cloverleaf pattern, with the exception of trnS1(AGN), which lacks the DHU arm. The rrnL of C. Longicellana is the longest in sequenced lepidopterans. C. Longicellana has the same gene order as all lepidopteran species currently available in GenBank. There are 5 overlapping regions ranging from 1bp to 8bp and 14 intergenic spacers ranging from 1bp to 48bp. In addition, there are four similar tandem macro-satellite regions with the lengths of 101bp, 98bp, 92bp, and 92bp respectively in the A+T-rich regions of C. longicellana. We sampled 89 species representing 13 superfamilies, and reconstructed their relationship among Lepidoptera by Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood analysis. The topology of the two phylogenetic analysis trees is identical roughly, except for Cossoidea in different locations, the positions of Cossoidea, Copromorphoidea, Gelechioidea, Zygaenoidea were not determined based the limited sampling. (Geometroidea+(Noctuoidea+Bombycoidea)) form the Macrolepidoptera "core". Pyraloidea group with the "core" Macrolepidoptera. Papilionoidea are not Macrolepidoptera. The Hesperiidae (represent Hesperioidea) is nested in the Papilionoidea, and closely related to Pieridae and Papilionidae. The well-known relationship of (Nymphalidae+(Riodinidae+Lycaenidae)) is recovered in this paper. PMID:27390085

  5. Genetic characterization of resistance to deltamethrin in Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) from India.

    PubMed

    Balasubramani, Venkatasamy; Sayyed, Ali H; Crickmore, Neil

    2008-12-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is considered as one of the most difficult pests to control. It has developed resistance not only to synthetic insecticides but also to Bacillus thuringiensis-based pesticides. We tested the hypothesis that selection in a P. xylostella population, from Hosur, India, with deltamethrin would give a broad spectrum of resistance to several insecticides. We also were interested in genetically classifying resistance to deltamethrin in the selected population and in evaluating whether resistance can be suppressed using synergists. Bioassays (at generation 1, G1) using deltamethrin indicated a resistance ratio of 161-fold compared with a laboratory-susceptible population of P. xylostella (Lab-UK). At G2, the field-derived population was divided into two subpopulations; one population was selected (G1 to G8) with deltamethrin (Delta-SEL), and the second population was left unselected (UNSEL). Bioassays at G9 indicated that selection with deltamethrin gave a resistance ratio of 15-fold compared with UNSEL and 1,647-fold compared with Lab-UK. The resistance to deltamethrin in the UNSEL population was stable. The Delta-SEL population maintained resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin, but there was no cross-resistance to indoxacarb, DDT, or Cry1Ac. Crossing experiments indicated that resistance to deltamethrin in Delta-SEL was multigenic and inherited in an incompletely dominant fashion. Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S.S.S-tri-n-butyl phosphorotrithioate with potent inhibitory activity against esterases and/or monooxygenases significantly increased the toxicity of deltamethrin against both UNSEL and Delta-SEL, but they showed no such synergism with Lab-UK. Thus, it can be predicted that development of resistance to deltamethrin would be delayed under appropriate control strategies that favor the dilution of resistance alleles by enhanced flow of susceptible alleles. Further analysis suggested that mixing PBO

  6. Characterization of novel microsatellite markers for Hyphantria cunea and implications for other Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Cao, L J; Wen, J B; Wei, S J; Liu, J; Yang, F; Chen, M

    2015-06-01

    This is the first report of microsatellite markers (simple sequence repeats, SSR) for fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae), an important quarantine pest in some European and Asian countries. Here, we developed 48 microsatellite markers for H. cunea from SSR enrichment libraries. Sequences isolated from libraries were sorted into four categories and analyzed. Our results suggest that sequences classified as Grouped should not be used for microsatellite primer design. The genetic diversity of microsatellite loci was assessed in 72 individuals from three populations. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 5 with an average of 3. The observed and expected heterozygosities of loci ranged from 0 to 0.958 and 0 to 0.773, respectively. A total of 18 out of 153 locus/population combinations deviated significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Moreover, significant linkage disequilibrium was detected in one pair of loci (1275 pairs in total). In the neutral test, two loci were grouped into the candidate category for positive selection and the remainder into the neutral category. In addition, a complex mutation pattern was observed for these loci, and F ST performed better than did R ST for the estimation of population differentiation in different mutation patterns. The results of the present study can be used for population genetic studies of H. cunea. PMID:25772405

  7. Identification and Evaluation of 21 Novel Microsatellite Markers from the Autumnal Moth (Epirrita autumnata) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae)

    PubMed Central

    Aarnes, Siv Grethe; Fløystad, Ida; Schregel, Julia; Vindstad, Ole Petter Laksforsmo; Jepsen, Jane Uhd; Eiken, Hans Geir; Ims, Rolf A.; Hagen, Snorre B.

    2015-01-01

    The autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata) is a cyclically outbreaking forest Lepidoptera with circumpolar distribution and substantial impact on Northern ecosystems. We have isolated 21 microsatellites from the species to facilitate population genetic studies of population cycles, outbreaks, and crashes. First, PCR primers and PCR conditions were developed to amplify 19 trinucleotide loci and two tetranucleotide loci in six multiplex PCR approaches and then analyzed for species specificity, sensitivity and precision. Twelve of the loci showed simple tandem repeat array structures while nine loci showed imperfect repeat structures, and repeat numbers varied in our material between six and 15. The application in population genetics for all the 21 microsatellites were further validated in 48 autumnal moths sampled from Northern Norway, and allelic variation was detected in 19 loci. The detected numbers of alleles per locus ranged from two to 13, and the observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.04 to 0.69 and 0.04 to 0.79, respectively. Evidence for linkage disequilibrium was found for six loci as well as indication of one null allele. We find that these novel microsatellites and their multiplex-PCR assays are suitable for further research on fine- and large-scale population-genetic studies of Epirrita autumnata. PMID:26393576

  8. Ithomiini butterflies (Lepidoptera: Hymphalidae) of Antioquia, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Giraldo, C E; Willmott, K R; Vila, R; Uribe, S I

    2013-04-01

    Colombia is one of the most biodiverse countries on the planet. However, economic and scientific investment in completing inventories of its biodiversity has been relatively poor in comparison with other Neotropical countries. Butterflies are the best studied group of invertebrates, with the highest proportion of known to expected species. More than 3,200 species of butterflies have been recorded in Colombia, although the study of the still many unexplored areas will presumably increase this number. This work provides a list of Ithomiini butterflies collected in the department of Antioquia and estimates the total number of species present, based on revision of entomological collections, records in the literature and field work performed between 2003 and 2011. The list includes 99 species and 32 genera, representing 27% of all Ithomiini species. We report 50 species of Ithomiini not formerly listed from Antioquia, and found the highest diversity of ithomiine species to be at middle elevations (900-1,800 m). The mean value of the Chao2 estimator for number of species in Antioquia is 115 species, which is close to a predicted total of 109 based on known distributions of other Ithomiini not yet recorded from the department. Nine species are potentially of particular conservation importance because of their restricted distributions, and we present range maps for each species. We also highlight areas in Antioquia with a lack of biodiversity knowledge to be targeted in future studies. This paper contributes to mapping the distribution of the Lepidoptera of Antioquia department in particular and of Colombia in general. PMID:23949748

  9. Effects of Kaolin on Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Its Compatibility With the Natural Enemy, Trichogramma cacoeciae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    PubMed

    Pease, Christina E; López-Olguín, Jesús F; Pérez-Moreno, Ignacio; Marco-Mancebón, Vicente

    2016-04-01

    Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is an important grapevine pest in Europe recently encountered in America. Trichogramma cacoeciae Marchal (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is amongst the most effective parasitoids for Lepidopteran species. Studies to evaluate the effect of kaolin, an inert, nontoxic mineral, on oviposition, egg hatch, and neonate mortality of these species were carried out. Efficacy on L. botrana neonate larvae, oviposition, and egg hatch was evaluated. Effects of kaolin on parasitism and emergence of T. cacoeciae from L. botrana and Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs were also evaluated. Lobesia botrana egg hatch and oviposition rates were reduced, and neonate larvae mortality was significantly greater in kaolin-treated arenas and when included in synthetic neonate larvae diet. Kaolin had no effect on T. cacoeciae parasitism in both hosts. There was only a slight but statistically insignificant effect on T. cacoeciae progeny emergence from L. botrana eggs and no effect from E. kuehniella. The results involving reductions in L. botrana oviposition and egg hatch and increase in larval mortality with kaolin suggest this compound may contribute to reduction in population densities and can be considered in rational integrated pest management strategies for L. botrana. Due to the laboratory results presented on parasitoid emergence, even though field bioassays would give a more exhaustive evaluation, it appears kaolin can be compatible with T. cacoeciae in L. botrana management. PMID:26803817

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of Gynaephora alpherakii (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae).

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ming-Long; Zhang, Qi-Lin; Guo, Zhong-Long; Wang, Juan

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Gynaephora alpherakii (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) has been sequenced and annotated in this study. This mitogenome is 15,755 bp in length with an A + T content of 81.44%, and contains 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes that are arranged in the same order as that of other lepidopteran species. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) start with a typical ATN codon, with the exception of cox1 which uses CGA as the initial codon. All of the 22 transfer RNA genes present the typical clover leaf secondary structure. The A + T-rich region is located between rrnS and trnM with a length of 449 bp, and contains a 19 bp poly-T stretch as found in other lepidopteran mitogenomes. This is the third completely sequenced mitogenome from the family Lymantriidae of Lepidoptera. PMID:25469814

  11. Quantifying Species Diversity with a DNA Barcoding-Based Method: Tibetan Moth Species (Noctuidae) on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Qian; Han, Huilin; Hu, XiMin; Li, XinHai; Zhu, ChaoDong; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Ward, Robert D.; Zhang, Ai-bing

    2013-01-01

    With the ongoing loss of biodiversity, there is a great need for fast and effective ways to assess species richness and diversity: DNA barcoding provides a powerful new tool for this. We investigated this approach by focusing on the Tibetan plateau, which is one of the world's top biodiversity hotspots. There have been few studies of its invertebrates, although they constitute the vast majority of the region's diversity. Here we investigated species diversity of the lepidopteran family Noctuidae, across different environmental gradients, using measurements based on traditional morphology as well as on DNA barcoding. The COI barcode showed an average interspecific K2P distance of , which is about four times larger than the mean intraspecific distance (). Using six diversity indices, we did not detect any significant differences in estimated species diversity between measurements based on traditional morphology and on DNA barcoding. Furthermore, we found strong positive correlations between them, indicating that barcode-based measures of species diversity can serve as a good surrogate for morphology-based measures in most situations tested. Eastern communities were found to have significantly higher diversity than Western ones. Among 22 environmental factors tested, we found that three (precipitation of driest month, precipitation of driest quarter, and precipitation of coldest quarter) were significantly correlated with species diversity. Our results indicate that these factors could be the key ecological factors influencing the species diversity of the lepidopteran family Noctuidae on the Tibetan plateau. PMID:23741330

  12. Hawk moths (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) of Turkey and their zoogeographical distribution.

    PubMed

    Akkuzu, E; Ayberk, H; Inac, S

    2007-10-01

    The family Sphingidae (Lepidoptera) has 63 species in the western Palaearctic Region of the world. Thirty-four out of 63 species present in Turkey either permanently or temporarily. The subfamilies Smerinthinae, Sphinginae and Macroglossinae are consisted of 7, 4, and 23 species respectively Ten out of 34 species were captured in the field. Available knowledge of Sphingidae of Turkey was evaluated and summarized with this study as well. PMID:18405103

  13. Chronic Sublethal Effects of Cantharidin on the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhengyu; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-01-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is a major pest of cruciferous vegetables worldwide. Cantharidin, a natural toxin isolated from blister beetles, has been reported to be toxic to P. xylostella. However, little is known on the chronic sublethal effects of cantharidin on this species. In this study, we assessed the changes of susceptibility, development, reproduction and other demographic parameters in both the selected P. xylostella strain (Sub, selected by LC25 cantharidin for consecutive 12 generations) and the revertant strain (SubR, derived from the Sub strain without being exposed to cantharidin for 12 generations). Results revealed that the two strains maintained a relatively high-level susceptibility to cantharidin. Severe adverse effects on the population dynamics and fitness in Sub strain were observed. In addition, repeated exposure of P. xylostella to sublethal concentration of cantharidin resulted in negative effects on adult performance and deformities in adults. Although morphologically normal for individuals, the SubR strain exhibited a disadvantage in population growth rate. Our results showed that sublethal concentration of cantharidin exhibited severe negative effects on population growth for longtime. These findings would be useful for assessing the potential effects and risk of cantharidin on P. xylostella and for developing effective integrated pest management. PMID:26035491

  14. The mitochondrial genome of Cethosia biblis (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Xin, Tianrong; Li, Lei; Yao, Chengyi; Wang, Yayu; Zou, Zhiwen; Wang, Jing; Xia, Bin

    2016-07-01

    We present the complete mitogenome of Cethosia biblis (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in this article. The mitogenome was a circle molecular consisting of 15,286 nucleotides, 37 genes, and an A + T-rich region. The order of 37 genes was typical of insect mitochondrial DNA sequences described to date. The overall base composition of the genome is A (37.41%), T (42.80%), C (11.87%), and G (7.91%) with an A + T-rich hallmark as that of other invertebrate mitochondrial genomes. The start codon was mainly ATA in most of the mitochondrial protein-coding genes such as ND2, COI, ATP8, ND3, ND5, ND4, ND6, and ND1, but COII, ATP6, COIII, ND4L, and Cob genes employing ATG. The stop codon was TAA in all the protein-coding genes. The A + T region is located between 12S rRNA and tRNA(M)(et). The phylogenetic relationships of Lepidoptera species were constructed based on the nucleotides sequences of 13 PCGs of mitogenomes using the neighbor-joining method. The molecular-based phylogeny supported the traditional morphological classification on relationships within Lepidoptera species. PMID:26029877

  15. Phenology and Population Radiation of the Nettle Caterpillar, Darna pallivitta (Moore) in Hawai'i

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nettle caterpillar, Darna pallivitta (Moore) (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), is an invasive pest with established populations on three Hawai’ian islands. Indigenous to southeast Asia, D. pallivitta caterpillars cause defoliation of ornamental nursery stock and poses a human health hazard due to the...

  16. Phenology and Population Radiation of the Nettle Caterpillar, Darna pallivitta (Moore) in Hawai'i.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nettle caterpillar, Darna pallivitta (Moore) (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), is an invasive pest with established populations on three Hawai’ian islands. Indigenous to southeast Asia, D. pallivitta caterpillars cause defoliation of ornamental nursery stock and poses a human health hazard due to the...

  17. Survey of susceptibilities to monosultap, triazophos, fipronil, and abamectin in Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    He, Yue Ping; Gao, Cong Fen; Cao, Ming Zhang; Chen, Wen Ming; Huang, Li Qin; Zhou, Wei Jun; Liu, Xu Gan; Shen, Jin Liang; Zhu, Yu Cheng

    2007-12-01

    To provide a foundation for national resistance management of the Asiatic rice borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a study was carried out to determine dose-response and susceptibility changes over a 5-yr period in the insect from representative rice, Oryza sativa L., production regions. In total, 11 populations were collected from 2002 to 2006 in seven rice-growing provinces in China, and they were used to examine their susceptibility levels to monosultap, triazophos, fipronil, and abamectin. Results indicated that most populations had increased tolerance to monosultap. Several field populations, especially those in the southeastern Zhejiang Province, were highly or extremely highly resistant to triazophos (resistance ratio [RR] = 52.57-899.93-fold), and some populations in Anhui, Jiangsu, Shanghai, and the northern rice regions were susceptible or had a low level of resistance to triazophos (RR = 1.00-10.69). Results also showed that most field populations were susceptible to fipronil (RR < 3), but the populations from Ruian and Cangnan, Zhejiang, in 2006 showed moderate levels of resistance to fipronil (RR = 20.99-25.35). All 11 field populations collected in 2002-2006 were susceptible to abamectin (RR < 5). The tolerance levels in the rice stem borer exhibited an increasing trend (or with fluctuation) over a 5-yr period for different insecticides, and they reached a maximal level in 2006 for all four insecticides. Analysis of regional resistance ratios indicated that the history and intensity of insecticide application are the major driving forces for the resistance evolution in C. suppressalis. Strategic development of insecticide resistance management also is proposed. PMID:18232403

  18. Genetic, biochemical, and physiological characterization of spinosad resistance in Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Sayyed, Ali H; Saeed, Shafqat; Noor-Ul-Ane, M; Crickmore, Neil

    2008-10-01

    Bioassays (at generation G2) with a newly collected field population (designated MN) of Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) from Multan, Pakistan, indicated resistance to spinosad, indoxacarb, deltamethrin, abamectin, and acetamiprid. At G2 the field-derived population was divided into two subpopulations, one was selected (G2 to G11) with spinosad (Spino-SEL), whereas the second was left unselected (UNSEL). A significant reduction in the resistance ratio for each compound was observed in UNSEL at G12, indicating that the observed resistance to each insecticide was unstable. For Spino-SEL, bioassays at G12 found that selection with spinosad gave a resistance ratio of 283 compared with MN at G2. The resistance to indoxacarb and acetamiprid in the Spino-SEL population increased to 13- and 67-fold, respectively, compared with MN at G2. The toxicity of deltamethrin to Spino-SEL was similar to its toxicity to the MN population at G2. This suggests that spinosad selection maintained the otherwise unstable resistance to the compound. In contrast, resistance to abamectin decreased significantly from G2 to G12 in Spino-SEL. Logit regression analysis of F1 reciprocal crosses between Spino-SEL and the susceptible Lab-UK indicated that resistance to spinosad was inherited as an autosomal, incompletely recessive trait. The spinosad resistance allele significantly delays the developmental time, reduced pupal weight, number of eggs laid, and number of eggs hatched compared with Lab-UK. Further analysis suggests Spino-SEL exhibited a significantly lower intrinsic rate of population increase (r(m)) to all other populations tested. PMID:18950049

  19. Three new species of genus Sinophorus Förster (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) parasitizing twig and defoliating Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Mao-Ling; Li, Tao; Cao, Jiang-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Three new wasp species are described from the subfamily Campopleginae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), Sinophorus bazariae Sheng, sp. n., reared from Bazaria turensis Ragonot (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) in Dulan County, Qinghai Province, China, S. nigrus Sheng, sp. n., reared from Epinotia rubiginosana rubiginosana (Herrich-Schäffer) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) in Weichang, Hebei Province, and S. zeirapherae Sheng, sp. n., reared from Zeiraphera grisecana (Hübner) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) in Liupanshan, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. A key to the species of Chinese Sinophorus is provided. PMID:25947806

  20. Chronic exposure of the European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to Cry1Ab Bacillus thuringiensis toxin.

    PubMed

    Chaufaux, J; Seguin, M; Swanson, J J; Bourguet, D; Siegfried, B D

    2001-12-01

    Transgenic corn expressing the insecticidal toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner is gaining support as an effective control technology for use against lepidopteran pests, particularly European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). However, there is concern that widespread adoption of transgenic plants will rapidly lead to B. thuringiensis toxin resistance. Thus, long-term selection of O. nubilalis populations with the Cry1Ab B. thuringiensis toxin has been undertaken in several laboratories in the United States and in Europe. We present results from two independent selection experiments performed in laboratories at the University of Nebraska and at the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique in France. Although the protocols and methods used by the two laboratories were different, the results were comparable. The highest level of resistance occurred at generation 7 (14-fold), generation 9 (13-fold), and generation 9 (32-fold) for three different strains. For each strain, the level of resistance fluctuated from generation to generation, although there were consistently significant decreases in toxin susceptibility across generations for all selected strains. These results suggest that low levels of resistance are common among widely distributed O. nubilalis populations. PMID:11777065