Science.gov

Sample records for lepidopterous insect pests

  1. The discovery of pyridalyl: a novel insecticidal agent for controlling lepidopterous pests.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Noriyasu; Saito, Shigeru; Hirose, Taro; Suzuki, Masaya; Matsuo, Sanshiro; Izumi, Keiichi; Nagatomi, Toshio; Ikegami, Hiroshi; Umeda, Kimitoshi; Tsushima, Kazunori; Matsuo, Noritada

    2004-01-01

    Synthesis of analogues of two compounds with known insecticidal activity, both of which contain a 3,3-dichloro-2-propenyloxy group, produced 2-(trifluoromethyl)-4-phenoxyphenyl 3,3-dichloro-2-propenyl ether, which had weak activity against lepidopterous larvae. Structural modifications around this lead compound led to the development of pyridalyl [Pleo, S-1812; 2,6-dichloro-4-(3,3-dichloroallyloxy)phenyl 3-[5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridyloxy]propyl ether], which belongs to a new class of insecticides. Pyridalyl gives very good control of various lepidopterous and thysanopterous pests on cotton and vegetables, without phytotoxicity. It controls populations of Heliothis virescens F and Plutella xylostella (L) which are resistant to various currently used insecticides. It also produces unique insecticidal symptoms, so it may have a different mode of action from other existing insecticides. Pyridalyl is also less harmful than existing insecticides to various beneficial arthropods, so it should provide an important tool in IPM and insecticidal management programmes for the control of lepidopterous and thysanopterous pests. The first market introduction is expected in Japan and some Asian countries in the years between 2004 and 2005. PMID:14727738

  2. Sunflower insect pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Like other annual crops, sunflowers are fed upon by a variety of insect pests capable of reducing yields. Though there are a few insects which are considered consistent or severe (e.g., sunflower moth, banded sunflower moth, red sunflower seed weevil), many more insects are capable of causing proble...

  3. Important Insect Pests of Fruit - Important Insect Pests of Nuts - Field Crop Insect Pests - Insect Pests of Vegetable Crops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gesell, Stanley G.; And Others

    This document consists of four agriculture extension service publications from Pennsylvania State University. The titles are: (1) Important Insect Pests of Fruit; (2) Important Insect Pests of Nuts; (3) Field Crop Insect Pests; and (4) Insect Pests of Vegetable Crops. The first publication gives the hosts, injury, and description of 22 insect…

  4. Corn Insect Pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historically, the major corn insect pests have been corn rootworms (northern and western), European corn borer, and black cutworm. Bt-corn hybrids are effective against most of these pests. However, Bt-corn hybrids are not effective against corn leaf aphid, corn root aphid, sap beetles, corn rootwor...

  5. Evaluation of pest vulnerability of 'Benning' soybean value added and insect resistant near isogenic lines.

    PubMed

    Samuel-Foo, Michelle; All, John N; Boerma, H Roger

    2013-04-01

    Crop enhancement with value added traits may affect vulnerability to insects, and evaluating the susceptibility levels of the various value added traits in elite germplasm would aid in developing integrated pest management strategies. During 2007-2008, five 'Benning' soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr) lines with different value added nutritional traits and four insect resistant quantitative trait loci (QTL) lines were evaluated in an effort to determine their pest vulnerability under artificial and natural insect pest populations. The lines showed variable susceptibility to lepidopterous insect pests classified as defoliators and stem feeders in replicated greenhouse and field tests. The study was carried out in Athens and Midville, GA. The green cloverworm (Hypena scabra (F.)) was the most common lepidopteran defoliator occurring in the fields. Other caterpillar pests found included the soybean looper (Pseudoplusia includens (Walker)), the bollworm (Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)), and the velvetbean caterpillar (Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner)). Data indicated that there was no significantly increased pest susceptibility among the value added cultivars with improved nutritional qualities, with the insect resistant quantitative trait loci lines Benning M and Benning MGH consistently being less susceptible to lepidopterous (Noctuidae) leaf injury. PMID:23786071

  6. Irradiating insect pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a non-technical article focusing on phytosanitary uses of irradiation. In a series of interview questions, I present information on the scope of the invasive species problem and the contribution of international trade in agricultural products to the movement of invasive insects. This is foll...

  7. Radar, Insect Population Ecology, and Pest Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, C. R. (Editor); Wolf, W. (Editor); Klassen, W. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Discussions included: (1) the potential role of radar in insect ecology studies and pest management; (2) the potential role of radar in correlating atmospheric phenomena with insect movement; (3) the present and future radar systems; (4) program objectives required to adapt radar to insect ecology studies and pest management; and (5) the specific action items to achieve the objectives.

  8. Nocturnal migrations of cotton insect pests indicated by Doppler radar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An outbreak of beet armyworms and other lepidopterous pests devastated cotton production in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas in 1995. Major infestations occurred later in the year at San Angelo and other cotton production areas in Texas and Oklahoma, but there have been no reports that connecte...

  9. Supplemental control of lepidopterous pests on Bt transgenic sweet corn with biologically-based spray treatments.

    PubMed

    Farrar, Robert R; Shepard, B Merle; Shapiro, Martin; Hassell, Richard L; Schaffer, Mark L; Smith, Chad M

    2009-01-01

    Biologically-based spray treatments, including nucleopolyhedroviruses, neem, and spinosad, were evaluated as supplemental controls for the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), on transgenic sweet corn, Zea mays (L.) (Poales: Poaceae), expressing a Cry1Ab toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) (Bt). Overall, transgenic corn supported lower densities of both pests than did nontransgenic corn. Control of the fall armyworm was improved in both whorl-stage and tassel-stage corn by the use of either a nucleopolyhedrovirus or neem, but the greatest improvement was seen with spinosad. Only spinosad consistently reduced damage to ears, which was caused by both pest species. In general, efficacy of the spray materials did not differ greatly between transgenic and nontransgenic corn. PMID:19611255

  10. Supplemental Control of Lepidopterous Pests on Bt Transgenic Sweet Corn with Biologically-Based Spray Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Farrar, Robert R.; Shepard, B. Merle; Shapiro, Martin; Hassell, Richard. L; Schaffer, Mark. L.; Smith, Chad. M.

    2009-01-01

    Biologically-based spray treatments, including nucleopolyhedroviruses, neem, and spinosad, were evaluated as supplemental controls for the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), on transgenic sweet corn, Zea mays (L.) (Poales: Poaceae), expressing a Cry1Ab toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) (Bt). Overall, transgenic corn supported lower densities of both pests than did nontransgenic corn. Control of the fall armyworm was improved in both whorl-stage and tassel-stage corn by the use of either a nucleopolyhedrovirus or neem, but the greatest improvement was seen with spinosad. Only spinosad consistently reduced damage to ears, which was caused by both pest species. In general, efficacy of the spray materials did not differ greatly between transgenic and nontransgenic corn. PMID:19611255

  11. Fungal allelochemicals in insect pest management.

    PubMed

    Holighaus, Gerrit; Rohlfs, Marko

    2016-07-01

    Interactions between insects and fungi are widespread, and important mediators of these interactions are fungal chemicals that can therefore be considered as allelochemicals. Numerous studies suggest that fungal chemicals can affect insects in many different ways. Here, we apply the terminology established by insect-plant ecologists for categorizing the effect of fungal allelochemicals on insects and for evaluating the application potential of these chemicals in insect pest management. Our literature survey shows that fungal volatile and non-volatile chemicals have an enormous potential to influence insect behavior and fitness. Many of them still remain to be discovered, but some recent examples of repellents and toxins could open up new ways for developing safe insect control strategies. However, we also identified shortcomings in our understanding of the chemical ecology of insect-fungus interactions and the way they have been investigated. In particular, the mode-of-action of fungal allelochemicals has often not been appropriately designated or examined, and the way in which induction by insects affects fungal chemical diversity is poorly understood. This review should raise awareness that in-depth ecological studies of insect-fungus interactions can reveal novel allelochemicals of particular benefit for the development of innovative insect pest management strategies. PMID:27147531

  12. Chemical environment manipulation for pest insects control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenblatt, J. A.; Lewis, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    The chemical environment of pest species may be considered a habitat susceptible to management Management may be by means of manipulation of the environment of the pest for population suppression or for enhancement of natural enemies Examples of each are reviewed here Chemical stimuli influencing the behavior of phytophagous insects include host plant originated stimuli and pheromones The latter, especially sex pheromones, have proved most successful as tools for manipulation of pest population dynamics Factors influencing search behavior of natural enemies include habitat characteristics such as crop, associated plants and plant assemblages, host plant characteristics, influence of associated organisms, and characteristics of the searching entomophage Recent studies have shown potential for simultaneous management of a pest species and enhancement of natural enemies using pest pheromones

  13. Insect Pests of Field Crops. MP-28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhardt, Chris C.

    This document addresses the principles of field crop insect control through biological, mechanical, and chemical processes. Identification, life history, damage, pesticides, pesticide use and environmental considerations are presented for the major pests of corn, alfalfa, beans, small grains, sugar beets, and potatoes. Each section is accompanied…

  14. Insect Pests Models and Insecticide Application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past, the dominant approach in theoretical pest management ecology has emphasized the use of simple analytical or mathematical models and the analysis of systems in equilibrium. Recent advancements in computer technology have provided the opportunity for ecological insect modelers to move aw...

  15. Sustainable Biocontrol of Apple Insect Pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biocontrol of insect pests is a cornerstone to sustainable production of apples and other crops. The ecology of orchards lends itself to the application of many management options which will enhance the sustainability of biocontrol. Orchards remain in place for decades, allowing for an evolution o...

  16. Insect pest management in forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlsten, Donald L.; Rowney, David L.

    1983-01-01

    Understanding the role of insects in forest ecosystems is vital to the development of environmentally and economically sound pest management strategies in forestry Most of the research on forest insects has been confined to phytophagous species associated with economically important tree species The roles of most other insects in forest environments have generally been ignored, including the natural enemies and associates of phytophagous species identified as being important In the past few years several investigations have begun to reevaluate the role of phytophagous species responsible for perturbation in forest ecosystems, and it appears that these species may be playing an important role in the primary productivity of those ecosystems Also, there is an increasing awareness that forest pest managers have been treating the symptoms and not the causes of the problems in the forest Many insect problems are associated with poor sites or sites where trees are growing poorly because of crowding As a result, there is considerable emphasis on the hazard rating of stands of trees for their susceptibility to various phytophagous insects The next step is to manipulate forest stands to make them less susceptible to forest pest complexes A thinning study in California is used as an example and shows that tree mortality in ponderosa pine ( Pinus ponderosa) attributable to the western pine beetle ( Dendroctonus brevicomis) can be reduced by commercial thinning to reduce stocking

  17. Insect Pathogenic Bacteria in Integrated Pest Management.

    PubMed

    Ruiu, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The scientific community working in the field of insect pathology is experiencing an increasing academic and industrial interest in the discovery and development of new bioinsecticides as environmentally friendly pest control tools to be integrated, in combination or rotation, with chemicals in pest management programs. In this scientific context, market data report a significant growth of the biopesticide segment. Acquisition of new technologies by multinational Ag-tech companies is the center of the present industrial environment. This trend is in line with the requirements of new regulations on Integrated Pest Management. After a few decades of research on microbial pest management dominated by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), novel bacterial species with innovative modes of action are being discovered and developed into new products. Significant cases include the entomopathogenic nematode symbionts Photorhabdus spp. and Xenorhabdus spp., Serratia species, Yersinia entomophaga, Pseudomonas entomophila, and the recently discovered Betaproteobacteria species Burkholderia spp. and Chromobacterium spp. Lastly, Actinobacteria species like Streptomyces spp. and Saccharopolyspora spp. have gained high commercial interest for the production of a variety of metabolites acting as potent insecticides. With the aim to give a timely picture of the cutting-edge advancements in this renewed research field, different representative cases are reported and discussed. PMID:26463190

  18. Insect Pathogenic Bacteria in Integrated Pest Management

    PubMed Central

    Ruiu, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The scientific community working in the field of insect pathology is experiencing an increasing academic and industrial interest in the discovery and development of new bioinsecticides as environmentally friendly pest control tools to be integrated, in combination or rotation, with chemicals in pest management programs. In this scientific context, market data report a significant growth of the biopesticide segment. Acquisition of new technologies by multinational Ag-tech companies is the center of the present industrial environment. This trend is in line with the requirements of new regulations on Integrated Pest Management. After a few decades of research on microbial pest management dominated by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), novel bacterial species with innovative modes of action are being discovered and developed into new products. Significant cases include the entomopathogenic nematode symbionts Photorhabdus spp. and Xenorhabdus spp., Serratia species, Yersinia entomophaga, Pseudomonas entomophila, and the recently discovered Betaproteobacteria species Burkholderia spp. and Chromobacterium spp. Lastly, Actinobacteria species like Streptomyces spp. and Saccharopolyspora spp. have gained high commercial interest for the production of a variety of metabolites acting as potent insecticides. With the aim to give a timely picture of the cutting-edge advancements in this renewed research field, different representative cases are reported and discussed. PMID:26463190

  19. [Evaluation of plant protectants against pest insects].

    PubMed

    Pang, X; Zhang, M; Hou, Y; Jiao, Y; Cen, Y

    2000-02-01

    An interference index of population control (IIPC) was constructed for investigating the complex effects of plant protectants, including the effects of repelling insect pests away from the plant, deterring the egg laying of adults and the continuation of feeding, and causing death by toxicity. At the same time, indicated by IIPC, the alcohol extracts of some common plants, such as Eucalytus rubusta, Wedelia chinensis etc. and the neem oil gave very good results to protect the plant against Plutella xylostella. The D-C-Tron NR Petroleum Spray Oil (CALTEX) also gave an excellent effect to protect citrus against red mite. All the experiments show the important role of the repellent effect on the pests. PMID:11766564

  20. Integrated pest management: the push-pull approach for controlling insect pests and weeds of cereals, and its potential for other agricultural systems including animal husbandry.

    PubMed

    Hassanali, Ahmed; Herren, Hans; Khan, Zeyaur R; Pickett, John A; Woodcock, Christine M

    2008-02-12

    This paper describes the 'push-pull' or 'stimulo-deterrent diversionary' strategy in relation to current and potential examples from our own experiences. The push-pull effect is established by exploiting semiochemicals to repel insect pests from the crop ('push') and to attract them into trap crops ('pull'). The systems exemplified here have been developed for subsistence farming in Africa and delivery of the semiochemicals is entirely by companion cropping, i.e. intercropping for the push and trap cropping for the pull. The main target was a series of lepidopterous pests attacking maize and other cereals. Although the area given to the cereal crop itself is reduced under the push-pull system, higher yields are produced per unit area. An important spin-off from the project is that the companion crops are valuable forage for farm animals. Leguminous intercrops also provide advantages with regard to plant nutrition and some of the trap crops help with water retention and in reducing land erosion. A major benefit is that certain intercrop plants provide dramatic control of the African witchweed (striga). Animal husbandry forms an essential part of intensive subsistence agriculture in Africa and developments using analogous push-pull control strategies for insect pests of cattle are exemplified. PMID:17652071

  1. North Dakota Sunflower Insect Pest Survey, 2006-2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The major insect pest species that cause economic losses to sunflower producers in North Dakota are banded sunflower moth (Cochylis hospes Walsingham), red sunflower seed weevil (Smicronyx fulvus Le Conte), and sunflower midge (Contarinia schulzi Gagne). New emerging insect pests include lygus bugs ...

  2. Controlling insect pests & diseases in organic pecan and peach production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of insect pests and diseases can cause severe damage in orchard crops such as pecan and peach. David Shapiro-Ilan and Clive Bock from the USDA-ARS Fruit and Tree Nut Research Laboratory in Byron GA provided information on current or potential organic solutions to control the key insect pest...

  3. Minute bug with enormous impacts on insect pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Minute pirate bugs (Orius spp.) are common and abundant insect predators that can be found in cotton and many other field crops in Arizona and the western U.S. They are important predators of a variety of insect and mite pests in western crops and can help to suppress pest populations and thus cont...

  4. An Introduction to Microbial Control of Insect Pests of Potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite allelochemical defenses, potato is attacked by a multitude of invertebrate pests including insects, mites, slugs, and nematodes. Insects feed on every part of the plant (leaves, stems, and tubers) and several of these pests also serve as vectors of plant pathogens. Reliance on broad spectru...

  5. Ascochyta blight and insect pests of chickpeas in the Palouse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This newsletter article informs chickpea growers in the Palouse region about current disease and insect pest problems. Ascochyta blight appeared in many chickpea fields and was severe in some fields. Insect pests including loopers and armyworms were rampant. Appropriate management practices for t...

  6. Current status and future perspectives on sunflower insect pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While occasional insect pests of cultivated sunflowers may be managed by conventional or reduced-risk insecticides, the cumulative costs and risks of relying on insecticides to suppress perennial or severe pests (common in North America) call for exploration of broader pest management strategies. Re...

  7. Stored Grain Insect Area-wide Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When wheat is mixed with wheat from other locations as it moves through the grain-marketing system, insect infestation can be spread to larger quantities of wheat, which increases the overall cost of insect pest management. In Kansas and Oklahoma, insect infestations currently are managed primarily...

  8. Automatic monitoring of insect pests in stored grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manual sampling of insects in stored grain is a laborious and time consuming process. Automation of grain sampling should help to increase the adoption of stored-grain integrated pest management. To make accurate insect management decisions, managers need to know both the insect species and numbers ...

  9. Coconut leaf bioactivity toward generalist maize insect pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropical plants are often more resistant to insects than temperate plants due to evolution of robust defenses to cope with a more constant insect threat. Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) has very few chewing leaf feeding insect pests and was tested against two omnivorous leaf feeding caterpillar species,...

  10. [Effect of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) as predators of insect pest in alfalfa crops (Medicago sativa) (Fabaceae) in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Armendano, Andrea; González, Alda

    2011-12-01

    Spiders are predators that reduce insect pest populations in agroecosystems. Trials were conducted to measure the selectivity against different insect preys, the daily consumption, effect of predators alone and together with a known number of preys, and the indirect effect of predators on vegetation. For this, experimental units (1 x 1m) were used covered with a fine plastic mesh. Misumenops pallidus, Oxyopes salticus and Araneus sp. were used as generalist predators, and aphids, weevils, locusts, chrysomelids and Lepidoptera larvae as their potential preys. Among the preys offered, the spiders preferred Lepidoptera larvae compared to the other two pests groups (weevils and aphids). The maximum consumption rate was of 93.33% for Lepidoptera larvae, 25.33% for aphids and 11.67% for weevils. The Q Index values for the three species of spiders showed a positive selectivity only for defoliating larvae. O. salticus showed the highest values of consumption rates while Rachiplusia nu was the most consumed. The maximum value of consumption in 24 hours was showed by O. salticus on R. nu (C) = 2.8. The association of several species of predatory spiders increased the total number of insects captured, and also showed that the addition of spiders caused a decrease in the number of leaves damaged by the effect of lepidopterous larvae. PMID:22208081

  11. Delivery of intrahemocoelic peptides for insect pest management.

    PubMed

    Bonning, Bryony C; Chougule, Nanasaheb P

    2014-02-01

    The extensive use of chemical insecticides for insect pest management has resulted in insecticide resistance now being recorded in >500 species of insects and mites. Although gut-active toxins such as those derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been successfully used for insect pest management, a diverse range of insect-specific insecticidal peptides remains an untapped resource for pest management efforts. These toxins act within the insect hemocoel (body cavity) and hence require a delivery system to access their target site. Here, we summarize recent developments for appropriate delivery of such intrahemocoelic insect toxins, via fusion to a second protein such as a plant lectin or a luteovirus coat protein for transcytosis across the gut epithelium, or via entomopathogenic fungi. PMID:24331760

  12. Breeding a super nematode for enhanced insect pest suppression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Entomopathogenic nematodes in the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema are important regulators of natural insect populations, and are used commercially as biological control agents for pest suppression. Successful biocontrol applications depend on the introduced organism having an array of benef...

  13. Comparative metabolism of branched-chain amino acids to precursors of juvenile hormone biogenesis in corpora allata of lepidopterous versus nonlepidopterous insects

    SciTech Connect

    Brindle, P.A.; Schooley, D.A.; Tsai, L.W.; Baker, F.C.

    1988-08-05

    Comparative studies were performed on the role of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis using several lepidopterous and nonlepidopterous insects. Corpora cardiaca-corpora allata complexes (CC-CA, the corpora allata being the organ of JH biogenesis) were maintained in culture medium containing a uniformly /sup 14/C-labeled BCAA, together with (methyl-/sup 3/H)methionine as mass marker for JH quantification. BCAA catabolism was quantified by directly analyzing the medium for the presence of /sup 14/C-labeled propionate and/or acetate, while JHs were extracted, purified by liquid chromatography, and subjected to double-label liquid scintillation counting. Our results indicate that active BCAA catabolism occurs within the CC-CA of lepidopterans, and this efficiently provides propionyl-CoA (from isoleucine or valine) for the biosynthesis of the ethyl branches of JH I and II. Acetyl-CoA, formed from isoleucine or leucine catabolism, is also utilized by lepidopteran CC-CA for biosynthesizing JH III and the acetate-derived portions of the ethyl-branched JHs. In contrast, CC-CA of nonlepidopterans fail to catabolize BCAA. Consequently, exogenous isoleucine or leucine does not serve as a carbon source for the biosynthesis of JH III by these glands, and no propionyl-CoA is produced for genesis of ethyl-branched JHs. This is the first observation of a tissue-specific metabolic difference which in part explains why these novel homosesquiterpenoids exist in lepidopterans, but not in nonlepidopterans.

  14. Insect and mite pests of durum wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter discusses the postharvest arthropod pests of durum wheat and their control. The main internally feeding pests are Rhyzopertha dominica, Sitophilus granarius, S. oryzae, and S. zeamais. The main externally feeding pests are Cryptolestes ferrugineus, Oryzaephilus surinamensis, O. m...

  15. Companion and refuge plants to control insect pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci and aphids are major pests of crops in the southeast USA. An environmentally-friendly management strategy is “push-pull” technology which combines the use of repellent (“push”) and trap crops (“pull”) for insect pest control. The repellent crop,...

  16. Control of key pecan insect pests using biorational pesticides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Key pecan insect pests include the pecan weevil, Curculio caryae, black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae, and stink bugs. Alternative control tactics are needed for management of these pests in organic and conventional systems. Our objective was to evaluate the potential utility of several a...

  17. Insect pest management decisions in food processing facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pest management decision making in food processing facilities such as flour mills, rice mills, human and pet food manufacturing facilities, distribution centers and warehouses, and retail stores is a challenging undertaking. Insect pest management programs require an understanding of the food facili...

  18. “Push-pull” strategies against vegetable insect pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whiteflies and aphids are important insect pests in vegetable crops. To mitigate the use of chemical insecticides, “push-pull “strategies can be used as components of sustainable or cultural pest management. Dr. Jesusa C. Legaspi (USDA-ARS) and collaborators conducted field studies using mustard pla...

  19. Demonstrating companion planting to control insect pests of vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whiteflies and aphids are major insect pests of vegetables in the southeastern US. There is increasing interest in the use of cultural and more sustainable methods to control these pests. Previous studies have shown that hover fly generalist predators were collected from several perennial and annual...

  20. 2009 Sunflower Insect Pest Problems and Insecticide Update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.) are native to North America and a number of insect pests cause economic losses to sunflower production. Head-infesting insects include the red sunflower seed weevil, Smicronyx fulvus LeConte, banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham, sunflower moth, Homoeos...

  1. Applications of acoustics in insect pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acoustic technology has been applied for many years in studies of insect communication and in the monitoring of calling-insect population levels, geographic distributions, and diversity, as well as in the detection of cryptic insects in soil, wood, container crops, and stored products. Acoustic devi...

  2. Compendium of Sunflower Disease and Insect Pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Compendium of Sunflower Diseases and Pests is a new addition to the popular APS Press series of plant disease compendia. This will be the most comprehensive guide to sunflower diseases and pests in the world. The introduction contains brief histories of sunflower use and production, botany of th...

  3. Recurrent and synchronous insect pest outbreaks in forests.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Sergio

    2012-02-01

    A minimal model for the interactions of trees, insects, and their enemies suggests a simple formula for splitting all forests where insect outbreaks can occur into two categories: where outbreaks are periodic and endogenously generated and where outbreaks are triggered by exogenous factors and are, in general, recurrent but aperiodic. The formula is in full agreement with all field studies in which various phenomena triggering insect outbreaks have been identified. The observed consequences of introductions and removals of insects are also well predicted by the minimal model. But, even more surprisingly, the model allows a simple and explicit condition for the synchronization of outbreaks in spatially extended forests to be derived analytically. This condition is, in general, satisfied when the insect is a so-called pest, that is, when the outbreaks are extreme. The model also predicts the possibility of traveling waves of insect outbreaks. PMID:21867722

  4. Early-season flooding for insect pest control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Wisconsin, there is much interest in the spring flood as a means to not only reduce pest populations, but also to facilitate marsh sanitation and provide frost protection. A large-scale field study was undertaken in 2011 to examine how a 30-40 hour spring flood (late May) would affect key insect ...

  5. Advances in organic insect pest management in pecan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pecans are economically the most important native nut crop in the USA. The market for organic pecans has been growing. However, in the Southeastern USA, there are a number of insect pests and plant diseases that challenge the ability of growers to produce organic pecans in an economically sound ma...

  6. Insect Pest Management in Food Legumes: Future Strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food legumes such as chickpea, pigeonpea, cowpea, field pea, lentil, faba bean, blackgram, greengram, grasspea, and Phaseolus beans play an important role in the daily diets of people worldwide. A large number of insect pests attack these crops and cause extensive losses, namely Helicoverpa pod bo...

  7. 50 CFR 35.7 - Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants... MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.7 Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. To the extent necessary, the Director shall prescribe measures to control wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease...

  8. 50 CFR 35.7 - Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants... MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.7 Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. To the extent necessary, the Director shall prescribe measures to control wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease...

  9. 50 CFR 35.7 - Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants... MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.7 Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. To the extent necessary, the Director shall prescribe measures to control wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease...

  10. 50 CFR 35.7 - Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants... MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.7 Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. To the extent necessary, the Director shall prescribe measures to control wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease...

  11. 50 CFR 35.7 - Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants... MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.7 Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. To the extent necessary, the Director shall prescribe measures to control wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease...

  12. Identification and Control of Common Insect Pests of Ornamental Shrubs and Trees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gesell, Stanley G.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University introduces the identification and control of common ornamental insect pests. For each of the insects or insect groups (i.e. aphids) identified in this publication, information on host plants, pest description, and damage caused by the pest is given. Also a calendar…

  13. RNA interference: Applications and advances in insect toxicology and insect pest management.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Ho; Soumaila Issa, Moustapha; Cooper, Anastasia M W; Zhu, Kun Yan

    2015-05-01

    Since its discovery, RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized functional genomic studies due to its sequence-specific nature of post-transcriptional gene silencing. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of the recent literature and summarize the current knowledge and advances in the applications of RNAi technologies in the field of insect toxicology and insect pest management. Many recent studies have focused on identification and validation of the genes encoding insecticide target proteins, such as acetylcholinesterases, ion channels, Bacillus thuringiensis receptors, and other receptors in the nervous system. RNAi technologies have also been widely applied to reveal the role of genes encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, carboxylesterases, and glutathione S-transferases in insecticide detoxification and resistance. More recently, studies have focused on understanding the mechanism of insecticide-mediated up-regulation of detoxification genes in insects. As RNAi has already shown great potentials for insect pest management, many recent studies have also focused on host-induced gene silencing, in which several RNAi-based transgenic plants have been developed and tested as proof of concept for insect pest management. These studies indicate that RNAi is a valuable tool to address various fundamental questions in insect toxicology and may soon become an effective strategy for insect pest management. PMID:25987228

  14. Bt resistance in Australian insect pest species.

    PubMed

    Downes, Sharon; Walsh, Tom; Tay, Wee Tek

    2016-06-01

    Bt cotton was initially deployed in Australia in the mid-1990s to control the polyphagous pest Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) which was intractably resistant to synthetic chemistries. A conservative strategy was enforced and resistance to first generation single toxin technology was managed. A decade later, shortly after the release of dual toxin cotton, high baseline frequencies of alleles conferring resistance to one of its components prompted a reassessment of the thinking behind the potential risks to this technology. Several reviews detail the characteristics of this resistance and the nuances of deploying first and second generation Bt cotton in Australia. Here we explore recent advances and future possibilities to estimate Bt resistance in Australian pest species and define what we see as the critical data for enabling effective pre-emptive strategies. We also foreshadow the imminent deployment of three toxin (Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab, Vip3A) Bollgard 3 cotton, and examine aspects of resistance to its novel component, Vip3A, that we believe may impact on its stewardship. PMID:27436735

  15. Insect Pests and Integrated Pest Management in Museums, Libraries and Historic Buildings.

    PubMed

    Querner, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Insect pests are responsible for substantial damage to museum objects, historic books and in buildings like palaces or historic houses. Different wood boring beetles (Anobium punctatum, Hylotrupes bajulus, Lyctus sp. or introduced species), the biscuit beetle (Stegobium paniceum), the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne), different Dermestides (Attagenus sp., Anthrenus sp., Dermestes sp., Trogoderma sp.), moths like the webbing clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella), Silverfish (Lepisma saccharina) and booklice (Psocoptera) can damage materials, objects or building parts. They are the most common pests found in collections in central Europe, but most of them are distributed all over the world. In tropical countries, termites, cockroaches and other insect pests are also found and result in even higher damage of wood and paper or are a commune annoyance in buildings. In this short review, an introduction to Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in museums is given, the most valuable collections, preventive measures, monitoring in museums, staff responsible for the IPM and chemical free treatment methods are described. In the second part of the paper, the most important insect pests occurring in museums, archives, libraries and historic buildings in central Europe are discussed with a description of the materials and object types that are mostly infested and damaged. Some information on their phenology and biology are highlighted as they can be used in the IPM concept against them. PMID:26463205

  16. Insect Pests and Integrated Pest Management in Museums, Libraries and Historic Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Querner, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Insect pests are responsible for substantial damage to museum objects, historic books and in buildings like palaces or historic houses. Different wood boring beetles (Anobium punctatum, Hylotrupes bajulus, Lyctus sp. or introduced species), the biscuit beetle (Stegobium paniceum), the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne), different Dermestides (Attagenus sp., Anthrenus sp., Dermestes sp., Trogoderma sp.), moths like the webbing clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella), Silverfish (Lepisma saccharina) and booklice (Psocoptera) can damage materials, objects or building parts. They are the most common pests found in collections in central Europe, but most of them are distributed all over the world. In tropical countries, termites, cockroaches and other insect pests are also found and result in even higher damage of wood and paper or are a commune annoyance in buildings. In this short review, an introduction to Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in museums is given, the most valuable collections, preventive measures, monitoring in museums, staff responsible for the IPM and chemical free treatment methods are described. In the second part of the paper, the most important insect pests occurring in museums, archives, libraries and historic buildings in central Europe are discussed with a description of the materials and object types that are mostly infested and damaged. Some information on their phenology and biology are highlighted as they can be used in the IPM concept against them. PMID:26463205

  17. Insects and Related Pests of Trees, Shrubs, and Lawns. MP-25R.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spackman, Everett W.; Lawson, Fred A.

    This document discusses identification and control of the pests of trees and shrubs. The insects are grouped according to feeding habits and the type of damage caused to plants. Categories include the sucking insects and mites, leaf eating insects, pests attacking trunks and branches, and gall causing insects. (CS)

  18. Urban Warming Drives Insect Pest Abundance on Street Trees

    PubMed Central

    Meineke, Emily K.; Dunn, Robert R.; Sexton, Joseph O.; Frank, Steven D.

    2013-01-01

    Cities profoundly alter biological communities, favoring some species over others, though the mechanisms that govern these changes are largely unknown. Herbivorous arthropod pests are often more abundant in urban than in rural areas, and urban outbreaks have been attributed to reduced control by predators and parasitoids and to increased susceptibility of stressed urban plants. These hypotheses, however, leave many outbreaks unexplained and fail to predict variation in pest abundance within cities. Here we show that the abundance of a common insect pest is positively related to temperature even when controlling for other habitat characteristics. The scale insect Parthenolecanium quercifex was 13 times more abundant on willow oak trees in the hottest parts of Raleigh, NC, in the southeastern United States, than in cooler areas, though parasitism rates were similar. We further separated the effects of heat from those of natural enemies and plant quality in a greenhouse reciprocal transplant experiment. P. quercifex collected from hot urban trees became more abundant in hot greenhouses than in cool greenhouses, whereas the abundance of P. quercifex collected from cooler urban trees remained low in hot and cool greenhouses. Parthenolecanium quercifex living in urban hot spots succeed with warming, and they do so because some demes have either acclimatized or adapted to high temperatures. Our results provide the first evidence that heat can be a key driver of insect pest outbreaks on urban trees. Since urban warming is similar in magnitude to global warming predicted in the next 50 years, pest abundance on city trees may foreshadow widespread outbreaks as natural forests also grow warmer. PMID:23544087

  19. Urban warming drives insect pest abundance on street trees.

    PubMed

    Meineke, Emily K; Dunn, Robert R; Sexton, Joseph O; Frank, Steven D

    2013-01-01

    Cities profoundly alter biological communities, favoring some species over others, though the mechanisms that govern these changes are largely unknown. Herbivorous arthropod pests are often more abundant in urban than in rural areas, and urban outbreaks have been attributed to reduced control by predators and parasitoids and to increased susceptibility of stressed urban plants. These hypotheses, however, leave many outbreaks unexplained and fail to predict variation in pest abundance within cities. Here we show that the abundance of a common insect pest is positively related to temperature even when controlling for other habitat characteristics. The scale insect Parthenolecanium quercifex was 13 times more abundant on willow oak trees in the hottest parts of Raleigh, NC, in the southeastern United States, than in cooler areas, though parasitism rates were similar. We further separated the effects of heat from those of natural enemies and plant quality in a greenhouse reciprocal transplant experiment. P. quercifex collected from hot urban trees became more abundant in hot greenhouses than in cool greenhouses, whereas the abundance of P. quercifex collected from cooler urban trees remained low in hot and cool greenhouses. Parthenolecanium quercifex living in urban hot spots succeed with warming, and they do so because some demes have either acclimatized or adapted to high temperatures. Our results provide the first evidence that heat can be a key driver of insect pest outbreaks on urban trees. Since urban warming is similar in magnitude to global warming predicted in the next 50 years, pest abundance on city trees may foreshadow widespread outbreaks as natural forests also grow warmer. PMID:23544087

  20. Insect-attracting and antimicrobial properties of antifreeze for monitoring insect pests and natural enemies in stored corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect infestations in stored grain cause extensive damage worldwide. Storage insect pests including the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), Sitophilus spp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and their natural enemies [e.g., Cephalonomia tarsalis (Ashmead) (Hymenopter...

  1. Susceptibility of Various Species of Lepidopterous Pupae to the Entomogenous Nematode Neoaplectana carpocapsae

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Harry K.; Hara, Arnold H.

    1981-01-01

    The susceptibility of certain species of lepidopterous pupae occurring in different ecological situations to the entomogenous nematode, Neoaplectana carpocapsae, was tested. Soil- or litter-pupating lepidopterous insects were not highly susceptible to N. carpocapsae. The most susceptible insect pupating in the soil was Spodoptera exigua with 63% pupal mortality, while Harrisinia brillians, which pupates in litter, had 55% mortality. Other soil- and litter-pupating insects had mortalities of less than 25%. Some insect species that pupate above ground were highly susceptible (> 84% mortality) to N. carpocapsae infection. PMID:19300765

  2. Practical applications of insects' sexual development for pest control.

    PubMed

    Koukidou, M; Alphey, L

    2014-01-01

    Elucidation of the sex differentiation pathway in insects offers an opportunity to understand key aspects of evolutionary developmental biology. In addition, it provides the understanding necessary to manipulate insects in order to develop new synthetic genetics-based tools for the control of pest insects. Considerable progress has been made in this, especially in improvements to the sterile insect technique (SIT). Large scale sex separation is considered highly desirable or essential for most SIT targets. This separation can be provided by genetic methods based on sex-specific gene expression. Investigation of sex determination by many groups has provided molecular components and methods for this. Though the primary sex determination signal varies considerably, key regulatory genes and mechanisms remain surprisingly similar. In most cases studied so far, a primary signal is transmitted to a basal gene at the bottom of the hierarchy (dsx) through an alternative splicing cascade; dsx is itself differentially spliced in males and females. A sex-specific alternative splicing system therefore offers an attractive route to achieve female-specific expression. Experience has shown that alternative splicing modules can be developed with cross-species function; modularity and standardisation and re-use of parts are key principles of synthetic biology. Both female-killing and sex reversal (XX females to phenotypic males) can in principle also be used as efficient alternatives to sterilisation in SIT-like methods. Sexual maturity is yet another area where understanding of sexual development may be applied to insect control programmes. Further detailed understanding of this crucial aspect of insect biology will undoubtedly continue to underpin innovative practical applications. PMID:24401199

  3. Sampling stored product insect pests: a comparison of four statistical sampling models for probability of pest detection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Statistically robust sampling strategies form an integral component of grain storage and handling activities throughout the world. Developing sampling strategies to target biological pests such as insects in stored grain is inherently difficult due to species biology and behavioral characteristics. ...

  4. Bats Track and Exploit Changes in Insect Pest Populations

    PubMed Central

    McCracken, Gary F.; Westbrook, John K.; Brown, Veronica A.; Eldridge, Melanie; Federico, Paula; Kunz, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    The role of bats or any generalist predator in suppressing prey populations depends on the predator's ability to track and exploit available prey. Using a qPCR fecal DNA assay, we document significant association between numbers of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) consuming corn earworm (CEW) moths (Helicoverpa zea) and seasonal fluctuations in CEW populations. This result is consistent with earlier research linking the bats' diet to patterns of migration, abundance, and crop infestation by important insect pests. Here we confirm opportunistic feeding on one of the world's most destructive insects and support model estimates of the bats' ecosystem services. Regression analysis of CEW consumption versus the moth's abundance at four insect trapping sites further indicates that bats track local abundance of CEW within the regional landscape. Estimates of CEW gene copies in the feces of bats are not associated with seasonal or local patterns of CEW abundance, and results of captive feeding experiments indicate that our qPCR assay does not provide a direct measure of numbers or biomass of prey consumed. Our results support growing evidence for the role of generalist predators, and bats specifically, as agents for biological control and speak to the value of conserving indigenous generalist predators. PMID:22952782

  5. Bats track and exploit changes in insect pest populations.

    PubMed

    McCracken, Gary F; Westbrook, John K; Brown, Veronica A; Eldridge, Melanie; Federico, Paula; Kunz, Thomas H

    2012-01-01

    The role of bats or any generalist predator in suppressing prey populations depends on the predator's ability to track and exploit available prey. Using a qPCR fecal DNA assay, we document significant association between numbers of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) consuming corn earworm (CEW) moths (Helicoverpa zea) and seasonal fluctuations in CEW populations. This result is consistent with earlier research linking the bats' diet to patterns of migration, abundance, and crop infestation by important insect pests. Here we confirm opportunistic feeding on one of the world's most destructive insects and support model estimates of the bats' ecosystem services. Regression analysis of CEW consumption versus the moth's abundance at four insect trapping sites further indicates that bats track local abundance of CEW within the regional landscape. Estimates of CEW gene copies in the feces of bats are not associated with seasonal or local patterns of CEW abundance, and results of captive feeding experiments indicate that our qPCR assay does not provide a direct measure of numbers or biomass of prey consumed. Our results support growing evidence for the role of generalist predators, and bats specifically, as agents for biological control and speak to the value of conserving indigenous generalist predators. PMID:22952782

  6. Weed manipulation for insect pest management in corn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altieri, M. A.; Whitcomb, W. H.

    1980-11-01

    Populations of insect pests and associated predaceous arthropods were sampled by direct observation and other relative methods in simple and diversified corn habitats at two sites in north Florida during 1978 and 1979. Through various cultural manipulations, characteristic weed communities were established selectively in alternate rows within corn plots. Fall armyworm ( Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith) incidence was consistently higher in the weed-free habitats than in the corn habitats containing natural weed complexes or selected weed associations. Corn earworm ( Heliothis zea Boddie) damage was similar in all weed-free and weedy treatments, suggesting that this insect is not affected greatly by weed diversity. Only the diversification of corn with a strip of soybean significantly reduced corn earworm damage. In one site, distance between plots was reduced. Because predators moved freely between habitats, it was difficult to identify between-treatment differences in the composition of predator communities. In the other site, increased distances between plots minimized such migrations, resulting in greater population densities and diversity of common foliage insect predators in the weed-manipulated corn systems than in the weed-free plots. Trophic relationships in the weedy habitats were more complex than food webs in monocultures. Predator diversity (measured as mean number of species per area) and predator density was higher in com plots surrounded by mature, complex vegetation than at those surrounded by annual crops. This suggests that diverse adjacent areas to crops provide refuge for predators, thus acting as colonization sources.

  7. Review of Sunflower Insect Pest Problems in North Dakota in 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The major insect pest species that cause economic losses to sunflower producers in North Dakota are red sunflower seed weevil, banded sunflower moth, and sunflower midge. New emerging insect pests include a longhorned beetle (Dectes texanus), sunflower seed maggot, sunflower bud moth, and lygus bug....

  8. 7 CFR 305.40 - Garbage treatment schedules for insect pests and pathogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Garbage treatment schedules for insect pests and pathogens. 305.40 Section 305.40 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL... Garbage § 305.40 Garbage treatment schedules for insect pests and pathogens. (a) T415-a, heat...

  9. Description and Biology of Insects and Related Pests Injurious to Vegetable Crops - For Commercial Growers Only.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This manual is designed by the Massachusetts Cooperative Extension Service as a guide for the control of the most common insects and related pests of vegetable crops grown commercially in Massachusetts. It contains general information on insects and specific descriptions of the major pests, their life cycles, and the damage they cause. The topics…

  10. Organic methods for control of insect pests and diseases of pecan and peach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of insect pests and diseases can cause severe damage in orchard crops such as pecan and peach. Drs. David Shapiro-Ilan and Clive Bock from the USDA-ARS Fruit and Tree Nut Research Laboratory in Byron GA will provide information on organic solutions to control the key insect pests and diseas...

  11. Optimal sterile insect release for area-wide integrated pest management in a density regulated pest population.

    PubMed

    Gordillo, Luis F

    2014-06-01

    To determine optimal sterile insect release policies in area-wide integrated pest management is a challenge that users of this pest control method inevitably confront. In this note we provide approximations to best policies of release through the use of simulated annealing. The discrete time model for the population dynamics includes the effects of sterile insect release and density dependence in the pest population. Spatial movement is introduced through integrodifference equations, which allow the use of the stochastic search in cases where movement is described through arbitrary dispersal kernels. As a byproduct of the computations, an assessment of appropriate control zone sizes is possible. PMID:24506557

  12. Dynamics of the endosymbiont Rickettsia in an insect pest.

    PubMed

    Cass, Bodil N; Yallouz, Rachel; Bondy, Elizabeth C; Mozes-Daube, Netta; Horowitz, A Rami; Kelly, Suzanne E; Zchori-Fein, Einat; Hunter, Martha S

    2015-07-01

    A new heritable bacterial association can bring a fresh set of molecular capabilities, providing an insect host with an almost instantaneous genome extension. Increasingly acknowledged as agents of rapid evolution, inherited microbes remain underappreciated players in pest management programs. A Rickettsia bacterium was tracked sweeping through populations of an invasive whitefly provisionally described as the "B" or "MEAM1" of the Bemisia tabaci species complex, in the southwestern USA. In this population, Rickettsia provides strong fitness benefits and distorts whitefly sex ratios under laboratory conditions. In contrast, whiteflies in Israel show few apparent fitness benefits from Rickettsia under laboratory conditions, only slightly decreasing development time. A survey of B. tabaci B samples revealed the distribution of Rickettsia across the cotton-growing regions of Israel and the USA. Thirteen sites from Israel and 22 sites from the USA were sampled. Across the USA, Rickettsia frequencies were heterogeneous among regions, but were generally very high, whereas in Israel, the infection rates were lower and declining. The distinct outcomes of Rickettsia infection in these two countries conform to previously reported phenotypic differences. Intermediate frequencies in some areas in both countries may indicate a cost to infection in certain environments or that the frequencies are in flux. This suggests underlying geographic differences in the interactions between bacterial symbionts and this serious agricultural pest. PMID:25626393

  13. Control of key pecan insect pests using biorational pesticides.

    PubMed

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Cottrell, Ted E; Jackson, Mark A; Wood, Bruce W

    2013-02-01

    Key pecan insect pests include the black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis), pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), and stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Alternative control tactics are needed for management of these pests in organic and conventional systems. Our objective was to evaluate the potential utility of several alternative insecticides including three plant extract formulations, eucalyptus extract, citrus extract-8.92%, and citrus extract-19.4%, and two microbial insecticides, Chromobacterium subtsugae (Martin et al.) and Isaria fumosorosea (Wize). In the laboratory, eucalyptus extract, citrus extract-8.92%, citrus extract-19.4%, and C. subtsugae caused M. caryaefoliae mortality (mortality was reached approximately 78, 83, and 96%, respectively). In field tests, combined applications of I. fumosorosea with eucalyptus extract were synergistic and caused up to 82% mortality in M. caryaefoliae. In laboratory assays focusing on C. caryae suppression, C. subtsugae reduced feeding and oviposition damage, eucalyptus extract and citrus extract-19.4% were ineffective, and antagonism was observed when citrus extract-19.4% was combined with the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser). In field tests, C. subtsugae reduced C. caryae damage by 55% within the first 3d, and caused 74.5% corrected mortality within 7 d posttreatment. In the laboratory, C. subtsugae and eucalyptus extract did not cause mortality in the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say). Applications of C. subtsugae for suppression of C. caryae, and eucalyptus extract plus I. fumosorosea for control of M. caryaefoliae show promise as alternative insecticides and should be evaluated further. PMID:23448039

  14. Forest insect pest management and forest management in China: an overview.

    PubMed

    Ji, Lanzhu; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Xiaowei; An, Linli

    2011-12-01

    According to the Seventh National Forest Inventory (2004-2008), China's forests cover an area of 195.45 million ha, or 20.36% of the total land area. China has the most rapidly increasing forest resources in the world. However, China is also a country with serious forest pest problems. There are more than 8,000 species of potential forest pests in China, including insects, plant diseases, rodents and lagomorphs, and hazardous plants. Among them, 300 species are considered as economically or ecologically important, and half of these are serious pests, including 86 species of insects. Forest management and utilization have a considerable influence on the stability and sustainability of forest ecosystems. At the national level, forestry policies always play a major role in forest resource management and forest health protection. In this paper, we present a comprehensive overview of both achievements and challenges in forest management and insect pest control in China. First, we summarize the current status of forest resources and their pests in China. Second, we address the theories, policies, practices and major national actions on forestry and forest insect pest management, including the Engineering Pest Management of China, the National Key Forestry Programs, the Classified Forest Management system, and the Collective Forest Tenure Reform. We analyze and discuss three representative plantations-Eucalyptus, poplar and Masson pine plantations-with respect to their insect diversity, pest problems and pest management measures. PMID:21667316

  15. Forest Insect Pest Management and Forest Management in China: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Lanzhu; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Xiaowei; An, Linli

    2011-12-01

    According to the Seventh National Forest Inventory (2004-2008), China's forests cover an area of 195.45 million ha, or 20.36% of the total land area. China has the most rapidly increasing forest resources in the world. However, China is also a country with serious forest pest problems. There are more than 8,000 species of potential forest pests in China, including insects, plant diseases, rodents and lagomorphs, and hazardous plants. Among them, 300 species are considered as economically or ecologically important, and half of these are serious pests, including 86 species of insects. Forest management and utilization have a considerable influence on the stability and sustainability of forest ecosystems. At the national level, forestry policies always play a major role in forest resource management and forest health protection. In this paper, we present a comprehensive overview of both achievements and challenges in forest management and insect pest control in China. First, we summarize the current status of forest resources and their pests in China. Second, we address the theories, policies, practices and major national actions on forestry and forest insect pest management, including the Engineering Pest Management of China, the National Key Forestry Programs, the Classified Forest Management system, and the Collective Forest Tenure Reform. We analyze and discuss three representative plantations— Eucalyptus, poplar and Masson pine plantations—with respect to their insect diversity, pest problems and pest management measures.

  16. Qpais: A Web-Based Expert System for Assistedidentification of Quarantine Stored Insect Pests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Han; Rajotte, Edwin G.; Li, Zhihong; Chen, Ke; Zhang, Shengfang

    Stored insect pests can seriously depredate stored products causing worldwide economic losses. Pests enter countries traveling with transported goods. Inspection and Quarantine activities are essential to prevent the invasion and spread of pests. Identification of quarantine stored insect pests is an important component of the China's Inspection and Quarantine procedure, and it is necessary not only to identify whether the species captured is an invasive species, but determine control procedures for stored insect pests. With the development of information technologies, many expert systems that aid in the identification of agricultural pests have been developed. Expert systems for the identification of quarantine stored insect pests are rare and are mainly developed for stand-alone PCs. This paper describes the development of a web-based expert system for identification of quarantine stored insect pests as part of the China 11th Five-Year National Scientific and Technological Support Project (115 Project). Based on user needs, textual knowledge and images were gathered from the literature and expert interviews. ASP.NET, C# and SQL language were used to program the system. Improvement of identification efficiency and flexibility was achieved using a new inference method called characteristic-select-based spatial distance method. The expert system can assist identifying 150 species of quarantine stored insect pests and provide detailed information for each species. The expert system has also been evaluated using two steps: system testing and identification testing. With a 85% rate of correct identification and high efficiency, the system evaluation shows that this expert system can be used in identification work of quarantine stored insect pests.

  17. Multiscale approach to pest insect monitoring: random walks, pattern formation, synchronization, and networks.

    PubMed

    Petrovskii, Sergei; Petrovskaya, Natalia; Bearup, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Pest insects pose a significant threat to food production worldwide resulting in annual losses worth hundreds of billions of dollars. Pest control attempts to prevent pest outbreaks that could otherwise destroy a sward. It is good practice in integrated pest management to recommend control actions (usually pesticides application) only when the pest density exceeds a certain threshold. Accurate estimation of pest population density in ecosystems, especially in agro-ecosystems, is therefore very important, and this is the overall goal of the pest insect monitoring. However, this is a complex and challenging task; providing accurate information about pest abundance is hardly possible without taking into account the complexity of ecosystems' dynamics, in particular, the existence of multiple scales. In the case of pest insects, monitoring has three different spatial scales, each of them having their own scale-specific goal and their own approaches to data collection and interpretation. In this paper, we review recent progress in mathematical models and methods applied at each of these scales and show how it helps to improve the accuracy and robustness of pest population density estimation. PMID:24618062

  18. Multiscale approach to pest insect monitoring: Random walks, pattern formation, synchronization, and networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovskii, Sergei; Petrovskaya, Natalia; Bearup, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Pest insects pose a significant threat to food production worldwide resulting in annual losses worth hundreds of billions of dollars. Pest control attempts to prevent pest outbreaks that could otherwise destroy a sward. It is good practice in integrated pest management to recommend control actions (usually pesticides application) only when the pest density exceeds a certain threshold. Accurate estimation of pest population density in ecosystems, especially in agro-ecosystems, is therefore very important, and this is the overall goal of the pest insect monitoring. However, this is a complex and challenging task; providing accurate information about pest abundance is hardly possible without taking into account the complexity of ecosystems' dynamics, in particular, the existence of multiple scales. In the case of pest insects, monitoring has three different spatial scales, each of them having their own scale-specific goal and their own approaches to data collection and interpretation. In this paper, we review recent progress in mathematical models and methods applied at each of these scales and show how it helps to improve the accuracy and robustness of pest population density estimation.

  19. 1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Home, Yard, and Garden. Circular 900.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This publication lists certain insecticides to control insect pests of food, fabrics, structures, man and animals, lawns, shrubs, trees, flowers and vegetables. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to combat infestation. (CS)

  20. Insect pests of sweetpotato in Uganda: farmers' perceptions of their importance and control practices.

    PubMed

    Okonya, Joshua Sikhu; Mwanga, Robert Om; Syndikus, Katja; Kroschel, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Insect pests are among the most important constraints limiting sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) production in Africa. However, there is inadequate information about farmers' knowledge, perceptions and practices in the management of key insect pests. This has hindered development of effective pest management approaches for smallholder farmers. A standard questionnaire was used to interview individual sweetpotato farmers (n = 192) about their perception and management practices regarding insect pests in six major sweetpotato producing districts of Uganda. The majority (93%) of farmers perceived insect pests to be a very serious problem. With the exception of Masindi and Wakiso districts where the sweetpotato butterfly (Acraea acerata) was the number one constraint, sweetpotato weevils (Cylas puncticollis and C. brunneus) were ranked as the most important insect pests. Insecticide use in sweetpotato fields was very low being highest (28-38% of households) in districts where A. acerata infestation is the biggest problem. On average, 65% and 87% of the farmers took no action to control A. acerata and Cylas spp., respectively. Farmers were more conversant with the presence of and damage by A. acerata than of Cylas spp. as they thought that Cylas spp. root damage was brought about by a prolonged dry season. Different levels of field resistance (ability of a variety to tolerate damage) of sweetpotato landraces to A. acerata (eight landraces) and Cylas spp. (six landraces) were reported by farmers in all the six districts. This perceived level of resistance to insect damage by landraces needs to be investigated. To improve farmers' capabilities for sweetpotato insect pest management, it is crucial to train them in the basic knowledge of insect pest biology and control. PMID:25279278

  1. Oviposition Deterrents in Herbivorous Insects and their potential use in Integrated Pest Management.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Archana; Kaushik, Nutan

    2016-03-01

    In the life cycle of insects, oviposition is an important phenomenon, and it is influenced by many intrinsic and extrinsic factors, especially in relation to suitable hosts for completion of their life-cycle. Oviposition deterrents which deter an insect from laying eggs are important in the management of insect pests. Proper understanding of these deterrents shall provide necessary insight into new vistas for Insect Pest Management. Chemicals from plants and insects play an important role in attracting phytophagous insects for selecting host for oviposition. Considerable research has been done on oviposition deterrents and their mode of actions. In the present review, we have consolidated the updated information on this important aspect of insect behavior. PMID:27145629

  2. Research toward control of key pecan insect pests using biorational pesticides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Key pecan insect pests include the pecan weevil, Curculio caryae, black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae, and stink bugs. Alternative control tactics are needed for management of these pests in organic and conventional systems. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of several alternativ...

  3. Germplasm evaluation for resistance to insect pests of the sunflower head

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The key insect pests attacking the sunflower head and seeds include the sunflower moth, the red sunflower seed weevil, the banded sunflower moth, and the sunflower midge. There is a need to reduce losses from these pests by providing long-term economical management for sunflower growers. In 2005, su...

  4. Evaluating mustard and arugula volatiles and refuge plants for sustainable control of insect pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whiteflies and aphids are important insect pests in vegetable crops. To mitigate the use of chemical insecticides, “push-pull” strategies can be used as components of sustainable or cultural pest management. We conducted laboratory olfactometer or odor detecting tests to measure the effects of arugu...

  5. Companion and refuge plants to enhance control of insect pests in vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whiteflies and aphids are important insect pests in vegetable crops. To mitigate the use of chemical insecticides, “push-pull” strategies can be used as components of sustainable or cultural pest management. We conducted laboratory olfactometer or odor detecting tests to measure the effects of arug...

  6. Application of GIS technology in monitoring and warning system for crop diseases and insect pests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaofang; Wang, Changwei; Xu, Zhiyong; Hu, Yueming

    2008-10-01

    By researching and analyzing the crop diseases and insect pests, we find the distribution and spread of crop diseases and insect pests have tight touch with the time and space information, which provides a premise of applying geography information system (GIS) and spatial interpolation technology especially. By considering the particularity of spatial interpolation on the plant diseases and insect pests in agriculture, the authors bring forward one new method: multifactors spatial interpolation model. It is made up of many factors, such as spatial orientation relationship, topological relationship, distance relationship and national weather conditions so on. Then, on the basis of building the multi-factors spatial interpolation model, the monitor and warning system of crop diseases and insect pests is constructed by using GIS technology and ArcIMS software. The basic functions, such as map visualization, information query, data input, data management, spatial interpolation, are implemented. What's more, by using the multi-factors spatial interpolation model, the effluence and spread speed of crop diseases and insect pests are showed and the monitoring and early-warning of crop diseases and insect pests is implemented.

  7. Insect cell culture and applications to research and pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Building on earlier research, insect cell culture began with the successful establishment of one cell line from pupal ovarian tissue. The field has grown to the extent that now over 500 insect cell lines have been established from many insect species representing numerous insect Orders and from seve...

  8. Biology and Control of Insect and Related Pests of Livestock in Wyoming. MP-23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, John E.

    This document provides information that a potential insecticide applicator can utilize to safely and effectively control insects and related pests of livestock. The first section of the manual discusses the general methods of preparation and application of insecticides. The second section concerns itself with the recognition of insect problems,…

  9. Gene disruption technologies have the potential to transform stored product insect pest control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stored product insects feed on grains and processed commodities manufactured from grain post-harvest, reducing the nutritional value and contaminating food. Currently, the main defense against stored product insect pests is the pesticide fumigant phosphine. Phosphine is highly toxic to all animals, ...

  10. INSECT PESTS OF POTATOES IN THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE AND THE POTENTIAL FOR THEIR CONTROL USING ENTOMOPATHOGENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis, has been used extensively in crops, forests, and aquatic habitats for control of pest insects. Its safety and that of other insect specific bacteria for vertebrates and nontarget invertebrates have been reported in hundreds of studies. Short term effects on n...

  11. Development of reference transcriptomes for the major insect pests of cowpea: a toolbox for insect pest management approaches in West Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cowpea crops are widely cultivated and a major nutritional source of protein for indigenous human populations in West Africa. Annual yields and longevity of grain storage is greatly reduced by feeding damage caused by a complex of insect pests that include Anoplocnemis curvipes, Aphis craccivora, Cl...

  12. Phylogeny of economically important insect pests that infesting several crops species in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, Siti Zafirah; Zain, Badrul Munir Md.; Yaakop, Salmah

    2014-09-01

    This paper reported molecular data on insect pests of commercial crops in Peninsular Malaysia. Fifteen insect pests (Metisa plana, Calliteara horsefeldii, Cotesia vestalis, Bactrocera papayae, Bactrocera carambolae, Bactrocera latifrons, Conopomorpha cramella, Sesamia inferens, Chilo polychrysa, Rhynchophorus vulneratus, and Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) of nine crops were sampled (oil palm, coconut, paddy, cocoa, starfruit, angled loofah, guava, chili and mustard) and also four species that belong to the fern's pest (Herpetogramma platycapna) and storage and rice pests (Tribolium castaneum, Oryzaephilus surinamensis and Cadra cautella). The presented phylogeny summarized the initial phylogenetic hypothesis, which concerning by implementation of the economically important insect pests. In this paper, phylogenetic relationships among 39 individuals of 15 species that belonging to three orders under 12 genera were inferred from DNA sequences of mitochondrial marker, cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and nuclear marker, ribosomal DNA 28S D2 region. The phylogenies resulted from the phylogenetic analyses of both genes are relatively similar, but differ in the sequence of evolution. Interestingly, this most recent molecular data of COI sequences data by using Bayesian Inference analysis resulted a more-resolved phylogeny that corroborated with traditional hypotheses of holometabolan relationships based on traditional hypotheses of holometabolan relationships and most of recently molecular study compared to 28S sequences. This finding provides the information on relationships of pests species, which infested several crops in Malaysia and also estimation on Holometabola's order relationships. The identification of the larval stages of insect pests could be done accurately, without waiting the emergence of adults and supported by the phylogenetic tree.

  13. Role of nanotechnology in agriculture with special reference to management of insect pests.

    PubMed

    Rai, Mahendra; Ingle, Avinash

    2012-04-01

    Nanotechnology is a promising field of interdisciplinary research. It opens up a wide array of opportunities in various fields like medicine, pharmaceuticals, electronics and agriculture. The potential uses and benefits of nanotechnology are enormous. These include insect pests management through the formulations of nanomaterials-based pesticides and insecticides, enhancement of agricultural productivity using bio-conjugated nanoparticles (encapsulation) for slow release of nutrients and water, nanoparticle-mediated gene or DNA transfer in plants for the development of insect pest-resistant varieties and use of nanomaterials for preparation of different kind of biosensors, which would be useful in remote sensing devices required for precision farming. Traditional strategies like integrated pest management used in agriculture are insufficient, and application of chemical pesticides like DDT have adverse effects on animals and human beings apart from the decline in soil fertility. Therefore, nanotechnology would provide green and efficient alternatives for the management of insect pests in agriculture without harming the nature. This review is focused on traditional strategies used for the management of insect pests, limitations of use of chemical pesticides and potential of nanomaterials in insect pest management as modern approaches of nanotechnology. PMID:22388570

  14. Pest persistence and eradication conditions in a deterministic model for sterile insect release.

    PubMed

    Gordillo, Luis F

    2015-01-01

    The release of sterile insects is an environment friendly pest control method used in integrated pest management programmes. Difference or differential equations based on Knipling's model often provide satisfactory qualitative descriptions of pest populations subject to sterile release at relatively high densities with large mating encounter rates, but fail otherwise. In this paper, I derive and explore numerically deterministic population models that include sterile release together with scarce mating encounters in the particular case of species with long lifespan and multiple matings. The differential equations account separately the effects of mating failure due to sterile male release and the frequency of mating encounters. When insects spatial spread is incorporated through diffusion terms, computations reveal the possibility of steady pest persistence in finite size patches. In the presence of density dependence regulation, it is observed that sterile release might contribute to induce sudden suppression of the pest population. PMID:25105593

  15. Pest insect olfaction in an insecticide-contaminated environment: info-disruption or hormesis effect.

    PubMed

    Tricoire-Leignel, Hélène; Thany, Steeve Hervé; Gadenne, Christophe; Anton, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    Most animals, including pest insects, live in an "odor world" and depend strongly on chemical stimuli to get information on their biotic and abiotic environment. Although integrated pest management strategies including the use of insect growth regulators (IGRs) are increasingly developed, most insect pest treatments rely on neurotoxic chemicals. These molecules are known to disrupt synaptic transmission, affecting therefore sensory systems. The wide-spread use of neurotoxic insecticides and the growing use of IGRs result in residual accumulation of low concentrations in the environment. These insecticide residues could act as an "info-disruptor" by modifying the chemical communication system, and therefore decrease chances of reproduction in target insects. However, residues can also induce a non-expected hormesis effect by enhancing reproduction abilities. Low insecticide doses might thus induce adaptive processes in the olfactory pathway of target insects, favoring the development of resistance. The effect of sublethal doses of insecticides has mainly been studied in beneficial insects such as honeybees. We review here what is known on the effects of sublethal doses of insecticides on the olfactory system of insect pests. PMID:22457653

  16. Pest Insect Olfaction in an Insecticide-Contaminated Environment: Info-Disruption or Hormesis Effect

    PubMed Central

    Tricoire-Leignel, Hélène; Thany, Steeve Hervé; Gadenne, Christophe; Anton, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    Most animals, including pest insects, live in an “odor world” and depend strongly on chemical stimuli to get information on their biotic and abiotic environment. Although integrated pest management strategies including the use of insect growth regulators (IGRs) are increasingly developed, most insect pest treatments rely on neurotoxic chemicals. These molecules are known to disrupt synaptic transmission, affecting therefore sensory systems. The wide-spread use of neurotoxic insecticides and the growing use of IGRs result in residual accumulation of low concentrations in the environment. These insecticide residues could act as an “info-disruptor” by modifying the chemical communication system, and therefore decrease chances of reproduction in target insects. However, residues can also induce a non-expected hormesis effect by enhancing reproduction abilities. Low insecticide doses might thus induce adaptive processes in the olfactory pathway of target insects, favoring the development of resistance. The effect of sublethal doses of insecticides has mainly been studied in beneficial insects such as honeybees. We review here what is known on the effects of sublethal doses of insecticides on the olfactory system of insect pests. PMID:22457653

  17. Insect pest management for raw commodities during storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter provides an overview of the pest management decision-making process during grain storage. An in-depth discussion of sampling methods, cost-benefit analysis, expert systems, consultants and the use of computer simulation models is provided. Sampling is essential to determine if pest...

  18. Tea: Biological control of insect and mite pests in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tea is one of the most economically important crops in China. To secure its production and quality conservation biological control within the context of integrated pest management (IPM) has been widely popularized for better control of arthropod pests on tea with less chemical insecticide usage and ...

  19. A new method for insect pest monitoring at the nursery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The strawberry rootworm, Paria fragariae Wilcox (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a primary pest of azaleas and other containerized ornamental crops at production nurseries. The cryptic nature of all life stages of this pest can make detection and subsequent control a challenge. The intent of our re...

  20. Landscape changes have greater effects than climate changes on six insect pests in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zihua; Sandhu, Hardev S; Ouyang, Fang; Ge, Feng

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, global changes are the major causes of frequent, widespread outbreaks of pests in mosaic landscapes, which have received substantial attention worldwide. We collected data on global changes (landscape and climate) and economic damage caused by six main insect pests during 1951-2010 in China. Landscape changes had significant effects on all six insect pests. Pest damage increased significantly with increasing arable land area in agricultural landscapes. However, climate changes had no effect on damage caused by pests, except for the rice leaf roller (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenee) and armyworm (Mythimna separate (Walker)), which caused less damage to crops with increasing mean temperature. Our results indicate that there is slight evidence of possible offset effects of climate changes on the increasing damage from these two agricultural pests. Landscape changes have caused serious outbreaks of several species, which suggests the possibility of the use of landscape design for the control of pest populations through habitat rearrangement. Landscape manipulation may be used as a green method to achieve sustainable pest management with minimal use of insecticides and herbicides. PMID:26825944

  1. ADDITIVE IMPACTS OF PLANT PATHOGEN-INSECT ENHANCES PEST-PLANT CONTROL EFFICACY: EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE FROM THE RUST-INSECT-MELALEUCA SYSTEM.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant pathogen-insect integration is becoming popular in pest plant control programs. Herein, we tested the impacts of pathogen-herbivorous insect integration in the biological control of a pest tree, Melaleuca quinquenervia (melaleuca). Melaleuca trees were cut at 25-cm above ground, allowed to cop...

  2. Myco-Biocontrol of Insect Pests: Factors Involved, Mechanism, and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Sardul Singh; Sharma, Anil K.; Beniwal, Vikas; Goel, Gunjan; Batra, Priya; Kumar, Anil; Jaglan, Sundeep; Sharma, A. K.; Malhotra, Sonal

    2012-01-01

    The growing demand for reducing chemical inputs in agriculture and increased resistance to insecticides have provided great impetus to the development of alternative forms of insect-pest control. Myco-biocontrol offers an attractive alternative to the use of chemical pesticides. Myco-biocontrol agents are naturally occurring organisms which are perceived as less damaging to the environment. Their mode of action appears little complex which makes it highly unlikely that resistance could be developed to a biopesticide. Past research has shown some promise of the use of fungi as a selective pesticide. The current paper updates us about the recent progress in the field of myco-biocontrol of insect pests and their possible mechanism of action to further enhance our understanding about the biological control of insect pests. PMID:22567344

  3. Mimetic analogs of three insect neuropeptide classes for pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neuropeptides are potent regulators of critical life processes in insects, but are subjected to rapid degradation by peptidases in the hemolymph (blood), tissues and gut. This limitation can be overcome via replacement of peptidase susceptible portions of the insect neuropeptides to create analogs w...

  4. ADVANCES IN INTEGRATING INSECT GROWTH REGULATORS INTO STORAGE PEST MANAGEMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect growth regulators (IGRs) are insecticides that mimic insect-produced hormones that regulate the developmental process. They generally have little or no mammalian toxicity, and are considered reduced-risk insecticides that are often exempt from tolerance requirements of regulatory agencies. Al...

  5. Integrating insect-resistant GM Crops in pest management systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006, GM cotton and maize with insect resistance were grown on 12.1 and 20.1 million hectares in 9 and 13 countries, respectively. These insect resistant GM crops produce various Cry toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and provide highly selective and effective control of lepidopteran and col...

  6. Pest insect control in organically-produced crops of field vegetables.

    PubMed

    Collier, R H; Finch, S; Davies, G

    2001-01-01

    In the UK, the demand for organic vegetable and salad crops is increasing, mainly as a result of the requirements of the multiple retailers. However, approximately 85% of the organic fruit and vegetable produce sold in the UK is imported. A major constraint to growing field vegetable crops, and particularly organically-produced crops, is the reduction in crop yield and quality caused by pest insects. This paper will consider the control techniques currently available to organic growers and other techniques that may become available in the future. Growing plant varieties with complete or even partial resistance to pest insects can be an effective way of reducing crop damage. There are already varieties of carrot, with resistance to carrot fly, and lettuce, with resistance to certain pest aphid species, which are available commercially. Cultural techniques to exclude, deter or avoid pest insects are also being used by some organic growers. Although isolating new crops from sources of infestation can be a highly effective control strategy, many organic growers cannot use it, as the land converted for organic production is still limited. Various crop covers can be used to prevent pest insects from damaging field crops, but to be effective such covers have to be in place before the pests enter the crop. Several researchers have tried to develop techniques to prevent pest insects from finding their host-plants. No technique involving semiochemicals has been sufficiently successful to be used in field vegetable production in the UK. Other studies have shown that the numbers of pest insects found on crop plants are reduced considerably when the crop is allowed to become weedy, is intercropped with another plant species, or is undersown with a living mulch. Hence, work is now needed to select background plant species that will both reduce pest insect numbers and cause the least reduction in yield to the harvested crop plants. There is also a need to obtain a better

  7. A novel approach to evaluation of pest insect abundance in the presence of noise.

    PubMed

    Embleton, Nina; Petrovskaya, Natalia

    2014-03-01

    Evaluation of pest abundance is an important task of integrated pest management. It has recently been shown that evaluation of pest population size from discrete sampling data can be done by using the ideas of numerical integration. Numerical integration of the pest population density function is a computational technique that readily gives us an estimate of the pest population size, where the accuracy of the estimate depends on the number of traps installed in the agricultural field to collect the data. However, in a standard mathematical problem of numerical integration, it is assumed that the data are precise, so that the random error is zero when the data are collected. This assumption does not hold in ecological applications. An inherent random error is often present in field measurements, and therefore it may strongly affect the accuracy of evaluation. In our paper, we offer a novel approach to evaluate the pest insect population size under the assumption that the data about the pest population include a random error. The evaluation is not based on statistical methods but is done using a spatially discrete method of numerical integration where the data obtained by trapping as in pest insect monitoring are converted to values of the population density. It will be discussed in the paper how the accuracy of evaluation differs from the case where the same evaluation method is employed to handle precise data. We also consider how the accuracy of the pest insect abundance evaluation can be affected by noise when the data available from trapping are sparse. In particular, we show that, contrary to intuitive expectations, noise does not have any considerable impact on the accuracy of evaluation when the number of traps is small as is conventional in ecological applications. PMID:24619808

  8. Nonmarket economic impacts of forest insect pests: A literature review. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberger, R.S.; Smith, E.L.

    1997-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of research on the nonmarket economic impacts of forest insect pests. The majority of the research reports are journal articles or fulfillment of three USDA Forest Service research contracts. This report also reviews the foundations for methodologies used and classifies the forest insect pests studied, the regions in which research has been conducted, the designated land-use areas, the stakeholders, the values, the measurement methods used, and the measures of value indicators. Information on each research project is described with relevant information condensed in tabular form.

  9. Feasibility, limitation and possible solutions of RNAi-based technology for insect pest control.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Li, Hai-Chao; Miao, Xue-Xia

    2013-02-01

    Numerous studies indicate that target gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) could lead to insect death. This phenomenon has been considered as a potential strategy for insect pest control, and it is termed RNAi-mediated crop protection. However, there are many limitations using RNAi-based technology for pest control, with the effectiveness target gene selection and reliable double-strand RNA (dsRNA) delivery being two of the major challenges. With respect to target gene selection, at present, the use of homologous genes and genome-scale high-throughput screening are the main strategies adopted by researchers. Once the target gene is identified, dsRNA can be delivered by micro-injection or by feeding as a dietary component. However, micro-injection, which is the most common method, can only be used in laboratory experiments. Expression of dsRNAs directed against insect genes in transgenic plants and spraying dsRNA reagents have been shown to induce RNAi effects on target insects. Hence, RNAi-mediated crop protection has been considered as a potential new-generation technology for pest control, or as a complementary method of existing pest control strategies; however, further development to improve the efficacy of protection and range of species affected is necessary. In this review, we have summarized current research on RNAi-based technology for pest insect management. Current progress has proven that RNAi technology has the potential to be a tool for designing a new generation of insect control measures. To accelerate its practical application in crop protection, further study on dsRNA uptake mechanisms based on the knowledge of insect physiology and biochemistry is needed. PMID:23955822

  10. Development of reference transcriptomes for the major field insect pests of cowpea: a toolbox for insect pest management approaches in west Africa.

    PubMed

    Agunbiade, Tolulope A; Sun, Weilin; Coates, Brad S; Djouaka, Rousseau; Tamò, Manuele; Ba, Malick N; Binso-Dabire, Clementine; Baoua, Ibrahim; Olds, Brett P; Pittendrigh, Barry R

    2013-01-01

    Cowpea is a widely cultivated and major nutritional source of protein for many people that live in West Africa. Annual yields and longevity of grain storage is greatly reduced by feeding damage caused by a complex of insect pests that include the pod sucking bugs, Anoplocnemis curvipes Fabricius (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stål (Hemiptera: Coreidae); as well as phloem-feeding cowpea aphids, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and flower thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Efforts to control these pests remain a challenge and there is a need to understand the structure and movement of these pest populations in order to facilitate the development of integrated pest management strategies (IPM). Molecular tools have the potential to help facilitate a better understanding of pest populations. Towards this goal, we used 454 pyrosequencing technology to generate 319,126, 176,262, 320,722 and 227,882 raw reads from A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. The reads were de novo assembled into 11,687, 7,647, 10,652 and 7,348 transcripts for A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. Functional annotation of the resulting transcripts identified genes putatively involved in insecticide resistance, pathogen defense and immunity. Additionally, sequences that matched the primary aphid endosymbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, were identified among A. craccivora transcripts. Furthermore, 742, 97, 607 and 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were respectively predicted among A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti transcripts, and will likely be valuable tools for future molecular genetic marker development. These results demonstrate that Roche 454-based transcriptome sequencing could be useful for the development of genomic resources for cowpea pest insects in West Africa. PMID:24278221

  11. Development of Reference Transcriptomes for the Major Field Insect Pests of Cowpea: A Toolbox for Insect Pest Management Approaches in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Agunbiade, Tolulope A.; Sun, Weilin; Coates, Brad S.; Djouaka, Rousseau; Tamò, Manuele; Ba, Malick N.; Binso-Dabire, Clementine; Baoua, Ibrahim; Olds, Brett P.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.

    2013-01-01

    Cowpea is a widely cultivated and major nutritional source of protein for many people that live in West Africa. Annual yields and longevity of grain storage is greatly reduced by feeding damage caused by a complex of insect pests that include the pod sucking bugs, Anoplocnemis curvipes Fabricius (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stål (Hemiptera: Coreidae); as well as phloem-feeding cowpea aphids, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and flower thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Efforts to control these pests remain a challenge and there is a need to understand the structure and movement of these pest populations in order to facilitate the development of integrated pest management strategies (IPM). Molecular tools have the potential to help facilitate a better understanding of pest populations. Towards this goal, we used 454 pyrosequencing technology to generate 319,126, 176,262, 320,722 and 227,882 raw reads from A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. The reads were de novo assembled into 11,687, 7,647, 10,652 and 7,348 transcripts for A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. Functional annotation of the resulting transcripts identified genes putatively involved in insecticide resistance, pathogen defense and immunity. Additionally, sequences that matched the primary aphid endosymbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, were identified among A. craccivora transcripts. Furthermore, 742, 97, 607 and 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were respectively predicted among A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti transcripts, and will likely be valuable tools for future molecular genetic marker development. These results demonstrate that Roche 454-based transcriptome sequencing could be useful for the development of genomic resources for cowpea pest insects in West Africa. PMID:24278221

  12. Retargeting of the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cyt2Aa against hemipteran insect pests

    PubMed Central

    Chougule, Nanasaheb P.; Li, Huarong; Liu, Sijun; Linz, Lucas B.; Narva, Kenneth E.; Meade, Thomas; Bonning, Bryony C.

    2013-01-01

    Although transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins have been used successfully for management of lepidopteran and coleopteran pest species, the sap-sucking insects (Hemiptera) are not particularly susceptible to Bt toxins. To overcome this limitation, we demonstrate that addition of a short peptide sequence selected for binding to the gut of the targeted pest species serves to increase toxicity against said pest. Insertion of a 12-aa pea aphid gut-binding peptide by adding to or replacing amino acids in one of three loops of the Bt cytolytic toxin, Cyt2Aa, resulted in enhanced binding and toxicity against both the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae. This strategy may allow for transgenic plant-mediated suppression of other hemipteran pests, which include some of the most important pests of global agriculture. PMID:23650347

  13. Biological control of pests and insects. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of biological agents to control insects and pests. Radiation, genetic breeding, bacteria, fungi, viruses, and pheromones are discussed as alternatives to pesticidal management. Methods for monitoring the effectiveness and environmental impact of these agents are reviewed. Population control of fruit flies, spruce sawflies, flies, mosquitoes, cockroaches, gypsy moths, and other agriculturally-important insects is also discussed. (Contains a minimum of 190 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Biological control of pests and insects. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of biological agents to control insects and pests. Radiation, genetic breeding, bacteria, fungi, viruses, and pheromones are discussed as alternatives to pesticidal management. Methods for monitoring the effectiveness and environmental impact of these agents are reviewed. Population control of fruit flies, spruce sawflies, flies, mosquitoes, cockroaches, gypsy moths, and other agriculturally-important insects is also discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  15. Host Plant Resistance and Insect Pest Management in Chickpea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nearly 60 insect species feed on chickpea worldwide, of which cutworms (black cutworm - Agrotis ipsilon and turnip moth - Agrotis segetum), leaf feeding caterpillars (leaf caterpillar - Spodoptera exigua and hairy caterpillar - Spilarctia oblique), leaf miners (Liriomyza cicerina), aphids (Aphis cr...

  16. HOST PLANT RESISTANCE AND INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN CHICKPEA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nearly 60 insect species feed on chickpea worldwide, of which cutworms (black cutworm - Agrotis ipsilon and turnip moth - Agrotis segetum), leaf feeding caterpillars (leaf caterpillar - Spodoptera exigua and hairy caterpillar - Spilarctia oblique), leaf miners (Liriomyza cicerina), aphids (Aphis cra...

  17. Some analytical and numerical approaches to understanding trap counts resulting from pest insect immigration.

    PubMed

    Bearup, Daniel; Petrovskaya, Natalia; Petrovskii, Sergei

    2015-05-01

    Monitoring of pest insects is an important part of the integrated pest management. It aims to provide information about pest insect abundance at a given location. This includes data collection, usually using traps, and their subsequent analysis and/or interpretation. However, interpretation of trap count (number of insects caught over a fixed time) remains a challenging problem. First, an increase in either the population density or insects activity can result in a similar increase in the number of insects trapped (the so called "activity-density" problem). Second, a genuine increase of the local population density can be attributed to qualitatively different ecological mechanisms such as multiplication or immigration. Identification of the true factor causing an increase in trap count is important as different mechanisms require different control strategies. In this paper, we consider a mean-field mathematical model of insect trapping based on the diffusion equation. Although the diffusion equation is a well-studied model, its analytical solution in closed form is actually available only for a few special cases, whilst in a more general case the problem has to be solved numerically. We choose finite differences as the baseline numerical method and show that numerical solution of the problem, especially in the realistic 2D case, is not at all straightforward as it requires a sufficiently accurate approximation of the diffusion fluxes. Once the numerical method is justified and tested, we apply it to the corresponding boundary problem where different types of boundary forcing describe different scenarios of pest insect immigration and reveal the corresponding patterns in the trap count growth. PMID:25744607

  18. Integrated Pest Management of Sunflower Insect Pests in the Northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunflowers are native to North America and include 50 species in the genus Helianthus. Thus, associated insects have coevolved with the plants for centuries. A number of these insect species have made the transition from the wild plants to the cultivated plant to feed and develop. These species affe...

  19. A Killed-Cover Crop Production System For Sweetpotatoes: Effects on Pests and Beneficial Insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three sweetpotato genotypes were grown in either conventionally tilled plots (CT) or in a killed-cover crop (KCC) tillage system. In general, injury to sweetpotato roots by soil insect pests was significantly lower in the KCC plots than in the CT plots. Also, injury by sweetpotato weevils was sign...

  20. Broad sprectrum potential of Isaria fumosorosea on insect pests of citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of entomopathogenic fungi, Isaria fumosorosea, Ifr, =Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, successfully increased insect pest mortality. Spraying the Ifr containing product, PFR97 TM, on citrus seedlings was used to screen efficacy for the management of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri; glassy-winge...

  1. Recent advances in fumigation for control of insect pests in dried fruits and nuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    United States agricultural industries are facing, with increasing frequency, environmental and pest-related food safety requirements that are fundamentally difficult to balance. Failure to properly disinfest commodities in trade and marketing channels can result in insect- and microbial-derived dam...

  2. Microbial Control of Insect Pests in Temperate Orchard Systems: Potential for Incorporation into IPM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to their selectivity and safety, microbial control agents appear to be ready made components of IPM systems that will not pose a threat to applicators or the environment and will allow other natural enemies to function. Control of several orchard pest insects using microbial control agents, incl...

  3. Beta vulgaris L. serine proteinase inhibitor gene expression correlates to insect pest resistance in sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analyzing genes that can be used for improving sugar beet resistance to the sugar beet root maggot (SBRM, Tetanops myopaeformis Roder), one of the most destructive insect pests of sugar beet in North America, was a major goal in our investigation. We report on the expression patterns of a sugar beet...

  4. Insect Pest Management in Postharvest Ecosystems in the United States of America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Postharvest entomology can involve grain and grain-based commodities, tree fruits and nuts, citrus fruits, pome fruits, and vegetables. The insect pests and associated control strategies can vary depending on the specific host commodity, and the quarantine aspects associated with export of fresh fru...

  5. Directional flow of aeration to manage insect pests in stored wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using low-volume ambient air to cool stored grain is a common management practice in the southern plains, but little research has been done recently to determine if the direction of airflow makes a difference regarding the cooling and insect pest populations. We conducted a study by using suction ae...

  6. Should I fight or should I flight? How studying insect aggression can help integrated pest management.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    Aggression plays a key role all across the animal kingdom, as it allows the acquisition and/or defence of limited resources (food, mates and territories) in a huge number of species. A large part of our knowledge on aggressive behaviour has been developed on insects of economic importance. How can this knowledge be exploited to enhance integrated pest management? Here, I highlight how knowledge on intraspecific aggression can help IPM both in terms of insect pests (with a focus on the enhancement of the sterile insect technique) and in terms of biological control agents (with a focus on mass-rearing optimisation). Then, I examine what implications for IPM can be outlined from knowledge about interspecific aggressive behaviour. Besides predator-pest aggressive interactions predicted by classic biological control, I focus on what IPM can learn from (i) interspecific aggression among pest species (with special reference to competitive displacement), (ii) defensive behaviour exhibited by prey against predaceous insects and (iii) conflicts among predaceous arthropods sharing the same trophic niche (with special reference to learning/sensitisation practices and artificial manipulation of chemically mediated interactions). PMID:25582991

  7. Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée)(Lepidoptera: Crambidae), an insect pest of Neotropical solanaceous fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tomato fruit borer, Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is one of the most important pests of solanaceous crops in South America. The larva of this insect develops inside the fruit, feeding on the mesocarp and the endosperm; therefore, chemical control is inefficient, yet...

  8. Insect pests and yield potential of vegetable soybean (Endamame) produced in Georgia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of replicated field experiments was conducted with vegetable soybean (edamame), Glycine max (L.) Merrill, to assess the impacts of cultivars, planting dates, and insecticidal controls on insect pest abundance, crop damage and yield potential. The velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatali...

  9. New/Emerging Pests in Alaska: Will Climate Change Favor Insect Expansion Into Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of its geographical isolation and climatic constraints, Alaska agriculture is considered relatively free of diseases and insect pests. However, since 1973, the winter temperatures in Alaska have increased by 2-3 C'. It is logical to assume that continued global climate change could produce ...

  10. AN INSECT PEST FOR AGRICULTURAL, URBAN, AND WILDLIFE AREAS: THE RED IMPORTED FIRE ANT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Red Imported Fire Ant (RIFA), Solenopsis invicta (Buren), is an insect pest of particular importance in California due to its potential impact on public health, agriculture, and wildlife. In 1997, RIFAs hitchhiked to the Central Valley on honeybee hives brought in from Texas for pollination of a...

  11. Reduced Pest Insect Densities Following Compost Application in Organic and Conventional Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of compost and biological amendments on soil fertility, soil microbial communities, soil-borne diseases, insect pests and potato yield quality and quantity were assessed at two farm sites in Northern Maine in 2007. The two sites were: Aroostook Farm (AF), a research farm using convention...

  12. Gut microbiota mediate caffeine detoxification in the primary insect pest of coffee

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) is the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide. It infests crops in most coffee producing countries, and is of particular concern in developing countries where coffee comprises a significant component of gross domestic product. Of more than 850 i...

  13. Plant-microbe relationship that influences an insect pest of Califronia tree nuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    California produces a large portion of the worldwide supply of pistachios. The navel orangeworm is considered a major insect pest of California pistachios, and causes significant damage to pistachio kernels in addition to introducing aflatoxigenic fungi. Despite the development of semiochemical-base...

  14. Interaction between juniper Juniperus communis L. and its fruit pest insects: Pest abundance, fruit characteristics and seed viability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Daniel

    1998-12-01

    The relationships between the fruit features of Juniperus communis and the presence of fruit pests were studied in Sierra Nevada, SE Spain. The abundance of two insect species — a pulp-sucking scale and a seed-predator wasp — was surveyed with respect both to fruit characteristics and to viability of seeds contained therein. Seed-predator pressure was not significantly related to any fruit characteristics; however, pulp suckers tended to be more abundant in plants with low pulp: seed ratios and high fruit-water content. In addition, fruits with high levels of pulp-sucker attack tended to have higher water content. A multi-factor ANOVA, considering the identity of the plant and the attack of the different pests as factors, showed that plant identity accounts for most of the variation in fruit characteristics. The viability of seeds tended to be lower in plants strongly attacked by both pests. Fruits attacked by seed predators showed significantly lower proportions of viable and unviable seeds than did unattacked fruits. Seed viability was also lower in those fruits heavily attacked by pulp suckers, but this pattern is strongly mediated by plant identity. Pest activity proved to be clearly associated with a direct decrease in juniper reproductive capacity. This loss involved a reduction of the viable-seed number, mainly related to the seed predator, as well as a reduction of fruit attractiveness to frugivorous dispersers, related to the pulp sucker.

  15. Manipulating behaviour with substrate-borne vibrations--potential for insect pest control.

    PubMed

    Polajnar, Jernej; Eriksson, Anna; Lucchi, Andrea; Anfora, Gianfranco; Virant-Doberlet, Meta; Mazzoni, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    This review presents an overview of the potential use of substrate-borne vibrations for the purpose of achieving insect pest control in the context of integrated pest management. Although the importance of mechanical vibrations in the life of insects has been fairly well established, the effect of substrate-borne vibrations has historically been understudied, in contrast to sound sensu stricto. Consequently, the idea of using substrate-borne vibrations for pest control is still in its infancy. This review therefore focuses on the theoretical background, using it to highlight potential applications in a field environment, and lists the few preliminary studies that have been or are being performed. Conceptual similarities to the use of sound, as well as limitations inherent in this approach, are also noted. PMID:24962656

  16. Pest control. Full crop protection from an insect pest by expression of long double-stranded RNAs in plastids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiang; Khan, Sher Afzal; Hasse, Claudia; Ruf, Stephanie; Heckel, David G; Bock, Ralph

    2015-02-27

    Double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) targeted against essential genes can trigger a lethal RNA interference (RNAi) response in insect pests. The application of this concept in plant protection is hampered by the presence of an endogenous plant RNAi pathway that processes dsRNAs into short interfering RNAs. We found that long dsRNAs can be stably produced in chloroplasts, a cellular compartment that appears to lack an RNAi machinery. When expressed from the chloroplast genome, dsRNAs accumulated to as much as 0.4% of the total cellular RNA. Transplastomic potato plants producing dsRNAs targeted against the β-actin gene of the Colorado potato beetle, a notorious agricultural pest, were protected from herbivory and were lethal to its larvae. Thus, chloroplast expression of long dsRNAs can provide crop protection without chemical pesticides. PMID:25722411

  17. Optical characterization of agricultural pest insects: a methodological study in the spectral and time domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. Y.; Zhang, H.; Duan, Z.; Lian, M.; Zhao, G. Y.; Sun, X. H.; Hu, J. D.; Gao, L. N.; Feng, H. Q.; Svanberg, S.

    2016-08-01

    Identification of agricultural pest insects is an important aspect in insect research and agricultural monitoring. We have performed a methodological study of how spectroscopic techniques and wing-beat frequency analysis might provide relevant information. An optical system based on the combination of close-range remote sensing and reflectance spectroscopy was developed to study the optical characteristics of different flying insects, collected in Southern China. The results demonstrate that the combination of wing-beat frequency assessment and reflectance spectral analysis has the potential to successfully differentiate between insect species. Further, studies of spectroscopic characteristics of fixed specimen of insects, also from Central China, showed the possibility of refined agricultural pest identification. Here, in addition to reflectance recordings also laser-induced fluorescence spectra were investigated for all the species of insects under study and found to provide complementary information to optically distinguish insects. In order to prove the practicality of the techniques explored, clearly fieldwork aiming at elucidating the variability of parameters, even within species, must be performed.

  18. The Insect Ecdysone Receptor is a Good Potential Target for RNAi-based Pest Control

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Rong; Xu, Xinping; Liang, Yongkang; Tian, Honggang; Pan, Zhanqing; Jin, Shouheng; Wang, Na; Zhang, Wenqing

    2014-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has great potential for use in insect pest control. However, some significant challenges must be overcome before RNAi-based pest control can become a reality. One challenge is the proper selection of a good target gene for RNAi. Here, we report that the insect ecdysone receptor (EcR) is a good potential target for RNAi-based pest control in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens, a serious insect pest of rice plants. We demonstrated that the use of a 360 bp fragment (NlEcR-c) that is common between NlEcR-A and NlEcR-B for feeding RNAi experiments significantly decreased the relative mRNA expression levels of NlEcR compared with those in the dsGFP control. Feeding RNAi also resulted in a significant reduction in the number of offspring per pair of N. lugens. Consequently, a transgenic rice line expressing NlEcR dsRNA was constructed by Agrobacterium- mediated transformation. The results of qRT-PCR showed that the total copy number of the target gene in all transgenic rice lines was 2. Northern blot analysis showed that the small RNA of the hairpin dsNlEcR-c was successfully expressed in the transgenic rice lines. After newly hatched nymphs of N. lugens fed on the transgenic rice lines, effective RNAi was observed. The NlEcR expression levels in all lines examined were decreased significantly compared with the control. In all lines, the survival rate of the nymphs was nearly 90%, and the average number of offspring per pair in the treated groups was significantly less than that observed in the control, with a decrease of 44.18-66.27%. These findings support an RNAi-based pest control strategy and are also important for the management of rice insect pests. PMID:25516715

  19. The insect ecdysone receptor is a good potential target for RNAi-based pest control.

    PubMed

    Yu, Rong; Xu, Xinping; Liang, Yongkang; Tian, Honggang; Pan, Zhanqing; Jin, Shouheng; Wang, Na; Zhang, Wenqing

    2014-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has great potential for use in insect pest control. However, some significant challenges must be overcome before RNAi-based pest control can become a reality. One challenge is the proper selection of a good target gene for RNAi. Here, we report that the insect ecdysone receptor (EcR) is a good potential target for RNAi-based pest control in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens, a serious insect pest of rice plants. We demonstrated that the use of a 360 bp fragment (NlEcR-c) that is common between NlEcR-A and NlEcR-B for feeding RNAi experiments significantly decreased the relative mRNA expression levels of NlEcR compared with those in the dsGFP control. Feeding RNAi also resulted in a significant reduction in the number of offspring per pair of N. lugens. Consequently, a transgenic rice line expressing NlEcR dsRNA was constructed by Agrobacterium- mediated transformation. The results of qRT-PCR showed that the total copy number of the target gene in all transgenic rice lines was 2. Northern blot analysis showed that the small RNA of the hairpin dsNlEcR-c was successfully expressed in the transgenic rice lines. After newly hatched nymphs of N. lugens fed on the transgenic rice lines, effective RNAi was observed. The NlEcR expression levels in all lines examined were decreased significantly compared with the control. In all lines, the survival rate of the nymphs was nearly 90%, and the average number of offspring per pair in the treated groups was significantly less than that observed in the control, with a decrease of 44.18-66.27%. These findings support an RNAi-based pest control strategy and are also important for the management of rice insect pests. PMID:25516715

  20. Entomopathogenic Fungi Associated with Exotic Invasive Insect Pests in Northeastern Forests of the USA

    PubMed Central

    Gouli, Vladimir; Gouli, Svetlana; Marcelino, José A. P.; Skinner, Margaret; Parker, Bruce L.

    2013-01-01

    Mycopathogens of economically important exotic invasive insects in forests of northeastern USA have been the subject of research at the Entomology Research Laboratory, University of Vermont, for the last 20 years. Elongate hemlock scale, European fruit lecanium, hemlock woolly adelgid and pear thrips were analyzed for the presence of mycopathogens, in order to consider the potential for managing these pests with biological control. Fungal cultures isolated from insects with signs of fungal infection were identified based on morphological characters and DNA profiling. Mycopathogens recovered from infected insects were subdivided into three groups, i.e., specialized entomopathogenic; facultative entomopathogens; ubiquitous opportunistic contaminants. Epizootics were caused by fungi in the specialized group with the exception of M. microspora, P. marquandii and I. farinosa. Inoculation of insects in laboratory and field conditions with B. bassiana, L. muscarium and Myriangium sp. caused insect mortality of 45 to 95%. Although pest populations in the field seemed severely compromised after treatment, the remnant populations re-established themselves after the winter. Although capable of inducing high mortality, a single localized aerial application of a soil-dwelling fungus does not maintain long-time suppression of pests. However, it can halt their range expansion and maintain populations below the economic threshold level without the use of expensive insecticides which have a negative impact on the environment. PMID:26462527

  1. Biotechnology-derived products for insect pest control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efforts to produce microbial-based insecticides have resulted from development of new and improved methods in biotechnology. Microorganisms, metabolites from plants and microorganisms, and transgenic crops have been used to make biotechnologically-derived products for control of insects. New biote...

  2. Flooding as “spring cleaning” for insect pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2011, a large-scale field study was undertaken to examine how a 30-40 hour spring flood (550-700 DDs) would affect key insect populations, as well as the cranberry plant. A total of 46 beds were included in the study (23 pairs of flooded/unflooded beds across 11 marshes in central Wisconsin), foc...

  3. Transcriptome Analysis in Cotton Boll Weevil (Anthonomus grandis) and RNA Interference in Insect Pests

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Roberta Ramos; Antonino de Souza Jr, José Dijair; Togawa, Roberto Coiti; Silva-Junior, Orzenil Bonfim; Pappas-Jr, Georgios Joannis; da Silva, Maria Cristina Mattar; Engler, Gilbert; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2013-01-01

    Cotton plants are subjected to the attack of several insect pests. In Brazil, the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, is the most important cotton pest. The use of insecticidal proteins and gene silencing by interference RNA (RNAi) as techniques for insect control are promising strategies, which has been applied in the last few years. For this insect, there are not much available molecular information on databases. Using 454-pyrosequencing methodology, the transcriptome of all developmental stages of the insect pest, A. grandis, was analyzed. The A. grandis transcriptome analysis resulted in more than 500.000 reads and a data set of high quality 20,841 contigs. After sequence assembly and annotation, around 10,600 contigs had at least one BLAST hit against NCBI non-redundant protein database and 65.7% was similar to Tribolium castaneum sequences. A comparison of A. grandis, Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori protein families’ data showed higher similarity to dipteran than to lepidopteran sequences. Several contigs of genes encoding proteins involved in RNAi mechanism were found. PAZ Domains sequences extracted from the transcriptome showed high similarity and conservation for the most important functional and structural motifs when compared to PAZ Domains from 5 species. Two SID-like contigs were phylogenetically analyzed and grouped with T. castaneum SID-like proteins. No RdRP gene was found. A contig matching chitin synthase 1 was mined from the transcriptome. dsRNA microinjection of a chitin synthase gene to A. grandis female adults resulted in normal oviposition of unviable eggs and malformed alive larvae that were unable to develop in artificial diet. This is the first study that characterizes the transcriptome of the coleopteran, A. grandis. A new and representative transcriptome database for this insect pest is now available. All data support the state of the art of RNAi mechanism in insects. PMID:24386449

  4. Competition among agricultural pest insects and its role in pest outbreaks associated with transgenic Bt cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the expansion of transgenic Bt cotton cultivation in the southeast US, stink bugs, particularly Nezara viridula and Euschistus servus [Hemiptera: Pentatomidae], have become serious cotton pests, resulting in continued high insecticide use. Whereas Bt cotton provides effective control of the ca...

  5. Combining pest control and resistance management: synergy of engineered insects with Bt crops.

    PubMed

    Alphey, Nina; Bonsall, Michael B; Alphey, Luke

    2009-04-01

    Transgenic crops producing insecticidal toxins are widely used to control insect pests. Their benefits would be lost if resistance to the toxins became widespread in pest populations. The most widely used resistance management method is the high-dose/refuge strategy. This requires toxin-free host plants as refuges near insecticidal crops, and toxin doses intended to be sufficiently high to kill insects heterozygous for a resistant allele, thereby rendering resistance functionally recessive. We have previously shown by mathematical modeling that mass-release of harmless susceptible (toxin-sensitive) insects engineered with repressible female-specific lethality using release of insects carrying a dominant lethal ([RIDL] Oxitec Limited, United Kingdom) technology could substantially delay or reverse the spread of resistance and reduce refuge sizes. Here, we explore this proposal in depth, studying a wide range of scenarios, considering impacts on population dynamics as well as evolution of allele frequencies, comparing with releases of natural fertile susceptible insects, and examining the effect of seasonality. We investigate the outcome for pest control for which the plant-incorporated toxins are not necessarily at a high dose (i.e., they might not kill all homozygous susceptible and all heterozygous insects). We demonstrate that a RIDL-based approach could form an effective component of a resistance management strategy in a wide range of genetic and ecological circumstances. Because there are significant threshold effects for several variables, we expect that a margin of error would be advisable in setting release ratios and refuge sizes, especially as the frequency and properties of resistant alleles may be difficult to measure accurately in the field. PMID:19449654

  6. Spatiotemporal dynamics of insect pest population under viral infection.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Suma; Bhattacharyya, Samit

    2013-07-01

    The interrelationship between pathogen infection and host mobility is of great importance for successful spread of disease in spatial pest population. As spread of infection depends on horizontal transmission of pathogen, there are numerous factors like susceptibility, latent period, host movement that influence overall effectiveness of the control policy. Initiation of new infection cycle depends on density of infected inoculum in the site. So, spatial movement of infected hosts during the course of infection influence the dynamics. Also, infected individuals are more vulnerable to predators and hence production of virus particles in the site depends on predation to some extent. We derive a four dimensional delayed reaction-diffusion model in one spatial dimension and compute the minimum travelling speed of transmission of infection. We show that the minimum speed is sensitive to several parameters of the system. For example, the minimum speed decreases only with increase in delay in lysis process, but otherwise it increases with increase in force of infection, diffusivity of infectives or per capita virus production. A concluding discussion with numerical simulation is presented in the end. PMID:23562890

  7. Activity of an essential oil derived from Chenopodium ambrosioides on greenhouse insect pests.

    PubMed

    Cloyd, Raymond A; Chiasson, Helene

    2007-04-01

    This study involved both greenhouse and laboratory experiments evaluating the effect of an essential oil product (QRD 400) derived from Chenopodium ambrosioides variety nr. Ambrosioides L. (Chenopodiaceae) on greenhouse insect pests that feed on different plant parts: citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso); longtailed mealybug, Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti); western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), and fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.). Treatments were applied to coleus, Solenostemon scutellarioides plants; transvaal daisy, Gerbera jamesonii flowers; or growing medium, depending on the insect pest. The essential oil was most effective, based on adult emergence, on both the second and third instars of the fungus gnat Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila when applied as a drench to growing medium. In addition, there was a significant rate response for QRD 400 on fungus gnats. The QRD 400 treatment had the highest percentage of mortality on longtailed mealybug (55%) compared with the other treatments. However, the essential oil was less effective against citrus mealybug (3% mortality) and western flower thrips adults (18-34% mortality) compared with standard insecticides, such as acetamiprid (TriStar) and spinosad (Conserve), which are typically used by greenhouse producers. This lack of efficacy may be associated with volatility and short residual properties of the essential oil or with the essential oil taking longer to kill insect pests. Other insecticides and miticides evaluated, including sesame oil, garlic, paraffinic oil, and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, provided minimal control of the designated insect pests. In addition, adult rove beetle Atheta coriaria Kraatz adults were not effective in controlling the larval instars of fungus gnats when applied at a rate of five adults per container. PMID:17461071

  8. Controlled release effect of insecticide microcapsules and their results in common household insect pest control.

    PubMed

    Gao, Y T; Shen, P Y; Wang, B H; Lü, S D; Huang, G C; Ho, L S

    1984-01-01

    Since 1978 we have prepared microencapsulated insecticides by complex coacervation and interfacial polymerization for household insect pest control, fenthion being the main core element. A series of tests have been conducted against mosquitoes (Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus), cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) and bedbugs (Cimex lectularius), and the results indicate that microencapsulation can prolong persistent effects by 2-12 times, enhance safety and subdue offensive odour. Furthermore, the production cost is comparatively low. PMID:6336530

  9. Feeding Behavior of a Potential Insect Pest, Lygus hesperus, on Four New Industrial Crops for the Arid Southwestern USA.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Camelina (Camelina sativa), guayule (Parthenium argentatum), lesquerella (Physaria fendleri), and vernonia ( Centrapalus pauciflorus [formerly Vernonia galamensis]) are either under limited commercial production or being developed for production in the southwestern USA. Insect pests are a potential ...

  10. A modelling methodology to assess the effect of insect pest control on agro-ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Nian-Feng; Ji, Xiang-Yun; Jiang, Jie-Xian; Li, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The extensive use of chemical pesticides for pest management in agricultural systems can entail risks to the complex ecosystems consisting of economic, ecological and social subsystems. To analyze the negative and positive effects of external or internal disturbances on complex ecosystems, we proposed an ecological two-sidedness approach which has been applied to the design of pest-controlling strategies for pesticide pollution management. However, catastrophe theory has not been initially applied to this approach. Thus, we used an approach of integrating ecological two-sidedness with a multi-criterion evaluation method of catastrophe theory to analyze the complexity of agro-ecosystems disturbed by the insecticides and screen out the best insect pest-controlling strategy in cabbage production. The results showed that the order of the values of evaluation index (RCC/CP) for three strategies in cabbage production was “applying frequency vibration lamps and environment-friendly insecticides 8 times” (0.80) < “applying trap devices and environment-friendly insecticides 9 times” (0.83) < “applying common insecticides 14 times” (1.08). The treatment “applying frequency vibration lamps and environment-friendly insecticides 8 times” was considered as the best insect pest-controlling strategy in cabbage production in Shanghai, China. PMID:25906199

  11. A modelling methodology to assess the effect of insect pest control on agro-ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Wan, Nian-Feng; Ji, Xiang-Yun; Jiang, Jie-Xian; Li, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The extensive use of chemical pesticides for pest management in agricultural systems can entail risks to the complex ecosystems consisting of economic, ecological and social subsystems. To analyze the negative and positive effects of external or internal disturbances on complex ecosystems, we proposed an ecological two-sidedness approach which has been applied to the design of pest-controlling strategies for pesticide pollution management. However, catastrophe theory has not been initially applied to this approach. Thus, we used an approach of integrating ecological two-sidedness with a multi-criterion evaluation method of catastrophe theory to analyze the complexity of agro-ecosystems disturbed by the insecticides and screen out the best insect pest-controlling strategy in cabbage production. The results showed that the order of the values of evaluation index (RCC/CP) for three strategies in cabbage production was "applying frequency vibration lamps and environment-friendly insecticides 8 times" (0.80) < "applying trap devices and environment-friendly insecticides 9 times" (0.83) < "applying common insecticides 14 times" (1.08). The treatment "applying frequency vibration lamps and environment-friendly insecticides 8 times" was considered as the best insect pest-controlling strategy in cabbage production in Shanghai, China. PMID:25906199

  12. Ingestion of genetically modified yeast symbiont reduces fitness of an insect pest via RNA interference

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Katherine A.; Tabuloc, Christine A.; Cervantes, Kevin R.; Chiu, Joanna C.

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference has had major advances as a developing tool for pest management. In laboratory experiments, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is often administered to the insect by genetic modification of the crop, or synthesized in vitro and topically applied to the crop. Here, we engineered genetically modified yeast that express dsRNA targeting y-Tubulin in Drosophila suzukii. Our design takes advantage of the symbiotic interactions between Drosophila, yeast, and fruit crops. Yeast is naturally found growing on the surface of fruit crops, constitutes a major component of the Drosophila microbiome, and is highly attractive to Drosophila. Thus, this naturally attractive yeast biopesticide can deliver dsRNA to an insect pest without the need for genetic crop modification. We demonstrate that this biopesticide decreases larval survivorship, and reduces locomotor activity and reproductive fitness in adults, which are indicative of general health decline. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that yeast can be used to deliver dsRNA to an insect pest. PMID:26931800

  13. Exploitation of insect vibrational signals reveals a new method of pest management.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Anna; Anfora, Gianfranco; Lucchi, Andrea; Lanzo, Francesco; Virant-Doberlet, Meta; Mazzoni, Valerio

    2012-01-01

    Food production is considered to be the main source of human impact on the environment and the concerns about detrimental effects of pesticides on biodiversity and human health are likely to lead to an increasingly restricted use of chemicals in agriculture. Since the first successful field trial, pheromone based mating disruption enabled sustainable insect control, which resulted in reduced levels of pesticide use. Organic farming is one of the fastest growing segments of agriculture and with the continuously growing public concern about use of pesticides, the main remaining challenge in increasing the safety of the global food production is to identify appropriate alternative mating disruption approaches for the numerous insect pests that do not rely on chemical communication. In the present study, we show for the first time that effective mating disruption based on substrate-borne vibrational signals can be achieved in the field. When disruptive vibrational signals were applied to grapevine plants through a supporting wire, mating frequency of the leafhopper pest Scaphoideus titanus dropped to 9 % in semi-field conditions and to 4 % in a mature vineyard. The underlying mechanism of this environmentally friendly pest-control tactic is a masking of the vibrational signals used in mate recognition and location. Because vibrational communication is widespread in insects, mating disruption using substrate vibrations can transform many open field and greenhouse based farming systems. PMID:22457726

  14. Exploitation of Insect Vibrational Signals Reveals a New Method of Pest Management

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Anna; Anfora, Gianfranco; Lucchi, Andrea; Lanzo, Francesco; Virant-Doberlet, Meta; Mazzoni, Valerio

    2012-01-01

    Food production is considered to be the main source of human impact on the environment and the concerns about detrimental effects of pesticides on biodiversity and human health are likely to lead to an increasingly restricted use of chemicals in agriculture. Since the first successful field trial, pheromone based mating disruption enabled sustainable insect control, which resulted in reduced levels of pesticide use. Organic farming is one of the fastest growing segments of agriculture and with the continuously growing public concern about use of pesticides, the main remaining challenge in increasing the safety of the global food production is to identify appropriate alternative mating disruption approaches for the numerous insect pests that do not rely on chemical communication. In the present study, we show for the first time that effective mating disruption based on substrate-borne vibrational signals can be achieved in the field. When disruptive vibrational signals were applied to grapevine plants through a supporting wire, mating frequency of the leafhopper pest Scaphoideus titanus dropped to 9 % in semi-field conditions and to 4 % in a mature vineyard. The underlying mechanism of this environmentally friendly pest-control tactic is a masking of the vibrational signals used in mate recognition and location. Because vibrational communication is widespread in insects, mating disruption using substrate vibrations can transform many open field and greenhouse based farming systems. PMID:22457726

  15. Targeting an antimicrobial effector function in insect immunity as a pest control strategy

    PubMed Central

    Bulmer, Mark S.; Bachelet, Ido; Raman, Rahul; Rosengaus, Rebeca B.; Sasisekharan, Ram

    2009-01-01

    Insect pests such as termites cause damages to crops and man-made structures estimated at over $30 billion per year, imposing a global challenge for the human economy. Here, we report a strategy for compromising insect immunity that might lead to the development of nontoxic, sustainable pest control methods. Gram-negative bacteria binding proteins (GNBPs) are critical for sensing pathogenic infection and triggering effector responses. We report that termite GNBP-2 (tGNBP-2) shows β(1,3)-glucanase effector activity previously unknown in animal immunity and is a pleiotropic pattern recognition receptor and an antimicrobial effector protein. Termites incorporate this protein into the nest building material, where it functions as a nest-embedded sensor that cleaves and releases pathogenic components, priming termites for improved antimicrobial defense. By means of rational design, we present an inexpensive, nontoxic small molecule glycomimetic that blocks tGNBP-2, thus exposing termites in vivo to accelerated infection and death from specific and opportunistic pathogens. Such a molecule, introduced into building materials and agricultural methods, could protect valuable assets from insect pests. PMID:19506247

  16. Ingestion of genetically modified yeast symbiont reduces fitness of an insect pest via RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Katherine A; Tabuloc, Christine A; Cervantes, Kevin R; Chiu, Joanna C

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference has had major advances as a developing tool for pest management. In laboratory experiments, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is often administered to the insect by genetic modification of the crop, or synthesized in vitro and topically applied to the crop. Here, we engineered genetically modified yeast that express dsRNA targeting y-Tubulin in Drosophila suzukii. Our design takes advantage of the symbiotic interactions between Drosophila, yeast, and fruit crops. Yeast is naturally found growing on the surface of fruit crops, constitutes a major component of the Drosophila microbiome, and is highly attractive to Drosophila. Thus, this naturally attractive yeast biopesticide can deliver dsRNA to an insect pest without the need for genetic crop modification. We demonstrate that this biopesticide decreases larval survivorship, and reduces locomotor activity and reproductive fitness in adults, which are indicative of general health decline. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that yeast can be used to deliver dsRNA to an insect pest. PMID:26931800

  17. Relative densities of natural enemy and pest insects within California hedgerows.

    PubMed

    Gareau, Tara L Pisani; Letourneau, Deborah K; Shennan, Carol

    2013-08-01

    Research on hedgerow design for supporting communities of natural enemies for biological control lags behind farmer innovation in California, where assemblages of perennial plant species have been used on crop field margins in the last decade. We compared natural enemy to pest ratios between fields with hedgerows and fields with weedy margins by sampling beneficial insects and key pests of vegetables on sticky cards. We used biweekly vacuum samples to measure the distribution of key insect taxa among native perennial plant species with respect to the timing and intensity of bloom. Sticky cards indicated a trend that field margins with hedgerows support a higher ratio of natural enemies to pests compared with weedy borders. Hedgerow plant species hosted different relative densities of a generally overlapping insect community, and the timing and intensity of bloom only explained a small proportion of the variation in insect abundance at plant species and among hedgerows, with the exception of Orius spp. on Achillea millefolium L. and Baccharis pilularis De Candolle. Indicator Species Analysis showed an affinity of parasitic wasps, especially in the super-family Chalcidoidea, for B. pilularis whether or not it was in flower. A. millefolium was attractive to predatory and herbivorous homopterans; Heteromeles arbutifolia (Lindley) Roemer and B. pilularis to Diabrotica undecimpunctata undecimpunctata Mannerheim; and Rhamnus californica Eschsch to Hemerobiidae. Perennial hedgerows can be designed through species selection to support particular beneficial insect taxa, but plant resources beyond floral availability may be critical in providing structural refuges, alternative prey, and other attractive qualities that are often overlooked. PMID:23905731

  18. Development of Host-Plant Resistance as a Strategy to Reduce Damage from the Major Sunflower Insect Pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The major insect pests attacking cultivated sunflower include the sunflower stem weevil, the sunflower moth, the red sunflower seed weevil, the banded sunflower moth, and the sunflower midge. Strategies to reduce crop losses for these pests have focused on insecticidal control, but host-plant resist...

  19. Floricultural Insects and Related Pests - Biology and Control, Section I. Florogram - Specialty Manual Issue for Commercial Greenhouse Growers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentile, A. G.; Scanlon, D. T.

    This manual is designed by the Massachusetts Cooperative Extension Service as a guide for the control of the most common insects and related pests of floricultural crops grown commercially in glass and plastic houses in Massachusetts. The publication consists of two sections. The first section presents a description of the major pests of…

  20. Restoring a maize root signal that attracts insect-killing nematodes to control a major pest

    PubMed Central

    Degenhardt, Jörg; Hiltpold, Ivan; Köllner, Tobias G.; Frey, Monika; Gierl, Alfons; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Hibbard, Bruce E.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Turlings, Ted C. J.

    2009-01-01

    When attacked by herbivorous insects, plants emit volatile compounds that attract natural enemies of the insects. It has been proposed that these volatile signals can be manipulated to improve crop protection. Here, we demonstrate the full potential of this strategy by restoring the emission of a specific belowground signal emitted by insect-damaged maize roots. The western corn rootworm induces the roots of many maize varieties to emit (E)-β-caryophyllene, which attracts entomopathogenic nematodes that infect and kill the voracious root pest. However, most North American maize varieties have lost the ability to emit (E)-β-caryophyllene and may therefore receive little protection from the nematodes. To restore the signal, a nonemitting maize line was transformed with a (E)-β-caryophyllene synthase gene from oregano, resulting in constitutive emissions of this sesquiterpene. In rootworm-infested field plots in which nematodes were released, the (E)-β-caryophyllene-emitting plants suffered significantly less root damage and had 60% fewer adult beetles emerge than untransformed, nonemitting lines. This demonstration that plant volatile emissions can be manipulated to enhance the effectiveness of biological control agents opens the way for novel and ecologically sound strategies to fight a variety of insect pests. PMID:19666594

  1. Effect of volatile constituents from Securidaca longepedunculata on insect pests of stored grain.

    PubMed

    Jayasekara, Thamara K; Stevenson, Philip C; Hall, David R; Belmain, Steven R

    2005-02-01

    Securidaca longepedunculata Fers (Polygalaceae) is commonly used as a traditional medicine in many parts of Africa as well as against a number of invertebrate pests, including insects infesting stored grain. The present study showed that S. longepedunculata root powder, its methanol extract, and the main volatile component, methyl salicylate, exhibit repellent and toxic properties to Sitophilus zeamais adults. Adult S. zeamais that were given a choice between untreated maize and maize treated with root powder, extract, or synthetic methyl salicylate in a four-way choice olfactometer significantly preferred the control maize. Methyl salicylate vapor also had a dose-dependant fumigant effect against S. zeamais, Rhyzopertha dominica, and Prostephanus truncates, with a LD100 achieved with a 60microl dose in a 1-l container against all three insect species after 24 hr of exposure. Probit analyses estimated LD50 values between 34 and 36 microl (95% CI) for all insect species. Furthermore, prolonged exposure for 6 days showed that lower amounts (30 microl) of methyl salicylate vapor were able to induce 100% adult mortality of the three insect species. The implications are discussed in the context of improving stored product pest control by small-scale subsistence farmers in Africa. PMID:15856785

  2. Gut microbiota mediate caffeine detoxification in the primary insect pest of coffee.

    PubMed

    Ceja-Navarro, Javier A; Vega, Fernando E; Karaoz, Ulas; Hao, Zhao; Jenkins, Stefan; Lim, Hsiao Chien; Kosina, Petr; Infante, Francisco; Northen, Trent R; Brodie, Eoin L

    2015-01-01

    The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) is the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide with its infestations decreasing crop yield by up to 80%. Caffeine is an alkaloid that can be toxic to insects and is hypothesized to act as a defence mechanism to inhibit herbivory. Here we show that caffeine is degraded in the gut of H. hampei, and that experimental inactivation of the gut microbiota eliminates this activity. We demonstrate that gut microbiota in H. hampei specimens from seven major coffee-producing countries and laboratory-reared colonies share a core of microorganisms. Globally ubiquitous members of the gut microbiota, including prominent Pseudomonas species, subsist on caffeine as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Pseudomonas caffeine demethylase genes are expressed in vivo in the gut of H. hampei, and re-inoculation of antibiotic-treated insects with an isolated Pseudomonas strain reinstates caffeine-degradation ability confirming their key role. PMID:26173063

  3. Gut microbiota mediate caffeine detoxification in the primary insect pest of coffee

    SciTech Connect

    Ceja-Navarro, Javier A.; Vega, Fernando E.; Karaoz, Ulas; Hao, Zhao; Jenkins, Stefan; Lim, Hsiao Chien; Kosina, Petr; Infante, Francisco; Northen, Trent R.; Brodie, Eoin L.

    2015-07-14

    Here we report that the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) is the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide with its infestations decreasing crop yield by up to 80%. Caffeine is an alkaloid that can be toxic to insects and is hypothesized to act as a defence mechanism to inhibit herbivory. Furthermore, we show that caffeine is degraded in the gut of H. hampei, and that experimental inactivation of the gut microbiota eliminates this activity. We also demonstrate that gut microbiota in H. hampei specimens from seven major coffee-producing countries and laboratory-reared colonies share a core of microorganisms. Globally ubiquitous members of the gut microbiota, including prominent Pseudomonas species, subsist on caffeine as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen. In conclusion, pseudomonas caffeine demethylase genes are expressed in vivo in the gut of H. hampei, and re-inoculation of antibiotic-treated insects with an isolated Pseudomonas strain reinstates caffeine-degradation ability confirming their key role.

  4. Gut microbiota mediate caffeine detoxification in the primary insect pest of coffee

    PubMed Central

    Ceja-Navarro, Javier A.; Vega, Fernando E.; Karaoz, Ulas; Hao, Zhao; Jenkins, Stefan; Lim, Hsiao Chien; Kosina, Petr; Infante, Francisco; Northen, Trent R.; Brodie, Eoin L.

    2015-01-01

    The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) is the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide with its infestations decreasing crop yield by up to 80%. Caffeine is an alkaloid that can be toxic to insects and is hypothesized to act as a defence mechanism to inhibit herbivory. Here we show that caffeine is degraded in the gut of H. hampei, and that experimental inactivation of the gut microbiota eliminates this activity. We demonstrate that gut microbiota in H. hampei specimens from seven major coffee-producing countries and laboratory-reared colonies share a core of microorganisms. Globally ubiquitous members of the gut microbiota, including prominent Pseudomonas species, subsist on caffeine as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Pseudomonas caffeine demethylase genes are expressed in vivo in the gut of H. hampei, and re-inoculation of antibiotic-treated insects with an isolated Pseudomonas strain reinstates caffeine-degradation ability confirming their key role. PMID:26173063

  5. Insect Pests of Shade Trees and Shrubs: A Guide for Commercial Nurserymen and Arborists. Publication E-41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuder, Donald L.

    This guide presents information on controlling insect pests of ornamental trees and shrubs. It is organized for easy reference by nurserymen, arborists, and others desirous of controlling insect damage. General information given includes notes on spraying and sprayers, insecticides, general purpose sprays, phytotoxicity, and health precautions.…

  6. Virtual bats: manipulating the activities of bats and insects as a practical application for integrated pest control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many insects, including many agricultural pests, respond to the ultrasonic calls of bats by taking evasive action and curtailing flight activity. Earlier attempts to exploit this co-evolved relationship to inhibit insect activity for crop protection (Belton and Kempster 1962) showed promise, but we...

  7. Current status of non-chemical methods for control of insect pests in dried fruits and nuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Regulatory agencies and consumers have no tolerance for live insects in dried fruit and tree nut commodities; consequently, successful marketing of these products requires postharvest treatments designed to kill any pest insects. Recent regulatory actions have severely limited the use of chemical fu...

  8. Reduced Population Control of an Insect Pest in Managed Willow Monocultures

    PubMed Central

    Dalin, Peter; Kindvall, Oskar; Björkman, Christer

    2009-01-01

    Background There is a general belief that insect outbreak risk is higher in plant monocultures than in natural and more diverse habitats, although empirical studies investigating this relationship are lacking. In this study, using density data collected over seven years at 40 study sites, we compare the temporal population variability of the leaf beetle Phratora vulgatissima between willow plantations and natural willow habitats. Methodology/Principal Findings The study was conducted in 1999–2005. The density of adult P. vulgatissima was estimated in the spring every year by a knock-down sampling technique. We used two measures of population variability, CV and PV, to compare temporal variations in leaf beetle density between plantation and natural habitat. Relationships between density and variability were also analyzed to discern potential underlying processes behind stability in the two systems. The results showed that the leaf beetle P. vulgatissima had a greater temporal population variability and outbreak risk in willow plantations than in natural willow habitats. We hypothesize that the greater population stability observed in the natural habitat was due to two separate processes operating at different levels of beetle density. First, stable low population equilibrium can be achieved by the relatively high density of generalist predators observed in natural stands. Second, stable equilibrium can also be imposed at higher beetle density due to competition, which occurs through depletion of resources (plant foliage) in the natural habitat. In willow plantations, competition is reduced mainly because plants grow close enough for beetle larvae to move to another plant when foliage is consumed. Conclusion/Significance To our knowledge, this is the first empirical study confirming that insect pest outbreak risk is higher in monocultures. The study suggests that comparative studies of insect population dynamics in different habitats may improve our ability to

  9. Synergistic interactions of ecosystem services: florivorous pest control boosts crop yield increase through insect pollination.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Louis; Albrecht, Matthias

    2016-02-10

    Insect pollination and pest control are pivotal functions sustaining global food production. However, they have mostly been studied in isolation and how they interactively shape crop yield remains largely unexplored. Using controlled field experiments, we found strong synergistic effects of insect pollination and simulated pest control on yield quantity and quality. Their joint effect increased yield by 23%, with synergistic effects contributing 10%, while their single contributions were 7% and 6%, respectively. The potential economic benefit for a farmer from the synergistic effects (12%) was 1.8 times greater than their individual contributions (7% each). We show that the principal underlying mechanism was a pronounced pest-induced reduction in flower lifetime, resulting in a strong reduction in the number of pollinator visits a flower receives during its lifetime. Our findings highlight the importance of non-additive interactions among ecosystem services (ES) when valuating, mapping or predicting them and reveal fundamental implications for ecosystem management and policy aimed at maximizing ES for sustainable agriculture. PMID:26865304

  10. Fluorescent sperm marking to improve the fight against the pest insect Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann; Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Scolari, Francesca; Schetelig, Marc F; Bertin, Sabrina; Malacrida, Anna R; Gasperi, Giuliano; Wimmer, Ernst A

    2008-06-01

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) involving area-wide release of mass-reared and sterilized pest insects has proven successful to reduce, control and eradicate economically important pest species, such as the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly). For the efficient application, effective monitoring to assess the number and mating success of the released medflies is essential. Here, we report sperm-specific marking systems based on the spermatogenesis-specific Ceratitis capitata beta2-tubulin (Ccbeta2t) promoter. Fluorescent sperm can be isolated from testes or spermathecae. The marking does not cause general disadvantages in preliminary laboratory competitiveness assays. Therefore, transgenic sperm marking could serve as a major improvement for monitoring medfly SIT programs. The use of such harmless transgenic markers will serve as an ideal initial condition to transfer insect transgenesis technology from the laboratory to field applications. Moreover, effective and easily recognizable sperm marking will make novel studies possible on medfly reproductive biology which will help to further improve SIT programs. PMID:18504022

  11. Make your trappings count: The mathematics of pest insect monitoring. Comment on “Multiscale approach to pest insect monitoring: Random walks, pattern formation, synchronization, and networks” by Petrovskii et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasius, Bernd

    2014-09-01

    Since the beginnings of agriculture the production of crops is characterized by an ongoing battle between farmers and pests [1]. Already during biblical times swarms of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria, were known as major pest that can devour a field of corn within an hour. Even today, harmful organisms have the potential to threaten food production worldwide. It is estimated that about 37% of all potential crops are destroyed by pests. Harmful insects alone destroy 13%, causing financial losses in the agricultural industry of millions of dollars each year [2-4]. These numbers emphasize the importance of pest insect monitoring as a crucial step of integrated pest management [1]. The main approach to gain information about infestation levels is based on trapping, which leads to the question of how to extrapolate the sparse population counts at singularly disposed traps to a spatial representation of the pest species distribution. In their review Petrovskii et al. provide a mathematical framework to tackle this problem [5]. Their analysis reveals that this seemingly inconspicuous problem gives rise to surprisingly deep mathematical challenges that touch several modern contemporary concepts of statistical physics and complex systems theory. The review does not aim for a collection of numerical recipes to support crop growers in the analysis of their trapping data. Instead the review identifies the relevant biological and physical processes that are involved in pest insect monitoring and it presents the mathematical techniques that are required to capture these processes.

  12. ChiloDB: a genomic and transcriptome database for an important rice insect pest Chilo suppressalis

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Chuanlin; Liu, Ying; Liu, Jinding; Xiao, Huamei; Huang, Shuiqing; Lin, Yongjun; Han, Zhaojun; Li, Fei

    2014-01-01

    ChiloDB is an integrated resource that will be of use to the rice stem borer research community. The rice striped stem borer (SSB), Chilo suppressalis Walker, is a major rice pest that causes severe yield losses in most rice-producing countries. A draft genome of this insect is available. The aims of ChiloDB are (i) to store recently acquired genomic sequence and transcriptome data and integrate them with protein-coding genes, microRNAs, piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) data and (ii) to provide comprehensive search tools and downloadable data sets for comparative genomics and gene annotation of this important rice pest. ChiloDB contains the first version of the official SSB gene set, comprising 80 479 scaffolds and 10 221 annotated protein-coding genes. Additionally, 262 SSB microRNA genes predicted from a small RNA library, 82 639 piRNAs identified using the piRNApredictor software, 37 040 transcripts from a midgut transcriptome and 69 977 transcripts from a mixed sample have all been integrated into ChiloDB. ChiloDB was constructed using a data structure that is compatible with data resources, which will be incorporated into the database in the future. This resource will serve as a long-term and open-access database for research on the biology, evolution and pest control of SSB. To the best of our knowledge, ChiloDB is one of the first genomic and transcriptome database for rice insect pests. Database URL: http://ento.njau.edu.cn/ChiloDB. PMID:24997141

  13. ChiloDB: a genomic and transcriptome database for an important rice insect pest Chilo suppressalis.

    PubMed

    Yin, Chuanlin; Liu, Ying; Liu, Jinding; Xiao, Huamei; Huang, Shuiqing; Lin, Yongjun; Han, Zhaojun; Li, Fei

    2014-01-01

    ChiloDB is an integrated resource that will be of use to the rice stem borer research community. The rice striped stem borer (SSB), Chilo suppressalis Walker, is a major rice pest that causes severe yield losses in most rice-producing countries. A draft genome of this insect is available. The aims of ChiloDB are (i) to store recently acquired genomic sequence and transcriptome data and integrate them with protein-coding genes, microRNAs, piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) data and (ii) to provide comprehensive search tools and downloadable data sets for comparative genomics and gene annotation of this important rice pest. ChiloDB contains the first version of the official SSB gene set, comprising 80,479 scaffolds and 10 221 annotated protein-coding genes. Additionally, 262 SSB microRNA genes predicted from a small RNA library, 82 639 piRNAs identified using the piRNApredictor software, 37,040 transcripts from a midgut transcriptome and 69 977 transcripts from a mixed sample have all been integrated into ChiloDB. ChiloDB was constructed using a data structure that is compatible with data resources, which will be incorporated into the database in the future. This resource will serve as a long-term and open-access database for research on the biology, evolution and pest control of SSB. To the best of our knowledge, ChiloDB is one of the first genomic and transcriptome database for rice insect pests. Database URL: http://ento.njau.edu.cn/ChiloDB. PMID:24997141

  14. Ancient pests: the season of the Santorini Minoan volcanic eruption and a date from insect chitin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagiotakopulu, Eva; Higham, Thomas; Sarpaki, Anaya; Buckland, Paul; Doumas, Christos

    2013-07-01

    Attributing a season and a date to the volcanic eruption of Santorini in the Aegean has become possible by using preserved remains of the bean weevil, Bruchus rufipes, pests of pulses, from the storage jars of the West House, in the Bronze Age settlement at Akrotiri. We have applied an improved pre-treatment methodology for dating the charred insects, and this provides a date of 1744-1538 BC. This date is within the range of others obtained from pulses from the same context and confirms the utility of chitin as a dating material. Based on the nature of the insect material and the life cycle of the species involved, we argue for a summer eruption, which took place after harvest, shortly after this material was transported into the West House storeroom.

  15. The toxin and antidote puzzle: new ways to control insect pest populations through manipulating inheritance.

    PubMed

    Marshall, John M

    2011-01-01

    Insects carry out essential ecological functions, such as pollination, but also cause extensive damage to agricultural crops, and transmit human diseases such as malaria and dengue fever. Advances in insect transgenesis are making it increasingly feasible to engineer genes conferring desirable phenotypes, and gene drive systems are required to spread these genes into wild populations. Medea provides one solution, being able to spread into a population from very low initial frequencies through the action of a maternally-expressed toxin linked to a zygotically-expressed antidote. Several other toxin-antidote combinations are imaginable that distort the offspring ratio in favor of a desired transgene, or drive the population towards an all-male crash. We explore two such systems--Semele, which is capable of spreading a desired transgene into an isolated population in a confined manner; and Merea, which is capable of inducing a local population crash when located on the Z chromosome of a Lepidopteron pest. PMID:21876382

  16. Impacts of transgenic poplar-cotton agro-ecosystems upon target pests and non-target insects under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, D J; Liu, J X; Lu, Z Y; Li, C L; Comada, E; Yang, M S

    2015-01-01

    Poplar-cotton agro-ecosystems are the main agricultural planting modes of cotton fields in China. With increasing acres devoted to transgenic insect-resistant poplar and transgenic insect-resistant cotton, studies examining the effects of transgenic plants on target and non-target insects become increasingly important. We systematically surveyed populations of both target pests and non-target insects for 4 different combinations of poplar-cotton eco-systems over 3 years. Transgenic Bt cotton strongly resisted the target insects Fall webworm moth [Hyphantria cunea (Drury)], Sylepta derogata Fabrieius, and American bollworm (Heliothis armigera), but no clear impact on non-target insect cotton aphids (Aphis gossypii). Importantly, intercrops containing transgenic Pb29 poplar significantly increased the inhibitory effects of Bt cotton on Fall webworm moth in ecosystem IV. Highly resistant Pb29 poplar reduced populations of the target pests Grnsonoma minutara Hubner and non-target insect poplar leaf aphid (Chaitophorus po-pulialbae), while Fall webworm moth populations were unaffected. We determined the effects of Bt toxin from transgenic poplar and cotton on target and non-target pests in different ecosystems of cotton-poplar intercrops and identified the synergistic effects of such combinations toward both target and non-target insects. PMID:26345739

  17. Safety and advantages of Bacillus thuringiensis-protected plants to control insect pests.

    PubMed

    Betz, F S; Hammond, B G; Fuchs, R L

    2000-10-01

    Plants modified to express insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (referred to as Bt-protected plants) provide a safe and highly effective method of insect control. Bt-protected corn, cotton, and potato were introduced into the United States in 1995/1996 and grown on a total of approximately 10 million acres in 1997, 20 million acres in 1998, and 29 million acres globally in 1999. The extremely rapid adoption of these Bt-protected crops demonstrates the outstanding grower satisfaction of the performance and value of these products. These crops provide highly effective control of major insect pests such as the European corn borer, southwestern corn borer, tobacco budworm, cotton bollworm, pink bollworm, and Colorado potato beetle and reduce reliance on conventional chemical pesticides. They have provided notably higher yields in cotton and corn. The estimated total net savings to the grower using Bt-protected cotton in the United States was approximately $92 million in 1998. Other benefits of these crops include reduced levels of the fungal toxin fumonisin in corn and the opportunity for supplemental pest control by beneficial insects due to the reduced use of broad-spectrum insecticides. Insect resistance management plans are being implemented to ensure the prolonged effectiveness of these products. Extensive testing of Bt-protected crops has been conducted which establishes the safety of these products to humans, animals, and the environment. Acute, subchronic, and chronic toxicology studies conducted over the past 40 years establish the safety of the microbial Bt products, including their expressed insecticidal (Cry) proteins, which are fully approved for marketing. Mammalian toxicology and digestive fate studies, which have been conducted with the proteins produced in the currently approved Bt-protected plant products, have confirmed that these Cry proteins are nontoxic to humans and pose no significant concern for allergenicity. Food and feed derived

  18. Efficacy of Piper (Piperaceae) extracts for control of common home and garden insect pests.

    PubMed

    Scott, I M; Jensen, H; Nicol, R; Lesage, L; Bradbury, R; Sánchez-Vindas, P; Poveda, L; Arnason, J T; Philogène, B J R

    2004-08-01

    Extracts from three species of the plant family Piperaceae, Piper nigrum [L.], Piper guineense [Schum & Thonn, and Piper tuberculatum [Jacq.], were tested for efficacy against insects from five orders. All three species contain isobutyl amides, plant secondary compounds that act as neurotoxins in insects. These materials are considered safe to mammals because Piper spp. were used for centuries for spice and medicinal purposes. When 24-h P. nigrum LC50 values were compared between common insect pests from eastern Canada and the northeastern United States, the most sensitive species in order of increasing lethal concentration were eastern tent caterpillar, Malacosoma americanum (F.) < European pine sawfly larvae, Neodiprion sertifer (Geoffroy) < spindle ermine moth larvae, Yponomeuta cagnagella [Hübner] < viburnum leaf beetle larvae, Pyrrhalta viburni [Paykull] < stripped cucumber beetle adults, Acalymma vittatum (F.) < Colorado potato beetle adults, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) < Japanese beetle adults, Popillia japonica [Newman] < hairy chinch bug, Blissus leucopterus hirtis [Montandon]. The life stage tested was the point at which each species causes the greatest amount of damage to the host plant and the point at which most gardeners would likely choose to treat with a conventional synthetic insecticide. Greenhouse trials revealed that the pepper formulations also had a repellent activity, thus protecting plant leaves from 1) herbivory (lily leaf beetle, Lilioceris lilii [Scopoli], adults and larvae and stripped cucumber beetle adults) and 2) oviposition [European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner)]. Combinations with other botanical extracts were additive at best in toxicity and repellent trials. Nontarget toxicity to beneficial invertebrates is a possibility because the P. nigrum LC50 for beneficial ladybird beetles was 0.2%. P. nigrum extracts can provide a reasonable level of control against lepidopteran and European pine sawfly larvae and also will

  19. Pest insect movement and dispersal as an example of applied movement ecology. Comment on “Multiscale approach to pest insect monitoring: Random walks, pattern formation, synchronization, and networks” by Petrovskii, Petrovskaya and Bearup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codling, Edward A.

    2014-09-01

    Over the past decade there has been a revolution in the development of new affordable sensing and tracking technology, and this has led to the deployment of a vast array of location sensors and data loggers for monitoring and recording animal movement [1,2]. This revolution has led to an enormous amount of animal movement data being collected and much of this is now freely available [3]. Alongside the technological revolution, by necessity there has also been a rapid development of new mathematical and statistical tools and techniques for analysing the enormous data sets collected [4-6]. Movement ecology has subsequently been recognised as an important research field in its own right [7,8]. Nevertheless, there are still many open problems remaining. In particular, Petrovskii et al. [9] highlight an important question about how the movement and dispersal of pest insects relates to their population abundance, dynamics and spatial spread. Such a question can be considered an example of "applied movement ecology". As well as serving as an important case study to develop and test movement analysis and spatial modelling techniques, there are obvious direct economic, societal, and conservation benefits to be had from better understanding of pest insect dispersal and subsequent population dynamics at different spatial and temporal scales. Outbreaks of pest insect species (such as Tipula paludosa, as discussed in [9]) are known to cause serious damage to crops. Outbreaks can occur at a range of spatial scales: from a small localised outbreak affecting part of a field, through to a regional outbreak or invasion of a pest species [10,11]. Many millions of dollars are lost globally every year because of lost or reduced crop yields caused directly by pest insect damage [10]. Hence it is important that we can develop better knowledge of pest insect movement and dispersal in order to properly implement integrated pest management (IPM) [11].

  20. Effects of plant genotype and insect dispersal rate on the population dynamics of a forest pest.

    PubMed

    Moran, Emily V; Bewick, Sharon; Cobbold, Christina A

    2013-12-01

    It has been shown that plant genotype can strongly affect not only individual herbivore performance, but also community composition and ecosystem function. Few studies, however, have addressed how plant genotype affects herbivore population dynamics. In this paper, we used a simulation modeling approach to ask how the genetic composition of a forest influences pest outbreak dynamics, using the example of aspen (Populus tremuloides) and forest tent caterpillars (FTC; Malacosoma disstria). Specifically, we examined how plant genotype, the relative size of genotypic patches, and the rate of insect dispersal between them, affect the frequency, amplitude, and duration of outbreaks. We found that coupling two different genotypes does not necessarily result in an averaging of insect dynamics. Instead, depending on the ratio of patch sizes, when dispersal rates are moderate, outbreaks in the two-genotype case may be more or less severe than in forests of either genotype alone. Thresholds for different dynamic behaviors were similar for all genotypic combinations. Thus, the qualitative behavior of a stand of two different genotypes can be predicted based on the response of the insect to each genotype, the relative sizes of the two patches, and the scale of insect dispersal. PMID:24597225

  1. Riding the Trojan horse: combating pest insects with their own symbionts

    PubMed Central

    Jurkevitch, Edouard

    2011-01-01

    Summary Insects form an extremely large group of animals and bear a consequently large variety of associated microbes. This microbiota includes very specific and obligate symbionts that provide essential functions to the host, and facultative partners that are not necessarily required for survival. The Tephritidae is a large family that includes many fruit pests such as the Mediterranean fruit fly (the medfly, Ceratitis capitata) and the Olive fly (Bactrocera oleae). Community and functional analyses showed that the microbiota of both flies contribute to their diet, and affect host fitness parameters. The analysis of the microbiota's community structure of mass‐reared, sterilized medfly males used in the sterile insect technique revealed a strong reduction in Klebsiella spp. compared with non‐sterile and wild flies. Inoculation of sterile males with this gut population affected female mating behaviour as they preferentially mated with inoculated versus non‐inoculated males. These studies suggest that control can be significantly improved by manipulating symbionts in pest animals. PMID:21338477

  2. Transgenic organisms expressing genes from Bacillus thuringiensis to combat insect pests.

    PubMed

    Zaritsky, Arieh; Ben-Dov, Eitan; Borovsky, Dov; Boussiba, Sammy; Einav, Monica; Gindin, Galina; Horowitz, A Rami; Kolot, Mikhail; Melnikov, Olga; Mendel, Zvi; Yagil, Ezra

    2010-01-01

    Various subspecies (ssp.) of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are considered the best agents known so far to control insects, being highly specific and safe, easily mass produced and with long shelf life.1 The para-crystalline body that is produced during sporulation in the exosporium includes polypeptides named δ-endotoxins, each killing a specific set of insects. The different entomopathogenic toxins of various Bt ssp. can be manipulated genetically in an educated way to construct more efficient transgenic bacteria or plants that express combinations of toxin genes to control pests.2 Joint research projects in our respective laboratories during the last decade demonstrate what can be done by implementing certain ideas using molecular biology with Bt ssp. israelensis (Bti) as a model system. Here, we describe our progress achieved with Gram-negative bacterial species, including cyanobacteria, and some preliminary experiments to form transgenic plants, mainly to control mosquitoes (Diptera), but also a particular Lepidopteran and Coleopteran pest species. In addition, a system is described by which environment-damaging genes can be removed from the recombinants thus alleviating procedures for obtaining permits to release them in nature. PMID:21326834

  3. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic crop: an environment friendly insect-pest management strategy.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Suresh; Chandra, Amaresh; Pandey, K C

    2008-09-01

    Introduction of DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane) and following move towards indiscriminate use of synthetic chemical insecticides led to the contamination of water and food sources, poisoning of non-target beneficial insects and development of insect-pests resistant to the chemical insecticides. Increased public concems about the adverse environmental effects of indiscriminate use of chemical insecticides prompted search of altemative methods for insect-pest control. One of the promising alternatives has been the use of biological control agents. There is well-documented history of safe application of Bt (B. thuringiensis, a gram positive soil bacterium) as effective biopesticides and a number of reports of expression of delta-endotoxin gene(s) in crop plants are available. Only a few insecticidal sprays are required on Bt transgenic crops, which not only save cost and time, but also reduce health risks. Insects exhibit remarkable ability to develop resistance to different insecticidal compounds, which raises concern about the unsystematic use of Bt transgenic technology also. Though resistance to Bt products among insect species under field conditions has been rare, laboratory studies show that insects are capable of developing high levels of resistance to one ormore Cry proteins. Now it is generally agreed that 'high-dose/refuge strategy' is the most promising and practical approach to prolong the effectiveness of Bt toxins. Although manybiosafety concerns, ethical and moral issues exist, area under Bt transgenic crops is rapidly increasing and they are cultivated on more than 32 million hectares world over Even after reservation of European Union (EU) for acceptance of geneticaly modified (GM) crops, 6 out of 25 countries have already adopted Bt crops and many otherindustrial countries will adopt Bt transgenic crops in near future. While the modem biotechnology has been recognized to have a great potential for the promotion of human well-being, adoption

  4. Numerical and functional responses of forest bats to a major insect pest in pine plantations.

    PubMed

    Charbonnier, Yohan; Barbaro, Luc; Theillout, Amandine; Jactel, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Global change is expected to modify the frequency and magnitude of defoliating insect outbreaks in forest ecosystems. Bats are increasingly acknowledged as effective biocontrol agents for pest insect populations. However, a better understanding is required of whether and how bat communities contribute to the resilience of forests to man- and climate-driven biotic disturbances.We studied the responses of forest insectivorous bats to a major pine defoliator, the pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa, which is currently expanding its range in response to global warming [corrected]. We used pheromone traps and ultrasound bat recorders to estimate the abundance and activity of moths and predatory bats along the edge of infested pine stands. We used synthetic pheromone to evaluate the effects of experimentally increased moth availability on bat foraging activity. We also evaluated the top-down regulation of moth population by estimating T. pityocampa larval colonies abundance on the same edges the following winter. We observed a close spatio-temporal matching between emergent moths and foraging bats, with bat activity significantly increasing with moth abundance. The foraging activity of some bat species was significantly higher near pheromone lures, i.e. in areas of expected increased prey availability. Furthermore moth reproductive success significantly decreased with increasing bat activity during the flight period of adult moths. These findings suggest that bats, at least in condition of low prey density, exhibit numerical and functional responses to a specific and abundant prey, which may ultimately result in an effective top-down regulation of the population of the prey. These observations are consistent with bats being useful agents for the biocontrol of insect pest populations in plantation forests. PMID:25285523

  5. Numerical and Functional Responses of Forest Bats to a Major Insect Pest in Pine Plantations

    PubMed Central

    Charbonnier, Yohan; Barbaro, Luc; Theillout, Amandine; Jactel, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Global change is expected to modify the frequency and magnitude of defoliating insect outbreaks in forest ecosystems. Bats are increasingly acknowledged as effective biocontrol agents for pest insect populations. However, a better understanding is required of whether and how bat communities contribute to the resilience of forests to man- and climate-driven biotic disturbances. We studied the responses of forest insectivorous bats to a major pine defoliator, the pine processionary moth pityocampa, which is currently expanding its range in response to global warming. We used pheromone traps and ultrasound bat recorders to estimate the abundance and activity of moths and predatory bats along the edge of infested pine stands. We used synthetic pheromone to evaluate the effects of experimentally increased moth availability on bat foraging activity. We also evaluated the top-down regulation of moth population by estimating T. pityocampa larval colonies abundance on the same edges the following winter. We observed a close spatio-temporal matching between emergent moths and foraging bats, with bat activity significantly increasing with moth abundance. The foraging activity of some bat species was significantly higher near pheromone lures, i.e. in areas of expected increased prey availability. Furthermore moth reproductive success significantly decreased with increasing bat activity during the flight period of adult moths. These findings suggest that bats, at least in condition of low prey density, exhibit numerical and functional responses to a specific and abundant prey, which may ultimately result in an effective top-down regulation of the population of the prey. These observations are consistent with bats being useful agents for the biocontrol of insect pest populations in plantation forests. PMID:25285523

  6. Gut microbiota mediate caffeine detoxification in the primary insect pest of coffee

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ceja-Navarro, Javier A.; Vega, Fernando E.; Karaoz, Ulas; Hao, Zhao; Jenkins, Stefan; Lim, Hsiao Chien; Kosina, Petr; Infante, Francisco; Northen, Trent R.; Brodie, Eoin L.

    2015-07-14

    Here we report that the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) is the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide with its infestations decreasing crop yield by up to 80%. Caffeine is an alkaloid that can be toxic to insects and is hypothesized to act as a defence mechanism to inhibit herbivory. Furthermore, we show that caffeine is degraded in the gut of H. hampei, and that experimental inactivation of the gut microbiota eliminates this activity. We also demonstrate that gut microbiota in H. hampei specimens from seven major coffee-producing countries and laboratory-reared colonies share a core of microorganisms. Globally ubiquitousmore » members of the gut microbiota, including prominent Pseudomonas species, subsist on caffeine as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen. In conclusion, pseudomonas caffeine demethylase genes are expressed in vivo in the gut of H. hampei, and re-inoculation of antibiotic-treated insects with an isolated Pseudomonas strain reinstates caffeine-degradation ability confirming their key role.« less

  7. Effects of Aldicarb on Nematodes, Early Season Insect Pests, and Yield of Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, D. A.; Rodríguez-Kábana, R.; Backman, P. A.; Mack, T. P.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of aldicarb on soybean cyst (Heterodera glycines) and root-knot (Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria) nematode populations, early season insect pests and soybean (Glycine max) yield were evaluated in five field experiments in northern and southern Alabama. Aldicarb significantly (P = 0.05) reduced nematode populations in only two cases: M. arenaria in Centennial soybean in the Wiregrass site and M. incognita in Bedford soybean in a Tennessee Valley site. No significant difference (P = 0.05) in mean percentage main stem or petiole girdling by threecornered alfalfa hopper (Spissistilus festinus) or in mean number of plants damaged by lesser cornstalk borer (Elasmopalpus lignosellus) occurred among treatments in any experiment. Soybean yields were significantly (P = 0.05) increased in only two cases: in the nematode susceptible Essex and Cobb cultivars planted in the Tennessee Valley and Gulf Coast sites, respectively. Unusually dry 1986 weather conditions may have reduced the activity of aldicarb. PMID:19290282

  8. Rickettsia felis Infection in a Common Household Insect Pest, Liposcelis bostrychophila (Psocoptera: Liposcelidae)▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Behar, Adi; McCormick, Laurie J.; Perlman, Steve J.

    2010-01-01

    Many species of Rickettsia are well-known mammalian pathogens transmitted by blood-feeding arthropods. However, molecular surveys are continually uncovering novel Rickettsia species, often in unexpected hosts, including many arthropods that do not feed on blood. This study reports a systematic molecular characterization of a Rickettsia infecting the psocid Liposcelis bostrychophila (Psocoptera: Liposcelidae), a common and cosmopolitan household pest. Surprisingly, the psocid Rickettsia is shown to be Rickettsia felis, a human pathogen transmitted by fleas that causes serious morbidity and occasional mortality. The plasmid from the psocid R. felis was sequenced and was found to be virtually identical to the one in R. felis from fleas. As Liposcelis insects are often intimately associated with humans and other vertebrates, it is speculated that they acquired R. felis from fleas. Whether the R. felis in psocids causes disease in vertebrates is not known and warrants further study. PMID:20139311

  9. Modeling the integration of parasitoid, insecticide, and transgenic insecticidal crop for the long-term control of an insect pest.

    PubMed

    Onstad, David W; Liu, Xiaoxia; Chen, Mao; Roush, Rick; Shelton, Anthony M

    2013-06-01

    The tools of insect pest management include host plant resistance, biological control, and insecticides and how they are integrated will influence the durability of each. We created a detailed model of the population dynamics and population genetics of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L., and its parasitoid, Diadegma insulare (Cresson), to study long-term pest management in broccoli Brassica oleracea L. Given this pest's history of evolving resistance to various toxins, we also evaluated the evolution of resistance to transgenic insecticidal Bt broccoli (expressing Cry1Ac) and two types of insecticides. Simulations demonstrated that parasitism provided the most reliable, long-term control of P. xylostella populations. Use of Bt broccoli with a 10% insecticide-free refuge did not reduce the long-term contribution of parasitism to pest control. Small refuges within Bt broccoli fields can delay evolution of resistance > 30 generations if resistance alleles are rare in the pest population. However, the effectiveness of these refuges can be compromised by insecticide use. Rainfall mortality during the pest's egg and neonate stages significantly influences pest control but especially resistance management. Our model results support the idea that Bt crops and biological control can be integrated in integrated pest management and actually synergistically support each other. However, the planting and maintenance of toxin-free refuges are critical to this integration. PMID:23865173

  10. Draft genome of the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide: the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most economically important insect pest of coffee worldwide, causing millions of dollars in yearly losses to coffee growers. We present the third genomic analysis for a Coleopteran species, a draft genome of female coffee berry borers. The genome s...

  11. Unexpected effects of sublethal doses of insecticide on the peripheral olfactory response and sexual behavior in a pest insect.

    PubMed

    Lalouette, Lisa; Pottier, Marie-Anne; Wycke, Marie-Anne; Boitard, Constance; Bozzolan, Françoise; Maria, Annick; Demondion, Elodie; Chertemps, Thomas; Lucas, Philippe; Renault, David; Maibeche, Martine; Siaussat, David

    2016-02-01

    Pesticides have long been used as the main solution to limit agricultural pests, but their widespread use resulted in chronic or diffuse environmental pollutions, development of insect resistances, and biodiversity reduction. The effects of low residual doses of these chemical products on organisms that affect both targeted species (crop pests) but also beneficial insects became a major concern, particularly because low doses of pesticides can induce unexpected positive--also called hermetic--effects on insects, leading to surges in pest population growth at greater rate than what would have been observed without pesticide application. The present study aimed to examine the effects of sublethal doses of deltamethrin, one of the most used synthetic pyrethroids, known to present a residual activity and persistence in the environment, on the peripheral olfactory system and sexual behavior of a major pest insect, the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis. We highlighted here a hormetic effect of sublethal dose of deltamethrin on the male responses to sex pheromone, without any modification of their response to host-plant odorants. We also identified several antennal actors potentially involved in this hormetic effect and in the antennal detoxification or antennal stress response of/to deltamethrin exposure. PMID:26686856

  12. Unexpected effects of low doses of a neonicotinoid insecticide on behavioral responses to sex pheromone in a pest insect.

    PubMed

    Rabhi, Kaouther K; Esancy, Kali; Voisin, Anouk; Crespin, Lucille; Le Corre, Julie; Tricoire-Leignel, Hélène; Anton, Sylvia; Gadenne, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    In moths, which include many agricultural pest species, males are attracted by female-emitted sex pheromones. Although integrated pest management strategies are increasingly developed, most insect pest treatments rely on widespread use of neurotoxic chemicals, including neonicotinoid insecticides. Residual accumulation of low concentrations of these insecticides in the environment is known to be harmful to beneficial insects such as honey bees. This environmental stress probably acts as an "info-disruptor" by modifying the chemical communication system, and therefore decreases chances of reproduction in target insects that largely rely on olfactory communication. However, low doses of pollutants could on the contrary induce adaptive processes in the olfactory pathway, thus enhancing reproduction. Here we tested the effects of acute oral treatments with different low doses of the neonicotinoid clothianidin on the behavioral responses to sex pheromone in the moth Agrotis ipsilon using wind tunnel experiments. We show that low doses of clothianidin induce a biphasic effect on pheromone-guided behavior. Surprisingly, we found a hormetic-like effect, improving orientation behavior at the LD20 dose corresponding to 10 ng clothianidin. On the contrary, a negative effect, disturbing orientation behavior, was elicited by a treatment with a dose below the LD0 dose corresponding to 0.25 ng clothianidin. No clothianidin effect was observed on behavioral responses to plant odor. Our results indicate that risk assessment has to include unexpected effects of residues on the life history traits of pest insects, which could then lead to their adaptation to environmental stress. PMID:25517118

  13. Unexpected Effects of Low Doses of a Neonicotinoid Insecticide on Behavioral Responses to Sex Pheromone in a Pest Insect

    PubMed Central

    Rabhi, Kaouther K.; Esancy, Kali; Voisin, Anouk; Crespin, Lucille; Le Corre, Julie; Tricoire-Leignel, Hélène; Anton, Sylvia; Gadenne, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    In moths, which include many agricultural pest species, males are attracted by female-emitted sex pheromones. Although integrated pest management strategies are increasingly developed, most insect pest treatments rely on widespread use of neurotoxic chemicals, including neonicotinoid insecticides. Residual accumulation of low concentrations of these insecticides in the environment is known to be harmful to beneficial insects such as honey bees. This environmental stress probably acts as an “info-disruptor” by modifying the chemical communication system, and therefore decreases chances of reproduction in target insects that largely rely on olfactory communication. However, low doses of pollutants could on the contrary induce adaptive processes in the olfactory pathway, thus enhancing reproduction. Here we tested the effects of acute oral treatments with different low doses of the neonicotinoid clothianidin on the behavioral responses to sex pheromone in the moth Agrotis ipsilon using wind tunnel experiments. We show that low doses of clothianidin induce a biphasic effect on pheromone-guided behavior. Surprisingly, we found a hormetic-like effect, improving orientation behavior at the LD20 dose corresponding to 10 ng clothianidin. On the contrary, a negative effect, disturbing orientation behavior, was elicited by a treatment with a dose below the LD0 dose corresponding to 0.25 ng clothianidin. No clothianidin effect was observed on behavioral responses to plant odor. Our results indicate that risk assessment has to include unexpected effects of residues on the life history traits of pest insects, which could then lead to their adaptation to environmental stress. PMID:25517118

  14. Advances in RNA interference: dsRNA treatment in trees and grapevines for insect pest population suppression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a breakthrough technology that has significantly impacted contemporary approaches to control the damage caused by insect pests. Most well-known RNAi studies continue to rely on injecting the dsRNA molecules directly into the organism; this approach is not suitable for use...

  15. Effects from early planting of late-maturing sunflowers on damage from primary insect pests in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Delayed planting is recommended to reduce damage from sunflower insect pests in the United States, including the sunflower moth, Homoeosoma electellum (Hulst) and banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham. However, in some locations, planting earlier or growing later-maturing hybrids could i...

  16. Modelling mortality of a stored grain insect pest with fumigation: probit, logistic or Cauchy model?

    PubMed

    Shi, Mingren; Renton, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Computer simulation models can provide a relatively fast, safe and inexpensive means to judge and weigh the merits of various pest control management options. However, the usefulness of such simulation models relies on the accurate estimation of important model parameters, such as the pest mortality under different treatments and conditions. Recently, an individual-based simulation model of population dynamics and resistance evolution has been developed for the stored grain insect pest Rhyzopertha dominica, based on experimental results showing that alleles at two different loci are involved in resistance to the grain fumigant phosphine. In this paper, we describe how we used three generalized linear models, probit, logistic and Cauchy models, each employing two- and four-parameter sub-models, to fit experimental data sets for five genotypes for which detailed mortality data was already available. Instead of the usual statistical iterative maximum likelihood estimation, a direct algebraic approach, generalized inverse matrix technique, was used to estimate the mortality model parameters. As this technique needs to perturb the observed mortality proportions if the proportions include 0 or 1, a golden section search approach was used to find the optimal perturbation in terms of minimum least squares (L2) error. The results show that the estimates using the probit model were the most accurate in terms of L2 errors between observed and predicted mortality values. These errors with the probit model ranged from 0.049% to 5.3%, from 0.381% to 8.1% with the logistic model and from 8.3% to 48.2% with the Cauchy model. Meanwhile, the generalized inverse matrix technique achieved similar results to the maximum likelihood estimation ones, but is less time consuming and computationally demanding. We also describe how we constructed a two-parameter model to estimate the mortalities for each of the remaining four genotypes based on realistic genetic assumptions. PMID:23473941

  17. Australian endemic pest tephritids: genetic, molecular and microbial tools for improved Sterile Insect Technique.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Kathryn A; Shearman, Deborah C A; Gilchrist, A Stuart; Sved, John A; Morrow, Jennifer L; Sherwin, William B; Riegler, Markus; Frommer, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Among Australian endemic tephritid fruit flies, the sibling species Bactrocera tryoni and Bactrocera neohumeralis have been serious horticultural pests since the introduction of horticulture in the nineteenth century. More recently, Bactrocera jarvisi has also been declared a pest in northern Australia. After several decades of genetic research there is now a range of classical and molecular genetic tools that can be used to develop improved Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) strains for control of these pests. Four-way crossing strategies have the potential to overcome the problem of inbreeding in mass-reared strains of B. tryoni. The ability to produce hybrids between B. tryoni and the other two species in the laboratory has proved useful for the development of genetically marked strains. The identification of Y-chromosome markers in B. jarvisi means that male and female embryos can be distinguished in any strain that carries a B. jarvisi Y chromosome. This has enabled the study of homologues of the sex-determination genes during development of B jarvisi and B. tryoni, which is necessary for the generation of genetic-sexing strains. Germ-line transformation has been established and a draft genome sequence for B. tryoni released. Transcriptomes from various species, tissues and developmental stages, to aid in identification of manipulation targets for improving SIT, have been assembled and are in the pipeline. Broad analyses of the microbiome have revealed a metagenome that is highly variable within and across species and defined by the environment. More specific analyses detected Wolbachia at low prevalence in the tropics but absent in temperate regions, suggesting a possible role for this endosymbiont in future control strategies. PMID:25470996

  18. Australian endemic pest tephritids: genetic, molecular and microbial tools for improved Sterile Insect Technique

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Among Australian endemic tephritid fruit flies, the sibling species Bactrocera tryoni and Bactrocera neohumeralis have been serious horticultural pests since the introduction of horticulture in the nineteenth century. More recently, Bactrocera jarvisi has also been declared a pest in northern Australia. After several decades of genetic research there is now a range of classical and molecular genetic tools that can be used to develop improved Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) strains for control of these pests. Four-way crossing strategies have the potential to overcome the problem of inbreeding in mass-reared strains of B. tryoni. The ability to produce hybrids between B. tryoni and the other two species in the laboratory has proved useful for the development of genetically marked strains. The identification of Y-chromosome markers in B. jarvisi means that male and female embryos can be distinguished in any strain that carries a B. jarvisi Y chromosome. This has enabled the study of homologues of the sex-determination genes during development of B jarvisi and B. tryoni, which is necessary for the generation of genetic-sexing strains. Germ-line transformation has been established and a draft genome sequence for B. tryoni released. Transcriptomes from various species, tissues and developmental stages, to aid in identification of manipulation targets for improving SIT, have been assembled and are in the pipeline. Broad analyses of the microbiome have revealed a metagenome that is highly variable within and across species and defined by the environment. More specific analyses detected Wolbachia at low prevalence in the tropics but absent in temperate regions, suggesting a possible role for this endosymbiont in future control strategies. PMID:25470996

  19. New dispenser types for integrated pest management of agriculturally significant insect pests: an algorithm with specialized searching capacity in electronic data bases.

    PubMed

    Hummel, H E; Eisinger, M T; Hein, D F; Breuer, M; Schmid, S; Leithold, G

    2012-01-01

    Pheromone effects discovered some 130 years, but scientifically defined just half a century ago, are a great bonus for basic and applied biology. Specifically, pest management efforts have been advanced in many insect orders, either for purposes or monitoring, mass trapping, or for mating disruption. Finding and applying a new search algorithm, nearly 20,000 entries in the pheromone literature have been counted, a number much higher than originally anticipated. This compilation contains identified and thus synthesizable structures for all major orders of insects. Among them are hundreds of agriculturally significant insect pests whose aggregated damages and costly control measures range in the multibillions of dollars annually. Unfortunately, and despite a lot of effort within the international entomological scene, the number of efficient and cheap engineering solutions for dispensing pheromones under variable field conditions is uncomfortably lagging behind. Some innovative approaches are cited from the relevant literature in an attempt to rectify this situation. Recently, specifically designed electrospun organic nanofibers offer a lot of promise. With their use, the mating communication of vineyard insects like Lobesia botrana (Lep.: Tortricidae) can be disrupted for periods of seven weeks. PMID:23885431

  20. Effect of some Ghanaian plant components on control of two stored-product insect pests of cereals.

    PubMed

    Owusu

    2000-01-15

    In an attempt to find natural and cheaper methods for the control of stored-product pests of cereals, some traditionally useful Ghanaian plant materials were evaluated. Hexane+isopropyl alcohol extract of leaves of Ocimum viride proved most effective in the control of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), followed by that of Chromolaena odorata. O. viride showed strong repellent activity and thus deterred the insects from feeding. It reduced survival of both insect pests to less than 25% after 10 days of treatment at concentrations of 0.1 mg ml(-1) and above. The results show the potential of O. viride and C. odorata in the control of stored-product insects. PMID:11124372

  1. Adaptive horizontal transfer of a bacterial gene to an invasive insect pest of coffee.

    PubMed

    Acuña, Ricardo; Padilla, Beatriz E; Flórez-Ramos, Claudia P; Rubio, José D; Herrera, Juan C; Benavides, Pablo; Lee, Sang-Jik; Yeats, Trevor H; Egan, Ashley N; Doyle, Jeffrey J; Rose, Jocelyn K C

    2012-03-13

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) involves the nonsexual transmission of genetic material across species boundaries. Although often detected in prokaryotes, examples of HGT involving animals are relatively rare, and any evolutionary advantage conferred to the recipient is typically obscure. We identified a gene (HhMAN1) from the coffee berry borer beetle, Hypothenemus hampei, a devastating pest of coffee, which shows clear evidence of HGT from bacteria. HhMAN1 encodes a mannanase, representing a class of glycosyl hydrolases that has not previously been reported in insects. Recombinant HhMAN1 protein hydrolyzes coffee berry galactomannan, the major storage polysaccharide in this species and the presumed food of H. hampei. HhMAN1 was found to be widespread in a broad biogeographic survey of H. hampei accessions, indicating that the HGT event occurred before radiation of the insect from West Africa to Asia and South America. However, the gene was not detected in the closely related species H. obscurus (the tropical nut borer or "false berry borer"), which does not colonize coffee beans. Thus, HGT of HhMAN1 from bacteria represents a likely adaptation to a specific ecological niche and may have been promoted by intensive agricultural practices. PMID:22371593

  2. Adaptive horizontal transfer of a bacterial gene to an invasive insect pest of coffee

    PubMed Central

    Acuña, Ricardo; Padilla, Beatriz E.; Flórez-Ramos, Claudia P.; Rubio, José D.; Herrera, Juan C.; Benavides, Pablo; Lee, Sang-Jik; Yeats, Trevor H.; Egan, Ashley N.; Doyle, Jeffrey J.; Rose, Jocelyn K. C.

    2012-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) involves the nonsexual transmission of genetic material across species boundaries. Although often detected in prokaryotes, examples of HGT involving animals are relatively rare, and any evolutionary advantage conferred to the recipient is typically obscure. We identified a gene (HhMAN1) from the coffee berry borer beetle, Hypothenemus hampei, a devastating pest of coffee, which shows clear evidence of HGT from bacteria. HhMAN1 encodes a mannanase, representing a class of glycosyl hydrolases that has not previously been reported in insects. Recombinant HhMAN1 protein hydrolyzes coffee berry galactomannan, the major storage polysaccharide in this species and the presumed food of H. hampei. HhMAN1 was found to be widespread in a broad biogeographic survey of H. hampei accessions, indicating that the HGT event occurred before radiation of the insect from West Africa to Asia and South America. However, the gene was not detected in the closely related species H. obscurus (the tropical nut borer or “false berry borer”), which does not colonize coffee beans. Thus, HGT of HhMAN1 from bacteria represents a likely adaptation to a specific ecological niche and may have been promoted by intensive agricultural practices. PMID:22371593

  3. Tissue-Specific Transcriptomics of the Exotic Invasive Insect Pest Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)

    PubMed Central

    Mittapalli, Omprakash; Bai, Xiaodong; Bonello, Pierluigi; Herms, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The insect midgut and fat body represent major tissue interfaces that deal with several important physiological functions including digestion, detoxification and immune response. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), is an exotic invasive insect pest that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) primarily in the Midwestern United States and Ontario, Canada. However, despite its high impact status little knowledge exists for A. planipennis at the molecular level. Methodology and Principal Findings Newer-generation Roche-454 pyrosequencing was used to obtain 126,185 reads for the midgut and 240,848 reads for the fat body, which were assembled into 25,173 and 37,661 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for the midgut and the fat body of A. planipennis larvae, respectively. Among these ESTs, 36% of the midgut and 38% of the fat body sequences showed similarity to proteins in the GenBank nr database. A high number of the midgut sequences contained chitin-binding peritrophin (248)and trypsin (98) domains; while the fat body sequences showed high occurrence of cytochrome P450s (85) and protein kinase (123) domains. Further, the midgut transcriptome of A. planipennis revealed putative microbial transcripts encoding for cell-wall degrading enzymes such as polygalacturonases and endoglucanases. A significant number of SNPs (137 in midgut and 347 in fat body) and microsatellite loci (317 in midgut and 571 in fat body) were predicted in the A. planipennis transcripts. An initial assessment of cytochrome P450s belonging to various CYP clades revealed distinct expression patterns at the tissue level. Conclusions and Significance To our knowledge this study is one of the first to illuminate tissue-specific gene expression in an invasive insect of high ecological and economic consequence. These findings will lay the foundation for future gene expression and functional studies in A. planipennis. PMID:21060843

  4. Growth-inhibition effects of pacifastin-like peptides on a pest insect: the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria.

    PubMed

    Spit, Jornt; Breugelmans, Bert; van Hoef, Vincent; Simonet, Gert; Zels, Sven; Broeck, Jozef Vanden

    2012-03-01

    The main reason for the varying degrees of success of peptidase inhibitors (PI) as biological insecticides is the existence of a poorly understood mechanism, which allows pest insects to compensate for PI present in their diet. To challenge this highly flexible physiological mechanism and to prolong the inhibitory effect of PI on insect growth, a number of measures were taken into account before and during experiments with a notorious pest insect, the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria: (i) non-plant PI (pacifastin-related inhibitors) were used to reduce the risk of a specific co-evolutionary adaptation of the pest insect, (ii) based on the main types of digestive enzymes present in the midgut, mixtures of multiple PI with different enzyme specificity were selected, allowing for a maximal inhibition of the proteolytic activity and (iii) digestive peptidase samples were taken during oral administration experiments to study compensatory mechanisms. Contrary to larvae fed on a diet containing plant-derived PI, a significant growth impediment was observed in larvae that were fed a mixture of different pacifastin-like PI. Nevertheless, the growth inhibition effect of this PI mixture attenuated after a few days, Moreover, a comprehensive study of the observed responses after oral administration of PI revealed that S. gregaria larvae can adjust their secreted digestive enzyme activities in two distinct ways depending on the composition/concentration of the PI-mixture. PMID:21736908

  5. Plants Attract Parasitic Wasps to Defend Themselves against Insect Pests by Releasing Hexenol

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jianing; Wang, Lizhong; Zhu, Junwei; Zhang, Sufang; Nandi, Owi I.; Kang, Le

    2007-01-01

    Background Plant volatiles play an important role in defending plants against insect attacks by attracting their natural enemies. For example, green leaf volatiles (GLVs) and terpenoids emitted from herbivore-damaged plants were found to be important in the host location of parasitic wasps. However, evidence of the functional roles and mechanisms of these semio-chemicals from a system of multiple plants in prey location by the parasitoid is limited. Little is known about the potential evolutionary trends between herbivore-induced host plant volatiles and the host location of their parasitoids. Methodology/Principal Findings The present study includes hierarchical cluster analyses of plant volatile profiles from seven families of host and non-host plants of pea leafminer, Liriomyza huidobrensis, and behavioral responses of a naive parasitic wasp, Opius dissitus, to some principal volatile compounds. Here we show that plants can effectively pull wasps, O. dissitus, towards them by releasing a universally induced compound, (Z)-3-hexenol, and potentially keep these plants safe from parasitic assaults by leafminer pests, L. huidobrensis. Specifically, we found that volatile profiles from healthy plants revealed a partly phylogenetic signal, while the inducible compounds of the infested-plants did not result from the fact that the induced plant volatiles dominate most of the volatile blends of the host and non-host plants of the leafminer pests. We further show that the parasitoids are capable of distinguishing the damaged host plant from the non-host plant of the leafminers. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that, as the most passive scenario of plant involvement, leafminers and mechanical damages evoke similar semio-chemicals. Using ubiquitous compounds, such as hexenol, for host location by general parasitoids could be an adaptation of the most conservative evolution of tritrophic interaction. Although for this, other compounds may be used to improve the

  6. Adaptive mechanisms of insect pests against plant protease inhibitors and future prospects related to crop protection: a review.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Maria L R; de Oliveira, Caio F R; Costa, Poliene M; Castelhano, Elaine C; Silva-Filho, Marcio C

    2015-01-01

    The overwhelming demand for food requires the application of technology on field. An important issue that limits the productivity of crops is related to insect attacks. Hence, several studies have evaluated the application of different compounds to reduce the field losses, especially insecticide compounds from plant sources. Among them, plant protease inhibitors (PIs) have been studied in both basic and applied researches, displaying positive results in control of some insects. However, certain species are able to bypass the insecticide effects exerted by PIs. In this review, we disclosed the adaptive mechanisms showed by lepidopteran and coleopteran insects, the most expressive insect orders related to crop predation. The structural aspects involved in adaptation mechanisms are presented as well as the newest alternatives for pest control. The application of biotechnological tools in crop protection will be mandatory in agriculture, and it will be up to researchers to find the best candidates for effective control in long-term. PMID:25329404

  7. Genomewide transcriptional signatures of migratory flight activity in a globally invasive insect pest.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher M; Papanicolaou, Alexie; Mironidis, George K; Vontas, John; Yang, Yihua; Lim, Ka S; Oakeshott, John G; Bass, Chris; Chapman, Jason W

    2015-10-01

    Migration is a key life history strategy for many animals and requires a suite of behavioural, morphological and physiological adaptations which together form the 'migratory syndrome'. Genetic variation has been demonstrated for many traits that make up this syndrome, but the underlying genes involved remain elusive. Recent studies investigating migration-associated genes have focussed on sampling migratory and nonmigratory populations from different geographic locations but have seldom explored phenotypic variation in a migratory trait. Here, we use a novel combination of tethered flight and next-generation sequencing to determine transcriptomic differences associated with flight activity in a globally invasive moth pest, the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera. By developing a state-of-the-art phenotyping platform, we show that field-collected H. armigera display continuous variation in flight performance with individuals capable of flying up to 40 km during a single night. Comparative transcriptomics of flight phenotypes drove a gene expression analysis to reveal a suite of expressed candidate genes which are clearly related to physiological adaptations required for long-distance flight. These include genes important to the mobilization of lipids as flight fuel, the development of flight muscle structure and the regulation of hormones that influence migratory physiology. We conclude that the ability to express this complex set of pathways underlines the remarkable flexibility of facultative insect migrants to respond to deteriorating conditions in the form of migratory flight and, more broadly, the results provide novel insights into the fundamental transcriptional changes required for migration in insects and other taxa. PMID:26331997

  8. Entomopathogenic potential of Trichoderma longibrachiatum and its comparative evaluation with malathion against the insect pest Leucinodes orbonalis.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Swapan Kr; Pal, Sujoy

    2016-01-01

    The widespread use of chemical pesticides in agriculture has led to the pollution of environmental systems and has caused various health disorders in animals and humans. Biological pest control is one of the most environmentally friendly methods in modern agriscience. Such methods protect crops from pests and do not pollute the environment. A strain of Trichoderma longibrachiatum was isolated and identified from the soil environment of the North 24 Parganas District, eastern India. A spore suspension of this fungus was used to treat Leucinodes orbonalis, one of the major pests of brinjal (eggplant, Solanum melongena). In an in vitro system, fungal antagonism was determined by median lethal dose (LD50) and median lethal time (LT50) tests against insect larvae. The LD50 and LT50 of T. longibrachiatum were 2.87 × 10(7) spores ml(-1) and 11.7 days, respectively. T. longibrachiatum was formulated into a biopesticide, and its performance was evaluated in brinjal field trials in 2012 and 2013. In the field trials, brinjal treated with three spray applications of T. longibrachiatum (10(8) spores/ml) at 15-day intervals showed a 56.02 % higher crop yield than that of the control. This treatment showed similar efficacy to that of the pesticide malathion in the field trials. The results of this study indicate that this formulation may replace malathion to control the insect pest L. orbonalis in brinjal crops. This is the first report of the entomopathogenic property of T. longibrachiatum and its evaluation against an insect pest in field trials. PMID:26676413

  9. The Phorbol Ester Fraction from Jatropha curcas Seed Oil: Potential and Limits for Crop Protection against Insect Pests

    PubMed Central

    Ratnadass, Alain; Wink, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The physic nut shrub, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), has been considered as a “miracle tree”, particularly as a source of alternate fuel. Various extracts of the plant have been reported to have insecticidal/acaricidal or molluscicidal/anthelminthic activities on vectors of medical or veterinary interest or on agricultural or non-agricultural pests. Among those extracts, the phorbol ester fraction from seed oil has been reported as a promising candidate for use as a plant-derived protectant of a variety of crops, from a range of pre-harvest and post-harvest insect pests. However, such extracts have not been widely used, despite the “boom” in the development of the crop in the tropics during recent years, and societal concerns about overuse of systemic chemical pesticides. There are many potential explanations to such a lack of use of Jatropha insecticidal extracts. On the one hand, the application of extracts potentially harmful to human health on stored food grain, might not be relevant. The problem of decomposition of phorbol esters and other compounds toxic to crop pests in the field needing further evaluation before such extracts can be widely used, may also be a partial explanation. High variability of phorbol ester content and hence of insecticidal activity among physic nut cultivars/ecotypes may be another. Phytotoxicity to crops may be further limitation. Apparent obstacles to a wider application of such extracts are the costs and problems involved with registration and legal approval. On the other hand, more studies should be conducted on molluscicidal activity on slugs and land snails which are major pests of crops, particularly in conservation agriculture systems. Further evaluation of toxicity to natural enemies of insect pests and studies on other beneficial insects such as pollinators are also needed. PMID:23203190

  10. Monitoring Pest Insect Traps by Means of Low-Power Image Sensor Technologies

    PubMed Central

    López, Otoniel; Rach, Miguel Martinez; Migallon, Hector; Malumbres, Manuel P.; Bonastre, Alberto; Serrano, Juan J.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring pest insect populations is currently a key issue in agriculture and forestry protection. At the farm level, human operators typically must perform periodical surveys of the traps disseminated through the field. This is a labor-, time- and cost-consuming activity, in particular for large plantations or large forestry areas, so it would be of great advantage to have an affordable system capable of doing this task automatically in an accurate and a more efficient way. This paper proposes an autonomous monitoring system based on a low-cost image sensor that it is able to capture and send images of the trap contents to a remote control station with the periodicity demanded by the trapping application. Our autonomous monitoring system will be able to cover large areas with very low energy consumption. This issue would be the main key point in our study; since the operational live of the overall monitoring system should be extended to months of continuous operation without any kind of maintenance (i.e., battery replacement). The images delivered by image sensors would be time-stamped and processed in the control station to get the number of individuals found at each trap. All the information would be conveniently stored at the control station, and accessible via Internet by means of available network services at control station (WiFi, WiMax, 3G/4G, etc.). PMID:23202232

  11. Enhancement of biological control agents for use against forest insect pests and diseases through biotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavicek, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Research and development efforts in our research group are focused on the generation of more efficacious biological control agents through the techniques of biotechnology for use against forest insect pests and diseases. Effective biological controls for the gypsy moth and for tree fungal wilt pathogens are under development. The successful use of Gypchek, a formulation of the Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdNPV), in gypsy moth control programs has generated considerable interest in that agent. As a consequence of its specificity, LdPNV has negligible adverse ecological impacts compared to most gypsy moth control agents. However, LdNPV is not competitive with other control agents in terms of cost and efficacy. We are investigating several parameters of LdNPV replication and polyhedra production in order to enhance viral potency and efficacy thus mitigating the current disadvantages of LdNPV for gypsy moth control, and have identified LdNPV variants that will facilitate these efforts. Tree endophytic bacteria that synthesize antifungal compounds were identified and an antibiotic compound from one of these bacteria was characterized. The feasibility of developing tree endophytes as biological control agents for tree vascular fungal pathogens is being investigated.

  12. Insect resistance management for stored product pests: a case study of cowpea weevil (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung Koo; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Onstad, David W

    2013-12-01

    The cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), can cause up to 100% yield loss of stored cowpea seeds in a few months in West Africa. Genes expressing toxins delaying insect maturation (MDTs) are available for genetic engineering. A simulation model was used to investigate the possible use of MDTs for managing C. maculatus. Specifically, we studied the effect of transgenic cowpea expressing an MDT, an insecticide, or both, on the evolution of resistance by C. maculatus at constant temperature. Transgenic cowpea expressing only a nonlethal MDT causing 50-100% maturation delay did not control C. maculatus well. Mortality caused by a maturation delay improved the efficacy of transgenic cowpea expressing only a lethal MDT, but significantly reduced the durability of transgenic cowpea Transgenic cowpea expressing only a lethal MDT causing 50% maturation delay and 90% mortality controlled C. maculatus better than one expressing only a nonlethal MDT, but its durability was only 2 yr. We concluded that transgenic cowpea expressing only an MDT has little value for managing C. maculatus. The resistance by C. maculatus to transgenic cowpea expressing only an insecticide rapidly evolved. Stacking a gene expressing a nonlethal MDT and a gene expressing an insecticide in transgenic cowpea did not significantly improve the durability of an insecticide, but stacking a gene expressing a lethal MDT and a gene expressing an insecticide in transgenic cowpea significantly improved the durability of an insecticide and an MDT. We also discussed this approach within the idea of using transgenic RNAi in pest control strategies. PMID:24498750

  13. Functional haplodiploidy: a mechanism for the spread of insecticide resistance in an important international insect pest.

    PubMed Central

    Brun, L O; Stuart, J; Gaudichon, V; Aronstein, K; French-Constant, R H

    1995-01-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most important insect pest of coffee worldwide and has an unusual life history that ensures a high degree of inbreeding. Individual females lay a predominantly female brood within individual coffee berries and because males are flightless there is almost entirely full sib mating. We investigated the genetics associated with this interesting life history after the important discovery of resistance to the cyclodiene type insecticide endosulfan. Both the inheritance of the resistance phenotype and the resistance-associated point mutation in the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor gene Rdl were examined. Consistent with haplodiploidy, males failed to express and transmit paternally derived resistance alleles. Furthermore, while cytological examination revealed that males are diploid, one set of chromosomes was condensed, and probably nonfunctional, in the somatic cells of all males examined. Moreover, although two sets of chromosomes were present in primary spermatocytes, the chromosomes failed to pair before the single meiotic division, and only one set was packaged in sperm. Thus, the coffee berry borer is "functionally" haplodiploid. Its genetics and life history may therefore represent an interesting intermediate step in the evolution of true haplodiploidy. The influence of this breeding system on the spread of insecticide resistance is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7568233

  14. Monitoring pest insect traps by means of low-power image sensor technologies.

    PubMed

    López, Otoniel; Rach, Miguel Martinez; Migallon, Hector; Malumbres, Manuel P; Bonastre, Alberto; Serrano, Juan J

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring pest insect populations is currently a key issue in agriculture and forestry protection. At the farm level, human operators typically must perform periodical surveys of the traps disseminated through the field. This is a labor-, time- and cost-consuming activity, in particular for large plantations or large forestry areas, so it would be of great advantage to have an affordable system capable of doing this task automatically in an accurate and a more efficient way. This paper proposes an autonomous monitoring system based on a low-cost image sensor that it is able to capture and send images of the trap contents to a remote control station with the periodicity demanded by the trapping application. Our autonomous monitoring system will be able to cover large areas with very low energy consumption. This issue would be the main key point in our study; since the operational live of the overall monitoring system should be extended to months of continuous operation without any kind of maintenance (i.e., battery replacement). The images delivered by image sensors would be time-stamped and processed in the control station to get the number of individuals found at each trap. All the information would be conveniently stored at the control station, and accessible via Internet by means of available network services at control station (WiFi, WiMax, 3G/4G, etc.). PMID:23202232

  15. Avoidance of an electric field by insects: Fundamental biological phenomenon for an electrostatic pest-exclusion strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Y.; Nonomura, T.; Kakutani, K.; Kimbara, J.; Osamura, K.; Kusakari, S.; Toyoda, H.

    2015-10-01

    An electric field screen is a physical device used to exclude pest insects from greenhouses and warehouses to protect crop production and storage. The screen consists of iron insulated conductor wires (ICWs) arrayed in parallel and linked to each other, an electrostatic DC voltage generator used to supply a negative charge to the ICWs, and an earthed stainless net placed on one side of the ICW layer. The ICW was negatively charged to polarize the earthed net to create a positive charge on the ICW side surface, and an electric field formed between the opposite charges of the ICW and earthed net. The current study focused on the ability of the screen to repel insects reaching the screen net. This repulsion was a result of the insect's behaviour, i.e., the insects were deterred from entering the electric field of the screen. In fact, when the screen was negatively charged with the appropriate voltages, the insects placed their antennae inside the screen and then flew away without entering. Obviously, the insects recognized the electric field using their antennae and thereby avoided entering. Using a wide range of insects and spiders belonging to different taxonomic groups, we confirmed that the avoidance response to the electric field was common in these animals.

  16. Competition among agricultural pest insects and its role in pest outbreaks associated with trasgenic Bt-cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Empirical studies on the ecological causes of agricultural pest outbreaks have focused primarily on two biotic factors—release from natural enemies and changes in host plant quality. Release from competition, on the other hand, has been theorized as a potential cause but never tested. With the exp...

  17. Applying GIS and population genetics for managing livestock insect pests: case studies of tsetse and screwworm flies.

    PubMed

    Feldmann, U; Ready, P D

    2014-10-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have supported a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Applying GIS and population genetics for managing livestock insect pests'. This six-year CRP (2008-2013) focused on research aimed at under-pinning the Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management (AW-IPM) of populations of tsetse and screwworm flies, and this introductory paper to the Special Issue integrates the findings of the CRP participants and discusses them in a broader context. The tools and techniques for mapping and modelling the distributions of genetically-characterised populations of tsetse and screwworm flies are increasingly used by researchers and managers for more effective decision-making in AW-IPM programmes, as illustrated by the reports in this Special Issue. Currently, the insect pests are often characterized only by neutral genetic markers suitable for recognizing spatially isolated populations that are sometimes associated with specific environments. Two challenges for those involved in AW-IPM are the standardization of best practice to permit the efficient application of GIS and genetic tools by regional teams, and the need to develop further the mapping and modelling of parasite and pest phenotypes that are epidemiologically important. PMID:24713196

  18. 1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Field and Forage Crops. Circular 899.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This circular lists suggested uses of insecticides for the control of field crop pests. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to control pests in field corn, alfalfa and clover, small grains, soybeans and grain sorghum. (CS)

  19. Developing trap cropping systems for effective organic management of key insect pests of cucurbit crops (IPM)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trap cropping is a behaviorally-based pest management approach that functions by planting highly attractive plants next to a higher value crop so as to attract the pest to the trap crop plants, thus preventing or making less likely the arrival of the pest to the main crop (= cash crop). In 2012, a s...

  20. Guidelines for the use of mathematics in operational area-wide integrated pest management programs using the sterile insect technique with a special focus on Tephritid Fruit Flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pest control managers can benefit from using mathematical approaches, particularly models, when implementing area-wide pest control programs that include sterile insect technique (SIT), especially when these are used to calculate required rates of sterile releases to result in suppression or eradica...

  1. Rapid genetic turnover in populations of the insect pest Bemisia tabaci Middle East: Asia Minor 1 in an agricultural landscape.

    PubMed

    Dinsdale, A; Schellhorn, N A; De Barro, P; Buckley, Y M; Riginos, C

    2012-10-01

    Organisms differ greatly in dispersal ability, and landscapes differ in amenability to an organism's movement. Thus, landscape structure and heterogeneity can affect genetic composition of populations. While many agricultural pests are known for their ability to disperse rapidly, it is unclear how fast and over what spatial scale insect pests might respond to the temporally dynamic agricultural landscapes they inhabit. We used population genetic analyses of a severe crop pest, a member of the Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aleyrodoidea: Aleyrodidea) cryptic species complex known as Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (commonly known as biotype B), to estimate spatial and temporal genetic diversity over four months of the 2006-2007 summer growing season. We examined 559 individuals from eight sites, which were scored for eight microsatellite loci. Temporal genetic structure greatly exceeded spatial structure. There was significant temporal change in local genetic composition from the beginning to the end of the season accompanied by heterozygote deficits and inbreeding. This temporal structure suggests entire cohorts of pests can occupy a large and variable agricultural landscape but are rapidly replaced. These rapid genetic fluctuations reinforce the concept that agricultural landscapes are dynamic mosaics in time and space and may contribute to better decisions for pest and insecticide resistance management. PMID:22420748

  2. Tracking the global dispersal of a cosmopolitan insect pest, the peach potato aphid

    PubMed Central

    Margaritopoulos, John T; Kasprowicz, Louise; Malloch, Gaynor L; Fenton, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Background Global commerce and human transportation are responsible for the range expansion of various insect pests such as the plant sucking aphids. High resolution DNA markers provide the opportunity to examine the genetic structure of aphid populations, identify aphid genotypes and infer their evolutionary history and routes of expansion which is of value in developing management strategies. One of the most widespread aphid species is the peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae, which is considered as a serious pest on various crops in many parts of the world. The present study examined the genetic variation of this aphid at a world scale and then related this to distribution patterns. In particular, 197 aphid parthenogenetic lineages from around the world were analysed with six microsatellite loci. Results Bayesian clustering and admixture analysis split the aphid genotypes into three genetic clusters: European M. persicae persicae, New Zealand M. persicae persicae and Global M. persicae nicotianae. This partition was supported by FST and genetic distance analyses. The results showed two further points, a possible connection between genotypes found in the UK and New Zealand and globalization of nicotianae associated with colonisation of regions where tobacco is not cultivated. In addition, we report the presence of geographically widespread clones and for the first time the presence of a nicotianae genotype in the Old and New World. Lastly, heterozygote deficiency was detected in some sexual and asexual populations. Conclusion The study revealed important genetic variation among the aphid populations we examined and this was partitioned according to region and host-plant. Clonal selection and gene flow between sexual and asexual lineages are important factors shaping the genetic structure of the aphid populations. In addition, the results reflected the globalization of two subspecies of M. persicae with successful clones being spread at various scales throughout the

  3. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition by Biofumigant (Coumaran) from Leaves of Lantana camara in Stored Grain and Household Insect Pests

    PubMed Central

    Raghavendra, Anjanappa; Bakthavatsalam, Nandagopal

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies proved that the biofumigants could be an alternative to chemical fumigants against stored grain insect pests. For this reason, it is necessary to understand the mode of action of biofumigants. In the present study the prospectus of utilising Lantana camara as a potent fumigant insecticide is being discussed. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by Coumaran, an active ingredient extracted from the plant L. camara, was studied. The biofumigant was used as an enzyme inhibitor and acetylthiocholine iodide as a substrate along with Ellman's reagent to carry out the reactions. The in vivo inhibition was observed in both dose dependent and time dependent in case of housefly, and the nervous tissue (ganglion) and the whole insect homogenate of stored grain insect exposed to Coumaran. The possible mode of action of Coumaran as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor is discussed. PMID:25025036

  4. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition by biofumigant (Coumaran) from leaves of Lantana camara in stored grain and household insect pests.

    PubMed

    Rajashekar, Yallappa; Raghavendra, Anjanappa; Bakthavatsalam, Nandagopal

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies proved that the biofumigants could be an alternative to chemical fumigants against stored grain insect pests. For this reason, it is necessary to understand the mode of action of biofumigants. In the present study the prospectus of utilising Lantana camara as a potent fumigant insecticide is being discussed. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by Coumaran, an active ingredient extracted from the plant L. camara, was studied. The biofumigant was used as an enzyme inhibitor and acetylthiocholine iodide as a substrate along with Ellman's reagent to carry out the reactions. The in vivo inhibition was observed in both dose dependent and time dependent in case of housefly, and the nervous tissue (ganglion) and the whole insect homogenate of stored grain insect exposed to Coumaran. The possible mode of action of Coumaran as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor is discussed. PMID:25025036

  5. New insights into an RNAi approach for plant defence against piercing-sucking and stem-borer insect pests.

    PubMed

    Li, Haichao; Guan, Ruobing; Guo, Huimin; Miao, Xuexia

    2015-11-01

    Insect double-stranded (ds)RNA expression in transgenic crops can increase plant resistance to biotic stress; however, creating transgenic crops to defend against every insect pest is impractical. Arabidopsis Mob1A is required for organ growth and reproduction. When Arabidopsis roots were soaked in dsMob1A, the root lengths and numbers were significantly suppressed and plants could not bolt or flower. Twenty-four hours after rice roots were immersed in fluorescent-labelled dsEYFP (enhanced yellow fluorescent protein), fluorescence was observed in the rice sheath and stem and in planthoppers feeding on the rice. The expression levels of Ago and Dicer in rice and planthoppers were induced by dsEYFP. When rice roots were soaked in dsActin, their growth was also significantly suppressed. When planthoppers or Asian corn borers fed on rice or maize that had been irrigated with a solution containing the dsRNA of an insect target gene, the insect's mortality rate increased significantly. Our results demonstrate that dsRNAs can be absorbed by crop roots, trigger plant and insect RNAi and enhance piercing-sucking and stem-borer insect mortality rates. We also confirmed that dsRNA was stable under outdoor conditions. These results indicate that the root dsRNA soaking can be used as a bioinsecticide strategy during crop irrigation. PMID:25828885

  6. Draft genome of the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide: the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei.

    PubMed

    Vega, Fernando E; Brown, Stuart M; Chen, Hao; Shen, Eric; Nair, Mridul B; Ceja-Navarro, Javier A; Brodie, Eoin L; Infante, Francisco; Dowd, Patrick F; Pain, Arnab

    2015-01-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most economically important insect pest of coffee worldwide. We present an analysis of the draft genome of the coffee berry borer, the third genome for a Coleopteran species. The genome size is ca. 163 Mb with 19,222 predicted protein-coding genes. Analysis was focused on genes involved in primary digestion as well as gene families involved in detoxification of plant defense molecules and insecticides, such as carboxylesterases, cytochrome P450, gluthathione S-transferases, ATP-binding cassette transporters, and a gene that confers resistance to the insecticide dieldrin. A broad range of enzymes capable of degrading complex polysaccharides were identified. We also evaluated the pathogen defense system and found homologs to antimicrobial genes reported in the Drosophila genome. Ten cases of horizontal gene transfer were identified with evidence for expression, integration into the H. hampei genome, and phylogenetic evidence that the sequences are more closely related to bacterial rather than eukaryotic genes. The draft genome analysis broadly expands our knowledge on the biology of a devastating tropical insect pest and suggests new pest management strategies. PMID:26228545

  7. Draft genome of the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide: the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

    SciTech Connect

    Vega, Fernando E.; Brown, Stuart M.; Chen, Hao; Shen, Eric; Nair, Mridul B.; Ceja-Navarro, Javier A.; Brodie, Eoin L.; Infante, Francisco; Dowd, Patrick F.; Pain, Arnab

    2015-07-31

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most economically important insect pest of coffee worldwide. We present an analysis of the draft genome of the coffee berry borer, the third genome for a Coleopteran species. The genome size is ca. 163 Mb with 19,222 predicted protein-coding genes. Analysis was focused on genes involved in primary digestion as well as gene families involved in detoxification of plant defense molecules and insecticides, such as carboxylesterases, cytochrome P450, gluthathione S-transferases, ATP-binding cassette transporters, and a gene that confers resistance to the insecticide dieldrin. A broad range of enzymes capable of degrading complex polysaccharides were identified. We also evaluated the pathogen defense system and found homologs to antimicrobial genes reported in the Drosophila genome. Ten cases of horizontal gene transfer were identified with evidence for expression, integration into the H. hampei genome, and phylogenetic evidence that the sequences are more closely related to bacterial rather than eukaryotic genes. We find the draft genome analysis broadly expands our knowledge on the biology of a devastating tropical insect pest and suggests new pest management strategies.

  8. Draft genome of the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide: the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Vega, Fernando E.; Brown, Stuart M.; Chen, Hao; Shen, Eric; Nair, Mridul B.; Ceja-Navarro, Javier A.; Brodie, Eoin L.; Infante, Francisco; Dowd, Patrick F.; Pain, Arnab

    2015-07-31

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most economically important insect pest of coffee worldwide. We present an analysis of the draft genome of the coffee berry borer, the third genome for a Coleopteran species. The genome size is ca. 163 Mb with 19,222 predicted protein-coding genes. Analysis was focused on genes involved in primary digestion as well as gene families involved in detoxification of plant defense molecules and insecticides, such as carboxylesterases, cytochrome P450, gluthathione S-transferases, ATP-binding cassette transporters, and a gene that confers resistance to the insecticide dieldrin. A broad range of enzymes capable of degrading complexmore » polysaccharides were identified. We also evaluated the pathogen defense system and found homologs to antimicrobial genes reported in the Drosophila genome. Ten cases of horizontal gene transfer were identified with evidence for expression, integration into the H. hampei genome, and phylogenetic evidence that the sequences are more closely related to bacterial rather than eukaryotic genes. We find the draft genome analysis broadly expands our knowledge on the biology of a devastating tropical insect pest and suggests new pest management strategies.« less

  9. Draft genome of the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide: the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Fernando E.; Brown, Stuart M.; Chen, Hao; Shen, Eric; Nair, Mridul B.; Ceja-Navarro, Javier A.; Brodie, Eoin L.; Infante, Francisco; Dowd, Patrick F.; Pain, Arnab

    2015-01-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most economically important insect pest of coffee worldwide. We present an analysis of the draft genome of the coffee berry borer, the third genome for a Coleopteran species. The genome size is ca. 163 Mb with 19,222 predicted protein-coding genes. Analysis was focused on genes involved in primary digestion as well as gene families involved in detoxification of plant defense molecules and insecticides, such as carboxylesterases, cytochrome P450, gluthathione S-transferases, ATP-binding cassette transporters, and a gene that confers resistance to the insecticide dieldrin. A broad range of enzymes capable of degrading complex polysaccharides were identified. We also evaluated the pathogen defense system and found homologs to antimicrobial genes reported in the Drosophila genome. Ten cases of horizontal gene transfer were identified with evidence for expression, integration into the H. hampei genome, and phylogenetic evidence that the sequences are more closely related to bacterial rather than eukaryotic genes. The draft genome analysis broadly expands our knowledge on the biology of a devastating tropical insect pest and suggests new pest management strategies. PMID:26228545

  10. Antennal uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glycosyltransferases in a pest insect: diversity and putative function in odorant and xenobiotics clearance.

    PubMed

    Bozzolan, F; Siaussat, D; Maria, A; Durand, N; Pottier, M-A; Chertemps, T; Maïbèche-Coisne, M

    2014-10-01

    Uridine diphosphate UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) are detoxification enzymes widely distributed within living organisms. They are involved in the biotransformation of various lipophilic endogenous compounds and xenobiotics, including odorants. Several UGTs have been reported in the olfactory organs of mammals and involved in olfactory processing and detoxification within the olfactory mucosa but, in insects, this enzyme family is still poorly studied. Despite recent transcriptomic analyses, the diversity of antennal UGTs in insects has not been investigated. To date, only three UGT cDNAs have been shown to be expressed in insect olfactory organs. In the present study, we report the identification of eleven putative UGTs expressed in the antennae of the model pest insect Spodoptera littoralis. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these UGTs belong to five different families, highlighting their structural diversity. In addition, two genes, UGT40R3 and UGT46A6, were either specifically expressed or overexpressed in the antennae, suggesting specific roles in this sensory organ. Exposure of male moths to the sex pheromone and to a plant odorant differentially downregulated the transcription levels of these two genes, revealing for the first time the regulation of insect UGTs by odorant exposure. Moreover, the specific antennal gene UGT46A6 was upregulated by insecticide topical application on antennae, suggesting its role in the protection of the olfactory organ towards xenobiotics. This work highlights the structural and functional diversity of UGTs within this highly specialized tissue. PMID:24698447

  11. The novel ABC transporter ABCH1 is a potential target for RNAi-based insect pest control and resistance management

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhaojiang; Kang, Shi; Zhu, Xun; Xia, Jixing; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xie, Wen; Zhang, Youjun

    2015-01-01

    Insect pests cause serious crop damage and develop high-level resistance to chemical insecticides and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal Cry toxins. A new promising approach for controlling them and overcoming this resistance is RNA interference (RNAi). The RNAi-based insect control strategy depends on the selection of suitable target genes. In this study, we cloned and characterized a novel ABC transporter gene PxABCH1 in diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). Phylogenetic analysis showed that PxABCH1 is closely related to ABCA and ABCG subfamily members. Spatial-temporal expression detection revealed that PxABCH1 was expressed in all tissues and developmental stages, and highest expressed in head and male adult. Midgut sequence variation and expression analyses of PxABCH1 in all the susceptible and Bt-resistant P. xylostella strains and the functional analysis by sublethal RNAi demonstrated that Cry1Ac resistance was independent of this gene. Silencing of PxABCH1 by a relatively high dose of dsRNA dramatically reduced its expression and resulted in larval and pupal lethal phenotypes in both susceptible and Cry1Ac-resistant P. xylostella strains. To our knowledge, this study provides the first insight into ABCH1 in lepidopterans and reveals it as an excellent target for RNAi-based insect pest control and resistance management. PMID:26333918

  12. The novel ABC transporter ABCH1 is a potential target for RNAi-based insect pest control and resistance management.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhaojiang; Kang, Shi; Zhu, Xun; Xia, Jixing; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xie, Wen; Zhang, Youjun

    2015-01-01

    Insect pests cause serious crop damage and develop high-level resistance to chemical insecticides and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal Cry toxins. A new promising approach for controlling them and overcoming this resistance is RNA interference (RNAi). The RNAi-based insect control strategy depends on the selection of suitable target genes. In this study, we cloned and characterized a novel ABC transporter gene PxABCH1 in diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). Phylogenetic analysis showed that PxABCH1 is closely related to ABCA and ABCG subfamily members. Spatial-temporal expression detection revealed that PxABCH1 was expressed in all tissues and developmental stages, and highest expressed in head and male adult. Midgut sequence variation and expression analyses of PxABCH1 in all the susceptible and Bt-resistant P. xylostella strains and the functional analysis by sublethal RNAi demonstrated that Cry1Ac resistance was independent of this gene. Silencing of PxABCH1 by a relatively high dose of dsRNA dramatically reduced its expression and resulted in larval and pupal lethal phenotypes in both susceptible and Cry1Ac-resistant P. xylostella strains. To our knowledge, this study provides the first insight into ABCH1 in lepidopterans and reveals it as an excellent target for RNAi-based insect pest control and resistance management. PMID:26333918

  13. Multifunctional amaranth cystatin inhibits endogenous and digestive insect cysteine endopeptidases: A potential tool to prevent proteolysis and for the control of insect pests.

    PubMed

    Valdés-Rodríguez, Silvia; Galván-Ramírez, Juan Pablo; Guerrero-Rangel, Armando; Cedro-Tanda, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study, the amaranth cystatin was characterized. This cystatin is believed to provide protection from abiotic stress because its transcription is induced in response to heat, drought, and salinity. It has also been shown that recombinant amaranth cystatin inhibits bromelain, ficin, and cysteine endopeptidases from fungal sources and also inhibits the growth of phytopathogenic fungi. In the present study, evidence is presented regarding the potential function of amaranth cystatin as a regulator of endogenous proteinases and insect digestive proteinases. During amaranth germination and seedling growth, different proteolytic profiles were observed at different pH levels in gelatin-containing SDS-PAGE. Most of the proteolytic enzymes detected at pH 4.5 were mainly inhibited by trans-epoxysuccinyl-leucyl amido(4-guanidino)butane (E-64) and the purified recombinant amaranth cystatin. Furthermore, the recombinant amaranth cystatin was active against insect proteinases. In particular, the E-64-sensitive proteolytic digestive enzymes from Callosobruchus maculatus, Zabrotes subfasciatus, and Acanthoscelides obtectus were inhibited by the amaranth cystatin. Taken together, these results suggest multiple roles for cystatin in amaranth, specifically during germination and seedling growth and in the protection of A. hypochondriacus against insect predation. Amaranth cystatin represents a promising tool for diverse applications in the control of insect pest and for preventing undesirable proteolytic activity. PMID:25345487

  14. Planting sentinel European trees in eastern Asia as a novel method to identify potential insect pest invaders.

    PubMed

    Roques, Alain; Fan, Jian-Ting; Courtial, Béatrice; Zhang, Yan-Zhuo; Yart, Annie; Auger-Rozenberg, Marie-Anne; Denux, Olivier; Kenis, Marc; Baker, Richard; Sun, Jiang-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine measures to prevent insect invasions tend to focus on well-known pests but a large proportion of the recent invaders were not known to cause significant damage in their native range, or were not even known to science before their introduction. A novel method is proposed to detect new potential pests of woody plants in their region of origin before they are introduced to a new continent. Since Asia is currently considered to be the main supplier of insect invaders to Europe, sentinel trees were planted in China during 2007-2011 as an early warning tool to identify the potential for additional Asian insect species to colonize European trees. Seedlings (1-1.5 m tall) of five broadleaved (Quercus petraea, Q. suber, Q. ilex, Fagus sylvatica, and Carpinus betulus) and two conifer species (Abies alba and Cupressus sempervirens) were planted in blocks of 100 seedlings at two widely separated sites (one in a nursery near Beijing and the other in a forest environment near Fuyang in eastern China), and then regularly surveyed for colonization by insects. A total of 104 insect species, mostly defoliators, were observed on these new hosts, and at least six species were capable of larval development. Although a number of the insects observed were probably incidental feeders, 38 species had more than five colonization events, mostly infesting Q. petraea, and could be considered as being capable of switching to European trees if introduced to Europe. Three years was shown to be an appropriate duration for the experiment, since the rate of colonization then tended to plateau. A majority of the identified species appeared to have switched from agricultural crops and fruit trees rather than from forest trees. Although these results are promising, the method is not appropriate for xylophagous pests and other groups developing on larger trees. Apart from the logistical problems, the identification to species level of the specimens collected was a major difficulty. This

  15. Planting Sentinel European Trees in Eastern Asia as a Novel Method to Identify Potential Insect Pest Invaders

    PubMed Central

    Roques, Alain; Fan, Jian-ting; Courtial, Béatrice; Zhang, Yan-zhuo; Yart, Annie; Auger-Rozenberg, Marie-Anne; Denux, Olivier; Kenis, Marc; Baker, Richard; Sun, Jiang-hua

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine measures to prevent insect invasions tend to focus on well-known pests but a large proportion of the recent invaders were not known to cause significant damage in their native range, or were not even known to science before their introduction. A novel method is proposed to detect new potential pests of woody plants in their region of origin before they are introduced to a new continent. Since Asia is currently considered to be the main supplier of insect invaders to Europe, sentinel trees were planted in China during 2007-2011 as an early warning tool to identify the potential for additional Asian insect species to colonize European trees. Seedlings (1-1.5 m tall) of five broadleaved (Quercus petraea, Q. suber, Q. ilex, Fagus sylvatica, and Carpinus betulus) and two conifer species (Abies alba and Cupressus sempervirens) were planted in blocks of 100 seedlings at two widely separated sites (one in a nursery near Beijing and the other in a forest environment near Fuyang in eastern China), and then regularly surveyed for colonization by insects. A total of 104 insect species, mostly defoliators, were observed on these new hosts, and at least six species were capable of larval development. Although a number of the insects observed were probably incidental feeders, 38 species had more than five colonization events, mostly infesting Q. petraea, and could be considered as being capable of switching to European trees if introduced to Europe. Three years was shown to be an appropriate duration for the experiment, since the rate of colonization then tended to plateau. A majority of the identified species appeared to have switched from agricultural crops and fruit trees rather than from forest trees. Although these results are promising, the method is not appropriate for xylophagous pests and other groups developing on larger trees. Apart from the logistical problems, the identification to species level of the specimens collected was a major difficulty. This

  16. Resistance of National Sweetpotato Collaborator’s Group Genotypes to Soil Insect Pests, Charleston, SC, 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three insect susceptible cultivars (‘Beauregard’ [B63], 'Beauregard' [B94-14], and 'SC 1149-19'), two insect-resistant cultivars ('Charleston Scarlet' and ‘Ruddy’), and 7 regional genotypes from the 2010 National Sweetpotato Collaborator Trials were evaluated for insect resistance in replicated fiel...

  17. Evaluation of Regional Sweetpotato Genotypes for Resistance to Soil Insect Pests, 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three insect susceptible cultivars (‘Beauregard’ [B63], 'Beauregard' [B94-14], and 'SC 1149-19'), two insect-resistant cultivars ('Charleston Scarlet' and ‘Ruddy’), and 7 regional genotypes from the 2010 National Sweetpotato Collaborator Trials were evaluated for insect resistance in replicated fiel...

  18. Evaluation of advanced sweetpotato genotypes for resistance to soil insect pests, 2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three insect susceptible check cultivars (‘Beauregard’, ‘Hernandez’, and ‘SC1149 19’), three insect resistant check cultivars (‘Charleston Scarlet’, ‘Regal’, and ‘Ruddy’), and 30 advanced sweetpotato genotypes were evaluated for insect resistance in replicated field trials at Charleston, SC, in 2011...

  19. Evaluation of Regional Sweetpotato Genotypes for Resistance to Soil Insect Pests, 2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three insect susceptible cultivars (‘Beauregard’ [B63], 'Beauregard' [B94-14], and 'SC 1149-19'), two insect-resistant cultivars ('Charleston Scarlet' and ‘Ruddy’), and 7 regional genotypes from the 2009 National Sweetpotato Collaborator Trials were evaluated for insect resistance in replicated fiel...

  20. Resistance of national sweetpotato collaborator's group genotypes to soil insect pests, Charleston, S.C., 2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three insect susceptible sweetpotato cultivars (‘Beauregard’ [B63 & B94-14] and 'SC1149 19'), two insect-resistant sweetpotato cultivars ('Charleston Scarlet' and ‘Ruddy’), and ten regional sweetpotato genotypes from the 2011 National Sweetpotato Collaborator Trials were evaluated for insect resista...

  1. Evaluation of Dry-Fleshed Sweetpotato Genotypes For Resistance To Soil Insect Pests, 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An insect susceptible check cultivar (‘SC1149 19’), an insect resistant check cultivar (‘Ruddy’), 37 advanced dry-fleshed genotypes, and six other dry-fleshed cultivars (‘Liberty’, ‘NC Japanese’, ‘Picadito’, ‘Sumor’, ‘Tanzania’, and ‘Xushu-18’) were evaluated for insect resistance in replicated fiel...

  2. Evaluation of dry-fleshed sweetpotato genotypes for resistance to soil insect pests, 2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two insect susceptible check cultivars (‘Beauregard” and ‘SC1149 19’), an insect resistant check cultivar (‘Ruddy’), 23 advanced dry-fleshed genotypes, and five dry-fleshed cultivars (‘Liberty’, ‘NC Japanese’, ‘Okinawa 100’, ‘Sumor’, and ‘Xushu-18’) were evaluated for insect resistance in replicate...

  3. Evaluation of Sweetpotato Plant Introductions for Resistance to Soil Insect Pests, 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An insect-susceptible, orange-fleshed check cultivar (‘SC1149 19’), two insect-resistant check cultivars (‘Ruddy’ and ‘Sumor’), and 26 plant introductions (PI) from the National Plant Germplasm System, sweetpotato collection, Griffin, GA, were evaluated for insect resistance in replicated field tria...

  4. 1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Commercial Vegetable Crops and Greenhouse Vegetables. Circular 897.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This circular lists suggested uses of insecticides for the control of pests by commercial vegetable farmers. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to control pests of cabbage and related crops, beans, cucumbers and other vine crops, tomatoes, potatoes, peppers, corn, and onions. (CS)

  5. Enhancing predation of a subterranean insect pest: a conservation benefit of winter vegetation in agroecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. Generalist predator communities are abundant and diverse in agroecosystems, but pests often persist nevertheless. Winter vegetation (e.g., cover crops) provides an agronomically sound opportunity to conserve predator communities and promote their impact on pests. We evaluate whether winter vegeta...

  6. Molecular characterization of a novel vegetative insecticidal protein from Bacillus thuringiensis effective against sap-sucking insect pest.

    PubMed

    Sattar, Sampurna; Maiti, Mrinal K

    2011-09-01

    Several isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) were screened for the vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip) effective against sap-sucking insect pests. Screening results were based on LC(50) values against cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii), one of the dangerous pests of various crop plants including cotton. Among the isolates, the Bt#BREF24 showed promising results, and upon purification the aphidicidal protein was recognized as a binary toxin. One of the components of this binary toxin was identified by peptide sequencing to be a homolog of Vip2A that has been reported previously in other Bacillus spp. Vip2 belongs to the binary toxin group Vip1-Vip2, and is responsible for the enzymatic activity; and Vip1 is the translocation and receptor binding protein. The two genes encoding the corresponding proteins of the binary toxin, designated as vip2Ae and vip1Ae, were cloned from the Bt#BREF24, sequenced, and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. Aphid feeding assay with the recombinant proteins confirmed that these proteins are indeed the two components of the binary toxins, and the presence of both partners is essential for the activity. Aphid specificity of the binary toxin was further verified by ligand blotting experiment, which identified an ~50 kDa receptor in the brush border membrane vesicles of the cotton aphids only, but not in the lepidopteran insects. Our finding holds a promise of its use in future as a candidate gene for developing transgenic crop plants tolerant against sap-sucking insect pests. PMID:21952370

  7. Incorporating Carbon Storage into the Optimal Management of Forest Insect Pests: A Case Study of the Southern Pine Beetle ( Dendroctonus Frontalis Zimmerman) in the New Jersey Pinelands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemiec, Rebecca M.; Lutz, David A.; Howarth, Richard B.

    2014-10-01

    Forest insect pest disturbance is increasing in certain areas of North America as many insect species, such as the southern pine beetle, expand their range due to a warming climate. Because insect pests are beginning to occupy forests that are managed for multiple uses and have not been managed for pests before, it is becoming increasingly important to determine how forests should be managed for pests when non-timber ecosystem services are considered in addition to traditional costs and revenues. One example of a service that is increasingly considered in forest management and that may affect forest pest management is carbon sequestration. This manuscript seeks to understand whether the incorporation of forest carbon sequestration into cost-benefit analysis of different forest pest management strategies affects the financially optimal strategy. We examine this question through a case study of the southern pine beetle (SPB) in a new area of SPB expansion, the New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve (NJPR). We utilize a forest ecology and economics model and include field data from the NJPR as well as outbreak probability statistics from previous years. We find under the majority of scenarios, incorporating forest carbon sequestration shifts the financially optimal SPB management strategy from preventative thinning toward no management or reactionary management in forest stands in New Jersey. These results contradict the current recommended treatment strategy for SPB and signify that the inclusion of multiple ecosystem services into a cost-benefit analysis may drastically alter which pest management strategy is economically optimal.

  8. Incorporating carbon storage into the optimal management of forest insect pests: a case study of the southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmerman) in the New Jersey Pinelands.

    PubMed

    Niemiec, Rebecca M; Lutz, David A; Howarth, Richard B

    2014-10-01

    Forest insect pest disturbance is increasing in certain areas of North America as many insect species, such as the southern pine beetle, expand their range due to a warming climate. Because insect pests are beginning to occupy forests that are managed for multiple uses and have not been managed for pests before, it is becoming increasingly important to determine how forests should be managed for pests when non-timber ecosystem services are considered in addition to traditional costs and revenues. One example of a service that is increasingly considered in forest management and that may affect forest pest management is carbon sequestration. This manuscript seeks to understand whether the incorporation of forest carbon sequestration into cost-benefit analysis of different forest pest management strategies affects the financially optimal strategy. We examine this question through a case study of the southern pine beetle (SPB) in a new area of SPB expansion, the New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve (NJPR). We utilize a forest ecology and economics model and include field data from the NJPR as well as outbreak probability statistics from previous years. We find under the majority of scenarios, incorporating forest carbon sequestration shifts the financially optimal SPB management strategy from preventative thinning toward no management or reactionary management in forest stands in New Jersey. These results contradict the current recommended treatment strategy for SPB and signify that the inclusion of multiple ecosystem services into a cost-benefit analysis may drastically alter which pest management strategy is economically optimal. PMID:24938795

  9. Pest control: A modelling approach. Comment on “Multiscale approach to pest insect monitoring: Random walks, pattern formation, synchronization, and networks” by S. Petrovskii, N. Petrovskaya and D. Bearup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyson, Rebecca C.

    2014-09-01

    Successful food production results in the delivery to market of beautiful produce, free of damage from insects. All of that produce however, is an excellent and plentiful food source, and nature has evolved a multitude of insects that compete with humans for access. There exist a number of management strategies to combat pests, including traditional crop rotation and companion planting techniques, as well as more sophisticated techniques including mating disruption using pheromones and the application of chemical sprays. Chemical sprays are extremely effective, and are in widespread use around the globe [1,12,20]. Indeed, pesticides are the dominant form of pest management in current use [10,20].

  10. Investigating effects of surrounding landscape composition and complexity on populations of two polyphagous insect pest groups in Iowa soybean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuntz, Cody Daniel

    The composition and complexity of agro-ecosystems are important factors influencing the population dynamics of insect pests. Understanding these interactions may improve our ability to predict the spatial occurrence of pest outbreaks, thereby informing scouting and management decisions. In 2012 and 2013, two concurrent studies were conducted to examine the relationship between landscapes surrounding Iowa soybean, Glycine max [L.] Merrill, fields and two polyphagous pest groups; Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), and stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Population densities were monitored in soybean within simple and complex agricultural landscapes to determine the response of these pests to landscape complexity. Results revealed P. japonica populations were significantly greater in soybean fields within complex landscapes and were positively associated with area of uncultivated land. The specific compositions of surrounding landscapes were also analyzed to determine the landscape features that explain the greatest variation in P. japonica and stink bug population densities. Results suggested that the area of wooded and grass habitat around fields accounted for the greatest variation in P. japonica populations; however, no discernable relationships were observed with stink bug populations. Sampling also sought to survey the community of stink bugs present in Iowa soybean. The community was predominantly comprised of stink bugs in the genus Euschistus, comprising a combined 91.04% of all captures. Additional species included the green stink bug, Acrosternum hilare (Say) (4.48%); spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris (Say) (2.99%); and red shouldered stink bug, Thyanta custator accerra (McAtee) (1.49%). Future work will be needed to determine if the landscape effects on P. japonica in soybean reported here are representative of other similar polyphagous pests of soybean and if they extend to other host plants as well

  11. Influence of diet conditions on predation response of a predatory mite to a polyphagous insect pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), an invasive polyphagous species, is an economically important pest. A modified standard petri dish assay method was employed to examine the functional response and predation capacity of predatory mites (Amblyseius swirskii Anthias-...

  12. High entomotoxicity and mechanism of the fungal GalNAc/Gal-specific Rhizoctonia solani lectin in pest insects.

    PubMed

    Hamshou, Mohamad; Van Damme, Els J M; Caccia, Silvia; Cappelle, Kaat; Vandenborre, Gianni; Ghesquière, Bart; Gevaert, Kris; Smagghe, Guy

    2013-03-01

    Whole insect assays where Rhizoctonia solani agglutinin (RSA) was fed to larval stages of the cotton leaf-worm Spodoptera littoralis and the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum demonstrated a high concentration-dependent entomotoxicity, suggesting that this GalNAc/Gal-specific fungal lectin might be a good control agent for different pest insects. RSA at 10 mg/g in the solid diet of 2nd-instar caterpillars caused 84% weight reduction after 8 days with none of the caterpillars reaching the 4th-instar stage. In sucking aphids, 50% mortality was achieved after 3 days with 9 μM of RSA in the liquid diet. Feeding of FITC-labeled RSA to both insect pest species revealed strong lectin binding at the apical/luminal side of the midgut epithelium with the brush border zone, suggesting the insect midgut as a primary insecticide target tissue for RSA. This was also confirmed with cell cultures in vitro, where there was high fluorescence binding at the microvillar zone with primary cultures of larval midgut columnar cells of S. littoralis, and also at the surface with the insect midgut CF-203 cell line without lectin uptake in the midgut cells. In vitro assays using insect midgut CF-203 cells, revealed that RSA was highly toxic with an EC50 of 0.3 μM. Preincubation with GalNAc and saponin indicated that this action of RSA was carbohydrate-binding dependent and happened at the surface of the cells. Intoxicated CF-203 cells showed symptoms of apoptosis as nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation, and this concurred with an increase of caspase-3/7, -8 and -9 activities. Finally, RSA affinity chromatography of membrane extracts of CF-203 cells followed by LC-MS/MS allowed the identification of 5747 unique peptides, among which four putatively glycosylated membrane proteins that are associated with apoptosis induction, namely Fas-associated factor, Apoptosis-linked gene-2, Neuroglian and CG2076, as potential binding targets for RSA. These data are discussed in relation to the

  13. Dietary silver nanoparticles reduce fitness in a beneficial, but not, pest insect species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have antimicrobial and insecticidal properties and they have been considered for their potential use as insecticides. While they do, indeed, kill some insects, two broader issues have not been considered in a critical way. First, reports of insect-lethal AgNPs are often ...

  14. Towards the development of novel pest management agents based upon insect kinin neuropeptide analogs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect kinin neuropeptides share a common C-terminal pentapeptide sequence Phe1-Xaa123-Xaa23-Trp4-Gly5-NH2 (Xaa12=His, Asn, Phe, Ser or Try; Xaa23=Pro, Ser, or Ala) and have been isolated from a number of insects. They have been associated with the regulation of such diverse processes as hindgut co...

  15. Down-regulation of gibberellic acid in poplar has negligible effects on host-plant suitability and insect pest response

    SciTech Connect

    Buhl, Christine; Strauss, Steven H.; Lindroth, Richard L.

    2015-01-06

    Abstract Endogenous levels and signaling of gibberellin plant hormones such as gibberellic acid (GA) have been genetically down-regulated to create semi-dwarf varieties of poplar. The potential benefits of semi-dwarf stature include reduced risk of wind damage, improved stress tolerance, and improved wood quality. Despite these benefits, modification of growth traits may have consequences for non-target traits that confer defense against insect herbivores. According to the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis, reductions in growth may shift allocation of carbon from growth to chemical resistance traits, thereby altering plant defense. To date, host-plant suitability and pest response have not been comprehensively evaluated in GA down-regulated plants. We quantified chemical resistance and nitrogen (an index of protein) in GA down-regulated and wild-type poplar (Populus alba × P. tremula) genotypes. We also evaluated performance of both generalist (Lymantria dispar) and specialist (Chrysomela scripta) insect pests reared on these genotypes. Our evaluation of resistance traits in four GA down-regulated genotypes revealed increased phenolic glycosides in one modified genotype and reduced lignin in two modified genotypes relative to the non-transgenic wild type. Nitrogen levels did not vary significantly among the experimental genotypes. Generalists reared on the four GA down-regulated genotypes exhibited reduced performance on only one modified genotype relative to the wild type. Specialists, however, performed similarly across all genotypes. Results from this study indicate that although some non-target traits varied among GA down-regulated genotypes, the differences in poplar pest susceptibility were modest and highly genotype-specific.

  16. Down-regulation of gibberellic acid in poplar has negligible effects on host-plant suitability and insect pest response

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Buhl, Christine; Strauss, Steven H.; Lindroth, Richard L.

    2015-01-06

    Abstract Endogenous levels and signaling of gibberellin plant hormones such as gibberellic acid (GA) have been genetically down-regulated to create semi-dwarf varieties of poplar. The potential benefits of semi-dwarf stature include reduced risk of wind damage, improved stress tolerance, and improved wood quality. Despite these benefits, modification of growth traits may have consequences for non-target traits that confer defense against insect herbivores. According to the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis, reductions in growth may shift allocation of carbon from growth to chemical resistance traits, thereby altering plant defense. To date, host-plant suitability and pest response have not been comprehensively evaluated in GAmore » down-regulated plants. We quantified chemical resistance and nitrogen (an index of protein) in GA down-regulated and wild-type poplar (Populus alba × P. tremula) genotypes. We also evaluated performance of both generalist (Lymantria dispar) and specialist (Chrysomela scripta) insect pests reared on these genotypes. Our evaluation of resistance traits in four GA down-regulated genotypes revealed increased phenolic glycosides in one modified genotype and reduced lignin in two modified genotypes relative to the non-transgenic wild type. Nitrogen levels did not vary significantly among the experimental genotypes. Generalists reared on the four GA down-regulated genotypes exhibited reduced performance on only one modified genotype relative to the wild type. Specialists, however, performed similarly across all genotypes. Results from this study indicate that although some non-target traits varied among GA down-regulated genotypes, the differences in poplar pest susceptibility were modest and highly genotype-specific.« less

  17. Thermal biology, population fluctuations and implications of temperature extremes for the management of two globally significant insect pests.

    PubMed

    Nyamukondiwa, Casper; Weldon, Christopher W; Chown, Steven L; le Roux, Peter C; Terblanche, John S

    2013-12-01

    The link between environmental temperature, physiological processes and population fluctuations is a significant aspect of insect pest management. Here, we explore how thermal biology affects the population abundance of two globally significant pest fruit fly species, Ceratitis capitata (medfly) and C. rosa (Natal fruit fly), including irradiated individuals and those expressing a temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation that are used in the sterile insect technique. Results show that upper and lower lethal temperatures are seldom encountered at the field sites, while critical minimum temperatures for activity and lower developmental thresholds are crossed more frequently. Estimates of abundance revealed that C. capitata are active year-round, but abundance declines markedly during winter. Temporal autocorrelation of average fortnightly trap captures and of development time, estimated from an integrated model to calculate available degree days, show similar seasonal lags suggesting that population increases in early spring occur after sufficient degree-days have accumulated. By contrast, population collapses coincide tightly with increasing frequency of low temperature events that fall below critical minimum temperatures for activity. Individuals of C. capitata expressing the tsl mutation show greater critical thermal maxima and greater longevity under field conditions than reference individuals. Taken together, this evidence suggests that low temperatures limit populations in the Western Cape, South Africa and likely do so elsewhere. Increasing temperature extremes and warming climates generally may extend the season over which these species are active, and could increase abundance. The sterile insect technique may prove profitable as climates change given that laboratory-reared tsl flies have an advantage under warmer conditions. PMID:24080125

  18. A Simulation Approach to Assessing Sampling Strategies for Insect Pests: An Example with the Balsam Gall Midge

    PubMed Central

    Carleton, R. Drew; Heard, Stephen B.; Silk, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Estimation of pest density is a basic requirement for integrated pest management in agriculture and forestry, and efficiency in density estimation is a common goal. Sequential sampling techniques promise efficient sampling, but their application can involve cumbersome mathematics and/or intensive warm-up sampling when pests have complex within- or between-site distributions. We provide tools for assessing the efficiency of sequential sampling and of alternative, simpler sampling plans, using computer simulation with “pre-sampling” data. We illustrate our approach using data for balsam gall midge (Paradiplosis tumifex) attack in Christmas tree farms. Paradiplosis tumifex proved recalcitrant to sequential sampling techniques. Midge distributions could not be fit by a common negative binomial distribution across sites. Local parameterization, using warm-up samples to estimate the clumping parameter k for each site, performed poorly: k estimates were unreliable even for samples of n∼100 trees. These methods were further confounded by significant within-site spatial autocorrelation. Much simpler sampling schemes, involving random or belt-transect sampling to preset sample sizes, were effective and efficient for P. tumifex. Sampling via belt transects (through the longest dimension of a stand) was the most efficient, with sample means converging on true mean density for sample sizes of n∼25–40 trees. Pre-sampling and simulation techniques provide a simple method for assessing sampling strategies for estimating insect infestation. We suspect that many pests will resemble P. tumifex in challenging the assumptions of sequential sampling methods. Our software will allow practitioners to optimize sampling strategies before they are brought to real-world applications, while potentially avoiding the need for the cumbersome calculations required for sequential sampling methods. PMID:24376556

  19. Use of a regulatory mechanism of sex determination in pest insect control.

    PubMed

    Dafa'alla, Tarig; Fu, Guoliang; Alphey, Luke

    2010-09-01

    The sexual development of an insect is defined through a hierarchical control of several sex determining genes. Of these genes, transformer (tra) and doublesex (dsx) are well characterized and functionally conserved, especially dsx. Both genes are regulated at the transcriptional level through sex-specific alternative splicing. Incorporation of a genetically engineered sexspecific splicing module derived from these genes in transgenic systems, such as RIDL (release of insects carrying a dominant lethal), would allow the production of male-only insects for control programmes without any physical intervention. PMID:20876996

  20. Improvement of Pest Resistance in Transgenic Tobacco Plants Expressing dsRNA of an Insect-Associated Gene EcR

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yao; Zhang, Jia-Qi; Qi, Hai-Sheng; Wei, Zhao-Jun; Yao, Qiong; Zhang, Wen-Qing; Li, Sheng

    2012-01-01

    The adoption of pest-resistant transgenic plants to reduce yield loss and pesticide utilization has been successful in the past three decades. Recently, transgenic plant expressing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) targeting pest genes emerges as a promising strategy for improving pest resistance in crops. The steroid hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), predominately controls insect molting via its nuclear receptor complex, EcR-USP. Here we report that pest resistance is improved in transgenic tobacco plants expressing dsRNA of EcR from the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, a serious lepidopteran pest for a variety of crops. When H. armigera larvae were fed with the whole transgenic tobacco plants expressing EcR dsRNA, resistance to H. armigera was significantly improved in transgenic plants. Meanwhile, when H. armigera larvae were fed with leaves of transgenic tobacco plants expressing EcR dsRNA, its EcR mRNA level was dramatically decreased causing molting defects and larval lethality. In addition, the transgenic tobacco plants expressing H. armigera EcR dsRNA were also resistant to another lepidopteran pest, the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, due to the high similarity in the nucleotide sequences of their EcR genes. This study provides additional evidence that transgenic plant expressing dsRNA targeting insect-associated genes is able to improve pest resistance. PMID:22685585

  1. Improvement of pest resistance in transgenic tobacco plants expressing dsRNA of an insect-associated gene EcR.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jin-Qi; Liu, Shumin; Ma, Yao; Zhang, Jia-Qi; Qi, Hai-Sheng; Wei, Zhao-Jun; Yao, Qiong; Zhang, Wen-Qing; Li, Sheng

    2012-01-01

    The adoption of pest-resistant transgenic plants to reduce yield loss and pesticide utilization has been successful in the past three decades. Recently, transgenic plant expressing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) targeting pest genes emerges as a promising strategy for improving pest resistance in crops. The steroid hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), predominately controls insect molting via its nuclear receptor complex, EcR-USP. Here we report that pest resistance is improved in transgenic tobacco plants expressing dsRNA of EcR from the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, a serious lepidopteran pest for a variety of crops. When H. armigera larvae were fed with the whole transgenic tobacco plants expressing EcR dsRNA, resistance to H. armigera was significantly improved in transgenic plants. Meanwhile, when H. armigera larvae were fed with leaves of transgenic tobacco plants expressing EcR dsRNA, its EcR mRNA level was dramatically decreased causing molting defects and larval lethality. In addition, the transgenic tobacco plants expressing H. armigera EcR dsRNA were also resistant to another lepidopteran pest, the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, due to the high similarity in the nucleotide sequences of their EcR genes. This study provides additional evidence that transgenic plant expressing dsRNA targeting insect-associated genes is able to improve pest resistance. PMID:22685585

  2. Population-level effects of fitness costs associated with repressible female-lethal transgene insertions in two pest insects

    PubMed Central

    Harvey-Samuel, Tim; Ant, Thomas; Gong, Hongfei; Morrison, Neil I; Alphey, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Genetic control strategies offer great potential for the sustainable and effective control of insect pests. These strategies involve the field release of transgenic insects with the aim of introducing engineered alleles into wild populations, either permanently or transiently. Their efficacy can therefore be reduced if transgene-associated fitness costs reduce the relative performance of released insects. We describe a method of measuring the fitness costs associated with transgenes by analyzing their evolutionary trajectories when placed in competition with wild-type alleles in replicated cage populations. Using this method, we estimated lifetime fitness costs associated with two repressible female-lethal transgenes in the diamondback moth and olive fly as being acceptable for field suppression programs. Furthermore, using these estimates of genotype-level fitness costs, we were able to project longer-term evolutionary trajectories for the transgenes investigated. Results from these projections demonstrate that although transgene-associated fitness costs will ultimately cause these transgenes to become extinct, even when engineered lethality is repressed, they may persist for varying periods of time before doing so. This implies that tetracycline-mediated transgene field persistence in these strains is unlikely and suggests that realistic estimates of transgene-associated fitness costs may be useful in trialing ‘uncoupled’ gene drive system components in the field. PMID:24944572

  3. Population-level effects of fitness costs associated with repressible female-lethal transgene insertions in two pest insects.

    PubMed

    Harvey-Samuel, Tim; Ant, Thomas; Gong, Hongfei; Morrison, Neil I; Alphey, Luke

    2014-05-01

    Genetic control strategies offer great potential for the sustainable and effective control of insect pests. These strategies involve the field release of transgenic insects with the aim of introducing engineered alleles into wild populations, either permanently or transiently. Their efficacy can therefore be reduced if transgene-associated fitness costs reduce the relative performance of released insects. We describe a method of measuring the fitness costs associated with transgenes by analyzing their evolutionary trajectories when placed in competition with wild-type alleles in replicated cage populations. Using this method, we estimated lifetime fitness costs associated with two repressible female-lethal transgenes in the diamondback moth and olive fly as being acceptable for field suppression programs. Furthermore, using these estimates of genotype-level fitness costs, we were able to project longer-term evolutionary trajectories for the transgenes investigated. Results from these projections demonstrate that although transgene-associated fitness costs will ultimately cause these transgenes to become extinct, even when engineered lethality is repressed, they may persist for varying periods of time before doing so. This implies that tetracycline-mediated transgene field persistence in these strains is unlikely and suggests that realistic estimates of transgene-associated fitness costs may be useful in trialing 'uncoupled' gene drive system components in the field. PMID:24944572

  4. Toxicity of seven foliar insecticides to four insect parasitoids attacking citrus and cotton pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory studies were carried out to compare the relative toxicity of seven foliar insecticides against four species of beneficial insects representing two families of HYmenoptera: Aphelinidae (Aphytis melinus Debach, Eretmocerus eremicus Rose & Zolnerowich, and Encarsia formosa Gahan) and MYmarid...

  5. Biology and management of insect pests in North American intensively managed hardwood forest systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Coyle, David R.; Nebeker, T., E.; Hart, E., R.; Mattson, W., J.

    2005-01-01

    Annu. Rev. Entomol. 50:1-29. Abstract Increasing demand for wood and wood products is putting stress on traditional forest production areas, leading to long-term economic and environmental concerns. Intensively managed hardwood forest systems (IMHFS), grown using conventional agricultural as well as forestry methods, can help alleviate potential problems in natural forest production areas. Although IMHFS can produce more biomass per hectare per year than natural forests, the ecologically simplified, monocultural systems may greatly increase the crops susceptibility to pests. Species in the genera Populus and Salix comprise the greatest acreage in IMHFS in North America, but other species, including Liquidambar styracifua and Platanus occidentalis, are also important. We discuss life histories, realized and potential damage, and management options for the most economically infuential pests that affect these hardwood species. The substantial inherent challenges associated with pest management in the monocultural environments created by IMHFS are reviewed. Finally, we discuss ways to design IMHFS that may reduce their susceptibility to pests, increase their growth and productivity potential, and create a more sustainable environment.

  6. Vibrational duetting mimics to trap and disrupt mating of the devastating Asian citrus psyllid insect pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) is the primary vector of a bacterium that produces a devastating disease of citrus, huanglongbing. Efficient surveillance of ACP at low population densities is essential for timely pest management programs. ACP males search for mates on tree branches by producing vibra...

  7. Blueberry gall midge: A major insect pest of blueberries in the southeastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blueberry gall midge (BGM) (Dasineura oxycoccana: Ceccidomyidae) is a major pest of blueberries in the southeast United States. Larvae attack leaf and flower buds, causing up to 80% yield loss. Eggs hatch in a few days and larvae develop inside the protective bud. Larval feeding destroys the bud ...

  8. 3-ALKYL-1-BUTANOL ATTRACTANTS FOR FRUGIVOROUS PEST INSECTS, PATENT NO. 6.224.890

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compositions and lures are described which provide 3-alkyl-1-butanol vapors and vapor blends of 3-alkyl-1-butanol with one or more compounds selected from the group consisting of acetic acid, ammonia, putrescine and mixtures which function as highly effective attractants for frugivorous pest flies e...

  9. Vibrational duetting mimics to trap and disrupt mating of the devasting Asian citrus psyllid insect pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) is the primary vector of a bacterium that produces a devastating disease of citrus, huanglongbing. Efficient surveillance of ACP at low population densities is essential for timely pest management programs. ACP males search for mates on tree branches by producing vibra...

  10. A naturally occurring plant cysteine protease possesses remarkable toxicity against insect pests and synergizes Bacillus thuringiensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When caterpillars feed on maize (Zea maize L.) lines with native resistance to several Lepidopteran pests, a defensive systeine protease, Mir1-CP, rapidly accumulates at the wound site. Mir1-CP has been shown to inhibit caterpillar growth in vivo by attacking and permeabilizing the insect’s peritro...

  11. Improved quality management to enhance the efficacy of the sterile insect technique for lepidopteran pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lepidoptera are among the most severe pests of food and fibre crops in the world and are mainly controlled using broad spectrum insecticides. This does not lead to sustainable control and farmers are demanding alternative control tools which are both effective and friendly to the environment. The st...

  12. Sequence Analysis of Insecticide Action and Detoxification-Related Genes in the Insect Pest Natural Enemy Pardosa pseudoannulata.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiangkun; Zhang, Yixi; Bao, Haibo; Liu, Zewen

    2015-01-01

    The pond wolf spider Pardosa pseudoannulata, an important natural predatory enemy of rice planthoppers, is found widely distributed in paddy fields. However, data on the genes involved in insecticide action, detoxification, and response are very limited for P. pseudoannulata, which inhibits the development and appropriate use of selective insecticides to control insect pests on rice. We used transcriptome construction from adult spider cephalothoraxes to analyze and manually identify genes enconding metabolic enzymes and target receptors related to insecticide action and detoxification, including 90 cytochrome P450s, 14 glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), 17 acetylcholinesterases (AChEs), 17 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), and 17 gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, as well as 12 glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl) unigenes. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed the different subclassifications of P450s and GSTs, some important sequence diversities in nAChRs and GABA receptors, polymorphism in AChEs, and high similarities in GluCls. For P450s in P. pseudoannulata, the number of unigenes belonging to the CYP2 clade was much higher than that in CYP3 and CYP4 clades. The results differed from insects in which most P450 genes were in CYP3 and CYP4 clades. For GSTs, most unigenes belonged to the delta and sigma classes, and no epsilon GST class gene was found, which differed from the findings for insects and acarina. Our results will be useful for studies on insecticide action, selectivity, and detoxification in the spider and other related animals, and the sequence differences in target genes between the spider and insects will provide important information for the design of selective insecticides. PMID:25923714

  13. Sequence Analysis of Insecticide Action and Detoxification-Related Genes in the Insect Pest Natural Enemy Pardosa pseudoannulata

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Haibo; Liu, Zewen

    2015-01-01

    The pond wolf spider Pardosa pseudoannulata, an important natural predatory enemy of rice planthoppers, is found widely distributed in paddy fields. However, data on the genes involved in insecticide action, detoxification, and response are very limited for P. pseudoannulata, which inhibits the development and appropriate use of selective insecticides to control insect pests on rice. We used transcriptome construction from adult spider cephalothoraxes to analyze and manually identify genes enconding metabolic enzymes and target receptors related to insecticide action and detoxification, including 90 cytochrome P450s, 14 glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), 17 acetylcholinesterases (AChEs), 17 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), and 17 gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, as well as 12 glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl) unigenes. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed the different subclassifications of P450s and GSTs, some important sequence diversities in nAChRs and GABA receptors, polymorphism in AChEs, and high similarities in GluCls. For P450s in P. pseudoannulata, the number of unigenes belonging to the CYP2 clade was much higher than that in CYP3 and CYP4 clades. The results differed from insects in which most P450 genes were in CYP3 and CYP4 clades. For GSTs, most unigenes belonged to the delta and sigma classes, and no epsilon GST class gene was found, which differed from the findings for insects and acarina. Our results will be useful for studies on insecticide action, selectivity, and detoxification in the spider and other related animals, and the sequence differences in target genes between the spider and insects will provide important information for the design of selective insecticides. PMID:25923714

  14. Development of a Microbial-Based Integrated Pest Management Program for Helicoverpa spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Beneficial Insects on Conventional Cotton Crops in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Mensah, Robert K.; Young, Alison; Rood-England, Leah

    2015-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi, when used as a microbial control agent against cotton pests, such as Helicoverpa spp., may have the potential to establish and spread in the environment and to have an impact on both pests and beneficial insects. Information on the effect of entomopathogenic fungi on pests and beneficial insects is crucial for a product to be registered as a biopesticide. The effect of the entomopathogenic fungus BC 639 (Aspergillus sp.) against Helicoverpa spp. and beneficial insects (mostly predatory insects) was studied in the laboratory and in cotton field trials. The results show that when Helicoverpa spp. second instar larvae were exposed to increasing concentrations (from 102 to 109) of the entomopathogenic fungus BC 639, the optimum dose required to kill over 50% of the insects was 1.0 × 107 spores/mL. In the field trials, the number of Helicoverpa spp. per metre on plots treated with 1.0 or 0.50 L/ha of BC 639 was the same as on plots treated with the recommended rate of the commercial insecticide, Indoxacarb. However, when plots were treated with 0.25 L/ha of BC 639, this was not as effective at controlling Helicoverpa spp. as 1.0 or 0.5 L/ha BC 639 or Indoxacarb. BC 639 had less effect on predatory insects when applied at lower rates (0.50 and 0.25 L/ha) than at higher rates (1.0 L/ha). Thus, BC 639 was more selective against predators when applied at lower rates than at the higher rate, but was also more selective than Indoxacarb. Thus, the ability of BC 639 to control Helicoverpa spp. effectively with a minimal effect on predatory insects indicates its potential for enhancing integrated pest management programs and to sustain cotton production. PMID:26463189

  15. Semiochemicals to monitor insect pests – future opportunities for an effective host plant volatile blend to attract navel orangeworm in pistachio orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The navel orangeworm (Amyelois transitella) has been a major insect pest of California tree nut orchards for the past five decades. In particular, almond and pistachio orchards suffer major annual economic damage due to both physical and associated fungal damage caused by navel orangeworm larvae. Un...

  16. Perceived Consequences of Herbicide-Tolerant and Insect-Resistant Crops on Integrated Pest Management Strategies in the Western United States: Results of an Online Survey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We conducted an online survey to assess the potential effects of herbicide-tolerant (HT) and insect-resistant (IR) crops on integrated pest management (IPM) practices in the Western United States. For HT crops, participants perceived a decrease in several IPM practices, including crop and herbicide ...

  17. Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility as a means for insect pest population control

    PubMed Central

    Zabalou, Sofia; Riegler, Markus; Theodorakopoulou, Marianna; Stauffer, Christian; Savakis, Charalambos; Bourtzis, Kostas

    2004-01-01

    Biological control is the purposeful introduction of parasites, predators, and pathogens to reduce or suppress pest populations. Wolbachia are inherited bacteria of arthropods that have recently attracted attention for their potential as new biocontrol agents. Wolbachia manipulate host reproduction by using several strategies, one of which is cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) [Stouthamer, R., Breeuwer, J. A. J. & Hurst, G. D. D. (1999) Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 53, 71–102]. We established Wolbachia-infected lines of the medfly Ceratitis capitata using the infected cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis cerasi as donor. Wolbachia induced complete CI in the novel host. Laboratory cage populations were completely suppressed by single releases of infected males, suggesting that Wolbachia-induced CI could be used as a novel environmentally friendly tool for the control of medfly populations. The results also encourage the introduction of Wolbachia into pest and vector species of economic and hygenic relevance to suppress or modify natural populations. PMID:15469918

  18. Fine-scale geographical origin of an insect pest invading North America.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Takahiro; Nikoh, Naruo; Fukatsu, Takema

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species may rapidly spread throughout new areas once introduced, which may potentially lead to serious damage to local fauna and flora. Information on geographical origins, introduction routes, and biology in native regions of such invasive species is of critical importance in identifying means of transport, preventing reintroduction, and establishing control/eradication methods. The plataspid stinkbug Megacopta cribraria, known as kudzu bug, recently invaded North America and now has become not only an agricultural pest of soybean but also a nuisance pest. Here we investigate the geographical origin of the invasive M. cribraria populations. Phylogeographical analyses based on 8.7 kb mitochondrial DNA sequences of the introduced and East Asian native Megacopta populations identified a well-supported clade consisting of the introduced populations and M. punctatissima populations in the Kyushu region of Japan, which strongly suggests that the invading M. cribraria populations are derived from a M. punctatissima population in the Kyushu region. Therefore, the region is proposed as a promising source of natural enemies for biological control of the invasive pest. Based on the phylogenetic information, relationship and treatment of the two Megacopta species are discussed. PMID:24551228

  19. Fine-Scale Geographical Origin of an Insect Pest Invading North America

    PubMed Central

    Hosokawa, Takahiro; Nikoh, Naruo; Fukatsu, Takema

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species may rapidly spread throughout new areas once introduced, which may potentially lead to serious damage to local fauna and flora. Information on geographical origins, introduction routes, and biology in native regions of such invasive species is of critical importance in identifying means of transport, preventing reintroduction, and establishing control/eradication methods. The plataspid stinkbug Megacopta cribraria, known as kudzu bug, recently invaded North America and now has become not only an agricultural pest of soybean but also a nuisance pest. Here we investigate the geographical origin of the invasive M. cribraria populations. Phylogeographical analyses based on 8.7 kb mitochondrial DNA sequences of the introduced and East Asian native Megacopta populations identified a well-supported clade consisting of the introduced populations and M. punctatissima populations in the Kyushu region of Japan, which strongly suggests that the invading M. cribraria populations are derived from a M. punctatissima population in the Kyushu region. Therefore, the region is proposed as a promising source of natural enemies for biological control of the invasive pest. Based on the phylogenetic information, relationship and treatment of the two Megacopta species are discussed. PMID:24551228

  20. In situ detection of small-size insect pests sampled on traps using multifractal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Chunlei; Lee, Jang-Myung; Li, Yan; Chung, Bu-Keun; Chon, Tae-Soo

    2012-02-01

    We introduce a multifractal analysis for detecting the small-size pest (e.g., whitefly) images from a sticky trap in situ. An automatic attraction system is utilized for collecting pests from greenhouse plants. We applied multifractal analysis to segment action of whitefly images based on the local singularity and global image characteristics. According to the theory of multifractal dimension, the candidate blobs of whiteflies are initially defined from the sticky-trap image. Two schemes, fixed thresholding and regional minima obtainment, were utilized for feature extraction of candidate whitefly image areas. The experiment was conducted with the field images in a greenhouse. Detection results were compared with other adaptive segmentation algorithms. Values of F measuring precision and recall score were higher for the proposed multifractal analysis (96.5%) compared with conventional methods such as Watershed (92.2%) and Otsu (73.1%). The true positive rate of multifractal analysis was 94.3% and the false positive rate minimal level at 1.3%. Detection performance was further tested via human observation. The degree of scattering between manual and automatic counting was remarkably higher with multifractal analysis (R2=0.992) compared with Watershed (R2=0.895) and Otsu (R2=0.353), ensuring overall detection of the small-size pests is most feasible with multifractal analysis in field conditions.

  1. Endogenous overexpression of Populus MYB186 increases trichome density, improves insect pest resistance, and impacts plant growth.

    PubMed

    Plett, Jonathan M; Wilkins, Olivia; Campbell, Malcolm M; Ralph, Steven G; Regan, Sharon

    2010-11-01

    Trichomes are specialized epidermal cells that generally play a role in reducing transpiration and act as a deterrent to herbivory. In a screen of activation-tagged Populus tremula × Populus alba 717-1B4 trees, we identified a mutant line, fuzzy, with increased foliar trichome density. This mutant also had a 35% increase in growth rate and a 200% increase in the rate of photosynthesis as compared with wild-type poplar. The fuzzy mutant had significant resistance to feeding by larvae of the white-spotted tussock moth (Orgyia leucostigma), a generalist insect pest of poplar trees. The fuzzy trichome phenotype is attributable to activation tagging and increased expression of the gene encoding PtaMYB186, which is related to Arabidopsis thaliana MYB106, a known regulator of trichome initiation. The fuzzy phenotype can be recapitulated by overexpressing PtaMYB186 in poplar. PtaMYB186 overexpression results in reconfiguration of the poplar transcriptome, with changes in the transcript abundance of suites of genes that are related to trichome differentiation. It is notable that a plant with misexpression of a gene responsible for trichome development also had altered traits related to growth rate and pest resistance, suggesting that non-intuitive facets of plant development might be useful targets for plant improvement. PMID:20807210

  2. Impact of climate change on voltinism and prospective diapause induction of a global pest insect--Cydia pomonella (L.).

    PubMed

    Stoeckli, Sibylle; Hirschi, Martin; Spirig, Christoph; Calanca, Pierluigi; Rotach, Mathias W; Samietz, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Global warming will lead to earlier beginnings and prolongation of growing seasons in temperate regions and will have pronounced effects on phenology and life-history adaptation in many species. These changes were not easy to simulate for actual phenologies because of the rudimentary temporal (season) and spatial (regional) resolution of climate model projections. We investigate the effect of climate change on the regional incidence of a pest insect with nearly worldwide distribution and very high potential for adaptation to season length and temperature--the Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella. Seasonal and regional climate change signals were downscaled to the hourly temporal scale of a pest phenology model and the spatial scale of pest habitats using a stochastic weather generator operating at daily scale in combination with a re-sampling approach for simulation of hourly weather data. Under future conditions of increased temperatures (2045-2074), the present risk of below 20% for a pronounced second generation (peak larval emergence) in Switzerland will increase to 70-100%. The risk of an additional third generation will increase from presently 0-2% to 100%. We identified a significant two-week shift to earlier dates in phenological stages, such as overwintering adult flight. The relative extent (magnitude) of first generation pupae and all later stages will significantly increase. The presence of first generation pupae and later stages will be prolonged. A significant decrease in the length of overlap of first and second generation larval emergence was identified. Such shifts in phenology may induce changes in life-history traits regulating the life cycle. An accordingly life-history adaptation in photoperiodic diapause induction to shorter day-length is expected and would thereby even more increase the risk of an additional generation. With respect to Codling Moth management, the shifts in phenology and voltinism projected here will require adaptations of plant

  3. Impact of Climate Change on Voltinism and Prospective Diapause Induction of a Global Pest Insect – Cydia pomonella (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Stoeckli, Sibylle; Hirschi, Martin; Spirig, Christoph; Calanca, Pierluigi; Rotach, Mathias W.; Samietz, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Global warming will lead to earlier beginnings and prolongation of growing seasons in temperate regions and will have pronounced effects on phenology and life-history adaptation in many species. These changes were not easy to simulate for actual phenologies because of the rudimentary temporal (season) and spatial (regional) resolution of climate model projections. We investigate the effect of climate change on the regional incidence of a pest insect with nearly worldwide distribution and very high potential for adaptation to season length and temperature – the Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella. Seasonal and regional climate change signals were downscaled to the hourly temporal scale of a pest phenology model and the spatial scale of pest habitats using a stochastic weather generator operating at daily scale in combination with a re-sampling approach for simulation of hourly weather data. Under future conditions of increased temperatures (2045–2074), the present risk of below 20% for a pronounced second generation (peak larval emergence) in Switzerland will increase to 70–100%. The risk of an additional third generation will increase from presently 0–2% to 100%. We identified a significant two-week shift to earlier dates in phenological stages, such as overwintering adult flight. The relative extent (magnitude) of first generation pupae and all later stages will significantly increase. The presence of first generation pupae and later stages will be prolonged. A significant decrease in the length of overlap of first and second generation larval emergence was identified. Such shifts in phenology may induce changes in life-history traits regulating the life cycle. An accordingly life-history adaptation in photoperiodic diapause induction to shorter day-length is expected and would thereby even more increase the risk of an additional generation. With respect to Codling Moth management, the shifts in phenology and voltinism projected here will require adaptations of

  4. Cost-Benefit Analysis for Biological Control Programs That Targeted Insect Pests of Eucalypts in Urban Landscapes of California.

    PubMed

    Paine, T D; Millar, J G; Hanks, L M; Gould, J; Wang, Q; Daane, K; Dahlsten, D L; Mcpherson, E G

    2015-12-01

    As well as being planted for wind breaks, landscape trees, and fuel wood, eucalypts are also widely used as urban street trees in California. They now are besieged by exotic insect herbivores of four different feeding guilds. The objective of the current analysis was to determine the return on investment from biological control programs that have targeted these pests. Independent estimates of the total number of eucalypt street trees in California ranged from a high of 476,527 trees (based on tree inventories from 135 California cities) to a low of 190,666 trees (based on 49 tree inventories). Based on a survey of 3,512 trees, the estimated mean value of an individual eucalypt was US$5,978. Thus, the total value of eucalypt street trees in California ranged from more than US$1.0 billion to more than US$2.8 billion. Biological control programs that targeted pests of eucalypts in California have cost US$2,663,097 in extramural grants and University of California salaries. Consequently, the return derived from protecting the value of this resource through the biological control efforts, per dollar expended, ranged from US$1,070 for the high estimated number of trees to US$428 for the lower estimate. The analyses demonstrate both the tremendous value of urban street trees, and the benefits that stem from successful biological control programs aimed at preserving these trees. Economic analyses such as this, which demonstrate the substantial rates of return from successful biological control of invasive pests, may play a key role in developing both grass-roots and governmental support for future urban biological control efforts. PMID:26470370

  5. A Naturally Occurring Plant Cysteine Protease Possesses Remarkable Toxicity against Insect Pests and Synergizes Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Srinidi; Ma, Peter W. K.; Williams, W. Paul; Luthe, Dawn S.

    2008-01-01

    When caterpillars feed on maize (Zea maize L.) lines with native resistance to several Lepidopteran pests, a defensive cysteine protease, Mir1-CP, rapidly accumulates at the wound site. Mir1-CP has been shown to inhibit caterpillar growth in vivo by attacking and permeabilizing the insect's peritrophic matrix (PM), a structure that surrounds the food bolus, assists in digestion and protects the midgut from microbes and toxins. PM permeabilization weakens the caterpillar defenses by facilitating the movement of other insecticidal proteins in the diet to the midgut microvilli and thereby enhancing their toxicity. To directly determine the toxicity of Mir1-CP, the purified recombinant enzyme was directly tested against four economically significant Lepidopteran pests in bioassays. Mir1-CP LC50 values were 1.8, 3.6, 0.6, and 8.0 ppm for corn earworm, tobacco budworm, fall armyworm and southwestern corn borer, respectively. These values were the same order of magnitude as those determined for the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Bt-CryIIA. In addition to being directly toxic to the larvae, 60 ppb Mir1-CP synergized sublethal concentrations of Bt-CryIIA in all four species. Permeabilization of the PM by Mir1-CP probably provides ready access to Bt-binding sites on the midgut microvilli and increases its activity. Consequently, Mir1-CP could be used for controlling caterpillar pests in maize using non-transgenic approaches and potentially could be used in other crops either singly or in combination with Bt-toxins. PMID:18335057

  6. Directional Flow of Summer Aeration to Manage Insect Pests in Stored Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field trials were conducted in metal wheat storage bins to determine whether pressure aeration, pushing ambient air from the bottom, or suction aeration, pulling air down from the top, would be more efficient at cooling the wheat mass and thereby limiting insect population growth. Aeration was accom...

  7. Sesquiterpene lactone composition of wild and cultivated sunflowers and biological activity against an insect pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sesquiterpene lactones in sunflowers, Helianthus spp., are important to interactions with pathogens, weeds and insects. Across a broad range of H. annuus, differences in composition of sesquiterpene lactones extracted from florets were found between wild and cultivated sunflowers, but also between d...

  8. EVALUATION OF ADVANCED SWEETPOTATO GENOTYPES FOR RESISTANCE TO SOIL INSECT PESTS, 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report describes a field evaluation of advanced orange-fleshed sweetpotato genotypes from the USDA ARS sweetpotato breeding program at the U. S. Vegetable Laboratory (USVL), Charleston, SC. This field experiment included three insect-susceptible check cultivars (‘Beauregard’, ‘Hernandez’, and ...

  9. Evaluation of Advanced Sweetpotato Genotypes for Resistance to Soil Insect Pests, 2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report describes a field evaluation of advanced orange-fleshed sweetpotato genotypes from the USDA ARS sweetpotato breeding program at the U. S. Vegetable Laboratory (USVL), Charleston, SC in 2009. This field experiment included four insect-susceptible check cultivars (‘Beauregard’, ‘Diane’, ‘...

  10. TESTING OF THE INSECT PEST CONTROL FUNGUS BEAUVERIA BASSIANA IN GRASS SHRIMP PALAEMONETES PUGIO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Embryos, larvae and adult grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio were exposed to spores of the insect-control fungus Beauveria bassiana. onidiospores attached to embryos held by gravid females and remained with the egg mass for at least 6 d. In the first experiment where individual deve...

  11. Desiccation increases the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana for stored grain pest insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of desiccation stress on the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana for stored-product insects was investigated in laboratory bioassays. The mortality of B. bassiana-treated Plodia interpunctella larvae was greater at a vapor pressure deficit (VPD) of 2.42 kPa or 1.87 kPa than at 1.06 kPa. Moist...

  12. Controlled release of sugar and toxicant from a novel device for controlling pest insects.

    PubMed

    Hu, X P; Shasha, B S; McGuire, M R; Prokopy, R J

    1998-01-01

    A novel biodegradable device, designed for long-lasting residual effectiveness of feeding stimulant (sugar) and insecticide (dimethoate) against apple maggot files and other insects, was formulated. The device is an 8-cm diameter fruit-mimicking sphere, consisting of 42-50% sugar entrapped in a mixture of gelatinized corn flour and wheat flour in the presence of glycerin, and coated with a layer of latex paint containing dimethoate and sugar. We found that the outer layer of paint prevents cracking of the sphere upon drying and creates a barrier to control the release of both sugar and dimethoate. Releases of each ingredient were screened first by chemical analysis and then by bioassays in the laboratory and in field cages against apple maggot flies. Chemical analysis demonstrated strong potential for controlled release of water-soluble feeding stimulant and water-insoluble insecticide measured as a function of the amount of rainfall and duration of exposure time. Field results showed greater than 70% insecticidal activity after 11 weeks of sphere exposure in an orchard. This device has the potential to be used for a variety of insect-control applications through manipulating its shape, color and texture into forms known to be attractive to target insects, and by employing various toxicants designed to be effective against such insects. PMID:9685892

  13. Contact toxicity and repellency of the essential oil of Liriope muscari (DECN.) bailey against three insect tobacco storage pests.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Wang, Ping-Juan; Yang, Kai; Huang, Dong-Ye; Wei, Jian-Yu; Tian, Zhao-Fu; Bai, Jia-Feng; Du, Shu-Shan

    2015-01-01

    In order to find and develop new botanical pesticides against tobacco storage pests, bioactivity screening was performed. The essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of Liriope muscari was investigated by GC/MS and GC/FID. A total of 14 components representing 96.12% of the oil were identified and the main compounds in the oil were found to be methyl eugenol (42.15%) and safrole (17.15%), followed by myristicin (14.18%) and 3,5-dimethoxytoluene (10.60%). After screening, the essential oil exhibit potential insecticidal activity. In the progress of assay, it showed that the essential oil exhibited potent contact toxicity against Tribolium castaneum, Lasioderma serricorne and Liposcelis bostrychophila adults, with LD50 values of 13.36, 11.28 µg/adult and 21.37 µg/cm2, respectively. The essential oil also exhibited strong repellency against the three stored product insects. At the same concentrations, the essential oil was more repellent to T. castaneum than to L. serricorne adults. The results indicate that the essential oil of Liriope muscari has potential to be developed into a natural insecticide or repellent for controlling insects in stored tobacco and traditional Chinese medicinal materials. PMID:25608855

  14. Effects of weed cover composition on insect pest and natural enemy abundance in a field of Dracaena marginata (Asparagales: Asparagaceae) in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Sadof, Clifford S; Linkimer, Mildred; Hidalgo, Eduardo; Casanoves, Fernando; Gibson, Kevin; Benjamin, Tamara J

    2014-04-01

    Weeds and their influence on pest and natural enemy populations were studied on a commercial ornamental farm during 2009 in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica. A baseline survey of the entire production plot was conducted in February, along a 5 by 5 m grid to characterize and map initial weed communities of plants, cicadellids, katydids, and armored scales. In total, 50 plant species from 21 families were found. Seven weed treatments were established to determine how weed manipulations would affect communities of our targeted pests and natural enemies. These treatments were selected based on reported effects of specific weed cover on herbivorous insects and natural enemies, or by their use by growers as a cover crop. Treatments ranged from weed-free to being completely covered with endemic species of weeds. Although some weed treatments changed pest abundances, responses differed among arthropod pests, with the strongest effects observed for Caldwelliola and Empoasca leafhoppers. Removal of all weeds increased the abundance of Empoasca, whereas leaving mostly cyperacaeous weeds increased the abundance of Caldwelliola. Weed manipulations had no effect on the abundance of katydid and scale populations. No weed treatment reduced the abundance of all three of the target pests. Differential responses of the two leafhopper species to the same weed treatments support hypotheses, suggesting that noncrop plants can alter the abundance of pests through their effects on arthropod host finding and acceptance, as well as their impacts on natural enemies. PMID:24517852

  15. Effects of a sex-ratio distorting endosymbiont on mtDNA variation in a global insect pest

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Ana M; Cook, James M

    2009-01-01

    Background Patterns of mtDNA variation within a species reflect long-term population structure, but may also be influenced by maternally inherited endosymbionts, such as Wolbachia. These bacteria often alter host reproductive biology and can drive particular mtDNA haplotypes through populations. We investigated the impacts of Wolbachia infection and geography on mtDNA variation in the diamondback moth, a major global pest whose geographic distribution reflects both natural processes and transport via human agricultural activities. Results The mtDNA phylogeny of 95 individuals sampled from 10 countries on four continents revealed two major clades. One contained only Wolbachia-infected individuals from Malaysia and Kenya, while the other contained only uninfected individuals, from all countries including Malaysia and Kenya. Within the uninfected group was a further clade containing all individuals from Australasia and displaying very limited sequence variation. In contrast, a biparental nuclear gene phylogeny did not have infected and uninfected clades, supporting the notion that maternally-inherited Wolbachia are responsible for the mtDNA pattern. Only about 5% (15/306) of our global sample of individuals was infected with the plutWB1 isolate and even within infected local populations, many insects were uninfected. Comparisons of infected and uninfected isofemale lines revealed that plutWB1 is associated with sex ratio distortion. Uninfected lines have a 1:1 sex ratio, while infected ones show a 2:1 female bias. Conclusion The main correlate of mtDNA variation in P. xylostella is presence or absence of the plutWB1 infection. This is associated with substantial sex ratio distortion and the underlying mechanisms deserve further study. In contrast, geographic origin is a poor predictor of moth mtDNA sequences, reflecting human activity in moving the insects around the globe. The exception is a clade of Australasian individuals, which may reflect a bottleneck during

  16. Sesquiterpene Lactone Composition of Wild and Cultivated Sunflowers and Biological Activity against an Insect Pest.

    PubMed

    Prasifka, Jarrad R; Spring, Otmar; Conrad, Jürgen; Cook, Leonard W; Palmquist, Debra E; Foley, Michael E

    2015-04-29

    Sesquiterpene lactones in sunflowers, Helianthus spp., are important to interactions with pathogens, weeds, and insects. Across a broad range of Helianthus annuus, differences in composition of sesquiterpene lactones extracted from disc florets were found between wild and cultivated sunflowers and also between distinct groups of inbreds used to produce sunflower hybrids. Discriminant function analysis showed the presence and relative abundance of argophyllone B, niveusin B, and 15-hydroxy-3-dehydrodesoxyfruticin were usually (75%) effective at classifying wild sunflowers, cultivated inbreds, and hybrids. Argophyllone B reduced the larval mass of the sunflower moth, Homeosoma electellum, by >30%, but only at a dose greater than that found in florets. Low doses of mixed extracts from cultivated florets produced a similar (≈40%) reduction in larval mass, suggesting combinations of sesquiterpene lactones act additively. Although the results support a role for sesquiterpene lactones in herbivore defense of cultivated sunflowers, additional information is needed to use these compounds purposefully in breeding. PMID:25853587

  17. Investigation on penetration of three conventional foodstuffs packaging polymers with two different thicknesses by larvae and adults of major species of stored-product pest insects.

    PubMed

    Allahvaisi, Somayeh; Purmirza, Ali Asghar; Safaralizade, Mohamad Hasan

    2009-01-01

    Despite modern methods of packaging, stored agricultural products are still under attack by stored-insect pests. Therefore, determination of the best polymer and appropriate thickness inhibiting the penetration of the insects must be considered. In this study, we investigated the ability of penetration and the rates of contamination by nine important stored product pest insects for three conventional flexible polymers (polyethylene, cellophane and polypropylene) at two thicknesses (16.5 and 29 microm), which are used as pouches for packing of agricultural products. We used adults of T. castaneum (Coleoptera), S. granarius (Coleoptera), R. dominica (Coleoptera), C. maculates (Coleoptera), O. surinamensis (Coleoptera), and larvae of P. interpunctella (Lepidoptera), E. kuehniella (Lepidoptera), S. cerealella (Lepidoptera) and T. granarium (Coleoptera). Results showed that for most of the species penetration occurred between 4 days and 2 weeks, but there were significant differences (p < or = 0.05) in the penetration of three polymers (cellophane, polyethylene and polypropylene) by the insects. Among the polymers, polyethylene with a thickness of 16.5 microm showed the highest degree of penetration and was the most unsuitable polymer for packaging of foodstuffs. Application of this polymer led to a complete infestation of the product and a lot of punctures were created by the insects. In contrast, no penetration was observed in polypropylene polymer with a thickness of 29 microm. Furthermore, adults and larvae of all species showed a much lower penetration when there was no food present in the pouches and this was the case for all polymers tested. PMID:20222605

  18. Scale Insects, edition 2, a tool for the identification of potential pest scales at U.S.A. ports-of-entry (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Coccoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Douglass R.; Rung, Alessandra; Parikh, Grishma

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We provide a general overview of features and technical specifications of an online, interactive tool for the identification of scale insects of concern to the U.S.A. ports-of-entry. Full lists of terminal taxa included in the keys (of which there are four), a list of features used in them, and a discussion of the structure of the tool are provided. We also briefly discuss the advantages of interactive keys for the identification of potential scale insect pests. The interactive key is freely accessible on http://idtools.org/id/scales/index.php PMID:25152668

  19. Estimation of the number of founders of an invasive pest insect population: the fire ant Solenopsis invicta in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Kenneth G; Shoemaker, D. DeWayne

    2008-01-01

    Determination of the number of founders responsible for the establishment of invasive populations is important for developing biologically based management practices, predicting the invasive potential of species, and making inferences about ecological and evolutionary processes. The fire ant Solenopsis invicta is a major invasive pest insect first introduced into the USA from its native South American range in the mid-1930s. We use data from diverse genetic markers surveyed in the source population and the USA to estimate the number of founders of this introduced population. Data from different classes of nuclear markers (microsatellites, allozymes, sex-determination locus) and mitochondrial DNA are largely congruent in suggesting that 9–20 unrelated mated queens comprised the initial founder group to colonize the USA at Mobile, Alabama. Estimates of founder group size based on expanded samples from throughout the southern USA were marginally higher than this, consistent with the hypothesis of one or more secondary introductions of the ant into the USA. The rapid spread and massive population build-up of introduced S. invicta occurred despite the loss of substantial genetic variation associated with the relatively small invasive propagule size, a pattern especially surprising in light of the substantial genetic load imposed by the loss of variation at the sex-determination locus. PMID:18577505

  20. Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov., a xylanolytic, ustilaginomycetous yeast species isolated from an insect pest of sugarcane roots.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro; Borges, Thuanny A; Corrêa dos Santos, Renato Augusto; Freitas, Larissa F D; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio

    2014-06-01

    A novel ustilaginomycetous yeast isolated from the intestinal tract of an insect pest of sugarcane roots in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil, represents a novel species of the genus Pseudozyma based on molecular analyses of the D1/D2 rDNA large subunit and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1+ITS2) regions. The name Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. is proposed for this species, with GHG001(T) ( = CBS 13268(T) = UFMG-CM-Y307(T)) as the type strain. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is a sister species of Pseudozyma vetiver, originally isolated from leaves of vetiver grass and sugarcane in Thailand. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is able to grow well with xylan as the sole carbon source and produces high levels of an endo-1,4-xylanase that has a higher specific activity in comparison with other eukaryotic xylanases. This enzyme has a variety of industrial applications, indicating the great biotechnological potential of P. brasiliensis. PMID:24682702

  1. [Creation of transgenic sugar beet lines expressing insect pest resistance genes cry1C and cry2A].

    PubMed

    Litvin, D I; Sivura, V V; Kurilo, V V; Oleneva, V D; Emets, A I; Blium, Ia B

    2014-01-01

    Impact of insect pests makes a significant limitation of the sugar beet crop yield. Integration of cry-genes of Bacillus thuringiensis into plant genome is one of the promising strategies to ensure plant resistance. The aim of this work was to obtain sugar beet lines (based on the MM 1/2 line) transformed with cry2A and cry1Cgenes. We have optimized transformation protocol and direct plant let regeneration protocol from leaf explants using 1 mg/l benzylaminopurine as well as 0,25 mg/l benzylaminopurine and 0,1 mg/l indole-butyric acid. Consequently, transgenic sugar beet lines transformed with vector constructs pRD400-cry1C and pRD400-cry2A have been obtained. PCR analysis revealed integration of cry2A and cry1C into genome of transgenic lines and expression of these genes in leaf tissues was shown by reverse transcription PCR. PMID:24818505

  2. The occurrence, biodiversity and toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis strains isolated from the insect pest Lymantria dispar (Poland).

    PubMed

    Guz, Katarzyna; Bugla-Płoskońska, Gabriela; Doroszkiewicz, Włodzimierz

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to survey the occurrence, biodiversity, and toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis strains originating from dead caterpillars of the forest pest, Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera). Morphological, biochemical, and microscopic identification of isolates from the insects showed the presence of five different Bacillus species, including 2% of B. thuringiensis. Based on the biochemical profiles, the B. thuringiensis were determined to be B. thuringiensis finitimus-like and B. thuringiensis alesti-like bacilli. Both produced spherical inclusions composed of three or five protoxins. The molecular weights of these proteins varied from 20 to ca. 64 kDa. Mixtures of spores/inclusions of the B. thuringiensis were tested for their toxicity against larvae of Drosophila melanogaster. The mortality levels of the larvae caused by these spores and crystalline inclusions varied from 5 to 15%. The lethal doses (LD50) of these isolates against D. melanogaster were 8.8 x 10(12) spores/ml for B. thuringiensis finitimus and 1.3 10(18) spores/ml for B. thuringiensis alesti. PMID:19824400

  3. Low doses of a neonicotinoid insecticide modify pheromone response thresholds of central but not peripheral olfactory neurons in a pest insect.

    PubMed

    Rabhi, Kaouther K; Deisig, Nina; Demondion, Elodie; Le Corre, Julie; Robert, Guillaume; Tricoire-Leignel, Hélène; Lucas, Philippe; Gadenne, Christophe; Anton, Sylvia

    2016-02-10

    Insect pest management relies mainly on neurotoxic insecticides, including neonicotinoids, leaving residues in the environment. There is now evidence that low doses of insecticides can have positive effects on pest insects by enhancing various life traits. Because pest insects often rely on sex pheromones for reproduction, and olfactory synaptic transmission is cholinergic, neonicotinoid residues could modify chemical communication. We recently showed that treatments with different sublethal doses of clothianidin could either enhance or decrease behavioural sex pheromone responses in the male moth, Agrotis ipsilon. We investigated now effects of the behaviourally active clothianidin doses on the sensitivity of the peripheral and central olfactory system. We show with extracellular recordings that both tested clothianidin doses do not influence pheromone responses in olfactory receptor neurons. Similarly, in vivo optical imaging does not reveal any changes in glomerular response intensities to the sex pheromone after clothianidin treatments. The sensitivity of intracellularly recorded antennal lobe output neurons, however, is upregulated by a lethal dose 20 times and downregulated by a dose 10 times lower than the lethal dose 0. This correlates with the changes of behavioural responses after clothianidin treatment and suggests the antennal lobe as neural substrate involved in clothianidin-induced behavioural changes. PMID:26842577

  4. Conditional fitness benefits of the Rickettsia bacterial symbiont in an insect pest.

    PubMed

    Cass, Bodil N; Himler, Anna G; Bondy, Elizabeth C; Bergen, Jacquelyn E; Fung, Sierra K; Kelly, Suzanne E; Hunter, Martha S

    2016-01-01

    Inherited bacterial symbionts are common in arthropods and can have strong effects on the biology of their hosts. These effects are often mediated by host ecology. The Rickettsia symbiont can provide strong fitness benefits to its insect host, Bemisia tabaci, under laboratory and field conditions. However, the frequency of the symbiont is heterogeneous among field collection sites across the USA, suggesting that the benefits of the symbiont are contingent on additional factors. In two whitefly genetic lines collected from the same location, we tested the effect of Rickettsia on whitefly survival after heat shock, on whitefly competitiveness at different temperatures, and on whitefly competitiveness at different starting frequencies of Rickettsia. Rickettsia did not provide protection against heat shock nor affect the competitiveness of whiteflies at different temperatures or starting frequencies. However, there was a strong interaction between Rickettsia infection and whitefly genetic line. Performance measures indicated that Rickettsia was associated with significant female bias in both whitefly genetic lines, but in the second whitefly genetic line it conferred no significant fitness benefits nor conferred any competitive advantage to its host over uninfected whiteflies in population cages. These results help to explain other reports of variation in the phenotype of the symbiosis. Furthermore, they demonstrate the complex nature of these close symbiotic associations and the need to consider these interactions in the context of host population structure. PMID:26376661

  5. Identification and Structural Characterization of Novel Cyclotide with Activity against an Insect Pest of Sugar Cane*

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Michelle F. S.; Fensterseifer, Isabel C. M.; Migliolo, Ludovico; Sousa, Daniel A.; de Capdville, Guy; Arboleda-Valencia, Jorge W.; Colgrave, Michelle L.; Craik, David J.; Magalhães, Beatriz S.; Dias, Simoni C.; Franco, Octávio L.

    2012-01-01

    Cyclotides are a family of plant-derived cyclic peptides comprising six conserved cysteine residues connected by three intermolecular disulfide bonds that form a knotted structure known as a cyclic cystine knot (CCK). This structural motif is responsible for the pronounced stability of cyclotides against chemical, thermal, or proteolytic degradation and has sparked growing interest in this family of peptides. Here, we isolated and characterized a novel cyclotide from Palicourea rigida (Rubiaceae), which was named parigidin-br1. The sequence indicated that this peptide is a member of the bracelet subfamily of cyclotides. Parigidin-br1 showed potent insecticidal activity against neonate larvae of Lepidoptera (Diatraea saccharalis), causing 60% mortality at a concentration of 1 μm but had no detectable antibacterial effects. A decrease in the in vitro viability of the insect cell line from Spodoptera frugiperda (SF-9) was observed in the presence of parigidin-br1, consistent with in vivo insecticidal activity. Transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy of SF-9 cells after incubation with parigidin-br1 or parigidin-br1-fluorescein isothiocyanate, respectively, revealed extensive cell lysis and swelling of cells, consistent with an insecticidal mechanism involving membrane disruption. This hypothesis was supported by in silico analyses, which suggested that parigidin-br1 is able to complex with cell lipids. Overall, the results suggest promise for the development of parigidin-br1 as a novel biopesticide. PMID:22074926

  6. Activity of leucine aminopeptidase of Telchin licus licus: an important insect pest of sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Valencia, Jorge W Arboleda; de Sá, Maria Fátima Grossi; Jiménez, Arnubio Valencia

    2014-06-01

    The enzymatic activity of leucine aminopeptidase (EC 3.4.11.1) from the intestinal tract of sugarcane giant borer (Telchin licus licus) was assayed by using a simple and sensitive spectrophotometric assay that uses L-leucyl-2- naphthylamide as substrate. In this assay, L-leucyl-2-naphthylamide is hydrolyzed to produce 2-naphthylamine and Lleucine. The product 2-naphthylamine reacts with Fast Black K and can be monitored using a continuous spectrophotometric measurement at 590 nm. The data on the kinetic parameters indicates that the Km for the L-leucyl-2- naphthylamide at pH 7.0 was found to be lower than those found for other LAP substrates. The Km and Vmax for the LAP were determined to be 84.03 µM and 357.14 enzymatic units mg(-1), respectively. A noticeable difference of LAP activity between the two insect orders tested was observed. This method could be used to screen for natural LAP inhibitors. PMID:24410745

  7. Identification and structural characterization of novel cyclotide with activity against an insect pest of sugar cane.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Michelle F S; Fensterseifer, Isabel C M; Migliolo, Ludovico; Sousa, Daniel A; de Capdville, Guy; Arboleda-Valencia, Jorge W; Colgrave, Michelle L; Craik, David J; Magalhães, Beatriz S; Dias, Simoni C; Franco, Octávio L

    2012-01-01

    Cyclotides are a family of plant-derived cyclic peptides comprising six conserved cysteine residues connected by three intermolecular disulfide bonds that form a knotted structure known as a cyclic cystine knot (CCK). This structural motif is responsible for the pronounced stability of cyclotides against chemical, thermal, or proteolytic degradation and has sparked growing interest in this family of peptides. Here, we isolated and characterized a novel cyclotide from Palicourea rigida (Rubiaceae), which was named parigidin-br1. The sequence indicated that this peptide is a member of the bracelet subfamily of cyclotides. Parigidin-br1 showed potent insecticidal activity against neonate larvae of Lepidoptera (Diatraea saccharalis), causing 60% mortality at a concentration of 1 μm but had no detectable antibacterial effects. A decrease in the in vitro viability of the insect cell line from Spodoptera frugiperda (SF-9) was observed in the presence of parigidin-br1, consistent with in vivo insecticidal activity. Transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy of SF-9 cells after incubation with parigidin-br1 or parigidin-br1-fluorescein isothiocyanate, respectively, revealed extensive cell lysis and swelling of cells, consistent with an insecticidal mechanism involving membrane disruption. This hypothesis was supported by in silico analyses, which suggested that parigidin-br1 is able to complex with cell lipids. Overall, the results suggest promise for the development of parigidin-br1 as a novel biopesticide. PMID:22074926

  8. Bacillus thuringiensis as a specific, safe, and effective tool for insect pest control.

    PubMed

    Roh, Jong Yul; Choi, Jae Young; Li, Ming Shun; Jin, Byung Rae; Je, Yeon Ho

    2007-04-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) was first described by Berliner [10] when he isolated a Bacillus species from the Mediterranean flour moth, Anagasta kuehniella, and named it after the province Thuringia in Germany where the infected moth was found. Although this was the first description under the name B. thuringiensis, it was not the first isolation. In 1901, a Japanese biologist, Ishiwata Shigetane, discovered a previously undescribed bacterium as the causative agent of a disease afflicting silkworms. Bt was originally considered a risk for silkworm rearing but it has become the heart of microbial insect control. The earliest commercial production began in France in, 1938, under the name Sporeine [72]. A resurgence of interest in Bt has been attributed to Edward Steinhaus [105], who obtained a culture in 1942 and attracted attention to the potential of Bt through his subsequent studies. In 1956, T. Angus [3] demonstrated that the crystalline protein inclusions formed in the course of sporulation were responsible for the insecticidal action of Bt. By the early 1980's, Gonzalez et al. [48] revealed that the genes coding for crystal proteins were localized on transmissible plasmids, using a plasmid curing technique, and Schnepf and Whiteley [103] first cloned and characterized the genes coding for crystal proteins that had toxicity to larvae of the tobacco hornworm, from plasmid DNA of Bt subsp. kurstaki HD-1. This first cloning was followed quickly by the cloning of many other cry genes and eventually led to the development of Bt transgenic plants. In the 1980s, several scientists successively demonstrated that plants can be genetically engineered, and finally, Bt cotton reached the market in 1996 [104]. PMID:18051264

  9. Leaves of Lantana camara Linn. (Verbenaceae) as a potential insecticide for the management of three species of stored grain insect pests.

    PubMed

    Rajashekar, Y; Ravindra, K V; Bakthavatsalam, N

    2014-11-01

    Insects cause extensive damage to stored grains and their value added products. Among the stored grain pests Sitophilus oryzae (L.) Callosobruchus chinensis (Fab.) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst.) are considered as destructive pests in India. Plants may provide alternatives to currently used insect control agents as they constitute rich source in bioactive molecules. Lantana camara, an erect shrub, which grows widely in the tropics, exhibits insecticidal activity against several insects. The methanol extract from leaves of L. camara has fumigant and contact toxicity against S. oryzae, C. chinesis and T. castaneum. In fumigant assays, The LC50 for S. oryzae was 128 μl/L(1), C. chinensis 130.3 μl/L(1), and T. castaneum 178.7 μl/L(1). The LD50 values for S. oryzae C. chinensis and T. castaneum in contact toxicity were 0.158, 0.140 and 0.208 mg/cm(2), respectively. For grain treatment, a concentration of 500 mg/L(1) and 7 days exposure were needed to obtain 90 - 100 % population extinction in all three insects. Probit analysis showed that C. chinensis were more susceptible than S. oryzae and T. castaneum. Gaschromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) studies for extracts indicated the presence of potent fumigant molecules in L. camara. The prospect of utilizing L. camara as potent fumigant insecticide is discussed. PMID:26396352

  10. Efficacy of insect growth regulators as grain protectants against two stored-product pests in wheat and maize.

    PubMed

    Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Athanassiou, Christos G; Vayias, Basileios J; Tomanović, Zeljko

    2012-05-01

    Insect growth regulators (IGRs) (two juvenile hormone analogues [fenoxycarb and pyriproxifen], four chitin synthesis inhibitors [diflubenzuron, flufenoxuron, lufenuron, and triflumuron], one ecdysteroid agonist [methoxyfenozide], and one combination of chitin synthesis inhibitors and juvenile hormone analogues [lufenuron plus fenoxycarb]) were tested in the laboratory against adults of Prostephanus truncatus in maize and against adults of Rhyzopertha dominica in wheat. The tested IGRs were applied in maize at three doses (1, 5, and 10 ppm) and assessed at three temperature levels (20, 25, and 30°C) in the case of P. truncatus, while in the case of R. dominica the above doses were assessed only at 25°C in wheat. In addition to progeny production, mortality of the treated adults after 14 days of exposure in the IGR-treated commodities was assessed. All IGRs were very effective (>88.5% suppression of progeny) against the tested species at doses of $ 5 ppm, while diflubenzuron at 25°C in the case of P. truncatus or lufenuron and pyriproxyfen in the case of R. dominica completely suppressed (100%) progeny production when they were applied at 1 ppm. At all tested doses, the highest values of R. dominica parental mortality were observed in wheat treated with lufenuron plus fenoxycarb. Temperature at the levels examined in the present study did not appear to affect the overall performance in a great extent of the tested IGRs in terms of adult mortality or suppression of progeny production against P. truncatus in treated maize. The tested IGRs may be considered viable grain protectants and therefore as potential components in stored-product integrated pest management. PMID:22564945

  11. A Transformed Bacterium Expressing Double-Stranded RNA Specific to Integrin β1 Enhances Bt Toxin Efficacy against a Polyphagous Insect Pest, Spodoptera exigua

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunseong; Park, Youngjin; Kim, Yonggyun

    2015-01-01

    Background Oral toxicity of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) specific to integrin β1 subunit (SeINT) was known in a polyphagous insect pest, Spodoptera exigua. For an application of the dsRNA to control the insect pest, this study prepared a transformed Escherichia coli expressing dsRNA specific to SeINT. Principal Findings The dsRNA expression was driven by T7 RNA polymerase overexpressed by an inducer in the transformed E. coli. The produced dsRNA amount was proportional to the number of the cultured bacteria. The transformed bacteria gave a significant oral toxicity to S. exigua larvae with a significant reduction of the SeINT expression. The resulting insect mortality increased with the fed number of the bacteria. Pretreatment with an ultra-sonication to disrupt bacterial cell wall/membrane significantly increased the insecticidal activity of the transformed bacteria. The larvae treated with the transformed bacteria suffered tissue damage in the midgut epithelium, which exhibited a marked loss of cell-cell contacts and underwent a remarkable cell death. Moreover, these treated larvae became significantly susceptible to a Cry toxin derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Conclusions This study provides a novel and highly efficient application technique to use dsRNA specific to an integrin gene by mixing with a biopesticide, Bt. PMID:26171783

  12. Costs and benefits of thermal acclimation for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): implications for pest control and the sterile insect release programme

    PubMed Central

    Chidawanyika, Frank; Terblanche, John S

    2011-01-01

    Sterile insect release (SIR) is used to suppress insect pest populations in agro-ecosystems, but its success hinges on the performance of the released insects and prevailing environmental conditions. For example, low temperatures dramatically reduce SIR efficacy in cooler conditions. Here, we report on the costs and benefits of thermal acclimation for laboratory and field responses of codling moth, Cydia pomonella. Using a component of field fitness, we demonstrate that low temperature acclimated laboratory-reared moths are recaptured significantly more (∼2–4×) under cooler conditions in the wild relative to warm-acclimated or control moths. However, improvements in low temperature performance in cold-acclimated moths came at a cost to performance under warmer conditions. At high ambient temperatures, warm-acclimation improved field performance relative to control or cold-acclimated moths. Laboratory assessments of thermal activity and their limits matched the field results, indicating that these laboratory assays may be transferable to field performance. This study demonstrates clear costs and benefits of thermal acclimation on laboratory and field performance and the potential utility of thermal pretreatments for offsetting negative efficacy in SIR programmes under adverse thermal conditions. Consequently, the present work shows that evolutionary principles of phenotypic plasticity can be used to improve field performance and thus possibly enhance pest control programmes seeking increased efficacy. PMID:25568003

  13. Field damage of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) with reduced lignin levels by naturally occurring insect pests and pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mutant lines of sorghum with low levels of lignin are potentially useful for bioenergy production, but may have problems with insects or disease. Field grown normal and low lignin bmr6 and bmr12 sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) were examined for insect and disease damage in the field, and insect damage in ...

  14. Evaluation of Plant Introductions and Dry-Fleshed Sweetpotato Genotypes for Resistance to Soil Insect Pests, 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An insect-susceptible, orange-fleshed check cultivar (‘SC1149 19’), two insect-resistant check cultivars (‘Ruddy’ and ‘Sumor’), and 26 plant introductions (PI) from the National Plant Germplasm System, sweetpotato collection, Griffin, GA, were evaluated for insect resistance in replicated field tria...

  15. Agonists/Antagonists of the insect kinin and pyrokinin/PBAN neuropeptide classes as tools for rational pest control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The IK and PK/PBAN insect neuropeptide classes regulate critical aspects of water balance, digestion, reproduction, defense and development in insects. These neuropeptides are nonetheless subject to degradation by peptidases in the hemolymph and gut of insects and, for the most part, lack efficient ...

  16. Predictive Modeling of the Effects of Climate Change on the Infestation Patterns of a Migratory Crop Pest Insect.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate change is projected to expand the distribution of warm-climate agricultural pests with significant adverse economic consequences. Adapting U.S. agriculture to this emerging problem requires the timely monitoring of pest movements, an understanding of the meteorological factors that define mi...

  17. Improving the cost-effectiveness, trade and safety of biological control for agricultural insect pests using nuclear techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    If appropriately applied, biological control offers one of the most promising, environmentally sound, and sustainable control tactics for arthropod pests and weeds for application as part of an integrated pest management (IPM) approach. Public support for biological control as one of the preferred m...

  18. A Fungal Insecticide Engineered for Fast Per Os Killing of Caterpillars Has High Field Efficacy and Safety in Full-Season Control of Cabbage Insect Pests

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong-Jie; Liu, Jing; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Fungal insecticides developed from filamentous pathogens of insects are notorious for their slow killing action through cuticle penetration, depressing commercial interest and practical application. Genetic engineering may accelerate their killing action but cause ecological risk. Here we show that a Beauveria bassiana formulation, HV8 (BbHV8), engineered for fast per os killing of caterpillars by an insect midgut-acting toxin (Vip3Aa1) overexpressed in conidia has both high field efficacy and safety in full-season protection of cabbage from the damage of an insect pest complex dominated by Pieris rapae larvae, followed by Plutella xylostella larvae and aphids. In two fields repeatedly sprayed during summer, BbHV8 resulted in overall mean efficacies of killing of 71% and 75%, which were similar or close to the 70% and 83% efficacies achieved by commercially recommended emamectin benzoate but much higher than the 31% and 48% efficacies achieved by the same formulation of the parental wild-type strain (WT). Both BbHV8 and WT sprays exerted no adverse effect on a nontarget spider community during the trials, and the sprays did not influence saprophytic fungi in soil samples taken from the field plots during 4 months after the last spray. Strikingly, BbHV8 and the WT showed low fitness when they were released into the environment because both were decreasingly recovered from the field lacking native B. bassiana strains (undetectable 5 months after the spray), and the recovered isolates became much less tolerant to high temperature and UV-B irradiation. Our results highlight for the first time that a rationally engineered fungal insecticide can compete with a chemical counterpart to combat insect pests at an affordable cost and with low ecological risk. PMID:23956386

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF THE STERILE INSECT TECHNIQUE TO MANAGE AN INVASIVE INSECT PEST, CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM, ATTACKING PRICKLY PEAR CACTUS IN QUINTANA ROO, MEXICO, AND SOUTHEASTERN USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most successful classical biological control of weeds program has been the control of invasive prickly-pear cactus (Opuntia spp.) by the Argentine cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum. However, the moth has now become an invasive pest in the southeastern USA and its ability to dramatically control ...

  20. Evaluation of Plant Introductions and Dry-Fleshed Sweetpotato Genotypes for Resistance to Soil Insect Pests, 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two insect-susceptible, orange-fleshed check cultivars (‘Beauregard’ and ‘SC1149 19’), three insect-resistant check cultivars (‘Regal’, ‘Ruddy’ and ‘Sumor’), 21 dry-flesh genotypes from the USVL sweetpotato breeding program, and 12 other varieties and plant introductions (PI) obtained from the Natio...

  1. Effects of A Killed-Cover Crop Mulching System on Sweetpotato Production, Soil Pests, and Insect Predators in South Carolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., is typically grown bare soils where weeds and erosion can be problematic before plants become established. Conservation tillage systems for sweetpotato may help alleviate these problems. Therefore, one insect-resistant (‘Ruddy’) and two insect-susceptible (‘...

  2. Transcriptome and full-length cDNA resources for the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, a major insect pest of pine forests.

    PubMed

    Keeling, Christopher I; Henderson, Hannah; Li, Maria; Yuen, Mack; Clark, Erin L; Fraser, Jordie D; Huber, Dezene P W; Liao, Nancy Y; Docking, T Roderick; Birol, Inanc; Chan, Simon K; Taylor, Greg A; Palmquist, Diana; Jones, Steven J M; Bohlmann, Joerg

    2012-08-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are major insect pests of many woody plants around the world. The mountain pine beetle (MPB), Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a significant historical pest of western North American pine forests. It is currently devastating pine forests in western North America--particularly in British Columbia, Canada--and is beginning to expand its host range eastward into the Canadian boreal forest, which extends to the Atlantic coast of North America. Limited genomic resources are available for this and other bark beetle pests, restricting the use of genomics-based information to help monitor, predict, and manage the spread of these insects. To overcome these limitations, we generated comprehensive transcriptome resources from fourteen full-length enriched cDNA libraries through paired-end Sanger sequencing of 100,000 cDNA clones, and single-end Roche 454 pyrosequencing of three of these cDNA libraries. Hybrid de novo assembly of the 3.4 million sequences resulted in 20,571 isotigs in 14,410 isogroups and 246,848 singletons. In addition, over 2300 non-redundant full-length cDNA clones putatively containing complete open reading frames, including 47 cytochrome P450s, were sequenced fully to high quality. This first large-scale genomics resource for bark beetles provides the relevant sequence information for gene discovery; functional and population genomics; comparative analyses; and for future efforts to annotate the MPB genome. These resources permit the study of this beetle at the molecular level and will inform research in other Dendroctonus spp. and more generally in the Curculionidae and other Coleoptera. PMID:22516182

  3. Genetics and biology of Anastrepha fraterculus: research supporting the use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) to control this pest in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Cladera, Jorge L; Vilardi, Juan C; Juri, Marianela; Paulin, Laura E; Giardini, M Cecilia; Gómez Cendra, Paula V; Segura, Diego F; Lanzavecchia, Silvia B

    2014-01-01

    Two species of true fruit flies (taxonomic family Tephritidae) are considered pests of fruit and vegetable production in Argentina: the cosmopolitan Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) and the new world South American fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann). The distribution of these two species in Argentina overlaps north of the capital, Buenos Aires. Regarding the control of these two pests, the varied geographical fruit producing regions in Argentina are in different fly control situations. One part is under a programme using the sterile insect technique (SIT) for the eradication of C. capitata, because A. fraterculus is not present in this area. The application of the SIT to control C. capitata north of the present line with the possibility of A. fraterculus occupying the niche left vacant by C. capitata becomes a cause of much concern. Only initial steps have been taken to investigate the genetics and biology of A. fraterculus. Consequently, only fragmentary information has been recorded in the literature regarding the use of SIT to control this species. For these reasons, the research to develop a SIT protocol to control A. fraterculus is greatly needed. In recent years, research groups have been building a network in Argentina in order to address particular aspects of the development of the SIT for Anastrepha fraterculus. The problems being addressed by these groups include improvement of artificial diets, facilitation of insect mass rearing, radiation doses and conditions for insect sterilisation, basic knowledge supporting the development of males-only strains, reduction of male maturation time to facilitate releases, identification and isolation of chemical communication signals, and a good deal of population genetic studies. This paper is the product of a concerted effort to gather all this knowledge scattered in numerous and often hard-to-access reports and papers and summarize their basic conclusions in a single publication

  4. Genetics and biology of Anastrepha fraterculus: research supporting the use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) to control this pest in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Two species of true fruit flies (taxonomic family Tephritidae) are considered pests of fruit and vegetable production in Argentina: the cosmopolitan Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) and the new world South American fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann). The distribution of these two species in Argentina overlaps north of the capital, Buenos Aires. Regarding the control of these two pests, the varied geographical fruit producing regions in Argentina are in different fly control situations. One part is under a programme using the sterile insect technique (SIT) for the eradication of C. capitata, because A. fraterculus is not present in this area. The application of the SIT to control C. capitata north of the present line with the possibility of A. fraterculus occupying the niche left vacant by C. capitata becomes a cause of much concern. Only initial steps have been taken to investigate the genetics and biology of A. fraterculus. Consequently, only fragmentary information has been recorded in the literature regarding the use of SIT to control this species. For these reasons, the research to develop a SIT protocol to control A. fraterculus is greatly needed. In recent years, research groups have been building a network in Argentina in order to address particular aspects of the development of the SIT for Anastrepha fraterculus. The problems being addressed by these groups include improvement of artificial diets, facilitation of insect mass rearing, radiation doses and conditions for insect sterilisation, basic knowledge supporting the development of males-only strains, reduction of male maturation time to facilitate releases, identification and isolation of chemical communication signals, and a good deal of population genetic studies. This paper is the product of a concerted effort to gather all this knowledge scattered in numerous and often hard-to-access reports and papers and summarize their basic conclusions in a single publication

  5. Pest management with natural products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2012 Philadelphia ACS Symposium on Natural Products for Pest Management introduced recent discoveries and applications of natural products from insect, terrestrial plant, microbial, and synthetic sources for the management of insects, weeds, plant pathogenic microbes, and nematodes. The symposiu...

  6. Tritrophic interactions among Bt maize, an insect pest and entomopathogens: effects on development and survival of western corn rootworm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural systems often provide a model for testing ecological hypotheses, while ecological theory can enable more effective pest management. One of the best examples of this is the interaction between host-plant resistance and natural enemies. With the advent of crops that are genetically modifi...

  7. Second-Generation Sequencing Supply an Effective Way to Screen RNAi Targets in Large Scale for Potential Application in Pest Insect Control

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haichao; Miao, Xuexia

    2011-01-01

    The key of RNAi approach success for potential insect pest control is mainly dependent on careful target selection and a convenient delivery system. We adopted second-generation sequencing technology to screen RNAi targets. Illumina's RNA-seq and digital gene expression tag profile (DGE-tag) technologies were used to screen optimal RNAi targets from Ostrinia furnalalis. Total 14690 stage specific genes were obtained which can be considered as potential targets, and 47 were confirmed by qRT-PCR. Ten larval stage specific expression genes were selected for RNAi test. When 50 ng/µl dsRNAs of the genes DS10 and DS28 were directly sprayed on the newly hatched larvae which placed on the filter paper, the larval mortalities were around 40∼50%, while the dsRNAs of ten genes were sprayed on the larvae along with artificial diet, the mortalities reached 73% to 100% at 5 d after treatment. The qRT-PCR analysis verified the correlation between larval mortality and the down-regulation of the target gene expression. Topically applied fluorescent dsRNA confirmed that dsRNA did penetrate the body wall and circulate in the body cavity. It seems likely that the combination of DGE-tag with RNA-seq is a rapid, high-throughput, cost less and an easy way to select the candidate target genes for RNAi. More importantly, it demonstrated that dsRNAs are able to penetrate the integument and cause larval developmental stunt and/or death in a lepidopteron insect. This finding largely broadens the target selection for RNAi from just gut-specific genes to the targets in whole insects and may lead to new strategies for designing RNAi-based technology against insect damage. PMID:21494551

  8. Evaluation of Volvariella volvacea Strains for Yield and Diseases/Insect-Pests Resistance Using Composted Substrate of Paddy Straw and Cotton Mill Wastes.

    PubMed

    Ahlawat, O P; Singh, Rajender; Kumar, Satish

    2011-06-01

    Out of the 3 parent strains and 4 single spore isolates of Volvariella volvacea evaluated, strain, OE-274 gave earliest yield in 11.25-11.50 days post-spawning in all 4 trials. The yield varied in different strains in different trials and it was highest in strain, OE-272 in trial 1, SSI, OE-55-08 in trial 2, and strain, OE-274 in trial 3 and 4. In overall average, highest yield was in strain, OE-272, closely followed by strain, OE-274. The number of fruiting bodies per q substrate also varied in different strains in different trials. Highest numbers were in strain, OE-272, SSIs, OE-55-08 and OE-12-22, and strain, OE-210 in trial 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Highest fruiting body wt was in strain, OE-274 in all 4 trials. The yield during different weeks of cropping varied in different strains but invariably it was highest in first week, which accounted for 60-70% of the total yield. The fruiting bodies of strain, OE-274 were of bigger size, brownish, toughest and with least tendency of veil opening, while that of strain, OE-272 and SSI, OE-55-08 were whitish to grayish-white, oblong, medium size, delicate and lesser tendency of veil opening. The strain, OE-274 and SSI, OE-55-08 exhibited higher resistance against the growth of competitor moulds and infestations of insect-pests, while strain, OE-272 exhibited highest susceptibility to insect-pests infestation. PMID:22654165

  9. Development of an Amino Acid-Functionalized Fluorescent Nanocarrier to Deliver a Toxin to Kill Insect Pests.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yang; You, Shusen; Ji, Chendong; Yin, Meizhen; Yang, Wantai; Shen, Jie

    2016-02-17

    Large-scale cultivation of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) crops has led to the rapid development of drug resistance. Herein, a fluorescent star poly(amino acid) is synthesized with l-isoleucine functionalization for the efficient delivery of either positively or negatively charged exogenous proteins into live cells. Poly(amino acid)s (P1)/Cry1Ab complexes greatly increase the cytotoxicity of the Bt toxin, Cry1Ab, and efficiently kill Bt-resistant pests. PMID:26640174

  10. Stress for invasion success? Temperature stress of preceding generations modifies the response to insecticide stress in an invasive pest insect.

    PubMed

    Piiroinen, Saija; Lyytinen, Anne; Lindström, Leena

    2013-02-01

    Adaptation to stressful environments is one important factor influencing species invasion success. Tolerance to one stress may be complicated by exposure to other stressors experienced by the preceding generations. We studied whether parental temperature stress affects tolerance to insecticide in the invasive Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata. Field-collected pyrethroid-resistant beetles were reared under either stressful (17°C) or favourable (23°C) insecticide-free environments for three generations. Then, larvae were exposed to pyrethroid insecticides in common garden conditions (23°C). Beetles were in general tolerant to stress. The parental temperature stress alone affected beetles positively (increased adult weight) but it impaired their tolerance to insecticide exposure. In contrast, offspring from the favourable temperature regime showed compensatory weight gain in response to insecticide exposure. Our study emphasizes the potential of cross-generational effects modifying species stress tolerance. When resistant pest populations invade benign environments, a re-application of insecticides may enhance their performance via hormetic effects. In turn, opposite effects may arise if parental generations have been exposed to temperature stress. Thus, the outcome of management practices of invasive pest species is difficult to predict unless we also incorporate knowledge of the evolutionary and recent (preceding generations) stress history of the given populations into pest management. PMID:23467574

  11. The Transcriptome and Terpene Profile of Eucalyptus grandis Reveals Mechanisms of Defense Against the Insect Pest, Leptocybe invasa.

    PubMed

    Oates, Caryn N; Külheim, Carsten; Myburg, Alexander A; Slippers, Bernard; Naidoo, Sanushka

    2015-07-01

    Plants have evolved complex defenses that allow them to protect themselves against pests and pathogens. However, there is relatively little information regarding the Eucalyptus defensome. Leptocybe invasa is one of the most damaging pests in global Eucalyptus forestry, and essentially nothing is known regarding the molecular mechanisms governing the interaction between the pest and host. The aim of the study was to investigate changes in the transcriptional landscape and terpene profile of a resistant and susceptible Eucalyptus genotype in an effort to improve our understanding of this interaction. We used RNA-seqencing to investigate transcriptional changes following L. invasa oviposition. Expression levels were validated using real-time quantitative PCR. Terpene profiles were investigated using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectometry on uninfested and oviposited leaves. We found 698 and 1,115 significantly differentially expressed genes from the resistant and susceptible interactions, respectively. Gene Ontology enrichment and Mapman analyses identified putative defense mechanisms including cell wall reinforcement, protease inhibitors, cell cycle suppression and regulatory hormone signaling pathways. There were significant differences in the mono- and sesquiterpene profiles between genotypes and between control and infested material. A model of the interaction between Eucalyptus and L. invasa was proposed from the transcriptomic and chemical data. PMID:25948810

  12. Stress for invasion success? Temperature stress of preceding generations modifies the response to insecticide stress in an invasive pest insect

    PubMed Central

    Piiroinen, Saija; Lyytinen, Anne; Lindström, Leena

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation to stressful environments is one important factor influencing species invasion success. Tolerance to one stress may be complicated by exposure to other stressors experienced by the preceding generations. We studied whether parental temperature stress affects tolerance to insecticide in the invasive Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata. Field-collected pyrethroid-resistant beetles were reared under either stressful (17°C) or favourable (23°C) insecticide-free environments for three generations. Then, larvae were exposed to pyrethroid insecticides in common garden conditions (23°C). Beetles were in general tolerant to stress. The parental temperature stress alone affected beetles positively (increased adult weight) but it impaired their tolerance to insecticide exposure. In contrast, offspring from the favourable temperature regime showed compensatory weight gain in response to insecticide exposure. Our study emphasizes the potential of cross-generational effects modifying species stress tolerance. When resistant pest populations invade benign environments, a re-application of insecticides may enhance their performance via hormetic effects. In turn, opposite effects may arise if parental generations have been exposed to temperature stress. Thus, the outcome of management practices of invasive pest species is difficult to predict unless we also incorporate knowledge of the evolutionary and recent (preceding generations) stress history of the given populations into pest management. PMID:23467574

  13. Limited genetic exchanges between populations of an insect pest living on uncultivated and related cultivated host plants.

    PubMed

    Vialatte, Aude; Dedryver, Charles-Antoine; Simon, Jean-Christophe; Galman, Marina; Plantegenest, Manuel

    2005-05-22

    Habitats in agroecosystems are ephemeral, and are characterized by frequent disturbances forcing pest species to successively colonize various hosts belonging either to the cultivated or to the uncultivated part of the agricultural landscape. The role of wild habitats as reservoirs or refuges for the aphid Sitobion avenae that colonize cultivated fields was assessed by investigating the genetic structure of populations collected on both cereal crops (wheat, barley and oat) and uncultivated hosts (Yorkshire fog, cocksfoot, bulbous oatgrass and tall oatgrass) in western France. Classical genetic analyses and Bayesian clustering algorithms indicate that genetic differentiation is high between populations collected on uncultivated hosts and on crops, revealing a relatively limited gene flow between the uncultivated margins and the cultivated part of the agroecosystem. A closer genetic relatedness was observed between populations living on plants belonging to the same tribe (Triticeae, Poeae and Aveneae tribes) where aphid genotypes appeared not to be specialized on a single host, but rather using a group of related plant species. Causes of this ecological differentiation and its implications for integrated pest management of S. avenae as cereals pest are discussed. PMID:16024367

  14. Limited genetic exchanges between populations of an insect pest living on uncultivated and related cultivated host plants

    PubMed Central

    Vialatte, Aude; Dedryver, Charles-Antoine; Simon, Jean-Christophe; Galman, Marina; Plantegenest, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    Habitats in agroecosystems are ephemeral, and are characterized by frequent disturbances forcing pest species to successively colonize various hosts belonging either to the cultivated or to the uncultivated part of the agricultural landscape. The role of wild habitats as reservoirs or refuges for the aphid Sitobion avenae that colonize cultivated fields was assessed by investigating the genetic structure of populations collected on both cereal crops (wheat, barley and oat) and uncultivated hosts (Yorkshire fog, cocksfoot, bulbous oatgrass and tall oatgrass) in western France. Classical genetic analyses and Bayesian clustering algorithms indicate that genetic differentiation is high between populations collected on uncultivated hosts and on crops, revealing a relatively limited gene flow between the uncultivated margins and the cultivated part of the agroecosystem. A closer genetic relatedness was observed between populations living on plants belonging to the same tribe (Triticeae, Poeae and Aveneae tribes) where aphid genotypes appeared not to be specialized on a single host, but rather using a group of related plant species. Causes of this ecological differentiation and its implications for integrated pest management of S. avenae as cereals pest are discussed. PMID:16024367

  15. Post-mating interactions and their effects on fitness of female and male Echinothrips americanus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a new insect pest in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Wei; Jiang, Hong-Xue; Zhang, Xiao-Chen; Shelton, Anthony M; Feng, Ji-Nian

    2014-01-01

    Post-mating, sexual interactions of opposite sexes differ considerably in different organisms. Post-mating interactions such as re-mating behavior and male harassment can affect the fitness of both sexes. Echinothrips americanus is a new insect pest in Mainland China, and little is known about its post-mating interactions. In this study, we observed re-mating frequency and male harassment frequency and their effects on fitness parameters and offspring sex ratios of E. americanus females. Furthermore, we tested the impact of mating and post-mating interactions on fitness parameters of males. Our results revealed that the re-mating frequency in female adults was extremely low during a 30-day period. However, post-mating interactions between females and males, consisting mainly of male harassment and female resistance, did occur and significantly reduced female longevity and fecundity. Interestingly, increased access to males did not affect the ratio of female offspring. For males, mating dramatically reduced their longevity. However, post-mating interactions with females had no effects on the longevity of mated males. These results enrich our basic knowledge about female and male mating and post-mating behaviors in this species and provide important information about factors that may influence population regulation of this important pest species. PMID:24489956

  16. The broad-leaf herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid turns rice into a living trap for a major insect pest and a parasitic wasp.

    PubMed

    Xin, Zhaojun; Yu, Zhaonan; Erb, Matthias; Turlings, Ted C J; Wang, Baohui; Qi, Jinfeng; Liu, Shengning; Lou, Yonggen

    2012-04-01

    Synthetic chemical elicitors of plant defense have been touted as a powerful means for sustainable crop protection. Yet, they have never been successfully applied to control insect pests in the field. We developed a high-throughput chemical genetics screening system based on a herbivore-induced linalool synthase promoter fused to a β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter construct to test synthetic compounds for their potential to induce rice defenses. We identified 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), an auxin homolog and widely used herbicide in monocotyledonous crops, as a potent elicitor of rice defenses. Low doses of 2,4-D induced a strong defensive reaction upstream of the jasmonic acid and ethylene pathways, resulting in a marked increase in trypsin proteinase inhibitor activity and volatile production. Induced plants were more resistant to the striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis, but became highly attractive to the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens and its main egg parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae. In a field experiment, 2,4-D application turned rice plants into living traps for N. lugens by attracting parasitoids. Our findings demonstrate the potential of auxin homologs as defensive signals and show the potential of the herbicide to turn rice into a selective catch crop for an economically important pest. PMID:22313362

  17. Post-Mating Interactions and Their Effects on Fitness of Female and Male Echinothrips americanus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a New Insect Pest in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Wei; Jiang, Hong-Xue; Zhang, Xiao-Chen; Shelton, Anthony M.; Feng, Ji-Nian

    2014-01-01

    Post-mating, sexual interactions of opposite sexes differ considerably in different organisms. Post-mating interactions such as re-mating behavior and male harassment can affect the fitness of both sexes. Echinothrips americanus is a new insect pest in Mainland China, and little is known about its post-mating interactions. In this study, we observed re-mating frequency and male harassment frequency and their effects on fitness parameters and offspring sex ratios of E. americanus females. Furthermore, we tested the impact of mating and post-mating interactions on fitness parameters of males. Our results revealed that the re-mating frequency in female adults was extremely low during a 30-day period. However, post-mating interactions between females and males, consisting mainly of male harassment and female resistance, did occur and significantly reduced female longevity and fecundity. Interestingly, increased access to males did not affect the ratio of female offspring. For males, mating dramatically reduced their longevity. However, post-mating interactions with females had no effects on the longevity of mated males. These results enrich our basic knowledge about female and male mating and post-mating behaviors in this species and provide important information about factors that may influence population regulation of this important pest species. PMID:24489956

  18. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 7A: General and Household Pest Control. CS-19. Category 7B: Termite Control, CS-20. Category 7C: Food Industry Pest Control, CS-21. Category 7D: Community Insect Control, CS-22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockdale, Harold J., Ed.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The first section discusses general and household pest control and is concerned with parasitic pests and man, stored product pests, and irritating vertebrates. Section two is devoted to identifying and controlling structural pests such…

  19. Fusion proteins containing insect-specific toxins as pest control agents: snowdrop lectin delivers fused insecticidal spider venom toxin to insect haemolymph following oral ingestion.

    PubMed

    Fitches, Elaine; Edwards, Martin G; Mee, Christopher; Grishin, Eugene; Gatehouse, Angharad M R; Edwards, John P; Gatehouse, John A

    2004-01-01

    The mannose-specific snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin: GNA), when fed to insects, binds to the gut epithelium and passes into the haemolymph. The ability of GNA to act as a carrier protein to deliver an insecticidal spider venom neurotoxin (Segestria florentina toxin 1: SFI1) to the haemolymph of lepidopteran larvae was investigated. Constructs encoding SFI1 and an SFI1/GNA fusion protein were expressed in Pichia pastoris. The insecticidal activity of purified recombinant proteins on injection was found to be comparable to published values for SfI1 purified from spider venom [Toxicon 40 (2002) 125]. Whereas neither GNA nor SFI1 alone showed acute toxicity when fed to larvae of tomato moth (Lacanobia oleracea), feeding SFI1/GNA fusion at 2.5% of dietary proteins was insecticidal to first stadium larvae, causing 100% mortality after 6 days. The protein also showed a significant, dose dependent, toxicity towards fourth and fifth stadium larvae, with growth reduced by up to approximately 90% over a 4-day assay period compared to controls. Delivery of intact SFI1/GNA to the haemolymph in these insects was shown by western blotting; haemolymph samples from fusion-fed larvae contained a GNA-immunoreactive protein of the same molecular weight as the SFI1/GNA fusion. SFI1/GNA and similar fusion proteins offer a novel and effective approach for delivering haemolymph active toxins by oral administration, which could be used in crop protection by expression in transgenic plants. PMID:15037094

  20. Climate change and voltinism in Californian insect pest species: sensitivity to location, scenario and climate model choice.

    PubMed

    Ziter, Carly; Robinson, Emily A; Newman, Jonathan A

    2012-09-01

    Experimental studies of the impact of climatic change are hampered by their inability to consider multiple climate change scenarios and indeed often consider no more than simple climate sensitivity such as a uniform increase in temperature. Modelling efforts offer the ability to consider a much wider range of realistic climate projections and are therefore useful, in particular, for estimating the sensitivity of impact predictions to differences in geographical location, and choice of climate change scenario and climate model projections. In this study, we used well-established degree-day models to predict the voltinism of 13 agronomically important pests in California, USA. We ran these models using the projections from three Atmosphere-Ocean Coupled Global Circulation Models (AOCGCMs or GCMs), in conjunction with the SRES scenarios. We ran these for two locations representing northern and southern California. We did this for both the 2050s and 2090s. We used anova to partition the variation in the resulting voltinism among time period, climate change scenario, GCM and geographical location. For these 13 pest species, the choice of climate model explained an average of 42% of the total variation in voltinism, far more than did geographical location (33%), time period (17%) or scenario (1%). The remaining 7% of the variation was explained by various interactions, of which the location by GCM interaction was the strongest (5%). Regardless of these sources of uncertainty, a robust conclusion from our work is that all 13 pest species are likely to experience increases in the number of generations that they complete each year. Such increased voltinism is likely to have significant consequences for crop protection and production. PMID:24501055

  1. Vegetable Crop Pests. MEP 311.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantzes, James G.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of vegetable crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects, weeds, and diseases.…

  2. Fruit Crop Pests. MEP 312.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Leslie O.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of fruit crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects, weeds, and diseases. Also in…

  3. Supplemental control of lepidopterous pests on BT transgenic sweet corn with biologically based spray treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biologically based spray treatments, including nucleopolyhedroviruses, neem, and spinosad, were evaluated as supplemental controls for the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), on transgenic sweet corn, Zea mays (L.), expressing a Cry1Ab toxi...

  4. Impact of Regulatory Decisions on Emerging Pest Control Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pest control research is an enormously broad field. Pests can be segregated into broad biological categories such as rodents, insects, nematodes, weeds, fungi, bacteria. Pests can be categorized by the product or environment in which the pest occurs such as crop pests, stored product pests, forest p...

  5. Book Review: Insect Virology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Viruses that infect insects have long been of interest both as a means for controlling insect pest populations in an environmentally safe manner, and also as significant threats to beneficial insects of great value, such as honey bees and silkworms. Insect viruses also have been of intrinsic intere...

  6. Thermal Tolerance of the Coffee Berry Borer Hypothenemus hampei: Predictions of Climate Change Impact on a Tropical Insect Pest

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Chabi-Olaye, Adenirin; Kamonjo, Charles; Jaramillo, Alvaro; Vega, Fernando E.; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Borgemeister, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Coffee is predicted to be severely affected by climate change. We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer , Hypothenemus hampei, the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. For this, the effect of eight temperature regimes (15, 20, 23, 25, 27, 30, 33 and 35°C) on the bionomics of H. hampei was studied. Successful egg to adult development occurred between 20–30°C. Using linear regression and a modified Logan model, the lower and upper thresholds for development were estimated at 14.9 and 32°C, respectively. In Kenya and Colombia, the number of pest generations per year was considerably and positively correlated with the warming tolerance. Analysing 32 years of climatic data from Jimma (Ethiopia) revealed that before 1984 it was too cold for H. hampei to complete even one generation per year, but thereafter, because of rising temperatures in the area, 1–2 generations per year/coffee season could be completed. Calculated data on warming tolerance and thermal safety margins of H. hampei for the three East African locations showed considerably high variability compared to the Colombian site. The model indicates that for every 1°C rise in thermal optimum (Topt.), the maximum intrinsic rate of increase (rmax) will increase by an average of 8.5%. The effects of climate change on the further range of H. hampei distribution and possible adaption strategies are discussed. Abstracts in Spanish and French are provided as supplementary material Abstract S1 and Abstract S2. PMID:19649255

  7. Agriculture and the promotion of insect pests: rice cultivation in river floodplains and malaria vectors in The Gambia

    PubMed Central

    Jarju, Lamin BS; Fillinger, Ulrike; Green, Clare; Louca, Vasilis; Majambere, Silas; Lindsay, Steven W

    2009-01-01

    Background Anthropogenic modification of natural habitats can create conditions in which pest species associated with humans can thrive. In order to mitigate for these changes, it is necessary to determine which aspects of human management are associated with the promotion of those pests. Anopheles gambiae, the main Africa malaria vector, often breeds in rice fields. Here the impact of the ancient practice of 'swamp rice' cultivation, on the floodplains of the Gambia River, on the production of anopheline mosquitoes was investigated. Methods Routine surveys were carried out along 500 m transects crossing rice fields from the landward edge of the floodplains to the river during the 2006 rainy season. Aquatic invertebrates were sampled using area samplers and emergence traps and fish sampled using nets. Semi-field experiments were used to investigate whether nutrients used for swamp rice cultivation affected mosquito larval abundance. Results At the beginning of the rainy season rice is grown on the landward edge of the floodplain; the first area to flood with fresh water and one rich in cattle dung. Later, rice plants are transplanted close to the river, the last area to dry out on the floodplain. Nearly all larval and adult stages of malaria vectors were collected 0–100 m from the landward edge of the floodplains, where immature rice plants were grown. These paddies contained stagnant freshwater with high quantities of cattle faeces. Semi-field studies demonstrated that cattle faeces nearly doubled the number of anopheline larvae compared with untreated water. Conclusion Swamp rice cultivation creates ideal breeding sites for malaria vectors. However, only those close to the landward edge harboured vectors. These sites were productive since they were large areas of standing freshwater, rich in nutrients, protected from fish, and situated close to human habitation, where egg-laying mosquitoes from the villages had short distances to fly. The traditional practice

  8. Investigation of larvae digestive β-glucosidase and proteases of the tomato pest Tuta absoluta for inhibiting the insect development.

    PubMed

    Sellami, S; Jamoussi, K

    2016-06-01

    The tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta is one of the most devastating pests for tomato crops. Digestive proteases and β-glucosidase enzymes were investigated using general and specific substrates and inhibitors. Maximal β-glucosidase and proteolytic activities occurred at temperature and pH optima of 30 and 40°C, 5 and 10-11 unit of pH, respectively. Zymogram analysis showed the presence of distinguished β-glucosidase exhibiting a specific activity of about 183 ± 15 µmol min-1 mg-1. In vitro inhibition experiments suggested that serine proteases were the primary gut proteases. Gel based protease inhibition assays demonstrated that the 28 and 73 kDa proteases might be trypsin-like and chymotrypsin-like enzymes, respectively. Overall gut trypsin-like and chymotrypsin-like activities were evaluated to be about 27.2 ± 0.84 and 1.68 ± 0.03 µmol min-1 mg-1, respectively. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed that T. absoluta gut serine proteases are responsible for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry insecticidal proteins proteolysis. Additionally, bioassays showed that T. absoluta larvae development was more affected by the β-glucosidases inhibitor (D-glucono-δ-lactone) than the serine proteases inhibitor (soybean trypsin inhibitor). These results are of basic interest since they present interesting data of β-glucosidases and gut serine proteases of T. absoluta larvae. PMID:26898349

  9. Future Fitness of Female Insect Pests in Temporally Stable and Unstable Habitats and Its Impact on Habitat Utility as Refuges for Insect Resistance Management

    PubMed Central

    Caprio, Michael A.; Parker, C. D.; Schneider, John C.

    2009-01-01

    The long-term fitness of individuals is examined in complex and temporally dynamic ecosystems. We call this multigeneration fitness measure “future fitness”. Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a polyphagous insect that feeds on many wild and cultivated hosts. While four generations of H. zea occur during the cropping season in the U.S. Mid Southern agroecosysem, the latter two generations were of most interest, as corn (which has been largely nontransgenic in the Mid-South) dominates the first two generations in the cropping system. In simulations of the evolution of resistance to Bt-transgenic crops, cotton refuge areas were found to be significantly more effective than similar soybean acreages at delaying the evolution of resistance. Cotton is a suitable host for H. zea during two late summer generations, while a soybean field is suitable for only one of these generations, therefore soybean fields of other maturity groups were simulated as being attractive during the alternative generation. A hypothetical soybean variety was tested in which a single field would be attractive over both generations and it was found to be significantly more effective at delaying resistance than simulated conventional soybean varieties. Finally, the placement of individuals emerging at the start of the 3rd (first without corn) generation was simulated in either refuge cotton, conventional soybean and the hypothetical long attractive soybean and the mean number of offspring produced was measured at the end of the season. Although females in conventional and long soybean crops had the same expected fecundity, because of differences in temporal stability of the two crops, the long soybean simulations had significantly more H. zea individuals at the end of the season than the conventional soybean simulations. These simulations demonstrate that the long-term fecundity associated with an individual is dependent not only on the fecundity of that individual in its

  10. Electrostatic Insect Sweeper for Eliminating Whiteflies Colonizing Host Plants: A Complementary Pest Control Device in An Electric Field Screen-Guarded Greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Takikawa, Yoshihiro; Matsuda, Yoshinori; Kakutani, Koji; Nonomura, Teruo; Kusakari, Shin-Ichi; Okada, Kiyotsugu; Kimbara, Junji; Osamura, Kazumi; Toyoda, Hideyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Our greenhouse tomatoes have suffered from attacks by viruliferous whiteflies Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) over the last 10 years. The fundamental countermeasure was the application of an electric field screen to the greenhouse windows to prevent their entry. However, while the protection was effective, it was incomplete, because of the lack of a guard at the greenhouse entrance area; in fact, the pests entered from the entrance door when workers entered and exited. To address this, we developed a portable electrostatic insect sweeper as a supplementary technique to the screen. In this sweeper, eight insulated conductor wires (ICWs) were arranged at constant intervals along a polyvinylchloride (PVC) pipe and covered with a cylindrical stainless net. The ICWs and metal net were linked to a DC voltage generator (operated by 3-V alkaline batteries) inside the grip and oppositely electrified to generate an electric field between them. Whiteflies on the plants were attracted to the sweeper that was gently slid along the leaves. This apparatus was easy to operate on-site in a greenhouse and enabled capture of the whiteflies detected during the routine care of the tomato plants. Using this apparatus, we caught all whiteflies that invaded the non-guarded entrance door and minimized the appearance and spread of the viral disease in tomato plants in the greenhouse. PMID:26463195

  11. Electrostatic Insect Sweeper for Eliminating Whiteflies Colonizing Host Plants: A Complementary Pest Control Device in An Electric Field Screen-Guarded Greenhouse

    PubMed Central

    Takikawa, Yoshihiro; Matsuda, Yoshinori; Kakutani, Koji; Nonomura, Teruo; Kusakari, Shin-ichi; Okada, Kiyotsugu; Kimbara, Junji; Osamura, Kazumi; Toyoda, Hideyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Our greenhouse tomatoes have suffered from attacks by viruliferous whiteflies Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) over the last 10 years. The fundamental countermeasure was the application of an electric field screen to the greenhouse windows to prevent their entry. However, while the protection was effective, it was incomplete, because of the lack of a guard at the greenhouse entrance area; in fact, the pests entered from the entrance door when workers entered and exited. To address this, we developed a portable electrostatic insect sweeper as a supplementary technique to the screen. In this sweeper, eight insulated conductor wires (ICWs) were arranged at constant intervals along a polyvinylchloride (PVC) pipe and covered with a cylindrical stainless net. The ICWs and metal net were linked to a DC voltage generator (operated by 3-V alkaline batteries) inside the grip and oppositely electrified to generate an electric field between them. Whiteflies on the plants were attracted to the sweeper that was gently slid along the leaves. This apparatus was easy to operate on-site in a greenhouse and enabled capture of the whiteflies detected during the routine care of the tomato plants. Using this apparatus, we caught all whiteflies that invaded the non-guarded entrance door and minimized the appearance and spread of the viral disease in tomato plants in the greenhouse. PMID:26463195

  12. Diffusion models: Still promoting progresses. Comments on “Multiscale approach to pest insect monitoring: Random walks, pattern formation, synchronization and networks” by S. Petrovskii, N. Petrovskaya and D. Bearup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Luiz Alberto D.

    2014-09-01

    The review [6] by Sergei Petrovskii, Natalia Petrovskaya and Daniel Bearup provides a comprehensive description of pest insect monitoring methods at different scales of observation. Each scale has different interpretation in the monitoring problem and requires its own mathematical tools. In fact, the importance of scales has widely been recognized in ecology [2-4]. Hence, the authors' approach to the problem from the perspective of different scales is one the features that makes this review article so interesting.

  13. Functional interpretation of a non-gut hemocoelic tissue aminopeptidase N (APN) in a lepidopteran insect pest Achaea janata.

    PubMed

    Ningshen, Thuirei Jacob; Aparoy, Polamarasetty; Ventaku, Venkat Rao; Dutta-Gupta, Aparna

    2013-01-01

    Insect midgut membrane-anchored aminopeptidases N (APNs) are Zn(++) dependent metalloproteases. Their primary role in dietary protein digestion and also as receptors in Cry toxin-induced pathogenesis is well documented. APN expression in few non-gut hemocoelic tissues of lepidopteran insects has also been reported but their functions are widely unknown. In the present study, we observed specific in vitro interaction of Cry1Aa toxin with a 113 kDa AjAPN1 membrane protein of larval fat body, Malpighian tubule and salivary gland of Achaea janata. Analyses of 3D molecular structure of AjAPN1, the predominantly expressed APN isoform in these non-gut hemocoelic tissues of A. janata showed high structural similarity to the Cry1Aa toxin binding midgut APN of Bombyx mori, especially in the toxin binding region. Structural similarity was further substantiated by in vitro binding of Cry1Aa toxin. RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in significant down-regulation of AjAPN1 transcript and protein expression in fat body and Malpighian tubule but not in salivary gland. Consequently, reduced AjAPN1 expression resulted in larval mortality, larval growth arrest, development of lethal larval-pupal intermediates, development of smaller pupae and emergence of viable defective adults. In vitro Cry1Aa toxin binding analysis of non-gut hemocoelic tissues of AjAPN1 knockdown larvae showed reduced interaction of Cry1Aa toxin with the 113 kDa AjAPN1 protein, correlating well with the significant silencing of AjAPN1 expression. Thus, our observations suggest AjAPN1 expression in non-gut hemocoelic tissues to play important physiological role(s) during post-embryonic development of A. janata. Though specific interaction of Cry1Aa toxin with AjAPN1 of non-gut hemocoelic tissues of A. janata was demonstrated, evidences to prove its functional role as a Cry1Aa toxin receptor will require more in-depth investigation. PMID:24244508

  14. Functional Interpretation of a Non-Gut Hemocoelic Tissue Aminopeptidase N (APN) in a Lepidopteran Insect Pest Achaea janata

    PubMed Central

    Ningshen, Thuirei Jacob; Aparoy, Polamarasetty; Ventaku, Venkat Rao; Dutta-Gupta, Aparna

    2013-01-01

    Insect midgut membrane-anchored aminopeptidases N (APNs) are Zn++ dependent metalloproteases. Their primary role in dietary protein digestion and also as receptors in Cry toxin-induced pathogenesis is well documented. APN expression in few non-gut hemocoelic tissues of lepidopteran insects has also been reported but their functions are widely unknown. In the present study, we observed specific in vitro interaction of Cry1Aa toxin with a 113 kDa AjAPN1 membrane protein of larval fat body, Malpighian tubule and salivary gland of Achaea janata. Analyses of 3D molecular structure of AjAPN1, the predominantly expressed APN isoform in these non-gut hemocoelic tissues of A. janata showed high structural similarity to the Cry1Aa toxin binding midgut APN of Bombyx mori, especially in the toxin binding region. Structural similarity was further substantiated by in vitro binding of Cry1Aa toxin. RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in significant down-regulation of AjAPN1 transcript and protein expression in fat body and Malpighian tubule but not in salivary gland. Consequently, reduced AjAPN1 expression resulted in larval mortality, larval growth arrest, development of lethal larval-pupal intermediates, development of smaller pupae and emergence of viable defective adults. In vitro Cry1Aa toxin binding analysis of non-gut hemocoelic tissues of AjAPN1 knockdown larvae showed reduced interaction of Cry1Aa toxin with the 113 kDa AjAPN1 protein, correlating well with the significant silencing of AjAPN1 expression. Thus, our observations suggest AjAPN1 expression in non-gut hemocoelic tissues to play important physiological role(s) during post-embryonic development of A. janata. Though specific interaction of Cry1Aa toxin with AjAPN1 of non-gut hemocoelic tissues of A. janata was demonstrated, evidences to prove its functional role as a Cry1Aa toxin receptor will require more in-depth investigation. PMID:24244508

  15. Identifying a Potential Trap Crop for a Novel Insect Pest, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), in Organic Farms.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Anne L; Dively, Galen; Pote, John M; Zinati, Gladis; Mathews, Clarissa

    2016-04-01

    The invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, poses significant risk to organic farming systems because they rely on biological control, nonsynthetic inputs, and cultural tactics for pest management. This study evaluated the potential of five crop plants (sorghum, admiral pea, millet, okra, and sunflower) to be used as trap crops under organic production in four mid-Atlantic states. Stink bug (H. halys and endemic species) densities and host plant phenologies were recorded weekly (mid-June through September). Sorghum attracted significantly more H. halys than the other crops evaluated, followed by sunflower and okra. Seasonal average H. halys density was 1.5-4× higher on sorghum than the other crops (P < 0.05), depending on site. Endemic stink bugs were equally attracted to all crops except admiral pea. A significant effect of time was detected (P < 0.0001), with H. halys densities initially higher on sunflower; as the sunflower senesced, sorghum supported significantly higher average H. halys densities. While sunflower and sorghum phenologies differed, these crops together provided a 5-wk attraction period coinciding with peak H. halys activity. The efficacies of pheromone-baited traps, flaming, applying OMRI-approved insecticides (Azera and Venerate), and vacuuming to removing stink bugs were evaluated as a management tactic. Flaming was the most effective treatment against H. halys and endemic stink bugs. Our results suggest that a trap crop composed of sorghum and sunflower may be an effective management tool for the mid-Atlantic stink bug complex, including H. halys. Future research should address the appropriate size and placement of trap crop within the farm. PMID:26916518

  16. Acoustic indicators for targeted detection of stored product and urban insect pests by inexpensive infrared, acoustic, and virbrational detection of movement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crawling or running, scraping or shuffling, and wriggling activity of three stored-product pests, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), and Stegobium paniceum (L.) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae), and two urban pests, Blattella germanic...

  17. Parasitism of Lepidopterous Stem Borers in Cultivated and Natural Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Mailafiya, Duna Madu; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre; Kairu, Eunice Waitherero; Dupas, Stéphane; Calatayud, Paul-André

    2011-01-01

    Plant infestation, stem borer density, parasitism, and parasitoid abundance were assessed during two years in two host plants, Zea mays (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae) and Sorghum bicolor (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae), in cultivated habitats. The four major host plants (Cyperus spp., Panicum spp., Pennisetum spp., and Sorghum spp.) found in natural habitats were also assessed, and both the cultivated and natural habitat species occurred in four agroecological zones in Kenya. Across habitats, plant infestation (23.2%), stem borer density (2.2 per plant), and larval parasitism (15.0%) were highest in maize in cultivated habitats. Pupal parasitism was not higher than 4.7% in both habitats, and did not vary with locality during each season or with host plant between each season. Cotesia sesamiae (Cameron) and C. flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were the key parasitoids in cultivated habitats (both species accounted for 76.4% of parasitized stem borers in cereal crops), but not in natural habitats (the two Cotesia species accounted for 14.5% of parasitized stem borers in wild host plants). No single parasitoid species exerted high parasitism rates on stem borer populations in wild host plants. Low stem borer densities across seasons in natural habitats indicate that cereal stem borer pests do not necessarily survive the non-cropping season feeding actively in wild host plants. Although natural habitats provided refuges for some parasitoid species, stem borer parasitism was generally low in wild host plants. Overall, because parasitoids contribute little in reducing cereal stem borer pest populations in cultivated habitats, there is need to further enhance their effectiveness in the field to regulate these pests. PMID:21526933

  18. Parasitism of lepidopterous stem borers in cultivated and natural habitats.

    PubMed

    Mailafiya, Duna Madu; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre; Kairu, Eunice Waitherero; Dupas, Stéphane; Calatayud, Paul-André

    2011-01-01

    Plant infestation, stem borer density, parasitism, and parasitoid abundance were assessed during two years in two host plants, Zea mays (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae) and Sorghum bicolor (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae), in cultivated habitats. The four major host plants (Cyperus spp., Panicum spp., Pennisetum spp., and Sorghum spp.) found in natural habitats were also assessed, and both the cultivated and natural habitat species occurred in four agroecological zones in Kenya. Across habitats, plant infestation (23.2%), stem borer density (2.2 per plant), and larval parasitism (15.0%) were highest in maize in cultivated habitats. Pupal parasitism was not higher than 4.7% in both habitats, and did not vary with locality during each season or with host plant between each season. Cotesia sesamiae (Cameron) and C. flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were the key parasitoids in cultivated habitats (both species accounted for 76.4% of parasitized stem borers in cereal crops), but not in natural habitats (the two Cotesia species accounted for 14.5% of parasitized stem borers in wild host plants). No single parasitoid species exerted high parasitism rates on stem borer populations in wild host plants. Low stem borer densities across seasons in natural habitats indicate that cereal stem borer pests do not necessarily survive the non-cropping season feeding actively in wild host plants. Although natural habitats provided refuges for some parasitoid species, stem borer parasitism was generally low in wild host plants. Overall, because parasitoids contribute little in reducing cereal stem borer pest populations in cultivated habitats, there is need to further enhance their effectiveness in the field to regulate these pests. PMID:21526933

  19. Industrial and Institutional Pest Control. Sale Publication 4073.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide gives information needed to meet Environmental Protection Agency standards on industrial and institutional pest control, and to help prepare for certification. It gives descriptions and pictures of general insect pests, parasitic pests of man, occasional invaders, wood-destroying pests, stored product pests, vertebrates, and weeds. The…

  20. Genome-wide transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of bollworm-infested developing cotton bolls revealed the genes and pathways involved in the insect pest defence mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Saravanan; Kanakachari, Mogilicherla; Gurusamy, Dhandapani; Kumar, Krishan; Narayanasamy, Prabhakaran; Kethireddy Venkata, Padmalatha; Solanke, Amolkumar; Gamanagatti, Savita; Hiremath, Vamadevaiah; Katageri, Ishwarappa S; Leelavathi, Sadhu; Kumar, Polumetla Ananda; Reddy, Vanga Siva

    2016-06-01

    Cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, is a major insect pest that feeds on cotton bolls causing extensive damage leading to crop and productivity loss. In spite of such a major impact, cotton plant response to bollworm infection is yet to be witnessed. In this context, we have studied the genome-wide response of cotton bolls infested with bollworm using transcriptomic and proteomic approaches. Further, we have validated this data using semi-quantitative real-time PCR. Comparative analyses have revealed that 39% of the transcriptome and 35% of the proteome were differentially regulated during bollworm infestation. Around 36% of significantly regulated transcripts and 45% of differentially expressed proteins were found to be involved in signalling followed by redox regulation. Further analysis showed that defence-related stress hormones and their lipid precursors, transcription factors, signalling molecules, etc. were stimulated, whereas the growth-related counterparts were suppressed during bollworm infestation. Around 26% of the significantly up-regulated proteins were defence molecules, while >50% of the significantly down-regulated were related to photosynthesis and growth. Interestingly, the biosynthesis genes for synergistically regulated jasmonate, ethylene and suppressors of the antagonistic factor salicylate were found to be up-regulated, suggesting a choice among stress-responsive phytohormone regulation. Manual curation of the enzymes and TFs highlighted the components of retrograde signalling pathways. Our data suggest that a selective regulatory mechanism directs the reallocation of metabolic resources favouring defence over growth under bollworm infestation and these insights could be exploited to develop bollworm-resistant cotton varieties. PMID:26799171

  1. Forest Pest Control. Manual 94.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in forest pest control. The text discusses disease problems, insects, and herbicide use in both established forests and nurseries. (CS)

  2. Biorational pesticides for pecan pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Key pecan insect pests include pecan aphid complex (such as the black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae) and pecan weevil, Curculio caryae. Alternative control tactics are needed for management of these pests in organic and conventional systems. Our objective was to determine the potential ut...

  3. Pest control in postharvest nuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter discusses the impact of insect infestations on the quality of postharvest nuts. The chapter first reviews the biology of key field pests that may be found in harvested nuts, and pests found in nut storage and processing facilities. The chapter then reviews current and developing control...

  4. Population Explosions of Tiger Moth Lead to Lepidopterism Mimicking Infectious Fever Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Wills, Pallara Janardhanan; Anjana, Mohan; Nitin, Mohan; Varun, Raghuveeran; Sachidanandan, Parayil; Jacob, Tharaniyil Mani; Lilly, Madhavan; Thampan, Raghava Varman; Karthikeya Varma, Koyikkal

    2016-01-01

    Lepidopterism is a disease caused by the urticating scales and toxic fluids of adult moths, butterflies or its caterpillars. The resulting cutaneous eruptions and systemic problems progress to clinical complications sometimes leading to death. High incidence of fever epidemics were associated with massive outbreaks of tiger moth Asota caricae adult populations during monsoon in Kerala, India. A significant number of monsoon related fever characteristic to lepidopterism was erroneously treated as infectious fevers due to lookalike symptoms. To diagnose tiger moth lepidopterism, we conducted immunoblots for tiger moth specific IgE in fever patients’ sera. We selected a cohort of patients (n = 155) with hallmark symptoms of infectious fevers but were tested negative to infectious fevers. In these cases, the total IgE was elevated and was detected positive (78.6%) for tiger moth specific IgE allergens. Chemical characterization of caterpillar and adult moth fluids was performed by HPLC and GC-MS analysis and structural identification of moth scales was performed by SEM analysis. The body fluids and chitinous scales were found to be highly toxic and inflammatory in nature. To replicate the disease in experimental model, wistar rats were exposed to live tiger moths in a dose dependant manner and observed similar clinico-pathological complications reported during the fever epidemics. Further, to link larval abundance and fever epidemics we conducted cointegration test for the period 2009 to 2012 and physical presence of the tiger moths were found to be cointegrated with fever epidemics. In conclusion, our experiments demonstrate that inhalation of aerosols containing tiger moth fluids, scales and hairs cause systemic reactions that can be fatal to human. All these evidences points to the possible involvement of tiger moth disease as a major cause to the massive and fatal fever epidemics observed in Kerala. PMID:27073878

  5. Population Explosions of Tiger Moth Lead to Lepidopterism Mimicking Infectious Fever Outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Wills, Pallara Janardhanan; Anjana, Mohan; Nitin, Mohan; Varun, Raghuveeran; Sachidanandan, Parayil; Jacob, Tharaniyil Mani; Lilly, Madhavan; Thampan, Raghava Varman; Karthikeya Varma, Koyikkal

    2016-01-01

    Lepidopterism is a disease caused by the urticating scales and toxic fluids of adult moths, butterflies or its caterpillars. The resulting cutaneous eruptions and systemic problems progress to clinical complications sometimes leading to death. High incidence of fever epidemics were associated with massive outbreaks of tiger moth Asota caricae adult populations during monsoon in Kerala, India. A significant number of monsoon related fever characteristic to lepidopterism was erroneously treated as infectious fevers due to lookalike symptoms. To diagnose tiger moth lepidopterism, we conducted immunoblots for tiger moth specific IgE in fever patients' sera. We selected a cohort of patients (n = 155) with hallmark symptoms of infectious fevers but were tested negative to infectious fevers. In these cases, the total IgE was elevated and was detected positive (78.6%) for tiger moth specific IgE allergens. Chemical characterization of caterpillar and adult moth fluids was performed by HPLC and GC-MS analysis and structural identification of moth scales was performed by SEM analysis. The body fluids and chitinous scales were found to be highly toxic and inflammatory in nature. To replicate the disease in experimental model, wistar rats were exposed to live tiger moths in a dose dependant manner and observed similar clinico-pathological complications reported during the fever epidemics. Further, to link larval abundance and fever epidemics we conducted cointegration test for the period 2009 to 2012 and physical presence of the tiger moths were found to be cointegrated with fever epidemics. In conclusion, our experiments demonstrate that inhalation of aerosols containing tiger moth fluids, scales and hairs cause systemic reactions that can be fatal to human. All these evidences points to the possible involvement of tiger moth disease as a major cause to the massive and fatal fever epidemics observed in Kerala. PMID:27073878

  6. Beneficial Insects and Insect Pollinators on Milkweed in South Georgia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect pollinators are essential for the reproduction of more than two-thirds of the world’s crops, and beneficial insects play an important role in managing pest insects in agricultural farmscapes. These insects depend on nectar for their survival in these farmscapes. The flowers of tropical milkwe...

  7. Agricultural Plant Pest Control. Manual 93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides for the agricultural plant pest control category. The text discusses the insect pests including caterpillars, beetles, and soil inhabiting insects; diseases and nematodes; and weeds. Consideration is given…

  8. Ornamental and Turf Pest Control. Bulletin 764.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowyer, Timothy H.; And Others

    This manual gives descriptions of and methods for control of diseases and insect pests of ornamental plants, weeds, and diseases and insect pests of turf plants. Included are diseases caused by fungi such as cankers, leaf galls, and rust; diseases caused by bacteria such as bacterial blight and crown gall; and diseases caused by nematodes and…

  9. Agricultural Plant Pest Control. Bulletin 763.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, John C.; And Others

    This manual gives general information on plant pests and pesticides. First, the life-cycle and habits of some common insect pests are given. These include caterpillars, beetles and beetle larvae, and sucking insects. Next, plant diseases such as leaf diseases, wilts, root and crown rots, stem cankers, fruit rots, seed and seedling diseases, and…

  10. Pests in Ornamental Grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ornamental perennial grasses are becoming increasingly popular in the landscape due to their beauty and ease of care. Although few pest problems are encountered in ornamental grasses, they are not immune to insects and disease. Two lined spittlebugs (Prosapia bicincta) can cause damage to ornament...

  11. The role of wild grasses in the management of lepidopterous stem-borers on maize in the humid tropics of western Africa.

    PubMed

    Ndemah, R; Gounou, S; Schulthess, F

    2002-12-01

    Sites in the humid forest of Cameroon and the derived savanna of Benin were selected to evaluate the effect of planting border rows of wild host plants on lepidopterous stem-borer infestations and on maize yield. Grass species were chosen that in surveys and greenhouse trials were highly attractive to ovipositing female moths but with offspring mortality of close to 100%, thus acting as trap plants. In Cameroon, elephant grass Pennisetum purpureum Moench significantly lowered infestations of Busseola fusca (Fuller), Sesamia calamistis Hampson and Eldana saccharina Walker and increased yields of maize though the differences were not significant during all three cropping seasons. In 1998 in Benin, the only grass tested, Pennisetum polystachion L., significantly increased parasitism of mainly S. calamistis eggs by Telenomus spp. and larvae by Cotesia sesamiae Cameron and reduced numbers of the cob-borer Mussidia nigrivenella Ragonot. In 1999, three grass species; P. polystachion, Sorghum arundinaceum (Desv.) Stapf and Panicum maximum Jacq. were tested. Panicum maximum was the most efficient species for suppressing S. calamistis and M. nigrivenella infestations and enhancing egg and larval parasitism. In the Benin trials, with the exception of M. nigrivenella damage to cobs, the grass species tested had no beneficial effect on yield because pest densities were too low and also rodent damage to maize was enhanced with grasses in the vicinity of the crop. By contrast, stand losses due to Fusarium verticillioides Sacc. (Nirenberg), were significantly reduced by border rows of grasses. PMID:17598302

  12. RNA Viruses Infecting Pest Insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    RNA viruses are viruses whose genetic material is ribonucleic acid (RNA). RNA viruses may be double or single-stranded based on the type of RNA they contain. Single-stranded RNA viruses can be further grouped into negative sense or positive-sense viruses according to the polarity of their RNA. Fur...

  13. Ornamental, Turf and Nursery Pests. MEP 308.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Omar D.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common turf and plant pests that can be found in the urban environment. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests such as insects, weeds, and…

  14. Forest Pest Control. Sale Publication 4072.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stimmann, M. W., Ed.

    The forest pests discussed in this guide are weeds, insects, diseases, and vertebrates. The guide gives information about types of forests, characteristics of common forest pests, pest control methods, pesticides and application equipment used in forestry, and environmental and human hazards. (Author/BB)

  15. Bayesian analysis of the species-specific lengthening of the growing season in two European countries and the influence of an insect pest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, Annette; Estrella, Nicole; Heitland, Werner; Susnik, Andreja; Schleip, Christoph; Dose, Volker

    2008-01-01

    A recent lengthening of the growing season in mid and higher latitudes of the northern hemisphere is reported as a clear indicator for climate change impacts. Using data from Germany (1951-2003) and Slovenia (1961-2004), we study whether changes in the start, end, and length of the growing season differ among four deciduous broad-leaved tree species and countries, how the changes are related to temperature changes, and what might be the confounding effects of an insect attack. The functional behaviour of the phenological and climatological time series and their trends are not analysed by linear regression, but by a new Bayesian approach taking into account different models for the functional description (one change-point, linear, constant models). We find advanced leaf unfolding in both countries with the same species order (oak > horse chestnut, beech, and birch). However, this advance is non linear over time and more apparent in Germany with clear change-points in the late 1970s, followed by marked advances (on average 3.67 days decade-1 in the 2000s). In Slovenia, we find a more gradual advance of onset dates (on average 0.8 days decade-1 in the 2000s). Leaf colouring of birch, beech, and oak has been slightly delayed in the last 3 decades, especially in Germany, however with no clear functional behaviour. Abrupt changes in leaf colouring dates of horse chestnut with recent advancing onset dates can be linked across countries to damage by a newly emerging pest, the horse chestnut leaf-miner ( Cameraria ohridella). The lengthening of the growing season, more distinct in Germany than in Slovenia (on average 4.2 and 1.0 days decade-1 in the 2000s, respectively), exhibits the same species order in both countries (oak > birch > beech). Damage by horse chestnut leaf-miner leads to reduced lengthening (Germany) and drastic shortening (Slovenia) of the horse chestnut growing season (-12 days decade-1 in the 2000s). Advanced spring leaf unfolding and lengthening of the

  16. Beneficial Insects and Spiders of Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of integrated pest management programs is dependent on the availability of biological information on beneficial insects and natural enemies of agricultural pests. This cooperative effort between ARS and UAF represents the first manual on beneficial insects and natural enemies of pest...

  17. Bridging conventional and molecular genetics of sorghum insect resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable production of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, depends on effective control of insect pests as they continue to compete with humans for the sorghum crop. Insect pests are major constraint in sorghum production, and nearly 150 insect species are serious pests of this crop worldwide,...

  18. Insect Control (1): Use of Pheromones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Jean L.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses current research relating to the use of pheromones as a means of controlling insect pests. These chemicals, which are secreted by insects to affect the behavior of other individuals of the same species, may be used to eliminate pests without destroying their predators and other beneficial insects. (JR)

  19. Field and laboratory evaluations of transgenic cottons expressing one or two Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki Berliner proteins for management of noctuid (Lepidoptera) pests.

    PubMed

    Chitkowski, R L; Turnipseed, S G; Sullivan, M J; Bridges, W C

    2003-06-01

    Field studies were conducted from 1999 to 2001 to evaluate the efficacy of the transgenic cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), genotype, Bollgard II (Monsanto 15985), which expresses two Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) proteins (Cry1Ac + Cry2Ab) that are active against lepidopterous pests. Bollgard II was compared with Bollgard (DP50B), which expresses only one Bt protein (Cry1Ac), and, in all tests, the conventional variety, DP50, was used as a non-Bt control. Larval populations of the bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and the soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker), were significantly lower in Bollgard II than in Bollgard and conventional cotton, and the proportion of fruit damaged by H. zea was also lower. Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), populations were lower in Bollgard II than in Bollgard, although not significantly. Field tests were supplemented with laboratory bioassays in 2001 to compare mortality of S. frugiperda, and beet armyworms, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), feeding on these genotypes. Mortality of both species was significantly greater on Bollgard II plant material than on either Bollgard or conventional cotton. This study demonstrated that the dual-toxin Bollgard II genotype is highly effective against lepidopterous pests that are not adequately controlled by the current single-toxin Bollgard varieties. If toxin expression in future Bollgard II varieties remains consistent with that of Monsanto 15985, supplemental insecticides will be reduced, and may be eliminated for lepidopterous pests in South Carolina. PMID:12852613

  20. 19 CFR 12.31 - Plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.31 Plant pests. The importation in a live state of insects which are injurious to cultivated crops, including vegetables, field crops, bush fruits, and orchard, forest or shade trees, and of the eggs, pupae, or larvae of such insects, except...

  1. 19 CFR 12.31 - Plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.31 Plant pests. The importation in a live state of insects which are injurious to cultivated crops, including vegetables, field crops, bush fruits, and orchard, forest or shade trees, and of the eggs, pupae, or larvae of such insects, except...

  2. 19 CFR 12.31 - Plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.31 Plant pests. The importation in a live state of insects which are injurious to cultivated crops, including vegetables, field crops, bush fruits, and orchard, forest or shade trees, and of the eggs, pupae, or larvae of such insects, except...

  3. 19 CFR 12.31 - Plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.31 Plant pests. The importation in a live state of insects which are injurious to cultivated crops, including vegetables, field crops, bush fruits, and orchard, forest or shade trees, and of the eggs, pupae, or larvae of such insects, except...

  4. 19 CFR 12.31 - Plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.31 Plant pests. The importation in a live state of insects which are injurious to cultivated crops, including vegetables, field crops, bush fruits, and orchard, forest or shade trees, and of the eggs, pupae, or larvae of such insects, except...

  5. Insects and Bugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Karen

    2009-01-01

    They have been around for centuries. They sting, they bite. They cause intense itching or painful sores. They even cause allergic reactions and sometimes death. There are two types of insects that are pests to humans--those that sting and those that bite. The insects that bite do so with their mouths and include mosquitoes, chiggers, and ticks.…

  6. Sugarcane insect update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect are an important group of pests affecting sugarcane production. Agricultural consultants play an important role is assisting sugarcane farmers to choose the most appropriated means of managing damaging infestations of insects in their crop. In this presentation, information will be presented ...

  7. 9 CFR 3.84 - Cleaning, sanitization, housekeeping, and pest control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... from becoming soiled, and to reduce disease hazards, insects, pests, and odors. Dirt floors, floors... reduce disease hazards, insects, pests, and odors. When steam or water is used to clean the primary... sanitized by removing the contaminated material as necessary to prevent odors, diseases, pests, insects,...

  8. 9 CFR 3.84 - Cleaning, sanitization, housekeeping, and pest control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... from becoming soiled, and to reduce disease hazards, insects, pests, and odors. Dirt floors, floors... reduce disease hazards, insects, pests, and odors. When steam or water is used to clean the primary... sanitized by removing the contaminated material as necessary to prevent odors, diseases, pests, insects,...

  9. The moth Hylesia metabus and French Guiana lepidopterism: centenary of a public health concern

    PubMed Central

    Jourdain, F.; Girod, R.; Vassal, J.M.; Chandre, F.; Lagneau, C.; Fouque, F.; Guiral, D.; Raude, J.; Robert, V.

    2012-01-01

    The females of the moths Hylesia metabus have their abdomens covered by urticating hairs looking like micro-arrows and causing a puriginous dermatitis to humans known as “papillonite” in French Guiana and also called yellowtail moth dermatitis or Caripito itch. The densities of the moths show great seasonal and annual variations depending on mechanisms mostly unknown. When H. metabus infestations occur, numerous cases of dermatologic manifestations are reported from people living near the mangrove swamps where the moths are developing. One hundred years after the first “papillonite” epidemic reported from French Guiana in 1912, the data presented herein summarize the actual state of knowledge on H. metabus biology and ecology and on the lepidopterism. Some recommendations are proposed for the surveillance and warning systems of H. metabus infestations and to avoid contact with the moths. Research priorities are suggested to improve the control against this problem emerging between nuisance and public health. PMID:22550622

  10. Monitoring Bacillus thuringiensis-Susceptibility in Insect Pests That Occur in Large Geographies: How to Get the Best Information When Two Countries are Involved

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The adoption of Bacillus thuringiensis-expressing cotton around the world has been proven to be beneficial for growers and the environment. The effectiveness of this important genetically-modified crop can be jeopardized by the development of B. thuringiensis-resistance in pests, with the possibilit...

  11. 76 FR 12959 - Promoting Community Integrated Pest Management To Prevent Tick-Borne Diseases; Notice of Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... registrants for insect repellents and area wide control; regional landscape planners concerned with... Environmental protection, Community IPM, Insect Repellents, Integrated Pest Management, Lyme Disease, IPM,...

  12. Toxins for Transgenic Resistance to Hemipteran Pests

    PubMed Central

    Chougule, Nanasaheb P.; Bonning, Bryony C.

    2012-01-01

    The sap sucking insects (Hemiptera), which include aphids, whiteflies, plant bugs and stink bugs, have emerged as major agricultural pests. The Hemiptera cause direct damage by feeding on crops, and in some cases indirect damage by transmission of plant viruses. Current management relies almost exclusively on application of classical chemical insecticides. While the development of transgenic crops expressing toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has provided effective plant protection against some insect pests, Bt toxins exhibit little toxicity against sap sucking insects. Indeed, the pest status of some Hemiptera on Bt-transgenic plants has increased in the absence of pesticide application. The increased pest status of numerous hemipteran species, combined with increased prevalence of resistance to chemical insecticides, provides impetus for the development of biologically based, alternative management strategies. Here, we provide an overview of approaches toward transgenic resistance to hemipteran pests. PMID:22822455

  13. Comparative evaluation of phenoloxidase in different larval stages of four lepidopteran pests after exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some lepidopteran insects are important agricultural pests, causing serious crop damage. Microbial entomopathogen-based bioinsecticides are considered effective pest control alternatives to synthetic chemicals. However, insects can defend against pathogens by innate mechanisms, including phenoloxi...

  14. Plant or fungal-produced conophthorin as an important component of host plant volatile-based attractants for agricultural lepidopteran insect pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conophthorin (7-methyl-1,6-dioxaspiro[4.5]decane) is a semiochemical common to numerous coleopteran and hymenopteran insects, and possess varying semiochemical behavior among these species. Conophthorin has recently gained attention as a semiochemical for navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Lepi...

  15. Thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): inferences of climate change impact on a tropical insect pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change on the insect using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. The extremes for coffee berry borer survival are 59 and 86 degrees F, but ...

  16. Coccinellids and the Modern Pest Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodek, Ivo

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the concept of integrated pest control combining chemical and biological methods. Describes many examples of the successful use of coccinellids beetles to control other insects. Cites ecological and physiological research studies related to predator prey relationships involving coccinellids. (EB)

  17. Preface: Insect Pathology, 2nd ed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect pathology is an essential component of entomology and provides a non-chemical alternative for insect pest management. There are several groups of organisms that can infect and kill insects including viruses, fungi, microsporidia, bacteria, protists, and nematodes. The dilemma in insect patho...

  18. Training for Certification: Forest Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Robert C., Comp.

    This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing on forest pest control, this publication examines plant and animal pest control practices for southern tree species. Contents include: (1) identification of insects, diseases, and weed tree species;…

  19. Training for Certification: Ornamental & Turf Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Univ., State College. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing on ornamental and turf plant pest control, this publication examines the control of plant diseases, insects, and weeds. The contents are divided into a section on ornamental pest control and one on…

  20. Harnessing Diversity in Wheat to Enhance Grain Yield, Climate Resilience, Disease and Insect Pest Resistance and Nutrition Through Conventional and Modern Breeding Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Suchismita; Rutkoski, Jessica E.; Velu, Govindan; Singh, Pawan K.; Crespo-Herrera, Leonardo A.; Guzmán, Carlos; Bhavani, Sridhar; Lan, Caixia; He, Xinyao; Singh, Ravi P.

    2016-01-01

    Current trends in population growth and consumption patterns continue to increase the demand for wheat, a key cereal for global food security. Further, multiple abiotic challenges due to climate change and evolving pathogen and pests pose a major concern for increasing wheat production globally. Triticeae species comprising of primary, secondary, and tertiary gene pools represent a rich source of genetic diversity in wheat. The conventional breeding strategies of direct hybridization, backcrossing and selection have successfully introgressed a number of desirable traits associated with grain yield, adaptation to abiotic stresses, disease resistance, and bio-fortification of wheat varieties. However, it is time consuming to incorporate genes conferring tolerance/resistance to multiple stresses in a single wheat variety by conventional approaches due to limitations in screening methods and the lower probabilities of combining desirable alleles. Efforts on developing innovative breeding strategies, novel tools and utilizing genetic diversity for new genes/alleles are essential to improve productivity, reduce vulnerability to diseases and pests and enhance nutritional quality. New technologies of high-throughput phenotyping, genome sequencing and genomic selection are promising approaches to maximize progeny screening and selection to accelerate the genetic gains in breeding more productive varieties. Use of cisgenic techniques to transfer beneficial alleles and their combinations within related species also offer great promise especially to achieve durable rust resistance. PMID:27458472

  1. Self-Assembly and Release of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus-Like Particles in an Insect Cell-Baculovirus System and Their Immunogenicity in Mice and Goats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenchao; Jin, Hongyan; Sui, Xiukun; Zhao, Zhanzhong; Yang, Chenghuai; Wang, Wenquan; Li, Junping; Li, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute, febrile, viral disease of small ruminants that has a significant economic impact. For many viral diseases, vaccination with virus-like particles (VLPs) has shown considerable promise as a prophylactic approach; however, the processes of assembly and release of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) VLPs are not well characterized, and their immunogenicity in the host is unknown. In this study, VLPs of PPRV were generated in a baculovirus system through simultaneous expression of PPRV matrix (M) protein and hemaglutin in (H) or fusion (F) protein. The released VLPs showed morphology similar to that of the native virus particles. Subcutaneous injection of these VLPs (PPRV-H, PPRV-F) into mice and goats elicited PPRV-specific IgG production, increased the levels of virus neutralizing antibodies, and promoted lymphocyte proliferation. Without adjuvants, the immune response induced by the PPRV-H VLPs was comparable to that obtained using equivalent amounts of PPRV vaccine. Thus, our results demonstrated that VLPs containing PPRV M protein and H or F protein are potential “differentiating infected from vaccinated animals” (DIVA) vaccine candidates for the surveillance and eradication of PPR. PMID:25117931

  2. Harnessing Diversity in Wheat to Enhance Grain Yield, Climate Resilience, Disease and Insect Pest Resistance and Nutrition Through Conventional and Modern Breeding Approaches.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Suchismita; Rutkoski, Jessica E; Velu, Govindan; Singh, Pawan K; Crespo-Herrera, Leonardo A; Guzmán, Carlos; Bhavani, Sridhar; Lan, Caixia; He, Xinyao; Singh, Ravi P

    2016-01-01

    Current trends in population growth and consumption patterns continue to increase the demand for wheat, a key cereal for global food security. Further, multiple abiotic challenges due to climate change and evolving pathogen and pests pose a major concern for increasing wheat production globally. Triticeae species comprising of primary, secondary, and tertiary gene pools represent a rich source of genetic diversity in wheat. The conventional breeding strategies of direct hybridization, backcrossing and selection have successfully introgressed a number of desirable traits associated with grain yield, adaptation to abiotic stresses, disease resistance, and bio-fortification of wheat varieties. However, it is time consuming to incorporate genes conferring tolerance/resistance to multiple stresses in a single wheat variety by conventional approaches due to limitations in screening methods and the lower probabilities of combining desirable alleles. Efforts on developing innovative breeding strategies, novel tools and utilizing genetic diversity for new genes/alleles are essential to improve productivity, reduce vulnerability to diseases and pests and enhance nutritional quality. New technologies of high-throughput phenotyping, genome sequencing and genomic selection are promising approaches to maximize progeny screening and selection to accelerate the genetic gains in breeding more productive varieties. Use of cisgenic techniques to transfer beneficial alleles and their combinations within related species also offer great promise especially to achieve durable rust resistance. PMID:27458472

  3. Plant tolerance: A unique approach to control hemipteran pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant tolerance to insect pests has been indicated to be a unique category of resistance, however, very little information is available on the mechanism of tolerance against insect pests. Tolerance is distinctive in terms of the plant’s ability to withstand or recover from herbivore injury through g...

  4. Genomics of Insect-Soybean Interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dissection of plant-insect interactions has lagged behind that of interactions between plants and other types of pests. Insect pests interact with plants in a variety of ways, ranging from piercing and sucking of phloem to consumption of leaves and other tissues. Hence, a wide range of genetic m...

  5. Aquatic Pest Control. Manual 99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the aquatic pest control category. The text discusses various water use situations; aquatic weed identification; herbicide use and effects; and aquatic insects and their control. (CS)

  6. Forest Pest Control. Bulletin 759.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, V. Rodney

    This manual describes the major forest types, the major species, seed orchards, and tree nurseries. Methods of identifying forest insect pests and diseases are given. The most common types of insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides are described. Both sprayer and granular applicator methods are discussed. Environmental considerations are…

  7. Effects of an entomopathogen nematode on the immune response of the insect pest red palm weevil: Focus on the host antimicrobial response.

    PubMed

    Binda-Rossetti, Simona; Mastore, Maristella; Protasoni, Marina; Brivio, Maurizio F

    2016-01-01

    Relationships between parasites and hosts can be drastic, depending on the balance between parasite strategies and the efficiency of the host immune response. In the case of entomopathogenic nematodes and their insect hosts, we must also consider the role of bacterial symbionts, as the interaction among them is tripartite and each component plays a critical role in death or survival. We analyzed the effects induced by the nematode-bacteria complex Steinernema carpocapsae, against red palm weevil (RPW) larvae, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus. We examined the antimicrobial response of the insect when in the presence of nematocomplexes or of its symbionts, Xenorhabdus nematophila. In detail, we investigated the potential interference of live and dead S. carpocapsae, their isolated cuticles, live or dead bacterial symbionts and their lipopolysaccharides, on the synthesis and activity of host antimicrobial peptides. Our data indicate that both live nematodes and live bacterial symbionts are able to depress the host antimicrobial response. When nematodes or symbionts were killed, they lacked inhibitory properties, as detected by the presence of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in the host hemolymph and by assays of antimicrobial activity. Moreover, we isolated S. carpocapsae cuticles; when cuticles were injected into hosts they revealed evasive properties because they were not immunogenic and were not recognized by the host immune system. We observed that weevil AMPs did not damage X. nematophila, and the lipopolysaccharides purified from symbionts seemed to be non-immunogenic. We believe that our data provide more information on the biology of entomopathogenic nematodes, in particular concerning their role and the activity mediated by symbionts in the relationship with insect hosts. PMID:26549224

  8. Differential Expression Patterns in Chemosensory and Non-Chemosensory Tissues of Putative Chemosensory Genes Identified by Transcriptome Analysis of Insect Pest the Purple Stem Borer Sesamia inferens (Walker)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya-Nan; Jin, Jun-Yan; Jin, Rong; Xia, Yi-Han; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Deng, Jian-Yu; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Background A large number of insect chemosensory genes from different gene subfamilies have been identified and annotated, but their functional diversity and complexity are largely unknown. A systemic examination of expression patterns in chemosensory organs could provide important information. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified 92 putative chemosensory genes by analysing the transcriptome of the antennae and female sex pheromone gland of the purple stem borer Sesamia inferens, among them 87 are novel in this species, including 24 transcripts encoding for odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 24 for chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 2 for sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), 39 for odorant receptors (ORs) and 3 for ionotropic receptors (IRs). The transcriptome analyses were validated and quantified with a detailed global expression profiling by Reverse Transcription-PCR for all 92 transcripts and by Quantitative Real Time RT-PCR for selected 16 ones. Among the chemosensory gene subfamilies, CSP transcripts are most widely and evenly expressed in different tissues and stages, OBP transcripts showed a clear antenna bias and most of OR transcripts are only detected in adult antennae. Our results also revealed that some OR transcripts, such as the transcripts of SNMP2 and 2 IRs were expressed in non-chemosensory tissues, and some CSP transcripts were antenna-biased expression. Furthermore, no chemosensory transcript is specific to female sex pheromone gland and very few are found in the heads. Conclusion Our study revealed that there are a large number of chemosensory genes expressed in S. inferens, and some of them displayed unusual expression profile in non-chemosensory tissues. The identification of a large set of putative chemosensory genes of each subfamily from a single insect species, together with their different expression profiles provide further information in understanding the functions of these chemosensory genes in S. inferens as well as other

  9. Natural Compounds for Pest and Weed Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The control of insect pests and invasive weeds has become more species-selective because of activity-guided isolation, structure elucidation, and total synthesis of naturally produced substances with important biological activities. Examples of isolated compounds include insect pheromones, antifeed...

  10. Bioactive compounds for pest and weed control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The control of insect pests and invasive weeds has become more species-selective because of activity-guided isolation, structure elucidation, and total synthesis of naturally produced substances with important biological activities. Examples of isolated compounds include insect pheromones, antifeed...

  11. Using new technology and insect behavior in novel terrestrial and flying insect traps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect traps are commonly used for both population sampling and insect control, the former as part of an integrated pest management (IPM) program. We developed traps for two insects, one as part of a pesticide based IPM system and the other for population control. Our IPM trap is for crawling insect...

  12. Grain sorghum hybrid resistance to insect and bird damage - 2015

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 26 grain sorghum hybrids (24 commercial grain sorghum hybrids and a pair of sugarcane aphid resistant and susceptible controls) were evaluated for resistance to insect and bird damage in Tifton, Georgia. A total of 10 insect pests were observed. The insect pests in order of importance are...

  13. Evaluating sources of stored-product insect infestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An integrated stored-product insect pest management program emphasizes preventing pest populations from becoming established and responding quickly, and in a targeted way, to suppress pests when they do become established. Fundamental to this type of management program is an understanding of pest e...

  14. IAEA/FAO training course on uses of isotopes and radiation in integrated pest management (IPM) with special reference to the sterile insect technique

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This International Short Course which has been held in Gainesville, Florida, since 1963, was presented for the thirteenth time during the period 16 May through 24 June, 1988. Of the 20 students selected 18 arrived in Gainesville for the course. The strength of the course results from the many who contribute their time and expertise to lecture or hold laboratories or demonstrations for the students. The quality of the lectures was excellent. The top personnel in the field of SIT, IPM and insect biology and control presented information on a variety of research and operational programs. Appendix D contains copies of the summaries that were submitted by lecturers. Appendix E contains copies of the handouts that were given to the students. A large number of reprints were supplied at the request of the students by the various labs and lectures. Not all lecturers or laboratory sessions supplied handouts or summaries. However, those included present a summary of information presented.

  15. Characterization of the proteasome ß2 subunit gene and its mutant allele in the tephritid fruit fly pest, Anastrepha suspensa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conditional lethal release (CLR) is a proposed variation of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for the biological control of pest insects that would result from the release of transgenic insects carrying dominant conditional lethal genes. After mating with pest insects in the field, lethal gene exp...

  16. Mesoamerican origin and pre- and post-columbian expansions of the ranges of Acanthoscelides obtectus say, a cosmopolitan insect pest of the common bean.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Márcia Rodrigues Carvalho; Corrêa, Alberto Soares; de Souza, Giselle Anselmo; Guedes, Raul Narciso Carvalho; de Oliveira, Luiz Orlando

    2013-01-01

    An unprecedented global transfer of agricultural resources followed the discovery of the New World; one consequence of this process was that staple food plants of Neotropical origin, such as the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), soon expanded their ranges overseas. Yet many pests and diseases were also transported. Acanthoscelides obtectus is a cosmopolitan seed predator associated with P. vulgaris. Codispersal within the host seed seems to be an important determinant of the ability of A. obtectus to expand its range over long distances. We examined the phylogeographic structure of A. obtectus by (a) sampling three mitochondrial gene sequences (12s rRNA, 16s rRNA, and the gene that encodes cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI)) throughout most of the species' range and (b) exploring its late evolutionary history. Our findings indicate a Mesoamerican origin for the current genealogical lineages of A. obtectus. Each of the two major centers of genetic diversity of P. vulgaris (the Andes and Mesoamerica) contains a highly differentiated lineage of the bean beetle. Brazil has two additional, closely related lineages, both of which predate the Andean lineage and have the Mesoamerican lineage as their ancestor. The cosmopolitan distribution of A. obtectus has resulted from recent expansions of the two Brazilian lineages. We present additional evidence for both pre-Columbian and post-Columbian range expansions as likely events that shaped the current distribution of A. obtectus worldwide. PMID:23936139

  17. Salicylic acid is required for Mi-1-mediated resistance of tomato to whitefly Bemisia tabaci, but not for basal defense to this insect pest.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Álvarez, C I; López-Climent, M F; Gómez-Cadenas, A; Kaloshian, I; Nombela, G

    2015-10-01

    Plant defense to pests or pathogens involves global changes in gene expression mediated by multiple signaling pathways. A role for the salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathway in Mi-1-mediated resistance of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) to aphids was previously identified and its implication in the resistance to root-knot nematodes is controversial, but the importance of SA in basal and Mi-1-mediated resistance of tomato to whitefly Bemisia tabaci had not been determined. SA levels were measured before and after B. tabaci infestation in susceptible and resistant Mi-1-containing tomatoes, and in plants with the NahG bacterial transgene. Tomato plants of the same genotypes were also screened with B. tabaci (MEAM1 and MED species, before known as B and Q biotypes, respectively). The SA content in all tomato genotypes transiently increased after infestation with B. tabaci albeit at variable levels. Whitefly fecundity or infestation rates on susceptible Moneymaker were not significantly affected by the expression of NahG gene, but the Mi-1-mediated resistance to B. tabaci was lost in VFN NahG plants. Results indicated that whiteflies induce both SA and jasmonic acid accumulation in tomato. However, SA has no role in basal defense of tomato against B. tabaci. In contrast, SA is an important component of the Mi-1-mediated resistance to B. tabaci in tomato. PMID:26032615

  18. Mesoamerican Origin and Pre- and Post-Columbian Expansions of the Ranges of Acanthoscelides obtectus Say, a Cosmopolitan Insect Pest of the Common Bean

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Márcia Rodrigues Carvalho; Corrêa, Alberto Soares; de Souza, Giselle Anselmo; Guedes, Raul Narciso Carvalho; de Oliveira, Luiz Orlando

    2013-01-01

    An unprecedented global transfer of agricultural resources followed the discovery of the New World; one consequence of this process was that staple food plants of Neotropical origin, such as the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), soon expanded their ranges overseas. Yet many pests and diseases were also transported. Acanthoscelides obtectus is a cosmopolitan seed predator associated with P. vulgaris. Codispersal within the host seed seems to be an important determinant of the ability of A. obtectus to expand its range over long distances. We examined the phylogeographic structure of A. obtectus by (a) sampling three mitochondrial gene sequences (12s rRNA, 16s rRNA, and the gene that encodes cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI)) throughout most of the species’ range and (b) exploring its late evolutionary history. Our findings indicate a Mesoamerican origin for the current genealogical lineages of A. obtectus. Each of the two major centers of genetic diversity of P. vulgaris (the Andes and Mesoamerica) contains a highly differentiated lineage of the bean beetle. Brazil has two additional, closely related lineages, both of which predate the Andean lineage and have the Mesoamerican lineage as their ancestor. The cosmopolitan distribution of A. obtectus has resulted from recent expansions of the two Brazilian lineages. We present additional evidence for both pre-Columbian and post-Columbian range expansions as likely events that shaped the current distribution of A. obtectus worldwide. PMID:23936139

  19. Strategic and tactical use of movement information in pest management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knipling, E. F.

    1979-01-01

    Several insect movement problems are discussed. Much more information is needed to make a better appraisal of the practical significance of the insect dispersal problem. Data on the time, rate, and extent of movement of insects are provided. Better techniques for measuring insect movement are developed. A better understanding of the importance of insect movement in the development and implementation of more effective and ecologically acceptable pest management strategies and tactics was proved.

  20. Integrated Insect Control May Alter Pesticide Use Pattern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Ward

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the use of predators, parasites, bacteria, viruses, hormones, pheromones, and sterile-male release and insect-resistance imparting techniques in pest control. Concludes with comments from chemical pesticide companies as popular attitudes toward the integrated pest management. (CC)

  1. Chickpea Ascochyta blight and insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early symptoms of Acochyta blight and insect damages were detected in the Paliuse region.This article informs chickpea scientists and growers about current disease and insect pest problems in the Palouse region. Ascochyta blight appeared in many chickpea fields and was severe in some fields. Insec...

  2. In vitro production of two chitinolytic proteins with an inhibiting effect on the insect coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and the fungus Hemileia vastatrix the most limiting pests of coffee crops

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Two genes from Streptomyces albidoflavus, one exochitinase (905-bp) and an endochitinase (1100-bp) were functionally expressed in Escherichia coli in form of a fusion protein with a maltose binding protein (MBP). The goal was to produce and test proteins that inhibit both the coffee berry borer insect Hypothenemus hampei and the coffee rust fungus Hemileia vastatrix. Both recombinant proteins MBP/exochitinase and MBP/endochitinase showed chitinolytic activity. When recombinant purified proteins were added to an artificial coffee-based diet for the coffee berry borer, MBP/exochitinase at a concentration of 0.5% W/W caused delayed growth of larvae and 100% mortality between days 8 and 15, while MBP/endochitinase caused 100% mortality at day 35. H. vastatrix urediniospores presented total cell wall degradation in their germinative tubes within 18 h of exposure to the proteins at enzyme concentrations of 5 and 6 mg ml-1, with exochitinase having the greatest effect. The dual deleterious effect of S. albidoflavus chitinases on two of the most limiting coffee pests worldwide, the coffee borer and the coffee rust, make them potential elements to be incorporated in integrated control strategies. PMID:22464210

  3. People and Insects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Provides: (1) background information on how insects affect human lives, both positively and negatively, and on integrated pest management strategies; (2) student activities; and (3) materials (ready-to-copy games, puzzles, coloring pages, worksheets, and/or mazes). Each activity includes an objective, recommended age level(s), subject area(s),…

  4. Dispersal of forest insects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmanus, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    Dispersal flights of selected species of forest insects which are associated with periodic outbreaks of pests that occur over large contiguous forested areas are discussed. Gypsy moths, spruce budworms, and forest tent caterpillars were studied for their massive migrations in forested areas. Results indicate that large dispersals into forested areas are due to the females, except in the case of the gypsy moth.

  5. Mechanisms by which pesticides affect insect immunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The known effects of pesticides on insect immunity is reviewed here. A basic understanding of these interactions is needed for several reasons, including to improve methods for controlling pest insects in agricultural settings, for controlling insect vectors of human diseases, and for reducing morta...

  6. Airborne multispectral remote sensing with ground truth for areawide pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists and engineers in areawide pest management programs have been developing, integrating, and evaluating multiple strategies and technologies into a systems approach for management of field crop insect pests. Remote sensing along with global positioning systems, geographic information system...

  7. The use and manipulation of insect reproductive molecules for controlling insect populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use and manipulation of insect reproductive molecules, and the genes that encode them, provides a variety of methods to control insect fertility and thus a means of population control for insect pests. Towards this end, we first studied the yolk polypeptide gene from the caribfly, Anastrepha su...

  8. Lawn and Turf Pest Control: A Guide for Commercial Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, M. S.

    This manual is designed for use in training commercial pesticide applicators. It gives identification and control information for common lawn and turf diseases, insects, nematodes, weeds, and vertebrate pests. It also discusses phytotoxicity, environmental concerns, and application methods. (BB)

  9. Ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi) and control of citrus pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ribonucleic acid interference, RNAi, applications and function are described for the non-scientist to bring a better understanding of how this emerging technology is providing environmentally friendly, non-transgenic, insect pest control. ...

  10. Roles of insect midgut cadherin in Bt intoxication and resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetically engineered crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins for insect control target major insect pests. Bt crops have improved yield and reduced risks associated with conventional insecticides; however, the evolution of resistance to Bt toxins by target pests threatens the long-ter...

  11. Behavior, biology and ecology of stored fruit and nut insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tree nuts and dried fruits vary widely in their quality as hosts for insect pests, but stored product pests can cause economic loss even in commodities that are generally poor hosts. Economic damage can be due to commodity consumed, but the very presence of insect body parts, frass, or webbing can c...

  12. Insect pests and diseases in bioenergy crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Louisiana sugarcane, Saccharum spp., and other grassy crops (e.g., grain sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, and hybrids involving sugarcane; sorghum; sudangrass, Sorghum bicolor ssp. drummondii (Nees ex Steud.) de Wet and Harlan, and others) with potential for bioenergy production are susceptible...

  13. Insect Eradication and Containment of Invasive Alien Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect eradication programs are nearly always targeted at recently arrived invasive species with significant pest potential. They attempt to contain a pest to a defined area and then completely eliminate the pest from that area. From a Federal regulatory standpoint, eradication programs are undert...

  14. Assessment of Procedures to Quantify Insect Damage on Sweetpotato Roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are many soil insect pests that damage sweetpotato roots in the southeastern United States. After the roots are harvested, it is difficult to distinguish between injury symptoms caused by different pest species. Also, pest populations and subsequent damage levels fluctuate significantly from...

  15. New developments in bait stations for control of pest Tephritids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bait stations are being developed and tested as alternatives to broadcast pesticide application for control of a number of pest insects. This is an attract-and-kill pest management approach. With the development of female-targeted food-based synthetic attractants for tephritid fruit flies, a numbe...

  16. Manipulation of arthropod pathogens for integrated pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A great diversity of pathogenic microorganisms and nematodes has been developed for microbial biological control of insect and other arthropod pests. These control agents have many characteristics that determine their capacities to provide reliable pest control, and these characteristics must be ta...

  17. Impact of Entomopathogens on Pest Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adaptation by pest insects to the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) can alter their susceptibility to other pathogens. As the number of acres planted in crops engineered to produce Bt toxin increases, many key agricultural pests undergo strong selection to evolve resistance to Bt. In conjuncti...

  18. RNAi at work: Targeting invertebrate pests and beneficial organisms' diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invertebrates present two types of large scale RNAi application opportunities: pest control and beneficial insect health. The former involves the introduction of sustainable applications to keep pest populations low, and the latter represents the challenge of keeping beneficial organisms healthy. RN...

  19. Study on Integrated Pest Management for Libraries and Archives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Thomas A.

    This study addresses the problems caused by the major insect and rodent pests and molds and mildews in libraries and archives; the damage they do to collections; and techniques for their prevention and control. Guidelines are also provided for the development and initiation of an Integrated Pest Management program for facilities housing library…

  20. Insect Ferritins: typical or atypical?

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Daphne Q. D.; Winzerling, Joy J.

    2010-01-01

    Insects transmit millions of cases of disease each year, and cost millions of dollars in agricultural losses. The control of insect-borne diseases is vital for numerous developing countries, and the management of agricultural insect pests is a very serious business for developed countries. Control methods should target insect-specific traits in order to avoid non-target effects, especially in mammals. Since insect cells have had a billion years of evolutionary divergence from those of vertebrates, they differ in many ways that might be promising for the insect control field—especially, in iron metabolism because current studies have indicated that significant differences exist between insect and mammalian systems. Insect iron metabolism differs from that of vertebrates in the following respects. Insect ferritins have a heavier mass than mammalian ferritins. Unlike their mammalian counterparts, the insect ferritin subunits are often glycosylated and are synthesized with a signal peptide. The crystal structure of insect ferritin also shows a tetrahedral symmetry consisting of 12 heavy chain and 12 light chain subunits in contrast to that of mammalian ferritin that exhibits an octahedral symmetry made of 24 heavy chain and 24 light chain subunits. Insect ferritins associate primarily with the vacuolar system and serve as iron transporters—quite the opposite of the mammalian ferritins, which are mainly cytoplasmic and serve as iron storage proteins. This review will discuss these differences. PMID:20230873

  1. LABORATORY TEST METHODS OF EXPOSURE TO MICROBIAL PEST CONTROL AGENTS BY THE RESPIRATORY ROUTE TO NON-TARGET AVIAN SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial pest control agents (MPCAs) are microorganisms applied to agricultural and silvacultural environments to control proliferation and spread of insect or plant pests. uring application, it is likely that nontarget plants and animals are exposed to MPCAs. ollowing extensive...

  2. LABORATORY TEST METHOD OF EXPOSURE BY ORAL AND INTRAVENOUS ROUTES OF MICORBIAL PEST CONTROL AGENTS TO NON TARGET AVIAN SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial pest control agents (MPCAs) are microorganisms applied to the environment to control the proliferation and spread of agricultural or silvicultural insect, arthropod. and plant pests. hen used in this manner, the micrporganisms are classified as pesticides and are subjec...

  3. Using entomopathogenic nematodes for crop insect control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this paper is to provide an overview on using entomopathogenic nematodes for insect pest control. Entomopathogenic nematodes (genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis), are be used as natural biopesticides. Unlike plant parasitic nematodes, which can be serious crop pests, entomopat...

  4. The applicability of remote sensing to Earth biological problems. Part 2: The potential of remote sensing in pest management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polhemus, J. T.

    1980-01-01

    Five troublesome insect pest groups were chosen for study. These represent a broad spectrum of life cycles, ecological indicators, pest management strategies, and remote sensing requirements. Background data, and field study results for each of these subjects is discussed for each insect group. Specific groups studied include tsetse flies, locusts, western rangeland grasshoppers, range caterpillars, and mosquitoes. It is concluded that remote sensing methods are aplicable to the pest management of the insect groups studied.

  5. Pest management update on sunflower midge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sunflower midge (Contarinia schulzi) is a serious insect pest of sunflower, causing bud and head deformation that lead to poor seed development, and in many cases no seed development. This presentation describes the life cycle of the sunflower midge and shows images of infested sunflower heads. ...

  6. DEMONSTRATING INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT OF HOT PEPPERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We studied the effects of organic and synthetic chemical fertilizers on crop growth, yield and associated insect pests for two varieties of hot pepper, Capsicum chinense Jacquin (Solanaceae): “Scotch Bonnet” and “Caribbean Red” in north Florida. Hot peppers were grown under three treatments: poultr...

  7. Redirect research to control coffee pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One hundred years ago, one of the most significant biological invasions of an agricultural insect pest in the Americas was initiated. Endemic to Africa, the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was accidentally introduced to Brazil in 1913 and years later invaded coff...

  8. 1976 Commercial Vegetable Pest Control Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacNab, A. A.; And Others

    This guide contains pest control information for commercial vegetable production. It was prepared for agricultural supply dealers, extension agents, fieldmen, and growers. It gives general precautions, information on seed treatment, growing disease-free seedlings and transplants, general soil insect control, general weed control, and spraying…

  9. Leafhopper and psyllid pests of potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leafhoppers and psyllids are important pests of potato worldwide. These insects cause damage to potato by direct feeding or by acting as vectors of potato pathogens. Economically important leafhoppers that attack potato include Empoasca fabae, Macrosteles fascifrons, and Circulifer tenellus. E. faba...

  10. Demonstrating Integrated Pest Management of Hot Peppers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We studied the effects of organic and synthetic chemical fertilizers on crop growth, yield and associated insect pests for two varieties of hot pepper, Capsicum chinense Jacquin (Solanaceae): “Scotch Bonnet” and “Caribbean Red” in north Florida. Hot peppers were grown under three treatments: poultr...

  11. Interactive effects of pests increase seed yield.

    PubMed

    Gagic, Vesna; Riggi, Laura Ga; Ekbom, Barbara; Malsher, Gerard; Rusch, Adrien; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2016-04-01

    Loss in seed yield and therefore decrease in plant fitness due to simultaneous attacks by multiple herbivores is not necessarily additive, as demonstrated in evolutionary studies on wild plants. However, it is not clear how this transfers to crop plants that grow in very different conditions compared to wild plants. Nevertheless, loss in crop seed yield caused by any single pest is most often studied in isolation although crop plants are attacked by many pests that can cause substantial yield losses. This is especially important for crops able to compensate and even overcompensate for the damage. We investigated the interactive impacts on crop yield of four insect pests attacking different plant parts at different times during the cropping season. In 15 oilseed rape fields in Sweden, we estimated the damage caused by seed and stem weevils, pollen beetles, and pod midges. Pest pressure varied drastically among fields with very low correlation among pests, allowing us to explore interactive impacts on yield from attacks by multiple species. The plant damage caused by each pest species individually had, as expected, either no, or a negative impact on seed yield and the strongest negative effect was caused by pollen beetles. However, seed yield increased when plant damage caused by both seed and stem weevils was high, presumably due to the joint plant compensatory reaction to insect attack leading to overcompensation. Hence, attacks by several pests can change the impact on yield of individual pest species. Economic thresholds based on single species, on which pest management decisions currently rely, may therefore result in economically suboptimal choices being made and unnecessary excessive use of insecticides. PMID:27099712

  12. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Vegetable Pests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cress, D.; And Others

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators in vegetable crops prepare for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The primary focus of this publication is on vegetable pest control. The three sections presented describe: (1) Insect pests of vegetable crops; (2) Weed pests of vegetable crops; and (3) Causes of…

  13. Introduction to 2009 Symposium on Alternative Methods of Controlling Pests and Diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous pests and diseases limit potato productivity, and control of weeds, insects and pathogens remains a costly part of potato production. Although conventional agrichemical pest control is amazingly effective, interest in non-synthetic chemical and integrated methods of pest management is drive...

  14. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Home, Institutional, and Structural Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual is designed to assist pest control operators to prepare for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The primary focus of this publication is on home, institutional, and structural pest control. The ten sections included describe: (1) Insect control; (2) Rodent control; (3) Special situation pest control; (4)…

  15. The impact of Global Warming on global crop yields due to changes in pest pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battisti, D. S.; Tewksbury, J. J.; Deutsch, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    A billion people currently lack reliable access to sufficient food and almost half of the calories feeding these people come from just three crops: rice, maize, wheat. Insect pests are among the largest factors affecting the yield of these three crops, but models assessing the effects of global warming on crops rarely consider changes in insect pest pressure on crop yields. We use well-established relationships between temperature and insect physiology to project climate-driven changes in pest pressure, defined as integrated population metabolism, for the three major crops. By the middle of this century, under most scenarios, insect pest pressure is projected to increase by more than 50% in temperate areas, while increases in tropical regions will be more modest. Yield relationships indicate that the largest increases in insect pest pressure are likely to occur in areas where yield is greatest, suggesting increased strain on global food markets.

  16. Biocontrol: The Potential of Entomophilic Nematodes in Insect Management

    PubMed Central

    Webster, John M.

    1980-01-01

    A review of the development of entomophilic nematology and a commentary on the potential of entomophilic nematodes in controlling insect pests. The paper considers some of the major contributions to our knowledge of entomophilic nematology; factors involved in insect pest management and how they are applicable to the use of nematodes; nematodes which are most promising as biological control agents; and problems to be solved to facilitate the use of entomophilic nematodes in insect management. PMID:19300702

  17. Nuke 'Em! Library Pest Control Using a Microwave.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brezner, Jerome; Luner, Philip

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the threats to books and periodicals posed by such insects as book lice, termites, cockroaches, silverfish, firebrats, and beetles; reviews past methods of pest control; and describes a technique for insect control using microwaves. The results of tests of microwave effects on publications are reported, necessary precautions are…

  18. Scope and Basic Principles of Insect Pathology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insects are the dominant animals in the world with more than one million described species. The vast majority of insects are innocuous or beneficial to humans, but a small percentage are pests that require a significant amount of our time, effort and funds to reduce their negative effects on food pr...

  19. Agricultural applications of insect ecological genomics.

    PubMed

    Poelchau, Monica F; Coates, Brad S; Childers, Christopher P; Peréz de León, Adalberto A; Evans, Jay D; Hackett, Kevin; Shoemaker, DeWayne

    2016-02-01

    Agricultural entomology is poised to benefit from the application of ecological genomics, particularly the fields of biofuels generation and pest control. Metagenomic methods can characterize microbial communities of termites, wood-boring beetles and livestock pests, and transcriptomic approaches reveal molecular bases behind wood-digesting capabilities of these insects, leading to potential mechanisms for biofuel generation. Genome sequences are being exploited to develop new pest control methods, identify candidate antigens to vaccinate livestock, and discover RNAi target sequences and potential non-target effects in other insects. Gene content analyses of pest genome sequences and their endosymbionts suggest metabolic interdependencies between organisms, exposing potential gene targets for insect control. Finally, genome-wide association studies and genotyping by high-throughput sequencing promise to improve management of pesticide resistance. PMID:27436554

  20. Exploring the Insect World, An Outdoor Teaching Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    Information about the insect world and its advantages for the elementary classroom teacher is given in this paper, along with activities which can teach students about insects. The insect world tends to be noticed by the average person only when the small creatures become pests or inhabit man's abode. However, young students have a sharp sense of…

  1. Grain sorghum hybrid resistance to insect and bird damage-2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty seven grain sorghum hybrids were evaluated for resistance to insect and bird damage in 2014 in Tifton, and a total of 10 insect pests were observed. While sorghum midge and bird damage was relatively low, sorghum webworm and aphid damage was high. Those insects in order of importance are: sug...

  2. Multiorganismal Insects: Diversity and Function of Resident Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Angela E.

    2015-01-01

    All insects are colonized by microorganisms on the insect exoskeleton, in the gut and hemocoel, and within insect cells. The insect microbiota is generally different from microorganisms in the external environment, including ingested food. Specifically, certain microbial taxa are favored by the conditions and resources in the insect habitat, by their tolerance of insect immunity, and by specific mechanisms for their transmission. The resident microorganisms can promote insect fitness by contributing to nutrition, especially by providing essential amino acids, B vitamins, and, for fungal partners, sterols. Some microorganisms protect their insect hosts against pathogens, parasitoids, and other parasites by synthesizing specific toxins or modifying the insect immune system. Priorities for future research include elucidation of microbial contributions to detoxification, especially of plant allelochemicals in phytophagous insects, and resistance to pathogens; as well as their role in among-insect communication; and the potential value of manipulation of the microbiota to control insect pests. PMID:25341109

  3. Suppressing resistance to Bt cotton with sterile insect releases.

    PubMed

    Tabashnik, Bruce E; Sisterson, Mark S; Ellsworth, Peter C; Dennehy, Timothy J; Antilla, Larry; Liesner, Leighton; Whitlow, Mike; Staten, Robert T; Fabrick, Jeffrey A; Unnithan, Gopalan C; Yelich, Alex J; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Harpold, Virginia S; Li, Xianchun; Carrière, Yves

    2010-12-01

    Genetically engineered crops that produce insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are grown widely for pest control. However, insect adaptation can reduce the toxins' efficacy. The predominant strategy for delaying pest resistance to Bt crops requires refuges of non-Bt host plants to provide susceptible insects to mate with resistant insects. Variable farmer compliance is one of the limitations of this approach. Here we report the benefits of an alternative strategy where sterile insects are released to mate with resistant insects and refuges are scarce or absent. Computer simulations show that this approach works in principle against pests with recessive or dominant inheritance of resistance. During a large-scale, four-year field deployment of this strategy in Arizona, resistance of pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) to Bt cotton did not increase. A multitactic eradication program that included the release of sterile moths reduced pink bollworm abundance by >99%, while eliminating insecticide sprays against this key invasive pest. PMID:21057498

  4. Global warming presents new challenges for maize pest management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Krupke, Christian H.; White, Michael A.; Alexander, Corinne E.

    2008-10-01

    It has been conjectured that global warming will increase the prevalence of insect pests in many agro-ecosystems. In this paper, we quantitatively assess four of the key pests of maize, one of the most important systems in North American grain production. Using empirically generated estimates of pest overwintering thresholds and degree-day requirements, along with climate change projections from a high-resolution climate model, we project potential future ranges for each of these pests in the United States. Our analysis suggests the possibility of increased winter survival and greater degree-day accumulations for each of the pests surveyed. We find that relaxed cold limitation could expand the range of all four pest taxa, including a substantial range expansion in the case of corn earworm (H. zea), a migratory, cold-intolerant pest. Because the corn earworm is a cosmopolitan pest that has shown resistance to insecticides, our results suggest that this expansion could also threaten other crops, including those in high-value areas of the western United States. Because managing significant additional pressure from this suite of established pests would require additional pest management inputs, the projected decreases in cold limitation and increases in heat accumulation have the potential to significantly alter the pest management landscape for North American maize production. Further, these range expansions could have substantial economic impacts through increased seed and insecticide costs, decreased yields, and the downstream effects of changes in crop yield variability.

  5. Y-Linked markers for improved population control of the tephritid fruit fly pest, Anastrepha suspensa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect pest control programs incorporating the sterile insect technique (SIT) rely on the mass production and release of sterilized insects to reduce the wild-type population through infertile matings. Most effective programs release only males to avoid any crop damage caused by female fruit flies o...

  6. A novel mechanism of insect resistance engineered into tobacco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilder, Vaughan A.; Gatehouse, Angharad M. R.; Sheerman, Suzanne E.; Barker, Richard F.; Boulter, Donald

    1987-11-01

    A major goal of plant genetic engineering is the introduction of agronomically desirable phenotypic traits into crop plants in situations where conventional breeding methods have been unsuccessful. One such target is enhanced resistance to insect pests which, in view of the estimated production losses world-wide and the heavy costs of protective treatments, is very important. We report here that a gene encoding a cowpea trypsin inhibitor, which has been shown to give some measure of field resistance to insect pests1, confers, when transferred to tobacco, enhanced resistance to this species' own herbivorous insect pests.

  7. Climate Change, Carbon Dioxide, and Pest Biology: Monitor, Mitigate, Manage.

    PubMed

    Ziska, Lewis H; McConnell, Laura L

    2016-01-13

    Rising concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide ([CO2]) and subsequent changes in climate, including temperature and precipitation extremes, are very likely to alter pest pressures in both managed and unmanaged plant communities. Such changes in pest pressures can be positive (migration from a region) or negative (new introductions), but are likely to be accompanied by significant economic and environmental consequences. Recent studies indicate the range of invasive weeds such as kudzu and insects such as mountain pine beetle have already expanded to more northern regions as temperatures have risen. To reduce these consequences, a better understanding of the link between CO2/climate and pest biology is needed in the context of existing and new strategies for pest management. This paper provides an overview of the probable biological links and the vulnerabilities of existing pest management (especially chemical control) and provides a preliminary synthesis of research needs that could potentially improve the ability to monitor, mitigate, and manage pest impacts. PMID:25671793

  8. Managing social insects of urban importance.

    PubMed

    Rust, Michael K; Su, Nan-Yao

    2012-01-01

    Social insects have a tremendous economic and social impact on urban communities. The rapid urbanization of the world has dramatically increased the incidence of urban pests. Human commerce has resulted in the spread of urban invasive species worldwide such that various species are now common to many major urban centers. We aim to highlight those social behaviors that can be exploited to control these pests with the minimal use of pesticides. Their cryptic behavior often prohibits the direct treatment of colonies. However, foraging and recruitment are essential aspects of their social behavior and expose workers to traps, baits, and pesticide applications. The advent of new chemistries has revolutionized the pest management strategies used to control them. In recent years, there has been an increased environmental awareness, especially in the urban community. Advances in molecular and microbial agents promise additional tools in developing integrated pest management programs against social insects. PMID:21942844

  9. Biology and Thermal Death Kinetics of Selected Insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat treatments have been suggested as alternatives to fumigation for a variety of postharvest applications. This paper describes the general biology of several economically important insect pests in the international trade of agricultural commodities and presents fundamental thermal death kinetics ...

  10. Short-range movement of major agricultural pests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vansteenwyk, R.

    1979-01-01

    Visual observations of population fluctuations which cannot be accounted for by either mortality or natality are presented. Lygus bugs in the westside of the San Joaquin Valley of California are used as an example. The dispersal of most agricultural pests in one of the less known facets of their biology is discussed. Results indicate a better understanding of insect movement is needed to develop a sound pest management program.

  11. Automated pattern analysis: A newsilent partner in insect acoustic detection studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This seminar reviews methods that have been developed for automated analysis of field-collected sounds used to estimate pest populations and guide insect pest management decisions. Several examples are presented of successful usage of acoustic technology to map insect distributions in field environ...

  12. Area-wide control of insects with screwworm as an example

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), are devastating pests of warm blooded animals. They have been eradicated from continental North America using the sterile insect technique (SIT). Proper implementation of SIT is an example of the requirements of area-wide control of insect pests. Area-...

  13. Insects of the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, J.A.

    1994-07-01

    In this review of the literature on forest entomology in Puerto Rico, emphasis is given to research conducted in the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF). This review should serve as an introduction to the insects inhabiting the LEF for researchers and as a guide for the identification of possible insect pests. There are three sections to this review. The first deals with basic insect ecology; the second, forest insect pests; and the third, insect attacks on dry wood and during wood seasoning. The reference section and appendices contain information on the systematics and taxonomy of different insect orders found in Puerto Rico.

  14. Hemipteran and dipteran pests: Effectors and plant host immune regulators.

    PubMed

    Kaloshian, Isgouhi; Walling, Linda L

    2016-04-01

    Hemipteran and dipteran insects have behavioral, cellular and chemical strategies for evading or coping with the host plant defenses making these insects particularly destructive pests worldwide. A critical component of a host plant's defense to herbivory is innate immunity. Here we review the status of our understanding of the receptors that contribute to perception of hemipteran and dipteran pests and highlight the gaps in our knowledge in these early events in immune signaling. We also highlight recent advances in identification of the effectors that activate pattern-triggered immunity and those involved in effector-triggered immunity. PMID:26467026

  15. Symbiont-mediated RNA interference in insects

    PubMed Central

    Whitten, Miranda M. A.; Facey, Paul D.; Del Sol, Ricardo; Fernández-Martínez, Lorena T.; Evans, Meirwyn C.; Mitchell, Jacob J.; Bodger, Owen G.

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) methods for insects are often limited by problems with double-stranded (ds) RNA delivery, which restricts reverse genetics studies and the development of RNAi-based biocides. We therefore delegated to insect symbiotic bacteria the task of: (i) constitutive dsRNA synthesis and (ii) trauma-free delivery. RNaseIII-deficient, dsRNA-expressing bacterial strains were created from the symbionts of two very diverse pest species: a long-lived blood-sucking bug, Rhodnius prolixus, and a short-lived globally invasive polyphagous agricultural pest, western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis). When ingested, the manipulated bacteria colonized the insects, successfully competed with the wild-type microflora, and sustainably mediated systemic knockdown phenotypes that were horizontally transmissible. This represents a significant advance in the ability to deliver RNAi, potentially to a large range of non-model insects. PMID:26911963

  16. Symbiont-mediated RNA interference in insects.

    PubMed

    Whitten, Miranda M A; Facey, Paul D; Del Sol, Ricardo; Fernández-Martínez, Lorena T; Evans, Meirwyn C; Mitchell, Jacob J; Bodger, Owen G; Dyson, Paul J

    2016-02-24

    RNA interference (RNAi) methods for insects are often limited by problems with double-stranded (ds) RNA delivery, which restricts reverse genetics studies and the development of RNAi-based biocides. We therefore delegated to insect symbiotic bacteria the task of: (i) constitutive dsRNA synthesis and (ii) trauma-free delivery. RNaseIII-deficient, dsRNA-expressing bacterial strains were created from the symbionts of two very diverse pest species: a long-lived blood-sucking bug, Rhodnius prolixus, and a short-lived globally invasive polyphagous agricultural pest, western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis). When ingested, the manipulated bacteria colonized the insects, successfully competed with the wild-type microflora, and sustainably mediated systemic knockdown phenotypes that were horizontally transmissible. This represents a significant advance in the ability to deliver RNAi, potentially to a large range of non-model insects. PMID:26911963

  17. Ornamental and Shade Tree Pest Control: A Guide for Commercial Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, M. S.

    This is a training manual for commercial pesticide applicators. It gives information for identification and control of diseases, insects, mites, weeds, and vertebrate pests of shade and ornamental trees. Phytotoxicity, environmental concerns, and pesticide application information is also given. (BB)

  18. Airborne multi-spectral remote sensing with ground truth for areawide pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists and researchers have been developing, integrating, and evaluating multiple strategies and technologies into a systems approach for management of field crop insect pests. Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology are...

  19. Efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa protoxin and protease inhibitors toward coleopteran storage pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Environmental impacts and resistance to insecticides pose serious challenges to stored product pest control. Insect-resistant transgenic grain is a potential alternative to fumigants, but candidate control proteins are needed, especially for coleopterans. Therefore, we evaluated the ...

  20. Use of Airborne Multi-Spectral Imagery in Pest Management Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists and researchers have been developing, integrating, and evaluating multiple strategies and technologies into a systems approach for management of field crop insect pests. Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology are...

  1. Peripheral olfactory signaling in insects

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Eunho; Bohbot, Jonathan; Zwiebel, Laurence J.

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory signaling is a crucial component in the life history of insects. The development of precise and parallel mechanisms to analyze the tremendous amount of chemical information from the environment and other sources has been essential to their evolutionary success. Considerable progress has been made in the study of insect olfaction fueled by bioinformatics- based utilization of genomics along with rapid advances in functional analyses. Here we review recent progress in our rapidly emerging understanding of insect peripheral sensory reception and signal transduction. These studies reveal that the nearly unlimited chemical space insects encounter is covered by distinct chemosensory receptor repertoires that are generally derived by species-specific, rapid gene gain and loss, reflecting the evolutionary consequences of adaptation to meet their specific biological needs. While diverse molecular mechanisms have been put forth, often in the context of controversial models, the characterization of the ubiquitous, highly conserved and insect-specific Orco odorant receptor co-receptor has opened the door to the design and development of novel insect control methods to target agricultural pests, disease vectors and even nuisance insects. PMID:25584200

  2. Potential applications of insect symbionts in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Berasategui, Aileen; Shukla, Shantanu; Salem, Hassan; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Symbiotic interactions between insects and microorganisms are widespread in nature and are often the source of ecological innovations. In addition to supplementing their host with essential nutrients, microbial symbionts can produce enzymes that help degrade their food source as well as small molecules that defend against pathogens, parasites, and predators. As such, the study of insect ecology and symbiosis represents an important source of chemical compounds and enzymes with potential biotechnological value. In addition, the knowledge on insect symbiosis can provide novel avenues for the control of agricultural pest insects and vectors of human diseases, through targeted manipulation of the symbionts or the host-symbiont associations. Here, we discuss different insect-microbe interactions that can be exploited for insect pest and human disease control, as well as in human medicine and industrial processes. Our aim is to raise awareness that insect symbionts can be interesting sources of biotechnological applications and that knowledge on insect ecology can guide targeted efforts to discover microorganisms of applied value. PMID:26659224

  3. Towards the elements of successful insect RNAi

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Jeffrey G.; Michel, Kristin; Bartholomay, Lyric; Siegfried, Blair D.; Hunter, Wayne B.; Smagghe, Guy; Zhu, Kun Yan; Douglas, Angela E.

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi), the sequence-specific suppression of gene expression, offers great opportunities for insect science, especially to analyze gene function, manage pest populations, and reduce disease pathogens. The accumulating body of literature on insect RNAi has revealed that the efficiency of RNAi varies between different species, the mode of RNAi delivery, and the genes being targeted. There is also variation in the duration of transcript suppression. At present, we have a limited capacity to predict the ideal experimental strategy for RNAi of a particular gene/insect because of our incomplete understanding of whether and how the RNAi signal is amplified and spread among insect cells. Consequently, development of the optimal RNAi protocols is a highly empirical process. This limitation can be relieved by systematic analysis of the molecular physiological basis of RNAi mechanisms in insects. An enhanced conceptual understanding of RNAi function in insects will facilitate the application of RNAi for dissection of gene function, and to fast-track the application of RNAi to both control pests and develop effective methods to protect beneficial insects and non-insect arthropods, particularly the honey bee (Apis mellifera) and cultured Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) from viral and parasitic diseases. PMID:24041495

  4. Biologically Based Methods for Pest Management in Agriculture under Changing Climates: Challenges and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Chidawanyika, Frank; Mudavanhu, Pride; Nyamukondiwa, Casper

    2012-01-01

    The current changes in global climatic regimes present a significant societal challenge, affecting in all likelihood insect physiology, biochemistry, biogeography and population dynamics. With the increasing resistance of many insect pest species to chemical insecticides and an increasing organic food market, pest control strategies are slowly shifting towards more sustainable, ecologically sound and economically viable options. Biologically based pest management strategies present such opportunities through predation or parasitism of pests and plant direct or indirect defense mechanisms that can all be important components of sustainable integrated pest management programs. Inevitably, the efficacy of biological control systems is highly dependent on natural enemy-prey interactions, which will likely be modified by changing climates. Therefore, knowledge of how insect pests and their natural enemies respond to climate variation is of fundamental importance in understanding biological insect pest management under global climate change. Here, we discuss biological control, its challenges under climate change scenarios and how increased global temperatures will require adaptive management strategies to cope with changing status of insects and their natural enemies. PMID:26466733

  5. Biology and Ecology of the Western Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): The Making of a Pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past 30 years, the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) has become one of the most important agricultural pests worldwide. Certain biological attributes of this insect predispose it to be a direct pest across a wide range of crops. In additio...

  6. Evaluation of sunflower for resistance to stem and seed pests in the northern and central Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The major insect pests attacking cultivated sunflower include the sunflower stem weevil, the sunflower moth, the red sunflower seed weevil, the banded sunflower moth, and the sunflower midge. Strategies to reduce crop losses for these pests have focused on insecticidal control, but host-plant resist...

  7. SYNTHESIS REPORT: LABORATORY TEST METHODS FOR EXPOSURE OF BIRDS TO MICROBIAL PEST CONTROL AGENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial pest control agents (MPCAs) are microorganisms that are applied to agricultural and silvacultural environments to control proliferation and dissemination of insect or plant pests. uring a field application, it is likely that nontarget plants and animals are exposed to M...

  8. Biology and Ecology of the Western Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): The Making of a Pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past 30 years, the western flower thrips has become one of the most important agricultural pests worldwide. Certain biological attributes of this insect predispose it to be a direct pest across a wide range of crops. In addition to the direct damage it can cause, this species is an efficien...

  9. Integrated pest management of the banded sunflower moth in cultivated sunflower in North Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a key insect pest of cultivated sunflowers in North Dakota. We investigated pest management strategies to reduce feeding injury caused by the banded sunflower moth in commercial oilseed and confection sunflower fields l...

  10. Pheromone-based pest management in china: past, present and future prospects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Semiochemical-based pest management technology has been widely used to monitor and control insect pests in agricultural, forestry, and public health sectors in the western world. It became a popular tool in the early 1970s with tremendous efforts in developing environment-friendly control technologi...

  11. Prospects for repellent in pest control: current developments and future challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The overall interest for environmentally safe pest control methods and the increased frequency of insecticide resistance in pest populations have stimulated research on insect repellents in the recent decades in medical and agricultural entomology. However, there remains a great deal of work to be ...

  12. Pesticide Applicator Certification Training, Manual No. 1a: Agricultural Pest Control. a. Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, W. A.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet the minimum standards for certification as an applicator of pesticides in the agricultural plant pest control category. Adapted for the State of Virginia, the text discusses: (1) the basics of insecticides; (2) insect pests; (3) selection and calibration of applicator equipment; and (4) the proper…

  13. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Fruit Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, J.; And Others

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators prepare for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The primary focus of this publication is on fruit pest control. Sections included are: (1) Causes of fruit diseases; (2) Fruit fungicides and bactericides; (3) Insect and mite pests; (4) Insecticides and miticides;…

  14. Potential for microbial biological control of coleopteran and hemipteran pests of potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous insects in the orders Coleoptera and Hemiptera are major pests of potato, Solanum tuberosum, worldwide. Although these pests are currently managed almost exclusively with chemical insecticides, there is continuing demand for alternative controls that pose lower environmental and health ris...

  15. Sampling Plans, Selective Insecticides and Sustainability: The Case for IPM as ‘informed pest management’

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    IPM is considered the central paradigm of insect pest management and is often characterized as a comprehensive use of multiple control tactics to reduce pest status while minimizing economic and environmental costs. As the principal precursor of IPM, the integrated control concept formulated the ec...

  16. Development of an embryonic lethality system for transgenic sit in the fruit pest, ceratitis capitata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ceratitis capitata, known as one of the world's most destructive insect pest, costs farmers billions of dollars annually. Improved biological strategies are needed to increase the efficacy of area-wide pest management. Transgenic methodology should enhance and widen the applicability of the sterile ...

  17. Recent developments and applications of bait stations for integrated pest management of tephritid fruit flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The attract-and-kill approach involves the behavioral manipulation of pest insects through the integration of long-distance olfactory/visual stimuli to attract a particular pest and a killing agent and/or a collection device. Bait stations, an element of an attract-and-kill system, can be defined as...

  18. Prospects for the use of entomopathogenic fungi for control of stored-product pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Only two fungus species, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, have been given serious attention as possible microbial controls for stored-product pests. Their host ranges are broad, but their potency for the various target insects varies greatly, and some of the most important pests such a...

  19. Biology and ecology of the Western Flower Thrips. The making of a pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past 30 years, the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) has become one of the most important agricultural pests worldwide. Certain biological attributes of this insect predispose it to be a direct pest across a wide range of crops. In additio...

  20. Insect Allergy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hobart; Halverson, Sara; Mackey, Regina

    2016-09-01

    Insect bites and stings are common. Risk factors are mostly associated with environmental exposure. Most insect bites and stings result in mild, local, allergic reactions. Large local reactions and systemic reactions like anaphylaxis are possible. Common insects that bite or sting include mosquitoes, ticks, flies, fleas, biting midges, bees, and wasps. The diagnosis is made clinically. Identification of the insect should occur when possible. Management is usually supportive. For anaphylaxis, patients should be given epinephrine and transported to the emergency department for further evaluation. Venom immunotherapy (VIT) has several different protocols. VIT is highly effective in reducing systemic reactions and anaphylaxis. PMID:27545732